Colored Traveling Salesman Problem.
Li, Jun; Zhou, MengChu; Sun, Qirui; Dai, Xianzhong; Yu, Xiaolong
2015-11-01
The multiple traveling salesman problem (MTSP) is an important combinatorial optimization problem. It has been widely and successfully applied to the practical cases in which multiple traveling individuals (salesmen) share the common workspace (city set). However, it cannot represent some application problems where multiple traveling individuals not only have their own exclusive tasks but also share a group of tasks with each other. This work proposes a new MTSP called colored traveling salesman problem (CTSP) for handling such cases. Two types of city groups are defined, i.e., each group of exclusive cities of a single color for a salesman to visit and a group of shared cities of multiple colors allowing all salesmen to visit. Evidences show that CTSP is NP-hard and a multidepot MTSP and multiple single traveling salesman problems are its special cases. We present a genetic algorithm (GA) with dual-chromosome coding for CTSP and analyze the corresponding solution space. Then, GA is improved by incorporating greedy, hill-climbing (HC), and simulated annealing (SA) operations to achieve better performance. By experiments, the limitation of the exact solution method is revealed and the performance of the presented GAs is compared. The results suggest that SAGA can achieve the best quality of solutions and HCGA should be the choice making good tradeoff between the solution quality and computing time.
Characterization of the probabilistic traveling salesman problem.
Bowler, Neill E; Fink, Thomas M A; Ball, Robin C
2003-09-01
We show that stochastic annealing can be successfully applied to gain new results on the probabilistic traveling salesman problem. The probabilistic "traveling salesman" must decide on an a priori order in which to visit n cities (randomly distributed over a unit square) before learning that some cities can be omitted. We find the optimized average length of the pruned tour follows E(L(pruned))=sqrt[np](0.872-0.105p)f(np), where p is the probability of a city needing to be visited, and f(np)-->1 as np--> infinity. The average length of the a priori tour (before omitting any cities) is found to follow E(L(a priori))=sqrt[n/p]beta(p), where beta(p)=1/[1.25-0.82 ln(p)] is measured for 0.05< or =p< or =0.6. Scaling arguments and indirect measurements suggest that beta(p) tends towards a constant for p<0.03. Our stochastic annealing algorithm is based on limited sampling of the pruned tour lengths, exploiting the sampling error to provide the analog of thermal fluctuations in simulated (thermal) annealing. The method has general application to the optimization of functions whose cost to evaluate rises with the precision required.
Analysis of travelling salesman problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Belal; Singh Chouhan, Shivank; Biswas, Subham; Gayathri, P.; Santhi, H.
2017-11-01
The multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (mTSP) is the general type of TSP, in which at least one than one sales representatives can be utilized as a part of the arrangement set. The Constraint in the improvement undertaking is that every sales representative comes back to beginning stage at end of outing, heading out to a particular arrangement of urban areas in the middle of and with the exception of the first, every last city is gone to by precisely one sales representative. The thought is to scan for the briefest course that is the slightest separation required for every salesperson to go from the beginning area to individual urban areas and back to the area from where he has begun. It is an intricate NP-Hard issue and has different applications for the most part in the field of planning and steering. The measure of algorithm time to take care of this issue develops exponentially as number of urban areas builds thus, the meta-heuristic streamlining algorithms, for example, Genetic Algorithm (GAs) are should have been investigated. The objective of this paper is to discover different algorithms utilized as a part of writing to understand mTSP.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saad, Shakila; Wan Jaafar, Wan Nurhadani; Jamil, Siti Jasmida
2013-04-01
The standard Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is the classical Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) while Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (MTSP) is an extension of TSP when more than one salesman is involved. The objective of MTSP is to find the least costly route that the traveling salesman problem can take if he wishes to visit exactly once each of a list of n cities and then return back to the home city. There are a few methods that can be used to solve MTSP. The objective of this research is to implement an exact method called Branch-and-Bound (B&B) algorithm. Briefly, the idea of B&B algorithm is to start with the associated Assignment Problem (AP). A branching strategy will be applied to the TSP and MTSP which is Breadth-first-Search (BFS). 11 nodes of cities are implemented for both problem and the solutions to the problem are presented.
Traveling Salesman Problem: A Foveating Pyramid Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pizlo, Zygmunt; Stefanov, Emil; Saalweachter, John; Li, Zheng; Haxhimusa, Yll; Kropatsch, Walter G.
2006-01-01
We tested human performance on the Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem using problems with 6-50 cities. Results confirmed our earlier findings that: (a) the time of solving a problem is proportional to the number of cities, and (b) the solution error grows very slowly with the number of cities. We formulated a new version of a pyramid model. The…
Fuzzy Hungarian Method for Solving Intuitionistic Fuzzy Travelling Salesman Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prabakaran, K.; Ganesan, K.
2018-04-01
The travelling salesman problem is to identify the shortest route that the salesman journey all the places and return the starting place with minimum cost. We develop a fuzzy version of Hungarian algorithm for the solution of intuitionistic fuzzy travelling salesman problem using triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers without changing them to classical travelling salesman problem. The purposed method is easy to empathize and to implement for finding solution of intuitionistic travelling salesman problem happening in real life situations. To illustrate the proposed method numerical example are provided.
Neural Network Solves "Traveling-Salesman" Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thakoor, Anilkumar P.; Moopenn, Alexander W.
1990-01-01
Experimental electronic neural network solves "traveling-salesman" problem. Plans round trip of minimum distance among N cities, visiting every city once and only once (without backtracking). This problem is paradigm of many problems of global optimization (e.g., routing or allocation of resources) occuring in industry, business, and government. Applied to large number of cities (or resources), circuits of this kind expected to solve problem faster and more cheaply.
Traveling salesman problem with a center.
Lipowski, Adam; Lipowska, Dorota
2005-06-01
We study a traveling salesman problem where the path is optimized with a cost function that includes its length L as well as a certain measure C of its distance from the geometrical center of the graph. Using simulated annealing (SA) we show that such a problem has a transition point that separates two phases differing in the scaling behavior of L and C, in efficiency of SA, and in the shape of minimal paths.
Diffusive behavior of a greedy traveling salesman.
Lipowski, Adam; Lipowska, Dorota
2011-06-01
Using Monte Carlo simulations we examine the diffusive properties of the greedy algorithm in the d-dimensional traveling salesman problem. Our results show that for d=3 and 4 the average squared distance from the origin (r(2)) is proportional to the number of steps t. In the d=2 case such a scaling is modified with some logarithmic corrections, which might suggest that d=2 is the critical dimension of the problem. The distribution of lengths also shows marked differences between d=2 and d>2 versions. A simple strategy adopted by the salesman might resemble strategies chosen by some foraging and hunting animals, for which anomalous diffusive behavior has recently been reported and interpreted in terms of Lévy flights. Our results suggest that broad and Lévy-like distributions in such systems might appear due to dimension-dependent properties of a search space.
Adapting the traveling salesman problem to an adiabatic quantum computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warren, Richard H.
2013-04-01
We show how to guide a quantum computer to select an optimal tour for the traveling salesman. This is significant because it opens a rapid solution method for the wide range of applications of the traveling salesman problem, which include vehicle routing, job sequencing and data clustering.
Parallel tempering for the traveling salesman problem
Percus, Allon; Wang, Richard; Hyman, Jeffrey
We explore the potential of parallel tempering as a combinatorial optimization method, applying it to the traveling salesman problem. We compare simulation results of parallel tempering with a benchmark implementation of simulated annealing, and study how different choices of parameters affect the relative performance of the two methods. We find that a straightforward implementation of parallel tempering can outperform simulated annealing in several crucial respects. When parameters are chosen appropriately, both methods yield close approximation to the actual minimum distance for an instance with 200 nodes. However, parallel tempering yields more consistently accurate results when a series of independent simulationsmore » are performed. Our results suggest that parallel tempering might offer a simple but powerful alternative to simulated annealing for combinatorial optimization problems.« less
Human performance on the traveling salesman problem.
MacGregor, J N; Ormerod, T
1996-05-01
Two experiments on performance on the traveling salesman problem (TSP) are reported. The TSP consists of finding the shortest path through a set of points, returning to the origin. It appears to be an intransigent mathematical problem, and heuristics have been developed to find approximate solutions. The first experiment used 10-point, the second, 20-point problems. The experiments tested the hypothesis that complexity of TSPs is a function of number of nonboundary points, not total number of points. Both experiments supported the hypothesis. The experiments provided information on the quality of subjects' solutions. Their solutions clustered close to the best known solutions, were an order of magnitude better than solutions produced by three well-known heuristics, and on average fell beyond the 99.9th percentile in the distribution of random solutions. The solution process appeared to be perceptually based.
The cost-constrained traveling salesman problem
Sokkappa, P.R.
1990-10-01
The Cost-Constrained Traveling Salesman Problem (CCTSP) is a variant of the well-known Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). In the TSP, the goal is to find a tour of a given set of cities such that the total cost of the tour is minimized. In the CCTSP, each city is given a value, and a fixed cost-constraint is specified. The objective is to find a subtour of the cities that achieves maximum value without exceeding the cost-constraint. Thus, unlike the TSP, the CCTSP requires both selection and sequencing. As a consequence, most results for the TSP cannot be extended to the CCTSP.more » We show that the CCTSP is NP-hard and that no K-approximation algorithm or fully polynomial approximation scheme exists, unless P = NP. We also show that several special cases are polynomially solvable. Algorithms for the CCTSP, which outperform previous methods, are developed in three areas: upper bounding methods, exact algorithms, and heuristics. We found that a bounding strategy based on the knapsack problem performs better, both in speed and in the quality of the bounds, than methods based on the assignment problem. Likewise, we found that a branch-and-bound approach using the knapsack bound was superior to a method based on a common branch-and-bound method for the TSP. In our study of heuristic algorithms, we found that, when selecting modes for inclusion in the subtour, it is important to consider the neighborhood'' of the nodes. A node with low value that brings the subtour near many other nodes may be more desirable than an isolated node of high value. We found two types of repetition to be desirable: repetitions based on randomization in the subtour buildings process, and repetitions encouraging the inclusion of different subsets of the nodes. By varying the number and type of repetitions, we can adjust the computation time required by our method to obtain algorithms that outperform previous methods.« less
The traveling salesman problem: a hierarchical model.
Graham, S M; Joshi, A; Pizlo, Z
2000-10-01
Our review of prior literature on spatial information processing in perception, attention, and memory indicates that these cognitive functions involve similar mechanisms based on a hierarchical architecture. The present study extends the application of hierarchical models to the area of problem solving. First, we report results of an experiment in which human subjects were tested on a Euclidean traveling salesman problem (TSP) with 6 to 30 cities. The subject's solutions were either optimal or near-optimal in length and were produced in a time that was, on average, a linear function of the number of cities. Next, the performance of the subjects is compared with that of five representative artificial intelligence and operations research algorithms, that produce approximate solutions for Euclidean problems. None of these algorithms was found to be an adequate psychological model. Finally, we present a new algorithm for solving the TSP, which is based on a hierarchical pyramid architecture. The performance of this new algorithm is quite similar to the performance of the subjects.
A New Approach for Solving the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pop, P. C.; Matei, O.; Sabo, C.
The generalized traveling problem (GTSP) is an extension of the classical traveling salesman problem. The GTSP is known to be an NP-hard problem and has many interesting applications. In this paper we present a local-global approach for the generalized traveling salesman problem. Based on this approach we describe a novel hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for solving the problem using genetic algorithms. Computational results are reported for Euclidean TSPlib instances and compared with the existing ones. The obtained results point out that our hybrid algorithm is an appropriate method to explore the search space of this complex problem and leads to good solutions in a reasonable amount of time.
Exact solution of large asymmetric traveling salesman problems.
Miller, D L; Pekny, J F
1991-02-15
The traveling salesman problem is one of a class of difficult problems in combinatorial optimization that is representative of a large number of important scientific and engineering problems. A survey is given of recent applications and methods for solving large problems. In addition, an algorithm for the exact solution of the asymmetric traveling salesman problem is presented along with computational results for several classes of problems. The results show that the algorithm performs remarkably well for some classes of problems, determining an optimal solution even for problems with large numbers of cities, yet for other classes, even small problems thwart determination of a provably optimal solution.
Development of the PEBLebl Traveling Salesman Problem Computerized Testbed
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mueller, Shane T.; Perelman, Brandon S.; Tan, Yin Yin; Thanasuan, Kejkaew
2015-01-01
The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is a combinatorial optimization problem that requires finding the shortest path through a set of points ("cities") that returns to the starting point. Because humans provide heuristic near-optimal solutions to Euclidean versions of the problem, it has sometimes been used to investigate human visual…
The Ordered Clustered Travelling Salesman Problem: A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
Ahmed, Zakir Hussain
2014-01-01
The ordered clustered travelling salesman problem is a variation of the usual travelling salesman problem in which a set of vertices (except the starting vertex) of the network is divided into some prespecified clusters. The objective is to find the least cost Hamiltonian tour in which vertices of any cluster are visited contiguously and the clusters are visited in the prespecified order. The problem is NP-hard, and it arises in practical transportation and sequencing problems. This paper develops a hybrid genetic algorithm using sequential constructive crossover, 2-opt search, and a local search for obtaining heuristic solution to the problem. The efficiency of the algorithm has been examined against two existing algorithms for some asymmetric and symmetric TSPLIB instances of various sizes. The computational results show that the proposed algorithm is very effective in terms of solution quality and computational time. Finally, we present solution to some more symmetric TSPLIB instances. PMID:24701148
An optical solution for the traveling salesman problem.
Haist, Tobias; Osten, Wolfgang
2007-08-06
We introduce an optical method based on white light interferometry in order to solve the well-known NP-complete traveling salesman problem. To our knowledge it is the first time that a method for the reduction of non-polynomial time to quadratic time has been proposed. We will show that this achievement is limited by the number of available photons for solving the problem. It will turn out that this number of photons is proportional to N(N) for a traveling salesman problem with N cities and that for large numbers of cities the method in practice therefore is limited by the signal-to-noise ratio. The proposed method is meant purely as a gedankenexperiment.
Traveling salesman problem, conformal invariance, and dense polymers.
Jacobsen, J L; Read, N; Saleur, H
2004-07-16
We propose that the statistics of the optimal tour in the planar random Euclidean traveling salesman problem is conformally invariant on large scales. This is exhibited in the power-law behavior of the probabilities for the tour to zigzag repeatedly between two regions, and in subleading corrections to the length of the tour. The universality class should be the same as for dense polymers and minimal spanning trees. The conjectures for the length of the tour on a cylinder are tested numerically.
2D and 3D Traveling Salesman Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haxhimusa, Yll; Carpenter, Edward; Catrambone, Joseph; Foldes, David; Stefanov, Emil; Arns, Laura; Pizlo, Zygmunt
2011-01-01
When a two-dimensional (2D) traveling salesman problem (TSP) is presented on a computer screen, human subjects can produce near-optimal tours in linear time. In this study we tested human performance on a real and virtual floor, as well as in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual space. Human performance on the real floor is as good as that on a…
Improved mapping of the travelling salesman problem for quantum annealing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troyer, Matthias; Heim, Bettina; Brown, Ethan; Wecker, David
2015-03-01
We consider the quantum adiabatic algorithm as applied to the travelling salesman problem (TSP). We introduce a novel mapping of TSP to an Ising spin glass Hamiltonian and compare it to previous known mappings. Through direct perturbative analysis, unitary evolution, and simulated quantum annealing, we show this new mapping to be significantly superior. We discuss how this advantage can translate to actual physical implementations of TSP on quantum annealers.
Critical transition in the constrained traveling salesman problem.
Andrecut, M; Ali, M K
2001-04-01
We investigate the finite size scaling of the mean optimal tour length as a function of density of obstacles in a constrained variant of the traveling salesman problem (TSP). The computational experience pointed out a critical transition (at rho(c) approximately 85%) in the dependence between the excess of the mean optimal tour length over the Held-Karp lower bound and the density of obstacles.
A quantum heuristic algorithm for the traveling salesman problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Lee, Changhyoup; Yoo, Seokwon; Lim, James; Lee, Jinhyoung
2012-12-01
We propose a quantum heuristic algorithm to solve the traveling salesman problem by generalizing the Grover search. Sufficient conditions are derived to greatly enhance the probability of finding the tours with the cheapest costs reaching almost to unity. These conditions are characterized by the statistical properties of tour costs and are shown to be automatically satisfied in the large-number limit of cities. In particular for a continuous distribution of the tours along the cost, we show that the quantum heuristic algorithm exhibits a quadratic speedup compared to its classical heuristic algorithm.
Solving traveling salesman problems with DNA molecules encoding numerical values.
Lee, Ji Youn; Shin, Soo-Yong; Park, Tai Hyun; Zhang, Byoung-Tak
2004-12-01
We introduce a DNA encoding method to represent numerical values and a biased molecular algorithm based on the thermodynamic properties of DNA. DNA strands are designed to encode real values by variation of their melting temperatures. The thermodynamic properties of DNA are used for effective local search of optimal solutions using biochemical techniques, such as denaturation temperature gradient polymerase chain reaction and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis. The proposed method was successfully applied to the traveling salesman problem, an instance of optimization problems on weighted graphs. This work extends the capability of DNA computing to solving numerical optimization problems, which is contrasted with other DNA computing methods focusing on logical problem solving.
Quantum annealing of the traveling-salesman problem.
Martonák, Roman; Santoro, Giuseppe E; Tosatti, Erio
2004-11-01
We propose a path-integral Monte Carlo quantum annealing scheme for the symmetric traveling-salesman problem, based on a highly constrained Ising-like representation, and we compare its performance against standard thermal simulated annealing. The Monte Carlo moves implemented are standard, and consist in restructuring a tour by exchanging two links (two-opt moves). The quantum annealing scheme, even with a drastically simple form of kinetic energy, appears definitely superior to the classical one, when tested on a 1002-city instance of the standard TSPLIB.
Bi-criteria travelling salesman subtour problem with time threshold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar Thenepalle, Jayanth; Singamsetty, Purusotham
2018-03-01
This paper deals with the bi-criteria travelling salesman subtour problem with time threshold (BTSSP-T), which comes from the family of the travelling salesman problem (TSP) and is NP-hard in the strong sense. The problem arises in several application domains, mainly in routing and scheduling contexts. Here, the model focuses on two criteria: total travel distance and gains attained. The BTSSP-T aims to determine a subtour that starts and ends at the same city and visits a subset of cities at a minimum travel distance with maximum gains, such that the time spent on the tour does not exceed the predefined time threshold. A zero-one integer-programming problem is adopted to formulate this model with all practical constraints, and it includes a finite set of feasible solutions (one for each tour). Two algorithms, namely, the Lexi-Search Algorithm (LSA) and the Tabu Search (TS) algorithm have been developed to solve the BTSSP-T problem. The proposed LSA implicitly enumerates the feasible patterns and provides an efficient solution with backtracking, whereas the TS, which is metaheuristic, will give the better approximate solution. A numerical example is demonstrated in order to understand the search mechanism of the LSA. Numerical experiments are carried out in the MATLAB environment, on the different benchmark instances available in the TSPLIB domain as well as on randomly generated test instances. The experimental results show that the proposed LSA works better than the TS algorithm in terms of solution quality and, computationally, both LSA and TS are competitive.
Solving large scale traveling salesman problems by chaotic neurodynamics.
Hasegawa, Mikio; Ikeguch, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2002-03-01
We propose a novel approach for solving large scale traveling salesman problems (TSPs) by chaotic dynamics. First, we realize the tabu search on a neural network, by utilizing the refractory effects as the tabu effects. Then, we extend it to a chaotic neural network version. We propose two types of chaotic searching methods, which are based on two different tabu searches. While the first one requires neurons of the order of n2 for an n-city TSP, the second one requires only n neurons. Moreover, an automatic parameter tuning method of our chaotic neural network is presented for easy application to various problems. Last, we show that our method with n neurons is applicable to large TSPs such as an 85,900-city problem and exhibits better performance than the conventional stochastic searches and the tabu searches.
Simulated annealing with probabilistic analysis for solving traveling salesman problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Pei-Yee; Lim, Yai-Fung; Ramli, Razamin; Khalid, Ruzelan
2013-09-01
Simulated Annealing (SA) is a widely used meta-heuristic that was inspired from the annealing process of recrystallization of metals. Therefore, the efficiency of SA is highly affected by the annealing schedule. As a result, in this paper, we presented an empirical work to provide a comparable annealing schedule to solve symmetric traveling salesman problems (TSP). Randomized complete block design is also used in this study. The results show that different parameters do affect the efficiency of SA and thus, we propose the best found annealing schedule based on the Post Hoc test. SA was tested on seven selected benchmarked problems of symmetric TSP with the proposed annealing schedule. The performance of SA was evaluated empirically alongside with benchmark solutions and simple analysis to validate the quality of solutions. Computational results show that the proposed annealing schedule provides a good quality of solution.
Water flow algorithm decision support tool for travelling salesman problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamarudin, Anis Aklima; Othman, Zulaiha Ali; Sarim, Hafiz Mohd
2016-08-01
This paper discuss about the role of Decision Support Tool in Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) for helping the researchers who doing research in same area will get the better result from the proposed algorithm. A study has been conducted and Rapid Application Development (RAD) model has been use as a methodology which includes requirement planning, user design, construction and cutover. Water Flow Algorithm (WFA) with initialization technique improvement is used as the proposed algorithm in this study for evaluating effectiveness against TSP cases. For DST evaluation will go through usability testing conducted on system use, quality of information, quality of interface and overall satisfaction. Evaluation is needed for determine whether this tool can assists user in making a decision to solve TSP problems with the proposed algorithm or not. Some statistical result shown the ability of this tool in term of helping researchers to conduct the experiments on the WFA with improvements TSP initialization.
List-Based Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem.
Zhan, Shi-hua; Lin, Juan; Zhang, Ze-jun; Zhong, Yi-wen
2016-01-01
Simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is a popular intelligent optimization algorithm which has been successfully applied in many fields. Parameters' setting is a key factor for its performance, but it is also a tedious work. To simplify parameters setting, we present a list-based simulated annealing (LBSA) algorithm to solve traveling salesman problem (TSP). LBSA algorithm uses a novel list-based cooling schedule to control the decrease of temperature. Specifically, a list of temperatures is created first, and then the maximum temperature in list is used by Metropolis acceptance criterion to decide whether to accept a candidate solution. The temperature list is adapted iteratively according to the topology of the solution space of the problem. The effectiveness and the parameter sensitivity of the list-based cooling schedule are illustrated through benchmark TSP problems. The LBSA algorithm, whose performance is robust on a wide range of parameter values, shows competitive performance compared with some other state-of-the-art algorithms.
Modified reactive tabu search for the symmetric traveling salesman problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Yai-Fung; Hong, Pei-Yee; Ramli, Razamin; Khalid, Ruzelan
2013-09-01
Reactive tabu search (RTS) is an improved method of tabu search (TS) and it dynamically adjusts tabu list size based on how the search is performed. RTS can avoid disadvantage of TS which is in the parameter tuning in tabu list size. In this paper, we proposed a modified RTS approach for solving symmetric traveling salesman problems (TSP). The tabu list size of the proposed algorithm depends on the number of iterations when the solutions do not override the aspiration level to achieve a good balance between diversification and intensification. The proposed algorithm was tested on seven chosen benchmarked problems of symmetric TSP. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of the TS by using empirical testing, benchmark solution and simple probabilistic analysis in order to validate the quality of solution. The computational results and comparisons show that the proposed algorithm provides a better quality solution than that of the TS.
A traveling salesman approach for predicting protein functions.
Johnson, Olin; Liu, Jing
2006-10-12
Protein-protein interaction information can be used to predict unknown protein functions and to help study biological pathways. Here we present a new approach utilizing the classic Traveling Salesman Problem to study the protein-protein interactions and to predict protein functions in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We apply the global optimization tool from combinatorial optimization algorithms to cluster the yeast proteins based on the global protein interaction information. We then use this clustering information to help us predict protein functions. We use our algorithm together with the direct neighbor algorithm 1 on characterized proteins and compare the prediction accuracy of the two methods. We show our algorithm can produce better predictions than the direct neighbor algorithm, which only considers the immediate neighbors of the query protein. Our method is a promising one to be used as a general tool to predict functions of uncharacterized proteins and a successful sample of using computer science knowledge and algorithms to study biological problems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... commission-driver, full-time life insurance salesman, home worker, or traveling or city salesman. (a) General... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agent-driver or commission-driver, full-time life insurance salesman, home worker, or traveling or city salesman. 404.1008 Section 404.1008...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... commission-driver, full-time life insurance salesman, home worker, or traveling or city salesman. (a) General... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Agent-driver or commission-driver, full-time life insurance salesman, home worker, or traveling or city salesman. 404.1008 Section 404.1008...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... commission-driver, full-time life insurance salesman, home worker, or traveling or city salesman. (a) General... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Agent-driver or commission-driver, full-time life insurance salesman, home worker, or traveling or city salesman. 404.1008 Section 404.1008...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... commission-driver, full-time life insurance salesman, home worker, or traveling or city salesman. (a) General... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Agent-driver or commission-driver, full-time life insurance salesman, home worker, or traveling or city salesman. 404.1008 Section 404.1008...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... commission-driver, full-time life insurance salesman, home worker, or traveling or city salesman. (a) General... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Agent-driver or commission-driver, full-time life insurance salesman, home worker, or traveling or city salesman. 404.1008 Section 404.1008...
Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization.
Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam
2016-01-01
This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive.
Fast marching methods for the continuous traveling salesman problem
Andrews, June; Sethian, J. A.
2007-01-01
We consider a problem in which we are given a domain, a cost function which depends on position at each point in the domain, and a subset of points (“cities”) in the domain. The goal is to determine the cheapest closed path that visits each city in the domain once. This can be thought of as a version of the traveling salesman problem, in which an underlying known metric determines the cost of moving through each point of the domain, but in which the actual shortest path between cities is unknown at the outset. We describe algorithms for both a heuristic and an optimal solution to this problem. The complexity of the heuristic algorithm is at worst case M·N log N, where M is the number of cities, and N the size of the computational mesh used to approximate the solutions to the shortest paths problems. The average runtime of the heuristic algorithm is linear in the number of cities and O(N log N) in the size N of the mesh. PMID:17220271
Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization
Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam
2016-01-01
This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872
Human performance on visually presented Traveling Salesman problems.
Vickers, D; Butavicius, M; Lee, M; Medvedev, A
2001-01-01
Little research has been carried out on human performance in optimization problems, such as the Traveling Salesman problem (TSP). Studies by Polivanova (1974, Voprosy Psikhologii, 4, 41-51) and by MacGregor and Ormerod (1996, Perception & Psychophysics, 58, 527-539) suggest that: (1) the complexity of solutions to visually presented TSPs depends on the number of points on the convex hull; and (2) the perception of optimal structure is an innate tendency of the visual system, not subject to individual differences. Results are reported from two experiments. In the first, measures of the total length and completion speed of pathways, and a measure of path uncertainty were compared with optimal solutions produced by an elastic net algorithm and by several heuristic methods. Performance was also compared under instructions to draw the shortest or the most attractive pathway. In the second, various measures of performance were compared with scores on Raven's advanced progressive matrices (APM). The number of points on the convex hull did not determine the relative optimality of solutions, although both this factor and the total number of points influenced solution speed and path uncertainty. Subjects' solutions showed appreciable individual differences, which had a strong correlation with APM scores. The relation between perceptual organization and the process of solving visually presented TSPs is briefly discussed, as is the potential of optimization for providing a conceptual framework for the study of intelligence.
Multiagent optimization system for solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP).
Xie, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Jiming
2009-04-01
The multiagent optimization system (MAOS) is a nature-inspired method, which supports cooperative search by the self-organization of a group of compact agents situated in an environment with certain sharing public knowledge. Moreover, each agent in MAOS is an autonomous entity with personal declarative memory and behavioral components. In this paper, MAOS is refined for solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP), which is a classic hard computational problem. Based on a simplified MAOS version, in which each agent manipulates on extremely limited declarative knowledge, some simple and efficient components for solving TSP, including two improving heuristics based on a generalized edge assembly recombination, are implemented. Compared with metaheuristics in adaptive memory programming, MAOS is particularly suitable for supporting cooperative search. The experimental results on two TSP benchmark data sets show that MAOS is competitive as compared with some state-of-the-art algorithms, including the Lin-Kernighan-Helsgaun, IBGLK, PHGA, etc., although MAOS does not use any explicit local search during the runtime. The contributions of MAOS components are investigated. It indicates that certain clues can be positive for making suitable selections before time-consuming computation. More importantly, it shows that the cooperative search of agents can achieve an overall good performance with a macro rule in the switch mode, which deploys certain alternate search rules with the offline performance in negative correlations. Using simple alternate rules may prevent the high difficulty of seeking an omnipotent rule that is efficient for a large data set.
Fast marching methods for the continuous traveling salesman problem.
Andrews, June; Sethian, J A
2007-01-23
We consider a problem in which we are given a domain, a cost function which depends on position at each point in the domain, and a subset of points ("cities") in the domain. The goal is to determine the cheapest closed path that visits each city in the domain once. This can be thought of as a version of the traveling salesman problem, in which an underlying known metric determines the cost of moving through each point of the domain, but in which the actual shortest path between cities is unknown at the outset. We describe algorithms for both a heuristic and an optimal solution to this problem. The complexity of the heuristic algorithm is at worst case M.N log N, where M is the number of cities, and N the size of the computational mesh used to approximate the solutions to the shortest paths problems. The average runtime of the heuristic algorithm is linear in the number of cities and O(N log N) in the size N of the mesh.
An evolutionary algorithm for large traveling salesman problems.
Tsai, Huai-Kuang; Yang, Jinn-Moon; Tsai, Yuan-Fang; Kao, Cheng-Yan
2004-08-01
This work proposes an evolutionary algorithm, called the heterogeneous selection evolutionary algorithm (HeSEA), for solving large traveling salesman problems (TSP). The strengths and limitations of numerous well-known genetic operators are first analyzed, along with local search methods for TSPs from their solution qualities and mechanisms for preserving and adding edges. Based on this analysis, a new approach, HeSEA is proposed which integrates edge assembly crossover (EAX) and Lin-Kernighan (LK) local search, through family competition and heterogeneous pairing selection. This study demonstrates experimentally that EAX and LK can compensate for each other's disadvantages. Family competition and heterogeneous pairing selections are used to maintain the diversity of the population, which is especially useful for evolutionary algorithms in solving large TSPs. The proposed method was evaluated on 16 well-known TSPs in which the numbers of cities range from 318 to 13509. Experimental results indicate that HeSEA performs well and is very competitive with other approaches. The proposed method can determine the optimum path when the number of cities is under 10,000 and the mean solution quality is within 0.0074% above the optimum for each test problem. These findings imply that the proposed method can find tours robustly with a fixed small population and a limited family competition length in reasonable time, when used to solve large TSPs.
List-Based Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem
Zhan, Shi-hua; Lin, Juan; Zhang, Ze-jun
2016-01-01
Simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is a popular intelligent optimization algorithm which has been successfully applied in many fields. Parameters' setting is a key factor for its performance, but it is also a tedious work. To simplify parameters setting, we present a list-based simulated annealing (LBSA) algorithm to solve traveling salesman problem (TSP). LBSA algorithm uses a novel list-based cooling schedule to control the decrease of temperature. Specifically, a list of temperatures is created first, and then the maximum temperature in list is used by Metropolis acceptance criterion to decide whether to accept a candidate solution. The temperature list is adapted iteratively according to the topology of the solution space of the problem. The effectiveness and the parameter sensitivity of the list-based cooling schedule are illustrated through benchmark TSP problems. The LBSA algorithm, whose performance is robust on a wide range of parameter values, shows competitive performance compared with some other state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:27034650
Exact and Approximate Stability of Solutions to Traveling Salesman Problems.
Niendorf, Moritz; Girard, Anouck R
2018-02-01
This paper presents the stability analysis of an optimal tour for the symmetric traveling salesman problem (TSP) by obtaining stability regions. The stability region of an optimal tour is the set of all cost changes for which that solution remains optimal and can be understood as the margin of optimality for a solution with respect to perturbations in the problem data. It is known that it is not possible to test in polynomial time whether an optimal tour remains optimal after the cost of an arbitrary set of edges changes. Therefore, this paper develops tractable methods to obtain under and over approximations of stability regions based on neighborhoods and relaxations. The application of the results to the two-neighborhood and the minimum 1 tree (M1T) relaxation are discussed in detail. For Euclidean TSPs, stability regions with respect to vertex location perturbations and the notion of safe radii and location criticalities are introduced. Benefits of this paper include insight into robustness properties of tours, minimum spanning trees, M1Ts, and fast methods to evaluate optimality after perturbations occur. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the methods and achievable approximation quality.
Using traveling salesman problem algorithms for evolutionary tree construction.
Korostensky, C; Gonnet, G H
2000-07-01
The construction of evolutionary trees is one of the major problems in computational biology, mainly due to its complexity. We present a new tree construction method that constructs a tree with minimum score for a given set of sequences, where the score is the amount of evolution measured in PAM distances. To do this, the problem of tree construction is reduced to the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). The input for the TSP algorithm are the pairwise distances of the sequences and the output is a circular tour through the optimal, unknown tree plus the minimum score of the tree. The circular order and the score can be used to construct the topology of the optimal tree. Our method can be used for any scoring function that correlates to the amount of changes along the branches of an evolutionary tree, for instance it could also be used for parsimony scores, but it cannot be used for least squares fit of distances. A TSP solution reduces the space of all possible trees to 2n. Using this order, we can guarantee that we reconstruct a correct evolutionary tree if the absolute value of the error for each distance measurement is smaller than f2.gif" BORDER="0">, where f3.gif" BORDER="0">is the length of the shortest edge in the tree. For data sets with large errors, a dynamic programming approach is used to reconstruct the tree. Finally simulations and experiments with real data are shown.
Fast marching methods for the continuous traveling salesman problem
Andrews, J.; Sethian, J.A.
We consider a problem in which we are given a domain, a cost function which depends on position at each point in the domain, and a subset of points ('cities') in the domain. The goal is to determine the cheapest closed path that visits each city in the domain once. This can be thought of as a version of the Traveling Salesman Problem, in which an underlying known metric determines the cost of moving through each point of the domain, but in which the actual shortest path between cities is unknown at the outset. We describe algorithms for both amore » heuristic and an optimal solution to this problem. The order of the heuristic algorithm is at worst case M * N logN, where M is the number of cities, and N the size of the computational mesh used to approximate the solutions to the shortest paths problems. The average runtime of the heuristic algorithm is linear in the number of cities and O(N log N) in the size N of the mesh.« less
A Simple Algorithm for the Metric Traveling Salesman Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grimm, M. J.
1984-01-01
An algorithm was designed for a wire list net sort problem. A branch and bound algorithm for the metric traveling salesman problem is presented for this. The algorithm is a best bound first recursive descent where the bound is based on the triangle inequality. The bounded subsets are defined by the relative order of the first K of the N cities (i.e., a K city subtour). When K equals N, the bound is the length of the tour. The algorithm is implemented as a one page subroutine written in the C programming language for the VAX 11/750. Average execution times for randomly selected planar points using the Euclidean metric are 0.01, 0.05, 0.42, and 3.13 seconds for ten, fifteen, twenty, and twenty-five cities, respectively. Maximum execution times for a hundred cases are less than eleven times the averages. The speed of the algorithms is due to an initial ordering algorithm that is a N squared operation. The algorithm also solves the related problem where the tour does not return to the starting city and the starting and/or ending cities may be specified. It is possible to extend the algorithm to solve a nonsymmetric problem satisfying the triangle inequality.
A traveling salesman approach for predicting protein functions
Johnson, Olin; Liu, Jing
2006-01-01
Background Protein-protein interaction information can be used to predict unknown protein functions and to help study biological pathways. Results Here we present a new approach utilizing the classic Traveling Salesman Problem to study the protein-protein interactions and to predict protein functions in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We apply the global optimization tool from combinatorial optimization algorithms to cluster the yeast proteins based on the global protein interaction information. We then use this clustering information to help us predict protein functions. We use our algorithm together with the direct neighbor algorithm [1] on characterized proteins and compare the prediction accuracy of the two methods. We show our algorithm can produce better predictions than the direct neighbor algorithm, which only considers the immediate neighbors of the query protein. Conclusion Our method is a promising one to be used as a general tool to predict functions of uncharacterized proteins and a successful sample of using computer science knowledge and algorithms to study biological problems. PMID:17147783
Stability of Solutions to Classes of Traveling Salesman Problems.
Niendorf, Moritz; Kabamba, Pierre T; Girard, Anouck R
2016-04-01
By performing stability analysis on an optimal tour for problems belonging to classes of the traveling salesman problem (TSP), this paper derives margins of optimality for a solution with respect to disturbances in the problem data. Specifically, we consider the asymmetric sequence-dependent TSP, where the sequence dependence is driven by the dynamics of a stack. This is a generalization of the symmetric non sequence-dependent version of the TSP. Furthermore, we also consider the symmetric sequence-dependent variant and the asymmetric non sequence-dependent variant. Amongst others these problems have applications in logistics and unmanned aircraft mission planning. Changing external conditions such as traffic or weather may alter task costs, which can render an initially optimal itinerary suboptimal. Instead of optimizing the itinerary every time task costs change, stability criteria allow for fast evaluation of whether itineraries remain optimal. This paper develops a method to compute stability regions for the best tour in a set of tours for the symmetric TSP and extends the results to the asymmetric problem as well as their sequence-dependent counterparts. As the TSP is NP-hard, heuristic methods are frequently used to solve it. The presented approach is also applicable to analyze stability regions for a tour obtained through application of the k -opt heuristic with respect to the k -neighborhood. A dimensionless criticality metric for edges is proposed, such that a high criticality of an edge indicates that the optimal tour is more susceptible to cost changes in that edge. Multiple examples demonstrate the application of the developed stability computation method as well as the edge criticality measure that facilitates an intuitive assessment of instances of the TSP.
Genetic Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem with Modified Cycle Crossover Operator
Mohamd Shoukry, Alaa; Gani, Showkat
2017-01-01
Genetic algorithms are evolutionary techniques used for optimization purposes according to survival of the fittest idea. These methods do not ensure optimal solutions; however, they give good approximation usually in time. The genetic algorithms are useful for NP-hard problems, especially the traveling salesman problem. The genetic algorithm depends on selection criteria, crossover, and mutation operators. To tackle the traveling salesman problem using genetic algorithms, there are various representations such as binary, path, adjacency, ordinal, and matrix representations. In this article, we propose a new crossover operator for traveling salesman problem to minimize the total distance. This approach has been linked with path representation, which is the most natural way to represent a legal tour. Computational results are also reported with some traditional path representation methods like partially mapped and order crossovers along with new cycle crossover operator for some benchmark TSPLIB instances and found improvements. PMID:29209364
Genetic Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem with Modified Cycle Crossover Operator.
Hussain, Abid; Muhammad, Yousaf Shad; Nauman Sajid, M; Hussain, Ijaz; Mohamd Shoukry, Alaa; Gani, Showkat
2017-01-01
Genetic algorithms are evolutionary techniques used for optimization purposes according to survival of the fittest idea. These methods do not ensure optimal solutions; however, they give good approximation usually in time. The genetic algorithms are useful for NP-hard problems, especially the traveling salesman problem. The genetic algorithm depends on selection criteria, crossover, and mutation operators. To tackle the traveling salesman problem using genetic algorithms, there are various representations such as binary, path, adjacency, ordinal, and matrix representations. In this article, we propose a new crossover operator for traveling salesman problem to minimize the total distance. This approach has been linked with path representation, which is the most natural way to represent a legal tour. Computational results are also reported with some traditional path representation methods like partially mapped and order crossovers along with new cycle crossover operator for some benchmark TSPLIB instances and found improvements.
Exact parallel algorithms for some members of the traveling salesman problem family
Pekny, J.F.
1989-01-01
The traveling salesman problem and its many generalizations comprise one of the best known combinatorial optimization problem families. Most members of the family are NP-complete problems so that exact algorithms require an unpredictable and sometimes large computational effort. Parallel computers offer hope for providing the power required to meet these demands. A major barrier to applying parallel computers is the lack of parallel algorithms. The contributions presented in this thesis center around new exact parallel algorithms for the asymmetric traveling salesman problem (ATSP), prize collecting traveling salesman problem (PCTSP), and resource constrained traveling salesman problem (RCTSP). The RCTSP is amore » particularly difficult member of the family since finding a feasible solution is an NP-complete problem. An exact sequential algorithm is also presented for the directed hamiltonian cycle problem (DHCP). The DHCP algorithm is superior to current heuristic approaches and represents the first exact method applicable to large graphs. Computational results presented for each of the algorithms demonstrates the effectiveness of combining efficient algorithms with parallel computing methods. Performance statistics are reported for randomly generated ATSPs with 7,500 cities, PCTSPs with 200 cities, RCTSPs with 200 cities, DHCPs with 3,500 vertices, and assignment problems of size 10,000. Sequential results were collected on a Sun 4/260 engineering workstation, while parallel results were collected using a 14 and 100 processor BBN Butterfly Plus computer. The computational results represent the largest instances ever solved to optimality on any type of computer.« less
Human Performance on the Traveling Salesman and Related Problems: A Review
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacGregor, James N.; Chu, Yun
2011-01-01
The article provides a review of recent research on human performance on the traveling salesman problem (TSP) and related combinatorial optimization problems. We discuss what combinatorial optimization problems are, why they are important, and why they may be of interest to cognitive scientists. We next describe the main characteristics of human…
Use of a Colony of Cooperating Agents and MAPLE To Solve the Traveling Salesman Problem.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guerrieri, Bruno
This paper reviews an approach for finding optimal solutions to the traveling salesman problem, a well-known problem in combinational optimization, and describes implementing the approach using the MAPLE computer algebra system. The method employed in this approach to the problem is similar to the way ant colonies manage to establish shortest…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hubert, Lawrence J.; Baker, Frank B.
1978-01-01
The "Traveling Salesman" and similar combinatorial programming tasks encountered in operations research are discussed as possible data analysis models in psychology, for example, in developmental scaling, Guttman scaling, profile smoothing, and data array clustering. A short overview of various computational approaches from this area of…
Chemotaxis can provide biological organisms with good solutions to the travelling salesman problem.
Reynolds, A M
2011-05-01
The ability to find good solutions to the traveling salesman problem can benefit some biological organisms. Bacterial infection would, for instance, be eradicated most promptly if cells of the immune system minimized the total distance they traveled when moving between bacteria. Similarly, foragers would maximize their net energy gain if the distance that they traveled between multiple dispersed prey items was minimized. The traveling salesman problem is one of the most intensively studied problems in combinatorial optimization. There are no efficient algorithms for even solving the problem approximately (within a guaranteed constant factor from the optimum) because the problem is nondeterministic polynomial time complete. The best approximate algorithms can typically find solutions within 1%-2% of the optimal, but these are computationally intensive and can not be implemented by biological organisms. Biological organisms could, in principle, implement the less efficient greedy nearest-neighbor algorithm, i.e., always move to the nearest surviving target. Implementation of this strategy does, however, require quite sophisticated cognitive abilities and prior knowledge of the target locations. Here, with the aid of numerical simulations, it is shown that biological organisms can simply use chemotaxis to solve, or at worst provide good solutions (comparable to those found by the greedy algorithm) to, the traveling salesman problem when the targets are sources of a chemoattractant and are modest in number (n < 10). This applies to neutrophils and macrophages in microbial defense and to some predators.
Optimization of the time-dependent traveling salesman problem with Monte Carlo methods.
Bentner, J; Bauer, G; Obermair, G M; Morgenstern, I; Schneider, J
2001-09-01
A problem often considered in operations research and computational physics is the traveling salesman problem, in which a traveling salesperson has to find the shortest closed tour between a certain set of cities. This problem has been extended to more realistic scenarios, e.g., the "real" traveling salesperson has to take rush hours into consideration. We will show how this extended problem is treated with physical optimization algorithms. We will present results for a specific instance of Reinelt's library TSPLIB95, in which we define a zone with traffic jams in the afternoon.
A 3/2-Approximation Algorithm for Multiple Depot Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zhou; Rodrigues, Brian
As an important extension of the classical traveling salesman problem (TSP), the multiple depot multiple traveling salesman problem (MDMTSP) is to minimize the total length of a collection of tours for multiple vehicles to serve all the customers, where each vehicle must start or stay at its distinct depot. Due to the gap between the existing best approximation ratios for the TSP and for the MDMTSP in literature, which are 3/2 and 2, respectively, it is an open question whether or not a 3/2-approximation algorithm exists for the MDMTSP. We have partially addressed this question by developing a 3/2-approximation algorithm, which runs in polynomial time when the number of depots is a constant.
MacGregor, James N
2015-10-01
Research on human performance in solving traveling salesman problems typically uses point sets as stimuli, and most models have proposed a processing stage at which stimulus dots are clustered. However, few empirical studies have investigated the effects of clustering on performance. In one recent study, researchers compared the effects of clustered, random, and regular stimuli, and concluded that clustering facilitates performance (Dry, Preiss, & Wagemans, 2012). Another study suggested that these results may have been influenced by the location rather than the degree of clustering (MacGregor, 2013). Two experiments are reported that mark an attempt to disentangle these factors. The first experiment tested several combinations of degree of clustering and cluster location, and revealed mixed evidence that clustering influences performance. In a second experiment, both factors were varied independently, showing that they interact. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of clustering effects, in particular, and perceptual factors, in general, during performance of the traveling salesman problem.
Solving a four-destination traveling salesman problem using Escherichia coli cells as biocomputers.
Esau, Michael; Rozema, Mark; Zhang, Tuo Huang; Zeng, Dawson; Chiu, Stephanie; Kwan, Rachel; Moorhouse, Cadence; Murray, Cameron; Tseng, Nien-Tsu; Ridgway, Doug; Sauvageau, Dominic; Ellison, Michael
2014-12-19
The Traveling Salesman Problem involves finding the shortest possible route visiting all destinations on a map only once before returning to the point of origin. The present study demonstrates a strategy for solving Traveling Salesman Problems using modified E. coli cells as processors for massively parallel computing. Sequential, combinatorial DNA assembly was used to generate routes, in the form of plasmids made up of marker genes, each representing a path between destinations, and short connecting linkers, each representing a given destination. Upon growth of the population of modified E. coli, phenotypic selection was used to eliminate invalid routes, and statistical analysis was performed to successfully identify the optimal solution. The strategy was successfully employed to solve a four-destination test problem.
An efficient approach to the travelling salesman problem using self-organizing maps.
Vieira, Frederico Carvalho; Dória Neto, Adrião Duarte; Costa, José Alfredo Ferreira
2003-04-01
This paper presents an approach to the well-known Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The SOM algorithm has interesting topological information about its neurons configuration on cartesian space, which can be used to solve optimization problems. Aspects of initialization, parameters adaptation, and complexity analysis of the proposed SOM based algorithm are discussed. The results show an average deviation of 3.7% from the optimal tour length for a set of 12 TSP instances.
A neural-network-based approach to the double traveling salesman problem.
Plebe, Alessio; Anile, Angelo Marcello
2002-02-01
The double traveling salesman problem is a variation of the basic traveling salesman problem where targets can be reached by two salespersons operating in parallel. The real problem addressed by this work concerns the optimization of the harvest sequence for the two independent arms of a fruit-harvesting robot. This application poses further constraints, like a collision-avoidance function. The proposed solution is based on a self-organizing map structure, initialized with as many artificial neurons as the number of targets to be reached. One of the key components of the process is the combination of competitive relaxation with a mechanism for deleting and creating artificial neurons. Moreover, in the competitive relaxation process, information about the trajectory connecting the neurons is combined with the distance of neurons from the target. This strategy prevents tangles in the trajectory and collisions between the two tours. Results of tests indicate that the proposed approach is efficient and reliable for harvest sequence planning. Moreover, the enhancements added to the pure self-organizing map concept are of wider importance, as proved by a traveling salesman problem version of the program, simplified from the double version for comparison.
The traveling salesman problem in surgery: economy of motion for the FLS Peg Transfer task.
Falcone, John L; Chen, Xiaotian; Hamad, Giselle G
2013-05-01
In the Peg Transfer task in the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) curriculum, six peg objects are sequentially transferred in a bimanual fashion using laparoscopic instruments across a pegboard and back. There are over 268 trillion ways of completing this task. In the setting of many possibilities, the traveling salesman problem is one where the objective is to solve for the shortest distance traveled through a fixed number of points. The goal of this study is to apply the traveling salesman problem to find the shortest two-dimensional path length for this task. A database platform was used with permutation application output to generate all of the single-direction solutions of the FLS Peg Transfer task. A brute-force search was performed using nested Boolean operators and database equations to calculate the overall two-dimensional distances for the efficient and inefficient solutions. The solutions were found by evaluating peg object transfer distances and distances between transfers for the nondominant and dominant hands. For the 518,400 unique single-direction permutations, the mean total two-dimensional peg object travel distance was 33.3 ± 1.4 cm. The range in distances was from 30.3 to 36.5 cm. There were 1,440 (0.28 %) of 518,400 efficient solutions with the minimized peg object travel distance of 30.3 cm. There were 8 (0.0015 %) of 518,400 solutions in the final solution set that minimized the distance of peg object transfer and minimized the distance traveled between peg transfers. Peg objects moved 12.7 cm (17.4 %) less in the efficient solutions compared to the inefficient solutions. The traveling salesman problem can be applied to find efficient solutions for surgical tasks. The eight solutions to the FLS Peg Transfer task are important for any examinee taking the FLS curriculum and for certification by the American Board of Surgery.
Aras, N; Altinel, I K; Oommen, J
2003-01-01
In addition to the classical heuristic algorithms of operations research, there have also been several approaches based on artificial neural networks for solving the traveling salesman problem. Their efficiency, however, decreases as the problem size (number of cities) increases. A technique to reduce the complexity of a large-scale traveling salesman problem (TSP) instance is to decompose or partition it into smaller subproblems. We introduce an all-neural decomposition heuristic that is based on a recent self-organizing map called KNIES, which has been successfully implemented for solving both the Euclidean traveling salesman problem and the Euclidean Hamiltonian path problem. Our solution for the Euclidean TSP proceeds by solving the Euclidean HPP for the subproblems, and then patching these solutions together. No such all-neural solution has ever been reported.
Electronic neural network for solving traveling salesman and similar global optimization problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor); Moopenn, Alexander W. (Inventor); Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Eberhardt, Silvio P. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
This invention is a novel high-speed neural network based processor for solving the 'traveling salesman' and other global optimization problems. It comprises a novel hybrid architecture employing a binary synaptic array whose embodiment incorporates the fixed rules of the problem, such as the number of cities to be visited. The array is prompted by analog voltages representing variables such as distances. The processor incorporates two interconnected feedback networks, each of which solves part of the problem independently and simultaneously, yet which exchange information dynamically.
A traveling-salesman-based approach to aircraft scheduling in the terminal area
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luenberger, Robert A.
1988-01-01
An efficient algorithm is presented, based on the well-known algorithm for the traveling salesman problem, for scheduling aircraft arrivals into major terminal areas. The algorithm permits, but strictly limits, reassigning an aircraft from its initial position in the landing order. This limitation is needed so that no aircraft or aircraft category is unduly penalized. Results indicate, for the mix of arrivals investigated, a potential increase in capacity in the 3 to 5 percent range. Furthermore, it is shown that the computation time for the algorithm grows only linearly with problem size.
Quantum speedup of the traveling-salesman problem for bounded-degree graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moylett, Dominic J.; Linden, Noah; Montanaro, Ashley
2017-03-01
The traveling-salesman problem is one of the most famous problems in graph theory. However, little is currently known about the extent to which quantum computers could speed up algorithms for the problem. In this paper, we prove a quadratic quantum speedup when the degree of each vertex is at most 3 by applying a quantum backtracking algorithm to a classical algorithm by Xiao and Nagamochi. We then use similar techniques to accelerate a classical algorithm for when the degree of each vertex is at most 4, before speeding up higher-degree graphs via reductions to these instances.
Yurtkuran, Alkın; Emel, Erdal
2014-01-01
The traveling salesman problem with time windows (TSPTW) is a variant of the traveling salesman problem in which each customer should be visited within a given time window. In this paper, we propose an electromagnetism-like algorithm (EMA) that uses a new constraint handling technique to minimize the travel cost in TSPTW problems. The EMA utilizes the attraction-repulsion mechanism between charged particles in a multidimensional space for global optimization. This paper investigates the problem-specific constraint handling capability of the EMA framework using a new variable bounding strategy, in which real-coded particle's boundary constraints associated with the corresponding time windows of customers, is introduced and combined with the penalty approach to eliminate infeasibilities regarding time window violations. The performance of the proposed algorithm and the effectiveness of the constraint handling technique have been studied extensively, comparing it to that of state-of-the-art metaheuristics using several sets of benchmark problems reported in the literature. The results of the numerical experiments show that the EMA generates feasible and near-optimal results within shorter computational times compared to the test algorithms.
Yurtkuran, Alkın
2014-01-01
The traveling salesman problem with time windows (TSPTW) is a variant of the traveling salesman problem in which each customer should be visited within a given time window. In this paper, we propose an electromagnetism-like algorithm (EMA) that uses a new constraint handling technique to minimize the travel cost in TSPTW problems. The EMA utilizes the attraction-repulsion mechanism between charged particles in a multidimensional space for global optimization. This paper investigates the problem-specific constraint handling capability of the EMA framework using a new variable bounding strategy, in which real-coded particle's boundary constraints associated with the corresponding time windows of customers, is introduced and combined with the penalty approach to eliminate infeasibilities regarding time window violations. The performance of the proposed algorithm and the effectiveness of the constraint handling technique have been studied extensively, comparing it to that of state-of-the-art metaheuristics using several sets of benchmark problems reported in the literature. The results of the numerical experiments show that the EMA generates feasible and near-optimal results within shorter computational times compared to the test algorithms. PMID:24723834
ITO-based evolutionary algorithm to solve traveling salesman problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Wenyong; Sheng, Kang; Yang, Chuanhua; Yi, Yunfei
2014-03-01
In this paper, a ITO algorithm inspired by ITO stochastic process is proposed for Traveling Salesmen Problems (TSP), so far, many meta-heuristic methods have been successfully applied to TSP, however, as a member of them, ITO needs further demonstration for TSP. So starting from designing the key operators, which include the move operator, wave operator, etc, the method based on ITO for TSP is presented, and moreover, the ITO algorithm performance under different parameter sets and the maintenance of population diversity information are also studied.
A hybrid genetic algorithm for solving bi-objective traveling salesman problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Mei; Li, Hecheng
2017-08-01
The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is a typical combinatorial optimization problem, in a traditional TSP only tour distance is taken as a unique objective to be minimized. When more than one optimization objective arises, the problem is known as a multi-objective TSP. In the present paper, a bi-objective traveling salesman problem (BOTSP) is taken into account, where both the distance and the cost are taken as optimization objectives. In order to efficiently solve the problem, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed. Firstly, two satisfaction degree indices are provided for each edge by considering the influences of the distance and the cost weight. The first satisfaction degree is used to select edges in a “rough” way, while the second satisfaction degree is executed for a more “refined” choice. Secondly, two satisfaction degrees are also applied to generate new individuals in the iteration process. Finally, based on genetic algorithm framework as well as 2-opt selection strategy, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed. The simulation illustrates the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.
Large neighborhood search for the double traveling salesman problem with multiple stacks
Bent, Russell W; Van Hentenryck, Pascal
This paper considers a complex real-life short-haul/long haul pickup and delivery application. The problem can be modeled as double traveling salesman problem (TSP) in which the pickups and the deliveries happen in the first and second TSPs respectively. Moreover, the application features multiple stacks in which the items must be stored and the pickups and deliveries must take place in reserve (LIFO) order for each stack. The goal is to minimize the total travel time satisfying these constraints. This paper presents a large neighborhood search (LNS) algorithm which improves the best-known results on 65% of the available instances and ismore » always within 2% of the best-known solutions.« less
Ant Colony Optimization With Local Search for Dynamic Traveling Salesman Problems.
Mavrovouniotis, Michalis; Muller, Felipe M; Yang, Shengxiang
2016-06-13
For a dynamic traveling salesman problem (DTSP), the weights (or traveling times) between two cities (or nodes) may be subject to changes. Ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms have proved to be powerful methods to tackle such problems due to their adaptation capabilities. It has been shown that the integration of local search operators can significantly improve the performance of ACO. In this paper, a memetic ACO algorithm, where a local search operator (called unstring and string) is integrated into ACO, is proposed to address DTSPs. The best solution from ACO is passed to the local search operator, which removes and inserts cities in such a way that improves the solution quality. The proposed memetic ACO algorithm is designed to address both symmetric and asymmetric DTSPs. The experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed memetic algorithm for addressing DTSPs in comparison with other state-of-the-art algorithms.
Fort, J C
1988-01-01
We present an application of the Kohonen algorithm to the traveling salesman problem: Using only this algorithm, without energy function nor any parameter chosen "ad hoc", we found good suboptimal tours. We give a neural model version of this algorithm, closer to classical neural networks. This is illustrated with various numerical examples.
Graph traversals, genes, and matroids: An efficient case of the travelling salesman problem
Gusfield, D.; Stelling, P.; Wang, Lusheng
1996-12-31
In this paper the authors consider graph traversal problems that arise from a particular technology for DNA sequencing - sequencing by hybridization (SBH). They first explain the connection of the graph problems to SBH and then focus on the traversal problems. They describe a practical polynomial time solution to the Travelling Salesman Problem in a rich class of directed graphs (including edge weighted binary de Bruijn graphs), and provide a bounded-error approximation algorithm for the maximum weight TSP in a superset of those directed graphs. The authors also establish the existence of a matroid structure defined on the set ofmore » Euler and Hamilton paths in the restricted class of graphs. 8 refs., 5 figs.« less
A High-Performance Genetic Algorithm: Using Traveling Salesman Problem as a Case
Tsai, Chun-Wei; Tseng, Shih-Pang; Yang, Chu-Sing
2014-01-01
This paper presents a simple but efficient algorithm for reducing the computation time of genetic algorithm (GA) and its variants. The proposed algorithm is motivated by the observation that genes common to all the individuals of a GA have a high probability of surviving the evolution and ending up being part of the final solution; as such, they can be saved away to eliminate the redundant computations at the later generations of a GA. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, we use it not only to solve the traveling salesman problem but also to provide an extensive analysis on the impact it may have on the quality of the end result. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the computation time of GA and GA-based algorithms while limiting the degradation of the quality of the end result to a very small percentage compared to traditional GA. PMID:24892038
Implementation of an effective hybrid GA for large-scale traveling salesman problems.
Nguyen, Hung Dinh; Yoshihara, Ikuo; Yamamori, Kunihito; Yasunaga, Moritoshi
2007-02-01
This correspondence describes a hybrid genetic algorithm (GA) to find high-quality solutions for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). The proposed method is based on a parallel implementation of a multipopulation steady-state GA involving local search heuristics. It uses a variant of the maximal preservative crossover and the double-bridge move mutation. An effective implementation of the Lin-Kernighan heuristic (LK) is incorporated into the method to compensate for the GA's lack of local search ability. The method is validated by comparing it with the LK-Helsgaun method (LKH), which is one of the most effective methods for the TSP. Experimental results with benchmarks having up to 316228 cities show that the proposed method works more effectively and efficiently than LKH when solving large-scale problems. Finally, the method is used together with the implementation of the iterated LK to find a new best tour (as of June 2, 2003) for a 1904711-city TSP challenge.
Fault-tolerance of a neural network solving the traveling salesman problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Protzel, P.; Palumbo, D.; Arras, M.
1989-01-01
This study presents the results of a fault-injection experiment that stimulates a neural network solving the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). The network is based on a modified version of Hopfield's and Tank's original method. We define a performance characteristic for the TSP that allows an overall assessment of the solution quality for different city-distributions and problem sizes. Five different 10-, 20-, and 30- city cases are sued for the injection of up to 13 simultaneous stuck-at-0 and stuck-at-1 faults. The results of more than 4000 simulation-runs show the extreme fault-tolerance of the network, especially with respect to stuck-at-0 faults. One possible explanation for the overall surprising result is the redundancy of the problem representation.
Blaser, R E; Wilber, Julie
2013-11-01
Performance on a typical pen-and-paper (figural) version of the Traveling Salesman Problem was compared to performance on a room-sized navigational version of the same task. Nine configurations were designed to examine the use of the nearest-neighbor (NN), cluster approach, and convex-hull strategies. Performance decreased with an increasing number of nodes internal to the hull, and improved when the NN strategy produced the optimal path. There was no overall difference in performance between figural and navigational task modalities. However, there was an interaction between modality and configuration, with evidence that participants relied more heavily on the NN strategy in the figural condition. Our results suggest that participants employed similar, but not identical, strategies when solving figural and navigational versions of the problem. Surprisingly, there was no evidence that participants favored global strategies in the figural version and local strategies in the navigational version.
Solution for a bipartite Euclidean traveling-salesman problem in one dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caracciolo, Sergio; Di Gioacchino, Andrea; Gherardi, Marco; Malatesta, Enrico M.
2018-05-01
The traveling-salesman problem is one of the most studied combinatorial optimization problems, because of the simplicity in its statement and the difficulty in its solution. We characterize the optimal cycle for every convex and increasing cost function when the points are thrown independently and with an identical probability distribution in a compact interval. We compute the average optimal cost for every number of points when the distance function is the square of the Euclidean distance. We also show that the average optimal cost is not a self-averaging quantity by explicitly computing the variance of its distribution in the thermodynamic limit. Moreover, we prove that the cost of the optimal cycle is not smaller than twice the cost of the optimal assignment of the same set of points. Interestingly, this bound is saturated in the thermodynamic limit.
A high-performance genetic algorithm: using traveling salesman problem as a case.
Tsai, Chun-Wei; Tseng, Shih-Pang; Chiang, Ming-Chao; Yang, Chu-Sing; Hong, Tzung-Pei
2014-01-01
This paper presents a simple but efficient algorithm for reducing the computation time of genetic algorithm (GA) and its variants. The proposed algorithm is motivated by the observation that genes common to all the individuals of a GA have a high probability of surviving the evolution and ending up being part of the final solution; as such, they can be saved away to eliminate the redundant computations at the later generations of a GA. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, we use it not only to solve the traveling salesman problem but also to provide an extensive analysis on the impact it may have on the quality of the end result. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the computation time of GA and GA-based algorithms while limiting the degradation of the quality of the end result to a very small percentage compared to traditional GA.
Solution for a bipartite Euclidean traveling-salesman problem in one dimension.
Caracciolo, Sergio; Di Gioacchino, Andrea; Gherardi, Marco; Malatesta, Enrico M
2018-05-01
The traveling-salesman problem is one of the most studied combinatorial optimization problems, because of the simplicity in its statement and the difficulty in its solution. We characterize the optimal cycle for every convex and increasing cost function when the points are thrown independently and with an identical probability distribution in a compact interval. We compute the average optimal cost for every number of points when the distance function is the square of the Euclidean distance. We also show that the average optimal cost is not a self-averaging quantity by explicitly computing the variance of its distribution in the thermodynamic limit. Moreover, we prove that the cost of the optimal cycle is not smaller than twice the cost of the optimal assignment of the same set of points. Interestingly, this bound is saturated in the thermodynamic limit.
Study of the temperature configuration of parallel tempering for the traveling salesman problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasegawa, Manabu
The effective temperature configuration of parallel tempering (PT) in finite-time optimization is studied for the solution of the traveling salesman problem. An experimental analysis is conducted to decide the relative importance of the two characteristic temperatures, the specific-heat-peak temperature referred to in the general guidelines and the effective intermediate temperature identified in the recent study on simulated annealing (SA). The results show that the operation near the former has no notable significance contrary to the conventional belief but that the operation near the latter plays a crucial role in fulfilling the optimization function of PT. The method shares the same origin of effectiveness with the SA and SA-related algorithms.
Budinich, M
1996-02-15
Unsupervised learning applied to an unstructured neural network can give approximate solutions to the traveling salesman problem. For 50 cities in the plane this algorithm performs like the elastic net of Durbin and Willshaw (1987) and it improves when increasing the number of cities to get better than simulated annealing for problems with more than 500 cities. In all the tests this algorithm requires a fraction of the time taken by simulated annealing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umam, M. I. H.; Santosa, B.
2018-04-01
Combinatorial optimization has been frequently used to solve both problems in science, engineering, and commercial applications. One combinatorial problems in the field of transportation is to find a shortest travel route that can be taken from the initial point of departure to point of destination, as well as minimizing travel costs and travel time. When the distance from one (initial) node to another (destination) node is the same with the distance to travel back from destination to initial, this problems known to the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), otherwise it call as an Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem (ATSP). The most recent optimization techniques is Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS). This paper discuss how to hybrid the SOS algorithm with variable neighborhoods search (SOS-VNS) that can be applied to solve the ATSP problem. The proposed mechanism to add the variable neighborhoods search as a local search is to generate the better initial solution and then we modify the phase of parasites with adapting mechanism of mutation. After modification, the performance of the algorithm SOS-VNS is evaluated with several data sets and then the results is compared with the best known solution and some algorithm such PSO algorithm and SOS original algorithm. The SOS-VNS algorithm shows better results based on convergence, divergence and computing time.
Chen Hongwei; High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031; Kong Xi
The method of quantum annealing (QA) is a promising way for solving many optimization problems in both classical and quantum information theory. The main advantage of this approach, compared with the gate model, is the robustness of the operations against errors originated from both external controls and the environment. In this work, we succeed in demonstrating experimentally an application of the method of QA to a simplified version of the traveling salesman problem by simulating the corresponding Schroedinger evolution with a NMR quantum simulator. The experimental results unambiguously yielded the optimal traveling route, in good agreement with the theoretical prediction.
A Discrete Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm for the Traveling Salesman Problem.
Jiang, Zi-Bin; Yang, Qiong
2016-01-01
The fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA) is a newly developed bio-inspired algorithm. The continuous variant version of FOA has been proven to be a powerful evolutionary approach to determining the optima of a numerical function on a continuous definition domain. In this study, a discrete FOA (DFOA) is developed and applied to the traveling salesman problem (TSP), a common combinatorial problem. In the DFOA, the TSP tour is represented by an ordering of city indices, and the bio-inspired meta-heuristic search processes are executed with two elaborately designed main procedures: the smelling and tasting processes. In the smelling process, an effective crossover operator is used by the fruit fly group to search for the neighbors of the best-known swarm location. During the tasting process, an edge intersection elimination (EXE) operator is designed to improve the neighbors of the non-optimum food location in order to enhance the exploration performance of the DFOA. In addition, benchmark instances from the TSPLIB are classified in order to test the searching ability of the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the proposed DFOA is compared to that of other meta-heuristic algorithms. The results indicate that the proposed DFOA can be effectively used to solve TSPs, especially large-scale problems.
Finding long chains in kidney exchange using the traveling salesman problem.
Anderson, Ross; Ashlagi, Itai; Gamarnik, David; Roth, Alvin E
2015-01-20
As of May 2014 there were more than 100,000 patients on the waiting list for a kidney transplant from a deceased donor. Although the preferred treatment is a kidney transplant, every year there are fewer donors than new patients, so the wait for a transplant continues to grow. To address this shortage, kidney paired donation (KPD) programs allow patients with living but biologically incompatible donors to exchange donors through cycles or chains initiated by altruistic (nondirected) donors, thereby increasing the supply of kidneys in the system. In many KPD programs a centralized algorithm determines which exchanges will take place to maximize the total number of transplants performed. This optimization problem has proven challenging both in theory, because it is NP-hard, and in practice, because the algorithms previously used were unable to optimally search over all long chains. We give two new algorithms that use integer programming to optimally solve this problem, one of which is inspired by the techniques used to solve the traveling salesman problem. These algorithms provide the tools needed to find optimal solutions in practice.
Efficient convex-elastic net algorithm to solve the Euclidean traveling salesman problem.
Al-Mulhem, M; Al-Maghrabi, T
1998-01-01
This paper describes a hybrid algorithm that combines an adaptive-type neural network algorithm and a nondeterministic iterative algorithm to solve the Euclidean traveling salesman problem (E-TSP). It begins with a brief introduction to the TSP and the E-TSP. Then, it presents the proposed algorithm with its two major components: the convex-elastic net (CEN) algorithm and the nondeterministic iterative improvement (NII) algorithm. These two algorithms are combined into the efficient convex-elastic net (ECEN) algorithm. The CEN algorithm integrates the convex-hull property and elastic net algorithm to generate an initial tour for the E-TSP. The NII algorithm uses two rearrangement operators to improve the initial tour given by the CEN algorithm. The paper presents simulation results for two instances of E-TSP: randomly generated tours and tours for well-known problems in the literature. Experimental results are given to show that the proposed algorithm ran find the nearly optimal solution for the E-TSP that outperform many similar algorithms reported in the literature. The paper concludes with the advantages of the new algorithm and possible extensions.
Traveling salesman problems with PageRank Distance on complex networks reveal community structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Zhongzhou; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shuai
2016-12-01
In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for community detection problems (CDPs) based on traveling salesman problems (TSPs), labeled as TSP-CDA. Since TSPs need to find a tour with minimum cost, cities close to each other are usually clustered in the tour. This inspired us to model CDPs as TSPs by taking each vertex as a city. Then, in the final tour, the vertices in the same community tend to cluster together, and the community structure can be obtained by cutting the tour into a couple of paths. There are two challenges. The first is to define a suitable distance between each pair of vertices which can reflect the probability that they belong to the same community. The second is to design a suitable strategy to cut the final tour into paths which can form communities. In TSP-CDA, we deal with these two challenges by defining a PageRank Distance and an automatic threshold-based cutting strategy. The PageRank Distance is designed with the intrinsic properties of CDPs in mind, and can be calculated efficiently. In the experiments, benchmark networks with 1000-10,000 nodes and varying structures are used to test the performance of TSP-CDA. A comparison is also made between TSP-CDA and two well-established community detection algorithms. The results show that TSP-CDA can find accurate community structure efficiently and outperforms the two existing algorithms.
Mulder, Samuel A; Wunsch, Donald C
2003-01-01
The Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is a very hard optimization problem in the field of operations research. It has been shown to be NP-complete, and is an often-used benchmark for new optimization techniques. One of the main challenges with this problem is that standard, non-AI heuristic approaches such as the Lin-Kernighan algorithm (LK) and the chained LK variant are currently very effective and in wide use for the common fully connected, Euclidean variant that is considered here. This paper presents an algorithm that uses adaptive resonance theory (ART) in combination with a variation of the Lin-Kernighan local optimization algorithm to solve very large instances of the TSP. The primary advantage of this algorithm over traditional LK and chained-LK approaches is the increased scalability and parallelism allowed by the divide-and-conquer clustering paradigm. Tours obtained by the algorithm are lower quality, but scaling is much better and there is a high potential for increasing performance using parallel hardware.
Route selection by rats and humans in a navigational traveling salesman problem.
Blaser, Rachel E; Ginchansky, Rachel R
2012-03-01
Spatial cognition is typically examined in non-human animals from the perspective of learning and memory. For this reason, spatial tasks are often constrained by the time necessary for training or the capacity of the animal's short-term memory. A spatial task with limited learning and memory demands could allow for more efficient study of some aspects of spatial cognition. The traveling salesman problem (TSP), used to study human visuospatial problem solving, is a simple task with modifiable learning and memory requirements. In the current study, humans and rats were characterized in a navigational version of the TSP. Subjects visited each of 10 baited targets in any sequence from a set starting location. Unlike similar experiments, the roles of learning and memory were purposely minimized; all targets were perceptually available, no distracters were used, and each configuration was tested only once. The task yielded a variety of behavioral measures, including target revisits and omissions, route length, and frequency of transitions between each pair of targets. Both humans and rats consistently chose routes that were more efficient than chance, but less efficient than optimal, and generally less efficient than routes produced by the nearest-neighbor strategy. We conclude that the TSP is a useful and flexible task for the study of spatial cognition in human and non-human animals.
Hybrid water flow-like algorithm with Tabu search for traveling salesman problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bostamam, Jasmin M.; Othman, Zulaiha
2016-08-01
This paper presents a hybrid Water Flow-like Algorithm with Tabu Search for solving travelling salesman problem (WFA-TS-TSP).WFA has been proven its outstanding performances in solving TSP meanwhile TS is a conventional algorithm which has been used since decades to solve various combinatorial optimization problem including TSP. Hybridization between WFA with TS provides a better balance of exploration and exploitation criteria which are the key elements in determining the performance of one metaheuristic. TS use two different local search namely, 2opt and 3opt separately. The proposed WFA-TS-TSP is tested on 23 sets on the well-known benchmarked symmetric TSP instances. The result shows that the proposed WFA-TS-TSP has significant better quality solutions compared to WFA. The result also shows that the WFA-TS-TSP with 3-opt obtained the best quality solution. With the result obtained, it could be concluded that WFA has potential to be further improved by using hybrid technique or using better local search technique.
1/f Noise in the Simple Genetic Algorithm Applied to a Traveling Salesman Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamada, Mitsuhiro
Complex dynamical systems are observed in physics, biology, and even economics. Such systems in balance are considered to be in a critical state, and 1/f noise is considered to be a footprint. Complex dynamical systems have also been investigated in the field of evolutionary algorithms inspired by biological evolution. The genetic algorithm (GA) is a well-known evolutionary algorithm in which many individuals interact, and the simplest GA is referred to as the simple GA (SGA). However, the GA has not been examined from the viewpoint of the emergence of 1/f noise. In the present paper, the SGA is applied to a traveling salesman problem in order to investigate the SGA from such a viewpoint. The timecourses of the fitness of the candidate solution were examined. As a result, when the mutation and crossover probabilities were optimal, the system evolved toward a critical state in which the average maximum fitness over all trial runs was maximum. In this situation, the fluctuation of the fitness of the candidate solution resulted in the 1/f power spectrum, and the dynamics of the system had no intrinsic time or length scale.
Some factors affecting performance of rats in the traveling salesman problem.
Bellizzi, C; Goldsteinholm, K; Blaser, R E
2015-11-01
The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is used to measure the efficiency of spatial route selection. Among researchers in cognitive psychology and neuroscience, it has been utilized to examine the mechanisms of decision making, planning, and spatial navigation. While both human and non-human animals produce good solutions to the TSP, the solution strategies engaged by non-human species are not well understood. We conducted two experiments on the TSP using Long-Evans laboratory rats as subjects. The first experiment examined the role of arena walls in route selection. Rats tend to display thigmotaxis in testing conditions comparable to the TSP, which could produce results similar to a convex hull type strategy suggested for humans. The second experiment examined the role of turn angle between targets along the optimal route, to determine whether rats exhibit a preferential turning bias. Our results indicated that both thigmotaxis and preferential turn angles do affect performance in the TSP, but neither is sufficient as a predictor of route choice in this task.
On one modification of traveling salesman problem oriented on application in atomic engineering
Chentsov, A. G.; Sesekin, A. N.; Shcheklein, S. E.
The mathematical model of a problem of minimization of a dose of an irradiation of the personnel which is carrying out dismantling of the completing block of a nuclear power plant is considered. Dismantling of elements of the block is carried out consistently. A brigade of workers having carried out dismantling of the next element of the block passes to similar work on other element of the block. Thus it is supposed that on the sequence of performance of works restrictions are imposed. These restrictions assume that on a number of pairs of works the condition is imposed: the secondmore » work cannot be executed before the first. This problem is similar to a known traveling salesman problem with the difference that expenses function depends on the list of outstanding works, and on sequence of performance of works and corresponding motions the constraints in the form of antecedence are imposed. The variant of the dynamic programming method is developed for such problem and the corresponding software is created.« less
Kosman, E; Eshel, A; Waisel, Y
1997-04-01
It is not easy to identify the specific plant species that causes an allergic response in a certain patient at a certain time. This is further complicated by the fact that closely related plant species cause similar allergic responses. A novel mathematical technique is used for analysis of skin responses of a large number of patients to several groups of allergens for improvement of the understanding of their similarity or dissimilarity and their status regarding cross-reactivity. The responses of 153 atopic patients to 42 different pollen extracts were tested by skin prick tests. Among the responses of patients to various extracts, a measure of dissimilarity was introduced and calculated for all pairs of allergens. A matrix-structuring technique, based on a solution of the 'Travelling Salesman Problem', was used for clustering of the investigated allergens into groups according to patients' responses. The discrimination among clusters was confirmed by statistical analysis. Sub groups can be discerned even among allergens of closely related plants, i.e. allergens that are usually regarded as fully cross-reactive. A few such cases are demonstrated for various cultivars of olives and pecans and for various sources of date palms, turf grasses, three wild chenopods and an amaranth. The usefulness of the proposed approach for the understanding of similarity and dissimilarity among various pollen allergens is demonstrated.
A Discrete Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm for the Traveling Salesman Problem
Jiang, Zi-bin; Yang, Qiong
2016-01-01
The fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA) is a newly developed bio-inspired algorithm. The continuous variant version of FOA has been proven to be a powerful evolutionary approach to determining the optima of a numerical function on a continuous definition domain. In this study, a discrete FOA (DFOA) is developed and applied to the traveling salesman problem (TSP), a common combinatorial problem. In the DFOA, the TSP tour is represented by an ordering of city indices, and the bio-inspired meta-heuristic search processes are executed with two elaborately designed main procedures: the smelling and tasting processes. In the smelling process, an effective crossover operator is used by the fruit fly group to search for the neighbors of the best-known swarm location. During the tasting process, an edge intersection elimination (EXE) operator is designed to improve the neighbors of the non-optimum food location in order to enhance the exploration performance of the DFOA. In addition, benchmark instances from the TSPLIB are classified in order to test the searching ability of the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the proposed DFOA is compared to that of other meta-heuristic algorithms. The results indicate that the proposed DFOA can be effectively used to solve TSPs, especially large-scale problems. PMID:27812175
A Lagrange multiplier and Hopfield-type barrier function method for the traveling salesman problem.
Dang, Chuangyin; Xu, Lei
2002-02-01
A Lagrange multiplier and Hopfield-type barrier function method is proposed for approximating a solution of the traveling salesman problem. The method is derived from applications of Lagrange multipliers and a Hopfield-type barrier function and attempts to produce a solution of high quality by generating a minimum point of a barrier problem for a sequence of descending values of the barrier parameter. For any given value of the barrier parameter, the method searches for a minimum point of the barrier problem in a feasible descent direction, which has a desired property that lower and upper bounds on variables are always satisfied automatically if the step length is a number between zero and one. At each iteration, the feasible descent direction is found by updating Lagrange multipliers with a globally convergent iterative procedure. For any given value of the barrier parameter, the method converges to a stationary point of the barrier problem without any condition on the objective function. Theoretical and numerical results show that the method seems more effective and efficient than the softassign algorithm.
Automatic Combination of Operators in a Genetic Algorithm to Solve the Traveling Salesman Problem.
Contreras-Bolton, Carlos; Parada, Victor
2015-01-01
Genetic algorithms are powerful search methods inspired by Darwinian evolution. To date, they have been applied to the solution of many optimization problems because of the easy use of their properties and their robustness in finding good solutions to difficult problems. The good operation of genetic algorithms is due in part to its two main variation operators, namely, crossover and mutation operators. Typically, in the literature, we find the use of a single crossover and mutation operator. However, there are studies that have shown that using multi-operators produces synergy and that the operators are mutually complementary. Using multi-operators is not a simple task because which operators to use and how to combine them must be determined, which in itself is an optimization problem. In this paper, it is proposed that the task of exploring the different combinations of the crossover and mutation operators can be carried out by evolutionary computing. The crossover and mutation operators used are those typically used for solving the traveling salesman problem. The process of searching for good combinations was effective, yielding appropriate and synergic combinations of the crossover and mutation operators. The numerical results show that the use of the combination of operators obtained by evolutionary computing is better than the use of a single operator and the use of multi-operators combined in the standard way. The results were also better than those of the last operators reported in the literature.
Dang, C; Xu, L
2001-03-01
In this paper a globally convergent Lagrange and barrier function iterative algorithm is proposed for approximating a solution of the traveling salesman problem. The algorithm employs an entropy-type barrier function to deal with nonnegativity constraints and Lagrange multipliers to handle linear equality constraints, and attempts to produce a solution of high quality by generating a minimum point of a barrier problem for a sequence of descending values of the barrier parameter. For any given value of the barrier parameter, the algorithm searches for a minimum point of the barrier problem in a feasible descent direction, which has a desired property that the nonnegativity constraints are always satisfied automatically if the step length is a number between zero and one. At each iteration the feasible descent direction is found by updating Lagrange multipliers with a globally convergent iterative procedure. For any given value of the barrier parameter, the algorithm converges to a stationary point of the barrier problem without any condition on the objective function. Theoretical and numerical results show that the algorithm seems more effective and efficient than the softassign algorithm.
Hierarchical Solution of the Traveling Salesman Problem with Random Dyadic Tilings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalmár-Nagy, Tamás; Bak, Bendegúz Dezső
We propose a hierarchical heuristic approach for solving the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) in the unit square. The points are partitioned with a random dyadic tiling and clusters are formed by the points located in the same tile. Each cluster is represented by its geometrical barycenter and a “coarse” TSP solution is calculated for these barycenters. Midpoints are placed at the middle of each edge in the coarse solution. Near-optimal (or optimal) minimum tours are computed for each cluster. The tours are concatenated using the midpoints yielding a solution for the original TSP. The method is tested on random TSPs (independent, identically distributed points in the unit square) up to 10,000 points as well as on a popular benchmark problem (att532 — coordinates of 532 American cities). Our solutions are 8-13% longer than the optimal ones. We also present an optimization algorithm for the partitioning to improve our solutions. This algorithm further reduces the solution errors (by several percent using 1000 iteration steps). The numerical experiments demonstrate the viability of the approach.
Automatic Combination of Operators in a Genetic Algorithm to Solve the Traveling Salesman Problem
2015-01-01
Genetic algorithms are powerful search methods inspired by Darwinian evolution. To date, they have been applied to the solution of many optimization problems because of the easy use of their properties and their robustness in finding good solutions to difficult problems. The good operation of genetic algorithms is due in part to its two main variation operators, namely, crossover and mutation operators. Typically, in the literature, we find the use of a single crossover and mutation operator. However, there are studies that have shown that using multi-operators produces synergy and that the operators are mutually complementary. Using multi-operators is not a simple task because which operators to use and how to combine them must be determined, which in itself is an optimization problem. In this paper, it is proposed that the task of exploring the different combinations of the crossover and mutation operators can be carried out by evolutionary computing. The crossover and mutation operators used are those typically used for solving the traveling salesman problem. The process of searching for good combinations was effective, yielding appropriate and synergic combinations of the crossover and mutation operators. The numerical results show that the use of the combination of operators obtained by evolutionary computing is better than the use of a single operator and the use of multi-operators combined in the standard way. The results were also better than those of the last operators reported in the literature. PMID:26367182
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narwadi, Teguh; Subiyanto
2017-03-01
The Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) is one of the best known NP-hard problems, which means that no exact algorithm to solve it in polynomial time. This paper present a new variant application genetic algorithm approach with a local search technique has been developed to solve the TSP. For the local search technique, an iterative hill climbing method has been used. The system is implemented on the Android OS because android is now widely used around the world and it is mobile system. It is also integrated with Google API that can to get the geographical location and the distance of the cities, and displays the route. Therefore, we do some experimentation to test the behavior of the application. To test the effectiveness of the application of hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) is compare with the application of simple GA in 5 sample from the cities in Central Java, Indonesia with different numbers of cities. According to the experiment results obtained that in the average solution HGA shows in 5 tests out of 5 (100%) is better than simple GA. The results have shown that the hybrid genetic algorithm outperforms the genetic algorithm especially in the case with the problem higher complexity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakar, Sumarni Abu; Ibrahim, Milbah
2017-08-01
The shortest path problem is a popular problem in graph theory. It is about finding a path with minimum length between a specified pair of vertices. In any network the weight of each edge is usually represented in a form of crisp real number and subsequently the weight is used in the calculation of shortest path problem using deterministic algorithms. However, due to failure, uncertainty is always encountered in practice whereby the weight of edge of the network is uncertain and imprecise. In this paper, a modified algorithm which utilized heuristic shortest path method and fuzzy approach is proposed for solving a network with imprecise arc length. Here, interval number and triangular fuzzy number in representing arc length of the network are considered. The modified algorithm is then applied to a specific example of the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP). Total shortest distance obtained from this algorithm is then compared with the total distance obtained from traditional nearest neighbour heuristic algorithm. The result shows that the modified algorithm can provide not only on the sequence of visited cities which shown to be similar with traditional approach but it also provides a good measurement of total shortest distance which is lesser as compared to the total shortest distance calculated using traditional approach. Hence, this research could contribute to the enrichment of methods used in solving TSP.
An efficient self-organizing map designed by genetic algorithms for the traveling salesman problem.
Jin, Hui-Dong; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Wong, Man-Leung; Xu, Z B
2003-01-01
As a typical combinatorial optimization problem, the traveling salesman problem (TSP) has attracted extensive research interest. In this paper, we develop a self-organizing map (SOM) with a novel learning rule. It is called the integrated SOM (ISOM) since its learning rule integrates the three learning mechanisms in the SOM literature. Within a single learning step, the excited neuron is first dragged toward the input city, then pushed to the convex hull of the TSP, and finally drawn toward the middle point of its two neighboring neurons. A genetic algorithm is successfully specified to determine the elaborate coordination among the three learning mechanisms as well as the suitable parameter setting. The evolved ISOM (eISOM) is examined on three sets of TSP to demonstrate its power and efficiency. The computation complexity of the eISOM is quadratic, which is comparable to other SOM-like neural networks. Moreover, the eISOM can generate more accurate solutions than several typical approaches for TSP including the SOM developed by Budinich, the expanding SOM, the convex elastic net, and the FLEXMAP algorithm. Though its solution accuracy is not yet comparable to some sophisticated heuristics, the eISOM is one of the most accurate neural networks for the TSP.
Finding long chains in kidney exchange using the traveling salesman problem
Anderson, Ross; Ashlagi, Itai; Gamarnik, David; Roth, Alvin E.
2015-01-01
As of May 2014 there were more than 100,000 patients on the waiting list for a kidney transplant from a deceased donor. Although the preferred treatment is a kidney transplant, every year there are fewer donors than new patients, so the wait for a transplant continues to grow. To address this shortage, kidney paired donation (KPD) programs allow patients with living but biologically incompatible donors to exchange donors through cycles or chains initiated by altruistic (nondirected) donors, thereby increasing the supply of kidneys in the system. In many KPD programs a centralized algorithm determines which exchanges will take place to maximize the total number of transplants performed. This optimization problem has proven challenging both in theory, because it is NP-hard, and in practice, because the algorithms previously used were unable to optimally search over all long chains. We give two new algorithms that use integer programming to optimally solve this problem, one of which is inspired by the techniques used to solve the traveling salesman problem. These algorithms provide the tools needed to find optimal solutions in practice. PMID:25561535
A novel constructive-optimizer neural network for the traveling salesman problem.
Saadatmand-Tarzjan, Mahdi; Khademi, Morteza; Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R; Moghaddam, Hamid Abrishami
2007-08-01
In this paper, a novel constructive-optimizer neural network (CONN) is proposed for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). CONN uses a feedback structure similar to Hopfield-type neural networks and a competitive training algorithm similar to the Kohonen-type self-organizing maps (K-SOMs). Consequently, CONN is composed of a constructive part, which grows the tour and an optimizer part to optimize it. In the training algorithm, an initial tour is created first and introduced to CONN. Then, it is trained in the constructive phase for adding a number of cities to the tour. Next, the training algorithm switches to the optimizer phase for optimizing the current tour by displacing the tour cities. After convergence in this phase, the training algorithm switches to the constructive phase anew and is continued until all cities are added to the tour. Furthermore, we investigate a relationship between the number of TSP cities and the number of cities to be added in each constructive phase. CONN was tested on nine sets of benchmark TSPs from TSPLIB to demonstrate its performance and efficiency. It performed better than several typical Neural networks (NNs), including KNIES_TSP_Local, KNIES_TSP_Global, Budinich's SOM, Co-Adaptive Net, and multivalued Hopfield network as wall as computationally comparable variants of the simulated annealing algorithm, in terms of both CPU time and accuracy. Furthermore, CONN converged considerably faster than expanding SOM and evolved integrated SOM and generated shorter tours compared to KNIES_DECOMPOSE. Although CONN is not yet comparable in terms of accuracy with some sophisticated computationally intensive algorithms, it converges significantly faster than they do. Generally speaking, CONN provides the best compromise between CPU time and accuracy among currently reported NNs for TSP.
Nelson, Carl A; Miller, David J; Oleynikov, Dmitry
2008-01-01
As modular systems come into the forefront of robotic telesurgery, streamlining the process of selecting surgical tools becomes an important consideration. This paper presents a method for optimal queuing of tools in modular surgical tool systems, based on patterns in tool-use sequences, in order to minimize time spent changing tools. The solution approach is to model the set of tools as a graph, with tool-change frequency expressed as edge weights in the graph, and to solve the Traveling Salesman Problem for the graph. In a set of simulations, this method has shown superior performance at optimizing tool arrangements for streamlining surgical procedures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dahl, Roy W.; Keating, Karen; Salamone, Daryl J.; Levy, Laurence; Nag, Barindra; Sanborn, Joan A.
1987-01-01
This paper presents an algorithm (WHAMII) designed to solve the Artificial Intelligence Design Challenge at the 1987 AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference. The problem under consideration is a stochastic generalization of the traveling salesman problem in which travel costs can incur a penalty with a given probability. The variability in travel costs leads to a probability constraint with respect to violating the budget allocation. Given the small size of the problem (eleven cities), an approach is considered that combines partial tour enumeration with a heuristic city insertion procedure. For computational efficiency during both the enumeration and insertion procedures, precalculated binomial probabilities are used to determine an upper bound on the actual probability of violating the budget constraint for each tour. The actual probability is calculated for the final best tour, and additional insertions are attempted until the actual probability exceeds the bound.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramadhani, T.; Hertono, G. F.; Handari, B. D.
2017-07-01
The Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (MTSP) is the extension of the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) in which the shortest routes of m salesmen all of which start and finish in a single city (depot) will be determined. If there is more than one depot and salesmen start from and return to the same depot, then the problem is called Fixed Destination Multi-depot Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (MMTSP). In this paper, MMTSP will be solved using the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm. ACO is a metaheuristic optimization algorithm which is derived from the behavior of ants in finding the shortest route(s) from the anthill to a form of nourishment. In solving the MMTSP, the algorithm is observed with respect to different chosen cities as depots and non-randomly three parameters of MMTSP: m, K, L, those represents the number of salesmen, the fewest cities that must be visited by a salesman, and the most number of cities that can be visited by a salesman, respectively. The implementation is observed with four dataset from TSPLIB. The results show that the different chosen cities as depots and the three parameters of MMTSP, in which m is the most important parameter, affect the solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Pan; Zhang, Yi; Yan, Dong
2018-05-01
Ant Colony Algorithm (ACA) is a powerful and effective algorithm for solving the combination optimization problem. Moreover, it was successfully used in traveling salesman problem (TSP). But it is easy to prematurely converge to the non-global optimal solution and the calculation time is too long. To overcome those shortcomings, a new method is presented-An improved self-adaptive Ant Colony Algorithm based on genetic strategy. The proposed method adopts adaptive strategy to adjust the parameters dynamically. And new crossover operation and inversion operation in genetic strategy was used in this method. We also make an experiment using the well-known data in TSPLIB. The experiment results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than the basic Ant Colony Algorithm and some improved ACA in both the result and the convergence time. The numerical results obtained also show that the proposed optimization method can achieve results close to the theoretical best known solutions at present.
Death of the (traveling) salesman: primates do not show clear evidence of multi-step route planning.
Janson, Charles
2014-05-01
Several comparative studies have linked larger brain size to a fruit-eating diet in primates and other animals. The general explanation for this correlation is that fruit is a complex resource base, consisting of many discrete patches of many species, each with distinct nutritional traits, the production of which changes predictably both within and between seasons. Using this information to devise optimal spatial foraging strategies is among the most difficult problems to solve in all of mathematics, a version of the famous Traveling Salesman Problem. Several authors have suggested that primates might use their large brains and complex cognition to plan foraging strategies that approximate optimal solutions to this problem. Three empirical studies have examined how captive primates move when confronted with the simplest version of the problem: a spatial array of equally valuable goals. These studies have all concluded that the subjects remember many food source locations and show very efficient travel paths; some authors also inferred that the subjects may plan their movements based on considering combinations of three or more future goals at a time. This analysis re-examines critically the claims of planned movement sequences from the evidence presented. The efficiency of observed travel paths is largely consistent with use of the simplest of foraging rules, such as visiting the nearest unused "known" resource. Detailed movement sequences by test subjects are most consistent with a rule that mentally sums spatial information from all unused resources in a given trial into a single "gravity" measure that guides movements to one destination at a time. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertono, G. F.; Ubadah; Handari, B. D.
2018-03-01
The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is a famous problem in finding the shortest tour to visit every vertex exactly once, except the first vertex, given a set of vertices. This paper discusses three modification methods to solve TSP by combining Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and 3-Opt Algorithm. The ACO is used to find the solution of TSP, in which the PSO is implemented to find the best value of parameters α and β that are used in ACO.In order to reduce the total of tour length from the feasible solution obtained by ACO, then the 3-Opt will be used. In the first modification, the 3-Opt is used to reduce the total tour length from the feasible solutions obtained at each iteration, meanwhile, as the second modification, 3-Opt is used to reduce the total tour length from the entire solution obtained at every iteration. In the third modification, 3-Opt is used to reduce the total tour length from different solutions obtained at each iteration. Results are tested using 6 benchmark problems taken from TSPLIB by calculating the relative error to the best known solution as well as the running time. Among those modifications, only the second and third modification give satisfactory results except the second one needs more execution time compare to the third modifications.
Takahashi, Y
1998-01-01
It is well known that the Hopfield Model (HM) for neural networks to solve the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) suffers from three major drawbacks. (1) It can converge on nonoptimal locally minimum solutions. (2) It can converge on infeasible solutions. (3) Results are very sensitive to the careful tuning of its parameters. A number of methods have been proposed to overcome (a) well. In contrast, work on (b) and (c) has not been sufficient; techniques have not been generalized to more general optimization problems. Thus this paper mathematically resolves (b) and (c) to such an extent that the resolution can be applied to solving with some general network continuous optimization problems including the Hopfield version of the TSP. It first constructs an Extended HM (E-HM) that overcomes both (b) and (c). Fundamental techniques of the E-HM lie in the addition of a synapse dynamical system cooperated with the current HM unit dynamical system. It is this synapse dynamical system that makes the TSP constraint hold at any final states for whatever choices of the IIM parameters and an initial state. The paper then generalizes the E-HM further to a network that can solve a class of continuous optimization problems with a constraint equation where both of the objective function and the constraint function are nonnegative and continuously differentiable.
An Investigation of Starting Point Preferences in Human Performance on Traveling Salesman Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacGregor, James N.
2014-01-01
Previous studies have shown that people start traveling sales problem tours significantly more often from boundary than from interior nodes. There are a number of possible reasons for such a tendency: first, it may arise as a direct result of the processes involved in tour construction; second, boundary points may be perceptually more salient than…
Acuña, Daniel E; Parada, Víctor
2010-07-29
Humans need to solve computationally intractable problems such as visual search, categorization, and simultaneous learning and acting, yet an increasing body of evidence suggests that their solutions to instantiations of these problems are near optimal. Computational complexity advances an explanation to this apparent paradox: (1) only a small portion of instances of such problems are actually hard, and (2) successful heuristics exploit structural properties of the typical instance to selectively improve parts that are likely to be sub-optimal. We hypothesize that these two ideas largely account for the good performance of humans on computationally hard problems. We tested part of this hypothesis by studying the solutions of 28 participants to 28 instances of the Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). Participants were provided feedback on the cost of their solutions and were allowed unlimited solution attempts (trials). We found a significant improvement between the first and last trials and that solutions are significantly different from random tours that follow the convex hull and do not have self-crossings. More importantly, we found that participants modified their current better solutions in such a way that edges belonging to the optimal solution ("good" edges) were significantly more likely to stay than other edges ("bad" edges), a hallmark of structural exploitation. We found, however, that more trials harmed the participants' ability to tell good from bad edges, suggesting that after too many trials the participants "ran out of ideas." In sum, we provide the first demonstration of significant performance improvement on the TSP under repetition and feedback and evidence that human problem-solving may exploit the structure of hard problems paralleling behavior of state-of-the-art heuristics.
Zhu, Liping; Aono, Masashi; Kim, Song-Ju; Hara, Masahiko
2013-04-01
A single-celled, multi-nucleated amoeboid organism, a plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum, can perform sophisticated computing by exhibiting complex spatiotemporal oscillatory dynamics while deforming its amorphous body. We previously devised an "amoeba-based computer (ABC)" to quantitatively evaluate the optimization capability of the amoeboid organism in searching for a solution to the traveling salesman problem (TSP) under optical feedback control. In ABC, the organism changes its shape to find a high quality solution (a relatively shorter TSP route) by alternately expanding and contracting its pseudopod-like branches that exhibit local photoavoidance behavior. The quality of the solution serves as a measure of the optimality of which the organism maximizes its global body area (nutrient absorption) while minimizing the risk of being illuminated (exposure to aversive stimuli). ABC found a high quality solution for the 8-city TSP with a high probability. However, it remains unclear whether intracellular communication among the branches of the organism is essential for computing. In this study, we conducted a series of control experiments using two individual cells (two single-celled organisms) to perform parallel searches in the absence of intercellular communication. We found that ABC drastically lost its ability to find a solution when it used two independent individuals. However, interestingly, when two individuals were prepared by dividing one individual, they found a solution for a few tens of minutes. That is, the two divided individuals remained correlated even though they were spatially separated. These results suggest the presence of a long-term memory in the intrinsic dynamics of this organism and its significance in performing sophisticated computing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Acuña, Daniel E.; Parada, Víctor
2010-01-01
Humans need to solve computationally intractable problems such as visual search, categorization, and simultaneous learning and acting, yet an increasing body of evidence suggests that their solutions to instantiations of these problems are near optimal. Computational complexity advances an explanation to this apparent paradox: (1) only a small portion of instances of such problems are actually hard, and (2) successful heuristics exploit structural properties of the typical instance to selectively improve parts that are likely to be sub-optimal. We hypothesize that these two ideas largely account for the good performance of humans on computationally hard problems. We tested part of this hypothesis by studying the solutions of 28 participants to 28 instances of the Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). Participants were provided feedback on the cost of their solutions and were allowed unlimited solution attempts (trials). We found a significant improvement between the first and last trials and that solutions are significantly different from random tours that follow the convex hull and do not have self-crossings. More importantly, we found that participants modified their current better solutions in such a way that edges belonging to the optimal solution (“good” edges) were significantly more likely to stay than other edges (“bad” edges), a hallmark of structural exploitation. We found, however, that more trials harmed the participants' ability to tell good from bad edges, suggesting that after too many trials the participants “ran out of ideas.” In sum, we provide the first demonstration of significant performance improvement on the TSP under repetition and feedback and evidence that human problem-solving may exploit the structure of hard problems paralleling behavior of state-of-the-art heuristics. PMID:20686597
Lee, M D; Vickers, D
2000-01-01
MacGregor and Ormerod (1996) have presented results purporting to show that human performance on visually presented traveling salesman problems, as indexed by a measure of response uncertainty, is strongly determined by the number of points in the stimulus array falling inside the convex hull, as distinct from the total number of points. It is argued that this conclusion is artifactually determined by their constrained procedure for stimulus construction, and, even if true, would be limited to arrays with fewer than around 50 points.
An Adaptive Evolutionary Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem with Precedence Constraints
Sung, Jinmo; Jeong, Bongju
2014-01-01
Traveling sales man problem with precedence constraints is one of the most notorious problems in terms of the efficiency of its solution approach, even though it has very wide range of industrial applications. We propose a new evolutionary algorithm to efficiently obtain good solutions by improving the search process. Our genetic operators guarantee the feasibility of solutions over the generations of population, which significantly improves the computational efficiency even when it is combined with our flexible adaptive searching strategy. The efficiency of the algorithm is investigated by computational experiments. PMID:24701158
An adaptive evolutionary algorithm for traveling salesman problem with precedence constraints.
Sung, Jinmo; Jeong, Bongju
2014-01-01
Traveling sales man problem with precedence constraints is one of the most notorious problems in terms of the efficiency of its solution approach, even though it has very wide range of industrial applications. We propose a new evolutionary algorithm to efficiently obtain good solutions by improving the search process. Our genetic operators guarantee the feasibility of solutions over the generations of population, which significantly improves the computational efficiency even when it is combined with our flexible adaptive searching strategy. The efficiency of the algorithm is investigated by computational experiments.
Multi-step routes of capuchin monkeys in a laser pointer traveling salesman task.
Howard, Allison M; Fragaszy, Dorothy M
2014-09-01
Prior studies have claimed that nonhuman primates plan their routes multiple steps in advance. However, a recent reexamination of multi-step route planning in nonhuman primates indicated that there is no evidence for planning more than one step ahead. We tested multi-step route planning in capuchin monkeys using a pointing device to "travel" to distal targets while stationary. This device enabled us to determine whether capuchins distinguish the spatial relationship between goals and themselves and spatial relationships between goals and the laser dot, allocentrically. In Experiment 1, two subjects were presented with identical food items in Near-Far (one item nearer to subject) and Equidistant (both items equidistant from subject) conditions with a laser dot visible between the items. Subjects moved the laser dot to the items using a joystick. In the Near-Far condition, one subject demonstrated a bias for items closest to self but the other subject chose efficiently. In the second experiment, subjects retrieved three food items in similar Near-Far and Equidistant arrangements. Both subjects preferred food items nearest the laser dot and showed no evidence of multi-step route planning. We conclude that these capuchins do not make choices on the basis of multi-step look ahead strategies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hasegawa, M
2011-03-01
The aim of the present study is to elucidate how simulated annealing (SA) works in its finite-time implementation by starting from the verification of its conventional optimization scenario based on equilibrium statistical mechanics. Two and one supplementary experiments, the design of which is inspired by concepts and methods developed for studies on liquid and glass, are performed on two types of random traveling salesman problems. In the first experiment, a newly parameterized temperature schedule is introduced to simulate a quasistatic process along the scenario and a parametric study is conducted to investigate the optimization characteristics of this adaptive cooling. In the second experiment, the search trajectory of the Metropolis algorithm (constant-temperature SA) is analyzed in the landscape paradigm in the hope of drawing a precise physical analogy by comparison with the corresponding dynamics of glass-forming molecular systems. These two experiments indicate that the effectiveness of finite-time SA comes not from equilibrium sampling at low temperature but from downward interbasin dynamics occurring before equilibrium. These dynamics work most effectively at an intermediate temperature varying with the total search time and thus this effective temperature is identified using the Deborah number. To test directly the role of these relaxation dynamics in the process of cooling, a supplementary experiment is performed using another parameterized temperature schedule with a piecewise variable cooling rate and the effect of this biased cooling is examined systematically. The results show that the optimization performance is not only dependent on but also sensitive to cooling in the vicinity of the above effec-tive temperature and that this feature is interpreted as a consequence of the presence or absence of the workable interbasin dynamics. It is confirmed for the present instances that the effectiveness of finite-time SA derives from the glassy relaxation
Zhang, Zili; Gao, Chao; Lu, Yuxiao; Liu, Yuxin; Liang, Mingxin
2016-01-01
Bi-objective Traveling Salesman Problem (bTSP) is an important field in the operations research, its solutions can be widely applied in the real world. Many researches of Multi-objective Ant Colony Optimization (MOACOs) have been proposed to solve bTSPs. However, most of MOACOs suffer premature convergence. This paper proposes an optimization strategy for MOACOs by optimizing the initialization of pheromone matrix with the prior knowledge of Physarum-inspired Mathematical Model (PMM). PMM can find the shortest route between two nodes based on the positive feedback mechanism. The optimized algorithms, named as iPM-MOACOs, can enhance the pheromone in the short paths and promote the search ability of ants. A series of experiments are conducted and experimental results show that the proposed strategy can achieve a better compromise solution than the original MOACOs for solving bTSPs. PMID:26751562
Zhang, Zili; Gao, Chao; Lu, Yuxiao; Liu, Yuxin; Liang, Mingxin
2016-01-01
Bi-objective Traveling Salesman Problem (bTSP) is an important field in the operations research, its solutions can be widely applied in the real world. Many researches of Multi-objective Ant Colony Optimization (MOACOs) have been proposed to solve bTSPs. However, most of MOACOs suffer premature convergence. This paper proposes an optimization strategy for MOACOs by optimizing the initialization of pheromone matrix with the prior knowledge of Physarum-inspired Mathematical Model (PMM). PMM can find the shortest route between two nodes based on the positive feedback mechanism. The optimized algorithms, named as iPM-MOACOs, can enhance the pheromone in the short paths and promote the search ability of ants. A series of experiments are conducted and experimental results show that the proposed strategy can achieve a better compromise solution than the original MOACOs for solving bTSPs.
De Vreese, Luc Pieter; Pradelli, Samantha; Massini, Giulia; Buscema, Massimo; Savarè, Rita; Grossi, Enzo
2005-12-01
In the clinical setting, brief general mental status tests tend to detect early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) less well than more specific cognitive tests. Some preliminary information was collected on the diagnostic accuracy of the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) compared with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in recognizing early AD from normal aging. Fifteen AD outpatients (mean +/- SD MMSE: 24.45 +/- 2.61) and 30 age- and education-matched controls were submitted in a single blind protocol to a paper-and-pencil visually-presented version of the TSP, containing a random array of 30 points (TSP30). The task consisted of drawing the shortest continuous path, passing through each point once and only once, and returning to the starting point. Path lengths for subjects' solutions were computed and compared with the optimal solution given by a specific evolutionary algorithm called GenD. TP30 discriminated significantly better between AD subjects and controls (ROC curve AUC = 0.976; 95% CI 0.94-1.01) compared with the MMSE corrected for age and education (ROC curve AUC = 0.877; 95% CI 0.74-1.005). A path length of 478.2354, taken as "cut-off point", classified correctly subjects with a sensitivity of 93.3% and a specificity of 99.3%, whereas a score corrected for age and education of 25.85 on the MMSE had a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 96.7%. The TSP seems to be particularly sensitive to early AD and independent of patient's age and educational level. The high diagnostic ability, simplicity, and independence of age and education make the TSP promising as a screening test for early AD.
A priori stability results for PFC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossiter, J. A.
2017-02-01
Despite its popularity in industry and obvious efficacy, predictive functional control has few rigorous a priori stability results in the literature. In many cases, common sense and intuition with some trial and error are the main design tools. This paper seeks to tackle that gap by providing some analysis of the control law and showing what forms of stability assurances can be given and how these depend on the user choices of coincidence horizon and desired closed-loop pole. The conditions are separated into necessary, but not sufficient conditions for stability and, conversely, sufficient but not necessary conditions. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficacy of these conditions and the ease of use.
A Priori Estimation of Organic Reaction Yields
Emami, Fateme S.; Vahid, Amir; Wylie, Elizabeth K.
2015-07-21
A thermodynamically guided calculation of free energies of substrate and product molecules allows for the estimation of the yields of organic reactions. The non-ideality of the system and the solvent effects are taken into account through the activity coefficients calculated at the molecular level by perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The model is iteratively trained using a diverse set of reactions with yields that have been reported previously. This trained model can then estimate a priori the yields of reactions not included in the training set with an accuracy of ca. ±15 %. This ability has the potential tomore » translate into significant economic savings through the selection and then execution of only those reactions that can proceed in good yields.« less
Some Simultaneous Inference Procedures for A Priori Contrasts.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Convey, John J.
The testing of a priori contrasts, post hoc contrasts, and experimental error rates are discussed. Methods for controlling the experimental error rate for a set of a priori contrasts tested simultaneously have been developed by Dunnett, Dunn, Sidak, and Krishnaiah. Each of these methods is discussed and contrasted as to applicability, power, and…
Optimal phase estimation with arbitrary a priori knowledge
Demkowicz-Dobrzanski, Rafal
2011-06-15
The optimal-phase estimation strategy is derived when partial a priori knowledge on the estimated phase is available. The solution is found with the help of the most famous result from the entanglement theory: the positive partial transpose criterion. The structure of the optimal measurements, estimators, and the optimal probe states is analyzed. This Rapid Communication provides a unified framework bridging the gap in the literature on the subject which until now dealt almost exclusively with two extreme cases: almost perfect knowledge (local approach based on Fisher information) and no a priori knowledge (global approach based on covariant measurements). Special attentionmore » is paid to a natural a priori probability distribution arising from a diffusion process.« less
A Priori Knowledge and Heuristic Reasoning in Architectural Design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rowe, Peter G.
1982-01-01
It is proposed that the various classes of a priori knowledge incorporated in heuristic reasoning processes exert a strong influence over architectural design activity. Some design problems require exercise of some provisional set of rules, inference, or plausible strategy which requires heuristic reasoning. A case study illustrates this concept.…
A priori discretization quality metrics for distributed hydrologic modeling applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hongli; Tolson, Bryan; Craig, James; Shafii, Mahyar; Basu, Nandita
2016-04-01
In distributed hydrologic modelling, a watershed is treated as a set of small homogeneous units that address the spatial heterogeneity of the watershed being simulated. The ability of models to reproduce observed spatial patterns firstly depends on the spatial discretization, which is the process of defining homogeneous units in the form of grid cells, subwatersheds, or hydrologic response units etc. It is common for hydrologic modelling studies to simply adopt a nominal or default discretization strategy without formally assessing alternative discretization levels. This approach lacks formal justifications and is thus problematic. More formalized discretization strategies are either a priori or a posteriori with respect to building and running a hydrologic simulation model. A posteriori approaches tend to be ad-hoc and compare model calibration and/or validation performance under various watershed discretizations. The construction and calibration of multiple versions of a distributed model can become a seriously limiting computational burden. Current a priori approaches are more formalized and compare overall heterogeneity statistics of dominant variables between candidate discretization schemes and input data or reference zones. While a priori approaches are efficient and do not require running a hydrologic model, they do not fully investigate the internal spatial pattern changes of variables of interest. Furthermore, the existing a priori approaches focus on landscape and soil data and do not assess impacts of discretization on stream channel definition even though its significance has been noted by numerous studies. The primary goals of this study are to (1) introduce new a priori discretization quality metrics considering the spatial pattern changes of model input data; (2) introduce a two-step discretization decision-making approach to compress extreme errors and meet user-specified discretization expectations through non-uniform discretization threshold
A priori discretization error metrics for distributed hydrologic modeling applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hongli; Tolson, Bryan A.; Craig, James R.; Shafii, Mahyar
2016-12-01
Watershed spatial discretization is an important step in developing a distributed hydrologic model. A key difficulty in the spatial discretization process is maintaining a balance between the aggregation-induced information loss and the increase in computational burden caused by the inclusion of additional computational units. Objective identification of an appropriate discretization scheme still remains a challenge, in part because of the lack of quantitative measures for assessing discretization quality, particularly prior to simulation. This study proposes a priori discretization error metrics to quantify the information loss of any candidate discretization scheme without having to run and calibrate a hydrologic model. These error metrics are applicable to multi-variable and multi-site discretization evaluation and provide directly interpretable information to the hydrologic modeler about discretization quality. The first metric, a subbasin error metric, quantifies the routing information loss from discretization, and the second, a hydrological response unit (HRU) error metric, improves upon existing a priori metrics by quantifying the information loss due to changes in land cover or soil type property aggregation. The metrics are straightforward to understand and easy to recode. Informed by the error metrics, a two-step discretization decision-making approach is proposed with the advantage of reducing extreme errors and meeting the user-specified discretization error targets. The metrics and decision-making approach are applied to the discretization of the Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada. Results show that information loss increases as discretization gets coarser. Moreover, results help to explain the modeling difficulties associated with smaller upstream subbasins since the worst discretization errors and highest error variability appear in smaller upstream areas instead of larger downstream drainage areas. Hydrologic modeling experiments under
Precise regional baseline estimation using a priori orbital information
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey
1990-01-01
A solution using GPS measurements acquired during the CASA Uno campaign has resulted in 3-4 mm horizontal daily baseline repeatability and 13 mm vertical repeatability for a 729 km baseline, located in North America. The agreement with VLBI is at the level of 10-20 mm for all components. The results were obtained with the GIPSY orbit determination and baseline estimation software and are based on five single-day data arcs spanning the 20, 21, 25, 26, and 27 of January, 1988. The estimation strategy included resolving the carrier phase integer ambiguities, utilizing an optial set of fixed reference stations, and constraining GPS orbit parameters by applying a priori information. A multiday GPS orbit and baseline solution has yielded similar 2-4 mm horizontal daily repeatabilities for the same baseline, consistent with the constrained single-day arc solutions. The application of weak constraints to the orbital state for single-day data arcs produces solutions which approach the precise orbits obtained with unconstrained multiday arc solutions.
Impact of modellers' decisions on hydrological a priori predictions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holländer, H. M.; Bormann, H.; Blume, T.; Buytaert, W.; Chirico, G. B.; Exbrayat, J.-F.; Gustafsson, D.; Hölzel, H.; Krauße, T.; Kraft, P.; Stoll, S.; Blöschl, G.; Flühler, H.
2014-06-01
In practice, the catchment hydrologist is often confronted with the task of predicting discharge without having the needed records for calibration. Here, we report the discharge predictions of 10 modellers - using the model of their choice - for the man-made Chicken Creek catchment (6 ha, northeast Germany, Gerwin et al., 2009b) and we analyse how well they improved their prediction in three steps based on adding information prior to each following step. The modellers predicted the catchment's hydrological response in its initial phase without having access to the observed records. They used conceptually different physically based models and their modelling experience differed largely. Hence, they encountered two problems: (i) to simulate discharge for an ungauged catchment and (ii) using models that were developed for catchments, which are not in a state of landscape transformation. The prediction exercise was organized in three steps: (1) for the first prediction the modellers received a basic data set describing the catchment to a degree somewhat more complete than usually available for a priori predictions of ungauged catchments; they did not obtain information on stream flow, soil moisture, nor groundwater response and had therefore to guess the initial conditions; (2) before the second prediction they inspected the catchment on-site and discussed their first prediction attempt; (3) for their third prediction they were offered additional data by charging them pro forma with the costs for obtaining this additional information. Holländer et al. (2009) discussed the range of predictions obtained in step (1). Here, we detail the modeller's assumptions and decisions in accounting for the various processes. We document the prediction progress as well as the learning process resulting from the availability of added information. For the second and third steps, the progress in prediction quality is evaluated in relation to individual modelling experience and costs of
Impact of modellers' decisions on hydrological a priori predictions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holländer, H. M.; Bormann, H.; Blume, T.; Buytaert, W.; Chirico, G. B.; Exbrayat, J.-F.; Gustafsson, D.; Hölzel, H.; Krauße, T.; Kraft, P.; Stoll, S.; Blöschl, G.; Flühler, H.
2013-07-01
The purpose of this paper is to stimulate a re-thinking of how we, the catchment hydrologists, could become reliable forecasters. A group of catchment modellers predicted the hydrological response of a man-made 6 ha catchment in its initial phase (Chicken Creek) without having access to the observed records. They used conceptually different model families. Their modelling experience differed largely. The prediction exercise was organized in three steps: (1) for the 1st prediction modellers received a basic data set describing the internal structure of the catchment (somewhat more complete than usually available to a priori predictions in ungauged catchments). They did not obtain time series of stream flow, soil moisture or groundwater response. (2) Before the 2nd improved prediction they inspected the catchment on-site and attended a workshop where the modellers presented and discussed their first attempts. (3) For their improved 3rd prediction they were offered additional data by charging them pro forma with the costs for obtaining this additional information. Holländer et al. (2009) discussed the range of predictions obtained in step 1. Here, we detail the modeller's decisions in accounting for the various processes based on what they learned during the field visit (step 2) and add the final outcome of step 3 when the modellers made use of additional data. We document the prediction progress as well as the learning process resulting from the availability of added information. For the 2nd and 3rd step, the progress in prediction quality could be evaluated in relation to individual modelling experience and costs of added information. We learned (i) that soft information such as the modeller's system understanding is as important as the model itself (hard information), (ii) that the sequence of modelling steps matters (field visit, interactions between differently experienced experts, choice of model, selection of available data, and methods for parameter guessing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sollervall, Håkan; Stadler, Erika
2015-01-01
The aim of the presented case study is to investigate how coherent analytical instruments may guide the a priori and a posteriori analyses of a didactical situation. In the a priori analysis we draw on the notion of affordances, as artefact-mediated opportunities for action, to construct hypothetical trajectories of goal-oriented actions that have…
Branch and Bound Methods for the Traveling Salesman Problem
1983-03-01
4). We abbreviate Branching Rule by 3R. gggaBgjjg#iWi|g*»W^-*)’’-*-’-’*’--’--. aPfJWiapWjIBBPIBlPpwy ’ ■-»ME»»W» ip^| Bpp ^p||||p|pj!^B|^|p|jppjpi...fH) ffMs d":: for py?- i äiattibui!..: - IINMMRfll ■’•voved s- , ’?. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (H Ittm **«»acr «H«M)MltoM 19. II ««MM «NN
Traveling Salesman Problem for Surveillance Mission Using Particle Swarm Optimization
2001-03-20
design of experiments, results of the experiments, and qualitative and quantitative analysis . Conclusions and recommendations based on the qualitative and...characterize the algorithm. Such analysis and comparison between LK and a non-deterministic algorithm produces claims such as "Lin-Kernighan algorithm takes... based on experiments 5 and 6. All other parameters are the same as the baseline (see 4.2.1.2). 4.2.2.6 Experiment 10 - Fine Tuning PSO AS: 85,95% Global
Learning to cooperate in solving the traveling salesman problem.
Qi, Dehu; Sun, Ron
2005-01-01
A cooperative team of agents may perform many tasks better than single agents. The question is how cooperation among self-interested agents should be achieved. It is important that, while we encourage cooperation among agents in a team, we maintain autonomy of individual agents as much as possible, so as to maintain flexibility and generality. This paper presents an approach based on bidding utilizing reinforcement values acquired through reinforcement learning. We tested and analyzed this approach and demonstrated that a team indeed performed better than the best single agent as well as the average of single agents.
Use of a priori statistics to minimize acquisition time for RFI immune spread spectrum systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, J. K.; Woo, K. T.
1978-01-01
The optimum acquisition sweep strategy was determined for a PN code despreader when the a priori probability density function was not uniform. A psuedo noise spread spectrum system was considered which could be utilized in the DSN to combat radio frequency interference. In a sample case, when the a priori probability density function was Gaussian, the acquisition time was reduced by about 41% compared to a uniform sweep approach.
Tang, Shaojie; Yang, Yi; Tang, Xiangyang
2012-01-01
Interior tomography problem can be solved using the so-called differentiated backprojection-projection onto convex sets (DBP-POCS) method, which requires a priori knowledge within a small area interior to the region of interest (ROI) to be imaged. In theory, the small area wherein the a priori knowledge is required can be in any shape, but most of the existing implementations carry out the Hilbert filtering either horizontally or vertically, leading to a vertical or horizontal strip that may be across a large area in the object. In this work, we implement a practical DBP-POCS method with radial Hilbert filtering and thus the small area with the a priori knowledge can be roughly round (e.g., a sinus or ventricles among other anatomic cavities in human or animal body). We also conduct an experimental evaluation to verify the performance of this practical implementation. We specifically re-derive the reconstruction formula in the DBP-POCS fashion with radial Hilbert filtering to assure that only a small round area with the a priori knowledge be needed (namely radial DBP-POCS method henceforth). The performance of the practical DBP-POCS method with radial Hilbert filtering and a priori knowledge in a small round area is evaluated with projection data of the standard and modified Shepp-Logan phantoms simulated by computer, followed by a verification using real projection data acquired by a computed tomography (CT) scanner. The preliminary performance study shows that, if a priori knowledge in a small round area is available, the radial DBP-POCS method can solve the interior tomography problem in a more practical way at high accuracy. In comparison to the implementations of DBP-POCS method demanding the a priori knowledge in horizontal or vertical strip, the radial DBP-POCS method requires the a priori knowledge within a small round area only. Such a relaxed requirement on the availability of a priori knowledge can be readily met in practice, because a variety of small
Conventional Principles in Science: On the foundations and development of the relativized a priori
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanova, Milena; Farr, Matt
2015-11-01
The present volume consists of a collection of papers originally presented at the conference Conventional Principles in Science, held at the University of Bristol, August 2011, which featured contributions on the history and contemporary development of the notion of 'relativized a priori' principles in science, from Henri Poincaré's conventionalism to Michael Friedman's contemporary defence of the relativized a priori. In Science and Hypothesis, Poincaré assessed the problematic epistemic status of Euclidean geometry and Newton's laws of motion, famously arguing that each has the status of 'convention' in that their justification is neither analytic nor empirical in nature. In The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge, Hans Reichenbach, in light of the general theory of relativity, proposed an updated notion of the Kantian synthetic a priori to account for the dynamic inter-theoretic status of geometry and other non-empirical physical principles. Reichenbach noted that one may reject the 'necessarily true' aspect of the synthetic a priori whilst preserving the feature of being constitutive of the object of knowledge. Such constitutive principles are theory-relative, as illustrated by the privileged role of non-Euclidean geometry in general relativity theory. This idea of relativized a priori principles in spacetime physics has been analysed and developed at great length in the modern literature in the work of Michael Friedman, in particular the roles played by the light postulate and the equivalence principle - in special and general relativity respectively - in defining the central terms of their respective theories and connecting the abstract mathematical formalism of the theories with their empirical content. The papers in this volume guide the reader through the historical development of conventional and constitutive principles in science, from the foundational work of Poincaré, Reichenbach and others, to contemporary issues and applications of the
The constitutive a priori and the distinction between mathematical and physical possibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Everett, Jonathan
2015-11-01
This paper is concerned with Friedman's recent revival of the notion of the relativized a priori. It is particularly concerned with addressing the question as to how Friedman's understanding of the constitutive function of the a priori has changed since his defence of the idea in his Dynamics of Reason. Friedman's understanding of the a priori remains influenced by Reichenbach's initial defence of the idea; I argue that this notion of the a priori does not naturally lend itself to describing the historical development of space-time physics. Friedman's analysis of the role of the rotating frame thought experiment in the development of general relativity - which he suggests made the mathematical possibility of four-dimensional space-time a genuine physical possibility - has a central role in his argument. I analyse this thought experiment and argue that it is better understood by following Cassirer and placing emphasis on regulative principles. Furthermore, I argue that Cassirer's Kantian framework enables us to capture Friedman's key insights into the nature of the constitutive a priori.
Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Disease: A Critical Evaluation of A Priori Dietary Indexes
D’Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni
2015-01-01
The aim of this paper is to analyze the a priori dietary indexes used in the studies that have evaluated the role of the Mediterranean Diet in influencing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. All the studies show that this dietary pattern protects against cardiovascular disease, but studies show quite different effects on specific conditions such as coronary heart disease or cerebrovascular disease. A priori dietary indexes used to measure dietary exposure imply quantitative and/or qualitative divergences from the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, and, therefore, it is very difficult to compare the results of different studies. Based on real cultural heritage and traditions, we believe that the a priori indexes used to evaluate adherence to the Mediterranean Diet should consider classifying whole grains and refined grains, olive oil and monounsaturated fats, and wine and alcohol differently. PMID:26389950
Phase estimation without a priori phase knowledge in the presence of loss
Kolodynski, Jan; Demkowicz-Dobrzanski, Rafal
2010-11-15
We find the optimal scheme for quantum phase estimation in the presence of loss when no a priori knowledge on the estimated phase is available. We prove analytically an explicit lower bound on estimation uncertainty, which shows that, as a function of the number of probes, quantum precision enhancement amounts at most to a constant factor improvement over classical strategies.
Realism, functions, and the a priori: Ernst Cassirer's philosophy of science.
Heis, Jeremy
2014-12-01
This paper presents the main ideas of Cassirer's general philosophy of science, focusing on the two aspects of his thought that--in addition to being the most central ideas in his philosophy of science--have received the most attention from contemporary philosophers of science: his theory of the a priori aspects of physical theory, and his relation to scientific realism.
Automatic Artifact Removal from Electroencephalogram Data Based on A Priori Artifact Information.
Zhang, Chi; Tong, Li; Zeng, Ying; Jiang, Jingfang; Bu, Haibing; Yan, Bin; Li, Jianxin
2015-01-01
Electroencephalogram (EEG) is susceptible to various nonneural physiological artifacts. Automatic artifact removal from EEG data remains a key challenge for extracting relevant information from brain activities. To adapt to variable subjects and EEG acquisition environments, this paper presents an automatic online artifact removal method based on a priori artifact information. The combination of discrete wavelet transform and independent component analysis (ICA), wavelet-ICA, was utilized to separate artifact components. The artifact components were then automatically identified using a priori artifact information, which was acquired in advance. Subsequently, signal reconstruction without artifact components was performed to obtain artifact-free signals. The results showed that, using this automatic online artifact removal method, there were statistical significant improvements of the classification accuracies in both two experiments, namely, motor imagery and emotion recognition.
Automatic Artifact Removal from Electroencephalogram Data Based on A Priori Artifact Information
Zhang, Chi; Tong, Li; Zeng, Ying; Jiang, Jingfang; Bu, Haibing; Li, Jianxin
2015-01-01
Electroencephalogram (EEG) is susceptible to various nonneural physiological artifacts. Automatic artifact removal from EEG data remains a key challenge for extracting relevant information from brain activities. To adapt to variable subjects and EEG acquisition environments, this paper presents an automatic online artifact removal method based on a priori artifact information. The combination of discrete wavelet transform and independent component analysis (ICA), wavelet-ICA, was utilized to separate artifact components. The artifact components were then automatically identified using a priori artifact information, which was acquired in advance. Subsequently, signal reconstruction without artifact components was performed to obtain artifact-free signals. The results showed that, using this automatic online artifact removal method, there were statistical significant improvements of the classification accuracies in both two experiments, namely, motor imagery and emotion recognition. PMID:26380294
Global a priori estimates for the inhomogeneous Landau equation with moderately soft potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cameron, Stephen; Silvestre, Luis; Snelson, Stanley
2018-05-01
We establish a priori upper bounds for solutions to the spatially inhomogeneous Landau equation in the case of moderately soft potentials, with arbitrary initial data, under the assumption that mass, energy and entropy densities stay under control. Our pointwise estimates decay polynomially in the velocity variable. We also show that if the initial data satisfies a Gaussian upper bound, this bound is propagated for all positive times.
Effects of daily, high spatial resolution a priori profiles of satellite-derived NOx emissions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laughner, J.; Zare, A.; Cohen, R. C.
2016-12-01
The current generation of space-borne NO2 column observations provides a powerful method of constraining NOx emissions due to the spatial resolution and global coverage afforded by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The greater resolution available in next generation instruments such as TROPOMI and the capabilities of geosynchronous platforms TEMPO, Sentinel-4, and GEMS will provide even greater capabilities in this regard, but we must apply lessons learned from the current generation of retrieval algorithms to make the best use of these instruments. Here, we focus on the effect of the resolution of the a priori NO2 profiles used in the retrieval algorithms. We show that for an OMI retrieval, using daily high-resolution a priori profiles results in changes in the retrieved VCDs up to 40% when compared to a retrieval using monthly average profiles at the same resolution. Further, comparing a retrieval with daily high spatial resolution a priori profiles to a more standard one, we show that emissions derived increase by 100% when using the optimized retrieval.
Hall, F Scott; Drgonova, Jana; Jain, Siddharth; Uhl, George R
2013-12-01
Substantial genetic contributions to addiction vulnerability are supported by data from twin studies, linkage studies, candidate gene association studies and, more recently, Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Parallel to this work, animal studies have attempted to identify the genes that may contribute to responses to addictive drugs and addiction liability, initially focusing upon genes for the targets of the major drugs of abuse. These studies identified genes/proteins that affect responses to drugs of abuse; however, this does not necessarily mean that variation in these genes contributes to the genetic component of addiction liability. One of the major problems with initial linkage and candidate gene studies was an a priori focus on the genes thought to be involved in addiction based upon the known contributions of those proteins to drug actions, making the identification of novel genes unlikely. The GWAS approach is systematic and agnostic to such a priori assumptions. From the numerous GWAS now completed several conclusions may be drawn: (1) addiction is highly polygenic; each allelic variant contributing in a small, additive fashion to addiction vulnerability; (2) unexpected, compared to our a priori assumptions, classes of genes are most important in explaining addiction vulnerability; (3) although substantial genetic heterogeneity exists, there is substantial convergence of GWAS signals on particular genes. This review traces the history of this research; from initial transgenic mouse models based upon candidate gene and linkage studies, through the progression of GWAS for addiction and nicotine cessation, to the current human and transgenic mouse studies post-GWAS. © 2013.
D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni
2018-01-18
We have analysed the definition of Mediterranean Diet in 28 studies included in six meta-analyses evaluating the relation between the Mediterranean Diet and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Some typical food of this dietary pattern like whole cereals, olive oil and red wine were taken into account only in a few a priori indexes, and the dietary pattern defined as Mediterranean showed many differences among the studies and compared to traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Altogether, the analysed studies show a protective effect of the Mediterranean Diet against cardiovascular disease but present different effects against specific conditions as cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease. These different effects might depend on the definition of Mediterranean Diet and the indexes of the adhesion to the same one used. To compare the effects of the Mediterranean Diet against cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and stroke a univocal model of Mediterranean Diet should be established as a reference, and it might be represented by the Modern Mediterranean Diet Pyramid. The a priori index to evaluate the adhesion to Mediterranean Diet might be the Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern Score that has some advantages in comparison to the others a priori indexes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolloff, John; Hottel, Bryant; Edwards, David; Theiss, Henry; Braun, Aaron
2017-05-01
This paper presents an overview of the Full Motion Video-Geopositioning Test Bed (FMV-GTB) developed to investigate algorithm performance and issues related to the registration of motion imagery and subsequent extraction of feature locations along with predicted accuracy. A case study is included corresponding to a video taken from a quadcopter. Registration of the corresponding video frames is performed without the benefit of a priori sensor attitude (pointing) information. In particular, tie points are automatically measured between adjacent frames using standard optical flow matching techniques from computer vision, an a priori estimate of sensor attitude is then computed based on supplied GPS sensor positions contained in the video metadata and a photogrammetric/search-based structure from motion algorithm, and then a Weighted Least Squares adjustment of all a priori metadata across the frames is performed. Extraction of absolute 3D feature locations, including their predicted accuracy based on the principles of rigorous error propagation, is then performed using a subset of the registered frames. Results are compared to known locations (check points) over a test site. Throughout this entire process, no external control information (e.g. surveyed points) is used other than for evaluation of solution errors and corresponding accuracy.
A priori mesh grading for the numerical calculation of the head-related transfer functions
Ziegelwanger, Harald; Kreuzer, Wolfgang; Majdak, Piotr
2017-01-01
Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) describe the directional filtering of the incoming sound caused by the morphology of a listener’s head and pinnae. When an accurate model of a listener’s morphology exists, HRTFs can be calculated numerically with the boundary element method (BEM). However, the general recommendation to model the head and pinnae with at least six elements per wavelength renders the BEM as a time-consuming procedure when calculating HRTFs for the full audible frequency range. In this study, a mesh preprocessing algorithm is proposed, viz., a priori mesh grading, which reduces the computational costs in the HRTF calculation process significantly. The mesh grading algorithm deliberately violates the recommendation of at least six elements per wavelength in certain regions of the head and pinnae and varies the size of elements gradually according to an a priori defined grading function. The evaluation of the algorithm involved HRTFs calculated for various geometric objects including meshes of three human listeners and various grading functions. The numerical accuracy and the predicted sound-localization performance of calculated HRTFs were analyzed. A-priori mesh grading appeared to be suitable for the numerical calculation of HRTFs in the full audible frequency range and outperformed uniform meshes in terms of numerical errors, perception based predictions of sound-localization performance, and computational costs. PMID:28239186
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneiderbauer, Simon; Saeedipour, Mahdi
2018-02-01
Highly resolved two-fluid model (TFM) simulations of gas-solid flows in vertical periodic channels have been performed to study closures for the filtered drag force and the Reynolds-stress-like contribution stemming from the convective terms. An approximate deconvolution model (ADM) for the large-eddy simulation of turbulent gas-solid suspensions is detailed and subsequently used to reconstruct those unresolved contributions in an a priori manner. With such an approach, an approximation of the unfiltered solution is obtained by repeated filtering allowing the determination of the unclosed terms of the filtered equations directly. A priori filtering shows that predictions of the ADM model yield fairly good agreement with the fine grid TFM simulations for various filter sizes and different particle sizes. In particular, strong positive correlation (ρ > 0.98) is observed at intermediate filter sizes for all sub-grid terms. Additionally, our study reveals that the ADM results moderately depend on the choice of the filters, such as box and Gaussian filter, as well as the deconvolution order. The a priori test finally reveals that ADM is superior compared to isotropic functional closures proposed recently [S. Schneiderbauer, "A spatially-averaged two-fluid model for dense large-scale gas-solid flows," AIChE J. 63, 3544-3562 (2017)].
Impact of a priori information on IASI ozone retrievals and trends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barret, B.; Peiro, H.; Emili, E.; Le Flocgmoën, E.
2017-12-01
The IASI sensor documents atmospheric water vapor, temperature and composition since 2007. The Software for a Fast Retrieval of IASI Data (SOFRID) has been developped to retrieve O3 and CO profiles from IASI in near-real time on a global scale. Information content analyses have shown that IASI enables the quantification of O3 independently in the troposphere, the UTLS and the stratosphere. Validation studies have demonstrated that the daily to seasonal variability of tropospheric and UTLS O3 was well captured by IASI especially in the tropics. IASI-SOFRID retrievals have also been used to document the tropospheric composition during the Asian monsoon and participated to determine the O3 evolution during the 2008-2016 period in the framework of the TOAR project. Nevertheless, IASI-SOFRID O3 is biased high in the UTLS and in the tropical troposphere and the 8 years O3 trends from the different IASI products are significantly different from the O3 trends from UV-Vis satellite sensors (e.g. OMI)..SOFRID is based on the Optimal Estimation Method that requires a priori information to complete the information provided by the measured thermal infrared radiances. In SOFRID-O3 v1.5 used in TOAR the a priori consists of a single O3 profile and associated covariance matrix based on global O3 radiosoundings. Such a global a priori is characterized by a very large variabilty and does not represent our best kowledge of the O3 profile at a given time and location. Furthermore it is biased towards the northern hemisphere middle latitudes. We have therefore implemented the possibility to use dynamical a priori data in SOFRID and performed experiments using O3 climatological data and MLS O3 analyses. We will present O3 distributions and comparisons with O3 radiosoundings from the different SOFRID-O3 retrievals. We will in particular assess the impact of the use of different a priori data upon the O3 biases and trends during the IASI period.
Evaluating A Priori Ozone Profile Information Used in TEMPO Tropospheric Ozone Retrievals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, M. S.; Sullivan, J. T.; Liu, X.; Newchurch, M.; Kuang, S.; McGee, T. J.; Langford, A. O.; Senff, C. J.; Leblanc, T.; Berkoff, T.; Gronoff, G.; Chen, G.; Strawbridge, K. B.
2016-12-01
Ozone (O3) is a greenhouse gas and toxic pollutant which plays a major role in air quality. Typically, monitoring of surface air quality and O3 mixing ratios is primarily conducted using in situ measurement networks. This is partially due to high-quality information related to air quality being limited from space-borne platforms due to coarse spatial resolution, limited temporal frequency, and minimal sensitivity to lower tropospheric and surface-level O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite is designed to address these limitations of current space-based platforms and to improve our ability to monitor North American air quality. TEMPO will provide hourly data of total column and vertical profiles of O3 with high spatial resolution to be used as a near-real-time air quality product. TEMPO O3 retrievals will apply the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory profile algorithm developed based on work from GOME, GOME-2, and OMI. This algorithm uses a priori O3 profile information from a climatological data-base developed from long-term ozone-sonde measurements (tropopause-based (TB) O3 climatology). It has been shown that satellite O3 retrievals are sensitive to a priori O3 profiles and covariance matrices. During this work we investigate the climatological data to be used in TEMPO algorithms (TB O3) and simulated data from the NASA GMAO Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Forward Processing (FP) near-real-time (NRT) model products. These two data products will be evaluated with ground-based lidar data from the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) at various locations of the US. This study evaluates the TB climatology, GEOS-5 climatology, and 3-hourly GEOS-5 data compared to lower tropospheric observations to demonstrate the accuracy of a priori information to potentially be used in TEMPO O3 algorithms. Here we present our initial analysis and the theoretical impact on TEMPO retrievals in the lower troposphere.
An a priori solar radiation pressure model for the QZSS Michibiki satellite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Qile; Chen, Guo; Guo, Jing; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Xianglin
2018-02-01
It has been noted that the satellite laser ranging (SLR) residuals of the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) Michibiki satellite orbits show very marked dependence on the elevation angle of the Sun above the orbital plane (i.e., the β angle). It is well recognized that the systematic error is caused by mismodeling of the solar radiation pressure (SRP). Although the error can be reduced by the updated ECOM SRP model, the orbit error is still very large when the satellite switches to orbit-normal (ON) orientation. In this study, an a priori SRP model was established for the QZSS Michibiki satellite to enhance the ECOM model. This model is expressed in ECOM's D, Y, and B axes (DYB) using seven parameters for the yaw-steering (YS) mode, and additional three parameters are used to compensate the remaining modeling deficiencies, particularly the perturbations in the Y axis, based on a redefined DYB for the ON mode. With the proposed a priori model, QZSS Michibiki's precise orbits over 21 months were determined. SLR validation indicated that the systematic β -angle-dependent error was reduced when the satellite was in the YS mode, and better than an 8-cm root mean square (RMS) was achieved. More importantly, the orbit quality was also improved significantly when the satellite was in the ON mode. Relative to ECOM and adjustable box-wing model, the proposed SRP model showed the best performance in the ON mode, and the RMS of the SLR residuals was better than 15 cm, which was a two times improvement over the ECOM without a priori model used, but was still two times worse than the YS mode.
Evaluating A Priori Ozone Profile Information Used in TEMPO Tropospheric Ozone Retrievals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Matthew S.; Sullivan, John T.; Liu, Xiong; Newchurch, Mike; Kuang, Shi; McGee, Thomas J.; Langford, Andrew O'Neil; Senff, Christoph J.; Leblanc, Thierry; Berkoff, Timothy;
2016-01-01
Ozone (O3) is a greenhouse gas and toxic pollutant which plays a major role in air quality. Typically, monitoring of surface air quality and O3 mixing ratios is primarily conducted using in situ measurement networks. This is partially due to high-quality information related to air quality being limited from space-borne platforms due to coarse spatial resolution, limited temporal frequency, and minimal sensitivity to lower tropospheric and surface-level O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite is designed to address these limitations of current space-based platforms and to improve our ability to monitor North American air quality. TEMPO will provide hourly data of total column and vertical profiles of O3 with high spatial resolution to be used as a near-real-time air quality product. TEMPO O3 retrievals will apply the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory profile algorithm developed based on work from GOME, GOME-2, and OMI. This algorithm uses a priori O3 profile information from a climatological data-base developed from long-term ozone-sonde measurements (tropopause-based (TB) O3 climatology). It has been shown that satellite O3 retrievals are sensitive to a priori O3 profiles and covariance matrices. During this work we investigate the climatological data to be used in TEMPO algorithms (TB O3) and simulated data from the NASA GMAO Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Forward Processing (FP) near-real-time (NRT) model products. These two data products will be evaluated with ground-based lidar data from the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) at various locations of the US. This study evaluates the TB climatology, GEOS-5 climatology, and 3-hourly GEOS-5 data compared to lower tropospheric observations to demonstrate the accuracy of a priori information to potentially be used in TEMPO O3 algorithms. Here we present our initial analysis and the theoretical impact on TEMPO retrievals in the lower troposphere.
Evaluating a Priori Ozone Profile Information Used in TEMPO Tropospheric Ozone Retrievals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Matthew S.; Sullivan, John; Liu, Xiong; Newchurch, Mike; Kuang, Shi; McGee, Thomas; Langford, Andrew; Senff, Chris; Leblanc, Thierry; Berkoff, Timothy;
2016-01-01
Ozone (O3) is a greenhouse gas and toxic pollutant which plays a major role in air quality. Typically, monitoring of surface air quality and O3 mixing ratios is primarily conducted using in situ measurement networks. This is partially due to high-quality information related to air quality being limited from space-borne platforms due to coarse spatial resolution, limited temporal frequency, and minimal sensitivity to lower tropospheric and surface-level O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite is designed to address these limitations of current space-based platforms and to improve our ability to monitor North American air quality. TEMPO will provide hourly data of total column and vertical profiles of O3 with high spatial resolution to be used as a near-real-time air quality product.TEMPO O3 retrievals will apply the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory profile algorithm developed based on work from GOME, GOME-2, and OMI. This algorithm uses a priori O3 profile information from a climatological data-base developed from long-term ozone-sonde measurements (tropopause-based (TB) O3 climatology). It has been shown that satellite O3 retrievals are sensitive to a priori O3 profiles and covariance matrices. During this work we investigate the climatological data to be used in TEMPO algorithms (TB O3) and simulated data from the NASA GMAO Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Forward Processing (FP) near-real-time (NRT) model products. These two data products will be evaluated with ground-based lidar data from the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) at various locations of the US. This study evaluates the TB climatology, GEOS-5 climatology, and 3-hourly GEOS-5 data compared to lower tropospheric observations to demonstrate the accuracy of a priori information to potentially be used in TEMPO O3 algorithms. Here we present our initial analysis and the theoretical impact on TEMPO retrievals in the lower troposphere.
Importance of A Priori Vertical Ozone Profiles for TEMPO Air Quality Retrievals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, M. S.; Sullivan, J. T.; Liu, X.; Zoogman, P.; Newchurch, M.; Kuang, S.; McGee, T. J.; Leblanc, T.
2017-12-01
Ozone (O3) is a toxic pollutant which plays a major role in air quality. Typically, monitoring of surface air quality and O3 mixing ratios is conducted using in situ measurement networks. This is partially due to high-quality information related to air quality being limited from space-borne platforms due to coarse spatial resolution, limited temporal frequency, and minimal sensitivity to lower tropospheric and surface-level O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite is designed to address the limitations of current space-based platforms and to improve our ability to monitor North American air quality. TEMPO will provide hourly data of total column and vertical profiles of O3 with high spatial resolution to be used as a near-real-time air quality product. TEMPO O3 retrievals will apply the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory profile algorithm developed based on work from GOME, GOME-2, and OMI. This algorithm is suggested to use a priori O3 profile information from a climatological data-base developed from long-term ozone-sonde measurements (tropopause-based (TB-Clim) O3 climatology). This study evaluates the TB-Clim dataset and model simulated O3 profiles, which could potentially serve as a priori O3 profile information in TEMPO retrievals, from near-real-time data assimilation model products (NASA GMAO's operational GEOS-5 FP model and reanalysis data from MERRA2) and a full chemical transport model (CTM), GEOS-Chem. In this study, vertical profile products are evaluated with surface (0-2 km) and tropospheric (0-10 km) TOLNet observations and the theoretical impact of individual a priori profile sources on the accuracy of TEMPO O3 retrievals in the troposphere and at the surface are presented. Results indicate that while the TB-Clim climatological dataset can replicate seasonally-averaged tropospheric O3 profiles, model-simulated profiles from a full CTM resulted in more accurate tropospheric and surface-level O3 retrievals from
Importance of a Priori Vertical Ozone Profiles for TEMPO Air Quality Retrievals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Matthew S.; Sullivan, John; Liu, Xiong; Zoogman, Peter; Newchurch, Mike; Kuang, Shi; McGee, Thomas; Leblanc, Thierry
2017-01-01
Ozone (O3) is a toxic pollutant which plays a major role in air quality. Typically, monitoring of surface air quality and O3 mixing ratios is conducted using in situ measurement networks. This is partially due to high-quality information related to air quality being limited from space-borne platforms due to coarse spatial resolution, limited temporal frequency, and minimal sensitivity to lower tropospheric and surface-level O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite is designed to address the limitations of current space-based platforms and to improve our ability to monitor North American air quality. TEMPO will provide hourly data of total column and vertical profiles of O3 with high spatial resolution to be used as a near-real-time air quality product. TEMPO O3 retrievals will apply the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory profile algorithm developed based on work from GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), GOME-2, and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). This algorithm is suggested to use a priori O3 profile information from a climatological data-base developed from long-term ozone-sonde measurements (tropopause-based (TB-Clim) O3 climatology). This study evaluates the TB-Clim dataset and model simulated O3 profiles, which could potentially serve as a priori O3 profile information in TEMPO retrievals, from near-real-time data assimilation model products (NASA GMAO's (Global Modeling and Assimilation Office) operational GEOS-5 (Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5) FP (Forecast Products) model and reanalysis data from MERRA2 (Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2)) and a full chemical transport model (CTM), GEOS-Chem. In this study, vertical profile products are evaluated with surface (0-2 kilometers) and tropospheric (0-10 kilometers) TOLNet (Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network) observations and the theoretical impact of individual a priori profile sources on the accuracy of TEMPO O3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Shuai; Huang, Danian
2015-11-01
We have developed a new method for the interpretation of gravity tensor data based on the generalized Tilt-depth method. Cooper (2011, 2012) extended the magnetic Tilt-depth method to gravity data. We take the gradient-ratio method of Cooper (2011, 2012) and modify it so that the source type does not need to be specified a priori. We develop the new method by generalizing the Tilt-depth method for depth estimation for different types of source bodies. The new technique uses only the three vertical tensor components of the full gravity tensor data observed or calculated at different height plane to estimate the depth of the buried bodies without a priori specification of their structural index. For severely noise-corrupted data, our method utilizes different upward continuation height data, which can effectively reduce the influence of noise. Theoretical simulations of the gravity source model with and without noise illustrate the ability of the method to provide source depth information. Additionally, the simulations demonstrate that the new method is simple, computationally fast and accurate. Finally, we apply the method using the gravity data acquired over the Humble Salt Dome in the USA as an example. The results show a good correspondence to the previous drilling and seismic interpretation results.
Solution of underdetermined systems of equations with gridded a priori constraints.
Stiros, Stathis C; Saltogianni, Vasso
2014-01-01
The TOPINV, Topological Inversion algorithm (or TGS, Topological Grid Search) initially developed for the inversion of highly non-linear redundant systems of equations, can solve a wide range of underdetermined systems of non-linear equations. This approach is a generalization of a previous conclusion that this algorithm can be used for the solution of certain integer ambiguity problems in Geodesy. The overall approach is based on additional (a priori) information for the unknown variables. In the past, such information was used either to linearize equations around approximate solutions, or to expand systems of observation equations solved on the basis of generalized inverses. In the proposed algorithm, the a priori additional information is used in a third way, as topological constraints to the unknown n variables, leading to an R(n) grid containing an approximation of the real solution. The TOPINV algorithm does not focus on point-solutions, but exploits the structural and topological constraints in each system of underdetermined equations in order to identify an optimal closed space in the R(n) containing the real solution. The centre of gravity of the grid points defining this space corresponds to global, minimum-norm solutions. The rationale and validity of the overall approach are demonstrated on the basis of examples and case studies, including fault modelling, in comparison with SVD solutions and true (reference) values, in an accuracy-oriented approach.
An a priori study of different tabulation methods for turbulent pulverised coal combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Yujuan; Wen, Xu; Wang, Haiou; Luo, Kun; Jin, Hanhui; Fan, Jianren
2018-05-01
In many practical pulverised coal combustion systems, different oxidiser streams exist, e.g. the primary- and secondary-air streams in the power plant boilers, which makes the modelling of these systems challenging. In this work, three tabulation methods for modelling pulverised coal combustion are evaluated through an a priori study. Pulverised coal flames stabilised in a three-dimensional turbulent counterflow, consisting of different oxidiser streams, are simulated with detailed chemistry first. Then, the thermo-chemical quantities calculated with different tabulation methods are compared to those from detailed chemistry solutions. The comparison shows that the conventional two-stream flamelet model with a fixed oxidiser temperature cannot predict the flame temperature correctly. The conventional two-stream flamelet model is then modified to set the oxidiser temperature equal to the fuel temperature, both of which are varied in the flamelets. By this means, the variations of oxidiser temperature can be considered. It is found that this modified tabulation method performs very well on prediction of the flame temperature. The third tabulation method is an extended three-stream flamelet model that was initially proposed for gaseous combustion. The results show that the reference gaseous temperature profile can be overall reproduced by the extended three-stream flamelet model. Interestingly, it is found that the predictions of major species mass fractions are not sensitive to the oxidiser temperature boundary conditions for the flamelet equations in the a priori analyses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thoonsaengngam, Rattapol; Tangsangiumvisai, Nisachon
This paper proposes an enhanced method for estimating the a priori Signal-to-Disturbance Ratio (SDR) to be employed in the Acoustic Echo and Noise Suppression (AENS) system for full-duplex hands-free communications. The proposed a priori SDR estimation technique is modified based upon the Two-Step Noise Reduction (TSNR) algorithm to suppress the background noise while preserving speech spectral components. In addition, a practical approach to determine accurately the Echo Spectrum Variance (ESV) is presented based upon the linear relationship assumption between the power spectrum of far-end speech and acoustic echo signals. The ESV estimation technique is then employed to alleviate the acoustic echo problem. The performance of the AENS system that employs these two proposed estimation techniques is evaluated through the Echo Attenuation (EA), Noise Attenuation (NA), and two speech distortion measures. Simulation results based upon real speech signals guarantee that our improved AENS system is able to mitigate efficiently the problem of acoustic echo and background noise, while preserving the speech quality and speech intelligibility.
Normalization of T2W-MRI prostate images using Rician a priori
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemaître, Guillaume; Rastgoo, Mojdeh; Massich, Joan; Vilanova, Joan C.; Walker, Paul M.; Freixenet, Jordi; Meyer-Baese, Anke; Mériaudeau, Fabrice; Martí, Robert
2016-03-01
Prostate cancer is reported to be the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men in the world. In practise, diagnosis can be affected by multiple factors which reduces the chance to detect the potential lesions. In the last decades, new imaging techniques mainly based on MRI are developed in conjunction with Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems to help radiologists for such diagnosis. CAD systems are usually designed as a sequential process consisting of four stages: pre-processing, segmentation, registration and classification. As a pre-processing, image normalization is a critical and important step of the chain in order to design a robust classifier and overcome the inter-patients intensity variations. However, little attention has been dedicated to the normalization of T2W-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) prostate images. In this paper, we propose two methods to normalize T2W-MRI prostate images: (i) based on a Rician a priori and (ii) based on a Square-Root Slope Function (SRSF) representation which does not make any assumption regarding the Probability Density Function (PDF) of the data. A comparison with the state-of-the-art methods is also provided. The normalization of the data is assessed by comparing the alignment of the patient PDFs in both qualitative and quantitative manners. In both evaluation, the normalization using Rician a priori outperforms the other state-of-the-art methods.
Template based rotation: A method for functional connectivity analysis with a priori templates☆
Schultz, Aaron P.; Chhatwal, Jasmeer P.; Huijbers, Willem; Hedden, Trey; van Dijk, Koene R.A.; McLaren, Donald G.; Ward, Andrew M.; Wigman, Sarah; Sperling, Reisa A.
2014-01-01
Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) is a powerful tool for understanding the network level organization of the brain in research settings and is increasingly being used to study large-scale neuronal network degeneration in clinical trial settings. Presently, a variety of techniques, including seed-based correlation analysis and group independent components analysis (with either dual regression or back projection) are commonly employed to compute functional connectivity metrics. In the present report, we introduce template based rotation,1 a novel analytic approach optimized for use with a priori network parcellations, which may be particularly useful in clinical trial settings. Template based rotation was designed to leverage the stable spatial patterns of intrinsic connectivity derived from out-of-sample datasets by mapping data from novel sessions onto the previously defined a priori templates. We first demonstrate the feasibility of using previously defined a priori templates in connectivity analyses, and then compare the performance of template based rotation to seed based and dual regression methods by applying these analytic approaches to an fMRI dataset of normal young and elderly subjects. We observed that template based rotation and dual regression are approximately equivalent in detecting fcMRI differences between young and old subjects, demonstrating similar effect sizes for group differences and similar reliability metrics across 12 cortical networks. Both template based rotation and dual-regression demonstrated larger effect sizes and comparable reliabilities as compared to seed based correlation analysis, though all three methods yielded similar patterns of network differences. When performing inter-network and sub-network connectivity analyses, we observed that template based rotation offered greater flexibility, larger group differences, and more stable connectivity estimates as compared to dual regression and seed based
A priori Estimates for 3D Incompressible Current-Vortex Sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulombel, J.-F.; Morando, A.; Secchi, P.; Trebeschi, P.
2012-04-01
We consider the free boundary problem for current-vortex sheets in ideal incompressible magneto-hydrodynamics. It is known that current-vortex sheets may be at most weakly (neutrally) stable due to the existence of surface waves solutions to the linearized equations. The existence of such waves may yield a loss of derivatives in the energy estimate of the solution with respect to the source terms. However, under a suitable stability condition satisfied at each point of the initial discontinuity and a flatness condition on the initial front, we prove an a priori estimate in Sobolev spaces for smooth solutions with no loss of derivatives. The result of this paper gives some hope for proving the local existence of smooth current-vortex sheets without resorting to a Nash-Moser iteration. Such result would be a rigorous confirmation of the stabilizing effect of the magnetic field on Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, which is well known in astrophysics.
Application of Bayesian a Priori Distributions for Vehicles' Video Tracking Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazurek, Przemysław; Okarma, Krzysztof
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) helps to improve the quality and quantity of many car traffic parameters. The use of the ITS is possible when the adequate measuring infrastructure is available. Video systems allow for its implementation with relatively low cost due to the possibility of simultaneous video recording of a few lanes of the road at a considerable distance from the camera. The process of tracking can be realized through different algorithms, the most attractive algorithms are Bayesian, because they use the a priori information derived from previous observations or known limitations. Use of this information is crucial for improving the quality of tracking especially for difficult observability conditions, which occur in the video systems under the influence of: smog, fog, rain, snow and poor lighting conditions.
A Priori Bound on the Velocity in Axially Symmetric Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Zhen; Navas, Esteban A.; Zhang, Qi S.
2016-01-01
Let v be the velocity of Leray-Hopf solutions to the axially symmetric three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Under suitable conditions for initial values, we prove the following a priori bound |v(x, t)| ≤ C |ln r|^{1/2}/r^2, qquad 0 < r ≤ 1/2, where r is the distance from x to the z axis, and C is a constant depending only on the initial value. This provides a pointwise upper bound (worst case scenario) for possible singularities, while the recent papers (Chiun-Chuan et al., Commun PDE 34(1-3):203-232, 2009; Koch et al., Acta Math 203(1):83-105, 2009) gave a lower bound. The gap is polynomial order 1 modulo a half log term.
He, Kaifei; Xu, Tianhe; Förste, Christoph; Petrovic, Svetozar; Barthelmes, Franz; Jiang, Nan; Flechtner, Frank
2016-04-01
When applying the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for precise kinematic positioning in airborne and shipborne gravimetry, multiple GNSS receiving equipment is often fixed mounted on the kinematic platform carrying the gravimetry instrumentation. Thus, the distances among these GNSS antennas are known and invariant. This information can be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of the state estimates. For this purpose, the known distances between the antennas are applied as a priori constraints within the state parameters adjustment. These constraints are introduced in such a way that their accuracy is taken into account. To test this approach, GNSS data of a Baltic Sea shipborne gravimetric campaign have been used. The results of our study show that an application of distance constraints improves the accuracy of the GNSS kinematic positioning, for example, by about 4 mm for the radial component.
He, Kaifei; Xu, Tianhe; Förste, Christoph; Petrovic, Svetozar; Barthelmes, Franz; Jiang, Nan; Flechtner, Frank
2016-01-01
When applying the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for precise kinematic positioning in airborne and shipborne gravimetry, multiple GNSS receiving equipment is often fixed mounted on the kinematic platform carrying the gravimetry instrumentation. Thus, the distances among these GNSS antennas are known and invariant. This information can be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of the state estimates. For this purpose, the known distances between the antennas are applied as a priori constraints within the state parameters adjustment. These constraints are introduced in such a way that their accuracy is taken into account. To test this approach, GNSS data of a Baltic Sea shipborne gravimetric campaign have been used. The results of our study show that an application of distance constraints improves the accuracy of the GNSS kinematic positioning, for example, by about 4 mm for the radial component. PMID:27043580
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berthold, T.; Milbradt, P.; Berkhahn, V.
2018-04-01
This paper presents a model for the approximation of multiple, spatially distributed grain size distributions based on a feedforward neural network. Since a classical feedforward network does not guarantee to produce valid cumulative distribution functions, a priori information is incor porated into the model by applying weight and architecture constraints. The model is derived in two steps. First, a model is presented that is able to produce a valid distribution function for a single sediment sample. Although initially developed for sediment samples, the model is not limited in its application; it can also be used to approximate any other multimodal continuous distribution function. In the second part, the network is extended in order to capture the spatial variation of the sediment samples that have been obtained from 48 locations in the investigation area. Results show that the model provides an adequate approximation of grain size distributions, satisfying the requirements of a cumulative distribution function.
A priori analysis: an application to the estimate of the uncertainty in course grades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lippi, G. L.
2014-07-01
A priori analysis (APA) is discussed as a tool to assess the reliability of grades in standard curricular courses. This unusual, but striking, application is presented when teaching the section on the data treatment of a laboratory course to illustrate the characteristics of the APA and its potential for widespread use, beyond the traditional physics curriculum. The conditions necessary for this kind of analysis are discussed, the general framework is set out and a specific example is given to illustrate its various aspects. Students are often struck by this unusual application and are more apt to remember the APA. Instructors may also benefit from some of the gathered information, as discussed in the paper.
Maclean, Carla L; Brimacombe, C A Elizabeth; Lindsay, D Stephen
2013-12-01
The current study addressed tunnel vision in industrial incident investigation by experimentally testing how a priori information and a human bias (generated via the fundamental attribution error or correspondence bias) affected participants' investigative behavior as well as the effectiveness of a debiasing intervention. Undergraduates and professional investigators engaged in a simulated industrial investigation exercise. We found that participants' judgments were biased by knowledge about the safety history of either a worker or piece of equipment and that a human bias was evident in participants' decision making. However, bias was successfully reduced with "tunnel vision education." Professional investigators demonstrated a greater sophistication in their investigative decision making compared to undergraduates. The similarities and differences between these two populations are discussed. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Predicting thermal history a-priori for magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia of internal carcinoma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhar, Purbarun; Sirisha Maganti, Lakshmi
2017-08-01
This article proposes a simplistic and realistic method where a direct analytical expression can be derived for the temperature field within a tumour during magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia. The approximated analytical expression for thermal history within the tumour is derived based on the lumped capacitance approach and considers all therapy protocols and parameters. The present method is simplistic and provides an easy framework for estimating hyperthermia protocol parameters promptly. The model has been validated with respect to several experimental reports on animal models such as mice/rabbit/hamster and human clinical trials. It has been observed that the model is able to accurately estimate the thermal history within the carcinoma during the hyperthermia therapy. The present approach may find implications in a-priori estimation of the thermal history in internal tumours for optimizing magnetic hyperthermia treatment protocols with respect to the ablation time, tumour size, magnetic drug concentration, field strength, field frequency, nanoparticle material and size, tumour location, and so on.
Developing an A Priori Database for Passive Microwave Snow Water Retrievals Over Ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Mengtao; Liu, Guosheng
2017-12-01
A physically optimized a priori database is developed for Global Precipitation Measurement Microwave Imager (GMI) snow water retrievals over ocean. The initial snow water content profiles are derived from CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) measurements. A radiative transfer model in which the single-scattering properties of nonspherical snowflakes are based on the discrete dipole approximate results is employed to simulate brightness temperatures and their gradients. Snow water content profiles are then optimized through a one-dimensional variational (1D-Var) method. The standard deviations of the difference between observed and simulated brightness temperatures are in a similar magnitude to the observation errors defined for observation error covariance matrix after the 1D-Var optimization, indicating that this variational method is successful. This optimized database is applied in a Bayesian retrieval snow water algorithm. The retrieval results indicated that the 1D-Var approach has a positive impact on the GMI retrieved snow water content profiles by improving the physical consistency between snow water content profiles and observed brightness temperatures. Global distribution of snow water contents retrieved from the a priori database is compared with CloudSat CPR estimates. Results showed that the two estimates have a similar pattern of global distribution, and the difference of their global means is small. In addition, we investigate the impact of using physical parameters to subset the database on snow water retrievals. It is shown that using total precipitable water to subset the database with 1D-Var optimization is beneficial for snow water retrievals.
Influence of a priori profiles on trend calculations from Umkehr data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mateer, C. L.; Dütsch, H. U.; Staehelin, J.; Deluisi, J. J.
1996-07-01
Although the new (1992) ozone profile retrieval algorithm for Umkehr measurements provides much better agreement with ozone sounding results than the old (1964) algorithm, considerable discrepancies remain with respect to ozone trends at different levels in the atmosphere. These discrepancies have been found by the comparison of long-term trends obtained from the Umkehr measurements at Arosa and the ozone balloon soundings at Payerne (Switzerland). It is investigated here whether these obvious discrepancies can be removed by using time-dependent a priori profiles. This procedure is successful only in the lowest part of the atmosphere, below about 19 km. To further explore this problem, synthetic Umkehr observations are calculated from the ozonesonde profiles. Trends are calculated for both the synthetic and actual Umkehr observations. The difference pattern between these Umkehr observation trends is compared with the difference in ozone profile retrieval trends from the synthetic and actual observations. The distinctive difference patterns strongly indicate an inherent disagreement between the Umkehr observations and the ozonesonde profiles. The application of corrections for stratospheric aerosol effects to the Umkehr profiles reduces, but does not eliminate, a discrepancy above 32 km. It is concluded that the discrepancies are due to the constant mixing ratio assumption used in computing the residual ozone above balloon burst level and to the fair-weather bias of Umkehr observations (there are Umkehr observations at Arosa on fewer than 20% of the sonde observation days at Payerne). This sampling difference influences the results for the lower stratosphere. The study furthermore indicates that the ozone trends derived from Umkehr measurements for altitudes above about 32 km are robust for time-dependent changes in the a priori profiles at lower altitudes. Based on the results of this study, we conclude with revised recommendations as to which atmospheric layers
Rapid multi-wavelength optical assessment of circulating blood volume without a priori data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loginova, Ekaterina V.; Zhidkova, Tatyana V.; Proskurnin, Mikhail A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.
2016-03-01
The measurement of circulating blood volume (CBV) is crucial in various medical conditions including surgery, iatrogenic problems, rapid fluid administration, transfusion of red blood cells, or trauma with extensive blood loss including battlefield injuries and other emergencies. Currently, available commercial techniques are invasive and time-consuming for trauma situations. Recently, we have proposed high-speed multi-wavelength photoacoustic/photothermal (PA/PT) flow cytometry for in vivo CBV assessment with multiple dyes as PA contrast agents (labels). As the first step, we have characterized the capability of this technique to monitor the clearance of three dyes (indocyanine green, methylene blue, and trypan blue) in an animal model. However, there are strong demands on improvements in PA/PT flow cytometry. As additional verification of our proof-of-concept of this technique, we performed optical photometric CBV measurements in vitro. Three label dyes—methylene blue, crystal violet and, partially, brilliant green—were selected for simultaneous photometric determination of the components of their two-dye mixtures in the circulating blood in vitro without any extra data (like hemoglobin absorption) known a priori. The tests of single dyes and their mixtures in a flow system simulating a blood transfusion system showed a negligible difference between the sensitivities of the determination of these dyes under batch and flow conditions. For individual dyes, the limits of detection of 3×10-6 M‒3×10-6 M in blood were achieved, which provided their continuous determination at a level of 10-5 M for the CBV assessment without a priori data on the matrix. The CBV assessment with errors no higher than 4% were obtained, and the possibility to apply the developed procedure for optical photometric (flow cytometry) with laser sources was shown.
Impact of high-resolution a priori profiles on satellite-based formaldehyde retrievals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Si-Wan; Natraj, Vijay; Lee, Seoyoung; Kwon, Hyeong-Ahn; Park, Rokjin; de Gouw, Joost; Frost, Gregory; Kim, Jhoon; Stutz, Jochen; Trainer, Michael; Tsai, Catalina; Warneke, Carsten
2018-06-01
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is either directly emitted from sources or produced during the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere. It is possible to infer atmospheric HCHO concentrations using space-based observations, which may be useful for studying emissions and tropospheric chemistry at urban to global scales depending on the quality of the retrievals. In the near future, an unprecedented volume of satellite-based HCHO measurement data will be available from both geostationary and polar-orbiting platforms. Therefore, it is essential to develop retrieval methods appropriate for the next-generation satellites that measure at higher spatial and temporal resolution than the current ones. In this study, we examine the importance of fine spatial and temporal resolution a priori profile information on the retrieval by conducting approximately 45 000 radiative transfer (RT) model calculations in the Los Angeles Basin (LA Basin) megacity. Our analyses suggest that an air mass factor (AMF, a factor converting observed slant columns to vertical columns) based on fine spatial and temporal resolution a priori profiles can better capture the spatial distributions of the enhanced HCHO plumes in an urban area than the nearly constant AMFs used for current operational products by increasing the columns by ˜ 50 % in the domain average and up to 100 % at a finer scale. For this urban area, the AMF values are inversely proportional to the magnitude of the HCHO mixing ratios in the boundary layer. Using our optimized model HCHO results in the Los Angeles Basin that mimic the HCHO retrievals from future geostationary satellites, we illustrate the effectiveness of HCHO data from geostationary measurements for understanding and predicting tropospheric ozone and its precursors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
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Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
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Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
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Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
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A-Priori Rupture Models for Northern California Type-A Faults
Wills, Chris J.; Weldon, Ray J.; Field, Edward H.
2008-01-01
This appendix describes how a-priori rupture models were developed for the northern California Type-A faults. As described in the main body of this report, and in Appendix G, ?a-priori? models represent an initial estimate of the rate of single and multi-segment surface ruptures on each fault. Whether or not a given model is moment balanced (i.e., satisfies section slip-rate data) depends on assumptions made regarding the average slip on each segment in each rupture (which in turn depends on the chosen magnitude-area relationship). Therefore, for a given set of assumptions, or branch on the logic tree, the methodology of the present Working Group (WGCEP-2007) is to find a final model that is as close as possible to the a-priori model, in the least squares sense, but that also satisfies slip rate and perhaps other data. This is analogous the WGCEP- 2002 approach of effectively voting on the relative rate of each possible rupture, and then finding the closest moment-balance model (under a more limiting set of assumptions than adopted by the present WGCEP, as described in detail in Appendix G). The 2002 Working Group Report (WCCEP, 2003, referred to here as WGCEP-2002), created segmented earthquake rupture forecast models for all faults in the region, including some that had been designated as Type B faults in the NSHMP, 1996, and one that had not previously been considered. The 2002 National Seismic Hazard Maps used the values from WGCEP-2002 for all the faults in the region, essentially treating all the listed faults as Type A faults. As discussed in Appendix A, the current WGCEP found that there are a number of faults with little or no data on slip-per-event, or dates of previous earthquakes. As a result, the WGCEP recommends that faults with minimal available earthquake recurrence data: the Greenville, Mount Diablo, San Gregorio, Monte Vista-Shannon and Concord-Green Valley be modeled as Type B faults to be consistent with similarly poorly-known faults statewide
A priori study of subgrid-scale features in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dabbagh, F.; Trias, F. X.; Gorobets, A.; Oliva, A.
2017-10-01
At the crossroad between flow topology analysis and turbulence modeling, a priori studies are a reliable tool to understand the underlying physics of the subgrid-scale (SGS) motions in turbulent flows. In this paper, properties of the SGS features in the framework of a large-eddy simulation are studied for a turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC). To do so, data from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent air-filled RBC in a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio unity and π spanwise open-ended distance are used at two Rayleigh numbers R a ∈{1 08,1 010 } [Dabbagh et al., "On the evolution of flow topology in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection," Phys. Fluids 28, 115105 (2016)]. First, DNS at Ra = 108 is used to assess the performance of eddy-viscosity models such as QR, Wall-Adapting Local Eddy-viscosity (WALE), and the recent S3PQR-models proposed by Trias et al. ["Building proper invariants for eddy-viscosity subgrid-scale models," Phys. Fluids 27, 065103 (2015)]. The outcomes imply that the eddy-viscosity modeling smoothes the coarse-grained viscous straining and retrieves fairly well the effect of the kinetic unfiltered scales in order to reproduce the coherent large scales. However, these models fail to approach the exact evolution of the SGS heat flux and are incapable to reproduce well the further dominant rotational enstrophy pertaining to the buoyant production. Afterwards, the key ingredients of eddy-viscosity, νt, and eddy-diffusivity, κt, are calculated a priori and revealed positive prevalent values to maintain a turbulent wind essentially driven by the mean buoyant force at the sidewalls. The topological analysis suggests that the effective turbulent diffusion paradigm and the hypothesis of a constant turbulent Prandtl number are only applicable in the large-scale strain-dominated areas in the bulk. It is shown that the bulk-dominated rotational structures of vortex-stretching (and its synchronous viscous dissipative structures) hold
A Priori Analysis of Flamelet-Based Modeling for a Dual-Mode Scramjet Combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quinlan, Jesse R.; McDaniel, James C.; Drozda, Tomasz G.; Lacaze, Guilhem; Oefelein, Joseph
2014-01-01
An a priori investigation of the applicability of flamelet-based combustion models to dual-mode scramjet combustion was performed utilizing Reynolds-averaged simulations (RAS). For this purpose, the HIFiRE Direct Connect Rig (HDCR) flowpath, fueled with a JP-7 fuel surrogate and operating in dual- and scram-mode was considered. The chemistry of the JP-7 fuel surrogate was modeled using a 22 species, 18-step chemical reaction mechanism. Simulation results were compared to experimentally-obtained, time-averaged, wall pressure measurements to validate the RAS solutions. The analysis of the dual-mode operation of this flowpath showed regions of predominately non-premixed, high-Damkohler number, combustion. Regions of premixed combustion were also present but associated with only a small fraction of the total heat-release in the flow. This is in contrast to the scram-mode operation, where a comparable amount of heat is released from non-premixed and premixed combustion modes. Representative flamelet boundary conditions were estimated by analyzing probability density functions for temperature and pressure for pure fuel and oxidizer conditions. The results of the present study reveal the potential for a flamelet model to accurately model the combustion processes in the HDCR and likely other high-speed flowpaths of engineering interest.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jayet, Baptiste; Ahmad, Junaid; Taylor, Shelley L.; Hill, Philip J.; Dehghani, Hamid; Morgan, Stephen P.
2017-03-01
Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a commonly used imaging modality in biology to study cancer in vivo in small animals. Images are generated using a camera to map the optical fluence emerging from the studied animal, then a numerical reconstruction algorithm is used to locate the sources and estimate their sizes. However, due to the strong light scattering properties of biological tissues, the resolution is very limited (around a few millimetres). Therefore obtaining accurate information about the pathology is complicated. We propose a combined ultrasound/optics approach to improve accuracy of these techniques. In addition to the BLI data, an ultrasound probe driven by a scanner is used for two main objectives. First, to obtain a pure acoustic image, which provides structural information of the sample. And second, to alter the light emission by the bioluminescent sources embedded inside the sample, which is monitored using a high speed optical detector (e.g. photomultiplier tube). We will show that this last measurement, used in conjunction with the ultrasound data, can provide accurate localisation of the bioluminescent sources. This can be used as a priori information by the numerical reconstruction algorithm, greatly increasing the accuracy of the BLI image reconstruction as compared to the image generated using only BLI data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Wenjuan; Gao, Feng; Duan, Linjing; Zhu, Qingzhen; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Linhui; Yi, Xi; Zhao, Huijuan
2012-03-01
We obtain absorption and scattering reconstructed images by incorporating a priori information of target location obtained from fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) into the diffuse optical tomography (DOT). The main disadvantage of DOT lies in the low spatial resolution resulting from highly scattering nature of tissue in the near-infrared (NIR), but one can use it to monitor hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation simultaneously, as well as several other cheomphores such as water, lipids, and cytochrome-c-oxidase. Up to date, extensive effort has been made to integrate DOT with other imaging modalities such as MRI, CT, to obtain accurate optical property maps of the tissue. However, the experimental apparatus is intricate. In this study, DOT image reconstruction algorithm that incorporates a prior structural information provided by FDOT is investigated in an attempt to optimize recovery of a simulated optical property distribution. By use of a specifically designed multi-channel time-correlated single photon counting system, the proposed scheme in a transmission mode is experimentally validated to achieve simultaneous reconstruction of the fluorescent yield, lifetime, absorption and scattering coefficient. The experimental results demonstrate that the quantitative recovery of the tumor optical properties has doubled and the spatial resolution improves as well by applying the new improved method.
Optimal quantum cloning based on the maximin principle by using a priori information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Peng; Dai, Hong-Yi; Wei, Jia-Hua; Zhang, Ming
2016-10-01
We propose an optimal 1 →2 quantum cloning method based on the maximin principle by making full use of a priori information of amplitude and phase about the general cloned qubit input set, which is a simply connected region enclosed by a "longitude-latitude grid" on the Bloch sphere. Theoretically, the fidelity of the optimal quantum cloning machine derived from this method is the largest in terms of the maximin principle compared with that of any other machine. The problem solving is an optimization process that involves six unknown complex variables, six vectors in an uncertain-dimensional complex vector space, and four equality constraints. Moreover, by restricting the structure of the quantum cloning machine, the optimization problem is simplified as a three-real-parameter suboptimization problem with only one equality constraint. We obtain the explicit formula for a suboptimal quantum cloning machine. Additionally, the fidelity of our suboptimal quantum cloning machine is higher than or at least equal to that of universal quantum cloning machines and phase-covariant quantum cloning machines. It is also underlined that the suboptimal cloning machine outperforms the "belt quantum cloning machine" for some cases.
A priori and a posteriori analysis of the flow around a rectangular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cimarelli, A.; Leonforte, A.; Franciolini, M.; De Angelis, E.; Angeli, D.; Crivellini, A.
2017-11-01
The definition of a correct mesh resolution and modelling approach for the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the flow around a rectangular cylinder is recognized to be a rather elusive problem as shown by the large scatter of LES results present in the literature. In the present work, we aim at assessing this issue by performing an a priori analysis of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data of the flow. This approach allows us to measure the ability of the LES field on reproducing the main flow features as a function of the resolution employed. Based on these results, we define a mesh resolution which maximize the opposite needs of reducing the computational costs and of adequately resolving the flow dynamics. The effectiveness of the resolution method proposed is then verified by means of an a posteriori analysis of actual LES data obtained by means of the implicit LES approach given by the numerical properties of the Discontinuous Galerkin spatial discretization technique. The present work represents a first step towards a best practice for LES of separating and reattaching flows.
Reconstruction of Consistent 3d CAD Models from Point Cloud Data Using a Priori CAD Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bey, A.; Chaine, R.; Marc, R.; Thibault, G.; Akkouche, S.
2011-09-01
We address the reconstruction of 3D CAD models from point cloud data acquired in industrial environments, using a pre-existing 3D model as an initial estimate of the scene to be processed. Indeed, this prior knowledge can be used to drive the reconstruction so as to generate an accurate 3D model matching the point cloud. We more particularly focus our work on the cylindrical parts of the 3D models. We propose to state the problem in a probabilistic framework: we have to search for the 3D model which maximizes some probability taking several constraints into account, such as the relevancy with respect to the point cloud and the a priori 3D model, and the consistency of the reconstructed model. The resulting optimization problem can then be handled using a stochastic exploration of the solution space, based on the random insertion of elements in the configuration under construction, coupled with a greedy management of the conflicts which efficiently improves the configuration at each step. We show that this approach provides reliable reconstructed 3D models by presenting some results on industrial data sets.
SPARSE—A subgrid particle averaged Reynolds stress equivalent model: testing with a priori closure
Davis, Sean L.; Sen, Oishik; Udaykumar, H. S.
2017-01-01
A Lagrangian particle cloud model is proposed that accounts for the effects of Reynolds-averaged particle and turbulent stresses and the averaged carrier-phase velocity of the subparticle cloud scale on the averaged motion and velocity of the cloud. The SPARSE (subgrid particle averaged Reynolds stress equivalent) model is based on a combination of a truncated Taylor expansion of a drag correction function and Reynolds averaging. It reduces the required number of computational parcels to trace a cloud of particles in Eulerian–Lagrangian methods for the simulation of particle-laden flow. Closure is performed in an a priori manner using a reference simulation where all particles in the cloud are traced individually with a point-particle model. Comparison of a first-order model and SPARSE with the reference simulation in one dimension shows that both the stress and the averaging of the carrier-phase velocity on the cloud subscale affect the averaged motion of the particle. A three-dimensional isotropic turbulence computation shows that only one computational parcel is sufficient to accurately trace a cloud of tens of thousands of particles. PMID:28413341
SPARSE-A subgrid particle averaged Reynolds stress equivalent model: testing with a priori closure.
Davis, Sean L; Jacobs, Gustaaf B; Sen, Oishik; Udaykumar, H S
2017-03-01
A Lagrangian particle cloud model is proposed that accounts for the effects of Reynolds-averaged particle and turbulent stresses and the averaged carrier-phase velocity of the subparticle cloud scale on the averaged motion and velocity of the cloud. The SPARSE (subgrid particle averaged Reynolds stress equivalent) model is based on a combination of a truncated Taylor expansion of a drag correction function and Reynolds averaging. It reduces the required number of computational parcels to trace a cloud of particles in Eulerian-Lagrangian methods for the simulation of particle-laden flow. Closure is performed in an a priori manner using a reference simulation where all particles in the cloud are traced individually with a point-particle model. Comparison of a first-order model and SPARSE with the reference simulation in one dimension shows that both the stress and the averaging of the carrier-phase velocity on the cloud subscale affect the averaged motion of the particle. A three-dimensional isotropic turbulence computation shows that only one computational parcel is sufficient to accurately trace a cloud of tens of thousands of particles.
A Priori Analyses of Three Subgrid-Scale Models for One-Parameter Families of Filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pruett, C. David; Adams, Nikolaus A.
1998-01-01
The decay of isotropic turbulence a compressible flow is examined by direct numerical simulation (DNS). A priori analyses of the DNS data are then performed to evaluate three subgrid-scale (SGS) models for large-eddy simulation (LES): a generalized Smagorinsky model (M1), a stress-similarity model (M2), and a gradient model (M3). The models exploit one-parameter second- or fourth-order filters of Pade type, which permit the cutoff wavenumber k(sub c) to be tuned independently of the grid increment (delta)x. The modeled (M) and exact (E) SGS-stresses are compared component-wise by correlation coefficients of the form C(E,M) computed over the entire three-dimensional fields. In general, M1 correlates poorly against exact stresses (C < 0.2), M3 correlates moderately well (C approx. 0.6), and M2 correlates remarkably well (0.8 < C < 1.0). Specifically, correlations C(E, M2) are high provided the grid and test filters are of the same order. Moreover, the highest correlations (C approx.= 1.0) result whenever the grid and test filters are identical (in both order and cutoff). Finally, present results reveal the exact SGS stresses obtained by grid filters of differing orders to be only moderately well correlated. Thus, in LES the model should not be specified independently of the filter.
The importance of using dynamical a-priori profiles for infrared O3 retrievals : the case of IASI.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peiro, H.; Emili, E.; Le Flochmoen, E.; Barret, B.; Cariolle, D.
2016-12-01
Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a trace gas involved in the global greenhouse effect. To quantify its contribution to global warming, an accurate determination of O3 profiles is necessary. The instrument IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer), on board satellite MetOP-A, is the more sensitive sensor to tropospheric O3 with a high spatio-temporal coverage. Satellite retrievals are often based on the inversion of the measured radiance data with a variational approach. This requires an a priori profile and the correspondent error covariance matrix (COV) as ancillary input. Previous studies have shown some biases ( 20%) in IASI retrievals for tropospheric column in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). A possible source of errors is caused by the a priori profile. This study aims to i) build a dynamical a priori profile O3 with a Chemistry Transport Model (CTM), ii) integrate and to demonstrate the interest of this a priori profile in IASI retrievals.Global O3 profiles are retrieved from IASI radiances with the SOFRID (Software for a fast Retrieval of IASI Data) algorithm. It is based on the RTTOV (Radiative Transfer for TOVS) code and a 1D-Var retrieval scheme. Until now, a constant a priori profile was based on a combination of MOZAIC, WOUDC-SHADOZ and Aura/MLS data named here CLIM PR. The global CTM MOCAGE (Modèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Echelle) has been used with a linear O3 chemistry scheme to assimilate Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) data. The model resolution of 2°x2°, with 60 sigma-hybrid vertical levels covering the stratosphere has been used. MLS level 2 products have been assimilated with a 4D-VAR variational algorithm to constrain stratospheric O3 and obtain high quality a priori profiles O3 above the tropopause. From this reanalysis, we built these profiles at a 6h frequency on a coarser resolution grid 10°x20° named MOCAGE+MLS PR.Statistical comparisons between retrievals and ozonesondes have shown better correlations and smaller biases for
Raiche, Gilles; Blais, Jean-Guy
2009-01-01
In a computerized adaptive test, we would like to obtain an acceptable precision of the proficiency level estimate using an optimal number of items. Unfortunately, decreasing the number of items is accompanied by a certain degree of bias when the true proficiency level differs significantly from the a priori estimate. The authors suggest that it is possible to reduced the bias, and even the standard error of the estimate, by applying to each provisional estimation one or a combination of the following strategies: adaptive correction for bias proposed by Bock and Mislevy (1982), adaptive a priori estimate, and adaptive integration interval.
A priori motion models for four-dimensional reconstruction in gated cardiac SPECT
Lalush, D.S.; Tsui, B.M.W.; Cui, Lin
1996-12-31
We investigate the benefit of incorporating a priori assumptions about cardiac motion in a fully four-dimensional (4D) reconstruction algorithm for gated cardiac SPECT. Previous work has shown that non-motion-specific 4D Gibbs priors enforcing smoothing in time and space can control noise while preserving resolution. In this paper, we evaluate methods for incorporating known heart motion in the Gibbs prior model. The new model is derived by assigning motion vectors to each 4D voxel, defining the movement of that volume of activity into the neighboring time frames. Weights for the Gibbs cliques are computed based on these {open_quotes}most likely{close_quotes} motion vectors.more » To evaluate, we employ the mathematical cardiac-torso (MCAT) phantom with a new dynamic heart model that simulates the beating and twisting motion of the heart. Sixteen realistically-simulated gated datasets were generated, with noise simulated to emulate a real Tl-201 gated SPECT study. Reconstructions were performed using several different reconstruction algorithms, all modeling nonuniform attenuation and three-dimensional detector response. These include ML-EM with 4D filtering, 4D MAP-EM without prior motion assumption, and 4D MAP-EM with prior motion assumptions. The prior motion assumptions included both the correct motion model and incorrect models. Results show that reconstructions using the 4D prior model can smooth noise and preserve time-domain resolution more effectively than 4D linear filters. We conclude that modeling of motion in 4D reconstruction algorithms can be a powerful tool for smoothing noise and preserving temporal resolution in gated cardiac studies.« less
Lost in space: Onboard star identification using CCD star tracker data without an a priori attitude
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ketchum, Eleanor A.; Tolson, Robert H.
1993-01-01
There are many algorithms in use today which determine spacecraft attitude by identifying stars in the field of view of a star tracker. Some methods, which date from the early 1960's, compare the angular separation between observed stars with a small catalog. In the last 10 years, several methods have been developed which speed up the process and reduce the amount of memory needed, a key element to onboard attitude determination. However, each of these methods require some a priori knowledge of the spacecraft attitude. Although the Sun and magnetic field generally provide the necessary coarse attitude information, there are occasions when a spacecraft could get lost when it is not prudent to wait for sunlight. Also, the possibility of efficient attitude determination using only the highly accurate CCD star tracker could lead to fully autonomous spacecraft attitude determination. The need for redundant coarse sensors could thus be eliminated at substantial cost reduction. Some groups have extended their algorithms to implement a computation intense full sky scan. Some require large data bases. Both storage and speed are concerns for autonomous onboard systems. Neural network technology is even being explored by some as a possible solution, but because of the limited number of patterns that can be stored and large overhead, nothing concrete has resulted from these efforts. This paper presents an algorithm which, by descretizing the sky and filtering by visual magnitude of the brightness observed star, speeds up the lost in space star identification process while reducing the amount of necessary onboard computer storage compared to existing techniques.
Quantifying the sensitivity of aerosol optical depths retrieved from MSG SEVIRI to a priori data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulgin, C. E.; Palmer, P. I.; Merchant, C. J.; Siddans, R.; Poulsen, C.; Grainger, R. G.; Thomas, G.; Carboni, E.; McConnell, C.; Highwood, E.
2009-12-01
Radiative forcing contributions from aerosol direct and indirect effects remain one of the most uncertain components of the climate system. Satellite observations of aerosol optical properties offer important constraints on atmospheric aerosols but their sensitivity to prior assumptions must be better characterized before they are used effectively to reduce uncertainty in aerosol radiative forcing. We assess the sensitivity of the Oxford-RAL Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC) optimal estimation retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) to a priori aerosol data. SEVIRI is a geostationary satellite instrument centred over Africa and the neighbouring Atlantic Ocean, routinely sampling desert dust and biomass burning outflow from Africa. We quantify the uncertainty in SEVIRI AOD retrievals in the presence of desert dust by comparing retrievals that use prior information from the Optical Properties of Aerosol and Cloud (OPAC) database, with those that use measured aerosol properties during the Dust Outflow and Deposition to the Ocean (DODO) aircraft campaign (August, 2006). We also assess the sensitivity of retrieved AODs to changes in solar zenith angle, and the vertical profile of aerosol effective radius and extinction coefficient input into the retrieval forward model. Currently the ORAC retrieval scheme retrieves AODs for five aerosol types (desert dust, biomass burning, maritime, urban and continental) and chooses the most appropriate AOD based on the cost functions. We generate an improved prior aerosol speciation database for SEVIRI based on a statistical analysis of a Saharan Dust Index (SDI) determined using variances of different brightness temperatures, and organic and black carbon tracers from the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. This database is described as a function of season and time of day. We quantify the difference in AODs between those chosen based on prior information from the SDI and GEOS
Limited angle breast ultrasound tomography with a priori information and artifact removal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jintamethasawat, Rungroj; Zhu, Yunhao; Kripfgans, Oliver D.; Yuan, Jie; Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Carson, Paul L.
2017-03-01
In B-mode images from dual-sided ultrasound, it has been shown that by delineating structures suspected of being relatively homogeneous, one can enhance limited angle tomography to produce speed of sound images in the same view as X-ray Digital Breast Tomography (DBT). This could allow better breast cancer detection and discrimination, as well as improved registration of the ultrasound and X-ray images, because of the similarity of SOS and X-ray contrast in the breast. However, this speed of sound reconstruction method relies strongly on B-mode or other reflection mode segmentation. If that information is limited or incorrect, artifacts will appear in the reconstructed images. Therefore, the iterative speed of sound reconstruction algorithm has been modified in a manner of simultaneously utilizing the image segmentations and removing most artifacts. The first step of incorporating a priori information is solved by any nonlinearnonconvex optimization method while artifact removal is accomplished by employing the fast split Bregman method to perform total-variation (TV) regularization for image denoising. The proposed method was demonstrated in simplified simulations of our dual-sided ultrasound scanner. To speed these computations two opposed 40-element ultrasound linear arrays with 0.5 MHz center frequency were simulated for imaging objects in a uniform background. The proposed speed of sound reconstruction method worked well with both bent-ray and full-wave inversion methods. This is also the first demonstration of successful full-wave medical ultrasound tomography in the limited angle geometry. Presented results lend credibility to a possible translation of this method to clinical breast imaging.
An a priori DNS study of the shadow-position mixing model
Zhao, Xin -Yu; Bhagatwala, Ankit; Chen, Jacqueline H.; ...
2016-01-15
In this study, the modeling of mixing by molecular diffusion is a central aspect for transported probability density function (tPDF) methods. In this paper, the newly-proposed shadow position mixing model (SPMM) is examined, using a DNS database for a temporally evolving di-methyl ether slot jet flame. Two methods that invoke different levels of approximation are proposed to extract the shadow displacement (equivalent to shadow position) from the DNS database. An approach for a priori analysis of the mixing-model performance is developed. The shadow displacement is highly correlated with both mixture fraction and velocity, and the peak correlation coefficient of themore » shadow displacement and mixture fraction is higher than that of the shadow displacement and velocity. This suggests that the composition-space localness is reasonably well enforced by the model, with appropriate choices of model constants. The conditional diffusion of mixture fraction and major species from DNS and from SPMM are then compared, using mixing rates that are derived by matching the mixture fraction scalar dissipation rates. Good qualitative agreement is found, for the prediction of the locations of zero and maximum/minimum conditional diffusion locations for mixture fraction and individual species. Similar comparisons are performed for DNS and the IECM (interaction by exchange with the conditional mean) model. The agreement between SPMM and DNS is better than that between IECM and DNS, in terms of conditional diffusion iso-contour similarities and global normalized residual levels. It is found that a suitable value for the model constant c that controls the mixing frequency can be derived using the local normalized scalar variance, and that the model constant a controls the localness of the model. A higher-Reynolds-number test case is anticipated to be more appropriate to evaluate the mixing models, and stand-alone transported PDF simulations are required to more fully enforce
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmidt, Sebastian; Troge, Thomas A.; Lorrain, Denis
2013-01-01
A theory of listening to music is proposed. It suggests that, for listeners, the process of prediction is the starting point to experiencing music. This implies that perception of music starts through both a predisposed and an experience-based extrapolation into the future (this is labeled "a priori" listening). Indications for this…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, C.; Romanowicz, B. A.
2017-12-01
Monte Carlo methods are powerful approaches to solve nonlinear problems and are becoming very popular in Earth sciences. One reason being that, at first glance, no constraints or explicit regularization of model parameters are required. At second glance, one might realize that regularization is done through a prior. The choice of this prior, however, is subjective, and with its choice, unintended or undesired extra information can be injected into the problem. The principal criticism of Bayesian methods is that the prior can be "tuned" in order to get the expected solution. Consequently, detractors of the Bayesian method could easily argue that the solution is influenced by the form of the prior distribution, which choice is subjective. Hence, models obtained with Monte Carlo methods are still highly debated. Here we investigate the influence of a priori constraints (i.e., fixed crustal discontinuities) on the posterior probability distributions of estimated parameters, that is, vertical polarized shear velocity VSV and radial anisotropy ξ, in a transdimensional Bayesian inversion for continental lithospheric structure. We follow upon the work of Calò et al. (2016), who jointly inverted converted phases (P to S) without deconvolution and surface wave dispersion data, to obtain 1-D radial anisotropic shear wave velocity profiles in the North American craton. We aim at verifying whether the strong lithospheric layering found in the stable part of the craton is robust with respect to artifacts that might be caused by the methodology used. We test the hypothesis that the observed midlithospheric discontinuities result from (1) fixed crustal discontinuities in the reference model and (2) a fixed Vp/Vs ratio. The synthetic tests on two Earth models show that a fixed Vp/Vs ratio does not introduce artificial layering, even if the assumed value is slightly wrong. This is an important finding for real data inversion where the true value is not always available or accurate
The origin of anomalous transport in porous media - is it possible to make a priori predictions?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin
2013-04-01
at approximately the average flow speed; in the carbonate with the widest velocity distribution the stagnant concentration peak is persistent, while the emergence of a smaller secondary mobile peak is observed, leading to a highly anomalous behavior. This defines different generic nature of non-Fickian transport in the three media and quantifies the effect of pore structure on transport. Moreover, the propagators obtained by the model are in a very good agreement with the propagators measured on beadpack, Bentheimer sandstone and Portland carbonate cores in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to make a priori predictions of anomalous transport in porous media. The importance of these findings for transport in complex carbonate rock micro-CT images is discussed, classifying them in terms of degree of anomalous transport that can have an impact at the field scale. Extensions to reactive transport will be discussed.
Modelling of subgrid-scale phenomena in supercritical transitional mixing layers: an a priori study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selle, Laurent C.; Okong'o, Nora A.; Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth G.
computationally intensive in LES. Several SGS flux models are tested on an a priori basis. The Smagorinsky (SM) model has a poor correlation with the data, while the gradient (GR) and scale-similarity (SS) models have high correlations. Calibrated model coefficients for the GR and SS models yield good agreement with the SGS fluxes, although statistically, the coefficients are not valid over all realizations. The GR model is also tested for the variances entering the calculation of the new terms in the momentum and energy equations; high correlations are obtained, although the calibrated coefficients are not statistically significant over the entire database at fixed filter size. As a manifestation of the small-scale supercritical mixing peculiarities, both scalar-dissipation visualizations and the scalar-dissipation probability density functions (PDF) are examined. The PDF is shown to exhibit minor peaks, with particular significance for those at larger scalar dissipation values than the mean, thus significantly departing from the Gaussian behaviour.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Xia; Yang, Yuanxi; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Tianhe
2017-11-01
Intersatellite Link (ISL) technology helps to realize the auto update of broadcast ephemeris and clock error parameters for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). ISL constitutes an important approach with which to both improve the observation geometry and extend the tracking coverage of China's Beidou Navigation Satellite System (BDS). However, ISL-only orbit determination might lead to the constellation drift, rotation, and even lead to the divergence in orbit determination. Fortunately, predicted orbits with good precision can be used as a priori information with which to constrain the estimated satellite orbit parameters. Therefore, the precision of satellite autonomous orbit determination can be improved by consideration of a priori orbit information, and vice versa. However, the errors of rotation and translation in a priori orbit will remain in the ultimate result. This paper proposes a constrained precise orbit determination (POD) method for a sub-constellation of the new Beidou satellite constellation with only a few ISLs. The observation model of dual one-way measurements eliminating satellite clock errors is presented, and the orbit determination precision is analyzed with different data processing backgrounds. The conclusions are as follows. (1) With ISLs, the estimated parameters are strongly correlated, especially the positions and velocities of satellites. (2) The performance of determined BDS orbits will be improved by the constraints with more precise priori orbits. The POD precision is better than 45 m with a priori orbit constrain of 100 m precision (e.g., predicted orbits by telemetry tracking and control system), and is better than 6 m with precise priori orbit constraints of 10 m precision (e.g., predicted orbits by international GNSS monitoring & Assessment System (iGMAS)). (3) The POD precision is improved by additional ISLs. Constrained by a priori iGMAS orbits, the POD precision with two, three, and four ISLs is better than 6, 3, and 2
De Donno, Giorgio; Cardarelli, Ettore
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present a new code for the modelling and inversion of resistivity and chargeability data using a priori information to improve the accuracy of the reconstructed model for landfill. When a priori information is available in the study area, we can insert them by means of inequality constraints on the whole model or on a single layer or assigning weighting factors for enhancing anomalies elongated in the horizontal or vertical directions. However, when we have to face a multilayered scenario with numerous resistive to conductive transitions (the case of controlled landfills), the effective thickness of the layers can be biased. The presented code includes a model-tuning scheme, which is applied after the inversion of field data, where the inversion of the synthetic data is performed based on an initial guess, and the absolute difference between the field and synthetic inverted models is minimized. The reliability of the proposed approach has been supported in two real-world examples; we were able to identify an unauthorized landfill and to reconstruct the geometrical and physical layout of an old waste dump. The combined analysis of the resistivity and chargeability (normalised) models help us to remove ambiguity due to the presence of the waste mass. Nevertheless, the presence of certain layers can remain hidden without using a priori information, as demonstrated by a comparison of the constrained inversion with a standard inversion. The robustness of the above-cited method (using a priori information in combination with model tuning) has been validated with the cross-section from the construction plans, where the reconstructed model is in agreement with the original design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bey, Kim S.; Oden, J. Tinsley
1993-01-01
A priori error estimates are derived for hp-versions of the finite element method for discontinuous Galerkin approximations of a model class of linear, scalar, first-order hyperbolic conservation laws. These estimates are derived in a mesh dependent norm in which the coefficients depend upon both the local mesh size h(sub K) and a number p(sub k) which can be identified with the spectral order of the local approximations over each element.
Wiuf, Carsten; Schaumburg-Müller Pallesen, Jonatan; Foldager, Leslie; Grove, Jakob
2016-08-01
In many areas of science it is custom to perform many, potentially millions, of tests simultaneously. To gain statistical power it is common to group tests based on a priori criteria such as predefined regions or by sliding windows. However, it is not straightforward to choose grouping criteria and the results might depend on the chosen criteria. Methods that summarize, or aggregate, test statistics or p-values, without relying on a priori criteria, are therefore desirable. We present a simple method to aggregate a sequence of stochastic variables, such as test statistics or p-values, into fewer variables without assuming a priori defined groups. We provide different ways to evaluate the significance of the aggregated variables based on theoretical considerations and resampling techniques, and show that under certain assumptions the FWER is controlled in the strong sense. Validity of the method was demonstrated using simulations and real data analyses. Our method may be a useful supplement to standard procedures relying on evaluation of test statistics individually. Moreover, by being agnostic and not relying on predefined selected regions, it might be a practical alternative to conventionally used methods of aggregation of p-values over regions. The method is implemented in Python and freely available online (through GitHub, see the Supplementary information).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Matthew Stephen
2017-01-01
A primary objective for TOLNet is the evaluation and validation of space-based tropospheric O3 retrievals from future systems such as the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite. This study is designed to evaluate the tropopause-based O3 climatology (TB-Clim) dataset which will be used as the a priori profile information in TEMPO O3 retrievals. This study also evaluates model simulated O3 profiles, which could potentially serve as a priori O3 profile information in TEMPO retrievals, from near-real-time (NRT) data assimilation model products (NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Forward Processing (FP) and Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications version 2 (MERRA2)) and full chemical transport model (CTM), GEOS-Chem, simulations. The TB-Clim dataset and model products are evaluated with surface (0-2 km) and tropospheric (0-10 km) TOLNet observations to demonstrate the accuracy of the suggested a priori dataset and information which could potentially be used in TEMPO O3 algorithms. This study also presents the impact of individual a priori profile sources on the accuracy of theoretical TEMPO O3 retrievals in the troposphere and at the surface. Preliminary results indicate that while the TB-Clim climatological dataset can replicate seasonally-averaged tropospheric O3 profiles observed by TOLNet, model-simulated profiles from a full CTM (GEOS-Chem is used as a proxy for CTM O3 predictions) resulted in more accurate tropospheric and surface-level O3 retrievals from TEMPO when compared to hourly (diurnal cycle evaluation) and daily-averaged (daily variability evaluation) TOLNet observations. Furthermore, it was determined that when large daily-averaged surface O3 mixing ratios are observed (65 ppb), which are important for air quality purposes, TEMPO retrieval values at the surface display higher correlations and less bias when applying CTM a priori profile information
Jones, Sarah E.
2016-01-01
Degeneracy of respiratory network function would imply that anatomically discrete aspects of the brain stem are capable of producing respiratory rhythm. To test this theory we a priori transected brain stem preparations before reperfusion and reoxygenation at 4 rostrocaudal levels: 1.5 mm caudal to obex (n = 5), at obex (n = 5), and 1.5 (n = 7) and 3 mm (n = 6) rostral to obex. The respiratory activity of these preparations was assessed via recordings of phrenic and vagal nerves and lumbar spinal expiratory motor output. Preparations with a priori transection at level of the caudal brain stem did not produce stable rhythmic respiratory bursting, even when the arterial chemoreceptors were stimulated with sodium cyanide (NaCN). Reperfusion of brain stems that preserved the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) showed spontaneous and sustained rhythmic respiratory bursting at low phrenic nerve activity (PNA) amplitude that occurred simultaneously in all respiratory motor outputs. We refer to this rhythm as the pre-BötC burstlet-type rhythm. Conserving circuitry up to the pontomedullary junction consistently produced robust high-amplitude PNA at lower burst rates, whereas sequential motor patterning across the respiratory motor outputs remained absent. Some of the rostrally transected preparations expressed both burstlet-type and regular PNA amplitude rhythms. Further analysis showed that the burstlet-type rhythm and high-amplitude PNA had 1:2 quantal relation, with burstlets appearing to trigger high-amplitude bursts. We conclude that no degenerate rhythmogenic circuits are located in the caudal medulla oblongata and confirm the pre-BötC as the primary rhythmogenic kernel. The absence of sequential motor patterning in a priori transected preparations suggests that pontine circuits govern respiratory pattern formation. PMID:26888109
Jones, Sarah E; Dutschmann, Mathias
2016-05-01
Degeneracy of respiratory network function would imply that anatomically discrete aspects of the brain stem are capable of producing respiratory rhythm. To test this theory we a priori transected brain stem preparations before reperfusion and reoxygenation at 4 rostrocaudal levels: 1.5 mm caudal to obex (n = 5), at obex (n = 5), and 1.5 (n = 7) and 3 mm (n = 6) rostral to obex. The respiratory activity of these preparations was assessed via recordings of phrenic and vagal nerves and lumbar spinal expiratory motor output. Preparations with a priori transection at level of the caudal brain stem did not produce stable rhythmic respiratory bursting, even when the arterial chemoreceptors were stimulated with sodium cyanide (NaCN). Reperfusion of brain stems that preserved the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) showed spontaneous and sustained rhythmic respiratory bursting at low phrenic nerve activity (PNA) amplitude that occurred simultaneously in all respiratory motor outputs. We refer to this rhythm as the pre-BötC burstlet-type rhythm. Conserving circuitry up to the pontomedullary junction consistently produced robust high-amplitude PNA at lower burst rates, whereas sequential motor patterning across the respiratory motor outputs remained absent. Some of the rostrally transected preparations expressed both burstlet-type and regular PNA amplitude rhythms. Further analysis showed that the burstlet-type rhythm and high-amplitude PNA had 1:2 quantal relation, with burstlets appearing to trigger high-amplitude bursts. We conclude that no degenerate rhythmogenic circuits are located in the caudal medulla oblongata and confirm the pre-BötC as the primary rhythmogenic kernel. The absence of sequential motor patterning in a priori transected preparations suggests that pontine circuits govern respiratory pattern formation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Travelers' Health: Immunocompromised Travelers
... clinical and epidemiologic studies are insufficient at this time to evaluate the actual risk of severe adverse effects associated with YF vaccine among recipients with limited immune deficits. If international travel requirements, and not true exposure risk, are the ...
Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers
... Most experts recommend a slower ascent with adequate time for acclimatization. No studies or case reports show harm to a fetus if the mother travels briefly to high altitudes during pregnancy. However, it ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chouaib, Wafa; Alila, Younes; Caldwell, Peter V.
2018-05-01
The need for predictions of flow time-series persists at ungauged catchments, motivating the research goals of our study. By means of the Sacramento model, this paper explores the use of parameter transfer within homogeneous regions of similar climate and flow characteristics and makes comparisons with predictions from a priori parameters. We assessed the performance using the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS), bias, mean monthly hydrograph and flow duration curve (FDC). The study was conducted on a large dataset of 73 catchments within the eastern US. Two approaches to the parameter transferability were developed and evaluated; (i) the within homogeneous region parameter transfer using one donor catchment specific to each region, (ii) the parameter transfer disregarding the geographical limits of homogeneous regions, where one donor catchment was common to all regions. Comparisons between both parameter transfers enabled to assess the gain in performance from the parameter regionalization and its respective constraints and limitations. The parameter transfer within homogeneous regions outperformed the a priori parameters and led to a decrease in bias and increase in efficiency reaching a median NS of 0.77 and a NS of 0.85 at individual catchments. The use of FDC revealed the effect of bias on the inaccuracy of prediction from parameter transfer. In one specific region, of mountainous and forested catchments, the prediction accuracy of the parameter transfer was less satisfactory and equivalent to a priori parameters. In this region, the parameter transfer from the outsider catchment provided the best performance; less-biased with smaller uncertainty in medium flow percentiles (40%-60%). The large disparity of energy conditions explained the lack of performance from parameter transfer in this region. Besides, the subsurface stormflow is predominant and there is a likelihood of lateral preferential flow, which according to its specific properties further explained the reduced
Human Problem Solving: The Complete Model of the Traveling Salesman Problem
2009-08-31
REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Pubic reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 nour...per response, indudrnj the time for reviewing instructions, searcnmg exsting data sources , gathering and mamtaning the data needed, and completing...provision of law. no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid
Algorithms and Heuristics for Time-Window-Constrained Traveling Salesman Problems.
1985-09-01
w-r.- v-- n - ,u-,, u- v-v-.: .r-r-ri v-. r, - t -. \\ _ . . . S :.:, 1 .J - 1 5 ,*’:: C - V * t_ t. . 4’ *,W Ii NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey...q- -- Computational experience is re- ported for all the heuristics and algorithms we develop. DD IFOAN3 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE N ...Approved by Ri .R n ~~Advisor Ric E... a, R. shencSo deader A-lan R. Washburn Chairman, -~ Department of Operaiions Research Knealg--.T _ yarshall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niazi, M. Khalid Khan; Hemminger, Jessica; Kurt, Habibe; Lozanski, Gerard; Gurcan, Metin
2014-03-01
Vascularity represents an important element of tissue/tumor microenvironment and is implicated in tumor growth, metastatic potential and resistence to therapy. Small blood vessels can be visualized using immunohistochemical stains specific to vascular cells. However, currently used manual methods to assess vascular density are poorly reproducible and are at best semi quantitative. Computer based quantitative and objective methods to measure microvessel density are urgently needed to better understand and clinically utilize microvascular density information. We propose a new method to quantify vascularity from images of bone marrow biopsies stained for CD34 vascular lining cells protein as a model. The method starts by automatically segmenting the blood vessels by methods of maxlink thresholding and minimum graph cuts. The segmentation is followed by morphological post-processing to reduce blast and small spurious objects from the bone marrow images. To classify the images into one of the four grades, we extracted 20 features from the segmented blood vessel images. These features include first four moments of the distribution of the area of blood vessels, first four moments of the distribution of 1) the edge weights in the minimum spanning tree of the blood vessels, 2) the shortest distance between blood vessels, 3) the homogeneity of the shortest distance (absolute difference in distance between consecutive blood vessels along the shortest path) between blood vessels and 5) blood vessel orientation. The method was tested on 26 bone marrow biopsy images stained with CD34 IHC stain, which were evaluated by three pathologists. The pathologists took part in this study by quantifying blood vessel density using gestalt assessment in hematopoietic bone marrow portions of bone marrow core biopsies images. To determine the intra-reader variability, each image was graded twice by each pathologist with two-week interval in between their readings. For each image, the ground truth (grade) was acquired through consensus among the three pathologists at the end of the study. A ranking of the features reveals that the fourth moment of the distribution of the area of blood vessels along with the first moment of the distribution of the shortest distance between blood vessels can correctly grade 68.2% of the bone marrow biopsies, while the intra- and inter-reader variability among the pathologists are 66.9% and 40.0%, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellingeri, Michele; Agliari, Elena; Cassi, Davide
2015-10-01
The best strategy to immunize a complex network is usually evaluated in terms of the percolation threshold, i.e. the number of vaccine doses which make the largest connected cluster (LCC) vanish. The strategy inducing the minimum percolation threshold represents the optimal way to immunize the network. Here we show that the efficacy of the immunization strategies can change during the immunization process. This means that, if the number of doses is limited, the best strategy is not necessarily the one leading to the smallest percolation threshold. This outcome should warn about the adoption of global measures in order to evaluate the best immunization strategy.
Can rats solve a simple version of the traveling salesman problem?
Bures, J; Buresová, O; Nerad, L
1992-12-31
Whereas correct tours through the radial arm maze are almost equally long, free choice mazes with multiple goals scattered in an open field allow the animal to select the shortest one from a multitude of correct tours. Thirteen rats were trained (at 10 trials per day) to visit an array of cylindrical feeders in an open field (40 x 100 cm) with reward available only when visiting the last feeder of the set. In Expt. 1 with eight feeders arranged in five different configurations the rats made after 10 days of training 1 error in the first 8 choices and incidence of errorless trials was about 20%. In Expt. 2. the use of six feeders in a rectangular (A) or double triangle (B) configuration increased the incidence of errorless trials to 60%. Expt. 3 showed that performance in the 6-feeder maze was significantly impaired by 6 mg/kg ketamine or 0.25 mg/kg scopolamine but not by lower dosages of these drugs. Tours generated on errorless trials (each feeder visited only once) during 10 days of Expt. 2 were analyzed. Six places can be visited in 6! = 720 different closed tours the lengths of which (in arbitrary units) range from 6.00 to 10.12 for A and from 6.83 to 10.47 for B. Whereas random generation of correct routes yielded only 5% of the shortest tours, they were clearly preferred by rats (41% in A and 45% in B). The apparent proficiency of rats in this optimization problem is probably not due to cognitive comparison of the possible correct routes but rather to following a simple rule 'Always go to the nearest not yet visited feeder'.
Use of a priori spectral information in the measurement of x-ray flux with filtered diode arrays
Marrs, R. E.; Widmann, K.; Brown, G. V.; ...
2015-10-29
Filtered x-ray diode (XRD) arrays are often used to measure x-ray spectra vs. time from spectrally continuous x-ray sources such as hohlraums. A priori models of the incident x-ray spectrum enable a more accurate unfolding of the x-ray flux as compared to the standard technique of modifying a thermal Planckian with spectral peaks or dips at the response energy of each filtered XRD channel. A model x-ray spectrum consisting of a thermal Planckian, a Gaussian at higher energy, and (in some cases) a high energy background provides an excellent fit to XRD-array measurements of x-ray emission from laser heated hohlraums.more » If high-resolution measurements of part of the x-ray emission spectrum are available, that information can be included in the a priori model. In cases where the x-ray emission spectrum is not Planckian, candidate x-ray spectra can be allowed or excluded by fitting them to measured XRD voltages. Here, examples are presented from the filtered XRD arrays, named Dante, at the National Ignition Facility and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.« less
Wickham, J.D.; Stehman, S.V.; Smith, J.H.; Wade, T.G.; Yang, L.
2004-01-01
Two-stage cluster sampling reduces the cost of collecting accuracy assessment reference data by constraining sample elements to fall within a limited number of geographic domains (clusters). However, because classification error is typically positively spatially correlated, within-cluster correlation may reduce the precision of the accuracy estimates. The detailed population information to quantify a priori the effect of within-cluster correlation on precision is typically unavailable. Consequently, a convenient, practical approach to evaluate the likely performance of a two-stage cluster sample is needed. We describe such an a priori evaluation protocol focusing on the spatial distribution of the sample by land-cover class across different cluster sizes and costs of different sampling options, including options not imposing clustering. This protocol also assesses the two-stage design's adequacy for estimating the precision of accuracy estimates for rare land-cover classes. We illustrate the approach using two large-area, regional accuracy assessments from the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD), and describe how the a priorievaluation was used as a decision-making tool when implementing the NLCD design.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quinlan, Jesse R.; Drozda, Tomasz G.; McDaniel, James C.; Lacaze, Guilhem; Oefelein, Joseph
2015-01-01
In an effort to make large eddy simulation of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustors more computationally accessible using realistic chemical reaction mechanisms, a compressible flamelet/progress variable (FPV) model was proposed that extends current FPV model formulations to high-speed, compressible flows. Development of this model relied on observations garnered from an a priori analysis of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) data obtained for the Hypersonic International Flight Research and Experimentation (HI-FiRE) dual-mode scramjet combustor. The RANS data were obtained using a reduced chemical mechanism for the combustion of a JP-7 surrogate and were validated using avail- able experimental data. These RANS data were then post-processed to obtain, in an a priori fashion, the scalar fields corresponding to an FPV-based modeling approach. In the current work, in addition to the proposed compressible flamelet model, a standard incompressible FPV model was also considered. Several candidate progress variables were investigated for their ability to recover static temperature and major and minor product species. The effects of pressure and temperature on the tabulated progress variable source term were characterized, and model coupling terms embedded in the Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes equations were studied. Finally, results for the novel compressible flamelet/progress variable model were presented to demonstrate the improvement attained by modeling the effects of pressure and flamelet boundary conditions on the combustion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xiaowei; Iungo, G. Valerio; Leonardi, Stefano; Anderson, William
2017-02-01
For a horizontally homogeneous, neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), aerodynamic roughness length, z_0, is the effective elevation at which the streamwise component of mean velocity is zero. A priori prediction of z_0 based on topographic attributes remains an open line of inquiry in planetary boundary-layer research. Urban topographies - the topic of this study - exhibit spatial heterogeneities associated with variability of building height, width, and proximity with adjacent buildings; such variability renders a priori, prognostic z_0 models appealing. Here, large-eddy simulation (LES) has been used in an extensive parametric study to characterize the ABL response (and z_0) to a range of synthetic, urban-like topographies wherein statistical moments of the topography have been systematically varied. Using LES results, we determined the hierarchical influence of topographic moments relevant to setting z_0. We demonstrate that standard deviation and skewness are important, while kurtosis is negligible. This finding is reconciled with a model recently proposed by Flack and Schultz (J Fluids Eng 132:041203-1-041203-10, 2010), who demonstrate that z_0 can be modelled with standard deviation and skewness, and two empirical coefficients (one for each moment). We find that the empirical coefficient related to skewness is not constant, but exhibits a dependence on standard deviation over certain ranges. For idealized, quasi-uniform cubic topographies and for complex, fully random urban-like topographies, we demonstrate strong performance of the generalized Flack and Schultz model against contemporary roughness correlations.
... Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers Road Safety Senior Citizens Sex Tourism STDs Sun Exposure Swimming and Diving Study Abroad ...
... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...
Tielemans, Myrte J.; Erler, Nicole S.; Leermakers, Elisabeth T. M.; van den Broek, Marion; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Franco, Oscar H.
2015-01-01
Abnormal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether dietary patterns are associated with GWG. Participants included 3374 pregnant women from a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Three a posteriori-derived dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis: a “Vegetable, oil and fish”, a “Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy”, and a “Margarine, sugar and snacks” pattern. The a priori-defined dietary pattern was based on national dietary recommendations. Weight was repeatedly measured around 13, 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy; pre-pregnancy and maximum weight were self-reported. Normal weight women with high adherence to the “Vegetable, oil and fish” pattern had higher early-pregnancy GWG than those with low adherence (43 g/week (95% CI 16; 69) for highest vs. lowest quartile (Q)). Adherence to the “Margarine, sugar and snacks” pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of excessive GWG (OR 1.45 (95% CI 1.06; 1.99) Q4 vs. Q1). Normal weight women with higher scores on the “Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy” pattern had more moderate GWG than women with lower scores (−0.01 (95% CI −0.02; −0.00) per SD). The a priori-defined pattern was not associated with GWG. To conclude, specific dietary patterns may play a role in early pregnancy but are not consistently associated with GWG. PMID:26569303
Assessing the risk of work-related international travel.
Druckman, Myles; Harber, Philip; Liu, Yihang; Quigley, Robert L
2014-11-01
To identify factors affecting the likelihood of requiring medical services during international business trips. Data from more than 800,000 international trips and medical assistance cases provided to 48 multinational corporations in 2009. Travel destination countries were grouped into four a priori risk-related categories. Travel to "low" medical risk countries in aggregate accounted for more hospitalizations and medical evacuations than travel to "high" medical risk countries. Nevertheless, the risk per trip was much higher for travel to higher medical risk countries. Corporations with employees on international travel should allocate sufficient resources to manage and ideally prevent medical issues during business travel. Travel medicine must focus on more than infectious diseases, and programs are necessary for both high- and low-risk regions. Improved understanding of travel-related needs determines resource allocation and risk mitigation efforts.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zorn, Theodore E.
1991-01-01
Discusses how the movie "Death of a Salesman" (a 1986 movie starring Dustin Hoffman in the role of Willy Loman) is useful for teaching communication concepts. Examines how the movie provides a rich case study for illustrating the negotiation of identities. (KEH)
Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian
2014-01-01
Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599
2016-06-01
The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smeltzer, C. D.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Boersma, F.
2009-12-01
Polar orbiting satellite retrievals of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns are important to a variety of scientific applications. These NO2 retrievals rely on a priori profiles from chemical transport models and radiative transfer models to derive the vertical columns (VCs) from slant columns measurements. In this work, we compare the retrieval results using a priori profiles from a global model (TM4) and a higher resolution regional model (REAM) at the OMI overpass hour of 1330 local time, implementing the Dutch OMI NO2 (DOMINO) retrieval. We also compare the retrieval results using a priori profiles from REAM model simulations with and without lightning NOx (NO + NO2) production. A priori model resolution and lightning NOx production are both found to have large impact on satellite retrievals by altering the satellite sensitivity to a particular observation by shifting the NO2 vertical distribution interpreted by the radiation model. The retrieved tropospheric NO2 VCs may increase by 25-100% in urban regions and be reduced by 50% in rural regions if the a priori profiles from REAM simulations are used during the retrievals instead of the profiles from TM4 simulations. The a priori profiles with lightning NOx may result in a 25-50% reduction of the retrieved tropospheric NO2 VCs compared to the a priori profiles without lightning. As first priority, a priori vertical NO2 profiles from a chemical transport model with a high resolution, which can better simulate urban-rural NO2 gradients in the boundary layer and make use of observation-based parameterizations of lightning NOx production, should be first implemented to obtain more accurate NO2 retrievals over the United States, where NOx source regions are spatially separated and lightning NOx production is significant. Then as consequence of a priori NO2 profile variabilities resulting from lightning and model resolution dynamics, geostationary satellite, daylight observations would further promote the next
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Ilje; Jung, Taehyun; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Akiyama, Kazunori; Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Kino, Motoki; Byun, Do-Young; Sohn, Bong Won; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Hirota, Tomoya; Niinuma, Kotaro; Yonekura, Yoshinori; Fujisawa, Kenta; Oyama, Tomoaki
2017-12-01
We present the results of a comparative study of amplitude calibrations for the East Asia VLBI Network (EAVN) at 22 and 43 GHz using two different methods of an "a priori" and a "template spectrum", particularly on lower declination sources. Using observational data sets of early EAVN observations, we investigated the elevation-dependence of the gain values at seven stations of the KaVA (KVN and VERA Array) and three additional telescopes in Japan (Takahagi 32 m, Yamaguchi 32 m, and Nobeyama 45 m). By comparing the independently obtained gain values based on these two methods, we found that the gain values from each method were consistent within 10% at elevations higher than 10°. We also found that the total flux densities of two images produced from the different amplitude calibrations were in agreement within 10% at both 22 and 43 GHz. By using the template spectrum method, furthermore, the additional radio telescopes can participate in KaVA (i.e., EAVN), giving a notable sensitivity increase. Therefore, our results will constrain the detailed conditions in order to measure the VLBI amplitude reliably using EAVN, and discuss the potential of possible expansion to telescopes comprising EAVN.
Liu, Jie; Ying, Dongwen; Zhou, Ping
2014-01-01
Voluntary surface electromyogram (EMG) signals from neurological injury patients are often corrupted by involuntary background interference or spikes, imposing difficulties for myoelectric control. We present a novel framework to suppress involuntary background spikes during voluntary surface EMG recordings. The framework applies a Wiener filter to restore voluntary surface EMG signals based on tracking a priori signal to noise ratio (SNR) by using the decision-directed method. Semi-synthetic surface EMG signals contaminated by different levels of involuntary background spikes were constructed from a database of surface EMG recordings in a group of spinal cord injury subjects. After the processing, the onset detection of voluntary muscle activity was significantly improved against involuntary background spikes. The magnitude of voluntary surface EMG signals can also be reliably estimated for myoelectric control purpose. Compared with the previous sample entropy analysis for suppressing involuntary background spikes, the proposed framework is characterized by quick and simple implementation, making it more suitable for application in a myoelectric control system toward neurological injury rehabilitation. PMID:25443536
Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Antonoglou, Georgios N; Sándor, George K; Eliades, Theodore
2017-01-01
A priori registration of randomized clinical trials is crucial to the transparency and credibility of their findings. Aim of this study was to assess the frequency with which registered and completed randomized trials in orthodontics are published. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and ISRCTN for registered randomized clinical trials in orthodontics that had been completed up to January 2017 and judged the publication status and date of registered trials using a systematic protocol. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher exact tests, and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates. From the 266 orthodontic trials registered up to January 2017, 80 trials had been completed and included in the present study. Among these 80 included trials, the majority (76%) were registered retrospectively, while only 33 (41%) were published at the time. The median time from completion to publication was 20.1 months (interquartile range: 9.1 to 31.6 months), while survival analysis indicated that less than 10% of the trials were published after 5 years from their completion. Finally, 22 (28%) of completed trials remain unpublished even after 5 years from their completion. Publication rates of registered randomized trials in orthodontics remained low, even 5 years after their completion date.
Antonoglou, Georgios N.; Sándor, George K.; Eliades, Theodore
2017-01-01
A priori registration of randomized clinical trials is crucial to the transparency and credibility of their findings. Aim of this study was to assess the frequency with which registered and completed randomized trials in orthodontics are published. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and ISRCTN for registered randomized clinical trials in orthodontics that had been completed up to January 2017 and judged the publication status and date of registered trials using a systematic protocol. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher exact tests, and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates. From the 266 orthodontic trials registered up to January 2017, 80 trials had been completed and included in the present study. Among these 80 included trials, the majority (76%) were registered retrospectively, while only 33 (41%) were published at the time. The median time from completion to publication was 20.1 months (interquartile range: 9.1 to 31.6 months), while survival analysis indicated that less than 10% of the trials were published after 5 years from their completion. Finally, 22 (28%) of completed trials remain unpublished even after 5 years from their completion. Publication rates of registered randomized trials in orthodontics remained low, even 5 years after their completion date. PMID:28777820
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winckelmans, G. S.; Lund, T. S.; Carati, D.; Wray, A. A.
1996-01-01
Subgrid-scale models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in both the velocity-pressure and the vorticity-velocity formulations were evaluated and compared in a priori tests using spectral Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) databases of isotropic turbulence: 128(exp 3) DNS of forced turbulence (Re(sub(lambda))=95.8) filtered, using the sharp cutoff filter, to both 32(exp 3) and 16(exp 3) synthetic LES fields; 512(exp 3) DNS of decaying turbulence (Re(sub(Lambda))=63.5) filtered to both 64(exp 3) and 32(exp 3) LES fields. Gaussian and top-hat filters were also used with the 128(exp 3) database. Different LES models were evaluated for each formulation: eddy-viscosity models, hyper eddy-viscosity models, mixed models, and scale-similarity models. Correlations between exact versus modeled subgrid-scale quantities were measured at three levels: tensor (traceless), vector (solenoidal 'force'), and scalar (dissipation) levels, and for both cases of uniform and variable coefficient(s). Different choices for the 1/T scaling appearing in the eddy-viscosity were also evaluated. It was found that the models for the vorticity-velocity formulation produce higher correlations with the filtered DNS data than their counterpart in the velocity-pressure formulation. It was also found that the hyper eddy-viscosity model performs better than the eddy viscosity model, in both formulations.
Koerbin, G; Cavanaugh, J A; Potter, J M; Abhayaratna, W P; West, N P; Glasgow, N; Hawkins, C; Armbruster, D; Oakman, C; Hickman, P E
2015-02-01
Development of reference intervals is difficult, time consuming, expensive and beyond the scope of most laboratories. The Aussie Normals study is a direct a priori study to determine reference intervals in healthy Australian adults. All volunteers completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire and exclusion was based on conditions such as pregnancy, diabetes, renal or cardiovascular disease. Up to 91 biochemical analyses were undertaken on a variety of analytical platforms using serum samples collected from 1856 volunteers. We report on our findings for 40 of these analytes and two calculated parameters performed on the Abbott ARCHITECTci8200/ci16200 analysers. Not all samples were analysed for all assays due to volume requirements or assay/instrument availability. Results with elevated interference indices and those deemed unsuitable after clinical evaluation were removed from the database. Reference intervals were partitioned based on the method of Harris and Boyd into three scenarios, combined gender, males and females and age and gender. We have performed a detailed reference interval study on a healthy Australian population considering the effects of sex, age and body mass. These reference intervals may be adapted to other manufacturer's analytical methods using method transference.
Zhang Jin; Yi Byongyong; Lasio, Giovanni
Kilovoltage x-ray projection images (kV images for brevity) are increasingly available in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for patient positioning. These images are two-dimensional (2D) projections of a three-dimensional (3D) object along the x-ray beam direction. Projecting a 3D object onto a plane may lead to ambiguities in the identification of anatomical structures and to poor contrast in kV images. Therefore, the use of kV images in IGRT is mainly limited to bony landmark alignments. This work proposes a novel subtraction technique that isolates a slice of interest (SOI) from a kV image with the assistance of a priori information frommore » a previous CT scan. The method separates structural information within a preselected SOI by suppressing contributions to the unprocessed projection from out-of-SOI-plane structures. Up to a five-fold increase in the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) was observed in selected regions of the isolated SOI, when compared to the original unprocessed kV image. The tomographic image via background subtraction (TIBS) technique aims to provide a quick snapshot of the slice of interest with greatly enhanced image contrast over conventional kV x-ray projections for fast and accurate image guidance of radiation therapy. With further refinements, TIBS could, in principle, provide real-time tumor localization using gantry-mounted x-ray imaging systems without the need for implanted markers.« less
Arjona, Antonio; Gómez, Carlos M.
2011-01-01
Background Preparatory activity based on a priori probabilities generated in previous trials and subjective expectancies would produce an attentional bias. However, preparation can be correct (valid) or incorrect (invalid) depending on the actual target stimulus. The alternation effect refers to the subjective expectancy that a target will not be repeated in the same position, causing RTs to increase if the target location is repeated. The present experiment, using the Posner's central cue paradigm, tries to demonstrate that not only the credibility of the cue, but also the expectancy about the next position of the target are changedin a trial by trial basis. Sequences of trials were analyzed. Results The results indicated an increase in RT benefits when sequences of two and three valid trials occurred. The analysis of errors indicated an increase in anticipatory behavior which grows as the number of valid trials is increased. On the other hand, there was also an RT benefit when a trial was preceded by trials in which the position of the target changed with respect to the current trial (alternation effect). Sequences of two alternations or two repetitions were faster than sequences of trials in which a pattern of repetition or alternation is broken. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that in Posner's central cue paradigm, and with regard to the anticipatory activity, the credibility of the external cue and of the endogenously anticipated patterns of target location are constantly updated. The results suggest that Bayesian rules are operating in the generation of anticipatory activity as a function of the previous trial's outcome, but also on biases or prior beliefs like the “gambler fallacy”. PMID:21698164
Tornow, Matthew A; Skelton, Randall R
2012-01-01
When molecules and morphology produce incongruent hypotheses of primate interrelationships, the data are typically viewed as incompatible, and molecular hypotheses are often considered to be better indicators of phylogenetic history. However, it has been demonstrated that the choice of which taxa to include in cladistic analysis as well as assumptions about character weighting, character state transformation order, and outgroup choice all influence hypotheses of relationships and may positively influence tree topology, so that relationships between extant taxa are consistent with those found using molecular data. Thus, the source of incongruence between morphological and molecular trees may lie not in the morphological data themselves but in assumptions surrounding the ways characters evolve and their impact on cladistic analysis. In this study, we investigate the role that assumptions about character polarity and transformation order play in creating incongruence between primate phylogenies based on morphological data and those supported by multiple lines of molecular data. By releasing constraints imposed on published morphological analyses of primates from disparate clades and subjecting those data to parsimony analysis, we test the hypothesis that incongruence between morphology and molecules results from inherent flaws in morphological data. To quantify the difference between incongruent trees, we introduce a new method called branch slide distance (BSD). BSD mitigates many of the limitations attributed to other tree comparison methods, thus allowing for a more accurate measure of topological similarity. We find that releasing a priori constraints on character behavior often produces trees that are consistent with molecular trees. Case studies are presented that illustrate how congruence between molecules and unconstrained morphological data may provide insight into issues of polarity, transformation order, homology, and homoplasy.
Bielecki, J.; Scholz, M.; Drozdowicz, K.
A method of tomographic reconstruction of the neutron emissivity in the poloidal cross section of the Joint European Torus (JET, Culham, UK) tokamak was developed. Due to very limited data set (two projection angles, 19 lines of sight only) provided by the neutron emission profile monitor (KN3 neutron camera), the reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem. The aim of this work consists in making a contribution to the development of reliable plasma tomography reconstruction methods that could be routinely used at JET tokamak. The proposed method is based on Phillips-Tikhonov regularization and incorporates a priori knowledge of the shape ofmore » normalized neutron emissivity profile. For the purpose of the optimal selection of the regularization parameters, the shape of normalized neutron emissivity profile is approximated by the shape of normalized electron density profile measured by LIDAR or high resolution Thomson scattering JET diagnostics. In contrast with some previously developed methods of ill-posed plasma tomography reconstruction problem, the developed algorithms do not include any post-processing of the obtained solution and the physical constrains on the solution are imposed during the regularization process. The accuracy of the method is at first evaluated by several tests with synthetic data based on various plasma neutron emissivity models (phantoms). Then, the method is applied to the neutron emissivity reconstruction for JET D plasma discharge #85100. It is demonstrated that this method shows good performance and reliability and it can be routinely used for plasma neutron emissivity reconstruction on JET.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Bibaswan
In power electronic basedmicrogrids, the computational requirements needed to implement an optimized online control strategy can be prohibitive. The work presented in this dissertation proposes a generalized method of derivation of geometric manifolds in a dc microgrid that is based on the a-priori computation of the optimal reactions and trajectories for classes of events in a dc microgrid. The proposed states are the stored energies in all the energy storage elements of the dc microgrid and power flowing into them. It is anticipated that calculating a large enough set of dissimilar transient scenarios will also span many scenarios not specifically used to develop the surface. These geometric manifolds will then be used as reference surfaces in any type of controller, such as a sliding mode hysteretic controller. The presence of switched power converters in microgrids involve different control actions for different system events. The control of the switch states of the converters is essential for steady state and transient operations. A digital memory look-up based controller that uses a hysteretic sliding mode control strategy is an effective technique to generate the proper switch states for the converters. An example dcmicrogrid with three dc-dc boost converters and resistive loads is considered for this work. The geometric manifolds are successfully generated for transient events, such as step changes in the loads and the sources. The surfaces corresponding to a specific case of step change in the loads are then used as reference surfaces in an EEPROM for experimentally validating the control strategy. The required switch states corresponding to this specific transient scenario are programmed in the EEPROM as a memory table. This controls the switching of the dc-dc boost converters and drives the system states to the reference manifold. In this work, it is shown that this strategy effectively controls the system for a transient condition such as step changes
Attention to 'details': etiquette and the pharmaceutical salesman in postwar American.
Greene, Jeremy A
2004-04-01
This paper provides a sketch of the emerging role of the pharmaceutical salesman, or 'detail man', in the growth years of the American post-World War II pharmaceutical industry. Using training manuals, trade literature, in-house company newsletters, memoirs, and a variety of other published sources, the paper follows the delicate tactics employed by salesmen and their managers in their attempts to recast drug salesmanship as a 'professional service' fulfilling vital functions within medical education. As they worked to legitimate their presence in the nation's hospitals and clinics, particular emphasis was given to precise management of the etiquette of doctor-salesman interaction. Ultimately, the techniques employed by mid-century salesmen and their managers were to prove successful in generating a widespread acceptance of the industry representative within the clinical spaces of hospital and clinic. Indeed, many of the practices of market research and market strategy employed across the pharmaceutical industry today have their origins in the practices of the individual detail man. Exploration of the postwar pharmaceutical salesman as an overlooked historical 'type' provides significant insights into the intersection of medicine and the consumer marketplace during the later 20th century.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raiche, Gilles; Blais, Jean-Guy
In a computerized adaptive test (CAT), it would be desirable to obtain an acceptable precision of the proficiency level estimate using an optimal number of items. Decreasing the number of items is accompanied, however, by a certain degree of bias when the true proficiency level differs significantly from the a priori estimate. G. Raiche (2000) has…
Johnston, Raymond V; Hudson, Martin F
2014-02-01
The suggestion that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with air travel has for several decades been the subject of both "media hype" and extensive debate in the medical literature. As emotion and anecdote is often a feature in this debate, it is therefore necessary to separate evidence from anecdote. "Travelers' thrombosis" is a more appropriate term because the evidence suggests that any form of travel involving immobility lasting more than 4 h can predispose to thrombosis. There is no unique factor in the air travel cabin environment that has been shown to have any effect on the coagulation cascade. Prevention of thrombosis in any form of travel, including air travel, requires being aware of the issue and making an adequate risk assessment together with appropriate prophylactic measures.
Top Department of Administration logo Alaska Department of Administration Division of Finance Search Search the Division of Finance site DOF State of Alaska Finance Home Content Area Accounting Charge Cards You are here Administration / Finance / Travel Travel The Department of Administration administers the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meurers, B.; van Camp, M.; Petermans, T.
2005-12-01
We investigate how far tidal analysis results can be improved when a rain fall admittance model is applied on the superconducting gravity (SG) data. For that purpose both Vienna and Membach data have been analysed with and without a priori rain fall correction. In Membach the residual drop for most events (80%) can be explained by the rain water load, while in Vienna only 50% of all events fit the model in detail. In the other cases the Newtonian effect of vertical air mass redistribution (vertical density variation without air pressure change), predominantly connected with high vertical convection activity, e.g. thunderstorms, plays an essential role: short-term atmospheric signals show up steep gravity residual decreases of a few nms-2 within 10 - 60 min, well correlated with outdoor air temperature in most cases. However, even in those cases the water load model is able to explain the dominating part of the residual drop especially during heavy rain fall. In Vienna more than 110 events have been detected over 10 years. 84% of them are associated with heavy rain starting at or up to 10 min later than the residual drop while the rest (16%) shows no or only little rainfall. The magnitude of the gravity drop depends on the total amount of rainfall accumulated during the meteorological event. Step like signals deteriorate the frequency spectrum estimates. This even holds for tidal analysis. As the drops are of physical origin, they should not be eliminated blindly but corrected using water load modeling constrained by high temporal resolution (1 min) rain data. 3D modeling of the water mass load due to a rain event is based on the following assumptions: (1) Rain water intrudes into the uppermost soil layer (close to the topography surface) and remains there at least until rain has stopped. This is justified for a period of some hours after the rainfall as evapotranspiration is not yet effective. (2) No run-off except of sealed areas or building roofs, where water can
Ericsson, Charles D
2003-02-01
Risk of travellers' diarrhoea is about 7% in developed countries and 20-50% in the developing world. Options for prevention include education and chemoprophylaxis. Vaccination is a promising but incomplete option. Achieving behaviour modification of food and water choices among tourists is difficult. Bismuth subsalicylate (BSS)-containing compounds are about 62% effective in the prevention of travellers' diarrhoea. Antibiotics are about 84% effective in preventing travellers' diarrhoea. Routine prophylaxis of travellers' diarrhoea, especially with antibiotics, should be discouraged. Oral rehydration is generally important in the treatment of diarrhoea, but travellers' diarrhoea is only infrequently dehydrating in adults. The addition of oral rehydration solutions confers no additional benefit to loperamide in the treatment of travellers' diarrhoea in adults. Presently, the most active of the antibiotics routinely available for treatment are members of the fluoroquinolone group. Antibiotics that are not absorbed such as aztreonam and a rifampicin-like agent, rifaximin, are both effective. The latter might become a therapy of choice once it is routinely available, due to predictably less adverse reactions with a non-absorbed antibiotic. Preliminary results with azithromycin look very promising. Less severe disease can be treated with a variety of non-antibiotic agents (e.g. BSS-containing compounds, loperamide and a calmodulin inhibitor, zaldaride). The combination of an antibiotic and loperamide is superior to treatment with either agent alone in a several studies and is arguably the treatment of choice for distressing travellers' diarrhoea.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mauldin, L. E.
1994-01-01
Business travel planning within an organization is often a time-consuming task. Travel Forecaster is a menu-driven, easy-to-use program which plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost for business-related travel of a division or branch of an organization and compiles this information into a database to aid the travel planner. The program's ability to handle multiple trip entries makes it a valuable time-saving device. Travel Forecaster takes full advantage of relational data base properties so that information that remains constant, such as per diem rates and airline fares (which are unique for each city), needs entering only once. A typical entry would include selection with the mouse of the traveler's name and destination city from pop-up lists, and typed entries for number of travel days and purpose of the trip. Multiple persons can be selected from the pop-up lists and multiple trips are accommodated by entering the number of days by each appropriate month on the entry form. An estimated travel cost is not required of the user as it is calculated by a Fourth Dimension formula. With this information, the program can produce output of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for either organization or sub-entity of an organization; or produce outputs of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for international-only travel. It will also provide monthly and cumulative formats of planned vs. actual outputs in data or graph form. Travel Forecaster users can do custom queries to search and sort information in the database, and it can create custom reports with the user-friendly report generator. Travel Forecaster 1.1 is a database program for use with Fourth Dimension Runtime 2.1.1. It requires a Macintosh Plus running System 6.0.3 or later, 2Mb of RAM and a hard disk. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Travel Forecaster was developed in 1991. Macintosh is a registered trademark of
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2000-01-01
Prepared ca. 2000. This report summarizes the results of a fifteen-month study to assess the feasibility of expanding Travel Shenandoah, a pilot rural ATIS service developed for Virginia's Northern Shenandoah Valley, into a comprehensive, statewide s...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rainaud, Jean-François; Clochard, Vincent; Delépine, Nicolas; Crabié, Thomas; Poudret, Mathieu; Perrin, Michel; Klein, Emmanuel
2018-07-01
Accurate reservoir characterization is needed all along the development of an oil and gas field study. It helps building 3D numerical reservoir simulation models for estimating the original oil and gas volumes in place and for simulating fluid flow behaviors. At a later stage of the field development, reservoir characterization can also help deciding which recovery techniques need to be used for fluids extraction. In complex media, such as faulted reservoirs, flow behavior predictions within volumes close to faults can be a very challenging issue. During the development plan, it is necessary to determine which types of communication exist between faults or which potential barriers exist for fluid flows. The solving of these issues rests on accurate fault characterization. In most cases, faults are not preserved along reservoir characterization workflows. The memory of the interpreted faults from seismic is not kept during seismic inversion and further interpretation of the result. The goal of our study is at first to integrate a 3D fault network as a priori information into a model-based stratigraphic inversion procedure. Secondly, we apply our methodology on a well-known oil and gas case study over a typical North Sea field (UK Northern North Sea) in order to demonstrate its added value for determining reservoir properties. More precisely, the a priori model is composed of several geological units populated by physical attributes, they are extrapolated from well log data following the deposition mode, but usually a priori model building methods respect neither the 3D fault geometry nor the stratification dips on the fault sides. We address this difficulty by applying an efficient flattening method for each stratigraphic unit in our workflow. Even before seismic inversion, the obtained stratigraphic model has been directly used to model synthetic seismic on our case study. Comparisons between synthetic seismic obtained from our 3D fault network model give much
Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel
... Motion Sickness ). PRECAUTIONS FOR CRUISE SHIP TRAVELERS Pretravel Evaluate the type and length of the planned cruise ... Peake DE, Gray CL, Ludwig MR, Hill CD. Descriptive epidemiology of injury and illness among cruise ship ...
Barrett-Connor, E
1973-03-01
On the average, one-fourth of North Americans visiting developing countries experience a self-limited diarrheal illness that interferes with holiday or business activities. Recent work suggests that these episodes are caused by a small inoculum of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli which are common in the country visited and rare in the country of origin. Neither antimicrobial treatment nor anti-diarrheal agents have proven benefit once the illness has begun. Despite its frequent use, iodochlorhydroxyquin has not been shown in double blind studies to be effective as a preventive agent, and may be dangerous. The status of furazolidone for prevention of tourist diarrhea is questionable. Both neomycin sulfate and phythalylsulfathiazole have demonstrated efficacy as chemoprophylactics in Mexico. However, their use should be restricted to limited types of travel and travelers. General admonitions concerning avoidance of certain ingestibles are recommended; despite questionable value in preventing travelers' diarrhea such precautions may prevent more serious gastrointestinal illness.
Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth
1973-01-01
On the average, one-fourth of North Americans visiting developing countries experience a self-limited diarrheal illness that interferes with holiday or business activities. Recent work suggests that these episodes are caused by a small inoculum of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli which are common in the country visited and rare in the country of origin. Neither antimicrobial treatment nor anti-diarrheal agents have proven benefit once the illness has begun. Despite its frequent use, iodochlorhydroxyquin has not been shown in double blind studies to be effective as a preventive agent, and may be dangerous. The status of furazolidone for prevention of tourist diarrhea is questionable. Both neomycin sulfate and phythalylsulfathiazole have demonstrated efficacy as chemoprophylactics in Mexico. However, their use should be restricted to limited types of travel and travelers. General admonitions concerning avoidance of certain ingestibles are recommended; despite questionable value in preventing travelers' diarrhea such precautions may prevent more serious gastrointestinal illness. PMID:4570092
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabayda, Adam; Keller, Luke
Interstellar space travel is a topic that is often dismissed as highly unlikely due to the vast distances involved and to considerable engineering and socioeconomic challenges. Some are left believing that it may be far from possible for us, as a species, to go anywhere beyond our solar system. We demonstrate not only the possibility of covering interstellar distances in decades or less, but also that interstellar travel is possible (in principle) with existing technology. For example: Using only special relativity and calculus, we calculated that an interstellar spacecraft could reach the Andromeda Galaxy (2.5 Million light-years from Earth) in just over 28 years at an acceleration of 9 . 81m/s , which would emulate Earth gravity. We also calculated that the energy required for interstellar space travel, often deemed impossible with current technology, is, in fact, possible through certain methods such as nuclear fusion.
Markwalder, K
2001-06-01
Diarrhea is the most common health problem of travelers to tropical destinations, affecting up to over 50%, with however considerable regional and seasonal variation. Orally acquired bacterial pathogens, particularly enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, are the most frequent etiology of travelers' diarrhea occurring during the first three weeks of travel. Protozoal infections, e.g. giardia and Entamoeba histolytica, are more often the cause of diarrhea and prolonged problems of intestinal motility of the returning traveler--as are postinfectious irritable bowel syndromes. Prevention seems theoretically simple by avoiding any potentially contaminated food and drinks, but the principle of 'cook it, boil it, peel it, or avoid it is obviously a goal difficult to achieve. Several antibiotics have shown to be able to prevent diarrhea for a short period of time, but the potential of adverse effects and selection of resistant pathogens calls for a restrictive use for short trips of particularly vulnerable subjects only. The use of probiotics--e.g. Saccharomyces boulardi, Streptococcus faecium--gave conflicting results--both in prevention and treatment. The basics of treatment is appropriate fluid replacement--mostly by the oral route. Although this measure can safely bridge the time until spontaneous remission, it fails to reduce the duration of illness. Appropriate antibiotics are fairly effective to reduce the duration of travelers' diarrhea, especially if combined with loperamid. The administration of the later is contraindicated in small children. The most commonly used and well documented antibiotics belong to the fluoroquinolones. Alternatives for pediatric use are azithromycin and cotrimoxazole. Considering the mostly short duration of travelers' diarrhea the administration of antibiotics can be limited to cases of acute febrile dysentery and violent diarrhea when rapid relief is essential. In cases of febrile diarrhea malaria must be considered if the patient has been
Human travel and traveling bedbugs.
Delaunay, Pascal
2012-12-01
A dramatic increase of reported bedbug (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus) infestations has been observed worldwide over the past decade. Bedbug infestations have also been detected across a wide range of travel accommodations, regardless of their comfort and hygiene levels. Travelers are increasingly exposed to the risks of bedbug bites, infestation of personal belongings, and subsequent contamination of newly visited accommodations and their homes. We searched Medline publications via the PubMed database. National bedbug recommendations, textbooks, newspapers, and Centers for Disease Control websites were also searched manually. To detect infested sites, avoid or limit bedbug bites, and reduce the risk of contaminating one's belongings and home, bedbug biology and ecology must be understood. A detailed search of their most classic hiding niches is a key to finding adult bedbugs, nymphs, eggs, and feces or traces of blood from crushed bedbugs. Locally, bedbugs move by active displacement to feed (bite) during the night. Bed, mattress, sofa, and/or curtains are the most frequently infested places. If you find bedbugs, change your room or, even better, the hotel. Otherwise, travelers should follow recommendations for avoiding bedbugs and their bites during the night and apply certain simple rules to avoid infesting other sites or their home. Travelers exposed to bedbugs can minimize the risks of bites and infestation of their belongings, and must also do their civic duty to avoid contributing to the subsequent contamination of other hotels and, finally, home. © 2012 International Society of Travel Medicine.
Riedel, M; Bohanes, V
2002-08-01
It is pathophysiologically conceivable that prolonged sitting in a tight space (e.g., in airplane or other transport vehicle) may lead to leg vein thrombosis. The association between the incidence of venous thromboembolism and long travel has not been sufficiently documented but seems probable. However, this association is only weak and the incidence of symptomatic thromboembolism much lower than the impression given by the recent publicity. In a healthy person, the risk of suffering a clinically relevant leg vein thrombosis solely because of a flight is extreme low. In persons with risk factors for venous thromboembolism, the flight represents an additional, as yet not quantifiable risk. This risk increases with the duration of the travel. The most important cause of thrombosis during long journeys seems to be venostasis due to relative immobilization. It is not clear whether flight travel represents a higher risk of thrombosis compared to other transport vehicles with comparable duration and immobilization. Until more exact information becomes available, it seems reasonable to recommend simple isometric and isotonic leg exercises during long travel. More aggressive measures must be considered for persons with risk factors for thromboembolism, but these measures should be individualized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stavroulakis, Petros I.; Chen, Shuxiao; Sims-Waterhouse, Danny; Piano, Samanta; Southon, Nicholas; Bointon, Patrick; Leach, Richard
2017-06-01
In non-rigid fringe projection 3D measurement systems, where either the camera or projector setup can change significantly between measurements or the object needs to be tracked, self-calibration has to be carried out frequently to keep the measurements accurate1. In fringe projection systems, it is common to use methods developed initially for photogrammetry for the calibration of the camera(s) in the system in terms of extrinsic and intrinsic parameters. To calibrate the projector(s) an extra correspondence between a pre-calibrated camera and an image created by the projector is performed. These recalibration steps are usually time consuming and involve the measurement of calibrated patterns on planes, before the actual object can continue to be measured after a motion of a camera or projector has been introduced in the setup and hence do not facilitate fast 3D measurement of objects when frequent experimental setup changes are necessary. By employing and combining a priori information via inverse rendering, on-board sensors, deep learning and leveraging a graphics processor unit (GPU), we assess a fine camera pose estimation method which is based on optimising the rendering of a model of a scene and the object to match the view from the camera. We find that the success of this calibration pipeline can be greatly improved by using adequate a priori information from the aforementioned sources.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, J.; Bai, L.; Liu, S.; Su, X.; Hu, H.
2012-07-01
In this paper, the MODIS remote sensing data, featured with low-cost, high-timely and moderate/low spatial resolutions, in the North China Plain (NCP) as a study region were firstly used to carry out mixed-pixel spectral decomposition to extract an useful regionalized indicator parameter (RIP) (i.e., an available ratio, that is, fraction/percentage, of winter wheat planting area in each pixel as a regionalized indicator variable (RIV) of spatial sampling) from the initial selected indicators. Then, the RIV values were spatially analyzed, and the spatial structure characteristics (i.e., spatial correlation and variation) of the NCP were achieved, which were further processed to obtain the scalefitting, valid a priori knowledge or information of spatial sampling. Subsequently, founded upon an idea of rationally integrating probability-based and model-based sampling techniques and effectively utilizing the obtained a priori knowledge or information, the spatial sampling models and design schemes and their optimization and optimal selection were developed, as is a scientific basis of improving and optimizing the existing spatial sampling schemes of large-scale cropland remote sensing monitoring. Additionally, by the adaptive analysis and decision strategy the optimal local spatial prediction and gridded system of extrapolation results were able to excellently implement an adaptive report pattern of spatial sampling in accordance with report-covering units in order to satisfy the actual needs of sampling surveys.
Arduino, R C; DuPont, H L
1993-06-01
Although TD is usually a mild and self-limited illness, 30-50% of travellers from industrialized to less developed countries are affected. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) remain the most frequent cause, being identified in 40-70% of cases. TD frequently occurs within the first 2 weeks of arrival in the foreign country. The clinical manifestation is variable, but watery diarrhoea is the most common clinical presentation. Chronic diarrhoea or remitting symptoms after empirical therapy in the returning traveller are indications for a stool culture and a careful search for stool parasites. Since the major precaution against TD is to avoid exposure to the infectious agents, careful selection of food and beverage is crucial. Bismuth subsalicylate has been proven to be safe and effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of TD. The tablet form has removed the inconvenience of previously required luggage space. Doxycycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, trimethoprim and the quinolones have been shown to be effective for prevention of diarrhoea. However, side-effects, superinfection, development of antibiotic resistance and easy-to-treat illness may limit the use of these antimicrobial agents to those travellers with concomitant serious medical conditions that would be adversely affected by diarrhoea, or travellers with unaffordable temporary incapacity. A new oral-killed whole-cell and B-subunit cholera toxin vaccine was demonstrated to induce protection against severe ETEC-associated diarrhoea. This is a promising field under investigation. Finally, fluid replacement is the most important aspect of treatment. Patients with moderate to severe TD can be treated with one of the above-mentioned antimicrobial agents for 3-5 days. Selection of the antimicrobial agent is based on the pattern of resistance and the enteric organism prevalent in the geographical area. While TMP-SMX remains active against the strains prevalent in Mexico during summertime, the quinolones represent
Traveling with breathing problems
... obstructive lung disease - travel; Chronic bronchitis - travel; Emphysema - travel ... you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath ... doctor if you plan to travel in a place at a high altitude (such ...
Terry, Anne C; Haulman, N Jean
2016-03-01
"The traveler's medical kit is an essential tool for both the novice and expert traveler. It is designed to treat travel-related illness and injury and to ensure preexisting medical conditions are managed appropriately. Travelers are at increased risk for common gastrointestinal issues during travel. Respiratory illnesses make up approximately 8% of the ailments present in returned international travelers. Approximately 12% of travelers experience a travel-related skin condition. First aid treatment for minor injuries is essential to all travel medical kits. The complexity ranges from a small, simple case for the urban traveler to a larger, extensive case for wilderness travel." Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pancholy, Samir B; Bertrand, Olivier F; Patel, Tejas
2012-07-15
Systemic anticoagulation decreases the risk of radial artery occlusion (RAO) after transradial catheterization and standard occlusive hemostasis. We compared the efficacy and safety of provisional heparin use only when the technique of patent hemostasis was not achievable to standard a priori heparin administration after radial sheath introduction. Patients referred for coronary angiography were randomized in 2 groups. In the a priori group, 200 patients received intravenous heparin (50 IU/kg) immediately after sheath insertion. In the provisional group, 200 patients did not receive heparin during the procedure. After sheath removal, hemostasis was obtained using a TR band (Terumo corporation, Tokyo, Japan) with a plethysmography-guided patent hemostasis technique. In the provisional group, no heparin was given if radial artery patency could be obtained and maintained. If radial patency was not achieved, a bolus of heparin (50 IU/kg) was given. Radial artery patency was evaluated at 24 hours (early RAO) and 30 days after the procedure (late RAO) by plethysmography. Patent hemostasis was obtained in 67% in the a priori group and 74% in the provisional group (p = 0.10). Incidence of RAO remained similar in the 2 groups at the early (7.5% vs 7.0%, p = 0.84) and late (4.5% vs 5.0%, p = 0.83) evaluations. Women, patients with diabetes, patients having not received heparin, and patients without radial artery patency during hemostasis had more RAO. By multivariate analysis, patent radial artery during hemostasis (odds ratio [OR] 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.004 to 0.28, p = 0.002) and diabetes (OR 11, 95% CI 3 to 38,p <0.0001) were independent predictors of late RAO, whereas heparin was not (OR 0.45 95% CI 0.13 to 1.54, p = 0.20). In conclusion, our results suggest that maintenance of radial artery patency during hemostasis is the most important parameter to decrease the risk of RAO. In selected cases, provisional use of heparin appears feasible and safe when
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buzzicotti, M.; Linkmann, M.; Aluie, H.; Biferale, L.; Brasseur, J.; Meneveau, C.
2018-02-01
The effects of different filtering strategies on the statistical properties of the resolved-to-subfilter scale (SFS) energy transfer are analysed in forced homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. We carry out a-priori analyses of the statistical characteristics of SFS energy transfer by filtering data obtained from direct numerical simulations with up to 20483 grid points as a function of the filter cutoff scale. In order to quantify the dependence of extreme events and anomalous scaling on the filter, we compare a sharp Fourier Galerkin projector, a Gaussian filter and a novel class of Galerkin projectors with non-sharp spectral filter profiles. Of interest is the importance of Galilean invariance and we confirm that local SFS energy transfer displays intermittency scaling in both skewness and flatness as a function of the cutoff scale. Furthermore, we quantify the robustness of scaling as a function of the filtering type.
Travel Schooling: Helping Children Learn through Travel.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Byrnes, Deborah A.
2001-01-01
Provides information for teachers to help parents create rewarding and educational travel experiences for children. Examines the benefits of travel schooling, fundamental elements of a meaningful travel schooling experience, fostering cross cultural sensitivity through travel, and returning to the traditional classroom. (SD)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
10 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south (below) of an egg-shaped crater.
Location near: 6.4oS, 349.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer
Vaccinations for international travellers travelling from Greece.
Pavli, Androula; Spilioti, Athina; Lymperi, Ioanna; Katerelos, Panagiotis; Maltezou, Helena C
2013-01-01
The aim of this prospective, questionnaire-based study is to assess pre-travel vaccinations for international travellers who receive pre-travel advice in Greece. A total of 2494 travellers were studied from January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2010. Travellers sought pre-travel advice at a median of 16 days (range: 0-349 days) before departure. Sub-Saharan Africa was the most common destination (34.7%). Most travellers (60.8%) travelled for <1 month, for recreation purposes (58.9%), stayed in hotels (65.3%), and in urban areas (53.6%). Yellow fever, tetravalent meningococcal, typhoid fever, cholera, and rabies vaccines were administered to 1629 (65.3%), 666 (26.7%), 615 (24.7%), 28 (1.1%), and/or 12 (0.5%) travellers, respectively. Of those who received Yellow fever vaccine, 737 (45.2%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, 332 (20.4%) travelled to South America, 949 (58.3%) stayed for short term, and 762 (46.8%) stayed in urban areas. Of the 1629 travellers vaccinated against Yellow fever, 150 (9.2%) and 226 (13.8%) travelled to areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South America respectively, where the vaccine is not or generally not recommended. Of those travellers who received meningococcal vaccine, 327 (49.1%) travelled to the Middle East for the Hajj, 251 (29%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, 410 (61.6%) for short term, and 540 (64.4%) stayed in urban areas. Of those travellers who received typhoid vaccine, 241 (39.2%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, 78 (12.7%) to the Indian subcontinent, 234 (38%) for short term, and 419 (68.1%) stayed in urban areas. Regarding routine vaccines, tetanus-diphtheria, poliomyelitis, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines were administered to 707 (28.3%), 639 (25.6%) and/or 149 (6%) travellers, respectively. Of those to whom poliomyelitis vaccine was recommended, 295 (46.2%) and 137 (21.4%) travelled to sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, respectively, and 362 (56.7%) travelled for short term. In conclusion, this study revealed that
Jessri, Mahsa; Wolfinger, Russell D; Lou, Wendy Y; L'Abbé, Mary R
2017-03-01
Background: Analyzing the effects of dietary patterns is an important approach for examining the complex role of nutrition in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to characterize the dietary patterns of Canadians with the use of a priori, hybrid, and simplified dietary pattern techniques, and to compare the associations of these patterns with obesity risk in individuals with and without chronic diseases (unhealthy and healthy obesity). Design: Dietary recalls from 11,748 participants (≥18 y of age) in the cross-sectional, nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 were used. A priori dietary pattern was characterized with the use of the previously validated 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index (DGAI). Weighted partial least squares (hybrid method) was used to derive an energy-dense (ED), high-fat (HF), low-fiber density (LFD) dietary pattern with the use of 38 food groups. The associations of derived dietary patterns with disease outcomes were then tested with the use of multinomial logistic regression. Results: An ED, HF, and LFD dietary pattern had high positive loadings for fast foods, carbonated drinks, and refined grains, and high negative loadings for whole fruits and vegetables (≥|0.17|). Food groups with a high loading were summed to form a simplified dietary pattern score. Moving from the first (healthiest) to the fourth (least healthy) quartiles of the ED, HF, and LFD pattern and the simplified dietary pattern scores was associated with increasingly elevated ORs for unhealthy obesity, with individuals in quartile 4 having an OR of 2.57 (95% CI: 1.75, 3.76) and 2.73 (95% CI: 1.88, 3.98), respectively ( P -trend < 0.0001). Individuals who adhered the most to the 2015 DGAI recommendations (quartile 4) had a 53% lower OR of unhealthy obesity ( P -trend < 0.0001). The associations of dietary patterns with healthy obesity and unhealthy nonobesity were weaker, albeit
Summary travel characteristics : Arkansas
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Massachusetts
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
... to know Tips for Traveling with Food Allergies Restaurants and Travel All-Inclusive Resorts See All Resources ... risk of exposure to allergens on the flight. Restaurants and Travel Watch these webinars for expert advice ...
Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C
... Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers Road Safety Senior Citizens Sex Tourism STDs Sun Exposure Swimming and Diving Study Abroad ...
Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness
... Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers Road Safety Senior Citizens Sex Tourism STDs Sun Exposure Swimming and Diving Study Abroad ...
... Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers Road Safety Senior Citizens Sex Tourism STDs Sun Exposure Swimming and Diving Study Abroad ...
... Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers Road Safety Senior Citizens Sex Tourism STDs Sun Exposure Swimming and Diving Study Abroad ...
Summary travel characteristics : Pennsylvania
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Hawaii
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-10-01
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Florida
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Kansas
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : California
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Texas
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Illinois
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Montana
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Kentucky
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Wisconsin
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-10-01
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Maryland
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-19
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Nevada
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Iowa
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Washington
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-10-01
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Alabama
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Nebraska
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Oregon
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-10-01
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Maine
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Utah
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Michigan
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Missouri
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Colorado
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Alaska
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Oklahoma
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Indiana
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Idaho
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Tennessee
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Georgia
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Delaware
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Ohio
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Arizona
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Wyoming
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-01-01
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Minnesota
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Vermont
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Louisiana
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Mississippi
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Connecticut
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-29
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : Virgina
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever
... and local rate of virus transmission at the time of travel. Although reported cases of human disease are the ... be receiving yellow fever vaccine for the first time. If travel is unavoidable, the decision to vaccinate travelers aged ≥ ...
... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...
Travelers' Health: Poliomyelitis
... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...
Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B
... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...
Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease
... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...
Travelers' Health: HIV Infection
... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...
Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Visceral
... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...
... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...
Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A
... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...
Travelers' Health: Cryptosporidiosis
... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...
Travelers' Health: Varicella (Chickenpox)
... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...
Travelers' Health: Japanese Encephalitis
... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...
Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous
... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...
Medlyn, Belinda E; De Kauwe, Martin G; Zaehle, Sönke; Walker, Anthony P; Duursma, Remko A; Luus, Kristina; Mishurov, Mikhail; Pak, Bernard; Smith, Benjamin; Wang, Ying-Ping; Yang, Xiaojuan; Crous, Kristine Y; Drake, John E; Gimeno, Teresa E; Macdonald, Catriona A; Norby, Richard J; Power, Sally A; Tjoelker, Mark G; Ellsworth, David S
2016-08-01
The response of terrestrial ecosystems to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca ), particularly under nutrient-limited conditions, is a major uncertainty in Earth System models. The Eucalyptus Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (EucFACE) experiment, recently established in a nutrient- and water-limited woodland presents a unique opportunity to address this uncertainty, but can best do so if key model uncertainties have been identified in advance. We applied seven vegetation models, which have previously been comprehensively assessed against earlier forest FACE experiments, to simulate a priori possible outcomes from EucFACE. Our goals were to provide quantitative projections against which to evaluate data as they are collected, and to identify key measurements that should be made in the experiment to allow discrimination among alternative model assumptions in a postexperiment model intercomparison. Simulated responses of annual net primary productivity (NPP) to elevated Ca ranged from 0.5 to 25% across models. The simulated reduction of NPP during a low-rainfall year also varied widely, from 24 to 70%. Key processes where assumptions caused disagreement among models included nutrient limitations to growth; feedbacks to nutrient uptake; autotrophic respiration; and the impact of low soil moisture availability on plant processes. Knowledge of the causes of variation among models is now guiding data collection in the experiment, with the expectation that the experimental data can optimally inform future model improvements. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Medlyn, Belinda E.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Zaehle, Sönke; ...
2016-05-09
One major uncertainty in Earth System models is the response of terrestrial ecosystems to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentration (Ca), particularly under nutrient-lim- ited conditions. The Eucalyptus Free-Air CO 2 Enrichment (EucFACE) experiment, recently established in a nutrient- and water-limited woodlands, presents a unique opportunity to address this uncertainty, but can best do so if key model uncertainties have been identified in advance. Moreover, we applied seven vegetation models, which have previously been comprehensively assessed against earlier forest FACE experi- ments, to simulate a priori possible outcomes from EucFACE. Our goals were to provide quantitative projections against which to evaluatemore » data as they are collected, and to identify key measurements that should be made in the experiment to allow discrimination among alternative model assumptions in a postexperiment model intercompari- son. Simulated responses of annual net primary productivity (NPP) to elevated Ca ranged from 0.5 to 25% across models. The simulated reduction of NPP during a low-rainfall year also varied widely, from 24 to 70%. Key processes where assumptions caused disagreement among models included nutrient limitations to growth; feedbacks to nutri- ent uptake; autotrophic respiration; and the impact of low soil moisture availability on plant processes. Finally, knowledge of the causes of variation among models is now guiding data collection in the experiment, with the expectation that the experimental data can optimally inform future model improvements.« less
Medlyn, Belinda E.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Zaehle, Sönke
One major uncertainty in Earth System models is the response of terrestrial ecosystems to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentration (Ca), particularly under nutrient-lim- ited conditions. The Eucalyptus Free-Air CO 2 Enrichment (EucFACE) experiment, recently established in a nutrient- and water-limited woodlands, presents a unique opportunity to address this uncertainty, but can best do so if key model uncertainties have been identified in advance. Moreover, we applied seven vegetation models, which have previously been comprehensively assessed against earlier forest FACE experi- ments, to simulate a priori possible outcomes from EucFACE. Our goals were to provide quantitative projections against which to evaluatemore » data as they are collected, and to identify key measurements that should be made in the experiment to allow discrimination among alternative model assumptions in a postexperiment model intercompari- son. Simulated responses of annual net primary productivity (NPP) to elevated Ca ranged from 0.5 to 25% across models. The simulated reduction of NPP during a low-rainfall year also varied widely, from 24 to 70%. Key processes where assumptions caused disagreement among models included nutrient limitations to growth; feedbacks to nutri- ent uptake; autotrophic respiration; and the impact of low soil moisture availability on plant processes. Finally, knowledge of the causes of variation among models is now guiding data collection in the experiment, with the expectation that the experimental data can optimally inform future model improvements.« less
Mariotti, Erika; Veronese, Mattia; Dunn, Joel T; Southworth, Richard; Eykyn, Thomas R
2015-06-01
To assess the feasibility of using a hybrid Maximum-Entropy/Nonlinear Least Squares (MEM/NLS) method for analyzing the kinetics of hyperpolarized dynamic data with minimum a priori knowledge. A continuous distribution of rates obtained through the Laplace inversion of the data is used as a constraint on the NLS fitting to derive a discrete spectrum of rates. Performance of the MEM/NLS algorithm was assessed through Monte Carlo simulations and validated by fitting the longitudinal relaxation time curves of hyperpolarized [1-(13) C] pyruvate acquired at 9.4 Tesla and at three different flip angles. The method was further used to assess the kinetics of hyperpolarized pyruvate-lactate exchange acquired in vitro in whole blood and to re-analyze the previously published in vitro reaction of hyperpolarized (15) N choline with choline kinase. The MEM/NLS method was found to be adequate for the kinetic characterization of hyperpolarized in vitro time-series. Additional insights were obtained from experimental data in blood as well as from previously published (15) N choline experimental data. The proposed method informs on the compartmental model that best approximate the biological system observed using hyperpolarized (13) C MR especially when the metabolic pathway assessed is complex or a new hyperpolarized probe is used. © 2014 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Borghesi, Giulio; Bellan, Josette, E-mail: josette.bellan@jpl.nasa.gov; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109-8099
2015-03-15
A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database was created representing mixing of species under high-pressure conditions. The configuration considered is that of a temporally evolving mixing layer. The database was examined and analyzed for the purpose of modeling some of the unclosed terms that appear in the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) equations. Several metrics are used to understand the LES modeling requirements. First, a statistical analysis of the DNS-database large-scale flow structures was performed to provide a metric for probing the accuracy of the proposed LES models as the flow fields obtained from accurate LESs should contain structures of morphology statisticallymore » similar to those observed in the filtered-and-coarsened DNS (FC-DNS) fields. To characterize the morphology of the large-scales structures, the Minkowski functionals of the iso-surfaces were evaluated for two different fields: the second-invariant of the rate of deformation tensor and the irreversible entropy production rate. To remove the presence of the small flow scales, both of these fields were computed using the FC-DNS solutions. It was found that the large-scale structures of the irreversible entropy production rate exhibit higher morphological complexity than those of the second invariant of the rate of deformation tensor, indicating that the burden of modeling will be on recovering the thermodynamic fields. Second, to evaluate the physical effects which must be modeled at the subfilter scale, an a priori analysis was conducted. This a priori analysis, conducted in the coarse-grid LES regime, revealed that standard closures for the filtered pressure, the filtered heat flux, and the filtered species mass fluxes, in which a filtered function of a variable is equal to the function of the filtered variable, may no longer be valid for the high-pressure flows considered in this study. The terms requiring modeling are the filtered pressure, the filtered heat flux, the filtered pressure
Mueller, Amy V; Hemond, Harold F
2013-12-15
A novel artificial neural network (ANN) architecture is proposed which explicitly incorporates a priori system knowledge, i.e., relationships between output signals, while preserving the unconstrained non-linear function estimator characteristics of the traditional ANN. A method is provided for architecture layout, disabling training on a subset of neurons, and encoding system knowledge into the neuron structure. The novel architecture is applied to raw readings from a chemical sensor multi-probe (electric tongue), comprised of off-the-shelf ion selective electrodes (ISEs), to estimate individual ion concentrations in solutions at environmentally relevant concentrations and containing environmentally representative ion mixtures. Conductivity measurements and the concept of charge balance are incorporated into the ANN structure, resulting in (1) removal of estimation bias typically seen with use of ISEs in mixtures of unknown composition and (2) improvement of signal estimation by an order of magnitude or more for both major and minor constituents relative to use of ISEs as stand-alone sensors and error reduction by 30-50% relative to use of standard ANN models. This method is suggested as an alternative to parameterization of traditional models (e.g., Nikolsky-Eisenman), for which parameters are strongly dependent on both analyte concentration and temperature, and to standard ANN models which have no mechanism for incorporation of system knowledge. Network architecture and weighting are presented for the base case where the dot product can be used to relate ion concentrations to both conductivity and charge balance as well as for an extension to log-normalized data where the model can no longer be represented in this manner. While parameterization in this case study is analyte-dependent, the architecture is generalizable, allowing application of this method to other environmental problems for which mathematical constraints can be explicitly stated. © 2013 Elsevier
Gray, Joshua C; MacKillop, James
2014-01-01
Introduction Delay discounting is a behavioral economic index of impulsivity that reflects preferences for small immediate rewards relative to larger delayed rewards. It has been consistently linked to pathological gambling and other forms of addictive behavior, and has been proposed to be a behavioral characteristic that may link genetic variation and risk of developing addictive disorders (i.e., an endophenotype). Studies to date have revealed significant associations with polymorphisms associated with dopamine neurotransmission. The current study examined associations between delay discounting and both previously linked variants and a novel panel of dopamine-related variants in a sample of frequent gamblers. Methods Participants were 175 weekly gamblers of European ancestry who completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire to assess delay discounting preferences and provided a DNA via saliva. Results In a priori tests, two loci previously associated with delayed reward discounting (rs1800497 and rs4680) were not replicated, however, the long form of DRD4 VNTR was significantly associated with lower discounting of delayed rewards. Exploratory analysis of the dopamine-related panel revealed 11 additional significant associations in genes associated with dopamine synthesis, breakdown, reuptake, and receptor function (DRD3, SLC6A3, DDC, DBH, and SLC18A2). An aggregate genetic risk score from the nominally significant loci accounted for 17% of the variance in discounting. Mediational analyses largely supported the presence of indirect effects between the associated loci, delay discounting, and pathological gambling severity. Conclusions These findings do not replicate previously reported associations but identify several novel candidates and provide preliminary support for a systems biology approach to understand the genetic basis of delay discounting. PMID:25365808
Childhood and Travel Literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Espey, David
If children are not present in most travel literature--precisely because the genre has most typically been the domain of solitary male travelers who are escaping domestic obligation, routine, the familiar, and the family--they nevertheless are an integral part of the genre. The traveler is in many ways a child, an innocent abroad. Traveler writers…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Jun; Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Zhang, Yiheng; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Zhou, Chuan
2007-03-01
We are developing a computerized technique to reduce intra- and interplane ghosting artifacts caused by high-contrast objects such as dense microcalcifications (MCs) or metal markers on the reconstructed slices of digital tomosynthesis mammography (DTM). In this study, we designed a constrained iterative artifact reduction method based on a priori 3D information of individual MCs. We first segmented individual MCs on projection views (PVs) using an automated MC detection system. The centroid and the contrast profile of the individual MCs in the 3D breast volume were estimated from the backprojection of the segmented individual MCs on high-resolution (0.1 mm isotropic voxel size) reconstructed DTM slices. An isolated volume of interest (VOI) containing one or a few MCs is then modeled as a high-contrast object embedded in a local homogeneous background. A shift-variant 3D impulse response matrix (IRM) of the projection-reconstruction (PR) system for the extracted VOI was calculated using the DTM geometry and the reconstruction algorithm. The PR system for this VOI is characterized by a system of linear equations. A constrained iterative method was used to solve these equations for the effective linear attenuation coefficients (eLACs) within the isolated VOI. Spatial constraint and positivity constraint were used in this method. Finally, the intra- and interplane artifacts on the whole breast volume resulting from the MC were calculated using the corresponding impulse responses and subsequently subtracted from the original reconstructed slices. The performance of our artifact-reduction method was evaluated using a computer-simulated MC phantom, as well as phantom images and patient DTMs obtained with IRB approval. A GE prototype DTM system that acquires 21 PVs in 3Âº increments over a +/-30Âº range was used for image acquisition in this study. For the computer-simulated MC phantom, the eLACs can be estimated accurately, thus the interplane artifacts were
Lai, Yun-Ju; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Lee, Ya-Ling; Ku, Po-Wen; Yen, Yung-Feng; Chu, Dachen
2017-05-22
Intervention of diabetes care education with regular laboratory check-up in outpatient visits showed long-term benefits to reduce the risk of macrovascular complications among people with type 2 diabetes. However, research on the level of a priori health knowledge to the prevention of diabetic complications in community settings has been scarce. We therefore aimed to investigate the association of health knowledge and stroke incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan. A nationally representative sample of general Taiwanese population was selected using a multistage systematic sampling process from Taiwan National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in 2005. Subjects were interviewed by a standardized face-to-face questionnaire in the survey, obtaining information of demographics, socioeconomic status, family medical history, obesity, health behaviors, and 15-item health knowledge assessment. The NHIS dataset was linked to Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data to retrieve the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in NHIS participants at baseline and identify follow-up incidence of stroke from 2005 to 2013. Univariate and multivariate Cox regressions were used to estimate the effect of baseline health knowledge level to the risk of stroke incidence among this group of people with type 2 diabetes. A total of 597 diabetic patients with a mean age of 51.28 years old and nearly half of males were analyzed. During the 9-year follow-up period, 65 new stroke cases were identified among them. Kaplan-Meier curves comparing the three groups of low/moderate/high knowledge levels revealed a statistical significance (p-value of log-rank test <0.01). After controlling for potential confounders, comparing to the group of low health knowledge level, the relative risk of stroke was significantly lower for those with moderate (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.33-1.19; p-value = 0.15) and high level of health knowledge (AHR = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.86; p
Mauro, Ian J; McLachlan, Stéphane M; Van Acker, Rene C
2009-09-01
The controversy over the world's first genetically modified (GM) wheat, Roundup Ready wheat (RRW), challenged the efficacy of 'science-based' risk assessment, largely because it excluded the public, particularly farmers, from meaningful input. Risk analysis, in contrast, is broader in orientation as it incorporates scientific data as well as socioeconomic, ethical, and legal concerns, and considers expert and lay input in decision-making. Local knowledge (LK) of farmers is experience-based and represents a rich and reliable source of information regarding the impacts associated with agricultural technology, thereby complementing the scientific data normally used in risk assessment. The overall goal of this study was to explore the role of farmer LK in the a priori risk analysis of RRW. In 2004, data were collected from farmers using mail surveys sent across the three prairie provinces (i.e., Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta) in western Canada. A stratified random sampling approach was used whereby four separate sampling districts were identified in regions where wheat was grown for each province. Rural post offices were randomly selected in each sampling district using Canada Post databases such that no one post office exceeded 80 farms and that each sampling district comprised 225-235 test farms (n = 11,040). In total, 1,814 people responded, representing an adjusted response rate for farmers of 33%. A subsequent telephone survey showed there was no non-response bias. The primary benefits associated with RRW were associated with weed control, whereas risks emphasized the importance of market harm, corporate control, agronomic problems, and the likelihood of contamination. Overall, risks were ranked much higher than benefits, and the great majority of farmers were highly critical of RRW commercialization. In total, 83.2% of respondents disagreed that RRW should have unconfined release into the environment. Risk was associated with distrust in government and
Study on monostable and bistable reaction-diffusion equations by iteration of travelling wave maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Taishan; Chen, Yuming
2017-12-01
In this paper, based on the iterative properties of travelling wave maps, we develop a new method to obtain spreading speeds and asymptotic propagation for monostable and bistable reaction-diffusion equations. Precisely, for Dirichlet problems of monostable reaction-diffusion equations on the half line, by making links between travelling wave maps and integral operators associated with the Dirichlet diffusion kernel (the latter is NOT invariant under translation), we obtain some iteration properties of the Dirichlet diffusion and some a priori estimates on nontrivial solutions of Dirichlet problems under travelling wave transformation. We then provide the asymptotic behavior of nontrivial solutions in the space-time region for Dirichlet problems. These enable us to develop a unified method to obtain results on heterogeneous steady states, travelling waves, spreading speeds, and asymptotic spreading behavior for Dirichlet problem of monostable reaction-diffusion equations on R+ as well as of monostable/bistable reaction-diffusion equations on R.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schilling, Oleg; Mueschke, Nicholas J.
2017-12-01
Data from a 1152 ×760 ×1280 direct numerical simulation [N. J. Mueschke and O. Schilling, Phys. Fluids 21, 014106 (2009), 10.1063/1.3064120] of a Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer modeled after a small-Atwood-number water-channel experiment is used to investigate the validity of gradient diffusion and similarity closures a priori. The budgets of the mean flow, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, heavy-fluid mass fraction variance, and heavy-fluid mass fraction variance dissipation rate transport equations across the mixing layer were previously analyzed [O. Schilling and N. J. Mueschke, Phys. Fluids 22, 105102 (2010), 10.1063/1.3484247] at different evolution times to identify the most important transport and mixing mechanisms. Here a methodology is introduced to systematically estimate model coefficients as a function of time in the closures of the dynamically significant terms in the transport equations by minimizing the L2 norm of the difference between the model and correlations constructed using the simulation data. It is shown that gradient-diffusion and similarity closures used for the turbulent kinetic energy K , turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate ɛ , heavy-fluid mass fraction variance S , and heavy-fluid mass fraction variance dissipation rate χ equations capture the shape of the exact, unclosed profiles well over the nonlinear and turbulent evolution regimes. Using order-of-magnitude estimates [O. Schilling and N. J. Mueschke, Phys. Fluids 22, 105102 (2010), 10.1063/1.3484247] for the terms in the exact transport equations and their closure models, it is shown that several of the standard closures for the turbulent production and dissipation (destruction) must be modified to include Reynolds-number scalings appropriate for Rayleigh-Taylor flow at small to intermediate Reynolds numbers. The late-time, large Reynolds number coefficients are determined to be different from those used in shear flow applications and
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1992-04-01
Mid-America Regional Council, the designated Metropolitan Planning Organization for the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, performed a Small Sample Travel Survey for the Kansas City region to collect data to update the MARC travel demand models. The resu...
Illinois travel statistics, 1996
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-01-01
The mileage and vehicle miles of travel data in the following tables are based on : roads/streets located within the District's geographical boundaries (Administrative : District). : Vehicle miles of travel (VMT) are calculated by multiplying the mil...
Illinois travel statistics, 1995
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1996-01-01
The mileage and vehicle miles of travel data in the following tables are based on : roads/streets located within the District's geographical boundaries (Administrative : District). : Vehicle miles of travel (VMT) are calculated by multiplying the mil...
Schuhwerk, M A; Richens, J; Zuckerman, Jane N
2006-01-01
There is a high demand for travel among HIV-positive individual. This demand arises partly from those who have benefited from advances in antiretroviral therapy as well as those with disease progression. The key to a successful and uneventful holiday lies in careful pre-trip planning, yet many patients fail to obtain advice before travelling. Travel advice for HIV patients is becoming increasingly specialized. In addition to advice on common travel-related infectious diseases, HIV-positive travellers are strongly advised to carry information with them and they need specific advice regarding country entry restrictions, HIV inclusive travel insurance, safety of travel vaccinations and highly active antiretroviral therapy-related issues. A wide range of relevant issues for the HIV-positive traveller are discussed in this review and useful websites can be found at the end.
Illinois travel statistics, 1997
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1998-01-01
The mileage and vehicle miles of travel data in the following tables are based on : roads/streets located within the District's geographical boundaries (Administrative : District). : Vehicle miles of travel (VMT) are calculated by multiplying the mil...
Illinois travel statistics, 1998
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1999-01-01
The mileage and vehicle miles of travel data in the following tables are based on : roads/streets located within the District's geographical boundaries (Administrative : District). : Vehicle miles of travel (VMT) are calculated by multiplying the mil...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roman, Harry T.
2007-01-01
Airplane travelers are dismayed by the long lines and seemingly chaotic activities that precede boarding a full airplane. Surely, the one who can solve this problem is going to make many travelers happy. This article describes the Jet Travel Challenge, an activity that challenges students to create some alternatives to this now frustrating…
... are 36 weeks pregnant. When is the best time to travel during pregnancy? The best time to travel is the middle of your pregnancy—between week ... Sitting or not moving for long periods of time, such as during long-distance travel, can increase the risk of DVT. Pregnancy further ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.
Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…
Improving health sector travel.
Hurdle, David; Davis, Adrian
2004-10-01
Preventing ill health and obesity and building more physical activity into our daily lives have never been so high on the agenda, and the way we travel can help. Many workplaces and schools are drawing up travel plans, with the aims usually to minimise car use and encourage healthier and more environmentally friendly travel. The Transport White Paper of 1998 advocated travel plans and singled out hospitals for action. Travel plans continue to be a focus within the latest Transport White Paper, launched in July 2004. This article covers various prompts to the health sector to implement travel plans. It addresses issues and concerns facing NHS Trusts, the practical things Trusts can do, and the increasing amount of good practice available. Finally, it demonstrates that travel plans can work, and are working, in the health sector.
Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases
... Be Acquired During Travel* From Contaminated Food and Water More Common Giardiasis Cryptosporidiosis Cyclosporiasis Less Common Amebiasis ... Page last updated: April 20, 2018 Content source: Global Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet ...
Student Travel: Policies - Regulations - Exhibits.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trujillo, Lorenzo A.; And Others
The Jefferson County (Colorado) Public Schools' regulations and policies concerning student travel covers these forms of travel: student activity travel, extended student travel, district sponsored student travel, district authorized student travel, student exchange, and bonus learning trips. Issues and items addressed include: (1) authorization…
Bayesian Travel Time Inversion adopting Gaussian Process Regression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauerberger, S.; Holschneider, M.
2017-12-01
A major application in seismology is the determination of seismic velocity models. Travel time measurements are putting an integral constraint on the velocity between source and receiver. We provide insight into travel time inversion from a correlation-based Bayesian point of view. Therefore, the concept of Gaussian process regression is adopted to estimate a velocity model. The non-linear travel time integral is approximated by a 1st order Taylor expansion. A heuristic covariance describes correlations amongst observations and a priori model. That approach enables us to assess a proxy of the Bayesian posterior distribution at ordinary computational costs. No multi dimensional numeric integration nor excessive sampling is necessary. Instead of stacking the data, we suggest to progressively build the posterior distribution. Incorporating only a single evidence at a time accounts for the deficit of linearization. As a result, the most probable model is given by the posterior mean whereas uncertainties are described by the posterior covariance.As a proof of concept, a synthetic purely 1d model is addressed. Therefore a single source accompanied by multiple receivers is considered on top of a model comprising a discontinuity. We consider travel times of both phases - direct and reflected wave - corrupted by noise. Left and right of the interface are assumed independent where the squared exponential kernel serves as covariance.
Immunizations for foreign travel.
Hill, D. R.
1992-01-01
One of the most important aspects of preparing travelers for destinations throughout the world is providing them with immunizations. Before administering any vaccines, however, a careful health and immunization history and travel itinerary should be obtained in order to determine vaccine indications and contraindications. There are three categories of immunizations for foreign travel. The first category includes immunizations which are routinely recommended whether or not the individual is traveling. Many travelers are due for primary vaccination or boosting against tetanus-diphtheria, measles-mumps-rubella, pneumococcal pneumonia, and influenza, for example, and the pre-travel visit is an ideal time to administer these. The second category are immunizations which might be required by a country as a condition for entry; these are yellow fever and cholera. The final category contains immunizations which are recommended because there is a risk of acquiring a particular disease during travel. Typhoid fever, meningococcal disease, rabies, and hepatitis are some examples. Travelers who are pregnant or who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus require special consideration. Provision of appropriate immunizations for foreign travel is an important aspect of preventing illness in travelers. PMID:1337807
Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers
Khan, Nomana M.; Jentes, Emily S.; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H.F.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.
2016-01-01
Objectives: The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. Methods: De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results: Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Conclusions: Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage. PMID:26479857
Korzeniewski, Krzysztof
All around the world there has been a rapid growth in the number of international travels. According to the World Tourism Organisation the number of international tourist arrivals reached 1,235 billion in 2016 and continues to grow at a high rate. This has been much due to the development of air transport (including low-cost airlines), increasingly common economic migration, a growing number of travellers visiting friends and relatives, and an increase in medical tourism. With tropical destinations becoming increasingly popular among travellers, doctors have seen a rising number of patients who seek medical advice on health risks prevalent in hot countries and health prevention measures to be taken in tropical destinations, especially where sanitation is poor. The risk for developing a medical condition while staying abroad depends on a variety of factors, including the traveller's general health condition, health prevention measures taken before or during travel (vaccinations, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, health precautions during air, road and sea travel, proper acclimatisation, prevention of heat injuries, protection against local flora and fauna, personal hygiene, water, food and feeding hygiene), as well as the prevalence of health risk factors in a given location. Health prevention is a precondition for safe travel and maintaining good physical health; in the era of a rapid growth in international tourism it has become of key importance for all travellers.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2016-08-01
Knowingly or not, people generally place economic value on their time. Wage workers are paid a rate per hour, and service providers may charge per hour of their time. In the transportation realm, travelers place a value on their travel time and have ...
... a cruise, it may not be the best time to go. Travel by sea may cause motion sickness or nausea. ... out of the country. Plan ahead to allow time for any shots or medicines you may need. When you travel, take a copy of your prenatal care record ...
... health Before your flight One key to air travel is to prepare ahead of time. If you are carrying on a bag, make ... need to change if your eating and sleeping times will change at your destination. If you have diabetes or epilepsy, you should travel with your ID card. For instance, the American ...
Many intercity travelers face longer travel schedules
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2003-10-01
Since 1995, scheduled travel times for direct : intercity air, bus, and rail service without an en : route transfer have measurably lengthened in : most major-market city-pairs. : Long-haul rail city-pairs affected by service : changes and short-...
Michigan's Statewide Travel Demand Model
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1999-09-01
The Travel Demand and Intermodal Services Section of Michigan's Department of Transportation is responsible for the development, maintenance and application of the Statewide Travel Demand Model. Michigan's Statewide and Urban Travel Demand Models are...
Summary travel characteristics : Rhode Island
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : New Jersey
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : New Hampshire
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : New York
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : New Mexico
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : South Carolina
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : North Carolina
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : West Virginia
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-10-01
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : North Dakota
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Summary travel characteristics : South Dakota
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-09-30
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
Travel time data collection handbook
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1998-03-01
This Travel Time Data Collection Handbook provides guidance to transportation : professionals and practitioners for the collection, reduction, and presentation : of travel time data. The handbook should be a useful reference for designing : travel ti...
Travel diaries : an annotated catalog
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1995-06-01
The travel diary is the central survey instrument for travel behavior research. In its current form it reflects forty years of development. This paper discusses the current and possible contents of the travel diary against the background of a rapidly...
Travelers' Health: Injuries and Safety
... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...
Traveler's Health: Avoid Bug Bites
... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...
Understanding taxi travel patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming
2016-09-01
Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.
Travel medicine and HIV infection.
Igreja, Ricardo
2008-09-01
The number of HIV-infected persons who travel is increasing. This increase arises from those who have benefited from advances in antiretroviral therapy. The key to successful travel is careful pre-trip planning although many patients do not obtain advice before travelling. Travel advice for HIV patients is becoming increasingly specialized, and includes travel vaccination and highly active antiretroviral therapy-related issues. A closer collaboration between HIV and travel health clinics could provide better care for HIV-infected individuals.
Marra, Nicholas J; Eo, Soo Hyung; Hale, Matthew C; Waser, Peter M; DeWoody, J Andrew
2012-12-01
One common goal in evolutionary biology is the identification of genes underlying adaptive traits of evolutionary interest. Recently next-generation sequencing techniques have greatly facilitated such evolutionary studies in species otherwise depauperate of genomic resources. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys sp.) serve as exemplars of adaptation in that they inhabit extremely arid environments, yet require no drinking water because of ultra-efficient kidney function and osmoregulation. As a basis for identifying water conservation genes in kangaroo rats, we conducted a priori bioinformatics searches in model rodents (Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus) to identify candidate genes with known or suspected osmoregulatory function. We then obtained 446,758 reads via 454 pyrosequencing to characterize genes expressed in the kidney of banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis). We also determined candidates a posteriori by identifying genes that were overexpressed in the kidney. The kangaroo rat sequences revealed nine different a priori candidate genes predicted from our Mus and Rattus searches, as well as 32 a posteriori candidate genes that were overexpressed in kidney. Mutations in two of these genes, Slc12a1 and Slc12a3, cause human renal diseases that result in the inability to concentrate urine. These genes are likely key determinants of physiological water conservation in desert rodents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Vernon J; Wilder-Smith, Annelies
2006-10-01
Singapore has a fast-growing travel industry, but few studies have been done on travel characteristics and travel health practices. This study describes the profile and healthseeking behaviour of travellers attending a travel health clinic in Singapore. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on travellers attending the Traveller's Health and Vaccination Centre (THVC) between September and November 2002 using a standardised questionnaire. Information obtained included individual demographic and medical information, travel patterns, vaccination status and travel health practices. Four hundred and ninetyfive (74%) eligible travellers seen at THVC responded to the questionnaire. Their mean age was 36 years; 77% were professionals, managers, executives, and businessmen, students, and white collar workers. Asia was the main travel destination, and most travelled for leisure and resided in hotels or hostels. The median duration of travel was 16 days. Although >90% had previously travelled overseas, only 20% had previously sought pre-travel advice. Malays were significantly underrepresented (P < 0.01); and Caucasians and Eurasians were significantly more likely (P < 0.01) to have previously sought pre-travel advice compared with Chinese, Indians and Malays. Factors associated with seeking pre-travel advice included travel outside of Asia, especially Africa and South America. Singaporean travellers travel more often to cities rather than rural areas, compared with non-Asian travellers. Asia is the preferred destination, and travel outside of Asia is perceived as more risky and is associated with seeking pre-travel advice and vaccinations. Travel patterns and behaviours need to be taken into account when developing evidence-based travel medicine in Asia.
Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Steeples, D.; Park, C.B.
2005-01-01
In a set of two papers we study the inverse problem of refraction travel times. The purpose of this work is to use the study as a basis for development of more sophisticated methods for finding more reliable solutions to the inverse problem of refraction travel times, which is known to be nonunique. The first paper, "Types of Geophysical Nonuniqueness through Minimization," emphasizes the existence of different forms of nonuniqueness in the realm of inverse geophysical problems. Each type of nonuniqueness requires a different type and amount of a priori information to acquire a reliable solution. Based on such coupling, a nonuniqueness classification is designed. Therefore, since most inverse geophysical problems are nonunique, each inverse problem must be studied to define what type of nonuniqueness it belongs to and thus determine what type of a priori information is necessary to find a realistic solution. The second paper, "Quantifying Refraction Nonuniqueness Using a Three-layer Model," serves as an example of such an approach. However, its main purpose is to provide a better understanding of the inverse refraction problem by studying the type of nonuniqueness it possesses. An approach for obtaining a realistic solution to the inverse refraction problem is planned to be offered in a third paper that is in preparation. The main goal of this paper is to redefine the existing generalized notion of nonuniqueness and a priori information by offering a classified, discriminate structure. Nonuniqueness is often encountered when trying to solve inverse problems. However, possible nonuniqueness diversity is typically neglected and nonuniqueness is regarded as a whole, as an unpleasant "black box" and is approached in the same manner by applying smoothing constraints, damping constraints with respect to the solution increment and, rarely, damping constraints with respect to some sparse reference information about the true parameters. In practice, when solving geophysical
Tang, Jiqiang; Yang, Wu; Zhu, Lingyun; Wang, Dong; Feng, Xin
2017-01-01
In recent years, Wireless Sensor Networks with a Mobile Sink (WSN-MS) have been an active research topic due to the widespread use of mobile devices. However, how to get the balance between data delivery latency and energy consumption becomes a key issue of WSN-MS. In this paper, we study the clustering approach by jointly considering the Route planning for mobile sink and Clustering Problem (RCP) for static sensor nodes. We solve the RCP problem by using the minimum travel route clustering approach, which applies the minimum travel route of the mobile sink to guide the clustering process. We formulate the RCP problem as an Integer Non-Linear Programming (INLP) problem to shorten the travel route of the mobile sink under three constraints: the communication hops constraint, the travel route constraint and the loop avoidance constraint. We then propose an Imprecise Induction Algorithm (IIA) based on the property that the solution with a small hop count is more feasible than that with a large hop count. The IIA algorithm includes three processes: initializing travel route planning with a Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) algorithm, transforming the cluster head to a cluster member and transforming the cluster member to a cluster head. Extensive experimental results show that the IIA algorithm could automatically adjust cluster heads according to the maximum hops parameter and plan a shorter travel route for the mobile sink. Compared with the Shortest Path Tree-based Data-Gathering Algorithm (SPT-DGA), the IIA algorithm has the characteristics of shorter route length, smaller cluster head count and faster convergence rate. PMID:28445434
Tang, Jiqiang; Yang, Wu; Zhu, Lingyun; Wang, Dong; Feng, Xin
2017-04-26
In recent years, Wireless Sensor Networks with a Mobile Sink (WSN-MS) have been an active research topic due to the widespread use of mobile devices. However, how to get the balance between data delivery latency and energy consumption becomes a key issue of WSN-MS. In this paper, we study the clustering approach by jointly considering the Route planning for mobile sink and Clustering Problem (RCP) for static sensor nodes. We solve the RCP problem by using the minimum travel route clustering approach, which applies the minimum travel route of the mobile sink to guide the clustering process. We formulate the RCP problem as an Integer Non-Linear Programming (INLP) problem to shorten the travel route of the mobile sink under three constraints: the communication hops constraint, the travel route constraint and the loop avoidance constraint. We then propose an Imprecise Induction Algorithm (IIA) based on the property that the solution with a small hop count is more feasible than that with a large hop count. The IIA algorithm includes three processes: initializing travel route planning with a Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) algorithm, transforming the cluster head to a cluster member and transforming the cluster member to a cluster head. Extensive experimental results show that the IIA algorithm could automatically adjust cluster heads according to the maximum hops parameter and plan a shorter travel route for the mobile sink. Compared with the Shortest Path Tree-based Data-Gathering Algorithm (SPT-DGA), the IIA algorithm has the characteristics of shorter route length, smaller cluster head count and faster convergence rate.
[Air travel during pregnancy].
Rabinerson, David; Ninio, Avraham; Glezerman, Marek
2008-04-01
Nowadays, millions of people travel by air every day and it is common to find pregnant women among the passengers. Travelling during pregnancy raises the question of the woman's safety during the flight. This is due to the risk of exposure to cosmic radiation, the drop in air pressure, and the possibility of thromboembolism due to seating conditions and flight duration. Other risks include obstetric emergencies, such as hemorrhage, premature contractions and actual labor. Further issues associated with air travel during pregnancy have to do with the safety of pregnant aircrew, if emergency evacuation becomes necessary and the airline's view regarding the admittance of pregnant women on flights. We discuss these issues extensively in our review. We conclude that for a healthy woman whose pregnancy involves no risk factors, air travel is safe up to the 36th gestational week.
Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.
1993-12-14
The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size. 4 figures.
Hietala, Vincent M.; Vawter, Gregory A.
1993-01-01
The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.
Avoid bringing bed bugs home by taking precautions when traveling such as inspecting bedding and luggage racks in hotel rooms, and upon returning home unpacking directly into a washing machine and dry at high temperatures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Instructor, 1981
1981-01-01
Describes the winners of the Space Traveler Project, a contest jointly sponsored by Rockwell International, NASA, and this magazine to identify worthwhile elementary science programs relating to the Space Shuttle. (SJL)
Caregiving and travel patterns.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2013-06-01
This study explored the impact of caregiving for older adults on mobility and travel : patterns. Specifically, the focus was on how caregivers managed trips on behalf of : another who receives care. Caregiving is becoming increasingly common as the :...
Traveling with Portable Oxygen
... preferred for patients in areas without access to electricity. Liquid oxygen is classi ed by the FAA ... ahead of time to make arrangements for any electrical power you will need. 4 TRAVELING WITH PORTABLE ...
... The Pacific Islands: Fiji , Papua New Guinea , Samoa , Solomon Islands , Tonga South America: Argentina , Bolivia , Brazil , Colombia , ... travel plans. Area Date of interruption American Samoa 4/13/2017 The Bahamas 2/2/2018 Cayman ...
Illinois travel statistics, 2009
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2010-01-01
The 2009 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...
Illinois travel statistics, 2001
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2002-01-01
The 2001 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this : level of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...
Illinois travel statistics, 2003
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2004-01-01
The 2003 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...
Illinois travel statistics, 2010
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2011-01-01
The 2010 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...
Illinois travel statistics, 2005
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2006-01-01
The 2005 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...
Illinois travel statistics, 2007
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2008-01-01
The 2007 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...
Illinois travel statistics, 2000
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2001-01-01
The 2000 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this : level of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...
Illinois travel statistics, 2006
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2007-01-01
The 2006 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...
Illinois travel statistics, 2002
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2003-01-01
The 2002 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...
Illinois travel statistics, 2008
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2009-01-01
The 2008 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...
Illinois travel statistics, 2004
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2005-01-01
The 2004 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...
Illinois travel statistics, 1999
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2000-01-01
The 1999 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this : level of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...
Garske, Tini; Yu, Hongjie; Peng, Zhibin; Ye, Min; Zhou, Hang; Cheng, Xiaowen; Wu, Jiabing; Ferguson, Neil
2011-02-02
The spread of infectious disease epidemics is mediated by human travel. Yet human mobility patterns vary substantially between countries and regions. Quantifying the frequency of travel and length of journeys in well-defined population is therefore critical for predicting the likely speed and pattern of spread of emerging infectious diseases, such as a new influenza pandemic. Here we present the results of a large population survey undertaken in 2007 in two areas of China: Shenzhen city in Guangdong province, and Huangshan city in Anhui province. In each area, 10,000 randomly selected individuals were interviewed, and data on regular and occasional journeys collected. Travel behaviour was examined as a function of age, sex, economic status and home location. Women and children were generally found to travel shorter distances than men. Travel patterns in the economically developed Shenzhen region are shown to resemble those in developed and economically advanced middle income countries with a significant fraction of the population commuting over distances in excess of 50 km. Conversely, in the less developed rural region of Anhui, travel was much more local, with very few journeys over 30 km. Travel patterns in both populations were well-fitted by a gravity model with a lognormal kernel function. The results provide the first quantitative information on human travel patterns in modern China, and suggest that a pandemic emerging in a less developed area of rural China might spread geographically sufficiently slowly for containment to be feasible, while spatial spread in the more economically developed areas might be expected to be much more rapid, making containment more difficult.
Garske, Tini; Yu, Hongjie; Peng, Zhibin; Ye, Min; Zhou, Hang; Cheng, Xiaowen; Wu, Jiabing; Ferguson, Neil
2011-01-01
The spread of infectious disease epidemics is mediated by human travel. Yet human mobility patterns vary substantially between countries and regions. Quantifying the frequency of travel and length of journeys in well-defined population is therefore critical for predicting the likely speed and pattern of spread of emerging infectious diseases, such as a new influenza pandemic. Here we present the results of a large population survey undertaken in 2007 in two areas of China: Shenzhen city in Guangdong province, and Huangshan city in Anhui province. In each area, 10,000 randomly selected individuals were interviewed, and data on regular and occasional journeys collected. Travel behaviour was examined as a function of age, sex, economic status and home location. Women and children were generally found to travel shorter distances than men. Travel patterns in the economically developed Shenzhen region are shown to resemble those in developed and economically advanced middle income countries with a significant fraction of the population commuting over distances in excess of 50 km. Conversely, in the less developed rural region of Anhui, travel was much more local, with very few journeys over 30 km. Travel patterns in both populations were well-fitted by a gravity model with a lognormal kernel function. The results provide the first quantitative information on human travel patterns in modern China, and suggest that a pandemic emerging in a less developed area of rural China might spread geographically sufficiently slowly for containment to be feasible, while spatial spread in the more economically developed areas might be expected to be much more rapid, making containment more difficult. PMID:21311745
Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth
1975-01-01
Travelers, particularly those whose tastes or occupations lead to deviation from the usual tourist routes, are at a small but significant risk of acquiring certain diseases they would be unlikely to encounter had they remained in the continental United States. Many of these infections can be rendered unlikely even for the most adventuresome traveler through the appropriate use of immunization and chemoprophylaxis. Other infections are currently unpreventable and the physician's responsibility lies in their premorbid detection. PMID:1154779
The New England travel market: changes in generational travel patterns
Rodney B. Warnick
1995-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine and explore the New England domestic travel market trends, from 1979 through 1991 within the context of generations. The existing travel markets, who travel to New England, are changing by age cohorts and specifically within different generations. The New England changes in generational travel patterns do not reflect national...
Travel health knowledge, attitudes and practices among Australasian travelers.
Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Khairullah, Nor S; Song, Jae-Hoon; Chen, Ching-Yu; Torresi, Joseph
2004-01-01
Although the Asia Pacific region is the focus of the fastest-growing tourist and travel industry, few data are available on the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of travelers from this region with regard to travel-related infectious diseases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among travelers at the departure lounges of five airports in Australasia (Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Taipeh, Melbourne, Seoul) whose travel destinations were Asia, Africa or South America. Two standardized questionnaires directed towards KAP in travel health, travel immunizations and malaria were administered. Of 2,101 respondents (82% Asian, 17% Western), 31% had sought pretravel health advice and only 4% sought travel health advice from the travel medicine specialist. The risk of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases and malaria at the destination country was perceived to be low. Overall, fewer than 5% of travelers had been vaccinated in preparation for their trip. The most frequent travel vaccinations were for hepatitis A and B. Only 40% of travelers to malaria-endemic areas carried malaria prophylaxis. Compared to Western travelers, those of Asian nationality were significantly less likely to obtain pretravel advice and malaria prophylaxis and to receive travel vaccinations. There is an urgent need for increased awareness about travel-related infectious diseases among Asian travelers, and greater uptake of pretravel health advice, vaccinations and malaria prophylactic measures.
[Vaccination for international travelers].
Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio
2016-05-01
Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Andersen, A; Casares-Magaz, O; Elstroem, U
Purpose: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging may enable image- and dose-guided proton therapy, but is challenged by image artefacts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the general applicability of a previously developed a priori scatter correction algorithm to allow CBCT-based proton dose calculations. Methods: The a priori scatter correction algorithm used a plan CT (pCT) and raw cone-beam projections acquired with the Varian On-Board Imager. The projections were initially corrected for bow-tie filtering and beam hardening and subsequently reconstructed using the Feldkamp-Davis-Kress algorithm (rawCBCT). The rawCBCTs were intensity normalised before a rigid and deformable registration were applied on themore » pCTs to the rawCBCTs. The resulting images were forward projected onto the same angles as the raw CB projections. The two projections were subtracted from each other, Gaussian and median filtered, and then subtracted from the raw projections and finally reconstructed to the scatter-corrected CBCTs. For evaluation, water equivalent path length (WEPL) maps (from anterior to posterior) were calculated on different reconstructions of three data sets (CB projections and pCT) of three parts of an Alderson phantom. Finally, single beam spot scanning proton plans (0–360 deg gantry angle in steps of 5 deg; using PyTRiP) treating a 5 cm central spherical target in the pCT were re-calculated on scatter-corrected CBCTs with identical targets. Results: The scatter-corrected CBCTs resulted in sub-mm mean WEPL differences relative to the rigid registration of the pCT for all three data sets. These differences were considerably smaller than what was achieved with the regular Varian CBCT reconstruction algorithm (1–9 mm mean WEPL differences). Target coverage in the re-calculated plans was generally improved using the scatter-corrected CBCTs compared to the Varian CBCT reconstruction. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the general applicability of a priori CBCT scatter
Travel health attitudes among Turkish business travellers to African countries.
Selcuk, Engin Burak; Kayabas, Uner; Binbasioglu, Hulisi; Otlu, Baris; Bayindir, Yasar; Bozdogan, Bulent; Karatas, Mehmet
The number of international travellers is increasing worldwide. Although health risks related to international travel are important and generally well-understood, the perception of these risks was unclear among Turkish travellers. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes and health risk awareness of Turkish travellers travelling to African countries. A survey was performed of Turkish travellers bound for Africa from Istanbul International Ataturk Airport in July 2013. A total of 124 travellers were enrolled in the study. Among them, 62.9% had information about their destination but only 11.3% had looked for information on health problems related to travel and their destination. Of all travellers, 53.2% had at least one vaccination before travelling. The most commonly administered vaccine was for typhoid. Among the travellers, 69.3% and 80.6% had "no idea" about yellow fever vaccination and malaria prophylaxis, respectively. A positive correlation was found between a higher level of travellers' education and receiving the recommended vaccination for the destination. Our study revealed significant gaps in the vaccination and chemoprophylaxis uptake of Turkish travellers departing to Africa. An awareness and training program should be developed for travellers, as well as public health workers, to address health risks related to travel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leggat, Peter A; Zwar, Nicholas; Hudson, Bernie
2012-09-01
The Travel Health Advisory Group (THAG), established in 1997, is a joint initiative between the travel industry and travel health professionals in Australia that aims to promote healthy travel. THAG seeks to promote cooperation in improving the health of travellers between the travel industry and travel medicine professionals and to raise public awareness of the importance of travel health. From 2011, THAG has been a Special Interest Group of The Australasian College of Tropical Medicine and its membership has been active in several areas, including web-based travel health information, travel health promotion, media releases, research and education in Australia. Information is given on the objectives, membership and an overview of the various activities of the group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Priori Calculations of Thermodynamic Functions
1991-12-01
Ten closes this work with a brief summary and offers suggestions for improving the model and for future research. S CHAPTER TWO In this chapter, we...we must first define the theoretical model . The molecules studied in this work contain up to 10 non- hydrogen atoms and, in general, are not...is given by equation (2-31) for two different geometries or two different theoretical models . Equation (2-31) shows the error in the force constant has
Cannegieter, Suzanne C
2012-09-01
Travel-related thrombosis is a serious public health concern considering the large and increasing number of travellers. Due to a lack of evidence, counselling air travellers on their venous thrombosis risk is not immediately straightforward, and advice will have to be based mostly on theoretical grounds. In this review a basis for these considerations is given. First of all it needs to be recognized that venous thrombosis is a multicausal disease, i.e. several risk factors have to be present before an event occurs. This is reflected in the literature where clearly increased risks have been described for certain groups, such as subjects with factor V Leiden, those who use oral contraceptives or are obese. Also, an increased risk for tall and short people has been reported. So, for subjects with a known risk factor who plan to travel, benefits and risks of thrombosis prophylaxis, (pharmacological or other), need to be weighed. This review provides some theoretical examples. For all other travellers, the advice to move and exercise as much as possible is likely to be sufficient. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Travel-related health problems in Japanese travelers.
Mizuno, Yasutaka; Kudo, Koichiro
2009-09-01
Although the number of Japanese individuals traveling abroad has increased steadily, reaching approximately 17.3 million in 2007, the incidence of various travel-related health problems in Japan remains unknown. The travel-related health problems of Japanese travelers returning to Japan from abroad are analyzed by assessing the records. Data were collected retrospectively on returning travelers who visited the authors' travel clinic during the period from January 2005 through to December 2006 with any health problem acquired overseas. A total of 345 patients were included in this study (200 male, 145 female; average age, 34+/-12.3 years). Reasons for travel included leisure (45.8%); business (39.1%); visiting friends and relatives or accompanying other travelers (8.7%); volunteering (3.8%); and long stays in order to study or live (2.6%). The most visited destination was Asia (n=260), followed by Africa (n=105). The most commonly reported health problems were gastro-intestinal infections (39.1%), followed by respiratory tract infections (16.2%), animal bites (8.1%), and skin problems (5.8%). Together, malaria and dengue accounted for 10% of diagnoses in 125 febrile patients (36.2%). Although the profile of travel-related health problems in Japanese travelers is similar to that of Western travelers, the characteristics of travel were quite different. Therefore Japanese travel advice should be tailored to suit the Japanese traveler.
Hawkes, S J; Hart, G J
1993-01-01
This is a review of recent publications on the subject of travel (taken in its widest sense) and HIV/AIDS. As with all epidemics caused by transmissible pathogens, AIDS has been seen in many countries as an imported problem. What this perspective fails to recognize is that with the explosion of international travel in the past thirty years it is virtually impossible to prevent the spread of infectious disease across international frontiers. Here we highlight the relative paucity of studies that describe or investigate the context in which sexual risk behaviour of travellers takes place, and suggest areas of further research which could increase understanding of the nature of sexual risk taking, and help in the design of health education programmes.
Ramos-Sesma, V; Górgolas-Hernández Mora, M; Ramos-Rincón, J M
2018-04-20
Improved living conditions and advances in medicine have extended life expectancy and quality of life, resulting in an increasing number of elderly travellers. Pathophysiological changes and treatments can reduce the efficacy of vaccines and facilitate drug interactions. Elderly travellers have various characteristics that should be considered when offering pre-trip counselling, which should include proper management of chronic diseases that are susceptible to worsening during the trip, as well as an appropriate study and follow-up after the trip. We performed a narrative review of the main problems of elderly travellers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Schistosomiasis and international travel.
Corachan, Manuel
2002-08-15
Infection with Schistosoma species is acquired by exposure to fresh water that harbors cercariae released by infected snails. Although the route of infection is clear, clinical presentation of the established infection in the nonimmune tourist typically differs from that in the local population of areas of endemicity. For the health care practitioner, the traveler's syndrome presents distinctive management problems: water-transmitted bacterial and viral infections may coexist, and identification of the stage of disease at presentation, along with identification of the causative species, will maximize treatment options. Travel medicine clinics serve as epidemiological antennae, helping to identify the dynamics of species transmission in geographically distinct areas. Education of persons traveling to areas of endemicity and the development of mechanical protection against exposure are needed.
[Viral hepatitis in travellers].
Abreu, Cândida
2007-01-01
Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health
Stewart, L; Leggat, P A
1998-06-01
As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koski, Olivia; Rosin, Mark; Guerilla Science Team
2014-03-01
The Intergalactic Travel Bureau is an interactive theater outreach experience that engages the public in the incredible possibilities of space tourism. The Bureau is staffed by professional actors, who play the role of space travel agents, and professional astrophysicists, who play the role of resident scientists. Members of the public of all ages were invited to visit with bureau staff to plan the vacation of their dreams-to space. We describe the project's successful nine day run in New York in August 2013. Funded by the American Physical Society Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants.
Hepatitis A - prevention in travellers.
Mayer, Cora A; Neilson, Amy A
2010-12-01
Hepatitis A is the second most common vaccine preventable infection in travellers. Highly effective vaccines exist for its prevention for travellers from 12 months of age, including last minute travellers and those in special risk groups. Information about hepatitis A infection, its epidemiology and existing vaccine options is presented for use in travel related consultations in general practice. Most travellers at risk of hepatitis A should be vaccinated, as the vaccine is a safe and effective means of prevention. Combination vaccines - hepatitis A/hepatitis B and hepatitis A/typhoid - aim to facilitate the vaccination process for travellers, who are often also at risk of exposure to hepatitis B and typhoid fever.
Travel and transplantation: travel-related diseases in transplant recipients.
Kotton, Camille N
2012-12-01
Travel-related diseases may be seen in transplant recipients after travel, after transplant tourism, and via transmission from blood and organ donors, augmented by recent increases in travel, migration, and globalization. Such infections include tuberculosis, Plasmodium (malaria), Babesia, Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease), Strongyloides, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Leishmania, Brucella, HTLV, dengue, among numerous others. Review of cohorts of transplant recipients show that they tend to have minimal or suboptimal preparation prior to travel, with limited pretravel vaccination, medications, and education, which poses a greatly increased risk of travel-related infections and complications. The epidemiology of such travel-related infections in transplant recipients, along with methods for prevention, including vaccines, chemoprophylaxis, and education may help SOT recipients avoid travel-related infections, and are discussed in this review. Optimizing the understanding of the risk of tropical, geographically restricted, and other unusual or unexpected, travel-related infections will enhance the safety of vulnerable transplant recipients from potentially life-threatening infections.
... measures instituted in each country to prevent BSE contamination of human food, and 5) details about cattle products from one ... To reduce any risk of acquiring vCJD from food, concerned travelers to ... opportunity for contamination with tissues that may harbor the BSE agent. ...
Waterhouse, J; Reilly, T; Edwards, B
2004-10-01
International travel is an essential part of the life of elite athletes, both for competition and training. It is also becoming increasingly common among recreational sportspersons. Long-distance travel is associated with a group of transient negative effects, collectively referred to as 'travel fatigue', which result from anxiety about the journey, the change to an individual's daily routine, and dehydration due to time spent in the dry air of the aircraft cabin. Travel fatigue lasts for only a day or so, but for those who fly across several time zones, there are also the longer-lasting difficulties associated with 'jet lag'. The problems of jet lag can last for over a week if the flight crosses 10 time zones or more, and they can reduce performance and the motivation to train effectively. Knowledge of the properties of the body clock enables the cause of the difficulties to be understood (an unadjusted body clock), and forms the basis of using light in the new time zone to promote adjustment of the body clock. Sleep loss and its effects are important components of jet lag, and attempts to promote sleep by the use of melatonin and other hypnotics are also relevant. Sleep loss is also found in those who undertake challenges that involve long periods where the normal consolidated sleep of 8 h length is not possible. Advice on sleep regimens in such circumstances is given.
Thomas M. Corsi; Milton E. Harvey
1980-01-01
This paper utilizes available data sources to construct a picture of adjustment patterns in vacation/recreation travel with respect to both past and prospective fuel price/availability developments. The increases in fuel prices coupled with supply uncertainties that have occurred during the 1970's have strained the traditional vacation patterns of many American...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ambrosino, Roberta
2009-01-01
A junior faculty member arrives at an unfamiliar university for a new teaching assignment. She is poised for the adventure, but feels like a traveler at the edge of long, unknown road. She does not know what obstacles or vistas may appear on the road, and wants to avoid major potholes. She takes a nervous look around and finds an experienced…
Travel time reliability modeling.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2011-07-01
This report includes three papers as follows: : 1. Guo F., Rakha H., and Park S. (2010), "A Multi-state Travel Time Reliability Model," : Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, n 2188, : pp. 46-54. : 2. Park S.,...
Traveling Safely with Medicines
... TSA web site . If you’ll be changing time zones, talk to your doctor or pharmacist to work out a travel action plan for when you should take your medicine. This will keep you from taking too much or not enough medicine. Even if you are not changing time zones, be sure to stick to your regular ...
Interstellar Travel without 'Magic'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodcock, G.
The possibility of interstellar space travel has become a popular subject. Distances of light years are an entirely new realm for human space travel. New means of propulsion are needed. Speculation about propulsion has included "magic", space warps, faster-than-light travel, known physics such as antimatter for which no practical implementation is known and also physics for which current research offers at least a hint of implementation, i.e. fusion. Performance estimates are presented for the latter and used to create vehicle concepts. Fusion propulsion will mean travel times of hundreds of years, so we adopt the "space colony" concepts of O'Neill as a ship design that could support a small civilization indefinitely; this provides the technical means. Economic reasoning is presented, arguing that development and production of "space colony" habitats for relief of Earth's population, with addition of fusion engines, will lead to vessels that can go interstellar. Scenarios are presented and a speculative estimate of a timetable is given.
[Pre-travel advice and patient education of Hungarian travellers].
Lengyel, Ingrid; Felkai, Péter
2018-03-01
According to international surveys, over half of the travellers face some kind of health issue when travelling. The overwhelming majority of travel-related illnesses can be prevented with pre-travel medical consultations, but the syllabus and content of the consultation have to match the travel habits and culture of the given society. This publication explores the specificities and travel habits of Hungarian travellers. One hundred participants of a travel exhibition completed a survey about their international travel. As the survey was not representative, the data could only be processed through simple statistical methods. However, since the exhibition was presumably attended by those wishing to travel, the conclusions drawn from the results are worth publishing, since no similar survey in Hungary has been published before. Based on the suitable classification of age groups in travel medicine, 11% of the participants were adolescents / young adults (aged 15-24), 81% adults (25-59) and 8% elderly (60-74). Twenty-eight percent of the participants travel multiple times a year, 40% yearly and 32% of them less frequently; 16% of the adults, 8% of the adolescents and 4% of the elderly age group travel multiple times a year. The travel destinations of Hungarian travellers have remained practically unchanged since a study was conducted 13 years ago: the vast majority (95%) travelled within Europe, 2% to the United States, and 11% of them elsewhere. Since Hungarians do not travel to endemic areas, only 5% consulted their general practitioners (GPs) prior to travelling, and 29% did when they had to be vaccinated. Forty-two percent of those wishing to travel never consult their GPs, even though 29% of them are aware of some chronic illness. Instead, 51% gather their health information from the internet and only 6% from their doctors. By the contradiction between the poor health status of the majority of Hungarian travellers and the negligence of seeking pre-travel advice
Do British travel agents provide adequate health advice for travellers?
Lawlor, D A; Burke, J; Bouskill, E; Conn, G; Edwards, P; Gillespie, D
2000-01-01
Travel-related illness is a burden for primary care, with more than two million travellers consulting a general practitioner each year. The annual cost of travel-related illness in the United Kingdom is 11 million Pounds. Travel agents are in a unique position to influence this burden as the most common and most serious problems are preventable with simple advice and/or immunisation. This study, using covert researchers, suggests this potential is not being fully utilised. PMID:10954940
Malaria: prevention in travellers.
Croft, Ashley M
2007-11-29
Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity over 60% and ambient temperature of 25-30 degrees C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10-14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acoustic buzzers, aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), doxycycline, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vaporising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines.
Malaria: prevention in travellers.
Croft, Ashley M
2010-07-12
Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25 °C to 30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in adult and child travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), dietary supplementation, doxycycline, electronic mosquito repellents, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vapourising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines.
Epidemic spreading by objective traveling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Ming; Liu, Zonghua; Li, Baowen
2009-07-01
A fundamental feature of agent traveling in social networks is that traveling is usually not a random walk but with a specific destination and goes through the shortest path from starting to destination. A serious consequence of the objective traveling is that it may result in a fast epidemic spreading, such as SARS etc. In this letter we present a reaction-traveling model to study how the objective traveling influences the epidemic spreading. We consider a random scale-free meta-population network with sub-population at each node. Through a SIS model we theoretically prove that near the threshold of epidemic outbreak, the objective traveling can significantly enhance the final infected population and the infected fraction at a node is proportional to its betweenness for the traveling agents and approximately proportional to its degree for the non-traveling agents. Numerical simulations have confirmed the theoretical predictions.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1996-06-01
A specific objective of this scan of recent travel surveys is to facilitate the exchange of information among agencies and individuals having an interest in the design and conduct of household and other types of travel surveys. The information contai...
Strategies for improving traveler information.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2011-01-01
This project developed a clear, concise, and fiscally sound plan to improve traveler information : for the Michigan Department of Transportation (DOT). The DOT has a long history of innovation : in the field of ITS, including a robust traveler inform...
Commercializing diarrhea vaccines for travelers
López-Gigosos, Rosa; Segura-Moreno, Marina; Díez-Díaz, Rosa; Plaza, Elena; Mariscal, Alberto
2014-01-01
Continued growth in international travel and forecasts for a great increase in the number of people who travel from industrialized to emerging and developing countries make it necessary to develop and improve the capacity to provide health protection to travelers. Measures available to prevent some diseases include a currently limited number of marketed vaccines which represent extremely useful tools to protect travelers. Travelers very often experience diarrheal and gastrointestinal diseases for which some vaccines are available. Use of these vaccines should be evaluated based on traveler and travel destination and characteristics. Vaccines available include those against cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A, hepatitis E (only available in China), and rotavirus. The aim of this review is to provide an updated summary about each of the abovementioned vaccines that may be useful for making decisions regarding their use and assessing their indications in recommendations for travelers. PMID:24496054
2011-01-01
Background Previously we described parents' and professionals' experiences with a web-based communication system in a 6-month pilot in three Dutch cerebral palsy care settings. We found that half of the participating professionals had not used the system, and of those who had used the system one third had used it only once. The present study aimed to evaluate whether professionals' system use was associated with their a priori expectancies and background. Methods Professionals who had not used the system (n = 54) were compared with professionals who had used the system more than once (n = 46) on the basis of their questionnaire responses before the pilot, their affiliation and the number of patients which they represented in the study. The questionnaire items comprised professionals' expectancies regarding the system's performance and ease of use, as well as the expected time availability and integration into daily care practice. Results Overall, users had higher a priori expectancies than non-users. System use was associated with expected ease of use (p = .046) and time availability (p = .005): 50% of the users (vs. 31% of the non-users) expected that the system would be easy to use and 93% of the users (vs. 72% of the non-users) expected that they would be able to reserve a time slot each week for responding to submitted questions. With respect to professionals' affiliation, system use was associated with professionals' institution (p = .003) and discipline (p = .001), with more (para-) medical professionals among users (93% vs. 63% among non-users), and more education professionals among non-users (37% vs. 7% among users). In addition, users represented more patients (mean 2, range 1-8) than non-users (mean 1.1, range 1-2) (p = .000). Conclusions Professionals' system use was associated with expected ease of use and time availability, professionals' affiliation and the number of represented patients, while no association was found with expected performance of
International business travel: impact on families and travellers.
Espino, C M; Sundstrom, S M; Frick, H L; Jacobs, M; Peters, M
2002-05-01
Spouses and staff of the World Bank Group (WBG) were questioned about the impact of international business travel on families and travellers. Dependent variables were self reported stress, concern about the health of the traveller, and negative impact on the family. We hypothesised that several travel factors (independent variables) would be associated with these impacts. These travel factors had to do with the frequency, duration, and predictability of travel and its interference with family activities. Survey forms were developed and distributed to all spouses of travelling staff as well as a small sample of operational staff. Kendall's tau b correlation coefficients of response frequencies were computed with the data from scaled items. Written responses to open ended questions were categorised. Response rates for spouses and staff were 24% and 36%, respectively. Half the spouse sample (n=533) and almost 75% of the staff sample (n=102) reported high or very high stress due to business travel. Self reported spouse stress was associated with six out of eight travel factors. Female spouses, those with children, and younger spouses reported greater stress. Self reported staff stress was significantly associated with four out of nine travel factors. Further insight into how business travel affects families and staff (including children's behavioural changes) and how families cope was gained through responses to written questions. The findings support the notion that lengthy and frequent travel and frequent changes in travel dates which affect family plans, all characteristic of WBG missions, negatively affects many spouses and children (particularly young children) and that the strain on families contributes significantly to the stress staff feel about their travel. Policies or management practices that take into consideration family activities and give staff greater leeway in controlling and refusing travel may help relieve stress.
International business travel: impact on families and travellers
Espino, C; Sundstrom, S; Frick, H; Jacobs, M; Peters, M
2002-01-01
Objectives: Spouses and staff of the World Bank Group (WBG) were questioned about the impact of international business travel on families and travellers. Dependent variables were self reported stress, concern about the health of the traveller, and negative impact on the family. We hypothesised that several travel factors (independent variables) would be associated with these impacts. These travel factors had to do with the frequency, duration, and predictability of travel and its interference with family activities. Methods: Survey forms were developed and distributed to all spouses of travelling staff as well as a small sample of operational staff. Kendall's tau b correlation coefficients of response frequencies were computed with the data from scaled items. Written responses to open ended questions were categorised. Results: Response rates for spouses and staff were 24% and 36%, respectively. Half the spouse sample (n=533) and almost 75% of the staff sample (n=102) reported high or very high stress due to business travel. Self reported spouse stress was associated with six out of eight travel factors. Female spouses, those with children, and younger spouses reported greater stress. Self reported staff stress was significantly associated with four out of nine travel factors. Further insight into how business travel affects families and staff (including children's behavioural changes) and how families cope was gained through responses to written questions. Conclusions: The findings support the notion that lengthy and frequent travel and frequent changes in travel dates which affect family plans, all characteristic of WBG missions, negatively affects many spouses and children (particularly young children) and that the strain on families contributes significantly to the stress staff feel about their travel. Policies or management practices that take into consideration family activities and give staff greater leeway in controlling and refusing travel may help relieve
Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.
Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S
2016-03-01
Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
[Legionnaires' disease in travellers].
Jarraud, S; Reyrolle, M; Riffard, S; Lo Presti, F; Etienne, J
1998-01-01
The outbreak of pneumonia involving delegates to the 1976 American Legion convention at a Philadelphia hotel was the first example of travel-associated legionnaires' disease. Travel is now well known as a common risk factor for legionnaires' disease. This travel-associated disease is a preoccupation among European countries because of morbidity among citizens of the European Union. The definition of the case of legionellosis is a patient who presents an acute lower respiratory tract infection with focal signs of pneumonia and/or radiological features, and microbiological evidence of Legionella infection. A case is considered to be travel associated if the patient has spent one or more nights away from home during the ten days before becoming ill. An European Surveillance Scheme for Travel-Associated Legionnaires' Disease was established in 1987 to identify clusters and outbreaks of cases of the disease. This group centralizes the case reports of twenty-nine collaborating centres in twenty-five countries. Outbreaks of legionnaires' disease were described in hotels, camps or cruise ships. In 1996, the number of travel-associated cases of legionnaires' disease represented 16% of the total number cases. The increase of the number of reported cases may reflect improved surveillance and increased ascertainment. In Europe in 1996, the diagnosis of legionellosis was confirmed by detection of Legionella pneumophila sero-group 1 antigen in urine (36%), seroconversion (fourfold rise in antibody titre, 33%) and culture of the organism (16%). Fifteen per cent of legionellosis was diagnosed by the identification of a single high antibody titre. In France a coordination between Public Health Institutions (Réseau National de Santé Public and DDASS), clinicians, laboratories and National Reference Center was established to improve prevention and control of legionnaires' disease outbreaks. Legislation obliges to report each case. When more two cases in the same area are notified
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mauldin, Lemuel E., III
1993-01-01
Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.
Travel health: sun protection and skin cancer prevention for travellers.
Wood, Cate
The UK population likes to travel to sunny parts of the world, where the risk of sunburn is greater than it is at home. Sunburn and the cultural desire for a tan is one of the risk factors for the increase in skin cancer. The rise in foreign travel has resulted in an increased demand for pre-travel health services, with nurses in primary care acting as the main providers.Within these consultations, the traveller and their travel plans are risk assessed.Travel health consultations give an ideal opportunity to discuss and advise the public regarding sun burn and skin cancer protection. However, there are also other ways to impart safety in the sun message to travellers. Skin protection is a health promoting activity provided as a part of public health provision and all nurses can play a role in prevention.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grauer, Albert D.
2014-11-01
Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mohler, S. R.
1982-01-01
The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.
When travel is a challenge: Travel medicine and the 'dis-abled' traveller.
Bauer, Irmgard
Travellers with recognised disabilities or the dis-ability to function as required during a trip have been overlooked in the travel medicine literature. This paper provides a starting point for further discussion and research into this neglected traveller population. In contrast, tourism research has explored travel with a disability for some time in order to understand the travellers' needs and to improve services accordingly. The contemporary bio-psycho-social understanding of disability serves as the framework for exploring motivations to travel as well as barriers, such as inter and intrapersonal, economic, structural and attitudinal obstacles. The demands of complex travel planning are acknowledged. Attention is also drawn to the particular issue of acquired disability. The theoretical discussion is complemented by travellers' own accounts using as examples mobility impairment on aeroplanes, sensory impairments, and obesity. These insights should inform high quality travel health care starting with an exploration of the health professionals' own views on such endeavours. Important are appropriate communication skills, an understanding of the travellers'/carers' views, wishes and judgment of abilities, as well as the appreciation of the reason for the trip, destination and planned activities. Challenging may be the need to accept that the traveller/carer will be more knowledgeable about the disability, needs, potential problems and solutions than the health professional. Finally, medical requirements for destination and activity need to be combined with the medical requirements for the dis-abling condition. Scarce literature and increasing numbers of travellers with disabilities should make this field a research priority in travel medicine. Unless there is an absolute medical contraindication, travel health professionals should encourage and support travellers for whom travel is a challenge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Update on traveler's diarrhea.
Strum, W B
1988-07-01
Traveler's diarrhea affects a substantial number of travelers to high-risk areas of the world. The key to controlling this troublesome disease is prevention. The most important preventive measures depend on educating patients to consume only safe foods and pure water. Physicians cannot overemphasize the importance of avoiding high-risk foods and of boiling water if a safe water supply is not available. Prophylactic medications are a secondary consideration and should be prescribed with discretion. In most cases, diarrhea is mild and self-limited, requiring only fluid and electrolyte replacement and perhaps an antidiarrheal agent. In moderate to severe cases, the addition of an antimicrobial agent may be of benefit. Until an efficacious polyvalent vaccine is developed, caution and common sense, together with discretionary dietary and hygienic practices, are the best defenses against traveler's diarrhea. The ultimate solution is greatly improved sanitation and personal hygiene, especially in high-risk countries. However, only dreamers will consider waiting for this transformation to occur.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pickover, Clifford A.
1999-09-01
"Bucky Fuller thought big," Wired magazine recently noted, "Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time?In Time: A Traveler's Guide , Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? Pickover's book offers a stimulating blend of Chopin, philosophy, Einstein, and modern physics, spiced with diverting side-trips to such topics as the history of clocks, the nature of free will, and the reason gold glitters. Numerous diagrams ensure readers will have no trouble following along.By the time we finish this book, we understand a wide variety of scientific concepts pertaining to time. And most important, we will understand that time travel is, indeed, possible.
Family planning for travellers.
Rustom, A
1990-11-01
A public health nurse from London describes the customs of nomadic people in the British Isles, known as "travellers," as they affect provision of family planning services. Most are of British or Irish stock, some migrate and others live in caravan sites all year. Their traditions dictate that men work and women are housewives. Early, often arranged, marriage, early childbearing and large families are the norm. Sex and contraception are not considered appropriate for discussion between the sexes, or in the presence of children. Large families and financial hardship force many women to space pregnancies. Women often have to hide contraceptives from their husbands, difficult in conditions without privacy. Therefore they prefer IUDs, but some use oral contraceptives, although sometimes erratically because most are illiterate. Traveller women are usually unwilling to do self-examination, as needed with IUDs. They often have difficulty attending regular Pap smear clinics. Cervical cancer rates are high. They experience discrimination in clinics, and need extra care about modesty. It is worth while to take time to develop trust in the clinical relationship, to deal with the traveller woman's uneasy among outsiders.
Superconducting traveling wave accelerators
Farkas, Z.D.
1984-11-01
This note considers the applicability of superconductivity to traveling wave accelerators. Unlike CW operation of a superconducting standing wave or circulating wave accelerator section, which requires improvement factors (superconductor conductivity divided by copper conductivity) of about 10/sup 6/ in order to be of practical use, a SUperconducting TRaveling wave Accelerator, SUTRA, operating in the pulsed mode requires improvement factors as low as about 10/sup 3/, which are attainable with niobium or lead at 4.2K, the temperature of liquid helium at atmospheric pressure. Changing from a copper traveling wave accelerator to SUTRA achieves the following. (1) For a given gradient SUTRAmore » reduces the peak and average power requirements typically by a factor of 2. (2) SUTRA reduces the peak power still further because it enables us to increase the filling time and thus trade pulse width for gradient. (3) SUTRA makes possible a reasonably long section at higher frequencies. (4) SUTRA makes possible recirculation without additional rf average power. 8 references, 6 figures, 1 table.« less
Evidence on global medical travel.
Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba
2015-11-01
The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies.
Evidence on global medical travel
Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba
2015-01-01
Abstract The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains –quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection – in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906
Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.
1968-01-01
The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels
Fellow travellers: Working memory and mental time travel in rodents.
Dere, Ekrem; Dere, Dorothea; de Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Huston, Joseph P; Zlomuzica, Armin
2017-03-19
The impairment of mental time travel is a severe cognitive symptom in patients with brain lesions and a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Whether animals are also able to mentally travel in time both forward and backward is still a matter of debate. In this regard, we have proposed a continuum of mental time travel abilities across different animal species, with humans being the species with the ability to perform most sophisticated forms of mental time travel. In this review and perspective article, we delineate a novel approach to understand the evolution, characteristics and function of human and animal mental time travel. Furthermore, we propose a novel approach to measure mental time travel in rodents in a comprehensive manner using a test battery composed of well-validated and easy applicable tests. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Health hazards of international travel.
Cossar, J H; Reid, D
1989-01-01
The growth of travel and the increasing numbers of those affected by travel-related illnesses, some of a serious nature, will cause this subject to demand the attention of the medical profession, the travel trade, travellers themselves and the health authorities of countries receiving tourists. Provision of appropriate advice for the traveller is a shared responsibility, best channelled mainly through travel agencies; it can moreover be shown to be cost-beneficial. Continued monitoring of illness in travellers and provision of information systems geared to this problem and its prevention are fully justified. They should be based on traditional channels of communication and currently-available modern technology, and be readily accessible to medical and related workers. Increased collaboration between medical workers, health educators and those involved in the travel trade would be a positive and useful contribution towards the reduction of illness and discomfort among travellers and the associated expense incurred by the various national health services concerned. There are clearly economic benefits from the development of international tourism, but these have to be balanced in countries accepting tourists by attention to the prevention of illnesses associated with travel.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shuai, Yanmin; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Gao, Feng; Schaaf, Crystal B.; He, Tao
2014-01-01
Land surface albedo has been recognized by the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS) as an essential climate variable crucial for accurate modeling and monitoring of the Earth's radiative budget. While global climate studies can leverage albedo datasets from MODIS, VIIRS, and other coarse-resolution sensors, many applications in heterogeneous environments can benefit from higher-resolution albedo products derived from Landsat. We previously developed a "MODIS-concurrent" approach for the 30-meter albedo estimation which relied on combining post-2000 Landsat data with MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) information. Here we present a "pre-MODIS era" approach to extend 30-m surface albedo generation in time back to the 1980s, through an a priori anisotropy Look-Up Table (LUT) built up from the high quality MCD43A BRDF estimates over representative homogenous regions. Each entry in the LUT reflects a unique combination of land cover, seasonality, terrain information, disturbance age and type, and Landsat optical spectral bands. An initial conceptual LUT was created for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States and provides BRDF shapes estimated from MODIS observations for undisturbed and disturbed surface types (including recovery trajectories of burned areas and non-fire disturbances). By accepting the assumption of a generally invariant BRDF shape for similar land surface structures as a priori information, spectral white-sky and black-sky albedos are derived through albedo-to-nadir reflectance ratios as a bridge between the Landsat and MODIS scale. A further narrow-to-broadband conversion based on radiative transfer simulations is adopted to produce broadband albedos at visible, near infrared, and shortwave regimes.We evaluate the accuracy of resultant Landsat albedo using available field measurements at forested AmeriFlux stations in the PNW region, and examine the consistency of the surface albedo generated by this approach
Baron, Danielle M; Ramirez, Alejandro J; Bulitko, Vadim; Madan, Christopher R; Greiner, Ariel; Hurd, Peter L; Spetch, Marcia L
2015-01-01
Visiting multiple locations and returning to the start via the shortest route, referred to as the traveling salesman (or salesperson) problem (TSP), is a valuable skill for both humans and non-humans. In the current study, pigeons were trained with increasing set sizes of up to six goals, with each set size presented in three distinct configurations, until consistency in route selection emerged. After training at each set size, the pigeons were tested with two novel configurations. All pigeons acquired routes that were significantly more efficient (i.e., shorter in length) than expected by chance selection of the goals. On average, the pigeons also selected routes that were more efficient than expected based on a local nearest-neighbor strategy and were as efficient as the average route generated by a crossing-avoidance strategy. Analysis of the routes taken indicated that they conformed to both a nearest-neighbor and a crossing-avoidance strategy significantly more often than expected by chance. Both the time taken to visit all goals and the actual distance traveled decreased from the first to the last trials of training in each set size. On the first trial with novel configurations, average efficiency was higher than chance, but was not higher than expected from a nearest-neighbor or crossing-avoidance strategy. These results indicate that pigeons can learn to select efficient routes on a TSP problem.
Lihoreau, Mathieu; Chittka, Lars; Raine, Nigel E
2010-12-01
Animals collecting resources that replenish over time often visit patches in predictable sequences called traplines. Despite the widespread nature of this strategy, we still know little about how spatial memory develops and guides individuals toward suitable routes. Here, we investigate whether flower visitation sequences by bumblebees Bombus terrestris simply reflect the order in which flowers were discovered or whether they result from more complex navigational strategies enabling bees to optimize their foraging routes. We analyzed bee flight movements in an array of four artificial flowers maximizing interfloral distances. Starting from a single patch, we sequentially added three new patches so that if bees visited them in the order in which they originally encountered flowers, they would follow a long (suboptimal) route. Bees' tendency to visit patches in their discovery order decreased with experience. Instead, they optimized their flight distances by rearranging flower visitation sequences. This resulted in the development of a primary route (trapline) and two or three less frequently used secondary routes. Bees consistently used these routes after overnight breaks while occasionally exploring novel possibilities. We discuss how maintaining some level of route flexibility could allow traplining animals to cope with dynamic routing problems, analogous to the well-known traveling salesman problem.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.
1998-01-01
The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murabona Oduori, Susan
2015-08-01
The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.
Visiting Astronomers Travel Guide | CTIO
please advise Ximena Herreros at the time that you initiate travel plans, if your stay in Chile will , well in advance of their travel time, regarding current visa requirements for Chile. back to top Visiting Astronomers Travel Guide Director's Discretionary (DD) Time CTIO 2016 Ephemeris ToO Policy CTIO
Travel Grants Benefit 120 Students
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2008-12-01
AGU is pleased to announce that 120 students from 21 countries will travel to the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco to present their research. The travel grants are made possible through the generosity of Exxon Mobil, Northrup Grumman, Elsevier, Sequoia Scientific, Li-Cor Biogeosciences, Cassidy Associates, Decagon Devices, RBR Ltd., Springer, Jamie A. Austin Jr., the Max Hammond Student Travel Endowment, and 157 AGU members. The number of grants for students to travel to the Fall Meeting represents an increase of four times from those given in the previous years.
2014-10-24
problem was formalized as the Dubins travelling salesman problem (TSP). In the second phase of the research we have...given constraints on its motion. This problem was formalized as the Dubins travelling salesman problem (TSP). The contributions of the study in the... problem was formalized as the Dubins travelling salesman problem (TSP). The Dubins Travelling Salesperson Problem (DTSP) and its variants [8, 12,
Gao, M
1995-08-01
In China, Mr. Chang Junjie, a retired middle school principal has personally organized and financed the "Family Planning Retired Cadre's Troupe," which travels around the countryside performing newly written costume operas. In the six years since he first began to organize the troupe, Chang's players have performed more than 1700 times for more than a million people. The operas draw their material from the real life situations faced by farmers and emphasize the importance of family planning by setting good examples. Chang's operas have been well received, and it is not unusual for his audiences to be moved to laughter and tears. Despite his widespread success, Chang is not content with what he has accomplished and is currently organizing a children's opera troupe and seeking ways to make a greater impact on the promotion of family planning.
[The travelling sports physician].
Jenoure, Peter
2016-07-13
Travelling around your own country or even further abroad with a sports team or individual athletes as a sports physician is to be considered as a fundamental part of the various activities of a sports medicine practitioner.However, in our modern and quickly changing world, it is imperative to understand the different aspects of caring for athletes, also the legal ones. These may include licensing issues, malpractice coverage, access to care at outside institutions and prescribing and transporting medication of all sorts, including narcotics and substances of the list of prohibited ones (doping).With significant changes in healthcare at state and national levels, physicians must be aware of how these policy differences can affect their way of working, their ability to provide the expected care.
Southworth, Frank; Garrow, Dr. Laurie
This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming,more » and agent-based microsimulation.« less
International Travelers' Sociodemographic, Health, and Travel Characteristics: An Italian Study.
Troiano, Gianmarco; Mercone, Astrid; Bagnoli, Alessandra; Nante, Nicola
Approximately the 8% of travelers requires medical care, with the diagnosis of a vaccine-preventable disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the socio-demographic, health and travel characteristics of the Italian international travelers. We conducted a cross sectional study from January 2015 to June 2016, at the Travel Medicine Clinic of Siena, asking the doctor to interview patients who attended the Clinic, recording socio-demographic and travel information, malaria prophylaxis, vaccinations. The data were organized in a database and processed by software Stata®. We collected 419 questionnaires. Patients chose 71 countries for their travels; the favorite destinations were: India (6.31%), Thailand (6.31%), and Brazil (5.10%). The mean length of stay was 36.17 days. Italians, students, and freelancers tended to stay abroad for a longer time (mean: 36.4 days, 59.87 days and 64.16 days respectively). 33.17% of our sample used drugs for malaria chemoprophylaxis: 71.9% of them used Atovaquone/Proguanil (Malarone®), 26.6% used Mefloquine (Lariam®), 1.5% other drugs. The vaccinations that travelers mostly got in our study were to prevent hepatitis A (n = 264), the typhoid fever (n = 187), the Tetanus + Diphtheria + Pertussis (n = 165), the Yellow fever (n = 118) and the cholera (n = 78). Twenty-eight (6.68%) refused some recommended vaccinations. The vaccines mostly refused were for Typhoid fever (n = 20), hepatitis a (n = 9), and cholera (n = 9). Our results demonstrated that Italian international travelers are at-risk because of their poor vaccinations adherence. This implies that pre-travel counseling is fundamental to increase the knowledge of the risks and the compliance of future travelers. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Travel time seismic tomography on Reykjanes, SW Iceland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jousset, Philippe; Ágústsson, Kristjan; Blanck, Hanna; Metz, Malte; Franke, Steven; Pàll Hersir, Gylfi; Bruhn, David; Flovenz, Ólafur; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur
2017-04-01
We present updated tomographic results obtained using seismic data recorded around geothermal reservoirs located both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 234 seismic stations (including 24 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and August 2015. In order to determine the orientation of the OBS stations, we used Rayleigh waves planar particle motions from large magnitude earthquakes. This method proved suitable using the on-land stations: orientations determined using this method with the orientations measured using a giro-compass agreed. We focus on the 3D velocity images using local earthquakes to perform travel time tomography. The processing includes first arrival picking of P- and S- phases using an automatic detection and picking technique based on Akaike Information Criteria. We locate earthquakes by using a non-linear localization technique, as a priori information for deriving a 1D velocity model. We then computed 3D velocity model by joint inversion of each earthquake's location and velocity lateral anomalies with respect to the 1D model. Our models confirms previous models obtained in the area, with enhanced details. In a second step, we performed inversion of the Vp/Vs ratio. Results indicate a low Vp/Vs ratio anomaly at depth suggesting the absence of large magmatic body under Reykjanes, unlike results obtained at other geothermal field, sucha as Krafla and Hengill. We discuss implications of those results in the light of recent IDDP drilling in Reykjanes.
Travel immunization update for older adults.
Spain, Margaret P; Edlund, Barbara J
2010-04-01
Older Americans are among the most widely traveled group in our society. Recent trends point to more international travel, more travel to Third World countries, and more travel by older adults with significant health problems. Regardless of the reason for travel, older adults need to plan for healthy travel. Primary care providers need to inquire at routine visits if patients have plans for international travel. If travel to other countries or regions is being considered, patients must be advised of the importance of early travel preparation. To begin with, older adults should be up to date on all routine immunizations. Those planning on international travel may need additional required and/or recommended immunizations, depending on the individual's health status, travel itinerary, length of stay, and health risks associated with destination sites. Primary care providers should be knowledgeable about travel medicine resources in the community to make referrals for travelers requiring additional immunizations and health information. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Pre-travel advice seeking from GPs by travellers with chronic illness seen at a travel clinic.
Gagneux-Brunon, Amandine; Andrillat, Carole; Fouilloux, Pascale; Daoud, Fatiha; Defontaine, Christiane; Charles, Rodolphe; Lucht, Frédéric; Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth
2016-03-01
Travellers are ageing and frequently report chronic illness. Pre-travel health advice is crucial, particularly in this subgroup, and general practitioners (GPs) are first in line for treatment adjustment before departure. Our aim is to evaluate pre-travel health advice seeking from GPs by travellers with chronic illness seen at a travel clinic. A cross-sectional observational survey using a questionnaire was conducted between August 2013 and July 2014 in travellers attending the travel medicine clinic of a tertiary university hospital in France. During the study, 2019 travellers were included. Mean age was 39.4 years (±18.8). Three hundred and ninety-one (19.4%) travellers reported a history of a chronic illness. Arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the most frequently reported illnesses, affecting, respectively, 168 (8.3%) travellers and 102 (5.1%). Hajj pilgrims were more likely to report a history of chronic illness than other travellers. Only 810 (40.1%) travellers sought pre-travel advice from their GP. Six hundred and fifty-two (40.1%) healthy travellers and 158 (40.5%) travellers reporting chronic illness sought pre-travel advice from their GP (P = 0.96). Travellers with a history of chronic illness do not seek pre-travel health advice from their GP more frequently than healthy travellers. Travel health specialists are generally not the best practitioners to manage the care of underlying medical conditions presenting risks during travel. However, GPs offer continuity and disease management expertise to improve the specificity of pre-travel planning. Thus, ongoing collaboration between the traveller, GP and travel health specialist is likely to yield the best outcomes. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Travel and Adult Transformative Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lindstrom, Steven K.
2011-01-01
This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2003-10-01
Americans make more than 405 million long-distance business trips per year, : accounting for 16% of all long-distance travel, according to a : preliminary analysis of the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). : Conducted from 2001 to 2002, the NHT...
Preparing for Travel in India.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oswald, James M.
The complexity of the Indian society can be overwhelming, and preparation for travel in India requires careful and detailed advance planning. Practical suggestions are provided for travelers to help them understand cultural differences, avoid illnesses, and select appropriate clothing for the intense heat. Explanations are given about the monetary…
1995 American travel survey : profile
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-10-01
This is US summary data from the American Travel Survey. Complete data is available from the Bureau and from the BTS website at http://www.transtats.bts.gov/Tables.asp?DB_ID=505&DB_Name=American%20Travel%20Survey%20%28ATS%29%201995&DB_Short_Name=ATS ...
Winter Wilderness Travel and Camping.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gilchrest, Norman
Knowledge and skill are needed for safe and enjoyable travel and camping in the wilderness in winter. The beauty of snow and ice, reduced human use, and higher tolerance of animals toward humans make the wilderness attractive during winter. The uniqueness of winter travel presents several challenges that are not present in other seasons. Safety is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Idleman, Hillis K.
The State Education Department of New York has prepared a series of modules--Expanded Programs in Consumer Education. "Travel and the Consumer" is the most recently produced module. It can be used as a discrete unit or with others in the series. The module stresses the importance of making travel creative, getting the most for one's…
49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total possible...
Travel health advice: benefits, compliance, and outcome.
Angelin, Martin; Evengård, Birgitta; Palmgren, Helena
2014-06-01
Travel health advice is an important and difficult part of a pre-travel consultation. The aim of this study was to determine whether the travel health advice given is followed by the traveller and whether it affects disease and injury experienced during travel. A prospective survey study was carried out from October 2009 to April 2012 at the Travel Medicine Clinic of the Department of Infectious Diseases, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden. The Travel Medicine Clinic in Umeå is the largest travel clinic in northern Sweden. We included 1277 individuals in the study; 1059 (83%) responded to the post-travel questionnaire. Most visitors (88%) remembered having received travel health advice; among these, 95% found some of the health advice useful. Two-thirds (67%) claimed to have followed the advice, but fell ill during travel to the same extent as those who did not. Younger travellers (< 31 y) found our travel health advice less beneficial, were less compliant with the advice, took more risks during travel, and fell ill during travel to a greater extent than older travellers. Helping travellers stay healthy during travel is the main goal of travel medicine. Younger travellers are a risk group for illness during travel and there is a need to find new methods to help them avoid illness. Travellers find travel health advice useful, but it does not protect them from travel-related illness. Factors not easily influenced by the traveller play a role, but a comprehensive analysis of the benefits of travel health advice is needed.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2003-04-07
Advanced Traveler Information Systems offer the promise of better informed travel decisions and more efficient use of transportation infrastructure. However, no firm consensus has emerged as to how travelers decide to access information, or how they ...
President's Address: Travel Medicine and Principles of Safe Travel
DuPont, Herbert L.
2008-01-01
Persons crossing international boundaries away from their medical support systems are put at risk for illness and injury. Travel medicine is a new medical discipline that quantifies these health risks and develops strategies for reducing them. Obtaining health and evacuation insurance for a future trip is important for persons with medical conditions, those planning trips to developing tropical or semi-tropical regions of the world or when an international stay anywhere will be as long as a month. Pre-travel medical evaluation, vaccines against endemic infectious diseases and medications to reduce the occurrence of diarrhea and malaria during trips to endemic areas, and medications for self-treatment of common illnesses such as diarrhea are fundamental to travel medicine. There are a number of miscellaneous areas to consider in travel medicine including preventing deep vein thrombosis and minimizing jet lag during long haul air travel and reducing the occurrence of accidents and water- and altitude-related illnesses. An important recently defined challenge to the field is the growing number of ill-prepared persons put at great risk for illness while visiting friends and relatives living in areas of reduced hygiene. All persons need to have an idea of how and where they may find medical care if they develop illness while abroad. This article summarizes essential elements in travel medicine and offers 10 recommendations for safe travel. PMID:18596858
25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses exceed...
25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses exceed...
25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses exceed...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... for Federal Travel [Traveler Identification] C Appendix C to Chapter 301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES Ch. 301, App. C Appendix C to Chapter 301—Standard Data Elements for Federal Travel [Traveler Identification] Group name Data...
25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses exceed...
25 CFR 700.533 - Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense reimbursement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Restrictions affecting travel and travel expense... travel and travel expense reimbursement. (a) When an employee is on officially authorized travel his or... in cash or kind for travel expenses from any other source, even when the employee's expenses exceed...
Passenger Travel Facts and Figures 2016
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2016-08-10
Passenger Travel Facts and Figures 2016 is a snapshot of the characteristics and trends of personal travel in the United States; the network over which passenger travel takes place; and the related economic, safety, and environmental aspects of passe...
Travelers' Health: Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas Disease)
... Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers Road Safety Senior Citizens Sex Tourism STDs Sun Exposure Swimming and Diving Study Abroad ...
Passenger Travel Facts and Figures 2014
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2014-12-17
Passenger Travel Facts and Figures 2014 is a snapshot of the characteristics and trends of personal travel in the United States; the network over which passenger travel takes place; and the related economic, safety, and environmental implications. An...
Passenger Travel Facts and Figures 2015
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2015-09-16
Passenger Travel Facts and Figures 2015 is a snapshot of the characteristics and trends of personal travel in the United States; the network over which passenger travel takes place; and the related economic, safety, and environmental aspects of passe...
Summary travel characteristics : District of Columbia
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1997-10-01
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...