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Sample records for a-plane sapphire substrate

  1. Distinct crystallinity and orientations of hydroxyapatite thin films deposited on C- and A-plane sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akazawa, Housei; Ueno, Yuko

    2014-10-01

    We report how the crystallinity and orientation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) films deposited on sapphire substrates depend on the crystallographic planes. Both solid-phase crystallization of amorphous HAp films and crystallization during sputter deposition at elevated temperatures were examined. The low-temperature epitaxial phase on C-plane sapphire substrates has c-axis orientated HAp crystals regardless of the crystallization route, whereas the preferred orientation switches to the (310) direction at higher temperatures. Only the symmetric stretching mode (ν1) of PO43- units appears in the Raman scattering spectra, confirming well-ordered crystalline domains. In contrast, HAp crystals grown on A-plane sapphire substrates are always oriented toward random orientations. Exhibiting all vibrational modes (ν1, ν3, and ν4) of PO43- units in the Raman scattering spectra reflects random orientation, violating the Raman selection rule. If we assume that Raman intensities of PO43- units represent the crystallinity of HAp films, crystallization terminating the surface with the C-plane is hindered by the presence of excess H2O and OH species in the film, whereas crystallization at random orientations on the A-plane sapphire is rather promoted by these species. Such contrasting behaviors between C-plane and A-plane substrates will reflect surface-plane dependent creation of crystalline seeds and eventually determine the orientation of resulting HAp films.

  2. Polarity inversion of AlN film grown on nitrided a-plane sapphire substrate with pulsed DC reactive sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorprajuda, Marsetio; Ohtsuka, Makoto; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    2018-04-01

    The effect of oxygen partial pressure (PO2) on polarity and crystalline quality of AlN films grown on nitrided a-plane sapphire substrates by pulsed direct current (DC) reactive sputtering was investigated as a fundamental study. The polarity inversion of AlN from nitrogen (-c)-polarity to aluminum (+c)-polarity occurred during growth at a high PO2 of 9.4×103 Pa owing to Al-O octahedral formation at the interface of nitrided layer and AlN sputtered film which reset the polarity of AlN. The top part of the 1300 nm-thick AlN film sputtered at the high PO2 was polycrystallized. The crystalline quality was improved owing to the high kinetic energy of Al sputtered atom in the sputtering phenomena. Thinner AlN films were also fabricated at the high PO2 to eliminate the polycrystallization. For the 200 nm-thick AlN film sputtered at the high PO2, the full width at half-maximum values of the AlN (0002) and (10-12) X-ray diffraction rocking curves were 47 and 637 arcsec, respectively.

  3. Optimal activation condition of nonpolar a-plane p-type GaN layers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Su; Hyeon Baik, Kwang; Gon Seo, Yong; Song, Hooyoung; Hoon Kim, Ji; Hwang, Sung-Min; Kim, Tae-Geun

    2011-07-01

    The optimal conditions of p-type activation for nonpolar a-plane (1 1 -2 0) p-type GaN films on r-plane (1 -1 0 2) sapphire substrates with various off-axis orientations have been investigated. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements show that Mg doping concentrations of 6.58×10 19 cm -3 were maintained in GaN during epitaxial growth. The samples were activated at various temperatures and periods of time in air, oxygen (O 2) and nitrogen (N 2) gas ambient by conventional furnace annealing (CFA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The activation of nonpolar a-plane p-type GaN was successful in similar annealing times and temperatures when compared with polar c-plane p-type GaN. However, activation ambient of nonpolar a-plane p-type GaN was clearly different, where a-plane p-type GaN was effectively activated in air ambient. Photoluminescence shows that the optical properties of Mg-doped a-plane GaN samples are enhanced when activated in air ambient.

  4. Orange a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on r-plane sapphire substrates.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yong Gon; Baik, Kwang Hyeon; Song, Hooyoung; Son, Ji-Su; Oh, Kyunghwan; Hwang, Sung-Min

    2011-07-04

    We report on orange a-plane light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with InGaN single quantum well (SQW) grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The peak wavelength and the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) at a drive current of 20mA were 612.2 nm and 72 nm, respectively. The device demonstrated a blue shift in emission wavelength from 614.6 nm at 10 mA to 607.5 nm at 100 mA, representing a net shift of 7.1 nm over a 90 mA range, which is the longest wavelength compared with reported values in nonpolar LEDs. The polarization ratio values obtained from the orange LED varied between 0.36 and 0.44 from 10 to 100mA and a weak dependence of the polarization ratio on the injection current was observed.

  5. Characterization of nonpolar a-plane GaN epi-layers grown on high-density patterned r-plane sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinno, Daiki; Otsuki, Shunya; Sugimori, Shogo; Daicho, Hisayoshi; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2018-02-01

    To reduce the number of threading dislocations (TDs) in nonpolar a-plane GaN (a-GaN) epi-layers grown on flat r-plane sapphire substrates (r-FSS), we investigated the effects on the crystalline quality of the a-GaN epi-layers of high-density patterned r-plane sapphire substrates (r-HPSS), the patterns of which were placed at intervals of several hundred nanometers. Two types of r-HPSS, the patterns of which had diameters and heights on the order of several hundred nanometers (r-NHPSS) or several micrometers (r-MHPSS), were prepared with conventional r-FSS. The effect of these r-HPSS on the a-GaN epi-layers was demonstrated by evaluating the surface morphology and the crystalline quality of the epi-layers. The surfaces of the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-FSS and r-NHPSS were pit-free and mirror-like, whereas the surface of the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-MHPSS was very rough due to the large, irregular GaN islands that grew on the patterns, mainly at the initial growth stage. The crystalline quality of the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-NHPSS was better than that of the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-FSS. We confirmed that there were fewer TDs in the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-NHPSS than there were in the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-FSS. The TDs propagating to the surface in a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-NHPSS were mainly generated on the flat sapphire regions between the patterns. Interestingly, it was also found that the TDs that propagated to the surface concentrated with a periodic pitch along the c-axis direction. The TD densities of a-GaN epi-layers grown on r-FSS and r-NHPSS were estimated to be approximately 5.0 × 1010 and 1.5 × 109 cm-2, respectively. This knowledge will contribute to the further development of a-GaN epi-layers for high-performance devices.

  6. High-quality nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by the combination of pulsed laser deposition and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weijia; Zhang, Zichen; Wang, Wenliang; Zheng, Yulin; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Guoqiang

    2018-05-01

    High-quality a-plane GaN epitaxial films have been grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by the combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). PLD is employed to epitaxial growth of a-plane GaN templates on r-plane sapphire substrates, and then MOCVD is used. The nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films with relatively small thickness (2.9 µm) show high quality, with the full-width at half-maximum values of GaN(11\\bar{2}0) along [1\\bar{1}00] direction and GaN(10\\bar{1}1) of 0.11 and 0.30°, and a root-mean-square surface roughness of 1.7 nm. This result is equivalent to the quality of the films grown by MOCVD with a thickness of 10 µm. This work provides a new and effective approach for achieving high-quality nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films on r-plane sapphire substrates.

  7. Phase formation and strain relaxation of Ga2O3 on c-plane and a-plane sapphire substrates as studied by synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zongzhe; Hanke, Michael; Vogt, Patrick; Bierwagen, Oliver; Trampert, Achim

    2017-10-01

    Heteroepitaxial Ga2O3 was deposited on c-plane and a-plane oriented sapphire by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and probed by ex-situ and in-situ synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction. The investigation on c-plane sapphire determined a critical thickness of around 33 Å, at which the monoclinic β-phase forms on top of the hexagonal α-phase. A 143 Å thick single phase α-Ga2O3 was observed on a-plane sapphire, much thicker than the α-Ga2O3 on c-plane sapphire. The α-Ga2O3 relaxed very fast in the first 30 Å in both out-of-plane and in-plane directions as measured by the in-situ study.

  8. Zeta potential orientation dependence of sapphire substrates.

    PubMed

    Kershner, Ryan J; Bullard, Joseph W; Cima, Michael J

    2004-05-11

    The zeta potential of planar sapphire substrates for three different crystallographic orientations was measured by a streaming potential technique in the presence of KCl and (CH3)4NCl electrolytes. The streaming potential was measured for large single crystalline C-plane (0001), A-plane (1120), and R-plane (1102) wafers over a full pH range at three or more ionic strengths ranging from 1 to 100 mM. The roughness of the epi-polished wafers was verified using atomic force microscopy to be on the order of atomic scale, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to ensure that the samples were free of silica and other contaminants. The results reveal a shift in the isoelectric point (iep) of the three samples by as much as two pH units, with the R-plane surface exhibiting the most acidic behavior and the C-plane samples having the highest iep. The iep at all ionic strengths was tightly centered around a single pH for each wafer. These values of iep are substantially different from the range of pH 8-10 consistently reported in the literature for alpha-Al2O3 particles. Particle zeta potential measurements were performed on a model powder using phase analysis light scattering, and the iep was confirmed to occur at pH 8. Modified Auger parameters (MAP) were calculated from XPS spectra of a monolayer of iridium metal deposited on the sapphire by electron beam deposition. A shift in MAP consistent with the observed differences in iep of the surfaces confirms the effect of surface structure on the transfer of charge between the Ir and sapphire, hence accounting for the changes in acidity as a function of crystallographic orientation.

  9. Wafer scale BN on sapphire substrates for improved graphene transport.

    PubMed

    Vangala, Shivashankar; Siegel, Gene; Prusnick, Timothy; Snure, Michael

    2018-06-11

    Wafer scale (2") BN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire was examined as a weakly interacting dielectric substrate for graphene, demonstrating improved transport properties over conventional sapphire and SiO 2 /Si substrates. Chemical vapor deposition grown graphene was transferred to BN/sapphire substrates for evaluation of more than 30 samples using Raman and Hall effects measurements. A more than 2x increase in Hall mobility and 10x reduction in sheet carrier density was measured for graphene on BN/sapphire compared to sapphire substrates. Through control of the MOCVD process, BN films with roughness ranging from <0.1 nm to >1 nm were grown and used to study the effects of substrate roughness on graphene transport. Arrays of graphene field effect transistors were fabricated on 2" BN/sapphire substrates demonstrating scalability and device performance enhancement.

  10. A New Selective Area Lateral Epitaxy Approach for Depositing a-Plane GaN over r-Plane Sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changqing; Zhang, Jianping; Yang, Jinwei; Adivarahan, Vinod; Rai, Shiva; Wu, Shuai; Wang, Hongmei; Sun, Wenhong; Su, Ming; Gong, Zheng; Kuokstis, Edmundas; Gaevski, Mikhail; Khan, Muhammad Asif

    2003-07-01

    We report a new epitaxy procedure for growing extremely low defect density a-plane GaN films over r-plane sapphire. By combining selective area growth through a SiO2 mask opening to produce high height to width aspect ratio a-plane GaN pillars and lateral epitaxy from their c-plane facets, we obtained fully coalesced a-plane GaN films. The excellent structural, optical and electrical characteristics of these selective area lateral epitaxy (SALE) deposited films make them ideal for high efficiency III-N electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  11. Microdynamic Devices Fabricated on Silicon-On-Sapphire Substrates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Silicon-on-sapphire substrates are provided for the fabrication of micromechanical devices, such as micromotors . The high voltage stand-off...a consequence, the electrostatically driven devices, micromotors , can be incorporated in the integrated circuits and yet be powered at elevated voltages to increase their work potential.

  12. GaN grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Kong; Meixin, Feng; Jin, Cai; Hui, Wang; Huaibing, Wang; Hui, Yang

    2015-04-01

    High-quality gallium nitride (GaN) film was grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) and investigated using XRD and SEM. It was found that the optimum thickness of the GaN buffer layer on the NPSS is 15 nm, which is thinner than that on micro-patterned sapphire substrates (MPSS). An interesting phenomenon was observed for GaN film grown on NPSS:GaN mainly grows on the trench regions and little grows on the sidewalls of the patterns at the initial growth stage, which is dramatically different from GaN grown on MPSS. In addition, the electrical and optical properties of LEDs grown on NPSS were characterized. Project supported by the Suzhou Nanojoin Photonics Co., Ltd and the High-Tech Achievements Transformation of Jiangsu Province, China (No.BA2012010).

  13. Lattice-Matched Semiconductor Layers on Single Crystalline Sapphire Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang; King, Glen; Park, Yeonjoon

    2009-01-01

    SiGe is an important semiconductor alloy for high-speed field effect transistors (FETs), high-temperature thermoelectric devices, photovoltaic solar cells, and photon detectors. The growth of SiGe layer is difficult because SiGe alloys have different lattice constants from those of the common Si wafers, which leads to a high density of defects, including dislocations, micro-twins, cracks, and delaminations. This innovation utilizes newly developed rhombohedral epitaxy of cubic semiconductors on trigonal substrates in order to solve the lattice mismatch problem of SiGe by using trigonal single crystals like sapphire (Al2O3) as substrate to give a unique growth-orientation to the SiGe layer, which is automatically controlled at the interface upon sapphire (0001). This technology is different from previous silicon on insulator (SOI) or SGOI (SiGe on insulator) technologies that use amorphous SiO2 as the growth plane. A cubic semiconductor crystal is a special case of a rhombohedron with the inter-planar angle, alpha = 90 deg. With a mathematical transformation, all rhombohedrons can be described by trigonal crystal lattice structures. Therefore, all cubic lattice constants and crystal planes (hkl) s can be transformed into those of trigonal crystal parameters. These unique alignments enable a new opportunity of perfect lattice matching conditions, which can eliminate misfit dislocations. Previously, these atomic alignments were thought to be impossible or very difficult. With the invention of a new x-ray diffraction measurement method here, growth of cubic semiconductors on trigonal crystals became possible. This epitaxy and lattice-matching condition can be applied not only to SiGe (111)/sapphire (0001) substrate relations, but also to other crystal structures and other materials, including similar crystal structures which have pointgroup rotational symmetries by 120 because the cubic (111) direction has 120 rotational symmetry. The use of slightly miscut (less than

  14. Transformation of a Plane Wavefront in Hemispherical Lenses Made of Leuco-Sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, V. N.; Ignatenkov, B. A.; Yakobson, V. E.

    2018-01-01

    An algorithm for wavefront calculation of ordinary and extraordinary waves after propagation through hemispherical components made of a uniaxial crystal is developed. The influence of frequency dispersion of n o and n e , as well as change in the direction of the optic axis of the crystal, on extraordinary wavefront in hemispheres made of from leuco-sapphire and a plastically deformed analog thereof is determined.

  15. Properties of GaN grown on sapphire substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, R. K.; Debnam, W. J.; Fripp, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of GaN on sapphire substrates using an open-tube growth furnace has been carried out to study the effects of substrate orientation and transfer gas upon the properties of the layers. It has been found that for the (0001) substrates, surface appearance was virtually independent of carrier gas and of doping levels. For the (1(-1)02) substrates surface faceting was greatly reduced when He was used as a transfer gas as opposed to H2. Faceting was also reduced when the GaN was doped with Zn, and the best surfaces for the (1(-1)02) substrates were obtained in a Zn-doped run using He as the transfer gas. The best sample in terms of electrical properties for the (1(-1)02) substrate had a mobility greater than 400 sq cm/V per sec and a carrier concentration of about 10 to the 17th per cu cm. This sample was undoped and used He as the transfer gas. The best (0001) sample was also grown undoped with He as the transfer gas and had a mobility of 300 sq cm/V per sec and a carrier concentration of 1 x 10 to the 18th per cu cm.

  16. Increased effective reflection and transmission at the GaN-sapphire interface of LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongxue, Wu; Ping, Ma; Boting, Liu; Shuo, Zhang; Junxi, Wang; Jinmin, Li

    2016-10-01

    The effect of patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) on the top-surface (P-GaN-surface) and the bottom-surface (sapphire-surface) of the light output power (LOP) of GaN-based LEDs was investigated, in order to study the changes in reflection and transmission of the GaN-sapphire interface. Experimental research and computer simulations were combined to reveal a great enhancement in LOP from either the top or bottom surface of GaN-based LEDs, which are prepared on patterned sapphire substrates (PSS-LEDs). Furthermore, the results were compared to those of the conventional LEDs prepared on the planar sapphire substrates (CSS-LEDs). A detailed theoretical analysis was also presented to further support the explanation for the increase in both the effective reflection and transmission of PSS-GaN interface layers and to explain the causes of increased LOP values. Moreover, the bottom-surface of the PSS-LED chip shows slightly increased light output performance when compared to that of the top-surface. Therefore, the light extraction efficiency (LEE) can be further enhanced by integrating the method of PSS and flip-chip structure design. Project supported by the National High Technology Program of China (No. Y48A040000) and the National High Technology Program of China (No. Y48A040000).

  17. Structural anisotropic properties of a-plane GaN epilayers grown on r-plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Lotsari, A.; Kehagias, Th.; Katsikini, M.

    2014-06-07

    Heteroepitaxial non-polar III-Nitride layers may exhibit extensive anisotropy in the surface morphology and the epilayer microstructure along distinct in-plane directions. The structural anisotropy, evidenced by the “M”-shape dependence of the (112{sup ¯}0) x-ray rocking curve widths on the beam azimuth angle, was studied by combining transmission electron microscopy observations, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy in a-plane GaN epilayers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The structural anisotropic behavior was attributed quantitatively to the high dislocation densities, particularly the Frank-Shockley partial dislocations that delimit the I{sub 1} intrinsic basal stacking faults,more » and to the concomitant plastic strain relaxation. On the other hand, isotropic samples exhibited lower dislocation densities and a biaxial residual stress state. For PAMBE growth, the anisotropy was correlated to N-rich (or Ga-poor) conditions on the surface during growth, that result in formation of asymmetric a-plane GaN grains elongated along the c-axis. Such conditions enhance the anisotropy of gallium diffusion on the surface and reduce the GaN nucleation rate.« less

  18. Microwave properties of peeled HEMT devices sapphire substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Paul G.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Mena, Rafael A.; Smith, Edwyn D.

    1992-01-01

    The focus of this research is to demonstrate the first full radio frequency characterization of high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device parameters. The results of this research are used in the design of circuits with peeled HEMT devices, e.g. 10 GHz amplifiers. Devices were fabricated using two HEMT structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy methods. A 500 A AlAs release layer for 'peel off' was included under the active layers of the structure. The structures are a homogeneously doped Al(0.3)GA(0.7)As/GaAs and a delta doped square well Al(.23)Ga(.77)As/GaAs HEMT structure. Devices were fabricated using a mesa isolation process. Contacts were done by sequentially evaporating Au/Ge/Au/Ni/Au followed by rapid thermal anneal at 400 C for 15 seconds. Gates were wet etch recessed and 1 to 1.4 micron Ti/Au gate metal was deposited. Devices were peeled off the GaAs substrate using Apiezon wax to support the active layer and a HF:DI (1:10) solution to remove the AlAs separation layer. Devices were then attached to sapphire substrates using van der Waals bonding.

  19. Fabrication of large-area nano-scale patterned sapphire substrate with laser interference lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Ming-dong; Dai, Long-gui; Jia, Hai-qiang; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Periodic triangle truncated pyramid arrays are successfully fabricated on the sapphire substrate by a low-cost and high-efficiency laser interference lithography (LIL) system. Through the combination of dry etching and wet etching techniques, the nano-scale patterned sapphire substrate (NPSS) with uniform size is prepared. The period of the patterns is 460 nm as designed to match the wavelength of blue light emitting diode (LED). By improving the stability of the LIL system and optimizing the process parameters, well-defined triangle truncated pyramid arrays can be achieved on the sapphire substrate with diameter of 50.8 mm. The deviation of the bottom width of the triangle truncated pyramid arrays is 6.8%, which is close to the industrial production level of 3%.

  20. Interface amorphization in hexagonal boron nitride films on sapphire substrate grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Nitta, Shugo; Pristovsek, Markus; Liu, Yuhuai; Nagamatsu, Kentaro; Kushimoto, Maki; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films directly grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by pulsed-mode metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy exhibit an interlayer for growth temperatures above 1200 °C. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows that this interlayer is amorphous, while the crystalline h-BN layer above has a distinct orientational relationship with the sapphire substrate. Electron energy loss spectroscopy shows the energy-loss peaks of B and N in both the amorphous interlayer and the overlying crystalline h-BN layer, while Al and O signals are also seen in the amorphous interlayer. Thus, the interlayer forms during h-BN growth through the decomposition of the sapphire at elevated temperatures.

  1. Towards rhombohedral SiGe epitaxy on 150mm c-plane sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duzik, Adam J.; Park, Yeonjoon; Choi, Sang H.

    2015-04-01

    Previous work demonstrated for the first time the ability to epitaxially grow uniform single crystal diamond cubic SiGe (111) films on trigonal sapphire (0001) substrates. While SiGe (111) forms two possible crystallographic twins on sapphire (0001), films consisting primarily of one twin were produced on up to 99.95% of the total wafer area. This permits new bandgap engineering possibilities and improved group IV based devices that can exploit the higher carrier mobility in Ge compared to Si. Models are proposed on the epitaxy of such dissimilar crystal structures based on the energetic favorability of crystallographic twins and surface reconstructions. This new method permits Ge (111) on sapphire (0001) epitaxy, rendering Ge an economically feasible replacement for Si in some applications, including higher efficiency Si/Ge/Si quantum well solar cells. Epitaxial SiGe films on sapphire showed a 280% increase in electron mobility and a 500% increase in hole mobility over single crystal Si. Moreover, Ge possesses a wider bandgap for solar spectrum conversion than Si, while the transparent sapphire substrate permits an inverted device structure, increasing the total efficiency to an estimated 30-40%, much higher than traditional Si solar cells. Hall Effect mobility measurements of the Ge layer in the Si/Ge/Si quantum well structure were performed to demonstrate the advantage in carrier mobility over a pure Si solar cell. Another application comes in the use of microelectromechanical devices technology, where high-resistivity Si is currently used as a substrate. Sapphire is a more resistive substrate and offers better performance via lower parasitic capacitance and higher film carrier mobility over the current Si-based technology.

  2. Fabrication of wafer-scale nanopatterned sapphire substrate through phase separation lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xu; Ni, Mengyang; Zhuang, Zhe; Dai, Jiangping; Wu, Feixiang; Cui, Yushuang; Yuan, Changsheng; Ge, Haixiong; Chen, Yanfeng

    2016-04-01

    A phase separation lithography (PSL) based on polymer blend provides an extremely simple, low-cost, and high-throughput way to fabricate wafer-scale disordered nanopatterns. This method was introduced to fabricate nanopatterned sapphire substrates (NPSSs) for GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The PSL process only involved in spin-coating of polystyrene (PS)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer blend on sapphire substrate and followed by a development with deionized water to remove PEG moiety. The PS nanoporous network was facilely obtained, and the structural parameters could be effectively tuned by controlling the PS/PEG weight ratio of the spin-coating solution. 2-in. wafer-scale NPSSs were conveniently achieved through the PS nanoporous network in combination with traditional nanofabrication methods, such as O2 reactive ion etching (RIE), e-beam evaporation deposition, liftoff, and chlorine-based RIE. In order to investigate the performance of such NPSSs, typical blue LEDs with emission wavelengths of ~450 nm were grown on the NPSS and a flat sapphire substrate (FSS) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, respectively. The integral photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the NPSS LED was enhanced by 32.3 % compared to that of the FSS-LED. The low relative standard deviation of 4.7 % for PL mappings of NPSS LED indicated the high uniformity of PL data across the whole 2-in. wafer. Extremely simple, low cost, and high throughput of the process and the ability to fabricate at the wafer scale make PSL a potential method for production of nanopatterned sapphire substrates.

  3. Fabrication of 2-inch nano patterned sapphire substrate with high uniformity by two-beam laser interference lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, LongGui; Yang, Fan; Yue, Gen; Jiang, Yang; Jia, Haiqiang; Wang, Wenxin; Chen, Hong

    2014-11-01

    Generally, nano-scale patterned sapphire substrate (NPSS) has better performance than micro-scale patterned sapphire substrate (MPSS) in improving the light extraction efficiency of LEDs. Laser interference lithography (LIL) is one of the powerful fabrication methods for periodic nanostructures without photo-masks for different designs. However, Lloyd's mirror LIL system has the disadvantage that fabricated patterns are inevitably distorted, especially for large-area twodimensional (2D) periodic nanostructures. Herein, we introduce two-beam LIL system to fabricate consistent large-area NPSS. Quantitative analysis and characterization indicate that the high uniformity of the photoresist arrays is achieved. Through the combination of dry etching and wet etching techniques, the well-defined NPSS with period of 460 nm were prepared on the whole sapphire substrate. The deviation is 4.34% for the bottom width of the triangle truncated pyramid arrays on the whole 2-inch sapphire substrate, which is suitable for the application in industrial production of NPSS.

  4. Ga2O3-In2O3 thin films on sapphire substrates: Synthesis and ultraviolet photoconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslimov, A. E.; Butashin, A. V.; Kolymagin, A. B.; Nabatov, B. V.; Kanevsky, V. M.

    2017-11-01

    The structure and electrical and optical properties of β-Ga2O3-In2O3 thin films on sapphire substrates with different orientations have been investigated. The samples have been prepared by annealing of gallium-indium metallic films on sapphire substrates in air at different gallium-to-indium ratios in the initial mixture. The photoconductivity of these structures in the solar-blind ultraviolet spectral region has been examined.

  5. Synthesis and Transfer of Large-Area Monolayer WS2 Crystals: Moving Toward the Recyclable Use of Sapphire Substrates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zai-Quan; Zhang, Yupeng; Lin, Shenghuang; Zheng, Changxi; Zhong, Yu Lin; Xia, Xue; Li, Zhipeng; Sophia, Ponraj Joice; Fuhrer, Michael S; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2015-06-23

    Two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) show intriguing potential for optoelectronic devices due to their exotic electronic and optical properties. Only a few efforts have been dedicated to large-area growth of TMDs. Practical applications will require improving the efficiency and reducing the cost of production, through (1) new growth methods to produce large size TMD monolayer with less-stringent conditions, and (2) nondestructive transfer techniques that enable multiple reuse of growth substrate. In this work, we report to employ atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) for the synthesis of large size (>100 μm) single crystals of atomically thin tungsten disulfide (WS2), a member of TMD family, on sapphire substrate. More importantly, we demonstrate a polystyrene (PS) mediated delamination process via capillary force in water which reduces the etching time in base solution and imposes only minor damage to the sapphire substrate. The transferred WS2 flakes are of excellent continuity and exhibit comparable electron mobility after several growth cycles on the reused sapphire substrate. Interestingly, the photoluminescence emission from WS2 grown on the recycled sapphire is much higher than that on fresh sapphire, possibly due to p-type doping of monolayer WS2 flakes by a thin layer of water intercalated at the atomic steps of the recycled sapphire substrate. The growth and transfer techniques described here are expected to be applicable to other atomically thin TMD materials.

  6. Comparison of stress states in GaN films grown on different substrates: Langasite, sapphire and silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byung-Guon; Saravana Kumar, R.; Moon, Mee-Lim; Kim, Moon-Deock; Kang, Tae-Won; Yang, Woo-Chul; Kim, Song-Gang

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate the evolution of GaN films on novel langasite (LGS) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, and assessed the quality of grown GaN film by comparing the experimental results obtained using LGS, sapphire and silicon (Si) substrates. To study the substrate effect, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the microstructure and stress states in GaN films. Wet etching of GaN films in KOH solution revealed that the films deposited on GaN/LGS, AlN/sapphire and AlN/Si substrates possess Ga-polarity, while the film deposited on GaN/sapphire possess N-polarity. XRD, Raman and PL analysis demonstrated that a compressive stress exist in the films grown on GaN/LGS, AlN/sapphire, and GaN/sapphire substrates, while a tensile stress appears on AlN/Si substrate. Comparative analysis showed the growth of nearly stress-free GaN films on LGS substrate due to the very small lattice mismatch ( 3.2%) and thermal expansion coefficient difference ( 7.5%). The results presented here will hopefully provide a new framework for the further development of high performance III-nitride-related devices using GaN/LGS heteroepitaxy.

  7. Defect analysis of the LED structure deposited on the sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Qichu; Jiang, Zhimin; Gan, Zhiyin; Liu, Sheng; Yan, Han; Fang, Haisheng

    2018-04-01

    Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and double-crystal X-ray diffraction (DCXRD) measurements have been performed to investigate dislocations of the whole structure of the LED layers deposited on both the conventional (unpatterned sapphire substrate, UPSS) and patterned sapphire substrates (PSS). TEM results show that there exists a dislocation-accumulated region near the substrate/GaN interface, where the dislocation density is much higher with the UPPS than that with the PSS. It indicates that the pattern on the substrate surface is able to block the formation and propagation of dislocations. Further analysis discloses that slope of the pattern is found to suppress the deposition of GaN, and thus to provide more spaces for the epitaxially lateral overgrowth (ELO) of high temperature GaN, which significantly reduces the number of the initial islands, and minimizes dislocation formation due to the island coalescence. V-defect incorporating the threading dislocation is detected in the InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs), and its propagation mechanism is determined as the decrease of the surface energy due to the incorporation of indium. In addition, temperature dependence of dislocation formation is further investigated. The results show that dislocation with the screw component decreases monotonously as temperature goes up. However, edge dislocation firstly drops, and then increases by temperature due to the enhanced thermal mismatch stress. It implies that an optimized range of the growth temperature can be obtained to improve quality of the LED layers.

  8. Crystallographic tilt and in-plane anisotropies of an a-plane InGaN/GaN layered structure grown by MOCVD on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. F.; Liu, W.; Guo, S.; Chi, D. Z.

    2016-03-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was used to investigate the crystallographic tilts and structural anisotropies in epitaxial nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer. The substrate had an unintentional miscut of 0.14° towards its [-4 2 2 3] axis. However, HRXRD revealed a tilt of 0.26° (0.20°) between the ZnO (GaN) (11-20) and the Al2O3 (1-102) atomic planes, with the (11-20) axis of ZnO (GaN) tilted towards its c-axis, which has a difference of 163° in azimuth from that of the substrate’s miscut. Excess broadenings in the GaN/ZnO (11-20) rocking curves (RCs) were observed along its c-axis. Specific analyses revealed that partial dislocations and anisotropic in-plane strains, rather than surface-related effects, wafer curvature or stacking faults, are the dominant factors for the structural anisotropy. The orientation of the partial dislocations is most likely affected by the miscut of the substrate, e.g. via tilting of the misfit dislocation gliding planes created during island coalescences. Their Burgers vector components in the growth direction, in turn, gave rise to crystallographic tilts in the same direction as that of the excess RC-broadenings.

  9. Magnetoresistivity of thin YBa2Cu3O7-δ films on sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Petra; Il'in, Konstantin; Engel, Andreas; Semenov, Alexei; Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm; Hänisch, Jens; Holzapfel, Bernhardt; Siegel, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Magnetoresistivity of YBa2Cu3O7-δ films with thicknesses between 7 and 100 nm deposited on CeO2 and PrBa2Cu3O7-δ buffer layers on sapphire substrate has been measured to analyze the temperature dependence of the second critical magnetic field Bc2. To define Bc2, the mean-field transition temperature Tc was evaluated by fitting the resistive transition in zero magnetic field with the fluctuation conductivity theory of Aslamazov and Larkin. At T → Tc the Bc2(T) dependence shows a crossover from downturn to upturn curvature with the increase in film thickness.

  10. Characteristics of surface acoustic waves in (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, ShuYi; Xu, Jing; Xie, YingCai; Lan, XiaoDong

    2018-02-01

    (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate structure is promising for high frequency acoustic wave devices. The propagation characteristics of SAWs, including the Rayleigh waves along [0001] direction and Love waves along [1ī00] direction, are investigated by using 3 dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM). The phase velocity ( v p), electromechanical coupling coefficient ( k 2), temperature coefficient of frequency ( TCF) and reflection coefficient ( r) of Rayleigh wave and Love wave devices are theoretically analyzed. Furthermore, the influences of ZnO films with different crystal orientation on SAW properties are also investigated. The results show that the 1st Rayleigh wave has an exceedingly large k 2 of 4.95% in (90°, 90°, 0°) (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate associated with a phase velocity of 5300 m/s; and the 0th Love wave in (0°, 90°, 0°) (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate has a maximum k 2 of 3.86% associated with a phase velocity of 3400 m/s. And (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate structures can be used to design temperature-compensated and wide-band SAW devices. All of the results indicate that the performances of SAW devices can be optimized by suitably selecting ZnO films with different thickness and crystal orientations deposited on R-sapphire substrates.

  11. Measurement and thermal modeling of sapphire substrate temperature at III-Nitride MOVPE conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Creighton, J. Randall; Coltrin, Michael E.; Figiel, Jeffrey J.

    2017-04-01

    Here, growth rates and alloy composition of AlGaN grown by MOVPE is often very temperature dependent due to the presence of gas-phase parasitic chemical processes. These processes make wafer temperature measurement highly important, but in fact such measurements are very difficult because of substrate transparency in the near- IR (~900 nm) where conventional pyrometers detect radiation. The transparency problem can be solved by using a mid-IR pyrometer operating at a wavelength (~7500 nm) where sapphire is opaque. We employ a mid- IR pyrometer to measure the sapphire wafer temperature and simultaneously a near-IR pyrometer to measure wafer pocket temperature, whilemore » varying reactor pressure in both a N 2 and H 2 ambient. Near 1300 °C, as the reactor pressure is lowered from 300 Torr to 10 Torr the wafer temperature drops dramatically, and the ΔT between the pocket and wafer increases from ~20 °C to ~250 °C. Without the mid-IR pyrometer the large wafer temperature change with pressure would not have been noted. In order to explain this behavior we have developed a quasi-2D thermal model that includes a proper accounting of the pressure-dependent thermal contact resistance, and also accounts for sapphire optical transmission. The model and experimental results demonstrate that at most growth conditions the majority of the heat is transported from the wafer pocket to the wafer via gas conduction, in the free molecular flow limit. In this limit gas conductivity is independent of gap size but first order in pressure, and can quantitatively explain results from 20 to 300 Torr. Further analysis yields a measure of the thermal accommodation coefficients; α(H 2) =0.23, α(N 2) =0.50, which are in the range typically measured.« less

  12. YBCO High-Temperature Superconducting Filters on M-Plane Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabataitis, J. C.; Mueller, C. H.; Miranda, F. A.; Warner, J.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1996-01-01

    Since the discovery of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) in 1986, microwave circuits have been demonstrated using HTS films on various substrates. These HTS-based circuits have proven to operate with less power loss than their metallic film counterparts at 77 K. This translates into smaller and lighter microwave circuits for space communication systems such as multiplexer filter banks. High quality HTS films have conventionally been deposited on lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) substrates. However, LaAlO3 has a relative dielectric constant (epsilon(sub r)) of 24. With a epsilon(sub r) approx. 9.4-11.6, sapphire (Al2O3) would be a preferable substrate for the fabrication of HTS-based components since the lower dielectric constant would permit wider microstrip lines to be used in filter design, since the lower dielectric constant would permit wider microstrip lines to be used for a given characteristic impedance (Z(sub 0)), thus lowering the insertion losses and increasing the power handling capabilities of the devices. We report on the fabrication and characterization of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) on M-plane sapphire bandpass filters at 4.0 GHz. For a YBCO 'hairpin' filter, a minimum insertion loss of 0.5 dB was measured at 77 K as compared with 1.4 dB for its gold counterpart. In an 'edge-coupled' configuration, the insertion loss went down from 0.9 dB for the gold film to 0.8 dB for the YBCO film at the same temperature.

  13. Effect of sputtering pressure on crystalline quality and residual stress of AlN films deposited at 823 K on nitrided sapphire substrates by pulsed DC reactive sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuka, Makoto; Takeuchi, Hiroto; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a promising material for use in applications such as deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. In the present study, the effect of sputtering pressure on the surface morphology, crystalline quality, and residual stress of AlN films deposited at 823 K on nitrided a-plane sapphire substrates, which have high-crystalline-quality c-plane AlN thin layers, by pulsed DC reactive sputtering was investigated. The c-axis-oriented AlN films were homoepitaxially grown on nitrided sapphire substrates at sputtering pressures of 0.4-1.5 Pa. Surface damage of the AlN sputtered films increased with increasing sputtering pressure because of arcing (abnormal electrical discharge) during sputtering. The sputtering pressure affected the crystalline quality and residual stress of AlN sputtered films because of a change in the number and energy of Ar+ ions and Al sputtered atoms. The crystalline quality of AlN films was improved by deposition with lower sputtering pressure.

  14. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Sample Preparation of Si(1-x)Gex in c-Plane Sapphire Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Sang H.; Bae, Hyung-Bin; Lee, Tae Woo

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-invented X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods, including the total defect density measurement method and the spatial wafer mapping method, have confirmed super hetero epitaxy growth for rhombohedral single crystalline silicon germanium (Si1-xGex) on a c-plane sapphire substrate. However, the XRD method cannot observe the surface morphology or roughness because of the method s limited resolution. Therefore the authors used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with samples prepared in two ways, the focused ion beam (FIB) method and the tripod method to study the structure between Si1-xGex and sapphire substrate and Si1?xGex itself. The sample preparation for TEM should be as fast as possible so that the sample should contain few or no artifacts induced by the preparation. The standard sample preparation method of mechanical polishing often requires a relatively long ion milling time (several hours), which increases the probability of inducing defects into the sample. The TEM sampling of the Si1-xGex on sapphire is also difficult because of the sapphire s high hardness and mechanical instability. The FIB method and the tripod method eliminate both problems when performing a cross-section TEM sampling of Si1-xGex on c-plane sapphire, which shows the surface morphology, the interface between film and substrate, and the crystal structure of the film. This paper explains the FIB sampling method and the tripod sampling method, and why sampling Si1-xGex, on a sapphire substrate with TEM, is necessary.

  15. Characterization of barium strontium titanate thin films on sapphire substrate prepared via RF magnetron sputtering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaluddin, F. W.; Khalid, M. F. Abdul; Mamat, M. H.; Zoolfakar, A. S.; Zulkefle, M. A.; Rusop, M.; Awang, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Barium Strontium Titanate (Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3) is known to have a high dielectric constant and low loss at microwave frequencies. These unique features are useful for many electronic applications. This paper focuses on material characterization of BST thin films deposited on sapphire substrate by RF magnetron sputtering system. The sample was then annealed at 900 °C for two hours. Several methods were used to characterize the structural properties of the material such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology of the thin film. From the results obtained, it can be shown that the annealed sample had a rougher surface and better crystallinity as compared to as-deposited sample.

  16. Defect reduction in GaN on dome-shaped patterned-sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Hsun; Su, Vin-Cent; Wu, Shang-Hsuan; Lin, Ray-Ming; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung

    2018-02-01

    This paper demonstrates the behavior of defect reduction in un-doped GaN (u-GaN) grown on a commercial dome-shaped patterned-sapphire substrate (CDPSS). Residual strain inside the u-GaN grown on the CDPSS have been investigated as well. As verified by the experimentally measured data, the limited growth rate of the u-GaN on the sidewall of the CDPSS enhances the lateral growth of the GaN on the trench region while increasing the growth time. This subsequently contributes to improve the crystalline quality of the GaN on the CDPSS. The more prominent dislocations occur in the u-GaN epilayers on the CDPSS after reaching the summit of the accumulated strain inside the epilayers. Such prominent bent dislocations improve their blocking abilities, followed by the achievement of the better crystalline quality for the growth of the u-GaN on the CDPSS.

  17. High Electron Mobility in SiGe/Si n-MODFET Structures on Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Carl H.; Croke, Edward T.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    2003-01-01

    For the first time, SiGe/Si n-Modulation Doped Field Effect Transistors (n-MODFET) structures have been grown on sapphire substrates. Room temperature electron mobility value of 1271 square centimeters N-sec at an electron carrier density (n(sub e) = 1.33x10(exp 12) per square centimeter)) of 1.6 x 10(exp 12) per square centimeter was obtained. At 250 mK, the mobility increases to 13,313 square centimeters/V-sec (n(sub e)=1.33x10(exp 12) per square centimeter)) and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations appear, showing excellent confinement of the two-dimensional electron gas.

  18. High-T(sub c) Edge-geometry SNS Weak Links on Silicon-on-sapphire Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, B.; Foote, M.; Pike, W.; Barner, J.; Vasquez, R.

    1994-01-01

    High-quality superconductor/normal-metal/superconductor(SNS) edge-geometry weak links have been produced on silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) substrates using a new SrTiO(sub 3)/'seed layer'/cubic-zirconia (YS2) buffer system.

  19. High Electron Mobility Transistor Structures on Sapphire Substrates Using CMOS Compatible Processing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Carl; Alterovitz, Samuel; Croke, Edward; Ponchak, George

    2004-01-01

    System-on-a-chip (SOC) processes are under intense development for high-speed, high frequency transceiver circuitry. As frequencies, data rates, and circuit complexity increases, the need for substrates that enable high-speed analog operation, low-power digital circuitry, and excellent isolation between devices becomes increasingly critical. SiGe/Si modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFETs) with high carrier mobilities are currently under development to meet the active RF device needs. However, as the substrate normally used is Si, the low-to-modest substrate resistivity causes large losses in the passive elements required for a complete high frequency circuit. These losses are projected to become increasingly troublesome as device frequencies progress to the Ku-band (12 - 18 GHz) and beyond. Sapphire is an excellent substrate for high frequency SOC designs because it supports excellent both active and passive RF device performance, as well as low-power digital operations. We are developing high electron mobility SiGe/Si transistor structures on r-plane sapphire, using either in-situ grown n-MODFET structures or ion-implanted high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures. Advantages of the MODFET structures include high electron mobilities at all temperatures (relative to ion-implanted HEMT structures), with mobility continuously improving to cryogenic temperatures. We have measured electron mobilities over 1,200 and 13,000 sq cm/V-sec at room temperature and 0.25 K, respectively in MODFET structures. The electron carrier densities were 1.6 and 1.33 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm at room and liquid helium temperature, respectively, denoting excellent carrier confinement. Using this technique, we have observed electron mobilities as high as 900 sq cm/V-sec at room temperature at a carrier density of 1.3 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm. The temperature dependence of mobility for both the MODFET and HEMT structures provides insights into the mechanisms that allow for enhanced

  20. High Mobility SiGe/Si Transistor Structures on Sapphire Substrates Using Ion Implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Mueller, C. H.; Croke, E. T.

    2003-01-01

    High mobility n-type SiGe/Si transistor structures have been fabricated on sapphire substrates by ion implanting phosphorus ions into strained 100 Angstrom thick silicon channels for the first time. The strained Si channels were sandwiched between Si(sub 0.7)Ge(sub 0.3) layers, which, in turn, were deposited on Si(sub 0.7)Ge(sub 0.3) virtual substrates and graded SiGe buffer layers. After the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) film growth process was completed, ion thick silicon channels implantation and post-annealing were used to introduce donors. The phosphorous ions were preferentially located in the Si channel at a peak concentration of approximately 1x10(exp 18)/cu cm. Room temperature electron mobilities exceeding 750 sq cm/V-sec at carrier densities of 1x10(exp 12)/sq cm were measured. Electron concentration appears to be the key factor that determines mobility, with the highest mobility observed for electron densities in the 1 - 2x10(exp 12)/sq cm range.

  1. A metal-insulator transition study of VO 2 thin films grown on sapphire substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Shifeng; Wang, Shuyu; Lu, Ming; ...

    2017-12-15

    In this paper, vanadium thin films were deposited on sapphire substrates by DC magnetron sputtering and then oxidized in a tube furnace filled with oxygen under different temperatures and oxygen flow rates. The significant influence of the oxygen flow rate and oxidation temperature on the electrical and structural properties of the vanadium oxide thin films were investigated systematically. It shows the pure vanadium dioxide (VO 2) state can only be obtained in a very narrow temperature and oxygen flow rate range. The resistivity change during the metal-insulator transition varies from 0.2 to 4 orders of magnitude depending on the oxidationmore » condition. Large thermal hysteresis during the metal-insulator phase transition was observed during the transition compared to the results in literature. Proper oxidation conditions can significantly reduce the thermal hysteresis. Finally, the fabricated VO 2 thin films showed the potential to be applied in the development of electrical sensors and other smart devices.« less

  2. Formation of graphitic carbon nitride and boron carbon nitride film on sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Maito; Urakami, Noriyuki; Hashimoto, Yoshio

    2018-02-01

    As a novel production method of boron carbon nitride (BCN) films, in this paper, we present the incorporation of B into graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4). First, we investigated the formation of g-C3N4 films via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using melamine powder as the precursor. The formation of g-C3N4 films on a c-plane sapphire substrate was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The deposition temperature of g-C3N4 films was found to be suitable between 550 and 600 °C since the degradation and desorption of hexagonal C-N bonds should be suppressed. As for BCN films, we prepared BCN films via two-zone extended CVD using ammonia borane as the B precursor. Several XPS signals from B, C, and N core levels were detected from B-incorporated g-C3N4 films. While the N composition was almost constant, the marked tendencies for increasing B composition and decreasing C composition were achieved with the increase in the B incorporation, indicating the incorporation of B atoms by the substitution for C atoms. Optical absorptions were shifted to the high-energy side by B incorporation, which indicates the successful formation of BCN films using melamine and ammonia borane powders as precursors.

  3. High Electron Mobility SiGe/Si Transistor Structures on Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Mueller, Carl H.; Croke, Edward T.; Ponchak, George E.

    2003-01-01

    SiGe/Si n-type modulation doped field effect structures and transistors (n-MODFETs) have been fabricated on r-plane sapphire substrates. The structures were deposited using molecular beam epitaxy, and antimony dopants were incorporated via a delta doping process. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) indicates that the peak antimony, concentration was approximately 4 x 10(exp19) per cubic cm. The electron mobility was over 1,200 and 13,000 sq cm/V-sec at room temperature and 0.25 K, respectively. At these two temperatures, the electron carrier densities were 1.6 and 1.33 x 10(exp 12) per sq cm, thus demonstrating that carrier confinement was excellent. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations were observed at 0.25 K, thus confirming the two-dimensional nature of the carriers. Transistors, with gate lengths varying from 1 micron to 5 microns, were fabricated using these structures and dc characterization was performed at room temperature. The saturated drain current region extended over a wide source-to-drain voltage (V(sub DS)) range, with (V(sub DS)) knee voltages of approximately 0.5 V and increased leakage starting at voltages slightly higher than 4 V.

  4. High Electron Mobility SiGe/Si Transistor Structures on Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Mueller, Carl H.; Croke, Edward T.; Ponchak, George E.

    2004-01-01

    SiGe/Si n-type modulation doped field effect structures and transistors (n-MODFETs) have been fabricated on r-plane sapphire substrates. The structures were deposited using molecular beam epitaxy, and antimony dopants were incorporated via a delta doping process. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) indicates that the peak antimony concentration was approximately 4 x 10(exp 19) per cubic centimeter. At these two temperatures, the electron carrier densities were 1.6 and 1.33 x 10(exp 12) per square centimeter, thus demonstrating that carrier confinement was excellent. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations were observed at 0.25 K, thus confirming the two-dimensional nature of the carriers. Transistors, with gate lengths varying from 1 micron to 5 microns, were fabricated using these structures and dc characterization was performed at room temperature. The saturated drain current region extended over a wide source-to-drain voltage (V (sub DS)) range, with V (sub DS) knee voltages of approximately 0.5 V and increased leakage starting at voltages slightly higher than 4 V.

  5. Improved output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on a nanopatterned sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chia-Hua; Hou, Chia-Hung; Tseng, Shao-Ze; Chen, Tsing-Jen; Chien, Hung-Ta; Hsiao, Fu-Li; Lee, Chien-Chieh; Tsai, Yen-Ling; Chen, Chii-Chang

    2009-07-01

    This letter describes the improved output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) formed on a nanopatterned sapphire substrate (NPSS) prepared through etching with a self-assembled monolayer of 750-nm-diameter SiO2 nanospheres used as the mask. The output power of NPSS LEDs was 76% greater than that of LEDs on a flat sapphire substrate. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculation predicted a 40% enhancement in light extraction efficiency of NPSS LEDs. In addition, the reduction of full widths at half maximum in the ω-scan rocking curves for the (0 0 2) and (1 0 2) planes of GaN on NPSS suggested improved crystal quality.

  6. Liquid-phase growth of few-layered graphene on sapphire substrates using SiC micropowder source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Takahiro; Yamashita, Yutaka; Saida, Takahiro; Tanaka, Shin-ichiro; Naritsuka, Shigeya

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrated direct synthesis of graphene films consisting of a few layers (few-layered graphene) on sapphire substrates by liquid-phase growth (LPG), using liquid Ga as the melt and SiC micropowder as the source material. When the dissolution temperature was above 700 °C, almost all Si atoms of SiC diffused into the Ga melt and only carbon atoms remained at the interface beneath the liquid Ga. Above 800 °C, X-ray photoelectron spectra showed that most of the remaining carbon was graphitized. When the dissolution temperature was 1000 °C, Raman spectra showed that few-layered graphene films grew on the sapphire substrates.

  7. Fabrication of volcano-shaped nano-patterned sapphire substrates using colloidal self-assembly and wet chemical etching.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chong; Zheng, Lu; Fang, Huajing; Yan, Qingfeng; Wei, Tongbo; Hao, Zhibiao; Wang, Xiaoqing; Shen, Dezhong

    2013-08-23

    Patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) have been widely used to enhance the light output power in GaN-based light emitting diodes. The shape and feature size of the pattern in a PSS affect its enhancement efficiency to a great degree. In this work we demonstrate the nanoscale fabrication of volcano-shaped PSS using a wet chemical etching approach in combination with a colloidal monolayer templating strategy. Detailed analysis by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the unique pattern shape is a result of the different corrosion-resistant abilities of silica masks of different effective heights during wet chemical etching. The formation of silica etching masks of different effective heights has been ascribed to the silica precursor solution in the interstice of the colloidal monolayer template being distributed unevenly after infiltration. In the subsequent wet chemical etching process, the active reaction sites altered as etching duration was prolonged, resulting in the formation of volcano-shaped nano-patterned sapphire substrates.

  8. Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haiyong; Yan, Fawang; Zhang, Yang; Li, Jinmin; Zeng, Yiping; Wang, Guohong

    2008-01-01

    Sapphire substrates were patterned by a chemical wet etching technique in the micro- and nanoscale to enhance the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). InGaN/GaN LEDs on a pyramidal patterned sapphire substrate in the microscale (MPSS) and pyramidal patterned sapphire substrate in the nanoscale (NPSS) were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The characteristics of the LEDs fabricated on the MPSS and NPSS prepared by wet etching were studied and the light output powers of the LEDs fabricated on the MPSS and NPSS increased compared with that of the conventional LEDs fabricated on planar sapphire substrates. In comparison with the planar sapphire substrate, an enhancement in output power of about 29% and 48% is achieved with the MPSS and NPSS at an injection current of 20 mA, respectively. This significant enhancement is attributable to the improvement of the epitaxial quality of GaN-based epilayers and the improvement of the light extraction efficiency by patterned sapphire substrates. Additionally, the NPSS is more effective to enhance the light output power than the MPSS.

  9. High Transparent and Conductive TiO2/Ag/TiO2 Multilayer Electrode Films Deposited on Sapphire Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loka, Chadrasekhar; Moon, Sung Whan; Choi, YiSik; Lee, Kee-Sun

    2018-03-01

    Transparent conducting oxides attract intense interests due to its diverse industrial applications. In this study, we report sapphire substrate-based TiO2/Ag/TiO2 (TAT) multilayer structure of indium-free transparent conductive multilayer coatings. The TAT thin films were deposited at room temperature on sapphire substrates and a rigorous analysis has been presented on the electrical and optical properties of the films as a function of Ag thickness. The optical and electrical properties were mainly controlled by the Ag mid-layer thickness of the TAT tri-layer. The TAT films showed high luminous transmittance 84% at 550 nm along with noteworthy low electrical resistance 3.65 × 10-5 Ω-cm and sheet resistance of 3.77 Ω/square, which is better are than those of amorphous ITO films and any sapphire-based dielectric/metal/dielectric multilayer stack. The carrier concentration of the films was increased with respect to Ag thickness. We obtained highest Hackke's figure of merit 43.97 × 10-3 Ω-1 from the TAT multilayer thin film with a 16 nm thick Ag mid-layer.

  10. High-quality AlN epitaxy on nano-patterned sapphire substrates prepared by nano-imprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lisheng; Xu, Fujun; Wang, Jiaming; He, Chenguang; Guo, Weiwei; Wang, Mingxing; Sheng, Bowen; Lu, Lin; Qin, Zhixin; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo

    2016-11-04

    We report epitaxial growth of AlN films with atomically flat surface on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) prepared by nano-imprint lithography. The crystalline quality can be greatly improved by using the optimized 1-μm-period NPSS. The X-ray diffraction ω-scan full width at half maximum values for (0002) and (102) reflections are 171 and 205 arcsec, respectively. The optimized NPSS contribute to eliminating almost entirely the threading dislocations (TDs) originating from the AlN/sapphire interface via bending the dislocations by image force from the void sidewalls before coalescence. In addition, reducing the misorientations of the adjacent regions during coalescence adopting the low lateral growth rate is also essential for decreasing TDs in the upper AlN epilayer.

  11. High-quality AlN epitaxy on nano-patterned sapphire substrates prepared by nano-imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lisheng; Xu, Fujun; Wang, Jiaming; He, Chenguang; Guo, Weiwei; Wang, Mingxing; Sheng, Bowen; Lu, Lin; Qin, Zhixin; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo

    2016-11-01

    We report epitaxial growth of AlN films with atomically flat surface on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) prepared by nano-imprint lithography. The crystalline quality can be greatly improved by using the optimized 1-μm-period NPSS. The X-ray diffraction ω-scan full width at half maximum values for (0002) and (102) reflections are 171 and 205 arcsec, respectively. The optimized NPSS contribute to eliminating almost entirely the threading dislocations (TDs) originating from the AlN/sapphire interface via bending the dislocations by image force from the void sidewalls before coalescence. In addition, reducing the misorientations of the adjacent regions during coalescence adopting the low lateral growth rate is also essential for decreasing TDs in the upper AlN epilayer.

  12. High-quality AlN epitaxy on nano-patterned sapphire substrates prepared by nano-imprint lithography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lisheng; Xu, Fujun; Wang, Jiaming; He, Chenguang; Guo, Weiwei; Wang, Mingxing; Sheng, Bowen; Lu, Lin; Qin, Zhixin; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We report epitaxial growth of AlN films with atomically flat surface on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) prepared by nano-imprint lithography. The crystalline quality can be greatly improved by using the optimized 1-μm-period NPSS. The X-ray diffraction ω-scan full width at half maximum values for (0002) and (102) reflections are 171 and 205 arcsec, respectively. The optimized NPSS contribute to eliminating almost entirely the threading dislocations (TDs) originating from the AlN/sapphire interface via bending the dislocations by image force from the void sidewalls before coalescence. In addition, reducing the misorientations of the adjacent regions during coalescence adopting the low lateral growth rate is also essential for decreasing TDs in the upper AlN epilayer. PMID:27812006

  13. Structural characteristics of a non-polar ZnS layer on a ZnO buffer layer formed on a sapphire substrate by mist chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okita, Koshi; Inaba, Katsuhiko; Yatabe, Zenji; Nakamura, Yusui

    2018-06-01

    ZnS is attractive as a material for low-cost light-emitting diodes. In this study, a non-polar ZnS layer was epitaxially grown on a sapphire substrate by inserting a ZnO buffer layer between ZnS and sapphire. The ZnS and ZnO layers were grown by a mist chemical vapor deposition system with a simple setup operated under atmospheric pressure. The sample was characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction measurements including 2θ/ω scans, rocking curves, and reciprocal space mapping. The results showed that an m-plane wurtzite ZnS layer grew epitaxially on an m-plane wurtzite ZnO buffer layer formed on the m-plane sapphire substrate to provide a ZnS/ZnO/sapphire structure.

  14. Development and Industrialization of InGaN/GaN LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Low Cost Emitter Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Flemish, Joseph; Soer, Wouter

    2015-11-30

    Patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) technology has proven to be an effective approach to improve efficacy and reduce cost of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The volume emission from the transparent substrate leads to high package efficiency, while the simple and robust architecture of PSS-based LEDs enables low cost. PSS substrates have gained wide use in mid-power LEDs over the past years. In this project, Lumileds has developed and industrialized PSS and epitaxy technology for high- power flip-chip LEDs to bring these benefits to a broader range of applications and accelerate the adoption of energy-efficient solid-state lighting (SSL). PSS geometries were designed formore » highly efficient light extraction in a flip-chip architecture and high-volume manufacturability, and corresponding sapphire patterning and epitaxy manufacturing processes were integrally developed. Concurrently, device and package architectures were developed to take advantage of the PSS flip-chip die in different types of products that meet application needs. The developed PSS and epitaxy technology has been fully implemented in manufacturing at Lumileds’ San Jose, CA location, and incorporated in illumination-grade LED products that have been successfully introduced to the market, including LUXEON Q and LUXEON FlipChip White.« less

  15. Reduction of Defects in AlGaN Grown on Nanoscale-Patterned Sapphire Substrates by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Tasi, Chi-Tsung; Wang, Wei-Kai; Tsai, Tsung-Yen; Huang, Shih-Yung; Horng, Ray-Hua; Wuu, Dong-Sing

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a 3-μm-thick AlGaN film with an Al mole fraction of 10% was grown on a nanoscale-patterned sapphire substrate (NPSS) using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The growth mechanism, crystallization, and surface morphology of the epilayers were examined using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy at various times in the growth process. The screw threading dislocation (TD) density of AlGaN-on-NPSS can improve to 1–2 × 109 cm−2, which is significantly lower than that of the sample grown on a conventional planar sapphire substrate (7 × 109 cm−2). TEM analysis indicated that these TDs do not subsequently propagate to the surface of the overgrown AlGaN layer, but bend or change directions in the region above the voids within the side faces of the patterned substrates, possibly because of the internal stress-relaxed morphologies of the AlGaN film. Hence, the laterally overgrown AlGaN films were obtained by HVPE, which can serve as a template for the growth of ultraviolet III-nitride optoelectronic devices. PMID:28772961

  16. Reduction of Defects in AlGaN Grown on Nanoscale-Patterned Sapphire Substrates by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Tasi, Chi-Tsung; Wang, Wei-Kai; Tsai, Tsung-Yen; Huang, Shih-Yung; Horng, Ray-Hua; Wuu, Dong-Sing

    2017-05-31

    In this study, a 3-μm-thick AlGaN film with an Al mole fraction of 10% was grown on a nanoscale-patterned sapphire substrate (NPSS) using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The growth mechanism, crystallization, and surface morphology of the epilayers were examined using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy at various times in the growth process. The screw threading dislocation (TD) density of AlGaN-on-NPSS can improve to 1-2 × 10⁸ cm -2 , which is significantly lower than that of the sample grown on a conventional planar sapphire substrate (7 × 10⁸ cm -2 ). TEM analysis indicated that these TDs do not subsequently propagate to the surface of the overgrown AlGaN layer, but bend or change directions in the region above the voids within the side faces of the patterned substrates, possibly because of the internal stress-relaxed morphologies of the AlGaN film. Hence, the laterally overgrown AlGaN films were obtained by HVPE, which can serve as a template for the growth of ultraviolet III-nitride optoelectronic devices.

  17. Sapphire substrate-induced effects in VO2 thin films grown by oxygen plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuza, J. R.; Scott, D. W.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the structural and electronic properties of VO2 thin films on c-plane sapphire substrates with three different surface morphologies to control the strain at the substrate-film interface. Only non-annealed substrates with no discernible surface features (terraces) provided a suitable template for VO2 film growth with a semiconductor-metal transition (SMT), which was much lower than the bulk transition temperature. In addition to strain, oxygen vacancy concentration also affects the properties of VO2, which can be controlled through deposition conditions. Oxygen plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition allows favorable conditions for VO2 film growth with SMTs that can be easily tailored for device applications.

  18. Air-void embedded GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on laser drilling patterned sapphire substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hao; Li, Yufeng; Wang, Shuai

    Air-void structure was introduced in GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes (LED) with one-step growth on periodic laser drilling patterned sapphire substrate, which free of any photolithography or wet/dry etching process. The influence of filling factors (FF) of air-void on crystal quality and optical performance were investigate. Transmission electron microscopy images and micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the dislocation was bended and the partially compressed strain was released. When FF was 55.43%, compared with the LED structure grown on flat sapphire substrate, the incorporation of air-void was observed to reduce the compressed stress of ∼20% and the luminance intensity has improved by 128%.more » Together with the simulated reflection intensity enhancement by finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we attribute the enhanced optical performance to the combined contribution of strong back-side light reflection of air-void and better GaN epitaxial quality. This approach provides a simple replacement to the conventional air-void embedded LED process.« less

  19. Defect characterization of MOCVD grown AlN/AlGaN films on sapphire substrates by TEM and TKD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, J. H.; Lee, M. E.; Westraadt, J.; Engelbrecht, J. A. A.

    2018-04-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to characterize defects structures in AlN/AlGaN epilayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire (Al2O3) substrates. The AlN buffer layer was shown to be epitaxially grown on the sapphire substrate with the two lattices rotated relatively through 30°. The AlN layer had a measured thickness of 20-30 nm and was also shown to contain nano-sized voids. The misfit dislocations in the buffer layer have been shown to be pure edge with a spacing of 1.5 nm. TEM characterization of the AlGaN epilayers was shown to contain a higher than expected threading dislocation density of the order 1010 cm-2 as well as the existence of "nanopipes". TEM analysis of the planar lamella for AlGaN has presented evidence for the possibility of columnar growth. The strain and misorientation mapping in the AlGaN epilayer by transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) using the FIB lamella has also been demonstrated to be complimentary to data obtained by TEM imaging.

  20. The improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using nanopatterned sapphire substrate with small pattern spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yonghui; Wei, Tongbo; Wang, Junxi; Lan, Ding; Chen, Yu; Hu, Qiang; Lu, Hongxi; Li, Jinmin

    2014-02-01

    Self-assembly SiO2 nanosphere monolayer template is utilized to fabricate nanopatterned sapphire substrates (NPSSs) with 0-nm, 50-nm, and 120-nm spacing, receptively. The GaN growth on top of NPSS with 0-nm spacing has the best crystal quality because of laterally epitaxial overgrowth. However, GaN growth from pattern top is more difficult to get smooth surface than from pattern bottom. The rougher surface may result in a higher work voltage. The stimulation results of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) display that too large or too small spacing lead to the reduced light extracted efficiency (LEE) of LEDs. Under a driving current 350 mA, the external quantum efficiencies (EQE) of GaN-based LEDs grown on NPSSs with 0-nm, 50-nm, and 120-nm spacing increase by 43.3%, 50.6%, and 39.1%, respectively, compared to that on flat sapphire substrate (FSS). The optimized pattern spacing is 50 nm for the NPSS with 600-nm pattern period.

  1. The improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using nanopatterned sapphire substrate with small pattern spacing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yonghui; Wei, Tongbo, E-mail: tbwei@semi.ac.cn; Wang, Junxi

    2014-02-15

    Self-assembly SiO{sub 2} nanosphere monolayer template is utilized to fabricate nanopatterned sapphire substrates (NPSSs) with 0-nm, 50-nm, and 120-nm spacing, receptively. The GaN growth on top of NPSS with 0-nm spacing has the best crystal quality because of laterally epitaxial overgrowth. However, GaN growth from pattern top is more difficult to get smooth surface than from pattern bottom. The rougher surface may result in a higher work voltage. The stimulation results of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) display that too large or too small spacing lead to the reduced light extracted efficiency (LEE) of LEDs. Under a driving current 350 mA, themore » external quantum efficiencies (EQE) of GaN-based LEDs grown on NPSSs with 0-nm, 50-nm, and 120-nm spacing increase by 43.3%, 50.6%, and 39.1%, respectively, compared to that on flat sapphire substrate (FSS). The optimized pattern spacing is 50 nm for the NPSS with 600-nm pattern period.« less

  2. On the laser lift-off of lightly doped micrometer-thick n-GaN films from substrates via the absorption of IR radiation in sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Voronenkov, V. V.; Virko, M. V.; Kogotkov, V. S.

    The intense absorption of CO{sub 2} laser radiation in sapphire is used to separate GaN films from GaN templates on sapphire. Scanning of the sapphire substrate by the laser leads to the thermal dissociation of GaN at the GaN/sapphire interface and to the detachment of GaN films from the sapphire. The threshold density of the laser energy at which n-GaN started to dissociate is 1.6 ± 0.5 J/cm{sup 2}. The mechanical-stress distribution and the surface morphology of GaN films and sapphire substrates before and after laser lift-off are studied by Raman spectroscopy, atomic-force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. A verticalmore » Schottky diode with a forward current density of 100 A/cm{sup 2} at a voltage of 2 V and a maximum reverse voltage of 150 V is fabricated on the basis of a 9-μm-thick detached n-GaN film.« less

  3. Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H. K.; Krüger, O.; Külberg, A.; Rass, J.; Zeimer, U.; Kolbe, T.; Knauer, A.; Einfeldt, S.; Weyers, M.; Kneissl, M.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a chip design which allows the laser lift-off (LLO) of the sapphire substrate sustaining the epitaxial film of flip-chip mounted deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes. A nanosecond pulsed excimer laser with a wavelength of 248 nm was used for the LLO. A mechanically stable chip design was found to be the key to prevent crack formation in the epitaxial layers and material chipping during the LLO process. Stabilization was achieved by introducing a Ti/Au leveling layer that mechanically supports the fragile epitaxial film. The electrical and optical characterization of devices before and after the LLO process shows that the device performance did not degrade by the LLO.

  4. The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Chien-Chih; Su, Yan-Kuin; Lin, Chuing-Liang; Chen, Jian-Jhong

    2010-07-01

    The nanopatterned sapphire substrates (NPSSs) with aspect ratio that varied from 2.00 to 2.50 were fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. We could improve the epitaxial film quality and enhance the light extraction efficiency by NPSS technique. In this work, the aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with NPSS were investigated. The light output enhancement of GaN-based LEDs with NPSS was increased from 11% to 27% as the aspect ratio of the NPSS increases from 2.00 to 2.50. Owing to the same improvement of crystalline quality by using various aspect ratios of NPSS, these results indicated that the aspect ratio of the NPSS is strongly related to the light extraction efficiency.

  5. Strain effect in epitaxial VO2 thin films grown on sapphire substrates using SnO2 buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Heungsoo; Bingham, Nicholas S.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Piqué, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Epitaxial VO2/SnO2 thin film heterostructures were deposited on m-cut sapphire substrates via pulsed laser deposition. By adjusting SnO2 (150 nm) growth conditions, we are able to control the interfacial strain between the VO2 film and SnO2 buffer layer such that the semiconductor-to-metal transition temperature (TC) of VO2 films can be tuned without diminishing the magnitude of the transition. It is shown that in-plane tensile strain and out-of-plane compressive strain of the VO2 film leads to a decrease of Tc. Interestingly, VO2 films on SnO2 buffer layers exhibit a structural phase transition from tetragonal-like VO2 to tetragonal-VO2 during the semiconductor-to-metal transition. These results suggest that the strain generated by SnO2 buffer provides an effective way for tuning the TC of VO2 films.

  6. High Mobility SiGe/Si n-Type Structures and Field Effect Transistors on Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Ponchak, George E.; Mueller, Carl H.; Croke, Edward T.

    2004-01-01

    SiGe/Si n-type modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFETs) fabricated on sapphire substrates have been characterized at microwave frequencies for the first time. The highest measured room temperature electron mobility is 1380 sq cm/V-sec at a carrier density of 1.8 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm for a MODFET structure, and 900 sq cm/V-sec at a carrier density of 1.3 x 10/sq cm for a phosphorus ion implanted sample. A two finger, 2 x 200 micron gate n-MODFET has a peak transconductance of 37 mS/mm at a drain to source voltage of 2.5 V and a transducer gain of 6.4 dB at 1 GHz.

  7. InGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on a Micro/Nanoscale Hybrid Patterned Sapphire Substrate.

    PubMed

    Ke, Wen-Cheng; Lee, Fang-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Yung; Liang, Zhong-Yi; Chen, Wei-Kuo; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2016-12-21

    A hybrid patterned sapphire substrate (hybrid-PSS) was prepared using an anodic aluminum oxide etching mask to transfer nanopatterns onto a conventional patterned sapphire substrate with microscale patterns (bare-PSS). The threading dislocation (TD) suppression of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on a hybrid-PSS (HP-LED) exhibits a smaller reverse leakage current compared with that of LEDs grown on a bare-PSS (BP-LED). The strain-free GaN buffer layer and fully strained InGaN active layer were evidenced by cross-sectional Raman spectra and reciprocal space mapping of the X-ray diffraction intensity for both samples. The calculated piezoelectric fields for both samples are close, implying that the quantum-confined Stark effect was not a dominant mechanism influencing the electroluminescence (EL) peak wavelength under a high injection current. The bandgap shrinkage effect of the InGaN well layer was considered to explain the large red-shifted EL peak wavelength under high injection currents. The estimated LED chip temperatures rise from room temperature to 150 °C and 75 °C for BP-LED and HP-LED, respectively, at a 600-mA injection current. This smaller temperature rise of the LED chip is attributed to the increased contact area between the sapphire and the LED structural layer because of the embedded nanopattern. Although the chip generates more heat at high injection currents, the accumulated heat can be removed to outside the chip effectively. The high diffuse reflection (DR) rate of hybrid-PSS increases the escape probability of photons, resulting in an increase in the viewing angle of the LEDs from 130° to 145°. The efficiency droop was reduced from 46% to 35%, effects which can be attributed to the elimination of TDs and strain relaxation by embedded nanopatterns. In addition, the light output power of HP-LED at 360-mA injection currents exhibits a ∼ 22.3% enhancement, demonstrating that hybrid-PSSs are beneficial to apply in high-power LEDs.

  8. Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Sputtered-Grown InN Films on ZnO Buffered Silicon, Bulk GaN, Quartz and Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Umar; Hassan, Zainuriah; Ahmed, Naser M.; Afzal, Naveed

    2018-05-01

    Indium nitride (InN) films were grown on Si (111), bulk GaN, quartz and sapphire substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Prior to the film deposition, a zinc oxide (ZnO) buffer layer was deposited on all the substrates. The x-ray diffraction patterns of InN films on ZnO-buffered substrates indicated c-plane-oriented films whereas the Raman spectroscopy results indicated A1 (LO) and E2 (high) modes of InN on all the substrates. The crystalline quality of InN was found to be better on sapphire and quartz than on the other substrates. The surface roughness of InN was studied using an atomic force microscope. The results indicated higher surface roughness of the film on sapphire as compared to the others; however, roughness of the film was lower than 8 nm on all the substrates. The electrical properties indicated higher electron mobility of InN (20.20 cm2/Vs) on bulk GaN than on the other substrates. The optical band gap of InN film was more than 2 eV in all the cases and was attributed to high carrier concentration in the film.

  9. Large-scale fabrication of nanopatterned sapphire substrates by annealing of patterned Al thin films by soft UV-nanoimprint lithography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale nanopatterned sapphire substrates were fabricated by annealing of patterned Al thin films. Patterned Al thin films were obtained by soft UV-nanoimprint lithography and reactive ion etching. The soft mold with 550-nm-wide lines separated by 250-nm space was composed of the toluene-diluted polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer supported by the soft PDMS. Patterned Al thin films were subsequently subjected to dual-stage annealing due to the melting temperature of Al thin films (660°C). The first comprised a low-temperature oxidation anneal at 450°C for 24 h. This was followed by a high-temperature annealing in the range of 1,000°C and 1,200°C for 1 h to induce growth of the underlying sapphire single crystal to consume the oxide layer. The SEM results indicate that the patterns were retained on sapphire substrates after high-temperature annealing at less than 1,200°C. Finally, large-scale nanopatterned sapphire substrates were successfully fabricated by annealing of patterned Al thin films for 24 h at 450°C and 1 h at 1,000°C by soft UV-nanoimprint lithography. PMID:24215718

  10. Synthesis of high quality graphene on capped (1 1 1) Cu thin films obtained by high temperature secondary grain growth on c-plane sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngwoo; Moyen, Eric; Yi, Hemian; Avila, José; Chen, Chaoyu; Asensio, Maria C.; Lee, Young Hee; Pribat, Didier

    2018-07-01

    We propose a novel growth technique, in which graphene is synthesized on capped Cu thin films deposited on c-plane sapphire. The cap is another sapphire plate which is just laid upon the Cu thin film, in direct contact with it. Thanks to this ‘contact cap’, Cu evaporation can be suppressed at high temperature and the 400 nm-thick Cu films can be annealed above 1000 °C, resulting in (1 1 1)-oriented grains of millimeter size. Following this high temperature annealing, graphene is grown by chemical vapor deposition during the same pump-down operation, without removing the contact cap. The orientation and doping type of the as-grown graphene were first studied, using low energy electron diffraction, as well as high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. In particular, the orientation relationships between the graphene and copper thin film with respect to the sapphire substrate were precisely determined. We find that the graphene sheets exhibit a minimal rotational disorder, with ~90% of the grains aligned along the copper high symmetry direction. Detailed transport measurements were also performed using field-effect transistor structures. Carrier mobility values as high as 8460 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 have been measured on top gate transistors fabricated directly on the sapphire substrate, by etching the Cu film from underneath the graphene sheets. This is by far the best carrier mobility value obtained to date for graphene sheets synthesized on a thin film-type metal substrate.

  11. Epitaxial growth of (001)-oriented Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} thin films on a-plane sapphire with an MgO/ZnO bridge layer

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Bo; Liu Hongrui; Avrutin, Vitaliy

    2009-11-23

    High quality (001)-oriented Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BST) thin films have been grown on a-plane sapphire (1120) by rf magnetron sputtering using a double bridge layer consisting of (0001)-oriented ZnO (50 nm) and (001)-oriented MgO (10 nm) prepared by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of three sets of in-plane BST domains, offset from one another by 30 deg., which is consistent with the in-plane symmetry of the MgO layer observed by in situ reflective high electron energy diffraction. The in-plane epitaxial relationship of BST, MgO, and ZnO has been determined to be BST [110]//MgO [110]//ZnO [1120]more » and BST [110]/MgO [110]//ZnO [1100]. Capacitance-voltage measurements performed on BST coplanar interdigitated capacitor structures revealed a high dielectric tunability of up to 84% at 1 MHz.« less

  12. Temperature dependence of the crystalline quality of AlN layer grown on sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Hang; Wei, Yong O.; Wang, Shuo; Xie, Hongen; Kao, Tsung-Ting; Satter, Md. Mahbub; Shen, Shyh-Chiang; Douglas Yoder, P.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.; Fischer, Alec M.; Ponce, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We studied temperature dependence of crystalline quality of AlN layers at 1050-1250 °C with a fine increment step of around 18 °C. The AlN layers were grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) ω-scans and atomic force microscopy (AFM). At 1050-1068 °C, the templates exhibited poor quality with surface pits and higher XRD (002) and (102) full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) because of insufficient Al atom mobility. At 1086 °C, the surface became smooth suggesting sufficient Al atom mobility. Above 1086 °C, the (102) FWHM and thus edge dislocation density increased with temperatures which may be attributed to the shorter growth mode transition from three-dimension (3D) to two-dimension (2D). Above 1212 °C, surface macro-steps were formed due to the longer diffusion length of Al atoms than the expected step terrace width. The edge dislocation density increased rapidly above 1212 °C, indicating this temperature may be a threshold above which the impact of the transition from 3D to 2D is more significant. The (002) FWHM and thus screw dislocation density were insensitive to the temperature change. This study suggests that high-quality AlN/sapphire templates may be potentially achieved at temperatures as low as 1086 °C which is accessible by most of the III-nitride MOCVD systems.

  13. A Study on the Formation of 2-Dimensional Tungsten Disulfide Thin Films on Sapphire Substrate by Sputtering and High Temperature Rapid Thermal Processing.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hanyeob; Kim, Hong-Seok; Han, Jae-Hee; Kwon, Sang Jik; Cho, Eou Sik

    2018-09-01

    As direct formation of p-type two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) films on substrates, tungsten disulfide (WS2) thin films were deposited onto sapphire glass substrate through shadow mask patterns by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering at different sputtering powers ranging from 60 W to 150 W and annealed by rapid thermal processing (RTP) at various high temperatures ranging from 500 °C to 800 °C. Based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and Raman spectra, better surface roughness and mode dominant E12g and A1g peaks were found for WS2 thin films prepared at higher RF sputtering powers. It was also possible to obtain high mobilities and carrier densities for all WS2 thin films based on results of Hall measurements. Process conditions for these WS2 thin films on sapphire substrate were optimized to low RF sputtering power and high temperature annealing.

  14. GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Nanoscale Patterned Sapphire Substrates with Void-Embedded Cortex-Like Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Yeh, J. Andrew

    2011-09-01

    High-efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an emitting wavelength of 438 nm were demonstrated utilizing nanoscale patterned sapphire substrates with void-embedded cortex-like nanostructures (NPSS-VECN). Unlike the previous nanopatterned sapphire substrates, the presented substrate has a new morphology that can not only improve the crystalline quality of GaN epilayers but also generate a void-embedded nanostructural layer to enhance light extraction. Under a driving current of 20 mA, the external quantum efficiency of an LED with NPSS-VECN is enhanced by 2.4-fold compared with that of the conventional LED. Moreover, the output powers of two devices respectively are 33.1 and 13.9 mW.

  15. Preparation and modification of VO2 thin film on R-sapphire substrate by rapid thermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Nai-Wei; Hu, Ming; Xia, Xiao-Xu; Wei, Xiao-Ying; Liang, Ji-Ran

    2014-04-01

    The VO2 thin film with high performance of metal-insulator transition (MIT) is prepared on R-sapphire substrate for the first time by magnetron sputtering with rapid thermal process (RTP). The electrical characteristic and THz transmittance of MIT in VO2 film are studied by four-point probe method and THz time domain spectrum (THz-TDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and search engine marketing (SEM) are employed to analyze the crystalline structure, valence state, surface morphology of the film. Results indicate that the properties of VO2 film which is oxidized from the metal vanadium film in oxygen atmosphere are improved with a follow-up RTP modification in nitrogen atmosphere. The crystallization and components of VO2 film are improved and the film becomes compact and uniform. A better phase transition performance is shown that the resistance changes nearly 3 orders of magnitude with a 2-°C hysteresis width and the THz transmittances are reduced by 64% and 60% in thermal and optical excitation respectively.

  16. Light extraction efficiency analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jui-Wen; Tsai, Pei-Jung; Chang, Kao-Der; Chang, Yung-Yuan

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to analyze the light extraction efficiency (LEE) enhancement of a nanopatterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) light-emitting diode (LED) by comparing wave optics software with ray optics software. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations represent the wave optics software and Light Tools (LTs) simulations represent the ray optics software. First, we find the trends of and an optimal solution for the LEE enhancement when the 2D-FDTD simulations are used to save on simulation time and computational memory. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis method is utilized to explain the trend we get from the 2D-FDTD algorithm. The optimal solution is then applied in 3D-FDTD and LTs simulations. The results are similar and the difference in LEE enhancement between the two simulations does not exceed 8.5% in the small LED chip area. More than 10(4) times computational memory is saved during the LTs simulation in comparison to the 3D-FDTD simulation. Moreover, LEE enhancement from the side of the LED can be obtained in the LTs simulation. An actual-size NPSS LED is simulated using the LTs. The results show a more than 307% improvement in the total LEE enhancement of the NPSS LED with the optimal solution compared to the conventional LED.

  17. GaN-based LEDs with a high light extraction composite surface structure fabricated by a modified YAG laser lift-off technology and the patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongjian; Trieu, Simeon; Yu, Tongjun; Chen, Zhizhong; Qi, Shengli; Tian, Pengfei; Deng, Junjing; Jin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Guoyi

    2011-08-01

    Vertical structure LEDs have been fabricated with a novel light extraction composite surface structure composed of a micron grating and nano-structure. The composite surface structure was generated by using a modified YAG laser lift-off technique, separating the wafers from cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrates. LEDs thus fabricated showed the light output power increase about 1.7-2.5 times when compared with conventional vertical structure LEDs grown on plane sapphire substrates. A three-dimensional finite difference time domain method was used to simulate this new kind of LED device. It was determined that nano-structures in composite surface patterns play a key role in the improvement of light extraction efficiency of LEDs.

  18. Structure and Properties of VO2 and Titanium Dioxide Based Epitaxial Heterostructures Integrated with Silicon and Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayati, Mohammad Reza

    The main focus of this study was placed on structure-property correlation in TiO2 and VO2 based epitaxial heterostructures where the photochemical and electrical properties were tuned through microstructural engineering. In the framework of domain matching epitaxy, epitaxial growth of TiO2 and VO2 heterostructures on different substrates were explained. The theta-2theta and ϕ scan X-ray diffraction measurements and detailed high resolution electron microscopy studies corroborated our understanding of the epitaxial growth and the crystallographic arrangement across the interfaces. The influence of the laser and substrate variables on structural characteristics of the films was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, room temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. In addition, morphological studies were performed by atomic force microscopy. Photochemical properties of the heterostructures were assessed through measuring surface wettability characteristics and photocatalytic reaction rate constant of degradation of 4-chlorophenol under ultraviolet and visible irradiations. We also studied electrical properties employing 4-probe measurement technique. The effect of post treatment processes, such as vacuum annealing and laser treatment, on structure and properties was investigated as well. The role of point defects and deviation from the stoichiometry on photochemical and electrical properties was addressed. In this research, TiO2 epilayers with controlled phase structure, defect content, and crystallographic alignments were grown on sapphire and silicon substrates. Integration with silicon was achieved using cubic and tetragonal yttria-stabilized zirconia buffer layers. I was able to tune the phase structure of the TiO2 based heterostructures from pure rutile to pure anatase and establish an epitaxial relationship across the interfaces in each case. These heterostructures were used for two different purposes. First, their

  19. Crystal structure and mechanical strain in polycrystalline ferrite films on polycrystalline sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovich, M. P.

    1996-10-01

    We have grown films of magnesium, lithium, zinc, and nickel-zinc ferrites, varying in thickness from 0.5 to 8 μm on polycrystalline sapphiresubstrates by coating the surface of the substrate with an aqueous nitric acid solution of salts of the elements which compose the ferrite. The lattice parameter of the ferrite film increases with the film thickness and becomes constant at thicknesses greater than 8 μm. We have determined the ratio of the theoretical strength limit to the macroscopic one in the film based on the change in the interplanar distance d 220 and the lattice parameter calculated from it, under the assumption that the change Δa(h)=a ∞=a(h) results from macroscopic stresses in the film. This ratio shows that when h=1 μm the microstresses in the film are an order of magnitude smaller than the theoretical strength limit. At larger film thicknesses this macroscopic stress becomes even lower, and at the external surface of thick films it goes completely to zero.

  20. 282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Peng; Yan, Jianchang; Wang, Junxi; Zhang, Yun; Geng, Chong; Wei, Tongbo; Cong, Peipei; Zhang, Yiyun; Zeng, Jianping; Tian, Yingdong; Sun, Lili; Yan, Qingfeng; Li, Jinmin; Fan, Shunfei; Qin, Zhixin

    2013-06-01

    We first report AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) prepared through a nanosphere lithography technique. The AlN coalescence thickness on NPSS is only 3 μm due to AlN's nano-scaled lateral growth, which also leads to low dislocation densities in AlN and epi-layers above. On NPSS, the light-output power of a 282-nm UV-LED reaches 3.03 mW at 20 mA with external quantum efficiency of 3.45%, exhibiting 98% better performance than that on flat sapphire. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence reveals this significant enhancement to be a combination of higher internal quantum efficiency and higher light extraction efficiency.

  1. Effect of thermal interaction between bulk GaN substrates and corral sapphire on blue light emission InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanathan, P. C.; Shuhaimi, Ahmad; Hamza, Hebal; Kowsz, Stacy J.; Abdul Khudus, Muhammad I. M.; Li, Hongjian; Allif, Kamarul

    2018-07-01

    The InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells, growth on bulk GaN substrate were studied for blue light emission. Growth temperature plays a key role determining the peak wavelength of a quantum well. The study was carried out by growing quantum wells, MQWs on the whole sapphire at 716 °C and observed peak wavelength at 463 nm. While the bulk GaN substrate with sapphire corral grown at 703 °C and observed a blueshift at 433 nm peak wavelength. These results contradict that of typical observation of wavelength emission inversely proportional to the growth temperature. On the other hand, the growth of GaN-sapphire and GaN-silicon at similar conditions emits 435 nm and 450 nm respectively. The heat interaction of bulk GaN substrates surrounded by the sapphire corral exhibits different growth conditions in multi-quantum wells when compared to that of a whole sapphire substrate (absence of bulk GaN). The predicated surface temperature of bulk GaN substrate is 10 °C-15 °C of more than the corral sapphire. This observation may link to the difference in the thermal distribution of the growth surface corresponding to the different thermal conductivity ratio. The photoluminescence and computational techniques were used to understand in-depth of the heat interaction.

  2. Impact of layer and substrate properties on the surface acoustic wave velocity in scandium doped aluminum nitride based SAW devices on sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Gillinger, M., E-mail: manuel.gillinger@tuwien.ac.at; Knobloch, T.; Schneider, M.

    2016-06-06

    This paper investigates the performance of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices consisting of reactively sputter deposited scandium doped aluminum nitride (Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N) thin films as piezoelectric layers on sapphire substrates for wireless sensor or for RF-MEMS applications. To investigate the influence of piezoelectric film thickness on the device properties, samples with thickness ranging from 500 nm up to 3000 nm are fabricated. S{sub 21} measurements and simulations demonstrate that the phase velocity is predominantly influenced by the mass density of the electrode material rather than by the thickness of the piezoelectric film. Additionally, the wave propagation direction is varied by rotatingmore » the interdigital transducer structures with respect to the crystal orientation of the substrate. The phase velocity is about 2.5% higher for a-direction compared to m-direction of the sapphire substrate, which is in excellent agreement with the difference in the anisotropic Young's modulus of the substrate corresponding to these directions.« less

  3. Demonstration of transverse-magnetic deep-ultraviolet stimulated emission from AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers grown on a sapphire substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiao-Hang, E-mail: xli@gatech.edu, E-mail: dupuis@gatech.edu; Kao, Tsung-Ting; Satter, Md. Mahbub

    2015-01-26

    We demonstrate transverse-magnetic (TM) dominant deep-ultraviolet (DUV) stimulated emission from photo-pumped AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers grown pseudomorphically on an AlN/sapphire template by means of photoluminescence at room temperature. The TM-dominant stimulated emission was observed at wavelengths of 239, 242, and 243 nm with low thresholds of 280, 250, and 290 kW/cm{sup 2}, respectively. In particular, the lasing wavelength of 239 nm is shorter compared to other reports for AlGaN lasers grown on foreign substrates including sapphire and SiC. The peak wavelength difference between the transverse-electric (TE)-polarized emission and TM-polarized emission was approximately zero for the lasers in this study, indicating the crossover of crystal-fieldmore » split-off hole and heavy-hole valence bands. The rapid variation of polarization between TE- and TM-dominance versus the change in lasing wavelength from 243 to 249 nm can be attributed to a dramatic change in the TE-to-TM gain coefficient ratio for the sapphire-based DUV lasers in the vicinity of TE-TM switch.« less

  4. Patterning of light-extraction nanostructures on sapphire substrates using nanoimprint and ICP etching with different masking materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Qi; Chou, Stephen Y

    2015-02-27

    Sapphire nanopatterning is the key solution to GaN light emitting diode (LED) light extraction. One challenge is to etch deep nanostructures with a vertical sidewall in sapphire. Here, we report a study of the effects of two masking materials (SiO2 and Cr) and different etching recipes (the reaction gas ratio, the reaction pressure and the inductive power) in a chlorine-based (BCl3 and Cl2) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of deep nanopillars in sapphire, and the etching process optimization. The masking materials were patterned by nanoimprinting. We have achieved high aspect ratio sapphire nanopillar arrays with a much steeper sidewall than the previous etching methods. We discover that the SiO2 mask has much slower erosion rate than the Cr mask under the same etching condition, leading to the deep cylinder-shaped nanopillars (122 nm diameter, 200 nm pitch, 170 nm high, flat top, and a vertical sidewall of 80° angle), rather than the pyramid-shaped shallow pillars (200 nm based diameter, 52 nm height, and 42° sidewall) resulted by using Cr mask. The processes developed are scalable to large volume LED manufacturing.

  5. Nitridation- and Buffer-Layer-Free Growth of [1100]-Oriented GaN Domains on m-Plane Sapphire Substrates by Using Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Yeonwoo; Lee, Sanghwa; Jue, Miyeon; Yoon, Hansub; Kim, Chinkyo

    2012-12-01

    Over a wide range of growth conditions, GaN domains were grown on bare m-plane sapphire substrates by using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), and the relation between these growth conditions and three possible preferred crystallographic orientations ([1100], [1103], [1122]) of GaN domains was investigated. In contrast with the previous reports by other groups, our results revealed that preferentially [1100]-oriented GaN domains were grown without low-temperature nitridation or a buffer layer, and that the growth condition of preferentially [1100]-oriented GaN was insensitive to V/III ratio.

  6. Sapphire substrate-induced effects in VO{sub 2} thin films grown by oxygen plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Skuza, J. R., E-mail: jrskuza@nsu.edu, E-mail: apradhan@nsu.edu; Scott, D. W.; Pradhan, A. K., E-mail: jrskuza@nsu.edu, E-mail: apradhan@nsu.edu

    2015-11-21

    We investigate the structural and electronic properties of VO{sub 2} thin films on c-plane sapphire substrates with three different surface morphologies to control the strain at the substrate-film interface. Only non-annealed substrates with no discernible surface features (terraces) provided a suitable template for VO{sub 2} film growth with a semiconductor-metal transition (SMT), which was much lower than the bulk transition temperature. In addition to strain, oxygen vacancy concentration also affects the properties of VO{sub 2}, which can be controlled through deposition conditions. Oxygen plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition allows favorable conditions for VO{sub 2} film growth with SMTs that can bemore » easily tailored for device applications.« less

  7. Complex Investigations of Sapphire Crystals Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyukov, S. P.; Klunnikova, Yu V.

    The problem of optimum conditions choice for processing sapphire substrates was solved with optimization methods and with combination of analytical simulation methods, experiment and expert system technology. The experimental results and software give rather full information on features of real structure of the sapphire crystal substrates and can be effectively used for optimization of technology of the substrate preparation for electronic devices.

  8. AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates with significant improvement in internal quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Peng; Yan, Jianchang; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Junxi; Zeng, Jianping; Geng, Chong; Cong, Peipei; Sun, Lili; Wei, Tongbo; Zhao, Lixia; Yan, Qingfeng; He, Chenguang; Qin, Zhixin; Li, Jinmin

    2014-06-01

    We report high-performance AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. By nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth on NPSS, 4-μm AlN buffer layer has shown strain relaxation and a coalescence thickness of only 2.5 μm. The full widths at half-maximum of X-ray diffraction (002) and (102) ω-scan rocking curves of AlN on NPSS are only 69.4 and 319.1 arcsec. The threading dislocation density in AlGaN-based multi-quantum wells, which are grown on this AlN/NPSS template with a light-emitting wavelength at 283 nm at room temperature, is reduced by 33% compared with that on flat sapphire substrate indicated by atomic force microscopy measurements, and the internal quantum efficiency increases from 30% to 43% revealed by temperature-dependent photoluminescent measurement.

  9. Influence of different aspect ratios on the structural and electrical properties of GaN thin films grown on nanoscale-patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Fang-Wei; Ke, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Chun-Hong; Liao, Bo-Wei; Chen, Wei-Kuo

    2016-07-01

    This study presents GaN thin films grown on nanoscale-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSSs) with different aspect ratios (ARs) using a homemade metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system. The anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) technique is used to prepare the dry etching mask. The cross-sectional view of the scanning electron microscope image shows that voids exist between the interface of the GaN thin film and the high-AR (i.e. ∼2) NPSS. In contrast, patterns on the low-AR (∼0.7) NPSS are filled full of GaN. The formation of voids on the high-AR NPSS is believed to be due to the enhancement of the lateral growth in the initial growth stage, and the quick-merging GaN thin film blocks the precursors from continuing to supply the bottom of the pattern. The atomic force microscopy images of GaN on bare sapphire show a layer-by-layer surface morphology, which becomes a step-flow surface morphology for GaN on a high-AR NPSS. The edge-type threading dislocation density can be reduced from 7.1 × 108 cm-2 for GaN on bare sapphire to 4.9 × 108 cm-2 for GaN on a high-AR NPSS. In addition, the carrier mobility increases from 85 cm2/Vs for GaN on bare sapphire to 199 cm2/Vs for GaN on a high-AR NPSS. However, the increased screw-type threading dislocation density for GaN on a low-AR NPSS is due to the competition of lateral growth on the flat-top patterns and vertical growth on the bottom of the patterns that causes the material quality of the GaN thin film to degenerate. Thus, the experimental results indicate that the AR of the particular patterning of a NPSS plays a crucial role in achieving GaN thin film with a high crystalline quality.

  10. Dispersive growth and laser-induced rippling of large-area singlelayer MoS2 nanosheets by CVD on c-plane sapphire substrate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongfei; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Vapor-phase growth of large-area two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheets via reactions of sulfur with MoO3 precursors vaporized and transferred from powder sources onto a target substrate has been rapidly progressing. Recent studies revealed that the growth yield of high quality singlelayer (SL) MoS2 is essentially controlled by quite a few parameters including the temperature, the pressure, the amount/weight of loaded source precursors, and the cleanup of old precursors. Here, we report a dispersive growth method where a shadow mask is encapsulated on the substrate to ‘indirectly’ supply the source precursors onto the laterally advancing growth front at elevated temperatures. With this method, we have grown large-area (up to millimeters) SL-MoS2 nanosheets with a collective in-plane orientation on c-plane sapphire substrates. Regular ripples (~1 nm in height and ~50 nm in period) have been induced by laser scanning into the SL-MoS2 nanosheets. The MoS2 ripples easily initiate at the grain boundaries and extend along the atomic steps of the substrate. Such laser-induced ripple structures can be fundamental materials for studying their effects, which have been predicted to be significant but hitherto not evidenced, on the electronic, mechanical, and transport properties of SL-MoS2. PMID:26119325

  11. High extraction efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes on embedded SiO2 nanorod array and nanoscale patterned sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hung-Wen; Huang, Jhi-Kai; Kuo, Shou-Yi; Lee, Kang-Yuan; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, GaN-based LEDs with a nanoscale patterned sapphire substrate (NPSS) and a SiO2 photonic quasicrystal (PQC) structure on an n-GaN layer using nanoimprint lithography are fabricated and investigated. The light output power of LED with a NPSS and a SiO2 PQC structure on an n-GaN layer was 48% greater than that of conventional LED. Strong enhancement in output power is attributed to better epitaxial quality and higher reflectance resulted from NPSS and PQC structures. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal that threading dislocations are blocked or bended in the vicinities of NPSS layer. These results provide promising potential to increase output power for commercial light emitting devices.

  12. Enhanced c-axis orientation of aluminum nitride thin films by plasma-based pre-conditioning of sapphire substrates for SAW applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillinger, M.; Shaposhnikov, K.; Knobloch, T.; Stöger-Pollach, M.; Artner, W.; Hradil, K.; Schneider, M.; Kaltenbacher, M.; Schmid, U.

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) on sapphire has been investigated with two different pretreatments prior to sputter deposition of the AlN layer to improve the orientation and homogeneity of the thin film. An inverse sputter etching of the substrate in argon atmosphere results in an improvement of the uniformity of the alignment of the AlN grains and hence, in enhanced electro-mechanical AlN film properties. This effect is demonstrated in the raw measurements of SAW test devices. Additionally, the impulse response of several devices shows that a poor AlN thin film layer quality leads to a higher signal damping during the transduction of energy in the inter-digital transducers. As a result, the triple-transit signal cannot be detected at the receiver.

  13. A Microstructural Comparison of the Initial Growth of AIN and GaN Layers on Basal Plane Sapphire and SiC Substrates by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Depositon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T.; Pike, W. T.; Khan, M. A.; Kuznia, J. N.; Chang-Chien, P.

    1994-01-01

    The initial growth by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and subsequent thermal annealing of AIN and GaN epitaxial layers on SiC and sapphire substrates is examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  14. An investigation of GaN thin films on AlN on sapphire substrate by sol-gel spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Nur Fahana Mohd; Ng, Sha Shiong

    2017-12-01

    In this research, the gallium nitride (GaN) thin films were deposited on aluminium nitride on sapphire (AlN/Al2O3) substrate by sol-gel spin coating method. Simple ethanol-based precursor with the addition of diethanolamine solution was used. The structural and morphology properties of synthesized GaN thin films were characterized by using X-ray Diffraction, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. While the elemental compositions and the lattice vibrational properties of the films were investigated by means of the Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. All the results revealed that the wurtzite structure GaN thin films with GaN(002) preferred orientation and smooth surface morphology were successfully grown on AlN/Al2O3 substrate by using inexpensive and simplified sol-gel spin coating technique. The sol-gel spin coated GaN thin film with lowest oxygen content was also achieved.FESEM images show that GaN thin films with uniform and packed grains were formed. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that wurtzite structure GaN thin films were successfully deposited on AlN/Al2O3 substrate.

  15. Selective area growth of N-polar GaN nanorods by plasma-assisted MBE on micro-cone-patterned c-sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jmerik, V. N.; Kuznetsova, N. V.; Nechaev, D. V.; Shubina, T. V.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Troshkov, S. I.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Smirnov, A. N.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    The site-controlled selective area growth of N-polar GaN nanorods (NR) was developed by plasma-assisted MBE (PA MBE) on micro-cone-patterned sapphire substrates (μ-CPSS) by using a two-stage growth process. A GaN nucleation layer grown by migration enhanced epitaxy provides the best selectivity for nucleation of NRs on the apexes of 3.5-μm-diameter cones, whereas the subsequent growth of 1-μm-high NRs with a constant diameter of about 100 nm proceeds by standard high-temperature PA MBE at nitrogen-rich conditions. These results are explained by anisotropy of the surface energy for GaN of different polarity and crystal orientation. The InGaN single quantum wells inserted in the GaN NRs grown on the μ-CPSS demonstrate photoluminescence at 510 nm with a spatially periodic variation of its intensity with a period of ∼6 μm equal to that of the substrate patterning profile.

  16. The improvement of GaN-based LED grown on concave nano-pattern sapphire substrate with SiO2 blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyun-Hao; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Su, Yan-Kuin; Huang, Kai-Wen

    2015-11-01

    In contrast to convex nano-pattern sapphire substrates (NPSS), which are frequently used to fabricate high-quality nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), concave NPSS have been paid relatively less attention. In this study, a concave NPSS was fabricated, and its nitride epitaxial growth process was evaluated in a step by step manner. A SiO2 layer was used to avoid nucleation over the sidewall and bottom of the nano-patterns to reduce dislocation reformation. Traditional LED structures were grown on the NPSS layer to determine its influence on device performance. X-ray diffraction, etched pit density, inverse leakage current, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) results showed that dislocations and non-radiative recombination centers are reduced by the NPSS constructed with a SiO2 blocking layer. An IQE twice that on a planar substrate was also achieved; such a high IQE significantly enhanced the external quantum efficiency of the resultant device. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the SiO2 blocking layer proposed in this work can enhance the performance of LEDs.

  17. Room-temperature optically pumped laser emission from a-plane GaN with high optical gain characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuokstis, E.; Chen, C. Q.; Yang, J. W.; Shatalov, M.; Gaevski, M. E.; Adivarahan, V.; Khan, M. Asif

    2004-04-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) and optical gain (OG) spectra of a-plane GaN layers have been analyzed over a wide range of excitation intensities. The samples were fully coalesced layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition over r-plane sapphire substrates using epitaxial layer overgrowth (ELOG) and selective area lateral epitaxy (SALE) procedures. ELOG and SALE a-plane samples showed a strong stimulated emission line in backscattering-geometry PL spectra along with extremely high OG coefficient values (in SALE samples more than 2000 cm-1). Structures prepared with natural cleaved facet cavities based on these films were used to demonstrate optically pumped room-temperature lasing.

  18. Ring resonator optical modes in InGaN/GaN structures grown on micro-cone-patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazanov, D. R.; Pozina, G.; Jmerik, V. N.; Shubina, T. V.

    2018-03-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of III-nitride compounds on specially prepared cone-shaped patterned substrates is being actively developed nowadays, especially for nanophotonic applications. This type of substrates enables the successful growth of hexagonal nanorods (NRs). The insertion of an active quantum-sized region of InGaN inside a GaN NR allows us to enhance the rate of optical transitions by coupling them with resonant optical modes in the NR. However, we have observed the enhancement of emission not only from the NR but also around the circumference region of the cone-shaped base. We have studied this specific feature and demonstrated its impact on the output signal.

  19. Three dimensional characterization of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on patterned sapphire substrate by confocal Raman and photoluminescence spectromicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Cheng, Hui-Yu; Chen, Wei-Liang; Huang, Yi-Hsin; Li, Chi-Kang; Chang, Chiao-Yun; Wu, Yuh-Renn; Lu, Tien-Chang; Chang, Yu-Ming

    2017-03-30

    We performed depth-resolved PL and Raman spectral mappings of a GaN-based LED structure grown on a patterned sapphire substrate (PSS). Our results showed that the Raman mapping in the PSS-GaN heterointerface and the PL mapping in the In x Ga 1-x N/GaN MQWs active layer are spatially correlated. Based on the 3D construction of E 2 (high) Raman peak intensity and frequency shift, V-shaped pits in the MQWs can be traced down to the dislocations originated in the cone tip area of PSS. Detail analysis of the PL peak distribution further revealed that the indium composition in the MQWs is related to the residual strain propagating from the PSS-GaN heterointerface toward the LED surface. Numerical simulation based on the indium composition distribution also led to a radiative recombination rate distribution that shows agreement with the experimental PL intensity distribution in the In x Ga 1-x N/GaN MQWs active layer.

  20. Effect of precursor on epitaxially grown of ZnO thin film on p-GaN/sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrate by hydrothermal technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, Trilochan; Ju, Jin-Woo; Kannan, V.

    2008-03-04

    Single crystalline ZnO thin film on p-GaN/sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrate, using two different precursors by hydrothermal route at a temperature of 90 deg. C were successfully grown. The effect of starting precursor on crystalline nature, surface morphology and optical emission of the films were studied. ZnO thin films were grown in aqueous solution of zinc acetate and zinc nitrate. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all the thin films were single crystalline in nature and exhibited wurtzite symmetry and c-axis orientation. The thin films obtained with zinc nitrate had a more pitted rough surface morphology compared to the filmmore » grown in zinc acetate. However the thickness of the films remained unaffected by the nature of the starting precursor. Sharp luminescence peaks were observed from the thin films almost at identical energies but deep level emission was slightly prominent for the thin film grown in zinc nitrate.« less

  1. Effect of Zn and Te beam intensity upon the film quality of ZnTe layers on severely lattice mismatched sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasu, Taizo; Sun, W.; Kobayashi, M.; Asahi, T.

    2017-06-01

    Zinc telluride layers were grown on highly-lattice-mismatched sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy, and their crystallographic properties were studied by means of X-ray diffraction pole figures. The crystal quality of the ZnTe thin film was further studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray rocking curves and low-temperature photoluminescence measurements. These methods show that high-crystallinity (111)-oriented single domain ZnTe layers with the flat surface and good optical properties are realized when the beam intensity ratio of Zn and Te beams is adjusted. The migration of Zn and Te was inhibited by excess surface material and cracks were appeared. In particular, excess Te inhibited the formation of a high-crystallinity ZnTe film. The optical properties of the ZnTe layer revealed that the exciton-related features were dominant, and therefore the film quality was reasonably high even though the lattice constants and the crystal structures were severely mismatched.

  2. Linearly polarized photoluminescence of anisotropically strained c-plane GaN layers on stripe-shaped cavity-engineered sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongmyeong; Moon, Daeyoung; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Donghyun; Yang, Duyoung; Jang, Jeonghwan; Park, Yongjo; Yoon, Euijoon

    2018-05-01

    Anisotropic in-plane strain and resultant linearly polarized photoluminescence (PL) of c-plane GaN layers were realized by using a stripe-shaped cavity-engineered sapphire substrate (SCES). High resolution X-ray reciprocal space mapping measurements revealed that the GaN layers on the SCES were under significant anisotropic in-plane strain of -0.0140% and -0.1351% along the directions perpendicular and parallel to the stripe pattern, respectively. The anisotropic in-plane strain in the GaN layers was attributed to the anisotropic strain relaxation due to the anisotropic arrangement of cavity-incorporated membranes. Linearly polarized PL behavior such as the observed angle-dependent shift in PL peak position and intensity comparable with the calculated value based on k.p perturbation theory. It was found that the polarized PL behavior was attributed to the modification of valence band structures induced by anisotropic in-plane strain in the GaN layers on the SCES.

  3. High-quality AlN film grown on a nanosized concave-convex surface sapphire substrate by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Nagatomi, Takaharu; Morishita, Tomohiro; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2017-10-01

    We developed a method for fabricating high-crystal-quality AlN films by combining a randomly distributed nanosized concavo-convex sapphire substrate (NCC-SS) and a three-step growth method optimized for NCC-SS, i.e., a 3-nm-thick nucleation layer (870 °C), a 150-nm-thick high-temperature layer (1250 °C), and a 3.2-μm-thick medium-temperature layer (1110 °C). The NCC-SS is easily fabricated using a conventional metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy reactor equipped with a showerhead plate. The resultant AlN film has a crack-free and single-step surface with a root-mean-square roughness of 0.5 nm. The full-widths at half-maxima of the X-ray rocking curve were 50/250 arcsec for the (0002)/(10-12) planes, revealing that the NCC surface is critical for achieving such a high-quality film. Hexagonal-pyramid-shaped voids at the AlN/NCC-SS interface and confinement of dislocations within the 150-nm-thick high-temperature layer were confirmed. The NCC surface feature and resultant faceted voids play an important role in the growth of high-crystal-quality AlN films, likely via localized and/or disordered growth of AlN at the initial stage, contributing to the alignment of high-crystal-quality nuclei and dislocations.

  4. Three dimensional characterization of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on patterned sapphire substrate by confocal Raman and photoluminescence spectromicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Heng; Cheng, Hui-Yu; Chen, Wei-Liang; Huang, Yi-Hsin; Li, Chi-Kang; Chang, Chiao-Yun; Wu, Yuh-Renn; Lu, Tien-Chang; Chang, Yu-Ming

    2017-01-01

    We performed depth-resolved PL and Raman spectral mappings of a GaN-based LED structure grown on a patterned sapphire substrate (PSS). Our results showed that the Raman mapping in the PSS-GaN heterointerface and the PL mapping in the InxGa1−xN/GaN MQWs active layer are spatially correlated. Based on the 3D construction of E2(high) Raman peak intensity and frequency shift, V-shaped pits in the MQWs can be traced down to the dislocations originated in the cone tip area of PSS. Detail analysis of the PL peak distribution further revealed that the indium composition in the MQWs is related to the residual strain propagating from the PSS-GaN heterointerface toward the LED surface. Numerical simulation based on the indium composition distribution also led to a radiative recombination rate distribution that shows agreement with the experimental PL intensity distribution in the InxGa1−xN/GaN MQWs active layer. PMID:28358119

  5. Evaluation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors grown on ZrTi buffer layers with sapphire substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen J.; Ahn, Shihyun

    Here, AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been grown on sapphire substrates, using ZrTi buffer layers to provide in-plane lattice-matching to hexagonal GaN. X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as cross-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess the quality of the HEMT structure. The XRD 2θ scans showed full-width-at-half-maximum values of 0.16°, 0.07°, and 0.08° for ZrTi alloy, GaN buffer layer, and the entire HEMT structure, respectively. TEM studies of the GaN buffer layer and the AlN/ZrTi/AlN stack showed the importance of growing thin AlN buffer layers on the ZrTi layer prior to growth of the GaN buffermore » layer. The density of threading dislocations in the GaN channel layer of the HEMT structure was estimated to be in the 10 8 cm –2 range. The HEMT device exhibited a saturation drain current density of 820 mA/mm, and the channel of the fabricated HEMTs could be well modulated. A cutoff frequency (f T) of 8.9 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation (f max) of 17.3 GHz were achieved for HEMTs with gate dimensions of 1 × 200 μm.« less

  6. Evaluation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors grown on ZrTi buffer layers with sapphire substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen J.; Ahn, Shihyun; ...

    2016-09-21

    Here, AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been grown on sapphire substrates, using ZrTi buffer layers to provide in-plane lattice-matching to hexagonal GaN. X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as cross-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess the quality of the HEMT structure. The XRD 2θ scans showed full-width-at-half-maximum values of 0.16°, 0.07°, and 0.08° for ZrTi alloy, GaN buffer layer, and the entire HEMT structure, respectively. TEM studies of the GaN buffer layer and the AlN/ZrTi/AlN stack showed the importance of growing thin AlN buffer layers on the ZrTi layer prior to growth of the GaN buffermore » layer. The density of threading dislocations in the GaN channel layer of the HEMT structure was estimated to be in the 10 8 cm –2 range. The HEMT device exhibited a saturation drain current density of 820 mA/mm, and the channel of the fabricated HEMTs could be well modulated. A cutoff frequency (f T) of 8.9 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation (f max) of 17.3 GHz were achieved for HEMTs with gate dimensions of 1 × 200 μm.« less

  7. Modern trends in crystal growth and new applications of sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akselrod, Mark S.; Bruni, Frank J.

    2012-12-01

    We provide an overview of the latest market trends and modern competing methods of sapphire crystal growth and the application of sapphire wafers as LED substrates. Almost all methods of high temperature growth from the melt are suitable for sapphire production, but each of these methods has its advantages and disadvantages depending on the application and required finished product form factor. Special attention is paid to the review of defects and imperfections that allow the engineering of new active devices based on sapphire.

  8. Scalable Top-Down Approach Tailored by Interferometric Lithography to Achieve Large-Area Single-Mode GaN Nanowire Laser Arrays on Sapphire Substrate.

    PubMed

    Behzadirad, Mahmoud; Nami, Mohsen; Wostbrock, Neal; Zamani Kouhpanji, Mohammad Reza; Feezell, Daniel F; Brueck, Steven R J; Busani, Tito

    2018-03-27

    GaN nanowires are promising for optical and optoelectronic applications because of their waveguiding properties and large optical band gap. However, developing a precise, scalable, and cost-effective fabrication method with a high degree of controllability to obtain high-aspect-ratio nanowires with high optical properties and minimum crystal defects remains a challenge. Here, we present a scalable two-step top-down approach using interferometric lithography, for which parameters can be controlled precisely to achieve highly ordered arrays of nanowires with excellent quality and desired aspect ratios. The wet-etch mechanism is investigated, and the etch rates of m-planes {11̅00} (sidewalls) were measured to be 2.5 to 70 nm/h depending on the Si doping concentration. Using this method, uniform nanowire arrays were achieved over a large area (>10 5 μm 2 ) with an spect ratio as large as 50, a radius as small as 17 nm, and atomic-scale sidewall roughness (<1 nm). FDTD modeling demonstrated HE 11 is the dominant transverse mode in the nanowires with a radius of sub-100 nm, and single-mode lasing from vertical cavity nanowire arrays with different doping concentrations on a sapphire substrate was interestingly observed in photoluminescence measurements. High Q-factors of ∼1139-2443 were obtained in nanowire array lasers with a radius and length of 65 nm and 2 μm, respectively, corresponding to a line width of 0.32-0.15 nm (minimum threshold of 3.31 MW/cm 2 ). Our results show that fabrication of high-quality GaN nanowire arrays with adaptable aspect ratio and large-area uniformity is feasible through a top-down approach using interferometric lithography and is promising for fabrication of III-nitride-based nanophotonic devices (radial/axial) on the original substrate.

  9. Comparative study of GaN-based ultraviolet LEDs grown on different-sized patterned sapphire substrates with sputtered AlN nucleation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shengjun; Hu, Hongpo; Liu, Xingtong; Liu, Mengling; Ding, Xinghuo; Gui, Chengqun; Liu, Sheng; Guo, L. Jay

    2017-11-01

    GaN-based ultraviolet-light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) with 375 nm emission were grown on different-sized patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) with ex situ 15-nm-thick sputtered AlN nucleation layers by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). It was observed through in situ optical reflectance monitoring that the transition time from a three-dimensional (3D) island to a two-dimensional (2D) coalescence was prolonged when GaN was grown on a larger PSS, owing to a much longer lateral growth time of GaN. The full widths at half-maximum (FWHMs) of symmetric GaN(002) and asymmetric GaN(102) X-ray diffraction (XRD) rocking curves decreased as the PSS size increased. By cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, it was found that the threading dislocation (TD) density in UV LEDs decreased with increasing pattern size and fill factor of the PSS, thereby resulting in a marked improvement in internal quantum efficiency (IQE). Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations quantitatively demonstrated a progressive decrease in light extraction efficiency (LEE) as the PSS size increased. However, owing to the significantly reduced TD density in InGaN/AlInGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) and thus improved IQE, the light output power of the UV LED grown on a large PSS with a fill factor of 0.71 was 131.8% higher than that of the UV LED grown on a small PSS with a fill factor of 0.4, albeit the UV LED grown on a large PSS exhibited a much lower LEE.

  10. Non-polar a-plane ZnO films grown on r-Al2O3 substrates using GaN buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. X.; Chen, W.; Pan, X. H.; Chen, S. S.; Ye, Z. Z.; Huang, J. Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, GaN buffer layer has been used to grow non-polar a-plane ZnO films by laser-assisted and plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The thickness of GaN buffer layer ranges from ∼3 to 12 nm. The GaN buffer thickness effect on the properties of a-plane ZnO thin films is carefully investigated. The results show that the surface morphology, crystal quality and optical properties of a-plane ZnO films are strongly correlated with the thickness of GaN buffer layer. It was found that with 6 nm GaN buffer layer, a-plane ZnO films display the best crystal quality with X-ray diffraction rocking curve full-width at half-maximum of only 161 arcsec for the (101) reflection.

  11. Growth behavior and growth rate dependency in LEDs performance for Mg-doped a-plane GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Keun-Man; Kim, Jong-Min; Lee, Dong-Hun; Shin, Chan-Soo; Ko, Chul-Gi; Kong, Bo-Hyun; Cho, Hyung-Koun; Yoon, Dae-Ho

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the influence of growth rate of Mg-doped a-plane GaN on the surface morphological and electrical properties, and the characteristics of InGaN-based nonpolar LEDs. Mg-doped a-plane GaN layers were grown on r-plane sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cathode luminescence (CL) analysis exhibited that the surface morphology changed from stripe features with large triangular pits to rough and rugged surface with small asymmetric V-shape pits, as the growth rate increased. The Mg incorporation into a-plane GaN layers increased with increasing growth rate of Mg-doped a-plane GaN, while the activation efficiency of Mg dopants decreased in a-plane GaN. Additionally, it was found that operation voltage at 20 mA decreased in characteristics of LEDs, as the growth rate of Mg-doped a-plane GaN decreased. Meanwhile, the EL intensity of LEDs with p-GaN layers grown at higher growth rate was improved compared to that of LEDs with p-GaN layers grown at lower growth rate. Such an increase of EL intensity is attributed to the rougher surface morphology with increasing growth rate of Mg-doped a-plane GaN.

  12. Temperature-modulated annealing of c-plane sapphire for long-range-ordered atomic steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsui, Takashi; Kuribara, Kazunori; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao; Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2016-03-01

    High-quality single-crystalline sapphire is used to prepare various semiconductors because of its thermal stability. Here, we applied the tempering technique, which is well known in the production of chocolate, to prepare a sapphire substrate. Surprisingly, we successfully realised millimetre-range ordering of the atomic step of the sapphire substrate. We also obtained a sapphire atomic step with nanometre-scale uniformity in the terrace width and atomic-step height. Such sapphire substrates will find applications in the preparation of various semiconductors and devices.

  13. Enhanced tunability of magnetron sputtered Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films on c-plane sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fardin, E. A.; Holland, A. S.; Ghorbani, K.; Reichart, P.

    2006-07-01

    Thin films of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BST) were deposited on c-plane (0001) sapphire by rf magnetron sputtering and investigated by complementary materials analysis methods. Microwave properties of the films, including tunability and Q factor were measured from 1to20GHz by patterning interdigital capacitors (IDCs) on the film surface. The tunability is correlated with texture, strain, and grain size in the deposited films. An enhanced capacitance tunability of 56% at a bias field of 200kV/cm and total device Q of more than 15 (up to 20GHz) were achieved following postdeposition annealing at 900°C.

  14. Low Al-composition p-GaN/Mg-doped Al0.25Ga0.75N/n+-GaN polarization-induced backward tunneling junction grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire substrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kexiong; Liang, Hongwei; Liu, Yang; Shen, Rensheng; Guo, Wenping; Wang, Dongsheng; Xia, Xiaochuan; Tao, Pengcheng; Yang, Chao; Luo, Yingmin; Du, Guotong

    2014-01-01

    Low Al-composition p-GaN/Mg-doped Al0.25Ga0.75N/n+-GaN polarization-induced backward tunneling junction (PIBTJ) was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire substrate. A self-consistent solution of Poisson-Schrödinger equations combined with polarization-induced theory was used to model PIBTJ structure, energy band diagrams and free carrier concentrations distribution. The PIBTJ displays reliable and reproducible backward tunneling with a current density of 3 A/cm2 at the reverse bias of −1 V. The absence of negative differential resistance behavior of PIBTJ at forward bias can mainly be attributed to the hole compensation centers, including C, H and O impurities, accumulated at the p-GaN/Mg-doped AlGaN heterointerface. PMID:25205042

  15. Low Al-composition p-GaN/Mg-doped Al0.25Ga0.75N/n+-GaN polarization-induced backward tunneling junction grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kexiong; Liang, Hongwei; Liu, Yang; Shen, Rensheng; Guo, Wenping; Wang, Dongsheng; Xia, Xiaochuan; Tao, Pengcheng; Yang, Chao; Luo, Yingmin; Du, Guotong

    2014-09-10

    Low Al-composition p-GaN/Mg-doped Al0.25Ga0.75N/n(+)-GaN polarization-induced backward tunneling junction (PIBTJ) was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire substrate. A self-consistent solution of Poisson-Schrödinger equations combined with polarization-induced theory was used to model PIBTJ structure, energy band diagrams and free carrier concentrations distribution. The PIBTJ displays reliable and reproducible backward tunneling with a current density of 3 A/cm(2) at the reverse bias of -1 V. The absence of negative differential resistance behavior of PIBTJ at forward bias can mainly be attributed to the hole compensation centers, including C, H and O impurities, accumulated at the p-GaN/Mg-doped AlGaN heterointerface.

  16. High performance sapphire windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-02-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  17. High performance sapphire windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-01-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  18. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    DOEpatents

    Outwater, John O.

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  19. Direct spontaneous growth and interfacial structural properties of inclined GaN nanopillars on r-plane sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Adikimenakis, A.; Aretouli, K. E.; Tsagaraki, K.

    2015-06-28

    The spontaneous growth of GaN nanopillars (NPs) by direct plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on nitridated r-plane sapphire substrates has been studied. The emanation of metal-polarity NPs from inside an a-plane nonpolar GaN film was found to depend on both the substrate nitridation and the growth conditions. The density of NPs increased with increasing the duration of the nitridation process and the power applied on the radio-frequency plasma source, as well as the III/V flux ratio, while variation of the first two parameters enhanced the roughness of the substrate's surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were employed to reveal the structuralmore » characteristics of the NPs and their nucleation mechanism from steps on the sapphire surface and/or interfacial semipolar GaN nanocrystals. Lattice strain measurements showed a possible Al enrichment of the first 5–6 monolayers of the NPs. By combining cross-sectional and plan-view TEM observations, the three-dimensional model of the NPs was constructed. The orientation relationship and interfacial accommodation between the NPs and the nonpolar a-plane GaN film were also elucidated. The NPs exhibited strong and narrow excitonic emission, suggesting an excellent structural quality.« less

  20. Reduced cost and improved figure of sapphire optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Mark; Bartlett, Kevin; Brophy, Matthew R.; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica; Medicus, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Sapphire presents many challenges to optical manufacturers due to its high hardness and anisotropic properties. Long lead times and high prices are the typical result of such challenges. The cost of even a simple 'grind and shine' process can be prohibitive. The high precision surfaces required by optical sensor applications further exacerbate the challenge of processing sapphire thereby increasing cost further. Optimax has demonstrated a production process for such windows that delivers over 50% time reduction as compared to traditional manufacturing processes for sapphire, while producing windows with less than 1/5 wave rms figure error. Optimax's sapphire production process achieves significant improvement in cost by implementation of a controlled grinding process to present the best possible surface to the polishing equipment. Following the grinding process is a polishing process taking advantage of chemical interactions between slurry and substrate to deliver excellent removal rates and surface finish. Through experiments, the mechanics of the polishing process were also optimized to produce excellent optical figure. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. Through specially developed polishing slurries, the peak-to-valley figure error of spherical sapphire parts is reduced by over 80%.

  1. Electron Beam "Writes" Silicon On Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, Klaus

    1988-01-01

    Method of growing silicon on sapphire substrate uses beam of electrons to aid growth of semiconductor material. Silicon forms as epitaxial film in precisely localized areas in micron-wide lines. Promising fabrication method for fast, densely-packed integrated circuits. Silicon deposited preferentially in contaminated substrate zones and in clean zone irradiated by electron beam. Electron beam, like surface contamination, appears to stimulate decomposition of silane atmosphere.

  2. Orientation of FePt nanoparticles on top of a-SiO2/Si(001), MgO(001) and sapphire(0001): effect of thermal treatments and influence of substrate and particle size.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Martin; Ziemann, Paul; Zhang, Zaoli; Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute; Wiedwald, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Texture formation and epitaxy of thin metal films and oriented growth of nanoparticles (NPs) on single crystal supports are of general interest for improved physical and chemical properties especially of anisotropic materials. In the case of FePt, the main focus lies on its highly anisotropic magnetic behavior and its catalytic activity, both due to the chemically ordered face-centered tetragonal (fct) L10 phase. If the c-axis of the tetragonal system can be aligned normal to the substrate plane, perpendicular magnetic recording could be achieved. Here, we study the orientation of FePt NPs and films on a-SiO2/Si(001), i.e., Si(001) with an amorphous (a-) native oxide layer on top, on MgO(001), and on sapphire(0001) substrates. For the NPs of an approximately equiatomic composition, two different sizes were chosen: "small" NPs with diameters in the range of 2-3 nm and "large" ones in the range of 5-8 nm. The 3 nm thick FePt films, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), served as reference samples. The structural properties were probed in situ, particularly texture formation and epitaxy of the specimens by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and, in case of 3 nm nanoparticles, additionally by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) after different annealing steps between 200 and 650 °C. The L10 phase is obtained at annealing temperatures above 550 °C for films and 600 °C for nanoparticles in accordance with previous reports. On the amorphous surface of a-SiO2/Si substrates we find no preferential orientation neither for FePt films nor nanoparticles even after annealing at 630 °C. On sapphire(0001) supports, however, FePt nanoparticles exhibit a clearly preferred (111) orientation even in the as-prepared state, which can be slightly improved by annealing at 600-650 °C. This improvement depends on the size of NPs: Only the smaller NPs approach a fully developed (111) orientation. On top of MgO(001) the effect of annealing on

  3. Controllable laser thermal cleavage of sapphire wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiayu; Hu, Hong; Zhuang, Changhui; Ma, Guodong; Han, Junlong; Lei, Yulin

    2018-03-01

    Laser processing of substrates for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offers advantages over other processing techniques and is therefore an active research area in both industrial and academic sectors. The processing of sapphire wafers is problematic because sapphire is a hard and brittle material. Semiconductor laser scribing processing suffers certain disadvantages that have yet to be overcome, thereby necessitating further investigation. In this work, a platform for controllable laser thermal cleavage was constructed. A sapphire LED wafer was modeled using the finite element method to simulate the thermal and stress distributions under different conditions. A guide groove cut by laser ablation before the cleavage process was observed to guide the crack extension and avoid deviation. The surface and cross section of sapphire wafers processed using controllable laser thermal cleavage were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy, and their morphology was compared to that of wafers processed using stealth dicing. The differences in luminous efficiency between substrates prepared using these two processing methods are explained.

  4. Transport properties and c/a ratio of V{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films grown on C- and R-plane sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Joe; Limelette, Patrice; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2015-12-14

    We prepared V{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films on C- or R-plane sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by a pulsed laser deposition method. X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed that single-phase V{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were epitaxially grown on both C- and R-planes under an Ar gas ambient of 2 × 10{sup −2} mbar at a substrate temperature of 873 K. Depending on the deposition conditions, c/a ratios at room temperature of (0001)-oriented V{sub 2}O{sub 3} films widely ranged from 2.79 to 2.88. Among them, the films of 2.81 ≤ c/a ≤ 2.84 showed complex metal (M)–insulator (I)–M transition during cooling from 300 to 10 K, while those of larger c/a ratiosmore » were accompanied by metallic properties throughout this temperature range. All the films on R-plane substrates underwent simple M-I transition at ∼150 K, which was more abrupt than the films on C-plane, whereas their c/a ratios were narrowly distributed. The distinct difference of M-I transition properties between C- and R-plane films is explained by the intrinsic a- and c-axes evolution through the transition from M to I phases.« less

  5. Change in equilibrium position of misfit dislocations at the GaN/sapphire interface by Si-ion implantation into sapphire. II. Electron energy loss spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sung Bo, E-mail: bolee@snu.ac.kr; Han, Heung Nam, E-mail: hnhan@snu.ac.kr; Kim, Young-Min

    In Part I, we have shown that the addition of Si into sapphire by ion implantationmakes the sapphire substrate elastically softer than for the undoped sapphire. The more compliant layer of the Si-implanted sapphire substrate can absorb the misfit stress at the GaN/sapphire interface, which produces a lower threading-dislocation density in the GaN overlayer. Here in Part II, based on experimental results by electron energy loss spectroscopy and a first-principle molecular orbital calculation in the literature, we suggest that the softening effect of Si results from a reduction of ionic bonding strength in sapphire (α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with the substitutionmore » of Si for Al.« less

  6. Estimation of the efficiency of the introduction of a porous layer into a silicon-on-sapphire structure substrate to enhance the reliability of devices under irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, P. A., E-mail: Alexandrov-PA@nrcki.ru; Baranova, E. K.; Budaragin, V. V.

    2016-08-15

    We investigate the efficiency of the introduction of a porous layer into the substrate of a silicon-onsapphire structure by the implantation of He ions to enhance the radiation resistance of devices. The properties of the introduced layer and its parameters affecting the concentration of minority charge carriers generated by irradiation are analyzed. The reported results of the analysis and calculations can be used to optimize He-ion implantation conditions during the formation of a porous layer.

  7. High performance GaN-based LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate with patterned composite SiO2/Al2O3 passivation layers and TiO2/Al2O3 DBR backside reflector.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hao; Zhang, Xiong; Chen, Hongjun; Zhang, Peiyuan; Liu, Honggang; Chang, Hudong; Zhao, Wei; Liao, Qinghua; Cui, Yiping

    2013-09-09

    GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) with patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layers and TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) backside reflector have been proposed and fabricated. Highly passivated Al(2)O(3) layer deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) layer with excellent uniformity and quality has been achieved with atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. With a 60 mA current injection, an enhancement of 21.6%, 59.7%, and 63.4% in the light output power (LOP) at 460 nm wavelength was realized for the LED with the patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layers, the LED with the patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layers and Ag mirror + 3-pair TiO(2)/SiO(2) DBR backside reflector, and the LED with the patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layer and Ag mirror + 3-pair ALD-grown TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) DBR backside reflector as compared with the conventional LED only with a single SiO(2) passivation layer, respectively.

  8. Nanoscale Electrostructural Characterization of Compositionally Graded Al(x)Ga(1-x)N Heterostructures on GaN/Sapphire (0001) Substrate.

    PubMed

    Kuchuk, Andrian V; Lytvyn, Petro M; Li, Chen; Stanchu, Hryhorii V; Mazur, Yuriy I; Ware, Morgan E; Benamara, Mourad; Ratajczak, Renata; Dorogan, Vitaliy; Kladko, Vasyl P; Belyaev, Alexander E; Salamo, Gregory G

    2015-10-21

    We report on AlxGa1-xN heterostructures resulting from the coherent growth of a positive then a negative gradient of the Al concentration on a [0001]-oriented GaN substrate. These polarization-doped p-n junction structures were characterized at the nanoscale by a combination of averaging as well as depth-resolved experimental techniques including: cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and scanning probe microscopy. We observed that a small miscut in the substrate orientation along with the accumulated strain during growth led to a change in the mosaic structure of the AlxGa1-xN film, resulting in the formation of macrosteps on the surface. Moreover, we found a lateral modulation of charge carriers on the surface which were directly correlated with these steps. Finally, using nanoscale probes of the charge density in cross sections of the samples, we have directly measured, semiquantitatively, both n- and p-type polarization doping resulting from the gradient concentration of the AlxGa1-xN layers.

  9. Orientation of FePt nanoparticles on top of a-SiO2/Si(001), MgO(001) and sapphire(0001): effect of thermal treatments and influence of substrate and particle size

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Martin; Ziemann, Paul; Zhang, Zaoli; Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Summary Texture formation and epitaxy of thin metal films and oriented growth of nanoparticles (NPs) on single crystal supports are of general interest for improved physical and chemical properties especially of anisotropic materials. In the case of FePt, the main focus lies on its highly anisotropic magnetic behavior and its catalytic activity, both due to the chemically ordered face-centered tetragonal (fct) L10 phase. If the c-axis of the tetragonal system can be aligned normal to the substrate plane, perpendicular magnetic recording could be achieved. Here, we study the orientation of FePt NPs and films on a-SiO2/Si(001), i.e., Si(001) with an amorphous (a-) native oxide layer on top, on MgO(001), and on sapphire(0001) substrates. For the NPs of an approximately equiatomic composition, two different sizes were chosen: “small” NPs with diameters in the range of 2–3 nm and “large” ones in the range of 5–8 nm. The 3 nm thick FePt films, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), served as reference samples. The structural properties were probed in situ, particularly texture formation and epitaxy of the specimens by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and, in case of 3 nm nanoparticles, additionally by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) after different annealing steps between 200 and 650 °C. The L10 phase is obtained at annealing temperatures above 550 °C for films and 600 °C for nanoparticles in accordance with previous reports. On the amorphous surface of a-SiO2/Si substrates we find no preferential orientation neither for FePt films nor nanoparticles even after annealing at 630 °C. On sapphire(0001) supports, however, FePt nanoparticles exhibit a clearly preferred (111) orientation even in the as-prepared state, which can be slightly improved by annealing at 600–650 °C. This improvement depends on the size of NPs: Only the smaller NPs approach a fully developed (111) orientation. On top of MgO(001) the

  10. (abstract) Transmission Electron Microscopy of Al(sub x)Ga(sub 1-x)N/SiC Multilayer Structures Grown on Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, W. T.; George, T.; Khan, M. A.; Kuznia, J. N.

    1994-01-01

    The potential of wide-band-gap III-V nitrides as ultraviolet sensors and light emitters has prompted an increasing amount of work recently, including the fabrication of the first UV sensors from as-deposited single crystal GaN. We have used high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study the microstructure of two novel developments of wide-band-gap III-V nitrides: the growth of ultra-short period GaN/AlN superlattices; and the incorporation of SiC layers into Al(sub x)Ga(sub 1-x)N structures. By varying the relative periods in a GaN/AlN superlattice, the band gap of the composite can be tailored to lie between the elemental values of 365 nm for GaN and 200 nm for AlN. The group IV semiconductor, SiC, has a wide band-gap and has a close lattice match (less than 3 %) to Al(sub x)Ga(sub 1-x)N for growth on the basal plane. Demonstration of epitaxial growth for Al(sub x)Ga(sub 1-x)N/SiC multilayers would introduce a wide band-gap analog to the already existing family of III-V and Si(sub 1-x)Ge(sub x) heteroepitaxial growth systems. Although good quality growth of GaN on SiC substrates has been demonstrated, Al(sub x)Ga(sub 1-x)N/SiC multilayer structures have never been grown and the interfacial structure is unknown.

  11. High T(sub c) Superconducting Bolometer on Chemically Etched 7 Micrometer Thick Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, B.; Brasunas, J. C.; Pique, A.; Fettig, R.; Mott, B.; Babu, S.; Cushman, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    A transition-edge IR detector, using a YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (YBCO) thin film deposited on a chemically etched, 7 micrometer thick sapphire substrate has been built. To our knowledge it is the first such high T(sub c) superconducting (HTS) bolometer on chemically thinned sapphire. The peak optical detectivity obtained is l.2 x 10(exp 10) cmHz(sup 1/2)/W near 4Hz. Result shows that it is possible to obtain high detectivity with thin films on etched sapphire with no processing after the deposition of the YBCO film. We discuss the etching process and its potential for micro-machining sapphire and fabricating 2-dimensional detector arrays with suspended sapphire membranes. A 30 micrometer thick layer of gold black provided IR absorption. Comparison is made with the current state of the art on silicon substrates.

  12. Sapphire Whispering Gallery Thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strouse, G. F.

    2007-12-01

    An innovative sapphire whispering gallery thermometer (SWGT) is being explored at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a potential replacement for a standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT) for industrial applications that require measurement uncertainties of ≤ 10 mK. The NIST SWGT uses a synthetic sapphire monocrystalline disk configured as a uniaxial, dielectric resonator with whispering gallery modes between 14 GHz and 20 GHz and with Q-factors as large as 90,000. The prototype SWGT stability at the ice melting point (0°C) is ≤ 1 mK with a frequency resolution equivalent to 0.05 mK. The prototype SWGT measurement uncertainty ( k= 1) is 10 mK from 0°C to 100°C for all five resonance modes studied. These results for the SWGT approach the capabilities of industrial resistance thermometers. The SWGT promises greatly increased resistance to mechanical shock relative to SPRTs, over the range from -196°C to 500°C while retaining the low uncertainties needed by secondary calibration laboratories. The temperature sensitivity of the SWGT depends upon a well-defined property (the refractive index at microwave frequencies) and the thermal expansion of a pure material. Therefore, it is expected that SWGTs can be calibrated over a wide temperature range using a reference function, along with deviations measured at a few fixed points. This article reports the prototype SWGT stability, resolution, repeatability, and the temperature dependence of five whispering gallery resonance frequencies in the range from 0°C to 100°C.

  13. X-ray diffraction study of A- plane non-polar InN epilayer grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moret, Matthieu; Briot, Olivier; Gil, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Strong polarisation-induced electric fields in C-plane oriented nitrides semiconductor layers reduce the performance of devices. Eliminating the polarization fields can be achieved by growing nitrides along non polar direction. We have grown non polar A-plane oriented InN on R-plane (1‾102) nitridated sapphire substrate by MOCVD. We have studied the structural anisotropy observed in these layers by analyzing High Resolution XRay Diffraction rocking curve (RC) experiments as a function of the in-plane beam orientation. A-plane InN epilayer have a unique epitaxial relationship on R-Plane sapphire and show a strong structural anisotropy. Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the InN(11‾20) XRD RC values are contained between 44 and 81 Arcmin. FWHM is smaller when the diffraction occurs along the [0001] and the largest FWHM values, of the (11‾20) RC, are obtained when the diffraction occurs along the [1‾100] in-plane direction. Atomic Force Microscopy imaging revealed morphologies with well organized crystallites. The grains are structured along a unique crystallographic orientation of InN, leading to larger domains in this direction. This structural anisotropy can be, in first approximation, attributed to the difference in the domain sizes observed. XRD reciprocal space mappings (RSM) were performed in asymmetrical configuration on (13‾40) and (2‾202) diffraction plane. RSM are measured with a beam orientation corresponding to a maximal and a minimal width of the (11‾20) Rocking curves, respectively. A simple theoretical model is exposed to interpret the RSM. We concluded that the dominant contribution to the anisotropy is due to the scattering coherence length anisotropy present in our samples.

  14. Effect of growth pressure on the morphology evolution and doping characteristics in nonpolar a-plane GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Keun Man; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Bong Kyun; Shin, Chan Soo; Ko, Chul Gi; Kong, Bo Hyun; Cho, Hyung Koun; Yoon, Dae Ho; Kim, Hogyoung; Hwang, Sung Min

    2012-02-01

    Nonpolar a-plane GaN layers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates were examined by using a two-step growth process. The higher initial growth pressure for the nucleation layer resulted in the improved crystalline quality with lower density of both threading dislocations and basal stacking faults. This was attributed to the higher degree of initial roughening and recovery time via a growth mode transition from three-dimensional (3D) to quasi two-dimensional (2D) lateral growth. Using Hall-effect measurements, the overgrown Si doped GaN layers grown with higher initial growth pressure were found to have higher mobility. The scattering mechanism due to the dislocations was dominant especially at low temperature (<200 K) for the lower initial growth pressure, which was insignificant for the higher initial growth pressure. The temperature-dependent Hall-effect measurements for the Mg doped GaN with a higher initial growth pressure yielded the activation energy and the acceptor concentration to be 128 meV and 1.2 × 1019 cm-3, respectively, corresponding to about 3.6% of activation at room temperature. Two-step growth scheme with a higher initial growth pressure is suggested as a potential method to improve the performance of nonpolar a-plane GaN based devices.

  15. Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator - MSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A room temperature sapphire acoustics resonator incorporated into an oscillator represents a possible opportunity to improve on quartz ultrastable oscillator (USO) performance, which has been a staple for NASA missions since the inception of spaceflight. Where quartz technology is very mature and shows a performance improvement of perhaps 1 dB/decade, these sapphire acoustic resonators when integrated with matured quartz electronics could achieve a frequency stability improvement of 10 dB or more. As quartz oscillators are an essential element of nearly all types of frequency standards and reference systems, the success of MSAR would advance the development of frequency standards and systems for both groundbased and flight-based projects. Current quartz oscillator technology is limited by quartz mechanical Q. With a possible improvement of more than x 10 Q with sapphire acoustic modes, the stability limit of current quartz oscillators may be improved tenfold, to 10(exp -14) at 1 second. The electromagnetic modes of sapphire that were previously developed at JPL require cryogenic temperatures to achieve the high Q levels needed to achieve this stability level. However sapphire fs acoustic modes, which have not been used before in a high-stability oscillator, indicate the required Q values (as high as Q = 10(exp 8)) may be achieved at room temperature in the kHz range. Even though sapphire is not piezoelectric, such a high Q should allow electrostatic excitation of the acoustic modes with a combination of DC and AC voltages across a small sapphire disk (approximately equal to l mm thick). The first evaluations under this task will test predictions of an estimated input impedance of 10 kilohms at Q = 10(exp 8), and explore the Q values that can be realized in a smaller resonator, which has not been previously tested for acoustic modes. This initial Q measurement and excitation demonstration can be viewed similar to a transducer converting electrical energy to

  16. Evolution of the sapphire industry: Rubicon Technology and Gavish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Daniel C.

    2009-05-01

    A. Verneuil developed flame fusion to grow sapphire and ruby on a commercial scale around 1890. Flame fusion was further perfected by Popov in the Soviet Union in the 1930s and by Linde Air Products Co. in the U.S. during World War II. Union Carbide Corp., the successor to Linde, developed Czochralski crystal growth for sapphire laser materials in the 1960s. Stepanov in the Soviet Union published his sapphire growth method in 1959. Edge-Defined Film-Fed Growth (EFG), which is similar to the Stepanov method, was developed by H. Labelle in the U. S. in the 1960s and 1970s. The Heat Exchanger Method (HEM), invented by F. Schmid and D. Viechnicki in 1967 was commercialized in the 1970s. Gradient solidification was invented in Israel in the 1970s by J. Makovsky. The Horizontal Directional Solidification Method (HDSM) proposed by Kh. S. Bagdasorov in the Soviet Union in the 1960s was further developed at the Institute for Single Crystals in Ukraine. Kyropoulos growth of sapphire, known as GOI crystal growth in the Soviet Union, was developed by M. Musatov at the State Optical Institute in St. Petersburg in the 1970s and 1980s. At the Institute for Single Crystals in Ukraine, E. Dobrovinskaya characterized Verneuil, Czochralsky, Bagdasarov, and GOI sapphire. In 1995, she emigrated to the United States and joined S&R Rubicon, founded near Chicago by R. Mogilevsky initially to import sapphire and ruby. Mogilevsky began producing sapphire by the Kyropoulos method in 1999. In 2000 the company name was changed to Rubicon Technology. Today, Dobrovinskaya is Chief Scientist and Rubicon produces high quality Kyropoulos sapphire substrates for solid-state lighting. In 1995, H. Branover of Ben Gurion University and a sole investor founded Gavish, which is Hebrew for "crystal." They invited another veteran of the Ukrainian Institute for Single Crystals, V. Pishchik, to become Chief Scientist. Under Pishchik's technical leadership and J. Sragowicz's business leadership, Gavish now

  17. Negative differential resistance in low Al-composition p-GaN/Mg-doped Al0.15Ga0.85N/n+-GaN hetero-junction grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kexiong; Liang, Hongwei; Shen, Rensheng; Wang, Dongsheng; Tao, Pengcheng; Liu, Yang; Xia, Xiaochuan; Luo, Yingmin; Du, Guotong

    2014-02-01

    Negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior was observed in low Al-composition p-GaN/Mg-doped-Al0.15Ga0.85N/n+-GaN hetero-junction grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire substrate. The energy band and free carrier concentration of hetero-junction were studied by the model of the self-consistent solution of Schrödinger-Poisson equations combined with polarization engineering theory. At the forward bias of 0.95 V, the NDR effect has a high peak-to-valley current ratio of ˜9 with a peak current of 22.4 mA (˜current density of 11.4 A/cm2). An interesting phenomenon of NDR disappearance after consecutive scans and recurrence after electrical treatment was observed, which was associated with Poole-Frenkel effect.

  18. Photonics of 2D gold nanolayers on sapphire surface

    SciTech Connect

    Muslimov, A. E., E-mail: amuslimov@mail.ru; Butashin, A. V.; Nabatov, B. V.

    Gold layers with thicknesses of up to several nanometers, including ordered and disordered 2D nanostructures of gold particles, have been formed on sapphire substrates; their morphology is described; and optical investigations are carried out. The possibility of increasing the accuracy of predicting the optical properties of gold layers and 2D nanostructures using quantum-mechanical models based on functional density theory calculation techniques is considered. The application potential of the obtained materials in photonics is estimated.

  19. Growth and Crystal Orientation of ZnTe on m-Plane Sapphire with Nanofaceted Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasu, Taizo; Sun, Wei-Che; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Asahi, Toshiaki

    2017-04-01

    ZnTe thin films on sapphire substrate with nanofaceted structure have been studied. The nanofaceted structure of the m-plane (10-10) sapphire was obtained by heating the substrate at above 1100°C in air, and the r-plane (10-12) and S-plane (1-101) were confirmed. ZnTe layers were prepared on the nanofaceted m-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The effect of the nanofaceted structure on the orientation of the thin films was examined based on x-ray diffraction (XRD) pole figures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also employed to characterize the interface structures. The ZnTe layer on the nanofaceted m-plane sapphire substrate exhibited (331)-plane orientation, compared with (211)-plane without the nanofaceted structure. After thermal treatment, the m-plane surface vanished and (211) layer could not be formed because of the lack of surface lattice matching. On the other hand, (331)-plane thin film was formed on the nanofaceted m-plane sapphire substrate, since the (111) ZnTe domains were oriented on the S-facet. The orientation of the ZnTe epilayer depended on the atomic ordering on the surface and the influence of the S-plane.

  20. Chemical etching mechanism and properties of microstructures in sapphire modified by femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Manyu; Hu, Youwang; Sun, Xiaoyan; Wang, Cong; Zhou, Jianying; Dong, Xinran; Yin, Kai; Chu, Dongkai; Duan, Ji'an

    2017-01-01

    Sapphire, with extremely high hardness, high-temperature stability and wear resistance, often corroded in molten KOH at 300 °C after processing. The fabrication of microstructures on sapphire substrate performed by femtosecond laser irradiation combined with KOH solution chemical etching at room temperature is presented. It is found that this method reduces the harsh requirements of sapphire corrosion. After femtosecond irradiation, the sapphire has a high corrosion speed at room temperature. Through the analysis of Raman spectrum and XRD spectrum, a novel insight of femtosecond laser interaction with sapphire (α-Al2O3) is proposed. Results indicated that grooves on sapphire surface were formed by the lasers ablation removal, and the groove surface was modified in a certain depth. The modified area of the groove surface was changed from α-Al2O3 to γ-Al2O3. In addition, the impacts of three experimental parameters, laser power, scanning velocities and etching time, on the width and depth of microstructures are investigated, respectively. The modified area dimension is about 2 μm within limits power and speed. This work could fabricate high-quality arbitrary microstructures and enhance the performance of sapphire processing.

  1. Morphological stability of sapphire crystallization front

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, V. V., E-mail: baranov.isc@gmail.com; Nizhankovskyi, S. V.

    2016-03-15

    The main factors and specificity of growth conditions for sapphire and Ti:sapphire crystals, which affect the morphological stability of the crystal–melt interface, have been investigated with allowance for the concentration and radiative melt supercooling. It is shown that the critical sapphire growth rate is determined to a great extent by the optical transparency of the melt and the mixing conditions near the crystallization front.

  2. Growth and characterizations of various GaN nanostructures on C-plane sapphire using laser MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ch., Ramesh; Tyagi, P.; Maurya, K. K.; Kumar, M. Senthil; Kushvaha, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    We have grown various GaN nanostructures such as three-dimensional islands, nanowalls and nanocolumns on c-plane sapphire substrates using laser assisted molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) system. The shape of the GaN nanostructures was controlled by using different nucleation surfaces such as bare and nitridated sapphire with GaN or AlN buffer layers. The structural and surface morphological properties of grown GaN nanostructures were characterized by ex-situ high resolution x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The symmetric x-ray rocking curve along GaN (0002) plane shows that the GaN grown on pre-nitridated sapphire with GaN or AlN buffer layer possesses good crystalline quality compared to sapphire without nitridation. The Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed the wurtzite phase for all the GaN nanostructures grown on c-sapphire.

  3. Heteroepitaxial Writing of Silicon-on-Sapphire Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingkun; Xue, Zhaoguo; Wang, Jimmy; Zhao, Yaolong; Duan, Yao; Zhu, Guangyao; Yu, Linwei; Xu, Jun; Wang, Junzhuan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Roca I Cabarrocas, Pere

    2016-12-14

    The heteroepitaxial growth of crystal silicon thin films on sapphire, usually referred to as SoS, has been a key technology for high-speed mixed-signal integrated circuits and processors. Here, we report a novel nanoscale SoS heteroepitaxial growth that resembles the in-plane writing of self-aligned silicon nanowires (SiNWs) on R-plane sapphire. During a low-temperature growth at <350 °C, compared to that required for conventional SoS fabrication at >900 °C, the bottom heterointerface cultivates crystalline Si pyramid seeds within the catalyst droplet, while the vertical SiNW/catalyst interface subsequently threads the seeds into continuous nanowires, producing self-oriented in-plane SiNWs that follow a set of crystallographic directions of the sapphire substrate. Despite the low-temperature fabrication process, the field effect transistors built on the SoS-SiNWs demonstrate a high on/off ratio of >5 × 10 4 and a peak hole mobility of >50 cm 2 /V·s. These results indicate the novel potential of deploying in-plane SoS nanowire channels in places that require high-performance nanoelectronics and optoelectronics with a drastically reduced thermal budget and a simplified manufacturing procedure.

  4. Strain Evolution of Annealed Hydrogen-Implanted (0001) Sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Christine Megan

    Exfoliation is a technique used to remove a thin, uniform layer of material from the bulk that involves the annealing of hydrogen ion-implanted materials in order to initiate defect nucleation and growth leading to guided crack propagation. This study presents an investigation into the annealing process required to initiate blistering (an essential precursor to exfoliation) in (0001) sapphire implanted at room temperature with hydrogen ions. Triple axis x-ray diffraction was used to characterize the evolution of the implanted layer for single crystal (0001) sapphire substrates implanted at room temperature at 360 keV with either a 5x1016 cm -2 or 8x1016 cm-2 dose of hydrogen ions. A simulation of the ion distribution in TRIM estimated that the projected range and thickness of the implanted layer for both doses was approximately 2.2 mum. Following implantation, the implanted sapphire was annealed using a two-step annealing procedure. The first step was performed at a lower temperature, ideally to nucleate and coarsen defects. Temperatures investigated ranged from 550 - 650 °C. The second step was performed at a higher temperature (800 °C) to induce further defect coarsening and surface blistering. After all annealing steps, triple axis o/2theta and o scans were taken to observe any changes in the diffraction profile - namely, any reduction in the amplitude and shift in the location of the fringes associated with strain in the crystal - which would correlate with defect growth and nucleation. It was found that significant strain fringe reduction first occurred after annealing at 650 °C for 8 hours for both doses; however, it was not clear whether or not this strain reduction was due primarily to hydrogen diffusion or to recovery of other defects induced during the ion implantation. The o/2theta curves were then fit using Bede RADS in order to quantify the strain within the crystal and confirm the reduction of the strained layer within the crystal. Finally

  5. Rhombohedral Super Hetero Epitaxy of Cubic SiGe on Trigonal c-plane Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Duzik, Adam J.

    2017-01-01

    New rhombohedral super-hetero-epitaxy technology was developed at NASA. This epitaxy technology enables the growth of unprecedented cubic-trigonal hybrid single crystal structures with lattice match on sapphire (Al2O3) substrates, hence with little strain and very few defects at the interface.

  6. Advances in sapphire optical fiber sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Anbo; Wang, George Z.; Gollapudi, Sridhar; May, Russell G.; Murphy, Kent A.; Claus, Richard O.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the development and testing of two sapphire fiber sensor designs intended for use in high temperature environments. The first is a birefringence-balanced polarimetric sapphire fiber sensor. In this sensor, two single crystal sapphire rods, acting as the birefringence sensing element, are connected to each other in such a way that the slow axis of the first rod is aligned along with the fast axis of the second rod, and the fast axis of the first rod is along the slow axis of the second rod. This sensor has been demonstrated for measurement of temperature up to 1500 C. The second is a sapphire-fiber-based intrinsic interferometric sensor. In this sensor, a length of uncoated, unclad, structural-graded multimode sapphire fiber is fusion spliced to a singlemode silica fiber to form a Fabry-Perot cavity. The reflections from the silica-to-sapphire fiber splice and the free endface of the sapphire fiber give rise to the interfering fringe output. This sensor has been demonstrated for the measurement of temperature above 1510 C, and a resolution of 0.1 C has been obtained.

  7. Sapphire reinforced alumina matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Setlock, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Unidirectionally reinforced A1203 matrix composites have been fabricated by hot pressing. Approximately 30 volume % of either coated or uncoated sapphire fiber was used as reinforcement. Unstabilized ZrO2 was applied as the fiber coating. Composite mechanical behavior was analyzed both after fabrication and after additional heat treatment. The results of composite tensile tests were correlated with fiber-matrix interfacial shear strengths determined from fiber push-out tests. Substantially higher strength and greater fiber pull-out were observed for the coated fiber composites for all processing conditions studied. The coated fiber composites retained up to 95% and 87% of their as-fabricated strength when heat treated at 14000C for 8 or 24 hours, respectively. Electron microscopy analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed extensive fiber pull-out both before and after heat treatment.

  8. Change in equilibrium position of misfit dislocations at the GaN/sapphire interface by Si-ion implantation into sapphire—I. Microstructural characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sung Bo, E-mail: bolee@snu.ac.kr; Han, Heung Nam, E-mail: hnhan@snu.ac.kr; Lee, Dong Nyung

    Much research has been done to reduce dislocation densities for the growth of GaN on sapphire, but has paid little attention to the elastic behavior at the GaN/sapphire interface. In this study, we have examined effects of the addition of Si to a sapphire substrate on its elastic property and on the growth of GaN deposit. Si atoms are added to a c-plane sapphire substrate by ion implantation. The ion implantation results in scratches on the surface, and concomitantly, inhomogeneous distribution of Si. The scratch regions contain a higher concentration of Si than other regions of the sapphire substrate surface,more » high-temperature GaN being poorly grown there. However, high-temperature GaN is normally grown in the other regions. The GaN overlayer in the normally-grown regions is observed to have a lower TD density than the deposit on the bare sapphire substrate (with no Si accommodated). As compared with the film on an untreated, bare sapphire, the cathodoluminescence defect density decreases by 60 % for the GaN layer normally deposited on the Si-ion implanted sapphire. As confirmed by a strain mapping technique by transmission electron microscopy (geometric phase analysis), the addition of Si in the normally deposited regions forms a surface layer in the sapphire elastically more compliant than the GaN overlayer. The results suggest that the layer can largely absorb the misfit strain at the interface, which produces the overlayer with a lower defect density. Our results highlight a direct correlation between threading-dislocation density in GaN deposits and the elastic behavior at the GaN/sapphire interface, opening up a new pathway to reduce threading-dislocation density in GaN deposits.« less

  9. Temperature dependence of sapphire fiber Raman scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Tian, Zhipeng; ...

    2015-04-27

    Anti-Stokes Raman scattering in sapphire fiber has been observed for the first time. Temperature dependence of Raman peaks’ intensity, frequency shift, and linewidth were also measured. Three anti-Stokes Raman peaks were observed at temperatures higher than 300°C in a 0.72-m-long sapphire fiber excited by a second-harmonic Nd YAG laser. The intensity of anti-Stokes peaks are comparable to that of Stokes peaks when the temperature increases to 1033°C. We foresee the combination of sapphire fiber Stokes and anti-Stokes measurement in use as a mechanism for ultrahigh temperature sensing.

  10. Sapphire capillary interstitial irradiators for laser medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikunova, I. A.; Dolganova, I. N.; Dubyanskaya, E. N.; Mukhina, E. E.; Zaytsev, K. I.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate instruments for laser radiation delivery based on sapphire capillary needles. Such sapphire irradiators (introducers) can be used for various medical applications, such as photodynamic therapy, laser hyperthermia, laser interstitial thermal therapy, and ablation of tumors of various organs. Unique properties of sapphire allow for effective redistribution of the heat, generated in biological tissues during their exposure to laser radiation. This leads to homogeneous distribution of the laser irradiation around the needle, and lower possibility of formation of the overheating focuses, as well as the following non-transparent thrombi.

  11. Surface-mount sapphire interferometric temperature sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yizheng; Wang, Anbo

    2006-08-20

    A fiber-optic high-temperature sensor is demonstrated by bonding a 45 degrees -polished single-crystal sapphire fiber on the surface of a sapphire wafer, whose optical thickness is temperature dependent and measured by white-light interferometry. A novel adhesive-free coupling between the silica and sapphire fibers is achieved by fusion splicing, and its performance is characterized. The sensor's interference signal is investigated for its dependence on angular alignment between the fiber and the wafer. A prototype sensor is tested to 1,170 degrees C with a resolution of 0.4 degrees C, demonstrating excellent potential for high-temperature measurement.

  12. Theoretical studies on lattice-oriented growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengwei; Meng, Xianhong; Xiao, Jianliang

    2017-09-01

    Due to their excellent mechanical and electrical properties, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can find broad applications in many areas, such as field-effect transistors, logic circuits, sensors and flexible electronics. High-density, horizontally aligned arrays of SWNTs are essential for high performance electronics. Many experimental studies have demonstrated that chemical vapor deposition growth of nanotubes on crystalline substrates such as sapphire offers a promising route to achieve such dense, perfectly aligned arrays. In this work, a theoretical study is performed to quantitatively understand the van der Waals interactions between SWNTs and sapphire substrates. The energetically preferred alignment directions of SWNTs on A-, R- and M-planes and the random alignment on the C-plane predicted by this study are all in good agreement with experiments. It is also shown that smaller SWNTs have better alignment than larger SWNTs due to their stronger interaction with sapphire substrate. The strong vdW interactions along preferred alignment directions can be intuitively explained by the nanoscale ‘grooves’ formed by atomic lattice structures on the surface of sapphire. This study provides important insights to the controlled growth of nanotubes and potentially other nanomaterials.

  13. Lattice distortions in GaN on sapphire using the CBED-HOLZ technique.

    PubMed

    Sridhara Rao, D V; McLaughlin, K; Kappers, M J; Humphreys, C J

    2009-09-01

    The convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) methodology was developed to investigate the lattice distortions in wurtzite gallium nitride (GaN) from a single zone-axis pattern. The methodology enabled quantitative measurements of lattice distortions (alpha, beta, gamma and c) in transmission electron microscope (TEM) specimens of a GaN film grown on (0,0,0,1) sapphire by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy. The CBED patterns were obtained at different distances from the GaN/sapphire interface. The results show that GaN is triclinic above the interface with an increased lattice parameter c. At 0.85 microm from the interface, alpha=90 degrees , beta=8905 degrees and gamma=11966 degrees . The GaN lattice relaxes steadily back to hexagonal further away from the sapphire substrate. The GaN distortions are mainly confined to the initial stages of growth involving the growth and the coalescence of 3D GaN islands.

  14. Nitridation of an unreconstructed and reconstructed (√31 ×√31)R ± 9° (0001) sapphire surface in an ammonia flow

    SciTech Connect

    Milakhina, D. S., E-mail: denironman@mail.ru; Malin, T. V.; Mansurov, V. G.

    This paper is devoted to the study of the nitridation of unreconstructed and reconstructed (√31 ×√31)R ± 9° (0001) sapphire surfaces in an ammonia flow by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The experimental results show that sapphire nitridation occurs on the unreconstructed (1 × 1) surface, which results in AlN phase formation on the substrate surface. However, if sapphire nitridation is preceded by high-temperature annealing (1150°C) resulting in sapphire surface reconstruction with formation of the (√31 ×√31)R ± 9° surface, the crystalline AlN phase on the sapphire surface is not formed during surface exposure to an ammonia flow.

  15. Slow Crack Growth and Fracture Toughness of Sapphire for the International Space Station Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    The fracture toughness, inert flexural strength, and slow crack growth parameters of the r- and a-planes of sapphire grown by the Heat Exchange Method were measured to qualify sapphire for structural use in the International Space Station. The fracture toughness in dry nitrogen, K(sub Ipb), was 2.31 +/- 0.12 MPa(square root of)m and 2.47 +/- 0.15 MPa(squre root of)m for the a- and r-planes, respectively. Fracture toughness measured in water via the operational procedure in ASTM C1421 was significantly lower, K(sub Ivb) = 1.95+/- 0.03 MPa(square root of)m, 1.94 +/- 0.07 and 1.77 +/- 0.13 MPa(square root of)m for the a- , m- and r-planes, respectively. The mean inert flexural strength in dry nitrogen was 1085 +/- 127 MPa for the r-plane and 1255 +/- 547 MPa for the a-plane. The power law slow crack growth exponent for testing in water was n = 21 +/- 4 for the r-plane and n (greater than or equal to) 31 for the a-plane. The power law slow crack growth coefficient was A = 2.81 x 10(exp -14) m/s x (MPa(squre root of)m)/n for the r-plane and A (approx. equals)2.06 x 10(exp -15) m/s x (MPa(square root of)m)/n for the a-plane. The r- and a-planes of sapphire are relatively susceptible to stress corrosion induced slow crack growth in water. However, failure occurs by competing modes of slow crack growth at long failure times and twinning for short failure time and inert environments. Slow crack growth testing needs to be performed at low failure stress levels and long failure times so that twinning does not affect the results. Some difficulty was encountered in measuring the slow crack growth parameters for the a-plane due to a short finish (i.e., insufficient material removal for elimination of the damage generated in the early grinding stages). A consistent preparation method that increases the Weibull modulus of sapphire test specimens and components is needed. This would impart higher component reliability, even if higher Weibull modulus is gained at the sacrifice of

  16. Submicron diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    DOE PAGES

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Daniel; Liu, Bo; ...

    2014-10-02

    In this work, a submicron-diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber was demonstrated via wet acid etching at elevated temperatures. Etch rates on the order 2.3 µm/hr were achievable with a 3:1 molar ratio sulfuric-phosphoric acid solution maintained at a temperature of 343°C. A sapphire fiber with an approximate diameter of 800 nm was successfully fabricated from a commercially available fiber with an original diameter of 50 µm. The simple and controllable etching technique provides a feasible approach to the fabrication of unique waveguide structures via traditional silica masking techniques. The ability to tailor the geometry of sapphire optical fibers ismore » the first step in achieving optical and sensing performance on par with its fused silica counterpart.« less

  17. Nanostructuring of sapphire using time-modulated nanosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, P.; Zagoranskiy, I.; Ehrhardt, M.; Bayer, L.; Zimmer, K.

    2017-02-01

    The nanostructuring of dielectric surfaces using laser radiation is still a challenge. The IPSM-LIFE (laser-induced front side etching using in-situ pre-structured metal layer) method allows the easy, large area and fast laser nanostructuring of dielectrics. At IPSM-LIFE a metal covered dielectric is irradiated where the structuring is assisted by a self-organized molten metal layer deformation process. The IPSM-LIFE can be divided into two steps: STEP 1: The irradiation of thin metal layers on dielectric surfaces results in a melting and nanostructuring process of the metal layer and partially of the dielectric surface. STEP 2: A subsequent high laser fluence treatment of the metal nanostructures result in a structuring of the dielectric surface. At this study a sapphire substrate Al2O3(1-102) was covered with a 10 nm thin molybdenum layer and irradiated by an infrared laser with an adjustable time-dependent pulse form with a time resolution of 1 ns (wavelength λ = 1064 nm, pulse duration Δtp = 1 - 600 ns, Gaussian beam profile). The laser treatment allows the fabrication of different surface structures into the sapphire surface due to a pattern transfer process. The resultant structures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The process was simulated and the simulation results were compared with experimental results.

  18. Sapphire Energy - Integrated Algal Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect

    White, Rebecca L.; Tyler, Mike

    2015-07-22

    Sapphire Energy, Inc. (SEI) is a leader in large-scale photosynthetic algal biomass production, with a strongly cohesive research, development, and operations program. SEI takes a multidiscipline approach to integrate lab-based strain selection, cultivation and harvest and production scale, and extraction for the production of Green Crude oil, a drop in replacement for traditional crude oil.. SEI’s technical accomplishments since 2007 have produced a multifunctional platform that can address needs for fuel, feed, and other higher value products. Figure 1 outlines SEI’s commercialization process, including Green Crude production and refinement to drop in fuel replacements. The large scale algal biomass productionmore » facility, the SEI Integrated Algal Biorefinery (IABR), was built in Luna County near Columbus, New Mexico (see fig 2). The extraction unit was located at the existing SEI facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico, approximately 95 miles from the IABR. The IABR facility was constructed on time and on budget, and the extraction unit expansion to accommodate the biomass output from the IABR was completed in October 2012. The IABR facility uses open pond cultivation with a proprietary harvesting method to produce algal biomass; this biomass is then shipped to the extraction facility for conversion to Green Crude. The operation of the IABR and the extraction facilities has demonstrated the critical integration of traditional agricultural techniques with algae cultivation knowledge for algal biomass production, and the successful conversion of the biomass to Green Crude. All primary unit operations are de-risked, and at a scale suitable for process demonstration. The results are stable, reliable, and long-term cultivation of strains for year round algal biomass production. From June 2012 to November 2014, the IABR and extraction facilities produced 524 metric tons (MT) of biomass (on a dry weight basis), and 2,587 gallons of Green Crude. Additionally, the

  19. Bonding of sapphire to sapphire by eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, J. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Bonding of an element comprising sapphire, ruby or blue sapphire to another element of such material with a eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide is discussed. The bonding mixture may be applied in the form of a distilled water slurry or by electron beam vapor deposition. In one embodiment the eutectic is formed in situ by applying a layer of zirconium oxide and then heating the assembly to a temperature above the eutectic temperature and below the melting point of the material from which the elements are formed. The formation of a sapphire rubidium maser cell utilizing eutectic bonding is shown.

  20. Si nanowire growth on sapphire: Classical incubation, reverse reaction, and steady state supersaturation

    SciTech Connect

    Shakthivel, Dhayalan; Rathkanthiwar, Shashwat; Raghavan, Srinivasan, E-mail: sraghavan@cense.iisc.ernet.in

    2015-04-28

    Si nanowire growth on sapphire substrates by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method using Au catalyst particles has been studied. Sapphire was chosen as the substrate to ensure that the vapor phase is the only source of Si. Three hitherto unreported observations are described. First, an incubation period of 120–480 s, which is shown to be the incubation period as defined in classical nucleation theory, is reported. This incubation period permits the determination of a desolvation energy of Si from Au-Si alloys of 15 kT. Two, transmission electron microscopy studies of incubation, point to Si loss by reverse reaction as an important partmore » of the mechanism of Si nanowire growth by VLS. Three, calculations using these physico-chemical parameters determined from incubation and measured steady state growth rates of Si nanowires show that wire growth happens from a supersaturated catalyst droplet.« less

  1. Pseudorotational epitaxy of self-assembled octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayers on sapphire (0001)

    DOE PAGES

    Steinrück, H. -G.; Magerl, A.; Deutsch, M.; ...

    2014-10-06

    The structure of octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on sapphire (0001) was studied by Å-resolution surface-specific x-ray scattering methods. The monolayer was found to consist of three sublayers where the outermost layer corresponds to vertically oriented, closely packed alkyl tails. Laterally, the monolayer is hexagonally packed and exhibits pseudorotational epitaxy to the sapphire, manifested by a broad scattering peak at zero relative azimuthal rotation, with long powderlike tails. The lattice mismatch of ~1% – 3% to the sapphire’s and the different length scale introduced by the lateral Si-O-Si bonding prohibit positional epitaxy. However, the substrate induces an intriguing increase in themore » crystalline coherence length of the SAM’s powderlike crystallites when rotationally aligned with the sapphire’s lattice. As a result, the increase correlates well with the rotational dependence of the separation of corresponding substrate-monolayer lattice sites.« less

  2. Shear Strength and Interfacial Toughness Characterization of Sapphire-Epoxy Interfaces for Nacre-Inspired Composites.

    PubMed

    Behr, Sebastian; Jungblut, Laura; Swain, Michael V; Schneider, Gerold A

    2016-10-12

    The common tensile lap-shear test for adhesive joints is inappropriate for brittle substrates such as glasses or ceramics where stress intensifications due to clamping and additional bending moments invalidate results. Nevertheless, bonding of glasses and ceramics is still important in display applications for electronics, in safety glass and ballistic armor, for dental braces and restoratives, or in recently developed bioinspired composites. To mechanically characterize adhesive bondings in these fields nonetheless, a novel approach based on the so-called Schwickerath test for dental sintered joints is used. This new method not only matches data from conventional analysis but also uniquely combines the accurate determination of interfacial shear strength and toughness in one simple test. The approach is verified for sapphire-epoxy joints that are of interest for bioinspired composites. For these, the procedure not only provides quantitative interfacial properties for the first time, it also exemplarily suggests annealing of sapphire at 1000 °C for 10 h for mechanically and economically effective improvements of the interfacial bond strength and toughness. With increases of strength and toughness from approximately 8 to 29 MPa and from 2.6 to 35 J/m 2 , respectively, this thermal modification drastically enhances the properties of unmodified sapphire-epoxy interfaces. At the same time, it is much more convenient than wet-chemical approaches such as silanization. Hence, besides the introduction of a new testing procedure for adhesive joints of brittle or expensive substrates, a new and facile annealing process for improvements of the adhesive properties of sapphire is suggested and quantitative data for the mechanical properties of sapphire-epoxy interfaces that are common in synthetic nacre-inspired composites are provided for the first time.

  3. Epitaxial growth of HfS2 on sapphire by chemical vapor deposition and application for photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Denggui; Zhang, Xingwang; Liu, Heng; Meng, Junhua; Xia, Jing; Yin, Zhigang; Wang, Ye; You, Jingbi; Meng, Xiang-Min

    2017-09-01

    Group IVB transition metal (Zr and Hf) dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been attracting intensive attention as promising candidates in the modern electronic and/or optoelectronic fields. However, the controllable growth of HfS2 monolayers or few layers still remains a great challenge, thus hindering their further applications so far. Here, for the first time we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of high-quality HfS2 with a controlled number of layers on c-plane sapphire substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The HfS2 layers exhibit an atomically sharp interface with the sapphire substrate, followed by flat, 2D layers with octahedral coordination. The epitaxial relationship between HfS2 and substrate was determined by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements to be: HfS2 (0 0 0 1) [10-10]||sapphire (0 0 0 1)[1-100]. Moreover, a high-performance photodetector with a high on/off ratio of more than 103 and an ultrafast response rate of 130 µs for the rise and 155 µs for the decay times were fabricated based on the CVD-grown HfS2 layers on sapphire substrates. This simple and controllable approach opens up a new way to produce highly crystalline HfS2 atomic layers, which are promising materials for nanoelectronics.

  4. Low Temperature Rhombohedral Single Crystal SiGe Epitaxy on c-plane Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duzik, Adam J.; Choi, Sang H.

    2016-01-01

    Current best practice in epitaxial growth of rhombohedral SiGe onto (0001) sapphire (Al2O3) substrate surfaces requires extreme conditions to grow a single crystal SiGe film. Previous models described the sapphire surface reconstruction as the overriding factor in rhombohedral epitaxy, requiring a high temperature Al-terminated surface for high quality films. Temperatures in the 850-1100 C range were thought to be necessary to get SiGe to form coherent atomic matching between the (111) SiGe plane and the (0001) sapphire surface. Such fabrication conditions are difficult and uneconomical, hindering widespread application. This work proposes an alternative model that considers the bulk sapphire structure and determines how the SiGe film nucleates and grows. Accounting for thermal expansion effects, calculations using this new model show that both pure Ge and SiGe can form single crystal films in the 450-550 C temperature range. Experimental results confirm these predictions, where x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy show the films fabricated at low temperature rival the high temperature films in crystallographic and surface quality. Finally, an explanation is provided for why films of comparable high quality can be produced in either temperature range.

  5. Sapphire Viewports for a Venus Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the creation of a viewport suitable for use on the surface of Venus. These viewports are rated for 500 C and 100 atm pressure with appropriate safety factors and reliability required for incorporation into a Venus Lander. Sapphire windows should easily withstand the chemical, pressure, and temperatures of the Venus surface. Novel fixture designs and seals appropriate to the environment are incorporated, as are materials compatible with exploration vessels. A test cell was fabricated, tested, and leak rate measured. The window features polish specification of the sides and corners, soft metal padding of the sapphire, and a metal C-ring seal. The system safety factor is greater than 2, and standard mechanical design theory was used to size the window, flange, and attachment bolts using available material property data. Maintenance involves simple cleaning of the window aperture surfaces. The only weakness of the system is its moderate rather than low leak rate for vacuum applications.

  6. Crystal front shape control by use of an additional heater in a Czochralski sapphire single crystal growth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Min-Jae; Han, Xue-Feng; Choi, Ho-Gil; Yi, Kyung-Woo

    2017-09-01

    The quality of sapphire single crystals used as substrates for LED production is largely influenced by two defects: dislocation density and bubbles trapped in the crystal. In particular, the dislocation density has a higher value in sapphire grown by the Czochralski (CZ) method than by other methods. In the present study, we predict a decreased value for the convexity and thermal gradient at the crystal front (CF) through the use of an additional heater in an induction-heated CZ system. In addition, we develop a solute concentration model by which the location of bubble formation in CZ growth is calculated, and the results are compared with experimental results. We further calculate the location of bubble entrapment corresponding with the use of an additional heater. We find that sapphire crystal growth with an additional heater yields a decreased thermal gradient at the CF, together with decreased CF convexity, improved energy efficiency, and improvements in terms of bubble formation location.

  7. Failure Analysis of Sapphire Refractive Secondary Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Quinn, George D.

    2009-01-01

    Failure analysis was performed on two sapphire, refractive secondary concentrators (RSC) that failed during elevated temperature testing. Both concentrators failed from machining/handling damage on the lens face. The first concentrator, which failed during testing to 1300 C, exhibited a large r-plane twin extending from the lens through much of the cone. The second concentrator, which was an attempt to reduce temperature gradients and failed during testing to 649 C, exhibited a few small twins on the lens face. The twins were not located at the origin, but represent another mode of failure that needs to be considered in the design of sapphire components. In order to estimate the fracture stress from fractographic evidence, branching constants were measured on sapphire strength specimens. The fractographic analysis indicated radial tensile stresses of 44 to 65 MPa on the lens faces near the origins. Finite element analysis indicated similar stresses for the first RSC, but lower stresses for the second RSC. Better machining and handling might have prevented the fractures, however, temperature gradients and resultant thermal stresses need to be reduced to prevent twinning.

  8. Shear strength of metal-sapphire contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1976-01-01

    The shear strength of polycrystalline Ag, Cu, Ni, and Fe contacts on clean (0001) sapphire has been studied in ultrahigh vacuum. Both clean metal surfaces and surfaces exposed to O2, Cl2, and C2H4 were used. The results indicate that there are two sources of strength of Al2O3-metal contacts: an intrinsic one that depends on the particular clean metal in contact with Al2O3 and an additional one due to intermediate films. The shear strength of the clean metal contacts correlated directly with the free energy of oxide formation for the lowest metal oxide, in accord with the hypothesis that a chemical bond is formed between metal cations and oxygen anions in the sapphire surface. Contacts formed by metals exposed to chlorine exhibited uniformly low shear strength indicative of van der Waals bonding between chlorinated metal surfaces and sapphire. Contacts formed by metals exposed to oxygen exhibited enhanced shear strength, in accord with the hypothesis that an intermediate oxide layer increases interfacial strength.

  9. Gate-controlled-diodes in silicon-on-sapphire: A computer simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gassaway, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The computer simulation of the electrical behavior of a Gate-Controlled Diode (GCD) fabricated in Silicon-On-Sapphire (SOS) was described. A procedure for determining lifetime profiles from capacitance and reverse current measurements on the GCD was established. Chapter 1 discusses the SOS structure and points out the need of lifetime profiles to assist in device design for GCD's and bipolar transistors. Chapter 2 presents the one-dimensional analytical formula for electrostatic analysis of the SOS-GCD which are useful for data interpretation and setting boundary conditions on a simplified two-dimensional analysis. Chapter 3 gives the results of a two-dimensional analysis which treats the field as one-dimensional until the silicon film is depleted and the field penetrates the sapphire substrate. Chapter 4 describes a more complete two-dimensional model and gives results of programs implementing the model.

  10. Structural, transport and microwave properties of 123/sapphire films: Thickness effect

    SciTech Connect

    Predtechensky, MR.; Smal, A.N.; Varlamov, Y.D.

    1994-12-31

    The effect of thickness and growth conditions on the structure and microwave properties has been investigated for the 123/sapphire films. It has been shown that in the conditions of epitaxial growth and Al atoms do not diffuse from substrate into the film and the films with thickness up to 100nm exhibit the excellent DC properties. The increase of thickness of GdBaCuO films causes the formation of extended line-mesh defects and the increase of the surface resistance (R{sub S}). The low value of surface resistance R{sub S}(75GHz,77K)=20 mOhm has been obtained for the two layer YBaCuO/CdBaCuO/sapphire films.

  11. Drag reduction at a plane wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective is to determine by analytical means how drag on a plane wall may be modified favorably using a minimal amount of flow information - preferably only information at the wall. What quantities should be measured? How should that information be assimilated in order to arrive at effective control? As a prototypical problem, incompressible, viscous flow, governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, past a plane wall at which the no-slip condition was modified was considered. The streamwise and spanwise velocity components are required to be zero, but the normal component is to be specified according to some control law. The challenge is to choose the wall-normal velocity component based on flow conditions at the wall so that the mean drag is as small as possible. There can be no net mass flux through the wall, and the total available control energy is constrained. A turbulent flow is highly unsteady and has detailed spatial structure. The mean drag on the wall is the integral over the wall of the local shear forces exerted by the fluid, which is then averaged in time; it is a 'macroscopic' property of the flow. It is not obvious how unsteady boundary control is to be applied in order to modify the mean flow most effectively, especially in view of the non- self-adjoint nature of the governing equations. An approximate analytical solution to the suboptimal scheme is pursued.

  12. Spontaneous formation of GaN/AlN core-shell nanowires on sapphire by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trassoudaine, Agnès; Roche, Elissa; Bougerol, Catherine; André, Yamina; Avit, Geoffrey; Monier, Guillaume; Ramdani, Mohammed Réda; Gil, Evelyne; Castelluci, Dominique; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G.

    2016-11-01

    Spontaneous GaN/AlN core-shell nanowires with high crystal quality were synthesized on sapphire substrates by vapor-liquid-solid hydride vapor phase epitaxy (VLS-HVPE) without any voluntary aluminum source. Deposition of aluminum is difficult to achieve in this growth technique which uses metal-chloride gaseous precursors: the strong interaction between the AlCl gaseous molecules and the quartz reactor yields a huge parasitic nucleation on the walls of the reactor upstream the substrate. We open up an innovative method to produce GaN/AlN structures by HVPE, thanks to aluminum etching from the sapphire substrate followed by redeposition onto the sidewalls of the GaN core. The paper presents the structural characterization of GaN/AlN core-shell nanowires, speculates on the growth mechanism and discusses a model which describes this unexpected behavior.

  13. Leveraging Python Interoperability Tools to Improve Sapphire's Usability

    SciTech Connect

    Gezahegne, A; Love, N S

    2007-12-10

    The Sapphire project at the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) develops and applies an extensive set of data mining algorithms for the analysis of large data sets. Sapphire's algorithms are currently available as a set of C++ libraries. However many users prefer higher level scripting languages such as Python for their ease of use and flexibility. In this report, we evaluate four interoperability tools for the purpose of wrapping Sapphire's core functionality with Python. Exposing Sapphire's functionality through a Python interface would increase its usability and connect its algorithms to existing Python tools.

  14. Temperature dependence of Ti:Sapphire fluorescence spectra for the design of cryogenic cooled Ti:Sapphire CPA laser.

    PubMed

    Burton, Harry; Debardelaben, Christopher; Amir, Wafa; Planchon, Thomas A

    2017-03-20

    The fluorescence spectra of titanium doped sapphire (Ti:Sapphire) crystals were measured for temperature ranging from 300K to 77K. The resulting gain cross-section line shapes were calculated and used in a three-dimensional amplification model to illustrate the importance of the precise knowledge of these fluorescence spectra for the design of cryogenic cooled Ti:Sapphire based chirped-pulse laser amplifiers.

  15. A Century of Sapphire Crystal Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-17

    should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of...and ruby were oxides of the elements aluminum and silicon.1 In 1817, J. L. Gay- Lussac found that pure aluminum oxide (also called alumina) could...thought to consist of Al2O3 and SiO2 •1817: Gay- Lussac : •1840: Rose: Found SiO2 in sapphire is from agate mortar used for grinding •1837-72: Gaudin

  16. Melt inclusions in alluvial sapphires from Montana, USA: Formation of sapphires as a restitic component of lower crustal melting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palke, Aaron C.; Renfro, Nathan D.; Berg, Richard B.

    2017-05-01

    We report here compositions of glassy melt inclusions hosted in sapphires (gem quality corundum) from three alluvial deposits in Montana, USA including the Rock Creek, Dry Cottonwood Creek, and Missouri River deposits. While it is likely that sapphires in these deposits were transported to the surface by Eocene age volcanic events, their ultimate origin is still controversial with many models suggesting the sapphires are xenocrysts with a metamorphic or metasomatic genesis. Melt inclusions are trachytic, dacitic, and rhyolitic in composition. Microscopic observations allow separation between primary and secondary melt inclusions. The primary melt inclusions represent the silicate liquid that was present at the time of sapphire formation and are enriched in volatile components (8-14 wt.%). Secondary melt inclusions analyzed here for Dry Cottonwood Creek and Rock Creek sapphires are relatively volatile depleted and represent the magma that carried the sapphires to the surface. We propose that alluvial Montana sapphires from these deposits formed through a peritectic melting reaction during partial melting of a hydrated plagioclase-rich protolith (e.g. an anorthosite). The heat needed to drive this reaction was likely derived from the intrusion of mantle-derived mafic magmas near the base of the continental lithosphere during rollback of the Farallon slab around 50 Ma. These mafic magmas may have ended up as the ultimate carrier of the sapphires to the surface as evidenced by the French Bar trachybasalt near the Missouri River deposit. Alternatively, the trachytic, rhyolitic, and dacitic secondary melt inclusions at Rock Creek and Dry Cottonwood Creek suggests that the same magmas produced during the partial melting event that generated the sapphires may have also transported them to the surface. Determining the genesis of these deposits will further our understanding of sapphire deposits around the world and may help guide future sapphire prospecting techniques. This

  17. Study on effect of the surface variation of colloidal silica abrasive during chemical mechanical polishing of sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bun-Athuek, Natthaphon; Yoshimoto, Yutaka; Sakai, Koya; Khajornrungruang, Panart; Suzuki, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The surface and diameter size variations of colloidal silica particles during the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of sapphire substrates were investigated using different particle diameters of 20 and 55 nm. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) results show that the silica particles became larger after CMP under both conditions. The increase in particle size in the slurry was proportional to the material removal amount (MRA) as a function of the removed volume of sapphire substrates by CMP and affected the material removal rate (MRR). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed an increase in the size of the fine particles and a change in their surface shape in the slurry. The colloidal silica was coated with the material removed from the substrate during CMP. In this case, the increase in the size of 55 nm diameter particles is larger than that of 20 nm diameter particles. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) results indicate that the aluminum element from polished sapphire substrates adhered to the surfaces of silica particles. Therefore, MRR decreases with increasing of polishing time owing to the degradation of particles in the slurry.

  18. Stress generated modifications of epitaxial ferroelectric SrTiO3 films on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollmann, E.; Schubert, J.; Kutzner, R.; Wördenweber, R.

    2009-06-01

    The effect of lattice-mismatch induced stress upon the crystallographic structure, strain, strain relaxation, and the generation of different types of defects in heteroepitaxially grown SrTiO3 films on CeO2 buffered sapphire is examined. Depending on the thickness of the SrTiO3 layer, characteristic changes in the structural perfection of the layers, their crystallographic orientation with respect to the substrate system, and their strain is observed. For thin films misfit dislocations partially compensate the stress in the SrTiO3 layer, whereas cracks develop in thicker SrTiO3 films. The cracks are orientated along two predominant crystallographic orientations of the sapphire. The structural modifications and the formation of misfit defects and cracks are explained in a model based on lattice misfit induced stress, on the one hand, and energy considerations taking into account the stress release due to crack formation and the energy necessary for the formation of new surfaces at the crack, on the other hand. The impact of lattice misfit is discussed in two steps, i.e., intrinsic and thermal induced misfits during heteroepitaxial film growth at a given temperature and the subsequent cooling of the sample, respectively. The comparison of the theoretical predictions and the experimental observations demonstrate that intrinsic mismatch and thermal mismatch have to be considered in order to explain strain dependent effects in complex heteroepitaxial layer systems such as induced ferroelectricity of SrTiO3 on sapphire.

  19. Laser processing of sapphire with picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenasi, D.; Rosenfeld, A.; Varel, H.; Wähmer, M.; Campbell, E. E. B.

    1997-11-01

    Laser processing of sapphire using a Ti:sapphire laser at 790 and 395 nm and pulse widths varying between 0.2 and 5 ps is reported. A clear improvement in quality is demonstrated for multi-shot processing with sub-ps laser pulses. For fluences between 3 and 12 J/cm 2 two ablation phases were observed, in agreement with previous work from Tam et al. using 30 ps, 266 nm laser pulses [A.C. Tam, J.L. Brand, D.C. Cheng, W. Zapka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55 (20) (1994) 2045]. During the `gentle ablation' phase periodic wavelike structures, i.e. ripples, were observed on the Al 2O 3 surface, perpendicular to the laser polarisation and with a spacing almost equalling the laser wavelength, indicating metallic-like behaviour. The ripple modulation depth was in the order of a few tens of nm. For fluences between 1 and 2.5 J/cm 2, below the single-shot surface damage threshold and at a pulse width above 200 fs, microstructures could be produced at the rear side of a 1 mm thick sapphire substrate without affecting the front surface.

  20. Double Sided Si(Ge)/Sapphire/III-Nitride Hybrid Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of the present invention is a double sided hybrid crystal structure including a trigonal Sapphire wafer containing a (0001) C-plane and having front and rear sides. The Sapphire wafer is substantially transparent to light in the visible and infrared spectra, and also provides insulation with respect to electromagnetic radio frequency noise. A layer of crystalline Si material having a cubic diamond structure aligned with the cubic <111> direction on the (0001) C-plane and strained as rhombohedron to thereby enable continuous integration of a selected (SiGe) device onto the rear side of the Sapphire wafer. The double sided hybrid crystal structure further includes an integrated III-Nitride crystalline layer on the front side of the Sapphire wafer that enables continuous integration of a selected III-Nitride device on the front side of the Sapphire wafer.

  1. Quantum dynamics of a plane pendulum

    SciTech Connect

    Leibscher, Monika; Schmidt, Burkhard

    A semianalytical approach to the quantum dynamics of a plane pendulum is developed, based on Mathieu functions which appear as stationary wave functions. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation is solved for pendular analogs of coherent and squeezed states of a harmonic oscillator, induced by instantaneous changes of the periodic potential energy function. Coherent pendular states are discussed between the harmonic limit for small displacements and the inverted pendulum limit, while squeezed pendular states are shown to interpolate between vibrational and free rotational motion. In the latter case, full and fractional revivals as well as spatiotemporal structures in the time evolution ofmore » the probability densities (quantum carpets) are quantitatively analyzed. Corresponding expressions for the mean orientation are derived in terms of Mathieu functions in time. For periodic double well potentials, different revival schemes, and different quantum carpets are found for the even and odd initial states forming the ground tunneling doublet. Time evolution of the mean alignment allows the separation of states with different parity. Implications for external (rotational) and internal (torsional) motion of molecules induced by intense laser fields are discussed.« less

  2. Characteristics of Coplanar Waveguide on Sapphire for High Temperature Applications (25 to 400 degrees C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Scardelletti, Maximilian; Stalker, Amy R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of coplanar waveguide transmission lines fabricated on R-plane sapphire substrates as a function of temperature across the temperature range of 25 to 400 C. Effective permittivity and attenuation are measured on a high temperature probe station. Two techniques are used to obtain the transmission line characteristics, a Thru-Reflect-Line calibration technique that yields the propagation coefficient and resonant stubs. To a first order fit of the data, the effective permittivity and the attenuation increase linearly with temperature.

  3. Electron Beam Welder Used to Braze Sapphire to Platinum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsgren, Roger C.; Vannuyen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    A new use for electron beam brazing was recently developed by NASA Lewis Research Center's Manufacturing Engineering Division. This work was done to fabricate a fiberoptic probe (developed by Sentec Corporation) that could measure high temperatures less than 600 deg C of vibrating machinery, such as in jet engine combustion research. Under normal circumstances, a sapphire fiber would be attached to platinum by a ceramic epoxy. However, no epoxies can adhere ceramic fibers to platinum under such high temperatures and vibration. Also, since sapphire and platinum have different thermal properties, the epoxy bond is subjected to creep over time. Therefore, a new method had to be developed that would permanently and reliably attach a sapphire fiber to platinum. Brazing a sapphire fiber to a platinum shell. The fiber-optic probe assembly consists of a 0.015-in.-diameter sapphire fiber attached to a 0.25-in.-long, 0.059-in.-diameter platinum shell. Because of the small size of this assembly, electron beam brazing was chosen instead of conventional vacuum brazing. The advantage of the electron beam is that it can generate a localized heat source in a vacuum. Gold reactive braze was used to join the sapphire fiber and the platinum. Consequently, the sapphire fiber was not affected by the total heat needed to braze the components together.

  4. Mode-converting coupler for silicon-on-sapphire devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatanovic, S.; Offord, B. W.; Owen, M.; Shimabukuro, R.; Jacobs, E. W.

    2015-02-01

    Silicon-on-sapphire devices are attractive for the mid-infrared optical applications up to 5 microns due to the low loss of both silicon and sapphire in this wavelength band. Designing efficient couplers for silicon-on-sapphire devices presents a challenge due to a highly confined mode in silicon and large values of refractive index of both silicon and sapphire. Here, we present design, fabrication, and measurements of a mode-converting coupler for silicon-on-sapphire waveguides. We utilize a mode converter layout that consists of a large waveguide that is overlays a silicon inverse tapered waveguide. While this geometry was previously utilized for silicon-on-oxide devices, the novelty is in using materials that are compatible with the silicon-on-sapphire platform. In the current coupler the overlaying waveguide is made of silicon nitride. Silicon nitride is the material of choice because of the large index of refraction and low absorption from near-infrared to mid-infrared. The couplers were fabricated using a 0.25 micron silicon-on-sapphire process. The measured coupling loss from tapered lensed silica fibers to the silicon was 4.8dB/coupler. We will describe some challenges in fabrication process and discuss ways to overcome them.

  5. The study on the nanomachining property and cutting model of single-crystal sapphire by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jen-Ching; Weng, Yung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the nanomachining property and cutting model of single-crystal sapphire during nanomachining. The coated diamond probe is used to as a tool, and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) is as an experimental platform for nanomachining. To understand the effect of normal force on single-crystal sapphire machining, this study tested nano-line machining and nano-rectangular pattern machining at different normal force. In nano-line machining test, the experimental results showed that the normal force increased, the groove depth from nano-line machining also increased. And the trend is logarithmic type. In nano-rectangular pattern machining test, it is found when the normal force increases, the groove depth also increased, but rather the accumulation of small chips. This paper combined the blew by air blower, the cleaning by ultrasonic cleaning machine and using contact mode probe to scan the surface topology after nanomaching, and proposed the "criterion of nanomachining cutting model," in order to determine the cutting model of single-crystal sapphire in the nanomachining is ductile regime cutting model or brittle regime cutting model. After analysis, the single-crystal sapphire substrate is processed in small normal force during nano-linear machining; its cutting modes are ductile regime cutting model. In the nano-rectangular pattern machining, due to the impact of machined zones overlap, the cutting mode is converted into a brittle regime cutting model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ruby and sapphire from Jegdalek, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowersox, G.W.; Foord, E.E.; Laurs, B.M.; Shigley, J.E.; Smith, C.P.

    2000-01-01

    This study provides detailed mining and gemological information on the Jegdalek deposit, in east-central Afghanistan, which is hosted by elongate beds of corundum-bearing marble. Some facet-grade ruby has been recovered, but most of the material consists of semitransparent pink sapphire of cabochon or carving quality. The most common internal features are dense concentrations of healed and nonhealed fracture planes and lamellar twin planes. Color zoning is common, and calcite, apatite, zircon, mica, iron sulfide minerals, graphite, rutile, aluminum hydroxide, and other minerals are also present in some samples. Although the reserves appear to be large, future potential will depend on the establishment of a stable government and the introduction of modern mining and exploration techniques. ?? 2000 Gemological Institute of America.

  7. Ultrasensitive label-free detection of DNA hybridization by sapphire-based graphene field-effect transistor biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzhen; Zhang, Chao; Yue, Weiwei; Zou, Yan; Wang, Guiying; Liu, Huilan; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Mingzhen; Zhu, Zhanshou; Wang, Jihua

    2018-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much attention in biosensing applications for its unique properties. Because of one-atom layer structure, every atom of graphene is exposed to the environment, making the electronic properties of graphene are very sensitive to charged analytes. Therefore, graphene is an ideal material for transistors in high-performance sensors. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method has been demonstrated the most successful method for fabricating large area graphene. However, the conventional CVD methods can only grow graphene on metallic substrate and the graphene has to be transferred to the insulating substrate for further device fabrication. The transfer process creates wrinkles, cracks, or tears on the graphene, which severely degrade electrical properties of graphene. These factors severely degrade the sensing performance of graphene. Here, we directly fabricated graphene on sapphire substrate by high temperature CVD without the use of metal catalysts. The sapphire-based graphene was patterned and make into a DNA biosensor in the configuration of field-effect transistor. The sensors show high performance and achieve the DNA detection sensitivity as low as 100 fM (10-13 M), which is at least 10 times lower than prior transferred CVD G-FET DNA sensors. The use of the sapphire-based G-FETs suggests a promising future for biosensing applications.

  8. Nanostructured sapphire optical fiber for sensing in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Kai; Ma, Yiwei; Tian, Fei; Du, Henry

    2017-05-01

    We describe an innovative and scalable strategy of transforming a commercial unclad sapphire optical fiber to an allalumina nanostructured sapphire optical fiber (NSOF) that overcomes decades-long challenges faced in the field of sapphire fiber optics. The strategy entails fiber coating with metal Al followed by subsequent anodization to form anodized alumina oxide (AAO) cladding of highly organized pore channel structure. We show that Ag nanoparticles entrapped in AAO show excellent structural and morphological stability and less susceptibility to oxidation for potential high-temperature surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS). We reveal, with aid of numerical simulations, that the AAO cladding greatly increases the evanescent-field overlap both in power and extent and that lower porosity of AAO results in higher evanescent-field overlap. This work has opened the door to new sapphire fiber-based sensor design and sensor architecture.

  9. Buffer layers for high-Tc thin films on sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, X. D.; Foltyn, S. R.; Muenchausen, R. E.; Cooke, D. W.; Pique, A.; Kalokitis, D.; Pendrick, V.; Belohoubek, E.

    1992-01-01

    Buffer layers of various oxides including CeO2 and yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) have been deposited on R-plane sapphire. The orientation and crystallinity of the layers were optimized to promote epitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) thin films. An ion beam channeling minimum yield of about 3 percent was obtained in the CeO2 layer on sapphire, indicating excellent crystallinity of the buffer layer. Among the buffer materials used, CeO2 was found to be the best one for YBCO thin films on R-plane sapphire. High Tc and Jc were obtained in YBCO thin films on sapphire with buffer layers. Surface resistances of the YBCO films were about 4 mOmega at 77 K and 25 GHz.

  10. Sapphire Fabry-Perot high-temperature sensor study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yi-qiang; Liang, Wei-long; Gui, Xinwang; Fan, Dian

    2017-04-01

    A new structure sapphire fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) high-temperature sensor based on sapphire wafer was proposed and fabricated. The sensor uses the sapphire fiber as a transmission waveguide, the sapphire wafer as an Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometer and the new structure of "Zirconia ferrule-Zirconia tube" as the sensor fixing structure of the sensor. The reflection spectrum of the interferometer was demodulated by a serial of data processing including FIR bandpass filter, FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation) estimation and LSE (least squares estimation) compensation to obtain more precise OPD. Temperature measurement range is from 20 to 1000°C in experiment. The experimental results show that the sensor has the advantages of small size, low cost, simple fabrication and high repeatability. It can be applied for longterm, stable and high-precision high temperature measurement in harsh environments.

  11. Oleophobic properties of the step-and-terrace sapphire surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslimov, A. E.; Butashin, A. V.; Kanevsky, V. M.

    2017-03-01

    Sapphire is widely used in production of optical windows for various devices due to its mechanical and optical properties. However, during operation the surface can be affected by fats, oils, and other organic contaminations. Therefore, it is important to improve the oleophobic properties of sapphire windows. In this study, we investigate the interaction of a supersmooth sapphire surface with oleic acid droplets, which imitate human finger printing. It is established that chemical-mechanical polishing with additional annealing in air, which leads to the formation of an atomically smooth sapphire surface, makes it possible to significantly improve the oleophobic properties of the surface. The results are analyzed using the Ventsel-Deryagin homogeneous wetting model.

  12. Oleophobic properties of the step-and-terrace sapphire surface

    SciTech Connect

    Muslimov, A. E., E-mail: amuslimov@mail.ru; Butashin, A. V.; Kanevsky, V. M.

    Sapphire is widely used in production of optical windows for various devices due to its mechanical and optical properties. However, during operation the surface can be affected by fats, oils, and other organic contaminations. Therefore, it is important to improve the oleophobic properties of sapphire windows. In this study, we investigate the interaction of a supersmooth sapphire surface with oleic acid droplets, which imitate human finger printing. It is established that chemical–mechanical polishing with additional annealing in air, which leads to the formation of an atomically smooth sapphire surface, makes it possible to significantly improve the oleophobic properties of themore » surface. The results are analyzed using the Ventsel–Deryagin homogeneous wetting model.« less

  13. Neutron Transmission of Single-crystal Sapphire Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adib, M.; Kilany, M.; Habib, N.; Fathallah, M.

    2005-05-01

    An additive formula is given that permits the calculation of the nuclear capture, thermal diffuse and Bragg scattering cross-sections as a function of sapphire temperature and crystal parameters. We have developed a computer program that allows calculations of the thermal neutron transmission for the sapphire rhombohedral structure and its equivalent trigonal structure. The calculated total cross-section values and effective attenuation coefficient for single-crystalline sapphire at different temperatures are compared with measured values. Overall agreement is indicated between the formula and experimental data. We discuss the use of sapphire single crystal as a thermal neutron filter in terms of the optimum cystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature, cutting plane and tuning for efficient transmission of thermal-reactor neutrons.

  14. Reliability improvement methods for sapphire fiber temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schietinger, C.; Adams, B.

    1991-08-01

    Mechanical, optical, electrical, and software design improvements can be brought to bear in the enhancement of fiber-optic sapphire-fiber temperature measurement tool reliability in harsh environments. The optical fiber thermometry (OFT) equipment discussed is used in numerous process industries and generally involves a sapphire sensor, an optical transmission cable, and a microprocessor-based signal analyzer. OFT technology incorporating sensors for corrosive environments, hybrid sensors, and two-wavelength measurements, are discussed.

  15. Ti:sapphire - A theoretical assessment for its spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, A.; Boschetto, D.; Rax, J. M.; Chériaux, G.

    2017-03-01

    This article tries to theoretically compute the stimulated emission cross-sections when we know the oscillator strength of a broad material class (dielectric crystals hosting metal-transition impurity atoms). We apply the present approach to Ti:sapphire and check it by computing some emission cross-section curves for both π and σ polarizations. We also set a relationship between oscillator strength and radiative lifetime. Such an approach will allow future parametric studies for Ti:sapphire spectroscopic properties.

  16. Progress on 10 Kelvin cryo-cooled sapphire oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Dick, G. John; Diener, William A.

    2004-01-01

    We present recent progress on the 10 Kelvin Cryocooled Sapphire Oscillator (10K CSO). Included are incorporation of a new pulse tube cryocooler, cryocooler vibration comparisons between G-M and pulse-tube types, phase noise, and frequency stability tests. For the advantage of a single stage pulse tube cryocooler, we also present results for a 40K Compensated Sapphire Oscillator (40K CSO).

  17. Optical properties of InGaN grown by MOCVD on sapphire and on bulk GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, Marek; Eliseev, Petr G.; Lee, Jinhyun; Smagley, Vladimir A.; Sugahara, Tamoya; Sakai, Shiro

    1999-11-01

    Experimental data on photoluminescence of various bulk and quantum-well epitaxial InGaN/GaN structures grown by MOCVD are interpreted in terms of a band-tail model of inhomogeneously broadened radiative recombination. The anomalous temperature-induced blue spectral is shown to result from band-tail recombination under non-degenerate conditions. Significant differences are observed between epilayers grown on sapphire substrates and on GaN substrates prepared by the sublimination method, with no apparent evidence of band tails in homoepitaxial structures, indicating their higher crystalline quality.

  18. Ti : sapphire laser synchronised with femtosecond Yb pump laser via nonlinear pulse coupling in Ti : sapphire active medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenko, N. V.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Konyashchenko, D. A.; Kostryukov, P. V.; Kuritsyn, I. I.; Lutsenko, A. P.; Mavritskiy, A. O.

    2017-02-01

    A laser system utilising the method of synchronous pumping of a Ti : sapphire laser by a high-power femtosecond Yb3+-doped laser is described. The pulse repetition rate of the Ti : sapphire laser is successfully locked to the repetition rate of the Yb laser for more than 6 hours without the use of any additional electronics. The measured timing jitter is shown to be less than 1 fs. A simple qualitative model addressing the synchronisation mechanism utilising the cross-phase modulation of oscillation and pump pulses within a Ti : sapphire active medium is proposed. Output parameters of the Ti : sapphire laser as functions of its cavity length are discussed in terms of this model.

  19. Te Monolayer-Driven Spontaneous van der Waals Epitaxy of Two-dimensional Pnictogen Chalcogenide Film on Sapphire.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Yeol; Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Ohta, Hiromichi; Kim, Sung Wng

    2017-10-11

    Demands on high-quality layer structured two-dimensional (2D) thin films such as pnictogen chalcogenides and transition metal dichalcogenides are growing due to the findings of exotic physical properties and potentials for device applications. However, the difficulties in controlling epitaxial growth and the unclear understanding of van der Waals epitaxy (vdWE) for a 2D chalcogenide film on a three-dimensional (3D) substrate have been major obstacles for the further advances of 2D materials. Here, we exploit the spontaneous vdWE of a high-quality 2D chalcogenide (Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 ) film by the chalcogen-driven surface reconstruction of a conventional 3D sapphire substrate. It is verified that the in situ formation of a pseudomorphic Te atomic monolayer on the surface of sapphire, which results in a dangling bond-free surface, allows the spontaneous vdWE of 2D chalcogenide film. Since this route uses the natural surface reconstruction of sapphire with chalcogen under vacuum condition, it can be scalable and easily utilized for the developments of various 2D chalcogenide vdWE films through conventional thin-film fabrication technologies.

  20. Structural and optical properties of low temperature grown AlN films on sapphire using helicon sputtering system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Meei-Ru; Chen, Hou-Guang; Kao, Hui-Ling, E-mail: hlkao@cycu.edu.tw

    2015-05-15

    AlN thin films have been deposited directly on c-plane sapphire substrates at low temperatures by a helicon sputtering system. The structural quality of AlN epitaxial films was characterized by x-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The films exhibit smooth surface with root-mean-square roughness as small as 0.7 nm evaluated by atomic force microscope. The optical transmittance spectra show a steep absorption edge at the wavelength of 200 nm and a high transmittance of over 80% in the visible range. The band-edge transition (6.30 eV) of AlN film was observed in the cathodoluminescence spectrum recorded at 11 K. The spectral response of metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors constructedmore » with AlN/sapphire reveals the peak responsivity at 200 nm and a UV/visible rejection ratio of about two orders of magnitude. The results of this low temperature deposition suggest the feasibility of the epitaxial growth of AlN on sapphire substrates and the incorporation of the AlN films in the surface acoustic wave devices and the optical devices at deep ultraviolet region.« less

  1. Cryogenic Pound Circuits for Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi

    2006-01-01

    Two modern cryogenic variants of the Pound circuit have been devised to increase the frequency stability of microwave oscillators that include cryogenic sapphire-filled cavity resonators. The original Pound circuit is a microwave frequency discriminator that provides feedback to stabilize a voltage-controlled microwave oscillator with respect to an associated cavity resonator. In the present cryogenic Pound circuits, the active microwave devices are implemented by use of state-of-the-art commercially available tunnel diodes that exhibit low flicker noise (required for high frequency stability) and function well at low temperatures and at frequencies up to several tens of gigahertz. While tunnel diodes are inherently operable as amplitude detectors and amplitude modulators, they cannot, by themselves, induce significant phase modulation. Therefore, each of the present cryogenic Pound circuits includes passive circuitry that transforms the AM into the required PM. Each circuit also contains an AM detector that is used to sample the microwave signal at the input terminal of the high-Q resonator for the purpose of verifying the desired AM null at this point. Finally, each circuit contains a Pound signal detector that puts out a signal, at the modulation frequency, having an amplitude proportional to the frequency error in the input signal. High frequency stability is obtained by processing this output signal into feedback to a voltage-controlled oscillator to continuously correct the frequency error in the input signal.

  2. Local electronic and optical behavior of ELO a-plane GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baski, A. A.; Moore, J. C.; Ozgur, U.; Kasliwal, V.; Ni, X.; Morkoc, H.

    2007-03-01

    Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) and near-field optical microscopy (NSOM) were used to study a-plane GaN films grown via epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO). The ELO films were prepared by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on a patterned SiO2 layer with 4-μm wide windows, which was deposited on a GaN template grown on r-plane sapphire. The window regions of the coalesced ELO films appear as depressions with a high density of surface pits. At reverse bias below 12 V, very low uniform conduction (2 pA) is seen in the window regions. Above 20 V, a lower-quality sample shows localized sites inside the window regions with significant leakage, indicating a correlation between the presence of surface pits and leakage sites. Room temperature NSOM studies also suggest a greater density of surface terminated dislocations in the window regions, while wing regions explicitly show enhanced optical quality of the overgrown GaN. The combination of CAFM and NSOM data therefore indicates a correlation between the presence of surface pits, localized reverse-bias current leakage, and low PL intensity in the window regions.

  3. In-Plane Anisotropic Photoconduction in Nonpolar Epitaxial a-Plane GaN.

    PubMed

    Pant, Rohit; Shetty, Arjun; Chandan, Greeshma; Roul, Basanta; Nanda, K K; Krupanidhi, S B

    2018-05-16

    Nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films were grown on an r-plane sapphire using the plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy system, with various nitrogen plasma power conditions. The crystallinity of the films was characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and reciprocal space mapping. Using the X-ray "rocking curve-phi scan", [0002], [1-100], and [1-102] azimuth angles were identified, and interdigitated electrodes along these directions were fabricated to evaluate the direction-dependent UV photoresponses. UV responsivity ( R) and internal gain ( G) were found to be dependent on the azimuth angle and in the order of [0002] > [1-102] > [1-100], which has been attributed to the enhanced crystallinity and lowest defect density along [0002] azimuth. The temporal response was very stable irrespective of growth conditions and azimuth angles. Importantly, response time, responsivity, and internal gain were 210 ms, 1.88 A W -1 , and 648.9%, respectively, even at a bias as low as 1 V. The results were validated using the Silvaco Atlas device simulator, and experimental observations were consistent with simulated results. Overall, the photoresponse is dependent on azimuth angles and requires further optimization, especially for materials with in-plane crystal anisotropy.

  4. Crystal Structure and Ferroelectric Properties of ε-Ga2O3 Films Grown on (0001)-Sapphire.

    PubMed

    Mezzadri, Francesco; Calestani, Gianluca; Boschi, Francesco; Delmonte, Davide; Bosi, Matteo; Fornari, Roberto

    2016-11-21

    The crystal structure and ferroelectric properties of ε-Ga 2 O 3 deposited by low-temperature MOCVD on (0001)-sapphire were investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and the dynamic hysteresis measurement technique. A thorough investigation of this relatively unknown polymorph of Ga 2 O 3 showed that it is composed of layers of both octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated Ga 3+ sites, which appear to be occupied with a 66% probability. The refinement of the crystal structure in the noncentrosymmetric space group P6 3 mc pointed out the presence of uncompensated electrical dipoles suggesting ferroelectric properties, which were finally demonstrated by independent measurements of the ferroelectric hysteresis. A clear epitaxial relation is observed with respect to the c-oriented sapphire substrate, with the Ga 2 O 3 [10-10] direction being parallel to the Al 2 O 3 direction [11-20], yielding a lattice mismatch of about 4.1%.

  5. Development of a sapphire fiber thermometer using two wavelength bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Linhua; Shen, Yonghang

    1996-09-01

    This paper reports the development of a sapphire ((alpha) - Al2O3) single crystal optical fiber thermometer using two wavelength bands. A thin film of precious metal or ceramic deposited onto one end of the sapphire fiber forms a mini-radiation cavity. The other end of the sapphire fiber is coupled to a low-loss silica fiber. Radiation from the small cavity is transmitted along the silica fiber into a photodetection system which consists of a lens, beam splitter, two interference filters (820 nm and 940 nm center wavelength, 30 nm bandwidth) and two silicon photocells. The temperature measurement is based on the detection of radiation from the small cavity. The sapphire fiber (0.25 - 1.0 mm diameter, 100 - 450 mm length) was grown by the laser heated pedestal growth (LHPG) methods. Transmission loss in the sapphire fiber was experimentally measured. Theoretical analysis shows the apparent emittance of the small cavity with a length to diameter (L/D) ratio greater than eight is a constant value near to one, so the small cavity can be considered as a small black-body cavity. Using the developed sapphire fiber temperature sensor, we have built a sapphire fiber thermometer based on a 8098 single-chip microcomputer system. It was calibrated at some known stable temperature point and uses the fundamental radiation law to extrapolate to other temperatures. By taking the ratio of the optical power at two wavelengths, errors due to changes in the system, such as emissivity and transmission losses, can be canceled out. The thermometer has an operating temperature range of 800 to 1900 degrees Celsius, and an accuracy of 0.2% at 1000 degrees Celsius. There are a number of applications of the thermometer both in science and industry.

  6. A peek into the history of sapphire crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Daniel C.

    2003-09-01

    After the chemical compositions of sapphire and ruby were unraveled in the middle of the 19th century, chemists set out to grow artificial crystals of these valuable gemstones. In 1885 a dealer in Geneva began to sell ruby that is now believed to have been created by flame fusion. Gemnologists rapidly concluded that the stones were artificial, but the Geneva ruby stimulated A. V. L. Verneuil in Paris to develop a flame fusion process to produce higher quality ruby and sapphire. By 1900 there was brisk demand for ruby manufactured by Verneuil's method, even though Verneuil did not publicly announce his work until 1902 and did not publish details until 1904. The Verneuil process was used with little alteration for the next 50 years. From 1932-1953, S. K. Popov in the Soviet Union established a capability for manufacturing high quality sapphire by the Verneuil process. In the U.S., under government contract, Linde Air Products Co. implemented the Verneuil process for ruby and sapphire when European sources were cut off during World War II. These materials were essential to the war effort for jewel bearings in precision instruments. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Czochralski process was implemented by Linde and its successor, Union Carbide, to make higher crystal quality material for ruby lasers. Stimulated by a government contract for structural fibers in 1966, H. LaBelle invented edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG). The Saphikon company, which is currently owned by Saint-Gobain, evolved from this effort. Independently and simultaneously, Stepanov developed edge-defined film-fed growth in the Soviet Union. In 1967 F. Schmid and D. Viechnicki at the Army Materials Research Lab grew sapphire by the heat exchanger method (HEM). Schmid went on to establish Crystal Systems, Inc. around this technology. Rotem Industries, founded in Israel in 1969, perfected the growth of sapphire hemispheres and near-net-shape domes by gradient solidification. In the U.S., growth of near

  7. Size and shape dependence of CO adsorption sites on sapphire supported Fe microcrystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papageorgopoulos, C.; Heinemann, K.

    1985-01-01

    The surface structure and stoichiometry of alumina substrates, as well as the size, growth characteristics, and shape of Fe deposits on sapphire substrates have been investigated by low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), as well as work function measurements, in conjunction with transition electron microscopy observations. The substrates used in this work were the following: (1) new, clean Al2O3; (2) same surface amorphized by Ar ion bombardment; (3) same surface regenerated by 650 C annealing; (4) amorphous alumina films on Ta slab; and (5) polycrystal alumina films, obtained by heating amorphous films to 600 C. Substrate cleaning was found to be most effective in producing a reproducible surface upon oxygen RF plasma treatment. The Fe nucleation and growth process was found to depend strongly on the type of substrate surface and deposition conditions. Ar ion bombardment under beam flooding, and subsequent annealing at 650 C was found an effective means to restore the original Al2O3 (1102) surface for renewed Fe deposition.

  8. Wafer-Scale and Wrinkle-Free Epitaxial Growth of Single-Orientated Multilayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride on Sapphire.

    PubMed

    Jang, A-Rang; Hong, Seokmo; Hyun, Chohee; Yoon, Seong In; Kim, Gwangwoo; Jeong, Hu Young; Shin, Tae Joo; Park, Sung O; Wong, Kester; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Park, Noejung; Yu, Kwangnam; Choi, Eunjip; Mishchenko, Artem; Withers, Freddie; Novoselov, Kostya S; Lim, Hyunseob; Shin, Hyeon Suk

    2016-05-11

    Large-scale growth of high-quality hexagonal boron nitride has been a challenge in two-dimensional-material-based electronics. Herein, we present wafer-scale and wrinkle-free epitaxial growth of multilayer hexagonal boron nitride on a sapphire substrate by using high-temperature and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigations and theoretical calculations reveal that synthesized hexagonal boron nitride has a single rotational orientation with AA' stacking order. A facile method for transferring hexagonal boron nitride onto other target substrates was developed, which provides the opportunity for using hexagonal boron nitride as a substrate in practical electronic circuits. A graphene field effect transistor fabricated on our hexagonal boron nitride sheets shows clear quantum oscillation and highly improved carrier mobility because the ultraflatness of the hexagonal boron nitride surface can reduce the substrate-induced degradation of the carrier mobility of two-dimensional materials.

  9. Direct diode pumped Ti:sapphire ultrafast regenerative amplifier system

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, Sterling; Durfee, Charles; Lemons, Randy

    Here, we report on a direct diode-pumped Ti:sapphire ultrafast regenerative amplifier laser system producing multi-uJ energies with repetition rate from 50 to 250 kHz. By combining cryogenic cooling of Ti:sapphire with high brightness fiber-coupled 450nm laser diodes, we for the first time demonstrate a power-scalable CW-pumped architecture that can be directly applied to demanding ultrafast applications such as coherent high-harmonic EUV generation without any complex post-amplification pulse compression. Initial results promise a new era for Ti:sapphire amplifiers not only for ultrafast laser applications, but also for tunable CW sources. We discuss the unique challenges to implementation, as well as themore » solutions to these challenges.« less

  10. Direct diode pumped Ti:sapphire ultrafast regenerative amplifier system

    DOE PAGES

    Backus, Sterling; Durfee, Charles; Lemons, Randy; ...

    2017-02-10

    Here, we report on a direct diode-pumped Ti:sapphire ultrafast regenerative amplifier laser system producing multi-uJ energies with repetition rate from 50 to 250 kHz. By combining cryogenic cooling of Ti:sapphire with high brightness fiber-coupled 450nm laser diodes, we for the first time demonstrate a power-scalable CW-pumped architecture that can be directly applied to demanding ultrafast applications such as coherent high-harmonic EUV generation without any complex post-amplification pulse compression. Initial results promise a new era for Ti:sapphire amplifiers not only for ultrafast laser applications, but also for tunable CW sources. We discuss the unique challenges to implementation, as well as themore » solutions to these challenges.« less

  11. Picosecond temporal contrast of Ti:Sapphire lasers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikov, Mikhail P.; Khodakovskiy, Nikita

    2017-05-01

    The temporal shape of recompressed Ti:sapphire CPA pulses typically contains relatively long pre- and post- pedestals appearing on a picosecond time scale. Despite playing a key role in laser-matter interactions, these artifacts - especially the shape of the leading front of the recompressed pulses - are poorly investigated and understood. The related publications consider picosecond pedestals appearing at both fronts of the main pulse to be related to scattering of the stretched pulse off diffraction gratings inside the stretcher or due to clipping of the pulse spectrum at dielectric coatings. In our experiments we analyzed different types of stretcher-compressor combinations used in Ti:Sapphire laser systems. These include a prism-based stretcher and a bulk compressor, transmission and reflection diffraction gratings - based combinations. We identified pedestals that are typical for the particular stretcher-compressor combination. Especially investigated are those which are coherent with the major recompressed pulse, since with self-phase modulation in power amplifiers they will grow nonlinearly and finally appear symmetric around the major pulse, generating the pre-pedestal from the post-pedestal. Thus, a previously unreported influence of the trailing pedestal has been identified. It is commonly known that recompressed pulses from Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplifier systems are accompanied by a slowly decaying ragged post-pedestal. The detailed investigation shows that it consists of numerous pulses with temporal separation in the picosecond range. These are coherent with the main pulse. Moreover, the temporal structure of the trailing pedestal is independent of the particular realization of the Ti:sapphire system and it is present in radiation of any Ti:Sapphire CPA system including Kerr- mode locked master oscillators. Our investigations show that the coherent ragged post-pedestal is the post-radiation of inverted Ti:sapphire medium resulting from phonon

  12. Molecular-orbital model for metal-sapphire interfacial strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. H.; Pepper, S. V.

    1982-01-01

    Self-consistent-field X-Alpha scattered-wave cluster molecular-orbital models have been constructed for transition and noble metals (Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ag) in contact with a sapphire (Al2O3) surface. It is found that a chemical bond is established between the metal d-orbital electrons and the nonbonding 2p-orbital electrons of the oxygen anions on the Al2O3 surface. An increasing number of occupied metal-sapphire antibonding molecular orbitals explains qualitatively the observed decrease of contact shear strength through the series Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ag.

  13. Petrogenesis of alkaline basalt-hosted sapphire megacrysts. Petrological and geochemical investigations of in situ sapphire occurrences from the Siebengebirge Volcanic Field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, L. C.; Tomaschek, F.; Ballhaus, C.; Gerdes, A.; Fonseca, R. O. C.; Wirth, R.; Geisler, T.; Nagel, T.

    2017-06-01

    Megacrystic sapphires are frequently associated with alkaline basalts, most notably in Asia and Australia, although basalt is not generally normative in corundum. Most of these sapphire occurrences are located in alluvial or eluvial deposits, making it difficult to study the enigmatic relationship between the sapphires and their host rocks. Here, we present detailed petrological and geochemical investigations of in situ megacrystic sapphires within alkaline basalts from the Cenozoic Siebengebirge Volcanic Field (SVF) in Germany. Markedly, the sapphires show several micrometer thick spinel coronas at the contact with the host basalt, indicating chemical disequilibrium between the sapphire and the basaltic melt, supporting a xenogenetic relationship. However, in situ U-Pb dating of a Columbite Group inclusion within one Siebengebirge sapphire using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) indicates a close genetic relationship between sapphire crystallization and alkaline mafic volcanism in the SVF. The syngenetic mineral inclusion suite including carbonates, members of the Pyrochlore, Betafite and Columbite Groupe minerals, as well as a high abundance of HFSE and of gaseous low-density CO2 inclusions support a parentage of a highly evolved, MgO and FeO deficient carbonatitic melt. We identified CO2 to be the link between alkaline basaltic volcanism and the xenocrystic sapphires. Only alkaline volcanic suites can build up enough CO2 in this magma chamber upon fractionation so that at high degrees of fractionation a carbonatitic melt exsolves which in turn can crystallize sapphires.

  14. Bulk vertical micromachining of single-crystal sapphire using inductively coupled plasma etching for x-ray resonant cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.-C.; Lin, P.-T.; Mikolas, D. G.; Tsai, Y.-W.; Wang, Y.-L.; Fu, C.-C.; Chang, S.-L.

    2015-01-01

    To provide coherent x-ray sources for probing the dynamic structures of solid or liquid biological substances on the picosecond timescale, a high-aspect-ratio x-ray resonator cavity etched from a single crystal substrate with a nearly vertical sidewall structure is required. Although high-aspect-ratio resonator cavities have been produced in silicon, they suffer from unwanted multiple beam effects. However, this problem can be avoided by using the reduced symmetry of single-crystal sapphire in which x-ray cavities may produce a highly monochromatic transmitted x-ray beam. In this study, we performed nominal 100 µm deep etching and vertical sidewall profiles in single crystal sapphire using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching. The large depth is required to intercept a useful fraction of a stopped-down x-ray beam, as well as for beam clearance. An electroplated Ni hard mask was patterned using KMPR 1050 photoresist and contact lithography. The quality and performance of the x-ray cavity depended upon the uniformity of the cavity gap and therefore verticality of the fabricated vertical sidewall. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such deep, vertical etching of single-crystal sapphire. A gas mixture of Cl2/BCl3/Ar was used to etch the sapphire with process variables including BCl3 flow ratio and bias power. By etching for 540 min under optimal conditions, we obtained an x-ray resonant cavity with a depth of 95 µm, width of ~30 µm, gap of ~115 µm and sidewall profile internal angle of 89.5°. The results show that the etching parameters affected the quality of the vertical sidewall, which is essential for good x-ray resonant cavities.

  15. Quantitative investigation into the source of current slump in AlGaN/GaN HEMT on both Si (111) and sapphire: Self-heating and trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bag, Ankush; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ghosh, Saptarsi; Das, Palash; Chakraborty, Apurba; Dinara, Syed M.; Kabi, Sanjib; Biswas, Dhurbes

    2015-05-01

    We have experimentally studied trapping and self-heating effect in terms of current slump in AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown and identically processed on Silicon (111) and Sapphire (0001) substrates. Different responses have been observed through DC characterization of different duty cycle (100%, 50%, 5% and 0.5%) of pulses at drain end. Effect of self-heating is more in case of HEMT on Sapphire due to its comparative poor thermal conductivity whereas trapped charges have strong contribution in current drop of HEMT on Si (111) due to larger lattice as well as thermal expansion coefficient mismatched epitaxy between GaN and Si (111). These results have been compared among substrates that lead us to find out optimal source of current slump quantitatively between traps and self-heating.

  16. Silicon-Germanium Films Grown on Sapphire for Ka-Band Communications Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Mueller, Carl H.; Croke, Edward T.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's vision in the space communications area is to develop a broadband data network in which there is a high degree of interconnectivity among the various satellite systems, ground stations, and wired systems. To accomplish this goal, we will need complex electronic circuits integrating analog and digital data handling at the Ka-band (26 to 40 GHz). The purpose of this project is to show the feasibility of a new technology for Ka-band communications applications, namely silicon germanium (SiGe) on sapphire. This new technology will have several advantages in comparison to the existing silicon-substrate- based circuits. The main advantages are extremely low parasitic reactances that enable much higher quality active and passive components, better device isolation, higher radiation tolerance, and the integration of digital and analog circuitry on a single chip.

  17. Atomic layer epitaxy of GaN over sapphire using switched metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A.; Skogman, R. A.; van Hove, J. M.; Olson, D. T.; Kuznia, J. N.

    1992-03-01

    In this letter the first switched atomic layer epitaxy (SALE) of single crystal GaN over basal plane sapphire substrates is reported. A low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LPMOCVD) system was used for the epilayer depositions. In contrast to conventional LPMOCVD requiring temperatures higher than 700 C, the SALE process resulted in single crystal insulating GaN layers at growth temperatures ranging from 900 to 450 C. The band-edge transmission and the photoluminescence of the films from the SALE process were comparable to the best LPMOCVD films. As best as is known this is the first report of insulating GaN films which show excellent band-edge photoluminescence.

  18. Atomic layer epitaxy of GaN over sapphire using switched metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif Khan, M.; Skogman, R. A.; Van Hove, J. M.; Olson, D. T.; Kuznia, J. N.

    1992-03-01

    In this letter we report the first switched atomic layer epitaxy (SALE) of single crystal GaN over basal plane sapphire substrates. A low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LPMOCVD) system was used for the epilayer depositions. In contrast to conventional LPMOCVD requiring temperatures higher than 700 °C, the SALE process resulted in single crystal insulating GaN layers at growth temperatures ranging from 900 to 450 °C. The band-edge transmission and the photoluminescence of the films from the SALE process were comparable to the best LPMOCVD films. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of insulating GaN films which show excellent band-edge photoluminescence.

  19. Neurosurgery contact handheld probe based on sapphire shaped crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikunova, I. A.; Stryukov, D. O.; Rossolenko, S. N.; Kiselev, A. M.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    A handheld contact probe based on sapphire shaped crystal is developed for intraoperative spectrally-resolved optical diagnostics, laser coagulation and aspiration of malignant brain tissue. The technology was integrated into the neurosurgical workflow for intraoperative real-time identification and removing of invasive brain cancer.

  20. Single Mode Air-Clad Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Dan; Yu, Zhihao

    The observation of single mode propagation in an air-clad single crystal sapphire optical fiber at wavelengths at and above 783 nm is presented for the first time. A high-temperature wet acid etching method was used to reduce the diameter of a 10 cm length of commercially-sourced sapphire fiber from 125 micrometers to 6.5 micrometers, and far-field imaging provided modal information at intervals as the fiber diameter decreased. Modal volume was shown to decrease with decreasing diameter, and single mode behavior was observed at the minimum diameter achieved. While weakly-guiding approximations are generally inaccurate for low modal volume optical fiber withmore » high core-cladding refractive index disparity, consistency between these approximations and experimental results was observed when the effective numerical aperture was measured and substituted for the theoretical numerical aperture in weakly-guiding approximation calculations. With the demonstration of very low modal volume in sapphire at fiber diameters much larger than anticipated by legacy calculations, the resolution of sapphire fiber distributed sensors may be increased and other sensing schemes requiring very low modal volume, such as fiber Bragg gratings, may be realized in extreme environment applications.« less

  1. Microscopic origin of the optical processes in blue sapphire.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Jessica K; Parker, Stephen C; Catlow, C Richard A; Woodley, Scott M; Walsh, Aron

    2013-06-11

    Al2O3 changes from transparent to a range of intense colours depending on the chemical impurities present. In blue sapphire, Fe and Ti are incorporated; however, the chemical process that gives rise to the colour has long been debated. Atomistic modelling identifies charge transfer from Ti(III) to Fe(III) as being responsible for the characteristic blue appearance.

  2. Single Mode Air-Clad Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber

    DOE PAGES

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Dan; Yu, Zhihao; ...

    2017-05-03

    The observation of single mode propagation in an air-clad single crystal sapphire optical fiber at wavelengths at and above 783 nm is presented for the first time. A high-temperature wet acid etching method was used to reduce the diameter of a 10 cm length of commercially-sourced sapphire fiber from 125 micrometers to 6.5 micrometers, and far-field imaging provided modal information at intervals as the fiber diameter decreased. Modal volume was shown to decrease with decreasing diameter, and single mode behavior was observed at the minimum diameter achieved. While weakly-guiding approximations are generally inaccurate for low modal volume optical fiber withmore » high core-cladding refractive index disparity, consistency between these approximations and experimental results was observed when the effective numerical aperture was measured and substituted for the theoretical numerical aperture in weakly-guiding approximation calculations. With the demonstration of very low modal volume in sapphire at fiber diameters much larger than anticipated by legacy calculations, the resolution of sapphire fiber distributed sensors may be increased and other sensing schemes requiring very low modal volume, such as fiber Bragg gratings, may be realized in extreme environment applications.« less

  3. Modal reduction in single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yujie; Hill, Cary; Liu, Bo

    2015-10-12

    A new type of single crystal sapphire optical fiber (SCSF) design is proposed to reduce the number of guided modes via a highly dispersive cladding with a periodic array of high and low index regions in the azimuthal direction. The structure retains a “core” region of pure single crystal (SC) sapphire in the center of the fiber and a “cladding” region of alternating layers of air and SC sapphire in the azimuthal direction that is uniform in the radial direction. The modal characteristics and confinement losses of the fundamental mode were analyzed via the finite element method by varying themore » effective core diameter and the dimensions of the “windmill” shaped cladding. The simulation results showed that the number of guided modes were significantly reduced in the “windmill” fiber design, as the radial dimension of the air and SC sapphire cladding regions increase with corresponding decrease in the azimuthal dimension. It is anticipated that the “windmill” SCSF will readily improve the performance of current fiber optic sensors in the harsh environment and potentially enable those that were limited by the extremely large modal volume of unclad SCSF.« less

  4. High power continuous-wave titanium:sapphire laser

    DOEpatents

    Erbert, G.V.; Bass, I.L.; Hackel, R.P.; Jenkins, S.L.; Kanz, V.K.; Paisner, J.A.

    1993-09-21

    A high-power continuous-wave laser resonator is provided, wherein first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth mirrors form a double-Z optical cavity. A first Ti:sapphire rod is disposed between the second and third mirrors and at the mid-point of the length of the optical cavity, and a second Ti:sapphire rod is disposed between the fourth and fifth mirrors at a quarter-length point in the optical cavity. Each Ti:sapphire rod is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a pair of argon-ion lasers. For narrow band operation, a 3-plate birefringent filter and an etalon are disposed in the optical cavity so that the spectral output of the laser consists of 5 adjacent cavity modes. For increased power, seventy and eighth mirrors are disposed between the first and second mirrors to form a triple-Z optical cavity. A third Ti:sapphire rod is disposed between the seventh and eighth mirrors at the other quarter-length point in the optical cavity, and is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a third pair of argon-ion lasers. 5 figures.

  5. High power continuous-wave titanium:sapphire laser

    DOEpatents

    Erbert, Gaylen V.; Bass, Isaac L.; Hackel, Richard P.; Jenkins, Sherman L.; Kanz, Vernon K.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    A high-power continuous-wave laser resonator (10) is provided, wherein first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth mirrors (11-16) form a double-Z optical cavity. A first Ti:Sapphire rod (17) is disposed between the second and third mirrors (12,13) and at the mid-point of the length of the optical cavity, and a second Ti:Sapphire rod (18) is disposed between the fourth and fifth mirrors (14,15) at a quarter-length point in the optical cavity. Each Ti:Sapphire rod (17,18) is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a pair of argon-ion lasers (21-22, 23-24). For narrow band operation, a 3-plate birefringent filter (36) and an etalon (37) are disposed in the optical cavity so that the spectral output of the laser consists of 5 adjacent cavity modes. For increased power, seventy and eighth mirrors (101, 192) are disposed between the first and second mirrors (11, 12) to form a triple-Z optical cavity. A third Ti:Sapphire rod (103) is disposed between the seventh and eighth mirrors (101, 102) at the other quarter-length point in the optical cavity, and is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a third pair of argon-ion lasers (104, 105).

  6. Raman scattering in single-crystal sapphire at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Thapa, Juddha; Liu, Bo; Woodruff, Steven D.

    Sapphire is a widely used high-temperature material and this work presents thorough characterization of all the measurable Raman scattering modes in sapphire and their temperature dependencies. Here, Raman scattering in bulk sapphire rods is measured from room temperature to 1081 °C and is illustrated as a method of noncontact temperature measurement. A single-line argon ion laser at 488 nm was used to excite the sapphire rods inside a cylindrical furnace. All the anti-Stokes peaks (or lines) were observable through the entire temperature range of interest, while Stokes peaks were observable until they were obscured by background thermal emission. Temperature measurementsmore » were found to be most reliable for A 1g and E g modes using the peaks at ±418, ±379, +578, +645, and, +750 cm -1 (+ and – are designated for Stokes and anti-Stokes peaks respectively). The 418 cm -1 peak was found to be the most intense peak. The temperature dependence of peak position, peak width, and peak area of the ±418 and ±379 peaks is presented. For +578, +645 and +750, the temperature dependence of peak position is presented. The peaks’ spectral positions provide the most precise temperature information within the experimental temperature range. Finally, the resultant temperature calibration curves are given, which indicate that sapphire can be used in high-temperature Raman thermometry with an accuracy of about 1.38°C average standard deviation over the entire >1000°C temperature range.« less

  7. Raman scattering in single-crystal sapphire at elevated temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Thapa, Juddha; Liu, Bo; Woodruff, Steven D.; ...

    2017-10-25

    Sapphire is a widely used high-temperature material and this work presents thorough characterization of all the measurable Raman scattering modes in sapphire and their temperature dependencies. Here, Raman scattering in bulk sapphire rods is measured from room temperature to 1081 °C and is illustrated as a method of noncontact temperature measurement. A single-line argon ion laser at 488 nm was used to excite the sapphire rods inside a cylindrical furnace. All the anti-Stokes peaks (or lines) were observable through the entire temperature range of interest, while Stokes peaks were observable until they were obscured by background thermal emission. Temperature measurementsmore » were found to be most reliable for A 1g and E g modes using the peaks at ±418, ±379, +578, +645, and, +750 cm -1 (+ and – are designated for Stokes and anti-Stokes peaks respectively). The 418 cm -1 peak was found to be the most intense peak. The temperature dependence of peak position, peak width, and peak area of the ±418 and ±379 peaks is presented. For +578, +645 and +750, the temperature dependence of peak position is presented. The peaks’ spectral positions provide the most precise temperature information within the experimental temperature range. Finally, the resultant temperature calibration curves are given, which indicate that sapphire can be used in high-temperature Raman thermometry with an accuracy of about 1.38°C average standard deviation over the entire >1000°C temperature range.« less

  8. Optimizing Ti:Sapphire laser for quantitative biomedical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Jeemol; Thomsen, Hanna; Hanstorp, Dag; Alemán Hérnandez, Felipe Ademir; Rothe, Sebastian; Enger, Jonas; Ericson, Marica B.

    2018-02-01

    Ti:Sapphire lasers are powerful tools in the field of scientific research and industry for a wide range of applications such as spectroscopic studies and microscopic imaging where tunable near-infrared light is required. To push the limits of the applicability of Ti:Sapphire lasers, fundamental understanding of the construction and operation is required. This paper presents two projects, (i) dealing with the building and characterization of custom built tunable narrow linewidth Ti:Sapphire laser for fundamental spectroscopy studies; and the second project (ii) the implementation of a fs-pulsed commercial Ti:Sapphire laser in an experimental multiphoton microscopy platform. For the narrow linewidth laser, a gold-plated diffraction grating with a Littrow geometry was implemented for highresolution wavelength selection. We demonstrate that the laser is tunable between 700 to 950 nm, operating in a pulsed mode with a repetition rate of 1 kHz and maximum average output power around 350 mW. The output linewidth was reduced from 6 GHz to 1.5 GHz by inserting an additional 6 mm thick etalon. The bandwidth was measured by means of a scanning Fabry Perot interferometer. Future work will focus on using a fs-pulsed commercial Ti:Sapphire laser (Tsunami, Spectra physics), operating at 80 MHz and maximum average output power around 1 W, for implementation in an experimental multiphoton microscopy set up dedicated for biomedical applications. Special focus will be on controlling pulse duration and dispersion in the optical components and biological tissue using pulse compression. Furthermore, time correlated analysis of the biological samples will be performed with the help of time correlated single photon counting module (SPCM, Becker&Hickl) which will give a novel dimension in quantitative biomedical imaging.

  9. Self-assembled growth and structural analysis of inclined GaN nanorods on nanoimprinted m-sapphire using catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyuseung; Chae, Sooryong; Jang, Jongjin

    2016-04-15

    In this study, self-assembled inclined (1-10-3)-oriented GaN nanorods (NRs) were grown on nanoimprinted (10-10) m-sapphire substrates using catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. According to X-ray phi-scans, the inclined GaN NRs were tilted at an angle of ∼57.5° to the [10-10]{sub sapp} direction. Specifically, the GaN NRs grew in a single inclined direction to the [11-20]{sub sapp}. Uni-directionally inclined NRs were formed through the one-sided (10-11)-faceted growth of the interfacial a-GaN plane layer. It was confirmed that a thin layer of a-GaN was formed on r-facet nanogrooves of the m-sapphire substrate by nitridation. The interfacial a-GaN nucleation affected both the inclinedmore » angle and the growth direction of the inclined GaN NRs. Using X-ray diffraction and selective area electron diffraction, the epitaxial relationship between the inclined (1-10-3) GaN NRs and interfacial a-GaN layer on m-sapphire substrates was systematically investigated. Moreover, the inclined GaN NRs were observed to be mostly free of stacking fault-related defects using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.« less

  10. A conduction model for contacts to Si-doped AlGaN grown on sapphire and single-crystalline AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidet, Brian B.; Bryan, Isaac; Reddy, Pramod; Bryan, Zachary; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko

    2015-06-01

    Ohmic contacts to AlGaN grown on sapphire substrates have been previously demonstrated for various compositions of AlGaN, but contacts to AlGaN grown on native AlN substrates are more difficult to obtain. In this paper, a model is developed that describes current flow through contacts to Si-doped AlGaN. This model treats the current through reverse-biased Schottky barriers as a consequence of two different tunneling-dependent conduction mechanisms in parallel, i.e., Fowler-Nordheim emission and defect-assisted Frenkel-Poole emission. At low bias, the defect-assisted tunneling dominates, but as the potential across the depletion region increases, tunneling begins to occur without the assistance of defects, and the Fowler-Nordheim emission becomes the dominant conduction mechanism. Transfer length method measurements and temperature-dependent current-voltage (I-V) measurements of Ti/Al-based contacts to Si-doped AlGaN grown on sapphire and AlN substrates support this model. Defect-assisted tunneling plays a much larger role in the contacts to AlGaN on sapphire, resulting in nearly linear I-V characteristics. In contrast, contacts to AlGaN on AlN show limited defect-assisted tunneling appear to be only semi-Ohmic.

  11. Modelling the Landing of a Plane in a Calculus Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morante, Antonio; Vallejo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    We exhibit a simple model of a plane landing that involves only basic concepts of differential calculus, so it is suitable for a first-year calculus lab. We use the computer algebra system Maxima and the interactive geometry software GeoGebra to do the computations and graphics. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

  12. Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, Gary; Scott, Brian; Wang, Anbo

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program “Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation,” funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. This project was completed in three phases, each with a separate focus. Phase I of the program, from October 1999 to April 2002, was devoted to development of sensing schema for use in high temperature, harsh environments. Different sensing designs were proposed and tested in the laboratory. Phase II of the program, frommore » April 2002 to April 2009, focused on bringing the sensor technologies, which had already been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensors could be deployed in harsh industrial environments and eventually become commercially viable through a series of field tests. Also, a new sensing scheme was developed and tested with numerous advantages over all previous ones in Phase II. Phase III of the program, September 2009 to December 2013, focused on development of the new sensing scheme for field testing in conjunction with materials engineering of the improved sensor packaging lifetimes. In Phase I, three different sensing principles were studied: sapphire air-gap extrinsic Fabry-Perot sensors; intensity-based polarimetric sensors; and broadband polarimetric sensors. Black body radiation tests and corrosion tests were also performed in this phase. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. At the beginning of Phase II, in June 2004, the BPDI sensor was tested at the Wabash River coal

  13. Strong geometrical effects in submillimeter selective area growth and light extraction of GaN light emitting diodes on sapphire

    DOE PAGES

    Tanaka, Atsunori; Chen, Renjie; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; ...

    2015-11-27

    Advanced semiconductor devices often utilize structural and geometrical effects to tailor their characteristics and improve their performance. Our detailed understanding of such geometrical effects in the epitaxial selective area growth of GaN on sapphire substrates is reported here, and we utilize them to enhance light extraction from GaN light emitting diodes. Systematic size and spacing effects were performed side-by-side on a single 2” sapphire substrate to minimize experimental sampling errors for a set of 144 pattern arrays with circular mask opening windows in SiO 2. We show that the mask opening diameter leads to as much as 4 times increasemore » in the thickness of the grown layers for 20 μm spacings and that spacing effects can lead to as much as 3 times increase in thickness for a 350 μm dot diameter. We also observed that the facet evolution in comparison with extracted Ga adatom diffusion lengths directly influences the vertical and lateral overgrowth rates and can be controlled with pattern geometry. Lastly, such control over the facet development led to 2.5 times stronger electroluminescence characteristics from well-faceted GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well LEDs compared to non-faceted structures.« less

  14. Progress Report for a New Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Dick, G. J.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    We present design progress and subsystem test results for a new short-term frequency standard, the Voltage Controlled Sapphire Oscillator (VCSO). Included are sapphire resonator and coupling design, cryocooler environmental sensitivity tests, Q measurement results, and turnover temperature results. A previous report presented history of the design related to resonator frequency and frequency compensation [1]. Performance goals are a frequency stability of 1x10(exp -14) (1 second less than or equal to (tau) less than or equal to 100 seconds) and two years or more continuous operation. Long-term operation and small size are facilitated by use of a small Stirling cryo-cooler (160W wall power) with an expected 5 year life.

  15. Visualization and Analysis of Impact Damage in Sapphire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    transparent armor materials like Starphire soda - lime and borosilicate glass [8], fused silica [9] and the transparent polycrystalline ceramic AlON...conventional glass -based armor when a transparent ceramic is used as strike face on a glass -polymer laminate [1, 2, 3]. Sapphire, i.e. single crystal aluminum...materials. Since part of transparent armor consists of brittle materials, the fragmentation of the ceramic and glass layers plays a key role in the

  16. Numerical Study of Damage Propagation and Dynamic Fracture in Sapphire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-30

    NOTICES Disclaimers The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so...package by using three- dimensional, 180 degrees (reflective) modeling and simulation. This study reports on the ability and the modification of...existing strength and failure material models of Al2O3 to be used as sapphire models for duplication of the experimental fracture and wave propagation in

  17. Time dependent temperature distribution in pulsed Ti:sapphire lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. Martin; Byvik, Charles E.; Farrukh, Usamah O.

    1988-01-01

    An expression is derived for the time dependent temperature distribution in a finite solid state laser rod for an end-pumped beam of arbitrary shape. The specific case of end pumping by circular (constant) or Gaussian beam is described. The temperature profile for a single pump pulse and for repetitive pulse operation is discussed. The particular case of the temperature distribution in a pulsed titanium:sapphire rod is considered.

  18. Solution of a Plane Hydrofracture Problem with Stress Contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkov, I. O.; Linkov, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    A plane hydrofracture problem for the Khristianovich-Geertsma-de Klerk model is extended and solved in the case where a confining stress closing a fracture is not constant in the direction of its propagation. A method is developed for solving the problem with an arbitrary stress contrast. It is stated that the transition through a contact with positive (negative) contrast occurs with fracture arresting (acceleration), whose intensity is controlled by a dimensionless parameter derived from theoretical considerations and numerical results.

  19. Titanium-doped sapphire laser research and design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moulton, Peter F.

    1987-01-01

    Three main topics were considered in this study: the fundamental laser parameters of titanium-doped sapphire, characterization of commercially grown material, and design of a tunable, narrow-linewidth laser. Fundamental parameters investigated included the gain cross section, upper-state lifetime as a function of temperature and the surface-damage threshold. Commercial material was found to vary widely in the level of absorption of the laser wavelength with the highest absorption in Czochralski-grown crystals. Several Yi:sapphire lasers were constructed, including a multimode laser with greater than 50mJ of output energy and a single-transverse-mode ring laser, whose spectral and temporal characteristics were completely characterized. A design for a narrow-linewidth (single-frequency) Ti:sapphire laser was developed, based on the results of the experimental work. The design involves the use of a single-frequency, quasi-cw master oscillator, employed as an injection source for a pulsed ring laser.

  20. [Evaluation of the Abbott Cell-Dyn Sapphire hematology analyzer].

    PubMed

    Park, Younhee; Song, Jaewoo; Song, Sungwook; Song, Kyung Soon; Ahn, Mee Suk; Yang, Mi-Sook; Kim, Il; Choi, Jong Rak

    2007-06-01

    The performance of Cell-Dyn Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostic, USA) was compared to the Bayer Advia 2120 (Bayer Diagnostics, USA), Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex Corporation, Japan), and reference microscopy. Three hundred samples for routine CBC and WBC differentials were randomly chosen for a comparison analysis. The Cell-Dyn Sapphire system was evaluated according to the linearity, imprecision, inter-instrument correlations, and white blood cell differential. The CBC parameters (WBC, RBC, hemoglobin and platelet) showed a significant linearity with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99 (P<0.0001). Coefficients of variation (CV) for within-run and differential count of WBC were less than 5% except for Total CV for monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils and within-run CV for low valued eosinophils. The correlation coefficients with manual count were lower in monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils than in neutrophils and lymphocytes. The correlation with other hematology anlayzers was significant exclusive of basophils. These results demonstrate that the Cell-Dyn Sapphire has a good linearity, an acceptable reproducibility, a minimal carryover, and a comparable performance with the sysmex XE-2100 and Advia 2120.

  1. Natural substrate lift-off technique for vertical light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chia-Yu; Lan, Yu-Pin; Tu, Po-Min; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chi, Gou-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2014-04-01

    Hexagonal inverted pyramid (HIP) structures and the natural substrate lift-off (NSLO) technique were demonstrated on a GaN-based vertical light-emitting diode (VLED). The HIP structures were formed at the interface between GaN and the sapphire substrate by molten KOH wet etching. The threading dislocation density (TDD) estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was reduced to 1 × 108 cm-2. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the compressive strain from the bottom GaN/sapphire was effectively released through the HIP structure. With the adoption of the HIP structure and NSLO, the light output power and yield performance of leakage current could be further improved.

  2. Efficient evaluation of epitaxial MoS2 on sapphire by direct band structure imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hokwon; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Fregnaux, Mathieu; Benayad, Anass; Kung, Yen-Cheng; Kis, Andras; Renault, Olivier; Lanes Group, Epfl Team; Leti, Cea Team

    The electronic band structure evaluation of two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides is critical as the band structure can be greatly influenced by the film thickness, strain, and substrate. Here, we performed a direct measurement of the band structure of as-grown monolayer MoS2 on single crystalline sapphire by reciprocal-space photoelectron emission microscopy with a conventional laboratory ultra-violet He I light source. Arrays of gold electrodes were deposited onto the sample in order to avoid charging effects due to the insulating substrate. This allowed the high resolution mapping (ΔE = 0.2 eV Δk = 0.05 Å-1) of the valence states in momentum space down to 7 eV below the Fermi level. The high degree of the epitaxial alignment of the single crystalline MoS2 nuclei was verified by the direct momentum space imaging over a large area containing multiple nuclei. The derived values of the hole effective mass were 2.41 +/-0.05 m0 and 0.81 +/-0.05 m0, respectively at Γ and K points, consistent with the theoretical values of the freestanding monolayer MoS2 reported in the literature. HK acknowledges the french CEA Basic Technological Research program (RTB) for funding.

  3. α-Ga2O3 grown by low temperature atomic layer deposition on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. W.; Jarman, J. C.; Johnstone, D. N.; Midgley, P. A.; Chalker, P. R.; Oliver, R. A.; Massabuau, F. C.-P.

    2018-04-01

    α-Ga2O3 is a metastable phase of Ga2O3 of interest for wide bandgap engineering since it is isostructural with α-In2O3 and α-Al2O3. α-Ga2O3 is generally synthesised under high pressure (several GPa) or relatively high temperature (∼500 °C). In this study, we report the growth of α-Ga2O3 by low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) on sapphire substrate. The film was grown at a rate of 0.48 Å/cycle, and predominantly consists of α-Ga2O3 in the form of (0001) -oriented columns originating from the interface with the substrate. Some inclusions were also present, typically at the tips of the α phase columns and most likely comprising ε-Ga2O3. The remainder of the Ga2O3 film - i.e. nearer the surface and between the α-Ga2O3 columns, was amorphous. The film was found to be highly resistive, as is expected for undoped material. This study demonstrates that α-Ga2O3 films can be grown by low temperature ALD and suggests the possibility of a new range of ultraviolet optoelectronic and power devices grown by ALD. The study also shows that scanning electron diffraction is a powerful technique to identify the different polymorphs of Ga2O3 present in multiphase samples.

  4. Laser welding of fused silica glass with sapphire using a non- stoichiometric, fresnoitic Ba2TiSi2O8·3 SiO2 thin film as an absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablos-Martín, A.; Lorenz, M.; Grundmann, M.; Höche, Th.

    2017-07-01

    Laser welding of dissimilar materials is challenging, due to their difference in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE). In this work, fused silica-to-sapphire joints were achieved by employment of a ns laser focused in the intermediate Si-enriched fresnoitic glass thin film sealant. The microstructure of the bonded interphase was analyzed down to the nanometer scale and related to the laser parameters used. The crystallization of fresnoite in the glass sealant upon laser process leads to an intense blue emission intensity under UV excitation. This crystallization is favored in the interphase with the silica glass substrate, rather than in the border with the sapphire. The formation of SiO2 particles was confirmed, as well. The bond quality was evaluated by scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM). The substrates remain bonded even after heat treatment at 100 °C for 30 min, despite the large CTE difference between both substrates.

  5. Spectroscopic properties for identifying sapphire samples from Ban Bo Kaew, Phrae Province, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogmued, J.; Monarumit, N.; Won-in, K.; Satitkune, S.

    2017-09-01

    Gemstone commercial is a high revenue for Thailand especially ruby and sapphire. Moreover, Phrae is a potential gem field located in the northern part of Thailand. The studies of spectroscopic properties are mainly to identify gemstone using advanced techniques (e.g. UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometry, FTIR spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy). Typically, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometry is a technique to study the cause of color in gemstones. FTIR spectrometry is a technique to study the functional groups in gem-materials. Raman pattern can be applied to identify the mineral inclusions in gemstones. In this study, the natural sapphires from Ban Bo Kaew were divided into two groups based on colors including blue and green. The samples were analyzed by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer, FTIR spectrometer and Raman spectroscope for studying spectroscopic properties. According to UV-Vis-NIR spectra, the blue sapphires show higher Fe3+/Ti4+ and Fe2+/Fe3+ absorption peaks than those of green sapphires. Otherwise, green sapphires display higher Fe3+/Fe3+ absorption peaks than blue sapphires. The FTIR spectra of both blue and green sapphire samples show the absorption peaks of -OH,-CH and CO2. The mineral inclusions such as ferrocolumbite and rutile in sapphires from this area were observed by Raman spectroscope. The spectroscopic properties of sapphire samples from Ban Bo Kaew, Phrae Province, Thailand are applied to be the specific evidence for gemstone identification.

  6. A plane mirror experiment inspired by a comic strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lúcio Prados Ribeiro, Jair

    2016-01-01

    A comic strip about a plane mirror was used in a high school optics test, and it was perceived that a large portion of the students believed that the mirror should be larger than the object so the virtual image could be entirely visible. Inspired on the comic strip, an experimental demonstration with flat mirrors was developed, in order to readdress this topic learning. Students were encouraged to create their own investigation of the phenomenon with a simple instrumental apparatus and also suggest different experimental approaches.

  7. On deformation of complex continuum immersed in a plane space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, V. A.; Murashkin, E. V.; Radayev, Y. N.

    2018-05-01

    The present paper is devoted to mathematical modelling of complex continua deformations considered as immersed in an external plane space. The complex continuum is defined as a differential manifold supplied with metrics induced by the external space. A systematic derivation of strain tensors by notion of isometric immersion of the complex continuum into a plane space of a higher dimension is proposed. Problem of establishing complete systems of irreducible objective strain and extrastrain tensors for complex continuum immersed in an external plane space is resolved. The solution to the problem is obtained by methods of the field theory and the theory of rational algebraic invariants. Strain tensors of the complex continuum are derived as irreducible algebraic invariants of contravariant vectors of the external space emerging as functional arguments in the complex continuum action density. Present analysis is restricted to rational algebraic invariants. Completeness of the considered systems of rational algebraic invariants is established for micropolar elastic continua. Rational syzygies for non-quadratic invariants are discussed. Objective strain tensors (indifferent to frame rotations in the external plane space) for micropolar continuum are alternatively obtained by properly combining multipliers of polar decompositions of deformation and extra-deformation gradients. The latter is realized only for continua immersed in a plane space of the equal mathematical dimension.

  8. Helicon mysteries: fitting a plane wave into a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boswell, Rod

    2011-10-01

    Since the first reports in the 1960s, the dispersion of helicon waves in a plasma cylinder has been difficult to describe theoretically for axial wavelengths that are greater than the plasma radius. About 10 years ago, Breizman and Arefiev showed how radial density gradients make the plasma column similar to a coaxial cable, allowing the helicon waves to propagate below the cut-off frequency. The resulting dispersion relation is similar to that of a plane wave propagating parallel to the magnetic field. A few years later, Degeling et. al. presented experimental evidence demonstrating such a plane wave dispersion for a broad range of axial wave numbers. The reason lies in the decoupling of the Hall and electron inertial terms in the dispersion, the former describing the electromagnetic propagation and the latter the electrostatic propagation. Combining the experimental and theoretical results has recently thrown further light on this phenomenon that is applicable to both space and laboratory situations. Radially Localized Helicon Modes in Nonuniform Plasma, Boris N. Breizman and Alexey V. Arefiev, Phys. Rev. Letts. 84, 3863 (2000). Transitions from electrostatic to electromagnetic whistler wave excitation, A. W. Degeling, G. G. Borg and R. W. Boswell, Phys. Plasmas, 11, 2144, (2004).

  9. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, P. C.; Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A.; Calligaro, T.

    2010-06-01

    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al 2O 3 crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of μg/g of beryllium in Al 2O 3 crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-μm diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction 9Be(α, nγ) 12C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt γ-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt γ-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the 27Al(α, pγ) 30Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required μg/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 μC, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 μg/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 μg/g.

  10. Electroform replication of smooth mirrors from sapphire masters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altkorn, R.; Chang, J.; Haidle, R.; Takacs, P. Z.; Ulmer, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    A sapphire master was used to produce mirrors that exhibit mid-to-high-frequency roughness as low as 3 A. The fabrication procedure and potential applications in X-ray astronomy are discussed. It is shown that foils replicated from flat smooth mandrels should offer at least equivalent HF roughness and significantly lower mid-frequency ripple than those coated with lacquer. A ceramic-surface mandrel could also be expected to last far longer without the need for repolishing than electroless nickel-coated mandrels.

  11. Injection mode-locking Ti-sapphire laser system

    DOEpatents

    Hovater, James Curtis; Poelker, Bernard Matthew

    2002-01-01

    According to the present invention there is provided an injection modelocking Ti-sapphire laser system that produces a unidirectional laser oscillation through the application of a ring cavity laser that incorporates no intracavity devices to achieve unidirectional oscillation. An argon-ion or doubled Nd:YVO.sub.4 laser preferably serves as the pump laser and a gain-switched diode laser serves as the seed laser. A method for operating such a laser system to produce a unidirectional oscillating is also described.

  12. Structural characterization of ZnO thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotný, M.; Čížek, J.; Kužel, R.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J.; Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.

    2012-06-01

    ZnO thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on three different substrates: sapphire (0 0 0 1), MgO (1 0 0) and fused silica (FS). The structure and morphology of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and defect studies were carried out using slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). Films deposited on all substrates studied in this work exhibit the wurtzite ZnO structure and are characterized by an average crystallite size of 20-100 nm. However, strong differences in the microstructure of films deposited on various substrates were found. The ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit local epitaxy, i.e. a well-defined relation between film crystallites and the substrate. Domains with different orientation relationships with the substrate were found in both films. On the other hand, the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits fibre texture with random lateral orientation of crystallites. Extremely high compressive in-plane stress of σ ˜ 14 GPa was determined in the film deposited on the MgO substrate, while the film deposited on sapphire is virtually stress-free, and the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits a tensile in-plane stress of σ ˜ 0.9 GPa. SPIS investigations revealed that the concentration of open-volume defects in the ZnO films is substantially higher than that in a bulk ZnO single crystal. Moreover, the ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit a significantly higher density of defects than the film deposited on the amorphous FS substrate.

  13. Implementation of ZnO/ZnMgO strained-layer superlattice for ZnO heteroepitaxial growth on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petukhov, Vladimir; Bakin, Andrey; Tsiaoussis, Ioannis; Rothman, Johan; Ivanov, Sergey; Stoemenos, John; Waag, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    The main challenge in fabrication of ZnO-based devices is the absence of reliable p-type material. This is mostly caused by insufficient crystalline quality of the material and not well-enough-developed native point defect control of ZnO. At present high-quality ZnO wafers are still expensive and ZnO heteroepitaxial layers on sapphire are the most reasonable alternative to homoepitaxial layers. But it is still necessary to improve the crystalline quality of the heteroepitaxial layers. One of the approaches to reduce defect density in heteroepitaxial layers is to introduce a strained-layer superlattice (SL) that could stop dislocation propagation from the substrate-layer interface. In the present paper we have employed fifteen periods of a highly strained SL structure. The structure was grown on a conventional double buffer layer comprising of high-temperature MgO/low-temperature ZnO on sapphire. The influence of the SLs on the properties of the heteroepitaxial ZnO layers is investigated. Electrical measurements of the structure with SL revealed very high values of the carrier mobility up to 210 cm2/Vs at room temperature. Structural characterization of the obtained samples showed that the dislocation density in the following ZnO layer was not reduced. The high mobility signal appears to come from the SL structure or the SL/ZnO interface.

  14. Effect of Charging Electron Exposure on 1064nm Transmission Through Bare Sapphire Optics and SiO2 over HfO2 AR-Coated Sapphire Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottens, Brian P.; Connelly, Joseph; Brown, Stephen; Roeder, James; Kauder, Lonny; Cavanaugh, John

    2010-01-01

    Experiments measuring the effect of electron exposure on 1064nm transmission for optical sapphire were conducted. Detailed before and after inspections did not identify any resulting Litchenburg patterns. Pre- and post-exposure 1064nm transmission measurements are compared.

  15. Effect of Charging Electron Exposure on 1064nm Transmission through Bare Sapphire Optics and SiO2 over HfO2 AR-coated Sapphire Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottens, Brian P.; Connelly, Joseph; Brown, Stephen; Roeder, james; Kauder, Lonny; Cavanaugh, John

    2008-01-01

    Experiments measuring the effect of electron exposure on 1064nm transmission for optical sapphire were conducted. Detailed before and after inspections did not identify any resulting Litchenburg patterns. Pre- and post-exposure 1064nm transmission measurements are compared.

  16. Analysis and modification of blue sapphires from Rwanda by ion beam techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bootkul, D.; Chaiwai, C.; Tippawan, U.; Wanthanachaisaeng, B.; Intarasiri, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blue sapphire is categorised in a corundum (Al2O3) group. The gems of this group are always amazed by their beauties and thus having high value. In this study, blue sapphires from Rwanda, recently came to Thai gemstone industry, are chosen for investigations. On one hand, we have applied Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), which is a highly sensitive and precise analytical technique that can be used to identify and quantify trace elements, for chemical analysis of the sapphires. Here we have found that the major element of blue sapphires from Rwanda is Al with trace elements such as Fe, Ti, Cr, Ga and Mg as are commonly found in normal blue sapphire. On the other hand, we have applied low and medium ion implantations for color improvement of the sapphire. It seems that a high amount of energy transferring during cascade collisions have altered the gems properties. We have clearly seen that the blue color of the sapphires have been intensified after nitrogen ion bombardment. In addition, the gems were also having more transparent and luster. The UV-Vis-NIR measurement detected the modification of their absorption properties, implying of the blue color increasing. Here the mechanism of these modifications is postulated and reported. In any point of view, the bombardment by using nitrogen ion beam is a promising technique for quality improvement of the blue sapphire from Rwanda.

  17. Effect of the substrate on the insulator-metal transition of vanadium dioxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, György J.; Bürger, Danilo; Skorupa, Ilona; Reuther, Helfried; Heller, René; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2011-03-01

    Single-phase vanadium dioxide films grown on (0001) sapphire and (001) silicon substrates show a very different insulator-metal electronic transition. A detailed description of the growth mechanisms and the substrate-film interaction is given, and the characteristics of the electronic transition are described by the morphology and grain boundary structure. (Tri-)epitaxy-stabilized columnar growth of VO2 takes place on the sapphire substrate, whereas on silicon the expected Zone II growth is identified. We have found that in the case of the Si substrate the reasons for the broader hysteresis and the lower switching amplitude are the formation of an amorphous insulating VOx (x > 2.6) phase coexisting with VO2 and the high vanadium vacancy concentration of the VO2. These phenomena are the result of the excess oxygen during the growth and the interaction between the silicon substrate and the growing film.

  18. Simulation and optimization of silicon-on-sapphire pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulesh, N. A.; Kudyukov, E. V.; Balymov, K. G.; Beloyshov, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, finite element analysis software COMSOL Multiphysics was used to simulate the performance of silicon-on-sapphire piezoresistive pressure sensor, aiming to elaborate a flexible model suitable for further optimization and customization of the currently produced pressure sensors. The base model was built around the cylindrical pressure cell made of titanium alloy having a circular diaphragm with monocrystalline sapphire layer attached. The monocrystalline piezoresistive elements were placed on top of the double-layer diaphragm and electrically connected to form the Wheatstone bridge. Verification of the model and parametric study included three main areas: geometrical parameters of the cell, position of the elements on the diaphragm, and operation at elevated temperature. Optimization of the cell geometry included variation of bossed titanium diaphragm parameters as well as rounding-off radiuses near the edges of the diaphragm. Influence of the temperature was considered separately for thermal expansion of the mechanical components and for the changes of electrical and piezoresistive properties of the piezoresistive elements. In conclusion, the simulation results were compared to the experimental data obtained for three different constructions of the commercial pressure sensors produced by SPA of Automatics named after Academician N.A. Semikhatov.

  19. Characterization of sapphire: For its material properties at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Harman Singh

    There are numerous needs for sensing, one of which is in pressure sensing for high temperature application such as combustion related process and embedded in aircraft wings for reusable space vehicles. Currently, silicon based MEMS technology is used for pressure sensing. However, due to material properties the sensors have a limited range of approximately 600 °C which is capable of being pushed towards 1000 °C with active cooling. This can introduce reliability issues when you add more parts and high flow rates to remove large amounts of heat. To overcome this challenge, sapphire is investigated for optical based pressure transducers at temperatures approaching 1400 °C. Due to its hardness and chemical inertness, traditional cutting and etching methods used in MEMS technology are not applicable. A method that is being investigated as a possible alternative is laser machining using a picosecond laser. In this research, we study the material property changes that occur from laser machining and quantify the changes with the experimental results obtained by testing sapphire at high-temperature with a standard 4-point bending set-up.

  20. Broadband dielectric characterization of sapphire/TiOx/Ba₀.₃Sr₀.₇TiO₃ (111)-oriented thin films for the realization of a tunable interdigitated capacitor.

    PubMed

    Ghalem, Areski; Ponchel, Freddy; Remiens, Denis; Legier, Jean-Francois; Lasri, Tuami

    2013-05-01

    A complete microwave characterization up to 67 GHz using specific coplanar waveguides was performed to determine the dielectric properties (permittivity, losses, and tunability) of sapphire/TiOx/Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3 (BST) (111)-oriented thin films. To that end, BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on sapphire (0001) substrate. To control the preferred (111) orientation, a TiOx buffer layer was deposited on sapphire. According to the detailed knowledge of the material properties, it has been possible to conceive, fabricate, and test interdigitated capacitors, the basic element for future microwave tunable applications. Retention of capacitive behavior up to 67 GHz and a tunability of 32% at 67 GHz at an applied voltage of 30 V (150 kV/cm) were observed. The Q-factor remains greater than 30 over the entire frequency band. The possibility of a complete characterization of the material for the realization of high-performance interdigitated capacitors opens the door to microwave device fabrication.

  1. Method of Fabricating Double Sided Si(Ge)/Sapphire/III-Nitride Hybrid Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    One aspect of the present invention is a double sided hybrid crystal structure including a trigonal Sapphire wafer containing a (0001) C-plane and having front and rear sides. The Sapphire wafer is substantially transparent to light in the visible and infrared spectra, and also provides insulation with respect to electromagnetic radio frequency noise. A layer of crystalline Si material having a cubic diamond structure aligned with the cubic <111> direction on the (0001) C-plane and strained as rhombohedron to thereby enable continuous integration of a selected (SiGe) device onto the rear side of the Sapphire wafer. The double sided hybrid crystal structure further includes an integrated III-Nitride crystalline layer on the front side of the Sapphire wafer that enables continuous integration of a selected III-Nitride device on the front side of the Sapphire wafer.

  2. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structural formation on sapphire with nanolayered gold coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Kai; Wang, Cong; Duan, Ji'an; Guo, Chunlei

    2016-09-01

    Sapphire has a potential as a new generation of electronics display. However, direct processing of sapphire surface by visible or near-IR laser light is challenging since sapphire is transparent to these wavelengths. In this study, we investigate the formation of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) on sapphire coated with nanolayered gold film. We found a reduced threshold by about 25 % in generating uniform LIPSSs on sapphire due to the nanolayered gold film. Different thickness of nanolayered gold films are studied, and it is shown that the change in thickness does not significantly affect the threshold reduction. It is believed that the diffusion of hot electrons in the gold films increases interfacial carrier density and electron-phonon coupling that results in a reduced threshold and more uniform periodic surface structure generation.

  3. Snakes on a plane: modeling flexible active nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selinger, Robin

    Active soft matter systems of self-propelled rod-shaped particles exhibit ordered phases and collective behavior that are remarkably different from their passive analogs. In nature, many self-propelled rod-shaped particles, such as gliding bacteria and kinesin-driven microtubules, are flexible and can bend. We model these ``living liquid crystals'' to explore their phase behavior, dynamics, and pattern formation. We model particles as short polymers via molecular dynamics with a Langevin thermostat and various types of activity, substrate, and environments. For self-propelled polar particles gliding on a solid substrate, we map out the phase diagram as a function of particle density and flexibility. We compare simulated defect structures to those observed in colonies of gliding myxobacteria; compare spooling behavior to that observed in microtubule gliding assays; and analyze emergence of nematic and polar order. Next we explore pattern formation of self-propelled polar particles under flexible encapsulation, and on substrates with non-uniform Gaussian curvature. Lastly, we impose an activity mechanism that mimics extensile shear, study flexible particles both on solid substrates and coupled to a lipid membrane, and discuss comparisons to relevant experiments. Work performed in collaboration with Michael Varga (Kent State) and Luca Giomi (Universiteit Leiden.) Work supported by NSF DMR-1409658.

  4. Holographic fabrication of gratings in metal substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, R. M.; Wagner, D. K.; Ballantyne, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    A program for investigating the grain enlargement resulting from the laser recrystallization of a thin gallium arsenide film on a patterned substrate, a technique known as graphoepitaxy was evaluated. More specifically, the effects of recrystallizing an uncapped gallium arsenide film using a continuous wave neodymium YAG laser operating at 1.06 microns were studied. In an effort to minimize arsenic loss from the film, the specimens were held in an arsine atmosphere during recrystallization. Two methods for fabricating patterned substrates were developed, one using reactive ion etching of a molybdenum film on both sapphire and silicon substates and another by preferential wet etching of a silicon substrate onto which a film of molybdenum was subsequently deposited.

  5. Fabrication Of SNS Weak Links On SOS Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Brian D.

    1995-01-01

    High-quality superconductor/normal-conductor/superconductor (SNS) devices ("weak links") containing epitaxial films of YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-x) and SrTiO(3) fabricated on silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) substrates with help of improved multilayer buffer system. Process for fabrication of edge-defined SNS weak links described in "Edge-Geometry SNS Devices Made of Y/Ba/Cu" (NPO-18552).

  6. Atomic Step Formation on Sapphire Surface in Ultra-precision Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rongrong; Guo, Dan; Xie, Guoxin; Pan, Guoshun

    2016-01-01

    Surfaces with controlled atomic step structures as substrates are highly relevant to desirable performances of materials grown on them, such as light emitting diode (LED) epitaxial layers, nanotubes and nanoribbons. However, very limited attention has been paid to the step formation in manufacturing process. In the present work, investigations have been conducted into this step formation mechanism on the sapphire c (0001) surface by using both experiments and simulations. The step evolutions at different stages in the polishing process were investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The simulation of idealized steps was constructed theoretically on the basis of experimental results. It was found that (1) the subtle atomic structures (e.g., steps with different sawteeth, as well as steps with straight and zigzag edges), (2) the periodicity and (3) the degree of order of the steps were all dependent on surface composition and miscut direction (step edge direction). A comparison between experimental results and idealized step models of different surface compositions has been made. It has been found that the structure on the polished surface was in accordance with some surface compositions (the model of single-atom steps: Al steps or O steps). PMID:27444267

  7. Infrared Reflectance Analysis of Epitaxial n-Type Doped GaN Layers Grown on Sapphire.

    PubMed

    Tsykaniuk, Bogdan I; Nikolenko, Andrii S; Strelchuk, Viktor V; Naseka, Viktor M; Mazur, Yuriy I; Ware, Morgan E; DeCuir, Eric A; Sadovyi, Bogdan; Weyher, Jan L; Jakiela, Rafal; Salamo, Gregory J; Belyaev, Alexander E

    2017-12-01

    Infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy is applied to study Si-doped multilayer n + /n 0 /n + -GaN structure grown on GaN buffer with GaN-template/sapphire substrate. Analysis of the investigated structure by photo-etching, SEM, and SIMS methods showed the existence of the additional layer with the drastic difference in Si and O doping levels and located between the epitaxial GaN buffer and template. Simulation of the experimental reflectivity spectra was performed in a wide frequency range. It is shown that the modeling of IR reflectance spectrum using 2 × 2 transfer matrix method and including into analysis the additional layer make it possible to obtain the best fitting of the experimental spectrum, which follows in the evaluation of GaN layer thicknesses which are in good agreement with the SEM and SIMS data. Spectral dependence of plasmon-LO-phonon coupled modes for each GaN layer is obtained from the spectral dependence of dielectric of Si doping impurity, which is attributed to compensation effects by the acceptor states.

  8. Atomic Step Formation on Sapphire Surface in Ultra-precision Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongrong; Guo, Dan; Xie, Guoxin; Pan, Guoshun

    2016-07-01

    Surfaces with controlled atomic step structures as substrates are highly relevant to desirable performances of materials grown on them, such as light emitting diode (LED) epitaxial layers, nanotubes and nanoribbons. However, very limited attention has been paid to the step formation in manufacturing process. In the present work, investigations have been conducted into this step formation mechanism on the sapphire c (0001) surface by using both experiments and simulations. The step evolutions at different stages in the polishing process were investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The simulation of idealized steps was constructed theoretically on the basis of experimental results. It was found that (1) the subtle atomic structures (e.g., steps with different sawteeth, as well as steps with straight and zigzag edges), (2) the periodicity and (3) the degree of order of the steps were all dependent on surface composition and miscut direction (step edge direction). A comparison between experimental results and idealized step models of different surface compositions has been made. It has been found that the structure on the polished surface was in accordance with some surface compositions (the model of single-atom steps: Al steps or O steps).

  9. α-Al2O3/Ga2O3 superlattices coherently grown on r-plane sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Takayoshi; Kato, Yuji; Imura, Masataka; Nakayama, Yoshiko; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2018-06-01

    Ten-period binary α-Al2O3/Ga2O3 superlattices were fabricated on r-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. By systematic variation of α-Ga2O3 thickness and evaluation through X-ray reflectivity and diffraction measurements and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we verified that the superlattice with α-Ga2O3 thickness up to ∼1 nm had coherent interfaces without misfit dislocation in spite of the large lattice mismatches. This successful fabrication of coherent α-Al2O3/Ga2O3 superlattices will encourage further development of α-(Al x Ga1‑ x )2O3-based heterostructures including superlattices.

  10. Improved crystalline quality of AlN epitaxial layer on sapphire by introducing TMGa pulse flow into the nucleation stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hualong; Wang, Hailong; Chen, Yingda; Zhang, Lingxia; Chen, Zimin; Wu, Zhisheng; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Hao

    2018-05-01

    The crystalline quality of AlN epitaxial layers on sapphire substrates was improved by introducing trimethylgallium (TMGa) pulse flow into the growth of AlN nucleation layers. It was found that the density of both screw- and edge-type threading dislocations could be significantly reduced by introducing the TMGa pulse flow. With increasing TMGa pulse flow times, the lateral correlation length (i.e. the grain size) increases and the strain in the AlN epilayers changes from tensile state to compressive state. Unstrained AlN with the least dislocations and a smooth surface was obtained by introducing 2-times TMGa pulse flow. The crystalline improvement is attributed to enhanced lateral growth and improved crystalline orientation by the TMGa pulse flow.

  11. Deep-UV sensors based on SAW oscillators using low-temperature-grown AlN films on sapphires.

    PubMed

    Laksana, Chipta; Chen, Meei-Ru; Liang, Yen; Tzou, An-Jyeg; Kao, Hui-Ling; Jeng, Erik; Chen, Jyh; Chen, Hou-Guang; Jian, Sheng-Rui

    2011-08-01

    High-quality epitaxial AlN films were deposited on sapphire substrates at low growth temperature using a helicon sputtering system. SAW filters fabricated on the AlN films exhibited excellent characteristics, with center frequency of 354.2 MHz, which corresponds to a phase velocity of 5667 m/s. An oscillator fabricated using AlN-based SAW devices is presented and applied to deep-UV light detection. A frequency downshift of about 43 KHz was observed when the surface of SAW device was illuminated by a UV source with dominant wavelength of around 200 nm. The results indicate the feasibility of developing remote sensors for deep-UV measurement using AlN-based SAW oscillators.

  12. High-temperature sapphire optical sensor fiber coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desu, Seshu B.; Claus, Richard O.; Raheem, Ruby; Murphy, Kent A.

    1990-10-01

    the filter. These modes may be attributed to a number of material degradation mechanisms, such as thermal shock, oxidation corrosion of the material, mechanical loads, or phase changes in the filter material. Development of high temperature optical fiber (sapphire) sensors embedded in the CXF filters would be very valuable for both monitoring the integrity of the filter during its use and understanding the mechanisms of degradation such that durable filter development will be facilitated. Since the filter operating environment is very harsh, the high temperature sapphire optical fibers need to be protected and for some sensing techniques the fiber must also be coated with low refractive index film (cladding). The objective of the present study is to identify materials and develop process technologies for the application of claddings and protective coatings that are stable and compatible with sapphire fibers at both high temperatures and pressures.

  13. Research concerning the balancing of a plane mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bădoiu, D.; Petrescu, M. G.; Antonescu, N. N.; Toma, G.

    2018-01-01

    By statically balancing of the plane mechanisms and especially those functioning at high speeds is being pursued the decrease of the value of the resultant force of all inertia forces that work on the component elements, thus obtaining a significant decrease in vibrations and shocks during the functioning. On the other hand, the existence of balancing masses which ensure the balancing of the mechanism leads to increased gauge and its mass. In this paper are presented some possibilities of statically balancing a plane mechanism which is composed of three independent contours. First is analyzed the case when the mechanism is totally balanced. Then a solution is proposed for a partial balancing of the mechanism based on the balancing of the first harmonic of the inertia force developed in a piston of the mechanism. Finally, are presented some simulation results concerning the variation of the value of the resultant inertia force during a cinematic cycle when the mechanism is unbalanced and when it is partially balanced. Also, it is analyzed the variation of the motor moment when the mechanism is unbalanced and when is totally and partially balanced.

  14. Robust Notion Vision For A Vehicle Moving On A Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moni, Shankar; Weldon, E. J.

    1987-05-01

    A vehicle equipped with a cemputer vision system moves on a plane. We show that subject to certain constraints, the system can determine the motion of the vehicle (one rotational and two translational degrees of freedom) and the depth of the scene in front of the vehicle. The constraints include limits on the speed of the vehicle, presence of texture on the plane and absence of pitch and roll in the vehicular motion. It is possible to decouple the problems of finding the vehicle's motion and the depth of the scene in front of the vehicle by using two rigidly connected cameras. One views a field with known depth (i.e. the ground plane) and estimates the motion parameters and the other determines the depth map knowing the motion parameters. The motion is constrained to be planar to increase robustness. We use a least squares method of fitting the vehicle motion to observer brightness gradients. With this method, no correspondence between image points needs to be established and information fran the entire image is used in calculating notion. The algorithm performs very reliably on real image sequences and these results have been included. The results compare favourably to the performance of the algorithm of Negandaripour and Horn [2] where six degrees of freedom are assumed.

  15. Surface study of irradiated sapphires from Phrae Province, Thailand using AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monarumit, N.; Jivanantaka, P.; Mogmued, J.; Lhuaamporn, T.; Satitkune, S.

    2017-09-01

    The irradiation is one of the gemstone enhancements for improving the gem quality. Typically, there are many varieties of irradiated gemstones in the gem market such as diamond, topaz, and sapphire. However, it is hard to identify the gemstones before and after irradiation. The aim of this study is to analyze the surface morphology for classifying the pristine and irradiated sapphires using atomic force microscope (AFM). In this study, the sapphire samples were collected from Phrae Province, Thailand. The samples were irradiated by high energy electron beam for a dose of ionizing radiation at 40,000 kGy. As the results, the surface morphology of pristine sapphires shows regular atomic arrangement, whereas, the surface morphology of irradiated sapphires shows the nano-channel observed by the 2D and 3D AFM images. The atomic step height and root mean square roughness have changed after irradiation due to the micro-structural defect on the sapphire surface. Therefore, this study is a frontier application for sapphire identification before and after irradiation.

  16. Final EDP Ti: sapphire amplifiers for ELI project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvykov, Vladimir; Kalashnikov, Mikhail; Osvay, Károly

    2015-05-01

    Recently several ultrahigh intensity Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) laser systems have reached petawatt output powers [1, 2] setting the next milestone at tens or even hundreds petawatts for the next three to ten years [3, 4]. These remarkable results were reached when laser amplifiers (opposite to Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA) [5]) were used as final ones and from them Ti:Sapphire crystals supposed to be the working horses as well in the future design of these laser systems. Nevertheless, the main limitation that arises on the path toward ultrahigh output power and intensity is the restriction on the pumping and extraction energy imposed by Transverse Amplified Spontaneous Emission (TASE) [6] and/or transverse parasitic generation (TPG) [7] within the large aperture of the disc-shape amplifier volume.

  17. Site location and optical properties of Eu implanted sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, C.; Wemans, A.; Maneira, M. J. P.; Kozanecki, A.; da Silva, R. C.; Alves, E.

    2005-10-01

    Synthetic colourless transparent (0 0 0 1) sapphire crystals were implanted at room temperature with 100 keV europium ions to fluences up to 1 × 1016 cm-2. Surface damage is observed at low fluences, as seen by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry under channelling conditions. Optical absorption measurements revealed a variety of structures, most probably related to F-type defects characteristic of implantation damage. Thermal treatments in air or in vacuum up to 1000 °C do not produce noticeable changes both in the matrix or the europium profiles. However, the complete recovery of the implantation damage and some redistribution of the europium ions is achieved after annealing at 1300 °C in air. Detailed lattice site location studies performed for various axial directions allowed to assess the damage recovery and the incorporation of the Eu ions into well defined crystallographic sites, possibly in an oxide phase also inferred from optical absorption measurements.

  18. Sapphire: Canada's Answer to Space-Based Surveillance of Orbital Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskell, P.; Oram, L.

    The Canadian Department of National Defence is in the process of developing the Canadian Space Surveillance System (CSSS) as the main focus of the Surveillance of Space (SofS) Project. The CSSS consists of two major elements: the Sapphire System and the Sensor System Operations Centre (SSOC). The space segment of the Sapphire System is comprised of the Sapphire Satellite - an autonomous spacecraft with an electro-optical payload which will act as a contributing sensor to the United States (US) Space Surveillance Network (SSN). It will operate in a circular, sunsynchronous orbit at an altitude of approximately 750 kilometers and image a minimum of 360 space objects daily in orbits ranging from 6,000 to 40,000 kilometers in altitude. The ground segment of the Sapphire System is composed of a Spacecraft Control Center (SCC), a Satellite Processing and Scheduling Facility (SPSF), and the Sapphire Simulator. The SPSF will be responsible for data transmission, reception, and processing while the SCC will serve to control and monitor the Sapphire Satellite. Surveillance data will be received from Sapphire through two ground stations. Following processing by the SPSF, the surveillance data will then be forwarded to the SSOC. The SSOC will function as the interface between the Sapphire System and the US Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). The JSpOC coordinates input from various sensors around the world, all of which are a part of the SSN. The SSOC will task the Sapphire System daily and provide surveillance data to the JSpOC for correlation with data from other SSN sensors. This will include orbital parameters required to predict future positions of objects to be tracked. The SSOC receives daily tasking instructions from the JSpOC to determine which objects the Sapphire spacecraft is required to observe. The advantage of this space-based sensor over ground-based telescopes is that weather and time of day are not factors affecting observation. Thus, space-based optical

  19. [The design of all solid-state tunable pulsed Ti:sapphire laser system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Ku, Geng; Wan, Junchao; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Chuanqing

    2013-05-01

    This paper presented a design of broadly all solid-state tunable pulsed Ti:sapphire laser with high power and stable performance. The laser was pumped by custom-made Nd:YAG laser which had water cooling system and amplified by two stage amplifier. The method accomplished tunable output of all solid-state tunable pulsed Ti:sapphire laser by modifying the reflection angle of the back mirror. We investigated the relationship between the power of the pumping laser and the all solid-state tunable pulsed Ti: sapphire laser by changing the power of the pumping source.

  20. The Impact of GaN/Substrate Thermal Boundary Resistance on a HEMT Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    stack between the GaN and Substrate layers. The University of Bristol recently reported that this TBR in commercial devices on Silicon Carbide ( SiC ...Circuit RF Radio Frequency PA Power Amplifier SiC Silicon Carbide FEA Finite Element Analysis heff Effective Heat transfer Coefficient (W/m 2 K...substrate material switched from sapphire to silicon , and by another factor of two from silicon to SiC . TABLE 1: SAMPLE RESULTS FROM DOUGLAS ET AL. FOR

  1. Investigations of gain redshift in high peak power Ti:sapphire laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fenxiang; Yu, Linpeng; Zhang, Zongxin; Li, Wenkai; Yang, Xiaojun; Wu, Yuanfeng; Li, Shuai; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Yanqi; Lu, Xiaoming; Xu, Yi; Leng, Yuxin

    2018-07-01

    Gain redshift in high peak power Ti:sapphire laser systems can result in narrowband spectral output and hence lengthen the compressed pulse duration. In order to realize broadband spectral output in 10 PW-class Ti:sapphire lasers, the influence on gain redshift induced by spectral pre-shaping, gain distribution of cascaded amplifiers and Extraction During Pumping (EDP) technique have been investigated. The theoretical and experimental results show that the redshift of output spectrum is sensitive to the spectral pre-shaping and the gain distribution of cascaded amplifiers, while insensitive to the pumping scheme with or without EDP. Moreover, the output spectrum from our future 10 PW Ti:sapphire laser is theoretically analyzed based on the investigations above, which indicates that a Fourier-transform limited (FTL) pulse duration of 21 fs can be achieved just by optimizing the spectral pre-shaping and gain distribution in 10 PW-class Ti:sapphire lasers.

  2. Sapphire shaped crystals for laser-assisted cryodestruction of biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikunova, I. A.; Dubyanskaya, E. N.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Katyba, G. M.; Dolganova, I. N.; Mukhina, E. E.; Chernomyrdin, N. V.; Zaytsev, K. I.; Tuchin, V. V.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    We have developed cryo-applicators based on the sapphire shaped crystals fabricated using the edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) and noncapillary shaping (NCS) techniques. Due to the unique physical properties of sapphire: i.e. high thermal, mechanical, and chemical strength, impressive thermal conductivity and optical transparency, these cryo-applicators yield combination of the tissue cryo-destruction with its exposure to laser radiation for controlling the thermal regimes of cryosurgery, and with the optical diagnosis of tissue freezing. We have applied the proposed sapphire cryo-applicators for the destruction of tissues in vitro. The observed results highlight the prospectives of the sapphire cryo-applicators in cryosurgery.

  3. Single crystal growth of submillimeter diameter sapphire tube by the micro-pulling down method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Kei; Murakami, Rikito; Kochurikhin, Vladimir V.; Luidmila, Gushchina; Jin Kim, Kyoung; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Yamaji, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Ohashi, Yuji; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2018-06-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of the μ-PD growth technology as applied to submillimeter diameter sapphire tubes for UFD application. The μ-PD method has been successfully adapted for single crystal sapphire tube growth. A compound crucible made possible the growth of single crystal sapphire tube as small as around 0.70-0.72 mm in outer diameter and 0.28-0.29 in inner diameter over 160 mm in length at growth rate of 2-4 mm/min along 〈0 0 1〉 direction. An Ir crucible with a die composed of an equivalent hole and Ir wire was heated by RF coil in N2 atmosphere. The μ-PD method has been successfully adapted for single crystal sapphire tube growth. Grown crystal tube showed good XRC value of 30.2 arcsec.

  4. High temperature sensing using higher-order-mode rejected sapphire-crystal fiber gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Chun; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Jon; Yin, Stuart; Ruffin, Paul; Luo, Claire

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we report the fabrication of higher-order-mode rejected fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in sapphire crystal fiber using infrared (IR) femtosecond laser illumination. The grating is tested in high temperature furnace up to 1600 degree Celsius. As sapphire fiber is only available as highly multimode fiber, a scheme to filter out higher order modes in favor for the fundamental mode is theoretically evaluated and experimentally demonstrated. The approach is to use an ultra thin sapphire crystal fiber (60 micron in diameter) to decrease the number of modes. The small diameter fiber also enables bending the fiber to certain radius which is carefully chosen to provide low loss for the fundamental mode LP01 and high loss for the other high-order modes. After bending, less-than-2-nm resonant peak bandwidth is achieved. The grating spectrum is improved, and higher resolution sensing measurement can be achieved. This mode filtering method is very easy to implement. Furthermore, the sapphire fiber is sealed with hi-purity alumina ceramic cement inside a flexible high temperature titanium tube, and the highly flexible titanium tube offers a robust packaging to sapphire fiber. Our high temperature sapphire grating sensor is very promising in extremely high temperature sensing application.

  5. Review and perspective: Sapphire optical fiber cladding development for harsh environment sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Buric, Michael; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Bo; Chorpening, Benjamin T.

    2018-03-01

    The potential to use single-crystal sapphire optical fiber as an alternative to silica optical fibers for sensing in high-temperature, high-pressure, and chemically aggressive harsh environments has been recognized for several decades. A key technological barrier to the widespread deployment of harsh environment sensors constructed with sapphire optical fibers has been the lack of an optical cladding that is durable under these conditions. However, researchers have not yet succeeded in incorporating a high-temperature cladding process into the typical fabrication process for single-crystal sapphire fibers, which generally involves seed-initiated fiber growth from the molten oxide state. While a number of advances in fabrication of a cladding after fiber-growth have been made over the last four decades, none have successfully transitioned to a commercial manufacturing process. This paper reviews the various strategies and techniques for fabricating an optically clad sapphire fiber which have been proposed and explored in published research. The limitations of current approaches and future prospects for sapphire fiber cladding are discussed, including fabrication methods and materials. The aim is to provide an understanding of the past research into optical cladding of sapphire fibers and to assess possible material systems for future research on this challenging problem for harsh environment sensors.

  6. A new high pressure sapphire nuclear magnetic resonance cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shi; Taylor, Craig M.; Mayne, Charles L.; Pugmire, Ronald J.; Grant, David M.

    1996-01-01

    A new version of a single-crystal sapphire high pressure nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) cell is described that is capable of controlling the sample pressure independent of the temperature. A movable piston inside the cell adjusts and controls the sample pressure from ambient conditions to 200 atm within ±0.3 atm. The linewidth at half-height for a 13C spectrum of carbon dioxide at 15 °C and 57.8 atm is found to be 0.5 Hz. The carbon dioxide gas/liquid phase transition is clearly observed by measuring 13C chemical shifts as the sample pressure approaches equilibrium. The time required for this NMR cell to reach equilibrium with its surroundings is relatively short, usually 15-30 min. The cell body has the same outer dimensions of a standard spinning turbine and fits into a standard 10 mm commercial probehead capable of controlling the sample temperature using the spectrometer's variable temperature unit. The flexibility of the device and the increased speed in making the measurement is demonstrated. Such control of important thermodynamic variables facilitates the NMR study of important biochemical and chemical reactions in gas, liquid, and supercritical fluid environments.

  7. GaN-based light-emitting diodes on various substrates: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqiang; Wang, Wenliang; Yang, Weijia; Lin, Yunhao; Wang, Haiyan; Lin, Zhiting; Zhou, Shizhong

    2016-05-01

    GaN and related III-nitrides have attracted considerable attention as promising materials for application in optoelectronic devices, in particular, light-emitting diodes (LEDs). At present, sapphire is still the most popular commercial substrate for epitaxial growth of GaN-based LEDs. However, due to its relatively large lattice mismatch with GaN and low thermal conductivity, sapphire is not the most ideal substrate for GaN-based LEDs. Therefore, in order to obtain high-performance and high-power LEDs with relatively low cost, unconventional substrates, which are of low lattice mismatch with GaN, high thermal conductivity and low cost, have been tried as substitutes for sapphire. As a matter of fact, it is not easy to obtain high-quality III-nitride films on those substrates for various reasons. However, by developing a variety of techniques, distincts progress has been made during the past decade, with high-performance LEDs being successfully achieved on these unconventional substrates. This review focuses on state-of-the-art high-performance GaN-based LED materials and devices on unconventional substrates. The issues involved in the growth of GaN-based LED structures on each type of unconventional substrate are outlined, and the fundamental physics behind these issues is detailed. The corresponding solutions for III-nitride growth, defect control, and chip processing for each type of unconventional substrate are discussed in depth, together with a brief introduction to some newly developed techniques in order to realize LED structures on unconventional substrates. This is very useful for understanding the progress in this field of physics. In this review, we also speculate on the prospects for LEDs on unconventional substrates.

  8. High-temperature effects on the light transmission through sapphire optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Brandon A.; Petrie, Christian M.; Blue, Thomas E.

    Single crystal sapphire optical fiber was tested at high temperatures (1500°C) to determine its suitability for optical instrumentation in high-temperature environments. Broadband light transmission (450-2300 nm) through sapphire fiber was measured as a function of temperature as a test of the fiber's ability to survive and operate in high-temperature environments. Upon heating sapphire fiber to 1400°C, large amounts of light attenuation were measured across the entire range of light wavelengths that were tested. SEM and TEM images of the heated sapphire fiber indicated that a layer had formed at the surface of the fiber, most likely due to a chemicalmore » change at high temperatures. The microscopy results suggest that the surface layer may be in the form of aluminum hydroxide. Subsequent tests of sapphire fiber in an inert atmosphere showed minimal light attenuation at high temperatures along with the elimination of any surface layers on the fiber, indicating that the air atmosphere is indeed responsible for the increased attenuation and surface layer formation at high temperatures.« less

  9. Properties Data for Adhesion and Surface Chemistry of Aluminum: Sapphire-Aluminum, Single-Crystal Couple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Pohlchuck, Bobby; Whitle, Neville C.; Hector, Louis G., Jr.; Adams, Jim

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the adhesion and surface chemistry of single-crystal aluminum in contact with single-crystal sapphire (alumina). Pull-off force (adhesion) measurements were conducted under loads of 0. I to I mN in a vacuum of 10(exp -1) to 10(exp -9) Pa (approx. 10(exp -10) to 10(exp -11) torr) at room temperature. An Auger electron spectroscopy analyzer incorporated directly into an adhesion-measuring vacuum system was primarily used to define the chemical nature of the surfaces before and after adhesion measurements. The surfaces were cleaned by argon ion sputtering. With a clean aluminum-clean -sapphire couple the mean value and standard deviation of pull-off forces required to separate the surfaces were 3015 and 298 micro-N, respectively. With a contaminated aluminum-clean sapphire couple these values were 231 and 241 micro-N. The presence of a contaminant film on the aluminum surface reduced adhesion by a factor of 13. Therefore, surfaces cleanliness, particularly aluminum cleanliness, played an important role in the adhesion of the aluminum-sapphire couples. Pressures on the order of 10(exp -8) to 10(exp -9) Pa (approx. 10(exp -10) to 10(exp -11) torr) maintained a clean aluminum surface for only a short time (less then 1 hr) but maintained a clean sapphire surface, once it was achieved, for a much longer time.

  10. High-temperature effects on the light transmission through sapphire optical fiber

    DOE PAGES

    Wilson, Brandon A.; Petrie, Christian M.; Blue, Thomas E.

    2018-03-13

    Single crystal sapphire optical fiber was tested at high temperatures (1500°C) to determine its suitability for optical instrumentation in high-temperature environments. Broadband light transmission (450-2300 nm) through sapphire fiber was measured as a function of temperature as a test of the fiber's ability to survive and operate in high-temperature environments. Upon heating sapphire fiber to 1400°C, large amounts of light attenuation were measured across the entire range of light wavelengths that were tested. SEM and TEM images of the heated sapphire fiber indicated that a layer had formed at the surface of the fiber, most likely due to a chemicalmore » change at high temperatures. The microscopy results suggest that the surface layer may be in the form of aluminum hydroxide. Subsequent tests of sapphire fiber in an inert atmosphere showed minimal light attenuation at high temperatures along with the elimination of any surface layers on the fiber, indicating that the air atmosphere is indeed responsible for the increased attenuation and surface layer formation at high temperatures.« less

  11. Temperature Compensated Sapphire Resonator for Ultrastable Oscillator Operating at Temperatures Near 77 Deg Kelvin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John (Inventor); Santiago, David G. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A sapphire resonator for an ultrastable oscillator capable of substantial performance improvements over the best available crystal quartz oscillators in a compact cryogenic package is based on a compensation mechanism enabled by the difference between copper and sapphire thermal expansion coefficients for so tuning the resonator as to cancel the temperature variation of the sapphire's dielectric constant. The sapphire resonator consists of a sapphire ring separated into two parts with webs on the outer end of each to form two re-entrant parts which are separated by a copper post. The re-entrant parts are bonded to the post by indium solder for good thermal conductivity between parts of that subassembly which is supported on the base plate of a closed copper cylinder (rf shielding casing) by a thin stainless steel cylinder. A unit for temperature control is placed in the stainless steel cylinder and is connected to the subassembly of re-entrant parts and copper post by a layer of indium for good thermal conduction. In normal use, the rf shielding casing is placed in a vacuum tank which is in turn placed in a thermos flask of liquid nitrogen. The temperature regulator is controlled from outside the thermos flask to a temperature in a range of about 40K to 150K, such as 87K for the WGH-811, mode of resonance in response to microwave energy inserted into the rf shielding casing through a port from an outside source.

  12. Fabrication of Monolithic Sapphire Membranes for High Tc Bolometer Array Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugel, D. E.; Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Wang, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of Pt/Cr thin film masks for the architecture of monolithic membrane structures in r-plane sapphire. The development of a pinhole-free Pt/Cr composite mask that is resistant to hot H2SO4:H3PO4 etchant, will lead to the fabrication of smooth sapphire membranes whose surfaces are well-suited for the growth of low-noise high Tc films. In particular, the relationship of thermal annealing conditions on the Pt/Cr composite mask system to: (1) changes in the surface morphology and elemental concentration of the Pt/Cr thin film layers and (2) etch pit formation on the sapphire surface will be presented.

  13. Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser pumped by a single laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, D. A.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kuritsyn, I. I.; Mavritskiy, A. O.; Perminov, B. E.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Murzina, T. V.; Maydykovskiy, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    The performance of a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a single 461 nm laser diode is presented for both the continuous-wave and the mode-locked regimes of operation. We introduce a simple astigmatism correction scheme for the laser diode beam consisting of two cylindrical lenses affecting the pump beam along the fast axis of the laser diode, which provides the mode-matching between the nearly square-shaped pump beam and the cavity mode. The resulting efficiency of the suggested Ti:Sapphire oscillator pumped by such a laser diode is analyzed for the Ti:sapphire crystals of 3 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm in length. We demonstrate that such a system provides the generation of ultrashort pulses up to 15 fs in duration with the repetition rate of 87 MHz, the average power being 170 mW.

  14. Fabrication of Monolithic Sapphire Membranes for High T(sub c) Bolometer Array Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugel, D. E.; Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Wang, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of Pt/Cr thin film masks for the architecture of monolithic membrane structures in r-plane single crystal sapphire. The development of a pinhole-free Pt/Cr composite mask that is resistant to boiling H2SO4:H3PO4 etchant will lead to the fabrication of smooth sapphire membranes whose surfaces are well-suited for the growth of low-noise high Tc films. In particular, the relationship of thermal annealing conditions on the Pt/Cr composite mask system to: (1) changes in the surface morphology (2) elemental concentration of the Pt/Cr thin film layers and (3) etch pit formation on the sapphire surface will be presented.

  15. Anisotropic structural and optical properties of semi-polar (11-22) GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using double AlN buffer layers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guijuan; Wang, Lianshan; Yang, Shaoyan; Li, Huijie; Wei, Hongyuan; Han, Dongyue; Wang, Zhanguo

    2016-02-10

    We report the anisotropic structural and optical properties of semi-polar (11-22) GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using a three-step growth method which consisted of a low temperature AlN buffer layer, followed by a high temperature AlN buffer layer and GaN growth. By introducing double AlN buffer layers, we substantially improve the crystal and optical qualities of semi-polar (11-22) GaN, and significantly reduce the density of stacking faults and dislocations. The high resolution x-ray diffraction measurement revealed that the in-plane anisotropic structural characteristics of GaN layer are azimuthal dependent. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the majority of dislocations in the GaN epitaxial layer grown on m-sapphire are the mixed-type and the orientation of GaN layer was rotated 58.4° against the substrate. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed the PL intensity and wavelength have polarization dependence along parallel and perpendicular to the [1-100] axis (polarization degrees ~ 0.63). The realization of a high polarization semi-polar GaN would be useful to achieve III-nitride based lighting emission device for displays and backlighting.

  16. Formation Mechanism of CuAlO2 Prepared by Rapid Thermal Annealing of Al2O3/Cu2O/Sapphire Sandwich Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, C. H.; Tseng, B. H.

    Single-phase CuAlO2 films were successfully prepared by thin-film reaction of an Al2O3/Cu2O/sapphire sandwich structure. We found that the processing parameters, such as heating rate, holding temperature and annealing ambient, were all crucial to form CuAlO2 without second phases. Thermal annealing in pure oxygen ambient with a lower temperature ramp rate might result in the formation of CuAl2O4 in addition to CuAlO2, since part of Cu2O was oxidized to form CuO and caused the change in reaction path, i.e. CuO + Al2O3 → CuAl2O4. Typical annealing conditions successful to prepare single-phase CuAlO2 would be to heat the sample with a temperature rampt rate higher than 7.3 °C/sec and hold the temperature at 1100 °C in air ambient. The formation mechanism of CuAlO2 has also been studied by interrupting the reaction after a short period of annealing. TEM observations showed that the top Al2O3 layer with amorphous structure reacted immediately with Cu2O to form CuAlO2 in the early stage and then the remaining Cu2O reacted with the sapphire substrate.

  17. High-pressure sapphire cell for phase equilibria measurements of CO2/organic/water systems.

    PubMed

    Pollet, Pamela; Ethier, Amy L; Senter, James C; Eckert, Charles A; Liotta, Charles L

    2014-01-24

    The high pressure sapphire cell apparatus was constructed to visually determine the composition of multiphase systems without physical sampling. Specifically, the sapphire cell enables visual data collection from multiple loadings to solve a set of material balances to precisely determine phase composition. Ternary phase diagrams can then be established to determine the proportion of each component in each phase at a given condition. In principle, any ternary system can be studied although ternary systems (gas-liquid-liquid) are the specific examples discussed herein. For instance, the ternary THF-Water-CO2 system was studied at 25 and 40 °C and is described herein. Of key importance, this technique does not require sampling. Circumventing the possible disturbance of the system equilibrium upon sampling, inherent measurement errors, and technical difficulties of physically sampling under pressure is a significant benefit of this technique. Perhaps as important, the sapphire cell also enables the direct visual observation of the phase behavior. In fact, as the CO2 pressure is increased, the homogeneous THF-Water solution phase splits at about 2 MPa. With this technique, it was possible to easily and clearly observe the cloud point and determine the composition of the newly formed phases as a function of pressure. The data acquired with the sapphire cell technique can be used for many applications. In our case, we measured swelling and composition for tunable solvents, like gas-expanded liquids, gas-expanded ionic liquids and Organic Aqueous Tunable Systems (OATS)(1-4). For the latest system, OATS, the high-pressure sapphire cell enabled the study of (1) phase behavior as a function of pressure and temperature, (2) composition of each phase (gas-liquid-liquid) as a function of pressure and temperature and (3) catalyst partitioning in the two liquid phases as a function of pressure and composition. Finally, the sapphire cell is an especially effective tool to gather

  18. Numerical simulation of the distribution of individual gas bubbles in shaped sapphire crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, A. V.; Borodin, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The simulation of the effective density of individual gas bubbles in a two-phase melt, consisting of a liquid and gas bubbles, is performed using the virtual model of the thermal unit. Based on the studies, for the first time the theoretically and experimentally grounded mechanism of individual gas bubbles formation in shaped sapphire is proposed. It is shown that the change of the melt flow pattern in crucible affects greatly the bubble density at the crystallization front, and in the crystal. The obtained results allowed reducing the number of individual gas bubbles in sapphire sheets.

  19. Ti:sapphire-pumped diamond Raman laser with sub-100-fs pulse duration.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, Michelle; Lin, Jipeng; Mildren, Richard P; Spence, David J

    2014-05-15

    We report a synchronously pumped femtosecond diamond Raman laser operating at 895 nm with a 33% slope efficiency. Pumped using a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser at 800 nm with a duration of 170 fs, the bandwidth of the Stokes output is broadened and chirped to enable subsequent pulse compression to 95 fs using a prism pair. Modeling results indicate that self-phase modulation drives the broadening of the Stokes spectrum in this highly transient laser. Our results demonstrate the potential for Raman conversion to extend the wavelength coverage and pulse shorten Ti:sapphire lasers.

  20. Femtosecond laser pulse distortion in Ti:sapphire multipass amplifier by atomic phase shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seungjin; Jeong, Jihoon; Cho, Seryeyohan; Lee, Jongmin; Yu, Tae Jun

    2017-11-01

    We have derived modified Frantz-Nodvik equations that simultaneously account for atomic phase shift (APS) and gain depletion as the chirped laser pulse passes through a gain medium, and have analyzed the effect of temporal pulse distortion in a Ti:sapphire multipass amplifier chain. The combination of APS and gain depletion distorted a temporal pulse and decreased the peak power. The pulse width increased from 21.3 fs to 22.8 fs and the peak power reduced to 89% for the PW class Ti:sapphire CPA laser system in the particular conditions.

  1. Ti:Sapphire micro-structures by femtosecond laser inscription: Guiding and luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yingying; Jiao, Yang; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Chen, Feng

    2016-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of buried cladding waveguides with different diameters in a Ti:Sapphire crystal by femtosecond laser inscription. The propagation properties are studied, showing that the cladding waveguides could support near- to mid-infrared waveguiding at both TE and TM polarizations. Confocal micro-photoluminescence experiments reveal that the original fluorescence properties in the waveguide region are very well preserved, while it suffers from a strong quenching at the centers of laser induced filaments. Broadband waveguide fluorescence emissions with high efficiency are realized, indicating the application of the cladding waveguides in Ti:Sapphire as compact broadband luminescence sources in biomedical fields.

  2. Optical emission of directly contacted copper/sapphire interface under shock compression of megabar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, G. Y.; Liu, F. S.; Zhang, D. Y.; Zhang, M. J.

    2007-06-01

    The shock-induced optical emission histories from copper/sapphire interface were measured under two different contact conditions, which simulated the typical situations of pyrometry experiments. Results showed that the "peak" feature of the radiation, previously interpreted as the appearance of so-called high-temperature layer, was nearly diminished by finely polishing and uniformly prepressing technique, and that it is possible to directly measure the equilibrium temperature of bulk metal/window interface. Study also demonstrated that the saturated value of the apparent temperature in nonideal contact situation is related to the color temperature of the shock-induced "bright spot" in sapphire window under megabar pressures.

  3. Controlling material birefringence in sapphire via self-assembled, sub-wavelength defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Astha; Sharma, Geeta; Ranjan, Neeraj; Mittholiya, Kshitij; Bhatnagar, Anuj; Singh, B. P.; Mathur, Deepak; Vasa, Parinda

    2018-02-01

    Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light. Generally, this is an intrinsic optical property of a material and cannot be altered. Here, we report a novel technique—direct laser writing—that enables us to control the natural, material birefringence of sapphire over a broad range of wavelengths. The broadband form birefringence originating from self-assembled, periodic array of sub-wavelength (˜ 50-200 nm) defects created by laser writing, can enhance, suppress or maintain the material birefringence of sapphire without affecting its transparency range in visible or its surface quality.

  4. Development of the vertical Bridgman technique for 6-inch diameter c-axis sapphire growth supported by numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagawa, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Takumi; Taishi, Toshinori; Hoshikawa, Keigo

    2014-09-01

    Based on the growth of 3-inch diameter c-axis sapphire using the vertical Bridgman (VB) technique, numerical simulations were made and used to guide the growth of a 6-inch diameter sapphire. A 2D model of the VB hot-zone was constructed, the seeding interface shape of the 3-inch diameter sapphire as revealed by green laser scattering was estimated numerically, and the temperature distributions of two VB hot-zone models designed for 6-inch diameter sapphire growth were numerically simulated to achieve the optimal growth of large crystals. The hot-zone model with one heater was selected and prepared, and 6-inch diameter c-axis sapphire boules were actually grown, as predicted by the numerical results.

  5. Channel Temperature Determination for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on SiC and Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Jon C.; Mueller, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Numerical simulation results (with emphasis on channel temperature) for a single gate AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) with either a sapphire or SiC substrate are presented. The static I-V characteristics, with concomitant channel temperatures (T(sub ch)) are calculated using the software package ATLAS, from Silvaco, Inc. An in-depth study of analytical (and previous numerical) methods for the determination of T(sub ch) in both single and multiple gate devices is also included. We develop a method for calculating T(sub ch) for the single gate device with the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of all material layers included. We also present a new method for determining the temperature on each gate in a multi-gate array. These models are compared with experimental results, and show good agreement. We demonstrate that one may obtain the channel temperature within an accuracy of +/-10 C in some cases. Comparisons between different approaches are given to show the limits, sensitivities, and needed approximations, for reasonable agreement with measurements.

  6. Doping and compensation in Al-rich AlGaN grown on single crystal AlN and sapphire by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Washiyama, Shun; Reddy, Pramod; Gaddy, Benjamin; Sarkar, Biplab; Breckenridge, M. Hayden; Guo, Qiang; Bobea, Milena; Tweedie, James; Mita, Seiji; Irving, Douglas; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko

    2018-02-01

    In order to understand the influence of dislocations on doping and compensation in Al-rich AlGaN, thin films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on different templates on sapphire and low dislocation density single crystalline AlN. AlGaN grown on AlN exhibited the highest conductivity, carrier concentration, and mobility for any doping concentration due to low threading dislocation related compensation and reduced self-compensation. The onset of self-compensation, i.e., the "knee behavior" in conductivity, was found to depend only on the chemical potential of silicon, strongly indicating the cation vacancy complex with Si as the source of self-compensation. However, the magnitude of self-compensation was found to increase with an increase in dislocation density, and consequently, AlGaN grown on AlN substrates demonstrated higher conductivity over the entire doping range.

  7. Growth of GaN Layers on Sapphire by Low-Temperature-Deposited Buffer Layers and Realization of p-type GaN by Magesium Doping and Electron Beam Irradiation (Nobel Lecture).

    PubMed

    Amano, Hiroshi

    2015-06-26

    This Review is a personal reflection on the research that led to the development of a method for growing gallium nitride (GaN) on a sapphire substrate. The results paved the way for the development of smart display systems using blue LEDs. The most important work was done in the mid to late 80s. The background to the author's work and the process by which the technology that enables the growth of GaN and the realization of p-type GaN was established are reviewed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Growth of GaN on Sapphire via Low-Temperature Deposited Buffer Layer and Realization of p-Type GaN by Mg Doping Followed by Low-Energy Electron Beam Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    This is a personal history of one of the Japanese researchers engaged in developing a method for growing GaN on a sapphire substrate, paving the way for the realization of smart television and display systems using blue LEDs. The most important work was done in the mid- to late 80s. The background to the author's work and the process by which the technology enabling the growth of GaN and the realization of p-type GaN was established are reviewed.

  9. Low propagation loss silicon-on-sapphire waveguides for the mid-infrared.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangxin; Jackson, Stuart D; Grillet, Christian; Magi, Eric; Hudson, Darren; Madden, Steven J; Moghe, Yashodhan; O'Brien, Christopher; Read, Andrew; Duvall, Steven G; Atanackovic, Peter; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Moss, David J

    2011-08-01

    We report record low loss silicon-on-sapphire nanowires for applications to mid infrared optics. We achieve propagation losses as low as 0.8 dB/cm at λ = 1550 nm, ~1.1 to 1.4 dB/cm at λ = 2080 nm and < 2dB/cm at λ = 5.18 μm.

  10. Light refraction in sapphire plates with a variable angle of crystal optical axis to the surface

    SciTech Connect

    Vetrov, V. N., E-mail: vasvetrov@mail.ru; Ignatenkov, B. A.

    2013-05-15

    The modification of sapphire by inhomogeneous plastic deformation makes it possible to obtain plates with a variable angle of inclination of the crystal optical axis to the plate surface. The refraction of light in this plate at perpendicular and oblique incidence of a parallel beam of rays is considered. The algorithm of calculating the refractive index of extraordinary ray and the birefringence is proposed.

  11. Mathematical modeling of a Ti:sapphire solid-state laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swetits, John J.

    1987-01-01

    The project initiated a study of a mathematical model of a tunable Ti:sapphire solid-state laser. A general mathematical model was developed for the purpose of identifying design parameters which will optimize the system, and serve as a useful predictor of the system's behavior.

  12. Vanadium-rich ruby and sapphire within Mogok Gemfield, Myanmar: implications for gem color and genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaw, Khin; Sutherland, Lin; Yui, Tzen-Fu; Meffre, Sebastien; Thu, Kyaw

    2015-01-01

    Rubies and sapphires are of both scientific and commercial interest. These gemstones are corundum colored by transition elements within the alumina crystal lattice: Cr3+ yields red in ruby and Fe2+, Fe3+, and Ti4+ ionic interactions color sapphires. A minor ion, V3+ induces slate to purple colors and color change in some sapphires, but its role in coloring rubies remains enigmatic. Trace element and oxygen isotope composition provide genetic signatures for natural corundum and assist geographic typing. Here, we show that V can dominate chromophore contents in Mogok ruby suites. This raises implications for their color quality, enhancement treatments, geographic origin, exploration and exploitation and their comparison with rubies elsewhere. Precise LA-ICP-MS analysis of ruby and sapphire from Mogok placer and in situ deposits reveal that V can exceed 5,000 ppm, giving V/Cr, V/Fe and V/Ti ratios up to 26, 78, and 97 respectively. Such values significantly exceed those found elsewhere suggesting a localized geological control on V-rich ruby distribution. Our results demonstrate that detailed geochemical studies of ruby suites reveal that V is a potential ruby tracer, encourage comparisons of V/Cr-variation between ruby suites and widen the scope for geographic typing and genesis of ruby. This will allow more precise comparison of Asian and other ruby fields and assist confirmation of Mogok sources for rubies in historical and contemporary gems and jewelry.

  13. "You Hafta Push": Using Sapphire's Novel to Teach Introduction to American Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Using fiction in the classroom can dramatize public policy issues and political science concepts, therefore, making them more real and relevant to students. Sapphire's 1996 novel "Push" puts a face on welfare, rape, incest, child abuse, educational inequalities, homophobia, and AIDS. I also use this novel to discuss the public policy process,…

  14. Transmittance enhancement of sapphires with antireflective subwavelength grating patterned UV polymer surface structures by soft lithography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2013-12-02

    We report the total and diffuse transmission enhancement of sapphires with the ultraviolet curable SU8 polymer surface structures consisting of conical subwavelength gratings (SWGs) at one- and both-side surfaces for different periods. The SWGs patterns on the silicon templates were transferred into the SU8 polymer film surface on sapphires by a simple and cost-effective soft lithography technique. For the fabricated samples, the surface morphologies, wetting behaviors, and optical characteristics were investigated. For theoretical optical analysis, a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method was used. At a period of 350 nm, the sample with SWGs on SU8 film/sapphire exhibited a hydrophobic surface and higher total transmittance compared to the bare sapphire over a wide wavelength of 450-1000 nm. As the period of SWGs was increased, the low total transmittance region of < 85% was shifted towards the longer wavelengths and became broader while the diffuse transmittance was increased (i.e., larger haze ratio). For the samples with SWGs at both-side surfaces, the total and diffuse transmittance spectra were further enhanced compared to the samples with SWGs at one-side surface. The theoretical optical calculation results showed a similar trend to the experimentally measured data.

  15. The light wave flow effect in a plane-parallel layer with a quasi-zero refractive index under the action of bounded light beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gadomsky, O. N., E-mail: gadomsky@mail.ru; Shchukarev, I. A., E-mail: blacxpress@gmail.com

    2016-08-15

    It is shown that external optical radiation in the 450–1200 nm range can be efficiently transformed under the action of bounded light beams to a surface wave that propagates along the external and internal boundaries of a plane-parallel layer with a quasi-zero refractive index. Reflection regimes with complex and real angles of refraction in the layer are considered. The layer with a quasi-zero refractive index in this boundary problem is located on a highly reflective metal substrate; it is shown that the uniform low reflection of light is achieved in the wavelength range under study.

  16. Quasi ?non-destructive? laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry fingerprinting of sapphires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillong, M.; Günther, D.

    2001-07-01

    A homogenized 193 nm excimer laser with a flat-top beam profile was used to study the capabilities of LA-ICP-MS for 'quasi' non-destructive fingerprinting and sourcing of sapphires from different locations. Sapphires contain 97-99% of Al 2O 3 (corundum), with the remainder composed of several trace elements, which can be used to distinguish the origin of these gemstones. The ablation behavior of sapphires, as well as the minimum quantity of sample removal that is required to determine these trace elements, was investigated. The optimum ablation conditions were a fluency of 6 J cm -2, a crater diameter of 120 μm, and a laser repetition rate of 10 Hz. The optimum time for the ablation was determined to be 2 s, equivalent to 20 laser pulses. The mean sample removal was 60 nm per pulse (approx. 3 ng per pulse). This allowed satisfactory trace element determination, and was found to cause the minimum amount of damage, while allowing for the fingerprinting of sapphires. More than 40 isotopes were measured using different spatial resolutions (20-120 μm) and eight elements were reproducibly detected in 25 sapphire samples from five different locations. The reproducibility of the trace element distribution is limited by the heterogeneity of the sample. The mean of five or more replicate analyses per sample was used. Calibration was carried out using NIST 612 glass reference material as external standard. The linear dynamic range of the ICP-MS (nine orders of magnitude) allowed the use of Al, the major element in sapphire, as an internal standard. The limits of detection for most of the light elements were in the μg g -1 range and were better for heavier elements (mass >85), being in the 0.1 μg g -1 range. The accuracy of the determinations was demonstrated by comparison with XRF analyses of the same set of samples. Using the quantitative analyses obtained using LA-ICP-MS, natural sapphires from five different origins were statistically classified using ternary plots and

  17. Hybrid Quantum Cascade Lasers on Silicon-on-Sapphire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-23

    on-SOS devices mounted on a copper heat sink. The liquid crystal thermal absorber is attached to block mid-IR emission from any sections of the laser...directions. 2. Statement of the problem studied Short-wavelength infrared (SWIR, ~1-3 m) photonics systems based on silicon-on- insulator (SOI...Table 1. Layer type Layer thickness and doping Thickness (nm) Doping (cm-3) InP substrate 350000 Semi- insulating InP buffer layer 2000 2.00E

  18. Removal of Lattice Imperfections that Impact the Optical Quality of Ti:Sapphire using Advanced Magnetorheological Finishing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A; Schaffers, K I; Bayramian, A J

    2008-02-26

    Advanced magnetorheological finishing (MRF) techniques have been applied to Ti:sapphire crystals to compensate for sub-millimeter lattice distortions that occur during the crystal growing process. Precise optical corrections are made by imprinting topographical structure onto the crystal surfaces to cancel out the effects of the lattice distortion in the transmitted wavefront. This novel technique significantly improves the optical quality for crystals of this type and sets the stage for increasing the availability of high-quality large-aperture sapphire and Ti:sapphire optics in critical applications.

  19. Testing of Sapphire Optical Fiber and Sensors in Intense Radiation Fields When Subjected to Very High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, Thomas; Windl, Wolfgang

    The primary objective of this project was to determine the optical attenuation and signal degradation of sapphire optical fibers & sensors (temperature & strain), in-situ, operating at temperatures up to 1500°C during reactor irradiation through experiments and modeling. The results will determine the feasibility of extending sapphire optical fiber-based instrumentation to extremely high temperature radiation environments. This research will pave the way for future testing of sapphire optical fibers and fiber-based sensors under conditions expected in advanced high temperature reactors.

  20. Substrate impact on the low-temperature growth of GaN thin films by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kizir, Seda; Haider, Ali; Biyikli, Necmi, E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr

    2016-07-15

    Gallium nitride (GaN) thin films were grown on Si (100), Si (111), and c-plane sapphire substrates at 200 °C via hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD) using GaEt{sub 3} and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} plasma as group-III and V precursors, respectively. The main aim of the study was to investigate the impact of substrate on the material properties of low-temperature ALD-grown GaN layers. Structural, chemical, and optical characterizations were carried out in order to evaluate and compare film quality of GaN on different substrates. X-ray reflectivity measurements showed film density values of 5.70, 5.74, and 5.54 g/cm{sup 3} for GaN grown on Simore » (100), Si (111), and sapphire, respectively. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements exhibited hexagonal wurtzite structure in all HCPA-ALD grown GaN samples. However, dominant diffraction peak for GaN films grown on Si and sapphire substrates were detected differently as (002) and (103), respectively. X-ray diffraction gonio scans measured from GaN grown on c-plane sapphire primarily showed (002) orientation. All samples exhibited similar refractive index values (∼2.17 at 632 nm) with 2–3 at. % of oxygen impurity existing within the bulk of the films. The grain size was calculated as ∼9–10 nm for GaN grown on Si (100) and Si (111) samples while it was ∼5 nm for GaN/sapphire sample. Root-mean-square surface roughness values found as 0.68, 0.76, and 1.83 nm for GaN deposited on Si (100), Si (111), and sapphire, respectively. Another significant difference observed between the samples was the film growth per cycle: GaN/sapphire sample showed a considerable higher thickness value when compared with GaN/Si samples, which might be attributed to a possibly more-efficient nitridation and faster nucleation of sapphire surface.« less

  1. Preparation of a Non-Polar ZnO Film on a Single-Crystal NdGaO3 Substrate by the RF Sputtering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwaba, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Sakuma, M.; Abe, T.; Imai, Y.; Kawasaki, K.; Nakagawa, A.; Niikura, I.; Kashiwaba, Y.; Osada, H.

    2018-04-01

    Preparation of non-polar ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) films on single-crystal NdGaO3 (NGO) (001) substrates was successfully achieved by the radio frequency (RF) sputtering method. Orientation, deposition rate, and surface roughness of ZnO films strongly depend on the working pressure. Characteristics of ZnO films deposited on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates were compared with those of ZnO films deposited on single-crystal sapphire ( 01\\overline{1} 2 ) substrates. An x-ray diffraction peak of the ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) plane was observed on ZnO films deposited on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates under working pressure of less than 0.5 Pa. On the other hand, uniaxially oriented ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) films on single-crystal sapphire ( 01\\overline{1} 2 ) substrates were observed under working pressure of 0.1 Pa. The mechanism by which the diffraction angle of the ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) plane on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates was shifted is discussed on the basis of anisotropic stress of lattice mismatch. The deposition rate of ZnO films decreased with an increase in working pressure, and the deposition rate on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates was larger than that on single-crystal sapphire ( 01\\overline{1} 2 ) substrates. Root mean square (RMS) roughness of ZnO films increased with an increase in working pressure, and RMS roughness of ZnO films on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates was smaller than that of ZnO films on single-crystal sapphire ( 01\\overline{1} 2 ) substrates even though the film thickness on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates was greater than that on sapphire substrates. It is thought that a single-crystal NGO (001) substrate is useful for deposition of non-polar ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) films.

  2. Growth of Low Defect Density Gallium Nitride (GaN) Films on Novel Tantalum Carbide (TaC) Substrates for Improved Device Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    2 Figure 2. Schematic of a Schottky diode structure (a) grown on an insulating substrate such as sapphire that requires front side...an on-axis substrate at 1000 °C taken (a) at a high magnification and (b) in a region where micropores were observed. ..........8 Figure 5. The 5 x...is useful for vertical high power devices. It can also be made insulating by growing it in a very pure state, which is useful for lateral high

  3. JFET/SOS (Junction Field-Effect Transistor/Silicon-on-Sapphire) Devices: Gamma-Radiation-Induced Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Results, ATR-86A(8501)-1, The Aerospace Corporation: El Segundo, Calif. (20 May 1987). 3. D. Neaman , W. Shedd, and B. Buchanan, "Permanently Ionizing...Radiation Effects in Dielectrically Bounded Field-Effect Transistors," IEEE Trans.. Nucl. Sci. NS-20 [6], 158-165 (Decembe. 1973). 4. D. Neaman , W. Shedd...1974). 5. D. Neaman , W. Shedd, and B. Buchanan, "Silicon-Sapphire Interface Charge Trapping -- Effects of Sapphire Type and Epi Growth Conditions

  4. Comparing Yb-fiber and Ti:Sapphire lasers for depth resolved imaging of human skin (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Mihaela; Saytashev, Ilyas; Hou, Jue; Dantus, Marcos; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-02-01

    We report on a direct comparison between Ti:Sapphire and Yb fiber lasers for depth-resolved label-free multimodal imaging of human skin. We found that the penetration depth achieved with the Yb laser was 80% greater than for the Ti:Sapphire. Third harmonic generation (THG) imaging with Yb laser excitation provides additional information about skin structure. Our results indicate the potential of fiber-based laser systems for moving into clinical use.

  5. High-temperature performance of gallium-nitride-based pin alpha-particle detectors grown on sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhifu; Zhang, Heqiu; Liang, Hongwei; Tang, Bin; Peng, Xincun; Liu, Jianxun; Yang, Chao; Xia, Xiaochuan; Tao, Pengcheng; Shen, Rensheng; Zou, Jijun; Du, Guotong

    2018-06-01

    The temperature-dependent radiation-detection performance of an alpha-particle detector that was based on a gallium-nitride (GaN)-based pin structure was studied from 290 K to 450 K. Current-voltage-temperature measurements (I-V-T) of the reverse bias show the exponential dependence of leakage currents on the voltage and temperature. The current transport mechanism of the GaN-based pin diode from the reverse bias I-V fitting was analyzed. The temperature-dependent pulse-height spectra of the detectors were studied using an 241 Am alpha-particle source at a reverse bias of 10 V, and the peak positions shifted from 534 keV at 290 K to 490 keV at 450 K. The variation of full width at half maximum (FWHM) from 282 keV at 290 K to 292 keV at 450 K is almost negligible. The GaN-based pin detectors are highly promising for high-temperature environments up to 450 K.

  6. Application of the wavenumber jump condition to the normal and oblique interaction of a plane acoustic wave and a plane shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinstein, G. G.; Gunzburger, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    The kinematics of normal and oblique interactions between a plane acoustic wave and a plane shock wave are investigated separately using an approach whereby the shock is considered as a sharp discontinuity surface separating two half-spaces, so that the dispersion relation on either side of the shock and the wavenumber jump condition across a discontinuity surface completely specify the kinematics of the problem in the whole space independently of the acoustic-field dynamics. The normal interaction is analyzed for a stationary shock, and the spectral change of the incident wave is investigated. The normal interaction is then examined for the case of a shock wave traveling into an ambient region where an acoustic disturbance is propagating in the opposite direction. Detailed attention is given to the consequences of the existence of a critical shock speed above which the frequency of the transmitted wave becomes negative. Finally, the oblique interaction with a fixed shock is considered, and the existence and nature of the transmitted wave is investigated, particularly as a function of the angle of incidence.

  7. Formation of silicon nanocrystals in sapphire by ion implantation and the origin of visible photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Yerci, S.; Serincan, U.; Dogan, I.

    2006-10-01

    Silicon nanocrystals, average sizes ranging between 3 and 7 nm, were formed in sapphire matrix by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Evolution of the nanocrystals was detected by Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Raman spectra display that clusters in the matrix start to form nanocrystalline structures at annealing temperatures as low as 800 deg. C in samples with high dose Si implantation. The onset temperature of crystallization increases with decreasing dose. Raman spectroscopy and XRD reveal gradual transformation of Si clusters into crystalline form. Visible photoluminescence band appears following implantation and its intensity increases with subsequent annealing process. Whilemore » the center of the peak does not shift, the intensity of the peak decreases with increasing dose. The origin of the observed photoluminescence is discussed in terms of radiation induced defects in the sapphire matrix.« less

  8. High-Temperature Mechanical Properties of Cr(3+) Doped Sapphire Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayir, A.; QuispeCancapa, J. J.; deArellanoLopez, A. R.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    High-temperature slow-crack growth of single crystal 10 wt% Cr2O3 - Al2O3 (nominal composition) fibers has been studied by tensile rupture experiments at 1400 C, under different stressing rates (0.5 to 41.5 MPa/s). Slow-crack growth (SCG) is less pronounced with increasing Cr2O3. Rupture stresses increased with the stressing rate from 397 MPa to 515 MPa, resulting in a SCG exponent, N=19. The Cr2O3 composition was analyzed by Energy Dispersed X-Ray Spectra (EDS) and fracture surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results are compared with previous studies on 100-300 ppm Cr3(+) doped sapphire fibers and on commercial sapphire fibers.

  9. Study on the temperature field of large-sized sapphire single crystal furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, J. P.; Jiang, J. W.; Liu, K. G.; Peng, X. B.; Jian, D. L.; Li, I. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the temperature field of large-sized (120kg, 200kg and 300kg grade) sapphire single crystal furnace was simulated. By keeping the crucible diameter ratio and the insulation system unchanged, the power consumption, axial and radial temperature gradient, solid-liquid surface shape, stress distribution and melt flow were studied. The simulation results showed that with the increase of the single crystal furnace size, the power consumption increased, the temperature field insulation effect became worse, the growth stress value increased and the stress concentration phenomenon occurred. To solve these problems, the middle and bottom insulation system should be enhanced during designing the large-sized sapphire single crystal furnace. The appropriate radial and axial temperature gradient was favorable to reduce the crystal stress and prevent the occurrence of cracking. Expanding the interface between the seed and crystal was propitious to avoid the stress accumulation phenomenon.

  10. Design and analysis of large-core single-mode windmill single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Yujie; Hill, Cary; Liu, Bo; ...

    2016-06-01

    We present a large-core single-mode “windmill” single crystal sapphire optical fiber (SCSF) design, which exhibits single-mode operation by stripping off the higher-order modes (HOMs) while maintaining the fundamental mode. The “windmill” SCSF design was analyzed using the finite element analysis method, in which all the HOMs are leaky. The numerical simulation results show single-mode operation in the spectral range from 0.4 to 2 μm in the windmill SCSF, with an effective core diameter as large as 14 μm. Such fiber is expected to improve the performance of many of the current sapphire fiber optic sensor structures.

  11. Inscription of first order fiber Bragg gratings in sapphire fibers by 400 nm femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsmann, Tino; Habisreuther, Tobias; Graf, Albrecht; Rothhardt, Manfred; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate the inscription of fiber Bragg gratings in single crystalline sapphire using the second harmonic of a Ti:Sa-amplified femtosecond laser system. With the laser wavelength of 400 nm first order gratings were fabricated. The interferometric inscription was performed out using the Talbot interferometer. This way, not only single gratings but also multiplexed sensor arrays were realized. For evaluating of the sensor signals an adapted multimodal interrogation setup was build up, because the sapphire fiber is an extreme multimodal air clad fiber. Due to the multimodal reflection spectrum, different peak functions have been tested to evaluate the thermal properties of the grating. The temperature sensors were tested for high temperature applications up to 1200°C with a thermal sensitivity in the order of 25 pm/K which is more than the doubled of that one reached with Bragg gratings in conventional silica fibers.

  12. Sapphire implant based neuro-complex for deep-lying brain tumors phototheranostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharova, A. S.; Maklygina, YU S.; Yusubalieva, G. M.; Shikunova, I. A.; Kurlov, V. N.; Loschenov, V. B.

    2018-01-01

    The neuro-complex as a combination of sapphire implant optical port and osteoplastic biomaterial "Collapan" as an Aluminum phthalocyanine nanoform photosensitizer (PS) depot was developed within the framework of this study. The main goals of such neuro-complex are to provide direct access of laser radiation to the brain tissue depth and to transfer PS directly to the pathological tissue location that will allow multiple optical phototheranostics of the deep-lying tumor region without repeated surgical intervention. The developed complex spectral-optical properties research was carried out by photodiagnostics method using the model sample: a brain tissue phantom. The optical transparency of sapphire implant allows obtaining a fluorescent signal with high accuracy, comparable to direct measurement "in contact" with the tissue.

  13. Thermal boundary resistance between sapphire and aluminum monocrystals at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Sahling, S.; Engert, J.; Gladun, A.

    1981-12-01

    The thermal boundary resistance at boundaries between monocrystalline sapphire and monocrystalline aluminum and between monocrystalline sapphire and polycrystalline aluminum has been measured in the temperature range from 0.1 to 6 K with aluminum in the superconducting and normal states. The ratio of the thermal boundary resistance of the aluminum monocrystals in the superconducting state to that in the normal state increases as the temperature is lowered, reaches a maximum at about 0.13 K, and decreases at still lower temperatures. At the maximum, the thermal boundary resistance in the superconducting state is two orders of magnitude larger than the resistance inmore » the normal state.« less

  14. Temperature and emissivity measurements at the sapphire single crystal fiber growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufetova, G. A.; Rusanov, S. Ya.; Seregin, V. F.; Pyrkov, Yu. N.; Tsvetkov, V. B.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new method for evaluation the absorption coefficient of the crystal melt around the phase transition zone for the spectral range of semitransparency. The emissivity distribution across the crystallization front of the sapphire crystal fiber was measured at the quasi-stationary laser heated pedestal growth (LHPG) process (Fejer et al., 1984; Feigelson, 1986) and the data for solid state, melt and phase transition zone (melt-solid interface) were obtained. The sapphire melt absorption coefficient was estimated to be 14 ± 2 cm-1 in the spectral range 1-1.4 μm around the melt point. It is consistent with data, obtained by different other methods. This method can be applied to determine the absorption coefficient for other materials.

  15. SnO2 epitaxial films with varying thickness on c-sapphire: Structure evolution and optical band gap modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mi; Xu, Maji; Li, Mingkai; Zhang, Qingfeng; Lu, Yinmei; Chen, Jingwen; Li, Ming; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing; He, Yunbin

    2017-11-01

    A series of a-plane SnO2 films with thickness between 2.5 nm and 1436 nm were grown epitaxially on c-sapphire by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), to allow a detailed probe into the structure evolution and optical band gap modulation of SnO2 with growing thickness. All films exhibit excellent out-of-plane ordering (lowest (200) rocking-curve half width ∼0.01°) with an orientation of SnO2(100) || Al2O3(0001), while three equivalent domains that are rotated by 120° with one another coexist in-plane with SnO2[010] || Al2O3 [11-20]. Initially the SnO2(100) film assumes a two-dimensional (2D) layer-by-layer growth mode with atomically smooth surface (minimum root-mean-square roughness of 0.183 nm), and endures compressive strain along both c and a axes as well as mild tensile strain along the b-axis. With increasing thickness, transition from the 2D to 3D island growth mode takes place, leading to formation of various defects to allow relief of the stress and thus relaxation of the film towards bulk SnO2. More interestingly, with increasing thickness from nm to μm, the SnO2 films present a non-monotonic V-shaped variation in the optical band gap energy. While the band gap of SnO2 films thinner than 6.1 nm increases rapidly with decreasing film thickness due to the quantum size effect, the band gap of thicker SnO2 films broadens almost linearly with increasing film thickness up to 374 nm, as a result of the strain effect. The present work sheds light on future design of SnO2 films with desired band gap for particular applications by thickness control and strain engineering.

  16. Power amplification for petawatt Ti: Sapphire lasers: New strategies for high fluence pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canova, F.; Chambaret, J.-P.

    2006-06-01

    One of the major bottlenecks when we pump large Ti:Sapphire crystals, to reach Petawatt level laser amplification, is the careful control of the spatial energy distribution of Nd:Glass pump lasers. Commercially available nanosecond Nd:Glass and Nd:YAG lasers exhibit poor spatial profile quality especially in the near and in the intermediate field, which can lead to local hot spots, responsible of damages in crystals, and parasitic transverse lasing enhancement, strongly dependent on the profile of the pump beam . For these reasons, it is mandatory to keep the pump beam intensity profile as flat as possible on the pumped crystal. To guarantee the best pumping conditions we are investigating the combined use of DOE (diffractive optical elements) and optical smoothing techniques. In parallel we are starting a study on laser induced damages mechanisms in crystal. With DOE and microlens arrays we plan to guarantee to the beam a supergaussian shape. Simulation and first experiments with both optical systems show that a flat top spatial profile with less than 10% fluctuations and a 8th order supergaussian is possible with the present technology.Optical smoothing will keep the beam free of hot spots. We especially focused on the smoothing techniques involving optical fibers. This is the first time to our knowledge that this technique is applied to the pumping beams for Ti:Sapphire systems. A deep study of laser-crystal interaction will allow us to fully understand the damages created by hot spots. The knowledge of the phenomena involved in laser damages on Ti:Sapphire is mandatory to control the pumping processes and thresholds. In conclusion, mixing the advantages of these different approaches to overcome this bottleneck will allow us to amplify in a safety way femtosecond laser beams to the Petawatt level using Ti:Sapphire crystals.

  17. A microwave exciter for Cs frequency standards based on a sapphire-loaded cavity oscillator.

    PubMed

    Koga, Y; McNeilage, C; Searls, J H; Ohshima, S

    2001-01-01

    A low noise and highly stable microwave exciter system has been built for Cs atomic frequency standards using a tunable sapphire-loaded cavity oscillator (SLCO), which works at room temperature. This paper discusses the successful implementation of a control system for locking the SLCO to a long-term reference signal and reports an upper limit of the achieved frequency tracking error 6 x 10(-15) at tau = 1 s.

  18. The Valence- and Conduction-Band Structure of the Sapphire (1102) Surface.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    surface. The pbotomission spectrum of the valece-baud region has boon adjusted to rmove croas-section effect s and comparod to the recent theoretical ...transitions in Al203. Several theoretical deteminations of the electron structure of various A1203 analoaues have bes performed. These calculations were...picture of the valence sad core density of states in sapphire. The rew, 31 velesee-bend data of Fit. I& and the theoretical 003 shows is Fig. 1.. which

  19. Orientation of Vanadium Dioxide Grains on Various Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Felipe; Davis, Robert; Vanfleet, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Crystalline vanadium dioxide VO2 experiences a fast and reversible semiconductor-to-metal structural phase transition near 68^oC. The changes exhibited during this phase transition comprise a well known change in resistivity of several orders of magnitude, as well as a significant drop in optical transmittance in the infrared. Due to the changes in these optical and electronic properties, vanadium dioxide shows promise as a material to be used in many applications ranging from thermochromic window coatings to optoelectronic devices. However, since there is a structural component to the phase transition of VO2, it is of interest to study the orientation of the crystalline grains deposited. Substrates such as glass, SiO2, Sapphire, and TiO2 have been used for the deposition of this material. We used orientation imaging microscopy to study and characterize the orientation of the grains deposited on several of these substrates. Here we present results on this study.

  20. High-quality AlN grown on a thermally decomposed sapphire surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, S.; Knauer, A.; Brunner, F.; Mogilatenko, A.; Zeimer, U.; Weyers, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this study we show how to realize a self-assembled nano-patterned sapphire surface on 2 inch diameter epi-ready wafer and the subsequent AlN overgrowth both in the same metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial process. For this purpose in-situ annealing in H2 environment was applied prior to AlN growth to thermally decompose the c-plane oriented sapphire surface. By proper AlN overgrowth management misoriented grains that start to grow on non c-plane oriented facets of the roughened sapphire surface could be overcome. We achieved crack-free, atomically flat AlN layers of 3.5 μm thickness. The layers show excellent material quality homogeneously over the whole wafer as proved by the full width at half maximum of X-ray measured ω-rocking curves of 120 arcsec to 160 arcsec for the 002 reflection and 440 arcsec to 550 arcsec for the 302 reflection. The threading dislocation density is 2 ∗ 109 cm-2 which shows that the annealing and overgrowth process investigated in this work leads to cost-efficient AlN templates for UV LED devices.

  1. High-temperature sensor instrumentation with a thin-film-based sapphire fiber.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuqing; Xia, Wei; Hu, Zhangzhong; Wang, Ming

    2017-03-10

    A novel sapphire fiber-optic high-temperature sensor has been designed and fabricated based on blackbody radiation theory. Metallic molybdenum has been used as the film material to develop the blackbody cavity, owing to its relatively high melting point compared to that of sapphire. More importantly, the fabrication process for the blackbody cavity is simple, efficient, and economical. Thermal radiation emitted from such a blackbody cavity is transmitted via optical fiber to a remote place for detection. The operating principle, the sensor structure, and the fabrication process are described here in detail. The developed high-temperature sensor was calibrated through a calibration blackbody furnace at temperatures from 900°C to 1200°C and tested by a sapphire crystal growth furnace up to 1880°C. The experimental results of our system agree well with those from a commercial Rayteck MR1SCCF infrared pyrometer, and the maximum residual is approximately 5°C, paving the way for high-accuracy temperature measurement especially for extremely harsh environments.

  2. Kilohertz Pulse Repetition Frequency Slab Ti:sapphire Lasers with High Average Power (10 W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, William J.; Coutts, David W.; Webb, Colin E.

    1999-11-01

    High-average-power broadband 780-nm slab Ti:sapphire lasers, pumped by a kilohertz pulse repetition frequency copper vapor laser (CVL), were demonstrated. These lasers are designed for damage-free power scaling when pumped by CVL s configured for maximum output power (of order 100 W) but with poor beam quality ( M 2 300 ). A simple Brewster-angled slab laser side pumped by a CVL produced 10-W average power (1.25-mJ pulses at 8 kHz) with 4.2-ns FWHM pulse duration at an absolute efficiency of 15% (68-W pump power). Thermal lensing in the Brewster slab laser resulted in multitransverse mode output, and pump absorption was limited to 72% by the maximum doping level for commercially available Ti:sapphire (0.25%). A slab laser with a multiply folded zigzag path was therefore designed and implemented that produced high-beam-quality (TEM 00 -mode) output when operated with cryogenic cooling and provided a longer absorption path for the pump. Excessive scattering of the Ti:sapphire beam at the crystal surfaces limited the efficiency of operation for the zigzag laser, but fluorescence diagnostic techniques, gain measurement, and modeling suggest that efficient power extraction ( 15 W TEM 00 , 23% efficiency) from this laser would be possible for crystals with an optical quality surface polish.

  3. Development of a sapphire optical pressure sensor for high-temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, David A.; Alexander, Dylan; Subhash, Ghatu; Sheplak, Mark

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the fabrication, packaging, and characterization of a sapphire optical pressure sensor for hightemperature applications. Currently available instrumentation poses significant limitations on the ability to achieve realtime, continuous measurements in high-temperature environments such as those encountered in industrial gas turbines and high-speed aircraft. The fiber-optic lever design utilizes the deflection of a circular platinum-coated sapphire diaphragm to modulate the light reflected back to a single send/receive sapphire optical fiber. The 7 mm diameter, 50 μm thick diaphragm is attached using a novel thermocompression bonding process based on spark plasma sintering technology. Bonds using platinum as an intermediate layer are achieved at a temperature of 1200°C with a hold time of 5 min. Initial characterization of the bond interface using a simple tensile test indicates a bond strength in excess of 12 MPa. Analysis of the buckled diaphragm after bonding is also presented. The packaged sensor enables continuous operation up to 900°C. Room-temperature characterization reveals a first resonance of 18.2 kHz, a flat-band sensitivity of -130 dB re 1 V/Pa (0.32 μV/Pa) from 4-20 kHz, a minimum detectable pressure of 3.8 Pa, and a linear response up to 169 dB at 1.9 kHz.

  4. High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seunghwoi; Kim, Hyunwoong; Kim, Yong Woo; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seungchul; Park, In-Yong; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic high-harmonic generation (HHG) drew attention as a means of producing coherent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation by taking advantage of field enhancement occurring in metallic nanostructures. Here a metal-sapphire nanostructure is devised to provide a solid tip as the HHG emitter, replacing commonly used gaseous atoms. The fabricated solid tip is made of monocrystalline sapphire surrounded by a gold thin-film layer, and intended to produce EUV harmonics by the inter- and intra-band oscillations of electrons driven by the incident laser. The metal-sapphire nanostructure enhances the incident laser field by means of surface plasmon polaritons, triggering HHG directly from moderate femtosecond pulses of ∼0.1 TW cm−2 intensities. The measured EUV spectra exhibit odd-order harmonics up to ∼60 nm wavelengths without the plasma atomic lines typically seen when using gaseous atoms as the HHG emitter. This experimental outcome confirms that the plasmonic HHG approach is a promising way to realize coherent EUV sources for nano-scale near-field applications in spectroscopy, microscopy, lithography and atto-second physics. PMID:27721374

  5. Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of AlN on sapphire with low etch pit density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleske, D. D.; Figiel, J. J.; Alliman, D. L.; Gunning, B. P.; Kempisty, J. M.; Creighton, J. R.; Mishima, A.; Ikenaga, K.

    2017-06-01

    Using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, methods were developed to achieve AlN films on sapphire with low etch pit density (EPD). Key to this achievement was using the same AlN growth recipe and only varying the pre-growth conditioning of the quartz-ware. After AlN growth, the quartz-ware was removed from the growth chamber and either exposed to room air or moved into the N2 purged glove box and exposed to H2O vapor. After the quartz-ware was exposed to room air or H2O, the AlN film growth was found to be more reproducible, resulting in films with (0002) and (10-12) x-ray diffraction (XRD) rocking curve linewidths of 200 and 500 arc sec, respectively, and EPDs < 100 cm-2. The EPD was found to correlate with (0002) linewidths, suggesting that the etch pits are associated with open core screw dislocations similar to GaN films. Once reproducible AlN conditions were established using the H2O pre-treatment, it was found that even small doses of trimethylaluminum (TMAl)/NH3 on the quartz-ware surfaces generated AlN films with higher EPDs. The presence of these residual TMAl/NH3-derived coatings in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) systems and their impact on the sapphire surface during heating might explain why reproducible growth of AlN on sapphire is difficult.

  6. Bonding Lexan and sapphire to form high-pressure, flame-resistant window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, William R.; Walker, Ernie D.

    1987-01-01

    Flammable materials have been studied in normal gravity and microgravity for many years. Photography plays a major role in the study of the combustion process giving a permanent visual record that can be analyzed. When these studies are extended to manned spacecraft, safety becomes a primary concern. The need for a high-pressure, flame-resistant, shatter-resistant window permitting photographic recording of combustion experiments in manned spacecraft prompted the development of a method for bonding Lexan and sapphire. Materials that resist shattering (e.g., Lexan) are not compatible with combustion experiments; the material loses strength at combustion temperatures. Sapphire is compatible with combustion temperatures in oxygen-enriched atmospheres but is subject to shattering. Combining the two materials results in a shatter-resistant, flame-resistant window. Combustion in microgravity produces a low-visibility flame; however, flame propagation and flame characteristics are readily visible as long as there is no deterioration of the image. Since an air gap between the Lexan and the sapphire would reduce transmission, a method was developed for bonding these unlike materials to minimize light loss.

  7. Effect of Ti:sapphire laser on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to ceramic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Erdur, Emire Aybuke; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-08-01

    With increasing demand for orthodontic treatments in adults, orthodontists continue to debate the optimal way to prepare ceramic surfaces for bonding. This study evaluated the effects of a Ti:sapphire laser on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded to two ceramic surfaces (feldspathic and IPS Empress e-Max) and the results were compared with those using two other lasers (Er:YAG and Nd:YAG) and 'conventional' techniques, i.e., sandblasting (50 µm) and hydrofluoric (HF) acid. In total, 150 ceramic discs were prepared and divided into two groups. In each group, the following five subgroups were prepared: Ti:sapphire laser, Nd:YAG laser, Er:YAG laser, sandblasting, and HF acid. Mandibular incisor brackets were bonded using a light-cured adhesive. The samples were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C and then thermocycled. Extra samples were prepared and examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SBS testing was performed and failure modes were classified. ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests were used to compare SBS among the five subgroups (P < 0.05). Feldspathic and IPS Empress e-Max ceramics had similar SBS values. The Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser (16.76 ± 1.37 MPa) produced the highest mean bond strength, followed by sandblasting (12.79 ± 1.42 MPa) and HF acid (11.28 ± 1.26 MPa). The Er:YAG (5.43 ± 1.21 MPa) and Nd:YAG laser (5.36 ± 1.04 MPa) groups were similar and had the lowest SBS values. More homogeneous and regular surfaces were observed in the ablation pattern with the Ti:sapphire laser than with the other treatments by SEM analysis. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, Ti:sapphire laser- treated surfaces had the highest SBS values. Therefore, this technique may be useful for the pretreatment of ceramic surfaces as an alternative to 'conventional' techniques. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Power electronics substrate for direct substrate cooling

    DOEpatents

    Le, Khiet [Mission Viejo, CA; Ward, Terence G [Redondo Beach, CA; Mann, Brooks S [Redondo Beach, CA; Yankoski, Edward P [Corona, CA; Smith, Gregory S [Woodland Hills, CA

    2012-05-01

    Systems and apparatus are provided for power electronics substrates adapted for direct substrate cooling. A power electronics substrate comprises a first surface configured to have electrical circuitry disposed thereon, a second surface, and a plurality of physical features on the second surface. The physical features are configured to promote a turbulent boundary layer in a coolant impinged upon the second surface.

  9. Au-assisted fabrication of nano-holes on c-plane sapphire via thermal treatment guided by Au nanoparticles as catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Mao; Pandey, Puran; Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Kunwar, Sundar; Lee, Jihoon

    2017-01-01

    Nanoscale patterning of sapphires is a challenging task due to the high mechanical strength, chemical stability as well as thermal durability. In this paper, we demonstrate a gold droplet assisted approach of nano-hole fabrication on c-plane sapphire via a thermal treatment. Uniformly distributed nano-holes are fabricated on the sapphire surface guided by dome shaped Au nanoparticles (NPs) as catalysts and the patterning process is discussed based on the disequilibrium of vapor, liquid, solid interface energies at the Au NP/sapphire interface induced by the Au evaporation at high temperature. Followed by the re-equilibration of interface energy, transport of alumina from the beneath of NPs to the sapphire surface can occur along the NP/sapphire interface resulting in the formation of nano-holes. The fabrication of nano-holes using Au NPs as catalysts is a flexible, economical and convenient approach and can find applications in various optoelectronics.

  10. Characterization of the Performance of Sapphire Optical Fiber in Intense Radiation Fields, when Subjected to Very High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Christian M.

    The U.S. Department of Energy is interested in extending optically-based instrumentation from non-extreme environments to extremely high temperature radiation environments for the purposes of developing in-pile instrumentation. The development of in-pile instrumentation would help support the ultimate goal of understanding the behavior and predicting the performance of nuclear fuel systems at a microstructural level. Single crystal sapphire optical fibers are a promising candidate for in-pile instrumentation due to the high melting temperature and radiation hardness of sapphire. In order to extend sapphire fiber-based optical instrumentation to high temperature radiation environments, the ability of sapphire fibers to adequately transmit light in such an environment must first be demonstrated. Broadband optical transmission measurements of sapphire optical fibers were made in-situ as the sapphire fibers were heated and/or irradiated. The damage processes in sapphire fibers were also modeled from the primary knock-on event from energetic neutrons to the resulting damage cascade in order to predict the formation of stable defects that ultimately determine the resulting change in optical properties. Sapphire optical fibers were shown to withstand temperatures as high as 1300 °C with minimal increases in optical attenuation. A broad absorption band was observed to grow over time without reaching a dynamic equilibrium when the sapphire fiber was heated at temperatures of 1400 °C and above. The growth of this absorption band limits the use of sapphire optical fibers, at least in air, to temperatures of 1300 °C and below. Irradiation of sapphire fibers with gamma rays caused saturation of a defect center located below 500 nm, and extending as far as ~1000 nm, with little effect on the transmission at 1300 and 1550 nm. Increasing temperature during gamma irradiation generally reduced the added attenuation. Reactor irradiation of sapphire fibers caused an initial rapid

  11. Investigation of layered structure SAW devices fabricated using low temperature grown AlN thin film on GaN/sapphire.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Feng; Wu, Chun-Te; Chien, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Sheng-Wen; Kao, Hui-Ling; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Chen, Jyh-Shin

    2005-05-01

    Epitaxial AlN films have been grown on GaN/sapphire using helicon sputtering at 300 degrees C. The surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters fabricated on AlN/GaN/sapphire exhibit more superior characteristics than those made on GaN/sapphire. This composite structure of AlN on GaN may bring about the development of high-frequency components, which integrate and use their semiconducting, optoelectronic, and piezoelectric properties.

  12. Microstructure and Optical Properties of Nonpolar m-Plane GaN Films Grown on m-Plane Sapphire by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tongbo; Duan, Ruifei; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Huo, Ziqiang; Yang, Jiankun; Zeng, Yiping

    2008-05-01

    Thick nonpolar (1010) GaN layers were grown on m-plane sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) using magnetron sputtered ZnO buffers, while semipolar (1013) GaN layers were obtained by the conventional two-step growth method using the same substrate. The in-plane anisotropic structural characteristics and stress distribution of the epilayers were revealed by high resolution X-ray diffraction and polarized Raman scattering measurements. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed that the striated surface morphologies correlated with the basal plane stacking faults for both (1010) and (1013) GaN films. The m-plane GaN surface showed many triangular-shaped pits aligning uniformly with the tips pointing to the c-axis after etching in boiled KOH, whereas the oblique hillocks appeared on the semipolar epilayers. In addition, the dominant emission at 3.42 eV in m-plane GaN films displayed a red shift with respect to that in semipolar epilayers, maybe owing to the different strain states present in the two epitaxial layers.

  13. Optical properties of a-plane (Al, Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on strain engineered Zn1-xMgxO layers by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Y.; Brault, J.; Nemoz, M.; Teisseire, M.; Vinter, B.; Leroux, M.; Chauveau, J.-M.

    2011-12-01

    Nonpolar (112¯0) Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (112¯0) Zn0.74Mg0.26O templates on r-plane sapphire substrates. The quantum wells exhibit well-resolved photoluminescence peaks in the ultra-violet region, and no sign of quantum confined Stark effect is observed in the complete multiple quantum well series. The results agree well with flat band quantum well calculations. Furthermore, we show that the MQW structures are strongly polarized along the [0001] direction. The origin of the polarization is discussed in terms of the strain anisotropy dependence of the exciton optical oscillator strengths.

  14. Alteration of architecture of MoO₃ nanostructures on arbitrary substrates: growth kinetics, spectroscopic and gas sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Illyaskutty, Navas; Sreedhar, Sreeja; Sanal Kumar, G; Kohler, Heinz; Schwotzer, Matthias; Natzeck, Carsten; Pillai, V P Mahadevan

    2014-11-21

    MoO3 nanostructures have been grown in thin film form on five different substrates by RF magnetron sputtering and subsequent annealing; non-aligned nanorods, aligned nanorods, bundled nanowires, vertical nanorods and nanoslabs are formed respectively on the glass, quartz, wafer, alumina and sapphire substrates. The nanostructures formed on these substrates are characterized by AFM, SEM, GIXRD, XPS, micro-Raman, diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A detailed growth model for morphology alteration with respect to substrates has been discussed by considering various aspects such as surface roughness, lattice parameters and the thermal expansion coefficient, of both substrates and MoO3. The present study developed a strategy for the choice of substrates to materialize different types MoO3 nanostructures for future thin film applications. The gas sensing tests point towards using these MoO3 nanostructures as principal detection elements in gas sensors.

  15. The Fermionic Signature Operator and Hadamard States in the Presence of a Plane Electromagnetic Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finster, Felix; Reintjes, Moritz

    2017-05-01

    We give a non-perturbative construction of a distinguished state for the quantized Dirac field in Minkowski space in the presence of a time-dependent external field of the form of a plane electromagnetic wave. By explicit computation of the fermionic signature operator, it is shown that the Dirac operator has the strong mass oscillation property. We prove that the resulting fermionic projector state is a Hadamard state.

  16. High brightness nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sukkoo; Chang, Younghak; Bang, Kyu-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Gu; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Hwang, Sung-Min; Baik, Kwang Hyeon

    2012-02-01

    We report on high brightness nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN LEDs using patterned lateral overgrowth (PLOG) epitaxy. High crystal-quality and smooth surfaces for a-plane GaN (a-GaN) films were achieved using PLOG with an array of hexagonal SiO2 patterns. The XRC FWHMs of as-grown PLOG a-GaN films were found to be 414 and 317 arcsec (450 and 455 arcsec for planar a-GaN films) along the c-axis and m-axis directions, respectively. Plan-view CL clearly reveals the periodic hexagonal patterns with higher band edge emission intensity, implying that the luminescence properties of a-GaN films lying above the SiO2 mask are improved. The light output powers of a-InGaN/GaN PLOG LEDs were measured to be 7.5 mW and 20 mW at drive currents of 20 mA and 100 mA, respectively. A negligible blue-shift was observed in the peak emission wavelength with increasing drive current up to 100 mA, indicating that there are no strong internal fields in nonpolar a-InGaN/GaN LEDs. We believe that nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN LEDs hold promise for efficient nitride emitters if the growth conditions are further optimized.

  17. Efficient continuous-wave and passively Q-switched pulse laser operations in a diffusion-bonded sapphire/Er:Yb:YAl3(BO3)4/sapphire composite crystal around 1.55 μm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujin; Lin, Yanfu; Huang, Jianhua; Gong, Xinghong; Luo, Zundu; Huang, Yidong

    2018-01-08

    A composite crystal consisting of a 1.5-mm-thick Er:Yb:YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal between two 1.2-mm-thick sapphire crystals was fabricated by the thermal diffusion bonding technique. Compared with a lone Er:Yb:YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal measured under the identical experimental conditions, higher laser performances were demonstrated in the sapphire/Er:Yb:YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 /sapphire composite crystal due to the reduction of the thermal effects. End-pumped by a 976 nm laser diode in a hemispherical cavity, a 1.55 μm continuous-wave laser with a maximum output power of 1.75 W and a slope efficiency of 36% was obtained in the composite crystal when the incident pump power was 6.54 W. Passively Q-switched by a Co 2+ :MgAl 2 O 4 crystal, a 1.52 μm pulse laser with energy of 10 μJ and repetition frequency of 105 kHz was also realized in the composite crystal. Pulse width was 315 ns. The results show that the sapphire/Er:Yb:YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 /sapphire composite crystal is an excellent active element for 1.55 μm laser.

  18. Influence of the substrate material on the optical properties of tungsten diselenide monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippert, Sina; Schneider, Lorenz Maximilian; Renaud, Dylan; Kang, Kyung Nam; Ajayi, Obafunso; Kuhnert, Jan; Halbich, Marc-Uwe; Abdulmunem, Oday M.; Lin, Xing; Hassoon, Khaleel; Edalati-Boostan, Saeideh; Duck Kim, Young; Heimbrodt, Wolfram; Yang, Eui-Hyeok; Hone, James C.; Rahimi-Iman, Arash

    2017-06-01

    Monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides such as WSe2 have become increasingly attractive due to their potential in electrical and optical applications. Because the properties of these 2D systems are known to be affected by their surroundings, we report how the choice of the substrate material affects the optical properties of monolayer WSe2. To accomplish this study, pump-density-dependent micro-photoluminescence measurements are performed with time-integrating and time-resolving acquisition techniques. Spectral information and power-dependent mode intensities are compared at 290 K and 10 K for exfoliated WSe2 on SiO2/Si, sapphire (Al2O3), hBN/Si3N4/Si, and MgF2, indicating substrate-dependent appearance and strength of exciton, trion, and biexciton modes. Additionally, one CVD-grown WSe2 monolayer on sapphire is included in this study for direct comparison with its exfoliated counterpart. Time-resolved micro-photoluminescence shows how radiative decay times strongly differ for different substrate materials. Our data indicates exciton-exciton annihilation as a shortening mechanism at room temperature, and subtle trends in the decay rates in correlation to the dielectric environment at cryogenic temperatures. On the measureable time scales, trends are also related to the extent of the respective 2D-excitonic modes’ appearance. This result highlights the importance of further detailed characterization of exciton features in 2D materials, particularly with respect to the choice of substrate.

  19. A Completely Solid-State Tunable Ti:Sapphire Laser System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerra, David V.; Coyle, D. Barry; Krebs, Danny J.

    1994-01-01

    Compact, completely solid-state tunable pulsed laser system passively cooled developed for potential employment in aircraft and sounding-rocket lidar experiments. Ti:sapphire based laser system pumped with frequency-doubled diode-pumped Nd:YAG. Rugged, self-contained system extremely flexible and provides pulsed output at specific frequencies with low input-power requirements. In-situ measurements enables scientists to study upper-atmosphere dynamics. Tuning range easily extended to bands between 650-950 nm in order to study other atmospheric constituents.

  20. Direct diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser

    PubMed Central

    Durfee, Charles G.; Storz, Tristan; Garlick, Jonathan; Hill, Steven; Squier, Jeff A.; Kirchner, Matthew; Taft, Greg; Shea, Kevin; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret; Backus, Sterling

    2012-01-01

    We describe a Ti:sapphire laser pumped directly with a pair of 1.2W 445nm laser diodes. With over 30mW average power at 800 nm and a measured pulsewidth of 15fs, Kerr-lens-modelocked pulses are available with dramatically decreased pump cost. We propose a simple model to explain the observed highly stable Kerr-lens modelocking in spite of the fact that both the mode-locked and continuous-wave modes are smaller than the pump mode in the crystal. PMID:22714433

  1. Neurosurgical sapphire handheld probe for intraoperative optical diagnostics, laser coagulation and aspiration of malignant brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikunova, Irina A.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Stryukov, Dmitrii O.; Dubyanskaya, Evgenia N.; Kurlov, Vladimir N.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a handheld contact probe based on sapphire shaped crystal was developed for the intraoperative optical diagnosis and aspiration of malignant brain tissue combined with the laser hemostasis. Such a favorable combination of several functions in a single instrument significantly increases its clinical relevance. It makes possible highly-accurate real-time detection and removal of either large-scale malignancies or even separate invasive cancer cells. The proposed neuroprobe was integrated into the clinical neurosurgical workflow for the intraoperative fluorescence identification and removal of malignant tissues of the brain.

  2. Autonomous cryogenic sapphire oscillators employing low vibration pulse-tube cryocoolers at NMIJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Takeshi; Watabe, Ken-ichi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Takamizawa, Akifumi; Hartnett, John G.

    2016-06-01

    Two liquid-helium-cooled cryogenic sapphire-resonator oscillators (CSOs), have been modified to operate using cryo-refrigerators and low-vibration cryostats. The Allan deviation of the first CSO was evaluated to be better than 2 x 10-15 for averaging times of 1 s to 30 000 s, which is better than that of the original liquid helium cooled CSO. The Allan deviation of the second CSO is better than 4 x 10-15 from 1 s to 6 000 s averaging time.

  3. Temporal intracavity detection of parasitic infrared absorption in Ti:Sapphire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleva, A. D.; Peshev, Z. Y.; Aneva, Z. I.

    1993-12-01

    An intracavity technique with temporal sensitivity to optical losses is used to detect parasitic infrared absorption (PIRA) in Ti:sapphire crystals with high active-center concentrations. By means of comparative analysis, re-emission is established of part of the parasitically absorbed energy back into the laser action channel. A method is proposed for approximate quantitative determination of the relative part of re-emitting PIRA-centers with respect to their total number; for the highly-doped crystal described, it is estimated at about 11%.

  4. Alignment-enhancing feed-through conductors for stackable silicon-on-sapphire wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Alignment-enhancing electrically conductive feed-through paths are provided for the high-speed low-loss transfer of electrical signals between integrated circuits of a plurality of silicon-on-sapphire bodies arrayed in a stack. The alignment-enhancing feed-throughs are made by a process involving the drilling of holes through the body, double-sided sputtering, electroplating, and the filling of the holes with solder by capillary action. The alignment-enhancing feed-throughs are activated by forming a stack of wafers and remelting the solder whereupon the wafers, and the feed-through paths, are pulled into alignment by surface tension forces.

  5. Sensing nitrous oxide with QCL-coupled silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Smith, Clinton J; Shankar, Raji; Laderer, Matthew; Frish, Michael B; Loncar, Marko; Allen, Mark G

    2015-03-09

    We report the initial evaluation of a mid-infrared QCL-coupled silicon-on-sapphire ring resonator gas sensor. The device probes the N(2)O 2241.79 cm(-1) optical transition (R23 line) in the ν(3) vibrational band. N(2)O concentration is deduced using a non-linear least squares fit, based on coupled-mode theory, of the change in ring resonator Q due to gas absorption losses in the evanescent portion of the waveguide optical mode. These early experiments demonstrated response to 5000 ppmv N(2)O.

  6. Mechanical Behavior of Sapphire Reinforced Alumina Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Setlock, John A.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.

    1997-01-01

    Zirconia coated sapphire reinforced alumina matrix composites have been tested both after heat treatment to 1400 C and at temperatures ranging from 800 C to 1200 C in. air. Interfacial shear stress has also been measured with fiber pushout tests performed in air at room temperature, 800 C and 1OOO C. Matrix crack spacing was measured for the tensile tested composites and used to estimate interfacial shear stress up to 1200 C. Electron microscopy was used to determine the source of fiber fracture and to study interfacial failure within the composite.

  7. Hidden instabilities in the Ti:sapphire Kerr lens mode-locked laser.

    PubMed

    Kovalsky, M G; Hnilo, A A; González Inchauspe, C M

    1999-11-15

    It is experimentally shown that pulse-to-pulse instabilities in the output of Kerr lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire lasers are usual and that they can affect some of the pulse variables (e.g., the spot size) and not others (e.g., pulse duration and energy). These instabilities are not detectable in the averaged signals (such as the autocorrelation of the pulse) that are customarily used for controlling the laser. But, if they are present but are disregarded, these instabilities have undesirable consequences in almost any application. A simple way to detect and eliminate the instabilities is described.

  8. Carrier-envelope phase dynamics and noise analysis in octave-spanning Ti:sapphire lasers.

    PubMed

    Matos, Lia; Mücke, Oliver D; Chen, Jian; Kärtner, Franz X

    2006-03-20

    We investigate the carrier-envelope phase dynamics of octave-spanning Ti:sapphire lasers and perform a complete noise analysis of the carrier-envelope phase stabilization. We model the effect of the laser dynamics on the residual carrier-envelope phase noise by deriving a transfer function representation of the octave-spanning frequency comb. The modelled phase noise and the experimental results show excellent agreement. This greatly enhances our capability of predicting the dependence of the residual carrier-envelope phase noise on the feedback loop filter, the carrier-envelope frequency control mechanism and the pump laser used.

  9. Low-Angle-Incidence Microchannel Epitaxy of a-Plane GaN Grown by Ammonia-Based Metal-Organic Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Uchiyama, Shota; Maruyama, Takahiro; Naritsuka, Shigeya

    2012-04-01

    Low-angle-incidence microchannel epitaxy (LAIMCE) of a-plane GaN was performed using ammonia-based metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy to obtain wide and thin lateral overgrowth over a SiO2 mask. Trimethylgallium (TMG) was supplied perpendicular to the openings cut in the mask with a low incident angle of 5° relative to the substrate plane. The [NH3]/[TMG] ratio (R) dependence of GaN LAIMCE was optimized by varying R from 5 to 30. A wide lateral overgrowth of 3.7 µm with a dislocation density below the transmission electron microscope detection limit was obtained at R=15 for a thickness of 520 nm.

  10. Control of relative carrier-envelope phase slip in femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yohei; Torizuka, Kenji; Wei, Zhiyi

    2003-05-01

    We were able to control relative carrier-envelope phase slip among mode-locked Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers by employing electronic feedback. The pulse timings of these lasers were passively synchronized with our crossing-beam technique. Since the optical-frequency ratio of Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite is approximately 3:2, we can observe the phase relation by superimposing the third harmonic of Cr:forsterite and the second harmonic of Ti:sapphire lasers in time and in space. The spectrum width of the locked beat note was less than 3 kHz, which corresponds to the controlled fluctuation of a cavity-length difference of less than 10 pm.

  11. Large-eddy simulation of flow in a plane, asymmetric diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaltenbach, Hans-Jakob

    1993-01-01

    Recent improvements in subgrid-scale modeling as well as increases in computer power make it feasible to investigate flows using large-eddy simulation (LES) which have been traditionally studied with techniques based on Reynolds averaging. However, LES has not yet been applied to many flows of immediate technical interest. Preliminary results from LES of a plane diffuser flow are described. The long term goal of this work is to investigate flow separation as well as separation control in ducts and ramp-like geometries.

  12. Stratification of a two-phase monodisperse system in a plane laminar flow

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoseev, V. B., E-mail: vbfedoseev@yandex.ru

    2016-05-15

    A thermodynamic approach is used to describe the distribution of particles of a disperse phase in a plane laminar flow. The effect of the density, shape, and velocity of disperse particles in the flow is considered. Conditions are described under which various modes of stratification of the flow (near-wall, central, intermediate, and multilayer modes) arise. The equilibrium distributions obtained are self-similar; this allows one to compare the behavior of colloidal, highly disperse, coarsely disperse, and coarse-grain systems for various shear velocities and flow widths.

  13. Analysis of a thin-walled pressurized torus in contact with a plane. [aircraft tires study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, M. J., Jr.; Gassman, P. M.; Baumgarten, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Finite element analysis is applied to study the large deflection of a standing torus loaded by a plane. The internally pressurized thin-walled structure is found to have an elliptical footprint area. Considerable bulge occurs in the sidewall in the region of the load plane. Stress distributions throughout the torus are shown for various load levels and for various modeling strategies at a given load level. In large load ranges finite element calculations show compressive circumferential stress and negative curvature in the footprint region. Results are compared with inelastic wall analysis.

  14. Influence of Cr and W alloying on the fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength in cast and directionally solidified sapphire NiAl composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, R.; Tiwari, R.; Tewari, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    Sapphire-reinforced NiAl matrix composites with chromium or tungsten as alloying additions were synthesized using casting and zone directional solidification (DS) techniques and characterized by a fiber pushout test as well as by microhardness measurements. The sapphire-NiAl(Cr) specimens exhibited an interlayer of Cr rich eutectic at the fiber-matrix interface and a higher interfacial shear strength compared to unalloyed sapphire-NiAl specimens processed under identical conditions. In contrast, the sapphire-NiAl(W) specimens did not show interfacial excess of tungsten rich phases, although the interfacial shear strength was high and comparable to that of sapphire-NiAl(Cr). The postdebond sliding stress was higher in sapphire-NiAl(Cr) than in sapphire-NiAl(W) due to interface enrichment with chromium particles. The matrix microhardness progressively decreased with increasing distance from the interface in both DS NiAl and NiAl(Cr) specimens. The study highlights the potential of casting and DS techniques to improve the toughness and strength of NiAl by designing dual-phase microstructures in NiAl alloys reinforced with sapphire fibers.

  15. Design and performance of an astigmatism-compensated self-mode-locked ring-cavity Ti:sapphire laser

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.; Dai, J.; Wang, Q.

    1996-12-31

    Based on the nonlinear ABCD matrix and the renormalized q-parameter for Gaussian-beam propagation, self-focusing in conjunction with a spatial gain profile for self-mode locking in a ring-cavity Ti:sapphire laser is analyzed. In the experiment, an astigmatism-compensated self-mode-locked ring-cavity Ti:sapphire laser is demonstrated, and self-mode-locked operation is achieved in both bidirection and unidirection with pulse durations as short as 36 fs and 32 fs, respectively. The experimental observations are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  16. Ultrafast third-harmonic generation from textured aluminum nitride-sapphire interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, D. S.; Baek, J.; Wang, W.; Kovar, D.; Becker, M. F.; Keto, J. W.

    2006-05-01

    We measured and modeled third-harmonic generation (THG) from an AlN thin film on sapphire using a time-domain approach appropriate for ultrafast lasers. Second-harmonic measurements indicated that polycrystalline AlN contains long-range crystal texture. An interface model for third-harmonic generation enabled an analytical representation of scanning THG ( z -scan) experiments. Using it and accounting for Fresnel reflections, we measured the AlN -sapphire susceptibility ratio and estimated the susceptibility for aluminum nitride, χxxxx(3)(3ω;ω,ω,ω)=1.52±0.25×10-13esu . The third-harmonic (TH) spectrum strongly depended on the laser focus position and sample thickness. The amplitude and phase of the frequency-domain interference were fit to the Fourier transform of the calculated time-domain field to improve the accuracy of several experimental parameters. We verified that the model works well for explaining TH signal amplitudes and spectral phase. Some anomalous features in the TH spectrum were observed, which we attributed to nonparaxial effects.

  17. Hybrid Physical-Chemical Vapor Deposition of Bi2Se3 Thin films on Sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brom, Joseph; Ke, Yue; Du, Renzhong; Gagnon, Jarod; Li, Qi; Redwing, Joan

    2012-02-01

    High quality thin films of topological insulators continue to garner much interest. We report on the growth of highly-oriented thin films of Bi2Se3 on c-plane sapphire using hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD). The HPCVD process utilizes the thermal decomposition of trimethyl bismuth (TMBi) and evaporation of elemental selenium in a hydrogen ambient to deposit Bi2Se3. Growth parameters including TMBi flow rate and decomposition temperature and selenium evaporation temperature were optimized, effectively changing the Bi:Se ratio, to produce high quality films. Glancing angle x- ray diffraction measurements revealed that the films were c-axis oriented on sapphire. Trigonal crystal planes were observed in atomic force microscopy images with an RMS surface roughness of 1.24 nm over an area of 2μmx2μm. Variable temperature Hall effect measurements were also carried out on films that were nominally 50-70 nm thick. Over the temperature range from 300K down to 4.2K, the carrier concentration remained constant at approximately 6x10^18 cm-3 while the mobility increased from 480 cm^2/Vs to 900 cm^2/Vs. These results demonstrate that the HPCVD technique can be used to deposit Bi2Se3 films with structural and electrical properties comparable to films produced by molecular beam epitaxy.

  18. Characterization of AFB sapphire single crystal composites for infrared window application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.-C.; Meissner, H. E.

    2007-04-01

    Next generation weapons platforms may require 30" x 30" sapphire windows. Since these sizes exceed what can be manufactured directly, a concept is proposed and experimental data are furnished in this report on the viability of increasing the window dimensions by Adhesive-Free-Bonding (AFB®) of smaller starting components by their edges. The bonding scheme has been evaluated for single crystal sapphire but is expected to also work equally well for other IR window materials. The bonding mechanism is explained with Van der Waals theory of attractive forces and confirmed experimentally by applying the bending plate theory. The gap at the interface between two components is deduced from the measured roughness of the polished surfaces that are brought into optical contact and subsequently heat-treated, and is estimated to be about 2 Å rms. Stress relief at AFB® interfaces has been established. Experimental data of flexural strength determined by four-point bending at room temperature is reported. The data indicates that AFB® composite specimens and equivalently prepared blank samples fracture at statistically same loads under standardized testing conditions. Failure of composites has not been observed at the interface and only at random flaws that are a result of sample preparation.

  19. Atomic fountain clock with very high frequency stability employing a pulse-tube-cryocooled sapphire oscillator.

    PubMed

    Takamizawa, Akifumi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Tanabe, Takehiko; Hagimoto, Ken; Hirano, Iku; Watabe, Ken-ichi; Ikegami, Takeshi; Hartnett, John G

    2014-09-01

    The frequency stability of an atomic fountain clock was significantly improved by employing an ultra-stable local oscillator and increasing the number of atoms detected after the Ramsey interrogation, resulting in a measured Allan deviation of 8.3 × 10(-14)τ(-1/2)). A cryogenic sapphire oscillator using an ultra-low-vibration pulse-tube cryocooler and cryostat, without the need for refilling with liquid helium, was applied as a local oscillator and a frequency reference. High atom number was achieved by the high power of the cooling laser beams and optical pumping to the Zeeman sublevel m(F) = 0 employed for a frequency measurement, although vapor-loaded optical molasses with the simple (001) configuration was used for the atomic fountain clock. The resulting stability is not limited by the Dick effect as it is when a BVA quartz oscillator is used as the local oscillator. The stability reached the quantum projection noise limit to within 11%. Using a combination of a cryocooled sapphire oscillator and techniques to enhance the atom number, the frequency stability of any atomic fountain clock, already established as primary frequency standard, may be improved without opening its vacuum chamber.

  20. MPS Li-Ion Batteries Qualified to Fly on Canadian Sapphire Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, S.; Carre, A.; Kimber, R.; Alcindor, P.; Krabel, E.

    2014-08-01

    Saft Li-ion 8S3P MPS (Medium Prismatic cell for Space Battery) autonomous battery has been designed and qualified primarily to meet LEO power requirements. It has been available for more than 8 years, the original battery concept qualification program being successfully carried-out with CNES support in year 2005. This module has been selected for the first time by the UK satellite manufacturer SSTL for the Sapphire spacecraft platform, on behalf of the spacecraft prime MDA Systems Ltd (MDA) and customer the Canadian DND. Due to the high mechanical load demand in the specifications, a delta qualification campaign was launched to make sure that the MPS battery was able to cope with this requirement. A partner approach between Saft and SSTL led Saft to build some dedicated representative 5S packs, which have been step by step tested by SSTL shaker. Based on the results, the battery was made and finally installed inside the Sapphire spacecraft which was successfully launched on February 25th 2013 after battery storage of about 3.5 years.

  1. The density and compositional analysis of titanium doped sapphire single crystal grown by the Czocharlski method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuma, H. H.; Ibrahim, Z.; Othaman, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Titanium doped sapphire (Ti:Al2O3) crystal has attracted attention not only as beautiful gemstones, but also due to their applications as high power laser action. It is very important crystal for tunable solid state laser. Ti:Al2O3 crystals have been success grown using the Czocharlski method with automatic diameter control (ADC) system. The crystals were grown with different pull rates. The structure of the crystal was characterized with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The density of the crystal was measurement based on the Archimedes principle and the chemical composition of the crystal was confirmed by the Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy. The XRD patterns of crystals are showed single main peak with a high intensity. Its shows that the samples are single crystal. The Ti:Al2O3 grown with different pull rate will affect the distribution of the concentration of dopant Ti3+ and densities on the sapphire crystals boules as well on the crystal growth process. The increment of the pull rate will increase the percentage distribution of Ti3+ and on the densities of the Ti:Al2O3 crystal boules. This may be attributed to the speed factor of the pull rate of the crystal that then caused changes in the heat flow in the furnace and then causes the homogeneities is changed of species distribution of atoms along crystal.

  2. DPSSL pumped 20-TW Ti:sapphire laser system for DD fusion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, T.; Hatano, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Kawashima, T.

    2016-03-01

    A diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) pumped 20-TW output Ti:sapphire laser system has been developed. A diode-pumped Nd:glass laser with output energy of 12.7 J in 527 nm was used as a pump source for a 20-TW Ti:sapphire amplifier. A CeLiB6O10 nonlinear optical crystal was used as a frequency doubler of the Nd:glass DPSSL[1]. Figure 1 shows typical output pulse energy of the 20-TW amplifier as a function of pumping energy and a near field pattern. A 1.65 J pulse energy was obtained by 4.5 J pump energy. The amplified seed pulse is compressed to typically 60 fs as shown in Fig. 1 by a vacuumed pulse compressor with 80% of transmissivity. Encircled energy ratio, into a circled with 8 μm diameter area, of far field pattern focused by off-axis parabolic mirror with F# of 3 is numerically evaluated to 40% at TW class output condition. Then focal intensity would reach to 1018W/cm2. This all- DPSSL system contributes for stable and continual investigation of laser induced plasma experiment. We have succeeded continual and high efficient generation of DD fusion neutron from CD nano-particles by cluster fusion scheme using the 20-TW laser. A yield of ∼105 neutrons per shot was stably observed during continuous 100 shots with repetition rate of 0.1Hz.

  3. Materials processing by use of a Ti:Sapphire laser with automatically-adjustable pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, M.; Imahoko, T.; Ozono, K.; Obara, M.

    We have developed an automatic pulsewidth-adjustable femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser system that can generate an output of 50 fs-1 ps in duration, and sub-mJ/pulse at a repetition rate of 1 kpps. The automatic pulse compressor enables one to control the pulsewidth in the range of 50 fs-1 ps by use of a personal computer (PC). The compressor can change the distance in-between and the tilt angle of the grating pairs by use of two stepping motors and two piezo-electric transducer(PZT) driven actuators, respectively. Both are controlled by a PC. Therefore, not only control of the pulsewidth, but also of the optical chirp becomes easy. By use of this femtosecond laser system, we fabricated a waveguide in fused quartz. The numerical aperture is chosen to 0.007 to loosely focus the femtosecond laser. The fabricated waveguides are well controllable by the incident laser pulsewidth. We also demonstrated the ablation processing of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), which is a key component of human tooth and human bone for orthopedics and dentistry. With pulsewidth tunable output from 50 fs through 2 ps at 1 kpps, the chemical content of calcium and phosphorus is kept unchanged before and after 50-fs-2-ps laser ablation. We also demonstrated the precise ablation processing of human tooth enamel with 2 ps Ti:Sapphire laser.

  4. A plane wave generation method by wave number domain point focusing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ji-Ho; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2010-11-01

    A method for generation of a wave-field that is a plane wave is described. This method uses an array of loudspeakers phased so that the field in the wave-number domain is nearly concentrated at a point, this point being at the wave-number vector of the desired plane wave. The method described here for such a wave-number concentration makes use of an expansion in spherical harmonics, and requires a relatively small number of measurement points for a good approximate achievement of a plane wave. The measurement points are on a spherical surface surrounding the array of loudspeakers. The input signals for the individual loudspeakers can be derived without a matrix inversion or without explicit assumptions about the loudspeakers. The mathematical development involves spherical harmonics and three-dimensional Fourier transforms. Some numerical examples are given, with various assumptions concerning the nature of the loudspeakers, that support the premise that the method described in the present paper may be useful in applications.

  5. Ribbed electrode substrates

    DOEpatents

    Breault, Richard D.; Goller, Glen J.

    1983-01-01

    A ribbed substrate for an electrochemical cell electrode is made from a mixture of carbon fibers and carbonizable resin and has a mean pore size in the ribs which is 60-75% of the mean pore size of the web portions of the substrate which interconnect the ribs. Preferably the mean pore size of the web portion is 25-45 microns; and, if the substrate includes edge seals parallel to the ribs, the edge seals preferably have a mean pore size no greater than about ten microns. Most preferably the substrate has the same ratio of carbon fibers to polymeric carbon in all areas, including the ribs, webs, and edge seals. A substrate according to the present invention will have better overall performance than prior art substrates and minimizes the substrate thickness required for the substrate to perform all its functions well.

  6. Coated substrates and process

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Wei-kan; Childs, Charles B.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a coated substrate and a process for forming films on substrates and for providing a particularly smooth film on a substrate. The method of this invention involves subjecting a surface of a substrate to contact with a stream of ions of an inert gas having sufficient force and energy to substantially change the surface characteristics of said substrate, and then exposing a film-forming material to a stream of ions of an inert gas having sufficient energy to vaporize the atoms of said film-forming material and to transmit the vaporized atoms to the substrate surface with sufficient force to form a film bonded to the substrate. This process is particularly useful commercially because it forms strong bonds at room temperature. This invention is particularly useful for adhering a gold film to diamond and forming ohmic electrodes on diamond, but also can be used to bond other films to substrates.

  7. Polished polymide substrate

    DOEpatents

    Farah, John; Sudarshanam, Venkatapuram S.

    2003-05-13

    Polymer substrates, in particular polyimide substrates, and polymer laminates for optical applications are described. Polyimide substrates are polished on one or both sides depending on their thickness, and single-layer or multi-layer waveguide structures are deposited on the polished polyimide substrates. Optical waveguide devices are machined by laser ablation using a combination of IR and UV lasers. A waveguide-fiber coupler with a laser-machined groove for retaining the fiber is also disclosed.

  8. Improvement of optical quality of semipolar (11 2 ¯ 2 ) GaN on m-plane sapphire by in-situ epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monavarian, Morteza; Izyumskaya, Natalia; Müller, Marcus; Metzner, Sebastian; Veit, Peter; Can, Nuri; Das, Saikat; Özgür, Ümit; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Morkoç, Hadis; Avrutin, Vitaliy

    2016-04-01

    Among the major obstacles for development of non-polar and semipolar GaN structures on foreign substrates are stacking faults which deteriorate the structural and optical quality of the material. In this work, an in-situ SiNx nano-network has been employed to achieve high quality heteroepitaxial semipolar (11 2 ¯ 2 ) GaN on m-plane sapphire with reduced stacking fault density. This approach involves in-situ deposition of a porous SiNx interlayer on GaN that serves as a nano-mask for the subsequent growth, which starts in the nanometer-sized pores (window regions) and then progresses laterally as well, as in the case of conventional epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO). The inserted SiNx nano-mask effectively prevents the propagation of defects, such as dislocations and stacking faults, in the growth direction and thus reduces their density in the overgrown layers. The resulting semipolar (11 2 ¯ 2 ) GaN layers exhibit relatively smooth surface morphology and improved optical properties (PL intensity enhanced by a factor of 5 and carrier lifetimes by 35% to 85% compared to the reference semipolar (11 2 ¯ 2 ) GaN layer) which approach to those of the c-plane in-situ nano-ELO GaN reference and, therefore, holds promise for light emitting and detecting devices.

  9. Enhancement of surface migration by Mg doping in the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of N-polar (000\\bar{1}) GaN/sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Tomoyuki; Shojiki, Kanako; Aisaka, Takashi; Kimura, Takeshi; Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Hanada, Takashi; Katayama, Ryuji; Matsuoka, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    With respect to N-polar (000\\bar{1}) GaN grown on a sapphire substrate, the effects of Mg doping on the surface morphology, and the optical, and electrical properties are precisely investigated. By doping Mg, hillocks observed on the surface of (000\\bar{1}) GaN can be suppressed, while step bunching becomes severe. The atomic terrace width is extended with increasing Mg/Ga precursor ratio. Mg doping can promote the surface migration of Ga adatoms on a GaN surface during growth. In the case of heavily Mg-doped GaN, atomic steps become wavy. From photoluminescence spectra, the dominant transition was found to change from near-band-edge transition to donor-acceptor-pair transition. Hall-effect measurement shows p-type conduction at room temperature for a sample grown with the Mg/Ga precursor ratio of 4.5 × 10-3. The activation energy is 143 meV, which is comparable to that of Mg in the conventional Ga-polar (0001) GaN.

  10. Influence of growth temperature on laser molecular beam epitaxy and properties of GaN layers grown on c-plane sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Ripudaman; Tyagi, Prashant; Kushvaha, Sunil Singh; Chockalingam, Sreekumar; Yadav, Brajesh Singh; Sharma, Nita Dilawar; Kumar, M. Senthil

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated the influence of growth temperature on the in-plane strain, structural, optical and mechanical properties of heteroepitaxially grown GaN layers on sapphire (0001) substrate by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) technique in the temperature range 500-700 °C. The GaN epitaxial layers are found to have a large in-plane compressive stress of about 1 GPa for low growth temperatures but the strain drastically reduced in the layer grown at 700 °C. The nature of the in-plane strain has been analyzed using high resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. From AFM, a change in GaN growth mode from grain to island is observed at the high growth temperature above 600 °C. A blue shift of 20-30 meV in near band edge PL emission line has been noticed for the GaN layers containing the large in-plane strain. These observations indicate that the in-plane strain in the GaN layers is dominated by a biaxial strain. Using nanoindentation, it is found that the indentation hardness and Young's modulus of the GaN layers increases with increasing growth temperature. The results disclose the critical role of growth mode in determining the in-plane strain and mechanical properties of the GaN layers grown by LMBE technique.

  11. Recovery of EUVL substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, S.P.; Baker, S.L.

    1995-01-19

    Mo/Si multilayers, were removed from superpolished zerodur and fused silica substrates with a dry etching process that, under suitable processing conditions, produces negligible change in either the substrate surface figure or surface roughness. Full recovery of the initial normal incidence extreme ultra-violet (EUV) reflectance response has been demonstrated on reprocessed substrates.

  12. 276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seongmo; Morgan, Daniel; Kesler, Amanda; Lachab, Mohamed; Zhang, Bin; Heidari, Ahmad; Nazir, Haseeb; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Dion, Joe; Fareed, Qhalid; Adivarahan, Vinod; Islam, Monirul; Khan, Asif

    2011-03-01

    Lateral-conduction, substrate-free flip-chip (SFFC) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with peak emission at 276 nm are demonstrated for the first time. The AlGaN multiple quantum well LED structures were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on thick-AlN laterally overgrown on sapphire substrates. To fabricate the SFFC LEDs, a newly-developed laser-assisted ablation process was employed to separate the substrate from the LED chips. The chips had physical dimensions of 1100×900 µm2, and were comprised of four devices each with a 100×100 µm2 junction area. Electrical and optical characterization of the devices revealed no noticeable degradation to their performance due to the laser-lift-off process.

  13. A multiple reflection model for the investigation of infrared transmission of a graphene/substrate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Ding, Lan; Liang, Changneng; Xiao, Yiming; Xu, Wen

    2017-11-01

    We develop a multiple reflection model (MRM) for the examination of infrared transmission properties of a graphene/substrate system. The incident angle and the multiple reflection beams in the substrate with finite thickness are taken into consideration. The model can be applied to predict the optical responses of graphene/substrate systems or to extract the real part of the optical conductance of graphene from the experimental measurement. As an example, we calculate the relative transmittance of graphene/quartz and graphene/sapphire systems by using MRM and provide an experimental verification in the near-infrared range. The measured results show good agreement with the calculated ones. Our method can be easily extended to accurately and non-invasively identify the layer numbers of other 2D materials, and assess the quality of them.

  14. Channel Temperature Estimates for Microwave AlGaN/GaN Power HEMTS on SiC and Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    A simple technique to estimate the channel temperature of a generic AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on SiC or Sapphire, while incorporating temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity is presented. The procedure is validated b y comparing it's predictions with the experimentally measured temperatures in devices presented in three recently published articles.

  15. 78 FR 56691 - Sapphire Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Sapphire Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  16. Frictional interactions in forming processes: New studies with transparent sapphire strip-drawing dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, R. S.; Lu, C. Y.; Wright, P. K.; Devenpeck, M. L.; Richmond, O.; Appleby, E. J.

    1982-05-01

    This research is concerned with the frictional interactions at the toolwork interfaces in the machining and strip-drawing processes. A novel feature is that transparent sapphire (single crystal Al2O3) is being used as the tool and die material. This allows the tribological features of the interface to be directly observed and recorded on movie-film. These qualitative studies provide information on the role of lubricants. In addition, techniques are being developed to quantify the velocity gradient along the interface. For example, in the drawing work it has been found that tracer markings (e.g. dye-spots), applied to the undrawn strip, remain intact during drawing and can be tracked along the sapphire/strip interface. Such data will be used as input to a finite-element, elasto-plastic-workhardening model of the deformation process. The latter can compute strip deformation characteristics, drawing forces and local coefficients of friction at the interface. Introductory results will be presented in this paper, obtained from drawing tin-plated mild steel with sapphire and cemented carbide dies. Drawing loads and die-separating forces will be presented and movie-films of the action of tracer markings at the interface shown. In order to demonstrate how this data can be used in an analysis of a large strain deformation process with friction, initial results from running the FIPDEF elasto-plastic code will be discussed. From a commercial viewpoint research on strip-drawing is of special interest to the can-making industry. From a physical viewpoint stripdrawing is of particular interest because it is a symmetrical, plane strain deformation and, in comparison with other metal processing operations, it is more readily modeled. However, until now the elasto-plastic codes that have been developed to predictively model drawing have had limitations: the most notable being that of quantifying the friction conditions at the die-work interface. Hence the specification of the

  17. Topological superconductivity and the fractional Josephson effect in quasi-one dimensional wires on a plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhmedov, E.; Mammadova, S.; Alekperov, O.

    2016-01-01

    A time-reversal invariant topological superconductivity is suggested to be realized in a quasi-one-dimensional structure on a plane, which is fabricated by filling the superconducting materials into the periodic channel of dielectric matrices like zeolite and asbestos under high pressure. The topological superconducting phase sets up in the presence of large spin-orbit interactions when intra-wire s-wave and inter-wire d-wave pairings take place. Kramers pairs of Majorana bound states emerge at the edges of each wire. We analyze effects of the Zeeman magnetic field on Majorana zero-energy states. In-plane magnetic field was shown to make asymmetric the energy dispersion, nevertheless Majorana fermions survive due to protection of a particle-hole symmetry. Tunneling of Majorana quasiparticle from the end of one wire to the nearest-neighboring one yields edge fractional Josephson current with 4π-periodicity.

  18. Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Yuan; Lin, Lan-Lan

    2003-04-01

    Transfer-matrix methods adopting a plane-wave basis have been routinely used to calculate the scattering of electromagnetic waves by general multilayer gratings and photonic crystal slabs. In this paper we show that this technique, when combined with Bloch's theorem, can be extended to solve the photonic band structure for 2D and 3D photonic crystal structures. Three different eigensolution schemes to solve the traditional band diagrams along high-symmetry lines in the first Brillouin zone of the crystal are discussed. Optimal rules for the Fourier expansion over the dielectric function and electromagnetic fields with discontinuities occurring at the boundary of different material domains have been employed to accelerate the convergence of numerical computation. Application of this method to an important class of 3D layer-by-layer photonic crystals reveals the superior convergency of this different approach over the conventional plane-wave expansion method.

  19. Compact cross-dispersion device based on a prism and a plane transmission grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qinghua; Wang, Weiqiang

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a cross-dispersion prism-grating device using a plane transmission grating attached directly to a prism, which is different from traditional cross-dispersion grating-prism systems that are based on the reflection grating. Unlike conventional direct-vision grism or constant-dispersion grism in which both the prism and grating have the same dispersion direction, for this device the dispersion directions of the prism and grating are different. The analytical expressions for the cross-dispersion of this device are derived in detail and the formulas of the footprint of the dispersed spectra are given. The numerical results and ray-tracing simulations by ZEMAX are shown. The device provides a compact, small-sized and broadband cross-dispersion device used for the medium resolution spectrometer.

  20. Understanding the power reflection and transmission coefficients of a plane wave at a planar interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qian; Jiang, Yikun; Lin, Haoze

    2017-03-01

    In most textbooks, after discussing the partial transmission and reflection of a plane wave at a planar interface, the power (energy) reflection and transmission coefficients are introduced by calculating the normal-to-interface components of the Poynting vectors for the incident, reflected and transmitted waves, separately. Ambiguity arises among students since, for the Poynting vector to be interpreted as the energy flux density, on the incident (reflected) side, the electric and magnetic fields involved must be the total fields, namely, the sum of incident and reflected fields, instead of the partial fields which are just the incident (reflected) fields. The interpretation of the cross product of partial fields as energy flux has not been obviously justified in most textbooks. Besides, the plane wave is actually an idealisation that is only ever found in textbooks, then what do the reflection and transmission coefficients evaluated for a plane wave really mean for a real beam of limited extent? To provide a clearer physical picture, we exemplify a light beam of finite transverse extent by a fundamental Gaussian beam and simulate its reflection and transmission at a planar interface. Due to its finite transverse extent, we can then insert the incident fields or reflected fields as total fields into the expression of the Poynting vector to evaluate the energy flux and then power reflection and transmission coefficients. We demonstrate that the power reflection and transmission coefficients of a beam of finite extent turn out to be the weighted sum of the corresponding coefficients for all constituent plane wave components that form the beam. The power reflection and transmission coefficients of a single plane wave serve, in turn, as the asymptotes for the corresponding coefficients of a light beam as its width expands infinitely.

  1. Evaluating the Type of Light Transmittance in Mono Crystalline, Poly Crystalline and Sapphire Brackets- An Invitro Spectrofluorometer Study

    PubMed Central

    Kommi, Pradeep Babu; Kumar, M Senthil; Hanumanth; Venkatesan; Aniruddh; Arvinth; Kumar, Arani Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most of the patients seek orthodontic treatment to improve the smile, which improves the facial profile by means of fixed appliances i.e., brackets and wires. The brackets are of different types like stainless steel and ceramic. Ceramic brackets were considered as aesthetic appliance which was divided into mono-crystalline, polycrystalline and sapphire brackets. The light transmittance might influence the degree of curing adhesive material in mono crystalline, polycrystalline and sapphire brackets. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the translucency and intensity of three different aesthetic brackets (mono crystalline, poly crystalline and sapphire ceramic brackets) and to determine their influence on shear bond strength of the brackets. The adhesive remnant index was also measured after debonding of the brackets from the tooth surface. Materials and Methods Twenty six samples each of monocrystalline, polycrystalline and sapphire brackets (total 78 ceramic brackets) were used for the study. The bracket samples were subjected to optical fluorescence test using spectrofluorometer to measure the intensity of the brackets. Seventy eight extracted premolar teeth were procured and divided into 3 groups. The brackets were then bonded to the tooth using Transbond XT (3M Unitek) light cure composite material and cured with new light cure unit (Light Emitting Diode) of wood pecker company (400-450nm) for 30 seconds, and these samples were subjected to shear bond strength test with Instron Universal Testing Machine (UNITEK-94100) with a load range between 0 to 100 KN with a maximum cross head speed of 0.5mm/min. ARI (Adhesive Remnant Index) scores were evaluated according to Artun and Bergland scoring system using stereomicroscope at 20x magnification. Results The light absorption values obtained from spectrofluorometeric study were 3300000–3500000 cps for group 1 (monocrystalline ceramic brackets), 6000000–6500000 cps for Group 2

  2. Evaluating the Type of Light Transmittance in Mono Crystalline, Poly Crystalline and Sapphire Brackets- An Invitro Spectrofluorometer Study.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Jauhar P; Kommi, Pradeep Babu; Kumar, M Senthil; Hanumanth; Venkatesan; Aniruddh; Arvinth; Kumar, Arani Nanda

    2016-08-01

    Most of the patients seek orthodontic treatment to improve the smile, which improves the facial profile by means of fixed appliances i.e., brackets and wires. The brackets are of different types like stainless steel and ceramic. Ceramic brackets were considered as aesthetic appliance which was divided into mono-crystalline, polycrystalline and sapphire brackets. The light transmittance might influence the degree of curing adhesive material in mono crystalline, polycrystalline and sapphire brackets. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the translucency and intensity of three different aesthetic brackets (mono crystalline, poly crystalline and sapphire ceramic brackets) and to determine their influence on shear bond strength of the brackets. The adhesive remnant index was also measured after debonding of the brackets from the tooth surface. Twenty six samples each of monocrystalline, polycrystalline and sapphire brackets (total 78 ceramic brackets) were used for the study. The bracket samples were subjected to optical fluorescence test using spectrofluorometer to measure the intensity of the brackets. Seventy eight extracted premolar teeth were procured and divided into 3 groups. The brackets were then bonded to the tooth using Transbond XT (3M Unitek) light cure composite material and cured with new light cure unit (Light Emitting Diode) of wood pecker company (400-450nm) for 30 seconds, and these samples were subjected to shear bond strength test with Instron Universal Testing Machine (UNITEK-94100) with a load range between 0 to 100 KN with a maximum cross head speed of 0.5mm/min. ARI (Adhesive Remnant Index) scores were evaluated according to Artun and Bergland scoring system using stereomicroscope at 20x magnification. The light absorption values obtained from spectrofluorometeric study were 3300000-3500000 cps for group 1 (monocrystalline ceramic brackets), 6000000-6500000 cps for Group 2 (polycrystalline ceramic brackets) and 2700000 -3000000 cps for

  3. Status of AlGaN based focal plane array for near UV imaging and strategy to extend this technology to far-UV by substrate removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverchon, Jean-Luc; Gourdel, Yves; Robo, Jean-Alexandre; Truffer, Jean-Patrick; Costard, Eric; Brault, Julien; Duboz, Jean-Yves

    2017-11-01

    The fast development of nitrides has given the opportunity to investigate AlGaN as a material for ultraviolet detection. Such AlGaN based camera presents an intrinsic spectral selectivity and an extremely low dark current at room temperature. Firstly, we will present results on focal plane array of 320x256 pixels with a pitch of 30μm. The peak responsivity is around 280nm (solar-blind), 310nm and 360nm. These results are obtained in a standard SWIR supply chain (readout circuit, electronics). With the existing near-UV camera grown on sapphire, the short wavelength cutoff is due to a window layer improving the material quality of the active layer. The ultimate shortest wavelength would be 200nm due to sapphire substrate. We present here the ways to transfer the standard design of Schottky photodiodes from sapphire to silicon substrate. We will show the capability to remove the silicon substrate, and etch the window layer in order to extend the band width to lower wavelengths.

  4. Experimental investigation of the reaction between corundum xenocrysts and alkaline basaltic host magma: Constraints on magma residence times of basalt-hosted sapphires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, L. C.; Ballhaus, C.

    2018-03-01

    Megacrystic sapphires (Fe-Ti-rich corundum) of up to 5 cm in size are well known from alkaline mafic rocks from intra-continental rift-related magmatic fields. There is no doubt that these sapphires represent xenocrysts that were trapped from their original lithology by ascending basaltic magmas carrying them to the Earth's surface. Most studies about basalt-hosted sapphires address the question about the origin of the sapphires, but there is hardly any information available about the time the sapphires resided inside the carrier melt. Sapphires are in reaction relationship with basalt and produce spinel coronas at the sapphire-basalt interface, spatially separating the mutually incompatible phases from one another. Assuming isothermal and isobaric conditions of spinel rim formation, the rim-thickness should be a function of the reaction time with the basaltic melt. In this paper, we report time-series experiments aimed at investigating the kinetics of spinel rim formation due to igneous corrosion of corundum. Therefore, we reacted corundum fragments with alkaline basalt powder at 1250 °C and 1GPa, using a Piston Cylinder Apparatus. The width of the spinel rim was used to estimate a residence time. Extrapolating the experimentally derived reaction rates to the thickness of natural spinel rims as described from the Siebengebirge Volcanic Field, Germany, and from Changle, China, we estimated residence times in the order of a few weeks to months.

  5. Mid-IR absorption sensing of heavy water using a silicon-on-sapphire waveguide.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neetesh; Casas-Bedoya, Alvaro; Hudson, Darren D; Read, Andrew; Mägi, Eric; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2016-12-15

    We demonstrate a compact silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) strip waveguide sensor for mid-IR absorption spectroscopy. This device can be used for gas and liquid sensing, especially to detect chemically similar molecules and precisely characterize extremely absorptive liquids that are difficult to detect by conventional infrared transmission techniques. We reliably measure concentrations up to 0.25% of heavy water (D2O) in a D2O-H2O mixture at its maximum absorption band at around 4 μm. This complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible SOS D2O sensor is promising for applications such as measuring body fat content or detection of coolant leakage in nuclear reactors.

  6. Laser Ablation of Dental Calculus Around 400 nm Using a Ti:Sapphire Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenly, J.; Seka, W.; Rechmann, P.

    2009-10-19

    A Nd:YAG laser-pumped, frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser is used for selective ablation of calculus. The laser provides ≤25 mJ at 400 nm (60-ns pulse width, 10-Hz repetition rate). The laser is coupled into an optical multimode fiber coiled around a 4-in.-diam drum to generate a top-hat output intensity profile. With coaxial water cooling, this is ideal for efficient, selective calculus removal. This is in stark contrast with tightly focused Gaussian beams that are energetically inefficient and lead to irreproducible results. Calculus is well ablated at high fluences ≥2 J/cm^2; stalling occurs below this fluence because of photobleaching. Healthy hard tissue ismore » not removed at fluences ≤3 J/cm^2.« less

  7. Mid-infrared Raman amplification and wavelength conversion in dispersion engineered silicon-on-sapphire waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaolu; Liu, Hongjun; Huang, Nan; Sun, Qibing; Li, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    Raman amplification based on stimulated Stokes Raman scattering (SSRS) and wavelength conversion based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) are theoretically investigated in silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) waveguides in the mid-infrared (IR) region. When the linear phase mismatch Δk is close to zero, the Stokes gain and conversion efficiency drop down quickly due to the effect of parametric gain suppression when the Stokes-pump input ratio is sufficiently large. The Stokes gain increases with the increase of Δk, whereas efficient wavelength conversion needs appropriate Δk under different pump intensities. The conversion efficiency at exact linear phase matching (Δk = 0) is smaller than that at optimal linear phase mismatch by a factor of about 28 dB when the pump intensity is 2 GW cm-2.

  8. Laser ablation of dental calculus at 400 nm using a Ti:sapphire laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenly, Joshua E.; Seka, Wolf; Rechmann, Peter

    2009-02-01

    A Nd:YAG laser-pumped, frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser is used for selective ablation of calculus. The laser provides <=25 mJ at 400 nm (60-ns pulse width, 10-Hz repetition rate). The laser is coupled into an optical multimode fiber coiled around a 4-in.-diam drum to generate a top-hat output intensity profile. With coaxial water cooling, this is ideal for efficient, selective calculus removal. This is in stark contrast with tightly focused Gaussian beams that are energetically inefficient and lead to irreproducible results. Calculus is well ablated at high fluences >=2J/cm2 stalling occurs below this fluence because of photobleaching. Healthy hard tissue is not removed at fluences <=3 J/cm2.

  9. The sapphire backscattering monochromator at the Dynamics beamline P01 of PETRA III

    DOE PAGES

    Alexeev, P.; Asadchikov, V.; Bessas, D.; ...

    2016-02-23

    Here, we report on a high resolution sapphire backscattering monochromator installed at the Dynamics beamline P01 of PETRA III. The device enables nuclear resonance scattering experiments on M ossbauer isotopes with transition energies between 20 and 60 keV with sub-meV to meV resolution. In a first performance test with 119Sn nuclear resonance at a X-ray energy of 23.88 keV an energy resolution of 1.34 meV was achieved. Moreover, the device extends the field of nuclear resonance scattering at the PETRA III synchrotron light source to many further isotopes like 151Eu, 149Sm, 161Dy, 125Te and 121Sb.

  10. Cryogenic sapphire oscillator using a low-vibration design pulse-tube cryocooler: first results.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, John; Nand, Nitin; Wang, Chao; Floch, Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    A cryogenic sapphire oscillator (CSO) has been implemented at 11.2 GHz using a low-vibration design pulsetube cryocooler. Compared with a state-of-the-art liquid helium cooled CSO in the same laboratory, the square root Allan variance of their combined fractional frequency instability is sigma(y) = 1.4 x 10(-15)tau(-1/2) for integration times 1 < tau < 10 s, dominated by white frequency noise. The minimum sigmay = 5.3 x 10(-16) for the two oscillators was reached at tau = 20 s. Assuming equal contributions from both CSOs, the single oscillator phase noise S(phi) approximately -96 dB x rad(2)/Hz at 1 Hz set from the carrier.

  11. In situ conductance measurements of copper phthalocyanine thin film growth on sapphire [0001].

    PubMed

    Murdey, Richard; Sato, Naoki

    2011-06-21

    The current flowing through a thin film of copper phthalocyanine vacuum deposited on a single crystal sapphire [0001] surface was measured during film growth from 0 to 93 nm. The results, expressed as conductance vs. nominal film thickness, indicate three distinct film growth regions. Conductive material forms below about 5 nm and again above 35 nm, but in the intermediate thicknesses the film conductance was observed to decrease with increasing film thickness. With the aid of ac-AFM topology images taken ex situ, the conductance results are explained based on the Stranski-Krastanov (2D + 3D) film growth mechanism, in which the formation of a thin wetting layer is followed by the growth of discrete islands that eventually coalesce into an interpenetrating, conductive network. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  12. Method for making alignment-enhancing feed-through conductors for stackable silicon-on-sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Alignment-enhancing electrically conductive feed-through paths are provided for the high-speed low-loss transfer of electrical signals between integrated circuits of a plurality of silicon-on-sapphire bodies arrayed in a stack. The alignment-enhancing feed-throughs are made by a process of this invention involving the drilling of holes through the body, double-sided sputtering, electroplating, and the filling of the holes with solder by capillary action. The alignment-enhancing feed-throughs are activated by forming a stack of wafers and remelting the solder whereupon the wafers, and the feed-through paths, are pulled into alignment by surface tension forces.

  13. Effect of interfacial species on shear strength of metal-sapphire contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1979-01-01

    The interfacial shear strength of the metal-insulator system has been studied by means of the coefficient of static friction of copper, nickel, or gold contacts on sapphire in ultrahigh vacuum. The effect on contact strength of adsorbed oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and carbon monoxide on the metal surfaces is reported. It was found that exposures as low as 1 L of O2 on Ni produced observable increases in contact strength, whereas exposures of 3 L of Cl2 lead to a decrease in contact strength. These results imply that submonolayer concentrations of these species at the interface of a thin Ni film on Al2O3 should affect film adhesion similarly. The atomic mechanism by which these surface or interface phases affect interfacial strength is not yet understood.

  14. Single-crystal sapphire microstructure for high-resolution synchrotron X-ray monochromators

    DOE PAGES

    Asadchikov, Victor E.; Butashin, Andrey V.; Buzmakov, Alexey V.; ...

    2016-03-22

    We report on the growth and characterization of several sapphire single crystals for the purpose of x-ray optics applications. Structural defects were studied by means of laboratory double-crystal X-ray diffractometry and white beam synchrotron-radiation topography. The investigations confirmed that the main defect types are dislocations. The best quality crystal was grown using the Kyropoulos technique with a dislocation density of 10 2-10 3 cm -2 and a small area with approximately 2*2 mm 2 did not show dislocation contrast in many reflections and has suitable quality for application as a backscattering monochromator. As a result, a clear correlation between growthmore » rate and dislocation density is observed, though growth rate is not the only parameter impacting the quality.« less

  15. Mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser oscillators pumped by wavelength-multiplexed laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Naoto; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2018-05-01

    We directly pumped a Ti:sapphire laser by combining 478 and 520 nm laser diodes to prevent the effect of absorption loss induced by the pump laser of shorter wavelengths (∼450 nm). We obtain a continuous-wave output power of 660 mW at a total incident pump power of 3.15 W. We demonstrate mode locking using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror, and 126 fs pulses were obtained at a repetition rate of 192 MHz. At the maximum pump power, the average output power is 315 mW. Shorter mode-locked pulses of 42 and 48 fs were respectively achieved by Kerr-lens mode locking with average output powers of 280 and 360 mW at a repetition rate of 117 MHz.

  16. Carrier-envelope frequency stabilization of a Ti:sapphire oscillator using different pump lasers.

    PubMed

    Vernaleken, Andreas; Schmidt, Bernhard; Wolferstetter, Martin; Hänsch, Theodor W; Holzwarth, Ronald; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2012-07-30

    We investigate the suitability of various commercially available pump lasers for operation with a carrier-envelope offset frequency stabilized Ti:sapphire oscillator. Although the tested pump lasers differ in their setup and properties (e.g., single vs. multi-mode), we find that they are all well-suited for the purpose. The residual rms phase noise (integrated between 20 Hz and 5 MHz) of the stabilized oscillator is found to be below 160 mrad with each pump laser, corresponding to less than 1/40 of an optical cycle. Differences in performance vary slightly. In particular, our results indicate that the latest generation of multi-mode pump lasers can be used for applications where precise phase control of the oscillator is strictly required.

  17. Two Wavelength Ti:sapphire Laser for Ozone DIAL Measurements from Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Situ, Wen; DeYoung, Russel J.

    1998-01-01

    Laser remote sensing of ozone from aircraft has proven to be a valuable technique for understanding the distribution and dynamics of ozone in the atmosphere. Presently the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique, using dual ND:YAG lasers that are doubled to pump dye lasers which in turn are doubled into the UV for the "on" and "off' line lasers, is used on either the NASA DC-8 or P-3 aircraft. Typically, the laser output for each line is 40-mJ and this is split into two beams, one looking up and the other downward, each beam having about 20-mJ. The residual ND:YAG (1.06 micron) and dye laser energies are also transmitted to obtain information on the atmospheric aerosols. While this system has operated well, there are several system characteristics that make the system less than ideal for aircraft operations. The system, which uses separate "on" and "off" line lasers, is quite large and massive requiring valuable aircraft volume and weight. The dye slowly degrades with time requiring replacement. The laser complexity requires a number of technical people to maintain the system performance. There is also the future interest in deploying an ozone DIAL system in an Unpiloted Atmospheric Vehicle (UAV) which would require a total payload mass of less than 150 kg and power requirement of less than 1500 W. A laser technology has emerged that could potentially provide significant enhancements over the present ozone DIAL system. The flashlamp pumped Ti:sapphire laser system is an emerging technology that could reduce the mass and volume over the present system and also provide a system with fewer conversion steps, reducing system complexity. This paper will discuss preliminary results from a flashlamp-pumped Ti:sapphire laser constructed as a radiation source for a UV DIAL system to measure ozone.

  18. Femtosecond deep-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped directly by a Ti:sapphire laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Callum; Chaitanya Kumar, S.; Zawilski, Kevin T.; Schunemann, Peter G.; Ebrahim-Zadeh, Majid

    2018-02-01

    We report a high-repetition-rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for the deep-infrared (deep-IR) based on the nonlinear optical crystal, CdSiP2 (CSP), pumped directly by a Ti:sapphire laser, for the first time. By pumping CSP at <1 μm, we have achieved practical output powers at the longest wavelengths generated by any Ti:sapphire-pumped OPO. Using a combination of pump wavelength tuning, type-I critical phase-matching, and cavity delay tuning, we have generated continuously tunable radiation across 6654-8373 nm (1194-1503 cm-1) at 80.5 MHz repetition rate, providing up to 20 mW of average power at 7314 nm and <7 mW beyond 8000 nm, with idler spectra exhibiting bandwidths of 140-180 nm across the tuning range. Moreover, the near-IR signal is tunable across 1127-1192 nm, providing up to 37 mW of average power at 1150 nm. Signal pulses, characterised using intensity autocorrelation, have durations of 260-320 fs, with corresponding time-bandwidth product of ΔυΔτ 1. The idler and signal output exhibit a TEM00 spatial profile with single-peak Gaussian distribution. With an equivalent spectral brightness of 6.68×1020 photons s-1 mm-2 sr-1 0.1% BW-1, this OPO represents a viable table-top alternative to synchrotron and supercontinuum sources for deep-IR applications in spectroscopy, metrology and medical diagnostics.

  19. Numerical investigation of thermal and residual stress of sapphire during c-axis vertical Bridgman growth process considering the solidification history effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Young Cheol; Lee, Wook Jin

    2018-01-01

    Sapphire single crystals have been highlighted for epitaxial of gallium nitride films in high-power laser and light emitting diode industries. In this study, the evolution of thermally induced stress in sapphire during the vertical Bridgman crystal growth process was investigated using a finite element model that simplified the real Bridgman process. A vertical Bridgman process of cylindrical sapphire crystal with a diameter of 50 mm was considered for the model. The solidification history effect during the growth was modeled by the quite element technique. The effects of temperature gradient, seeding interface shape and seeding position on the thermal stress during the process were discussed based on the finite element analysis results.

  20. Generation of continuous-wave single-frequency 1.5 W 378 nm radiation by frequency doubling of a Ti:sapphire laser.

    PubMed

    Cha, Yong-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Hoon; Lim, Gwon; Han, Jae-Min; Park, Hyun-Min; Kim, Taek-Soo; Jeong, Do-Young

    2010-03-20

    We have generated continuous-wave single-frequency 1.5 W 378 nm radiation by frequency doubling a high-power Ti:sapphire laser in an external enhancement cavity. An LBO crystal that is Brewster-cut and antireflection coated on both ends is used for a long-term stable frequency doubling. By optimizing the input coupler's reflectivity, we could generate 1.5 W 378 nm radiation from a 5 W 756 nm Ti:sapphire laser. According to our knowledge, this is the highest CW frequency-doubled power of a Ti:sapphire laser.

  1. Germanium-Assisted Direct Growth of Graphene on Arbitrary Dielectric Substrates for Heating Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ziwen; Xue, Zhongying; Zhang, Miao

    Direct growth of graphene on dielectric substrates is a prerequsite for the development of graphene-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the current graphene synthesis directly on dielectric substrates always involves metal contamination problem, and the direct production of graphene patterns still remains unattainable and challenging. We propose herein a semiconducting Ge-assisted chemical vapor deposition approach to directly grow monolayer graphene on arbitrary dielectric substrates. By pre-patterning of catalytic Ge layer, the graphene with desired pattern can be achieved with extreme ease. Due to the catalysis of Ge, monolayer graphene is able to form on Ge covered dielectric substrates including SiOmore » 2/Si, quartz glass and sapphire substrates. Optimization of the process parameters leads to the complete sublimation of catalytic Ge layer during or immediately after monolayer graphene formation, thus resulting in direct deposition of large-area continuous graphene on dielectric substrates. The large-area, highly conductive graphene synthesized on transparent dielectric substrate using the proposed approach has exhibited wide applications, e.g., in defogger and in thermochromic displays, with both devices possessing excellent performances.« less

  2. Germanium-Assisted Direct Growth of Graphene on Arbitrary Dielectric Substrates for Heating Devices

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Ziwen; Xue, Zhongying; Zhang, Miao; ...

    2017-05-31

    Direct growth of graphene on dielectric substrates is a prerequsite for the development of graphene-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the current graphene synthesis directly on dielectric substrates always involves metal contamination problem, and the direct production of graphene patterns still remains unattainable and challenging. We propose herein a semiconducting Ge-assisted chemical vapor deposition approach to directly grow monolayer graphene on arbitrary dielectric substrates. By pre-patterning of catalytic Ge layer, the graphene with desired pattern can be achieved with extreme ease. Due to the catalysis of Ge, monolayer graphene is able to form on Ge covered dielectric substrates including SiOmore » 2/Si, quartz glass and sapphire substrates. Optimization of the process parameters leads to the complete sublimation of catalytic Ge layer during or immediately after monolayer graphene formation, thus resulting in direct deposition of large-area continuous graphene on dielectric substrates. The large-area, highly conductive graphene synthesized on transparent dielectric substrate using the proposed approach has exhibited wide applications, e.g., in defogger and in thermochromic displays, with both devices possessing excellent performances.« less

  3. Removal of Lattice Imperfections that Impact the Optical Quality of Ti:Sapphire using Advanced Magnetorheological Finishing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A; Schaffers, K I; Bayramian, A J

    2007-10-09

    Ti:sapphire has become the premier lasing medium material for use in solid-state femtosecond high-peak power laser systems because of its wide wavelength tuning range. With a tuneable range from 680 to 1100 nm, peaking at 800 nm, Ti:sapphire lasing crystals can easily be tuned to the required pump wavelength and provide very high pump brightness due to their good beam quality and high output power of typically several watts. Femtosecond lasers are used for precision cutting and machining of materials ranging from steel to tooth enamel to delicate heart tissue and high explosives. These ultra-short pulses are too brief tomore » transfer heat or shock to the material being cut, which means that cutting, drilling, and machining occur with virtually no damage to surrounding material. Furthermore, these lasers can cut with high precision, making hairline cuts of less than 100 microns in thick materials along a computer-generated path. Extension of laser output to higher energies is limited by the size of the amplification medium. Yields of high quality large diameter crystals have been constrained by lattice distortions that may appear in the boule limiting the usable area from which high quality optics can be harvested. Lattice distortions affect the transmitted wavefront of these optics which ultimately limits the high-end power output and efficiency of the laser system, particularly when operated in multi-pass mode. To make matters even more complicated, Ti:sapphire is extremely hard (Mohs hardness of 9 with diamond being 10) which makes it extremely difficult to accurately polish using conventional methods without subsurface damage or significant wavefront error. In this presentation, we demonstrate for the first time that Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) can be used to compensate for the lattice distortions in Ti:sapphire by perturbing the transmitted wavefront. The advanced MRF techniques developed allow for precise polishing of the optical inverse of lattice

  4. The three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer near a plane of symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, A. T.; Smith, F. T.; Walker, J. D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The asymptotic structure of the three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer near a plane of symmetry is considered in the limit of large Reynolds number. A self-consistent two-layer structure is shown to exist wherein the streamwise velocity is brought to rest through an outer defect layer and an inner wall layer in a manner similar to that in two-dimensional boundary layers. The cross-stream velocity distribution is more complex and two terms in the asymptotic expansion are required to yield a complete profile which is shown to exhibit a logarithmic region. The flow in the inner wall layer is demonstrated to be collateral to leading order; pressure-gradient effects are formally of higher order but can cause the velocity profile to skew substantially near the wall at the large but finite Reynolds numbers encountered in practice. The governing set of ordinary differential equations describing a self-similar flow is derived. The calculated numerical solutions of these equations are matched asymptotically to an inner wall-layer solution and the results show trends that are consistent with experimental observations.

  5. Two charges on a plane in a magnetic field: hidden algebra, (particular) integrability, polynomial eigenfunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbiner, A. V.; Escobar-Ruiz, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    The quantum mechanics of two Coulomb charges on a plane (e1, m1) and (e2, m2) subject to a constant magnetic field B perpendicular to the plane is considered. Four integrals of motion are explicitly indicated. It is shown that for two physically important particular cases, namely that of two particles of equal Larmor frequencies, {e_c} \\propto \\frac{e_1}{m_1}-\\frac{e_2}{m_2}=0 (e.g. two electrons) and one of a neutral system (e.g. the electron-positron pair, hydrogen atom) at rest (the center-of-mass momentum is zero) some outstanding properties occur. They are the most visible in double polar coordinates in CMS (R, ϕ) and relative (ρ, φ) coordinate systems: (i) eigenfunctions are factorizable, all factors except one with the explicit ρ-dependence are found analytically, they have definite relative angular momentum, (ii) dynamics in the ρ-direction is the same for both systems, it corresponds to a funnel-type potential and it has hidden sl(2) algebra, at some discrete values of dimensionless magnetic fields b ⩽ 1, (iii) particular integral(s) occur, (iv) the hidden sl(2) algebra emerges in finite-dimensional representation, thus, the system becomes quasi-exactly-solvable and (v) a finite number of polynomial eigenfunctions in ρ appear. Nine families of eigenfunctions are presented explicitly.

  6. Generation of phase singularity through diffracting a plane or Gaussian beam by a spiral phase plate.

    PubMed

    Kotlyar, Victor V; Almazov, Anton A; Khonina, Svetlana N; Soifer, Victor A; Elfstrom, Henna; Turunen, Jari

    2005-05-01

    We deduce and study an analytical expression for Fresnel diffraction of a plane wave by a spiral phase plate (SPP) that imparts an arbitrary-order phase singularity on the light field. Estimates for the optical vortex radius that depends on the singularity's integer order n (also termed topological charge, or order of the dislocation) have been derived. The near-zero vortex intensity is shown to be proportional to rho2n, where p is the radial coordinate. Also, an analytical expression for Fresnel diffraction of the Gaussian beam by a SPP with nth-order singularity is analyzed. The far-field intensity distribution is derived. The radius of maximal intensity is shown to depend on the singularity number. The behavior of the Gaussian beam intensity after a SPP with second-order singularity (n = 2) is studied in more detail. The parameters of the light beams generated numerically with the Fresnel transform and via analytical formulas are in good agreement. In addition, the light fields with first- and second-order singularities were generated by a 32-level SPP fabricated on the resist by use of the electron-beam lithography technique.

  7. Diffraction of a plane wave by a three-dimensional corner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, L.; Kung, F.

    1971-01-01

    By the superposition of the conical solution for the diffraction of a plane pulse by a three dimensional corner, the solution for a general incident plane wave is constructed. A numerical program is presented for the computation of the pressure distribution on the surface due to an incident plane wave of any wave form and at any incident angle. Numerical examples are presented to show the pressure signature at several points on the surface due to incident wave with a front shock wave, two shock waves in succession, or a compression wave with same peak pressure. The examples show that when the distance of a point on the surface from the edges or the vertex is comparable to the distance for the front pressure raise to reach the maximum, the peak pressure at that point can be much less than that given by a regular reflection, because the diffracted wave front arrives at that point prior to the arrival of the peak incident wave.

  8. Optical absorption edge of ZnO thin films: The effect of substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikant, V.; Clarke, D. R.

    1997-05-01

    The optical absorption edge and the near-absorption edge characteristics of undoped ZnO films grown by laser ablation on various substrates have been investigated. The band edge of films on C [(0001)] and R-plane [(1102)] sapphire, 3.29 and 3.32 eV, respectively, are found to be very close to the single crystal value of ZnO (3.3 eV) with the differences being accounted for in terms of the thermal mismatch strain using the known deformation potentials of ZnO. In contrast, films grown on fused silica consistently exhibit a band edge ˜0.1 eV lower than that predicted using the known deformation potential and the thermal mismatch strains. This behavior is attributed to the small grain size (50 nm) realized in these films and the effect of electrostatic potentials that exist at the grain boundaries. Additionally, the spread in the tail (E0) of the band edge for the different films is found to be very sensitive to the defect structure in the films. For films grown on sapphire substrates, values of E0 as low as 30 meV can be achieved on annealing in air, whereas films on fused silica always show a value >100 meV. We attribute this difference to the substantially higher density of high-angle grain boundaries in the films on fused silica.

  9. Frequency-doubled DBR-tapered diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating sub-20 fs pulses.

    PubMed

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika; Le, Tuan; Stingl, Andreas; Hasler, Karl-Heinz; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Andersen, Peter E; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2011-06-20

    For the first time a single-pass frequency doubled DBR-tapered diode laser suitable for pumping Ti:sapphire lasers generating ultrashort pulses is demonstrated. The maximum output powers achieved when pumping the Ti:sapphire laser are 110 mW (CW) and 82 mW (mode-locked) respectively at 1.2 W of pump power. This corresponds to a reduction in optical conversion efficiencies to 75% of the values achieved with a commercial diode pumped solid-state laser. However, the superior electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser improves the overall efficiency of the Ti:sapphire laser by a factor > 2. The optical spectrum emitted by the Ti:sapphire laser when pumped with our diode laser shows a spectral width of 112 nm (FWHM). Based on autocorrelation measurements, pulse widths of less than 20 fs can therefore be expected.

  10. Suitability of surface acoustic wave oscillators fabricated using low temperature-grown AlN films on GaN/sapphire as UV sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu Chieh; Lin, Yueh Ting; Lin, Chung Yi; Chen, W C; Chen, Meei Ru; Kao, Hui-Ling; Chyi, J I; Hsu, C H

    2008-02-01

    Epitaxial AlN films were prepared on GaN/sapphire using a helicon sputtering system at the low temperature of 300 degrees C. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices fabricated on AlN/GaN/sapphire exhibited superior characteristics compared with those made on GaN/sapphire. An oscillator using an AlN/GaN/sapphirebased SAW device is presented. The oscillation frequency decreased when the device was illuminated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and the downshift of the oscillation frequency increased with the illuminating UV power density. The results showed that the AlN/GaN/sapphire-layered structure SAW oscillators are suitable for visible blind UV detection and opened up the feasibility of developing remote UV sensors for different ranges of wavelengths on the III-nitrides.

  11. Spatial inhomogeneities in Al x Ga1-x N quantum wells induced by the surface morphology of AlN/sapphire templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeimer, Ute; Jeschke, Joerg; Mogilatenko, Anna; Knauer, Arne; Kueller, Viola; Hoffmann, Veit; Kuhn, Christian; Simoneit, Tino; Martens, Martin; Wernicke, Tim; Kneissl, Michael; Weyers, Markus

    2015-11-01

    The effects of the template on the optical and structural properties of Al0.75Ga0.25N/Al0.8Ga0.2N multiple quantum well (MQWs) laser active regions have been investigated. The laser structures for optical pumping were grown on planar c-plane AlN/sapphire as well as on thick epitaxially laterally overgrown (ELO) AlN layers on patterned AlN/sapphire. Two ELO AlN/sapphire templates were investigated, one with a miscut of the sapphire surface to the m-direction with an angle of 0.25°, the other with a miscut angle of 0.25° to the sapphire a-direction. The MQWs are studied by atomic force microscopy, plan-view cathodoluminescence (CL) at room temperature and 83 K as well as transmission electron microscopy using high-angle annular dark-field imaging and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The results are compared to optical pumping measurements. It was found that the surface morphology of the templates determines the lateral wavelength distribution in the MQWs observed by spectral CL mappings. The lateral wavelength spread is largest for the laser structures grown on ELO AlN with miscut to sapphire a-direction caused by the local variation of the MQW thicknesses and the Ga incorporation at macrosteps on the ELO-AlN. A CL peak wavelength spread of up to 7 nm has been found. The MQWs grown on planar AlN/sapphire templates show a homogeneous wavelength distribution. However, due to the high threading dislocation density and the resulting strong nonradiative recombination, laser operation could not be achieved. The laser structures grown on ELO AlN/sapphire show optically pumped lasing with a record short wavelength of 237 nm.

  12. An All-Solid-State High Repetiton Rate Titanium:Sapphire Laser System For Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattolat, C.; Rothe, S.; Schwellnus, F.; Gottwald, T.; Raeder, S.; Wendt, K.

    2009-03-01

    On-line production facilities for radioactive isotopes nowadays heavily rely on resonance ionization laser ion sources due to their demonstrated unsurpassed efficiency and elemental selectivity. Powerful high repetition rate tunable pulsed dye or Ti:sapphire lasers can be used for this purpose. To counteract limitations of short pulse pump lasers, as needed for dye laser pumping, i.e. copper vapor lasers, which include high maintenance and nevertheless often only imperfect reliability, an all-solid-state Nd:YAG pumped Ti:sapphire laser system has been constructed. This could complement or even replace dye laser systems, eliminating their disadvantages but on the other hand introduce shortcomings on the side of the available wavelength range. Pros and cons of these developments will be discussed.

  13. Single and low order mode interrogation of a multimode sapphire fibre Bragg grating sensor with tapered fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobnic, D.; Mihailov, S. J.; Ding, H.; Bilodeau, F.; Smelser, C. W.

    2006-05-01

    Multimode sapphire fibre Bragg gratings (SFBG) made with an ultrafast Ti:sapphire 800 nm laser and a phase mask were probed using a tapered single mode fibre of different taper diameters to produce single and low order mode reflection/transmission responses. A configuration made of an input single mode tapered fibre and multimode silica fibre used for output coupling was also tested and has delivered a filtered multimode transmission spectrum. The tapered coupling improved the spectral resolution of the SFBG. Such improvements facilitate the utilization of the SFBG as a high temperature sensor. Wavelength shifts of the single mode response were monitored as a function of temperature up to 1500 °C with no detectable degradation in the grating strength or hysteresis in the Bragg resonance.

  14. Tuning the sapphire EFG process to the growth of Al2O3/YAG/ZrO2:Y eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroz, L.; Duffar, T.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a model is proposed, in order to analytically study the working point of the Edge defined Film-fed Growth (EFG) pulling of crystal plates. The model takes into account the heat equilibrium at the interface and the pressure equilibrium across the meniscus. It is validated on an industrial device dedicated to the pulling of sapphire ribbons. Then, the model is applied to pulling ceramic alloy plates, of the ternary eutectic Al2O3/YAG/ZrO2:Y. This allowed understanding the experimental difficulties of pulling this new material and suggested improvements of the control software. From these results, pulling net shaped ceramic alloy plates was successful in the same industrial equipment as used for sapphire.

  15. Refractive index of r-cut sapphire under shock pressure range 5 to 65 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Xiuxia; Li, Jiabo; Li, Jun

    2014-09-07

    High-pressure refractive index of optical window materials not only can provide information on electronic polarizability and band-gap structure, but also is important for velocity correction in particle-velocity measurement with laser interferometers. In this work, the refractive index of r-cut sapphire window at 1550 nm wavelength was measured under shock pressures of 5–65 GPa. The refractive index (n) decreases linearly with increasing shock density (ρ) for shock stress above the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL): n = 2.0485 (± 0.0197) − 0.0729 (± 0.0043)ρ, while n remains nearly a constant for elastic shocks. This behavior is attributed to the transition from elastic (below HEL) to heterogeneous plastic deformationmore » (above HEL). Based on the obtained refractive index-density relationship, polarizability of the shocked sapphire was also obtained.« less

  16. Trials and tribulations of carotid artery stenting: The Interventionalists' perspective on SAPPHIRE, EVA-3S, and SPACE Trials.

    PubMed

    Harjai, Kishore J; Mehta, Rajendra H

    2007-10-01

    Three recently completed randomized studies of carotid artery stenting (CAS) versus endarterectomy-Stenting and Angioplasty with Protection in Patients at High Risk for Endarterectomy (SAPPHIRE), Endarterectomy versus Stenting in Patients with Symptomatic Severe Carotid Stenosis (EVA-3S), and Stent-Supported Percutaneous Angioplasty of the Carotid Artery versus Endarterectomy (SPACE)-reached vividly different conclusions about the safety of stenting versus endarterectomy. The methodologies of these studies differed from each other in many respects. In an attempt to explain the disparate results of SAPPHIRE, EVA-3S, and SPACE, this focused review compares and contrasts these studies, with specific reference to inclusion and exclusion criteria, technical considerations, and the experience level of the interventional operators.

  17. Direct diode-pumped Kerr Lens 13 fs Ti:sapphire ultrafast oscillator using a single blue laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, Sterling; Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO; Kirchner, Matt

    We demonstrate a direct diode-pumped Kerr Lens Modelocked Ti:sapphire laser producing 13 fs pulses with 1.85 nJ energy at 78 MHz (145 mW) using a single laser diode pump. We also present a similar laser using three spectrally combined diodes, generating >300 mW output power with >50 nm bandwidth. We discuss the use of far-from TEM 00 pump laser sources, and their effect on the Kerr lens modelocking process.

  18. Direct diode-pumped Kerr Lens 13 fs Ti:sapphire ultrafast oscillator using a single blue laser diode

    DOE PAGES

    Backus, Sterling; Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO; Kirchner, Matt; ...

    2017-05-18

    We demonstrate a direct diode-pumped Kerr Lens Modelocked Ti:sapphire laser producing 13 fs pulses with 1.85 nJ energy at 78 MHz (145 mW) using a single laser diode pump. We also present a similar laser using three spectrally combined diodes, generating >300 mW output power with >50 nm bandwidth. We discuss the use of far-from TEM 00 pump laser sources, and their effect on the Kerr lens modelocking process.

  19. Micro-Structured Sapphire Fiber Sensors for Simultaneous Measurements of High-T and Dynamic Gas Pressure in Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Hai; Tsai, Hai-Lung; Dong, Junhang

    2014-09-30

    This is the final report for the program “Micro-Structured Sapphire Fiber Sensors for Simultaneous Measurements of High Temperature and Dynamic Gas Pressure in Harsh Environments”, funded by NETL, and performed by Missouri University of Science and Technology, Clemson University and University of Cincinnati from October 1, 2009 to September 30, 2014. Securing a sustainable energy economy by developing affordable and clean energy from coal and other fossil fuels is a central element to the mission of The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). To further this mission, NETL funds research and development of novel sensor technologiesmore » that can function under the extreme operating conditions often found in advanced power systems. The main objective of this research program is to conduct fundamental and applied research that will lead to successful development and demonstration of robust, multiplexed, microstructured silica and single-crystal sapphire fiber sensors to be deployed into the hot zones of advanced power and fuel systems for simultaneous measurements of high temperature and gas pressure. The specific objectives of this research program include: 1) Design, fabrication and demonstration of multiplexed, robust silica and sapphire fiber temperature and dynamic gas pressure sensors that can survive and maintain fully operational in high-temperature harsh environments. 2) Development and demonstration of a novel method to demodulate the multiplexed interferograms for simultaneous measurements of temperature and gas pressure in harsh environments. 3) Development and demonstration of novel sapphire fiber cladding and low numerical aperture (NA) excitation techniques to assure high signal integrity and sensor robustness.« less

  20. Unusual ruby-sapphire transition in alluvial megacrysts, Cenozoic basaltic gem field, New England, New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Frederick L.; Graham, Ian T.; Harris, Stephen J.; Coldham, Terry; Powell, William; Belousova, Elena A.; Martin, Laure

    2017-05-01

    Rare ruby crystals appear among prevailing sapphire crystals mined from placers within basaltic areas in the New England gem-field, New South Wales, Australia. New England ruby (NER) has distinctive trace element features compared to those from ruby elsewhere in Australia and indeed most ruby from across the world. The NER suite includes ruby (up to 3370 ppm Cr), pink sapphire (up to 1520 ppm Cr), white sapphire (up to 910 ppm) and violet, mauve, purple, or bluish sapphire (up to 1410 ppm Cr). Some crystals show outward growth banding in this respective colour sequence. All four colour zones are notably high in Ga (up to 310 ppm) and Si (up to 1820 ppm). High Ga and Ga/Mg values are unusual in ruby and its trace element plots (laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) and suggests that magmatic-metasomatic inputs were involved in the NER suite genesis. In situ oxygen isotope analyses (secondary ion mass spectrometry) across the NER suite colour range showed little variation (n = 22; δ18O = 4.4 ± 0.4, 2σ error), and are values typical for corundum associated with ultramafic/mafic rocks. The isolated NER xenocryst suite, corroded by basalt transport and with few internal inclusions, presents a challenge in deciphering its exact origin. Detailed consideration of its high Ga chemistry in relation to the known geology of the surrounding region was used to narrow down potential sources. These include Late Palaeozoic-Triassic fractionated I-type granitoid magmas or Mesozoic-Cenozoic felsic fractionates from basaltic magmas that interacted with early Palaeozoic Cr-bearing ophiolite bodies in the New England Orogen. Other potential sources may lie deeper within lower crust-mantle metamorphic assemblages, but need to match the anomalous high-Ga geochemistry of the New England ruby suite.

  1. Direct determination of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 exciton binding energies on insulating and metallic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soohyung; Mutz, Niklas; Schultz, Thorsten; Blumstengel, Sylke; Han, Ali; Aljarb, Areej; Li, Lain-Jong; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.; Amsalem, Patrick; Koch, Norbert

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the excitonic nature of excited states in two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) is of key importance to make use of their optical and charge transport properties in optoelectronic applications. We contribute to this by the direct experimental determination of the exciton binding energy (E b,exc) of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 on two fundamentally different substrates, i.e. the insulator sapphire and the metal gold. By combining angle-resolved direct and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy we measure the electronic band gap (E g), and by reflectance measurements the optical excitonic band gap (E exc). The difference of these two energies is E b,exc. The values of E g and E b,exc are 2.11 eV and 240 meV for MoS2 on sapphire, and 1.89 eV and 240 meV for WSe2 on sapphire. On Au E b,exc is decreased to 90 meV and 140 meV for MoS2 and WSe2, respectively. The significant E b,exc reduction is primarily due to a reduction of E g resulting from enhanced screening by the metal, while E exc is barely decreased for the metal support. Energy level diagrams determined at the K-point of the 2D TMDCs Brillouin zone show that MoS2 has more p-type character on Au as compared to sapphire, while WSe2 appears close to intrinsic on both. These results demonstrate that the impact of the dielectric environment of 2D TMDCs is more pronounced for individual charge carriers than for a correlated electron-hole pair, i.e. the exciton. A proper dielectric surrounding design for such 2D semiconductors can therefore be used to facilitate superior optoelectronic device function.

  2. High free carrier concentration in p-GaN grown on AlN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Biplab; Mita, Seiji; Reddy, Pramod; Klump, Andrew; Kaess, Felix; Tweedie, James; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Kirste, Ronny; Kohn, Erhard; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko

    2017-07-01

    A high free hole concentration in III-nitrides is important for next generation optoelectronic and high power electronic devices. The free hole concentration exceeding 1018 cm-3 and resistivity as low as 0.7 Ω cm are reported for p-GaN layers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on single crystal AlN substrates. Temperature dependent Hall measurements confirmed a much lower activation energy, 60-80 mV, for p-GaN grown on AlN as compared to sapphire substrates; the lowering of the activation energy was due to screening of Coulomb potential by free carriers. It is also shown that a higher doping density (more than 5 × 1019 cm-3) can be achieved in p-GaN/AlN without the onset of self-compensation.

  3. Substrate-Free InGaN/GaN Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Neplokh, Vladimir; Messanvi, Agnes; Zhang, Hezhi; Julien, Francois H; Babichev, Andrey; Eymery, Joel; Durand, Christophe; Tchernycheva, Maria

    2015-12-01

    We report on the demonstration of substrate-free nanowire/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE)-grown InGaN/GaN core-shell nanowires were encapsulated into PDMS layer. After metal deposition to p-GaN, a thick PDMS cap layer was spin-coated and the membrane was manually peeled from the sapphire substrate, flipped upside down onto a steel holder, and transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) contact to n-GaN was deposited. The fabricated LEDs demonstrate rectifying diode characteristics. For the electroluminescence (EL) measurements, the samples were manually bonded using silver paint. The EL spectra measured at different applied voltages demonstrate a blue shift with the current increase. This shift is explained by the current injection into the InGaN areas of the active region with different average indium content.

  4. Green-diode-pumped femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser with up to 450 mW average power.

    PubMed

    Gürel, K; Wittwer, V J; Hoffmann, M; Saraceno, C J; Hakobyan, S; Resan, B; Rohrbacher, A; Weingarten, K; Schilt, S; Südmeyer, T

    2015-11-16

    We investigate power-scaling of green-diode-pumped Ti:Sapphire lasers in continuous-wave (CW) and mode-locked operation. In a first configuration with a total pump power of up to 2 W incident onto the crystal, we achieved a CW power of up to 440 mW and self-starting mode-locking with up to 200 mW average power in 68-fs pulses using semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) as saturable absorber. In a second configuration with up to 3 W of pump power incident onto the crystal, we achieved up to 650 mW in CW operation and up to 450 mW in 58-fs pulses using Kerr-lens mode-locking (KLM). The shortest pulse duration was 39 fs, which was achieved at 350 mW average power using KLM. The mode-locked laser generates a pulse train at repetition rates around 400 MHz. No complex cooling system is required: neither the SESAM nor the Ti:Sapphire crystal is actively cooled, only air cooling is applied to the pump diodes using a small fan. Because of mass production for laser displays, we expect that prices for green laser diodes will become very favorable in the near future, opening the door for low-cost Ti:Sapphire lasers. This will be highly attractive for potential mass applications such as biomedical imaging and sensing.

  5. The active control devices of the size of products based on sapphire measuring tips with three degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leun, E. V.; Leun, V. I.; Sysoev, V. K.; Zanin, K. A.; Shulepov, A. V.; Vyatlev, P. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article presents the results of the calculation of the load capacity of the active control devices (ACD) sapphire tip, which showed nearly 30-fold margin of safety to shock loads and experimental researches in mechanical contact with 5 cogs cutter 15 mm in diameter rotating with a frequency of 1000 rpm, which confirmed the calculations, determined the surface roughness Rz of the contact area of no more than 0.15 μm. Conditions have been created for recording without distortion of the image through a sapphire tip in contact with the processed article. A ACD design with new functionality is proposed: with one, two and three degrees of freedom of the sapphire tip and allows measuring the taper of the article and measurements on the chord. It is shown that with the implementation of their fixed head like the frame of the gyroscope with the rotations around the axes OY and OZ. It is shown that the rotation of the tip around the axis OX can be replaced more convenient for the implementation of the angular offset of the transferred image due to rotation of the output end of the flexible optical waveguide relative to the input. This makes it possible to reduce the "blurring of the image" during registration of the fast moving product profile when the slope of the recorder lines coincides with the slope of the edges of the image elements of the selected moving elements of the article.

  6. Carrier envelope offset frequency detection and stabilization of a diode-pumped mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser.

    PubMed

    Gürel, Kutan; Wittwer, Valentin J; Hakobyan, Sargis; Schilt, Stéphane; Südmeyer, Thomas

    2017-03-15

    We demonstrate the first diode-pumped Ti:sapphire laser frequency comb. It is pumped by two green laser diodes with a total pump power of 3 W. The Ti:sapphire laser generates 250 mW of average output power in 61-fs pulses at a repetition rate of 216 MHz. We generated an octave-spanning supercontinuum spectrum in a photonic-crystal fiber and detected the carrier envelope offset (CEO) frequency in a standard f-to-2f interferometer setup. We stabilized the CEO-frequency through direct current modulation of one of the green pump diodes with a feedback bandwidth of 55 kHz limited by the pump diode driver used in this experiment. We achieved a reduction of the CEO phase noise power spectral density by 140 dB at 1 Hz offset frequency. An advantage of diode pumping is the ability for high-bandwidth modulation of the pump power via direct current modulation. After this experiment, we studied the modulation capabilities and noise properties of green pump laser diodes with improved driver electronics. The current-to-output-power modulation transfer function shows a bandwidth larger than 1 MHz, which should be sufficient to fully exploit the modulation bandwidth of the Ti:sapphire gain for CEO stabilization in future experiments.

  7. Airborne particulate concentration during laser hair removal: A comparison between cold sapphire with aqueous gel and cryogen skin cooling.

    PubMed

    Ross, Edward V; Chuang, Gary S; Ortiz, Arisa E; Davenport, Scott A

    2018-04-01

    High concentrations of sub-micron nanoparticles have been shown to be released during laser hair removal (LHR) procedures. These emissions pose a potential biohazard to healthcare workers that have prolonged exposure to LHR plume. We sought to demonstrate that cold sapphire skin cooling done in contact mode might suppress plume dispersion during LHR. A total of 11 patients were recruited for laser hair removal. They were treated on the legs and axilla with a 755 or 1064 nm millisecond-domain laser equipped with either (i) cryogen spray (CSC); (ii) refrigerated air (RA); or (iii) contact cooling with sapphire (CC). Concentration of ultrafine nanoparticles <1 μm were measured just before and during LHR with the three respective cooling methods. For contact cooling (CC), counts remained at baseline levels, below 3,500 parts per cubic centimeter (ppc) for all treatments. In contrast, the CSC system produced large levels of plume, peaking at times to over 400,000 ppc. The CA cooled system produced intermediate levels of plume, about 35,000 ppc (or about 10× baseline). Cold Sapphire Skin cooling with gel suppresses plume during laser hair removal, potentially eliminating the need for smoke evacuators, custom ventilation systems, and respirators during LHR. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:280-283, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. High refractive index immersion liquid for superresolution 3D imaging using sapphire-based aplanatic numerical aperture increasing lens optics.

    PubMed

    Laskar, Junaid M; Shravan Kumar, P; Herminghaus, Stephan; Daniels, Karen E; Schröter, Matthias

    2016-04-20

    Optically transparent immersion liquids with refractive index (n∼1.77) to match the sapphire-based aplanatic numerical aperture increasing lens (aNAIL) are necessary for achieving deep 3D imaging with high spatial resolution. We report that antimony tribromide (SbBr3) salt dissolved in liquid diiodomethane (CH2I2) provides a new high refractive index immersion liquid for optics applications. The refractive index is tunable from n=1.74 (pure) to n=1.873 (saturated), by adjusting either salt concentration or temperature; this allows it to match (or even exceed) the refractive index of sapphire. Importantly, the solution gives excellent light transmittance in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range, an improvement over commercially available immersion liquids. This refractive-index-matched immersion liquid formulation has enabled us to develop a sapphire-based aNAIL objective that has both high numerical aperture (NA=1.17) and long working distance (WD=12  mm). This opens up new possibilities for deep 3D imaging with high spatial resolution.

  9. N-polar InGaN-based LEDs fabricated on sapphire via pulsed sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Kohei; Kishikawa, Eiji; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    High-quality N-polar GaN epitaxial films with an atomically flat surface were grown on sapphire (0001) via pulsed sputtering deposition, and their structural and electrical properties were investigated. The crystalline quality of N-polar GaN improves with increasing film thickness and the full width at half maximum values of the x-ray rocking curves for 0002 and 101 ¯ 2 diffraction were 313 and 394 arcsec, respectively, at the film thickness of 6 μ m . Repeatable p-type doping in N-polar GaN films was achieved using Mg dopant, and their hole concentration and mobility can be controlled in the range of 8 × 1016-2 × 1018 cm-3 and 2-9 cm2V-1s-1, respectively. The activation energy of Mg in N-polar GaN based on a temperature-dependent Hall measurement was estimated to be 161 meV, which is comparable to that of the Ga-polar GaN. Based on these results, we demonstrated the fabrication of N-polar InGaN-based light emitting diodes with the long wavelength up to 609 nm.

  10. Free and bound excitons in thin wurtzite GaN layers on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, C.; Kunzer, M.; Kaufmann, U.; Akasaki, I.; Amano, H.

    1996-05-01

    Free and bound excitons have been studied by photoluminescence in thin (0268-1242/11/5/010/img8) wurtzite-undoped GaN, n-type GaN:Si as well as p-type GaN:Mg and GaN:Zn layers grown by metal-organic chemical vapour phase deposition (MOCVD). An accurate value for the free A exciton binding energy and an estimate for the isotropically averaged hole mass of the uppermost 0268-1242/11/5/010/img9 valence band are deduced from the data on undoped samples. The acceptor-doped samples reveal recombination lines which are attributed to excitons bound to 0268-1242/11/5/010/img10 and 0268-1242/11/5/010/img11 respectively. These lines are spectrally clearly separated and the exciton localization energies are in line with Haynes' rule. Whenever a comparison is possible, it is found that the exciton lines in these thin MOCVD layers are ultraviolet-shifted by 20 to 25 meV as compared to quasi-bulk (0268-1242/11/5/010/img12) samples. This effect is interpreted in terms of the compressive hydrostatic stress component which thin GaN layers experience when grown on sapphire with an AlN buffer layer.

  11. The Autonomous Cryocooled Sapphire Oscillator: A Reference for Frequency Stability and Phase Noise Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, V.; Grop, S.; Fluhr, C.; Dubois, B.; Kersalé, Y.; Rubiola, E.

    2016-06-01

    The Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator (CSO) is the microwave oscillator which feature the highest short-term stability. Our best units exhibit Allan deviation σy (τ) of 4.5x10-16 at 1s, ≈ 1.5x10-16 at 100 s ≤ t ≤ 5,000 s (floor), and ≤ 5x10-15 at one day. The use of a Pulse-Tube cryocooler enables full two year operation with virtually no maintenance. Starting with a short history of the CSO in our lab, we go through the architecture and we provide more details about the resonator, the cryostat, the oscillator loop, and the servo electronics. We implemented three similar oscillators, which enable the evaluation of each with the three- cornered hat method, and provide the potential for Allan deviation measurements at parts of 10-17 level. One of our CSOs (ULISS) is transportable, and goes with a small customized truck. The unique feature of ULISS is that its σy (τ) can be validated at destination by measuring before and after the roundtrip. To this extent, ULISS can be regarded as a traveling standard of frequency stability. The CSOs are a part of the Oscillator IMP project, a platform dedicated to the measurement of noise and short-term stability of oscillators and devices in the whole radio spectrum (from MHz to THz), including microwave photonics. The scope spans from routine measurements to the research on new oscillators, components, and measurement methods.

  12. Epitaxial corundum-VTiO 3 thin films grown on c-cut sapphire

    DOE PAGES

    Kramer, Alan; Sutter, Eli; Su, Dong; ...

    2017-04-12

    Corundum structured VTiO 3 has been grown as epitaxial films on c-cut sapphire by laser molecular beam epitaxy. The properties of the film were characterized by reflection high energy electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and photoemission spectroscopy. All the structural probes clearly indicate the corundum structure of the film. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that V is in a 3+ charge state implying that Ti also needs to adopt a 3+ charge state in order for the corundum structure to form. However, the Ti-2p XPS, while clearly broadened to the lower binding energy side compared to TiO 2,more » also exhibits a pronounced Ti 4+ component. This is tentatively assigned to a final state effect in XPS measurements and not as the true cation state. In conclusion, the valence band spectra show occupation of 3d metal states that resemble more closely those of Ti 2O 3 than for V 2O 3, suggesting that only the a1g molecular states are occupied.« less

  13. Nonlinear Phase Distortion in a Ti:Sapphire Optical Amplifier for Optical Stochastic Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Andorf, Matthew; Lebedev, Valeri; Piot, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Optical Stochastic Cooling (OSC) has been considered for future high-luminosity colliders as it offers much faster cooling time in comparison to the micro-wave stochastic cooling. The OSC technique relies on collecting and amplifying a broadband optical signal from a pickup undulator and feeding the amplified signal back to the beam. It creates a corrective kick in a kicker undulator. Owing to its superb gain qualities and broadband amplification features, Titanium:Sapphire medium has been considered as a gain medium for the optical amplifier (OA) needed in the OSC*. A limiting factor for any OA used in OSC is the possibility ofmore » nonlinear phase distortions. In this paper we experimentally measure phase distortions by inserting a single-pass OA into one leg of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The measurement results are used to estimate the reduction of the corrective kick a particle would receive due to these phase distortions in the kicker undulator.« less

  14. Quaternary geology and sapphire deposits from the BO PHLOI gem field, Kanchanaburi Province, Western Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choowong, Montri

    2002-01-01

    One of the most famous blue sapphire deposits in Thailand and SE Asia is from the Bo Phloi District, Kanchanaburi Province, Western Thailand. This paper presents the results of our gemstone investigation as well as establishing the Bo Phloi depositional sequence as one of the Quaternary Type Sections in the region. Relationships among the sedimentology, depositional sequences and geomorphology were investigated in order to understand the gemstone depositional features. Sedimentary structures and textures of the sequences show that the deposition of gemstones is related genetically to fluvial processes. Gemstones are recognized in floodplain and low terrace deposits where gemstone paystreaks concentrate mostly inside layers of gravel beds and foreset-bedded gravels lithofacies. C-14 dating of wood and peat within gemstone-bearing layers indicated that the deposit formed during the middle to late Pleistocene. The gemstone-bearing gravel bed defines a north-south trend along the incised palaeo-channel of an ancient braided river system in the middle part of the basin.

  15. Rocking curve imaging of high quality sapphire crystals in backscattering geometry

    DOE PAGES

    Jafari, A.; European Synchrotron Radiation Facility; Univ. of Liege,; ...

    2017-01-23

    Here, we report on the characterization of high quality sapphire single crystals suitable for high-resolution X-ray optics at high energy. Investigations using rocking curve imaging reveal the crystals to be of uniformly good quality at the level of ~10 -4 in lattice parameter variations, deltad/d. But, investigations using backscattering rocking curve imaging with lattice spacing resolution of deltad/d ~ 5.10 -8 shows very diverse quality maps for all crystals. Our results highlight nearly ideal areas with edge length of 0.2-0.5 mm in most crystals, but a comparison of the back re ection peak positions shows that even neighboring ideal areasmore » exhibit a relative difference in the lattice parameters on the order of deltad/d = 10-20.10 -8; this is several times larger than the rocking curve width. Furthermore, the stress-strain analysis suggests that an extremely stringent limit on the strain at a level of ~100 kPa in the growth process is required in order to produce crystals with large areas of the quality required for X-ray optics at high energy.« less

  16. Various Silver Nanostructures on Sapphire Using Plasmon Self-Assembly and Dewetting of Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Sundar; Sui, Mao; Zhang, Quanzhen; Pandey, Puran; Li, Ming-Yu; Lee, Jihoon

    2017-04-01

    Silver (Ag) nanostructures demonstrate outstanding optical, electrical, magnetic, and catalytic properties and are utilized in photonic, energy, sensors, and biomedical devices. The target application and the performance can be inherently tuned by control of configuration, shape, and size of Ag nanostructures. In this work, we demonstrate the systematical fabrication of various configurations of Ag nanostructures on sapphire (0001) by controlling the Ag deposition thickness at different annealing environments in a plasma ion coater. In particular, the evolution of Ag particles (between 2 and 20 nm), irregular nanoclusters (between 30 and 60 nm), and nanocluster networks (between 80 and 200 nm) are found be depended on the thickness of Ag thin film. The results were systematically analyzed and explained based on the solid-state dewetting, surface diffusion, Volmer-Weber growth model, coalescence, and surface energy minimization mechanism. The growth behavior of Ag nanostructures is remarkably differentiated at higher annealing temperature (750 °C) due to the sublimation and temperature-dependent characteristic of dewetting process. In addition, Raman and reflectance spectra analyses reveal that optical properties of Ag nanostructures depend on their morphology.

  17. Cladding waveguide splitters fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription in Ti:Sapphire crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yingying; Zhang, Limu; Xing, Hongguang; Romero, Carolina; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Chen, Feng

    2018-07-01

    Highly-compact devices capable of beam splitting are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. In this work, we report on the fabrication of optical waveguide splitters with rectangular cladding geometry in a Ti:Sapphire crystal by femtosecond laser inscription. Y-splitters are fabricated with 30 μm × 15 μm and 50 μm × 25 μm input ends, corresponding to two 15 μm × 15 μm and 25 μm × 25 μm output ends, respectively. The full branching angle θ between the two output arms are changing from 0.5° to 2°. The performances of the splitters are characterized at 632.8 nm and 1064 nm, showing very good properties including symmetrical output ends, single-mode guidance, equalized splitting ratios, all-angle-polarization light transmission and intact luminescence features in the waveguide cores. The realization of these waveguide splitters with good performances demonstrates the potential of such promising devices in complex monolithic photonic circuits and active optical devices such as miniature tunable lasers.

  18. Control of melt-crystal interface shape during sapphire crystal growth by heat exchanger method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming; Liu, Lijun; Ma, Wencheng

    2017-09-01

    We numerically investigate the melt-crystal interface shape during the early stage of the solidification process when the crystal diameter increases. The contact angle between the melt-crystal interface and the crucible bottom wall is found obtuse during this stage, which is unfavorable for the crystal quality. We found that the obtuse contact angle is caused by the thermal resistance difference between the sapphire crystal and melt as well as the insufficient cooling effect of the crucible bottom. Two approaches are proposed to suppress the obtuse contact angle. The first approach is to increase the emissivity of the outer surface of crucible bottom. The second approach is to install a heat shield near the crucible bottom. The reduction of the emissivity of the heat shield is also favorable for the suppression of the obtuse contact angle. Compared with the increase of the emissivity of the crucible bottom, the installation of a heat shield is a more effective approach to prevent the appearance of an obtuse contact angle for the sake of reliability since a molybdenum heat shield can be reused and will not induce other impurities.

  19. Formation of gallium nitride templates and freestanding substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy for homoepitaxial growth of III-nitride devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Adrian Daniel

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a direct wide band gap semiconductor currently under heavy development worldwide due to interest in its applications in ultra-violet optoelectronics, power electronics, devices operating in harsh environments (high temperature or corrorsive), etc. While a number of devices have been demonstrated with this material and its related alloys, the unavailability of GaN substrates is seen as one of the current major bottlenecks to both material quality and device performance. This dissertation is concerned with the synthesis of high quality GaN substrates by the hydride vapor phase epitaxy method (HVPE). In this work, the flow of growth precursors in a home-built HVPE reactor was modeled by the Navier-Stokes equation and solved by finite element analysis to promote uniformity of GaN on 2'' sapphire substrates. Kinetics of growth was studied and various regimes of growth were identified to establish a methodology for HVPE GaN growth, independent of reactor geometry. GaN templates as well as bulk substrates were fabricated in this work. Realization of freestanding GaN substrates was achieved through discovery of a natural stress-induced method of separating bulk GaN from sapphire via mechanical failure of a low-temperature GaN buffer layer. Such a process eliminates the need for pre- or post-processing of sapphire substrates, as is currently the standard. Stress in GaN-on-sapphire is discussed, with the dominant contributor identified as thermal stress due to thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the two materials. This thermal stress is analyzed using Stoney's equation and conditions for crack-free growth of thick GaN substrates were identified. An etch-back process for planarizing GaN templates was also developed and successfully applied to rough GaN templates. The planarization of GaN has been mainly addressed by chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP) methods in the literature, with notable shortcomings including the inability to effectively

  20. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher

    2017-08-15

    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a <111> oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substratesmore » to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.« less

  1. Laboratory modeling of edge wave generation over a plane beach by breaking waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abcha, Nizar; Ezersky, Alexander; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2015-04-01

    Edge waves play an important role in coastal hydrodynamics: in sediment transport, in formation of coastline structure and coastal bottom topography. Investigation of physical mechanisms leading to the edge waves generation allows us to determine their effect on the characteristics of spatially periodic patterns like crescent submarine bars and cusps observed in the coastal zone. In the present paper we investigate parametric excitation of edge wave with frequency two times less than the frequency of surface wave propagating perpendicular to the beach. Such mechanism of edge wave generation has been studied previously in a large number of papers using the assumption of non-breaking waves. This assumption was used in theoretical calculations and such conditions were created in laboratory experiments. In the natural conditions, the wave breaking is typical when edge waves are generated at sea beach. We study features of such processes in laboratory experiments. Experiments were performed in the wave flume of the Laboratory of Continental and Coast Morphodynamics (M2C), Caen. The flume is equipment with a wave maker controlled by computer. To model a plane beach, a PVC plate is placed at small angle to the horizontal bottom. Several resistive probes were used to measure characteristics of waves: one of them was used to measure free surface displacement near the wave maker and two probes were glued on the inclined plate. These probes allowed us to measure run-up due to parametrically excited edge waves. Run-up height is determined by processing a movie shot by high-speed camera. Sub-harmonic generation of standing edge waves is observed for definite control parameters: edge waves represent themselves a spatial mode with wavelength equal to double width of the flume; the frequency of edge wave is equal to half of surface wave frequency. Appearance of sub-harmonic mode instability is studied using probes and movie processing. The dependence of edge wave exponential

  2. Stability and Phase Noise Tests of Two Cryo-Cooled Sapphire Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi T.

    1998-01-01

    A cryocooled Compensated Sapphire Oscillator (CSO), developed for the Cassini Ka-band Radio Science experiment, and operating in the 8K - 10K temperature range was previously demonstrated to show ultra-high stability of sigma(sub y) = 2.5 x 10 (exp -15) for measuring times 200 seconds less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 600 seconds using a hydrogen maser as reference. We present here test results for a second unit which allows CSO short-term stability and phase noise to be measured for the first time. Also included are design details of a new RF receiver and an intercomparison with the first CSO unit. Cryogenic oscillators operating below about 10K offer the highest possible short term stability of any frequency sources. However, their use has so far been restricted to research environments due to the limited operating periods associated with liquid helium consumption. The cryocooled CSO is being built in support of the Cassini Ka-band Radio Science experiment and is designed to operate continuously for periods of a year or more. Performance targets are a stability of 3-4 x 10 (exp -15) (1 second less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 100 seconds) and phase noise of -73dB/Hz @ 1Hz measured at 34 GHz. Installation in 5 stations of NASA's deep space network (DSN) is planned in the years 2000 - 2002. In the previous tests, actual stability of the CSO for measuring times tau less than or equal to 200 seconds could not be directly measured, being masked by short-term fluctuations of the H-maser reference. Excellent short-term performance, however, could be inferred by the success of an application of the CSO as local oscillator (L.O.) to the JPL LITS passive atomic standard, where medium-term stability showed no degradation due to L.O. instabilities at a level of (sigma)y = 3 x 10 (exp -14)/square root of tau. A second CSO has now been constructed, and all cryogenic aspects have been verified, including a resonator turn-over temperature of 7.907 K

  3. Development of a templated approach to fabricate diamond patterns on various substrates.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Olga; Cervenka, Jiri; Karle, Timothy J; Fox, Kate; Gibson, Brant C; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Greentree, Andrew D; Prawer, Steven

    2014-06-11

    We demonstrate a robust templated approach to pattern thin films of chemical vapor deposited nanocrystalline diamond grown from monodispersed nanodiamond (mdND) seeds. The method works on a range of substrates, and we herein demonstrate the method using silicon, aluminum nitride (AlN), and sapphire substrates. Patterns are defined using photo- and e-beam lithography, which are seeded with mdND colloids and subsequently introduced into microwave assisted chemical vapor deposition reactor to grow patterned nanocrystalline diamond films. In this study, we investigate various factors that affect the selective seeding of different substrates to create high quality diamond thin films, including mdND surface termination, zeta potential, surface treatment, and plasma cleaning. Although the electrostatic interaction between mdND colloids and substrates is the main process driving adherence, we found that chemical reaction (esterification) or hydrogen bonding can potentially dominate the seeding process. Leveraging the knowledge on these different interactions, we optimize fabrication protocols to eliminate unwanted diamond nucleation outside the patterned areas. Furthermore, we have achieved the deposition of patterned diamond films and arrays over a range of feature sizes. This study contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the mdND-substrate interaction that will enable the fabrication of integrated nanocrystalline diamond thin films for microelectronics, sensors, and tissue culturing applications.

  4. Optical properties of (AlxGa1-x)2O3 on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhuangzhuang; Feng, Qian; Zhang, Jincheng; Li, Fuguo; Li, Xiang; Feng, Zhaoqing; Zhang, Chunfu; Hao, Yue

    2018-02-01

    The (AlxGa1-x)2O3 and Ga2O3 films are epitaxially grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction measurements, the (AlxGa1-x)2O3 films with Al compositions of 0.39, 0.49 and up to 0.53 are all single crystal and there is an out-of-plane tensile strain in (AlxGa1-x)2O3 films within the range from 0.164% to 0.345%. The optical properties are investigated by Spectral Ellipsometry (SE) together with the optical transmission method. The spectral dependence of the refractive index (n) by SE is in accordance with the reported experiment results. The thicknesses of the Ga2O3 and (AlxGa1-x)2O3 films obtained by SE fitting are 201, 116.8, 40 and 84.61 nm, respectively, which is consistent with the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) measurement results. In addition, with the Al composition increasing, the bandgaps of the (AlxGa1-x)2O3 films determined from the SE are both increase from 4.95 to 5.49, 5.7 and 5.75 eV, almost identical to the values determined by the transmittance spectra, which is larger than some extent compared to reference [13] for the compressive strain in the (AlxGa1-x)2O3 films.

  5. The study of optical property of sapphire irradiated with 73 MeV Ca ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yitao; Zhang, Chonghong; Song, Yin; Gou, Jie; Liu, Juan; Xian, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Single crystals of sapphire were irradiated with 73 MeV Ca ions at room temperature to the fluences of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 × 1014 ions/cm2. Optical properties of these samples were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV-VIS) and fluorescence spectrometer (PL). In UV-VIS spectra, it is observed the absorbance bands from oxygen single vacancy (F and F+ color centers) and vacancy pair (F2+ and F22+ color centers). The oxygen single vacancy initially increases rapidly and then does not increase in the fluence range from 0.1 to 0.5 × 1014 ions/cm2. When the fluence is higher than 0.5 × 1014 ions/cm2, oxygen single vacancy starts to increase again. Oxygen vacancy pair increases monotonically with fluence for all irradiated samples. The variation of oxygen single vacancy with fluence is probably associated with the recombination of oxygen vacancies with Al interstitials and complex defect formation (such as vacancy clusters). From PL spectra, two emission bands around 3.1 and 2.34 eV are observed. The PL intensity of the emission band around 3.1 eV decreases for all the irradiated samples. For the emission band around 2.34 eV, the PL intensity initially decreases, and then increases with fluence. Meanwhile, the peak position of the emission band around 2.34 eV gradually shifts to high energy direction with increase of fluence. The decrease of the intensity of the emission bands around 3.1 and 2.34 eV could be induced by stress from the damage layer in the irradiated samples. The shift of peak position for the emission band around 2.34 eV is induced by the appearance of emission band from Al interstitials.

  6. Ti:sapphire/KrF hybrid laser system generating trains of subterawatt subpicosecond UV pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvorykin, V. D.; Ionin, A. A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Mesyats, G. A.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Shutov, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    The GARPUN-MTW Ti:sapphire/KrF hybrid laser system is used to investigate different multipass schemes for amplifying trains of ultrashort pulses (USPs) of subpicosecond duration. It is shown that, for an USP repetition period of 3 - 5 ns, which exceeds the gain-medium recovery time (~2 ns), trains are amplified in the same way as single USPs. Due to this, a train can efficiently extract pump energy from the amplifier and sum energies of individual USPs. The energy of a four-USP train, extracted during four passes through the preamplifier and two passes through the final KrF amplifier (4 + 2 scheme), is saturated at a level of 1.6 J and corresponds to maximum USP peak powers of about 0.6 TW. The energy of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), on the contrary, rapidly increases at a large total gain length Leff ≈ 6 m and is approximately equal to the USP energy. In the (4 + 1) and (2 + 2) schemes the USP energy decreases only slightly, to Eout = 1.3 and 1.2 J, and the ASE fraction is reduced to about 10% and 3%, respectively. USP self-focusing leads to multiple laser beam filamentation and a 200-fold local increase in the radiation intensity in filaments, to ~2 × 1011 W cm-2, a level at which the nonlinear loss in the output CaF2 windows of the KrF amplifier, caused by three-photon absorption, nonlinear scattering, and broadening of the radiation spectrum to a value exceeding the gain band of the KrF laser transition, becomes the main factor determining the saturation of the USP output energy.

  7. A Low-Cost Demonstration Kit for Locating an Image Formed by a Plane Mirror Integrated with a Ray Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Chitaree, Ratchapak

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces a low-cost, easy to make apparatus that can be used to locate the position of an image formed by a plane mirror. The apparatus is combined with a method used to identify an image's position by drawing a ray diagram, based on the principle of reflection, to show how an image is formed. An image's distance and an object's…

  8. Biaxially textured composite substrates

    DOEpatents

    Groves, James R.; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Arendt, Paul N.

    2005-04-26

    An article including a substrate, a layer of a metal phosphate material such as an aluminum phosphate material upon the surface of the substrate, and a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the metal phosphate material layer is provided together with additional layers such as a HTS top-layer of YBCO directly upon a layer of a buffer material such as a SrTi.sub.x Ru.sub.1-x O.sub.3 layer.

  9. Measurement of immature platelets with Abbott CD-Sapphire and Sysmex XE-5000 in haematology and oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Meintker, Lisa; Haimerl, Maria; Ringwald, Jürgen; Krause, Stefan W

    2013-11-01

    Measurement of immature platelets was introduced into routine diagnostics by Sysmex as immature platelet fraction (IPF) some years ago and recently by Abbott as reticulated platelet fraction (rPT). Here, we compare both methods. We evaluated the precision and agreement of these parameters between Sysmex XE-5000 and Abbott CD-Sapphire in three distinct thrombocytopaenic cohorts: 30 patients with beginning thrombocytopaenia and 64 patients with recovering platelets (PLT) after chemotherapy, 16 patients with immune thrombocytopaenia (ITP) or heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia type 2 (HIT) and 110 additional normal controls. Furthermore, we analysed, how IPF/rPT differed between these thrombocytopaenic cohorts and controls. Both analysers demonstrated acceptable overall precision (repeatability) of IPF/rPT with lower precision at low PLT counts. IPF/rPT artificially increased during storage of blood samples overnight. Inter-instrument comparison showed a moderate correlation (Pearson r²=0.38) and a systematic bias of 1.04 towards higher IPF-values with the XE-5000. IPF/rPT was highest in recovering thrombopoesis after chemotherapy and moderately increased in ITP/HIT. The normal range deduced from control samples was much narrower with CD-Sapphire (1.0%-3.8%, established here for the first time) in comparison to XE-5000 (0.8%-7.9%) leading to a smaller overlap of samples with increased PLT turnover and normal controls. IPF and rPT both give useful information on PLT turnover, although the two analysers only show a moderate inter-instrument correlation and have different reference ranges. A better separation of patient groups with high PLT turnover like ITP/HIT from normal controls is obtained by CD-Sapphire.

  10. Statistics for long irregular wave run-up on a plane beach from direct numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenkulova, Ira; Senichev, Dmitry; Dutykh, Denys

    2017-04-01

    -975 (2011). [2] P. Denissenko, I. Didenkulova, A. Rodin, M. Listak, E. Pelinovsky. Experimental statistics of long wave runup on a plane beach. Journal of Coastal Research 65, 195-200 (2013). [3] I. Didenkulova, E. Pelinovsky, A. Sergeeva. Statistical characteristics of long waves nearshore. Coastal Engineering 58, 94-102 (2011). [4] D. Dutykh, T. Katsaounis, D. Mitsotakis. Finite volume schemes for dispersive wave propagation and runup. J. Comput. Phys. 230 (8), 3035-3061 (2011a). [5] D. Dutykh, C. Labart, D. Mitsotakis. Long wave run-up on random beaches. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 184504 (2011b).

  11. Active spectral shaping with polarization-encoded Ti:sapphire amplifiers for sub-20 fs multi-terawatt systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, H.; Kalashnikov, M.; Osvay, K.; Khodakovskiy, N.; Nagymihaly, R. S.; Chvykov, V.

    2018-04-01

    A combination of a polarization-encoded (PE) and a conventional multi-pass amplifier was studied to overcome gain narrowing in the Ti:sapphire active medium. The seed spectrum was pre-shaped and blue-shifted during PE amplification and was then further broadened in a conventional, saturated multi-pass amplifier, resulting in an overall increase of the amplified bandwidth. Using this technique, seed pulses of 44 nm were amplified and simultaneously spectrally broadened to 57 nm without the use of passive spectral corrections. The amplified pulse after the PE amplifier was recompressed to 19 fs. The supported simulations confirm all aspects of experimental operation.

  12. Simulations of thermal lensing of a Ti:Sapphire crystal end-pumped with high average power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Gerd; Shiler, Max; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2005-10-01

    A detailed 3-dimensional calculation of the temperature field of a laser crystal pumped with high average power is presented. The pump configuration, the anisotropy of a Brewster-angle-cut Ti:Sapphire crystal, and the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity are taken into account. The corresponding focal length of the thermal lens is calculated for pump levels up to 100 W. This refined thermal model is the basis for a optimized resonator design of a high-average power differential absorption lidar system transmitter.

  13. Simulations of thermal lensing of a Ti:Sapphire crystal end-pumped with high average power.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gerd; Shiler, Max; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2005-10-03

    A detailed 3-dimensional calculation of the temperature field of a laser crystal pumped with high average power is presented. The pump configuration, the anisotropy of a Brewster-angle-cut Ti:Sapphire crystal, and the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity are taken into account. The corresponding focal length of the thermal lens is calculated for pump levels up to 100 W. This refined thermal model is the basis for a optimized resonator design of a high-average power differential absorption lidar system transmitter.

  14. Measurement of nonlinear optical refraction of composite material based on sapphire with silver by Kerr-lens autocorrelation method.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang-xiang; Wang, Yu-hua

    2014-01-13

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized in a synthetic sapphire matrix were fabricated by ion implantation using the metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. The optical absorption spectrum of the Ag: Al2O3 composite material has been measured. The analysis of the supercontinuum spectrum displayed the nonlinear refractive property of this kind of sample. Nonlinear optical refraction index was identified at 800 nm excitation using the Kerr-lens autocorrelation (KLAC) technique. The spectrum showed that the material possessed self-defocusing property (n(2) = -1.1 × 10(-15) cm(2)W). The mechanism of nonlinear refraction has been discussed.

  15. Parasitic lasing suppression in large-aperture Ti:sapphire amplifiers by optimizing the seed-pump time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Y. X.; Liang, X. Y.; Yu, L. H.; Xu, L.; Lu, X. M.; Liu, Y. Q.; Leng, Y. X.; Li, R. X.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2013-05-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations are carried out to determine the influence of the time delay between the input seed pulse and pump pulses on transverse parasitic lasing in a Ti:sapphire amplifier with a diameter of 80 mm, which is clad by a refractive index-matched liquid doped with an absorber. When the time delay is optimized, a maximum output energy of 50.8 J is achieved at a pump energy of 105 J, which corresponds to a conversion efficiency of 47.5%. Based on the existing compressor, the laser system achieves a peak power of 1.26 PW with a 29.0 fs pulse duration.

  16. Tunable, continuous-wave Ti:sapphire channel waveguide lasers written by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Grivas, Christos; Corbari, Costantino; Brambilla, Gilberto; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G

    2012-11-15

    Fabrication and cw lasing at 798.25 nm is reported for femtosecond (fs) and picosecond (ps) laser-inscribed channel waveguides in Ti:sapphire crystals. Lasing in channels written by fs (ps) pulses was obtained above a threshold of 84 mW (189 mW) with a maximum output power and a slope efficiency of 143 mW (45 mW) and 23.5% (7.1%), respectively. The emission wavelength was tuned over a 170 nm range by using a birefringent filter in an external cavity.

  17. Substrate system for spray forming

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Men G.; Chernicoff, William P.

    2000-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  18. Substrate system for spray forming

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Men G.; Chernicoff, William P.

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  19. Suspended Substrate Resonator Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    1967. 10. Fred E. Gardiol, "Careful MIC Design Prevents Waveguide Modes", Microwaves, pp. 188-191, May 1977. 11. David Rubin and Alfred R. Hislop ...34Design Techniques for Sus- pended Substrate and Microstrip", Microwave Journal, October 1980 . 12. Robert Grover Brown, Robert A. Sharpe, William E. Post

  20. 41 CFR 301-10.116 - What must I do with compensation an airline gives me if it denies me a seat on a plane?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compensation an airline gives me if it denies me a seat on a plane? 301-10.116 Section 301-10.116 Public... plane? If you are performing official travel and a carrier denies you a confirmed reserved seat on a plane, you must give your agency any payment you receive for liquidated damages. You must ensure the...

  1. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of gallium nitride on sacrificial substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenwick, William Edward

    into the subsequent GaN layer was studied in more detail. Several approaches were investigated---for example, transition layers such as Al2O3 and Al xGa1-xN/GaN---to minimize diffusion of these impurities into the GaN layer. Silicon, due to its prevalence, is the most promising material for the development of an inexpensive, large-area substrate technology. The challenge in MOCVD growth of GaN on Si is the tensile strain induced by the lattice and thermal mismatch between GaN and Si and the formation of anti-phase boundaries. Typical approaches to solve these problems involve complicated and multiple buffer layer structures, which lead to relatively slow growth rates. In this work, a thin atomic layer deposition (ALD)-grown Al2O3 interlayer was employed to relieve strain and increase material quality while also simplifying the growth process. While some residual strain was still observed in the GaN material by XRD and PL, the use of this oxide interlayer leads to an improvement in thin film quality as seen by a reduction in both crack density (<1 mm-2) on ALD-Al2O3/Si) and screw dislocation density (from 3x109cm-2 on bare Si to 2x108cm-2 on ALD-Al 2O3/Si) in the GaN films. A side-by-side comparison of GaN-based multiple quantum well LEDs grown on sapphire and on Al2O3/Si shows similar performance characteristic for both device structures. A redshift in peak emission wavelength was also observed on silicon compared to sapphire, and this is attributed to higher indium content due to the slight tensile strain in the layers on silicon. IQE of the devices on silicon is ˜32% as measured by LT-PL, compared to ˜37% on sapphire, but this difference can be assigned to the difference in indium compositions. These results show a great promise toward an inexpensive, large-area, silicon-based substrate technology for MOCVD growth of the next generation of GaN-based optoelectronic devices for SSL and other applications.

  2. Energy output reduction and surface alteration of quartz and sapphire tips following Er:YAG laser contact irradiation for tooth enamel ablation.

    PubMed

    Eguro, Toru; Aoki, Akira; Maeda, Toru; Takasaki, Aristeo Atsushi; Hasegawa, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Takanori; Yonemoto, Kazuaki; Ishikawa, Isao; Izumi, Yuichi; Katsuumi, Ichiroh

    2009-10-01

    Despite the recent increase in application of Er:YAG laser for various dental treatments, limited information is available regarding the contact tips. This study examined the changes in energy output and surface condition of quartz and sapphire contact tips after Er:YAG laser contact irradiation for tooth enamel ablation. Ten sets of unused quartz or sapphire contact tips were employed for contact irradiation to sound enamel of extracted teeth. The teeth were irradiated with Er:YAG laser at approximately 75 J/cm(2)/pulse and 20 Hz under water spray for 60 minutes. The energy output was measured before and every 5 minutes after irradiation, and the changes in morphology and chemical composition of the contact surface were analyzed. The energy output significantly decreased with time in both tips. The energy output from the sapphire tips was generally higher on average than that of the quartz. The contact surfaces of all the used quartz tips were concave and irregular. Most of the sapphire tips also appeared rough with crater formation and fractures, except for a few tips in which a high energy output and the original smooth surface were maintained. Spots of melted tooth substances were seen attached to the surface of both tips. In contact enamel ablation, the sapphire tip appeared to be more resistant than the quartz tip. The quartz tips showed similar patterns of energy reduction and surface alteration, whereas the sapphire tips revealed a wider and more characteristic variation among tips. Lasers Surg. Med. 41:595-604, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Zno Micro/Nanostructures Grown on Sapphire Substrates Using Low-Temperature Vapor-Trapped Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition: Structural and Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Hu, Po-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-En; Chen, Guan-Lin

    2017-12-21

    In this research, the Zn(C₅H₇O₂)₂·xH₂O-based growth of ZnO micro/nanostructures in a low temperature, vapor-trapped chemical vapor deposition system was attempted to optimize structural and optical properties for potential biomedical applications. By trapping in-flow gas molecules and Zinc vapor inside a chamber tube by partially obstructing a chamber outlet, a high pressure condition can be achieved, and this experimental setup has the advantages of ease of synthesis, being a low temperature process, and cost effectiveness. Empirically, the growth process proceeded under a chamber condition of an atmospheric pressure of 730 torr, a controlled volume flow rate of input gas, N₂/O₂, of 500/500 Standard Cubic Centimeters per Minute (SCCM), and a designated oven temperature of 500 °C. Specifically, the dependence of structural and optical properties of the structures on growth duration and spatially dependent temperature were investigated utilizing scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and ultraviolet-visible transmission spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that the grown thin film observed with hexagonal structures and higher structural uniformity enables more prominent structural and optical signatures. XRD spectra present the dominant peaks along crystal planes of (002) and (101) as the main direction of crystallization. In addition, while the structures excited with laser wavelength of 325 nm emit a signature radiation around 380 nm, an ultraviolet lamp with a wavelength of 254 nm revealed distinctive photoluminescence peaks at 363.96 nm and 403.52 nm, elucidating different degrees of structural correlation as functions of growth duration and the spatial gradient of temperature. Transmittance spectra of the structures illustrate typical variation in the wavelength range of 200 nm to 400 nm, and its structural correlation is less significant when compared with PL.

  4. Zno Micro/Nanostructures Grown on Sapphire Substrates Using Low-Temperature Vapor-Trapped Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition: Structural and Optical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Po-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-En; Chen, Guan-Lin

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the Zn(C5H7O2)2·xH2O-based growth of ZnO micro/nanostructures in a low temperature, vapor-trapped chemical vapor deposition system was attempted to optimize structural and optical properties for potential biomedical applications. By trapping in-flow gas molecules and Zinc vapor inside a chamber tube by partially obstructing a chamber outlet, a high pressure condition can be achieved, and this experimental setup has the advantages of ease of synthesis, being a low temperature process, and cost effectiveness. Empirically, the growth process proceeded under a chamber condition of an atmospheric pressure of 730 torr, a controlled volume flow rate of input gas, N2/O2, of 500/500 Standard Cubic Centimeters per Minute (SCCM), and a designated oven temperature of 500 °C. Specifically, the dependence of structural and optical properties of the structures on growth duration and spatially dependent temperature were investigated utilizing scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and ultraviolet-visible transmission spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that the grown thin film observed with hexagonal structures and higher structural uniformity enables more prominent structural and optical signatures. XRD spectra present the dominant peaks along crystal planes of (002) and (101) as the main direction of crystallization. In addition, while the structures excited with laser wavelength of 325 nm emit a signature radiation around 380 nm, an ultraviolet lamp with a wavelength of 254 nm revealed distinctive photoluminescence peaks at 363.96 nm and 403.52 nm, elucidating different degrees of structural correlation as functions of growth duration and the spatial gradient of temperature. Transmittance spectra of the structures illustrate typical variation in the wavelength range of 200 nm to 400 nm, and its structural correlation is less significant when compared with PL. PMID:29267196

  5. Kinetics of Cyclic Oxidation and Cracking and Finite Element Analysis of MA956 and Sapphire/MA956 Composite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N.; Arya, Vinod K.; Halford, Gary R.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    Sapphire fiber-reinforced MA956 composites hold promise for significant weight savings and increased high-temperature structural capability, as compared to unreinforced MA956. As part of an overall assessment of the high-temperature characteristics of this material system, cyclic oxidation behavior was studied at 1093 C and 1204 C. Initially, both sets of coupons exhibited parabolic oxidation kinetics. Later, monolithic MA956 exhibited spallation and a linear weight loss, whereas the composite showed a linear weight gain without spallation. Weight loss of the monolithic MA956 resulted from the linking of a multiplicity of randomly oriented and closely spaced surface cracks that facilitated ready spallation. By contrast, cracking of the composite's oxide layer was nonintersecting and aligned nominally parallel with the orientation of the subsurface reinforcing fibers. Oxidative lifetime of monolithic MA956 was projected from the observed oxidation kinetics. Linear elastic, finite element continuum, and micromechanics analyses were performed on coupons of the monolithic and composite materials. Results of the analyses qualitatively agreed well with the observed oxide cracking and spallation behavior of both the MA956 and the Sapphire/MA956 composite coupons.

  6. 5-nJ Femtosecond Ti3+:sapphire laser pumped with a single 1 W green diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muti, Abdullah; Kocabas, Askin; Sennaroglu, Alphan

    2018-05-01

    We report a Kerr-lens mode-locked, extended-cavity femtosecond Ti3+:sapphire laser directly pumped at 520 nm with a 1 W AlInGaN green diode. To obtain energy scaling, the short x-cavity was extended with a q-preserving multi-pass cavity to reduce the pulse repetition rate to 5.78 MHz. With 880 mW of incident pump power, we obtained as high as 90 mW of continuous-wave output power from the short cavity by using a 3% output coupler. In the Kerr-lens mode-locked regime, the extended cavity produced nearly transform-limited 95 fs pulses at 776 nm. The resulting energy and peak power of the pulses were 5.1 nJ and 53 kW, respectively. To our knowledge, this represents the highest pulse energy directly obtained to date from a mode-locked, single-diode-pumped Ti3+:sapphire laser.

  7. Epitaxy of boron phosphide on AlN, 4H-SiC, 3C-SiC and ZrB2 substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padavala, Balabalaji

    The semiconductor boron phosphide (BP) has many outstanding features making it attractive for developing various electronic devices, including neutron detectors. In order to improve the efficiency of these devices, BP must have high crystal quality along with the best possible electrical properties. This research is focused on growing high quality crystalline BP films on a variety of superior substrates like AlN, 4H-SiC, 3C-SiC and ZrB2 by chemical vapor deposition. In particular, the influence of various parameters such as temperature, reactant flow rates, and substrate type and its crystalline orientation on the properties of BP films were studied in detail. Twin-free BP films were produced by depositing on off-axis 4H-SiC(0001) substrate tilted 4° toward [11¯00] and crystal symmetry matched zincblende 3C-SiC. BP crystalline quality improved at higher deposition temperature (1200°C) when deposited on AlN, 4H-SiC, whereas increased strain in 3C-SiC and increased boron segregation in ZrB2 at higher temperatures limited the best deposition temperature to below 1200°C. In addition, higher flow ratios of PH 3 to B2H6 resulted in smoother films and improved quality of BP on all substrates. The FWHM of the Raman peak (6.1 cm -1), XRD BP(111) peak FWHM (0.18°) and peak ratios of BP(111)/(200) = 5157 and BP(111)/(220) = 7226 measured on AlN/sapphire were the best values reported in the literature for BP epitaxial films. The undoped films on AlN/sapphire were n-type with a highest electron mobility of 37.8 cm2/V˙s and a lowest carrier concentration of 3.15x1018 cm -3. Raman imaging had lower values of FWHM (4.8 cm-1 ) and a standard deviation (0.56 cm-1) for BP films on AlN/sapphire compared to 4H-SiC, 3C-SiC substrates. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy revealed residual tensile strain in BP on 4H-SiC, 3C-SiC, ZrB2/4H-SiC, bulk AlN substrates while compressive strain was evident on AlN/sapphire and bulk ZrB2 substrates. Among the substrates studied, AlN/sapphire

  8. Understanding and controlling the substrate effect on graphene electron-transfer chemistry via reactivity imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing Hua; Jin, Zhong; Kim, Ki Kang; Hilmer, Andrew J.; Paulus, Geraldine L. C.; Shih, Chih-Jen; Ham, Moon-Ho; Sanchez-Yamagishi, Javier D.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kong, Jing; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Strano, Michael S.

    2012-09-01

    Graphene has exceptional electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties, which provide it with great potential for use in electronic, optoelectronic and sensing applications. The chemical functionalization of graphene has been investigated with a view to controlling its electronic properties and interactions with other materials. Covalent modification of graphene by organic diazonium salts has been used to achieve these goals, but because graphene comprises only a single atomic layer, it is strongly influenced by the underlying substrate. Here, we show a stark difference in the rate of electron-transfer reactions with organic diazonium salts for monolayer graphene supported on a variety of substrates. Reactions proceed rapidly for graphene supported on SiO2 and Al2O3 (sapphire), but negligibly on alkyl-terminated and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) surfaces, as shown by Raman spectroscopy. We also develop a model of reactivity based on substrate-induced electron-hole puddles in graphene, and achieve spatial patterning of chemical reactions in graphene by patterning the substrate.

  9. Normal Impingement of a Supersonic Jet on a Plane - A Basic Study of Shock-Interference Heating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    George Xaler, Pail Zone Dr. H. Lew 28i0 Mr. J. W. Paust A . Mkrtallucci W. Daskin J. D. Cresaswell J. pvttu" J. Cor%.nto C. l!arri, F. GCOrge1. 4...NSWC/WOL/TR 75195 low zE ~ 1 WHITE OAK LABORATORY SNORMAL IMPINGEMENT OF A SUPERSONIC JET ON A PLANE - A BASIC STUDY OF SHOCK-INTERFERENCE HEATING...OF THIS PAGE ("oin DomejaE’ored) __________________ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONS4 2. OV ACE.~ CONTRAT O0GRN NUMBER~ a NS. P ER OR M I

  10. The epitaxial growth of wurtzite ZnO films on LiNbO 3 (0 0 0 1) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Liu, Z. G.; Liu, H.; Wang, X. S.; Zhu, T.; Liu, J. M.

    2000-12-01

    ZnO epitaxial films were deposited on LiNbO 3 (0 0 0 1) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The smaller lattice misfit (-8.5%) between ZnO along <1 0 1¯ 0>- direction and LiNbO 3 (0 0 0 1) along <1 1 2¯ 0>- direction, as compared with that in the case of normally used sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates, favored the epitaxial growth of ZnO films. The transmittance spectra of ZnO films deposited in vacuum after annealed in pure oxygen show a sharp absorption edge at 375.6 nm (E g=3.31 eV) .

  11. Effect of substrate thinning on the electronic transport characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hui; Meng, Xiao; Zheng, Xiang; Yang, Ying; Feng, Shiwei; Zhang, Yamin; Guo, Chunsheng

    2018-07-01

    We studied how substrate thinning affected the electronic transport characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. By thinning their sapphire substrate from 460 μm to 80 μm, we varied the residual stress in these HEMTs. The thinned sample showed decreased drain-source current and occurrence of kink effect. Furthermore, shown by current transient measurements and time constant analysis, the detrapping behaviors of trap states shifted toward a larger time constant, and the detrapping behavior under the gate and in the gate-drain access region showed increased amplitude. By using pulsed current-voltage measurements, the thinned sample showed a positive shift of the threshold voltage, a decrease in peak transconductance, and an aggravation in current collapse, as compared with the thick one. The degradation of electrical behavior were associated with the structural degradation, as confirmed by the increase of pit density on the thinned sample surface.

  12. MOVPE growth of violet GaN LEDs on β-Ga2O3 substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ding; Hoffmann, Veit; Richter, Eberhard; Tessaro, Thomas; Galazka, Zbigniew; Weyers, Markus; Tränkle, Günther

    2017-11-01

    We report that a H2-free atmosphere is essential for the initial stage of metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of GaN on β-Ga2O3 to prevent the surface from damage. A simple growth method is proposed that can easily transfer established GaN growth recipes from sapphire to β-Ga2O3 with both (-2 0 1) and (1 0 0) orientations. This method features a thin AlN nucleation layer grown below 900 °C in N2 atmosphere to protect the surface of β-Ga2O3 from deterioration during further growth under the H2 atmosphere. Based on this, we demonstrate working violet vertical light emitting diodes (VLEDs) on n-conductive β-Ga2O3 substrates.

  13. Nitrification in a zeoponic substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGilloway, R. L.; Weaver, R. W.; Ming, D. W.; Gruener, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    Clinoptilolite is a zeolite mineral with high cation exchange capacity used in zeoponic substrates that have been proposed as a solid medium for growing plants or as a fertilizer material. The kinetics of nitrification has not been measured for NH4+ saturated zeoponic substrate. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the production of NO2- and NO3-, and nitrifier populations in zeoponic substrates. Small columns were filled with zeoponic substrate inoculated with a commercial inoculum or soil enrichment culture of nitrifying bacteria. In addition to column studies, a growth chamber study was conducted to evaluate the kinetics of nitrification in zeoponic substrates used to grow radishes (Raphanus sativus L.). The zeoponic substrate provided a readily available source of NH4+, and nitrifying bacteria were active in the substrate. Ammonium oxidation rates in column studies ranged from 5 to 10 micrograms N g-1 substrate h-1, and NO2- oxidation rates were 2 to 9.5 micrograms N g-1 substrate h-1. Rates determined from the growth chamber study were approximately 1.2 micrograms N g-1 substrate h-1. Quantities of NH4+ oxidized to NO2- and NO3- in inoculated zeoponic substrate were in excess of plant up-take. Acidification as a result of NH4+ oxidation resulted in a pH decline, and the zeoponic substrate showed limited buffering capacity.

  14. Lattice strain measurements of deuteride phase formation in epitaxial niobium on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, Monica Marie Cortez

    Deuteride phase formation in epitaxial niobium on sapphire was investigated for two film thicknesses (200 and 1200A). A palladium cap of approximately 40A facilitated deuterium absorption from the gas phase and each exposure condition ensured that the film passed through the miscibility gap. In situ resistivity and x-ray diffraction (XRD) provided a correlation between the film resistance and each of the phases. This correlation was used during helium-3 nuclear reaction analysis to determine the deuterium concentration at the beginning and end of the miscibility gap providing a closer look at the strain behavior vs. deuterium concentration within the single and two-phase region. Three orthogonal reciprocal lattice points, the out-of-plane (1--10), the in-plane (002), and the in-plane (110), were monitored with XRD during deuterium absorption to saturation. Cycling effects on the 1200A Nb film were analyzed and found not to influence the strain behavior. The strain was anisotropic for both films, giving an enhanced out-of-plane expansion relative to the two in-plane directions. This is consistent with a clamping force inhibiting in-plane expansion. The observed out-of-plane strain can be used to estimate the in-plane clamping stress; the result is approximately 1 and 2 GPa for the 1200 and 200A Nb films respectively. The volumetric expansion determined from in situ XRD measurements demonstrate that the know value of the specific volume of deuterium, Deltanu/O, in bulk Nb (Deltanu/O = 0.174) does not hold for thin-film, epitaxial geometry (Deltanu/O ≈ 1). Further, the behavior of the specific volume shows a discontinuity at the phase boundary that does not exist in bulk. Lattice strain and overall film expansion from simultaneous XRD and x-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements, respectively, were performed on both films. These results demonstrate a larger out-of-plane film expansion compared to the out-of-plane lattice strain for the 1200A Nb film compared to the 200

  15. Impact of substrate and thermal boundary resistance on the performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs analyzed by means of electro-thermal Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, S.; Íñiguez-de-la-Torre, I.; Mateos, J.; González, T.; Pérez, S.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present results from the simulations of a submicrometer AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) by using an in-house electro-thermal Monte Carlo simulator. We study the temperature distribution and the influence of heating on the transfer characteristics and the transconductance when the device is grown on different substrates (sapphire, silicon, silicon carbide and diamond). The effect of the inclusion of a thermal boundary resistance (TBR) is also investigated. It is found that, as expected, HEMTs fabricated on substrates with high thermal conductivities (diamond) exhibit lower temperatures, but the difference between hot-spot and average temperatures is higher. In addition, devices fabricated on substrates with higher thermal conductivities are more sensitive to the value of the TBR because the temperature discontinuity is greater in the TBR layer.

  16. Demonstration of frequency control and CW diode laser injection control of a titanium-doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, Clayton H.; Brockman, Philip; Hess, Robert V.; Modlin, Edward A.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental frequency narrowing studies of a Ti:sapphire ring laser with no intracavity optical elements are reported. Frequency narrowing has been achieved using a birefringent filter between a partially reflecting reverse wave suppressor mirror and the ring cavity output mirror. Results of CW diode laser injection seeding are reported.

  17. Subwavelength engineered fiber-to-chip silicon-on-sapphire interconnects for mid-infrared applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Han, Zhaohong; Le Roux, Xavier; Lin, Hongtao; Singh, Vivek; Lin, Pao Tai; Tan, Dawn; Cassan, Eric; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Vivien, Laurent; Wada, Kazumi; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anuradha; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    2016-05-01

    The mid-Infrared wavelength range (2-20 µm), so-called fingerprint region, contains the very sharp vibrational and rotational resonances of many chemical and biological substances. Thereby, on-chip absorption-spectrometry-based sensors operating in the mid-Infrared (mid-IR) have the potential to perform high-precision, label-free, real-time detection of multiple target molecules within a single sensor, which makes them an ideal technology for the implementation of lab-on-a-chip devices. Benefiting from the great development realized in the telecom field, silicon photonics is poised to deliver ultra-compact efficient and cost-effective devices fabricated at mass scale. In addition, Si is transparent up to 8 µm wavelength, making it an ideal material for the implementation of high-performance mid-IR photonic circuits. The silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, typically used in telecom applications, relies on silicon dioxide as bottom insulator. Unfortunately, silicon dioxide absorbs light beyond 3.6 µm, limiting the usability range of the SOI platform for the mid-IR. Silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) has been proposed as an alternative solution that extends the operability region up to 6 µm (sapphire absorption), while providing a high-index contrast. In this context, surface grating couplers have been proved as an efficient means of injecting and extracting light from mid-IR SOS circuits that obviate the need of cleaving sapphire. However, grating couplers typically have a reduced bandwidth, compared with facet coupling solutions such as inverse or sub-wavelength tapers. This feature limits their feasibility for absorption spectroscopy applications that may require monitoring wide wavelength ranges. Interestingly, sub-wavelength engineering can be used to substantially improve grating coupler bandwidth, as demonstrated in devices operating at telecom wavelengths. Here, we report on the development of fiber-to-chip interconnects to ZrF4 optical fibers and integrated SOS

  18. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  19. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma, Diana Xiaobing

    2016-08-02

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  20. Quantifying Heterogeneities in Soil Cover and Weathering in the Bitterroot and Sapphire Mountains, Montana: Implications for Glacial Legacies and their Morphologic Control on Soil Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjaram, S. S.; Dixon, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    To what extent is chemical weathering governed by a landscape's topography? Quantifying chemical weathering in both steep rocky landscapes and soil-mantled landscapes requires describing heterogeneity in soil and rock cover at local and landscape scales. Two neighboring mountain ranges in the northern Rockies of western Montana, USA, provide an ideal natural laboratory in which to investigate the relationship between soil chemical weathering, persistence of soil cover, and topography. We focus our work in the previously glaciated Bitterroot Mountains, which consist of steep, rock-dominated hillslopes, and the neighboring unglaciated Sapphire Mountains, which display convex, soil-mantled hillslopes. Soil thickness measurements, soil and rock geochemistry, and digital terrain analysis reveal that soils in the rock-dominated Bitterroot Mountains are only slightly less weathered than those in the Sapphire Mountains. However, these differences are magnified when adjusted for rock fragments at a local scale and bedrock cover at a landscape scale, using our newly developed metric, the rock-adjusted chemical depletion fraction (RACDF) and rock-adjusted mass transfer coefficient (RA τ). The Bitterroots overall are 30% less weathered than the Sapphires despite higher mean annual precipitation in the former, with an average rock-adjusted CDF of 0.38 in the postglacial Bitterroots catchment and 0.61 in the nonglacial Sapphire catchment, suggesting that 38% of rock mass is lost in the conversion to soil in the Bitterroots, whereas 61% of rock mass is lost in the nonglaciated Sapphires. Because the previously glaciated Bitterroots are less weathered despite being wetter, we conclude that the glacial history of this landscape exerts more influence on soil chemical weathering than does modern climate. However, while previous studies have correlated weathering intensity with topographic parameters such as slope gradient, we find little topographic indication of specific controls