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Sample records for a-receptor blockade attenuates

  1. Adenosine A2A receptor blockade attenuates spatial memory deficit and extent of demyelination areas in lyolecithin-induced demyelination model.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Atefeh; Khalili-Fomeshi, Mohsen; Ashrafpour, Manouchehr; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam

    2018-05-03

    In recent years, inactivation of A 2A adenosine receptors has been emerged as a novel strategy for treatment of several neurodegenerative diseases. Although numerous studies have shown the beneficial effects of A 2A receptors blockade on spatial memory, the impacts of selective adenosine A 2A receptors on memory performance has not yet been examined in the context of demyelination. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of A 2A receptor antagonist SCH58261 on spatial memory and myelination in an experimental model of focal demyelination in rat fimbria. Demyelination was induced by local injection of lysolecithin (LPC) 1% (2 μl) into the hippocampus fimbria. SCH58261 (20 μg/0.5 μl or 40 μg/0.5 μl) was daily injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) for 10 days post LPC injection. The Morris water maze test was used to assess the spatial learning and memory on day 6 post lesion. Myelin staining and immunostaining against astrocytes/microglia were carried out 10 days post LPC injection. The administration of adenosine A 2A receptor antagonist prevented the spatial memory impairment in LPC receiving animals. Myelin staining revealed that application of SCH58261 reduces the extent of demyelination areas in the fimbria. Furthermore, the level of astrocytes and microglia activation was attenuated following administration of A 2A receptor antagonist. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that A 2A receptor blockade can improve the spatial memory and protect myelin sheath, which might be considered as a novel therapeutic approach for multiple sclerosis disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. 5HT2A receptor blockade in dorsomedial striatum reduces repetitive behaviors in BTBR mice.

    PubMed

    Amodeo, D A; Rivera, E; Cook, E H; Sweeney, J A; Ragozzino, M E

    2017-03-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors are a defining feature of autism, which can be expressed as a cognitive flexibility deficit or stereotyped, motor behaviors. There is limited knowledge about the underlying neuropathophysiology contributing to these behaviors. Previous findings suggest that central 5HT 2A receptor activity is altered in autism, while recent work indicates that systemic 5HT 2A receptor antagonist treatment reduces repetitive behaviors in an idiopathic model of autism. 5HT 2A receptors are expressed in the orbitofrontal cortex and striatum. These two regions have been shown to be altered in autism. The present study investigated whether 5HT 2A receptor blockade in the dorsomedial striatum or orbitofrontal cortex in the BTBR mouse strain, an idiopathic model of autism, affects the phenotype related to restricted and repetitive behaviors. Microinfusion of the 5HT 2A receptor antagonist, M100907 into the dorsomedial striatum alleviated a reversal learning impairment and attenuated grooming behavior. M100907 infusion into the orbitofrontal cortex increased perseveration during reversal learning and potentiated grooming. These findings suggest that increased 5HT 2A receptor activity in the dorsomedial striatum may contribute to behavioral inflexibility and stereotyped behaviors in the BTBR mouse. 5HT 2A receptor signaling in the orbitofrontal cortex may be critical for inhibiting a previously learned response during reversal learning and expression of stereotyped behavior. The present results suggest which brain areas exhibit abnormalities underlying repetitive behaviors in an idiopathic mouse model of autism, as well as which brain areas systemic treatment with M100907 may principally act on in BTBR mice to attenuate repetitive behaviors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  3. Blockade of GABA(A) receptors within the extended amygdala attenuates D(2) regulation of alcohol-motivated behaviors in the ventral tegmental area of alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Eiler, William J A; June, Harry L

    2007-06-01

    The dopamine (DA) mesolimbic pathway, which originates from DA cell bodies within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), has been shown by various studies to play a role in the mediation of various drugs of abuse including alcohol (EtOH). It has been suggested that the VTA's control of EtOH reward is mediated in part by the D2 receptors within the VTA. These receptors may be under the regulation of reciprocal GABAergic inputs from forebrain components of the mesolimbic path such as the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a classic EtOH reward substrate, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, a substrate recently implicated in EtOH reinforcement, forming a self-regulating feedback loop. To test this hypothesis, D2 regulation of EtOH self-administration (SA) was evaluated by the microinfusion of the D2 antagonist eticlopride into the VTA of P rats, which produced profound reductions in EtOH SA in the highest (20.0 and 40.0microg) doses tested in both BST/VTA and NAcc/VTA implanted P rats. To determine the role of GABA in the mediation of EtOH SA, a 32.0ng dose the non-selective GABA antagonist SR 95531 was microinfused into the BST producing no effect on responding for EtOH and into the NAcc which lead to a reduction in EtOH responding. Finally, the hypothesis that GABA innervation of the VTA from the mesolimbic forebrain may influence EtOH SA was examined by the simultaneous infusion of eticlopride (40.0microg) into the VTA and SR 95531 (32.0ng) into either the BST or NAcc. This combination infusion completely attenuated the reduction in EtOH SA observed with the 40.0microg dose of eticlopride alone in both groups of animals. These results suggest that while the D2 receptors within the VTA regulate EtOH-motivated behaviors, this is modulated by GABAergic input from the mesolimbic forebrain, specifically from the BST and NAcc.

  4. Endothelin-A receptor blockade slows the progression of renal injury in experimental renovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, Silvia; Hall, John E; Chade, Alejandro R

    2011-07-01

    Endothelin (ET)-1, a potent renal vasoconstrictor with mitogenic properties, is upregulated by ischemia and has been shown to induce renal injury via the ET-A receptor. The potential role of ET-A blockade in chronic renovascular disease (RVD) has not, to our knowledge, been previously reported. We hypothesized that chronic ET-A receptor blockade would preserve renal hemodynamics and slow the progression of injury of the stenotic kidney in experimental RVD. Renal artery stenosis, a major cause of chronic RVD, was induced in 14 pigs and observed for 6 wk. In half of the pigs, chronic ET-A blockade was initiated (RVD+ET-A, 0.75 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) at the onset of RVD. Single-kidney renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and perfusion were quantified in vivo after 6 wk using multidetector computer tomography. Renal microvascular density was quantified ex vivo using three-dimensional microcomputer tomography, and growth factors, inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis were determined in renal tissue. The degree of stenosis and increase in blood pressure were similar in RVD and RVD+ET-A pigs. Renal hemodynamics, function, and microvascular density were decreased in the stenotic kidney but preserved by ET-A blockade, accompanied by increased renal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and downstream mediators such as phosphorilated-Akt, angiopoietins, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. ET-A blockade also reduced renal apoptosis, inflammation, and glomerulosclerosis. This study shows that ET-A blockade slows the progression of renal injury in experimental RVD and preserves renal hemodynamics, function, and microvascular density in the stenotic kidney. These results support a role for ET-1/ET-A as a potential therapeutic target in chronic RVD.

  5. Endothelin-A receptor blockade slows the progression of renal injury in experimental renovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelsen, Silvia; Hall, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Endothelin (ET)-1, a potent renal vasoconstrictor with mitogenic properties, is upregulated by ischemia and has been shown to induce renal injury via the ET-A receptor. The potential role of ET-A blockade in chronic renovascular disease (RVD) has not, to our knowledge, been previously reported. We hypothesized that chronic ET-A receptor blockade would preserve renal hemodynamics and slow the progression of injury of the stenotic kidney in experimental RVD. Renal artery stenosis, a major cause of chronic RVD, was induced in 14 pigs and observed for 6 wk. In half of the pigs, chronic ET-A blockade was initiated (RVD+ET-A, 0.75 mg·kg−1·day−1) at the onset of RVD. Single-kidney renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and perfusion were quantified in vivo after 6 wk using multidetector computer tomography. Renal microvascular density was quantified ex vivo using three-dimensional microcomputer tomography, and growth factors, inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis were determined in renal tissue. The degree of stenosis and increase in blood pressure were similar in RVD and RVD+ET-A pigs. Renal hemodynamics, function, and microvascular density were decreased in the stenotic kidney but preserved by ET-A blockade, accompanied by increased renal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and downstream mediators such as phosphorilated-Akt, angiopoietins, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. ET-A blockade also reduced renal apoptosis, inflammation, and glomerulosclerosis. This study shows that ET-A blockade slows the progression of renal injury in experimental RVD and preserves renal hemodynamics, function, and microvascular density in the stenotic kidney. These results support a role for ET-1/ET-A as a potential therapeutic target in chronic RVD. PMID:21478482

  6. Neonatal blockade of GABA-A receptors alters behavioral and physiological phenotypes in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Salari, Ali-Akbar; Amani, Mohammad

    2017-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays an inhibitory role in the mature brain, and has a complex and bidirectional effect in different parts of the immature brain which affects proliferation, migration and differentiation of neurons during development. There is also increasing evidence suggesting that activation or blockade of the GABA-A receptors during early life can induce brain and behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. We investigated whether neonatal blockade of the GABA-A receptors by bicuculline can alter anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, body weight, food intake, corticosterone and testosterone levels in adult mice (postnatal days 80-95). To this end, neonatal mice were treated with either DMSO or bicuculline (70, 150 and 300μg/kg) during postnatal days 7, 9 and 11. When grown to adulthood, mice were exposed to behavioral tests to measure anxiety- (elevated plus-maze and light-dark box) and depression-like behaviors (tail suspension test and forced swim test). Stress-induced serum corticosterone and testosterone levels, body weight and food intake were also evaluated. Neonatal bicuculline exposure at dose of 300μg/kg decreased anxiety-like behavior, stress-induced corticosterone levels and increased testosterone levels, body weight and food intake, without significantly influencing depression-like behavior in adult male mice. However, no significant changes in these parameters were observed in adult females. These findings suggest that neonatal blockade of GABA-A receptors affects anxiety-like behavior, physiological and hormonal parameters in a sex-dependent manner in mice. Taken together, these data corroborate the concept that GABA-A receptors during early life have an important role in programming neurobehavioral phenotypes in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Blockade of CCN4 attenuates CCl4-induced liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Chen, Yongxin; Ye, Weiwei; Tao, Xingfei; Zhu, Jinhong; Wu, Shuang; Lou, Lianqing

    2015-06-19

    CCN4, also termed WNT-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 (WISP-1), has important roles in inflammation and tissue injury. This study aimed to investigate the effect of CCN4 inhibition using monoclonal anti-CCN4 antibody (CCN4mAb) on the liver injury and fibrosis in a mouse model of liver fibrosis. The mouse liver fibrosis model was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Mice received vehicle (saline/olive oil) by subcutaneous injection, CCl4 by subcutaneous injection or CCl4 (subcutaneous) plus CCN4mAb by subcutaneous injection. The pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic factors were determined by Western blot. The biochemistry and histopathology, collagen deposition and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity were also assessed. Chronic CCl4 treatment caused liver injury and collagen accumulation. The expression levels of CCN4, pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators as well as the activity of NF-κB were markedly increased. Treatment with CCN4mAb significantly inhibited CCl4-induced CCN4 expression, leading to attenuated CCl4-induced liver injury and the inflammatory response. CCN4 blockade also significantly reduced the formation of collagen in the liver and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor β1. CCN4 inhibition by CCN4mAb in vivo significantly attenuated the CCl4-induced liver injury and the progression of liver fibrosis. CCN4 may represent a novel therapeutic target for liver injury and fibrosis.

  8. NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY:
    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses in mice. Mice administered an antibody against the low aff...

  9. Selective Blockade of Herpesvirus Entry Mediator–B and T Lymphocyte Attenuator Pathway Ameliorates Acute Graft-versus-Host Reaction

    PubMed Central

    del Rio, Maria-Luisa; Jones, Nick D.; Buhler, Leo; Norris, Paula; Shintani, Yasushi; Ware, Carl F.; Rodriguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The cosignaling network mediated by the herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM; TNFRSF14) functions as a dual directional system that involves proinflammatory ligand, lymphotoxin that exhibits inducible expression and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for HVEM, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes (LIGHT; TNFSF14), and the inhibitory Ig family member B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA). To dissect the differential contributions of HVEM/BTLA and HVEM/LIGHT interactions, topographically-specific, competitive, and nonblocking anti-HVEM Abs that inhibit BTLA binding, but not LIGHT, were developed. We demonstrate that a BTLA-specific competitor attenuated the course of acute graft-versus-host reaction in a murine F1 transfer semiallogeneic model. Selective HVEM/BTLA blockade did not inhibit donor T cell infiltration into graft-versus-host reaction target organs, but decreased the functional activity of the alloreactive T cells. These results highlight the critical role of HVEM/BTLA pathway in the control of the allogeneic immune response and identify a new therapeutic target for transplantation and autoimmune diseases. PMID:22490863

  10. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists are broad facilitators of antinicotinic neuromuscular blockade monitored either with 2 Hz train-of-four or 50 Hz tetanic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Monalisa W; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson

    2012-10-01

    1. The 2 Hz train-of-four ratio (TOF(ratio)) is used to monitor the degree of patient curarization. Using a rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation, we showed that antinicotinic agents, such as hexamethonium, d-tubocurarine and pancuronium, but not cisatracurium, decreased contractions produced by physiological nerve activity patterns (50 Hz) more efficiently than those caused by 2 Hz trains. Uncertainty about the usefulness of the TOF(ratio) to control safe recovery from curarization prompted us to investigate the muscarinic and adenosine neuromodulation of tetanic (50 Hz) fade induced by antinicotinic agents at concentrations that cause a 25% reduction in the TOF(ratio) (TOF(fade)). 2. Tetanic fade caused by d-tubocurarine (1.1 μmol/L), pancuronium (3 μmol/L) and hexamethonium (5.47 mmol/L) was attenuated by blocking presynaptic inhibitory muscarinic M(2) and adenosine A(1) receptors with methoctramine (1 μmol/L) and 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (2.5 nmol/L), respectively. These compounds enhanced rather than decreased tetanic fade induced by cisatracurium (2.2 μmol/L), but they consistently attenuated cisatracurium-induced TOF(fade). The effect of the M(1) receptor antagonist pirenzepine (10 nmol/L) on fade produced by antinicotinic agents at 50 Hz was opposite to that observed with TOF stimulation. Blockade of adenosine A(2A) receptors with ZM 241385 (10 nmol/L) attenuated TOF(fade) caused by all antinicotinic drugs tested, with the exception of the 'pure' presynaptic nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium. ZM 241385 was the only compound tested in this series that facilitated recovery from tetanic fade produced by cisatracurium. 3. The data suggest that distinct antinicotinic relaxants interfere with fine-tuning neuromuscular adaptations to motor nerve stimulation patterns via activation of presynaptic muscarinic and adenosine receptors. These results support the use of A(2A) receptor antagonists together with atropine to facilitate recovery from

  11. Endothelin B receptor blockade attenuates pulmonary vasodilation in oxygen-ventilated fetal lambs.

    PubMed

    Ivy, D Dunbar; Lee, Dong-Seok; Rairigh, Robyn L; Parker, Thomas A; Abman, Steven H

    2004-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) contributes to the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone in the normal ovine fetus and in models of perinatal pulmonary hypertension. In the fetal lamb lung, the effects of ET-1 depend on the balance of at least two endothelin receptor subtypes: ETA and ETB. ETA receptors are located on smooth muscle cells and mediate vasoconstriction and smooth muscle proliferation. Stimulation of endothelial ETB receptors causes vasodilation through release of nitric oxide and also functions to remove ET-1 from the circulation. However, whether activation of ETB receptors contributes to the fall in pulmonary vascular tone at birth is unknown. To determine the role of acute ETB receptor blockade in pulmonary vasodilation in response to birth-related stimuli, we studied the hemodynamic effects of selective ETB receptor blockade with BQ-788 during mechanical ventilation with low (<10%) and high FiO2 (100%) in near-term fetal sheep. Intrapulmonary infusion of BQ-788 did not change left pulmonary artery (LPA) blood flow and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at baseline. In comparison with controls, BQ-788 treatment attenuated the rise in LPA flow with low and high FiO2 ventilation (p <0.001 vs. control for each FiO2 concentration). PVR progressively decreased during mechanical ventilation with low and high FiO2 in both groups, but PVR remained higher after BQ-788 treatment throughout the study period (p <0.001). We conclude that selective ETB receptor blockade attenuates pulmonary vasodilation at birth. We speculate that ETB receptor stimulation contributes to pulmonary vasodilation at birth in the ovine fetus.

  12. BLOCKADE OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR (NGF) RECEPTOR TRKA ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC INFLAMMATION

    EPA Science Inventory


    Recent studies have shown that asthmatics have increased levels of the neurotrophin, NGF, in their lungs. In addition, antibody blockade of NGF in mice attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses. DEP has been linked to asthma exacerbation in many c...

  13. C5a Receptor (CD88) Blockade Protects against MPO-ANCA GN

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hong; Dairaghi, Daniel J.; Powers, Jay P.; Ertl, Linda S.; Baumgart, Trageen; Wang, Yu; Seitz, Lisa C.; Penfold, Mark E.T.; Gan, Lin; Hu, Peiqi; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Norma P.; Gerard, Craig; Schall, Thomas J.; Jaen, Juan C.; Falk, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing and crescentic GN (NCGN) with a paucity of glomerular immunoglobulin deposits is associated with ANCA. The most common ANCA target antigens are myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3. In a manner that requires activation of the alternative complement pathway, passive transfer of antibodies to mouse MPO (anti-MPO) induces a mouse model of ANCA NCGN that closely mimics human disease. Here, we confirm the importance of C5aR/CD88 in the mediation of anti-MPO–induced NCGN and report that C6 is not required. We further demonstrate that deficiency of C5a-like receptor (C5L2) has the reverse effect of C5aR/CD88 deficiency and results in more severe disease, indicating that C5aR/CD88 engagement enhances inflammation and C5L2 engagement suppresses inflammation. Oral administration of CCX168, a small molecule antagonist of human C5aR/CD88, ameliorated anti-MPO–induced NCGN in mice expressing human C5aR/CD88. These observations suggest that blockade of C5aR/CD88 might have therapeutic benefit in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis and GN. PMID:24179165

  14. C5a receptor (CD88) blockade protects against MPO-ANCA GN.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hong; Dairaghi, Daniel J; Powers, Jay P; Ertl, Linda S; Baumgart, Trageen; Wang, Yu; Seitz, Lisa C; Penfold, Mark E T; Gan, Lin; Hu, Peiqi; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Norma P; Gerard, Craig; Schall, Thomas J; Jaen, Juan C; Falk, Ronald J; Jennette, J Charles

    2014-02-01

    Necrotizing and crescentic GN (NCGN) with a paucity of glomerular immunoglobulin deposits is associated with ANCA. The most common ANCA target antigens are myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3. In a manner that requires activation of the alternative complement pathway, passive transfer of antibodies to mouse MPO (anti-MPO) induces a mouse model of ANCA NCGN that closely mimics human disease. Here, we confirm the importance of C5aR/CD88 in the mediation of anti-MPO-induced NCGN and report that C6 is not required. We further demonstrate that deficiency of C5a-like receptor (C5L2) has the reverse effect of C5aR/CD88 deficiency and results in more severe disease, indicating that C5aR/CD88 engagement enhances inflammation and C5L2 engagement suppresses inflammation. Oral administration of CCX168, a small molecule antagonist of human C5aR/CD88, ameliorated anti-MPO-induced NCGN in mice expressing human C5aR/CD88. These observations suggest that blockade of C5aR/CD88 might have therapeutic benefit in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis and GN.

  15. Blockade and knock-out of CALHM1 channels attenuate ischemic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Cisneros-Mejorado, Abraham; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Ruiz, Asier; Chara, Juan C; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Marambaud, Philippe; Matute, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    Overactivation of purinergic receptors during cerebral ischemia results in a massive release of neurotransmitters, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to the extracellular space which leads to cell death. Some hypothetical pathways of ATP release are large ion channels, such as calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), a membrane ion channel that can permeate ATP. Since this transmitter contributes to postischemic brain damage, we hypothesized that CALHM1 activation may be a relevant target to attenuate stroke injury. Here, we analyzed the contribution of CALHM1 to postanoxic depolarization after ischemia in cultured neurons and in cortical slices. We observed that the onset of postanoxic currents in neurons in those preparations was delayed after its blockade with ruthenium red or silencing of Calhm1 gene by short hairpin RNA, as well as in slices from CALHM1 knockout mice. Subsequently, we used transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and found that ruthenium red, a blocker of CALHM1, or the lack of CALHM1, substantially attenuated the motor symptoms and reduced significantly the infarct volume. These results show that CALHM1 channels mediate postanoxic depolarization in neurons and brain damage after ischemia. Therefore, targeting CALHM1 may have a high therapeutic potential for treating brain damage after ischemia.

  16. Blockade of neuronal dopamine D2 receptor attenuates morphine tolerance in mice spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wen-Ling; Xiong, Feng; Yan, Bing; Cao, Zheng-Yu; Liu, Wen-Tao; Liu, Ji-Hua; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2016-12-22

    Tolerance induced by morphine remains a major unresolved problem and significantly limits its clinical use. Recent evidences have indicated that dopamine D2 receptor (D2DR) is likely to be involved in morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance. However, its exact effect and molecular mechanism remain unknown. In this study we examined the effect of D2DR on morphine antinociceptive tolerance in mice spinal cord. Chronic morphine treatment significantly increased levels of D2DR in mice spinal dorsal horn. And the immunoreactivity of D2DR was newly expressed in neurons rather than astrocytes or microglia both in vivo and in vitro. Blockade of D2DR with its antagonist (sulpiride and L-741,626, i.t.) attenuated morphine antinociceptive tolerance without affecting basal pain perception. Sulpiride (i.t.) also down-regulated the expression of phosphorylation of NR1, PKC, MAPKs and suppressed the activation of astrocytes and microglia induced by chronic morphine administration. Particularly, D2DR was found to interact with μ opioid receptor (MOR) in neurons, and chronic morphine treatment enhanced the MOR/D2DR interactions. Sulpiride (i.t.) could disrupt the MOR/D2DR interactions and attenuate morphine tolerance, indicating that neuronal D2DR in the spinal cord may be involved in morphine tolerance possibly by interacting with MOR. These results may present new opportunities for the treatment and management of morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance which often observed in clinic.

  17. Effects of 5-HT5A receptor blockade on amnesia or forgetting.

    PubMed

    Aparicio-Nava, L; Márquez-García, L A; Meneses, A

    2018-01-09

    Previously the effects (0.01-3.0 mg/kg) of post-training SB-699551 (a 5-HT 5A receptor antagonist) were reported in the associative learning task of autoshaping, showing that SB-699551 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased lever-press conditioned responses (CR) during short-term (STM; 1.5-h) or (3.0 mg/kg) long-term memory (LTM; 24-h); relative to the vehicle animals. Moreover, as pro-cognitive efficacy of SB-699551 was reported in the ketamine-model of schizophrenia. Hence, firstly aiming improving performance (conditioned response, CR), in this work autoshaping lever-press vs. nose-poke response was compared; secondly, new set of animals were randomly assigned to SB-699551 plus forgetting or amnesia protocols. Results show that the nose-poke operandum reduced inter-individual variance, increased CR and produced a progressive CR until 48-h. After one week of no training/testing sessions (i.e., interruption of 216 h), the forgetting was observed; i.e., the CR% of control-saline group significantly decreased. In contrast, SB-699551 at 0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg prevents forgetting. Additionally, as previously reported the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (0.2 mg/kg) or the non-selective cholinergic antagonist scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg) decreased CR in STM. SB-699551 (0.3 mg/kg) alone also produced amnesia-like effect. Co-administration of SB-699551-dizocilpine or SB-699551-scopolamine reversed the SB-699551 induced-amnesic effects in LTM (24-h). Nose-poke seems to be a reliable operandum. The anti-amnesic and anti-forgetting mechanisms of amnesic SB-699551-dose remain unclear. The present findings are consistent with the notion that low doses of 5-HT 5A receptor antagonists might be useful for reversing memory deficits associated to forgetting and amnesia. Of course, further experiments are necessary. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels similarly attenuates postischemic damage.

    PubMed

    Cisneros-Mejorado, Abraham; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Cavaliere, Fabio; Magnus, Tim; Koch-Nolte, Friederich; Scemes, Eliana; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Matute, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    The role of P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels in ischemic damage remains controversial. Here, we analyzed their contribution to postanoxic depolarization after ischemia in cultured neurons and in brain slices. We observed that pharmacological blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels delayed the onset of postanoxic currents and reduced their slope, and that simultaneous inhibition did not further enhance the effects of blocking either one. These results were confirmed in acute cortical slices from P2X7 and pannexin-1 knockout mice. Oxygen-glucose deprivation in cortical organotypic cultures caused neuronal death that was reduced with P2X7 and pannexin-1 blockers as well as in organotypic cultures derived from mice lacking P2X7 and pannexin 1. Subsequently, we used transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to monitor the neuroprotective effect of those drugs in vivo. We found that P2X7 and pannexin-1 antagonists, and their ablation in knockout mice, substantially attenuated the motor symptoms and reduced the infarct volume to ~50% of that in vehicle-treated or wild-type animals. These results show that P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels are major mediators of postanoxic depolarization in neurons and of brain damage after ischemia, and that they operate in the same deleterious signaling cascade leading to neuronal and tissue demise.

  19. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 blockade attenuates inflammatory response and improves microvascular perfusion in rat pancreas grafts.

    PubMed

    Preissler, Gerhard; Eichhorn, Martin; Waldner, Helmut; Winter, Hauke; Kleespies, Axel; Massberg, Steffen

    2012-10-01

    After pancreas transplantation (PTx), early capillary malperfusion and leukocyte recruitment indicate the manifestation of severe ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Oscillatory blood-flow redistribution (intermittent capillary perfusion, IP), leading to an overall decrease in erythrocyte flux, precedes complete microvascular perfusion failure with persistent blood flow cessation. We addressed the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) for leukocyte-endothelial interactions (LEIs) after PTx and evaluated the contribution of IP and malperfusion. Pancreas transplantation was performed in rats after 18-hour preservation, receiving either isotype-matched IgG or monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibodies (10 mg/kg intravenously) once before reperfusion. Leukocyte-endothelial interaction, IP, erythrocyte flux, and functional capillary density, respectively, were examined in vivo during 2-hour reperfusion. Nontransplanted animals served as controls. Tissue samples were analyzed by histomorphometry. In grafts of IgG-treated animals, IP was encountered already at an early stage after reperfusion and steadily increased over 2 hours, whereas erythrocyte flux declined continuously. In contrast, inhibition of ICAM-1 significantly improved erythrocyte flux and delayed IP appearance by 2 hours. Further, anti-ICAM-1 significantly reduced LEI and leukocyte tissue infiltration when compared to IgG; edema development was less pronounced in response to anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 blockade significantly attenuates IRI via immediate reduction of LEI and concomitant improvement of capillary perfusion patterns, emphasizing its central role during IRI in PTx.

  20. Novel antipsychotic agents with 5-HT(1A) agonist properties: role of 5-HT(1A) receptor activation in attenuation of catalepsy induction in rats.

    PubMed

    Kleven, Mark S; Barret-Grévoz, Catherine; Bruins Slot, Liesbeth; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2005-08-01

    Compounds possessing 5-HT(1A) agonist properties attenuate catalepsy induced by D(2) receptor blockade. Here we examined the role of 5-HT(1A) receptor agonism in the reduced cataleptogenic potential of several novel antipsychotic agents in the crossed leg position (CLP) and the bar catalepsy tests in rats. When administered alone, ziprasidone produced marked catalepsy, whereas aripiprazole, bifeprunox, SLV313, SSR181507 and sarizotan did not. However, when 5-HT(1A) receptors were blocked with the selective antagonist, WAY100635 (0.63 mg/kg, SC), robust cataleptogenic properties of SLV313, bifeprunox and sarizotan were unmasked and the catalepsy induced by ziprasidone was accentuated. In contrast, only modest catalepsy was induced by aripiprazole and SSR181507, even following a higher dose of WAY100635 (2.5 mg/kg). This suggests that these compounds possess other anti-cataleptic properties, such as partial agonism at dopamine D(2) receptors. The capacity to reverse neuroleptic-induced catalepsy was investigated in interaction studies with haloperidol (2.5 mg/kg, SC). Whereas ziprasidone and aripiprazole did not markedly reduce the effects of haloperidol, SLV313 and sarizotan attenuated CLP catalepsy. In contrast, SSR181507 and bifeprunox potently inhibited both CLP and bar catalepsy. Taken together, these data show that 5-HT(1A) receptor activation reduces the cataleptogenic potential of novel antipsychotic agents but indicate marked diversity in the contribution of 5-HT(1A) and/or other mechanisms to the profiles of the drugs.

  1. EXTRINSIC COAGULATION BLOCKADE ATTENUATES LUNG INJURY AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE RELEASE AFTER INTRATRACHEAL LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initiation of coagulation by tissue factor (TF) is a potentially powerful regulator of local inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that blockade of TF-factor VIIa (FVIIa) complex would decrease lung inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine release after tracheal instillation o...

  2. Kinin B1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibition attenuate cardiac postinfarction remodeling and heart failure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Xinchun

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the novel kinin B1 receptor antagonist BI113823 on postinfarction cardiac remodeling and heart failure, and to determine whether B1 receptor blockade alters the cardiovascular effects of an angiotensin 1 converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in rats. Methods and results: Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to permanent occlusion of the left coronary artery. Cardiovascular function was determined at 6 weeks postinfarction. Treatment with either B1 receptor antagonist (BI113823) or an ACE inhibitor (lisinopril) alone or in combination significantly reduced the heart weight-to-body weight and lung weight-to-body weight ratios, andmore » improved postinfarction cardiac function as evidenced by greater cardiac output, the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise (± dP/dtmax), left ventricle ejection fraction, fractional shorting, better wall motion, and attenuation of elevated left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). Furthermore, all three treatment groups exhibited significant reduction in cardiac interstitial fibrosis, collagen deposition, CD68 positive macrophages, neutrophils, and proinflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-1β), compared to vehicle controls. Conclusion: The present study shows that treatment with the novel kinin B1 receptor antagonist, BI113823, reduces postinfarction cardiac remodeling and heart failure, and does not influence the cardiovascular effects of the ACE inhibitor. - Highlights: • We examined the role of kinin B1 receptors in the development of heart failure. • Kinin B1 receptor blockade attenuates post-infarction cardiac remodeling. • Kinin B1 receptor blockade improves dysfunction, and prevented heart failure. • B1 receptor blockade does not affect the cardio-protection of an ACE inhibitor.« less

  3. Attenuated sensitivity to neuroactive steroids in γ-aminobutyrate type A receptor delta subunit knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Mihalek, Robert M.; Banerjee, Pradeep K.; Korpi, Esa R.; Quinlan, Joseph J.; Firestone, Leonard L.; Mi, Zhi-Ping; Lagenaur, Carl; Tretter, Verena; Sieghart, Werner; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.; Sage, Jennifer R.; Fanselow, Michael S.; Guidotti, Alessandro; Spigelman, Igor; Li, Zhiwei; DeLorey, Timothy M.; Olsen, Richard W.; Homanics, Gregg E.

    1999-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors mediate fast inhibitory synaptic transmission and have been implicated in responses to sedative/hypnotic agents (including neuroactive steroids), anxiety, and learning and memory. Using gene targeting technology, we generated a strain of mice deficient in the δ subunit of the GABA type A receptors. In vivo testing of various behavioral responses revealed a strikingly selective attenuation of responses to neuroactive steroids, but not to other modulatory drugs. Electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal slices revealed a significantly faster miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current decay time in null mice, with no change in miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current amplitude or frequency. Learning and memory assessed with fear conditioning were normal. These results begin to illuminate the novel contributions of the δ subunit to GABA pharmacology and sedative/hypnotic responses and behavior and provide insights into the physiology of neurosteroids. PMID:10536021

  4. Blockade of adenosine A2A receptor enhances CD8+ T cells response and decreases regulatory T cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Si-Rui; Deng, Wei-Wei; Liu, Jian-Feng; Mao, Liang; Yu, Guang-Tao; Bu, Lin-Lin; Kulkarni, Ashok B; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2017-06-07

    Cancer immunotherapy offers a promising approach in cancer treatment. The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) could protect cancerous tissues from immune clearance via inhibiting T cells response. To date, the role of A2AR in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has not been investigated. Here, we sought to explore the expression and immunotherapeutic value of A2AR blockade in HNSCC. The expression of A2AR was evaluated by immunostaining in 43 normal mucosae, 48 dysplasia and 165 primary HNSCC tissues. The immunotherapeutic value of A2AR blockade was assessed in vivo in genetically defined immunocompetent HNSCC mouse model. Immunostaining of HNSCC tissue samples revealed that increased expression of A2AR on tumor infiltrating immune cells correlated with advanced pathological grade, larger tumor size and positive lymph node status. Elevated A2AR expression was also detected in recurrent HNSCC and HNSCC tissues with induction chemotherapy. The expression of A2AR was found to be significantly correlated with HIF-1α, CD73, CD8 and Foxp3. Furthermore, the increased population of CD4 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs), which partially expressed A2AR, was observed in an immunocompetent mouse model that spontaneously develops HNSCC. Pharmacological blockade of A2AR by SCH58261 delayed the tumor growth in the HNSCC mouse model. Meanwhile, A2AR blockade significantly reduced the population of CD4 + Foxp3 + Tregs and enhanced the anti-tumor response of CD8 + T cells. These results offer a preclinical proof for the administration of A2AR inhibitor on prophylactic experimental therapy of HNSCC and suggest that A2AR blockade can be a potential novel strategy for HNSCC immunotherapy.

  5. Differential effects of presynaptic versus postsynaptic adenosine A2A receptor blockade on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Justinová, Zuzana; Redhi, Godfrey H; Goldberg, Steven R; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-05-07

    Different doses of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 [3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-ethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7 methyl-3-[3-(phosphooxy)propyl-1-(2 propynil)-1H-purine-2,6-dione] were found previously to either decrease or increase self-administration of cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or anandamide in squirrel monkeys. It was hypothesized that the decrease observed with a relatively low dose of MSX-3 was related to blockade of striatal presynaptic A2A receptors that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, whereas the increase observed with a higher dose was related to blockade of postsynaptic A2A receptors localized in striatopallidal neurons. This hypothesis was confirmed in the present study by testing the effects of the preferential presynaptic and postsynaptic A2A receptor antagonists SCH-442416 [2-(2-furanyl)-7-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine] and KW-6002 [(E)-1, 3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione], respectively, in squirrel monkeys trained to intravenously self-administer THC. SCH-442416 produced a significant shift to the right of the THC self-administration dose-response curves, consistent with antagonism of the reinforcing effects of THC. Conversely, KW-6002 produced a significant shift to the left, consistent with potentiation of the reinforcing effects of THC. These results show that selectively blocking presynaptic A2A receptors could provide a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of marijuana dependence and underscore corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission as a possible main mechanism involved in the rewarding effects of THC.

  6. Adenosine A2A Receptor Blockade or Deletion Diminishes Fibrocyte Accumulation in the Skin in a Murine Model of Scleroderma, Bleomycin-induced Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Katebi, Majid; Fernandez, Patricia; Chan, Edwin S. L.; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral blood fibrocytes are a newly identified circulating leukocyte subpopulation that migrates into injured tissue where it may display fibroblast-like properties and participate in wound healing and fibrosis of skin and other organs. Previous studies in our lab demonstrated that A2A receptor-deficient and A2A antagonist-treated mice were protected from developing bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis, thus the aim of this study was to determine whether the adenosine A2A receptor regulates recruitment of fibrocytes to the dermis in this bleomycin-induced model of dermal fibrosis. Sections of skin from normal mice and bleomycin-treated wild type, A2A knockout and A2A antagonist-treated mice were stained for Procollagen α2 Type I and CD34 and the double stained cells, fibrocytes, were counted in the tissue sections. There were more fibrocytes in the dermis of bleomycin-treated mice than normal mice and the increase was abrogated by deletion or blockade of adenosine A2A receptors. Because fibrocytes play a central role in tissue fibrosis these results suggest that diminished adenosine A2A receptor-mediated recruitment of fibrocytes into tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of fibrosing diseases of the skin. Moreover, these results provide further evidence that adenosine A2A receptors may represent a new target for the treatment of such fibrosing diseases as scleroderma or nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy. PMID:18709547

  7. GABA(A) receptor blockade in dorsomedial and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus evokes panic-like elaborated defensive behaviour followed by innate fear-induced antinociception.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Uribe-Mariño, Andrés; Castiblanco-Urbina, Maria Angélica; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibraim; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2009-12-11

    Dysfunction in the hypothalamic GABAergic system has been implicated in panic syndrome in humans. Furthermore, several studies have implicated the hypothalamus in the elaboration of pain modulation. Panic-prone states are able to be experimentally induced in laboratory animals to study this phenomenon. The aim of the present work was to investigate the involvement of medial hypothalamic nuclei in the organization of panic-like behaviour and the innate fear-induced oscillations of nociceptive thresholds. The blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the neuronal substrates of the ventromedial or dorsomedial hypothalamus was followed by elaborated defensive panic-like reactions. Moreover, innate fear-induced antinociception was consistently elicited after the escape behaviour. The escape responses organized by the dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei were characteristically more elaborated, and a remarkable exploratory behaviour was recorded during GABA(A) receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus. The motor characteristic of the elaborated defensive escape behaviour and the patterns of defensive alertness and defensive immobility induced by microinjection of the bicuculline either into the dorsomedial or into the ventromedial hypothalamus were very similar. This was followed by the same pattern of innate fear-induced antinociceptive response that lasted approximately 40 min after the elaborated defensive escape reaction in both cases. These findings suggest that dysfunction of the GABA-mediated neuronal system in the medial hypothalamus causes panic-like responses in laboratory animals, and that the elaborated escape behaviour organized in both dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei are followed by significant innate-fear-induced antinociception. Our findings indicate that the GABA(A) receptor of dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei are critically involved in the modulation of panic-like behaviour.

  8. Blockade of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors potentiates dopamine D2 activation-induced disruption of pup retrieval on an elevated plus maze, but has no effect on D2 blockade-induced one.

    PubMed

    Nie, Lina; Di, Tianqi; Li, Yu; Cheng, Peng; Li, Ming; Gao, Jun

    2018-06-23

    Appetitive aspect of rat maternal behavior, such as pup retrieval, is motivationally driven and sensitive to dopamine disturbances. Activation or blockade of dopamine D 2 receptors causes a similar disruption of pup retrieval, which may also reflect an increase in maternal anxiety and/or a disruption of executive function. Recent work indicates that serotonin 5-HT 2A receptors also play an important role in rat maternal behavior. Given the well-known modulation of 5-HT 2A on the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine functions, the present study examined the extent to which blockade of 5-HT 2A receptors on dopamine D 2 -mediated maternal effects using a pup retrieval on the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Sprague-Dawley postpartum female rats were acutely injected with quinpirole (a D 2 agonist, 0.10 and 0.25 mg/kg, sc), or haloperidol (a D 2 antagonist, 0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg, sc), in combination of MDL100907 (a 5-HT 2A receptor antagonist, 1.0 mg/kg, sc, 30 min before quinpirole or haloperidol injection) or saline and tested at 30, 90 and 240 min after quinpirole or haloperidol injection on postpartum days 3 and 7. Quinpirole and haloperidol decreased the number of pup retrieved (an index of maternal motivation) and sequential retrieval score (an index of executive function), prolonged the pup retrieval latencies, reduced the percentage of time spent on the open arms (an index of maternal anxiety), and decreased the distance travelled on the maze in a dose-dependent and time-dependent fashion. MDL100907 treatment by itself had no effect on pup retrieval, but it exacerbated the quinpirole-induced disruption of pup retrieval, but had no effect on the haloperidol-induced one. These findings suggest a complex interactive effect between 5-HT 2A and D 2 receptors on one or several maternal processes (maternal motivation, anxiety and executive function), and support the idea that one molecular mechanism by which 5-HT 2A receptors mediate maternal behavior is through

  9. Selective blockade of TRPA1 channel attenuates pathological pain without altering noxious cold sensation or body temperature regulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Joshi, Shailen K; DiDomenico, Stanley; Perner, Richard J; Mikusa, Joe P; Gauvin, Donna M; Segreti, Jason A; Han, Ping; Zhang, Xu-Feng; Niforatos, Wende; Bianchi, Bruce R; Baker, Scott J; Zhong, Chengmin; Simler, Gricelda H; McDonald, Heath A; Schmidt, Robert G; McGaraughty, Steve P; Chu, Katharine L; Faltynek, Connie R; Kort, Michael E; Reilly, Regina M; Kym, Philip R

    2011-05-01

    Despite the increasing interest in TRPA1 channel as a pain target, its role in cold sensation and body temperature regulation is not clear; the efficacy and particularly side effects resulting from channel blockade remain poorly understood. Here we use a potent, selective, and bioavailable antagonist to address these issues. A-967079 potently blocks human (IC(50): 51 nmol/L, electrophysiology, 67 nmol/L, Ca(2+) assay) and rat TRPA1 (IC(50): 101 nmol/L, electrophysiology, 289 nmol/L, Ca(2+) assay). It is >1000-fold selective over other TRP channels, and is >150-fold selective over 75 other ion channels, enzymes, and G-protein-coupled receptors. Oral dosing of A-967079 produces robust drug exposure in rodents, and exhibits analgesic efficacy in allyl isothiocyanate-induced nocifensive response and osteoarthritic pain in rats (ED(50): 23.2 mg/kg, p.o.). A-967079 attenuates cold allodynia produced by nerve injury but does not alter noxious cold sensation in naive animals, suggesting distinct roles of TRPA1 in physiological and pathological states. Unlike TRPV1 antagonists, A-967079 does not alter body temperature. It also does not produce locomotor or cardiovascular side effects. Collectively, these data provide novel insights into TRPA1 function and suggest that the selective TRPA1 blockade may present a viable strategy for alleviating pain without untoward side effects. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Selective verbal and spatial memory impairment after 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor blockade in healthy volunteers pre-treated with an SSRI.

    PubMed

    Wingen, M; Kuypers, K P C; Ramaekers, J G

    2007-07-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission has been implicated in memory impairment. It is unclear however if memory performance is mediated through general 5-HT availability, through specific 5-HT receptors or both. The aim of the present study was to assess the contribution of 5-HT reuptake inhibition and specific blockade of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors to memory impairment. The study was conducted according to a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-way cross-over design including 16 healthy volunteers. The treatment consisted of oral administration of escitalopram 20 mg + placebo, escitalopram 20 mg + ketanserin 50 mg, escitalopram 20 mg + pindolol 10 mg and placebo on 4 separate days with a washout period of minimum 7 days. Different memory tasks were performed including verbal memory, spatial working memory and reversal learning. Escitalopram showed an impairing effect on immediate verbal recall which nearly reached statistical significance. No effects of escitalopram were found on other types of memory. In combination with pindolol, immediate verbal recall was significantly impaired. Escitalopram in combination with ketanserin impaired spatial working memory significantly. No effects were found on reversal learning. Selective impairment of immediate verbal recall after a 5-HT(1A) partial agonist and selective impairment of spatial working memory performance after 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, both in combination with a selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitor (escitalopram), suggests that 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors are distinctly involved in verbal and spatial memory.

  11. Growth Attenuation of Cutaneous Angiosarcoma With Propranolol-Mediated β-Blockade.

    PubMed

    Chow, William; Amaya, Clarissa N; Rains, Steven; Chow, Michael; Dickerson, Erin B; Bryan, Brad A

    2015-11-01

    Patients with stage T2 multilesion angiosarcomas of the scalp and face that are larger than 10 cm demonstrate a 2-year survival rate of 0%. To our knowledge, major therapeutic advances against this disease have not been reported for decades. Preclinical data indicate that blocking β-adrenergic signaling with propranolol hydrochloride disrupts angiosarcoma cell survival and xenograft angiosarcoma progression. A patient presented with a β-adrenergic-positive multifocal stage T2 cutaneous angiosarcoma (≥20 cm) involving 80% of the scalp, left forehead, and left cheek, with no evidence of metastasis. The patient was immediately administered propranolol hydrochloride, 40 mg twice a day, as his workup progressed and treatment options were elucidated. Evaluation of the proliferative index of the tumor before and after only 1 week of propranolol monotherapy revealed a reduction in the proliferative index of the tumor by approximately 34%. A combination of propranolol hydrochloride, 40 mg 3 times a day, paclitaxel poliglumex, 2 mg/m2 infused weekly, and radiotherapy during the subsequent 8 months resulted in extensive tumor regression with no detectable metastases. Our data suggest that β-blockade alone substantially reduced angiosarcoma proliferation and, in combination with standard therapy, is effective for reducing the size of the tumor and preventing metastases. If successful, β-blockade could be the first major advancement in the treatment of angiosarcoma in decades.

  12. Renal mitochondrial impairment is attenuated by AT1 blockade in experimental Type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    de Cavanagh, Elena M V; Ferder, León; Toblli, Jorge E; Piotrkowski, Bárbara; Stella, Inés; Fraga, Cesar G; Inserra, Felipe

    2008-01-01

    To investigate whether ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor blockade could protect kidney mitochondria in streptozotocin-induced Type 1 diabetes, we treated 8-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single streptozotocin injection (65 mg/kg ip; STZ group), streptozotocin and drinking water containing either losartan (30 mg.kg(-1).day(-1); STZ+Los group) or amlodipine (3 mg.kg(-1).day(-1); STZ+Amlo group), or saline (intraperitoneally) and pure water (control group). Four-month-long losartan or amlodipine treatments started 30 days before streptozotocin injection to improve the antioxidant defenses. The number of renal lesions, plasma glucose and lipid levels, and proteinuria were higher and creatinine clearance was lower in STZ and STZ+Amlo compared with STZ+Los and control groups. Glycemia was higher in STZ+Los compared with control. Blood pressure, basal mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial pyruvate content, and renal oxidized glutathione levels were higher and NADH/cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity was lower in STZ compared with the other groups. In STZ and STZ+Amlo groups, mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production rate was higher and uncoupling protein-2 content, cytochrome c oxidase activity, and renal glutathione level were lower than in STZ+Los and control groups. Mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase activity was higher in STZ+Amlo compared with the other groups. Mitochondrial pyruvate content and H(2)O(2) production rate negatively contributed to electron transfer capacity and positively contributed to renal lesions. Uncoupling protein-2 content negatively contributed to mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production rate and renal lesions. Renal glutathione reduction potential positively contributed to mitochondria electron transfer capacity. In conclusion, AT(1) blockade protects kidney mitochondria and kidney structure in streptozotocin-induced diabetes independently of blood pressure and glycemia.

  13. Blockade of central nicotine acetylcholine receptor signaling attenuate ghrelin-induced food intake in rodents.

    PubMed

    Dickson, S L; Hrabovszky, E; Hansson, C; Jerlhag, E; Alvarez-Crespo, M; Skibicka, K P; Molnar, C S; Liposits, Z; Engel, J A; Egecioglu, E

    2010-12-29

    Here we sought to determine whether ghrelin's central effects on food intake can be interrupted by nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) blockade. Ghrelin regulates mesolimbic dopamine neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens, partly via cholinergic VTA afferents originating in the laterodorsal tegmental area (LDTg). Given that these cholinergic projections to the VTA have been implicated in natural as well as drug-induced reinforcement, we sought to investigate the role of cholinergic signaling in ghrelin-induced food intake as well as fasting-induced food intake, for which endogenous ghrelin has been implicated. We found that i.p. treatment with the non-selective centrally active nAChR antagonist, mecamylamine decreased fasting-induced food intake in both mice and rats. Moreover, central administration of mecamylamine decreased fasting-induced food intake in rats. I.c.v. ghrelin-induced food intake was suppressed by mecamylamine i.p. but not by hexamethonium i.p., a peripheral nAChR antagonist. Furthermore, mecamylamine i.p. blocked food intake following ghrelin injection into the VTA. Expression of the ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A, was found to co-localize with choline acetyltransferase, a marker of cholinergic neurons, in the LDTg. Finally, mecamylamine treatment i.p. decreased the ability of palatable food to condition a place preference. These data suggest that ghrelin-induced food intake is partly mediated via nAChRs and that nicotinic blockade decreases the rewarding properties of food. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Blockade of the receptor for advanced glycation end products attenuates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ekong, Udeme; Zeng, Shan; Dun, Hao; Feirt, Nikki; Guo, Jiancheng; Ippagunta, Nikalesh; Guarrera, James V; Lu, Yan; Weinberg, Alan; Qu, Wu; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Emond, Jean C

    2006-04-01

    Severe injury to the liver, such as that induced by toxic doses of acetaminophen, triggers a cascade of events leading to hepatocyte death. It is hypothesized that activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) might contribute to acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity by virtue of its ability to generate reactive oxygen species, at least in part via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, and thereby activate downstream signaling pathways leading to cellular injury. A model was employed in which toxic doses of acetaminophen (1125 mg/kg) were administered to C57BL/6 mice. To block RAGE, mice received murine soluble (s) RAGE, the extracellular ligand binding domain of the receptor that acts as a decoy to interrupt ligand-RAGE signaling. Animals treated with sRAGE displayed increased survival compared with vehicle treatment, and markedly decreased hepatic necrosis. Consistent with an important role for RAGE-triggered oxidant stress in acetaminophen-induced injury, a significant reduction of nitrotyrosine protein adducts was observed in hepatic tissue in sRAGE-treated versus vehicle-treated mice receiving acetaminophen, in parallel with significantly increased levels of glutathione. In addition, pro-regenerative cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 were increased in sRAGE-treated versus vehicle-treated mice. These findings implicate RAGE-dependent mechanisms in acetaminophen-induced liver damage and suggest that blockade of this pathway may impart beneficial effects in toxin-induced liver injury.

  15. 5-HT1A receptor blockade reverses GABAA receptor α3 subunit-mediated anxiolytic effects on stress-induced hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    van Oorschot, Ruud; Korte, S. Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Groenink, Lucianne

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Stress-related disorders are associated with dysfunction of both serotonergic and GABAergic pathways, and clinically effective anxiolytics act via both neurotransmitter systems. As there is evidence that the GABAA and the serotonin receptor system interact, a serotonergic component in the anxiolytic actions of benzodiazepines could be present. Objectives The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether the anxiolytic effects of (non-)selective α subunit GABAA receptor agonists could be reversed with 5-HT1A receptor blockade using the stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) paradigm. Results The 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (0.1–1 mg/kg) reversed the SIH-reducing effects of the non-α-subunit selective GABAA receptor agonist diazepam (1–4 mg/kg) and the GABAA receptor α3-subunit selective agonist TP003 (1 mg/kg), whereas WAY-100635 alone was without effect on the SIH response or basal body temperature. At the same time, co-administration of WAY-100635 with diazepam or TP003 reduced basal body temperature. WAY-100635 did not affect the SIH response when combined with the preferential α1-subunit GABAA receptor agonist zolpidem (10 mg/kg), although zolpidem markedly reduced basal body temperature. Conclusions The present study suggests an interaction between GABAA receptor α-subunits and 5-HT1A receptor activation in the SIH response. Specifically, our data indicate that benzodiazepines affect serotonergic signaling via GABAA receptor α3-subunits. Further understanding of the interactions between the GABAA and serotonin system in reaction to stress may be valuable in the search for novel anxiolytic drugs. PMID:20535452

  16. Blockade of Endocannabinoid Hydrolytic Enzymes Attenuates Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal Symptoms in MiceS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Divya; Ross, Gracious R.; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Owens, Robert A.; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Kinsey, Steven G.; Long, Jonathan Z.; Nomura, Daniel K.; Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Akbarali, Hamid I.

    2011-01-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), the primary active constituent of Cannabis sativa, has long been known to reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms. Although THC produces most of its pharmacological actions through the activation of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, the role these receptors play in reducing the variety of opioid withdrawal symptoms remains unknown. The endogenous cannabinoids, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide; AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), activate both cannabinoid receptors but are rapidly metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively. The objective of this study was to test whether increasing AEA or 2-AG, via inhibition of their respective hydrolytic enzymes, reduces naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal symptoms in in vivo and in vitro models of opioid dependence. Morphine-dependent mice challenged with naloxone reliably displayed a profound withdrawal syndrome, consisting of jumping, paw tremors, diarrhea, and weight loss. THC and the MAGL inhibitor 4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (JZL184) dose dependently reduced the intensity of most measures through the activation of CB1 receptors. JZL184 also attenuated spontaneous withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice. The FAAH inhibitor N-(pyridin-3-yl)-4-(3-(5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yloxy)benzyl)-piperdine-1-carboxamide (PF-3845) reduced the intensity of naloxone-precipitated jumps and paw flutters through the activation of CB1 receptors but did not ameliorate incidence of diarrhea or weight loss. In the final series of experiments, we investigated whether JZL184 or PF-3845 would attenuate naloxone-precipitated contractions in morphine-dependent ilea. Both enzyme inhibitors attenuated the intensity of naloxone-induced contractions, although this model does not account mechanistically for the autonomic withdrawal responses (i.e., diarrhea) observed in vivo. These results indicate

  17. Adenosine A2A receptor blockade prevents synaptotoxicity and memory dysfunction caused by beta-amyloid peptides via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Canas, Paula M; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Cunha, Geanne M A; Silva, Carla G; Machado, Nuno J; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Oliveira, Catarina R; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2009-11-25

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory impairment, neurochemically by accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (namely Abeta(1-42)) and morphologically by an initial loss of nerve terminals. Caffeine consumption prevents memory dysfunction in different models, which is mimicked by antagonists of adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs), which are located in synapses. Thus, we now tested whether A(2A)R blockade prevents the early Abeta(1-42)-induced synaptotoxicity and memory dysfunction and what are the underlying signaling pathways. The intracerebral administration of soluble Abeta(1-42) (2 nmol) in rats or mice caused, 2 weeks later, memory impairment (decreased performance in the Y-maze and object recognition tests) and a loss of nerve terminal markers (synaptophysin, SNAP-25) without overt neuronal loss, astrogliosis, or microgliosis. These were prevented by pharmacological blockade [5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine (SCH58261); 0.05 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1), i.p.; for 15 d] in rats, and genetic inactivation of A(2A)Rs in mice. Moreover, these were synaptic events since purified nerve terminals acutely exposed to Abeta(1-42) (500 nm) displayed mitochondrial dysfunction, which was prevented by A(2A)R blockade. SCH58261 (50 nm) also prevented the initial synaptotoxicity (loss of MAP-2, synaptophysin, and SNAP-25 immunoreactivity) and subsequent loss of viability of cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to Abeta(1-42) (500 nm). This A(2A)R-mediated control of neurotoxicity involved the control of Abeta(1-42)-induced p38 phosphorylation and was independent from cAMP/PKA (protein kinase A) pathway. Together, these results show that A(2A)Rs play a crucial role in the development of Abeta-induced synaptotoxicity leading to memory dysfunction through a p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)-dependent pathway and provide a molecular basis for the benefits of caffeine consumption in AD.

  18. Chronic and acute adenosine A2A receptor blockade prevents long-term episodic memory disruption caused by acute cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Mouro, Francisco M; Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Coelho, Joana E; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Lopes, Luísa V; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M

    2017-05-01

    Cannabinoid-mediated memory impairment is a concern in cannabinoid-based therapies. Caffeine exacerbates cannabinoid CB 1 receptor (CB 1 R)-induced memory deficits through an adenosine A 1 receptor-mediated mechanism. We now evaluated how chronic or acute blockade of adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A Rs) affects long-term episodic memory deficits induced by a single injection of a selective CB 1 R agonist. Long-term episodic memory was assessed by the novel object recognition (NOR) test. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the CB 1 /CB 2 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (1 mg/kg) immediately after the NOR training, being tested for novelty recognition 24 h later. Anxiety levels were assessed by the Elevated Plus Maze test, immediately after the NOR. Mice were also tested for exploratory behaviour at the Open Field. For chronic A 2A R blockade, KW-6002 (istradefylline) (3 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 30 days; acute blockade of A 2A Rs was assessed by i.p. injection of SCH 58261 (1 mg/kg) administered either together with WIN 55,212-2 or only 30 min before the NOR test phase. The involvement of CB 1 Rs was assessed by using the CB 1 R antagonist, AM251 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). WIN 55,212-2 caused a disruption in NOR, an action absent in mice also receiving AM251, KW-6002 or SCH 58261 during the encoding/consolidation phase; SCH 58251 was ineffective if present during retrieval only. No effects were detected in the Elevated Plus maze or Open Field Test. The finding that CB 1 R-mediated memory disruption is prevented by antagonism of adenosine A 2A Rs, highlights a possibility to prevent cognitive side effects when therapeutic application of CB 1 R drugs is desired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Up-Regulation of Endothelin Type A Receptor in Human and Rat Radiation Proctitis: Preclinical Therapeutic Approach With Endothelin Receptor Blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Jullien, Nicolash; Blirando, Karl; Milliat, Fabien

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Rectum radiation damage and fibrosis are often associated with radiation therapy of pelvic tumors. The endothelin (ET) system has been implicated in several fibrotic diseases but never studied in the context of gastrointestinal radiation damage. This study assessed modifications in ET type 1 (ET-1), ET type A receptor (ET{sub A}), and ET type B receptor (ET{sub B}) localization and/or expression in irradiated human rectal tissue and in a rat model of delayed colorectal injury. We also evaluated the therapeutic potential of long-term ET receptor blockade. Methods and Materials: Routine histological studies of sections of healthy and radiation-injured human rectummore » tissue were done; the sections were also immunostained for ET{sub A} and ET{sub B} receptors. The rat model involved the delivery of 27 Gy in a single dose to the colons and rectums of the animals. The ET-1/ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} expression and ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} localization were studied at 10 weeks postexposure. The abilities of bosentan and atrasentan to protect against delayed rectal injury were also investigated. Results: The immunolocalization of ET{sub A} and ET{sub B} in healthy human rectums was similar to that in rat rectums. However, strong ET{sub A} immunostaining was seen in the presence of human radiation proctitis, and increased ET{sub A} mRNA levels were seen in the rat following colorectal irradiation. Immunostaining for ET{sub A} was also strongly positive in rats in areas of radiation-induced mucosal ulceration, atypia, and fibroproliferation. However, neither bosentan nor atrasentan prevented radiation damage to the rectum when given long term. The only effect seen for atrasentan was an increased number of sclerotic vessel sections in injured tissues. Conclusions: As the result of the overexpression of ET{sub A}, radiation exposure deregulates the endothelin system through an 'ET{sub A} profile' in the human and rodent rectum. However, therapeutic interventions involving

  20. Aortic remodeling after transverse aortic constriction in mice is attenuated with AT1 receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Geng, Liang; Prakash, Siddharth K; Cao, Jiu-Mei; Guo, Steven; Villamizar, Carlos; Kwartler, Callie S; Peters, Andrew M; Brasier, Allan R; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2013-09-01

    Although hypertension is the most common risk factor for thoracic aortic diseases, it is not understood how increased pressures on the ascending aorta lead to aortic aneurysms. We investigated the role of angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation in ascending aortic remodeling in response to increased biomechanical forces using a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) mouse model. Two weeks after TAC, the increased biomechanical pressures led to ascending aortic dilatation and thickening of the medial and adventitial layers of the aorta. There was significant adventitial hyperplasia and inflammatory responses in TAC ascending aortas were accompanied by increased adventitial collagen, elevated inflammatory and proliferative markers, and increased cell density attributable to accumulation of myofibroblasts and macrophages. Treatment with losartan significantly blocked TAC-induced vascular inflammation and macrophage accumulation. However, losartan only partially prevented TAC-induced adventitial hyperplasia, collagen accumulation, and ascending aortic dilatation. Increased Tgfb2 expression and phosphorylated-Smad2 staining in the medial layer of TAC ascending aortas were effectively blocked with losartan. In contrast, the increased Tgfb1 expression and adventitial phospho-Smad2 staining were only partially attenuated by losartan. In addition, losartan significantly blocked extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and reactive oxygen species production in the TAC ascending aorta. Inhibition of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor using losartan significantly attenuated the vascular remodeling associated with TAC but did not completely block the increased transforming growth factor-β1 expression, adventitial Smad2 signaling, and collagen accumulation. These results help to delineate the aortic transforming growth factor-β signaling that is dependent and independent of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor after TAC.

  1. Opposing effects of AMPA and 5-HT1A receptor blockade on passive avoidance and object recognition performance: correlation with AMPA receptor subunit expression in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Schiapparelli, L; Simón, A M; Del Río, J; Frechilla, D

    2006-06-01

    It has been suggested that antagonists at serotonin 5-HT1A receptors may exert a procognitive effect by facilitating glutamatergic neurotransmission. Here we further explored this issue by looking for the ability of a 5-HT1A antagonist to prevent the learning deficit induced by AMPA receptor blockade in two behavioural procedures in rats, and for concomitant molecular changes presumably involved in memory formation in the hippocampus. Pretraining administration of the competitive AMPA receptor antagonist, NBQX, produced a dose-related retention impairment in a passive avoidance task 24h later, and also impaired retention in a novel object recognition test when an intertrial interval of 3h was selected. Pretreatment with the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100635, prevented the learning deficit induced by NBQX in the two behavioural procedures. In biochemical studies performed on rat hippocampus after the retention tests, we found that learning increased the membrane levels of AMPA receptor GluR1 and GluR2/3 subunits, as well as the phosphorylated forms of GluR1, effects that were abolished by NBQX administration before the training session. Pretreatment with WAY-100635 counteracted the NBQX effects and restored the initial learning-specific increase in Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) function and the later increase in GluR2/3 and phosphorylated GluR1 surface expression. Moreover, administration of WAY-100635 before object recognition training improved recognition memory 24h later and potentiated the learning-associated increase in AMPA receptor subunits. The results support the proposed utility of 5-HT1A antagonists in the treatment of cognitive disorders.

  2. Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors recovers early deficits of memory and plasticity in the triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, António C; Lemos, Cristina; Gonçalves, Francisco Q; Pliássova, Anna V; Machado, Nuno J; Silva, Henrique B; Canas, Paula M; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Lopes, João Pedro; Agostinho, Paula

    2018-05-31

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins with a deficit of synaptic function and adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) are mostly located in synapses controlling synaptic plasticity. The over-activation of adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) causes memory deficits and the blockade of A 2A R prevents memory damage in AD models. We now enquired if this prophylactic role of A 2A R might be extended to a therapeutic potential. We used the triple transgenic model of AD (3xTg-AD) and defined that the onset of memory dysfunction occurred at 4 months of age in the absence of locomotor or emotional alterations. At the onset of memory deficits, 3xTg mice displayed a decreased density of markers of excitatory synapses (10.6 ± 3.8% decrease of vGluT1) without neuronal or glial overt damage and an increase of synaptic A 2A R in the hippocampus (130 ± 22%). After the onset of memory deficits in 3xTg-AD mice, a three weeks treatment with the selective A 2A R antagonist normalized the up-regulation of hippocampal A 2A R and restored hippocampal-dependent reference memory, as well as the decrease of hippocampal synaptic plasticity (60.0 ± 3.7% decrease of long-term potentiation amplitude) and the decrease of global (syntaxin-I) and glutamatergic synaptic markers (vGluT1). These findings show a therapeutic-like ability of A 2A R antagonists to recover synaptic and memory dysfunction in early AD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stretch-activated ion channel blockade attenuates adaptations to eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Timothy A; Best, Thomas M

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that stretch-activated ion channel (SAC) function is essential for the repeated bout effect (RBE) in skeletal muscle. Specifically, we investigated if daily injections of streptomycin (a known SAC blocker) would abrogate the muscle's adaptive resistance to the damaging effects of eccentric exercise over a 4-wk period. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the lack of an RBE would be due to the lack of functional adaptations that typically result from repeated bouts of eccentric exercise, including increased peak isometric torque, muscle hypertrophy, and rightward shift of the torque-angle relationship. Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were each subjected to 12 bouts of eccentric exercise over a 4-wk period while receiving either daily injections of streptomycin or sham injections. Although blocking the SAC function completely eliminated the expected adaptive response in biomechanical parameters during the exercise regimen, there remained evidence of an acquired RBE, albeit with an attenuated response when compared with the muscles with intact SAC function. Blocking sarcolemmal SAC eliminates functional adaptations of muscle after eccentric exercise. In the absence of SAC function, muscles subjected to chronic eccentric exercise still exhibit some degree of the RBE. As such, it appears that the signaling cascade that results in functional, biomechanical adaptations associated with the RBE during eccentric exercise is dependent upon intact SAC function.

  4. Systemic modulation of serotonergic synapses via reuptake blockade or 5HT1A receptor antagonism does not alter perithreshold taste sensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Clare M; Spector, Alan C

    2014-09-01

    Systemic blockade of serotonin (5HT) reuptake with paroxetine has been shown to increase sensitivity to sucrose and quinine in humans. Here, using a 2-response operant taste detection task, we measured the effect of paroxetine and the 5HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 on the ability of rats to discriminate sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid from water. After establishing individual psychometric functions, 5 concentrations of each taste stimulus were chosen to represent the dynamic portion of the concentration-response curve, and the performance of the rats to these stimuli was assessed after vehicle, paroxetine (7mg/kg intraperitoneally), and WAY100635 (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously; 1mg/kg intravenously) administration. Although, at times, overall performance across concentrations dropped, at most, 5% from vehicle to drug conditions, no differences relative to vehicle were seen on the parameters of the psychometric function (asymptote, slope, or EC50) after drug administration. In contrast to findings in humans, our results suggest that modulation of 5HT activity has little impact on sucrose detectability at perithreshold concentrations in rats, at least at the doses used in this task. In the rat model, the purported paracrine/neurocrine action of serotonin in the taste bud may work in a manner that does not impact overt taste detection behavior. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effects of a Proprietary Standardized Orthosiphon stamineus Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Enhancing Memory in Sprague Dawley Rats Possibly via Blockade of Adenosine A2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Yogendra; Choudhary, Vandana Kotak; Bommu, Praveen; Wong, Hoi Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore a propriety standardized ethanolic extract from leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth in improving impairments in short-term social memory in vivo, possibly via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). The ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves showed significant in vitro binding activity of A2AR with 74% inhibition at 150 μg/ml and significant A2AR antagonist activity with 98% inhibition at 300 μg/mL. A significant adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist activity with 100% inhibition was observed at 300 μg/mL. Its effect on learning and memory was assessed via social recognition task using Sprague Dawley rats whereby the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus showed significant (p < 0.001) change in recognition index (RI) at 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg p.o and 120 mg/kg i.p., respectively, compared to the vehicle control. In comparison, the ethanolic extract of Polygonum minus aerial parts showed small change in inflexion; however, it remained insignificant in RI at 200 mg/kg p.o. Our findings suggest that the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves improves memory by reversing age-related deficits in short-term social memory and the possible involvement of adenosine A1 and adenosine A2A as a target bioactivity site in the restoration of memory. PMID:26649059

  6. Recovery from ketamine-induced amnesia by blockade of GABA-A receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice.

    PubMed

    Farahmandfar, Maryam; Akbarabadi, Ardeshir; Bakhtazad, Atefeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-03-06

    Ketamine and other noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists are known to induce deficits in learning and cognitive performance sensitive to prefrontal cortex (PFC) functions. The interaction of a glutamatergic and GABAergic systems is essential for many cognitive behaviors. In order to understand the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glutamate interactions on learning and memory, we investigated the effects of intra medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) injections of GABAergic agents on ketamine-induced amnesia using a one-trial passive avoidance task in mice. Pre-training systemic administration of ketamine (5, 10 and 15mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently decreased the memory acquisition of a one-trial passive avoidance task. Pre-training intra-mPFC injection of muscimol, GABAA receptor agonist (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2μg/mouse) and baclofen GABAB receptor agonist (0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1μg/mouse), impaired memory acquisition. However, co-pretreatment of different doses of muscimol and baclofen with a lower dose of ketamine (5mg/kg), which did not induce amnesia by itself, caused inhibition of memory formation. Our data showed that sole pre-training administration of bicuculline, GABA-A receptor antagonist and phaclofen GABA-B receptor antagonist into the mPFC, did not affect memory acquisition. In addition, the amnesia induced by pre-training ketamine (15mg/kg) was significantly decreased by the pretreatment of bicuculline (0.005, 0.1 and 0.5μg/mouse). It can be concluded that GABAergic system of the mPFC is involved in the ketamine-induced impairment of memory acquisition. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. ABT-627, an endothelin ET(A) receptor-selective antagonist, attenuates tactile allodynia in a diabetic rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, M F; Wessale, J L; Zhu, C Z; Lynch, J J; Dayton, B D; Calzadilla, S V; Padley, R J; Opgenorth, T J; Kowaluk, E A

    2000-01-24

    of ABT-627 and A-192621 produced a significant, acute increase in tactile allodynia thresholds, this effect was significantly less than that produced by ABT-627 alone. These results indicate that the selective blockade of endothelin ET(A) receptors results in an attenuation of tactile allodynia in the streptozotocin-treated rat.

  8. Role of adenosine A{sub 2A} receptor signaling in the nicotine-evoked attenuation of reflex cardiac sympathetic control

    SciTech Connect

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M., E-mail: mahelm@hotmail.com; El-gowilly, Sahar M.; Fouda, Mohamed A.

    Baroreflex dysfunction contributes to increased cardiovascular risk in cigarette smokers. Given the importance of adenosinergic pathways in baroreflex control, the hypothesis was tested that defective central adenosinergic modulation of cardiac autonomic activity mediates the nicotine-baroreflex interaction. Baroreflex curves relating changes in heart rate (HR) to increases or decreases in blood pressure (BP) evoked by i.v. doses (1-16 {mu}g/kg) of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively, were constructed in conscious rats; slopes of the curves were taken as measures of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Nicotine (25 and 100 {mu}g/kg i.v.) dose-dependently reduced BRS{sub SNP} in contrast to no effect on BRS{submore » PE}. BRS{sub SNP} was also attenuated after intracisternal (i.c.) administration of nicotine. Similar reductions in BRS{sub SNP} were observed in rats pretreated with atropine or propranolol. The combined treatment with nicotine and atropine produced additive inhibitory effects on BRS, an effect that was not demonstrated upon concurrent exposure to nicotine and propranolol. BRS{sub SNP} was reduced in preparations treated with i.c. 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist), 8-(3-Chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC, A{sub 2A} antagonist), or VUF5574 (A{sub 3} antagonist). In contrast, BRS{sub SNP} was preserved after blockade of A{sub 1} (DPCPX) or A{sub 2B} (alloxazine) receptors or inhibition of adenosine uptake by dipyridamole. CSC or 8-PT abrogated the BRS{sub SNP} depressant effect of nicotine whereas other adenosinergic antagonists were without effect. Together, nicotine preferentially impairs reflex tachycardia via disruption of adenosine A{sub 2A} receptor-mediated facilitation of reflex cardiac sympathoexcitation. Clinically, the attenuation by nicotine of compensatory sympathoexcitation may be detrimental in conditions such as hypothalamic defense response, posture changes, and ventricular rhythms

  9. Endothelin-1-induced contraction of pulmonary arteries from endotoxemic rats is attenuated by the endothelin-A receptor antagonist, BQ123.

    PubMed

    Curzen, N P; Mitchell, J A; Jourdan, K B; Griffiths, M J; Evans, T W

    1996-12-01

    ) caused consecutive rightward shifts in the endothelin-1 concentration-contraction curves for all ring types, including the intact rings from endotoxemic animals. Sarafotoxin S6c failed to induce any direct constriction in rings from sham-treated or lipopolysaccharide-treated rats. However, sarafotoxin S6c induced transient vasodilation at the initial dose in rings from sham-treated rats but not lipopolysaccharide-treated rats-an effect that was attenuated by N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methylester. Acetylcholine induced an N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methylester-sensitive vasodilation that was reduced in rings from endotoxin-treated rats. Endothelin-A receptor blockade is an effective means of attenuating endothelin-1-induced contraction of isolated pulmonary artery rings, even from rats rendered endotoxemic. Endothelin-B receptors on the pulmonary artery cause vasodilation via the release of nitric oxide, and have no constrictor component. The functional effects of endothelin-B receptors on tone are lost after lipopolysaccharide treatment. The endothelium is involved in both the constrictor and dilator effects of endothelin in rat pulmonary artery, confirming a pivotal role for endothelial cells in the vascular response to sepsis.

  10. Increased ethanol preference and serotonin 1A receptor-dependent attenuation of ethanol-induced hypothermia in PACAP-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Kunishige-Yamamoto, Akiko; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Shintani, Norihito; Hayata, Atsuko; Baba, Akemichi

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-deficient mice display remarkable behavioral changes including increased novelty-seeking behavior and reduced hypothermia induced by either serotonin (5-HT)(1A) receptor agonists or ethanol. Because 5-HT(1A) receptors have been implicated in the development of alcohol dependence, we have examined ethanol preference in PACAP-deficient mice using a two-bottle choice and a conditioned place preference test, as well as additive effects of ethanol and 5-HT(1A) receptor agents on hypothermia. PACAP-deficient mice showed an increased preference towards ethanol compared with wild-type mice. However, they showed no preference for the ethanol compartment after conditioning and neither preference nor aversion to sucrose or quinine. The 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) restored the attenuated hypothermic response to ethanol in the mutants to similar levels in wild-type mice, with no effect in wild-types. In contrast, the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY-100635 attenuated the ethanol-induced hypothermia in wild-type mice, with no effect in the mutants. These results demonstrate increased ethanol preference in PACAP-deficient mice that may be mediated by 5-HT(1A) receptor-dependent attenuation of ethanol-induced central inhibition. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adenosine 2A Receptor Activation Attenuates Ischemia Reperfusion Injury During Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Mehaffey, James H; Money, Dustin; Charles, Eric J; Schubert, Sarah; Piñeros, Angela Fernandez; Wu, Di; Bontha, Sai Vineela; Hawkins, Robert; Teman, Nicholas R; Laubach, Victor E; Mas, Valeria R; Tribble, Curtis G; Maluf, Daniel G; Sharma, Ashish K; Yang, Zequan; Kron, Irving L; Roeser, Mark E

    2018-01-25

    We tested the hypothesis that systemic administration of an A2AR agonist will reduce multiorgan IRI in a porcine model of ECPR. Advances in ECPR have decreased mortality after cardiac arrest; however, subsequent IRI contributes to late multisystem organ failure. Attenuation of IRI has been reported with the use of an A2AR agonist. Adult swine underwent 20 minutes of circulatory arrest, induced by ventricular fibrillation, followed by 6 hours of reperfusion with ECPR. Animals were randomized to vehicle control, low-dose A2AR agonist, or high-dose A2AR agonist. A perfusion specialist using a goal-directed resuscitation protocol managed all the animals during the reperfusion period. Hourly blood, urine, and tissue samples were collected. Biochemical and microarray analyses were performed to identify differential inflammatory markers and gene expression between groups. Both the treatment groups demonstrated significantly higher percent reduction from peak lactate after reperfusion compared with vehicle controls. Control animals required significantly more fluid, epinephrine, and higher final pump flow while having lower urine output than both the treatment groups. The treatment groups had lower urine NGAL, an early marker of kidney injury (P = 0.01), lower plasma aspartate aminotransferase, and reduced rate of troponin rise (P = 0.01). Pro-inflammatory cytokines were lower while anti-inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in the treatment groups. Using a novel and clinically relevant porcine model of circulatory arrest and ECPR, we demonstrated that a selective A2AR agonist significantly attenuated systemic IRI and warrants clinical investigation.

  12. Blockade of dopamine D1-family receptors attenuates the mania-like hyperactive, risk-preferring, and high motivation behavioral profile of mice with low dopamine transporter levels.

    PubMed

    Milienne-Petiot, Morgane; Groenink, Lucianne; Minassian, Arpi; Young, Jared W

    2017-10-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder mania exhibit poor cognition, impulsivity, risk-taking, and goal-directed activity that negatively impact their quality of life. To date, existing treatments for bipolar disorder do not adequately remediate cognitive dysfunction. Reducing dopamine transporter expression recreates many bipolar disorder mania-relevant behaviors (i.e. hyperactivity and risk-taking). The current study investigated whether dopamine D 1 -family receptor blockade would attenuate the risk-taking, hypermotivation, and hyperactivity of dopamine transporter knockdown mice. Dopamine transporter knockdown and wild-type littermate mice were tested in mouse versions of the Iowa Gambling Task (risk-taking), Progressive Ratio Breakpoint Test (effortful motivation), and Behavioral Pattern Monitor (activity). Prior to testing, the mice were treated with the dopamine D 1 -family receptor antagonist SCH 23390 hydrochloride (0.03, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg), or vehicle. Dopamine transporter knockdown mice exhibited hyperactivity and hyperexploration, hypermotivation, and risk-taking preference compared with wild-type littermates. SCH 23390 hydrochloride treatment decreased premature responding in dopamine transporter knockdown mice and attenuated their hypermotivation. SCH 23390 hydrochloride flattened the safe/risk preference, while reducing activity and exploratory levels of both genotypes similarly. Dopamine transporter knockdown mice exhibited mania-relevant behavior compared to wild-type mice. Systemic dopamine D 1 -family receptor antagonism attenuated these behaviors in dopamine transporter knockdown, but not all effects were specific to only the knockdown mice. The normalization of behavior via blockade of dopamine D 1 -family receptors supports the hypothesis that D 1 and/or D 5 receptors could contribute to the mania-relevant behaviors of dopamine transporter knockdown mice.

  13. Auraptenol attenuates vincristine-induced mechanical hyperalgesia through serotonin 5-HT1A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunfei; Cao, Shu-e; Tian, Jianmin; Liu, Guozhe; Zhang, Xiaoran; Li, Pingfa

    2013-01-01

    Common chemotherapeutic agents such as vincristine often cause neuropathic pain during cancer treatment in patients. Such neuropathic pain is refractory to common analgesics and represents a challenging clinical issue. Angelicae dahuricae radix is an old traditional Chinese medicine with demonstrated analgesic efficacy in humans. However, the active component(s) that attribute to the analgesic action have not been identified. This work described the anti-hyperalgesic effect of one coumarin component, auraptenol, in a mouse model of chemotherapeutic agent vincristine-induced neuropathic pain. We reported that auraptenol dose-dependently reverted the mechanical hyperalgesia in mice within the dose range of 0.05–0.8 mg/kg. In addition, the anti-hyperalgesic effect of auraptenol was significantly blocked by a selective serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (1 mg/kg). Within the dose range studied, auraptenol did not significantly alter the general locomotor activity in mice. Taken together, this study for the first time identified an active component from the herbal medicine angelicae dahuricae radix that possesses robust analgesic efficacy in mice. These data support further studies to assess the potential of auraptenol as a novel analgesic for the management of neuropathic pain. PMID:24287473

  14. Clozapine blockade of MK-801-induced learning/memory impairment in the mEPM: Role of 5-HT1A receptors and hippocampal BDNF levels.

    PubMed

    López Hill, Ximena; Richeri, Analía; Scorza, María Cecilia

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) is highly prevalent and affects the overall functioning of patients. Clozapine (Clz), an atypical antipsychotic drug, significantly improves CIAS although the underlying mechanisms remain under study. The role of the 5-HT 1A receptor (5-HT 1A -R) in the ability of Clz to prevent the learning/memory impairment induced by MK-801 was investigated using the modified elevated plus-maze (mEPM) considering the Transfer latency (TL) as an index of spatial memory. We also investigated if changes in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels underlie the behavioral prevention induced by Clz. Clz (0.5 and 1mg/kg)- or vehicle-pretreated Wistar rats were injected with MK-801 (0.05mg/kg) or saline. TL was evaluated 35min later (TL1, acquisition session) while learning/memory performance was measured 24h (TL2, retention session) and 48h later (TL3, long-lasting effect). WAY-100635, a 5-HT 1A -R antagonist, was pre-injected (0.3mg/kg) to examine the presumed 5-HT 1A -R involvement in Clz action. At TL2, another experimental group treated with Clz and MK-801 and its respective control groups were added to measure BDNF protein levels by ELISA. TL1 and TL3 were not significantly modified by the different treatments. MK-801 increased TL2 compared to control group leading a disruption of spatial memory processing which was markedly attenuated by Clz. WAY-100635 suppressed this action supporting a relevant role of 5-HT 1A -R in the Clz mechanism of action to improve spatial memory dysfunction. Although a significant decrease of hippocampal BDNF levels underlies the learning/memory impairment induced by MK-801, this effect was not significantly prevented by Clz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adenosine A2A receptor deficiency attenuates the somnogenic effect of prostaglandin D2 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin-jia; Huang, Zhi-li; Chen, Jiang-fan; Urade, Yoshihiro; Qu, Wei-min

    2017-01-01

    Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is one of the most potent endogenous sleep promoting substances. PGD2 activates the PGD2 receptor (DPR) and increases the extracellular level of adenosine in wild-type (WT) mice but not DPR knockout (KO) mice, suggesting that PGD2-induced sleep is DPR-dependent, and adenosine may be the signaling molecule that mediates the somnogenic effect of PGD2. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) in PGD2-induced sleep. We infused PGD2 into the lateral ventricle of WT and A2AR KO mice between 20:00 and 2:00 for 6 h, and electroencephalograms and electromyograms were simultaneously recorded. In WT mice, PGD2 infusion dose-dependently increased non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) sleep, which was 139.1%, 145.0% and 202.7% as large as that of vehicle-treated mice at doses of 10, 20 and 50 pmol/min, respectively. PGD2 infusion at doses of 20 and 50 pmol/min also increased REM sleep during the 6-h PGD2 infusion and 4-h post-dosing periods in WT mice to 148.9% and 166.7%, respectively. In A2AR KO mice, however, PGD2 infusion at 10 pmol/min did not change the sleep profile, whereas higher doses at 20 and 50 pmol/min increased the NREM sleep during the 6-h PGD2 infusion to 117.5% and 155.6%, respectively, but did not change the sleep in the post-dosing period. Moreover, PGD2 infusion at 50 pmol/min significantly increased the episode number in both genotypes but only enhanced the episode duration in WT mice. The results demonstrate that PGD2-induced sleep in mice is mediated by both adenosine A2AR-dependent and -independent systems. PMID:28112177

  16. Renin-angiotensin system blockade alone or combined with ETA receptor blockade: effects on the course of chronic kidney disease in 5/6 nephrectomized Ren-2 transgenic hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sedláková, Lenka; Čertíková Chábová, Věra; Doleželová, Šárka; Škaroupková, Petra; Kopkan, Libor; Husková, Zuzana; Červenková, Lenka; Kikerlová, Soňa; Vaněčková, Ivana; Sadowski, Janusz; Kompanowska-Jezierska, Elzbieta; Kujal, Petr; Kramer, Herbert J; Červenka, Luděk

    2017-01-01

    Early addition of endothelin (ET) type A (ET A ) receptor blockade to complex renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade has previously been shown to provide better renoprotection against progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Ren-2 transgenic hypertensive rats (TGR) after 5/6 renal ablation (5/6 NX). In this study, we examined if additional protection is provided when ET A blockade is applied in rats with already developed CKD. For complex RAS inhibition, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor along with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker was used. Alternatively, ET A receptor blocker was added to the RAS blockade. The treatments were initiated 6 weeks after 5/6 NX and the follow-up period was 50 weeks. When applied in established CKD, addition of ET A receptor blockade to the complex RAS blockade brought no further improvement of the survival rate (30% in both groups); surprisingly, aggravated albuminuria (588 ± 47 vs. 245 ± 38 mg/24 h, p < 0.05) did not reduce renal glomerular injury index (1.25 ± 0.29 vs. 1.44 ± 0.26), did not prevent the decrease in creatinine clearance (203 ± 21 vs. 253 ± 17 µl/min/100 g body weight), and did not attenuate cardiac hypertrophy to a greater extent than observed in 5/6 NX TGR treated with complex RAS blockade alone. When applied in the advanced phase of CKD, addition of ET A receptor blockade to the complex RAS blockade brings no further beneficial renoprotective effects on the CKD progression in 5/6 NX TGR, in addition to those seen with RAS blockade alone.

  17. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade attenuates growth and metastatic potential of renal cell carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Wedson F; Naves, Marcelo A; Ravanini, Juliana N; Schor, Nestor; Teixeira, Vicente P C

    2015-09-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most frequent type of cancer among renal neoplasms in adults and responds poorly to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. There is evidence that blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) might have antineoplastic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RAS blockade on RCC in a murine model. Murine renal cancer cells (Renca) were injected (1 × 10(5)) into the subcapsular space of the left kidney of BALB/c mice (8 wk of age). The animals were divided into 4 groups: a control group (no treatment), angiotensin-receptor blockers group (losartan 100mg/kg/d), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group (captopril 10mg/kg/d), and angiotensin-receptor blockers +angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group (losartan 100mg/kg/d +captopril 10mg/kg/d). The animals received the drugs by gavage for 21 days after inoculation, beginning 2 days before tumor induction, and were then euthanized. After killing the animals, the kidneys and lungs were removed, weighed, and processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Angiogenesis and vascular microvessels were assessed with the antibodies anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and anti-CD34. Angiotensin II-inoculated animals developed renal tumors. Treated animals presented smaller tumors, regardless of the therapeutic regimen, and far fewer lung metastases in both quantity and dimension compared with the controls. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and CD34 were significantly decreased in renal tumors of treated animals compared with the controls. Our findings suggest that blockade of RAS decreases tumor proliferation and metastatic capacity of RCC in this experimental model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Attenuation of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury by specific α-2a receptor activation with dexmedetomidine.

    PubMed

    Bell, Marshall T; Puskas, Ferenc; Smith, Phillip D; Agoston, Viktor A; Fullerton, David A; Meng, Xianzhong; Weyant, Michael J; Reece, T Brett

    2012-11-01

    Despite surgical adjuncts, paralysis remains a devastating complication after thoracoabdominal aortic interventions. Dexmedetomidine, a selective α-2a agonist commonly used for sedation in the critical care setting, has been shown to have protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion injuries in multiple organ systems. We hypothesized that treatment with dexmedetomidine would attenuate spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury via α-2a receptor activation. Adult C57BL/6 mice underwent sternotomy, followed by occlusion of the aortic arch for 4 minutes. Eight experimental mice received pretreatment with intraperitoneal dexmedetomidine (25 μg/kg) and at 12-hour intervals after reperfusion. Eight control mice received an equivalent amount of 0.9% normal saline. Five mice underwent the same procedure with dexmedetomidine (25 μg/kg) and atipamezole (250 μg/kg), an α-2a receptor antagonist. Functional analysis of the mice was obtained at 12-hour intervals and scored using the Basso Mouse Scale for Locomotion until 60 hours. All mice were euthanized at 60 hours. Their spinal cords were removed en bloc and were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to assess cytoarchitecture and neuronal viability. Mice treated with the α-2a agonist demonstrated preserved motor function compared with ischemic controls and with mice treated with the α-2a antagonist in addition to the agonist. Functional differences in the dexmedetomidine group were statistically significant from 24 hours through the remainder of the experiment (P < .05). In addition, the treated mice had preserved cytoarchitecture, decreased vacuolization, and improved neuronal viability compared with ischemic control mice and mice concurrently treated with atipamezole, the dexmedetomidine α-2a antagonist. Treatment of mice with the α-2a agonist dexmedetomidine preserves motor function and neuronal viability after aortic cross-clamping. In addition, mice exhibited almost complete reversal of the protective effect with

  19. Genetic Inactivation of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Attenuates Pathologic but Not Developmental Angiogenesis in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Ling; Zhou, Rong; Pan, Qi-Qi; Jia, Xiao-Lin; Gao, Wei-Na; Wu, Jun; Lin, Jing; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) modulates normal vascularization and pathologic angiogenesis in many tissues and may contribute to the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) characterized by abnormal retinal vascularization in surviving premature infants. Here, the authors studied the effects of the genetic inactivation of A2AR on normal retinal vascularization and the development of pathologic angiogenesis in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), an animal model of ROP. Methods. After exposure to 75% oxygen for 5 days (postnatal day [P] 7–P12) and subsequently to room air for the next 9 days (P13–P21), we evaluated retinal vascular morphology by ADPase staining in retinal whole mounts, retinal neovascularization response by histochemistry in serial retinal sections, and retinal VEGF gene expression by real-time PCR analysis in A2AR knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Results. At P17, A2AR KO mice displayed attenuated OIR compared with WT littermates, as evidenced by reduced vaso-obliteration and areas of nonperfusion in the center of the retina, reduced pathologic angiogenesis as evident by decreased non-ganglion cells and neovascular nuclei, and inhibited hypoxia-induced retinal VEGF gene expression. Notably, the attenuation of pathologic angiogenesis by A2AR inactivation was selective for OIR because it did not affect normal retinal vascularization during postnatal development. Conclusions. These findings provide the first evidence that A2AR is critical for the development of OIR and suggest a novel therapeutic approach of A2AR inactivation for ROP by selectively targeting pathologic but not developmental angiogenesis in the retina. PMID:20610844

  20. Novel fused oxazepino-indoles (FOIs) attenuate liver carcinogenesis via IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling blockade as evidenced through data-based mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok K; Bhadauria, Archana Singh; Kumar, Umesh; Raj, Vinit; Maurya, Vimal; Kumar, Dinesh; Maity, Biswanath; Prakash, Anand; De, Arnab; Samanta, Amalesh; Saha, Sudipta

    2018-05-15

    To potentiate the well-documented tumor protecting ability of paullones, literatures demand for rational modifications in paullone ring structure and exploration of a precise mechanism underlying their antitumor effects. Thus, recently we synthesized novel paullone-like scaffold, 5H-benzo [2, 3][1,4]oxazepino[5,6-b]indoles, where compounds 13a and 14a attenuated the growth of liver cancer specific Hep-G2 cells in vitro and formed stable binding complex with IL-6. Henceforth, we hypothesized that this action is probably due to the blockade of IL-6 mediated JAK2/STAT3 signaling cascade. A preclinical study was conducted using NDEA-induced HCC rat model by oral administration of FOIs at 10 mg/kg dose for 15 days. The molecular insights were confirmed through ELISA, qRT-PCR, western blot analyses. The study was further confirmed by data-based mathematical modeling using the quantitative data obtained from western blot analysis. 1 H NMR based metabolomics study was also performed to unveil metabolite discriminations among various studied groups. We identified that the HCC condition was produced due to the IL-6 induced activation of JAK2 and STAT3 which, in turn, was due to enhanced phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3. The treatment with FOIs led to the significant blockade of the IL-6 mediated JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Besides, FOIs showed their potential ability in restoring perturbed metabolites linked to HCC. In particular, the anticancer efficacy of compound 13a was comparable or somewhat better than marketed chemotherapeutics, 5-flurouracil. These findings altogether opened up possibilities of developing fused oxazepino-indoles (FOIs) as new candidate molecule for plausible alternative of paullones to treat liver cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lithium attenuated the behavioral despair induced by acute neurogenic stress through blockade of opioid receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Khaloo, Pegah; Sadeghi, Banafshe; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Zolfagharie, Samira; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder is disease with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Stressful events lead to depression and they can be used as a model of depression in rodents. In this study we aimed to investigate whether lithium modifies the stressed-induced depression through blockade of opioid receptors in mice. We used foot shock stress as stressor and forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT) to evaluation the behavioral responses in mice. We also used naltrexone hydrochloride (as opioid receptor antagonist), and morphine (as opioid receptor agonist). Our results displayed that foot-shock stress significantly increased the immobility time in TST and FST but it could not change the locomotor behavior in OFT. When we combined the low concentrations of lithium and naltrexone a significant reduction in immobility time was seen in the FST and TST in comparison with control foot-shock stressed group administered saline only. Despite the fact that our data showed low concentrations of lithium, when administered independently did not significantly affect the immobility time. Also our data indicated that concurrent administration of lithium and naltrexone had no effect on open field test. Further we demonstrated that simultaneous administration of morphine and lithium reverses the antidepressant like effect of active doses of lithium. Our data acclaimed that we lithium can augment stressed-induced depression and opioid pathways are involved in this action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Therapeutic blockade of LIGHT interaction with HVEM and LTβR attenuates in vivo cytotoxic allogeneic responses

    PubMed Central

    del Rio, Maria-Luisa; Fernandez-Renedo, Carlos; Scheu, Stefanie; Pfeffer, Klaus; Shintani, Yasushi; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Chaloin, Olivier; Schneider, Pascal; Rodriguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Background TNF/TNFR superfamily members conform a group of molecular interaction pathways of essential relevance during the process of T cell activation and differentiation towards effector cells and particularly for the maintenance phase of the immune response. Specific blockade of these interacting pathways, such as CD40/CD40L, contributes to modulate the deleterious outcome of allogeneic immune responses. We postulated that antagonizing the interaction of LIGHT expression on activated T cells with its receptors, HVEM and LTβR may decrease T cell-mediated allogeneic responses. Methods A flow cytometry competition assay was designed to identify anti-LIGHT monoclonal antibodies capable to prevent the interaction of mouse LIGHT with its receptors expressed on transfected cells. An antibody with the desired specificity was evaluated in a short-term in vivo allogeneic cytotoxic assay and tested for its ability to detect endogenous mouse LIGHT. Results We provide evidence for the first time that in mice, as previously described in humans, LIGHT protein is rapidly and transiently expressed after T cell activation, and this expression was stronger on CD8 T cells than on CD4 T cells. Two anti-LIGHT antibodies prevented interactions of mouse LIGHT with its two known receptors HVEM and LTβR. In vivo administration of anti-LIGHT antibody (clone 10F12) ameliorated host anti-donor short-term cytotoxic response in WT B6 mice, although to a lesser extent than that observed in LIGHT-deficient mice. Conclusions The therapeutic targeting of LIGHT may contribute to achieve a better control of cytotoxic responses refractory to current immunosuppressive drugs in transplantation. PMID:25226173

  3. Escitalopram attenuates β-amyloid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wei-Gang; Wu, Di; Tang, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Li; Wu, Fang-Fang; Bai, Feng; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Tau hyperphosphorylation is an important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether escitalopram could inhibit amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and the underlying mechanisms, we treated the rat primary hippocampal neurons with Aβ1-42 and examined the effect of escitalopram on tau hyperphosphorylation. Results showed that escitalopram decreased Aβ1–42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. In addition, escitalopram activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway, and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Moreover, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway and decreased Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. Furthermore, the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 blocked the activation of Akt/GSK-3β pathway and the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Finally, escitalopram improved Aβ1–42 induced impairment of neurite outgrowth and spine density, and reversed Aβ1–42 induced reduction of synaptic proteins. Our results demonstrated that escitalopram attenuated Aβ1–42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway. PMID:26950279

  4. Escitalopram attenuates β-amyloid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Juan; Ren, Qing-Guo; Gong, Wei-Gang; Wu, Di; Tang, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Li; Wu, Fang-Fang; Bai, Feng; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2016-03-22

    Tau hyperphosphorylation is an important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether escitalopram could inhibit amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and the underlying mechanisms, we treated the rat primary hippocampal neurons with Aβ1-42 and examined the effect of escitalopram on tau hyperphosphorylation. Results showed that escitalopram decreased Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. In addition, escitalopram activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway, and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Moreover, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway and decreased Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. Furthermore, the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 blocked the activation of Akt/GSK-3β pathway and the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Finally, escitalopram improved Aβ1-42 induced impairment of neurite outgrowth and spine density, and reversed Aβ1-42 induced reduction of synaptic proteins. Our results demonstrated that escitalopram attenuated Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway.

  5. L-type calcium channel blockade attenuates morphine withdrawal: in vivo interaction between L-type calcium channels and corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Fathi, Yadollah; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2008-02-01

    Both opioids and calcium channel blockers could affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Nifedipine, as a calcium channel blocker, can attenuate the development of morphine dependence; however, the role of the HPA axis in this effect has not been elucidated. We examined the effect of nifedipine on the induction of morphine dependency in intact and adrenalectomized (ADX) male rats, as assessed by the naloxone precipitation test. We also evaluated the effect of this drug on HPA activity induced by naloxone. Our results showed that despite the demonstration of dependence in both groups of rats, nifedipine is more effective in preventing of withdrawal signs in ADX rats than in sham-operated rats. In groups that received morphine and nifedipine concomitantly, naloxone-induced corticosterone secretion was attenuated. Thus, we have shown the involvement of the HPA axis in the effect of nifedipine on the development of morphine dependency and additionally demonstrated an in vivo interaction between the L-type Ca2+ channels and corticosterone.

  6. Blockade of GABA, type A, receptors in the rat pontine reticular formation induces rapid eye movement sleep that is dependent upon the cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Marks, G A; Sachs, O W; Birabil, C G

    2008-09-22

    The brainstem reticular formation is an area important to the control of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The antagonist of GABA-type A (GABA(A)) receptors, bicuculline methiodide (BMI), injected into the rat nucleus pontis oralis (PnO) of the reticular formation resulted in a long-lasting increase in REM sleep. Thus, one factor controlling REM sleep appears to be the number of functional GABA(A) receptors in the PnO. The long-lasting effect produced by BMI may result from secondary influences on other neurotransmitter systems known to have long-lasting effects. To study this question, rats were surgically prepared for chronic sleep recording and additionally implanted with guide cannulas aimed at sites in the PnO. Multiple, 60 nl, unilateral injections were made either singly or in combination. GABA(A) receptor antagonists, BMI and gabazine (GBZ), produced dose-dependent increases in REM sleep with GBZ being approximately 35 times more potent than BMI. GBZ and the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, produced very similar results, both increasing REM sleep for about 8 h, mainly through increased period frequency, with little reduction in REM latency. Pre-injection of the muscarinic antagonist, atropine, completely blocked the REM sleep-increase by GBZ. GABAergic control of REM sleep in the PnO requires the cholinergic system and may be acting through presynaptic modulation of acetylcholine release.

  7. An immunocapture/scintillation proximity analysis of G alpha q/11 activation by native serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors in rat cortex: blockade by clozapine and mirtazapine.

    PubMed

    Mannoury La Cour, C; Chaput, C; Touzard, M; Millan, M J

    2009-02-01

    Though transduction mechanisms recruited by heterologously expressed 5-HT(2A) receptors have been extensively studied, their interaction with specific subtypes of G-protein remains to be directly evaluated in cerebral tissue. Herein, as shown by an immunocapture/scintillation proximity analysis, 5-HT, the prototypical 5-HT(2A) agonist, DOI, and Ro60,0175 all enhanced [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding to G alpha q/11 in rat cortex with pEC(50) values of 6.22, 7.24 and 6.35, respectively. No activation of G o or G s/olf was seen at equivalent concentrations of DOI. Stimulation of G alpha q/11 by 5-HT (30 microM) and DOI (30 microM) was abolished by the selective 5-HT(2A) vs. 5-HT(2C)/5-HT(2B) antagonists, ketanserin (pK(B) values of 9.11 and 8.88, respectively) and MDL100,907 (9.82 and 9.68). By contrast, 5-HT-induced [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding to G alpha q/11 was only weakly inhibited by the preferential 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonists, RS102,221 (6.94) and SB242,084 (7.39), and the preferential 5-HT(2B) receptor antagonist, LY266,097 (6.66). The antipsychotic, clozapine, which had marked affinity for 5-HT(2A) receptors, blocked the recruitment of G alpha q/11 by 5-HT and DOI with pK(B) values of 8.54 and 8.14, respectively. Its actions were mimicked by the "atypical" antidepressant and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, mirtazapine, which likewise blocked 5-HT and DOI-induced G alpha q/11 protein activation with pK(B) values of 7.90 and 7.76, respectively. In conclusion, by use of an immunocapture/scintillation proximity strategy, this study shows that native 5-HT(2A) receptors in rat frontal cortex specifically recruit G alpha q/11 and that this action is blocked by clozapine and mirtazapine. Quantification of 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated G alpha q/11 activation in frontal cortex should prove instructive in characterizing the actions of diverse classes of psychotropic agent. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of substance P (NK(1)) receptors attenuates neonatal vocalisation in guinea-pigs and mice.

    PubMed

    Rupniak, N M; Carlson, E C; Harrison, T; Oates, B; Seward, E; Owen, S; de Felipe, C; Hunt, S; Wheeldon, A

    2000-06-08

    The regulation of stress-induced vocalisations by central NK(1) receptors was investigated using pharmacological antagonists in guinea-pigs, a species with human-like NK(1) receptors, and transgenic NK1R-/- mice. In guinea-pigs, i.c.v. infusion of the selective substance P agonist GR73632 (0.1 nmol) elicited a pronounced vocalisation response that was blocked enantioselectively by the NK(1) receptor antagonists CP-99,994 and L-733,060 (0.1-10 mg/kg). GR73632-induced vocalisations were also markedly attenuated by the antidepressant drugs imipramine and fluoxetine (30 mg/kg), but not by the benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam (3 mg/kg) or the 5-HT(1A) agonist buspirone (10 mg/kg). Similarly, vocalisations in guinea-pig pups separated from their mothers were blocked enantioselectively by the highly brain-penetrant NK(1) receptor antagonists L-733,060 and GR205171 (ID(50) 3 mg/kg), but not by the poorly brain-penetrant compounds LY303870 and CGP49823 (30 mg/kg). Separation-induced vocalisations were also blocked by the anxiolytic drugs diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and buspirone (ID(50) 0.5-1 mg/kg), and by the antidepressant drugs phenelzine, imipramine, fluoxetine and venlafaxine (ID(50) 3-8 mg/kg). In normal mouse pups, GR205171 attenuated neonatal vocalisations when administered at a high dose (30 mg/kg) only, consistent with its lower affinity for the rat than the guinea-pig NK(1) receptor. Ultrasound calls in NK1R-/- mouse pups were markedly reduced compared with those in WT pups, confirming the specific involvement of NK(1) receptors in the regulation of vocalisation. These observations suggest that centrally-acting NK(1) receptor antagonists may have clinical utility in the treatment of a range of anxiety and mood disorders.

  9. Orthopedic surgery and bone fracture pain are both significantly attenuated by sustained blockade of nerve growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Majuta, Lisa A.; Longo, Geraldine; Fealk, Michelle N.; McCaffrey, Gwen; Mantyh, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    The number of patients suffering from postoperative pain due to orthopedic surgery and bone fracture is projected to dramatically increase because the human life span, weight, and involvement in high-activity sports continue to rise worldwide. Joint replacement or bone fracture frequently results in skeletal pain that needs to be adequately controlled for the patient to fully participate in needed physical rehabilitation. Currently, the 2 major therapies used to control skeletal pain are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates, both of which have significant unwanted side effects. To assess the efficacy of novel therapies, mouse models of orthopedic and fracture pain were developed and evaluated here. These models, orthopedic surgery pain and bone fracture pain, resulted in skeletal pain–related behaviors that lasted 3 weeks and 8 to 10 weeks, respectively. These skeletal pain behaviors included spontaneous and palpation-induced nocifensive behaviors, dynamic weight bearing, limb use, and voluntary mechanical loading of the injured hind limb. Administration of anti–nerve growth factor before orthopedic surgery or after bone fracture attenuated skeletal pain behaviors by 40% to 70% depending on the end point being assessed. These data suggest that nerve growth factor is involved in driving pain due to orthopedic surgery or bone fracture. These animal models may be useful in developing an understanding of the mechanisms that drive postoperative orthopedic and bone fracture pain and the development of novel therapies to treat these skeletal pains. PMID:25599311

  10. Pharmacological blockade of the cold receptor TRPM8 attenuates autonomic and behavioral cold defenses and decreases deep body temperature

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, M. Camila; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Soriano, Renato N.; Rao, Sara; Wang, Weiya; Wang, Judy; Tamayo, Nuria; Oliveira, Daniela L.; Nucci, Tatiane B.; Aryal, Prafulla; Garami, Andras; Bautista, Diana; Gavva, Narender R.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.

    2012-01-01

    We studied M8-B, a selective and potent antagonist of the transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8) channel. In vitro, M8-B blocked cold-induced and TRPM8-agonist-induced activation of rat, human, and murine TRPM8 channels, including those on primary sensory neurons. In vivo, M8-B decreased deep body temperature (Tb) in Trpm8+/+ mice and rats, but not in Trpm8−/− mice, thus suggesting an on-target action. The intravenous administration of M8-B was more effective in decreasing Tb in rats than the intrathecal or intracerebroventricular administration, indicating a peripheral action. M8-B attenuated cold-induced c-Fos expression in the lateral parabrachial nucleus, thus indicating a site of action within the cutaneous cooling neural pathway to thermoeffectors, presumably on sensory neurons. A low intravenous dose of M8-B did not affect Tb at either a constantly high or a constantly low ambient temperature (Ta), but the same dose readily decreased Tb if rats were kept at a high Ta during the M8-B infusion and transferred to a low Ta immediately thereafter. These data suggest that both a successful delivery of M8-B to the skin (high cutaneous perfusion) and the activation of cutaneous TRPM8 channels (by cold) are required for the hypothermic action of M8-B. At tail skin temperatures < 23°C, the magnitude of the M8-B-induced decrease in Tb was inversely related to skin temperature, thus suggesting that M8-B blocks thermal (cold) activation of TRPM8. M8-B affected all thermoeffectors studied (thermopreferendum, tail skin vasoconstriction, and brown fat thermogenesis), thus suggesting that TRPM8 is a universal cold receptor in the thermoregulation system. PMID:22323721

  11. Cannabidiol attenuates haloperidol-induced catalepsy and c-Fos protein expression in the dorsolateral striatum via 5-HT1A receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Sonego, Andreza B; Gomes, Felipe V; Del Bel, Elaine A; Guimaraes, Francisco S

    2016-08-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-psychoactive compound from Cannabis sativa plant. Given that CBD reduces psychotic symptoms without inducing extrapyramidal motor side-effects in animal models and schizophrenia patients, it has been proposed to act as an atypical antipsychotic. In addition, CBD reduced catalepsy induced by drugs with distinct pharmacological mechanisms, including the typical antipsychotic haloperidol. To further investigate this latter effect, we tested whether CBD (15-60mg/kg) would attenuate the catalepsy and c-Fos protein expression in the dorsal striatum induced by haloperidol (0.6mg/kg). We also evaluated if these effects occur through the facilitation of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission. For this, male Swiss mice were treated with CBD and haloperidol systemically and then subjected to the catalepsy test. Independent groups of animals were also treated with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.1mg/kg). As expected, haloperidol induced catalepsy throughout the experiments, an effect that was prevented by systemic CBD treatment 30min before haloperidol administration. Also, CBD, administered 2.5h after haloperidol, reversed haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Haloperidol also increased c-Fos protein expression in the dorsolateral striatum, an effect attenuated by previous CBD administration. CBD effects on catalepsy and c-Fos protein expression induced by haloperidol were blocked by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. We also evaluated the effects of CBD (60nmol) injection into the dorsal striatum on haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Similar to systemic administration, this treatment reduced catalepsy induced by haloperidol. Altogether, these results suggest that CBD acts in the dorsal striatum to improve haloperidol-induced catalepsy via postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuates stress-induced anorexia in conjunction with the suppression of hypothalamic serotonin release in rats.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, N; Hori, T; Ogino, C; Kawanishi, T; Hayashi, Y

    2000-12-22

    The effect of the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) on stress-induced anorexia and serotonin (5-HT) release in the rat hypothalamus was studied with brain microdialysis. Subcutaneous injection of 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the immobilization-induced anorexia for 3 h, but had no effect during the following 9 h. Injection of 8-OH-DPAT itself had no effect on basal release of 5-HT, while it significantly blocked the immobilization-induced 5-HT release in the lateral hypothalamus. The results suggest that 8-OH-DPAT attenuated the stress-induced anorexia through the activation of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors in dorsal raphe nucleus.

  13. Regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) promotes anxiety and depression by attenuating serotonin-mediated activation of the 5-HT1A receptor-adenylyl cyclase axis

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Adele; Maity, Biswanath; Wunsch, Amanda M.; Meng, Fantao; Wu, Qi; Wemmie, John A.; Fisher, Rory A.

    2014-01-01

    Targeting serotonin (5-HT) bioavailability with selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) remains the most widely used treatment for mood disorders. However, their limited efficacy, delayed onset of action, and side effects restrict their clinical utility. Endogenous regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins have been implicated as key inhibitors of 5-HT1ARs, whose activation is believed to underlie the beneficial effects of SSRIs, but the identity of the specific RGS proteins involved remains unknown. We identify RGS6 as the critical negative regulator of 5-HT1AR-dependent antidepressant actions. RGS6 is enriched in hippocampal and cortical neurons, 5-HT1AR-expressing cells implicated in mood disorders. RGS6−/− mice exhibit spontaneous anxiolytic and antidepressant behavior rapidly and completely reversibly by 5-HT1AR blockade. Effects of the SSRI fluvoxamine and 5-HT1AR agonist 8-OH-DPAT were also potentiated in RGS6+/− mice. The phenotype of RGS6−/− mice was associated with decreased CREB phosphorylation in the hippocampus and cortex, implicating enhanced Gαi-dependent adenylyl cyclase inhibition as a possible causative factor in the behavior observed in RGS6−/− animals. Our results demonstrate that by inhibiting serotonergic innervation of the cortical-limbic neuronal circuit, RGS6 exerts powerful anxiogenic and prodepressant actions. These findings indicate that RGS6 inhibition may represent a viable means to treat mood disorders or enhance the efficacy of serotonergic agents.—Stewart, A., Maity, B., Wunsch, A. M., Meng, F., Wu, Q., Wemmie, J. A., Fisher, R. A. Regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) promotes anxiety and depression by attenuating serotonin-mediated activation of the 5-HT1A receptor-adenylyl cyclase axis. PMID:24421401

  14. Activation of microglial cells triggers a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inducing their proliferation in an adenosine A2A receptor-dependent manner: A2A receptor blockade prevents BDNF release and proliferation of microglia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to control microglial responses in neuropathic pain. Since adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) control neuroinflammation, as well as the production and function of BDNF, we tested to see if A2AR controls the microglia-dependent secretion of BDNF and the proliferation of microglial cells, a crucial event in neuroinflammation. Methods Murine N9 microglial cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL) in the absence or in the presence of the A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM), as well as other modulators of A2AR signaling. The BDNF cellular content and secretion were quantified by Western blotting and ELISA, A2AR density was probed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry and cell proliferation was assessed by BrdU incorporation. Additionally, the A2AR modulation of LPS-driven cell proliferation was also tested in primary cultures of mouse microglia. Results LPS induced time-dependent changes of the intra- and extracellular levels of BDNF and increased microglial proliferation. The maximal LPS-induced BDNF release was time-coincident with an LPS-induced increase of the A2AR density. Notably, removing endogenous extracellular adenosine or blocking A2AR prevented the LPS-mediated increase of both BDNF secretion and proliferation, as well as exogenous BDNF-induced proliferation. Conclusions We conclude that A2AR activation plays a mandatory role controlling the release of BDNF from activated microglia, as well as the autocrine/paracrine proliferative role of BDNF. PMID:23363775

  15. Actions of novel antipsychotic agents on apomorphine-induced PPI disruption: influence of combined serotonin 5-HT1A receptor activation and dopamine D2 receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Agnès L; Kleven, Mark S; Besnard, Joël; Depoortère, Ronan; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2006-09-01

    The dopamine D1/D2 agonist apomorphine (0.63 mg/kg) disrupted prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle in rats, a model of sensorimotor gating deficits observed in schizophrenia. All current antipsychotics, which antagonize D2 receptors, prevent this apomorphine-induced deficit. A novel class of antipsychotics possesses, in addition to D2 antagonist property, various levels of 5-HT1A agonist activity. Considering that the latter itself produces PPI deficits, it appeared necessary to assess the potential of this novel class of antipsychotics to reverse apomorphine-PPI deficits. Potent D2 antagonists, like haloperidol (0.63-2.5 mg/kg), risperidone (0.63-10 mg/kg), and olanzapine (0.63-40 mg/kg) prevented apomorphine PPI disruption. The atypical antipsychotics, clozapine (40 mg/kg), nemonapride (0.01-2.5 mg/kg), ziprasidone (10 mg/kg), and aripiprazole (0.01 and 10 mg/kg), which all exhibit 5-HT1A agonist properties, reversed PPI deficits at some doses only, whereas the anti-dyskinetic agent sarizotan (0.16-10 mg/kg), an efficacious 5-HT1A agonist, did not. New generation antipsychotics with marked 5-HT1A agonist properties, such as SLV313 and SSR181507 (0.0025-10 mg/kg and 0.16-10 mg/kg, respectively) did not reverse these deficits whereas bifeprunox (0.04-2.5 mg/kg) did. To reveal the contribution of 5-HT1A agonist properties in the lack of effects of SLV313 and SSR181507, we pretreated rats with the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635 (0.63 mg/kg). Under these conditions, significant reversal of PPI deficit was observed, indicating that D2 antagonist properties of SLV313 and SSR181507 are now sufficient to overcome the disruptive effects of apomorphine. To summarize, antipsychotics possessing agonist efficacy at 5-HT1A receptors exhibit diverse profiles against apomorphine-induced PPI deficits, depending on the balance between D2 and 5-HT1A activities, suggesting that they may display distinct activity on some aspects of gating deficits in schizophrenic patients.

  16. Repeated adolescent 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) exposure in rats attenuates the effects of a subsequent challenge with MDMA or a 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Piper, Brian J; Vu, Huyen L; Safain, Mina G; Oliver, Andrew J; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2006-05-01

    Adolescent users of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) may escalate their dose because of the development of tolerance. We examined the influence of intermittent adolescent MDMA exposure on the behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical responses to a subsequent MDMA "binge" or to a 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) (5-HT(1A)) receptor challenge. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given MDMA (10 mg/kg b.i.d.) or saline every 5th day on postnatal days (PDs) 35 to 60. One week later on PD 67, animals were challenged with either multiple doses of MDMA (four 5 or 10 mg/kg doses) or a single dose of the 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg). Adolescent MDMA exposure partially attenuated the hyperthermic effects of the PD 67 MDMA challenge, completely blocked the locomotor hypoactivity otherwise observed on the day after the challenge, and also prevented MDMA-induced serotonin neurotoxicity assessed on PD 74 by measuring regional [(3)H]citalopram binding to the serotonin transporter (SERT). Adolescent MDMA-treated animals also showed a partial attenuation of the serotonin syndrome but not the hypothermic response to the high dose of 8-OH-DPAT. However, there was no effect of MDMA administration on regional [(3)H]N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide trihydrochloride (WAY-100635) binding to 5-HT(1A) receptors in the brain or spinal cord. These results suggest that chronic, intermittent MDMA exposure during adolescence induces neuroadaptive changes that can protect against the adverse consequences of a subsequent dose escalation. On the other hand, the same exposure pattern appears to produce a partial 5-HT(1A) receptor desensitization, which may negatively influence the therapeutic responses of chronic MDMA users treated with serotonergic agents for various affective or anxiety disorders.

  17. Selective CD28 blockade attenuates CTLA-4–dependent CD8+ memory T cell effector function and prolongs graft survival

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Danya; Badell, I. Raul; Ford, Mandy L.

    2018-01-01

    Memory T cells pose a significant problem to successful therapeutic control of unwanted immune responses during autoimmunity and transplantation, as they are differentially controlled by cosignaling receptors such as CD28 and CTLA-4. Treatment with abatacept and belatacept impede CD28 signaling by binding to CD80 and CD86, but they also have the unintended consequence of blocking the ligands for CTLA-4, a process that may inadvertently boost effector responses. Here, we show that a potentially novel anti-CD28 domain antibody (dAb) that selectively blocks CD28 but preserves CTLA-4 coinhibition confers improved allograft survival in sensitized recipients as compared with CTLA-4 Ig. However, both CTLA-4 Ig and anti-CD28 dAb similarly and significantly reduced the accumulation of donor-reactive CD8+ memory T cells, demonstrating that regulation of the expansion of CD8+ memory T cell populations is controlled in part by CD28 signals and is not significantly impacted by CTLA-4. In contrast, selective CD28 blockade was superior to CTLA-4 Ig in inhibiting IFN-γ, TNF, and IL-2 production by CD8+ memory T cells, which in turn resulted in reduced recruitment of innate CD11b+ monocytes into allografts. Importantly, this superiority was CTLA-4 dependent, demonstrating that effector function of CD8+ memory T cells is regulated by the balance of CD28 and CTLA-4 signaling. PMID:29321374

  18. Lentiviral-mediated Targeted NF-κB Blockade in Dorsal Spinal Cord Glia Attenuates Sciatic Nerve Injury-induced Neuropathic Pain in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Alice; Latrémolière, Alban; Dominguez, Elisa; Mauborgne, Annie; Philippe, Stéphanie; Hamon, Michel; Mallet, Jacques; Benoliel, Jean-Jacques; Pohl, Michel

    2007-04-01

    Neuropathic pain developing after peripheral nerve injury is associated with altered neuronal and glial cell functions in the spinal cord. Activated glia produces algogenic mediators, exacerbating pain. Among the different intracellular pathways possibly involved in the modified glial function, the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) system is of particular interest, as numerous genes encoding inflammation- and pain-related molecules are controlled by this transcription factor. NF-κB is a pleiotropic factor also involved in central nervous system homeostasy. To study its role in chronic pain, it is thus essential to inhibit the NF-κB pathway selectively in activated spinal glial cells. Here, we show that when restricted to spinal cord and targeted to glial cells, lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of NF-κB super- repressor IκBα resulted in an inhibition of the NF-κB pathway activated in the rat spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury (chronic constriction injury, CCI). Concomitantly, IκBα overproduction prevented the enhanced expression of interleukin-6 and of inducible nitric oxide synthase associated with chronic constriction injury and resulted in prolonged antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects. These data show that targeted blockade of NF-κB activity in spinal glia efficiently alleviates pain behavior in CCI rats, demonstrating the active participation of the glial NF-κB pathway in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2007 The American Society of Gene Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lentiviral-mediated targeted NF-kappaB blockade in dorsal spinal cord glia attenuates sciatic nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in the rat.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Alice; Latrémolière, Alban; Dominguez, Elisa; Mauborgne, Annie; Philippe, Stéphanie; Hamon, Michel; Mallet, Jacques; Benoliel, Jean-Jacques; Pohl, Michel

    2007-04-01

    Neuropathic pain developing after peripheral nerve injury is associated with altered neuronal and glial cell functions in the spinal cord. Activated glia produces algogenic mediators, exacerbating pain. Among the different intracellular pathways possibly involved in the modified glial function, the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) system is of particular interest, as numerous genes encoding inflammation- and pain-related molecules are controlled by this transcription factor. NF-kappaB is a pleiotropic factor also involved in central nervous system homeostasy. To study its role in chronic pain, it is thus essential to inhibit the NF-kappaB pathway selectively in activated spinal glial cells. Here, we show that when restricted to spinal cord and targeted to glial cells, lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of NF-kappaB super- repressor IkappaBalpha resulted in an inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway activated in the rat spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury (chronic constriction injury, CCI). Concomitantly, IkappaBalpha overproduction prevented the enhanced expression of interleukin-6 and of inducible nitric oxide synthase associated with chronic constriction injury and resulted in prolonged antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects. These data show that targeted blockade of NF-kappaB activity in spinal glia efficiently alleviates pain behavior in CCI rats, demonstrating the active participation of the glial NF-kappaB pathway in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury.

  20. Blockade of mGluR5 in the nucleus accumbens shell but not core attenuates heroin seeking behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Zhong-ze; Chen, Ling-hong; Liu, Hui-feng; Ruan, Lie-min; Zhou, Wen-hua

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Glutamatergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is crucial for the relapse to heroin seeking. The aim of this study was to determine whether mGluR5 in the NAc core or shell involved in heroin seeking behavior in rats. Methods: Male SD rats were self-administered heroin under a fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedule for 14 d, and subsequently withdrawn for 2 weeks. The selective mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-phenylethynyl-pyridine (MPEP, 5, 15 and 50 nmol per side) was then microinjected into the NAc core or shell 10 min before a heroin-seeking test induced by context, cues or heroin priming. Results: Microinjection of MPEP into the NAc shell dose-dependently decreased the heroin seeking induced by context, cues or heroin priming. In contrast, microinjection of MPEP into the NAc core did not alter the heroin seeking induced by cues or heroin priming. In addition, microinjection with MPEP (15 nmol per side) in the NAc shell reversed both the percentage of open arms entries (OE%) and the percentage of time spent in open arms (OT%) after heroin withdrawal. Microinjection of MPEP (50 nmol per side) in the striatum as a control location did not affect the heroin seeking behavior. Microinjection of MPEP in the 3 locations did not change the locomotion activities. Conclusion: Blockade of mGluR5 in NAc shell in rats specifically suppresses the relapse to heroin-seeking and anxiety-like behavior, suggesting that mGluR5 antagonists may be a potential candidate for the therapy of heroin addiction. PMID:25399651

  1. AT1 receptor blockade in the central nucleus of the amygdala attenuates the effects of muscimol on sodium and water intake.

    PubMed

    Hu, B; Qiao, H; Sun, B; Jia, R; Fan, Y; Wang, N; Lu, B; Yan, J Q

    2015-10-29

    The blockade of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) with the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol significantly reduces hypertonic NaCl and water intake by sodium-depleted rats. In the present study we investigated the effects of previous injection of losartan, an angiotensin II type-1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, into the CeA on 0.3M NaCl and water intake reduced by muscimol bilaterally injected into the same areas in rats submitted to water deprivation-partial rehydration (WD-PR) and in rats treated with the diuretic furosemide (FURO). Male Sprague-Dawley rats with stainless steel cannulas bilaterally implanted into the CeA were used. Bilateral injections of muscimol (0.2 nmol/0.5 μl, n=8 rats/group) into the CeA in WD-PR-treated rats reduced 0.3M NaCl intake and water intake, and pre-treatment of the CeA with losartan (50 μg/0.5 μl) reversed the inhibitory effect of muscimol. The negative effect of muscimol on sodium and water intake could also be blocked by pretreatment with losartan microinjected into the CeA in rats given FURO (n=8 rats/group). However, bilateral injections of losartan (50 μg/0.5 μl) alone into the CeA did not affect the NaCl or water intake. These results suggest that the deactivation of CeA facilitatory mechanisms by muscimol injection into the CeA is promoted by endogenous angiotensin II acting on AT1 receptors in the CeA, which prevents rats from ingesting large amounts of hypertonic NaCl and water. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Endothelin-A Receptor Antagonism after Renal Angioplasty Enhances Renal Recovery in Renovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tullos, Nathan; Stewart, Nicholas J.; Surles, Bret

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty/stenting (PTRAS) is frequently used to treat renal artery stenosis and renovascular disease (RVD); however, renal function is restored in less than one half of the cases. This study was designed to test a novel intervention that could refine PTRAS and enhance renal recovery in RVD. Renal function was quantified in pigs after 6 weeks of chronic RVD (induced by unilateral renal artery stenosis), established renal damage, and hypertension. Pigs with RVD then underwent PTRAS and were randomized into three groups: placebo (RVD+PTRAS), chronic endothelin-A receptor (ET-A) blockade (RVD+PTRAS+ET-A), and chronic dual ET-A/B blockade (RVD+PTRAS+ET-A/B) for 4 weeks. Renal function was again evaluated after treatments, and then, ex vivo studies were performed on the stented kidney. PTRAS resolved renal stenosis, attenuated hypertension, and improved renal function but did not resolve renal microvascular rarefaction, remodeling, or renal fibrosis. ET-A blocker therapy after PTRAS significantly improved hypertension, microvascular rarefaction, and renal injury and led to greater recovery of renal function. Conversely, combined ET-A/B blockade therapy blunted the therapeutic effects of PTRAS alone or PTRAS followed by ET-A blockade. These data suggest that ET-A receptor blockade therapy could serve as a coadjuvant intervention to enhance the outcomes of PTRAS in RVD. These results also suggest that ET-B receptors are important for renal function in RVD and may contribute to recovery after PTRAS. Using clinically available compounds and techniques, our results could contribute to both refinement and design of new therapeutic strategies in chronic RVD. PMID:25377076

  3. Spontaneous firing and evoked responses of spinal nociceptive neurons are attenuated by blockade of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors in inflamed rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Chu, Katharine L; Brederson, Jill-Desiree; Jarvis, Michael F; McGaraughty, Steve

    2012-08-01

    P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are selectively expressed on primary afferent nociceptors and have been implicated in modulating nociception in different models of pathological pain, including inflammatory pain. In an effort to delineate further the role of P2X3 receptors (homomeric and heteromeric) in the modulation of nociceptive transmission after a chronic inflammation injury, A-317491, a potent and selective P2X3-P2X2/3 antagonist, was administered to CFA-inflamed rats in order to examine its effects on responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to mechanical and thermal stimulation. Systemic injection of A-317491 (30 μmol/kg, i.v.) reduced the responses of wide-dynamic-range (WDR) and nociceptive specific (NS) neurons to both high-intensity mechanical (pinch) and heat (49°C) stimulation. A-317491 also decreased low-intensity (10 g von Frey hair) mechanically evoked activity of WDR neurons but did not alter WDR neuronal responses to cold stimulation (5°C). Spontaneous firing of WDR neurons in CFA-inflamed rats was also significantly attenuated by A-317491 injection. By using immunohistochemistry, P2X3 receptors were demonstrated to be enhanced in lamina II of the spinal dorsal horn after inflammation. In summary, blockade of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors dampens mechanical- and heat-related signaling, as well as nonevoked activity of key classes of spinal nociceptive neurons in inflamed animals. These data suggest that P2X3 and/or P2X2/3 receptors have a broad contribution to somatosensory/nociceptive transmission in rats with a chronic inflammatory injury and are consistent with previous behavioral data demonstrating antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of receptor antagonists. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Combined unilateral blockade of cholinergic, peptidergic, and serotonergic receptors in the ventral respiratory column does not affect breathing in awake or sleeping goats

    PubMed Central

    Muere, Clarissa; Neumueller, Suzanne; Olesiak, Samantha; Miller, Justin; Langer, Thomas; Hodges, Matthew R.; Pan, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Previous work in intact awake and sleeping goats has found that unilateral blockade of excitatory inputs in the ventral respiratory column (VRC) elicits changes in the concentrations of multiple neurochemicals, including serotonin (5-HT), substance P, glycine, and GABA, while increasing or having no effect on breathing. These findings are consistent with the concept of interdependence between neuromodulators, whereby attenuation of one modulator elicits compensatory changes in other modulators to maintain breathing. Because there is a large degree of redundancy and multiplicity of excitatory inputs to the VRC, we herein tested the hypothesis that combined unilateral blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh), neurokinin-1 (NK1, the receptor for substance P), and 5-HT2A receptors would elicit changes in multiple neurochemicals, but would not change breathing. We unilaterally reverse-dialyzed a cocktail of antagonists targeting these receptors into the VRC of intact adult goats. Breathing was continuously monitored while effluent fluid from dialysis was collected for quantification of neurochemicals. We found that neither double blockade of mACh and NK1 receptors, nor triple blockade of mACh, NK1, and 5-HT2A receptors significantly affected breathing (P ≥ 0.05) in goats that were awake or in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. However, both double and triple blockade increased the effluent concentration of substance P (P < 0.001) and decreased GABA concentrations. These findings support our hypothesis and, together with past data, suggest that both in wakefulness and NREM sleep, multiple neuromodulator systems collaborate to stabilize breathing when a deficit in one or multiple excitatory neuromodulators exists. PMID:26023224

  5. 5-HT2A receptors control body temperature in mice during LPS-induced inflammation via regulation of NO production.

    PubMed

    Voronova, Irina P; Khramova, Galina M; Kulikova, Elizabeth A; Petrovskii, Dmitrii V; Bazovkina, Daria V; Kulikov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled 5-HT2A receptors are involved in the regulation of numerous normal and pathological physiological functions. At the same time, its involvement in the regulation of body temperature (Tb) in normal conditions is obscure. Here we study the effect of the 5-HT2A receptor activation or blockade on Tb in sick animals. The experiments were carried out on adult C57BL/6 mouse males. Systemic inflammation and sickness were produced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1mg/kg, ip), while the 5-HT2A receptor was stimulated or blocked through the administration of the receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin (1mg/kg), respectively. LPS, DOI or ketanserin alone produced no effect on Tb. However, administration of LPS together with a peripheral or central ketanserin injection reduced Tb (32.2°C). Ketanserin reversed the LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase in the brain. Consequently, an involvement of NO in the mechanism of the hypothermic effect of ketanserin in sick mice was hypothesized. Administration of LPS together with NO synthase inhibitor, l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (60mg/kg, ip) resulted in deep (28.5°C) and prolonged (8h) hypothermia, while administration of l-nitro-arginine methyl ester alone produced no effect on Tb. Thus, 5-HT2A receptors play a key role in Tb control in sick mice. Blockade of this GPCR produces hypothermia in mice with systemic inflammation via attenuation of LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate an unexpected role of 5-HT2A receptors in inflammation and NO production and have a considerable biological impact on understanding the mechanism of animal adaptation to pathogens and parasites. Moreover, adverse side effects of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists in patients with inflammation may be expected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Coulomb Blockade Plasmonic Switch.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Dao; Wu, Jian; Gordon, Reuven

    2017-04-12

    Tunnel resistance can be modulated with bias via the Coulomb blockade effect, which gives a highly nonlinear response current. Here we investigate the optical response of a metal-insulator-nanoparticle-insulator-metal structure and show switching of a plasmonic gap from insulator to conductor via Coulomb blockade. By introducing a sufficiently large charging energy in the tunnelling gap, the Coulomb blockade allows for a conductor (tunneling) to insulator (capacitor) transition. The tunnelling electrons can be delocalized over the nanocapacitor again when a high energy penalty is added with bias. We demonstrate that this has a huge impact on the plasmonic resonance of a 0.51 nm tunneling gap with ∼70% change in normalized optical loss. Because this structure has a tiny capacitance, there is potential to harness the effect for high-speed switching.

  7. Role of 5-HT5A receptors in the consolidation of memory.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Roberto; Chávez-Pascacio, Karla; Meneses, Alfredo

    2013-09-01

    5-HT5 receptor occurs in brain areas implicated in learning and memory. Hence, the effects (0.01-3.0 mg/kg) of SB-6995516 (a 5-HT5A receptor antagonist) in the associative learning task of autoshaping were studied. The results showed that post-training injection of SB-699551 decreased conditioned responses (CR) during short-term (STM; 1.5h; at 0.1mg/kg) and long-term memory (LTM; 24 h; at 3.0 mg/kg) relative to the vehicle animals. Moreover, considering that there are no selective 5-HT5A receptor agonists, next, diverse doses of the serotonin precursor l-tryptophan were studied during STM and LTM, showing that l-tryptophan (5-100mg/kg) facilitated performance, particularly at 50mg/kg. In interactions experiments, l-tryptophan (50 mg/kg) attenuated the impairment effect induced by SB-699551 (either 0.3 or 3.0 mg/kg). All together this evidence suggests that the blockade of 5-HT5A receptor appear to be able to impair STM and LTM (24 h), while its stimulation might facilitate it. Of course further investigation is necessary, meanly with selective 5-HT5A compounds are necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. C5a and C5aR are elevated in joints of rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis patients, and C5aR blockade attenuates leukocyte migration to synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Hornum, Lars; Hansen, Anker Jon; Tornehave, Ditte; Fjording, Marianne Scheel; Colmenero, Paula; Wätjen, Inger Falbe; Søe Nielsen, Niels Henrik; Bliddal, Henning; Bartels, Else Marie

    2017-01-01

    Complement activation correlates to rheumatoid arthritis disease activity, and increased amounts of the complement split product C5a is observed in synovial fluids from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Blockade of C5a or its receptor (C5aR) is efficacious in several arthritis models. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of C5a and C5aR in human rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis-both with respect to expression and function. Synovial fluid, blood and synovial samples were obtained from rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and osteoarthritis patients as a less inflammatory arthritis type, and blood from healthy subjects. Cells infiltrating synovial tissue were analysed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. SF and blood were analysed for biomarkers by flow cytometry or ELISA. The effect of a blocking anti-human C5aR mAb on leukocyte migration was determined using a Boyden chamber. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for comparisons. C5aR+ cells were detected in most rheumatoid arthritis, in all psoriatic arthritis, but not in non-inflammatory control synovia. C5aR+ cells were primarily neutrophils and macrophages. C5aR+ macrophages were mainly found in lymphoid aggregates in close contact with T cells. C5a levels were increased in both rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis synovial fluid compared to osteoarthritis, and in blood from rheumatoid arthritis compared to healthy subjects. Neutrophil and monocyte migration to rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid was significantly inhibited by anti-C5aR. The data support that the C5a-C5aR axis may be driving the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the synovial fluid and synovium in both rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, and suggest that C5a or C5aR may be a promising treatment target in both diseases.

  9. Traceable Coulomb blockade thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahtela, O.; Mykkänen, E.; Kemppinen, A.; Meschke, M.; Prunnila, M.; Gunnarsson, D.; Roschier, L.; Penttilä, J.; Pekola, J.

    2017-02-01

    We present a measurement and analysis scheme for determining traceable thermodynamic temperature at cryogenic temperatures using Coulomb blockade thermometry. The uncertainty of the electrical measurement is improved by utilizing two sampling digital voltmeters instead of the traditional lock-in technique. The remaining uncertainty is dominated by that of the numerical analysis of the measurement data. Two analysis methods are demonstrated: numerical fitting of the full conductance curve and measuring the height of the conductance dip. The complete uncertainty analysis shows that using either analysis method the relative combined standard uncertainty (k  =  1) in determining the thermodynamic temperature in the temperature range from 20 mK to 200 mK is below 0.5%. In this temperature range, both analysis methods produced temperature estimates that deviated from 0.39% to 0.67% from the reference temperatures provided by a superconducting reference point device calibrated against the Provisional Low Temperature Scale of 2000.

  10. Magnolol Attenuates Concanavalin A-induced Hepatic Fibrosis, Inhibits CD4+ T Helper 17 (Th17) Cell Differentiation and Suppresses Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation: Blockade of Smad3/Smad4 Signalling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongjun; Ju, Baoling; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhu, Yanfei; Nie, Ying; Xu, Yuanhong; Lei, Qiuxia

    2017-06-01

    Magnolol is a pharmacological biphenolic compound extracted from Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis, which displays anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study was aimed at exploring the potential effect of magnolol on immune-related liver fibrosis. Herein, BALB/c mice were injected with concanavalin A (ConA, 8 mg/kg/week) up to 6 weeks to establish hepatic fibrosis, and magnolol (10, 20, 30 mg/kg/day) was given to these mice orally throughout the whole experiment. We found that magnolol preserved liver function and attenuated liver fibrotic injury in vivo. In response to ConA stimulation, the CD4 + T cells preferred to polarizing towards CD4 + T helper 17 (Th17) cells in liver. Magnolol was observed to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation in ConA-treated liver in addition to suppressing interleukin (IL)-17A generation. Hepatic stellate cells were activated in fibrotic liver as demonstrated by increased alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin. More transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and activin A were secreted into the serum. Magnolol suppressed this abnormal HSC activation. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of Smad3 in its linker area (Thr179, Ser 204/208/213) was inhibited by magnolol. In vitro, the recombinant IL-17A plus TGF-β1 or activin A induced activation of human LX2 HSCs and promoted their collagen production. Smad3/Smad4 signalling pathway was activated in LX2 cells exposed to the fibrotic stimuli, as illustrated by the up-regulated phospho-Smad3 and the enhanced interaction between Smad3 and Smad4. These alterations were suppressed by magnolol. Collectively, our study reveals a novel antifibrotic effect of magnolol on Th17 cell-mediated fibrosis. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  11. 5-HT2A receptor activation is necessary for CO2-induced arousal

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Haleigh R.; MacAskill, Amanda; Richerson, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Hypercapnia-induced arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism pertinent to a number of diseases. Most notably among these are the sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Serotonin (5-HT) plays a significant role in hypercapnia-induced arousal. The mechanism of 5-HT's role in this protective response is unknown. Here we sought to identify the specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) involved in this response. Wild-type mice were pretreated with antagonists against 5-HT receptor subtypes, as well as antagonists against adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, and orexinergic receptors before challenge with inspired CO2 or hypoxia. Antagonists of 5-HT2A receptors dose-dependently blocked CO2-induced arousal. The 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, RS-102221, and the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuated but did not completely block CO2-induced arousal. Blockade of non-5-HT receptors did not affect CO2-induced arousal. None of these drugs had any effect on hypoxia-induced arousal. 5-HT2 receptor agonists were given to mice in which 5-HT neurons had been genetically eliminated during embryonic life (Lmx1bf/f/p) and which are known to lack CO2-induced arousal. Application of agonists to 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT2C, receptors, dose-dependently restored CO2-induced arousal in these mice. These data identify the 5-HT2A receptor as an important mediator of CO2-induced arousal and suggest that, while 5-HT neurons can be independently activated to drive CO2-induced arousal, in the absence of 5-HT neurons and endogenous 5-HT, 5-HT receptor activation can act in a permissive fashion to facilitate CO2-induced arousal via another as yet unidentified chemosensor system. PMID:25925320

  12. Attenuation of scopolamine-induced and age-associated memory impairments by the sigma and 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) receptor agonist OPC-14523 (1-[3-[4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl]propyl]-5-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-2[1H]-quinolinone monomethanesulfonate).

    PubMed

    Tottori, Katsura; Nakai, Masami; Uwahodo, Yasufumi; Miwa, Takashi; Yamada, Sakiko; Oshiro, Yasuo; Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Altar, C Anthony

    2002-04-01

    Sigma and 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation can increase acetylcholine (ACh) release in the brain. Because ACh release facilitates learning and memory, we evaluated the degree to which OPC-14523 (1-[3-[4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl]propyl]-5-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-2[1H]-quinolinone monomethane sulfonate), a novel sigma and 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, can augment ACh release and improve learning impairments in rats due to cholinergic- or age-related deficits. Single oral administration of OPC-14523 improved scopolamine-induced learning impairments in the passive-avoidance task and memory impairment in the Morris water maze. The chronic oral administration of OPC-14523 attenuated age-associated impairments of learning acquisition in the water maze and in the conditioned active-avoidance response test. OPC-14523 did not alter basal locomotion or inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity at concentrations up to 100 microM and, unlike AChE inhibitors, did not cause peripheral cholinomimetic responses. ACh release in the dorsal hippocampus of freely moving rats increased after oral delivery of OPC-14523 and after local delivery of OPC-14523 into the hippocampus. The increases in hippocampal ACh release were blocked by the sigma receptor antagonist NE-100 (N,N-dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethoxy)-phenyl]-ethylamine). Thus, OPC-14523 improves scopolamine-induced and age-associated learning and memory impairments by enhancing ACh release, due to a stimulation of sigma and probably 5-HT(1A) receptors. Combined sigma/5-HT(1A) receptor agonism may be a novel approach to ameliorate cognitive disorders associated with age-associated cholinergic deficits.

  13. CB1 cannabinoid receptor-mediated anandamide signalling reduces the defensive behaviour evoked through GABAA receptor blockade in the dorsomedial division of the ventromedial hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Ullah, Farhad; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2017-02-01

    The effects of cannabinoids in brain areas expressing cannabinoid receptors, such as hypothalamic nuclei, are not yet well known. Several studies have demonstrated the role of hypothalamic nuclei in the organisation of behavioural responses induced through innate fear and panic attacks. Panic-prone states are experimentally induced in laboratory animals through a reduction in the GABAergic activity. The aim of the present study was to examine panic-like elaborated defensive behaviour evoked by GABA A receptor blockade with bicuculline (BIC) in the dorsomedial division of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHdm). We also aimed to characterise the involvement of endocannabinoids and the CB 1 cannabinoid receptor in the modulation of elaborated defence behavioural responses organised with the VMHdm. The guide-cannula was stereotaxicaly implanted in VMHdm and the animals were treated with anandamide (AEA) at different doses, and the effective dose was used after the pre-treatment with the CB 1 receptor antagonist AM251, followed by GABA A receptor blockade in VMHdm. The results showed that the intra-hypothalamic administration of AEA at an intermediate dose (5 pmol) attenuated defence responses induced through the intra-VMHdm microinjection of bicuculline (40 ng). This effect, however, was inhibited when applied central microinjection of the CB 1 receptor antagonist AM251 in the VMHdm. Moreover, AM251 potentiates de non-oriented escape induced by bicuculline, effect blocked by pre-treatment with the TRPV 1 channel antagonist 6-I-CPS. These results indicate that AEA modulates the pro-aversive effects of intra-VMHdm-bicuculline treatment, recruiting CB 1 cannabinoid receptors and the TRPV1 channel is involved in the AM251-related potentiation of bicuculline effects on non-oriented escape behaviour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effort-related effects of dopamine blockade: differential interaction with D1 and D2 family antagonists.

    PubMed

    Worden, Lila T; Shahriari, Mona; Farrar, Andrew M; Sink, Kelly S; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2009-04-01

    Brain dopamine (DA) participates in the modulation of instrumental behavior, including aspects of behavioral activation and effort-related choice behavior. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their behavior away from food-seeking behaviors that have high response requirements, and instead select less effortful alternatives. Although accumbens DA is considered a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating effort-related choice behavior, emerging evidence demonstrates a role for adenosine A(2A) receptors. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism has been shown to reverse the effects of DA antagonism. The present experiments were conducted to determine if this effect was dependent upon the subtype of DA receptor that was antagonized to produce the changes in effort-related choice. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.5-2.0 mg/kg IP) was assessed for its ability to reverse the effects of the D1 family antagonist SCH39166 (ecopipam; 0.2 mg/kg IP) and the D2 family antagonist eticlopride (0.08 mg/kg IP), using a concurrent lever pressing/chow feeding procedure. MSX-3 produced a substantial dose-related reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing and chow intake. At the highest dose of MSX-3, there was a complete reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing. In contrast, MSX-3 produced only a minimal attenuation of the effects of SCH39166, as measured by regression and effect size analyses. The greater ability of MSX-3 to reverse the effects of D2 vs. D1 blockade may be related to the colocalization of D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors on the same population of striatal neurons.

  15. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effort-related effects of dopamine blockade: differential interaction with D1 and D2 family antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Worden, Lila T.; Shahriari, Mona; Farrar, Andrew M.; Sink, Kelly S.; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Brain dopamine (DA) participates in the modulation of instrumental behavior, including aspects of behavioral activation and effort-related choice behavior. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their behavior away from food-seeking behaviors that have high response requirements, and instead select less effortful alternatives. Although accumbens DA is considered a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating effort-related choice behavior, emerging evidence demonstrates a role for adenosine A2A receptors. Objective Adenosine A2A receptor antagonism has been shown to reverse the effects of DA antagonism. The present experiments were conducted to determine if this effect was dependent upon the subtype of DA receptor that was antagonized to produce the changes in effort-related choice. Materials and methods The adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.5–2.0 mg/kg IP) was assessed for its ability to reverse the effects of the D1 family antagonist SCH39166 (ecopipam; 0.2 mg/kg IP) and the D2 family antagonist eticlopride (0.08 mg/kg IP), using a concurrent lever pressing/chow feeding procedure. Results MSX-3 produced a substantial dose-related reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing and chow intake. At the highest dose of MSX-3, there was a complete reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing. In contrast, MSX-3 produced only a minimal attenuation of the effects of SCH39166, as measured by regression and effect size analyses. Conclusions The greater ability of MSX-3 to reverse the effects of D2 vs. D1 blockade may be related to the colocalization of D2 and adenosine A2A receptors on the same population of striatal neurons. PMID:19048234

  16. Neurohormonal Blockade in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, Dipak; Atar, Dan; Hopper, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    A key feature of chronic heart failure (HF) is the sustained activation of endogenous neurohormonal systems in response to impaired cardiac pumping and/or filling properties. The clinical use of neurohormonal blockers has revolutionised the care of HF patients over the past three decades. Drug therapy that is active against imbalance in both the autonomic and renin–angiotensin–aldosterone systems consistently reduces morbidity and mortality in chronic HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and in sinus rhythm. This article provides an assessment of the major neurohormonal systems and their therapeutic blockade in patients with chronic HF. PMID:28785471

  17. Presynaptic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptors mediate fade induced by neuromuscular relaxants that exhibit anticholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Bornia, Elaine Cs; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson

    2011-03-01

    1. Pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium are antinicotinic agents that, in contrast with d-tubocurarine and hexamethonium, exhibit anticholinesterase activity. Pancuronium-, cisatracurium- and vecuronium-induced fade results from blockade of facilitatory nicotinic receptors on motor nerves, but fade produced by such agents also depends on the presynaptic activation of inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptors by acetylcholine released from motor nerve terminals and activation of inhibitory adenosine A1 receptors by adenosine released from motor nerves and muscles. The participation of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors in fade caused by pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we determined the effects of ZM241385, an antagonist of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors, on fade produced by these neuromuscular relaxants in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparation. 2. The muscles were stimulated indirectly at 75±3Hz to induce a sustained tetanizing muscular contraction. The lowest concentration at which each antinicotinic agent produced fade without modifying initial tetanic tension (presynaptic action) was determined. 3. d-Tubocurarine-induced fade occurred only at 55 nmol/L, a concentration that also reduced maximal tetanic tension (post-synaptic action). At 10 nmol/L, ZM 241385 alone did not produce fade, but it did attenuate pancuronium (0.32 μmol/L)-, cisatracurium (0.32 μmol/L)- and vecuronium (0.36 μmol/L)-induced fade. 4. The fade induced by the 'pure' antinicotinic agents d-tubocurarine (55 nmol/L) and hexamethonium (413 μmol/L) was not altered by 10 nmol/L ZM 241385, indicating that presynaptic adenosine A2A receptors play a significant role in the fade produced by antinicotinic agents when such agents have anticholinesterase activity. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Dopamine Attenuates Ketamine-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis in the Developing Rat Retina Independent of Early Synchronized Spontaneous Network Activity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Gao, Lingqi; Han, Junde; Zhang, Junjie; Zheng, Jijian

    2017-07-01

    Deprivation of spontaneous rhythmic electrical activity in early development by anesthesia administration, among other interventions, induces neuronal apoptosis. However, it is unclear whether enhancement of neuronal electrical activity attenuates neuronal apoptosis in either normal development or after anesthesia exposure. The present study investigated the effects of dopamine, an enhancer of spontaneous rhythmic electrical activity, on ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis in the developing rat retina. TUNEL and immunohistochemical assays indicated that ketamine time- and dose-dependently aggravated physiological and ketamine-induced apoptosis and inhibited early-synchronized spontaneous network activity. Dopamine administration reversed ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis, but did not reverse the inhibitory effects of ketamine on early synchronized spontaneous network activity despite enhancing it in controls. Blockade of D1, D2, and A2A receptors and inhibition of cAMP/PKA signaling partially antagonized the protective effect of dopamine against ketamine-induced apoptosis. Together, these data indicate that dopamine attenuates ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis in the developing rat retina by activating the D1, D2, and A2A receptors, and upregulating cAMP/PKA signaling, rather than through modulation of early synchronized spontaneous network activity.

  19. Adenosine A2A receptors and depression.

    PubMed

    El Yacoubi, Malika; Costentin, Jean; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie

    2003-12-09

    Adenosine and its analogues have been shown to induce "behavioral despair" in animal models believed to be relevant to depression. Recent data have shown that selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists (e.g., SCH 58261, ZM241385, and KW6002) or genetic inactivation of the receptor was effective in reversing signs of behavioral despair in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, two screening procedures predictive of antidepressant activity. A2A antagonists were active in the tail suspension test using either mice previously screened for having high immobility scores or mice that were selectively bred for their spontaneous "helplessness" in this test. At stimulant doses, caffeine, a nonselective A1/A2A receptor antagonist, was effective in the forced swim test. The authors have hypothesized that the antidepressant-like effect of selective A2A antagonists is linked to an interaction with dopaminergic transmission, possibly in the frontal cortex. In support of this idea, administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol prevented antidepressant-like effects elicited by SCH 58261 in the forced swim test (putatively involving cortex), whereas it had no effect on stimulant motor effects of SCH 58261 (putatively linked to ventral striatum). The interaction profile of caffeine with haloperidol differed markedly from that of SCH 58261 in the forced swim and motor activity tests. Therefore, a clear-cut antidepressant-like effect could not be ascribed to caffeine. In conclusion, available data support the proposition that a selective blockade of the adenosine A2A receptor may be an interesting target for the development of effective antidepressant agents.

  20. Hallmarks of response to immune checkpoint blockade

    PubMed Central

    Cogdill, Alexandria P; Andrews, Miles C; Wargo, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    Unprecedented advances have been made in the treatment of cancer through the use of immune checkpoint blockade, with approval of several checkpoint blockade regimens spanning multiple cancer types. However, responses to this form of therapy are not universal, and insights are clearly needed to identify optimal biomarkers of response and to combat mechanisms of therapeutic resistance. A working knowledge of the hallmarks of cancer yields insight into responses to immune checkpoint blockade, although the focus of this is rather tumour-centric and additional factors are pertinent, including host immunity and environmental influences. Herein, we describe the foundation for pillars and hallmarks of response to immune checkpoint blockade, with a discussion of their relevance to immune monitoring and mechanisms of resistance. Evolution of this understanding will ultimately help guide treatment strategies to enhance therapeutic responses. PMID:28524159

  1. Early RAAS Blockade Exerts Renoprotective Effects in Autosomal Recessive Alport Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Nao; Kumagai, Naonori; Nozu, Kandai; Fu, Xue Jun; Iijima, Kazumoto; Kondo, Yoshiaki; Kure, Shigeo

    2016-11-01

    Alport syndrome is a progressive renal disease caused by mutations in COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5 genes that encode collagen type IV alpha 3, alpha 4, and alpha 5 chains, respectively. Because of abnormal collagen chain, glomerular basement membrane becomes fragile and most of the patients progress to end-stage renal disease in early adulthood. COL4A5 mutation causes X-linked form of Alport syndrome, and two mutations in either COL4A3 or COL4A4 causes an autosomal recessive Alport syndrome. Recently, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade has been shown to attenuate effectively disease progression in Alport syndrome. Here we present three Japanese siblings and their father all diagnosed with autosomal recessive Alport syndrome and with different clinical courses, suggesting the importance of the early initiation of RAAS blockade. The father was diagnosed with Alport syndrome. His consanguineous parents and his wife were healthy. All three siblings showed hematuria since infancy. Genetic analysis revealed that they shared the same gene mutations in COL4A3 in a compound heterozygous state: c.2330G>A (p.Gly777Ala) from the mother and c.4354A>T (p.Ser1452Cys) from the father. Although RAAS blockade was initiated for the older sister and brother when their renal function was already impaired, it did not attenuate disease progression. In the youngest brother, RAAS blockade was initiated during normal renal function stage. After the initiation, his renal function has been normal with the very mild proteinuria to date at the age of 17 years. We propose that in Alport syndrome, RAAS blockade should be initiated earlier than renal function is impaired.

  2. Clindamycin-induced neuromuscular blockade.

    PubMed

    al Ahdal, O; Bevan, D R

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the case of a patient who developed prolonged neuromuscular block after a large dose of clindamycin (2400 mg). A 58-yr-old, 65 kg woman with severe rheumatoid arthritis was admitted for wrist arthrodesis. After d-tubocurarine (3 mg) and fentanyl (1.5 micrograms.kg-1), anaesthesia was induced with thiopentone (4 mg.kg-1) followed by succinylcholine (1.5 mg.kg-1) and was maintained with N2O in O2 and isoflurane (0.75-1.0% end tidal) and ventilation was controlled. No further neuromuscular relaxants were given although full return of neuromuscular activity in response to train-of-four and 100 Hz tetanic stimulation was observed after succinylcholine. An overdose of clindamycin (2400 mg, instead of the intended 600 mg) was given i.v. soon after the start of surgery. At the end of surgery, 75 min later, the patient made no attempt at spontaneous ventilation, was unresponsive to painful stimuli and naloxone (0.2 mg i.v.) was ineffective. Controlled ventilation was continued in the Recovery Room where neuromuscular testing showed a train-of-four ratio of 0.27 which improved to only 0.47 five minutes after calcium chloride (1.5 mg.kg-1 i.v.), and to 0.62 after edrophonium (20 mg) and neostigmine (2 mg). Nine hours later the patient began to cough, the TOF had returned to 1.0 and two hours later the trachea was extubated and spontaneous ventilation was resumed. Large doses of clindamycin can induce profound, long-lasting neuromuscular blockade in the absence of non-depolarizing relaxants and after full recovery from succinylcholine has been demonstrated.

  3. Sugammadex: A Review of Neuromuscular Blockade Reversal.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2016-07-01

    Sugammadex (Bridion(®)) is a modified γ-cyclodextrin that reverses the effect of the steroidal nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents rocuronium and vecuronium. Intravenous sugammadex resulted in rapid, predictable recovery from moderate and deep neuromuscular blockade in patients undergoing surgery who received rocuronium or vecuronium. Recovery from moderate neuromuscular blockade was significantly faster with sugammadex 2 mg/kg than with neostigmine, and recovery from deep neuromuscular blockade was significantly faster with sugammadex 4 mg/kg than with neostigmine or spontaneous recovery. In addition, recovery from neuromuscular blockade was significantly faster when sugammadex 16 mg/kg was administered 3 min after rocuronium than when patients spontaneously recovered from succinylcholine. Sugammadex also demonstrated efficacy in various special patient populations, including patients with pulmonary disease, cardiac disease, hepatic dysfunction or myasthenia gravis and morbidly obese patients. Intravenous sugammadex was generally well tolerated. In conclusion, sugammadex is an important option for the rapid reversal of rocuronium- or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade.

  4. Chronic 5-HT2 receptor blockade unmasks the role of 5-HT1F receptors in the inhibition of rat cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow.

    PubMed

    García-Pedraza, José Ángel; Hernández-Abreu, Oswaldo; García, Mónica; Morán, Asunción; Villalón, Carlos M

    2018-04-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) inhibits the rat cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow by 5-HT 1B/1D/5 receptors. Because chronic blockade of sympatho-excitatory 5-HT 2 receptors is beneficial in several cardiovascular pathologies, this study investigated whether sarpogrelate (a 5-HT 2 receptor antagonist) alters the pharmacological profile of the above sympatho-inhibition. Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with sarpogrelate in drinking water (30 mg/kg per day; sarpogrelate-treated group) or equivalent volumes of drinking water (control group). Animals were pithed and prepared for spinal stimulation (C 7 -T 1 ) of the cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow or for intravenous (i.v.) bolus injections of noradrenaline. Both procedures produced tachycardic responses remaining unaltered after saline. Continuous i.v. infusions of 5-HT induced a cardiac sympatho-inhibition that was mimicked by the 5-HT receptor agonists 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT; 5-HT 1/5A ), CP 93,129 (5-HT 1B ), or PNU 142633 (5-HT 1D ), but not by indorenate (5-HT 1A ) in both groups; whereas LY344864 (5-HT 1F ) mimicked 5-HT only in sarpogrelate-treated rats. In sarpogrelate-treated animals, i.v. GR 127935 (310 μg/kg; 5-HT 1B/1D/1F receptor antagonist) attenuated 5-CT-induced sympatho-inhibition and abolished LY344864-induced sympatho-inhibition; while GR 127935 plus SB 699551 (1 mg/kg; 5-HT 5A receptor antagonist) abolished 5-CT-induced inhibition. These results confirm the cardiac sympatho-inhibitory role of 5-HT 1B , 5-HT 1D , and 5-HT 5A receptors in both groups; nevertheless, sarpogrelate treatment specifically unmasked a cardiac sympatho-inhibition mediated by 5-HT 1F receptors.

  5. Clindamycin enhances a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockade.

    PubMed

    Becker, L D; Miller, R D

    1976-07-01

    Neuromuscular blockades induced by clindamycin alone and with d-tubocurarine or pancuronium were examined in the in-vitro guinea pig lumbrical muscle-nerve preparation. Clindamycin, 80-240 mug/ml, initially increased twitch tension. With higher concentrations (180-240 mug/ml) twitch tension subsequently decreased. With 15 to 20 per cent depression of twitch tension by clindamycin, neostigmine (5-20 ng/ml) or calcium (81 mug/ml) slightly but not completely antagonized the blockade. Clindamycin, 40 mug/ml, a dose that did not depress twitch tension, potentiated d-tubocurarine- or pancuronium-induced neuromuscular bloackade. Plasma concentrations of clindamycin of 10-40 mug/ml were recommended for treating serious infections. The authors conclude that the administration of clindamycin may augment nondepolarizing blockade in man, and antagonism by neostigmine and calcium may be incomplete.

  6. Hippocampal GABAB(1a) Receptors Constrain Generalized Contextual Fear

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Joseph F; Winiecki, Patrick; Gilman, T Lee; Adkins, Jordan M; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2017-01-01

    Many anxiety disorders are characterized by generalization of fear responses to neutral or ambiguous stimuli. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms contributing to generalized fear is essential for formulating successful treatments for anxiety disorders. Previous research shows that GABA-mediated presynaptic inhibition has a critical role in cued fear generalization, as animals with genetically deleted presynaptic GABAB(1a) receptors cannot discriminate between CS+ and CS− tones. Work from our laboratory has further identified that GABAB(1a) receptors are necessary for maintaining contextual memory precision, thereby constraining generalized contextual fear. We previously found that GABAB(1a) KO mice show generalized fear to a neutral context 24 h after training, but not 2 h after training. A similar pattern was observed with object location and recognition, suggesting that this receptor subtype affects consolidation and/or retrieval of precise contextual and spatial memories. Here we sought to specifically examine the involvement of GABAB(1a) receptors in consolidation or retrieval of a precise fear memory. To do so, we infused a selective GABAB(1a) receptor antagonist, CGP 36216, intracerebroventricularly (ICV), or locally into the dorsal hippocampus, ventral hippocampus, or anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), during consolidation and retrieval of context fear training. Blockade of GABAB(1a) receptors through ICV, dorsal hippocampal, or ventral hippocampal infusions ‘after' training (consolidation) resulted in fear generalization to the neutral context when mice were tested 24, but not 6 h after training. Post-training infusions of CGP into the ACC, however, did not promote generalized fear. In addition, ICV, dorsal hippocampal, ventral hippocampal, or ACC infusions immediately ‘before' testing (retrieval) did not result in context fear generalization. These data suggest that GABA-mediated presynaptic inhibition is not critical for

  7. Isoproterenol reduces ischemia-reperfusion lung injury despite beta-blockade.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Seiki; Schlidt, Scott A; Koukoulis, Giovanna; Sevala, Mayura; Egan, Thomas M

    2005-06-01

    If lungs could be retrieved from non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs), the shortage of lungs for transplantation could be alleviated. The use of lungs from NHBDs is associated with a mandatory warm ischemic interval, which results in ischemia-reperfusion injury upon reperfusion. In an earlier study, rat lungs retrieved 2-h postmortem from NHBDs had reduced capillary leak measured by filtration coefficient (Kfc) when reperfused with isoproterenol (iso), associated with an increase in lung tissue levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP). The objective was to determine if this decrease in Kfc was because of beta-stimulation, or would persist despite beta-blockade. Donor rats were treated intraperitoneally with beta-blockade (propranolol or pindolol) or carrier, sacrificed, and lungs were retrieved immediately or 2 h postmortem. The lungs were reperfused with or without iso and the beta-blockers in the reperfusate. Outcome measures were Kfc, wet:dry weight ratio (W/D), lung levels of adenine nucleotides and cAMP. Lungs retrieved immediately after death had normal Kfc and W/D. After 2 h of ischemia, Kfc and W/D were markedly elevated in controls (no drug) and lungs reperfused with beta-blockers alone. Isoproterenol-reperfusion decreased Kfc and W/D significantly (P < 0.01) even in the presence of beta-blockade. Lung cAMP levels were increased only with iso in the absence of beta-blockade. The attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury because of iso occurs even in the presence of beta-blockade, and may not be a result of beta-stimulated increased cAMP.

  8. INHIBITION OF PAN NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR P75 ATTENUATES DIESEL PARTICULATE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES IN C57/BL6J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance in allergic mice. Diesel exhaust particle...

  9. Hippocampal 5-HT1A Receptor and Spatial Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Glikmann-Johnston, Yifat; Saling, Michael M.; Reutens, David C.; Stout, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition is fundamental for survival in the topographically complex environments inhabited by humans and other animals. The hippocampus, which has a central role in spatial cognition, is characterized by high concentration of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptor binding sites, particularly of the 1A receptor (5-HT1A) subtype. This review highlights converging evidence for the role of hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors in spatial learning and memory. We consider studies showing that activation or blockade of the 5-HT1A receptors using agonists or antagonists, respectively, lead to changes in spatial learning and memory. For example, pharmacological manipulation to induce 5-HT release, or to block 5-HT uptake, have indicated that increased extracellular 5-HT concentrations maintain or improve memory performance. In contrast, reduced levels of 5-HT have been shown to impair spatial memory. Furthermore, the lack of 5-HT1A receptor subtype in single gene knockout mice is specifically associated with spatial memory impairments. These findings, along with evidence from recent cognitive imaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) with 5-HT1A receptor ligands, and studies of individual genetic variance in 5-HT1A receptor availability, strongly suggests that 5-HT, mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor subtype, plays a key role in spatial learning and memory. PMID:26696889

  10. [Adoptive Cell Therapy with Immune Checkpoint Blockade].

    PubMed

    Aruga, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Cancer immunotherapy are taking a leading role of cancer therapy due to the development of the immune checkpoint blockade. To date, however, only about 20% of patients have clinical responses and the cancer-specific T cells in cancer site are required to obtain beneficial effects. There has been an innovative development in the field of adoptive cell therapy, especially receptor gene-modified T cells in recent years. The effector cells mostly express PD-1, therefore the cytotoxic reactivity of the effector cells are inhibited by PD-L1. The combination of the adoptive cell therapy and the immune checkpoint blockade is expected to enhance efficacy. On the other hand, the immune-related adverse events may also be enhanced, therefore, it is needed to develop the combination therapy carefully, improving the cancer antigen-specificity or dealing with the cytokine release syndrome.

  11. Efficient multiparticle entanglement via asymmetric Rydberg blockade.

    PubMed

    Saffman, M; Mølmer, K

    2009-06-19

    We present an efficient method for producing N particle entangled states using Rydberg blockade interactions. Optical excitation of Rydberg states that interact weakly, yet have a strong coupling to a second control state is used to achieve state dependent qubit rotations in small ensembles. On the basis of quantitative calculations, we predict that an entangled quantum superposition state of eight atoms can be produced with a fidelity of 84% in cold Rb atoms.

  12. hERG Blockade by Iboga Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Alper, Kenneth; Bai, Rong; Liu, Nian; Fowler, Steven J; Huang, Xi-Ping; Priori, Silvia G; Ruan, Yanfei

    2016-01-01

    The iboga alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds, some of which modify drug self-administration and withdrawal in humans and preclinical models. Ibogaine, the prototypic iboga alkaloid that is utilized clinically to treat addictions, has been associated with QT prolongation, torsades de pointes and fatalities. hERG blockade as IKr was measured using the whole-cell patch clamp technique in HEK 293 cells. This yielded the following IC50 values: ibogaine manufactured by semisynthesis via voacangine (4.09 ± 0.69 µM) or by extraction from T. iboga (3.53 ± 0.16 µM); ibogaine's principal metabolite noribogaine (2.86 ± 0.68 µM); and voacangine (2.25 ± 0.34 µM). In contrast, the IC50 of 18-methoxycoronaridine, a product of rational synthesis and current focus of drug development was >50 µM. hERG blockade was voltage dependent for all of the compounds, consistent with low-affinity blockade. hERG channel binding affinities (K i) for the entire set of compounds, including 18-MC, ranged from 0.71 to 3.89 µM, suggesting that 18-MC binds to the hERG channel with affinity similar to the other compounds, but the interaction produces substantially less hERG blockade. In view of the extended half-life of noribogaine, these results may relate to observations of persistent QT prolongation and cardiac arrhythmia at delayed intervals of days following ibogaine ingestion. The apparent structure-activity relationships regarding positions of substitutions on the ibogamine skeleton suggest that the iboga alkaloids might provide an informative paradigm for investigation of the structural biology of the hERG channel.

  13. Pseudoprogression and hyperprogression after checkpoint blockade.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiaohong; Gao, Jingze; Wu, Xia

    2018-05-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors appear to be one of the most promising immunotherapies with significant clinical benefits and durable responses in multiple tumor types. A heterogeneity of responses appears in patients receiving checkpoint blockade, including pseudoprogression where the tumor burden or number of tumor lesions increases initially before decreasing. Another special response observed after checkpoint blockade is hyperprogression, a phenomenon reflecting a very rapid tumor progression following immunotherapy, suggesting that checkpoint blockade could impact detrimentally on a small subset of patients. As immunotherapeutics, especially anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents, become more widely available, evaluating the efficacy of these novel drugs poses a major challenge to clinicians, who aim to avoid either premature withdrawal of the treatment or prolonging ineffective treatment. Although the mechanism and recognition of pseudoprogression have gradually come to light, the incidence, basis, identification and predictive biomarkers of hyperprogression have been largely unknown, and this review documents the existing research findings and points out the areas where further studies are badly needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade.

    PubMed

    Chin, Ki Jinn; Chan, Vincent

    2008-10-01

    The use of ultrasound for peripheral nerve blockade is becoming popular. Although the feasibility of ultrasound-guided nerve blockade is now clear, it is uncertain at this time whether it represents the new standard for regional anesthesia in terms of efficacy and safety. The ability to visualize nerve location, needle advancement, needle-nerve interaction, and local anesthetic spread makes ultrasound-guided nerve block an attractive option. Study results indicate that these advantages can improve the ease of block performance, block success rates, and complications. At the same time there is evidence that ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia is a unique skill in its own right, and that proficiency in it requires training and experience. Ultrasound is a valuable tool that is now available to the regional anesthesiologist, and it is fast becoming a standard part of practice. It promises to be of especial value to the less experienced practitioner. Ultrasound does not in itself, however, guarantee the efficacy and safety of peripheral nerve blockade. Proper training in its use is required and we can expect to see the development of formal standards and guidelines in this regard.

  15. Effects of acute and subchronic AT1 receptor blockade on cardiovascular, hydromineral and neuroendocrine responses in female rats.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Iracema Gomes; Elias, Lucila Leico Kagohara; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Reis, Luís Carlos; Mecawi, Andre Souza

    2013-10-02

    Female Wistar rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and separated into two groups that received either estradiol cypionate (EC, 40 μg/kg, sc; OVX-EC) or vehicle (corn oil, sc; OVX-oil) for 14 consecutive days. On the 7th day of treatment, a subset of animals from both the OVX-oil and OVX-EC groups was subjected to subchronic losartan (AT1 receptor antagonist) treatment (0.1g/L in drinking water; ~15 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Other group of OVX-oil and OVX-EC rats was submitted to an acute losartan injection (100mg/kg, ip) on the 14th day of hormone replacement. In both protocols, the following parameters were measured: I) mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR); II) water and 0.3M saline intake; III) angiotensin II (ANG II), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) plasma concentrations; and IV) urinary and plasma sodium concentrations. Acute AT1 blockade induced a significant reduction in the MAP in the OVX rats, resulting in increased HR and water intake, which were attenuated by estradiol therapy. Acute AT1 blockade also increased ANG II and OT and reduced ANP plasma concentrations, with no changes in AVP secretion. In addition, acute hypotension was accompanied by a decrease in natriuresis, which was unaltered by estradiol. Subchronic AT1 blockade induced a significant decrease in MAP without changing HR in both groups. Additionally, subchronic losartan treatment induced sodium appetite in OVX rats. Prolonged AT1 blockade increased ANG II and AVP and reduced ANP plasma concentrations. Moreover, it increased natriuresis but did not alter plasma OT concentrations. Finally, estradiol treatment attenuated the increase in salt intake and plasma ANG II concentrations induced by subchronic AT1 blockade. In conclusion, our results suggest differential adaptive responses to the acute or subchronic losartan treatment in OVX and OVX-EC rats. © 2013.

  16. Blockade of store-operated calcium entry alleviates ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Ruibing; Yan, Lihui; Luo, Zheng

    2015-08-15

    Extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx has been suggested to play a role in ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis. Previous studies indicated that store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) was involved in liver injury induced by ethanol in HepG2 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by SOCE remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of SOCE inhibition on liver injury induced by ethanol in BRL cells and Sprague–Dawley rats. Our data demonstrated that ethanol (0–400 mM) dose-dependently increased hepatocyte injury and 100 mM ethanol significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of SOC for at least 72 hmore » in BRL cells. Blockade of SOCE by pharmacological inhibitors and sh-RNA knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 attenuated intracellular Ca{sup 2+} overload, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. STIM1 and Orai1 expression was greater in ethanol-treated than control rats, and the SOCE inhibitor corosolic acid ameliorated the histopathological findings and alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity as well as decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited alcohol-induced cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that SOCE blockade could alleviate alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis. SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases. - Highlights: • Blockade of SOCE alleviated overload of Ca{sup 2+} and hepatotoxicity after ethanol application. • Blockade of SOCE inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis after ethanol application. • SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases.« less

  17. Neuraxial blockade for external cephalic version: Cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamasato, Kelly; Kaneshiro, Bliss; Salcedo, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    Neuraxial blockade (epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia) with external cephalic version increases the external cephalic version success rate. Hospitals and insurers may affect access to neuraxial blockade for external cephalic version, but the costs to these institutions remain largely unstudied. The objective of this study was to perform a cost analysis of neuraxial blockade use during external cephalic version from hospital and insurance payer perspectives. Secondarily, we estimated the effect of neuraxial blockade on cesarean delivery rates. A decision-analysis model was developed using costs and probabilities occurring prenatally through the delivery hospital admission. Model inputs were derived from the literature, national databases, and local supply costs. Univariate and bivariate sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess model robustness. Neuraxial blockade was cost saving to both hospitals ($30 per delivery) and insurers ($539 per delivery) using baseline estimates. From both perspectives, however, the model was sensitive to multiple variables. Monte Carlo simulation indicated neuraxial blockade to be more costly in approximately 50% of scenarios. The model demonstrated that routine use of neuraxial blockade during external cephalic version, compared to no neuraxial blockade, prevented 17 cesarean deliveries for every 100 external cephalic versions attempted. Neuraxial blockade is associated with minimal hospital and insurer cost changes in the setting of external cephalic version, while reducing the cesarean delivery rate. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Neuraxial blockade for external cephalic version: Cost analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamasato, Kelly; Kaneshiro, Bliss; Salcedo, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Aim Neuraxial blockade (epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia) with external cephalic version increases the external cephalic version success rate. Hospitals and insurers may affect access to neuraxial blockade for external cephalic version, but the costs to these institutions remain largely unstudied. The objective of this study was to perform a cost analysis of neuraxial blockade use during external cephalic version from hospital and insurance payer perspectives. Secondarily, we estimated the effect of neuraxial blockade on cesarean delivery rates. Methods A decision–analysis model was developed using costs and probabilities occurring prenatally through the delivery hospital admission. Model inputs were derived from the literature, national databases, and local supply costs. Univariate and bivariate sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess model robustness. Results Neuraxial blockade was cost saving to both hospitals ($30 per delivery) and insurers ($539 per delivery) using baseline estimates. From both perspectives, however, the model was sensitive to multiple variables. Monte Carlo simulation indicated neuraxial blockade to be more costly in approximately 50% of scenarios. The model demonstrated that routine use of neuraxial blockade during external cephalic version, compared to no neuraxial blockade, prevented 17 cesarean deliveries for every 100 external cephalic versions attempted. Conclusions Neuraxial blockade is associated with minimal hospital and insurer cost changes in the setting of external cephalic version, while reducing the cesarean delivery rate. PMID:25771920

  19. Nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation using Rydberg blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yi-Hao; Chen, Ye-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Huang, Bi-Hua; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a scheme for realizing nonadiabatic holonomic computation assisted by two atoms and the shortcuts to adiabaticity (STA). The blockade effect induced by strong Rydberg-mediated interaction between two Rydberg atoms provides us the possibility to simplify the dynamics of the system, and the STA helps us design pulses for implementing the holonomic computation with high fidelity. Numerical simulations show the scheme is noise immune and decoherence resistant. Therefore, the current scheme may provide some useful perspectives for realizing nonadiabatic holonomic computation.

  20. Photonic nonlinearities via quantum Zeno blockade.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Zhu; Huang, Yu-Ping; Kumar, Prem

    2013-05-31

    Realizing optical-nonlinear effects at a single-photon level is a highly desirable but also extremely challenging task, because of both fundamental and practical difficulties. We present an avenue to surmounting these difficulties by exploiting quantum Zeno blockade in nonlinear optical systems. Considering specifically a lithium-niobate microresonator, we find that a deterministic phase gate can be realized between single photons with near-unity fidelity. Supported by established techniques for fabricating and operating such devices, our approach can provide an enabling tool for all-optical applications in both classical and quantum domains.

  1. Impact of Leukocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 Blockade on Endogenous Allospecific T Cells to Multiple Minor Histocompatibility Antigen Mismatched Cardiac Allograft.

    PubMed

    Kwun, Jean; Farris, Alton B; Song, Hyunjin; Mahle, William T; Burlingham, William J; Knechtle, Stuart J

    2015-12-01

    Blocking leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 in organ transplant recipients prolongs allograft survival. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the therapeutic potential of LFA-1 blockade in preventing chronic rejection are not fully elucidated. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is the preeminent cause of late cardiac allograft failure characterized histologically by concentric intimal hyperplasia. Anti-LFA-1 monoclonal antibody was used in a multiple minor antigen-mismatched, BALB.B (H-2B) to C57BL/6 (H-2B), cardiac allograft model. Endogenous donor-specific CD8 T cells were tracked down using major histocompatibility complex multimers against the immunodominant H4, H7, H13, H28, and H60 minor Ags. The LFA-1 blockade prevented acute rejection and preserved palpable beating quality with reduced CD8 T-cell graft infiltration. Interestingly, less CD8 T cell infiltration was secondary to reduction of T-cell expansion rather than less trafficking. The LFA-1 blockade significantly suppressed the clonal expansion of minor histocompatibility antigen-specific CD8 T cells during the expansion and contraction phase. The CAV development was evaluated with morphometric analysis at postoperation day 100. The LFA-1 blockade profoundly attenuated neointimal hyperplasia (61.6 vs 23.8%; P < 0.05), CAV-affected vessel number (55.3 vs 15.9%; P < 0.05), and myocardial fibrosis (grade 3.29 vs 1.8; P < 0.05). Finally, short-term LFA-1 blockade promoted long-term donor-specific regulation, which resulted in attenuated transplant arteriosclerosis. Taken together, LFA-1 blockade inhibits initial endogenous alloreactive T-cell expansion and induces more regulation. Such a mechanism supports a pulse tolerance induction strategy with anti-LFA-1 rather than long-term treatment.

  2. Adiabatic Quantum Computing via the Rydberg Blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, Tyler; Goyal, Krittika; Deutsch, Ivan

    2012-06-01

    We study an architecture for implementing adiabatic quantum computation with trapped neutral atoms. Ground state atoms are dressed by laser fields in a manner conditional on the Rydberg blockade mechanism, thereby providing the requisite entangling interactions. As a benchmark we study the performance of a Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) problem whose solution is found in the ground state spin configuration of an Ising-like model. We model a realistic architecture, including the effects of magnetic level structure, with qubits encoded into the clock states of ^133Cs, effective B-fields implemented through microwaves and light shifts, and atom-atom coupling achieved by excitation to a high-lying Rydberg level. Including the fundamental effects of photon scattering we find a high fidelity for the two-qubit implementation.

  3. Thermal decay of Coulomb blockade oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrisov, Edvin G.; Levkivskyi, Ivan P.; Sukhorukov, Eugene V.

    2017-10-01

    We study transport properties and the charge quantization phenomenon in a small metallic island connected to the leads through two quantum point contacts (QPCs). The linear conductance is calculated perturbatively with respect to weak tunneling and weak backscattering at QPCs as a function of the temperature T and gate voltage. The conductance shows Coulomb blockade (CB) oscillations as a function of the gate voltage that decay with the temperature as a result of thermally activated fluctuations of the charge in the island. The regimes of quantum T ≪EC and thermal T ≫EC fluctuations are considered, where EC is the charging energy of an isolated island. Our predictions for CB oscillations in the quantum regime coincide with previous findings by Furusaki and Matveev [Phys. Rev. B 52, 16676 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevB.52.16676]. In the thermal regime the visibility of Coulomb blockade oscillations decays with the temperature as √{T /EC }exp(-π2T /EC) , where the exponential dependence originates from the thermal averaging over the instant charge fluctuations, while the prefactor has a quantum origin. This dependence does not depend on the strength of couplings to the leads. The differential capacitance, calculated in the case of a single tunnel junction, shows the same exponential decay, however the prefactor is linear in the temperature. This difference can be attributed to the nonlocality of the quantum effects. Our results agree with the recent experiment [Nature (London) 536, 58 (2016), 10.1038/nature19072] in the whole range of the parameter T /EC .

  4. Sensory blockade after thoracic paravertebral injection of ropivacaine or bupivacaine.

    PubMed

    Hura, G; Knapik, P; Misiołek, H; Krakus, A; Karpe, J

    2006-08-01

    No clinical trials comparing the characteristics of sensory blockade caused by various local anaesthetics in thoracic paravertebral blockade have been published. The aim of this prospective study was a clinical assessment of sensory blockade after paravertebral injection of ropivacaine or bupivacaine in patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy. Seventy ASA I-II patients were randomized to receive a single injection of ropivacaine 0.5% (n = 35) or bupivacaine 0.5% (n = 35) at the T4 level. General anaesthesia with propofol and fentanyl was provided during the procedure and patients were not intubated. The following parameters were analysed: duration and dynamics of the sensory blockade and the patient's and surgeon's assessment. Both ropivacaine and bupivacaine provided a similar level of analgesia. Ropivacaine was characterized by more rapid onset - after only 5 min 53% of patients in this group had the extent of sensory blockade wide enough to perform modified radical mastectomy in comparison to only 20% after bupivacaine (P 9 segments blocked) was noted more often in the ropivacaine group (88% vs. 65%, P < 0.05), lasted longer and appeared to be wider than sensory blockade produced by bupivacaine. Regression of sensory blockade was initially similar, but after 24 h sensory blockade in the ropivacaine group still had a potential to provide analgesia for modified radical mastectomy in 81% of patients in comparison to only 50% of such patients in the bupivacaine group (P < 0.05). Degree of postoperative pain, performance of the cardiovascular system, consumption of medications and complications were all similar between the study groups. Both agents provide satisfactory conditions for mastectomy, but ropivacaine seems to be superior to bupivacaine for thoracic paravertebral blockade during breast cancer surgery.

  5. DC attenuation meter

    DOEpatents

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  6. Kinetics of cycle length dependence of ventricular repolarization: effect of autonomic blockade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raeder, E. A.; Albrecht, P.; Perrott, M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Beat-to-beat adaptation of ventricular repolarization duration to cardiac cycle length and autonomic activity has not been previously characterized in the spontaneously beating human heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ECG of 14 healthy subjects was recorded from the supine and upright positions. Autonomic blockade was accomplished by atropine and propranolol. RR and RT intervals were measured by a computer algorithm, and the impulse response (h) from RR to RT computed. In the supine position the maximal adjustment of the RT interval occurred in the first beat following a change in cycle length (hpeak = 17.8 +/- 1.6 msec/sec), but continued to be detectable for 3.8 seconds (2.9-4.7 sec). Propranolol attenuated the peak impulse response to 15.8 +/- 4.0 msec/sec (P = NS). In the standing position the peak impulse response was increased to 25.2 +/- 5.0 msec/sec (P = 0.004 vs supine), and the impulse response duration (hdur) shortened to 1.4 seconds (1.3-1.6). This was reversed by beta blockade (hpeak = 10.7 +/- 3.6 [P = 0.005 vs standing]; hdur = 5.5 sec [4.8-6.1]). Parasympathetic and combined autonomic blockade resulted in too little residual heart rate variability to estimate the impulse response accurately. The slope of the regression of delta RT and delta RR in the supine position was 0.0177 +/- 0.0016, which was closely correlated with the peak impulse response (r = 0.91). CONCLUSIONS: System identification techniques can assist in characterizing the cycle dependence of ventricular repolarization and may provide new insights into conditions associated with abnormal repolarization.

  7. Blockade of interferon Beta, but not interferon alpha, signaling controls persistent viral infection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Cherie T; Sullivan, Brian M; Teijaro, John R; Lee, Andrew M; Welch, Megan; Rice, Stephanie; Sheehan, Kathleen C F; Schreiber, Robert D; Oldstone, Michael B A

    2015-05-13

    Although type I interferon (IFN-I) is thought to be beneficial against microbial infections, persistent viral infections are characterized by high interferon signatures suggesting that IFN-I signaling may promote disease pathogenesis. During persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, IFNα and IFNβ are highly induced early after infection, and blocking IFN-I receptor (IFNAR) signaling promotes virus clearance. We assessed the specific roles of IFNβ versus IFNα in controlling LCMV infection. While blockade of IFNβ alone does not alter early viral dissemination, it is important in determining lymphoid structure, lymphocyte migration, and anti-viral T cell responses that lead to accelerated virus clearance, approximating what occurs during attenuation of IFNAR signaling. Comparatively, blockade of IFNα was not associated with improved viral control, but with early dissemination of virus. Thus, despite their use of the same receptor, IFNβ and IFNα have unique and distinguishable biologic functions, with IFNβ being mainly responsible for promoting viral persistence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pancreatic Digestive Enzyme Blockade in the Intestine Increases Survival After Experimental Shock

    PubMed Central

    DeLano, Frank A.; Hoyt, David B.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2015-01-01

    Shock, sepsis, and multiorgan failure are associated with inflammation, morbidity, and high mortality. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is unknown, but evidence suggests that pancreatic enzymes in the intestinal lumen autodigest the intestine and generate systemic inflammation. Blocking these enzymes in the intestine reduces inflammation and multiorgan dysfunction. We investigated whether enzymatic blockade also reduces mortality after shock. Three rat shock models were used here: hemorrhagic shock, peritonitis shock induced by placement of cecal material into the peritoneum, and endotoxin shock. One hour after initiation of hemorrhagic, peritonitis, or endotoxin shock, animals were administered one of three different pancreatic enzyme inhibitors—6-amidino-2-naphtyl p-guanidinobenzoate di-methanesulfate, tranexamic acid, or aprotinin—into the lumen of the small intestine. In all forms of shock, blockade of digestive proteases with protease inhibitor attenuated entry of digestive enzymes into the wall of the intestine and subsequent autodigestion and morphological damage to the intestine, lung, and heart. Animals treated with protease inhibitors also survived in larger numbers than untreated controls over a period of 12 weeks. Surviving animals recovered completely and returned to normal weight within 14 days after shock. The results suggest that the active and concentrated digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine play a central role in shock and multi-organ failure, which can be treated with protease inhibitors that are currently available for use in the clinic. PMID:23345609

  9. Computational assignment of redox states to Coulomb blockade diamonds.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Stine T; Arcisauskaite, Vaida; Hansen, Thorsten; Kongsted, Jacob; Mikkelsen, Kurt V

    2014-09-07

    With the advent of molecular transistors, electrochemistry can now be studied at the single-molecule level. Experimentally, the redox chemistry of the molecule manifests itself as features in the observed Coulomb blockade diamonds. We present a simple theoretical method for explicit construction of the Coulomb blockade diamonds of a molecule. A combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method is invoked to calculate redox energies and polarizabilities of the molecules, including the screening effect of the metal leads. This direct approach circumvents the need for explicit modelling of the gate electrode. From the calculated parameters the Coulomb blockade diamonds are constructed using simple theory. We offer a theoretical tool for assignment of Coulomb blockade diamonds to specific redox states in particular, and a study of chemical details in the diamonds in general. With the ongoing experimental developments in molecular transistor experiments, our tool could find use in molecular electronics, electrochemistry, and electrocatalysis.

  10. Dual renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G; Chrysant, George S

    2015-01-01

    Single renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade has been shown to be effective and safe for the treatment of hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF), diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) with proteinuria. Due to the action of RAAS blockers at various levels of the RAAS cascade, it was hypothesized that dual RAAS blockade would result in more complete inhibition of angiotensin II (Ang II) production and be more effective in blocking its detrimental cardiovascular remodeling effects. Unfortunately, several clinical trials in patients with hypertension, CHD, HF, and CKD with proteinuria have demonstrated no superiority of dual versus single RAAS blockade, but a higher incidence of adverse events. Based on these findings, dual RAAS blockade is no longer recommended for the routine treatment of various cardiovascular diseases, except diabetic nephropathy with proteinuria and HF with reduced ejection fraction. All the new information gathered from studies within the last 3 years will be presented in this review.

  11. From Napoleon To Netanyahu: Blockading Through Two Centuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Hemisphere. With a range of only 2,500 miles per load of coal, steam powered ships could not reach Europe without refueling. Blockading actions at Vera ...BIBLIOGRAPHY Calore, Paul. Naval Campaigns of the Civil War. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Co., 2003. Davis, Lance E . and Stanley L...Lance E . Davis and Stanley L. Engerman, Naval Blockades in Peace and War: An Economic History Since 1750

  12. Impact of endothelin blockade on acute exercise-induced changes in blood flow and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Tim H A; van Lotringen, Jaap H; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-09-01

    Positive vascular effects of exercise training are mediated by acute increases in blood flow. Type 2 diabetes patients show attenuated exercise-induced increases in blood flow, possibly mediated by the endothelin pathway, preventing an optimal stimulus for vascular adaptation. We examined the impact of endothelin receptor blockade (bosentan) on exercise-induced blood flow in the brachial artery and on pre- and postexercise endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients (n = 9, 60 ± 7 years old) and control subjects (n = 10, 60 ± 5 years old). Subjects reported twice to the laboratory to perform hand-grip exercise in the presence of endothelin receptor blockade or placebo. We examined brachial artery endothelial function (via flow-mediated dilatation) before and after exercise, as well as blood flow during exercise. Endothelin receptor blockade resulted in a larger increase in blood flow during exercise in type 2 diabetes patients (P = 0.046), but not in control subjects (P = 0.309). Exercise increased shear rate across the exercise protocol, unaffected by endothelin receptor blockade. Exercise did not alter brachial artery diameter in either group, but endothelin receptor blockade resulted in a larger brachial artery diameter in type 2 diabetes patients (P = 0.033). Exercise significantly increased brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation in both groups, unaffected by endothelin receptor blockade. Endothelin receptor blockade increased exercise-induced brachial artery blood flow in type 2 diabetes patients, but not in control subjects. Despite this effect of endothelin receptor blockade on blood flow, we found no impact on baseline or post-exercise endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients or control subjects, possibly related to normalization of the shear stimulus during exercise. The successful increase in blood flow during exercise in type 2 diabetes patients through endothelin receptor blockade may have beneficial effects in

  13. Heat Coulomb blockade of one ballistic channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivre, E.; Anthore, A.; Parmentier, F. D.; Cavanna, A.; Gennser, U.; Ouerghi, A.; Jin, Y.; Pierre, F.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum mechanics and Coulomb interaction dictate the behaviour of small circuits. The thermal implications cover fundamental topics from quantum control of heat to quantum thermodynamics, with prospects of novel thermal machines and an ineluctably growing influence on nanocircuit engineering. Experimentally, the rare observations thus far include the universal thermal conductance quantum and heat interferometry. However, evidence for many-body thermal effects paving the way to markedly different heat and electrical behaviours in quantum circuits remains wanting. Here we report on the observation of the Coulomb blockade of electronic heat flow from a small metallic circuit node, beyond the widespread Wiedemann-Franz law paradigm. We demonstrate this thermal many-body phenomenon for perfect (ballistic) conduction channels to the node, where it amounts to the universal suppression of precisely one quantum of conductance for the transport of heat, but none for electricity. The inter-channel correlations that give rise to such selective heat current reduction emerge from local charge conservation, in the floating node over the full thermal frequency range (<~temperature × kB/h). This observation establishes the different nature of the quantum laws for thermal transport in nanocircuits.

  14. Rydberg blockade in three-atom systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barredo, Daniel; Ravets, Sylvain; Labuhn, Henning; Beguin, Lucas; Vernier, Aline; Chicireanu, Radu; Nogrette, Florence; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine

    2014-05-01

    The control of individual neutral atoms in arrays of optical tweezers is a promising avenue for quantum science and technology. Here we demonstrate unprecedented control over a system of three Rydberg atoms arranged in linear and triangular configurations. The interaction between Rydberg atoms results in the observation of an almost perfect van der Waals blockade. When the single-atom Rabi frequency for excitation to the Rydberg state is comparable to the interaction energy, we directly observe the anisotropy of the interaction between nD-states. Using the independently measured two-body interaction energy shifts we fully reproduce the dynamics of the three-atom system with a model based on a master equation without any adjustable parameter. Combined with our ability to trap single atoms in arbitrary patterns of 2D arrays of up to 100 traps separated by a few microns, these results are very promising for a scalable implementation of quantum simulation of frustrated quantum magnetism with Rydberg atoms.

  15. [Perioperative cardioprotection. Golden standard beta-blockade?].

    PubMed

    Butte, Nils; Böttiger, B W; Teschendorf, P

    2007-03-01

    Myocardial ischemia is a major cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Because of a growing expectancy of lives, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is increasing, and thus the number of surgical patients presenting with a cardiovascular risk profile. Based upon pathophysiological considerations, different interventions to lower perioperative cardiovascular risk have been evaluated. The mostly discussed intervention believed to prevent cardiovascular complications in the perioperative period is the use of beta-blockers. Although many authors agree that perioperative beta-blockade is effective in high-risk patients, less is known about the optimal timing, dosage and the identification of patients in whom the intervention would be beneficial. Based upon the available data we try to answer questions about timing and dosage, and we discuss possible side effects and economic questions. Another cardioprotective option is the use of statins. Besides their lipid-lowering properties, so called pleiotropic effects are believed to decrease cardiac risk. Furthermore, different interventions can be used in addition to or as an alternative to perioperative beta-blocker therapy, such as alpha-2 agonists, thoracic epidural analgesia or coronary revascularization.

  16. 8-OH-DPAT abolishes the pulmonary C-fiber-mediated apneic response to fentanyl largely via acting on 5HT1A receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarius

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jianguo; Zhang, Zhenxiong; Zhang, Cancan

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous bolus injection of morphine causes a vagal-mediated brief apnea (∼3 s), while continuous injection, via action upon central μ-opioid receptor (MOR), arrests ventilation (>20 s) that is eliminated by stimulating central 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptors (5HT1ARs). Bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs) are essential for triggering a brief apnea, and their afferents terminate at the caudomedial region of the nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) that densely expresses 5HT1ARs. Thus we asked whether the vagal-mediated apneic response to MOR agonists was PCF dependent, and if so, whether this apnea was abolished by systemic administration of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetral (8-OH-DPAT) largely through action upon mNTS 5HT1ARs. Right atrial bolus injection of fentanyl (5.0 μg/kg, a MOR agonist) was performed in the anesthetized and spontaneously breathing rats before and after: 1) selective blockade of PCFs' conduction and subsequent bivagotomy; 2) intravenous administration of 5HT1AR agonist 8-OH-DPAT; 3) intra-mNTS injection of 8-OH-DPAT; and 4) intra-mNTS injection of 5HT1AR antagonist WAY-100635 followed by 8-OH-DPAT (iv). We found the following: First, fentanyl evoked an immediate apnea (2.5 ± 0.4 s, ∼6-fold longer than the baseline expiratory duration, TE), which was abolished by either blocking PCFs' conduction or bivagotomy. Second, this apnea was prevented by systemic 8-OH-DPAT challenge. Third, intra-mNTS injection of 8-OH-DPAT greatly attenuated the apnea by 64%. Finally, intra-mNTS microinjection of WAY-100635 significantly attenuated (58%) the apneic blockade by 8-OH-DPAT (iv). We conclude that the vagal-mediated apneic response to MOR activation depends on PCFs, which is fully antagonized by systemic 8-OH-DPAT challenge largely via acting on mNTS 5HT1ARs. PMID:22696579

  17. AT1-receptor blockade attenuates outward aortic remodeling associated with diet-induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Friedrich; Kappert, Kai; Foryst-Ludwig, Anna; Kramer, Frederike; Clemenz, Markus; Grzesiak, Aleksandra; Sommerfeld, Manuela; Paul Frese, Jan; Greiner, Andreas; Kintscher, Ulrich; Unger, Thomas; Kaschina, Elena

    2017-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and obesity have been implicated in vascular outward remodeling, including aneurysms, but the precise mechanisms are not yet understood. We investigated the effect of the angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1-receptor) antagonist telmisartan on aortic outward remodeling in a diet-induced obesity model in mice. C57/Black6J mice were fed either a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks. One group of HFD mice was additionally exposed to telmisartan (3 mg/kg per day) for the last 4 weeks. HFD led to aortic outward remodeling, characterized by increased proteolysis, along with structural changes, such as fragmentation of elastic fibers and decreased elastin content. Vascular damage was associated with up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 (MMP-2), MMP-3, MMP-12, cathepsin D, and cathepsin B. HFD aortae exhibited an enhanced inflammatory status, characterized by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) colocalized with adipocytes in the adventitia. HFD resulted in a significant increase in aortic dimensions, evident by ultrasound measurements. Telmisartan abolished aortic dilatation and preserved elastin content. HFD induced enhanced expression of aortic MMP-2, MMP-9, and TNF-α was abrogated by telmisartan. Adventitial proteolytic and inflammatory factors were also examined in samples from human abdominal aneurysms. The expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MMP-9 was higher in the adventitial fat of diseased vessels compared with healthy tissues. Finally, adipocytes treated with TNF-α showed enhanced MMP-2, MMP-3, and cathepsin D, which was prevented by telmisartan. Taken together, HFD in mice induced aortic dilatation with up-regulation of matrix degrading and inflammatory pathways similar to those seen in human aortic aneurysmatic tissue. The HFD-induced vascular pathology was reduced by AT1-receptor antagonist telmisartan. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  18. Hypoxic response in newborn rat is attenuated by neurokinin-1 receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Wickström, H Ronny; Berner, Jonas; Holgert, Hans; Hökfelt, Tomas; Lagercrantz, Hugo

    2004-04-20

    Substance P (SP) is considered to be involved in the regulation of respiration, in particular when respiratory demands are increased, such as during hypoxic stress. In the present study we have investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular pre-treatment with the selective NK-1 receptor antagonist RP67580 on the respiratory response to hypoxia in 5-day-old rat pups. Basal respiration was not altered by RP67580. When subjected to hypoxia (10% O(2)), rat pups pre-treated with RP67580 were unable to sustain the increased respiratory frequency at 10 min. In situ hybridisation demonstrated increased expression of c-fos mRNA in several brainstem areas following hypoxia. This activation was blocked by the antagonist in the retrotrapezoid nucleus and the rostral ventrolateral medulla, areas known to be involved in the hypoxic ventilatory response. This study corroborates a role of endogenously released SP, mediated via NK-1 receptors, in the sustained response to hypoxia in 5-day-old rat pups and suggests that neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla are important in this function. It also represents a further example that neuropeptides are released under stressful conditions.

  19. Enhancement of Adipocyte Browning by Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockade.

    PubMed

    Tsukuda, Kana; Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Kanno, Harumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Higaki, Akinori; Yamauchi, Toshifumi; Min, Li-Juan; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been highlighted as a new possible therapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders, because WAT browning could increase energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. The new clusters of adipocytes that emerge with WAT browning have been named 'beige' or 'brite' adipocytes. Recent reports have indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. The biological effects of angiotensin II, a major component of RAS, are mediated by two receptor subtypes, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R). However, the functional roles of angiotensin II receptor subtypes in WAT browning have not been defined. Therefore, we examined whether deletion of angiotensin II receptor subtypes (AT1aR and AT2R) may affect white-to-beige fat conversion in vivo. AT1a receptor knockout (AT1aKO) mice exhibited increased appearance of multilocular lipid droplets and upregulation of thermogenic gene expression in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) compared to wild-type (WT) mice. AT2 receptor-deleted mice did not show miniaturization of lipid droplets or alteration of thermogenic gene expression levels in iWAT. An in vitro experiment using adipose tissue-derived stem cells showed that deletion of the AT1a receptor resulted in suppression of adipocyte differentiation, with reduction in expression of thermogenic genes. These results indicate that deletion of the AT1a receptor might have some effects on the process of browning of WAT and that blockade of the AT1 receptor could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic disorders.

  20. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  1. [Myostatin blockade therapy for muscular atrophy].

    PubMed

    Sunada, Yoshihide

    2011-11-01

    Myostatin, a member of the muscle-specific transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family, negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth. It inhibits muscle stem cell proliferation and differentiation and attenuates adult muscle fiber protein accretion, resulting in decreased skeletal muscle mass. As such, it has been considered a therapeutic target of muscular dystrophy. Notably, administration of a blocking antibody against myostatin ameliorated the pathophysiology of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Although a clinical trial of anti-myostatin antibody MYO-029 failed to achieve a significant outcome in patients with muscular dystrophies, various distinct approaches have been taken to establish anti-myostatin therapy, including myostatin decoy receptor ACE-031, small-molecule inhibitors against the myostatin receptor, and myostatin short intertering RNA with collagen-derived carrier particles. The clinical application of anti-myostatin therapeutics in treatment of patients with muscular dystrophy needs further evaluation for safety and specification of the target disease types among the various muscular dystrophies. In addition, myostatin inhibition could be effective for muscle-wasting conditions other than muscular dystrophy- for instance, steroid-induced myopathy, mitochondrial myopathy, or sarcopenia in elderly patients. Moreover, considerable evidence shows that myostatin regulates energy metabolism and that its inhibition can significantly attenuate the progression of obesity and diabetes. It may also be applicable for the prevention of metabolic syndrome. Thus, safe and potent anti-myostatin therapy will have a wide variety of applications in modern medicine.

  2. Involvement of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and endothelin-A receptors in the effect of agmatine on morphine and oxycodone-induced hypothermia in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Shaifali; Andurkar, Shridhar V; Gulati, Anil

    2013-10-01

    Potentiation of opioid analgesia by endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptor antagonist, BMS182874, and imidazoline receptor/α₂-adrenoceptor agonists such as clonidine and agmatine are well known. It is also known that agmatine blocks morphine hyperthermia in rats. However, the effect of agmatine on morphine or oxycodone hypothermia in mice is unknown. The present study was carried out to study the role of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and ET(A) receptors in morphine and oxycodone hypothermia in mice. Body temperature was determined over 6 h in male Swiss Webster mice treated with morphine, oxycodone, agmatine, and combination of agmatine with morphine or oxycodone. Yohimbine, idazoxan, and BMS182874 were used to determine involvement of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and ET(A) receptors, respectively. Morphine and oxycodone produced significant hypothermia that was not affected by α₂-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine, imidazoline receptor/α₂ adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan, or ET(A) receptor antagonist, BMS182874. Agmatine did not produce hypothermia; however, it blocked oxycodone but not morphine-induced hypothermia. Agmatine-induced blockade of oxycodone hypothermia was inhibited by idazoxan and yohimbine. The blockade by idazoxan was more pronounced compared with yohimbine. Combined administration of BMS182874 and agmatine did not produce changes in body temperature in mice. However, when BMS182874 was administered along with agmatine and oxycodone, it blocked agmatine-induced reversal of oxycodone hypothermia. This is the first report demonstrating that agmatine does not affect morphine hypothermia in mice, but reverses oxycodone hypothermia. Imidazoline receptors and α₂-adrenoceptors are involved in agmatine-induced reversal of oxycodone hypothermia. Our findings also suggest that ET(A) receptors may be involved in blockade of oxycodone hypothermia by agmatine. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de

  3. Pharmacology of the hypothermic response to 5-HT1A receptor activation in humans.

    PubMed

    Lesch, K P; Poten, B; Söhnle, K; Schulte, H M

    1990-01-01

    The selective 5-HT1A receptor ligand ipsapirone (IPS) caused dose-related hypothermia in humans. The response was attenuated by the nonselective 5-HT1/2 receptor antagonist metergoline and was completely antagonized by the nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist pindolol, which interacts stereoselectively with the 5-HT1A receptor. The selective beta 1-adrenergic antagonist betaxolol had no effect. The findings indicate that IPS-induced hypothermia specifically involves activation of (presynaptic) 5-HT1A receptors. Therefore, the hypothermic response to IPS may provide a convenient in vivo paradigma to assess the function of the presynaptic 5-HT receptor in affective disorders and its involvement in the effects of psychotropic drugs.

  4. Conditional phase-shift enhancement through dynamical Rydberg blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jin-Hui; Artoni, M.; Cataliotti, F.; La Rocca, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Large cross-phase shifts per photon can be attained through an all-optical polarization control of dipole blockade in Rydberg atoms. A pair of weak circularly polarized signal and control light pulses experience a giant nonlinear cross-interaction through the conditional excitation of a Rydberg state. Conditional cross-phase modulations on the order of π-radians may be attained under specific symmetric EIT quasi-resonant driving conditions at large degrees of transparency. We also suggest the possibility of extending our scheme to work at very low intensities and within a few-blockade-radii regions.

  5. Indirect androgen doping by oestrogen blockade in sports

    PubMed Central

    Handelsman, D J

    2008-01-01

    Androgens can increase muscular mass and strength and remain the most frequently abused and widely available drugs used in sports doping. Banning the administration of natural or synthetic androgens has led to a variety of strategies to circumvent the ban of the most effective ergogenic agents for power sports. Among these, a variety of indirect androgen doping strategies aiming to produce a sustained rise in endogenous testosterone have been utilized. These include oestrogen blockade by drugs that act as oestrogen receptor antagonists (antioestrogen) or aromatase inhibitors. The physiological and pharmacological basis for the effects of oestrogen blockade in men, but not women, are reviewed. PMID:18500381

  6. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, S.R.

    1987-05-29

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

  7. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  8. The Union Blockade and Demoralization of the South: Relative Prices in the Confederacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekelund, Robert B., Jr.; Thornton, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Applies the economic concept of relative prices to the blockaded Confederacy during the U.S. Civil War. Describes how the Union blockade encouraged blockade runners to supply luxury items while soldiers lacked food, clothing, and ammunition. Contends that the resultant demoralization was a factor in the demise of the Confederacy. (CFR)

  9. Beta-blockade prevents hematopoietic progenitor cell suppression after hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Elhassan, Ihab O; Hannoush, Edward J; Sifri, Ziad C; Jones, Eyone; Alzate, Walter D; Rameshwar, Pranela; Livingston, David H; Mohr, Alicia M

    2011-08-01

    Severe injury is accompanied by sympathetic stimulation that induces bone marrow (BM) dysfunction by both suppression of hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) growth and loss of cells via HPC mobilization to the peripheral circulation and sites of injury. Previous work demonstrated that beta-blockade (BB) given prior to tissue injury both reduces HPC mobilization and restores HPC colony growth within the BM. This study examined the effect and timing of BB on BM function in a hemorrhagic shock (HS) model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent HS via blood withdrawal, maintaining the mean arterial blood pressure at 30-40 mm Hg for 45 min, after which the extracted blood was reinfused. Propranolol (10 mg/kg) was given either prior to or immediately after HS. Blood pressure, heart rate, BM cellularity, and death were recorded. Bone marrow HPC growth was assessed by counting colony-forming unit-granulocyte-, erythrocyte-, monocyte-, megakaryocyte (CFU-GEMM), burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E), and colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) cells. Administration of BB prior to injury restored HPC growth to that of naïve animals (CFU-GEMM 59 ± 11 vs. 61 ± 4, BFU-E 68 ± 9 vs. 73 ± 3, and CFU-E 81 ± 35 vs. 78 ± 14 colonies/plate). Beta-blockade given after HS increased the growth of CFU-GEMM, BFU-E, and CFU-E significantly and improved BM cellularity compared with HS alone. The mortality rate was not increased in the groups receiving BB. Administration of propranolol either prior to injury or immediately after resuscitation significantly reduced post-shock BM suppression. After HS, BB may improve BM cellularity by decreasing HPC mobilization. Therefore, the early use of BB post-injury may play an important role in attenuating the BM dysfunction accompanying HS.

  10. Naltrexone treatment for opioid dependence: does its effectiveness depend on testing the blockade?

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Maria A; Bisaga, Adam; Mariani, John J; Glass, Andrew; Levin, Frances R; Comer, Sandra D; Nunes, Edward V

    2013-11-01

    FDA approval of long-acting injectable naltrexone (Vivitrol) for opioid dependence highlights the relevance of understanding mechanisms of antagonist treatment. Principles of learning suggest an antagonist works through extinguishing drug-seeking behavior, as episodes of drug use ("testing the blockade") fail to produce reinforcement. We hypothesized that opiate use would moderate the effect of naltrexone, specifically, that opiate-positive urines precede dropout in the placebo group, but not in the active-medication groups. An 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (N=57), compared the efficacy of low (192 mg) and high (384 mg) doses of a long-acting injectable naltrexone (Depotrex) with placebo (Comer et al., 2006). A Cox proportional hazard model was fit, modeling time-to-dropout as a function of treatment assignment and urine toxicology during treatment. Interaction of opiate urines with treatment group was significant. Opiate-positive urines predicted dropout on placebo and low-dose, but less so on high-dose naltrexone, where positive urines were more likely followed by sustained abstinence. Among patients with no opiate-positive urines, retention was higher in both low- and high-dose naltrexone conditions, compared to placebo. Findings confirm that injection naltrexone produces extinction of drug-seeking behavior after episodes of opiate use. Adequate dosage appears important, as low-dose naltrexone resembled the placebo group; opiate positive urines were likely to be followed by dropout from treatment. The observation of high treatment retention among naltrexone-treated patients who do not test the blockade, suggests naltrexone may also exert direct effects on opiate-taking behavior that do not depend on extinction, perhaps by attenuating craving or normalizing dysregulated hedonic or neuroendocrine systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-linear HRV indices under autonomic nervous system blockade.

    PubMed

    Bolea, Juan; Pueyo, Esther; Laguna, Pablo; Bailón, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been studied as a non-invasive technique to characterize the autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation of the heart. Non-linear methods based on chaos theory have been used during the last decades as markers for risk stratification. However, interpretation of these nonlinear methods in terms of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is not fully established. In this work we study linear and non-linear HRV indices during ANS blockades in order to assess their relation with sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Power spectral content in low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz) bands of HRV, as well as correlation dimension, sample and approximate entropies were computed in a database of subjects during single and dual ANS blockade with atropine and/or propranolol. Parasympathetic blockade caused a significant decrease in the low and high frequency power of HRV, as well as in correlation dimension and sample and approximate entropies. Sympathetic blockade caused a significant increase in approximate entropy. Sympathetic activation due to postural change from supine to standing caused a significant decrease in all the investigated non-linear indices and a significant increase in the normalized power in the low frequency band. The other investigated linear indices did not show significant changes. Results suggest that parasympathetic activity has a direct relation with sample and approximate entropies.

  12. Axillary Brachial Plexus Blockade for the Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbers, G. M.; Geurts, A. C. H.; Rijken, R. A. J.; Kerkkamp, H. E. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSD) is a neurogenic pain syndrome characterized by pain, vasomotor and dystrophic changes, and often motor impairments. This study evaluated the effectiveness of brachial plexus blockade with local anaesthetic drugs as a treatment for this condition. Three patients responded well; three did not. (DB)

  13. Notch2 blockade enhances hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and homing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weihuan; Yu, Shuiliang; Myers, Jay; Wang, Yiwei; Xin, William W; Albakri, Marwah; Xin, Alison W; Li, Ming; Huang, Alex Y; Xin, Wei; Siebel, Christian W; Lazarus, Hillard M; Zhou, Lan

    2017-10-01

    Despite use of newer approaches, some patients being considered for autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) may only mobilize limited numbers of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) into blood, precluding use of the procedure, or being placed at increased risk of complications due to slow hematopoietic reconstitution. Developing more efficacious HPC mobilization regimens and strategies may enhance the mobilization process and improve patient outcome. Although Notch signaling is not essential for homeostasis of adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), Notch-ligand adhesive interaction maintains HSC quiescence and niche retention. Using Notch receptor blocking antibodies, we report that Notch2 blockade, but not Notch1 blockade, sensitizes hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors (HSPCs) to mobilization stimuli and leads to enhanced egress from marrow to the periphery. Notch2 blockade leads to transient myeloid progenitor expansion without affecting HSC homeostasis and self-renewal. We show that transient Notch2 blockade or Notch2-loss in mice lacking Notch2 receptor lead to decreased CXCR4 expression by HSC but increased cell cycling with CXCR4 transcription being directly regulated by the Notch transcriptional protein RBPJ. In addition, we found that Notch2-blocked or Notch2-deficient marrow HSPCs show an increased homing to the marrow, while mobilized Notch2-blocked, but not Notch2-deficient stem cells and progenitors, displayed a competitive repopulating advantage and enhanced hematopoietic reconstitution. These findings suggest that blocking Notch2 combined with the current clinical regimen may further enhance HPC mobilization and improve engraftment during HCT. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  14. Sodium intake, RAAS-blockade and progressive renal disease.

    PubMed

    de Borst, Martin H; Navis, Gerjan

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers is the current standard treatment to prevent progressive renal function loss in patients with chronic kidney disease. Yet in many patients the renal protective effect of RAAS-blockade is incomplete. Short-term clinical studies have demonstrated that dietary sodium restriction potentiates the antiproteinuric effect of RAAS-blockade. More recently, it was shown that this effect is accompanied by a lower risk of end-stage renal disease and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The modulation of RAAS-blockade efficacy by sodium intake is likely multifactorial, and is mediated by effects of sodium on local tissue RAAS in kidney, vasculature and brain, and by effects on the immune system. Despite the evidence showing the beneficial effects of even a moderate sodium restriction (∼2.5g/d), it remains difficult to realize in clinical practice. In an analysis based on 24-h urinary sodium excretion data from more than 10,000 CKD patients and renal transplant recipients, we found that sodium intake in these patients is on average 3.8g/d, closely resembling the global general population (3.95g/d). Behavioral approaches including the use of online dietary coaching (ehealth) and feedback using data from 24-h urine collections may be useful to successfully lower dietary sodium intake, aiming to improve cardio-renal outcomes in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. P2X7 receptor blockade protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by decreasing the activities of inflammasome components, oxidative stress and caspase-3

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Fahuan; Cao, Xuejiao

    2014-11-15

    Nephrotoxicity is a common complication of cisplatin chemotherapy and thus limits the use of cisplatin in clinic. The purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays important roles in inflammation and apoptosis in some inflammatory diseases; however, its roles in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain unclear. In this study, we first assessed the expression of P2X7R in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice, and then we investigated the changes of renal function, histological injury, inflammatory response, and apoptosis in renal tissues after P2X7R blockade in vivo using an antagonist A-438079. Moreover, we measured the changes of nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing proteins (NLRP3) inflammasome components,more » oxidative stress, and proapoptotic genes in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity after treatment with A-438079. We found that the expression of P2X7R was significantly upregulated in the renal tubular epithelial cells in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity compared with that of the normal control group. Furthermore, pretreatment with A-438079 markedly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury while lightening the histological damage, inflammatory response and apoptosis in renal tissue, and improved the renal function. These effects were associated with the significantly reduced levels of NLRP3 inflammasome components, oxidative stress, p53 and caspase-3 in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. In conclusions, our studies suggest that the upregulated activity of P2X7R might play important roles in the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, and P2X7R blockade might become an effective therapeutic strategy for this disease. - Highlights: • The P2X7R expression was markedly upregulated in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. • P2X7R blockade significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury. • P2X7R blockade reduced activities of NLRP3 inflammasome components in renal tissue. • P2X7R

  16. Adenosine 2A receptor occupancy by tozadenant and preladenant in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Barret, Olivier; Hannestad, Jonas; Alagille, David; Vala, Christine; Tavares, Adriana; Papin, Caroline; Morley, Thomas; Fowles, Krista; Lee, Hsiaoju; Seibyl, John; Tytgat, Dominique; Laruelle, Marc; Tamagnan, Gilles

    2014-10-01

    Motor symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD) are caused by a loss of dopamine input from the substantia nigra to the striatum. Blockade of adenosine 2A (A(2A)) receptors facilitates dopamine D(2) receptor function. In phase 2 clinical trials, A(2A) antagonists (istradefylline, preladenant, and tozadenant) improved motor function in PD. We developed a new A(2A) PET radiotracer, (18)F-MNI-444, and used it to investigate the relationship between plasma levels and A(2A) occupancy by preladenant and tozadenant in nonhuman primates (NHP). A series of 20 PET experiments was conducted in 5 adult rhesus macaques. PET data were analyzed with both plasma-input (Logan graphical analysis) and reference-region-based (simplified reference tissue model and noninvasive Logan graphical analysis) methods. Whole-body PET images were acquired for radiation dosimetry estimates. Human pharmacokinetic parameters for tozadenant and preladenant were used to predict A(2A) occupancy in humans, based on median effective concentration (EC(50)) values estimated from the NHP PET measurements. (18)F-MNI-444 regional uptake was consistent with A(2A) receptor distribution in the brain. Selectivity was demonstrated by dose-dependent blocking by tozadenant and preladenant. The specific-to-nonspecific ratio was superior to that of other A(2A) PET radiotracers. Pharmacokinetic modeling predicted that tozadenant and preladenant may have different profiles of A(2A) receptor occupancy in humans. (18)F-MNI-444 appears to be a better PET radiotracer for A(2A) imaging than currently available radiotracers. Assuming that EC(50) in humans is similar to that in NHP, it appears that tozadenant will provide a more sustained A(2A) receptor occupancy than preladenant in humans at clinically tested doses. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  17. Neuraxial blockade for external cephalic version: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sultan, P; Carvalho, B

    2011-10-01

    The desire to decrease the number of cesarean deliveries has renewed interest in external cephalic version. The rationale for using neuraxial blockade to facilitate external cephalic version is to provide abdominal muscular relaxation and reduce patient discomfort during the procedure, so permitting successful repositioning of the fetus to a cephalic presentation. This review systematically examined the current evidence to determine the safety and efficacy of neuraxial anesthesia or analgesia when used for external cephalic version. A systematic literature review of studies that examined success rates of external cephalic version with neuraxial anesthesia was performed. Published articles written in English between 1945 and 2010 were identified using the Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE and Web of Sciences databases. Six, randomized controlled studies were identified. Neuraxial blockade significantly improved the success rate in four of these six studies. A further six non-randomized studies were identified, of which four studies with control groups found that neuraxial blockade increased the success rate of external cephalic version. Despite over 850 patients being included in the 12 studies reviewed, placental abruption was reported in only one patient with a neuraxial block, compared with two in the control groups. The incidence of non-reassuring fetal heart rate requiring cesarean delivery in the anesthesia groups was 0.44% (95% CI 0.15-1.32). Neuraxial blockade improved the likelihood of success during external cephalic version, although the dosing regimen that provides optimal conditions for successful version is unclear. Anesthetic rather than analgesic doses of local anesthetics may improve success. The findings suggest that neuraxial blockade does not compromise maternal or fetal safety during external cephalic version. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preclinical and clinical characterization of the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist DU-125530 for antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Scorza, M C; Lladó-Pelfort, L; Oller, S; Cortés, R; Puigdemont, D; Portella, M J; Pérez-Egea, R; Alvarez, E; Celada, P; Pérez, V; Artigas, F

    2012-11-01

    The antidepressant efficacy of selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and other 5-HT-enhancing drugs is compromised by a negative feedback mechanism involving 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor activation by the excess 5-HT produced by these drugs in the somatodendritic region of 5-HT neurones. 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists augment antidepressant-like effects in rodents by preventing this negative feedback, and the mixed β-adrenoceptor/5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist pindolol improves clinical antidepressant effects by preferentially interacting with 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors. However, it is unclear whether 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists not discriminating between pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors would be clinically effective. We characterized the pharmacological properties of the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist DU-125530 using receptor autoradiography, intracerebral microdialysis and electrophysiological recordings. Its capacity to accelerate/enhance the clinical effects of fluoxetine was assessed in a double-blind, randomized, 6 week placebo-controlled trial in 50 patients with major depression (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01119430). DU-125530 showed equal (low nM) potency to displace agonist and antagonist binding to pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors in rat and human brain. It antagonized suppression of 5-hydroxytryptaminergic activity evoked by 8-OH-DPAT and SSRIs in vivo. DU-125530 augmented SSRI-induced increases in extracellular 5-HT as effectively as in mice lacking 5-HT(1A) receptors, indicating a silent, maximal occupancy of pre-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors at the dose used. However, DU-125530 addition to fluoxetine did not accelerate nor augment its antidepressant effects. DU-125530 is an excellent pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist. However, blockade of post-synaptic 5- HT(1A) receptors by DU-125530 cancels benefits obtained by enhancing pre-synaptic 5-hydroxytryptaminergic function. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of

  19. [Comparative analysis of metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate striatal receptors blockade influence on rats locomotor behaviour].

    PubMed

    Iakimovskiĭ, A F; Kerko, T V

    2013-02-01

    The influence of NMDA and metabotropic neostriatal glutamate receptors blockade to avoidance conditioning (in shuttle box) and free locomotor behavior (in open field) in chronic experiments in rats were investigated. The glutamate receptor antagonists were injected bilateral into striatum separately and with the GABA-A receptor antagonist picrotoxin (2 microg), that produced in rats the impairment of avoidance conditioning and choreo-myoklonic hyperkinesis. The most effective in preventing of negative picrotoxin influence on behavior was 5-type metabotropic glutamate receptors antagonist MTEP (3 microg). Separately injected MTEP did not influence on avoidance conditioning and free locomotor behavior. Unlike that, 1-type metabotropic glutamate receptors antagonist EMQMCM (3 microg) impaired normal locomotor behavior and did not prevent the picrotoxin effects. The NMDA glutamate receptors MK 801 (disocilpin--1 and 5 microg) impaired the picrotoxin-induced hyperkinesis, but did not to prevent the negative effects on avoidance conditioning; separately injected MK 801 reduced free locomotor activity. Based on location of investigated receptor types in neostriatal neurons membranes, we proposed that the most effective influence on 5-type metabotropic glutamate receptors is associated with their involvement in "indirect" efferent pathway, suffered in hyperkinetic extrapyramidal motor dysfunction--Huntington's chorea in human.

  20. RADIO FREQUENCY ATTENUATOR

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, S.

    1963-11-12

    A high peak power level r-f attenuator that is readily and easily insertable along a coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer annular conductor without breaking the ends thereof is presented. Spaced first and second flares in the outer conductor face each other with a slidable cylindrical outer conductor portion therebetween. Dielectric means, such as water, contact the cable between the flares to attenuate the radio-frequency energy received thereby. The cylindrical outer conductor portion is slidable to adjust the voltage standing wave ratio to a low level, and one of the flares is slidable to adjust the attenuation level. An integral dielectric container is also provided. (AFC)

  1. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  2. Blockade of neurokinin-1 receptors in the ventral respiratory column does not affect breathing but alters neurochemical release

    PubMed Central

    Muere, Clarissa; Neumueller, Suzanne; Olesiak, Samantha; Miller, Justin; Hodges, Matthew R.; Pan, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Substance P (SP) and its receptor, neurokinin-1 (NK1R), have been shown to be excitatory modulators of respiratory frequency and to stabilize breathing regularity. Studies in anesthetized mice suggest that tonic activation of NK1Rs is particularly important when other excitatory inputs to the pre-Bötzinger complex in the ventral respiratory column (VRC) are attenuated. Consistent with these findings, muscarinic receptor blockade in the VRC of intact goats elicits an increase in breathing frequency associated with increases in SP and serotonin concentrations, suggesting an involvement of these substances in neuromodulator compensation. To gain insight on the contribution to breathing of endogenous SP and NK1R activation, and how NK1R modulates the release of other neurochemicals, we individually dialyzed antagonists to NK1R (133, 267, 500 μM Spantide; 3 mM RP67580) throughout the VRC of awake and sleeping goats. We found that NK1R blockade with either Spantide at any dose or RP67580 had no effect on breathing or regularity. Both antagonists significantly (P < 0.001) increased SP, while RP67580 also increased serotonin and glycine and decreased thyrotropin-releasing hormone concentrations in the dialysate. Taken together, these data support the concept of neuromodulator interdependence, and we believe that the loss of excitatory input from NK1Rs was locally compensated by changes in other neurochemicals. PMID:25635003

  3. Blockade of neurokinin-1 receptors in the ventral respiratory column does not affect breathing but alters neurochemical release.

    PubMed

    Muere, Clarissa; Neumueller, Suzanne; Olesiak, Samantha; Miller, Justin; Hodges, Matthew R; Pan, Lawrence; Forster, Hubert V

    2015-03-15

    Substance P (SP) and its receptor, neurokinin-1 (NK1R), have been shown to be excitatory modulators of respiratory frequency and to stabilize breathing regularity. Studies in anesthetized mice suggest that tonic activation of NK1Rs is particularly important when other excitatory inputs to the pre-Bötzinger complex in the ventral respiratory column (VRC) are attenuated. Consistent with these findings, muscarinic receptor blockade in the VRC of intact goats elicits an increase in breathing frequency associated with increases in SP and serotonin concentrations, suggesting an involvement of these substances in neuromodulator compensation. To gain insight on the contribution to breathing of endogenous SP and NK1R activation, and how NK1R modulates the release of other neurochemicals, we individually dialyzed antagonists to NK1R (133, 267, 500 μM Spantide; 3 mM RP67580) throughout the VRC of awake and sleeping goats. We found that NK1R blockade with either Spantide at any dose or RP67580 had no effect on breathing or regularity. Both antagonists significantly (P < 0.001) increased SP, while RP67580 also increased serotonin and glycine and decreased thyrotropin-releasing hormone concentrations in the dialysate. Taken together, these data support the concept of neuromodulator interdependence, and we believe that the loss of excitatory input from NK1Rs was locally compensated by changes in other neurochemicals. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Patch clamp reveals powerful blockade of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore by the D2-receptor agonist pramipexole.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Iqbal; Parvez, Suhel; Winkler-Stuck, Kirstin; Seitz, Gordon; Trieu, Isabelle; Wallesch, Claus-Werner; Schönfeld, Peter; Siemen, Detlef

    2006-03-01

    The dopamine-D2-agonist pramipexole (PPX) was tested for blocking mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) in order to give a possible explanation for its neuroprotective effect seen in PPX-treated Parkinson's disease patients. Patch-clamp techniques for studying single-channel currents in the inner mitochondrial membrane and large-amplitude swelling of energized mitochondria were used to study PPX action on the permeability transition pore (PTP), a key player in the mitochondrial route of the apoptotic cascade. Identity of the PTP was proven by measuring the concentration-response relation for cyclosporin A-blockade (IC50=26 nM). PPX inhibits the PTP reversibly with an IC50 of 500 nM, which is close to the values determined earlier as plasma concentrations after PPX medication in patients. Interaction of PPX with the PTP is further supported by demonstrating that it abolished Ca2+-triggered swelling in functionally intact mitochondria. Blockade of the PTP by PPX was attenuated by increasing concentrations of inorganic phosphate and by acidification. We suggest that PPX could exert part of its neuroprotective effect by inhibition of the PTP and thus, probably, blocking of the mitochondrial pathway of the apoptosis cascade.

  5. Attenuator And Conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Carson, Richard F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; Kemme, Shanalyn Adair; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.

    2006-04-04

    An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.

  6. Antibunching and unconventional photon blockade with Gaussian squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemonde, Marc-Antoine; Didier, Nicolas; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2014-12-01

    Photon antibunching is a quantum phenomenon typically observed in strongly nonlinear systems where photon blockade suppresses the probability of detecting two photons at the same time. Antibunching has also been reported with Gaussian states, where optimized amplitude squeezing yields classically forbidden values of the intensity correlation, g(2 )(0 ) <1 . As a consequence, observation of antibunching is not necessarily a signature of photon-photon interactions. To clarify the significance of the intensity correlations, we derive a sufficient condition for deducing whether a field is non-Gaussian based on a g(2 )(0 ) measurement. We then show that the Gaussian antibunching obtained with a degenerate parametric amplifier is close to the ideal case reached using dissipative squeezing protocols. We finally shed light on the so-called unconventional photon blockade effect predicted in a driven two-cavity setup with surprisingly weak Kerr nonlinearities, stressing that it is a particular realization of optimized Gaussian amplitude squeezing.

  7. Silicon-based Coulomb blockade thermometer with Schottky barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuboltsev, V.; Savin, A.; Rogozin, V. D.; Räisänen, J.

    2014-04-01

    A hybrid Coulomb blockade thermometer (CBT) in form of an array of intermittent aluminum and silicon islands connected in series via tunnel junctions was fabricated on a thin silicon-on-insulator (SOI) film. Tunnel barriers in the micrometer size junctions were formed by metal-semiconductor Schottky contacts between aluminium electrodes and heavily doped silicon. Differential conductance through the array vs. bias voltage was found to exhibit characteristic features of competing thermal and charging effects enabling absolute temperature measurements over the range of ˜65 to ˜500 mK. The CBT performance implying the primary nature of the thermometer demonstrated for rather trivial architecture attempted in this work paves a route for introduction of Coulomb blockade thermometry into well-developed contemporary SOI technology.

  8. Immunotherapeutic implications of IL-6 blockade for cytokine storm.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshio; Narazaki, Masashi; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2016-07-01

    IL-6 contributes to host defense against infections and tissue injuries. However, exaggerated, excessive synthesis of IL-6 while fighting environmental stress leads to an acute severe systemic inflammatory response known as 'cytokine storm', since high levels of IL-6 can activate the coagulation pathway and vascular endothelial cells but inhibit myocardial function. Remarkable beneficial effects of IL-6 blockade therapy using a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab were recently observed in patients with cytokine release syndrome complicated by T-cell engaged therapy. In this review we propose the possibility that IL-6 blockade may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for other types of cytokine storm, such as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome including sepsis, macrophage activation syndrome and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

  9. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Sustained Neuromuscular Blockade in the Adult Critically Ill Patient.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael J; DeBlock, Heidi; Erstad, Brian; Gray, Anthony; Jacobi, Judi; Jordan, Che; McGee, William; McManus, Claire; Meade, Maureen; Nix, Sean; Patterson, Andrew; Sands, M Karen; Pino, Richard; Tescher, Ann; Arbour, Richard; Rochwerg, Bram; Murray, Catherine Friederich; Mehta, Sangeeta

    2016-11-01

    blockade to improve the accuracy of intravascular-volume assessment in mechanically ventilated patients. 5) We make no recommendation concerning the use of electroencephalogram-derived parameters as a measure of sedation during continuous administration of neuromuscular-blocking agents. 6) We make no recommendation regarding nutritional requirements specific to patients receiving infusions of neuromuscular-blocking agents. 7) We make no recommendation concerning the use of one measure of consistent weight over another when calculating neuromuscular-blocking agent doses in obese patients. 8) We make no recommendation on the use of neuromuscular-blocking agents in pregnant patients. 9) We make no recommendation on which muscle group should be monitored in patients with myasthenia gravis receiving neuromuscular-blocking agents. Finally, in situations in which evidence was lacking or insufficient but expert consensus was unanimous, the Task Force developed six good practice statements. 1) If peripheral nerve stimulation is used, optimal clinical practice suggests that it should be done in conjunction with assessment of other clinical findings (e.g., triggering of the ventilator and degree of shivering) to assess the degree of neuromuscular blockade in patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. 2) Optimal clinical practice suggests that a protocol should include guidance on neuromuscular-blocking agent administration in patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. 3) Optimal clinical practice suggests that analgesic and sedative drugs should be used prior to and during neuromuscular blockade, with the goal of achieving deep sedation. 4) Optimal clinical practice suggests that clinicians at the bedside implement measure to attenuate the risk of unintended extubation in patients receiving neuromuscular-blocking agents. 5) Optimal clinical practice suggests that a reduced dose of an neuromuscular-blocking agent be used for patients with myasthenia gravis and that the dose should

  10. Intractable diarrhea in hyperthyroidism: management with beta-adrenergic blockade.

    PubMed

    Bricker, L A; Such, F; Loehrke, M E; Kavanaugh, K

    2001-01-01

    To describe a patient with intractable diarrhea and thyrotoxic Graves' disease, for whom b-adrenergic blockade ultimately proved to be effective therapy for the diarrhea, and to review the types of hyperthyroidism-associated diarrhea. We present the clinical course of a young man with a prolonged siege of diarrhea that proved elusive to diagnostic inquiries and resistant to all means of management until its endocrine basis was discovered. Control of such cases with b-adrenergic blockade is discussed, as are the pathophysiologic bases of intestinal hypermotility in hyperthyroidism. A 26-year-old man with Down syndrome, and no prior gastrointestinal disorder, had insidious, chronic, constant diarrhea, which was associated with loss of 14 kg during a 5-month period. Numerous laboratory and imaging studies and endoscopic examinations failed to disclose the cause of the diarrhea. Furthermore, a broad range of antibiotics and other empiric remedies failed to control the problem. No other symptoms of hyperthyroidism were reported, but when the endocrinopathy was suspected and identified, the diarrhea was promptly controlled by treatment with propranolol. In patients with hyperthyroidism, two types of diarrheal disorders have been described-secretory diarrhea and steatorrhea; bile acid malabsorption may have a role in either of these settings. In addition to its capacity for blocking the peripheral effects of thyroid hormone on the heart and central nervous system, b-adrenergic blockade is effective in slowing intestinal transit time and ameliorating the uncommon diarrhea associated with hyperthyroidism. Thyroid hormone in excess, among its other possible effects on the gastrointestinal tract, may exert a stimulatory effect by means of intermediary sympathetic activation, as it does with the heart. Thus, sympathetic blockade can mimic the salutary effects on the gastrointestinal tract conventionally brought about by direct antithyroid therapy, and well before the

  11. [Indications and possibilities of blockade of the sympathetic nerve].

    PubMed

    Meyer, J

    1987-04-01

    Treatment of chronic pain through permanent or temporary interruption of sympathetic activity is marked by great clinical success, but nevertheless there are rather skeptical reports about long-term results of these blocks as therapeutic measures. There are many symptoms and signs of chronic pain, while diagnosis is expensive, the pathogenesis is complex, and the etiology is generally due to multiple factors. Indications for sympathetic blockade depend upon the possible means of access, as in the cervicothoracic, thoracic, lumbar, or sacral regions. General indications are: symptoms not limited segmentally within peripheral body areas; pain resulting from microtraumata and lesions of peripheral nerve branches; and pain caused by intensified sympathetic tone with consequent circulatory disturbances. Peripheral circulatory disturbances are the most common indication for sympathetic blockade, as the block produces a vasomotor reaction that leads to increased capillary circulation. Pain caused by herpes zoster, sudden hearing loss, hyperhidrosis, and pseudesthesia can also be influenced by sympathetic blockade. There are several possibilities for reducing or interrupting sympathetic activity; for us, however, blocking of the sympathetic trunk is the most important. During the last 16 years we performed 15,726 sympathetic blockades on 2385 patients, which included: 3735 stellate ganglion blocks, 6121 blocks of the lumbar sympathetic trunk, 5037 continuous peridural anesthesias, 29 blocks of the thoracic sympathetic trunk, and 12 celiac blocks. In 792 cases sympathetic blocks were performed using neurolytic drugs, in most cases 96% ethyl alcohol and less often 10% ammonium sulphate. Other possibilities, such as enteral administration or infusion of sympatholytic drugs, were not taken into consideration; regional intravascular injection of guanethidine can be recommended, however.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Interaction of antibiotics on pipecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade.

    PubMed

    de Gouw, N E; Crul, J F; Vandermeersch, E; Mulier, J P; van Egmond, J; Van Aken, H

    1993-01-01

    To measure the interaction of two antibiotics (clindamycin and colistin) on neuromuscular blockade induced by pipecuronium bromide (a new long-acting, steroidal, nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug). Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Inpatient gynecologic and gastroenterologic service at a university medical center. Three groups of 20 ASA physical status I and II patients with normal kidney and liver function, taking no medication, and undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and alfentanil intravenously (IV) and maintained with a propofol infusion and 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen. Pipecuronium bromide 50 micrograms/kg was administered after reaching a stable baseline of single-twitch response. At 25% recovery of pipecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade, patients received one of two antibiotics, clindamycin 300 mg or colistin 1 million IU, or a placebo. The recovery index (RI, defined as time from 25% to 75% recovery of neuromuscular blockade) was measured using the single-twitch response of the adductor pollicis muscle with supramaximal stimulation of the ulnar nerve at the wrist. RI after administration of an antibiotic (given at 25% recovery) was measured and compared with RI of the control group using Student's unpaired t-test. Statistical analyses of the results showed a significant prolongation of the recovery time (from 25% to 75% recovery) of 40 minutes for colistin. When this type of antibiotic is used during anesthesia with pipercuronium as a muscle relaxant, one must be aware of a significant prolongation of an already long-acting neuromuscular blockade and (although not observed in this study) possible problems in antagonism.

  13. α-Adrenoceptor blockade modifies neurally induced atrial arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Richer, Louis-Philippe; Vinet, Alain; Kus, Teresa; Cardinal, René; Ardell, Jeffrey L.; Armour, John Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether neuronally induced atrial arrhythmias can be modified by α-adrenergic receptor blockade. In 30 anesthetized dogs, trains of five electrical stimuli (1 mA; 1 ms) were delivered immediately after the P wave of the ECG to mediastinal nerves associated with the superior vena cava. Regional atrial electrical events were monitored with 191 atrial unipolar electrodes. Mediastinal nerve sites were identified that reproducibly initiated atrial arrhythmias. These sites were then restimulated following 1 h (time control, n = 6), or the intravenous administration of naftopidil (α1-adrenergic blocker: 0.2 mg/kg, n = 6), yohimbine (α2-adrenergic blocker: 1 mg/kg, n = 6) or both (n = 8). A ganglionic blocker (hexamethonium: 1 mg/kg) was tested in four dogs. Stimulation of mediastinal nerves sites consistently elicited atrial tachyarrhythmias. Repeat stimulation after 1 h in the time-control group exerted a 19% decrease of the sites still able to induce atrial tachyarrhythmias. Hexamethonium inactivated 78% of the previously active sites. Combined α-adrenoceptor blockade inactivated 72% of the previously active sites. Bradycardia responses induced by mediastinal nerve stimulation were blunted by hexamethonium, but not by α1,2-adrenergic blockade. Naftopidil or yohimbine alone eliminated atrial arrhythmia induction from 31% and 34% of the sites (similar to time control). We conclude that heterogeneous activation of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system results in atrial arrhythmias that involve intrinsic cardiac neuronal α-adrenoceptors. In contrast to the global suppression exerted by hexamethonium, we conclude that α-adrenoceptor blockade targets intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons involved in arrhythmia formation and not the flow-through efferent projections of the cardiac nervous system. PMID:18716036

  14. Alpha-adrenoceptor blockade modifies neurally induced atrial arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Richer, Louis-Philippe; Vinet, Alain; Kus, Teresa; Cardinal, René; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Armour, John Andrew

    2008-10-01

    Our objective was to determine whether neuronally induced atrial arrhythmias can be modified by alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade. In 30 anesthetized dogs, trains of five electrical stimuli (1 mA; 1 ms) were delivered immediately after the P wave of the ECG to mediastinal nerves associated with the superior vena cava. Regional atrial electrical events were monitored with 191 atrial unipolar electrodes. Mediastinal nerve sites were identified that reproducibly initiated atrial arrhythmias. These sites were then restimulated following 1 h (time control, n = 6), or the intravenous administration of naftopidil (alpha(1)-adrenergic blocker: 0.2 mg/kg, n = 6), yohimbine (alpha(2)-adrenergic blocker: 1 mg/kg, n = 6) or both (n = 8). A ganglionic blocker (hexamethonium: 1 mg/kg) was tested in four dogs. Stimulation of mediastinal nerves sites consistently elicited atrial tachyarrhythmias. Repeat stimulation after 1 h in the time-control group exerted a 19% decrease of the sites still able to induce atrial tachyarrhythmias. Hexamethonium inactivated 78% of the previously active sites. Combined alpha-adrenoceptor blockade inactivated 72% of the previously active sites. Bradycardia responses induced by mediastinal nerve stimulation were blunted by hexamethonium, but not by alpha(1,2)-adrenergic blockade. Naftopidil or yohimbine alone eliminated atrial arrhythmia induction from 31% and 34% of the sites (similar to time control). We conclude that heterogeneous activation of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system results in atrial arrhythmias that involve intrinsic cardiac neuronal alpha-adrenoceptors. In contrast to the global suppression exerted by hexamethonium, we conclude that alpha-adrenoceptor blockade targets intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons involved in arrhythmia formation and not the flow-through efferent projections of the cardiac nervous system.

  15. Blockade of Dickkopf (DKK)-1 induces fusion of sacroiliac joints.

    PubMed

    Uderhardt, S; Diarra, D; Katzenbeisser, J; David, J-P; Zwerina, J; Richards, W; Kronke, G; Schett, G

    2010-03-01

    To study whether Dickkopf (DKK)-1, an inhibitor of wingless (Wnt) signalling, is involved in the fusion of sacroiliac joints. Mice transgenic for tumour necrosis factor (TNFtg mice), which develop bilateral sacroiliitis, were treated with vehicle, anti-TNF antibody or anti-DKK1 antibody. Sacroiliac joints were analysed for histological signs of inflammation, bone erosion, osteoclast formation and ankylosis. Moreover, expression of collagen type X, beta-catenin and DKK-1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. There were no signs of spontaneous ankylosis of the sacroiliac joints in TNFtg mice. TNF blockade effectively reduced inflammation, bone erosion and osteoclast numbers in the sacroiliac joints, but did not lead to ankylosis. Blockade of DKK1 had no effect on inflammatory signs of sacroiliitis, but significantly reduced bone erosions and osteoclast counts. Moreover, DKK1 blockade promoted expression of collagen type X, the formation of hypertrophic chondrocytes and ankylosis of sacroiliac joints. DKK1 influences inflammatory remodelling of sacroiliac joints by prevention of joint ankylosis. This may indicate an important role of the Wnt signalling pathway in the structural bone changes of axial joint disease. Although this model does not reflect the entire spectrum of ankylosing spondylitis in humans, it helps to explain the pathophysiological processes of sacroiliac joint ankylosis, which is a hallmark of the spondyloarthritides.

  16. Neuromuscular blockade in cardiac surgery: an update for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Hemmerling, Thomas M; Russo, Gianluca; Bracco, David

    2008-01-01

    There have been great advancements in cardiac surgery over the last two decades; the widespread use of off-pump aortocoronary bypass surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and robotic surgery have also changed the face of cardiac anaesthesia. The concept of "Fast-track anaesthesia" demands the use of nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs with short duration of action, combining the ability to provide (if necessary) sufficiently profound neuromuscular blockade during surgery and immediate re-establishment of normal neuromuscular transmission at the end of surgery. Postoperative residual muscle paralysis is one of the major hurdles for immediate or early extubation after cardiac surgery. Nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs for cardiac surgery should therefore be easy to titrate, of rapid onset and short duration of action with a pathway of elimination independent from hepatic or renal dysfunction, and should equally not affect haemodynamic stability. The difference between repetitive bolus application and continuous infusion is outlined in this review, with the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of vecuronium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and cisatracurium. Kinemyography and acceleromyography are the most important currently used neuromuscular monitoring methods. Whereas monitoring at the adductor pollicis muscle is appropriate at the end of surgery, monitoring of the corrugator supercilii muscle better reflects neuromuscular blockade at more central, profound muscles, such as the diaphragm, larynx, or thoraco-abdominal muscles. In conclusion, cisatracurium or rocuronium is recommended for neuromuscular blockade in modern cardiac surgery.

  17. Clinical utility of sympathetic blockade in cardiovascular disease management.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Soon; Lee, Hae-Young

    2017-04-01

    A dysregulated sympathetic nervous system is a major factor in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease; thus, understanding the mechanism and function of the sympathetic nervous system and appropriately regulating sympathetic activity to treat various cardiovascular diseases are crucial. Areas covered: This review focused on previous studies in managing hypertension, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and perioperative management with sympathetic blockade. We reviewed both pharmacological and non-pharmacological management. Expert commentary: Chronic sympathetic nervous system activation is related to several cardiovascular diseases mediated by various pathways. Advancement in measuring sympathetic activity makes visualizing noninvasively and evaluating the activation level even in single fibers possible. Evidence suggests that sympathetic blockade still has a role in managing hypertension and controlling the heart rate in atrial fibrillation. For ischemic heart disease, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists have been considered a milestone drug to control symptoms and prevent long-term adverse effects, although its clinical implication has become less potent in the era of successful revascularization. Owing to pathologic involvement of sympathetic nervous system activation in heart failure progression, sympathetic blockade has proved its value in improving the clinical course of patients with heart failure.

  18. Sequential RAAS blockade: is it worth the risk?

    PubMed

    Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Soon after the emergence of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blocking treatment as the cornerstone of renoprotective treatment in the prevention and treatment of diabetic and nondiabetic CKD, it was investigated if a higher degree of achievable RAAS blockade by combining more than one compound is feasible and advantageous. Regardless of the benefits from using monotherapy for diabetic kidney disease, there is still much improvement to wish for in terms of kidney prognosis in these populations. A great deal of research has gone into evaluating combinations of the RAAS blocking treatments in different populations and with different drugs and doses. Studies have mostly been short-term and use surrogate endpoints such as albuminuria. Side effects have been well known and expected in terms of increasing potassium levels and hypotension, but to an acceptable extent. With recent disappointing results from major hard endpoint trials using dual RAAS blockade the concept is now under scrutiny. In this review we will discuss the pros and cons of dual RAAS blockade, with facts and findings from smaller studies, endpoint trials, and meta-analyses. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dual RAAS blockade is desirable in kidney disease: con.

    PubMed

    Bakris, George L

    2010-09-01

    Dual renin-angiotensin aldosterone (RAAS) blockade is associated with higher risk of hyperkalemia and has not been shown, in any outcome trial of validated renal end points, that is, doubling of creatinine, time to dialysis, or death, to be superior over other approaches. It shows promise in advanced proteinuric nephropathy for additional proteinuria reduction. Whether this additional proteinuria reduction translates into meaningful outcomes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown, as proteinuria change is not a validated surrogate end point. Until we know the answer to this question, only those with very high levels of proteinuria should receive combination RAAS blocking therapy, and they need to be carefully monitored. Such individuals should be evaluated for risk of hyperkalemia and should consider use of a non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist added to the single RAAS agent as an alternative for proteinuria reduction. This provides a safe and effective option for those patients with advanced nephropathic disease who need additional proteinuria reduction. In all cases other than advanced proteinuric nephropathy, there is no evidence of any positive CKD outcome with dual RAAS blockade. Thus, dual RAAS blockade cannot be recommended for all CKD patients.

  20. Dexmedetomidine Prevents Excessive γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Function after Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dian-Shi; Kaneshwaran, Kirusanthy; Lei, Gang; Mostafa, Fariya; Wang, Junhui; Lecker, Irene; Avramescu, Sinziana; Xie, Yu-Feng; Chan, Nathan K; Fernandez-Escobar, Alejandro; Woo, Junsung; Chan, Darren; Ramsey, Amy J; Sivak, Jeremy M; Lee, C Justin; Bonin, Robert P; Orser, Beverley A

    2018-06-08

    Postoperative delirium is associated with poor long-term outcomes and increased mortality. General anesthetic drugs may contribute to delirium because they increase cell-surface expression and function of α5 subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors, an effect that persists long after the drugs have been eliminated. Dexmedetomidine, an α2 adrenergic receptor agonist, prevents delirium in patients and reduces cognitive deficits in animals. Thus, it was postulated that dexmedetomidine prevents excessive function of α5 γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. Injectable (etomidate) and inhaled (sevoflurane) anesthetic drugs were studied using cultured murine hippocampal neurons, cultured murine and human cortical astrocytes, and ex vivo murine hippocampal slices. γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptor function and cell-signaling pathways were studied using electrophysiologic and biochemical methods. Memory and problem-solving behaviors were also studied. The etomidate-induced sustained increase in α5 γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor cell-surface expression was reduced by dexmedetomidine (mean ± SD, etomidate: 146.4 ± 51.6% vs. etomidate + dexmedetomidine: 118.4 ± 39.1% of control, n = 8 each). Dexmedetomidine also reduced the persistent increase in tonic inhibitory current in hippocampal neurons (etomidate: 1.44 ± 0.33 pA/pF, n = 10; etomidate + dexmedetomidine: 1.01 ± 0.45 pA/pF, n = 9). Similarly, dexmedetomidine prevented a sevoflurane-induced increase in the tonic current. Dexmedetomidine stimulated astrocytes to release brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which acted as a paracrine factor to reduce excessive α5 γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function in neurons. Finally, dexmedetomidine attenuated memory and problem-solving deficits after anesthesia. Dexmedetomidine prevented excessive α5 γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function after anesthesia. This novel α2 adrenergic receptor- and brain-derived neurotrophic factor

  1. Ebselen has lithium-like effects on central 5-HT2A receptor function.

    PubMed

    Antoniadou, I; Kouskou, M; Arsiwala, T; Singh, N; Vasudevan, S R; Fowler, T; Cadirci, E; Churchill, G C; Sharp, T

    2018-02-27

    Lithium's antidepressant action may be mediated by inhibition of inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), a key enzyme in G q protein coupled receptor signalling. Recently, the antioxidant agent ebselen was identified as an IMPase inhibitor. Here we investigated both ebselen and lithium in models of the 5-HT 2A receptor, a G q protein coupled receptor implicated in lithium's actions. 5-HT 2A receptor function was modelled in mice by measuring the behavioural (head-twitches) and cortical immediate early gene (IEG; Arc, c-fos and Erg2 mRNA) responses to 5-HT 2A receptor agonist administration. Ebselen and lithium were administered either acutely or chronically prior to assessment of 5-HT 2A receptor function. Given the SSRI augmenting action of lithium and 5-HT 2A antagonists, ebselen was also tested for this action by co-administration with the SSRI citalopram in microdialysis (extracellular 5-HT) experiments. Acute and repeated administration of ebselen inhibited behavioural and IEG responses to the 5-HT 2A receptor agonist DOI. Repeated lithium also inhibited DOI-evoked behavioural and IEG responses. In comparison, a selective IMPase inhibitor (L-690,330) attenuated the behavioural response to DOI whereas glycogen synthase kinase inhibitor (AR-A014418) did not. Finally, ebselen increased regional brain 5-HT synthesis and enhanced the increase in extracellular 5-HT induced by citalopram. The current data demonstrate lithium-mimetic effects of ebselen in different experimental models of 5-HT 2A receptor function, likely mediated by IMPase inhibition. This evidence of lithium-like neuropharmacological effects of ebselen adds further support for the clinical testing of ebselen in mood disorder, including as an antidepressant augmenting agent. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of lower than conventional doses of oral nadolol on relative beta 1/beta 2-adrenoceptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Wheeldon, N M; McDevitt, D G; Lipworth, B J

    1994-08-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relative beta 1/beta 2 antagonist selectivity of the beta-adrenoceptor blocker nadolol, in lower than conventional clinical doses. 2. Eight normal volunteers received single oral doses of either placebo (PL), nadolol 5 mg (N5), 20 mg (N20) or 80 mg (N80) in a single-blind, randomised crossover design. beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonism was assessed by attenuation of exercise tachycardia, and beta 2-adrenoceptor blockade by effects on salbutamol-induced chronotropic, hypokalaemic and finger tremor responses. The relative percentage attenuation of beta 2 and beta 1-mediated responses was calculated and expressed as beta 2:beta 1 selectivity ratios. 3. Nadolol produced dose-related reductions in exercise tachycardia in keeping with increasing beta 1-adrenoceptor blockade; mean % reduction (95% CI) compared with placebo: N5 10.7 (6.6 to 14.8), N20 21.4 (17.3 to 25.4), N80 38.9 (34.8 to 42.9). However, even the lowest dose of nadolol (5 mg) produced almost complete blunting of beta 2-mediated effects and significantly increase exercise hyperkalaemia; peak exercise hyperkalaemia (mmol l-1) (means and 95% CI): PL 4.88 (4.68 to 5.07), N5 5.36 (5.17 to 5.55), N20 5.48 (5.28 to 5.67), N80 5.42 (5.22 to 5.61). beta 2:beta 1 selectivity ratios significantly increased as the dose of nadolol was reduced. 4. These data suggest that whereas in the clinical dose range nadolol behaves as a non-selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, as the dose is reduced this drug demonstrates an increasing degree of selectivity for the beta 2-adrenoceptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Effects of nicardipine on the onset time and intubation conditions of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Yeul; Kim, Yoon-Hee; Ko, Young-Kwon; Park, Sang-Il; Lee, Jung-Un; Chung, Woo-Suk; Lim, Chae-Seong

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the effects of nicardipine on neuromuscular blockade of rocuronium, such as the onset time and intubation conditions, using a nicardipine dose that attenuates cardiovascular responses during endotracheal intubation. Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical comparison was used as the design of this study The study was conducted at the operating room of a university hospital. Participants of this study comprise 78 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 2 patients, aged 18 to 60 years who were undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia. The nicardipine group was given an intravenous bolus of 20 μg/kg nicardipine before tracheal intubation: the control group was given an intravenous bolus of a comparable volume of normal saline before tracheal intubation. Using a TOF-Watch SX monitor, the time from the end of the injection of rocuronium to maximum depression of T1 (onset time) was measured. Intubation was performed 1 minute after rocuronium administration, and the status of the intubation conditions was assessed. The mean blood pressure and heart rate were each measured after endotracheal intubation. Rate pressure product values were also calculated. Intubation conditions were clinically acceptable in 37 (94.9%) of 39 patients in group N compared with 29 (74.4%) of 39 in group C (P < .05). The onset time of rocuronium was significantly faster in group N than in group C (P < .05). The mean blood pressure was significantly lower in group N than in group C (P < .05). The heart rate was significantly higher in group N than in group C (P < .05). Rate pressure product values showed no significant difference between the two groups (P > .05). Pretreatment with 20 μg/kg nicardipine improves intubation conditions, shortens the onset time of rocuronium, and attenuates cardiovascular responses to tracheal intubation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Checkpoint Blockade Cancer Immunotherapy Targets Tumour-Specific Mutant Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Gubin, Matthew M.; Zhang, Xiuli; Schuster, Heiko; Caron, Etienne; Ward, Jeffrey P.; Noguchi, Takuro; Ivanova, Yulia; Hundal, Jasreet; Arthur, Cora D.; Krebber, Willem-Jan; Mulder, Gwenn E.; Toebes, Mireille; Vesely, Matthew D.; Lam, Samuel S.K.; Korman, Alan J.; Allison, James P.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Pearce, Erika L.; Schumacher, Ton N.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Gillanders, William E.; Artyomov, Maxim N.; Schreiber, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The immune system plays key roles in determining the fate of developing cancers by not only functioning as a tumour promoter facilitating cellular transformation, promoting tumour growth and sculpting tumour cell immunogenicity1–6, but also as an extrinsic tumour suppressor that either destroys developing tumours or restrains their expansion1,2,7. Yet clinically apparent cancers still arise in immunocompetent individuals in part as a consequence of cancer induced immunosuppression. In many individuals, immunosuppression is mediated by Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Associated Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed Death-1 (PD-1), two immunomodulatory receptors expressed on T cells8,9. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) based therapies targeting CTLA-4 and/or PD-1 (checkpoint blockade) have yielded significant clinical benefits—including durable responses—to patients with different malignancies10–13. However, little is known about the identity of the tumour antigens that function as the targets of T cells activated by checkpoint blockade immunotherapy and whether these antigens can be used to generate vaccines that are highly tumour-specific. Herein, we use genomics and bioinformatics approaches to identify tumour-specific mutant proteins as a major class of T cell rejection antigens following αPD-1 and/or αCTLA-4 therapy of mice bearing progressively growing sarcomas and show that therapeutic synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccines incorporating these mutant epitopes induce tumour rejection comparably to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Whereas, mutant tumour antigen-specific T cells are present in progressively growing tumours, they are reactivated following treatment with αPD-1- and/or αCTLA-4 and display some overlapping but mostly treatment-specific transcriptional profiles rendering them capable of mediating tumour rejection. These results reveal that tumour-specific mutant antigens (TSMA) are not only important targets of checkpoint blockade therapy but also can be

  5. Acute effects of beta blockade and exercise on mood and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Head, A; Kendall, M J; Ferner, R; Eagles, C

    1996-09-01

    To measure the previously reported beta blocker induced adverse changes in mood state and anxiety measures, and to determine if prolonged aerobic exercise attenuates such mood modifications. After 4 days of drug treatment with comparable doses of propranolol (40 and 80 mg), metoprolol (50 and 100 mg), or placebo, mood (POMS) and anxiety states (STAI) were assessed in healthy volunteers, before and after 1 h of treadmill walking exercise at 50% maximum oxygen uptake. Compared to placebo, resting "tension", "depression", and "total mood disturbance" were significantly higher on propranolol 80 mg, but all were reduced with exercise. "Fatigue" and "confusion" were also higher on propranolol, and were unaffected by exercise. "Fatigue" was also higher than placebo after exercise on metoprolol 100 mg. "Anxiety" was unaffected by drug treatment or exercise. The evidence that beta blockers, and particularly propranolol, have adverse effects on mood was confirmed. It would be preferable to prescribe a beta blocker which does not adversely alter mood states. However, exercise significantly reduced the measures of "tension" and "depression" which were adversely increased by propranolol. Exercise prescription may therefore not only be compatible with beta blockade, but a highly desirable adjuvant therapy.

  6. Role of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the development of cardiac hypertrophy in response to aortic constriction in mice.

    PubMed

    Lairez, O; Cognet, T; Schaak, S; Calise, D; Guilbeau-Frugier, C; Parini, A; Mialet-Perez, J

    2013-06-01

    Serotonin, in addition to its fundamental role as a neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in the cardiovascular system, where it is thought to be involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Indeed, we recently found that mice with deletion of monoamine oxidase A had enhanced levels of blood and cardiac 5-HT, which contributed to exacerbation of hypertrophy in a model of experimental pressure overload. 5-HT2A receptors are expressed in the heart and mediate a hypertrophic response to 5-HT in cardiac cells. However, their role in cardiac remodeling in vivo and the signaling pathways associated are not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, M100907, on the development of cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Cardiac 5-HT2A receptor expression was transiently increased after TAC, and was recapitulated in cardiomyocytes, as observed with 5-HT2A in situ labeling by immunohistochemistry. Selective blockade of 5-HT2A receptors prevented the development of cardiac hypertrophy, as measured by echocardiography, cardiomyocyte area and heart weight-to-body weight ratio. Interestingly, activation of calmodulin kinase (CamKII), which is a core mechanism in cardiac hypertrophy, was reduced in cardiac samples from M100907-treated TAC mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. In addition, phosphorylation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), a downstream partner of CamKII was significantly diminished in M100907-treated TAC mice. Thus, our results show that selective blockade of 5-HT2A receptors has beneficial effect in the development of cardiac hypertrophy through inhibition of the CamKII/HDAC4 pathway.

  7. Acute Bradykinin Receptor Blockade During Hemorrhagic Shock in Mice Prevents the Worsening Hypotensive Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Hélène; Buléon, Marie; Minville, Vincent; Faguer, Stanislas; Girolami, Jean-Pierre; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Tack, Ivan; Mayeur, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are associated with deleterious hypotension during anesthesia and shock. Because the pharmacologic effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are partly mediated by increased bradykinin B2 receptor activation, this study aimed to determine the impact of acute B2 receptor blockade during hemorrhagic shock in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-treated mice. In vivo study. University research unit. C57/Bl6 mice. The hemodynamic effect of B2 receptor blockade using icatibant (B2 receptor antagonist) was studied using a pressure-targeted hemorrhagic shock and a volume-targeted hemorrhagic shock. Animals were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine (250 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively), intubated using intratracheal cannula, and ventilated (9 mL/kg, 150 min). Five groups were studied: 1) sham-operated animals, 2) control shocked mice, 3) shocked mice treated with ramipril for 7 days (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) before hemorrhagic shock, 4) shocked mice treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and a single bolus of icatibant (HOE-140) immediately before anesthesia (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors + icatibant), and 5) shocked mice treated with a single bolus of icatibant. One hour after volume-targeted hemorrhagic shock, blood lactate was measured to evaluate organ failure. During pressure-targeted hemorrhagic shock, the mean blood volume withdrawn was significantly lower in the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group than in the other groups (p < 0.001). During volume-targeted hemorrhagic shock, icatibant prevented blood pressure lowering in the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group (p < 0.001). Blood lactate was significantly higher in the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group than in the other groups, particularly the HOE groups. During hemorrhagic shock, acute B2 receptor blockade significantly attenuates the deleterious hemodynamic effect of angiotensin

  8. Differential effects of dopamine and opioid receptor blockade on motivated Coca-Cola drinking behavior and associated changes in brain, skin and muscle temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, E A

    2010-05-05

    metabolic activity. This treatment (approximately 60 min) had minimal effects on the latencies of drinking, but increased its total duration, with licking interrupted by pauses and retreats. This behavioral attenuation was coupled with weaker than in control locomotor activation and diminished temperature fluctuations in each recording location. Therefore, attenuation of normal behavioral and physiological responses to appetitive stimuli appears to underlie modest inhibiting effects of opiate receptor blockade on motivated behavior and consumption. (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential effects of dopamine and opioid receptor blockade on motivated Coca-Cola drinking behavior and associated changes in brain, skin and muscle temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    activity. This treatment (∼60 min) had minimal effects on the latencies of drinking, but increased its total duration, with licking interrupted by pauses and retreats. This behavioral attenuation was coupled with weaker than in control locomotor activation and diminished temperature fluctuations in each recording location. Therefore, attenuation of normal behavioral and physiological responses to appetitive stimuli appears to underlie modest inhibiting effects of opiate receptor blockade on motivated behavior and consumption. PMID:20167257

  10. Endothelin-a receptor antagonist treatment improves the periosteal microcirculation after hindlimb ischemia and reperfusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wolfárd, Antal; Császár, József; Gera, László; Petri, András; Simonka, János Aurél; Balogh, Adáa; Boros, Mihály

    2002-12-01

    To examine the microcirculatory changes in the rat tibial periosteum after hindlimb ischemia and reperfusion and to evaluate the effects of endothelin-A (ET-A) receptor antagonist therapy in this condition. The healing and functioning of vascularized bone autografts depend mainly on the patency of the microcirculation, and the activation of ET-A receptors may be an important component of the tissue response that occurs during ischemia-reoxygenation injuries. Wistar rats were subjected to 1 hour of hindlimb ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion. The periosteal microcirculation was visualized by intravital fluorescence microscopy. The leukocyte rolling and adherence in the postcapillary venules and the functional capillary density of the periosteum were determined. Two separate groups were treated with the selective ET-A receptor antagonist BQ 610 or the novel ET-A receptor antagonist ETR-p1/fl peptide at the onset of reperfusion. Reperfusion was accompanied by a significant decrease in functional capillary density and by an increase in the primary and secondary leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. ET-A receptor inhibition reduced the leukocyte rolling and firm adherence and attenuated the decrease in functional capillary density in both treated groups. ET-1 plays a major role in microvascular dysfunction in the periosteum during reperfusion. The ET-1-ET-A receptor system might be an important target for tissue salvage therapy in transplantation surgery.

  11. Antidepressant-like activity of VN2222, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor with high affinity at 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Tordera, Rosa M; Monge, Antonio; Del Río, Joaquín; Lasheras, Berta

    2002-05-03

    It has been suggested that drugs combining serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter blockade and 5-HT1A autoreceptor antagonism could be a novel strategy for a shorter onset of action and higher therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. The present study was aimed at characterizing the pharmacology of 1-(3-benzo[b]tiophenyl)-3-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-1-propanol (VN2222) a new synthetic compound with high affinity at both the 5-HT transporter and 5-HT1A receptors and devoid of high affinity at other receptors studied, with the only exception of alpha1-adrenoceptors. In keeping with the binding affinity at the 5-HT transporter, VN2222 inhibited 5-HT uptake in vitro both in rat cortical synaptosomes and in mesencephalic cultures and also in vivo when administered locally into the rat ventral hippocampus. After systemic administration, VN2222 exhibited an inverted U-shape effect so the inhibition of [3H]5-HT uptake ex vivo and the increase in 5-HT extracellular levels in microdialysis experiments was observed at low doses of 0.01-0.1 mg/kg whereas higher doses were ineffective. In studies related to 5-HT1A receptor function, 0.01-0.1 microM VN2222 produced a partial inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation behaving as a weak agonist of 5-HT1A receptors. In body temperature studies, 5 mg/kg VN2222 produced a mild hypothermic effect in mice, suggesting a weak agonist activity at presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors; much lower doses (0.01-0.5 mg/kg) partially antagonized the hypothermia induced by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) possibly through 5-HT transporter blockade. In the learned helplessness test in rats, an animal model for antidepressants, 1-5 mg/kg VN2222 reduced significantly the number of escape failures. Consequently, VN2222 is a new compound with a dual effect on the serotonergic system, as 5-HT uptake blocker and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, and with a remarkable activity in an animal model of depression with

  12. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  13. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ

    2009-11-10

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  14. Computer-controlled attenuator.

    PubMed

    Mitov, D; Grozev, Z

    1991-01-01

    Various possibilities for applying electronic computer-controlled attenuators for the automation of physiological experiments are considered. A detailed description is given of the design of a 4-channel computer-controlled attenuator, in two of the channels of which the output signal can change by a linear step, in the other two channels--by a logarithmic step. This, together with the existence of additional programmable timers, allows to automate a wide range of studies in different spheres of physiology and psychophysics, including vision and hearing.

  15. Dissociation between cardiomyocyte function and remodeling with beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in isolated canine mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Pat, Betty; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Denney, Thomas; Zheng, Junying; Powell, Pamela; Tillson, Michael; Dillon, A Ray; Dell'Italia, Louis J

    2008-12-01

    The low-pressure volume overload of isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) is associated with increased adrenergic drive, left ventricular (LV) dilatation, and loss of interstitial collagen. We tested the hypothesis that beta1-adrenergic receptor blockade (beta1-RB) would attenuate LV remodeling after 4 mo of MR in the dog. beta1-RB did not attenuate collagen loss or the increase in LV mass in MR dogs. Using MRI and three-dimensional (3-D) analysis, there was a 70% increase in the LV end-diastolic (LVED) volume-to-LV mass ratio, a 23% decrease in LVED midwall circumferential curvature, and a >50% increase in LVED 3-D radius/wall thickness in MR dogs that was not attenuated by beta1-RB. However, beta1-RB caused a significant increase in LVED length from the base to apex compared with untreated MR dogs. This was associated with an increase in isolated cardiomyocyte length (171+/-5 microm, P<0.05) compared with normal (156+/-3 microm) and MR (165+/-4 microm) dogs. Isolated cardiomyocyte fractional shortening was significantly depressed in MR dogs compared with normal dogs (3.73+/-0.31 vs. 5.02+/-0.26%, P<0.05) and normalized with beta1-RB (4.73+/-0.48%). In addition, stimulation with the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (25 nM) increased cardiomyocyte fractional shortening by 215% (P<0.05) in beta1-RB dogs compared with normal (56%) and MR (50%) dogs. In summary, beta1-RB improved LV cardiomyocyte function and beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness despite further cell elongation. The failure to attenuate LV remodeling associated with MR could be due to a failure to improve ultrastructural changes in extracellular matrix organization.

  16. Angiotensin II type 1a receptor signalling directly contributes to the increased arrhythmogenicity in cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yasuno, Shinji; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Yamada, Chinatsu; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Usami, Satoru; Kuwabara, Yoshihiro; Ueshima, Kenji; Harada, Masaki; Nishikimi, Toshio; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2013-12-01

    Angiotensin II has been implicated in the development of various cardiovascular ailments, including cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. The fact that inhibiting its signalling reduced the incidences of both sudden cardiac death and heart failure in several large-scale clinical trials suggests that angiotensin II is involved in increased cardiac arrhythmogenicity during the development of heart failure. However, because angiotensin II also promotes structural remodelling, including cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis, it has been difficult to assess its direct contribution to cardiac arrhythmogenicity independently of the structural effects. We induced cardiac hypertrophy in wild-type (WT) and angiotensin II type 1a receptor knockout (AT1aR-KO) mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). The susceptibility to ventricular tachycardia (VT) assessed in an in vivo electrophysiological study was compared in the two genotypes. The effect of acute pharmacological blockade of AT1R on the incidences of arrhythmias was also assessed. As described previously, WT and AT1aR-KO mice with TAC developed cardiac hypertrophy to the same degree, but the incidence of VT was much lower in the latter. Moreover, although TAC induced an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of connexin 43, a critical component of gap junctional channels, and a reduction in ventricular levels of connexin 43 protein in both genotypes, the effect was significantly ameliorated in AT1aR-KO mice. Acute pharmacological blockade of AT1R also reduced the incidence of arrhythmias. Our findings demonstrate that AT1aR-mediated signalling makes a direct contribution to the increase in arrhythmogenicity in hypertrophied hearts independently of structural remodelling. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiujun; Krieg, Sacha; Kuo, Calvin J.; Wiegand, Stanley J.; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Druzin, Maurice L.; Brenner, Robert M.; Giudice, Linda C.; Nayak, Nihar R.

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model and the decidualized mouse uterus as a murine model to examine angiogenesis during endometrial breakdown and regeneration. We found that blockade of VEGF action with VEGF Trap, a potent VEGF blocker, completely inhibited neovascularization during endometrial regeneration in both models but had no marked effect on preexisting or newly formed vessels, suggesting that VEGF is essential for neoangiogenesis but not survival of mature vessels in this vascular bed. Blockade of VEGF also blocked reepithelialization in both the postmenstrual endometrium and the mouse uterus after decidual breakdown, evidence that VEGF has pleiotropic effects in the endometrium. In vitro studies with a scratch wound assay showed that the migration of luminal epithelial cells during repair involved signaling through VEGF receptor 2–neuropilin 1 (VEGFR2-NP1) receptors on endometrial stromal cells. The leading front of tissue growth during endometrial repair was strongly hypoxic, and this hypoxia was the local stimulus for VEGF expression and angiogenesis in this tissue. In summary, we provide novel experimental data indicating that VEGF is essential for endometrial neoangiogenesis during postmenstrual/postpartum repair.—Fan, X., Krieg, S., Kuo, C. J., Wiegand, S. J., Rabinovitch, M., Druzin, M. L., Brenner, R. M., Giudice, L. C., Nayak, N. R. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium. PMID:18606863

  18. Adiabatic quantum computation with neutral atoms via the Rydberg blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Krittika; Deutsch, Ivan

    2011-05-01

    We study a trapped-neutral-atom implementation of the adiabatic model of quantum computation whereby the Hamiltonian of a set of interacting qubits is changed adiabatically so that its ground state evolves to the desired output of the algorithm. We employ the ``Rydberg blockade interaction,'' which previously has been used to implement two-qubit entangling gates in the quantum circuit model. Here it is employed via off-resonant virtual dressing of the excited levels, so that atoms always remain in the ground state. The resulting dressed-Rydberg interaction is insensitive to the distance between the atoms within a certain blockade radius, making this process robust to temperature and vibrational fluctuations. Single qubit interactions are implemented with global microwaves and atoms are locally addressed with light shifts. With these ingredients, we study a protocol to implement the two-qubit Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) problem. We model atom trapping, addressing, coherent evolution, and decoherence. We also explore collective control of the many-atom system and generalize the QUBO problem to multiple qubits. We study a trapped-neutral-atom implementation of the adiabatic model of quantum computation whereby the Hamiltonian of a set of interacting qubits is changed adiabatically so that its ground state evolves to the desired output of the algorithm. We employ the ``Rydberg blockade interaction,'' which previously has been used to implement two-qubit entangling gates in the quantum circuit model. Here it is employed via off-resonant virtual dressing of the excited levels, so that atoms always remain in the ground state. The resulting dressed-Rydberg interaction is insensitive to the distance between the atoms within a certain blockade radius, making this process robust to temperature and vibrational fluctuations. Single qubit interactions are implemented with global microwaves and atoms are locally addressed with light shifts. With these

  19. Large magnetoresistance by Pauli blockade in hydrogenated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemette, J.; Hemsworth, N.; Vlasov, A.; Kirman, J.; Mahvash, F.; Lévesque, P. L.; Siaj, M.; Martel, R.; Gervais, G.; Studenikin, S.; Sachrajda, A.; Szkopek, T.

    2018-04-01

    We report the observation of a giant positive magnetoresistance in millimeter-scale hydrogenated graphene with the magnetic field oriented in the plane of the graphene sheet. A positive magnetoresistance in excess of 200% at a temperature of 300 mK was observed in this configuration, reverting to negative magnetoresistance with the magnetic field oriented normal to the graphene plane. We attribute the observed positive in-plane magnetoresistance to a Pauli blockade of hopping conduction induced by spin polarization. Our Rapid Communication shows that spin polarization in concert with electron-electron interaction can play a dominant role in magnetotransport within an atomic monolayer.

  20. Autonomic Blockade Reverses Endothelial Dysfunction in Obesity-Associated Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Alfredo; Figueroa, Rocío; Paranjape, Sachin Y; Farley, Ginnie; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo

    2016-10-01

    Impaired nitric oxide (NO) vasodilation (endothelial dysfunction) is associated with obesity and thought to be a factor in the development of hypertension. We previously found that NO synthesis inhibition had similar pressor effects in obese hypertensives compared with healthy control during autonomic blockade, suggesting that impaired NO vasodilation is secondary to sympathetic activation. We tested this hypothesis by determining the effect of autonomic blockade (trimethaphan 4 mg/min IV) on NO-mediated vasodilation (increase in forearm blood flow to intrabrachial acetylcholine) compared with endothelial-independent vasodilation (intrabrachial sodium nitroprusside) in obese hypertensive subjects (30blockade increased basal forearm blood flow (from 3.9±0.7 to 5.2±1.2 mL/100 mL per minute, P=0.078). As expected, NO-mediated vasodilation was blunted on the intact day compared with NO-independent vasodilation; forearm blood flow increased from 3.6±0.6 to 10.1±1.1 with the highest dose of nitroprusside, but only from 3.7±0.4 to 7.2±0.8 mL/100 mL per minute with the highest dose of acetylcholine, P<0.05. In contrast, forearm blood flow responses to acetylcholine were restored by autonomic blockade and were no longer different to nitroprusside (from 6.2±1.1 to 11.4±1.6 mL/100 mL per minute and from 5.2±0.9 to 12.5±0.9, respectively, P=0.58). Our results support the concept that sympathetic activation contributes to the impairment in NO-mediated vasodilation seen in obesity-associated hypertension and provides further rationale to explore it as a therapeutic target. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Involvement of serotonin 2A receptor activation in modulating medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuronal activation during novelty-exposure.

    PubMed

    Hervig, Mona El-Sayed; Jensen, Nadja Cecilie Hvid; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Rydbirk, Rasmus; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Pakkenberg, Bente; Aznar, Susana

    2017-05-30

    The medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a major role in executive function by exerting a top-down control onto subcortical areas. Novelty-induced frontal cortex activation is 5-HT 2A receptor (5-HT 2A R) dependent. Here, we further investigated how blockade of 5-HT 2A Rs in mice exposed to a novel open-field arena affects medial PFC activation and basolateral amygdala (BLA) reactivity. We used c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) as a marker of neuronal activation and stereological quantification for obtaining the total number of c-Fos-IR neurons as a measure of regional activation. We further examined the impact of 5-HT 2A R blockade on the striatal-projecting BLA neurons. Systemic administration of ketanserin (0.5mg/kg) prior to novel open-field exposure resulted in reduced total numbers of c-Fos-IR cells in dorsomedial PFC areas and the BLA. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the relative time spent in the centre of the open-field and BLA c-Fos-IR in the ketanserin-treated animals. Unilateral medial PFC lesions blocked this effect, ascertaining an involvement of this frontal cortex area. On the other hand, medial PFC lesioning exacerbated the more anxiogenic-like behaviour of the ketanserin-treated animals, upholding its involvement in modulating averseness. Ketanserin did not affect the number of activated striatal-projecting BLA neurons (measured by number of Cholera Toxin b (CTb) retrograde labelled neurons also being c-Fos-IR) following CTb injection in the ventral striatum. These results support a role of 5-HT 2A R activation in modulating mPFC and BLA activation during exposure to a novel environment, which may be interrelated. Conversely, 5-HT 2A R blockade does not seem to affect the amygdala-striatal projection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Attenuating Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Regulation: A Medicinal Chemistry Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus is tightly regulated by intricate networks of transcriptional regulators and two-component signal transduction systems. There is now an emerging body of evidence to suggest that the blockade of S. aureus virulence gene expression significantly attenuates infection in experimental models. In this Perspective, we will provide insights into medicinal chemistry strategies for the development of chemical reagents that have the capacity to inhibit staphylococcal virulence expression. These reagents can be broadly grouped into four categories: (1) competitive inhibitors of the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing system, (2) inhibitors of AgrA–DNA interactions, (3) RNAIII transcription inhibitors, and (4) inhibitors of the SarA family of transcriptional regulators. We discuss the potential of specific examples of antivirulence agents for the management and treatment of staphylococcal infections. PMID:23294220

  3. The role of AT1-receptor blockade on reactive oxygen species and cardiac autonomic drive in experimental hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Baraldi, D; Casali, K; Fernandes, R O; Campos, C; Sartório, C; Conzatti, A; Couto, G K; Schenkel, P C; Belló-Klein, A; Araujo, A R S

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the influence of the renin-angiotensin system on cardiac prooxidants and antioxidants levels and its association to autonomic imbalance induced by hyperthyroidism. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, losartan (10mg/kg/day by gavage, 28 day), thyroxine (T4) (12 mg/L in drinking water for 28 days), and T4+losartan. Spectral analysis (autonomic balance), angiotensin II receptor (AT1R), NADPH oxidase, Nrf2 and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) myocardial protein expression, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration were quantified. Autonomic imbalance induced by hyperthyroidism (~770%) was attenuated in the T4+losartan group (~32%) (P<0.05). AT1R, NADPH oxidase, H2O2, as well as concentration, Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expression were elevated (~172%, 43%, 40%, 133%, and 154%, respectively) in T4 group (P<0.05). H2O2 and HO-1 levels were returned to control values in the T4+losartan group (P<0.05). The overall results demonstrate a positive impact of RAS blockade in the autonomic control of heart rate, which was associated with an attenuation of H2O2 levels, as well as with a reduced counter-regulatory response of HO-1 in experimental hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inactivation gating determines nicotine blockade of human HERG channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Z; Shi, H; Liao, S J; Wang, Z

    1999-09-01

    We have previously found that nicotine blocked multiple K+ currents, including the rapid component of delayed rectifier K+ currents (IKr), by interacting directly with the channels. To shed some light on the mechanisms of interaction between nicotine and channels, we performed detailed analysis on the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (HERG) channels, which are believed to be equivalent to the native I(Kr) when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Nicotine suppressed the HERG channels in a concentration-dependent manner with greater potency with voltage protocols, which favor channel inactivation. Nicotine caused dramatic shifts of the voltage-dependent inactivation curve to more negative potentials and accelerated the inactivation process. Conversely, maneuvers that weakened the channel inactivation gating considerably relieved the blockade. Elevating the extracellular K+ concentration from 5 to 20 mM increased the nicotine concentration (by approximately 100-fold) needed to achieve the same degree of inhibition. Moreover, nicotine lost its ability to block the HERG channels when a single mutation was introduced to a residue located after transmembrane domain 6 (S631A) to remove the rapid channel inactivation. Our data suggest that the inactivation gating determines nicotine blockade of the HERG channels.

  5. Predictors of responses to immune checkpoint blockade in advanced melanoma.

    PubMed

    Jacquelot, N; Roberti, M P; Enot, D P; Rusakiewicz, S; Ternès, N; Jegou, S; Woods, D M; Sodré, A L; Hansen, M; Meirow, Y; Sade-Feldman, M; Burra, A; Kwek, S S; Flament, C; Messaoudene, M; Duong, C P M; Chen, L; Kwon, B S; Anderson, A C; Kuchroo, V K; Weide, B; Aubin, F; Borg, C; Dalle, S; Beatrix, O; Ayyoub, M; Balme, B; Tomasic, G; Di Giacomo, A M; Maio, M; Schadendorf, D; Melero, I; Dréno, B; Khammari, A; Dummer, R; Levesque, M; Koguchi, Y; Fong, L; Lotem, M; Baniyash, M; Schmidt, H; Svane, I M; Kroemer, G; Marabelle, A; Michiels, S; Cavalcanti, A; Smyth, M J; Weber, J S; Eggermont, A M; Zitvogel, L

    2017-09-19

    Immune checkpoint blockers (ICB) have become pivotal therapies in the clinical armamentarium against metastatic melanoma (MMel). Given the frequency of immune related adverse events and increasing use of ICB, predictors of response to CTLA-4 and/or PD-1 blockade represent unmet clinical needs. Using a systems biology-based approach to an assessment of 779 paired blood and tumor markers in 37 stage III MMel patients, we analyzed association between blood immune parameters and the functional immune reactivity of tumor-infiltrating cells after ex vivo exposure to ICB. Based on this assay, we retrospectively observed, in eight cohorts enrolling 190 MMel patients treated with ipilimumab, that PD-L1 expression on peripheral T cells was prognostic on overall and progression-free survival. Moreover, detectable CD137 on circulating CD8 + T cells was associated with the disease-free status of resected stage III MMel patients after adjuvant ipilimumab + nivolumab (but not nivolumab alone). These biomarkers should be validated in prospective trials in MMel.The clinical management of metastatic melanoma requires predictors of the response to checkpoint blockade. Here, the authors use immunological assays to identify potential prognostic/predictive biomarkers in circulating blood cells and in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from patients with resected stage III melanoma.

  6. The effect of adhesion molecule blockade on pulmonary reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Levine, Adrian J; Parkes, Karen; Rooney, Stephen J; Bonser, Robert S

    2002-04-01

    Selectins are the molecules involved in the initial adhesion of the activated neutrophil on pulmonary endothelium. We investigated the efficacy of selectin blockade in a selective (monoclonal antibody RMP-1) and nonselective (Fucoidin) manner in pulmonary reperfusion injury. Groups of six rat lungs were flushed with University of Wisconsin solution then stored at 4 degrees C for 4 hours. They then underwent sanguinous reperfusion for 30 minutes during which functional measures (gas exchange, pulmonary artery pressure, and airway pressure) of lung performance were made. After reperfusion we estimated their capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc units g/cm water/minute/g wet lung tissue) using a gravimetric technique. Four groups were studied: group I had no reperfusion, group II had 30 minutes of reperfusion, group III had infusion of 20 mg/kg Fucoidin before reperfusion, and group IV had infusion of 20 microg/mL RMP-1 before reperfusion. Reperfusion injury was found between groups I and II by an increase in capillary filtration coefficient (1.048 +/- 0.316 to 3.063 +/- 0.466, p < 0.01). Groups III and IV had a significantly lower Kfc than group II (0.967 +/- 0.134 and 1.205 +/- 0.164, respectively, p < 0.01). There was no significant functional difference between groups II, III, and IV. Reperfusion-induced hyperpermeability was ameliorated by selective (RMP-1) and nonselective (Fucoidin) selectin blockade.

  7. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiujun; Krieg, Sacha; Kuo, Calvin J; Wiegand, Stanley J; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Druzin, Maurice L; Brenner, Robert M; Giudice, Linda C; Nayak, Nihar R

    2008-10-01

    Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model and the decidualized mouse uterus as a murine model to examine angiogenesis during endometrial breakdown and regeneration. We found that blockade of VEGF action with VEGF Trap, a potent VEGF blocker, completely inhibited neovascularization during endometrial regeneration in both models but had no marked effect on preexisting or newly formed vessels, suggesting that VEGF is essential for neoangiogenesis but not survival of mature vessels in this vascular bed. Blockade of VEGF also blocked reepithelialization in both the postmenstrual endometrium and the mouse uterus after decidual breakdown, evidence that VEGF has pleiotropic effects in the endometrium. In vitro studies with a scratch wound assay showed that the migration of luminal epithelial cells during repair involved signaling through VEGF receptor 2-neuropilin 1 (VEGFR2-NP1) receptors on endometrial stromal cells. The leading front of tissue growth during endometrial repair was strongly hypoxic, and this hypoxia was the local stimulus for VEGF expression and angiogenesis in this tissue. In summary, we provide novel experimental data indicating that VEGF is essential for endometrial neoangiogenesis during postmenstrual/postpartum repair.

  8. Philosophical Intelligence: Letters, Print, and Experiment during Napoleon's Continental Blockade.

    PubMed

    Watts, Iain P

    2015-12-01

    This essay investigates scientific exchanges between Britain and France from 1806 to 1814, at the height of the Napoleonic Wars. It argues for a picture of scientific communication that sees letters and printed texts not as separate media worlds, but as interconnected bearers of time-critical information within a single system of intelligence gathering and experimental practice. During this period, Napoleon Bonaparte's Continental System blockade severed most links between Britain and continental Europe, yet scientific communications continued--particularly on electrochemistry, a subject of fierce rivalry between Britain and France. The essay traces these exchanges using the archive of a key go-between, the English man of science Sir Charles Blagden. The first two sections look at Blagden's letter-writing operation, reconstructing how he harnessed connections with neutral American diplomats, merchants, and the State to get scientific intelligence between London and Paris. The third section, following Blagden's words from Britain to France to America, looks at how information in letters cross-fertilized with information in print. The final section considers how letters and print were used together to solve the difficult practical problem of replicating experiments across the blockade.

  9. OX40L blockade protects against inflammation-driven fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Elhai, Muriel; Avouac, Jérôme; Hoffmann-Vold, Anna Maria; Ruzehaji, Nadira; Amiar, Olivia; Ruiz, Barbara; Brahiti, Hassina; Ponsoye, Matthieu; Fréchet, Maxime; Burgevin, Anne; Pezet, Sonia; Sadoine, Jérémy; Guilbert, Thomas; Nicco, Carole; Akiba, Hisaya; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Subramaniam, Arun; Resnick, Robert; Molberg, Øyvind; Kahan, André; Chiocchia, Gilles; Allanore, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for fibrosis represents a critical unmet need, because fibrosis is the leading cause of death in industrialized countries, and there is no effective therapy to counteract the fibrotic process. The development of fibrosis relates to the interplay between vessel injury, immune cell activation, and fibroblast stimulation, which can occur in various tissues. Immunotherapies have provided a breakthrough in the treatment of immune diseases. The glycoprotein OX40–OX40 ligand (OX40L) axis offers the advantage of a targeted approach to costimulatory signals with limited impact on the whole immune response. Using systemic sclerosis (SSc) as a prototypic disease, we report compelling evidence that blockade of OX40L is a promising strategy for the treatment of inflammation-driven fibrosis. OX40L is overexpressed in the fibrotic skin and serum of patients with SSc, particularly in patients with diffuse cutaneous forms. Soluble OX40L was identified as a promising serum biomarker to predict the worsening of lung and skin fibrosis, highlighting the role of this pathway in fibrosis. In vivo, OX40L blockade prevents inflammation-driven skin, lung, and vessel fibrosis and induces the regression of established dermal fibrosis in different complementary mouse models. OX40L exerts potent profibrotic effects by promoting the infiltration of inflammatory cells into lesional tissues and therefore the release of proinflammatory mediators, thereafter leading to fibroblast activation. PMID:27298374

  10. Peripheral cannabinoid-1 receptor blockade restores hypothalamic leptin signaling.

    PubMed

    Tam, Joseph; Szanda, Gergő; Drori, Adi; Liu, Ziyi; Cinar, Resat; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Reitman, Marc L; Kunos, George

    2017-10-01

    In visceral obesity, an overactive endocannabinoid/CB 1 receptor (CB 1 R) system promotes increased caloric intake and decreases energy expenditure, which are mitigated by global or peripheral CB 1 R blockade. In mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO), inhibition of food intake by the peripherally restricted CB 1 R antagonist JD5037 could be attributed to endogenous leptin due to the rapid reversal of hyperleptinemia that maintains leptin resistance, but the signaling pathway engaged by leptin has remained to be determined. We analyzed the hypothalamic circuitry targeted by leptin following chronic treatment of DIO mice with JD5037. Leptin treatment or an increase in endogenous leptin following fasting/refeeding induced STAT3 phosphorylation in neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) in lean and JD5037-treated DIO mice, but not in vehicle-treated DIO animals. Co-localization of pSTAT3 in leptin-treated mice was significantly less common with NPY + than with POMC + ARC neurons. The hypophagic effect of JD5037 was absent in melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) deficient obese mice or DIO mice treated with a MC4R antagonist, but was maintained in NPY -/- mice kept on a high-fat diet. Peripheral CB 1 R blockade in DIO restores sensitivity to endogenous leptin, which elicits hypophagia via the re-activation of melanocortin signaling in the ARC. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  11. Adenosine A2A Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Bi-Directionally Alter Cocaine Seeking in Rats

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Casey E; LeTendre, Mckenzie L; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2012-01-01

    Repeated cocaine administration enhances dopamine D2 receptor sensitivity in the mesolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to drug relapse. Adenosine A2A receptors are colocalized with D2 receptors on nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons where they antagonize D2 receptor activity. Thus, A2A receptors represent a target for reducing enhanced D2 receptor sensitivity that contributes to cocaine relapse. The aim of these studies were to determine the effects of adenosine A2A receptor modulation in the NAc on cocaine seeking in rats that were trained to lever press for cocaine. Following at least 15 daily self-administration sessions and 1 week of abstinence, lever pressing was extinguished in daily extinction sessions. We subsequently assessed the effects of intra-NAc core microinjections of the A2A receptor agonist, CGS 21680 (4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-b--ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzenepropanoic acid hydrochloride), and the A2A receptor antagonist, MSX-3 (3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-3-[3-(phosphonooxy)propyl-1-(2-propynyl)-1H-purine-2,6-dione disodium salt hydrate), in modulating cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Intra-NAc pretreatment of CGS 21680 reduced both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. These effects were specific to cocaine reinstatement as intra-NAc CGS 21680 had no effect on sucrose seeking in rats trained to self-administer sucrose pellets. Intra-NAc treatment with MSX-3 modestly reinstated cocaine seeking when given alone, and exacerbated both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. Interestingly, the exacerbation of cocaine seeking produced by MSX-3 was only observed at sub-threshold doses of cocaine and quinpirole, suggesting that removing tonic A2A receptor activity enables behaviors mediated by dopamine receptors. Taken together, these findings suggest that A2A receptor stimulation reduces, while A2A blockade amplifies, D2 receptor

  12. Adenosine A2A receptors in the nucleus accumbens bi-directionally alter cocaine seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Casey E; LeTendre, McKenzie L; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2012-04-01

    Repeated cocaine administration enhances dopamine D(2) receptor sensitivity in the mesolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to drug relapse. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are colocalized with D(2) receptors on nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons where they antagonize D(2) receptor activity. Thus, A(2A) receptors represent a target for reducing enhanced D(2) receptor sensitivity that contributes to cocaine relapse. The aim of these studies were to determine the effects of adenosine A(2A) receptor modulation in the NAc on cocaine seeking in rats that were trained to lever press for cocaine. Following at least 15 daily self-administration sessions and 1 week of abstinence, lever pressing was extinguished in daily extinction sessions. We subsequently assessed the effects of intra-NAc core microinjections of the A(2A) receptor agonist, CGS 21680 (4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-b-D-ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzenepropanoic acid hydrochloride), and the A(2A) receptor antagonist, MSX-3 (3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-3-[3-(phosphonooxy)propyl-1-(2-propynyl)-1H-purine-2,6-dione disodium salt hydrate), in modulating cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Intra-NAc pretreatment of CGS 21680 reduced both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. These effects were specific to cocaine reinstatement as intra-NAc CGS 21680 had no effect on sucrose seeking in rats trained to self-administer sucrose pellets. Intra-NAc treatment with MSX-3 modestly reinstated cocaine seeking when given alone, and exacerbated both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. Interestingly, the exacerbation of cocaine seeking produced by MSX-3 was only observed at sub-threshold doses of cocaine and quinpirole, suggesting that removing tonic A(2A) receptor activity enables behaviors mediated by dopamine receptors. Taken together, these findings suggest that A(2A) receptor stimulation reduces, while A(2A) blockade

  13. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade in patients with advanced diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Sheila; García, Carles Oriol; Rodríguez, Eva; Barrios, Clara; Otero, Sol; Mojal, Sergi; Pascual, Julio; Soler, María José

    Diabetic kidney disease is the leading cause of end-stage chronic kidney disease. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade has been shown to slow the progression of diabetic kidney disease. Our objectives were: to study the percentage of patients with diabetic kidney disease treated with RAAS blockade, to determine its renal function, safety profile and assess whether its administration is associated with increased progression of CKD after 3 years of follow-up. Retrospective study. 197 diabetic kidney disease patients were included and divided into three groups according to the treatment: patients who had never received RAAS blockade (non-RAAS blockade), patients who at some point had received RAAS blockade (inconstant-RAAS blockade) and patients who received RAAS blockade (constant-RAAS blockade). Clinical characteristics and analytical variables such as renal function, electrolytes, glycosylated haemoglobin and glomerular filtration rate according to chronic kidney disease -EPI and MDRD formulas were assessed. We also studied their clinical course (baseline, 1 and 3 years follow-up) in terms of treatment group, survival, risk factors and renal prognosis. Non-RAAS blockade patients had worse renal function and older age (p<0.05) at baseline compared to RAAS blockade patients. Patients who received RAAS blockade were not found to have greater toxicity or chronic kidney disease progression and no differences in renal prognosis were identified. Mortality was higher in non-RAAS blockade patients, older patients and patients with worse renal function (p<0.05). In the multivariate analysis, older age and worse renal function were risk factors for mortality. Treatment with RAAS blockade is more common in diabetic kidney disease patients with eGFR≥30ml/min/1.73m 2 . In our study, there were no differences in the evolution of renal function between the three groups. Older age and worse renal function were associated with higher mortality in patients who

  14. Optical Attenuation Coefficient Meter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-22

    detector 43 is measured and recorded at the Pico Scope 80 to validate the laser pulse strength (which is proportional to the output and time wave shape ...unusable. [0004] As such, there is a need for a meter, recognizing back scattering by a pulsed laser source, that would allow a propagation path which...an attenuation meter with a transmitter and receiver is provided in which the transmitter produces a laser pulse of a duration and water

  15. Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    attenuation capacity of the aquifer downgradient from the source (e.g., permeable reactive barriers or phytoremediation ) Selection of EA remedies should be...ranging from very aggressive source destruction and removal methods to less energy-intensive methods, such as phytoremediation . In many cases, it...plumes that include chlorinated organics. The flux of organic-rich leachate to underlying aquifers can create favorable conditions for the natural

  16. Dual renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade for diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Raimund H; de Boer, Ian H

    2010-08-01

    Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) prevents the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). It is controversial whether the simultaneous use of two RAAS inhibitors (ie, dual RAAS blockade) further improves renal outcomes. This review examines the scientific rationale and current clinical evidence addressing the use of dual RAAS blockade to prevent and treat DKD. It is concluded that dual RAAS blockade should not be routinely applied to patients with low or moderate risk of progressive kidney disease (normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria with preserved glomerular filtration rate). For patients with high risk of progressive kidney disease (substantial albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate), clinicians should carefully weigh the potential risks and benefits of dual RAAS blockade on an individual basis until ongoing clinical trials provide further insight.

  17. Blockade of the antigen-antibody reaction using benzil condensation with the guanidyl residue of arginine.

    PubMed

    Montero, C; Segura, D I; Gutierrez, M

    1991-03-01

    Benzil blockade of the guanidyl group of arginine was tried on sections of paraffin-embedded tissue fixed in two different fixatives, in an attempt to evaluate the relevance of this amino acid to the reaction of several proteins with their corresponding antibodies. The two fixatives were 10% formaldehyde, and Bouin's fluid without acetic acid. Both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against proteins or peptides (lysozyme, adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone, placental lactogen, and prolactin) were used on human biopsies or material from autopsies. The blockade was effective when monoclonal antibodies were used, whereas no effect or only a small decrease of the intensity of the reaction was observed with polyclonal antibodies. The least definitive result was obtained with prolactin, where a complete blockade was never achieved with monoclonal antibodies. Calcitonin, a peptide that does not contain arginine, was used as a control not susceptible to benzil blockade; no blockade of immunostaining was observed.

  18. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not require a priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current

  19. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Scott S; Pelc, Norbert J

    2014-06-01

    The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not require a priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current modulation) without

  20. Combination Direct Renin Inhibition with Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Blockade improves Aldosterone but does not improve Kidney Injury in the Transgenic Ren2 rat

    PubMed Central

    Whaley-Connell, Adam; Habibi, Javad; Nistala, Ravi; Hayden, Melvin R; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Sinak, Catherine; Locher, Bonnie; Ferrario, Carlos M; Sowers, James R

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation contributes to proteinuria and chronic kidney disease by increasing glomerular and tubulointerstitial oxidative stress, promotion of fibrosis. Renin activation is the rate limiting step in angiotensin (Ang II) and aldosterone generation, and recent work suggests direct renin inhibition improves proteinuria comparable to that seen with Ang type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockade. This is important as, even with contemporary use of AT1R blockade, the burden of kidney disease remains high. Thereby, we sought to determine if combination direct renin inhibition with AT1R blockade in vivo, via greater attenuation of kidney oxidative stress, would attenuate glomerular and proximal tubule injury to a greater extent than either intervention alone. We utilized the transgenic Ren2 rat with increased tissue RAS activity and higher serum levels of aldosterone, which manifests hypertension and proteinuria. Ren2 rats were treated with renin inhibition (aliskiren), AT1R blockade (valsartan), the combination (aliskiren+valsartan), or vehicle for 21 days. Compared to Sprague-Dawley controls, Ren2 rats displayed increased systolic pressure (SBP), circulating aldosterone, proteinuria and greater urine levels of the proximal tubule protein excretory marker beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (β-NAG). These functional and biochemical alterations were accompanied by increases in kidney tissue NADPH oxidase subunit Rac1 and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) content as well as fibronectin and collagen type III. These findings occurred in conjunction with reductions in the podocyte-specific protein podocin as well as the proximal tubule-specific megalin. Further, in transgenic animals there was increased tubulointerstitial fibrosis on light microscopy as well as ultrastructural findings of glomerular podocyte foot-process effacement and reduced tubular apical endosomal/lysosomal activity. Combination therapy led to greater reductions in SBP and serum

  1. Combination of direct renin inhibition with angiotensin type 1 receptor blockade improves aldosterone but does not improve kidney injury in the transgenic Ren2 rat.

    PubMed

    Whaley-Connell, Adam; Habibi, Javad; Nistala, Ravi; Hayden, Melvin R; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Sinak, Catherine; Locher, Bonnie; Ferrario, Carlos M; Sowers, James R

    2012-06-10

    Enhanced renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation contributes to proteinuria and chronic kidney disease by increasing glomerular and tubulointerstitial oxidative stress, promotion of fibrosis. Renin activation is the rate limiting step in angiotensin (Ang II) and aldosterone generation, and recent work suggests direct renin inhibition improves proteinuria comparable to that seen with Ang type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) blockade. This is important as, even with contemporary use of AT(1)R blockade, the burden of kidney disease remains high. Thereby, we sought to determine if combination of direct renin inhibition with AT(1)R blockade in vivo, via greater attenuation of kidney oxidative stress, would attenuate glomerular and proximal tubule injury to a greater extent than either intervention alone. We utilized the transgenic Ren2 rat with increased tissue RAS activity and higher serum levels of aldosterone, which manifests hypertension and proteinuria. Ren2 rats were treated with renin inhibition (aliskiren), AT(1)R blockade (valsartan), the combination (aliskiren+valsartan), or vehicle for 21days. Compared to Sprague-Dawley controls, Ren2 rats displayed increased systolic pressure (SBP), circulating aldosterone, proteinuria and greater urine levels of the proximal tubule protein excretory marker beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (β-NAG). These functional and biochemical alterations were accompanied by increases in kidney tissue NADPH oxidase subunit Rac1 and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) content as well as fibronectin and collagen type III. These findings occurred in conjunction with reductions in the podocyte-specific protein podocin as well as the proximal tubule-specific megalin. Further, in transgenic animals there was increased tubulointerstitial fibrosis on light microscopy as well as ultrastructural findings of glomerular podocyte foot-process effacement and reduced tubular apical endosomal/lysosomal activity. Combination therapy led to greater reductions in SBP

  2. Blockade of Hsp20 Phosphorylation Exacerbates Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Suppressed Autophagy and Increased Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jiang; Ren, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Pengyuan; Jones, W. Keith; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Fan, Guo-Chang; Kranias, Evangelia G.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale The levels of a small heat shock protein 20 (Hsp20) and its phosphorylation are increased upon ischemic insults, and overexpression of Hsp20 protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the mechanism underlying cardioprotection of Hsp20 and especially the role of its phosphorylation in regulating ischemia/reperfusion-induced autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis remain to be clarified. Objective Herein we generated a cardiac-specific overexpression model, carrying non-phosphorylatable Hsp20, where serine 16 was substituted with alanine (Hsp20S16A). By subjecting this model to ischemia/reperfusion, we addressed whether: 1) the cardioprotective effects of Hsp20 are associated with serine 16 phosphorylation; 2) blockade of Hsp20 phosphorylation influences the balance between autophagy and cell death; and 3) the aggregation pattern of Hsp20 is altered by its phosphorylation. Methods and Results Our results demonstrated that Hsp20S16A hearts were more sensitive to ischemia/reperfusion injury, evidenced by lower recovery of contractile function and increased necrosis and apoptosis, compared with non-transgenic (TG) hearts. Interestingly, autophagy was activated in non-TG hearts, but significantly inhibited in Hsp20S16A hearts following ischemia/reperfusion. Accordingly, pre-treatment of Hsp20S16A hearts with rapamycin, an activator of autophagy, resulted in improvement of functional recovery, compared with saline-treated Hsp20S16A hearts. Furthermore, upon ischemia/reperfusion, the oligomerization pattern of Hsp20 appeared to shift to higher aggregates in Hsp20S16A hearts. Conclusion Collectively, these data indicate that blockade of Ser16-Hsp20 phosphorylation attenuates the cardioprotective effects of Hsp20 against ischemia/reperfusion injury, which may be due to suppressed autophagy and increased cell death. Therefore, phosphorylation of Hsp20 at serine 16 may represent a potential therapeutic target in ischemic heart disease. PMID:19850943

  3. Naltrexone treatment for opioid dependence: Does its effectiveness depend on testing the blockade?

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Maria A.; Bisaga, Adam; Mariani, John J.; Glass, Andrew; Levin, Frances R.; Comer, Sandra D.; Nunes, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    Background FDA approval of long-acting injectable naltrexone (Vivitrol) for opioid dependence highlights the relevance of understanding mechanisms of antagonist treatment. Principles of learning suggest an antagonist works through extinguishing drug-seeking behavior, as episodes of drug use (“testing the blockade”) fail to produce reinforcement. We hypothesized that opiate use would moderate the effect of naltrexone, specifically, that opiate-positive urines precede dropout in the placebo group, but not in the active-medication groups. Methods An 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (N=57), compared the efficacy of low (192-mg) and high (384-mg) doses of a long-acting injectable naltrexone (Depotrex) with placebo (Comer et al., 2006). A Cox proportional hazard model was fit, modeling time-to-dropout as a function of treatment assignment and urine toxicology during treatment. Results Interaction of opiate urines with treatment group was significant. Opiate-positive urines predicted dropout on placebo and low-dose, but less so on high-dose naltrexone, where positive urines were more likely followed by sustained abstinence. Among patients with no opiate-positive urines, retention was higher in both low- and high-dose naltrexone conditions, compared to placebo. Conclusions Findings confirm that injection naltrexone produces extinction of drug-seeking behavior after episodes of opiate use. Adequate dosage appears important, as low-dose naltrexone resembled the placebo group; opiate positive urines were likely to be followed by dropout from treatment. The observation of high treatment retention among naltrexone-treated patients who do not test the blockade, suggests naltrexone may also exert direct effects on opiate-taking behavior that do not depend on extinction, perhaps by attenuating craving or normalizing dysregulated hedonic or neuroendocrine systems. PMID:23827259

  4. Alpha 1-adrenergic blockade does not alter control of skin blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kenney, W L; Tankersley, C G; Newswanger, D L; Puhl, S M

    1991-03-01

    Human skin blood flow (SkBF) is controlled by both an alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor system and an active vasodilator system. During upright dynamic exercise, SkBF increases linearly with increasing body core temperature (Tc) until higher (i.e., greater than 38 degrees C) Tcs, beyond which little further increase in SkBF occurs. To examine the role of the two efferent control arms in this attenuated SkBF rise, we tested nine men (aged 25-53 yr) with and without (placebo) orally administered prazosin HCl (an alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist) during 1 h of moderate cycle exercise (100 W) in a warm (36 degrees C, 45% relative humidity) environment. Blockade of reflex vasoconstriction was verified via a cold challenge. During exercise, mean arterial pressure (MAP, brachial auscultation) was significantly lower (P less than 0.03) and heart rate significantly higher (P less than 0.02) during the prazosin trials; plasma catecholamine concentrations were unaffected. Neither esophageal temperature (Tes) nor mean skin temperature was affected by the drug during exercise. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated from forearm blood flow (FBF, venous occlusion plethysmography) and MAP (FVC = FBF/MAP). FVC plotted as a function of time or Tes resulted in coincident response patterns for the placebo and prazosin treatments, reaching a plateau at a Tes of about 38 degrees C. The responses of the older men were not selectively altered by prazosin treatment, indicating that the lower FBF responses previously seen in older subjects during exercise in the heat does not appear to be the result of an increased alpha 1-adrenergic tone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Systemic blockade of nicotinic and purinergic receptors inhibits ventilation and increases apnoea frequency in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Niane, Lalah M; Joseph, Vincent; Bairam, Aida

    2012-08-01

    We hypothesized that the combined blockade of peripheral cholinergic and purinergic receptors alters the baseline breathing pattern and respiratory responses to carotid body stimuli (hypoxia, hyperoxia and hypercapnia). Rat pups at 4 (P4) and 12 days of postnatal age (P12) received an intraperitoneal injection of either saline vehicle or hexamethonium + suramin (Hex, 1 mg kg(-1), nicotinic receptor antagonist; Sur, 40 mg kg(-1), P2X receptor antagonist; both of which act mainly on peripheral receptors). Compared with the control animals (saline-injected rats), the Hex + Sur-treated rats demonstrated the following features: (1) decreased baseline ventilation and increased frequency of apnoea and breath-by-breath irregularities, with a larger effect in the P4 than in the P12 rats; (2) a decreased peak minute ventilation and respiratory frequency response to hypoxia (fractional inspired oxygen 12%), with a greater effect in the P12 than in the P4 rats; (3) an attenuated decline of the respiratory frequency during hyperoxia (fractional inspired oxygen 50%) to a similar magnitude in rats of both ages; and (4) a decreased hypercapnic ventilatory response (fractional inspired carbon dioxide 5%) to a similar magnitude in rats of both ages. We conclude that the cholinergic nicotinic and purinergic P2X receptors are essential to maintain an adequate baseline pattern in normoxia. They also contribute, albeit not exclusively, to the hypoxic ventilatory response, with an age-specific effect, most probably linked to the cholinergic component, which might partly underlie the postnatal maturation of peripheral chemoreceptors.

  6. Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel.

    PubMed

    Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A

    2014-03-01

    Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Coulomb Blockade in a Two-Dimensional Conductive Polymer Monolayer.

    PubMed

    Akai-Kasaya, M; Okuaki, Y; Nagano, S; Mitani, T; Kuwahara, Y

    2015-11-06

    Electronic transport was investigated in poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) monolayers. At low temperatures, nonlinear behavior was observed in the current-voltage characteristics, and a nonzero threshold voltage appeared that increased with decreasing temperature. The current-voltage characteristics could be best fitted using a power law. These results suggest that the nonlinear conductivity can be explained using a Coulomb blockade (CB) mechanism. A model is proposed in which an isotropic extended charge state exists, as predicted by quantum calculations, and percolative charge transport occurs within an array of small conductive islands. Using quantitatively evaluated capacitance values for the islands, this model was found to be capable of explaining the observed experimental data. It is, therefore, suggested that percolative charge transport based on the CB effect is a significant factor giving rise to nonlinear conductivity in organic materials.

  8. Treatment of resting tremor by beta-adrenergic blockade.

    PubMed

    Foster, N L; Newman, R P; LeWitt, P A; Gillespie, M M; Chase, T N

    1984-10-01

    The effect of nadolol, a peripherally acting beta-adrenergic blocker, on resting tremor was examined in eight patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. With the use of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of crossover design, patients received 80 to 320 mg of nadolol for 6 weeks while continuing their previous treatment regimen. Accelerometer readings showed a progressive reduction in tremor amplitude, but no change in tremor frequency, with increasing nadolol dosage. Maximum benefit was achieved at 240 mg, when resting tremor improved 50% (p less than 0.01). Physician ratings confirmed these findings. The results suggest that response to beta-adrenergic blockade may not be limited to postural or intention tremor and that such agents may not reliably differentiate between the tremor of Parkinson's disease and essential tremor.

  9. Neuroleptic-induced catalepsy: a D2 blockade phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Klemm, W R

    1985-12-01

    Typical neuroleptics, such as haloperidol, are cataleptogenic. But since such drugs block both D1 and D2 receptors, it is not clear if there is a differential receptor role in catalepsy. To test this issue in a mouse model of catalepsy, these experiments tested molindone, a D2-blocking neuroleptic with almost no ability to block D1 receptors. If D1 receptor blockade is necessary for catalepsy, molindone should not cause catalepsy. But molindone was cataleptogenic, albeit less potent than haloperidol. There was also a "training effect" with haloperidol, but not saline or molindone, in that the catalepsy produced by 5 mg/kg of haloperidol was much greater when tests were performed repeatedly at short intervals after injection. Concurrent administration of apomorphine (4 or 8 mg/kg) markedly potentiated haloperidol catalepsy, but had no effect on molindone catalepsy. Such results are not readily interpretable solely in terms of current concepts of D1 and D2 receptors.

  10. Entanglement of two individual neutral atoms using Rydberg blockade.

    PubMed

    Wilk, T; Gaëtan, A; Evellin, C; Wolters, J; Miroshnychenko, Y; Grangier, P; Browaeys, A

    2010-01-08

    We report the generation of entanglement between two individual 87Rb atoms in hyperfine ground states |F=1,M=1> and |F=2,M=2> which are held in two optical tweezers separated by 4 microm. Our scheme relies on the Rydberg blockade effect which prevents the simultaneous excitation of the two atoms to a Rydberg state. The entangled state is generated in about 200 ns using pulsed two-photon excitation. We quantify the entanglement by applying global Raman rotations on both atoms. We measure that 61% of the initial pairs of atoms are still present at the end of the entangling sequence. These pairs are in the target entangled state with a fidelity of 0.75.

  11. Rescue of long-term memory after reconsolidation blockade

    PubMed Central

    Trent, Simon; Barnes, Philip; Hall, Jeremy; Thomas, Kerrie L.

    2015-01-01

    Memory reconsolidation is considered to be the process whereby stored memories become labile on recall, allowing updating. Blocking the restabilization of a memory during reconsolidation is held to result in a permanent amnesia. The targeted knockdown of either Zif268 or Arc levels in the brain, and inhibition of protein synthesis, after a brief recall results in a non-recoverable retrograde amnesia, known as reconsolidation blockade. These experimental manipulations are seen as key proof for the existence of reconsolidation. However, here we demonstrate that despite disrupting the molecular correlates of reconsolidation in the hippocampus, rodents are still able to recover contextual memories. Our results challenge the view that reconsolidation is a separate memory process and instead suggest that the molecular events activated initially at recall act to constrain premature extinction. PMID:26238574

  12. Antibunched emission of photon pairs via quantum Zeno blockade.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ping; Kumar, Prem

    2012-01-20

    We propose a new methodology, namely, the "quantum Zeno blockade," for managing light scattering at a few-photon level in general nonlinear-optical media, such as crystals, fibers, silicon microrings, and atomic vapors. Using this tool, antibunched emission of photon pairs can be achieved, leading to potent quantum-optics applications such as deterministic entanglement generation without the need for heralding. In a practical implementation using an on-chip toroidal microcavity immersed in rubidium vapor, we estimate that high-fidelity entangled photons can be produced on-demand at MHz rates or higher, corresponding to an improvement of ≳10(7) times from the state-of-the-art. © 2012 American Physical Society

  13. Novel therapy in Parkinson's disease: adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Nikoletta; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás; Vécsei, László

    2011-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. To date, most of the currently available therapies in PD target the dopaminergic system and none of these therapeutic approaches have been proven to modify the course of the disease. To various extents, these drugs can also cause motor and non-motor complications. A novel target, the adenosine A(2A) receptor (AA2AR), was recently identified, blockade of which may alleviate Parkinsonian symptoms, reduce motor fluctuations and potentially afford neuroprotection. This review is based on a PubMed search covering the relationship of the adenosine receptors and PD. The role of the AA2AR is reviewed and the results of preclinical investigations of antagonists are assessed. A synopsis of current drug development is provided, with a special focus on the pharmacokinetics and relevant clinical trials. The localization of the AA2AR in the central nervous system, the ultra structural localization and the molecular mechanism of its action reveal the potential importance of the AA2AR in movement disorders. The theoretical background and experimental data indicate that AA2AR antagonists may have a potential therapeutic effect in Parkinson's disease. More importantly, the putative neuroprotective effect needs further investigation.

  14. Targeting the adenosine 2A receptor enhances chimeric antigen receptor T cell efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Beavis, Paul A.; Henderson, Melissa A.; Giuffrida, Lauren; Mills, Jane K.; Sek, Kevin; Cross, Ryan S.; Davenport, Alexander J.; John, Liza B.; Mardiana, Sherly; Slaney, Clare Y.; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Trapani, Joseph A.; Stagg, John; Loi, Sherene; Kats, Lev; Gyorki, David; Kershaw, Michael H.; Darcy, Phillip K.

    2017-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have been highly successful in treating hematological malignancies, including acute and chronic lymphoblastic leukemia. However, treatment of solid tumors using CAR T cells has been largely unsuccessful to date, partly because of tumor-induced immunosuppressive mechanisms, including adenosine production. Previous studies have shown that adenosine generated by tumor cells potently inhibits endogenous antitumor T cell responses through activation of adenosine 2A receptors (A2ARs). Herein, we have observed that CAR activation resulted in increased A2AR expression and suppression of both murine and human CAR T cells. This was reversible using either A2AR antagonists or genetic targeting of A2AR using shRNA. In 2 syngeneic HER2+ self-antigen tumor models, we found that either genetic or pharmacological targeting of the A2AR profoundly increased CAR T cell efficacy, particularly when combined with PD-1 blockade. Mechanistically, this was associated with increased cytokine production of CD8+ CAR T cells and increased activation of both CD8+ and CD4+ CAR T cells. Given the known clinical relevance of the CD73/adenosine pathway in several solid tumor types, and the initiation of phase I trials for A2AR antagonists in oncology, this approach has high translational potential to enhance CAR T cell efficacy in several cancer types. PMID:28165340

  15. Photon blockade in optomechanical systems with a position-modulated Kerr-type nonlinear coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Zhou, Y. H.; Guo, Y. Q.; Yi, X. X.

    2018-03-01

    We explore the photon blockade in optomechanical systems with a position-modulated Kerr-type nonlinear coupling, i.e. H_int˜\\hat{a}\\dagger2\\hat{a}^2(\\hat{b}_1^\\dagger+\\hat{b}_1) . We find that the Kerr-type nonlinear coupling can enhance the photon blockade greatly. We evaluate the equal-time second-order correlation function of the cavity photons and find that the optimal photon blockade does not happen at the single photon resonance. By working within the few-photon subspace, we get an approximate analytical expression for the correlation function and the condition for the optimal photon blockade. We also find that the photon blockade effect is not always enhanced as the Kerr-type nonlinear coupling strength g 2 increases. At some values of g 2, the photon blockade is even weakened. For the system we considered here, the second-order correlation function can be smaller than 1 even in the unresolved sideband regime. By numerically simulating the master equation of the system, we also find that the thermal noise of the mechanical environment can enhance the photon blockade. We give out an explanation for this counter-intuitive phenomenon qualitatively.

  16. Improving the efficacy of RAAS blockade in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; de Borst, Martin H; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan J

    2013-02-01

    Reduction of blood pressure and proteinuria by blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been the cornerstone of renoprotective intervention for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) for many years. Despite the proven efficacy of RAAS blockade, however, the reduction in proteinuria is insufficient in many patients, and does not prevent further deterioration of renal function. Short-term studies have shown that a variety of treatment intensification strategies have a beneficial effect on blood pressure and proteinuria, including RAAS blockade using either dose escalation or multiple drugs, and restriction of dietary sodium. Large clinical trials have shown that RAAS blockade with multiple drugs does not improve patients' long-term renal or cardiovascular outcome. By contrast, two post-hoc analyses of landmark trials in nephrology show beneficial renal and cardiovascular effects from avoiding excessive dietary sodium intake during single-agent RAAS blockade therapy. The effects of dietary sodium restriction on renal or cardiovascular outcome still require prospective confirmation. However, current data support the implementation of lifestyle changes to reduce dietary sodium intake in combination with single-agent RAAS blockade, rather than dual-agent RAAS blockade, as a potent and feasible strategy to mitigate the burden of renal and cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD.

  17. Combination therapy strategies for improving PD-1 blockade efficacy: a new era in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, P S; Chamoto, K; Honjo, T

    2018-02-01

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint molecule that negatively regulates T-cell immune function through the interaction with its ligand PD-L1. Blockage of this interaction unleashes the immune system to fight cancer. Immunotherapy using PD-1 blockade has led to a paradigm shift in the field of cancer drug discovery, owing to its durable effect against a wide variety of cancers with limited adverse effects. A brief history and development of PD-1 blockade, from the initial discovery of PD-1 to the recent clinical output of this therapy, have been summarized here. Despite its tremendous clinical success rate over other cancer treatments, PD-1 blockade has its own pitfall; a significant fraction of patients remains unresponsive to this therapy. The key to improve the PD-1 blockade therapy is the development of combination therapies. As this approach has garnered worldwide interest, here, we have summarized the recent trends in the development of PD-1 blockade-based combination therapies and the ongoing clinical trials. These include combinations with checkpoint inhibitors, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and several other existing cancer treatments. Importantly, FDA has approved PD-1 blockade agent to be used in combination with either CTLA-4 blockade or chemotherapy. Responsiveness to the PD-1 blockade therapy is affected by tumour and immune system-related factors. The role of the immune system, especially T cells, in determining the responsiveness has been poorly studied compared with those factors related to the tumour side. Energy metabolism has emerged as one of the important regulatory mechanisms for the function and differentiation of T cells. We have documented here the recent results regarding the augmentation of PD-1 blockade efficacy by augmenting mitochondrial energy metabolism of T cell. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  18. Blockade of the swelling-induced chloride current attenuates the mouse neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond; Abussaud, Ahmed; Leung, Joseph Wh; Xu, Bao-Feng; Li, Fei-Ya; Huang, Sammen; Chen, Nai-Hong; Wang, Guan-Lei; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Sun, Hong-Shuo

    2018-05-01

    Activation of swelling-induced Cl - current (I Cl,swell ) during neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) may induce brain damage. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury causes chronic neurological morbidity in neonates as well as acute mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of I Cl,swell in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury using a selective blocker, 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB). In primary cultured cortical neurons perfusion of a 30% hypotonic solution activated I Cl,swell , which was completely blocked by the application of DCPIB (10 μmol/L). The role of I Cl,swell in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in vivo was evaluated in a modified neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury model. Before receiving the ischemic insult, the mouse pups were injected with DCPIB (10 mg/kg, ip). We found that pretreatment with DCPIB significantly reduced the brain damage assessed using TTC staining, Nissl staining and whole brain imaging, and improved the sensorimotor and vestibular recovery outcomes evaluated in neurobehavioural tests (i.e. geotaxis reflex, and cliff avoidance reflex). These results show that DCPIB has neuroprotective effects on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, and that the I Cl,swell may serve as a therapeutic target for treatment of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  19. Coulomb blockade in a single tunnel junction directly connected to a multiwalled carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruyama, Junji; Takesue, Izumi; Sato, Yuki

    2000-10-01

    We report on Coulomb blockade in a single tunnel junction directly connected to a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) by utilizing a nanoporous alumina film. The MWNT exhibits a weak localization effect with strong spin flip scattering. Experimental results and analysis suggest that a high-impedance external environment caused by the weak localization in the MWNT can yield Coulomb blockade, in accordance with phase correlation theory in a single junction system. It is also revealed that the Coulomb blockade is very sensitive to phase modulation in the MWNT, which also acts as a high-impedance transmission line.

  20. Chronic treatment with LY341495 decreases 5-HT(2A) receptor binding and hallucinogenic effects of LSD in mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno, José L; Holloway, Terrell; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Sealfon, Stuart C; González-Maeso, Javier

    2013-03-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline and psilocybin, alter perception and cognitive processes. All hallucinogenic drugs have in common a high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor. Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor ligands show efficacy in modulating the cellular and behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs. Here, we explored the effect of chronic treatment with the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropan-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)-propionic acid (LY341495) on the hallucinogenic-like effects induced by LSD (0.24mg/kg). Mice were chronically (21 days) treated with LY341495 (1.5mg/kg), or vehicle, and experiments were carried out one day after the last injection. Chronic treatment with LY341495 down-regulated [(3)H]ketanserin binding in somatosensory cortex of wild-type, but not mGlu2 knockout (KO), mice. Head-twitch behavior, and expression of c-fos, egr-1 and egr-2, which are responses induced by hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) agonists, were found to be significantly decreased by chronic treatment with LY341495. These findings suggest that repeated blockade of the mGlu2 receptor by LY341495 results in reduced 5-HT(2A) receptor-dependent hallucinogenic effects of LSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral treatment with complement factor C5a receptor (CD88) antagonists inhibits experimental periodontitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Breivik, T; Gundersen, Y; Gjermo, P; Taylor, S M; Woodruff, T M; Opstad, P K

    2011-12-01

    The complement activation product 5a (C5a) is a potent mediator of the innate immune response to infection, and may thus also importantly determine the development of periodontitis. The present study was designed to explore the effect of several novel, potent and orally active C5a receptor (CD88) antagonists (C5aRAs) on the development of ligature-induced periodontitis in an animal model. Three different cyclic peptide C5aRAs, termed PMX205, PMX218 and PMX273, were investigated. Four groups of Wistar rats (n = 10 in each group) were used. Starting 3 d before induction of experimental periodontitis, rats either received one of the C5aRas (1-2 mg/kg) in the drinking water or received drinking water only. Periodontitis was assessed when the ligatures had been in place for 14 d. Compared with control rats, PMX205- and PMX218-treated rats had significantly reduced periodontal bone loss. The findings suggest that complement activation, and particularly C5a generation, may play a significant role in the development and progression of periodontitis. Blockade of the major C5a receptor, CD88, with specific inhibitors such as PMX205, may offer novel treatment options for periodontitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Chronic treatment with LY341495 decreases 5-HT2A receptor binding and hallucinogenic effects of LSD in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, José L.; Holloway, Terrell; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Sealfon, Stuart C.; González-Maeso, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline and psilocybin, alter perception and cognitive processes. All hallucinogenic drugs have in common a high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor. Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor ligands show efficacy in modulating the cellular and behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs. Here, we explored the effect of chronic treatment with the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropan-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)-propionic acid (LY341495) on the hallucinogenic-like effects induced by LSD (0.24 mg/kg). Mice were chronically (21 days) treated with LY341495 (1.5 mg/kg), or vehicle, and experiments were carried out one day after the last injection. Chronic treatment with LY341495 down-regulated [3H]ketanserin binding in somatosensory cortex of wild-type, but not mGlu2 knockout (KO), mice. Head-twitch behavior, and expression of c-fos, egr-1 and egr-2, which are responses induced by hallucinogenic 5-HT2A agonists, were found to be significantly decreased by chronic treatment with LY341495. These findings suggest that repeated blockade of the mGlu2 receptor by LY341495 results in reduced 5-HT2A receptor-dependent hallucinogenic effects of LSD. PMID:23333599

  3. LINE-ABOVE-GROUND ATTENUATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wilds, R.B.; Ames, J.R.

    1957-09-24

    The line-above-ground attenuator provides a continuously variable microwave attenuator for a coaxial line that is capable of high attenuation and low insertion loss. The device consists of a short section of the line-above- ground plane type transmission lime, a pair of identical rectangular slabs of lossy material like polytron, whose longitudinal axes are parallel to and indentically spaced away from either side of the line, and a geared mechanism to adjust amd maintain this spaced relationship. This device permits optimum fineness and accuracy of attenuator control which heretofore has been difficult to achieve.

  4. NK1 receptor activation in rat rostral ventrolateral medulla selectively attenuates somato-sympathetic reflex while antagonism attenuates sympathetic chemoreflex.

    PubMed

    Makeham, John M; Goodchild, Ann K; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2005-06-01

    The effects of activation and blockade of the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) on arterial blood pressure (ABP), splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (sSNA), phrenic nerve activity, the somato-sympathetic reflex, baroreflex, and chemoreflex were studied in urethane-anesthetized and artificially ventilated Sprague-Dawley rats. Bilateral microinjection of either the stable substance P analog (pGlu5, MePhe8, Sar9)SP(5-11) (DiMe-SP) or the highly selective NK1 agonist [Sar9, Met (O(2))11]SP into the RVLM resulted in an increase in ABP, sSNA, and heart rate and an abolition of phrenic nerve activity. The effects of [Sar9, Met (O(2))11]SP were blocked by the selective nonpeptide NK1 receptor antagonist WIN 51708. NK1 receptor activation also dramatically attenuated the somato-sympathetic reflex elicited by tibial nerve stimulation, while leaving the baroreflex and chemoreflex unaffected. This effect was again blocked by WIN 51708. NK1 receptor antagonism in the RVLM, with WIN 51708 significantly attenuated the sympathoexcitatory response to hypoxia but had no effect on baseline respiratory function. Our findings suggest that substance P and the NK1 receptor play a significant role in the cardiorespiratory reflexes integrated within the RVLM.

  5. Predictors of hyperkalemia risk following hypertension control with aldosterone blockade.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Nitin; Kalaitzidis, Rigas; Bakris, George L

    2009-01-01

    Aldosterone antagonists have proven efficacy for management of resistant hypertension and proteinuria reduction; however, they are not widely used due to risk of hyperkalemia. This study assesses the risk factors for hyperkalemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and resistant hypertension whose blood pressure (BP) is reduced to a guideline goal. This is a two-center study conducted in university-based hypertension clinics directed by clinical hypertension specialists. Forty-six patients with resistant hypertension and stages 2 or 3 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 56.5 + or - 16.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) were evaluated for safety and efficacy of aldosterone blockade added to preexisting BP-lowering regimens. All patients were on three mechanistically complementary antihypertensive agents including a diuretic and a renin-angiotensin system blocker. Patients were evaluated after a median of 45 treatment days. The primary endpoint was change in systolic BP. Secondary endpoints included change in serum potassium, creatinine, eGFR, diastolic BP and tolerability. The mean age of the patients studied was 64.9 + or - 10.7 years, all were obese and 86% had type 2 diabetes, with 82% being African-American. Addition of aldosterone antagonism yielded a further mean reduction in systolic BP of 14.7 + or - 5.1 mm Hg (p = 0.001). Females with BMI >30 and those with a baseline systolic BP >160 mm Hg were more likely to have a greater BP reduction to aldosterone antagonism. In total, 39% of the patients had a >30% decrease in eGFR when the BP goal was achieved. The mean increase in serum potassium was 0.4 mEq/l above baseline (p = 0.001), with 17.3% manifesting hyperkalemia, i.e. serum potassium >5.5 mEq/l. Predictors of hyperkalemia included a baseline eGFR of < or = 45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) in whom serum potassium was >4.5 mEq/l on appropriately dosed diuretics. Contributing risks in this subgroup included a systolic BP reduction of >15 mm Hg associated

  6. The effect of dopamine receptor blockade in the rodent nucleus accumbens on local field potential oscillations and motor activity in response to ketamine.

    PubMed

    Matulewicz, Pawel; Kasicki, Stefan; Hunt, Mark Jeremy

    2010-12-17

    Altered functioning of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been implicated in the psychotomimetic actions of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We have shown previously that NMDAR antagonists enhance the power of high-frequency oscillations (HFO) in the NAc in a dose-dependent manner, as well as increase locomotor activity. Systemic administration of NMDAR antagonists is known to increase the release of dopamine in the NAc and dopamine antagonists can reduce ketamine-induced hyperactivity. In this study, we examined the effect of 0.5 μl intra-NAc infusion of 3.2 μg SCH23390 (D1 antagonist), 10 μg raclopride (D2 antagonist) and saline on ketamine-induced changes in motor and oscillatory activity. We found that local blockade of D1 receptors attenuated ketamine-induced increases in motor activity and blockade of D2 receptors produced a much weaker effect, with respect to saline-infused control groups. In contrast, none of the antagonists, infused separately or together, significantly modified the power or dominant frequency of ketamine-induced increases in HFO, but changes in delta and theta frequency bands were observed. Together, these findings suggest, that, in contrast to delta and theta frequency bands, the generation of ketamine enhanced-HFO in the NAc is not causally related to locomotor activation and occurs largely independently of local changes in dopamine receptor activation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor and programmed death 1 pathways in advanced kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Einstein, David J; McDermott, David F

    2017-06-01

    Targeted and immune-based therapies have improved outcomes in advanced kidney cancer, yet novel strategies are needed to extend the duration of these benefits and expand them to more patients. Combined inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathways with therapeutic agents already in clinical use may offer such a strategy. Here, we describe the development and clinical evaluation of VEGF inhibitors and, separately, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. We present preclinical evidence of interaction between these pathways and the rationale for combined blockade. Beyond well-known effects on pathologic angiogenesis, VEGF blockade also may decrease immune tolerance and enhance PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. We conclude with the results of several early trials of combined VEGF and PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, which demonstrate encouraging antitumor activity, and we pose questions for future study.

  8. [Genetic Mutation Accumulation and Clinical Outcome of Immune Checkpoint Blockade Therapy].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    Immune checkpoint blockade therapy has recently attracted great attention in the area of oncology. In Japan, since 2014, an anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab and anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab have been available for the treatment of patients with malignant melanoma, and nivolumab has been available for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Clinical trials using these drugs and other immune checkpoint inhibitors are currently in progress worldwide. The immune checkpoint blockade therapy is a promising new cancer therapy; however, not all patients with cancer can benefit from this therapy. Recent evidence shows that markers reflecting the extent of genetic mutation accumulation, including mutation burden, non-synonymous mutation that produces neoantigen, and microsatellite instability, possibly serve as promising marker to predict who can benefit from the immune checkpoint blockade therapy. Here, I introduce the recent evidence and discuss the correlation between genetic mutation accumulation and clinical outcome of immune checkpoint blockade therapy.

  9. Blockade of Metallothioneins 1 and 2 Increases Skeletal Muscle Mass and Strength

    PubMed Central

    Summermatter, Serge; Bouzan, Anais; Pierrel, Eliane; Melly, Stefan; Stauffer, Daniela; Gutzwiller, Sabine; Nolin, Erin; Dornelas, Christina; Fryer, Christy; Leighton-Davies, Juliet; Glass, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metallothioneins are proteins that are involved in intracellular zinc storage and transport. Their expression levels have been reported to be elevated in several settings of skeletal muscle atrophy. We therefore investigated the effect of metallothionein blockade on skeletal muscle anabolism in vitro and in vivo. We found that concomitant abrogation of metallothioneins 1 and 2 results in activation of the Akt pathway and increases in myotube size, in type IIb fiber hypertrophy, and ultimately in muscle strength. Importantly, the beneficial effects of metallothionein blockade on muscle mass and function was also observed in the setting of glucocorticoid addition, which is a strong atrophy-inducing stimulus. Given the blockade of atrophy and the preservation of strength in atrophy-inducing settings, these results suggest that blockade of metallothioneins 1 and 2 constitutes a promising approach for the treatment of conditions which result in muscle atrophy. PMID:27956698

  10. Endothelin Receptor-A Antagonist Attenuates Retinal Vascular and Neuroretinal Pathology in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Jonathan C.; Rollins, Stuart D.; Ye, Minghao; Batlle, Daniel; Fawzi, Amani A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We sought to determine the effects of atrasentan, a selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist, on the retinal vascular and structural integrity in a db/db mouse, an animal model of type 2 diabetes and diabetic retinopathy. Methods. Diabetic mice, 23 weeks old, were given either atrasentan or vehicle treatment in drinking water for 8 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, eyes underwent trypsin digest to assess the retinal vascular pathology focusing on capillary degeneration, endothelial cell, and pericyte loss. Paraffin-embedded retinal cross sections were used to evaluate retinal sublayer thickness both near the optic nerve and in the retinal periphery. Immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay were done to evaluate retinal cellular and vascular apoptosis. Results. Compared with untreated db/db mice, atrasentan treatment was able to ameliorate the retinal vascular pathology by reducing pericyte loss (29.2% ± 0.4% vs. 44.4% ± 2.0%, respectively, P < 0.05) and capillary degeneration as determined by the percentage of acellular capillaries (8.6% ± 0.3% vs. 3.3% ± 0.41%, respectively, P < 0.05). A reduction in inner retinal thinning both at the optic nerve and at the periphery in treated diabetic mice was also observed in db/db mice treated with atrasentan as compared with untreated db/db mice (P < 0.05). TUNEL assay suggested that atrasentan may decrease enhanced apoptosis in neuroretinal layers and vascular pericytes in the db/db mice. Conclusions. Endothelin-A receptor blockade using atrasentan significantly reduces the vascular and neuroretinal complications in diabetic mice. Endothelin-A receptor blockade is a promising therapeutic target in diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24644048

  11. Conformational Occlusion of Blockade Antibody Epitopes, a Novel Mechanism of GII.4 Human Norovirus Immune Evasion.

    PubMed

    Lindesmith, Lisa C; Mallory, Michael L; Debbink, Kari; Donaldson, Eric F; Brewer-Jensen, Paul D; Swann, Excel W; Sheahan, Timothy P; Graham, Rachel L; Beltramello, Martina; Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Baric, Ralph S

    2018-01-01

    Extensive antigenic diversity within the GII.4 genotype of human norovirus is a major driver of pandemic emergence and a significant obstacle to development of cross-protective immunity after natural infection and vaccination. However, human and mouse monoclonal antibody studies indicate that, although rare, antibodies to conserved GII.4 blockade epitopes are generated. The mechanisms by which these epitopes evade immune surveillance are uncertain. Here, we developed a new approach for identifying conserved GII.4 norovirus epitopes. Utilizing a unique set of virus-like particles (VLPs) representing the in vivo -evolved sequence diversity within an immunocompromised person, we identify key residues within epitope F, a conserved GII.4 blockade antibody epitope. The residues critical for antibody binding are proximal to evolving blockade epitope E. Like epitope F, antibody blockade of epitope E was temperature sensitive, indicating that particle conformation regulates antibody access not only to the conserved GII.4 blockade epitope F but also to the evolving epitope E. These data highlight novel GII.4 mechanisms to protect blockade antibody epitopes, map essential residues of a GII.4 conserved epitope, and expand our understanding of how viral particle dynamics may drive antigenicity and antibody-mediated protection by effectively shielding blockade epitopes. Our data support the notion that GII.4 particle breathing may well represent a major mechanism of humoral immune evasion supporting cyclic pandemic virus persistence and spread in human populations. IMPORTANCE In this study, we use norovirus virus-like particles to identify key residues of a conserved GII.4 blockade antibody epitope. Further, we identify an additional GII.4 blockade antibody epitope to be occluded, with antibody access governed by temperature and particle dynamics. These findings provide additional support for particle conformation-based presentation of binding residues mediated by a particle

  12. Blockade of hyperpolarization-activated channels modifies the effect of beta-adrenoceptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zefirov, T L; Ziyatdinova, N I; Gainullin, A A; Zefirov, A L

    2002-05-01

    Experiments on rats showed that blockade of hyperpolarization-activated currents moderates tachycardia induced by beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol and potentiates the increase in stroke volume produced by this agonist. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve against the background of isoproterenol treatment augmented bradycardia and increased stroke volume. Blockade of hyperpolarization-activated currents followed by application of isoproterenol moderated vagus-induced bradycardia and had no effect on the dynamics of stroke volume.

  13. Transfer of entangled state, entanglement swapping and quantum information processing via the Rydberg blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Li; Chen, Ai-Xi; Zhang, Jian-Song

    2011-11-01

    We provide a scheme with which the transfer of the entangled state and the entanglement swapping can be realized in a system of neutral atoms via the Rydberg blockade. Our idea can be extended to teleport an unknown atomic state. According to the latest theoretical research of the Rydberg excitation and experimental reports of the Rydberg blockade effect in quantum information processing, we discuss the experimental feasibility of our scheme.

  14. Independent of 5-HT1A receptors, neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus mediate ACTH responses from MDMA

    PubMed Central

    Zaretsky, Dmitry V.; Zaretskaia, Maria V.; DiMicco, Joseph A.; Durant, Pamela J.; Ross, Christian T.; Rusyniak, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Acute and chronic complications from the substituted amphetamine 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are linked to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. How MDMA activates the HPA axis is not known. HPA responses to stress are known to be mediated through the paraventricular (PVH) hypothalamus and to involve serotonin-1a (5-HT1A) receptors. We sought to determine if the PVH and 5-HT1A receptors were also involved in mediating HPA responses to MDMA. Rats were pretreated with either saline or a 5-HT1A antagonist, WAY-100635 (WAY), followed by a systemic dose of MDMA (7.5 mg/kg i.v.). Animals pretreated with WAY had significantly lower plasma ACTH concentrations after MDMA. To determine if neurons in the PVH were involved, and if their involvement was mediated by 5-HT1A receptors, rats implanted with guide cannulas targeting the PVH were microinjected with the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol, aCSF, or WAY followed by MDMA. Compared to aCSF microinjections of muscimol significantly attenuated the MDMA-induced rise in plasma ACTH (126 vs. 588 pg/ml, P=<0.01). WAY had no effect. Our data demonstrates that neurons in the PVH, independent of 5-HT1A receptors, mediate ACTH responses to MDMA. PMID:23933156

  15. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  16. Adenosine A2A receptor deletion affects social behaviors and anxiety in mice: Involvement of anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Laura; Carbó-Gas, Maria; Pardo, Marta; Bayarri, Pilar; Valverde, Olga; Ledent, Catherine; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercè

    2017-03-15

    Blockade of adenosine A 2A receptors can potentiate motivation to work for natural reinforcers such as food. Conspecific interaction is a potent natural reinforcer in social animals that can be manifested as preference for social exploration versus other sources of novel stimulation. Deficiencies in this type of motivated behavior (social withdrawal) have been seen in several pathologies such as autism and depression. However, the role of A 2A receptors in motivation for social interaction has not been widely explored. Social interaction paradigms evaluate the natural preference of animals for exploring other conspecifics, and the ability to differentiate between familiar versus novel ones. Anxiety is one of the factors that can induce avoidance of social interaction. In the present study, adenosine A 2A knockout (A 2A KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were assessed for social and anxiety-related behaviors. c-Fos immunoreactivity was evaluated as a measure of neuronal activation in brain areas involved in different aspects of motivation and emotional processes. Although A 2A KO mice showed an anxious profile, they displayed higher levels of sociability and were less sensitive to social novelty. WT mice displayed a typical pattern of social recognition 24h later, but not A 2A KO mice, which explored equally both conspecifics. There were no differences between strains in aggressiveness, perseverance or social odor preferences. c-Fos immunoreactivity in A 2A KO mice was higher in anterior cingulate and amygdala compared to WT mice. Thus, A 2A receptors appear to be potential targets for the improvement of pathologies related to social function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pindolol antagonises G-protein activation at both pre- and postsynaptic serotonin 5-HT1A receptors: a.

    PubMed

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Chaput, C; Touzard, M; Millan, M J

    2001-04-01

    The arylalkylamine, pindolol, may potentiate the clinical actions of antidepressant agents. Although it is thought to act via blockade of 5-HT1A autoreceptors, its efficacy at these sites remains controversial. Herein, we evaluated the actions of pindolol at 5-HT1A autoreceptors and specific populations of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors employing [35S]GTPgammaS autoradiography, a measure of receptor-mediated G-protein activation. Both 8-OH-DPAT (1 microM) and 5-HT (10 microM) elicited a pronounced increase in [35S]GTPyS binding in the dorsal raphe nucleus, which contains serotonergic cell bodies bearing 5-HT1A autoreceptors. Pindolol abolished their actions. In the dentate gyrus, lateral septum and entorhinal cortex, structures enriched in postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, 8-OH-DPAT (1 microM) and 5-HT (10 microM) also elicited a marked increase in [35S]GTPgammaS binding which was likewise blocked by pindolol. The antagonism of 5-HT-induced [35S]GTPgammaS labelling in the dentate gyrus was shown to be concentration-dependent, yielding a pIC50 of 5.82. Pindolol did not, itself, affect [35S]GTPgammaS binding in any brain region examined. In conclusion, these data suggest that, as characterised by [35S]GTPgammaS autoradiography, and compared with 5-HT and 8-OH-DPAT, pindolol possesses low efficacy at both pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors.

  18. Acute sleep deprivation preconditions the heart against ischemia/ reperfusion injury: the role of central GABA-A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Hoda; Imani, Alireza; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Riahi, Esmail; Badavi, Mohammad; Shakoori, Abbas; Rastegar, Tayebeh; Aghajani, Marjan; Rajani, Sulail Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission modulates cardiovascular functions and sleep. Acute sleep deprivation (ASD) affects functions of various body organs via different mechanisms. Here, we evaluated the effect of ASD on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), and studied the role of GABA-A receptor inhibition in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) by assessing nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: The CeA in sixty male Wistar rats was cannulated for saline or bicuculline (GABA-A receptor antagonist) administration. All animals underwent 30 min of coronary occlusion (ischemia), followed by 2 hr reperfusion (IR). The five experimental groups (n=12) included are as follows: IR: received saline; BIC+IR: received Bicuculline; MLP+IR: received saline, followed by the placement of animals in an aquarium with multiple large platforms; ASD+IR: underwent ASD in an aquarium with multiple small platforms; and BIC+ASD+IR: received bicuculline prior to ASD. Results: Bicuculline administration increased the malondialdehyde levels and infarct size, and decreased the NO metabolites levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas in comparison to IR group. ASD reduced malondialdehyde levels and infarct size and increased NO metabolites, corticosterone levels and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas as compared to the IR group. Levels of malondialdehyde were increased while levels of NO metabolites, corticosterone and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas were reduced in the BIC+ASD+IR as compared to the ASD+IR group. Conclusion: Blockade of GABA-A receptors in the CeA abolishes ASD-induced cardioprotection by suppressing oxidative stress and NO production. PMID:29299201

  19. Acute sleep deprivation preconditions the heart against ischemia/ reperfusion injury: the role of central GABA-A receptors.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Hoda; Imani, Alireza; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Riahi, Esmail; Badavi, Mohammad; Shakoori, Abbas; Rastegar, Tayebeh; Aghajani, Marjan; Rajani, Sulail Fatima

    2017-11-01

    Central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission modulates cardiovascular functions and sleep. Acute sleep deprivation (ASD) affects functions of various body organs via different mechanisms. Here, we evaluated the effect of ASD on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), and studied the role of GABA-A receptor inhibition in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) by assessing nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress. The CeA in sixty male Wistar rats was cannulated for saline or bicuculline (GABA-A receptor antagonist) administration. All animals underwent 30 min of coronary occlusion (ischemia), followed by 2 hr reperfusion (IR). The five experimental groups (n=12) included are as follows: IR: received saline; BIC+IR: received Bicuculline; MLP+IR: received saline, followed by the placement of animals in an aquarium with multiple large platforms; ASD+IR: underwent ASD in an aquarium with multiple small platforms; and BIC+ASD+IR: received bicuculline prior to ASD. Bicuculline administration increased the malondialdehyde levels and infarct size, and decreased the NO metabolites levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas in comparison to IR group. ASD reduced malondialdehyde levels and infarct size and increased NO metabolites, corticosterone levels and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas as compared to the IR group. Levels of malondialdehyde were increased while levels of NO metabolites, corticosterone and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas were reduced in the BIC+ASD+IR as compared to the ASD+IR group. Blockade of GABA-A receptors in the CeA abolishes ASD-induced cardioprotection by suppressing oxidative stress and NO production.

  20. Immune-Checkpoint Blockade and Active Immunotherapy for Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Brian J.; Pollack, Ian F.; Okada, Hideho

    2013-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has made tremendous progress, including promising results in patients with malignant gliomas. Nonetheless, the immunological microenvironment of the brain and tumors arising therein is still believed to be suboptimal for sufficient antitumor immune responses for a variety of reasons, including the operation of “immune-checkpoint” mechanisms. While these mechanisms prevent autoimmunity in physiological conditions, malignant tumors, including brain tumors, actively employ these mechanisms to evade from immunological attacks. Development of agents designed to unblock these checkpoint steps is currently one of the most active areas of cancer research. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the field of brain tumor immunology with particular foci in the area of immune-checkpoint mechanisms and development of active immunotherapy strategies. In the last decade, a number of specific monoclonal antibodies designed to block immune-checkpoint mechanisms have been developed and show efficacy in other cancers, such as melanoma. On the other hand, active immunotherapy approaches, such as vaccines, have shown encouraging outcomes. We believe that development of effective immunotherapy approaches should ultimately integrate those checkpoint-blockade agents to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic approaches. With these agents available, it is going to be quite an exciting time in the field. The eventual success of immunotherapies for brain tumors will be dependent upon not only an in-depth understanding of immunology behind the brain and brain tumors, but also collaboration and teamwork for the development of novel trials that address multiple layers of immunological challenges in gliomas. PMID:24202450

  1. CXCR4 blockade induces atherosclerosis by affecting neutrophil function

    PubMed Central

    Bot, Ilze; Daissormont, Isabelle T.M.N.; Zernecke, Alma; van Puijvelde, Gijs H.M.; Kramp, Birgit; de Jager, Saskia C.A.; Sluimer, Judith C.; Manca, Marco; Hérias, Veronica; Westra, Marijke M.; Bot, Martine; van Santbrink, Peter J.; van Berkel, Theo J.C.; Su, Lishan; Skjelland, Mona; Gullestad, Lars; Kuiper, Johan; Halvorsen, Bente; Aukrust, Paul; Koenen, Rory R.; Weber, Christian; Biessen, Erik A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The SDF-1α/CXCR4 dyad was previously shown by us and others to be instrumental in intimal hyperplasia as well as early stage atherosclerosis. We here sought to investigate its impact on clinically relevant stages of atherosclerosis in mouse and man. Methods and results Immunohistochemical analysis of CXCR4 expression in human atherosclerotic lesions revealed a progressive accumulation of CXCR4+ cells during plaque progression. To address causal involvement of CXCR4 in advanced stages of atherosclerosis we reconstituted LDLr−/− mice with autologous bone marrow infected with lentivirus encoding SDF-1α antagonist or CXCR4 degrakine, which effects proteasomal degradation of CXCR4. Functional CXCR4 blockade led to progressive plaque expansion with disease progression, while also promoting intraplaque haemorrhage. Moreover, CXCR4 knockdown was seen to augment endothelial adhesion of neutrophils. Concordant with this finding, inhibition of CXCR4 function increased adhesive capacity and reduced apoptosis of neutrophils and resulted in hyperactivation of circulating neutrophils. Compatible with a role of the neutrophil CXCR4 in end-stage atherosclerosis, CXCR4 expression by circulating neutrophils was lowered in patients with acute cardiovascular syndromes. Conclusion In conclusion, CXCR4 contributes to later stages of plaque progression by perturbing neutrophil function. PMID:24816217

  2. PD-1 blockade enhances elotuzumab efficacy in mouse tumor models

    PubMed Central

    Jhatakia, Amy; Kearney, Alper Y.; Brender, Ty; Maurer, Mark; Henning, Karla; Jenkins, Misty R.; Rogers, Amy J.; Neeson, Paul J.; Korman, Alan J.; Robbins, Michael D.; Graziano, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    Elotuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human signaling lymphocytic activation molecule F7 (hSLAMF7) on myeloma cells, was developed to treat patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Elotuzumab has a dual mechanism of action that includes the direct activation of natural killer (NK) cells and the induction of NK cell–mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. This study aimed to characterize the effects of elotuzumab on NK cells in vitro and in patients with MM and to determine whether elotuzumab antitumor activity was improved by programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) blockade. Elotuzumab promoted NK cell activation when added to a coculture of human NK cells and SLAMF7-expressing myeloma cells. An increased frequency of activated NK cells was observed in bone marrow aspirates from elotuzumab-treated patients. In mouse tumor models expressing hSLAMF7, maximal antitumor efficacy of a murine immunoglobulin G2a version of elotuzumab (elotuzumab-g2a) required both Fcγ receptor–expressing NK cells and CD8+ T cells and was significantly enhanced by coadministration of anti–PD-1 antibody. In these mouse models, elotuzumab-g2a and anti–PD-1 combination treatment promoted tumor-infiltrating NK and CD8+ T-cell activation, as well as increased intratumoral cytokine and chemokine release. These observations support the rationale for clinical investigation of elotuzumab/anti–PD-1 combination therapy in patients with MM. PMID:29296719

  3. CTLA-4 blockade and the renaissance of cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mocellin, Simone; Nitti, Donato

    2013-12-01

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) plays a key role in restraining the adaptive immune response of T-cells towards a variety of antigens including tumor associated antigens (TAAs). The blockade of this immune checkpoint elicits an effective anticancer immune response in a range of preclinical models, suggesting that naturally occurring (or therapeutically induced) TAA specific lymphocytes need to be "unleashed" in order to properly fight against malignant cells. Therefore, investigators have tested this therapeutic hypothesis also in humans: the favorable results obtained with this strategy in patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma are revolutionizing the management of this highly aggressive disease and are fueling new enthusiasm on cancer immunotherapy in general. Here we summarize the biology of CTLA-4, overview the experimental data supporting the rational for targeting CTLA-4 to treat cancer and review the main clinical findings on this novel anticancer approach. Moreover, we critically discuss the current challenges and potential developments of this promising field of cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Lights and shadows on single and dual RAAS blockade].

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Andrea; Del Vecchio, Lucia; Locatelli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-i) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are of paramount importance in everyday clinical practice. Developed as antihypertensive drugs, they soon acquired another important indication as a result of their antiproteinuric activity and capacity to delay the progression of chronic kidney disease. ACE-i and ARBs started out being used as single drugs and were subsequently combined to obtain more complete blocking of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The most evident advantages derived from the administration of these drugs - alone or in combination - have been obtained in proteinuric nephropathies, such as chronic glomerulonephritis and diabetic nephropathy, where they have become the treatment choice. Dual RAAS blockade has been recently evaluated in a large trial of high-risk cardiovascular patients, in whom no related benefits were shown. To the contrary, a higher risk of worsening renal function emerged. It is now quite clear that patients with high proteinuria levels are the ones that benefit most from RAAS inhibition, also with combined ACE-i and ARB. It is very important to pay the utmost attention when these drugs are used in patients in whom no benefit is obtained by RAAS inhibition, such as patients with chronic kidney disease and atherosclerosis, elderly patients, and those without any significant proteinuria.

  5. Combining chemotherapy with PD-1 blockade in NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Matthen; Enzler, Thomas; Shu, Catherine A; Rizvi, Naiyer A

    2018-06-01

    Antitumor immunity relies on the ability of the immune system to recognize tumor cells as foreign and eliminate them. An effective immune response in this setting is due to surveillance of tumor-specific antigens that induce an adaptive immune response resulting in T-cell mediated cytotoxicity. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, specifically those targeting the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) axis, have demonstrated promising activity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there remains a crucial need for better treatment strategies for the majority of patients with advanced NSCLC, particularly in the frontline setting. Chemotherapy can increase antigenicity via immunogenic cell death (ICD) of tumor cells as well as also reduce "off target" immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Combining chemotherapy with PD-1 blockade harnesses the potential synergy between these agents and has led to encouraging results in the up-front treatment of NSCLC. In this review, we summarize the preclinical rationale behind these combinations and review recent trial data demonstrating their efficacy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. A behavioral mechanistic investigation of the role of 5-HT1A receptors in the mediation of rat maternal behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonan; Ding, Xiaojing; Wu, Ruiyong; Chen, Leilei; Gao, Jun; Hu, Gang; Li, Ming

    2018-06-01

    Previous work suggests that 5-HT 1A receptors play a special role in rodent maternal aggression, but not in other aspects of maternal care (e.g. pup retrieval and nest building). The present study re-assessed the basic effects of 5-HT 1A activation or blockade on various maternal responses in postpartum female rats. We also examined the possible behavioral mechanisms underlying the maternal effects of 5-HT 1A . Sprague-Dawley mother rats were injected with a 5-HT 1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, sc), a 5-HT 1A antagonist WAY-101405 (0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline solution on postpartum days 3, 5, and 7. Maternal behavior was tested 30 min before, 30 min, 120 min, and 240 min after the injection. Acute and repeated 8-OH-DPAT treatment significantly disrupted pup retrieval, pup licking, nursing, and nest building in a dose-dependent fashion, whereas WAY-101405 had no effect at the tested doses. The 5-HT 1A receptor specificity of 8-OH-DPAT's action was confirmed as its maternal disruption effect was reversed by pretreatment of WAY-100635 (a highly selective 5-HT 1A receptor antagonist). Subsequent pup preference test found that 8-OH-DPAT did not decrease the pup preference over a novel object, thus no inhibition on maternal motivation or maternal affect. The pup separation test and pup retrieval on an elevated plus maze test also failed to find any motivational and motor impairment effect with 8-OH-DPAT. However, 8-OH-DPAT at the maternal disruptive dose did disrupt the prepulse inhibition (a measure of attentional function) of acoustic startle response and enhanced the basal startle response. These findings suggest that stimulation of 5-HT 1A receptors by 8-OH-DPAT impairs maternal care by partially interfering with the attentional processing or basal anxiety. More work is needed to further delineate the psychological and neuronal mechanisms underlying the maternal disruptive effect of 5-HT 1A receptor activation. Copyright © 2018

  7. Effect of acute aerobic exercise and histamine receptor blockade on arterial stiffness in African Americans and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Ranadive, Sushant M.; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Behun, Michael A.; Cook, Marc D.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-01-01

    African Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared with Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility after submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained postexercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA. Forty-nine (22 AA, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either histamine receptor antagonist or control placebo. Central blood BP and arterial stiffness measurements were obtained at baseline, and at 30, 60, and 90 min after 45 min of moderate treadmill exercise. AA exhibited greater central diastolic BP, elevated brachial PWV, and local carotid arterial stiffness after an acute bout of submaximal exercise compared with CA, which may contribute to their higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Unexpectedly, histamine receptor blockade did not affect central BP or PWV in AA or CA after exercise, but it may play a role in mediating local carotid arterial stiffness. Furthermore, histamine may mediate postexercise carotid arterial dilation in CA but not in AA. These observations provide evidence that young and healthy AA exhibit an exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and attenuated vasodilator response compared with CA. NEW & NOTEWORTHY African Americans are at greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Caucasians. We are the first to show that young and healthy African Americans exhibit greater central blood pressure, elevated brachial stiffness, and local carotid arterial stiffness following an acute bout of submaximal exercise

  8. Effect of acute aerobic exercise and histamine receptor blockade on arterial stiffness in African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-02-01

    African Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared with Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility after submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained postexercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA. Forty-nine (22 AA, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either histamine receptor antagonist or control placebo. Central blood BP and arterial stiffness measurements were obtained at baseline, and at 30, 60, and 90 min after 45 min of moderate treadmill exercise. AA exhibited greater central diastolic BP, elevated brachial PWV, and local carotid arterial stiffness after an acute bout of submaximal exercise compared with CA, which may contribute to their higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Unexpectedly, histamine receptor blockade did not affect central BP or PWV in AA or CA after exercise, but it may play a role in mediating local carotid arterial stiffness. Furthermore, histamine may mediate postexercise carotid arterial dilation in CA but not in AA. These observations provide evidence that young and healthy AA exhibit an exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and attenuated vasodilator response compared with CA. NEW & NOTEWORTHY African Americans are at greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Caucasians. We are the first to show that young and healthy African Americans exhibit greater central blood pressure, elevated brachial stiffness, and local carotid arterial stiffness following an acute bout of submaximal exercise

  9. The effects of beta-adrenergic blockade on body composition in free-fed and diet-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, L L; Doan, T D; Lennon, D L; Nagle, F J; Lardy, H A

    1987-04-01

    The effects of the non-selective beta-adrenergic blocking agent propranolol (known for its anti-lipolytic activity) on body composition were investigated in growing male rats on normal unrestricted diet (N = 7) and on diet restriction (N = 7, 95% of controls). Three animals in each group were injected i.p. with 30 mg propranolol per kg body weight (bw) dissolved in saline, 5 days/week. This dose attenuates exercising heart rate by 25% and exercise training-induced enzyme activity. The remaining animals received saline. Fat, glycogen, moisture and non-ether extractable residue were determined in the homogenized residue of the whole animal. After 9 weeks on the experimental regimen, bw gain was significantly lower in the diet restricted rats, whereas propranolol had no effect on the bw gain. The percentage of fat, moisture and non-ether extractable residue were unchanged by either propranolol or diet restriction. However, glycogen content was significantly lower in the beta-blocked rats either with or without diet restriction. These data indicated that neither beta-adrenergic blockade nor minimal diet restriction influences the percentage body fat, whereas body glycogen content is decreased under both conditions.

  10. Combination CTLA-4 Blockade and 4-1BB Activation Enhances Tumor Rejection by Increasing T-Cell Infiltration, Proliferation, and Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Michael A.; Kim, Myoungjoo; Montalvo, Welby; Al-Shamkhani, Aymen; Allison, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The co-inhibitory receptor Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) attenuates immune responses and prevent autoimmunity, however, tumors exploit this pathway to evade the host T-cell response. The T-cell co-stimulatory receptor 4-1BB is transiently upregulated on T-cells following activation and increases their proliferation and inflammatory cytokine production when engaged. Antibodies which block CTLA-4 or which activate 4-1BB can promote the rejection of some murine tumors, but fail to cure poorly immunogenic tumors like B16 melanoma as single agents. Methodology/Principal Findings We find that combining αCTLA-4 and α4-1BB antibodies in the context of a Flt3-ligand, but not a GM-CSF, based B16 melanoma vaccine promoted synergistic levels of tumor rejection. 4-1BB activation elicited strong infiltration of CD8+ T-cells into the tumor and drove the proliferation of these cells, while CTLA-4 blockade did the same for CD4+ effector T-cells. Anti-4-1BB also depressed regulatory T-cell infiltration of tumors. 4-1BB activation strongly stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in the vaccine and tumor draining lymph nodes and in the tumor itself. The addition of CTLA-4 blockade further increased IFN-γ production from CD4+ effector T-cells in the vaccine draining node and the tumor. Anti 4-1BB treatment, with or without CTLA-4 blockade, induced approximately 75% of CD8+ and 45% of CD4+ effector T-cells in the tumor to express the killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1). Tumors treated with combination antibody therapy showed 1.7-fold greater infiltration by these KLRG1+CD4+ effector T-cells than did those treated with α4-1BB alone. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that combining T-cell co-inhibitory blockade with αCTLA-4 and active co-stimulation with α4-1BB promotes rejection of B16 melanoma in the context of a suitable vaccine. In addition, we identify KLRG1 as a useful marker for monitoring the anti-tumor immune response elicited by

  11. Pride attenuates nonconscious mimicry.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Leah; DeSteno, David

    2014-02-01

    Positive affect has been associated with increased nonconscious mimicry-an association that is quite logical given ties between positive mood and desires for social bonding. Yet positive emotions vary with respect to function, leading to the prediction that not all positive states might similarly increase mimicry. Pride, due to its association with higher status and self-focus, could be expected to attenuate affiliative behaviors such as mimicry. Participants in the present study were induced to experience one of three affective states (neutral, pride, general positivity), after which they interacted with a confederate who expressed a specific, neutral nonverbal behavior (i.e., foot shaking). Supporting past research, participants experiencing general positive affect evidenced greater mimicry as compared to participants in a neutral mood. In accord with predictions, participants experiencing pride mimicked the confederate's behavior significantly less than did those experiencing general positive affect or a neutral state. Regression analyses also confirmed that increasing intensities of pride predicted decreasing mimicry. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Sulforaphane attenuates EGFR signaling in NSCLC cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Yuan; Yu, Zhu-Yun; Chuang, Yen-Shu; Huang, Rui-Mei; Wang, Tzu-Chien V

    2015-06-03

    EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is frequently overexpressed and mutated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been widely used in the treatment of many cancers, including NSCLC. However, intrinsic and acquired resistance to TKI remains a common obstacle. One strategy that may help overcome EGFR-TKI resistance is to target EGFR for degradation. As EGFR is a client protein of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) and sulforaphane is known to functionally regulate HSP90, we hypothesized that sulforaphane could attenuate EGFR-related signaling and potentially be used to treat NSCLC. Our study revealed that sulforaphane displayed antitumor activity against NSCLC cells both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of NSCLC cells to sulforaphane appeared to positively correlate with the inhibition of EGFR-related signaling, which was attributed to the increased proteasomal degradation of EGFR. Combined treatment of NSCLC cells with sulforaphane plus another HSP90 inhibitor (17-AAG) enhanced the inhibition of EGFR-related signaling both in vitro and in vivo. We have shown that sulforaphane is a novel inhibitory modulator of EGFR expression and is effective in inhibiting the tumor growth of EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLC cells. Our findings suggest that sulforaphane should be further explored for its potential clinical applications against NSCLC.

  13. A genetic variation in the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) contributes to individual sensitivity to caffeine effects on sleep.

    PubMed

    Rétey, J V; Adam, M; Khatami, R; Luhmann, U F O; Jung, H H; Berger, W; Landolt, H-P

    2007-05-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used stimulant in Western countries. Some people voluntarily reduce caffeine consumption because it impairs the quality of their sleep. Studies in mice revealed that the disruption of sleep after caffeine is mediated by blockade of adenosine A2A receptors. Here we show in humans that (1) habitual caffeine consumption is associated with reduced sleep quality in self-rated caffeine-sensitive individuals, but not in caffeine-insensitive individuals; (2) the distribution of distinct c.1083T>C genotypes of the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) differs between caffeine-sensitive and -insensitive adults; and (3) the ADORA2A c.1083T>C genotype determines how closely the caffeine-induced changes in brain electrical activity during sleep resemble the alterations observed in patients with insomnia. These data demonstrate a role of adenosine A2A receptors for sleep in humans, and suggest that a common variation in ADORA2A contributes to subjective and objective responses to caffeine on sleep.

  14. Worker safety during operations with mobile attenuators.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-05-01

    While most transportation agencies are very familiar with truck-mounted attenuators, trailer-mounted : attenuators are increasing in popularity. There is a concern for the level of protection that attenuators : provide for workers when they are mount...

  15. A Citizen's Guide to Monitored Natural Attenuation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Citizen's Guide describing how natural attenuation relies on natural processes to decrease or attenuate concentrations of contaminants in soil and groundwater. Scientists monitor these conditions to make sure natural attenuation is working.

  16. Blockade of Syk ameliorates the development of murine sclerodermatous chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Le Huu, Doanh; Kimura, Hiroshi; Date, Mutsumi; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Hasegawa, Minoru; Hau, Khang Tran; Fujimoto, Manabu; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Matsushita, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    Murine sclerodermatous chronic graft-versus-host disease (Scl-cGVHD) is a model for human Scl-cGVHD and systemic sclerosis (SSc). Syk is expressed in most of hematopoietic cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Syk is a protein tyrosine kinase that has an important role in transmitting signals from a variety of cell surface receptors. This study aims to investigate the effect of R788 (fostamatinib sodium), an oral prodrug that is rapidly converted to a potent inhibitor of Syk, R406, on Scl-cGVHD. R788 was orally administered twice a day to allogeneic recipients from day 14 to day 42 after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In vitro, proliferation of GVHD-derived CD4(+) T cells and CD11b(+) cells was analyzed by R406. Allogeneic BMT increased Syk phosphorylation in T, B, and CD11b(+) cells. The administration of R788 attenuated severity and fibrosis of Scl-cGVHD. The elevated expressions of CXCR4 on T cells, B cells, and CD11b(+) cells were significantly down-regulated by R788 treatment. R788 reduced memory CD4(+) T cells (CD44(hi)CD62L(-)CD4(+)). R406 inhibited proliferation of GVHD CD4(+) T cells and CD11b(+) cells in vitro. In addition, R788 treatment, inhibited proliferation of CD11b(+) cells in Scl-cGVHD mice. R788 treatment also reduced skin mRNA expressions of MCP-1, MIP-1α, IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-17A, and TGF-β1, but not influenced RANTES, CXCL12, and TFN-α. Blockade of Syk suppressed migration factor of immune cells and antigen-specific memory CD4(+) T cells and proliferation and activation of GVHD CD4(+) T cells and CD11b(+) cells. The current studies suggested that Syk inhibitor is a potential candidate for use in treating patients with Scl-cGVHD and SSc. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Beta-adrenergic blockade for the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Geffner, D L; Hershman, J M

    1992-07-01

    To review the clinical and biochemical effects of beta-adrenergic blocking drugs on hyperthyroidism. Studies published since 1972 were identified through a computerized search of MEDLINE and extensive searching of the bibliographies of the articles identified. Based on an understanding of the differences in beta-blocker metabolism in euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients, we reviewed the differences in pharmacokinetics and metabolic and clinical outcomes during their use in hyperthyroidism, as reported in the articles reviewed. beta Blockers have been used to modify the severity of the hyperadrenergic symptoms of hyperthyroidism for the past 20 years. The clinical efficacy of these agents is affected by hyperthyroid-induced alterations in their gastrointestinal absorption, hepatic metabolism, and renal excretion. The mechanisms whereby these clinical changes are effected is unknown. The agents differ in their beta 1 cardioselectivity, membrane-stabilizing activity, intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, and lipid solubility. They do not appear to alter synthesis or secretion of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. Their effects on thyroxine metabolism are contradictory. Decreased thyroxine to triiodothyronine conversion is caused by some, but not all, beta blockers, and this appears to correlate with membrane-stabilizing activity. There does not appear to be any alteration in catecholamine sensitivity during beta-adrenergic blockade. The principal mechanism of action of beta blockers in hyperthyroidism is to antagonize beta-receptor-mediated effects of catecholamines. beta Blockers are effective in treating hypermetabolic symptoms in a variety of hyperthyroid states. Used alone, they offer significant symptomatic relief. They are also useful adjuvants to antithyroid medications, surgery, and radioactive iodide treatment in patients with Graves' disease and toxic nodular goiters.

  18. Gap junction blockade induces apoptosis in human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Berga, Sarah L; Zou, Wei; Sun, He-Ying; Johnston-MacAnanny, Erika; Yalcinkaya, Tamer; Sidell, Neil; Bagchi, Indrani C; Bagchi, Milan K; Taylor, Robert N

    2014-07-01

    One of the most dynamic adult human tissues is the endometrium. Through coordinated, cyclical proliferation, differentiation, leukocyte recruitment, apoptosis, and desquamation, the uterine lining is expanded and shed monthly, unless pregnancy is established. Errors in these steps potentially cause endometrial dysfunction, abnormal uterine bleeding, failed embryonic implantation, infertility, or endometrial carcinoma. Our prior studies showed that gap junctions comprised of Gap junction alpha-1 (GJA1) protein, also known as connexin 43 (CX43), subunits are critical to endometrial stromal cell differentiation. The current studies were undertaken to explore the mechanism of endometrial dysfunction when gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is disrupted. Gap junction blockade by two distinct GJIC inhibitors, 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (AGA) and octanol (OcOH), suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in endometrial stromal cells, as manifested by reduced biomarkers of cell viability, increased TUNEL staining, caspase-3 activation, sub-G1 chromosomal DNA complement, as well as shortened telomere length. Unexpectedly, we also observed that the chemical inhibitors blocked CX43 gene expression. Moreover, when endometrial stromal cells were induced to undergo hormonal decidualization, following a 7-day exposure to 10 nM 17β-estradiol + 100 nM progesterone + 0.5 mM dibutyryl cAMP, characteristic epithelioid changes in cell shape and secretion of prolactin were blunted in the presence of AGA or OcOH, recapitulating effects of RNA interference of CX43. Our findings indicate that endometrial stromal cell proliferation and maintenance of decidualized endometrial function are GJIC-dependent, and that disruption of gap junctions induces endometrial stromal cell apoptosis. These observations may have important implications for several common clinical endometrial pathologies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. GHRH excess and blockade in X-LAG syndrome.

    PubMed

    Daly, Adrian F; Lysy, Philippe A; Desfilles, Céline; Rostomyan, Liliya; Mohamed, Amira; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Raverot, Veronique; Castermans, Emilie; Marbaix, Etienne; Maiter, Dominique; Brunelle, Chloe; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine A; Bours, Vincent; Raftopoulos, Christian; Beauloye, Veronique; Barlier, Anne; Beckers, Albert

    2016-03-01

    X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described form of inheritable pituitary gigantism that begins in early childhood and is usually associated with markedly elevated GH and prolactin secretion by mixed pituitary adenomas/hyperplasia. Microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 including the GPR101 gene cause X-LAG syndrome. In individual cases random GHRH levels have been elevated. We performed a series of hormonal profiles in a young female sporadic X-LAG syndrome patient and subsequently undertook in vitro studies of primary pituitary tumor culture following neurosurgical resection. The patient demonstrated consistently elevated circulating GHRH levels throughout preoperative testing, which was accompanied by marked GH and prolactin hypersecretion; GH demonstrated a paradoxical increase following TRH administration. In vitro, the pituitary cells showed baseline GH and prolactin release that was further stimulated by GHRH administration. Co-incubation with GHRH and the GHRH receptor antagonist, acetyl-(d-Arg(2))-GHRH (1-29) amide, blocked the GHRH-induced GH stimulation; the GHRH receptor antagonist alone significantly reduced GH release. Pasireotide, but not octreotide, inhibited GH secretion. A ghrelin receptor agonist and an inverse agonist led to modest, statistically significant increases and decreases in GH secretion, respectively. GHRH hypersecretion can accompany the pituitary abnormalities seen in X-LAG syndrome. These data suggest that the pathology of X-LAG syndrome may include hypothalamic dysregulation of GHRH secretion, which is in keeping with localization of GPR101 in the hypothalamus. Therapeutic blockade of GHRH secretion could represent a way to target the marked hormonal hypersecretion and overgrowth that characterizes X-LAG syndrome. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Effect of ulinastatin on the rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Soo; Park, Jung Woo; Yoo, Byung Hoon; Yon, Jun Heum; Kim, Dong Won

    2012-01-01

    Background Ulinastatin is a glycoprotein derived from human urine and a serine protease inhibitor found in human urine and blood. Ulinastatin increases both liver blood flow and urine output. Rocuronium is eliminated mainly through the liver and partly through the kidney, hepatic elimination of rocuronium might be enhanced by ulinastatin. We examined the effect of ulinastatin on the neuromuscular block caused by rocuronium. Methods Forty four adult patients were randomly divided into two groups of 22 patients each, i.e. the study group and the control group. In the study group, a bolus dose of ulinastatin 5,000 U/kg was administered 2 min before the injection of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. In the control group, normal saline was administered instead of ulinastatin. For the monitoring of both onset and recovery from neuromuscular blockade, train-of-four (TOF) and post-tetanic count were used with TOF-Watch Sx. All patients underwent general anesthesia with total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) of remifentanil and propofol, using the effect site target infusion system. Results In the study group, the onset of neuromuscular block was significantly slower than in the control group (P < 0.05). The recovery time from the rocuronium injection to the return of PTC was also significantly shorter in the study group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Similarly, times to the return of T1, T2, T3, and T4 (i.e. the first, second, third, and fourth response of TOF) were significantly shorter in the study group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions Ulinastatin significantly delays the onset of neuromuscular block and accelerates the recovery from the block caused by rocuronium. PMID:22474550

  1. Survey of external cephalic version for breech presentation and neuraxial blockade use.

    PubMed

    Weiniger, Carolyn F; Sultan, Pervez; Dunn, Ashley; Carvalho, Brendan

    2016-11-01

    Neuraxial blockade may increase external cephalic version (ECV) success rates. This survey aimed to assess the frequency and characteristics of neuraxial blockade used to facilitate ECV. We surveyed Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology members regarding ECV practice using a 15-item survey developed by 3 obstetric anesthesiologists and tested for face validity. The survey was e-mailed in January 2015 and again in February 2015 to the 1056 Society of Obstetric Anesthesiology and Perinatology members. We present descriptive statistics of responses. Our survey response rate was 322 of 1056 (30.5%). Neuraxial blockade was used for ECV always by 18 (5.6%), often by 52 (16.1%), sometimes by 98 (30.4%), rarely by 78 (24.2%), and never by 46 (14.3%) of respondents. An anesthetic sensory block target was selected by 141 (43.8%) respondents, and analgesic by 102 (31.7%) respondents. Epidural drug doses ranged widely, including sufentanil 5-25 μg; lidocaine 1% or 2% 10-20 mL, bupivacaine 0.0625% to 0.5% 6-15 mL, and ropivacaine 0.2% 20 mL. Intrathecal bupivacaine was used by 182 (56.5%) respondents; the most frequent doses were 2.5 mg used by 24 (7.5%), 7.5 mg used by 35 (10.9%), and 12 mg used by 30 (9.3%). Neuraxial blockade is not universally offered to facilitate ECV, and there is wide variability in neuraxial blockade techniques, in drugs and doses administered, and in the sensory blockade (anesthetic or analgesic) targeted. Future studies need to evaluate and remove barriers to allow for more widespread use of neuraxial blockade for pain relief and to optimize ECV success rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Serotonin blockade delays learning performance in a cooperative fish.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marta C; Paula, José R; Bshary, Redouan

    2016-09-01

    Animals use learning and memorizing to gather information that will help them to make ecologically relevant decisions. Neuro-modulatory adjustments enable them to make associations between stimuli and appropriate behavior. A key candidate for the modulation of cooperative behavior is serotonin. Previous research has shown that modulation of the serotonergic system spontaneously affects the behavior of the cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus during interactions with so-called 'client' reef fish. Here, we asked whether shifts in serotonin function affect the cleaners' associative learning abilities when faced with the task to distinguish two artificial clients that differ in their value as a food source. We found that the administration of serotonin 1A receptor antagonist significantly slowed learning speed in comparison with saline treated fish. As reduced serotonergic signaling typically enhances fear, we discuss the possibility that serotonin may affect how cleaners appraise, acquire information and respond to client-derived stimuli via manipulation of the perception of danger.

  3. Photoaffinity labelling and solubilization on the central 5-HT1A receptor binding site.

    PubMed

    Gozlan, H; Emerit, M B; el Mestikawy, S; Cossery, J M; Marquet, A; Besselievre, R; Hamon, M

    1987-01-01

    Two complementary approaches, covalent labelling and solubilization, have been used to study the biochemical properties of the central 5-HT1A receptor binding site. We have first designed a photoaffinity ligand containing the structure of 8-OH-DPAT, a potent and specific agonist of 5-HT1A sites. Thus, 8-methoxy-2[N-n-propyl,N-3-(2-nitro-4-azido-phenyl)- aminopropyl]aminotetralin or 8-methoxy-3'-NAP-amino-PAT, was found to displace, in the dark, [3H]8-OH-DPAT from 5-HT1A sites in rat hippocampal membranes with an IC50 of 6.6 nM. Under two cumulative UV irradiations (366 nm, for 20 min at 4 degrees C), 8-methoxy-3-'-NAP-amino-PAT (30 nM) blocked irreversibly 55-60% of 5-HT1A binding sites. This blockade was specific of 5-HT1A sites since the other serotoninergic sites, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2 and also the presynaptic 5-HT3 sites were not affected by the treatment. In addition, the binding of [3H]Spiperone and [3H]7-OH-DPAT to striatal dopamine sites remained unchanged under similar photolysis conditions. The tritiated derivative of the photoaffinity ligand (92 Ci/mmol) was then synthesized for the identification of the covalently bound protein(s). SDS-PAGE of solubilized membranes irradiated in the presence of 20 nM 3H-8-methoxy-3'-NAP-amino-PAT allowed the detection of a 63 kD protein whose labelling appeared specific. Thus, 3H-incorporation into the 63 kD band could be prevented by microM concentrations of 5-HT, 8-OH-DPAT and other selective 5-HT1A ligands such as isapirone. In contrast, the 5-HT2 antagonist ketanserin, norepinephrine and dopamine-related ligands (including 7-OH-DPAT) were ineffective. Direct solubilization of 5-HT1A receptor binding sites was also attempted from rat hippocampal membranes. The best results were obtained using CHAPS (10 mM) plus NaCl (0.2 M), which led to 50% recovery of 5-HT1A sites in the 100,000 g supernatant. The pharmacological properties and sensitivity to N-ethyl-maleimide and GppNHp of soluble sites appeared near identical to those of

  4. Successful implementation of perioperative beta-blockade utilizing a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Armanious, Samuel; Wong, David T; Etchells, Edward; Higgins, Patrick; Chung, Frances

    2003-02-01

    To describe how we implemented a protocol for perioperative beta-blockade in patients with or at risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing major non-cardiac surgery and to present our results. After institutional approval, from May 1999 to April 2001, patients with surgical and medical indications (CAD as indicated by previous myocardial infarction, typical angina or atypical angina with a positive stress test or at least two risk factors for CAD: age 65 yr, hypertension, smoking, high cholesterol, diabetes mellitus) for perioperative beta-blockade were identified preoperatively by anesthesiology and referred to the General Internal Medicine Service (MED). MED initiated patients on outpatient beta-blockers. The intraoperative anesthetic management was left to the discretion of the anesthesiologist. In the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), patients received iv metoprolol according to hemodynamic criteria. Postoperatively, patients were followed by MED for adverse cardiac events. Sixty-nine patients received perioperative beta-blockade. Preoperatively, 60% were started on metoprolol, 39% on atenolol and 1% on propranolol. In PACU, 42%, 9% and 38% of patients were given iv metoprolol 0, 5 and 10 mg respectively. One patient was given glycopyrrolate in the PACU for bradycardia and none received vasoactive or inotropic agents. Three patients (4.3%) had postoperative cardiac events. With close collaboration between anesthesiologists, internists, PACU nurses and family physicians, a strategy for perioperative beta-blockade was implemented successfully in patients with cardiac risks. Beta-blockade was associated with few side effects and morbidities.

  5. Profile of sugammadex for reversal of neuromuscular blockade in the elderly: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Carron, Michele; Bertoncello, Francesco; Ieppariello, Giovanna

    2018-01-01

    The number of elderly patients is increasing worldwide. This will have a significant impact on the practice of anesthesia in future decades. Anesthesiologists must provide care for an increasing number of elderly patients, who have an elevated risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Complications related to postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade, such as muscle weakness, airway obstruction, hypoxemia, atelectasis, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure, are more frequent in older than in younger patients. Therefore, neuromuscular blockade in the elderly should be carefully monitored and completely reversed before awakening patients at the end of anesthesia. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are traditionally used for reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Although the risk of residual neuromuscular blockade is reduced by reversal with neostigmine, it continues to complicate the postoperative course. Sugammadex represents an innovative approach to reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by aminosteroid neuromuscular-blocking agents, particularly rocuronium, with useful applications in clinical practice. However, aging is associated with certain changes in the pharmacokinetics of sugammadex, and to date there has been no thorough evaluation of the use of sugammadex in elderly patients. The aim of this review was to perform an analysis of the use of sugammadex in older adults based on the current literature. Major issues surrounding the physiologic and pharmacologic effects of aging in elderly patients and how these may impact the routine use of sugammadex in elderly patients are discussed.

  6. Profile of sugammadex for reversal of neuromuscular blockade in the elderly: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Carron, Michele; Bertoncello, Francesco; Ieppariello, Giovanna

    2018-01-01

    The number of elderly patients is increasing worldwide. This will have a significant impact on the practice of anesthesia in future decades. Anesthesiologists must provide care for an increasing number of elderly patients, who have an elevated risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Complications related to postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade, such as muscle weakness, airway obstruction, hypoxemia, atelectasis, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure, are more frequent in older than in younger patients. Therefore, neuromuscular blockade in the elderly should be carefully monitored and completely reversed before awakening patients at the end of anesthesia. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are traditionally used for reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Although the risk of residual neuromuscular blockade is reduced by reversal with neostigmine, it continues to complicate the postoperative course. Sugammadex represents an innovative approach to reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by aminosteroid neuromuscular-blocking agents, particularly rocuronium, with useful applications in clinical practice. However, aging is associated with certain changes in the pharmacokinetics of sugammadex, and to date there has been no thorough evaluation of the use of sugammadex in elderly patients. The aim of this review was to perform an analysis of the use of sugammadex in older adults based on the current literature. Major issues surrounding the physiologic and pharmacologic effects of aging in elderly patients and how these may impact the routine use of sugammadex in elderly patients are discussed. PMID:29317806

  7. Synergy of Immune Checkpoint Blockade with a Novel Synthetic Consensus DNA Vaccine Targeting TERT.

    PubMed

    Duperret, Elizabeth K; Wise, Megan C; Trautz, Aspen; Villarreal, Daniel O; Ferraro, Bernadette; Walters, Jewell; Yan, Jian; Khan, Amir; Masteller, Emma; Humeau, Laurent; Weiner, David B

    2018-02-07

    Immune checkpoint blockade antibodies are setting a new standard of care for cancer patients. It is therefore important to assess any new immune-based therapies in the context of immune checkpoint blockade. Here, we evaluate the impact of combining a synthetic consensus TERT DNA vaccine that has improved capacity to break tolerance with immune checkpoint inhibitors. We observed that blockade of CTLA-4 or, to a lesser extent, PD-1 synergized with TERT vaccine, generating more robust anti-tumor activity compared to checkpoint alone or vaccine alone. Despite this anti-tumor synergy, none of these immune checkpoint therapies showed improvement in TERT antigen-specific immune responses in tumor-bearing mice. αCTLA-4 therapy enhanced the frequency of T-bet + /CD44 + effector CD8 + T cells within the tumor and decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells within the tumor, but not in peripheral blood. CTLA-4 blockade synergized more than Treg depletion with TERT DNA vaccine, suggesting that the effect of CTLA-4 blockade is more likely due to the expansion of effector T cells in the tumor rather than a reduction in the frequency of Tregs. These results suggest that immune checkpoint inhibitors function to alter the immune regulatory environment to synergize with DNA vaccines, rather than boosting antigen-specific responses at the site of vaccination. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Complaints to the Norwegian System of Patient Injury Compensation 2001-14 following nerve blockade.

    PubMed

    Kongsgaard, Ulf E; Fischer, Kristine; Pedersen, Tor Erlend; Bukholm, Ida Rashida Khan; Warncke, Torhild

    2016-12-01

    There has been a steady increase in cases reported to the Norwegian System of Patient Injury Compensation (NPE). We wished to look into what might characterise those cases of central and peripheral nerve blockade for anaesthesia that led to compensation claims. Cases with codes for central and peripheral blockade within the field of anaesthesiology were retrieved from the NPE database for the period 2001 – 14. The cases were evaluated on the basis of variables including sex, age, type of anaesthesia, diagnosis, type of injury, site of injury, damages received, and written descriptions of treatment and injury. The expert reports were anonymised and reviewed in detail. A total of 339 patient compensation claims relating to nerve blockade were identified, of which 149 concerned spinal anaesthesia, 142 epidural anaesthesia, 21 combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia and 27 peripheral nerve blockade. The group consisted of 236 women and 103 men, and the average age was 46 years. The 339 cases comprised 0.8 % of all cases reported to the NPE in this period. A total of 107 claims resulted in compensation. Eighty-two million Norwegian kroner were paid out in total. Peripheral and central nerve blockade accounts for only a small proportion of cases handled by the NPE. Only one in three applicants had their claim upheld, but when claims were upheld, the injuries were often severe and led to substantial pay-outs.

  9. The effect of RAAS blockade on the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Roscioni, Sara S; Heerspink, Hiddo J Lambers; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2014-02-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has a key role in the regulation of blood pressure, sodium and water balance, and cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. In diabetic nephropathy, excessive activation of the RAAS results in progressive renal damage. RAAS blockade using angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers is the cornerstone of treatment of diabetic renal disease. Alternative RAAS-blockade strategies include renin inhibition and aldosterone blockade. Data from small initial studies of these agents are promising. However, single-agent interventions do not fully block the RAAS and patients treated with these therapies remain at high residual renal risk. Approaches to optimize drug responses include dietary changes and increasing dosages. The theoretically attractive option of combining different RAAS interventions has also been tested in clinical trials but long-term outcomes were disappointing. However, dual RAAS blockade might represent a good therapeutic option for specific patients. A better knowledge of the pathophysiology of the RAAS is crucial to fully understand the mechanisms of action of RAAS blockers and to exploit their renoprotective effects. Moreover, lifestyle interventions or diagnostic tools might be used to optimize RAAS blockade and identify those patients who are most likely to benefit from the therapy.

  10. FAP positive fibroblasts induce immune checkpoint blockade resistance in colorectal cancer via promoting immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingling; Qiu, Xiangting; Wang, Xinhua; He, Jian

    2017-05-20

    Immune checkpoint blockades that significantly prolonged survival of melanoma patients have been less effective on colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Growing evidence suggested that fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP) on cancer associate fibroblasts (CAFs) has critical roles in regulating antitumor immune response by inducing tumor-promoting inflammation. In this study, we explored the roles of FAP in regulating the tumor immunity and immune checkpoint blockades resistance in CRC experimental systems. We found that CAFs with high FAP expression could induce immune checkpoint blockade resistance in CRC mouse model. Mechanistically, CAFs with high FAP expression promoted immunosuppression in the CRC tumor immune microenvironment by up-regulating CCL2 secretion, recruiting myeloid cells, and decreasing T-cell activity. In human CRC samples, FAP expression was proportional to myeloid cells number, but inversely related to T-cell number. High FAP expression also predicted poor survival of CRC patients. Taken together, our study suggested that high FAP expression in CAFs is one reason leading to immune checkpoint blockades resistance in CRC patients and FAP is an optional target for reversing immune checkpoint blockades resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Blockade of CD26 signaling inhibits human osteoclast development.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Hiroko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Madokoro, Hiroko; Hayashi, Mutsumi; Morimoto, Chikao; Sakamoto, Michiie; Yamada, Taketo

    2014-11-01

    Bone remodeling is maintained by the delicate balance between osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs). However, the role of CD26 in regulating bone remodeling has not yet been characterized. We herein show that CD26 is preferentially expressed on normal human OCs and is intensely expressed on activated human OCs in osteolytic bone alterations. Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (sRANKL) induced human OC differentiation, in association with CD26 expression on monocyte-macrophage lineage cells. CD26 expression was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), which is crucial for early human OC differentiation. The humanized anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody, huCD26mAb, impaired the formation and function of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)/CD26 positive multi-nucleated (nuclei > 3) OCs with maturation in the manner of dose-dependency. It was revealed that huCD26mAb inhibits early OC differentiation via the inactivation of MKK3/6, p38 MAPK and subsequent dephosphorylation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (mi/Mitf). These inhibitions occur immediately after RANKL binds to RANK on the human OC precursor cells and were demonstrated using the OC functional assays. huCD26mAb subsequently impaired OC maturation and bone resorption by suppressing the expression of TRAP and OC fusion proteins. In addition, p38 MAPK inhibitor also strongly inhibited OC formation and function. Our results suggest that the blockade of CD26 signaling impairs the development of human functional OCs by inhibiting p38 MAPK-mi/Mitf phosphorylation pathway and that targeting human OCs with huCD26mAb may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of osteolytic lesions following metastasis to alleviate bone destruction and reduce total skeletal-related events (SREs). © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  12. Inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases associated with PD-1 blockade antibodies.

    PubMed

    Collins, M; Michot, J M; Danlos, F X; Mussini, C; Soularue, E; Mateus, C; Loirat, D; Buisson, A; Rosa, I; Lambotte, O; Laghouati, S; Chaput, N; Coutzac, C; Voisin, A L; Soria, J C; Marabelle, A; Champiat, S; Robert, C; Carbonnel, F

    2017-11-01

    Immune check-point blockade agents have shown clinical activity in cancer patients but are associated with immune-related adverse events that could limit their development. The aim of this study was to describe the gastrointestinal immune-related adverse events (GI-irAE) in patients with cancer treated with anti-PD-1. this is a retrospective study of consecutive adult patients who had a suspected GI-irAE due to anti-PD-1 antibodies between 2013 and 2016. Patients were recruited through a pharmacovigilance registry. Patients' data were reviewed by a multidisciplinary committee that included gastroenterologists, oncologists and a pathologist. Quantitative variables are described by median (range), qualitative variable by frequency (percentage). Forty-four patients were addressed to a Gastroenterology unit for a suspected GI-IrAE. Twenty patients had a confirmed GI-irAE related to anti-PD-1, which occurred 4.2 months (0.2; 22.1) after the initiation of anti-PD-1. GI-IrAE incidence rate under anti-PD-1 treatment was estimated to be 1.5%. Among patients with GI-IrAE, main symptoms were diarrhoea (n = 16, 80%), abdominal pain (n = 13, 65%), nausea and vomiting (n = 11, 55%), intestinal obstruction (n = 1, 5%), and haematochezia (n = 2, 10%). No patient had colectomy. Four distinct categories of GI-irAE were observed: acute colitis (n = 8, 40%), microscopic colitis (n = 7, 35%), upper gastrointestinal tract inflammation (n = 4, 20%) and pseudo-obstruction (n = 1, 5%). Response rates to corticosteroids were 87.5% (7/8) in acute colitis, 57% (4/7) in microscopic colitis and 75% (3/4) in upper gastrointestinal tract inflammation. Median time to resolution was 36 days (6-172) in acute colitis, and 98 days (42-226) in microscopic colitis. This study suggests that GI-irAE are different and less frequent with anti PD-1 than with anti CTLA-4. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for

  13. Anteroventral Third Ventricle Lesions Attenuate Pressor Responses to Serotonin in Anesthetized Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muntzel, Martin S.; Lewis, Stephen J.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    1996-01-01

    When administered intravenously, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) evokes a triphasic blood pressure response, consisting of the Bezold-Jarisch-associated depressor response, a pressor action, and long-lasting depressor response. Because the pressor response may, in part, be caused by central nervous system (CNS) activation by 5-HT, we predicted that destruction of the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region, an area rich in 5-HT receptors, would attenuate increases in blood pressure to intravenous 5-HT. In anesthetized sham-lesioned and AV3V-lesioned Sprague-Dawley rats. we measured mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to increasing bolus doses of intravenous 5-HT (1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25 microg/kg), before and after blockade of bradycardia using methylatropine (200 microg/kg). In all rats, bolus injections of 5-HT elicited bradycardia accompanied by a fall in lumbar SNA and an initial hypotension followed by a pressor response and a longer lasting hypotensive response. The bradycardia, reduction in lumbar SNA, and both depressor responses were equivalent in sham-lesioned and AV3V-lesioned groups. Importantly, AV3V lesions attenuated pressor responses to increasing doses of 5-HT (3 +/- 1, 6 +/- 4, 6 +/- 4, 17 +/- 4, 35 +/- 3 mmHg) compared to sham-lesioned controls (6 +/- 3, 16 +/- 7, 33 +/- 5, 54 +/- 4, 51 +/- 6 mmHg; P < 0.0001). This attenuation was conserved following blockade of bradycardia with methylatropine (P < 0.01). In summary, pressor responses to intravenous 5-HT are diminished by AV3V lesions. These data indicate that the pressor component of the blood pressure response to intravenous 5-HT is partly dependent upon interaction with the CNS.

  14. Preoperative alpha-blockade in phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma: is it always necessary?

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Michelle; Lee, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Resection of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) is traditionally preceded by alpha-blockade to prevent complications of haemodynamic instability intraoperatively. While there is general agreement on preoperative alpha-blockade for classic PPGLs presenting with hypertension, it is less clear whether alpha-blockade is necessary in predominantly dopamine-secreting tumours, normotensive PPGLs, as well as tumours that appear to be biochemically 'silent'. Preoperative management of these 'atypical' PPGLs is challenging and the treatment approach must be individualized, carefully weighing the risk of intraoperative hypertension against the possibility of orthostatic and prolonged postoperative hypotension. Consideration of antihypertensive medication pharmacology in the light of catecholamine physiology and PPGL secretory profile will facilitate the formulation of individualized preoperative preparatory strategies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. It is time to reconsider the cardiovascular protection afforded by RAAS blockade -- overview of RAAS systems.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Osamu; Kitakaze, Masafumi

    2013-04-01

    More than a century has passed since the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) was discovered in 1897. Both circulatory and tissue RAAS have been found to be essential for regulation of the functions of the whole body, organs, tissues and cells. There is no doubt that the RAAS plays fundamental physiological roles in maintaining homeostasis, but it can also contribute to organ pathophysiology and tissue damages in some situations. Today, the usefulness of RAAS blockade is well-established in the management of a variety of cardiovascular disorders worldwide. However, the latest findings in this field are still providing us with new and unexpected insights into the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Such developments include dual blockade therapy with angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), and a new class of RAAS blockers, renin inhibitors. These give us the opportunity to revisit the basic principles of the RAAS and reconsider the strategies of RAAS blockade for cardiovascular protection.

  16. CTLA-4 blockade plus adoptive T cell transfer promotes optimal melanoma immunity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mahvi, David A.; Meyers, Justin V.; Tatar, Andrew J.; Contreras, Amanda; Suresh, M.; Leverson, Glen E.; Sen, Siddhartha; Cho, Clifford S.

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of advanced melanoma have relied on strategies that augment the responsiveness of endogenous tumor-specific T cell populations (e.g., CTLA-4 blockade-mediated checkpoint inhibition) or introduce exogenously-prepared tumor-specific T cell populations (e.g., adoptive cell transfer). Although both approaches have shown considerable promise, response rates to these therapies remain suboptimal. We hypothesized that a combinatorial approach to immunotherapy using both CTLA-4 blockade and non-lymphodepletional adoptive cell transfer could offer additive therapeutic benefit. C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with syngeneic B16F10 melanoma tumors transfected to express low levels of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus peptide GP33 (B16GP33), and treated with no immunotherapy, CTLA-4 blockade, adoptive cell transfer, or combination immunotherapy of CTLA-4 blockade with adoptive cell transfer. Combination immunotherapy resulted in optimal control of B16GP33 melanoma tumors. Combination immunotherapy promoted a stronger local immune response reflected by enhanced tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte populations, as well as a stronger systemic immune responses reflected by more potent tumor antigen-specific T cell activity in splenocytes. In addition, whereas both CTLA-4 blockade and combination immunotherapy were able to promote long-term immunity against B16GP33 tumors, only combination immunotherapy was capable of promoting immunity against parental B16F10 tumors as well. Our findings suggest that a combinatorial approach using CTLA-4 blockade with non-lymphodepletional adoptive cell transfer may promote additive endogenous and exogenous T cell activities that enable greater therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25658614

  17. Effects of sugammadex on incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade: a randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Brueckmann, B; Sasaki, N; Grobara, P; Li, M K; Woo, T; de Bie, J; Maktabi, M; Lee, J; Kwo, J; Pino, R; Sabouri, A S; McGovern, F; Staehr-Rye, A K; Eikermann, M

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex reduced the incidence of residual blockade and facilitated operating room discharge readiness. Adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery received rocuronium, followed by randomized allocation to sugammadex (2 or 4 mg kg(-1)) or usual care (neostigmine/glycopyrrolate, dosing per usual care practice) for reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Timing of reversal agent administration was based on the providers' clinical judgement. Primary endpoint was the presence of residual neuromuscular blockade at PACU admission, defined as a train-of-four (TOF) ratio <0.9, using TOF-Watch® SX. Key secondary endpoint was time between reversal agent administration and operating room discharge-readiness; analysed with analysis of covariance. Of 154 patients randomized, 150 had a TOF value measured at PACU entry. Zero out of 74 sugammadex patients and 33 out of 76 (43.4%) usual care patients had TOF-Watch SX-assessed residual neuromuscular blockade at PACU admission (odds ratio 0.0, 95% CI [0-0.06], P<0.0001). Of these 33 usual care patients, 2 also had clinical evidence of partial paralysis. Time between reversal agent administration and operating room discharge-readiness was shorter for sugammadex vs usual care (14.7 vs. 18.6 min respectively; P=0.02). After abdominal surgery, sugammadex reversal eliminated residual neuromuscular blockade in the PACU, and shortened the time from start of study medication administration to the time the patient was ready for discharge from the operating room. Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT01479764. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bhamarapravati, N; Sutee, Y

    2000-05-26

    The development of a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine is currently the best strategy to obtain a vaccine against dengue viruses. The Mahidol University group developed candidate live attenuated vaccines by attenuation through serial passages in certified primary cell cultures. Dengue serotype 1, 2 and 4 viruses were developed in primary dog kidney cells, whereas dengue serotype 3 was serially passaged in primary African green monkey kidney cells. Tissue culture passaged strain viruses were subjected to biological marker studies. Candidate vaccines have been tested as monovalent (single virus), bivalent (two viruses), trivalent (three viruses) and tetravalent (all four serotype viruses) vaccines in Thai volunteers. They were found to be safe and immunogenic in both adults and children. The Mahidol live attenuated dengue 2 virus was also tested in American volunteers and resulted in good immune response indistinguishable from those induced in Thai volunteers. The master seeds from the four live attenuated virus strains developed were provided to Pasteur Merieux Connaught of France for production on an industrial scale following good manufacturing practice guidelines.

  19. Reinforcing and neurochemical effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists, but not cocaine, are altered by an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Justinová, Zuzana; Ferré, Sergi; Redhi, Godfrey H; Mascia, Paola; Stroik, Jessica; Quarta, Davide; Yasar, Sevil; Müller, Christa E; Franco, Rafael; Goldberg, Steven R

    2011-07-01

    Several recent studies suggest functional and molecular interactions between striatal adenosine A(2A) and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors. Here, we demonstrate that A(2A) receptors selectively modulate reinforcing effects of cannabinoids. We studied effects of A(2A) receptor blockade on the reinforcing effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the endogenous CB(1) receptor ligand anandamide under a fixed-ratio schedule of intravenous drug injection in squirrel monkeys. A low dose of the selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (1 mg/kg) caused downward shifts of THC and anandamide dose-response curves. In contrast, a higher dose of MSX-3 (3 mg/kg) shifted THC and anandamide dose-response curves to the left. MSX-3 did not modify cocaine or food pellet self-administration. Also, MSX-3 neither promoted reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking behavior nor altered reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior by non-contingent priming injections of THC. Finally, using in vivo microdialysis in freely-moving rats, a behaviorally active dose of MSX-3 significantly counteracted THC-induced, but not cocaine-induced, increases in extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell. The significant and selective results obtained with the lower dose of MSX-3 suggest that adenosine A(2A) antagonists acting preferentially at presynaptic A(2A) receptors might selectively reduce reinforcing effects of cannabinoids that lead to their abuse. However, the appearance of potentiating rather than suppressing effects on cannabinoid reinforcement at the higher dose of MSX-3 would likely preclude the use of such a compound as a medication for cannabis abuse. Adenosine A(2A) antagonists with more selectivity for presynaptic versus postsynaptic receptors could be potential medications for treatment of cannabis abuse. Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction. No claim to original US government works.

  20. Promiscuous dimerization of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a) attenuates ghrelin-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Harriët; van Oeffelen, Wesley E P A; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2013-01-04

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a), the melanocortin 3 receptor (MC(3)), and the serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT(2C)), are well known for their key role in the homeostatic control of food intake and energy balance. Ghrelin is the only known gut peptide exerting an orexigenic effect and has thus received much attention as an anti-obesity drug target. In addition, recent data have revealed a critical role for ghrelin in dopaminergic mesolimbic circuits involved in food reward signaling. This study investigates the downstream signaling consequences and ligand-mediated co-internalization following heterodimerization of the GHS-R1a receptor with the dopamine 1 receptor, as well as that of the GHS-R1a-MC(3) heterodimer. In addition, a novel heterodimer between the GHS-R1a receptor and the 5-HT(2C) receptor was identified. Interestingly, dimerization of the GHS-R1a receptor with the unedited 5-HT(2C)-INI receptor, but not with the partially edited 5-HT(2C)-VSV isoform, significantly reduced GHS-R1a agonist-mediated calcium influx, which was completely restored following pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT(2C) receptor. These results combined suggest a potential novel mechanism for fine-tuning GHS-R1a receptor-mediated activity via promiscuous dimerization of the GHS-R1a receptor with other G protein-coupled receptors involved in appetite regulation and food reward. These findings may uncover novel mechanisms of significant relevance for the future pharmacological targeting of the GHS-R1a receptor in the homeostatic regulation of energy balance and in hedonic appetite signaling, both of which play a significant role in the development of obesity.

  1. PKCδ Knockout Mice Are Protected from Dextromethorphan-Induced Serotonergic Behaviors in Mice: Involvements of Downregulation of 5-HT1A Receptor and Upregulation of Nrf2-Dependent GSH Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hai-Quyen; Lee, Youngho; Shin, Eun-Joo; Jang, Choon-Gon; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Mouri, Akihiro; Saito, Kuniaki; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2018-02-22

    We investigated whether a specific serotonin (5-HT) receptor-mediated mechanism was involved in dextromethorphan (DM)-induced serotonergic behaviors. We firstly observed that the activation of 5-HT 1A receptor, but not 5-HT 2A receptor, contributed to DM-induced serotonergic behaviors in mice. We aimed to determine whether the upregulation of 5-HT 1A receptor induced by DM facilitates the specific induction of certain PKC isoform, because previous reports suggested that 5-HT 1A receptor activates protein kinase C (PKC). A high dose of DM (80 mg/kg, i.p.) induced a selective induction of PKCδ out of PKCα, PKCβI, PKCβII, PKCξ, and PKCδ in the hypothalamus of wild-type (WT) mice. More importantly, 5-HT 1A receptor co-immunoprecipitated PKCδ in the presence of DM. Consistently, rottlerin, a pharmacological inhibitor of PKCδ, or PKCδ knockout significantly protected against increases in 5-HT 1A receptor gene expression, 5-HT turnover rate, and serotonergic behaviors induced by DM. Treatment with DM resulted in an initial increase in nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity, γ-glutamylcysteine (GCL) mRNA expression, and glutathione (GSH) level. This compensative induction was further potentiated by rottlerin or PKCδ knockout. However, GCL mRNA and GSH/GSSG levels were decreased 6 and 12 h post-DM. These decreases were attenuated by PKCδ inhibition. Our results suggest that interaction between 5-HT 1A receptor and PKCδ is critical for inducing DM-induced serotonergic behaviors and that inhibition of PKCδ attenuates the serotonergic behaviors via downregulation of 5-HT 1A receptor and upregulation of Nrf2-dependent GSH synthesis.

  2. The role of central 5-HT1A receptors in the control of B-fibre cardiac and bronchoconstrictor vagal preganglionic neurones in anaesthetized cats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Ramage, Andrew G

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether 5-HT1A receptors (a) modulate the activity of cardiac and bronchoconstrictor vagal preganglionic neurones (CVPNs and BVPNs) in the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and (b) are involved in pulmonary C-fibre afferent-evoked excitation of CVPNs, by right-atrial injections of phenylbiguanide (PBG). These experiments were carried out on α-chloralose-anaesthetized, artificially ventilated and atenolol (1 mg kg−1)-pretreated cats. The ionophoretic application of 8-OH-DPAT (a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist) influenced the activity of 16 of the 19 CVPNs tested. 8-OH-DPAT tended to cause inhibition at low currents (40 nA) and excitation at high currents (120 nA). The activity of 15 of these neurones increased in response to the application of 8-OH-DPAT. In six of the CVPNs tested, this excitatory action of 8-OH-DPAT was attenuated by co-application of the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635. The pulmonary C-fibre afferent-evoked excitation of eight CVPNs was attenuated by ionophoretic application of WAY-100635. In three out of four CVPNs, the ionophoretic application of PBG caused excitation. In five out of the nine identified BVPNs that were tested with ionophoretic application of 8-OH-DPAT, excitation was observed that was attenuated by WAY-100635. WAY-100635 (i.v. or intra-cisternally) also reversed bradycardia, hypotension and the decrease in phrenic nerve activity evoked by the i.v. application of 8-OH-DPAT (42 μg kg−1). In conclusion, the data indicate that 5-HT1A receptors located in the NA play an important role in the reflex activation of CVPNs and BVPNs, and support the view that overall, these receptors play a fundamental role in the reflex regulation of parasympathetic outflow. PMID:11691870

  3. The 5HT(1A) receptor ligand, S15535, antagonises G-protein activation: a [35S]GTPgammaS and [3H]S15535 autoradiography study.

    PubMed

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Rivet, J; Chaput, C; Touzard, M; Verrièle, L; Millan, M J

    1999-11-19

    4-(Benzodioxan-5-yl)1-(indan-2-yl)piperazine (S15535) is a highly selective ligand at 5-HT(1A) receptors. The present study compared its autoradiographic labelling of rat brain sections with its functional actions, visualised by guanylyl-5'-[gamma-thio]-triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS) autoradiography, which affords a measure of G-protein activation. [3H]S15535 binding was highest in hippocampus, frontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, lateral septum, interpeduncular nucleus and dorsal raphe, consistent with specific labelling of 5-HT(1A) receptors. In functional studies, S15535 (10 microM) did not markedly stimulate G-protein activation in any brain region, but abolished the activation induced by the selective 5-HT(1A) agonist, (+)-8-hydroxy-dipropyl-aminotetralin ((+)-8-OH-DPAT, 1 microM), in structures enriched in [3H]S15535 labelling. S15535 did not block 5-HT-stimulated activation in caudate nucleus or substantia nigra, regions where (+)-8-OH-DPAT was ineffective and [3H]S15535 binding was absent. Interestingly, S15535 attenuated (+)-8-OH-DPAT and 5-HT-stimulated G-protein activation in dorsal raphe, a region in which S15535 is known to exhibit agonist properties in vivo [Lejeune, F., Millan, M.J., 1998. Induction of burst firing in ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons by activation of serotonin (5-HT)(1A) receptors: WAY100,635-reversible actions of the highly selective ligands, flesinoxan and S15535. Synapse 30, 172-180.]. The present data show that (i) [3H]S15535 labels pre- and post-synaptic populations of 5-HT(1A) sites in rat brain sections, (ii) S15535 exhibits antagonist properties at post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors in corticolimbic regions, and (iii) S15535 also attenuates agonist-stimulated G-protein activation at raphe-localised 5-HT(1A) receptors.

  4. Role of medial prefrontal cortex serotonin 2A receptors in the control of retrieval of recognition memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Bekinschtein, Pedro; Renner, Maria Constanza; Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Weisstaub, Noelia

    2013-10-02

    Often, retrieval cues are not uniquely related to one specific memory, which could lead to memory interference. Controlling interference is particularly important during episodic memory retrieval or when remembering specific events in a spatiotemporal context. Despite a clear involvement of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in episodic memory in human studies, information regarding the mechanisms and neurotransmitter systems in PFC involved in memory is scarce. Although the serotoninergic system has been linked to PFC functionality and modulation, its role in memory processing is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the serotoninergic system in PFC, in particular the 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) could have a role in the control of memory retrieval. In this work we used different versions of the object recognition task in rats to study the role of the serotoninergic modulation in the medial PFC (mPFC) in memory retrieval. We found that blockade of 5-HT2AR in mPFC affects retrieval of an object in context memory in a spontaneous novelty preference task, while sparing single-item recognition memory. We also determined that 5-HT2ARs in mPFC are required for hippocampal-mPFC interaction during retrieval of this type of memory, suggesting that the mPFC controls the expression of memory traces stored in the hippocampus biasing retrieval to the most relevant one.

  5. 5-HT2a receptor in mPFC influences context-guided reconsolidation of object memory in perirhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Morici, Juan Facundo; Miranda, Magdalena; Gallo, Francisco Tomás; Zanoni, Belén; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Weisstaub, Noelia V

    2018-05-02

    Context-dependent memories may guide adaptive behavior relaying in previous experience while updating stored information through reconsolidation. Retrieval can be triggered by partial and shared cues. When the cue is presented, the most relevant memory should be updated. In a contextual version of the object recognition task, we examined the effect of medial PFC (mPFC) serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2aR) blockade during retrieval in reconsolidation of competing objects memories. We found that mPFC 5-HT2aR controls retrieval and reconsolidation of object memories in the perirhinal cortex (PRH), but not in the dorsal hippocampus in rats. Also, reconsolidation of objects memories in PRH required a functional interaction between the ventral hippocampus and the mPFC. Our results indicate that in the presence of conflicting information at retrieval, mPFC 5-HT2aR may facilitate top-down context-guided control over PRH to control the behavioral response and object memory reconsolidation. © 2018, Morici et al.

  6. 5-HT2a receptor in mPFC influences context-guided reconsolidation of object memory in perirhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Morici, Juan Facundo; Miranda, Magdalena; Gallo, Francisco Tomás; Zanoni, Belén; Bekinschtein, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Context-dependent memories may guide adaptive behavior relaying in previous experience while updating stored information through reconsolidation. Retrieval can be triggered by partial and shared cues. When the cue is presented, the most relevant memory should be updated. In a contextual version of the object recognition task, we examined the effect of medial PFC (mPFC) serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2aR) blockade during retrieval in reconsolidation of competing objects memories. We found that mPFC 5-HT2aR controls retrieval and reconsolidation of object memories in the perirhinal cortex (PRH), but not in the dorsal hippocampus in rats. Also, reconsolidation of objects memories in PRH required a functional interaction between the ventral hippocampus and the mPFC. Our results indicate that in the presence of conflicting information at retrieval, mPFC 5-HT2aR may facilitate top-down context-guided control over PRH to control the behavioral response and object memory reconsolidation. PMID:29717980

  7. Blockade of AT1 type receptors for angiotensin II prevents cardiac microvascular fibrosis induced by chronic stress in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Firoozmand, Lília Taddeo; Sanches, Andrea; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Perez, Juliana Dinéia; Aragão, Danielle Sanches; Rosa, Rodolfo Mattar; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Cunha, Tatiana Sousa

    2018-04-20

    To test the effects of chronic-stress on the cardiovascular system, the model of chronic mild unpredictable stress (CMS) has been widely used. The CMS protocol consists of the random, intermittent, and unpredictable exposure of laboratory animals to a variety of stressors, during 3 consecutive weeks. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to the CMS protocol leads to left ventricle microcirculatory remodeling that can be attenuated by angiotensin II receptor blockade. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups: Control, Stress, Control + losartan, and Stress + losartan (N = 6, each group, losartan: 20 mg/kg/day). The rats were euthanized 15 days after CMS exposure, and blood samples and left ventricle were collected. Rats submitted to CMS presented increased glycemia, corticosterone, noradrenaline and adrenaline concentration, and losartan reduced the concentration of the circulating amines. Cardiac angiotensin II, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was significantly increased in the CMS group, and losartan treatment reduced it, while angiotensin 1-7 was significantly higher in the CMS losartan-treated group as compared with CMS. Histological analysis, verified by transmission electron microscopy, showed that rats exposed to CMS presented increased perivascular collagen and losartan effectively prevented the development of this process. Hence, CMS induced a state of microvascular disease, with increased perivascular collagen deposition, that may be the trigger for further development of cardiovascular disease. In this case, CMS fibrosis is associated with increased production of catecholamines and with a disruption of renin-angiotensin system balance, which can be prevented by angiotensin II receptor blockade.

  8. Blockade of NMDA receptors decreased spinal microglia activation in bee venom induced acute inflammatory pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Wu, Yongfang; Bai, Zhifeng; Hu, Yuyan; Li, Wenbin

    2017-03-01

    Microglial cells in spinal dorsal horn can be activated by nociceptive stimuli and the activated microglial cells release various cytokines enhancing the nociceptive transmission. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of spinal microglia during nociceptive stimuli have not been well understood. In order to define the role of NMDA receptors in the activation of spinal microglia during nociceptive stimuli, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of blockade of NMDA receptors on the spinal microglial activation induced by acute peripheral inflammatory pain in rats. The acute inflammatory pain was induced by subcutaneous bee venom injection to the plantar surface of hind paw of rats. Spontaneous pain behavior, thermal withdrawal latency and mechanical withdrawal threshold were rated. The expression of specific microglia marker CD11b/c was assayed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. After bee venom treatment, it was found that rats produced a monophasic nociception characterized by constantly lifting and licking the injected hind paws, decreased thermal withdrawal latency and mechanical withdrawal threshold; immunohistochemistry displayed microglia with enlarged cell bodies, thickened, extended cellular processes with few ramifications, small spines, and intensive immunostaining; western blot showed upregulated expression level of CD11b/c within the period of hyperalgesia. Prior intrathecal injection of MK-801, a selective antagonist of NMDA receptors, attenuated the pain behaviors and suppressed up-regulation of CD11b/c induced by bee venom. It can be concluded that NMDA receptors take part in the mediation of spinal microglia activation in bee venom induced peripheral inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in rats.

  9. Biflorin Ameliorates Memory Impairments Induced by Cholinergic Blockade in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Se Jin; Kim, Boseong; Ryu, Byeol; Kim, Eunji; Lee, Sunhee; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effect of biflorin, a component of Syzygium aromaticum, on memory deficit, we introduced a scopolamine-induced cognitive deficit mouse model. A single administration of biflorin increased latency time in the passive avoidance task, ameliorated alternation behavior in the Y-maze, and increased exploration time in the Morris water maze task, indicating the improvement of cognitive behaviors against cholinergic dysfunction. The biflorin-induced reverse of latency in the scopolamine-treated group was attenuated by MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist. Biflorin also enhanced cognitive function in a naïve mouse model. To understand the mechanism of biflorin for memory amelioration, we performed Western blot. Biflorin increased the activation of protein kinase C-ζ and its downstream signaling molecules in the hippocampus. These results suggest that biflorin ameliorates drug-induced memory impairment by modulation of protein kinase C-ζ signaling in mice, implying that biflorin could function as a possible therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive problems. PMID:27829270

  10. Studies Introducing Costimulation Blockade for Vascularized Composite Allografts in Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, AM; Samy, KP; Farris, AB; Leopardi, FV; Song, M; Stempora, L; Strobert, EA; Jenkins, JA; Kirk, AD; Cendales, LC

    2016-01-01

    Vascularized composite allografts (VCAs) are technically feasible. Similar to other organ transplants, VCAs are hampered by the toxicity and incomplete efficacy associated with conventional immunosuppression. Complications attributable to calcineurin inhibitors remain prevalent in the clinical cases reported to date, and these loom particularly large given the non-lifesaving nature of VCAs. Additionally, acute rejection remains almost ubiquitous, albeit controllable with current agents. Costimulation blockade offers the potential to provide prophylaxis from rejection without the adverse consequences of calcineurin-based regimens. In this study, we used a non-human-primate model of VCA in conjunction with immunosuppressive regimens containing combinations of B7-specific costimulation blockade with and without adhesion blockade with LFA3-Ig to determine what adjunctive role these agents could play in VCA transplantation when combined with more conventional agents. Compared to tacrolimus, the addition of belatacept improved rejection free allograft survival. The combination with LFA3-Ig reduced CD2hi memory T cells, however did not provide additional protection against allograft rejection and hindered protective immunity. Histology paralleled clinical histopathology and Banff grading. These data provide the basis for the study of costimulation blockade in VCA in a relevant preclinical model. PMID:26139552

  11. Single-photon blockade in a hybrid cavity-optomechanical system via third-order nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Bijita; Sarma, Amarendra K.

    2018-04-01

    Photon statistics in a weakly driven optomechanical cavity, with Kerr-type nonlinearity, are analyzed both analytically and numerically. The single-photon blockade effect is demonstrated via calculations of the zero-time-delay second-order correlation function g (2)(0). The analytical results obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation are in complete conformity with the results obtained through numerical solution of the quantum master equation. A systematic study on the parameter regime for observing photon blockade in the weak coupling regime is reported. The parameter regime where the photon blockade is not realizable due to the combined effect of nonlinearities owing to the optomechanical coupling and the Kerr-effect is demonstrated. The experimental feasibility with state-of-the-art device parameters is discussed and it is observed that photon blockade could be generated at the telecommunication wavelength. An elaborate analysis of the thermal effects on photon antibunching is presented. The system is found to be robust against pure dephasing-induced decoherences and thermal phonon number fluctuations.

  12. Influence of phonon reservoir on photon blockade in a driven quantum dot-cavity system

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Bo; Li, Gao-xiang, E-mail: gaox@phy.ccnu.edu.cn; Zhu, Jia-pei, E-mail: fengxue0506@163.com

    2016-03-14

    We theoretically investigate the influence of the phonon bath on photon blockade in a simultaneously driven dot-cavity system. An optimal condition for avoiding two-photon excitation of a cavity field is put forward which can be achieved by modulating the phase difference and the strengths of the driving fields. The second-order correlation function and the mean photon number of the cavity field are discussed. In the absence of phonon effect, the strong photon blockade in a moderate quantum dot (QD)-cavity coupling regime occurs, which can be attributed to the destructive quantum interference arisen from different transition paths induced by simultaneously drivingmore » the dressed QD-cavity system. The participation of acoustic-phonon reservoir produces new transition channels for the QD-cavity system, which leads to the damage of destructive interference. As a result, the photon blockade effect is hindered when taking the electron-phonon interaction into account. It is also found that the temperature of the phonon reservoir is disadvantageous for the generation of photon blockade.« less

  13. Reversal of profound neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex in an infant after bronchial foreign body removal.

    PubMed

    Azizoglu, Mustafa; Birbicer, Handan; Memis, Suleyman; Taşkınlar, Hakan

    2016-09-01

    Sugammadex is a selective chemical agent that can reverse neuromuscular blockade induced by vecuronium and rocuronium. The aim of this report is to discuss the effectiveness of sugammadex in the reversal of neuromuscular blockade in children younger than 2 years. A 16-month-old boy, weighing 10 kg, was admitted to the pediatric emergency department due to choking, cyanosis, and severe respiratory distress that occurred while he was eating peanuts. In the emergency department, the patient's condition deteriorated, and he went into respiratory arrest. He was immediately intubated and taken to the operating room. A rigid bronchoscopy was performed under general anesthesia, with administration of intravenous pentothal (5 mg/kg), rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg), and fentanyl (0.5 μg/kg) in the operating room. The foreign body was removed within 6 minutes, and the profound neuromuscular blockade was reversed with a dose of 2 mg/kg sugammadex. He was extubated successfully after obtaining the spontaneous respiratory activity, and adequate breathing was restored. Clinical use of sugammadex in children younger than 2 years is not recommended because of the lack of clinical studies. In this case report, the profound neuromuscular blockade was successfully reversed with a dose of 2 mg/kg sugammadex in a 16-month-old boy. However, more prospective clinical studies are required for the safe use of this agent in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Have we fallen off target with concerns surrounding dual RAAS blockade?

    PubMed

    Lattanzio, Michael R; Weir, Matthew R

    2010-09-01

    A misinterpretation of the results from ONTARGET (Ongoing Telmisartan alone and in combination with ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) has sparked both efficacy and safety concerns within the nephrology community regarding the utilization of dual RAAS blockade to achieve more desirable renal outcomes. Two important considerations are requisite prior to interpreting these results, specifically: the context of the cohort studied (non-proteinuric CKD patients at low risk of progression) and the inadequate power of the study to assess renal outcomes. The cardiac and renal protection afforded from dual RAAS blockade in select populations, particularly proteinuric CKD and CHF, is supported by literature. Moreover, the response to dual RAAS blockade involving different combinations of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and direct renin inhibitors, may not be uniform amongst all patient populations. Will we continue to withhold the appropriate medical therapy from certain individuals based on misconstrued data? The proceedings provide a critical analysis of the ONTARGET study and an evidence-based substantiation for the utilization of various forms of dual RAAS blockade in proteinuric kidney disease and beyond.

  15. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade in Diabetic Nephropathy. Present Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Maneiro, Luz; Puente-García, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease in developed countries and its prevalence has increased dramatically in the past few decades. These patients are at an increased risk for premature death, cardiovascular disease, and other severe illnesses that result in frequent hospitalizations and increased health-care utilization. Although much progress has been made in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy, renal dysfunction and the development of end-stage renal disease remain major concerns in diabetes. Dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) results in progressive renal damage. RAAS blockade is the cornerstone of treatment of DKD, with proven efficacy in many arenas. The theoretically-attractive option of combining these medications that target different points in the pathway, potentially offering a more complete RAAS blockade, has also been tested in clinical trials, but long-term outcomes were disappointing. This review examines the “state of play” for RAAS blockade in DKD, dual blockade of various combinations, and a perspective on its benefits and potential risks. PMID:26569322

  16. The antihypertensive effectiveness and safety of dual RAAS blockade with aliskiren and valsartan.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2010-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a major factor for the development and maintenance of hypertension and a major cause for cardiovascular remodeling and cardiovascular complications through its active peptide angiotensin (Ang) II. Blockade of RAAS with ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) results in suppression of Ang II levels, which eventually return to baseline levels after prolonged ACEI administration. This leads to an escape phenomenon through generation of Ang II from enzymes other than ACE and led to the hypothesis that dual blockade of RAAS with an ACEI/Ang receptor blocker (ARB) combination could lead to total blockade of RAAS, since ARBs block the action of Ang II at the AT1 receptor level, irrespective of the mechanism of Ang II generation and will have an additive blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect. However, this hypothesis has not materialized clinically, as the ACEI/ARB combination produces modest BP reductions that are not significantly greater than monotherapy with the component drugs, and is frequently associated with higher incidence of side effects. A new dual RAAS blockade with the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren and the ARB valsartan produces greater BP reductions than monotherapy with the component drugs and is safe and well tolerated. The combination of aliskiren with valsartan, and with other antihypertensive drugs is discussed. Copyright 2010 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  17. Improvement in Renal Hemodynamics following Combined Angiotensin II Infusion and AT1R Blockade in Aged Female Sheep following Fetal Unilateral Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Reetu R.; Lankadeva, Yugeesh R.

    2013-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a powerful modulator of renal hemodynamic and fluid homeostasis. Up-regulation in components of intra-renal RAS occurs with ageing. Recently we reported that 2 year old uninephrectomised (uni-x) female sheep have low renin hypertension and reduced renal function. By 5 years of age, these uni-x sheep had augmented decrease in renal blood flow (RBF) compared to sham. We hypothesised that this decrease in RBF in 5 year old uni-x sheep was due to an up-regulation in components of the intra-renal RAS. In this study, renal responses to angiotensin II (AngII) infusion and AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockade were examined in the same 5 year old sheep. We also administered AngII in the presence of losartan to increase AngII bioavailability to the AT2R in order to understand AT2R contribution to renal function in this model. Uni-x animals had significantly lower renal cortical content of renin, AngII (∼40%) and Ang 1–7 (∼60%) and reduced cortical expression of AT1R gene than sham animals. In response to both AngII infusion and AT1R blockade via losartan, renal hemodynamic responses and tubular sodium excretion were significantly attenuated in uni-x animals compared to sham. However, AngII infusion in the presence of losartan caused ∼33% increase in RBF in uni-x sheep compared to ∼14% in sham (P<0.05). This was associated with a significant decrease in renal vascular resistance in the uni-x animals (22% vs 15%, P<0.05) without any changes in systemic blood pressure. The present study shows that majority of the intra-renal RAS components are suppressed in this model of low renin hypertension. However, increasing the availability of AngII to AT2R by AT1R blockade improved renal blood flow in uni-x sheep. This suggests that manipulation of the AT2R maybe a potential therapeutic target for treatment of renal dysfunction associated with a congenital nephron deficit. PMID:23840884

  18. SENTRE and TREND attenuating systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this study was to construct SENTRE and TREND attenuator systems and evaluate their in-service performance as set forth in NCHRP-230 for a period of two years. The evaluation was conducted as part of ADOTs New Product Evaluation Progr...

  19. Antidepressant-like responses to the combined sigma and 5-HT1A receptor agonist OPC-14523.

    PubMed

    Tottori, K; Miwa, T; Uwahodo, Y; Yamada, S; Nakai, M; Oshiro, Y; Kikuchi, T; Altar, C A

    2001-12-01

    The antidepressant-like activity of a novel compound, OPC-14523, was investigated in comparison with the conventional antidepressants, fluoxetine and imipramine. OPC-14523 bound with nanomolar affinities to sigma receptors (IC(50)=47-56 nM), the 5-HT(1A) receptor (IC(50)=2.3 nM), and the 5-HT transporter (IC(50)=80 nM). OPC-14523 inhibited the in vitro reuptake of 3H-5-HT (IC(50)=27 nM), but it showed very weak inhibitory activity on 3H-NE and 3H-DA reuptake. OPC-14523 did not inhibit MAO A or B activities or muscarinic receptors. A single oral administration of OPC-14523 produced a marked antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST) with rats (ED(50)=27 mg/kg) and mice (ED(50)=20mg/kg) without affecting the general locomotor activity. In contrast, fluoxetine and imipramine each required at least four days of repeated dosing to show this activity. The acute activity of OPC-14523 was blocked by pretreatment with the sigma receptor antagonist NE-100 or the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY-100635. The induction of flat body posture by OPC-14523 was blocked by the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist NAN-190, and forebrain 5-HT biosynthesis was attenuated by OPC-14523 at behaviorally effective doses. In contrast, OPC-14523, unlike fluoxetine, failed to inhibit 5-HT reuptake at oral doses below 100mg/kg. Thus, the acute antidepressant-like action of OPC-14523 is achieved by the combined stimulation of sigma and 5-HT(1A) receptors without inhibition of 5-HT reuptake in vivo.

  20. Antipsychotics differ in their ability to internalise human dopamine D2S and human serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Heusler, Peter; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Loock, Timothé; Cussac, Didier

    2008-02-26

    Antipsychotic drugs act preferentially via dopamine D(2) receptor blockade, but interaction with serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors has attracted interest as additional target for antipsychotic treatment. As receptor internalisation is considered crucial for drug action, we tested the propensity of antipsychotics to internalise human (h)D(2S) receptors and h5-HT(1A) receptors. Agonist-induced internalisation of hemaglutinin (HA)-tagged hD(2S) and HA-h5-HT(1A) receptors expressed in HEK293 cells was increased by coexpression of G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 and beta-arrestin2. At the HA-hD(2S) receptor, dopamine, quinpirole and bromocriptine behaved as full agonists, while S(-)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-n-propylpiperidine [(-)-3PPP] and sarizotan were partial agonists. The typical antipsychotic, haloperidol, and the atypical compounds, olanzapine, nemonapride, ziprasidone and clozapine did not internalise HA-hD(2S) receptors, whereas aripiprazole potently internalised these receptors (>50% relative efficacy). Among antipsychotics with combined D(2)/5-HT(1A) properties, bifeprunox and (3-exo)-8-benzoyl-N-[[(2S)7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-1-yl]methyl]-8-azabicyclo-[3.2.1]octane-3-methanamine (SSR181507) partially internalised HA-hD(2S) receptors, piperazine, 1-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-5-yl)-4-[[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-pyridinyl]methyl (SLV313) and N-[(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-benzofuran-7-yloxy)ethyl]-3-(cyclopent-1-enyl)-benzylamine (F15063) were inactive. At the HA-h5-HT(1A) receptor, serotonin, (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin [(+)-8-OH-DPAT] and sarizotan were full agonists, buspirone acted as partial agonist. (-)-Pindolol showed little activity and no internalising properties were manifested for the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100635). Most antipsychotics induced HA-h5-HT(1A) receptor internalisation, with an efficacy rank order: nemonapride>F15063>SSR181507

  1. Reversal of neuromuscular blockade by sugammadex in laparoscopic bariatric surgery: In support of dose reduction.

    PubMed

    Badaoui, Rachid; Cabaret, Aurélie; Alami, Youssef; Zogheib, Elie; Popov, Ivan; Lorne, Emmanuel; Dupont, Hervé

    2016-02-01

    Sugammadex is the first molecule able to antagonize steroidal muscle relaxants with few adverse effects. Doses are adjusted to body weight and the level of neuromuscular blockade. Sleeve gastrectomy is becoming a very popular form of bariatric surgery. It requires deep muscle relaxation followed by complete and rapid reversal to decrease postoperative and especially post-anaesthetic morbidity. Sugammadex is therefore particularly indicated in this setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the deep neuromuscular blockade reversal time after administration of various doses of sugammadex (based on real weight or at lower doses). Secondary endpoints were the interval between the sugammadex injection and extubation and transfer from the operating room to the recovery room. We then investigated any complications observed in the recovery room. This pilot, prospective, observational, clinical practice evaluation study was conducted in the Amiens University Hospital. Neuromuscular blockade was induced by rocuronium. At the end of the operation, deep neuromuscular blockade was reversed by sugammadex at the dose of 4mg/kg. Sixty-four patients were included: 31 patients received sugammadex at a dosage based on their real weight (RW) and 33 patients received a lower dose (based on ideal weight [IW]). For identical rocuronium doses calculated based on IBW, sugammadex doses were significantly lower in the IW group: 349 (± 65) mg versus 508 (± 75) mg (P<0.0001). Despite this dose reduction, neuromuscular blockade reversal took 115 (± 69) s in the IW group versus 87 (± 40) s in the RW group, but with no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.08). The intervals between injection of sugammadex and extubation (P=0.07) and transfer from the operating room to the recovery room (P=0.68) were also non-significantly longer in the IW group. The mean dose of sugammadex used by anaesthetists in the IW group was 4mg/kg of ideal weight increased by 35% to 50% (n

  2. Resolvin E1 inhibits dendritic cell migration in the skin and attenuates contact hypersensitivity responses

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Yu; Hanakawa, Sho; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Murata, Teruasa; Ueharaguchi-Tanada, Yuri; Ono, Sachiko; Amano, Wataru; Nakajima, Saeko; Egawa, Gyohei; Tanizaki, Hideaki; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kitoh, Akihiko; Dainichi, Teruki; Ogawa, Narihito; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Arita, Makoto; Nakamura, Motonobu; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is a lipid mediator derived from ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that exerts potent antiinflammatory roles in several murine models. The antiinflammatory mechanism of RvE1 in acquired immune responses has been attributed to attenuation of cytokine production by dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we newly investigated the effect of RvE1 on DC motility using two-photon microscopy in a contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model and found that RvE1 impaired DC motility in the skin. In addition, RvE1 attenuated T cell priming in the draining lymph nodes and effector T cell activation in the skin, which led to the reduced skin inflammation in CHS. In contrast, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) induced actin filament reorganization in DCs and increased DC motility by activating Cdc42 and Rac1 via BLT1, which was abrogated by RvE1. Collectively, our results suggest that RvE1 attenuates cutaneous acquired immune responses by inhibiting cutaneous DC motility, possibly through LTB4-BLT1 signaling blockade. PMID:26438363

  3. Emergence of a Norovirus GII.4 Strain Correlates with Changes in Evolving Blockade Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Lindesmith, Lisa C.; Costantini, Verónica; Swanstrom, Jesica; Debbink, Kari; Donaldson, Eric F.; Vinjé, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The major capsid protein of norovirus GII.4 strains is evolving rapidly, resulting in epidemic strains with altered antigenicity. GII.4.2006 Minerva strains circulated at pandemic levels in 2006 and persisted at lower levels until 2009. In 2009, a new GII.4 variant, GII.4.2009 New Orleans, emerged and since then has become the predominant strain circulating in human populations. To determine whether changes in evolving blockade epitopes correlate with the emergence of the GII.4.2009 New Orleans strains, we compared the antibody reactivity of a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against GII.4.2006 and GII.4.2009 virus-like particles (VLPs). Both anti-GII.4.2006 and GII.4.2009 MAbs effectively differentiated the two strains by VLP-carbohydrate ligand blockade assay. Most of the GII.4.2006 MAbs preferentially blocked GII.4.2006, while all of the GII.4.2009 MAbs preferentially blocked GII.4.2009, although 8 of 12 tested blockade MAbs blocked both VLPs. Using mutant VLPs designed to alter predicted antigenic epitopes, binding of seven of the blockade MAbs was impacted by alterations in epitope A, identifying residues 294, 296, 297, 298, 368, and 372 as important antigenic sites in these strains. Convalescent-phase serum collected from a GII.4.2009 outbreak confirmed the immunodominance of epitope A, since alterations of epitope A affected serum reactivity by 40%. These data indicate that the GII.4.2009 New Orleans variant has evolved a key blockade epitope, possibly allowing for at least partial escape from protective herd immunity and provide epidemiological support for the utility of monitoring changes in epitope A in emergent strain surveillance. PMID:23269783

  4. Acute peri-operative beta blockade in intermediate-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Biccard, B M; Sear, J W; Foëx, P

    2006-10-01

    Peri-operative beta-blockade has been shown to reduce the incidence of postoperative cardio- vascular complications including cardiac death in high-risk non-cardiac surgical patients. However, the recent analysis by Lindenauer et al. suggests that it is inappropriate to administer beta-blockers blindly to all surgical patients. In an attempt to determine the appropriateness of peri-operative beta-blocker administration across patients with a spectrum of cardiovascular risks, we have examined studies of intermediate-risk patient groups (that is those undergoing intermediate risk surgery or those with a Lee Revised Cardiac Risk Score of < or =2). We analysed data from randomised prospective studies of the effects of acute peri-operative beta-blockade on the incidence of peri-operative myocardial ischaemia. By examining the demographics and surgical interventions in these patients, we have compared these studies with other studies of peri-operative silent myocardial ischaemia representing patients of similar risk. We thus estimated the expected long-term postoperative cardiovascular complication rate associated with myocardial ischaemia in these patients in terms of number needed to treat for ischaemia prevention and for prevention of major cardiovascular complications. Prevention of peri-operative myocardial ischaemia with acute beta-blockade in non-cardiac surgical patients with 1-2 RCRI clinical risk factors can be achieved with a number needed to treat of 10. It is not associated with a significant increase in drug associated side-effects. However, acute beta-blockade shows no real benefit in the prevention of major cardiovascular complications in intermediate risk non-vascular surgical patients with a number-needed-to-treat of 833. Vascular surgical patients undergoing intermediate-risk surgery may benefit from the protective effects of acute peri-operative beta-blockade, however, with a number-needed-to-treat of 68 it would require a randomised clinical trial of

  5. Ex Vivo Profiling of PD-1 Blockade Using Organotypic Tumor Spheroids.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Russell W; Aref, Amir R; Lizotte, Patrick H; Ivanova, Elena; Stinson, Susanna; Zhou, Chensheng W; Bowden, Michaela; Deng, Jiehui; Liu, Hongye; Miao, Diana; He, Meng Xiao; Walker, William; Zhang, Gao; Tian, Tian; Cheng, Chaoran; Wei, Zhi; Palakurthi, Sangeetha; Bittinger, Mark; Vitzthum, Hans; Kim, Jong Wook; Merlino, Ashley; Quinn, Max; Venkataramani, Chandrasekar; Kaplan, Joshua A; Portell, Andrew; Gokhale, Prafulla C; Phillips, Bart; Smart, Alicia; Rotem, Asaf; Jones, Robert E; Keogh, Lauren; Anguiano, Maria; Stapleton, Lance; Jia, Zhiheng; Barzily-Rokni, Michal; Cañadas, Israel; Thai, Tran C; Hammond, Marc R; Vlahos, Raven; Wang, Eric S; Zhang, Hua; Li, Shuai; Hanna, Glenn J; Huang, Wei; Hoang, Mai P; Piris, Adriano; Eliane, Jean-Pierre; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Cameron, Lisa; Su, Mei-Ju; Shah, Parin; Izar, Benjamin; Thakuria, Manisha; LeBoeuf, Nicole R; Rabinowits, Guilherme; Gunda, Viswanath; Parangi, Sareh; Cleary, James M; Miller, Brian C; Kitajima, Shunsuke; Thummalapalli, Rohit; Miao, Benchun; Barbie, Thanh U; Sivathanu, Vivek; Wong, Joshua; Richards, William G; Bueno, Raphael; Yoon, Charles H; Miret, Juan; Herlyn, Meenhard; Garraway, Levi A; Van Allen, Eliezer M; Freeman, Gordon J; Kirschmeier, Paul T; Lorch, Jochen H; Ott, Patrick A; Hodi, F Stephen; Flaherty, Keith T; Kamm, Roger D; Boland, Genevieve M; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Dornan, David; Paweletz, Cloud Peter; Barbie, David A

    2018-02-01

    Ex vivo systems that incorporate features of the tumor microenvironment and model the dynamic response to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) may facilitate efforts in precision immuno-oncology and the development of effective combination therapies. Here, we demonstrate the ability to interrogate ex vivo response to ICB using murine- and patient-derived organotypic tumor spheroids (MDOTS/PDOTS). MDOTS/PDOTS isolated from mouse and human tumors retain autologous lymphoid and myeloid cell populations and respond to ICB in short-term three-dimensional microfluidic culture. Response and resistance to ICB was recapitulated using MDOTS derived from established immunocompetent mouse tumor models. MDOTS profiling demonstrated that TBK1/IKKε inhibition enhanced response to PD-1 blockade, which effectively predicted tumor response in vivo Systematic profiling of secreted cytokines in PDOTS captured key features associated with response and resistance to PD-1 blockade. Thus, MDOTS/PDOTS profiling represents a novel platform to evaluate ICB using established murine models as well as clinically relevant patient specimens. Significance: Resistance to PD-1 blockade remains a challenge for many patients, and biomarkers to guide treatment are lacking. Here, we demonstrate feasibility of ex vivo profiling of PD-1 blockade to interrogate the tumor immune microenvironment, develop therapeutic combinations, and facilitate precision immuno-oncology efforts. Cancer Discov; 8(2); 196-215. ©2017 AACR. See related commentary by Balko and Sosman, p. 143 See related article by Deng et al., p. 216 This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 127 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Action of tremorgenic mycotoxins on GABA/sub A/ receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gant, D.B.; Cole, R.J.; Valdes, J.J.

    1987-11-09

    The effects of four tremorgenic and one nontremorgenic mycotoxins were studied on ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA/sub A/) receptor binding and function in rat brain and on binding of a voltage-operated Cl/sup -/ channel in Torpedo electric organ. None of the mycotoxins had significant effect on (/sup 3/H)muscimol or (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam binding to the GAMA/sup A/ receptor. However, only the four tremorgenic mycotoxins inhibited GABA-induced /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ influx and (/sup 35/S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ((/sup 35/S)TBPS) binding in rate brain membranes, while the nontremorgenic verruculotoxin had no effect. Inhibition of (/sup 35/S)TBPS binding by paspalinine was non-competitive. This suggests that tremorgenic mycotoxins inhibit GABA/submore » A/ receptor function by binding close to the receptor's Cl/sup -/ channel. On the voltage-operated Cl/sup -/ channel, only high concentrations of verruculogen and verruculotoxin caused significant inhibition of the channel's binding of (/sup 35/S)TBPS. The data suggest that the tremorgenic action of these mycotoxins may be due in part to their inhibition of GABA/sub A/ receptor function. 21 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.« less

  7. Cholinergic blockade frees fear extinction from its contextual dependency

    PubMed Central

    Zelikowsky, Moriel; Hast, Timothy A.; Bennett, Rebecca Z.; Merjanian, Michael; Nocera, Nathaniel A.; Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Fanselow, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fears that are maladaptive or inappropriate can be reduced through extinction training. However, extinction is highly context-sensitive, resulting in the renewal of fear following shifts in context, and limiting the clinical efficacy of extinction training. Lesion and inactivation studies have shown that the contextualization of extinction depends on the hippocampus. Parallel studies have found that intrahippocampal scopolamine blocks contextual fear conditioning. Importantly, this effect was replicated using a non-invasive technique in which a low dose of scopolamine was administered systemically. We aimed to transfer the effects of this non-invasive approach to block the contextualization of fear extinction. Methods Rats were tone fear conditioned and extinguished under various systemic doses of scopolamine or the saline vehicle. They were subsequently tested (off drug) for tone fear in a context that was the same (controls) or shifted (renewal group) with respect to the extinction context. Results The lowest dose of scopolamine produced a significant attenuation of fear renewal when renewal was tested either in the original training context or a novel context. The drug also slowed the rate of long-term extinction memory formation, which was readily overcome by extending extinction training. Scopolamine only gave this effect when it was administered during, but not after extinction training. Higher doses of scopolamine severely disrupted extinction learning. Conclusions We discovered that disrupting contextual processing during extinction with the cholinergic antagonist scopolamine blocked subsequent fear renewal. Low doses of scopolamine may be a clinically promising adjunct to exposure therapy by making extinction more relapse-resistant. PMID:22981655

  8. Serotonin-1A Receptor Polymorphism (rs6295) Associated with Thermal Pain Perception

    PubMed Central

    Lindstedt, Fredrik; Karshikoff, Bianka; Schalling, Martin; Olgart Höglund, Caroline; Ingvar, Martin; Lekander, Mats; Kosek, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Background Serotonin (5-HT) is highly involved in pain regulation and serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptors are important in determining central 5-HT tone. Accordingly, variation in the 5-HT1A receptor gene (HTR1A) may contribute to inter-individual differences in human pain sensitivity. The minor G-allele of the HTR1A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6295 attenuates firing of serotonergic neurons and reduces postsynaptic expression of the receptor. Experiments in rodents suggest that 5-HT1A-agonism modulates pain in opposite directions at mild compared to high noxious intensities. Based upon this and several other similar observations, we hypothesized that G-carriers would exhibit a relative hypoalgesia at mild thermal stimuli but tend towards hyperalgesia at higher noxious intensities. Methods Fourty-nine healthy individuals were selectively genotyped for rs6295. Heat- and cold-pain thresholds were assessed along with VAS-ratings of a range of suprathreshold noxious heat intensities (45°C–49°C). Nociceptive-flexion reflex (NFR) thresholds were also assessed. Results Volunteers did not deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. G-carriers were less sensitive to threshold-level thermal pain. This relative hypoalgesia was abolished at suprathreshold noxious intensities where G-carriers instead increased their ratings of heat-pain significantly more than C-homozygotes. No differences with regard to NFR-thresholds emerged. Conclusion/Significance To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of human pain perception on the basis of variation in HTR1A. The results illustrate the importance of including a range of stimulus intensities in assessments of pain sensitivity. In speculation, we propose that an attenuated serotonergic tone may be related to a ‘hypo- to hyperalgesic’ response-pattern. The involved mechanisms could be of clinical interest as variation in pain regulation is known to influence the risk of developing pain pathologies

  9. Effects of Na(+) and K(+) channel blockade on vulnerability to and termination of fibrillation in simulated normal cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhilin; Weiss, James N

    2005-10-01

    Na(+) and K(+) channel-blocking drugs have anti- and proarrhythmic effects. Their effects during fibrillation, however, remain poorly understood. We used computer simulation of a two-dimensional (2-D) structurally normal tissue model with phase I of the Luo-Rudy action potential model to study the effects of Na(+) and K(+) channel blockade on vulnerability to and termination of reentry in simulated multiple-wavelet and mother rotor fibrillation. Our main findings are as follows: 1) Na(+) channel blockade decreased, whereas K(+) channel blockade increased, the vulnerable window of reentry in heterogeneous 2-D tissue because of opposing effects on dynamical wave instability. 2) Na(+) channel blockade increased the cycle length of reentry more than it increased refractoriness. In multiple-wavelet fibrillation, Na(+) channel blockade first increased and then decreased the average duration or transient time () of fibrillation. In mother rotor fibrillation, Na(+) channel blockade caused peripheral fibrillatory conduction block to resolve and the mother rotor to drift, leading to self-termination or sustained tachycardia. 3) K(+) channel blockade increased dynamical instability by steepening action potential duration restitution. In multiple-wavelet fibrillation, this effect shortened because of enhanced wave instability. In mother rotor fibrillation, this effect converted mother rotor fibrillation to multiple-wavelet fibrillation, which then could self-terminate. Our findings help illuminate, from a theoretical perspective, the possible underlying mechanisms of termination of different types of fibrillation by antiarrhythmic drugs.

  10. Inner Core Anisotropy in Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, W.; Wen, L.

    2004-12-01

    It is now well established that the compressional velocity in the Earth's inner core varies in both direction and geographic location. The compressional waves travel faster along the polar directions than along the equatorial directions. Such polar-equatorial difference is interpreted as a result of inner core anisotropy in velocity (with a magnitude of about 3%) and such anisotropy appears to be stronger in the ``western hemisphere" (180oW -40oE) than in the ``eastern hemisphere" (40oE-180oE). Along the equatorial paths, the compressional velocity also exhibits a hemispheric pattern with the eastern hemisphere being about 1% higher than the western hemisphere. Possible explanations for the causes of the velocity in anisotropy and the hemispheric difference in velocity along the equatorial paths include different geometric inclusions of melt or different alignments of iron crystals which are known to be anisotropic in velocities. Here, we report an observation of ubiquitous correlation between small (large) amplitude and fast (slow) travel time of the PKIKP waves sampling the top 300 km of the inner core. We study this correlation by jointly analyzing the differential travel times and amplitude ratios of the PKiKP-PKIKP and the PKPbc-PKIKP phases recorded by the Global Seismographic Network (1990-2001), various regional seismic networks (BANJO, BLSP, FREESIA, GEOFON, GEOSCOPE, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, MEDNET, and OHP), and several PASSCAL Networks deployed in Alaska and Antarctica (XE: 1999-2001, XF: 1995-1996, and YI: 1998-1999). Our dataset consists of 310 PKiKP-PKIKP and 240 PKPbc-PKIKP phases, selected from a total of more than 16,000 observations. PKIKP waves exhibit relatively smaller amplitudes for those sampling the eastern hemisphere along the equatorial paths and even smaller amplitudes for those sampling the polar paths in the western hemisphere. One simple explanation for the velocity-attenuation relation is that the inner core is anisotropic in attenuation

  11. Restoration of the type I IFN–IL-1 balance through targeted blockade of PTGER4 inhibits autoimmunity in NOD mice

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Jubayer; Quiel, Juan A.; Liu, Yi; Bhargava, Vipul; Zhao, Yongge; Hotta-Iwamura, Chie; Lau-Kilby, Annie W.; Malloy, Allison M.W.; Thoner, Timothy W.; Tarbell, Kristin V.

    2018-01-01

    Type I IFN (IFN-I) dysregulation contributes to type 1 diabetes (T1D) development, and although increased IFN-I signals are pathogenic at the initiation of autoimmune diabetes, IFN-I dysregulation at later pathogenic stages more relevant for therapeutic intervention is not well understood. We discovered that 5 key antigen-presenting cell subsets from adult prediabetic NOD mice have reduced responsiveness to IFN-I that is dominated by a decrease in the tonic-sensitive subset of IFN-I response genes. Blockade of IFNAR1 in prediabetic NOD mice accelerated diabetes and increased Th1 responses. Therefore, IFN-I responses shift from pathogenic to protective as autoimmunity progresses, consistent with chronic IFN-I exposure. In contrast, IL-1–associated inflammatory pathways were elevated in prediabetic mice. These changes correlated with human T1D onset-associated gene expression. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin receptor 4 (PTGER4), a receptor for PGE2 that mediates both inflammatory and regulatory eicosanoid signaling, were higher in NOD mice and drive innate immune dysregulation. Treating prediabetic NOD mice with a PTGER4 antagonist restored IFNAR signaling, decreased IL-1 signaling, and decreased infiltration of leukocytes into the islets. Therefore, innate cytokine alterations contribute to both T1D-associated inflammation and autoimmune pathogenesis. Modulating innate immune balance via signals such as PTGER4 may contribute to treatments for autoimmunity. PMID:29415894

  12. Restoration of the type I IFN-IL-1 balance through targeted blockade of PTGER4 inhibits autoimmunity in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Jubayer; Rodrigues, Kameron B; Quiel, Juan A; Liu, Yi; Bhargava, Vipul; Zhao, Yongge; Hotta-Iwamura, Chie; Shih, Han-Yu; Lau-Kilby, Annie W; Malloy, Allison Mw; Thoner, Timothy W; Tarbell, Kristin V

    2018-02-08

    Type I IFN (IFN-I) dysregulation contributes to type 1 diabetes (T1D) development, and although increased IFN-I signals are pathogenic at the initiation of autoimmune diabetes, IFN-I dysregulation at later pathogenic stages more relevant for therapeutic intervention is not well understood. We discovered that 5 key antigen-presenting cell subsets from adult prediabetic NOD mice have reduced responsiveness to IFN-I that is dominated by a decrease in the tonic-sensitive subset of IFN-I response genes. Blockade of IFNAR1 in prediabetic NOD mice accelerated diabetes and increased Th1 responses. Therefore, IFN-I responses shift from pathogenic to protective as autoimmunity progresses, consistent with chronic IFN-I exposure. In contrast, IL-1-associated inflammatory pathways were elevated in prediabetic mice. These changes correlated with human T1D onset-associated gene expression. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin receptor 4 (PTGER4), a receptor for PGE2 that mediates both inflammatory and regulatory eicosanoid signaling, were higher in NOD mice and drive innate immune dysregulation. Treating prediabetic NOD mice with a PTGER4 antagonist restored IFNAR signaling, decreased IL-1 signaling, and decreased infiltration of leukocytes into the islets. Therefore, innate cytokine alterations contribute to both T1D-associated inflammation and autoimmune pathogenesis. Modulating innate immune balance via signals such as PTGER4 may contribute to treatments for autoimmunity.

  13. Effects of dopamine D1 receptor blockade on the ERG b- and d-waves during blockade of ionotropic GABA receptors.

    PubMed

    Popova, Elka; Kostov, Momchil; Kupenova, Petia

    2016-01-01

    Some data indicate that the dopaminergic and GABAergic systems interact in the vertebrate retina, but the type of interactions is not well understood. In this study we investigated the effect of dopamine D 1 receptor blockade by 75 μM SCH 23390 on the electroretinographic ON (b-wave) and OFF (d-wave) responses in intact frog eyecup preparations and in eyecups where the ionotropic GABA receptors were blocked by 50 μM picrotoxin. Student's t -test, One-way repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test and Two-way ANOVA were used for statistical evaluation of the data. We found that SCH 23390 alone significantly enhanced the amplitude of the b- and d-waves without altering their latency. The effect developed rapidly and was fully expressed within 8-11 min after the blocker application. Picrotoxin alone also markedly enhanced the amplitude of the ERG ON and OFF responses and increased their latency significantly. The effect was fully expressed within 25-27 min after picrotoxin application and remained very stable in the next 20 min. The effects of SCH 23390 and picrotoxin are similar to that reported in our previous studies. When SCH 23390 was applied on the background of the fully developed picrotoxin effect, it diminished the amplitude of the b- and d-waves in comparison to the corresponding values obtained during application of picrotoxin alone. Our results demonstrate that the enhancing effect of D 1 receptor blockade on the amplitude of the ERG b- and d-waves is not evident during the ionotropic GABA receptor blockade, indicating an interaction between these neurotransmitter systems in the frog retina. We propose that the inhibitory effect of endogenous dopamine mediated by D 1 receptors on the ERG ON and OFF responses in the frog retina may be due to the dopamine-evoked GABA release.

  14. Comparison of hippocampal G protein activation by 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists and the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and S16924.

    PubMed

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Rivet, J-M; Cussac, D; Touzard, M; Chaput, C; Marini, L; Millan, M J

    2003-09-01

    This study employed [(35)S]guanosine 5'- O-(3-thiotriphosphate) ([(35)S]GTPgammaS) binding to compare the actions of antipsychotic agents known to stimulate cloned, human 5-HT(1A) receptors with those of reference agonists at postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors. In rat hippocampal membranes, the following order of efficacy was observed (maximum efficacy, E(max), values relative to 5-HT=100): (+)8-OH-DPAT (85), flesinoxan (62), eltoprazine (60), S14506 (59), S16924 (48), buspirone (41), S15535 (22), clozapine (22), ziprasidone (21), pindolol (7), p-MPPI (0), WAY100,635 (0), spiperone (0). Despite differences in species and tissue source, the efficacy and potency (pEC(50)) of agonists (with the exception of clozapine) correlated well with those determined previously at human 5-HT(1A) receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In contrast, clozapine was more potent at hippocampal membranes. The selective antagonists p-MPPI and WAY100,635 abolished stimulation of binding by (+)8-OH-DPAT, clozapine and S16924 (p-MPPI), indicating that these actions were mediated specifically by 5-HT(1A) receptors. Clozapine and S16924 also attenuated 5-HT- and (+)8-OH-DPAT-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding, consistent with partial agonist properties. In [(35)S]GTPgammaS autoradiographic studies, 5-HT-induced stimulation, mediated through 5-HT(1A) receptors, was more potent in the septum (pEC(50) approximately 6.5) than in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (pEC(50) approximately 5) suggesting potential differences in coupling efficiency or G protein expression. Though clozapine (30 and 100 microM) did not enhance [(35)S]GTPgammaS labelling in any structure, S16924 (10 micro M) modestly increased [(35)S]GTPgammaS labelling in the dentate gyrus. On the other hand, both these antipsychotic agents attenuated 5-HT (10 microM)-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding in the dentate gyrus and septum. In conclusion, clozapine, S16924 and ziprasidone act as partial agonists for G

  15. Electromagnetic Power Attenuation in Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    based on field measurements of effective conductivity. Previous Soil Property Models Clearly, the problem of predicting EM attenuation in soils...Curtis, J. O. (2001a). “Moisture effects on the dielectric properties of soils,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 39(1), 125-128... properties of materials by time-domain techniques,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement IM-19(4), 377-382. Portland Cement Association

  16. Use of neuromuscular blockers and neostigmine for general anesthesia and its association with neuraxial blockade

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Filipe Nadir Caparica; Braga, Angélica de Fátima de Assunção; Junqueira, Fernando Eduardo Feres; Bezerra, Rafaela Menezes; de Almeida, Felipe Ferreira; Braga, Franklin Sarmento da Silva; Carvalho, Vanessa Henriques

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This research aimed to assess the use of neuromuscular blockers (NMB) and its reversal, associated or not with neuraxial blockade, after general anesthesia. This retrospective study analyzed 1295 patients that underwent surgery with general anesthesia at Prof. Dr. José Aristodemo Pinotti Hospital in 2013. The study included patients aged >1 year, with complete, readable medical charts and anesthetic records. Rocuronium (ROC) was the most used NMB (96.7%), with an initial dose of 0.60 (0.52–0.74) mg/kg and total dose of 0.38 (0.27–0.53) mg/kg/h. In 24.3% of the cases, neuraxial blockade was associated with a significantly longer anesthesia (P < .001) than in cases without neuraxial block, regardless of technique (total intravenous (TIV) vs intravenous and inhalational (IV+IN)). In 71.9% of the cases, a single dose of NMB was used. Patients under TIV general anesthesia associated with neuraxial blockade had a lower total dose of ROC (mg/kg/h) in comparison with TIV GA alone (0.30 (0.23–0.39) and 0.42 (0.30–0.56) mg/kg/h, respectively, P < .001). The same was observed for patients under IV+IN GA (0.32 (0.23–0.41) and 0.43 (0.31–0.56) mg/kg/h, respectively, P < .001). The duration of anesthesia was longer according to increasing number of additional NMB doses (P < .001). Dose of neostigmine was 2.00 (2.00–2.00) mg or 29.41 (25.31–33.89) μg/kg. The interval between neostigmine and extubation was >30 minutes in 10.9% of cases. The most widely used NMB was ROC. Neuroaxial blockade (spinal or epidural) was significantly associated with reduced total dose of ROC (mg/kg/h) during general anesthesia, even in the absence of neuromuscular monitoring and regardless of general anesthetic technique chosen. In most cases, neostigmine was used to reverse neuromuscular block. The prolonged interval between neostigmine and extubation (>30 minutes) was neither associated with total doses of ROC or neostigmine, nor with the time of NMB

  17. The role of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Górska, A M; Gołembiowska, K

    2015-04-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") popular as a designer drug is often used with caffeine to gain a stronger stimulant effect. MDMA induces 5-HT and DA release by interaction with monoamine transporters. Co-administration of caffeine and MDMA may aggravate MDMA-induced toxic effects on DA and 5-HT terminals. In the present study, we determined whether caffeine influences DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. We also tried to find out if adenosine A1 and A2A receptors play a role in the effect of caffeine by investigating the effect of the selective adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists, DPCPX and KW 6002 on DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. Mice were treated with caffeine (10 mg/kg) and MDMA (20 or 40 mg/kg) alone or in combination. DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum was measured using in vivo microdialysis. Caffeine exacerbated the effect of MDMA on DA and 5-HT release. DPCPX or KW 6002 co-administered with MDMA had similar influence as caffeine, but KW 6002 was more potent than caffeine or DPCPX. To exclude the contribution of MAO inhibition by caffeine in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced increase in DA and 5-HT, we also tested the effect of the nonxanthine adenosine receptor antagonist CGS 15943A lacking properties of MAO activity modification. Our findings indicate that adenosine A1 and A2A receptor blockade may account for the caffeine-induced exacerbation of the MDMA effect on DA and 5-HT release and may aggravate MDMA toxicity.

  18. Motor effects of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol that are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Espejo-Porras, Francisco; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Pertwee, Roger G; Mechoulam, Raphael; García, Concepción

    2013-12-01

    The broad presence of CB1 receptors in the basal ganglia, mainly in GABA- or glutamate-containing neurons, as well as the presence of TRPV1 receptors in dopaminergic neurons and the identification of CB2 receptors in some neuronal subpopulations within the basal ganglia, explain the powerful motor effects exerted by those cannabinoids that can activate/block these receptors. By contrast, cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid with a broad therapeutic profile, is generally presented as an example of a cannabinoid compound with no motor effects due to its poor affinity for the CB1 and the CB2 receptor, despite its activity at the TRPV1 receptor. However, recent evidence suggests that CBD may interact with the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor to produce some of its beneficial effects. This may enable CBD to directly influence motor activity through the well-demonstrated role of serotonergic transmission in the basal ganglia. We have investigated this issue in rats using three different pharmacological and neurochemical approaches. First, we compared the motor effects of various i.p. doses of CBD with the selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT; i.p.). Second, we investigated whether the motor effects of CBD are sensitive to 5-HT1A receptor blockade in comparison with CB1 receptor antagonism. Finally, we investigated whether CBD was able to potentiate the effect of a sub-effective dose of 8-OH-DPAT. Our results demonstrated that: (i) only high doses of CBD (>10 mg/kg) altered motor behavior measured in a computer-aided actimeter; (ii) these alterations were restricted to vertical activity (rearing) with only modest changes in other parameters; (iii) similar effects were produced by 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg/kg), although this agonist affected exclusively vertical activity, with no effects on other motor parameters, and it showed always more potency than CBD; (iv) the effects of 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg/kg) and CBD (20 mg/kg) on vertical activity

  19. The 5-HT1A receptor in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Joshua; DeLorenzo, Christine; Choudhury, Sunia; Parsey, Ramin V.

    2016-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric diagnosis that is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. This debilitating disorder is currently one of the leading causes of disability nationwide and is predicted to be the leading cause of disease burden by the year 2030. A large body of previous research has theorized that serotonergic dysfunction, specifically of the serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor, plays a key role in the development of MDD. The purpose of this review is to describe the evolution of our current understanding of the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor and its role in the pathophysiology MDD through the discussion of animal, post-mortem, positron emission tomography (PET), pharmacologic and genetic studies. PMID:26851834

  20. Adenosine A2A receptor agonists with potent antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Fuentes, Manuel; Caballero, Julio; Palomo, Iván; Hinz, Sonja; El-Tayeb, Ali; Müller, Christa E

    2018-05-01

    Selected adenosine A 2A receptor agonists (PSB-15826, PSB-12404, and PSB-16301) have been evaluated as new antiplatelet agents. In addition, radioligand-binding studies and receptor-docking experiments were performed in order to explain their differential biological effects on a molecular level. Among the tested adenosine derivatives, PSB-15826 was the most potent compound to inhibit platelet aggregation (EC 50 0.32 ± 0.05 µmol/L) and platelet P-selectin cell-surface localization (EC 50 0.062 ± 0.2 µmol/L), and to increase intraplatelets cAMP levels (EC 50 0.24 ± 0.01 µmol/L). The compound was more active than CGS21680 (EC 50 0.97±0.07 µmol/L) and equipotent to NECA (EC 50 0.31 ± 0.05 µmol/L) in platelet aggregation induced by ADP. In contrast to the results from cAMP assays, K i values determined in radioligand-binding studies were not predictive of the A 2A agonists' antiplatelet activity. Docking studies revealed the key molecular determinants of this new family of adenosine A 2A receptor agonists: differences in activities are related to π-stacking interactions between the ligands and the residue His264 in the extracellular loop of the adenosine A 2A receptor which may result in increased residence times. In conclusion, these results provide an improved understanding of the requirements of antiplatelet adenosine A 2A receptor agonists.

  1. Opioid Facilitation of β-Adrenergic Blockade: A New Pharmacological Condition?

    PubMed Central

    Vamecq, Joseph; Mention-Mulliez, Karine; Leclerc, Francis; Dobbelaere, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Recently, propranolol was suggested to prevent hyperlactatemia in a child with hypovolemic shock through β-adrenergic blockade. Though it is a known inhibitor of glycolysis, propranolol, outside this observation, has never been reported to fully protect against lactate overproduction. On the other hand, literature evidence exists for a cross-talk between β-adrenergic receptors (protein targets of propranolol) and δ-opioid receptor. In this literature context, it is hypothesized here that anti-diarrheic racecadotril (a pro-drug of thiorphan, an inhibitor of enkephalinases), which, in the cited observation, was co-administered with propranolol, might have facilitated the β-blocker-driven inhibition of glycolysis and resulting lactate production. The opioid-facilitated β-adrenergic blockade would be essentially additivity or even synergism putatively existing between antagonism of β-adrenergic receptors and agonism of δ-opioid receptor in lowering cellular cAMP and dependent functions. PMID:26426025

  2. [Organization of medical support for troops, defending Leningrad and the people of the blockaded city].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Kryuchkov, O A

    2015-03-01

    The data on the composition of forces of medical services and organization of medical-evacuation support for troops defending the blockaded Leningrad are presented. The information about the health losses among the population of Leningrad as a result of bombing, shelling and disease is given. Extremely high rates of morbidity and mortality in residents were associated with hunger, hypothermia and emotional stress. The clinical picture of some diseases has different peculiarities because of alimentary dystrophy background. The city health service suffered huge losses: 482 medical institutions were destroyed, only about 300 people from 1.5 thousand of medical personnel in 1942 saved working capability. The health care service of the local air defense played an essential role in delivery of medical aid. The contribution of civil and military health workers in saving residents lives in the blockaded Leningrad was appreciated.

  3. Sugammadex to Reverse Neuromuscular Blockade in a Child with a Past History of Cardiac Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Karen; Hall, Brian; Tobias, Joseph D

    2017-01-01

    Sugammadex is a novel agent for the reversal of neuromuscular blockade. The speed and efficacy of reversal with sugammadex are significantly faster than acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as neostigmine. Sugammadex also has a limited adverse profile when compared with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, specifically in regard to the incidence of bradycardia. This adverse effect may be particularly relevant in the setting of a heart transplant recipient with a denervated heart. The authors present a case of an 8-year-old child, status postcardiac transplantation, who required anesthetic care for laparoscopy and lysis of intra-abdominal adhesions. Sugammadex was used to reverse neuromuscular blockade and avoid the potential adverse effects of neostigmine. The unique mechanism of action of sugammadex is discussed, previous reports of its use in this unique patient population are reviewed, and its potential benefits compared to traditional acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are presented. PMID:28701612

  4. Sugammadex to reverse neuromuscular blockade in a child with a past history of cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karen; Hall, Brian; Tobias, Joseph D

    2017-01-01

    Sugammadex is a novel agent for the reversal of neuromuscular blockade. The speed and efficacy of reversal with sugammadex are significantly faster than acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as neostigmine. Sugammadex also has a limited adverse profile when compared with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, specifically in regard to the incidence of bradycardia. This adverse effect may be particularly relevant in the setting of a heart transplant recipient with a denervated heart. The authors present a case of an 8-year-old child, status postcardiac transplantation, who required anesthetic care for laparoscopy and lysis of intra-abdominal adhesions. Sugammadex was used to reverse neuromuscular blockade and avoid the potential adverse effects of neostigmine. The unique mechanism of action of sugammadex is discussed, previous reports of its use in this unique patient population are reviewed, and its potential benefits compared to traditional acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are presented.

  5. PD-1-PD-L1 immune-checkpoint blockade in malignant lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wu, Ling; Tian, Chen; Zhang, Yizhuo

    2018-02-01

    Tumor cells can evade immune surveillance through overexpressing the ligands of checkpoint receptors on tumor cells or adjacent cells, leading T cells to anergy or exhaustion. Growing evidence of the interaction between tumor cells and microenvironment promoted the emergence of immune-checkpoint blockade. By targeting programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) pathway, cytotoxic activity of T cell is enhanced significantly and tumor cell lysis is induced subsequently. Currently, various antibodies against PD-1 and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) are under clinical studies in lymphomas. In this review, we outline the rationale for investigation of PD-1-PD-L1 immune-checkpoint blockade in lymphomas and discuss their prospect of applications in clinical treatment.

  6. Stimulation of postsynapse adrenergic α2A receptor improves attention/cognition performance in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Karasawa, Jun-ichi; Chaki, Shigeyuki; Hikichi, Hirohiko

    2014-08-15

    A 5-trial inhibitory avoidance test using spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) pups has been used as an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the roles of noradrenergic systems, which are involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD, have not been investigated in this model. In the present study, the effects of adrenergic α2 receptor stimulation, which has been an effective treatment for ADHD, on attention/cognition performance were investigated in this model. Moreover, neuronal mechanisms mediated through adrenergic α2 receptors were investigated. We evaluated the effects of both clonidine, a non-selective adrenergic α2 receptor agonist, and guanfacine, a selective adrenergic α2A receptor agonist, using a 5-trial inhibitory avoidance test with SHR pups. Juvenile SHR exhibited a shorter transfer latency, compared with juvenile Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Both clonidine and guanfacine significantly prolonged the transfer latency of juvenile SHR. The effects of clonidine and guanfacine were significantly blocked by pretreatment with an adrenergic α2A receptor antagonist. In contrast, the effect of clonidine was not attenuated by pretreatment with an adrenergic α2B receptor antagonist, or an adrenergic α2C receptor antagonist, while it was attenuated by a non-selective adrenergic α2 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the effects of neither clonidine nor guanfacine were blocked by pretreatment with a selective noradrenergic neurotoxin. These results suggest that the stimulation of the adrenergic α2A receptor improves the attention/cognition performance of juvenile SHR in the 5-trial inhibitory avoidance test and that postsynaptic, rather than presynaptic, adrenergic α2A receptor is involved in this effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Late onset azotemia from RAAS blockade in CKD patients with normal renal arteries and no precipitating risk factors.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, Macaulay A C; Onuigbo, Nnonyelum T C

    2008-01-01

    Despite proven renoprotection from RAAS blockade and its increased application since the early 1990s, we have experienced an increasing CKD/ESRD epidemic, especially among U.S. diabetics. Consequently, some concerns regarding iatrogenic azotemia from RAAS blockade have surfaced. We hypothesized that susceptible CKD patients with normal renal arteries on conventional angiography, including MRA, but who have microvascular arteriolar narrowing in the renal circulation - mimicking large vessel renal artery stenosis, even without precipitating risk factors - could experience worsening azotemia after periods of time exceeding three months on stable doses of RAAS blockade. Between September 2002 and February 2005, as part of a larger prospective study of renal failure in CKD patients on RAAS blockade, we studied five patients with >25% higher serum creatinine and normal MRA without precipitating factors. RAAS blockade was discontinued. eGFR by MDRD was monitored. Five Caucasians (M:F = 1:4; age 68 years) were enrolled and followed-up at 29.6 months. The duration of RAAS blockade at enrollment was 34.6 months. The baseline eGFR had decreased from 28.4 +/- 7.1 to 17.0 +/- 7.4 ml/min/1.73 m(2) BSA (p < 0.001) at enrollment. One required temporary hemodialysis; no deaths occurred. eGFR increased from 17.0 +/- 7.4 to 24.6 +/- 9.5 ml/min/1.73 m(2) BSA (p = 0.009), 29.6 (20-43) months after stopping the RAAS blockade. We conclude that worsening azotemia occurs in susceptible CKD patients on stable doses of RAAS blockade after long periods of time, despite normal renal arteries without precipitating risk factors. We submit that microvascular renal arteriolar narrowing is the pathophysiologic mechanism. These observations call for further study.

  8. α2-adrenergic blockade mimics the enhancing effect of chronic stress on breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Lamkin, Donald M.; Sung, Ha Yeon; Yang, Gyu Sik; David, John M.; Ma, Jeffrey C.Y.; Cole, Steve W.; Sloan, Erica K.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies in preclinical mouse models of breast cancer have shown that chronic restraint stress can enhance disease progression by increasing catecholamine levels and subsequent signaling of β-adrenergic receptors. Catecholamines also signal α-adrenergic receptors, and greater α-adrenergic signaling has been shown to promote breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. However, antagonism of α-adrenergic receptors can result in elevated catecholamine levels, which may increase β-adrenergic signaling, because pre-synaptic α2-adrenergic receptors mediate an autoinhibition of sympathetic transmission. Given these findings, we examined the effect of α-adrenergic blockade on breast cancer progression under non-stress and stress conditions (chronic restraint) in an orthotopic mouse model with MDA-MB-231HM cells. Chronic restraint increased primary tumor growth and metastasis to distant tissues as expected, and non-selective α-adrenergic blockade by phentolamine significantly inhibited those effects. However, under non-stress conditions, phentolamine increased primary tumor size and distant metastasis. Sympatho-neural gene expression for catecholamine biosynthesis enzymes was elevated by phentolamine under non-stress conditions, and the non-selective β-blocker propranolol inhibited the effect of phentolamine on breast cancer progression. Selective α2-adrenergic blockade by efaroxan also increased primary tumor size and distant metastasis under non-stress conditions, but selective α1-adrenergic blockade by prazosin did not. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that α2-adrenergic signaling can act through an autoreceptor mechanism to inhibit sympathetic catecholamine release and, thus, modulate established effects of β-adrenergic signaling on tumor progression-relevant biology. PMID:25462899

  9. Israel’s Blockade of Gaza, the Mavi Marmara Incident, and Its Aftermath

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    navy zodiac boats intercepted them and naval commandos took over five ships, reportedly without incident. However, the Marmara resisted and...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Israel’s Blockade of Gaza, the Mavi Marmara Incident, and Its...Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response

  10. Israel’s Blockade of Gaza, the Mavi Marmara Incident, and Its Aftermath

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-23

    Israeli navy zodiac boats intercepted them and naval commandos took over five ships, reportedly without incident. However, the Marmara resisted and...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Israel’s Blockade of Gaza, the Mavi Marmara Incident, and Its...c11173008 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour

  11. PD-1 expression and clinical PD-1 blockade in B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Zhou, Jianfeng; Young, Ken H

    2018-01-04

    Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockade targeting the PD-1 immune checkpoint has demonstrated unprecedented clinical efficacy in the treatment of advanced cancers including hematologic malignancies. This article reviews the landscape of PD-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and current PD-1 blockade immunotherapy trials in B-cell lymphomas. Most notably, in relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma, which frequently has increased PD-1 + tumor-infiltrating T cells, 9p24.1 genetic alteration, and high PD-L1 expression, anti-PD-1 monotherapy has demonstrated remarkable objective response rates (ORRs) of 65% to 87% and durable disease control in phase 1/2 clinical trials. The median duration of response was 16 months in a phase 2 trial. PD-1 blockade has also shown promise in a phase 1 trial of nivolumab in relapsed/refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, including follicular lymphoma, which often displays abundant PD-1 expression on intratumoral T cells, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which variably expresses PD-1 and PD-L1. In primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, which frequently has 9p24.1 alterations, the ORR was 35% in a phase 2 trial of pembrolizumab. In contrast, the ORR with pembrolizumab was 0% in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 44% in CLL with Richter transformation in a phase 2 trial. T cells from CLL patients have elevated PD-1 expression; CLL PD-1 + T cells can exhibit a pseudo-exhaustion or a replicative senescence phenotype. PD-1 expression was also found in marginal zone lymphoma but not in mantle cell lymphoma, although currently anti-PD-1 clinical trial data are not available. Mechanisms and predictive biomarkers for PD-1 blockade immunotherapy, treatment-related adverse events, hyperprogression, and combination therapies are discussed in the context of B-cell lymphomas. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. CT-guided thoracic sympathetic blockade for palmar hyperhidrosis: Immediate results and postoperative quality of life.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Guo; Fei, Yong; Huang, Bing; Yao, Ming

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results, complications, and degree of satisfaction among patients who underwent a CT-guided percutaneous puncture thoracic sympathetic blockade. A total of 186 patients underwent CT-guided thoracic sympathetic blockade based on case histories and a prospective pre- and postoperative questionnaire survey. The study sample was composed of 93 patients with an age range from 18 to 34years and a diagnosis with primary palmar hyperhidrosis (severe in some patients). Percutaneous puncture thoracic sympathetic blockade guided by CT was performed under local anesthesia in all patients. Heart rate (HR), non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP), arterial oxygen saturation (SPO 2 ), perfusion index (PI), and palmar temperature (T) were monitored before and after treatment. Follow-up included a questionnaire on life quality and degree of satisfaction. Ten minutes after treatment, the SPO 2 , PI, and temperature all raised remarkably ([92.75±2.02]% vs. [98.85±1.09]%, [1.55±0.69]% vs. [8.60±0.94]%, [30.95±1.27]°C vs. [35.75±0.55]°C, respectively, P<0.001). The therapeutic success rate was 96.7%. No operative mortality was recorded. No complications were observed, except transient bradycardia in one patient and transient injection site pain in 25 patients. Of the 89 patients who were monitored over a period of 6-12months through follow-up interviews and questionnaires, 46% developed compensatory hyperhidrosis, 87.6% reported improvement in their quality of life. CT-guided percutaneous puncture thoracic sympathetic blockade is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive technique for the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis. Despite the high rate of compensatory hyperhidrosis, it produces a high rate of patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Beta-blockade after myocardial infarction: practical implications of major clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Rehnqvist, N; Olsson, G

    1987-01-01

    A survey of the literature concerning 20 years' experience of beta-blockade after myocardial infarction indicates that several positive effects are achieved and that these are neither marginal nor transient. Mortality is reduced during the first year from about 10 to 7%. This has been shown for the individual beta-blockers metoprolol, propranolol, and timolol, and also when the data on all beta-blocker trials have been pooled. The effect is further enhanced if therapy continues. Patients at high risk of mortality can be separated fairly accurately from those at low risk. Thus, prophylactic treatment with the sole purpose of reducing mortality can be individualized. Effects on reinfarction are also already present after 1 year and are enhanced during further follow-up. It has not yet been possible, however, to identify those patients in whom this end-point will not be influenced. Furthermore, during extended follow-up, the proportion of asymptomatic patients who are free of side effects increases during treatment with beta-blockade, whereas it decreases during placebo therapy, due mostly to increased numbers of patients suffering from complications such as reinfarction, angina pectoris, cerebrovascular incidents, arrhythmias, or disturbances in the peripheral circulation. Twenty percent of patients experienced improved fitness when beta-blockade treatment was withdrawn, which balances the beneficial effects. No other drugs have been shown to have comparable beneficial effects. We conclude that the practical implications of the clinical trials indicate that beta-blockade should be continued for at least 3 years after myocardial infarction in patients without severe side effects.

  14. Overcoming Drug Resistant Prostate Cancer with APE1/Ref 1 Blockade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    prostate cancer specimens. Genetic knockdown of APE1/Ref-1 disrupts prostate cancer cell growth and survival in cell culture. In addition...inhibition of the redox function selectively of Ref-1 results in cell growth inhibition, with this therapy preferentially inhibiting prostate cancer cell... growth above that in non-cancerous cells. Specific blockade of Ref-1 redox activity in tumors is a novel concept in tumor therapy. If we are successful

  15. The Effect of Beta Adrenergic Blockade on Ratings of Perceived Exertion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    exrcis is uvo Hughson, et al. (47) investigated the effect of beta blockade using a single, 100-mg oral dose of metoprolol or matched placebo on 12...administered either placebo, propranolol (80 mug) or metoprolol (100 mug) in a double- blind, randomised manner. Before the muscle-strength tests were...The non-selective BABA propranolol and the selective agent metoprolol were compared with a placebo in a double blind cross-over design. Measurements

  16. N(N)-nicotinic blockade as an acute human model of autonomic failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Black, B. K.; Lance, R. H.; Squillante, M. D.; Costa, F.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pure autonomic failure has been conceptualized as deficient sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation. Several recent observations in chronic autonomic failure, however, cannot be explained simply by loss of autonomic innervation, at least according to our current understanding. To simulate acute autonomic failure, we blocked N(N)-nicotinic receptors with intravenous trimethaphan (6+/-0.4 mg/min) in 7 healthy subjects (4 men, 3 women, aged 32+/-3 years, 68+/-4 kg, 171+/-5 cm). N(N)-Nicotinic receptor blockade resulted in near-complete interruption of sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents as indicated by a battery of autonomic function tests. With trimethaphan, small postural changes from the horizontal were associated with significant blood pressure changes without compensatory changes in heart rate. Gastrointestinal motility, pupillary function, saliva production, and tearing were profoundly suppressed with trimethaphan. Plasma norepinephrine level decreased from 1.1+/-0.12 nmol/L (180+/-20 pg/mL) at baseline to 0.23+/-0.05 nmol/L (39+/-8 pg/mL) with trimethaphan (P<.001). There was a more than 16-fold increase in plasma vasopressin (P<.01) and no change in plasma renin activity. We conclude that blockade of N(N)-cholinergic receptors is useful to simulate the hemodynamic alterations of acute autonomic failure in humans. The loss of function with acute N(N)-cholinergic blockade is more complete than in most cases of chronic autonomic failure. This difference may be exploited to elucidate the contributions of acute denervation and chronic adaptation to the pathophysiology of autonomic failure. N(N)-Cholinergic blockade may also be applied to study human cardiovascular physiology and pharmacology in the absence of confounding baroreflexes.

  17. Prevention of Breast Cell Transformation by Blockade of the AP-1 Transcription Factor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    Distribution Unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) In this study, we are investigating the role of AP- M in controlling breast cell growth and...serum and these growth factors depend on AP-1 to transduce proliferative signal. AP- M blockade induced by the expression of TAM67 inhibits breast...demonstrated that TAM67 inhibits basal AP-1 activity and AP- M activity stimulated by several different growth factors. We have also discovered that AP-1

  18. Population pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic analysis for sugammadex-mediated reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade

    PubMed Central

    Kleijn, Huub J; Zollinger, Daniel P; van den Heuvel, Michiel W; Kerbusch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    AIMS An integrated population pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic model was developed with the following aims: to simultaneously describe pharmacokinetic behaviour of sugammadex and rocuronium; to establish the pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic model for rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade and reversal by sugammadex; to evaluate covariate effects; and to explore, by simulation, typical covariate effects on reversal time. METHODS Data (n = 446) from eight sugammadex clinical studies covering men, women, non-Asians, Asians, paediatrics, adults and the elderly, with various degrees of renal impairment, were used. Modelling and simulation techniques based on physiological principles were applied to capture rocuronium and sugammadex pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and to identify and quantify covariate effects. RESULTS Sugammadex pharmacokinetics were affected by renal function, bodyweight and race, and rocuronium pharmacokinetics were affected by age, renal function and race. Sevoflurane potentiated rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. Posterior predictive checks and bootstrapping illustrated the accuracy and robustness of the model. External validation showed concordance between observed and predicted reversal times, but interindividual variability in reversal time was pronounced. Simulated reversal times in typical adults were 0.8, 1.5 and 1.4 min upon reversal with sugammadex 16 mg kg−1 3 min after rocuronium, sugammadex 4 mg kg−1 during deep neuromuscular blockade and sugammadex 2 mg kg−1 during moderate blockade, respectively. Simulations indicated that reversal times were faster in paediatric patients and slightly slower in elderly patients compared with adults. Renal function did not affect reversal time. CONCLUSIONS Simulations of the therapeutic dosing regimens demonstrated limited impact of age, renal function and sevoflurane use, as predicted reversal time in typical subjects was always <2 min. PMID:21535448

  19. Differential Immune Microenvironments and Response to Immune Checkpoint Blockade among Molecular Subtypes of Murine Medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Pham, Christina D; Flores, Catherine; Yang, Changlin; Pinheiro, Elaine M; Yearley, Jennifer H; Sayour, Elias J; Pei, Yanxin; Moore, Colin; McLendon, Roger E; Huang, Jianping; Sampson, John H; Wechsler-Reya, Robert; Mitchell, Duane A

    2016-02-01

    Despite significant strides in the identification and characterization of potential therapeutic targets for medulloblastoma, the role of the immune system and its interplay with the tumor microenvironment within these tumors are poorly understood. To address this, we adapted two syngeneic animal models of human Sonic Hedgehog (SHH)-driven and group 3 medulloblastoma for preclinical evaluation in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. Multicolor flow cytometric analyses were used to phenotype and characterize immune infiltrating cells within established cerebellar tumors. We observed significantly higher percentages of dendritic cells, infiltrating lymphocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and tumor-associated macrophages in murine SHH model tumors compared with group 3 tumors. However, murine group 3 tumors had higher percentages of CD8(+) PD-1(+) T cells within the CD3 population. PD-1 blockade conferred superior antitumor efficacy in animals bearing intracranial group 3 tumors compared with SHH group tumors, indicating that immunologic differences within the tumor microenvironment can be leveraged as potential targets to mediate antitumor efficacy. Further analysis of anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody localization revealed binding to PD-1(+) peripheral T cells, but not tumor infiltrating lymphocytes within the brain tumor microenvironment. Peripheral PD-1 blockade additionally resulted in a marked increase in CD3(+) T cells within the tumor microenvironment. This is the first immunologic characterization of preclinical models of molecular subtypes of medulloblastoma and demonstration that response to immune checkpoint blockade differs across subtype classification. Our findings also suggest that effective anti-PD-1 blockade does not require that systemically administered antibodies penetrate the brain tumor microenvironment. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein reverses cocaine-induced sodium channel blockade in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu-Ling; Peters, Nicholas S; Henry, John A

    2006-03-01

    Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) is an acute phase protein capable of binding basic drugs. This action explains its reversal of sodium channel blockade by drugs such as amitriptyline and quinidine. We report here the reversal of cocaine-induced sodium channel blockade by AAG. The sodium channel blocking property of cocaine is a major mechanism behind cocaine-induced sudden cardiac death, since sodium channels play a key role in the initiation and regulation of the heart beat. Voltage-gated sodium current (I(Na)) was recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Guinea-pig cardiac ventricular myocytes were isolated and continuously perfused at room temperature with physiological solutions. At concentrations ranging from 5 to 320 microM cocaine showed a dose-dependent and reversible blockade of I(Na) with an IC50 of 45.9 microM. The addition of equimolar amounts of AAG to cocaine produced almost complete reversal of cocaine's effects, suggesting a single binding site for cocaine on the AAG molecule. With changes of peak I(Na) normalized against control as 1, cocaine at 20 and 40 microM reduced I(Na) to 0.62+/-0.042 (n = 6) and 0.57+/-0.052 (n = 9), respectively, and the addition of an equimolar concentration of AAG reversed I(Na) to 0.86+/-0.022 and 0.91+/-0.060, respectively. AAG reverses cocaine-induced sodium channel blockade in a dose-dependent manner, indicating a therapeutic potential to reverse acute cocaine cardiac toxicity.

  1. Blockade of the Programmed Death-1 Pathway Restores Sarcoidosis CD4+ T-Cell Proliferative Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Nicole A.; Celada, Lindsay J.; Herazo-Maya, Jose D.; Abraham, Susamma; Shaginurova, Guzel; Sevin, Carla M.; Grutters, Jan; Culver, Daniel A.; Dworski, Ryszard; Sheller, James; Massion, Pierre P.; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V.; Johnson, Joyce E.; Kaminski, Naftali; Wilkes, David S.; Oswald-Richter, Kyra A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Effective therapeutic interventions for chronic, idiopathic lung diseases remain elusive. Normalized T-cell function is an important contributor to spontaneous resolution of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Up-regulation of inhibitor receptors, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1, are important inhibitors of T-cell function. Objectives: To determine the effects of PD-1 pathway blockade on sarcoidosis CD4+ T-cell proliferative capacity. Methods: Gene expression profiles of sarcoidosis and healthy control peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed at baseline and follow-up. Flow cytometry was used to measure ex vivo expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on systemic and bronchoalveolar lavage–derived cells of subjects with sarcoidosis and control subjects, as well as the effects of PD-1 pathway blockade on cellular proliferation after T-cell receptor stimulation. Immunohistochemistry analysis for PD-1/PD-L1 expression was conducted on sarcoidosis, malignant, and healthy control lung specimens. Measurements and Main Results: Microarray analysis demonstrates longitudinal increase in PDCD1 gene expression in sarcoidosis peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed increased PD-L1 expression within sarcoidosis granulomas and lung malignancy, but this was absent in healthy lungs. Increased numbers of sarcoidosis PD-1+ CD4+ T cells are present systemically, compared with healthy control subjects (P < 0.0001). Lymphocytes with reduced proliferative capacity exhibited increased proliferation with PD-1 pathway blockade. Longitudinal analysis of subjects with sarcoidosis revealed reduced PD-1+ CD4+ T cells with spontaneous clinical resolution but not with disease progression. Conclusions: Analogous to the effects in other chronic lung diseases, these findings demonstrate that the PD-1 pathway is an important contributor to sarcoidosis CD4+ T-cell proliferative capacity and clinical outcome. Blockade of the PD-1 pathway may be a

  2. Differential immune microenvironments and response to immune checkpoint blockade amongst molecular subtypes of murine medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Christina D.; Flores, Catherine; Yang, Changlin; Pinheiro, Elaine M.; Yearley, Jennifer H.; Sayour, Elias J.; Pei, Yanxin; Moore, Colin; McLendon, Roger E.; Huang, Jianping; Sampson, John H.; Wechsler-Reya, Robert; Mitchell, Duane A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Despite significant strides in the identification and characterization of potential therapeutic targets for medulloblastoma (MB), the role of the immune system and its interplay with the tumor microenvironment within these tumors are poorly understood. To address this, we adapted two syngeneic animal models of human Sonic Hedgehog (SHH)-driven and Group 3 MB for preclinical evaluation in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. METHODS AND RESULTS Multicolor flow cytometric analyses were used to phenotype and characterize immune infiltrating cells within established cerebellar tumors. We observed significantly higher percentages of dendritic cells, infiltrating lymphocytes, myeloid derived suppressor cells and tumor-associated macrophages in murine SHH model tumors compared with Group 3 tumors. However, murine Group 3 tumors had higher percentages of CD8+ PD-1+ T cells within the CD3 population. PD-1 blockade conferred superior antitumor efficacy in animals bearing intracranial Group 3 tumors compared to SHH group tumors, indicating that immunologic differences within the tumor microenvironment can be leveraged as potential targets to mediate antitumor efficacy. Further analysis of anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody localization revealed binding to PD-1+ peripheral T cells, but not tumor infiltrating lymphocytes within the brain tumor microenvironment. Peripheral PD-1 blockade additionally resulted in a marked increase in CD3+ T cells within the tumor microenvironment. CONCLUSIONS This is the first immunologic characterization of preclinical models of molecular subtypes of MB and demonstration that response to immune checkpoint blockade differs across subtype classification. Our findings also suggest that effective anti-PD-1 blockade does not require that systemically administered antibodies penetrate the brain tumor microenvironment. PMID:26405194

  3. Surface effects on ionic Coulomb blockade in nanometer-size pores.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroya; Iizuka, Hideo; Pershin, Yuriy V; Ventra, Massimiliano Di

    2018-01-12

    Ionic Coulomb blockade in nanopores is a phenomenon that shares some similarities but also differences with its electronic counterpart. Here, we investigate this phenomenon extensively using all-atom molecular dynamics of ionic transport through nanopores of about one nanometer in diameter and up to several nanometers in length. Our goal is to better understand the role of atomic roughness and structure of the pore walls in the ionic Coulomb blockade. Our numerical results reveal the following general trends. First, the nanopore selectivity changes with its diameter, and the nanopore position in the membrane influences the current strength. Second, the ionic transport through the nanopore takes place in a hopping-like fashion over a set of discretized states caused by local electric fields due to membrane atoms. In some cases, this creates a slow-varying 'crystal-like' structure of ions inside the nanopore. Third, while at a given voltage, the resistance of the nanopore depends on its length, the slope of this dependence appears to be independent of the molarity of ions. An effective kinetic model that captures the ionic Coulomb blockade behavior observed in MD simulations is formulated.

  4. Clonal evolution and resistance to EGFR blockade in the blood of colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Siravegna, Giulia; Mussolin, Benedetta; Buscarino, Michela; Corti, Giorgio; Cassingena, Andrea; Crisafulli, Giovanni; Ponzetti, Agostino; Cremolini, Chiara; Amatu, Alessio; Lauricella, Calogero; Lamba, Simona; Hobor, Sebastijan; Avallone, Antonio; Valtorta, Emanuele; Rospo, Giuseppe; Medico, Enzo; Motta, Valentina; Antoniotti, Carlotta; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Veronese, Silvio; Budillon, Alfredo; Montagut, Clara; Racca, Patrizia; Marsoni, Silvia; Falcone, Alfredo; Corcoran, Ryan B; Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Loupakis, Fotios; Siena, Salvatore; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Bardelli, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRCs) evolve by a reiterative process of genetic diversification and clonal evolution. The molecular profile of CRC is routinely assessed in surgical or bioptic samples. Genotyping of CRC tissue has inherent limitations; a tissue sample represents a single snapshot in time, and it is subjected to spatial selection bias owing to tumor heterogeneity. Repeated tissue samples are difficult to obtain and cannot be used for dynamic monitoring of disease progression and response to therapy. We exploited circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to genotype colorectal tumors and track clonal evolution during treatment with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific antibodies cetuximab or panitumumab. We identified alterations in ctDNA of patients with primary or acquired resistance to EGFR blockade in the following genes: KRAS, NRAS, MET, ERBB2, FLT3, EGFR and MAP2K1. Mutated KRAS clones, which emerge in blood during EGFR blockade, decline upon withdrawal of EGFR-specific antibodies, indicating that clonal evolution continues beyond clinical progression. Pharmacogenomic analysis of CRC cells that had acquired resistance to cetuximab reveals that upon antibody withdrawal KRAS clones decay, whereas the population regains drug sensitivity. ctDNA profiles of individuals who benefit from multiple challenges with anti-EGFR antibodies exhibit pulsatile levels of mutant KRAS. These results indicate that the CRC genome adapts dynamically to intermittent drug schedules and provide a molecular explanation for the efficacy of rechallenge therapies based on EGFR blockade.

  5. Immune cell-poor melanomas benefit from PD-1 blockade after targeted type I IFN activation.

    PubMed

    Bald, Tobias; Landsberg, Jennifer; Lopez-Ramos, Dorys; Renn, Marcel; Glodde, Nicole; Jansen, Philipp; Gaffal, Evelyn; Steitz, Julia; Tolba, Rene; Kalinke, Ulrich; Limmer, Andreas; Jönsson, Göran; Hölzel, Michael; Tüting, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Infiltration of human melanomas with cytotoxic immune cells correlates with spontaneous type I IFN activation and a favorable prognosis. Therapeutic blockade of immune-inhibitory receptors in patients with preexisting lymphocytic infiltrates prolongs survival, but new complementary strategies are needed to activate cellular antitumor immunity in immune cell-poor melanomas. Here, we show that primary melanomas in Hgf-Cdk4(R24C) mice, which imitate human immune cell-poor melanomas with a poor outcome, escape IFN-induced immune surveillance and editing. Peritumoral injections of immunostimulatory RNA initiated a cytotoxic inflammatory response in the tumor microenvironment and significantly impaired tumor growth. This critically required the coordinated induction of type I IFN responses by dendritic, myeloid, natural killer, and T cells. Importantly, antibody-mediated blockade of the IFN-induced immune-inhibitory interaction between PD-L1 and PD-1 receptors further prolonged the survival. These results highlight important interconnections between type I IFNs and immune-inhibitory receptors in melanoma pathogenesis, which serve as targets for combination immunotherapies. Using a genetically engineered mouse melanoma model, we demonstrate that targeted activation of the type I IFN system with immunostimulatory RNA in combination with blockade of immune-inhibitory receptors is a rational strategy to expose immune cell-poor tumors to cellular immune surveillance. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Myostatin deficiency but not anti-myostatin blockade induces marked proteomic changes in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Salzler, Robert R; Shah, Darshit; Doré, Anthony; Bauerlein, Roy; Miloscio, Lawrence; Latres, Esther; Papadopoulos, Nicholas J; Olson, William C; MacDonald, Douglas; Duan, Xunbao

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacologic blockade of the myostatin (Mstn)/activin receptor pathway is being pursued as a potential therapy for several muscle wasting disorders. The functional benefits of blocking this pathway are under investigation, in particular given the findings that greater muscle hypertrophy results from Mstn deficiency arising from genetic ablation compared to post-developmental Mstn blockade. Using high-resolution MS coupled with SILAC mouse technology, we quantitated the relative proteomic changes in gastrocnemius muscle from Mstn knockout (Mstn(-/-) ) and mice treated for 2-weeks with REGN1033, an anti-Mstn antibody. Relative to wild-type animals, Mstn(-/-) mice had a two-fold greater muscle mass and a >1.5-fold change in expression of 12.0% of 1137 quantified muscle proteins. In contrast, mice treated with REGN1033 had minimal changes in muscle proteome (0.7% of 1510 proteins >1.5-fold change, similar to biological difference 0.5% of 1310) even though the treatment induced significant 20% muscle mass increase. Functional annotation of the altered proteins in Mstn(-/-) mice corroborates the mutiple physiological changes including slow-to-fast fiber type switch. Thus, the proteome-wide protein expression differs between Mstn(-/-) mice and mice subjected to specific Mstn blockade post-developmentally, providing molecular-level insights to inform mechanistic hypotheses to explain the observed functional differences. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Exercise testing after beta-blockade: improved specificity and predictive value in detecting coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Marcomichelakis, J; Donaldson, R; Green, J; Joseph, S; Kelly, H B; Taggart, P; Somerville, W

    1980-01-01

    The value of exercise testing in detecting myocardial ischaemia resulting from coronary atheroma remains controversial. In order to increase the reliability of exercise testing, all its components (asymptomatic, haemodynamic, and electrocardiographic) have been scrutinised. In this study, concerned only with the electrocardiographic response to exercise, the incorporation of beta-blockade into the standard exercise procedure has improved specificity and predictive value without affecting sensitivity. Fifty patients with anginal pain and 50 asymptomatic subjects with an abnormal electrocardiogram were investigated by exercise testing before and after beta-blockade (oxprenolol). All subjects had coronary arteriograms and left ventriculograms, and the results of exercise testing were related to the presence or absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Possible causes of false positive exercise tests were eliminated by echocardiography. Though beta-blockade was unreliable in distinguishing ischaemic from non-ischaemic resting electrocardiograms, it eliminated all the false positive electrocardiographic responses to exercise in both groups and did not abolish any of the true positive electrocardiographic responses. Thus, specificity and predictive value were improved without reduction in sensitivity. This technique may not necessarily be applicable to other groups of patients or to a random population, but the results of this study suggest it will be a useful additional routine procedure in the investigation of coronary heart disease. PMID:7437172

  8. Surface effects on ionic Coulomb blockade in nanometer-size pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroya; Iizuka, Hideo; Pershin, Yuriy V.; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2018-01-01

    Ionic Coulomb blockade in nanopores is a phenomenon that shares some similarities but also differences with its electronic counterpart. Here, we investigate this phenomenon extensively using all-atom molecular dynamics of ionic transport through nanopores of about one nanometer in diameter and up to several nanometers in length. Our goal is to better understand the role of atomic roughness and structure of the pore walls in the ionic Coulomb blockade. Our numerical results reveal the following general trends. First, the nanopore selectivity changes with its diameter, and the nanopore position in the membrane influences the current strength. Second, the ionic transport through the nanopore takes place in a hopping-like fashion over a set of discretized states caused by local electric fields due to membrane atoms. In some cases, this creates a slow-varying ‘crystal-like’ structure of ions inside the nanopore. Third, while at a given voltage, the resistance of the nanopore depends on its length, the slope of this dependence appears to be independent of the molarity of ions. An effective kinetic model that captures the ionic Coulomb blockade behavior observed in MD simulations is formulated.

  9. The oncolytic peptide LTX-315 overcomes resistance of cancers to immunotherapy with CTLA4 checkpoint blockade

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, T; Pitt, J M; Vétizou, M; Marabelle, A; Flores, C; Rekdal, Ø; Kroemer, G; Zitvogel, L

    2016-01-01

    Intratumoral immunotherapies aim at reducing local immunosuppression, as well as reinstating and enhancing systemic anticancer T-cell functions, without inducing side effects. LTX-315 is a first-in-class oncolytic peptide-based local immunotherapy that meets these criteria by inducing a type of malignant cell death that elicits anticancer immune responses. Here, we show that LTX-315 rapidly reprograms the tumor microenvironment by decreasing the local abundance of immunosuppressive Tregs and myeloid-derived suppressor cells and by increasing the frequency of polyfunctional T helper type 1/type 1 cytotoxic T cells with a concomitant increase in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) and drop in PD-1 expression levels. Logically, in tumors that were resistant to intratumoral or systemic CTLA4 blockade, subsequent local inoculation of LTX-315 cured the animals or caused tumor regressions with abscopal effects. This synergistic interaction between CTLA4 blockade and LTX-315 was reduced upon blockade of the β-chain of the interleukin-2 receptor (CD122). This preclinical study provides a strong rationale for administering the oncolytic peptide LTX-315 to patients who are receiving treatment with the CTLA4 blocking antibody ipilimumab. PMID:27082453

  10. Blockade of the SNARE Protein Syntaxin 1 Inhibits Glioblastoma Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Fausto; Gonzàlez-Juncà, Alba; Meffre, Delphine; Barrecheguren, Pablo José; Martínez-Mármol, Ramón; Pazos, Irene; Olivé, Núria; Cotrufo, Tiziana; Seoane, Joan; Soriano, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent adult brain tumor, with virtually no cure, and with a median overall survival of 15 months from diagnosis despite of the treatment. SNARE proteins mediate membrane fusion events in cells and are essential for many cellular processes including exocytosis and neurotransmission, intracellular trafficking and cell migration. Here we show that the blockade of the SNARE protein Syntaxin 1 (Stx1) function impairs GBM cell proliferation. We show that Stx1 loss-of-function in GBM cells, through ShRNA lentiviral transduction, a Stx1 dominant negative and botulinum toxins, dramatically reduces the growth of GBM after grafting U373 cells into the brain of immune compromised mice. Interestingly, Stx1 role on GBM progression may not be restricted just to cell proliferation since the blockade of Stx1 also reduces in vitro GBM cell invasiveness suggesting a role in several processes relevant for tumor progression. Altogether, our findings indicate that the blockade of SNARE proteins may represent a novel therapeutic tool against GBM. PMID:25803850

  11. Blockade of Tumor-Expressed PD-1 promotes lung cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shisuo; McCall, Neal; Park, Kyewon; Guan, Qing; Fontina, Paolo; Ertel, Adam; Zhan, Tingting; Dicker, Adam P.; Lu, Bo

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anti-PD-1 immunotherapy is the standard of care for treating many patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), yet mechanisms of treatment failure are emerging. We present a case of NSCLC, who rapidly progressed during a trial (NCT02318771) combining palliative radiotherapy and pembrolizumab. Planned tumor biopsy demonstrated PD-1 expression by NSCLC cells. We validated this observation by detecting PD-1 transcript in lung cancer cells and by co-localizing PD-1 and lung cancer-specific markers in resected lung cancer tissues. We further investigated the biological role of cancer-intrinsic PD-1 in a mouse lung cancer cell line, M109. Knockout or antibody blockade of PD-1 enhanced M109 viability in-vitro, while PD-1 overexpression and exposure to recombinant PD-L1 diminished viability. PD-1 blockade accelerated growth of M109-xenograft tumors with increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis in immune-deficient mice. This represents a first-time report of NSCLC-intrinsic PD-1 expression and a potential mechanism by which PD-1 blockade may promote cancer growth. PMID:29632720

  12. Aromatase Blockade Is Associated With Increased Mortality in Acute Illness in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Connerney, Jeannette J; Spratt, Daniel I

    2017-09-01

    The increase in circulating estrogen levels with acute illness in humans is accompanied by increased aromatase expression in adipose tissue and increased peripheral aromatization of estrogens to androgens. Animal studies indicate that estrogen may be beneficial in acute illness. We hypothesized that blockade of aromatase in acute illness would decrease survival. Prospective sham controlled. Maine Medical Center Research Institute animal facility. Six- to 8-week-old male black 6 mice. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce acute illness and were administered letrozole to block aromatase or saline. Mice undergoing sham surgery with or without letrozole served as controls. Adipose and cardiovascular tissue was harvested for preliminary evaluation of aromatase expression. Survival was the main outcome measurement. Evidence for aromatase expression in tissue samples was assessed using western blot and/or immunohistochemistry. With aromatase blockade, survival in CLP mice was decreased ( P = 0.04). The presence of aromatase in adipose tissue was observed by western blot in CLP but not control mice. Similarly, the presence of aromatase was observed in cardiac tissue of CLP but not in control mice. The decreased survival during sepsis with aromatase blockade suggests that this response to acute illness may be important both physiologically and clinically. The preliminary observation of aromatase expression in adipose and cardiovascular tissue during acute illness in this mouse model indicates that this model has parallels to human physiology and may be useful for further studying the aromatase response to acute illness.

  13. IL-7 receptor blockade following T cell depletion promotes long-term allograft survival

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Hoa-Le; Boeffard, Françoise; Longis, Julie; Danger, Richard; Martinet, Bernard; Haspot, Fabienne; Vanhove, Bernard; Brouard, Sophie; Soulillou, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    T cell depletion is commonly used in organ transplantation for immunosuppression; however, a restoration of T cell homeostasis following depletion leads to increased memory T cells, which may promote transplant rejection. The cytokine IL-7 is important for controlling lymphopoiesis under both normal and lymphopenic conditions. Here, we investigated whether blocking IL-7 signaling with a mAb that targets IL-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) alone or following T cell depletion confers an advantage for allograft survival in murine transplant models. We found that IL-7R blockade alone induced indefinite pancreatic islet allograft survival if anti–IL-7R treatment was started 3 weeks before graft. IL-7R blockade following anti-CD4– and anti-CD8–mediated T cell depletion markedly prolonged skin allograft survival. Furthermore, IL-7 inhibition in combination with T cell depletion synergized with either CTLA-4Ig administration or suboptimal doses of tacrolimus to induce long-term skin graft acceptance in this stringent transplant model. Together, these therapies inhibited T cell reconstitution, decreased memory T cell numbers, increased the relative frequency of Tregs, and abrogated both cellular and humoral alloimmune responses. Our data suggest that IL-7R blockade following T cell depletion has potential as a robust, immunosuppressive therapy in transplantation. PMID:24569454

  14. System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control: effects of posture and autonomic blockade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, T. J.; Appel, M. L.; Mukkamala, R.; Mathias, J. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    We applied system identification to the analysis of fluctuations in heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize quantitatively the physiological mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these variables. We characterized two autonomically mediated coupling mechanisms [the heart rate baroreflex (HR baroreflex) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (ILV-HR)] and two mechanically mediated coupling mechanisms [the blood pressure wavelet generated with each cardiac contraction (circulatory mechanics) and the direct mechanical effects of respiration on blood pressure (ILV-->ABP)]. We evaluated the method in humans studied in the supine and standing postures under control conditions and under conditions of beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic pharmacological blockades. Combined beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade abolished the autonomically mediated couplings while preserving the mechanically mediated coupling. Selective autonomic blockade and postural changes also altered the couplings in a manner consistent with known physiological mechanisms. System identification is an "inverse-modeling" technique that provides a means for creating a closed-loop model of cardiovascular regulation for an individual subject without altering the underlying physiological control mechanisms.

  15. Negative differential photoconductance in gold nanoparticle arrays in the Coulomb blockade regime.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Markus A; Calame, Michel; Mayor, Marcel; Holleitner, Alexander W

    2012-05-22

    We investigate the photoconductance of gold nanoparticle arrays in the Coulomb blockade regime. Two-dimensional, hexagonal crystals of nanoparticles are produced by self-assembly. The nanoparticles are weakly coupled to their neighbors by a tunneling conductance. At low temperatures, the single electron charging energy of the nanoparticles dominates the conductance properties of the array. The Coulomb blockade of the nanoparticles can be lifted by optical excitation with a laser beam. The optical excitation leads to a localized heating of the arrays, which in turn gives rise to a local change in conductance and a redistribution of the overall electrical potential in the arrays. We introduce a dual-beam optical excitation technique to probe the distribution of the electrical potential in the nanoparticle array. A negative differential photoconductance is the direct consequence of the redistribution of the electrical potential upon lifting of the Coulomb blockade. On the basis of our model, we calculate the optically induced current from the dark current-voltage characteristics of the nanoparticle array. The calculations closely reproduce the experimental observations.

  16. Fano effect dominance over Coulomb blockade in transport properties of parallel coupled quantum dot system

    SciTech Connect

    Brogi, Bharat Bhushan, E-mail: brogi-221179@yahoo.in; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Chand, Shyam

    2015-06-24

    Theoretical study of the Coulomb blockade effect on transport properties (Transmission Probability and I-V characteristics) for varied configuration of coupled quantum dot system has been studied by using Non Equilibrium Green Function(NEGF) formalism and Equation of Motion(EOM) method in the presence of magnetic flux. The self consistent approach and intra-dot Coulomb interaction is being taken into account. As the key parameters of the coupled quantum dot system such as dot-lead coupling, inter-dot tunneling and magnetic flux threading through the system can be tuned, the effect of asymmetry parameter and magnetic flux on this tuning is being explored in Coulomb blockademore » regime. The presence of the Coulomb blockade due to on-dot Coulomb interaction decreases the width of transmission peak at energy level ε + U and by adjusting the magnetic flux the swapping effect in the Fano peaks in asymmetric and symmetric parallel configuration sustains despite strong Coulomb blockade effect.« less

  17. Local identifiability and sensitivity analysis of neuromuscular blockade and depth of hypnosis models.

    PubMed

    Silva, M M; Lemos, J M; Coito, A; Costa, B A; Wigren, T; Mendonça, T

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the local identifiability and sensitivity properties of two classes of Wiener models for the neuromuscular blockade and depth of hypnosis, when drug dose profiles like the ones commonly administered in the clinical practice are used as model inputs. The local parameter identifiability was assessed based on the singular value decomposition of the normalized sensitivity matrix. For the given input signal excitation, the results show an over-parameterization of the standard pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models. The same identifiability assessment was performed on recently proposed minimally parameterized parsimonious models for both the neuromuscular blockade and the depth of hypnosis. The results show that the majority of the model parameters are identifiable from the available input-output data. This indicates that any identification strategy based on the minimally parameterized parsimonious Wiener models for the neuromuscular blockade and for the depth of hypnosis is likely to be more successful than if standard models are used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Durable antitumor responses to CD47 blockade require adaptive immune stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Sockolosky, Jonathan T.; Dougan, Michael; Ingram, Jessica R.; Ho, Chia Chi M.; Kauke, Monique J.; Almo, Steven C.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic antitumor antibodies treat cancer by mobilizing both innate and adaptive immunity. CD47 is an antiphagocytic ligand exploited by tumor cells to blunt antibody effector functions by transmitting an inhibitory signal through its receptor signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα). Interference with the CD47–SIRPα interaction synergizes with tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies to eliminate human tumor xenografts by enhancing macrophage-mediated antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), but synergy between CD47 blockade and ADCP has yet to be demonstrated in immunocompetent hosts. Here, we show that CD47 blockade alone or in combination with a tumor-specific antibody fails to generate antitumor immunity against syngeneic B16F10 tumors in mice. Durable tumor immunity required programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade in combination with an antitumor antibody, with incorporation of CD47 antagonism substantially improving response rates. Our results highlight an underappreciated contribution of the adaptive immune system to anti-CD47 adjuvant therapy and suggest that targeting both innate and adaptive immune checkpoints can potentiate the vaccinal effect of antitumor antibody therapy. PMID:27091975

  19. Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor blockade on empathy in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan; Otte, Christian; Hinkelmann, Kim

    2016-10-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is highly expressed in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and is involved in social cognition. We recently found that pharmacological stimulation of the MR enhances emotional empathy but does not affect cognitive empathy. In the current study, we examined whether blockade of the MR impairs empathy in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy individuals. In a placebo-controlled study, we randomized 28 patients with MDD without psychotropic medication and 43 healthy individuals to either placebo or 300 mg spironolactone, a MR antagonist. Subsequently, all participants underwent two tests of social cognition, the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET) and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC), measuring cognitive and emotional facets of empathy. In the MET, we found no significant main effect of treatment or main effect of group for cognitive empathy but a highly significant treatment by group interaction (p < 0.01). Patients had higher cognitive empathy scores compared to controls in the placebo condition but not after spironolactone. Furthermore, in the spironolactone condition reduced cognitive empathy was seen in MDD patients but not in controls. Emotional empathy was not affected by MR blockade. In the MASC, no effect of spironolactone could be revealed. Depressed patients appear to exhibit greater cognitive empathy compared to healthy individuals. Blockade of MR reduced cognitive empathy in MDD patients to the level of healthy individuals. Future studies should further clarify the impact of MR functioning on different domains of social cognition in psychiatric patients.

  20. Combination therapy with PD-1/PD-L1 blockade: An overview of ongoing clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C Bryce; Win, Shwe Y

    2018-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that block the programmed death 1 (PD-1) or programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) receptors are the most clinically advanced tumor immunotherapies. Given the broad antitumor efficacy and novel mechanism of action, numerous combinatorial approaches incorporating PD-1/PD-L1 blockade have been suggested; herein we present a comprehensive analysis of these clinical trials. We queried clinicaltrials.gov for all PD-1/PD-L1 mAbs administered for cancer therapy with an end date of 4/30/2017. A total of 1,218 clinical trials met our search criteria. These trials have a planned enrollment of 227,190 patients, and approximately half (493) were initiated in 2016 alone. Of these over 1,200 trials, 916 combine PD-1/PD-L1 blockade with at least one additional therapy, ranging from traditional treatment modalities like surgery and chemoradiation to newer therapies like small molecule inhibitors and other immunotherapies. The staggering proliferation of clinical trials combining PD-1/PD-L1 blockade with disparate treatments necessitates careful accounting to maximize efficiency and highlight areas of unmet needs. We believe our analysis provides this data and expect it will facilitate the design of future clinical trials in this burgeoning area of oncology research.

  1. Blockade of Tumor-Expressed PD-1 promotes lung cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Du, Shisuo; McCall, Neal; Park, Kyewon; Guan, Qing; Fontina, Paolo; Ertel, Adam; Zhan, Tingting; Dicker, Adam P; Lu, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Anti-PD-1 immunotherapy is the standard of care for treating many patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), yet mechanisms of treatment failure are emerging. We present a case of NSCLC, who rapidly progressed during a trial (NCT02318771) combining palliative radiotherapy and pembrolizumab. Planned tumor biopsy demonstrated PD-1 expression by NSCLC cells. We validated this observation by detecting PD-1 transcript in lung cancer cells and by co-localizing PD-1 and lung cancer-specific markers in resected lung cancer tissues. We further investigated the biological role of cancer-intrinsic PD-1 in a mouse lung cancer cell line, M109. Knockout or antibody blockade of PD-1 enhanced M109 viability in-vitro, while PD-1 overexpression and exposure to recombinant PD-L1 diminished viability. PD-1 blockade accelerated growth of M109-xenograft tumors with increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis in immune-deficient mice. This represents a first-time report of NSCLC-intrinsic PD-1 expression and a potential mechanism by which PD-1 blockade may promote cancer growth.

  2. Myocardial electrical conduction blockade time dominated by irradiance on photodynamic reaction: in vitro and in silico study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Emiyu; Arai, Tsunenori

    2018-02-01

    The time for electrical conduction blockade induced by a photodynamic reaction was studied on a myocardial cell wire in vitro and an in silico simulation model was constructed to understand the necessary time for electrical conduction blockade for the wire. Vulnerable state of the cells on a laser interaction would be an unstable and undesirable state since the cells might progress to completely damaged or repaired to change significantly therapeutic effect. So that in silico model, which can calculate the vulnerable cell state, is needed. Understanding an immediate electrical conduction blockade is needed for our proposed new methodology for tachyarrhythmia catheter ablation applying a photodynamic reaction. We studied the electrical conduction blockade occurrence on the electrical conduction wire made of cultured myocardial cells in a line shape and constructed in silico model based on this experimental data. The intracellular Ca2+ ion concentrations were obtained using Fluo-4 AM dye under a confocal laser microscope. A cross-correlation function was used for the electrical conduction blockade judgment. The photodynamic reaction was performed under the confocal microscopy with 3-120 mW/cm2 in irradiance by the diode laser with 663 nm in wavelength. We obtained that the time for the electrical conduction blockade decreased with the irradiance increasing. We constructed a simulation model composed of three states; living cells, vulnerable cells, and blocked cells, using the obtained experimental data and we found the rate constant by an optimization using a conjugate gradient method.

  3. The effect of renin-angiotensin system blockade on renal protection in chronic kidney disease patients with hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hyun; Kwon, Young Eun; Park, Jung Tak; Lee, Mi Jung; Oh, Hyung Jung; Han, Seung Hyeok; Kang, Shin-Wook; Choi, Kyu Hun; Yoo, Tae-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade maintenance on renal protection in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hyperkalemia occurring during treatment with RAS blockade. CKD III or IV patients, who were prescribed with RAS blockers and also had hyperkalemia, were included. The study population was divided into two groups based on maintenance or withdrawal of RAS blocker. Renal outcomes (doubling of creatinine or end-stage renal disease) and incidence of hyperkalemia were compared between the two groups. Out of 258 subjects who developed hyperkalemia during treatment with RAS blockers, 150 (58.1%) patients continued on RAS blockades, while RAS blockades were discontinued for more than 3 months in the remaining 108 patients. Renal event-free survival was significantly higher in the maintenance group compared with the withdrawal group. Cox proportional hazard ratio for renal outcomes was 1.35 (95% CI: 1.08-1.92, p=0.04) in the withdrawal group compared with the maintenance group. However, the incidence of hyperkalemia and hyperkalemia-related hospitalization or mortality did not differ between the two groups. This study demonstrated that the maintenance of RAS blockade is beneficial for the preservation of renal function and relatively tolerable in patients with CKD and hyperkalemia occurring during treatment with RAS blockade. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Integrated Microfluidic Variable Optical Attenuator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-28

    Quantum Electron. 5, pp. 1289–1297 (1999). 5. G. Z. Xiao, Z. Zhang, and C. P. Grover, “A variable optical attenuator based on a straight polymer –silica...1998). 18. Y. Huang, G.T. Paloczi, J. K. S. Poon, and A. Yariv, “Bottom-up soft-lithographic fabrication of three- dimensional multilayer polymer ...quality without damaging polymer materials under high temperatures, resulting in a core index of 1.561 and cladding index of 1.546. The refractive

  5. Tandospirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist, ameliorates aberrant lactate production in the prefrontal cortex of rats exposed to blockade of N-methy-D-aspartate receptors; Toward the therapeutics of cognitive impairment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Takashi; Matsuoka, Tadasu; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki

    2014-01-01

    Augmentation therapy with serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor partial agonists has been suggested to improve cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia. Decreased activity of prefrontal cortex may provide a basis for cognitive deficits of the disease. Lactate plays a significant role in the supply of energy to the brain, and glutamatergic neurotransmission contributes to lactate production. The purposes of this study were to examine the effect of repeated administration (once a daily for 4 days) of tandospirone (0.05 or 5 mg/kg) on brain energy metabolism, as represented by extracellular lactate concentration (eLAC) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of a rat model of schizophrenia. Four-day treatment with MK-801, an NMDA-R antagonist, prolonged eLAC elevation induced by foot-shock stress (FS). Co-administration with the high-dose tandospirone suppressed prolonged FS-induced eLAC elevation in rats receiving MK-801, whereas tandospirone by itself did not affected eLAC increment. These results suggest that stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors ameliorates abnormalities of energy metabolism in the mPFC due to blockade of NMDA receptors. These findings provide a possible mechanism, based on brain energy metabolism, by which 5-HT1A agonism improve cognitive impairment of schizophrenia and related disorders.

  6. Vasopressin V1a receptors are present in the carotid body and contribute to the control of breathing in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Żera, Tymoteusz; Przybylski, Jacek; Grygorowicz, Tomasz; Kasarełło, Kaja; Podobińska, Martyna; Mirowska-Guzel, Dagmara; Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska, Agnieszka

    2018-04-01

    Vasopressin (AVP) maintains body homeostasis by regulating water balance, cardiovascular system and stress response. AVP inhibits breathing through central vasopressin 1a receptors (V1aRs). Chemoreceptors within carotid bodies (CBs) detect chemical and hormonal signals in the bloodstream and provide sensory input to respiratory and cardiovascular centers of the brainstem. In the study we investigated if CBs contain V1aRs and how the receptors are involved in the regulation of ventilation by AVP. We first immunostained CBs for V1aRs and tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of chemoreceptor type I (glomus) cells. In urethane-anesthetized adult Sprague-Dawley male rats, we then measured hemodynamic and respiratory responses to systemic (intravenous) or local (carotid artery) administration of AVP prior and after systemic blockade of V1aRs. Immunostaining of CBs showed colocalization of V1aRs and tyrosine hydroxylase within glomus cells. Systemic administration of AVP increased mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and decreased respiratory rate (RR) and minute ventilation (MV). Local administration of AVP increased MV and RR without significant changes in MABP or heart rate. Pretreatment with V1aR antagonist abolished responses to local and intravenous AVP administration. Our findings show that chemosensory cells within CBs express V1aRs and that local stimulation of the CB with AVP increases ventilation, which is contrary to systemic effects of AVP manifested by decreased ventilation. The responses are mediated by V1aRs, as blockade of the receptors prevents changes in ventilation. We hypothesize that excitatory effects of AVP within the CB provide a counterbalancing mechanism for the inhibitory effects of systemically acting AVP on the respiration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mu-opioid blockade reduces ethanol effects on intake and behavior of the infant rat during short-term but not long-term social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Andrey P.; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Kramskaya, Tatiana. A.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Norman E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous findings in adult and infant rats have shown that the endogenous opioid system is involved in control of ethanol consumption and its reinforcing effects. Opioid systems are also involved in reactivity to social isolation with several factors (age, duration, and type of isolation) affecting this modulation. The present study investigated the effects of a selective mu – opioid antagonist CTOP (0, 0.1, 0.5 mg/kg), ethanol (0, 0.5 g/kg), and the interaction of the two drugs on the behavioral consequences of two types of social isolation given to preweanling rats: 1) short–term social isolation from littermates (STSI, duration 8 minutes) and 2) relatively long-term (5 hours) isolation (LTSI) from the dam and littermates. Voluntary intake of saccharin, locomotion, rearing activity, paw licking, and grooming were assessed during an 8 – min. intake test. Thermal nociceptive reactivity was also measured before and after the testing session with normalized differences in pre- and post-test latencies of paw withdrawal from a hot plate (49 °C) used as an index of isolation-induced analgesia (IIA). The results indicate that pharmacological blockade of mu-opioid receptors by CTOP substantially attenuated ethanol’s anxiolytic effects on the developing rat’s reactions to social isolation. Some of these stress-attenuating effects of CTOP were observed only in animals exposed to short-term isolation (STSI) but not in pups isolated for 5 hours (LTSI). Ethanol selectively increased saccharin intake during STSI in females and CTOP blocked this effect. Ethanol decreased the magnitude of analgesia associated with STSI but had no effect on pain reactivity during LTSI. CTOP by itself did not affect IIA or saccharin intake in sober animals. The findings of the present experiments indicate that the anxiolytic effects of 0.5 g/kg ethanol on pups exposed to STSI are modulated by endogenous opioid activity. PMID:23182856

  8. Double blockade of angiotensin II (AT1)-receptors and ACE does not improve weight gain and glucose homeostasis better than single-drug treatments in obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Miesel, Anja; Müller-Fielitz, Helge; Jöhren, Olaf; Vogt, Florian M; Raasch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Combination therapies are becoming increasingly important for the treatment of high blood pressure. Little is known about whether double blockade of angiotensin II (AT1) receptors and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) exert synergistic metabolic effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Spontaneously hypertensive rats were allowed to choose between palatable chocolate bars and standard chow and were simultaneously treated with the AT1 blocker telmisartan (8 mg·kgbw−1·day−1), the ACE inhibitor ramipril (4 mg·kgbw−1·day−1) or a combination of the two (8 + 4 mg·kgbw−1·day−1) for 12 weeks. KEY RESULTS Although food-dependent energy intake was increased by telmisartan and telmisartan + ramipril compared with ramipril or controls, body weight gain, abundance of fat and plasma leptin levels were decreased. Increased insulin levels in response to an oral glucose tolerance test were comparably attenuated by telmisartan and telmisartan + ramipril, but not by ramipril. During an insulin tolerance test, glucose utilization was equally as effectively improved by telmisartan and telmisartan + ramipril. In response to a stress test, ACTH, corticosterone and glucose increased in controls. These stress reactions were attenuated by telmisartan and telmisartan + ramipril. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The combination of telmisartan + ramipril was no more efficacious in regulating body weight and glucose homeostasis than telmisartan alone. However, telmisartan was more effective than ramipril in improving metabolic parameters and in reducing body weight. The association between the decrease in stress responses and the diminished glucose levels after stress supports our hypothesis that the ability of telmisartan, as an AT1 receptor blocker, to alleviate stress reactions may contribute to its hypoglycaemic actions. PMID:22014027

  9. Using psilocybin to investigate the relationship between attention, working memory, and the serotonin 1A and 2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Carter, Olivia L; Burr, David C; Pettigrew, John D; Wallis, Guy M; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2005-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a link between attention, working memory, serotonin (5-HT), and prefrontal cortex activity. In an attempt to tease out the relationship between these elements, this study tested the effects of the hallucinogenic mixed 5-HT1A/2A receptor agonist psilocybin alone and after pretreatment with the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. Eight healthy human volunteers were tested on a multiple-object tracking task and spatial working memory task under the four conditions: placebo, psilocybin (215 microg/kg), ketanserin (50 mg), and psilocybin and ketanserin. Psilocybin significantly reduced attentional tracking ability, but had no significant effect on spatial working memory, suggesting a functional dissociation between the two tasks. Pretreatment with ketanserin did not attenuate the effect of psilocybin on attentional performance, suggesting a primary involvement of the 5-HT1A receptor in the observed deficit. Based on physiological and pharmacological data, we speculate that this impaired attentional performance may reflect a reduced ability to suppress or ignore distracting stimuli rather than reduced attentional capacity. The clinical relevance of these results is also discussed.

  10. RAS blockade with ARB and ACE inhibitors: current perspective on rationale and patient selection.

    PubMed

    Werner, Christian; Baumhäkel, Magnus; Teo, Koon K; Schmieder, Roland; Mann, Johannes; Unger, Thomas; Yusuf, Salim; Böhm, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease represents a continuum that starts with risk factors such as hypertension and progresses to atherosclerosis, target organ damage, and ultimately to myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke or death. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin AT(1)-receptor blockers (ARBs) has turned out to be beneficial at all stages of this continuum. Both classes of agent can prevent or reverse endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, thereby reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. Such a reduction has been shown mainly for ACE inhibitors in patients with coronary artery disease, but recent studies revealed that ARBs are not inferior in this respect. However, no such data are currently available on the combination of these drugs. Both ACE inhibitors and ARBs have been shown to reduce target organ damage in organs such as the kidney, brain and heart, and to decrease cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in patients with congestive heart failure. Experimental data point to an influence of ACE inhibitors and ARBs on the number and function of endothelial progenitor cells revealing additional mechanisms of action of these drugs. The VALIANT trial has shown equivalent effects of ARB valsartan and the ACE-inhibitor captopril in patients post myocardial infarction, but the dual RAS-blockade, compared to monotherapy, did not further reduce events. In secondary prevention, the most-recently published ONTARGET study provides evidence that on top of a better tolerability AT(1)-receptors antagonists are equal to ACE inhibitors in the prevention of clinical endpoints like cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, myocardial infarction and stroke. The combined RAS blockade, however, achieved no further benefits in vascular high-risk patients and was associated with more adverse events. In chronic heart failure, ValHeFT and CHARM-ADDED have shown that combined RAS inhibition with ACE inhibitor and

  11. Phenformin Inhibits Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Enhances the Anti-Tumor Activity of PD-1 Blockade in Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Hye; Li, Man; Trousil, Sebastian; Zhang, Yaqing; Pasca di Magliano, Marina; Swanson, Kenneth D; Zheng, Bin

    2017-08-01

    Biguanides, such as the diabetes therapeutics metformin and phenformin, have shown antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, their potential effects on the tumor microenvironment are largely unknown. Here we report that phenformin selectively inhibits granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in spleens of tumor-bearing mice and ex vivo. Phenformin induces production of reactive oxygen species in granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells, whereas the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine attenuates the inhibitory effects of phenformin. Co-treatment of phenformin enhances the effect of anti-PD-1 antibody therapy on inhibiting tumor growth in the BRAF V600E/PTEN-null melanoma mouse model. Combination of phenformin and anti PD-1 cooperatively induces CD8 + T-cell infiltration and decreases levels of proteins that are critical for immune suppressive activities of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Our findings show a selective, inhibitory effect of phenformin on granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell-driven immune suppression and support that phenformin improves the anti-tumor activity of PD-1 blockade immunotherapy in melanoma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Invadopodia-associated proteins blockade as a novel mechanism for 6-shogaol and pterostilbene to reduce breast cancer cell motility and invasion.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bo-Han; Wu, Chi-Hao; Yeh, Chi-Tai; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2013-05-01

    Invadopodia are actin-rich membrane protrusions of tumor cells that are thought to initiate the local migration and invasion during cancer metastasis. The blockade of invadopodia-associated proteins has been reported as a promising approach for prevention of tumor metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of 6-shogaol and pterostilbene on invadopodia in aggressive breast cancer cells. By wound-healing, transwell, and gelatin zymography assays, we found that 6-shogaol and pterostilbene effectively attenuated the motility and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells, and suppressed the activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Further investigation into the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed that the levels of key modulators of invadopodium maturation, including c-Src kinase, cortactin, and membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) decreased when cells were treated with 6-shogaol or pterostilbene. These data suggest that the repression of these factors might affect the maturation of invadopodia, inhibiting the metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates for the first time that 6-shogaol and pterostilbene can inhibit invadopodium formation and MMP activity in highly invasive breast cancer cells. We suggest that these compounds may be clinically useful in chemopreventive treatments for metastatic breast cancer. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade by telmisartan prevents stress-induced impairment of memory via HPA axis deactivation and up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wincewicz, D; Juchniewicz, A; Waszkiewicz, N; Braszko, J J

    2016-09-01

    Physical and psychological aspects of chronic stress continue to be a persistent clinical problem for which new pharmacological treatment strategies are aggressively sought. By the results of our previous work it has been demonstrated that telmisartan (TLM), an angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1) blocker (ARB) and partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), alleviates stress-induced cognitive decline. Understanding of mechanistic background of this phenomenon is hampered by both dual binding sites of TLM and limited data on the consequences of central AT1 blockade and PPARγ activation. Therefore, a critical need exists for progress in the characterization of this target for pro-cognitive drug discovery. An unusual ability of novel ARBs to exert various PPARγ binding activities is commonly being viewed as predominant over angiotensin blockade in terms of neuroprotection. Here we aimed to verify this hypothesis using an animal model of chronic psychological stress (Wistar rats restrained 2.5h daily for 21days) with simultaneous oral administration of TLM (1mg/kg), GW9662 - PPARγ receptor antagonist (0.5mg/kg), or both in combination, followed by a battery of behavioral tests (open field, elevated plus maze, inhibitory avoidance - IA, object recognition - OR), quantitative determination of serum corticosterone (CORT) and evaluation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HIP). Stressed animals displayed decreased recall of the IA behavior (p<0.001), decreased OR (p<0.001), substantial CORT increase (p<0.001) and significantly downregulated expression of BDNF in the mPFC (p<0.001), which were attenuated in rats receiving TLM and TLM+GW9662. These data indicate that procognitive effect of ARBs in stressed subjects do not result from PPAR-γ activation, but AT1 blockade and subsequent hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis deactivation associated with changes in

  14. Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2015-11-01

    The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. General relationships between ultrasonic attenuation and dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, M.; Jaynes, E. T.; Miller, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    General relationships between the ultrasonic attenuation and dispersion are presented. The validity of these nonlocal relationships hinges only on the properties of causality and linearity, and does not depend upon details of the mechanism responsible for the attenuation and dispersion. Approximate, nearly local relationships are presented and are demonstrated to predict accurately the ultrasonic dispersion in solutions of hemoglobin from the results of attenuation measurements.

  16. Calculation Of Pneumatic Attenuation In Pressure Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    Errors caused by attenuation of air-pressure waves in narrow tubes calculated by method based on fundamental equations of flow. Changes in ambient pressure transmitted along narrow tube to sensor. Attenuation of high-frequency components of pressure wave calculated from wave equation derived from Navier-Stokes equations of viscous flow in tube. Developed to understand and compensate for frictional attenuation in narrow tubes used to connect aircraft pressure sensors with pressure taps on affected surfaces.

  17. CaMKII Activity Persists During Chronic β-Adrenoceptor Blockade in Experimental and Human Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Dewenter, Matthias; Neef, Stefan; Vettel, Christiane; Lämmle, Simon; Beushausen, Christina; Zelarayan, Laura C.; Katz, Sylvia; von der Lieth, Albert; Meyer-Roxlau, Stefanie; Weber, Silvio; Wieland, T; Sossalla, Samuel; Backs, Johannes; Brown, Joan Heller; Maier, Lars S.; El-Armouche, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background Considerable evidence suggests that CaMKII overactivity plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), a condition characterized by excessive β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) stimulation. Recent studies indicate a significant crosstalk between β-AR signaling and CaMKII activation presenting CaMKII as a possible downstream mediator of detrimental β-AR signaling in HF. In this study we investigated the effect of chronic β-AR blocker treatment on CaMKII activity in human and experimental HF. Methods and Results Immunoblot analysis of myocardium from end stage HF patients (n=12) and non-HF subjects undergoing cardiac surgery (n=12) treated with β-AR blockers revealed no difference in CaMKII activity when compared to non-β-AR-blocker-treated patients. CaMKII activity was judged by analysis of CaMKII expression, autophosphorylation and oxidation and by investigating the phosphorylation status of CaMKII downstream targets. To further evaluate these findings, CaMKIIδC transgenic mice were treated with the β1-AR blocker metoprolol (270 mg/kg*d). Metoprolol significantly reduced transgene-associated mortality (n≥29, p<0.001), attenuated the development of cardiac hypertrophy (−14±6% heart weight/tibia length, p<0.05) and strongly reduced ventricular arrhythmias (−70±22% PVCs, p<0.05). On a molecular level, metoprolol expectedly decreased PKA dependent phospholamban (PLN) and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) phosphorylation (−42±9% for P-PLN-S16 and −22±7% for P-RyR2-S2808, p<0.05). However, this was neither paralleled by a reduction in CaMKII autophosphorylation, oxidation and substrate binding nor a change in the phosphorylation of CaMKII downstream target proteins (n≥11). The lack of CaMKII modulation by β-AR blocker treatment was confirmed in healthy wildtype mice receiving metoprolol. Conclusions Chronic β-AR blocker therapy in patients and in a mouse model of CaMKII-induced HF is not associated with a change in CaMKII activity

  18. Caffeine acts through neuronal adenosine A2A receptors to prevent mood and memory dysfunction triggered by chronic stress

    PubMed Central

    Kaster, Manuella P.; Machado, Nuno J.; Silva, Henrique B.; Nunes, Ana; Ardais, Ana Paula; Santana, Magda; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E.; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S.; Porciúncula, Lisiane O.; Chen, Jiang Fan; Tomé, Ângelo R.; Agostinho, Paula; Canas, Paula M.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) correlates inversely with depression and memory deterioration, and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists emerge as candidate therapeutic targets because they control aberrant synaptic plasticity and afford neuroprotection. Therefore we tested the ability of A2AR to control the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical modifications caused by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which alters hippocampal circuits, dampens mood and memory performance, and enhances susceptibility to depression. CUS for 3 wk in adult mice induced anxiogenic and helpless-like behavior and decreased memory performance. These behavioral changes were accompanied by synaptic alterations, typified by a decrease in synaptic plasticity and a reduced density of synaptic proteins (synaptosomal-associated protein 25, syntaxin, and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1), together with an increased density of A2AR in glutamatergic terminals in the hippocampus. Except for anxiety, for which results were mixed, CUS-induced behavioral and synaptic alterations were prevented by (i) caffeine (1 g/L in the drinking water, starting 3 wk before and continued throughout CUS); (ii) the selective A2AR antagonist KW6002 (3 mg/kg, p.o.); (iii) global A2AR deletion; and (iv) selective A2AR deletion in forebrain neurons. Notably, A2AR blockade was not only prophylactic but also therapeutically efficacious, because a 3-wk treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the mood and synaptic dysfunction caused by CUS. These results herald a key role for synaptic A2AR in the control of chronic stress-induced modifications and suggest A2AR as candidate targets to alleviate the consequences of chronic stress on brain function. PMID:26056314

  19. Caffeine acts through neuronal adenosine A2A receptors to prevent mood and memory dysfunction triggered by chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Kaster, Manuella P; Machado, Nuno J; Silva, Henrique B; Nunes, Ana; Ardais, Ana Paula; Santana, Magda; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Chen, Jiang Fan; Tomé, Ângelo R; Agostinho, Paula; Canas, Paula M; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2015-06-23

    The consumption of caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) correlates inversely with depression and memory deterioration, and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists emerge as candidate therapeutic targets because they control aberrant synaptic plasticity and afford neuroprotection. Therefore we tested the ability of A2AR to control the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical modifications caused by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which alters hippocampal circuits, dampens mood and memory performance, and enhances susceptibility to depression. CUS for 3 wk in adult mice induced anxiogenic and helpless-like behavior and decreased memory performance. These behavioral changes were accompanied by synaptic alterations, typified by a decrease in synaptic plasticity and a reduced density of synaptic proteins (synaptosomal-associated protein 25, syntaxin, and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1), together with an increased density of A2AR in glutamatergic terminals in the hippocampus. Except for anxiety, for which results were mixed, CUS-induced behavioral and synaptic alterations were prevented by (i) caffeine (1 g/L in the drinking water, starting 3 wk before and continued throughout CUS); (ii) the selective A2AR antagonist KW6002 (3 mg/kg, p.o.); (iii) global A2AR deletion; and (iv) selective A2AR deletion in forebrain neurons. Notably, A2AR blockade was not only prophylactic but also therapeutically efficacious, because a 3-wk treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the mood and synaptic dysfunction caused by CUS. These results herald a key role for synaptic A2AR in the control of chronic stress-induced modifications and suggest A2AR as candidate targets to alleviate the consequences of chronic stress on brain function.

  20. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system mediates hypophagic and anxiety-like effects of CB₁ receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Bellocchio, Luigi; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Quarta, Carmelo; Metna-Laurent, Mathilde; Cardinal, Pierre; Binder, Elke; Cannich, Astrid; Delamarre, Anna; Häring, Martin; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Vega, David; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Bartsch, Dusan; Monory, Krisztina; Lutz, Beat; Chaouloff, Francis; Pagotto, Uberto; Guzman, Manuel; Cota, Daniela; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2013-03-19

    Complex interactions between periphery and the brain regulate food intake in mammals. Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor antagonists are potent hypophagic agents, but the sites where this acute action is exerted and the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. To dissect the mechanisms underlying the hypophagic effect of CB1 receptor blockade, we combined the acute injection of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant with the use of conditional CB1-knockout mice, as well as with pharmacological modulation of different central and peripheral circuits. Fasting/refeeding experiments revealed that CB1 receptor signaling in many specific brain neurons is dispensable for the acute hypophagic effects of rimonabant. CB1 receptor antagonist-induced hypophagia was fully abolished by peripheral blockade of β-adrenergic transmission, suggesting that this effect is mediated by increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Consistently, we found that rimonabant increases gastrointestinal metabolism via increased peripheral β-adrenergic receptor signaling in peripheral organs, including the gastrointestinal tract. Blockade of both visceral afferents and glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii abolished rimonabant-induced hypophagia. Importantly, these mechanisms were specifically triggered by lipid-deprivation, revealing a nutrient-specific component acutely regulated by CB1 receptor blockade. Finally, peripheral blockade of sympathetic neurotransmission also blunted central effects of CB1 receptor blockade, such as fear responses and anxiety-like behaviors. These data demonstrate that, independently of their site of origin, important effects of CB1 receptor blockade are expressed via activation of peripheral sympathetic activity. Thus, CB1 receptors modulate bidirectional circuits between the periphery and the brain to regulate feeding and other behaviors.

  1. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system mediates hypophagic and anxiety-like effects of CB1 receptor blockade

    PubMed Central

    Bellocchio, Luigi; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Quarta, Carmelo; Metna-Laurent, Mathilde; Cardinal, Pierre; Binder, Elke; Cannich, Astrid; Delamarre, Anna; Häring, Martin; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Vega, David; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Bartsch, Dusan; Monory, Krisztina; Lutz, Beat; Chaouloff, Francis; Pagotto, Uberto; Guzman, Manuel; Cota, Daniela; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Complex interactions between periphery and the brain regulate food intake in mammals. Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor antagonists are potent hypophagic agents, but the sites where this acute action is exerted and the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. To dissect the mechanisms underlying the hypophagic effect of CB1 receptor blockade, we combined the acute injection of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant with the use of conditional CB1-knockout mice, as well as with pharmacological modulation of different central and peripheral circuits. Fasting/refeeding experiments revealed that CB1 receptor signaling in many specific brain neurons is dispensable for the acute hypophagic effects of rimonabant. CB1 receptor antagonist-induced hypophagia was fully abolished by peripheral blockade of β-adrenergic transmission, suggesting that this effect is mediated by increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Consistently, we found that rimonabant increases gastrointestinal metabolism via increased peripheral β-adrenergic receptor signaling in peripheral organs, including the gastrointestinal tract. Blockade of both visceral afferents and glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii abolished rimonabant-induced hypophagia. Importantly, these mechanisms were specifically triggered by lipid-deprivation, revealing a nutrient-specific component acutely regulated by CB1 receptor blockade. Finally, peripheral blockade of sympathetic neurotransmission also blunted central effects of CB1 receptor blockade, such as fear responses and anxiety-like behaviors. These data demonstrate that, independently of their site of origin, important effects of CB1 receptor blockade are expressed via activation of peripheral sympathetic activity. Thus, CB1 receptors modulate bidirectional circuits between the periphery and the brain to regulate feeding and other behaviors. PMID:23487769

  2. Role of CCK-A receptor for pancreatic function in mice: a study in CCK-A receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Soichi; Suzuki, Shinji; Sato, Yuko; Kanai, Setsuko; Miyasaka, Kyoko; Jimi, Atsuo; Shinozaki, Hirotsugu; Takata, Yutaka; Funakoshi, Akihiro; Kono, Akira; Minowa, Osamu; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noda, Tetsuo

    2002-04-01

    The cholecystokinin (CCK) family of peptides and receptors is present throughout the brain and gastrointestinal tract. The CCK receptors can be pharmacologically subdivided into two subtypes: CCK-A and CCK-B. CCK-A receptor is enriched in the pancreas of mice. To determine pancreatic functions in a CCK-A receptor deficient mouse mutant generated by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. The targeting vector contained lacZ and neo insertions in exon 2. To examine exocrine functions, amylase release from the dispersed acini in vitro was examined. In the in vivo study, the mixture of bile-pancreatic juice was collected, and amylase, bicarbonate, and bile acid outputs were determined after the administration of various stimulants. The cystic duct of the gallbladder and the pylorus were ligated to exclude the involvement of gallbladder contraction and gastric acid. Pancreatic enzyme content was measured, and histologic examinations by HE and lacZ staining were conducted. To examine endocrine functions, oral glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg) was determined. The body weight, pancreatic wet weight, and enzyme content in the pancreas were similar among the three genotypes. Amylase release in vivo and in vitro and bicarbonate secretion in vivo were not stimulated by CCK-8 in CCK-AR (-/-) mice, whereas the responses to other stimulants were substantial in (-/-) mice. Administration of secretin did not increase bicarbonate secretion regardless of genotype. A normal glucose tolerance was observed in (-/-) mice. Acinar cells, islets, and duct cells were stained by lacZ, and HE staining revealed no pathologic findings. The CCK-A receptor is important for pancreatic exocrine secretion, but not essential for maintaining glucose concentration and pancreatic growth in mice.

  3. The effect of endothelin A and B receptor blockade on cutaneous vascular and sweating responses in young men during and following exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Singh, Maya S; Halili, Lyra; Louie, Jeffrey C; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-12-01

    During exercise, cutaneous vasodilation and sweating responses occur, whereas these responses rapidly decrease during postexercise recovery. We hypothesized that the activation of endothelin A (ET A ) receptors, but not endothelin B (ET B ) receptors, attenuate cutaneous vasodilation during high-intensity exercise and contribute to the subsequent postexercise suppression of cutaneous vasodilation. We also hypothesized that both receptors increase sweating during and following high-intensity exercise. Eleven men (24 ± 4 yr) performed an intermittent cycling protocol consisting of two 30-min bouts of moderate- (40% V̇o 2peak ) and high-intensity (75% V̇o 2peak ) exercise in the heat (35°C), each separated by a 20- and 40-min recovery period, respectively. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate were evaluated at four intradermal microdialysis skin sites: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 500 nM BQ123 (a selective ET A receptor blocker), 3) 300 nM BQ788 (a selective ET B receptor blocker), or 4) a combination of BQ123 + BQ788. There were no between-site differences in CVC during each exercise bout (all P > 0.05); however, CVC following high-intensity exercise was greater at BQ123 (56 ± 9%max) and BQ123 + BQ788 (55 ± 14%max) sites relative to the control site (43 ± 12%max) (all P ≤ 0.05). Sweat rate did not differ between sites throughout the protocol (all P > 0.05). We show that neither ET A nor ET B receptors modulate cutaneous vasodilation and sweating responses during and following moderate- and high-intensity exercise in the heat, with the exception that ET A receptors may partly contribute to the suppression of cutaneous vasodilation following high-intensity exercise. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Alpha1-adrenergic receptor blockade in the VTA modulates fear memories and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Solecki, Wojciech B; Szklarczyk, Klaudia; Klasa, Adam; Pradel, Kamil; Dobrzański, Grzegorz; Przewłocki, Ryszard

    2017-08-01

    Activity of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and its terminals has been implicated in the Pavlovian associative learning of both stressful and rewarding stimuli. However, the role of the VTA noradrenergic signaling in fear responses remains unclear. We aimed to examine how alpha 1 -adrenergic receptor (α 1 -AR) signaling in the VTA affects conditioned fear. The role of α 1 -AR was assessed using the micro-infusions into the VTA of the selective antagonists (0.1-1µg/0.5µl prazosin and 1µg/0.5µl terazosin) in acquisition and expression of fear memory. In addition, we performed control experiments with α 1 -AR blockade in the mammillary bodies (MB) - a brain region with α 1 -AR expression adjacent to the VTA. Intra-VTA but not intra-MB α 1 -AR blockade prevented formation and retrieval of fear memories. Importantly, local administration of α 1 -AR antagonists did not influence footshock sensitivity, locomotion or anxiety-like behaviors. Similarly, α 1 -AR blockade in the VTA had no effects on negative affect measured as number of 22kHz ultrasonic vocalizations during fear conditioning training. We propose that noradrenergic signaling in the VTA via α 1 -AR regulates formation and retrieval of fear memories but not other behavioral responses to stressful environmental stimuli. It enhances the encoding of environmental stimuli by the VTA to form and retrieve conditioned fear memories and to predict future behavioral outcomes. Our results provide novel insight into the role of the VTA α 1 -AR signaling in the regulation of stress responsiveness and fear memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. Interleukin-15 receptor blockade in non-human primate kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Haustein, Silke; Kwun, Jean; Fechner, John; Kayaoglu, Ayhan; Faure, Jean-Pierre; Roenneburg, Drew; Torrealba, Jose; Knechtle, Stuart J

    2010-04-27

    Interleukin (IL)-15 is a chemotactic factor to T cells. It induces proliferation and promotes survival of activated T cells. IL-15 receptor blockade in mouse cardiac and islet allotransplant models has led to long-term engraftment and a regulatory T-cell environment. This study investigated the efficacy of IL-15 receptor blockade using Mut-IL-15/Fc in an outbred non-human primate model of renal allotransplantation. Male cynomolgus macaque donor-recipient pairs were selected based on ABO typing, major histocompatibility complex class I typing, and carboxy-fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester-based mixed lymphocyte responses. Once animals were assigned to one of six treatment groups, they underwent renal transplantation and bilateral native nephrectomy. Serum creatinine level was monitored twice weekly and as indicated, and protocol biopsies were performed. Rejection was defined as a increase in serum creatinine to 1.5 mg/dL or higher and was confirmed histologically. Complete blood counts and flow cytometric analyses were performed periodically posttransplant; pharmacokinetic parameters of Mut-IL-15/Fc were assessed. Compared with control animals, Mut-IL-15/Fc-treated animals did not demonstrate increased graft survival despite adequate serum levels of Mut-IL-15/Fc. Flow cytometric analysis of white blood cell subgroups demonstrated a decrease in CD8 T-cell and natural killer cell numbers, although this did not reach statistical significance. Interestingly, two animals receiving Mut-IL-15/Fc developed infectious complications, but no infection was seen in control animals. Renal pathology varied widely. Peritransplant IL-15 receptor blockade does not prolong allograft survival in non-human primate renal transplantation; however, it reduces the number of CD8 T cells and natural killer cells in the peripheral blood.

  6. Testing rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade at the stapedius muscle using stapedius reflex measurements.

    PubMed

    Sárkány, P; Tassonyi, E; Nemes, R; Timkó, A; Pongrácz, A; Fülesdi, Béla

    2011-12-01

    Neuromuscular monitoring prior to emergence from anaesthesia has been shown to be necessary to achieve adequate airway protection in order to decrease postoperative pulmonary complications. In the present study we hypothesized that stapedius reflex measurement allows the detection of residual neuromuscular blockade using the stapedius muscle following the administration of rocuronium. Parallel stapedius and acceleromyographic measurements were performed on 20 patients undergoing cholecystectomy. Acceleromyographic measurements were continuously performed during the course of anaesthesia, whereas the stapedius reflex was measured on different occasions: (1) after premedication but before anaesthesia induction, (2) after induction, but before administration of muscle relaxant, (3) after administration of muscle relaxant, (4) during the course of surgical anaesthesia at regular intervals, and (5) continuously performed during emergence from anaesthesia, until the stapedius reflex threshold returned to normal. The intensity of the sound energy at which the stapedius reflex is detectable was similar: 89.5 ± 9.9 dB(mean ± SD) after premedication and after anaesthetic induction. However, after administration of rocuronium, when the twitch height decreased to 5%, the stapedius reflex disappeared, indicating a total block of the stapedius muscle.During the recovery phase (twitch>10%) significantly higher sound energies compared to baseline values were necessary to evoke the reflex, indicating residual inhibition of the stapedius muscle. At the point where stapedius reflex threshold returned to normal the twitch height averaged about 50% showing low sensitivity of the tympanometry in detecting residual neuromuscular blockade. The neuromuscular effect of rocuronium on the stapedius muscle can be detected using stapedius reflex measurements. Due to its methodological limitation and low sensitivity, the method cannot be recommended for the monitoring of residual neuromuscular

  7. Cytoskeletal role in protection of the failing heart by β-adrenergic blockade

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guangmao; Kasiganesan, Harinath; Baicu, Catalin F.; Wallenborn, J. Grace; Kuppuswamy, Dhandapani

    2012-01-01

    Formation of a dense microtubule network that impedes cardiac contraction and intracellular transport occurs in severe pressure overload hypertrophy. This process is highly dynamic, since microtubule depolymerization causes striking improvement in contractile function. A molecular etiology for this cytoskeletal alteration has been defined in terms of type 1 and type 2A phosphatase-dependent site-specific dephosphorylation of the predominant myocardial microtubule-associated protein (MAP)4, which then decorates and stabilizes microtubules. This persistent phosphatase activation is dependent upon ongoing upstream activity of p21-activated kinase-1, or Pak1. Because cardiac β-adrenergic activity is markedly and continuously increased in decompensated hypertrophy, and because β-adrenergic activation of cardiac Pak1 and phosphatases has been demonstrated, we asked here whether the highly maladaptive cardiac microtubule phenotype seen in pathological hypertrophy is based on β-adrenergic overdrive and thus could be reversed by β-adrenergic blockade. The data in this study, which were designed to answer this question, show that such is the case; that is, β1- (but not β2-) adrenergic input activates this pathway, which consists of Pak1 activation, increased phosphatase activity, MAP4 dephosphorylation, and thus the stabilization of a dense microtubule network. These data were gathered in a feline model of severe right ventricular (RV) pressure overload hypertrophy in response to tight pulmonary artery banding (PAB) in which a stable, twofold increase in RV mass is reached by 2 wk after pressure overloading. After 2 wk of hypertrophy induction, these PAB cats during the following 2 wk either had no further treatment or had β-adrenergic blockade. The pathological microtubule phenotype and the severe RV cellular contractile dysfunction otherwise seen in this model of RV hypertrophy (PAB No Treatment) was reversed in the treated (PAB β-Blockade) cats. Thus these data

  8. In vitro contractile effects of neurokinin receptor blockade in the human ureter.

    PubMed

    Nakada, S Y; Jerde, T J; Bjorling, D E; Saban, R

    2001-10-01

    We identified the predominance of neurokinin-2 receptors and evaluated the inhibition of spontaneous contraction via the blockade of neurokinin-2 receptors in human ureteral segments. Excess ureteral segments from human subjects undergoing donor nephrectomy or reconstructive procedures were suspended in tissue baths containing Krebs buffer. After spontaneous contractions were recorded, tissues were incubated with 1 microM. solutions of phosphoramidon and captopril (to inhibit peptide degradation) and either the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist CP 99,994, the neurokinin-2 receptor antagonist SR 48,968, the neurokinin-3 receptor antagonist SR 142,801 or dimethyl sulfoxide (control) for 1 hour. Contraction magnitude and frequency were again recorded and compared with spontaneous levels. Concentration-response curves to the tachykinins substance P, and neurokinins A and B were determined in the presence and absence of antagonists. Neurokinin A increased contractility at lower concentrations than substance P or neurokinin B (p <0.013). Neurokinin-2 receptor blockade produced a 100-fold rightward shift of the concentration-response curves (p <0.013), while neurokinins 1 and 3 receptor blockade had no effect. SR 48,968 significantly reduced contractility during the 1-hour incubation period, causing a 97% reduction in spontaneous rates compared with a 29% reduction in control tissues. CP 99,994 and SR 142,801 had no significant effect. Neurokinin-2 is the predominant receptor subtype responsible for tachykinin induced contraction of human ureteral smooth muscle. In vitro treatment with the neurokinin-2 antagonist SR 48,968 reduces the spontaneous contraction rate by 97% in vitro. Neurokinin-2 receptor antagonists may have clinical applications for ureteral disease.

  9. Cardiac sodium channel blockade after an intentional ingestion of lacosamide, cyclobenzaprine, and levetiracetam: Case report.

    PubMed

    Chua-Tuan, Jenny L; Cao, Dazhe; Iwanicki, Janetta L; Hoyte, Christopher O

    2015-07-01

    Lacosamide treats partial seizures by enhancing slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. The described cardiac toxicity of lacosamide in the literature to date includes atrioventricular blockade (PR prolongation), atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation, sinus pauses, ventricular tachycardia and a single cardiac arrest. We report a second case of cardiac arrest following an intentional lacosamide overdose. A 16 year-old female with a seizure disorder was found unresponsive in pulseless ventricular tachycardia after intentionally ingesting 4.5 g (76 mg/kg) lacosamide, 120 mg (2 mg/kg) cyclobenzaprine and an unknown amount of levetiracetam. Exact time of ingestion was unknown. Her initial electrocardiogram (ECG) demonstrated sinus tachycardia at 139 beats per minute, QRS duration 112 ms, and terminal R-wave in lead aVR > 3 mm. Despite treatment with 150 mEq of sodium bicarbonate, she had persistent EKG findings eight hours after presentation. Her serum lacosamide concentration nine hours after presentation was elevated at 22.8 μg/mL, while serum cyclobenzaprine concentration was 16 ng/mL (therapeutic: 10-30 ng/mL), and serum levetiracetam concentration was 22.7 μg/mL (therapeutic: 12-46 μg/mL). On hospital day three, ECG demonstrated resolution of the terminal R-wave with QRS of 78 ms. The patient recovered without physical or neurologic sequelae. The patient's lacosamide, cyclobenzaprine and levetiracetam overdose was associated with QRS prolongation and terminal right axis deviation--suggesting sodium channel blockade as a likely etiology for her cardiac arrest. Cyclobenzaprine has potential for sodium channel blockade and ventricular dysrhythmias although cardiac toxicity due to cyclobenzaprine alone is rare. The combination of cyclobenzaprine with lacosamide may have resulted in cardiovascular collapse. In conclusion, overdose of lacosamide combined with therapeutic concentrations of sodium channel blocking xenobiotics may cause cardiac conduction

  10. Mechanism of blood pressure and R-R variability: insights from ganglion blockade in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Rong; Iwasaki, Kenichi; Zuckerman, Julie H.; Behbehani, Khosrow; Crandall, Craig G.; Levine, Benjamin D.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous blood pressure (BP) and R-R variability are used frequently as 'windows' into cardiovascular control mechanisms. However, the origin of these rhythmic fluctuations is not completely understood. In this study, with ganglion blockade, we evaluated the role of autonomic neural activity versus other 'non-neural' factors in the origin of BP and R-R variability in humans. Beat-to-beat BP, R-R interval and respiratory excursions were recorded in ten healthy subjects (aged 30 +/- 6 years) before and after ganglion blockade with trimethaphan. The spectral power of these variables was calculated in the very low (0.0078-0.05 Hz), low (0.05-0.15 Hz) and high (0.15-0.35 Hz) frequency ranges. The relationship between systolic BP and R-R variability was examined by cross-spectral analysis. After blockade, R-R variability was virtually abolished at all frequencies; however, respiration and high frequency BP variability remained unchanged. Very low and low frequency BP variability was reduced substantially by 84 and 69 %, respectively, but still persisted. Transfer function gain between systolic BP and R-R interval variability decreased by 92 and 88 % at low and high frequencies, respectively, while the phase changed from negative to positive values at the high frequencies. These data suggest that under supine resting conditions with spontaneous breathing: (1) R-R variability at all measured frequencies is predominantly controlled by autonomic neural activity; (2) BP variability at high frequencies (> 0.15 Hz) is mediated largely, if not exclusively, by mechanical effects of respiration on intrathoracic pressure and/or cardiac filling; (3) BP variability at very low and low frequencies (< 0.15 Hz) is probably mediated by both sympathetic nerve activity and intrinsic vasomotor rhythmicity; and (4) the dynamic relationship between BP and R-R variability as quantified by transfer function analysis is determined predominantly by autonomic neural activity rather than other

  11. Aldosterone blockade and left ventricular dysfunction: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Ezekowitz, Justin A; McAlister, Finlay A

    2009-02-01

    Aldosterone blockade has been used to treat acute myocardial infarction (MI) and chronic heart failure. The aim of this study is to summarize the evidence on the efficacy of spironolactone (SP), eplerenone (EP), or canrenoate (CAN) in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. A search of multiple electronic databases until June 2008 was supplemented by hand searches of reference lists of included studies and review articles, meeting abstracts, FDA reports, and contact with study authors and drug manufacturers. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they included patients with left ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction, treatment with SP, EP, or CAN vs. control, and reported clinical outcomes. Nineteen randomized controlled trials (four in acute MI and 15 in heart failure, n = 10 807 patients) were included -- 14 of SP, three of EP, and three of CAN. Analysis was performed using relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and a random effects model with statistical heterogeneity assessed by I(2). Aldosterone blockade reduced all-cause mortality by 20% (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87). All-cause mortality was reduced in both heart failure (RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.67-0.84) and post-MI (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.76-0.95) patients. Only nine trials reported hospitalizations, and the RR reduction was 23% (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.68-0.87), although 98% of the outcomes came from two trials. Ejection fraction (EF) improved in the seven heart failure trials, which assessed this outcome (weighted mean difference 3.1%, 95% CI 1.6-4.5). We demonstrated a 20% reduction in all-cause mortality with the use of aldosterone blockade in a clinically heterogeneous group of clinical trial participants with heart failure and post-MI. In addition, we found a 3.1% improvement in EF. Further study in those with less severe symptoms or preserved systolic function is warranted.

  12. Hemodynamic and tissue oxygenation responses to exercise and beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Monachini, Maristela C; Lage, Silvia G; Ran, Miguel A N; Cardoso, Rita H A; Medeiros, Caio; Caramelli, Bruno; Sposito, Andrei C; Ramires, José A F

    2004-07-01

    Exercise-induced dyspnea is a frequent feature in patients with hyperthyroidism. Data from clinical studies to elucidate the origin of this symptom are lacking. In the current study, we examined the hemodynamic and oxygenation responses to exercise and beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with hyperthyroidism and their relationship with dyspnea. Hemodynamic studies were performed under resting conditions and after isotonic exercise in 15 patients with hyperthyroidism and 11 control subjects. Exercise was applied using a bicycle ergometer, with progressive loads. In the hyperthyroid group, measurements were repeated at rest and during supine exercise after administering 15 mg of intravenous metoprolol. End-diastolic pulmonary artery pressure and cardiac index were higher in the hyperthyroid group than in controls (18.6 +/- 5.3 vs. 11.2 +/- 4.9 mmHg; p = 0.02, and 6.0 +/- 1.7 vs. 2.8 +/- 0.5 l/min/m2; p = 0.0001, respectively). After exercise, there was an increase in end-diastolic pulmonary artery pressure in the hyperthyroid group (18.6 +/- 5.3 to 25.5 +/- 9.9 mmHg; p = 0.02), revealing impaired cardiocirculatory reserve. Pulmonary arteriolar resistance increased significantly in parallel with end-diastolic pulmonary artery pressure after drug administration, suggesting an inadequate cardiovascular response after beta blockade in patients with hyperthyroidism. We observed that functional left ventricular reserve is impaired in patients with hyperthyroidism, suggesting an explanation for the frequent symptom of dyspnea and impaired exercise tolerance. Moreover, we also suggest that beta-adrenergic blockade may adversely affect cardiovascular function in patients with hyperthyroidism.

  13. Chronic blockade or constitutive deletion of the serotonin transporter reduces operant responding for food reward.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Amy Cecilia; Hussain, Ali J; Hen, René; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2007-11-01

    The therapeutic effects of chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are well documented, yet the elementary behavioral processes that are affected by such treatment have not been fully investigated. We report here the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment and genetic deletion of the serotonin transporter (SERT) on food reinforced behavior in three paradigms: the progressive ratio operant task, the concurrent choice operant task, and the Pavlovian-to-Instrumental transfer task. We consistently find that chronic pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of SERT result in similar behavioral consequences: reduced operant responding for natural reward. This is in line with previous studies reporting declines in operant responding for drugs and intracranial self-stimulation with fluoxetine treatment, suggesting that the effect of SERT blockade can be generalized to different reward types. Detailed analyses of behavioral parameters indicate that this reduction in operant responding affect both goal-directed and non-goal-directed behaviors without affecting the Pavlovian cue-triggered excessive operant responding. In addition, both pharmacological and genetic manipulations reduce locomotor activity in the open field novel environment. Our data contrast with the effect of dopamine in increasing operant responding for natural reward specifically in goal-directed behaviors and in increasing Pavlovian cue-triggered excessive operant responding. Serotonin and dopamine have been proposed to serve opposing functions in motivational processes. Our data suggest that their interactions do not result in simple opponency. The fact that pharmacological blockade and genetic deletion of SERT have similar behavioral consequences reinforces the utility of the SERT null mice for investigation of the mechanisms underlying chronic SSRIs treatment.

  14. CD147 blockade as a potential and novel treatment of graft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Jing; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Yang; Miao, Jinlin; Li, Jia; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Zhu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation (CD)147 is highly involved in the T cell activation process. High CD147 expression is observed on the surfaces of activated T cells, particularly CD4+ T cells. In organ transplantation, it is important to prevent graft rejection resulting from the excessive activation of T cells, particularly CD4+ T cells, which exhibit a key role in amplifying the immune response. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of CD147 blockade in vitro and in vivo and used a transplant rejection system to assess the feasibility of utilizing CD147 antibody-based immunosuppressant drugs for the treatment of graft rejection. The effects of CD147 antibodies were evaluated on lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by phytohemagglutinin or CD3/CD28 magnetic beads and in a one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) system in vitro. For the in vivo analysis, an allogeneic skin transplantation mouse model was used. CD147 antibodies were effective against lymphocytes, particularly CD4+T lymphocytes, and were additionally effective in the one-way MLR system. In the allogeneic skin transplantation mouse model, the survival of transplanted skin was extended in the CD147 antibody-treated group. Furthermore, the level of inflammatory cell infiltration in transplanted skin was reduced. CD147 blockade decreased the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-17 and the proportions of peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells. The data demonstrated that CD147 blockade suppressed skin graft rejection, primarily by suppressing CD4+T and memory T cell proliferation, indicating that CD147 exhibits great potential as a target of immunosuppressant drugs. PMID:28849101

  15. Association between renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system blockade and future osteoporotic fracture risk in hypertensive population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-I.; Yeh, Jong-Shiuan; Tsao, Nai-Wen; Lin, Fen-Yen; Shih, Chun-Ming; Chiang, Kuang-Hsing; Kao, Yung-Ta; Fang, Yu-Ann; Tsai, Lung-Wen; Liu, Wen-Chi; Nakagami, Hironori; Morishita, Ryuichi; Kuo, Yi-Jie; Huang, Chun-Yao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Tissue renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) activation in sites of osteoporosis had been demonstrated in animal studies; however, the possibility of RAAS blockade to prevent future osteoporotic fracture had rarely been verified in clinical studies. We Used the Taiwan Longitudinal Health insurance database 2000 to 2008, the cohort study comprised patients age over 40 with a recorded new diagnosis of hypertension between January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2008, in addition, patients who had diagnosis of osteoporosis before the date of cohort enter were excluded. After the definite diagnosis of hypertension, each patient was followed until osteoporotic fracture happened or the end of 2008. The occurrence of osteoporotic fracture was evaluated in patients who either were or without taking RAAS blockade agents. Cox proportional hazard regressions were used to evaluate the osteoporotic fracture incidence after adjusting for known confounding factors. In total, 57,132 hypertensive patients comprised the study cohort. Our study results showed that the incidence of osteoporosis fracture in the whole cohort was significantly higher in the RAAS blockade non-user group than the user group. This phenomenon was observed in both sex and all age categories. Sensitivity analysis further showed the concordant lower osteoporosis fracture risk in patients with various RAAS blockers usage durations; the risk of osteoporosis fracture was the lowest in those drug use >365 days when compared with the non-user cohort. In conclusion, our study result demonstrated the lower future osteoporotic fracture risk in hypertensive subjects who received long term RAAS blocker treatment. PMID:29145244

  16. CD147 blockade as a potential and novel treatment of graft rejection.

    PubMed

    Luan, Jing; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Yang; Miao, Jinlin; Li, Jia; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Zhu, Ping

    2017-10-01

    Cluster of differentiation (CD)147 is highly involved in the T cell activation process. High CD147 expression is observed on the surfaces of activated T cells, particularly CD4+ T cells. In organ transplantation, it is important to prevent graft rejection resulting from the excessive activation of T cells, particularly CD4+ T cells, which exhibit a key role in amplifying the immune response. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of CD147 blockade in vitro and in vivo and used a transplant rejection system to assess the feasibility of utilizing CD147 antibody‑based immunosuppressant drugs for the treatment of graft rejection. The effects of CD147 antibodies were evaluated on lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by phytohemagglutinin or CD3/CD28 magnetic beads and in a one‑way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) system in vitro. For the in vivo analysis, an allogeneic skin transplantation mouse model was used. CD147 antibodies were effective against lymphocytes, particularly CD4+T lymphocytes, and were additionally effective in the one‑way MLR system. In the allogeneic skin transplantation mouse model, the survival of transplanted skin was extended in the CD147 antibody‑treated group. Furthermore, the level of inflammatory cell infiltration in transplanted skin was reduced. CD147 blockade decreased the serum levels of interleukin (IL)‑17 and the proportions of peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells. The data demonstrated that CD147 blockade suppressed skin graft rejection, primarily by suppressing CD4+T and memory T cell proliferation, indicating that CD147 exhibits great potential as a target of immunosuppressant drugs.

  17. Substance P receptor blockade decreases stretch-induced lung cytokines and lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Brégeon, Fabienne; Steinberg, Jean Guillaume; Andreotti, Nicolas; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Delpierre, Stéphane; Ravailhe, Sylvie; Jammes, Yves

    2010-04-15

    Overdistension of lung tissue during mechanical ventilation causes cytokine release, which may be facilitated by the autonomic nervous system. We used mechanical ventilation to cause lung injury in rats, and studied how cervical section of the vagus nerve, or substance P (SP) antagonism, affected the injury. The effects of 40 or 25 cmH(2)O high airway pressure injurious ventilation (HV(40) and HV(25)) were studied and compared with low airway pressure ventilation (LV) and spontaneous breathing (controls). Lung mechanics, lung weight, gas exchange, lung myeloperoxidase activity, lung concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1 beta and IL-6, and amounts of lung SP were measured. Control rats were intact, others were bivagotomized, and in some animals we administered the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor blocking agent SR140333. We first determined the durations of HV(40) and HV(25) that induced the same levels of lung injury and increased lung contents of IL-1 beta and IL-6. They were 90 min and 120 min, respectively. Both HV(40) and HV(25) increased lung SP, IL-1 beta and IL-6 levels, these effects being markedly reduced by NK-1 receptor blockade. Bivagotomy reduced to a lesser extent the HV(40)- and HV(25)-induced increases in SP but significantly reduced cytokine production. Neither vagotomy nor NK-1 receptor blockade prevented HV(40)-induced lung injury but, in the HV(25) group, they made it possible to maintain lung injury indices close to those measured in the LV group. This study suggests that both neuronal and extra-neuronal SP might be involved in ventilator-induced lung inflammation and injury. NK-1 receptor blockade could be a pharmacological tool to minimize some adverse effects of mechanical ventilation.

  18. Integrated molecular analysis of tumor biopsies on sequential CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade reveals markers of response and resistance

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Whijae; Chen, Pei-Ling; Reuben, Alexandre; Spencer, Christine N.; Prieto, Peter A.; Miller, John P.; Gopalakrishnan, Vancheswaran; Wang, Feng; Cooper, Zachary A.; Reddy, Sangeetha M.; Gumbs, Curtis; Little, Latasha; Chang, Qing; Chen, Wei-Shen; Wani, Khalida; Petaccia De Macedo, Mariana; Chen, Eveline; Austin-Breneman, Jacob L.; Jiang, Hong; Roszik, Jason; Tetzlaff, Michael T.; Davies, Michael A.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Tawbi, Hussein; Lazar, Alexander J.; Hwu, Patrick; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Diab, Adi; Glitza, Isabella C.; Patel, Sapna P.; Woodman, Scott E.; Amaria, Rodabe N.; Prieto, Victor G.; Hu, Jianhua; Sharma, Padmanee; Allison, James P.; Chin, Lynda; Zhang, Jianhua; Wargo, Jennifer A.; Futreal, P. Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Immune checkpoint blockade produces clinical benefit in many patients. However better biomarkers of response are still needed, and mechanisms of resistance remain incompletely understood. To address this, we recently studied a cohort of melanoma patients treated with sequential checkpoint blockade against cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) followed by programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), and identified immune markers of response and resistance. Building on these studies, we performed deep molecular profiling including T-cell receptor sequencing (TCR-seq) and whole exome sequencing (WES) within the same cohort, and demonstrated that a more clonal T cell repertoire was predictive of response to PD-1 but not CTLA-4 blockade. Analysis of copy number alterations identified a higher burden of copy number loss in non-responders to CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade and found that it was associated with decreased expression of genes in immune-related pathways. The effect of mutational load and burden of copy number loss on response was non-redundant, suggesting the potential utility of a combinatorial biomarker to optimize patient care with checkpoint blockade therapy. PMID:28251903

  19. Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: is there room for dual blockade in the cardiorenal continuum?

    PubMed

    Volpe, Massimo; Danser, A H Jan; Menard, Joël; Waeber, Bernard; Mueller, Dominik N; Maggioni, Aldo P; Ruilope, Luis M

    2012-04-01

    Antagonism of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is exerted through angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists, renin inhibitors and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. These drugs have been successfully tested in numerous trials and in different clinical settings. The original indications of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers have progressively expanded from the advanced stages to the earlier stages of cardiorenal continuum. To optimize the degree of blockade of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, dose uptitrations of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists or the use of a dual blockade, initially identified with the combination of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists, have been proposed. The data from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) study do not support this specific dual blockade approach. However, the dual blockade of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor antagonists with direct renin inhibitors is currently under investigation while that based on an aldosterone blocker with any of the previous three drugs requires more evidence beyond heart failure. In this review, we revisited potential advantages of dual blockade of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in arterial hypertension and diabetes.

  20. A chronic treatment with fluoxetine decreases 5-HT(1A) receptors labeling in mice selected as a genetic model of helplessness.

    PubMed

    Naudon, Laurent; El Yacoubi, Malika; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Leroux-Nicollet, Isabelle; Costentin, Jean

    2002-05-17

    Two lines of mice were bred for their opposite helpless behavior in the tail suspension test, i.e., helpless (HL) mice and non helpless (NHL) mice. The 5-HT(1A) receptor labeling was quantified by means of autoradiography with (3)H-8-OH-DPAT on brain sections from mice of these two lines. We observed a significantly higher level of (3)H-8-OH-DPAT binding sites density in HL mice comparatively to NHL mice, in the medial prefrontal, cingulate, motor and sensorial cortices, in several regions of the limbic system, such as CA3 field of hippocampus, dentate gyrus, medial and baso-medial amygdala, and in dorsal and median raphe nuclei. A chronic 21-day treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p. daily) attenuated significantly the spontaneous helplessness in HL mice but did not alter the behavior of NHL mice. In the brain of HL mice chronically injected with fluoxetine, the elevated (3)H-8-OH-DPAT binding sites density was no longer observed after treatment in several regions, among which the raphe nuclei. Conversely, the antidepressant treatment did not modify the (3)H-8-OH-DPAT binding sites density in NHL mice. The variation of 5-HT(1A) receptors binding density in the HL mice in response to a chronic fluoxetine treatment parallels the attenuation of the spontaneous helplessness observed in the tail suspension test, and may underlie this behavior.

  1. LONG TERM MONITORING FOR NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have good statistical methods to: (1) determine whether concentrations of a contaminant are attenuating over time, (2) determine the rate of attenuation and confidence interval on the rate, and (3) determine whether concentrations have met a particular clean up goal. We do no...

  2. Predicting transport regime and local electrostatic environment from Coulomb blockade diamond sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Stine T.; Hansen, Thorsten; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.

    2017-03-01

    Electron transport through a molecule is often described in one of the two regimes: the coherent tunnelling regime or the Coulomb blockade regime. The twilight zone of the two regimes still possesses many unsolved questions. A theoretical analysis of the oligophenylenevinylene OPV3 experiments by Bjørnholm and co-workers is performed. The experiments showed how two OPV3 derivatives performed very differently despite the strong similarity of the molecular structure, hence the experimental data showed two different transport mechanisms. The different transport mechanisms of the two OPV3 derivatives are explained from quantum mechanical calculations of the molecular redox energies and from the experimentally accessible window size.

  3. Preventive dietary potassium supplementation in young salt-sensitive Dahl rats attenuates development of salt hypertension by decreasing sympathetic vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Zicha, J; Dobešová, Z; Behuliak, M; Kuneš, J; Vaněčková, I

    2011-05-01

    Increased potassium intake attenuates the development of salt-dependent hypertension, but the detailed mechanisms of blood pressure (BP) reduction are still unclear. The aims of our study were (i) to elucidate these mechanisms, (ii) to compare preventive potassium effects in immature and adult animals and (iii) to evaluate the therapeutic effects of dietary potassium supplementation in rats with established salt hypertension.   Young (4-week-old) and adult (24-week-old) female salt-sensitive Dahl rats were fed a high-salt diet (5% NaCl) or a high-salt diet supplemented with 3% KCl for 5 weeks. The participation of vasoconstrictor (renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems) and vasodilator systems [prostanoids, Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels, nitric oxide (NO)] was evaluated using a sequential blockade of these systems. Preventive potassium supplementation attenuated the development of severe salt hypertension in young rats, whereas it had no effects on BP in adult rats with moderate hypertension. Enhanced sympathetic vasoconstriction was responsible for salt hypertension in young rats and its attenuation for potassium-induced BP reduction. Conversely, neither salt hypertension nor its potassium-induced attenuation were associated with significant changes of the vasodilator systems studied. The relative deficiency of vasodilator action of NO and Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels in salt hypertensive Dahl rats was not improved by potassium supplementation. The attenuation of enhanced sympathetic vasoconstriction is the principal mechanism of antihypertensive action exerted by preventive potassium supplementation in immature Dahl rats. Dietary potassium supplementation has no preventive effects on BP in adult salt-loaded animals or no therapeutic effects on established salt hypertension in young rats. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  4. Adenosine A2A Receptors in the Amygdala Control Synaptic Plasticity and Contextual Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Simões, Ana Patrícia; Machado, Nuno J; Gonçalves, Nélio; Kaster, Manuella P; Simões, Ana T; Nunes, Ana; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Goosens, Ki Ann; Rial, Daniel; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2016-11-01

    The consumption of caffeine modulates working and reference memory through the antagonism of adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A Rs) controlling synaptic plasticity processes in hippocampal excitatory synapses. Fear memory essentially involves plastic changes in amygdala circuits. However, it is unknown if A 2A Rs in the amygdala regulate synaptic plasticity and fear memory. We report that A 2A Rs in the amygdala are enriched in synapses and located to glutamatergic synapses, where they selectively control synaptic plasticity rather than synaptic transmission at a major afferent pathway to the amygdala. Notably, the downregulation of A 2A Rs selectively in the basolateral complex of the amygdala, using a lentivirus with a silencing shRNA (small hairpin RNA targeting A 2A R (shA 2A R)), impaired fear acquisition as well as Pavlovian fear retrieval. This is probably associated with the upregulation and gain of function of A 2A Rs in the amygdala after fear acquisition. The importance of A 2A Rs to control fear memory was further confirmed by the ability of SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg; A 2A R antagonist), caffeine (5 mg/kg), but not DPCPX (0.5 mg/kg; A 1 R antagonist), treatment for 7 days before fear conditioning onwards, to attenuate the retrieval of context fear after 24-48 h and after 7-8 days. These results demonstrate that amygdala A 2A Rs control fear memory and the underlying process of synaptic plasticity in this brain region. This provides a neurophysiological basis for the association between A 2A R polymorphisms and phobia or panic attacks in humans and prompts a therapeutic interest in A 2A Rs to manage fear-related pathologies.

  5. Modafinil attenuates reinstatement of cocaine seeking: role for cystine-glutamate exchange and metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Stephen V; Hensley-Simon, Megan; Tahsili-Fahadan, Pouya; LaLumiere, Ryan T; Thomas, Charles; Fallon, Rebecca V; Kalivas, Peter W; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Modafinil may be useful for treating stimulant abuse, but the mechanisms by which it acts to do so are unknown. Indeed, a primary effect of modafinil is to inhibit dopamine transport, which typically promotes rather than inhibits motivated behavior. Therefore, we examined the role of nucleus accumbens extracellular glutamate and the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2/3) in modafinil effects. One group of rats was trained to self-administer cocaine for 10 days and extinguished, then given priming injections of cocaine to elicit reinstatement. Modafinil (300 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) inhibited reinstated cocaine seeking (but did not alter extinction responding by itself), and this effect was prevented by pre-treatment with bilateral microinjections of the mGluR2/3 antagonist LY-341495 (LY) into nucleus accumbens core. No reversal of modafinil effects was seen after unilateral accumbens core LY, or bilateral LY in the rostral pole of accumbens. Next, we sought to explore effects of modafinil on extracellular glutamate levels in accumbens after chronic cocaine. Separate rats were administered non-contingent cocaine, and after 3 weeks of withdrawal underwent accumbens microdialysis. Modafinil increased extracellular accumbens glutamate in chronic cocaine, but not chronic saline-pre-treated animals. This increase was prevented by reverse dialysis of cystine-glutamate exchange or voltage-dependent calcium channel antagonists. Voltage-dependent sodium channel blockade partly attenuated the increase in glutamate, but mGluR1 blockade did not. We conclude that modafinil increases extracellular glutamate in nucleus accumbens from glial and neuronal sources in cocaine-exposed rats, which may be important for its mGluR2/3-mediated antirelapse properties. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. The effects of varenicline on sensory gating and exploratory behavior with pretreatment with nicotinic or 5-HT3A receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kucinski, Aaron; Wersinger, Scott; Stachowiak, Ewa K; Becker, Chani; Lippiello, Pat; Bencherif, Merouane; Stachowiak, Michal K

    2015-02-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia smoke at high frequency relative to the general population. Despite the harmful effects of cigarette smoking, smoking among schizophrenic patients improves cognitive impairments not addressed or worsened by common neuroleptics. Varenicline, a nonselective neuronal nicotinic receptor (NNR) agonist and full agonist of 5-HT3A receptors, helps reduce smoking among schizophrenic patients. To determine whether varenicline also improves a cognitive symptom of schizophrenia, namely, impaired sensory gating, a transgenic mouse with schizophrenia, th-fgfr1(tk-), was used. Varenicline dose-dependently increased prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response, a measure of sensory gating, in th-fgfr1(tk-) mice and normalized PPI deficits relative to nontransgenic controls. With the highest dose (10 mg/kg), however, there was a robust elevation of PPI and startle response, as well as reduced exploratory behavior in the open field and elevated plus maze. Pretreatment with the nonspecific NNR antagonist mecamylamine attenuated the exaggerated PPI response and, similar to the 5-HT3A receptor antagonist ondansetron, it prevented the reduction in exploratory behavior. Collectively, these results indicate that varenicline at low-to-moderate doses may be beneficial against impaired sensory gating in schizophrenia; however, higher doses may induce anxiogenic effects, which can be prevented with antagonists of NNRs or 5-HT3A receptors.

  7. Resistant Hypertension On Treatment (ResHypOT): sequential nephron blockade compared to dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plus bisoprolol in the treatment of resistant arterial hypertension - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cestário, Elizabeth do Espirito Santo; Fernandes, Letícia Aparecida Barufi; Giollo-Júnior, Luiz Tadeu; Uyemura, Jéssica Rodrigues Roma; Matarucco, Camila Suemi Sato; Landim, Manoel Idelfonso Paz; Cosenso-Martin, Luciana Neves; Tácito, Lúcia Helena Bonalume; Moreno, Heitor; Vilela-Martin, José Fernando; Yugar-Toledo, Juan Carlos

    2018-02-12

    Resistant hypertension is characterized when the blood pressure (BP) remains above the recommended goal after taking three antihypertensive drugs with synergistic actions at their maximum recommended tolerated doses, preferably including a diuretic. Identifying the contribution of intravascular volume and serum renin in maintaining BP levels could help tailor more effective hypertension treatment, whether acting on the control of intravascular volume or sodium balance, or acting on the effects of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) on the kidney. This is a randomized, open-label, clinical trial is designed to compare sequential nephron blockade and its contribution to the intravascular volume component with dual blockade of the RAAS plus bisoprolol and the importance of serum renin in maintaining BP levels. The trial has two arms: sequential nephron blockade versus dual blockade of the RAAS (with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor plus a beta-blocker) both added-on to a thiazide diuretic, a calcium-channel blocker and an angiotensin receptor-1 blocker (ARB). Sequential nephron blockade consists in a progressive increase in sodium depletion using a thiazide diuretic, an aldosterone-receptor blocker, furosemide and, finally, amiloride. On the other hand, the dual blockade of the RAAS consists of the progressive addition of an ACE inhibitor until the maximum dose and then the administration of a beta-blocker until the maximum dose. The primary outcomes will be reductions in the systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean BP and pulse pressure (PP) after 20 weeks of treatment. The secondary outcomes will evaluate treatment safety and tolerability, biochemical changes, evaluation of renal function and recognition of hypotension (ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM)). The sample size was calculated assuming an alpha error of 5% to reject the null hypothesis with a statistical power of 80% giving a total of 40 individuals per group. In recent years, the cost of

  8. Seeing is believing: anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies in action for checkpoint blockade tumor immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shuguang; Zhang, Catherine W-H; Gao, George F

    2016-01-01

    Structural immunology, focusing on structures of host immune related molecules, enables the immunologists to see what the molecules look like, and more importantly, how they work together. Antibody-based PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapy has achieved brilliant successes in clinical applications. The recent breakthrough of the complex structures of checkpoint blockade antibodies with their counterparts, pembrolizumab with PD-1 and avelumab with PD-L1, have made it clear how these monoclonal antibodies compete the binding of PD-1/PD-L1 and function to blockade the receptor-ligand interaction. Herein, we summarize the structural findings of these two reports and look into the future for how this information would facilitate the development of more efficient PD-1/PD-L1 targeting antibodies, small molecule drugs, and other protein or non-protein inhibitors. PMID:29263905

  9. Plasmodium falciparum: attenuation by irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Waki, S.; Yonome, I.; Suzuki, M.

    The effect of irradiation on the in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum was investigated. The cultured malarial parasites at selected stages of development were exposed to gamma rays and the sensitivity of each stage was determined. The stages most sensitive to irradiation were the ring forms and the early trophozoites; late trophozoites were relatively insensitive. The greatest resistance was shown when parasites were irradiated at a time of transition from the late trophozoite and schizont stages to young ring forms. The characteristics of radiosensitive variation in the parasite cycle resembled that of mammalian cells. Growth curves of parasites exposed tomore » doses of irradiation upto 150 gray had the same slope as nonirradiated controls but parasites which were exposed to 200 gray exhibited a growth curve which was less steep than that for parasites in other groups. Less than 10 organisms survived from the 10(6) parasites exposed to this high dose of irradiation; the possibility exists of obtaining radiation-attenuated P. falciparum.« less

  10. Norepinephrine infusion with and without alpha-adrenergic blockade by phentolamine increases salivary alpha amylase in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Kuebler, Ulrike; von Känel, Roland; Heimgartner, Nadja; Zuccarella-Hackl, Claudia; Stirnimann, Guido; Ehlert, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H

    2014-11-01

    Mental stress reliably induces increases in salivary alpha amylase (sAA), a suggested surrogate marker for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity. While stress-induced sAA increases correlate with norepinephrine (NE) secretion, a potential mediating role of noradrenergic mechanisms remains unclear. In this study, we investigated for the first time in humans whether a NE-stress-reactivity mimicking NE-infusion with and without alpha-adrenergic blockade by phentolamine would induce changes in sAA. In a single-blind placebo-controlled within-subjects design, 21 healthy men (29-66 years) took part in three different experimental trials varying in terms of substance infusion with a 1-min first infusion followed by a 15-min second infusion: saline-infusion (trial-1), NE-infusion (5 μg/min) without alpha-adrenergic blockade (trial-2), and with phentolamine-induced non-selective blockade of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors (trial-3). Saliva samples were collected immediately before, during, and several times after substance infusion in addition to blood pressure and heart rate readings. Experimental trials significantly differed in sAA reactivity to substance-infusion (p=.001) with higher sAA reactivity following NE-infusion with (trial-3; p=.001) and without alpha-adrenergic-blockade (trial-2; p=.004) as compared to placebo-infusion (trial-1); sAA infusion reactivity did not differ between trial-2 and trial-3 (p=.29). Effective phentolamine application was verified by blood pressure and heart rate infusion reactivity. Salivary cortisol was not affected by NE, either with or without alpha-adrenergic-blockade. We found that NE-infusion stimulates sAA secretion, regardless of co-administered non-selective alpha-adrenergic blockade by phentolamine, suggesting that the mechanism underlying stress-induced sAA increases may involve NE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. NMDA receptor blockade in the prelimbic cortex activates the mesolimbic system and dopamine-dependent opiate reward signaling.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huibing; Rosen, Laura G; Ng, Garye A; Rushlow, Walter J; Laviolette, Steven R

    2014-12-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are involved in opiate reward processing and modulate sub-cortical dopamine (DA) activity. NMDA receptor blockade in the prelimbic (PLC) division of the mPFC strongly potentiates the rewarding behavioural properties of normally sub-reward threshold doses of opiates. However, the possible functional interactions between cortical NMDA and sub-cortical DAergic motivational neural pathways underlying these effects are not understood. This study examines how NMDA receptor modulation in the PLC influences opiate reward processing via interactions with sub-cortical DAergic transmission. We further examined whether direct intra-PLC NMDA receptor modulation may activate DA-dependent opiate reward signaling via interactions with the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Using an unbiased place conditioning procedure (CPP) in rats, we performed bilateral intra-PLC microinfusions of the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, (2R)-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP-5), prior to behavioural morphine place conditioning and challenged the rewarding effects of morphine with DA receptor blockade. We next examined the effects of intra-PLC NMDA receptor blockade on the spontaneous activity patterns of presumptive VTA DA or GABAergic neurons, using single-unit, extracellular in vivo neuronal recordings. We show that intra-PLC NMDA receptor blockade strongly activates sub-cortical DA neurons within the VTA while inhibiting presumptive non-DA GABAergic neurons. Behaviourally, NMDA receptor blockade activates a DA-dependent opiate reward system, as pharmacological blockade of DA transmission blocked morphine reward only in the presence of intra-PLC NMDA receptor antagonism. These findings demonstrate a cortical NMDA-mediated mechanism controlling mesolimbic DAergic modulation of opiate reward processing.

  12. Gold Nanoparticles on Functionalized Silicon Substrate under Coulomb Blockade Regime: An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Pluchery, Olivier; Caillard, Louis; Dollfus, Philippe; Chabal, Yves J

    2018-01-18

    Single charge electronics offer a way for disruptive technology in nanoelectronics. Coulomb blockade is a realistic way for controlling the electric current through a device with the accuracy of one electron. In such devices the current exhibits a step-like increase upon bias which reflects the discrete nature of the fundamental charge. We have assembled a double tunnel junction on an oxide-free silicon substrate that exhibits Coulomb staircase characteristics using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as Coulomb islands. The first tunnel junction is an insulating layer made of a grafted organic monolayer (GOM) developed for this purpose. The GOM also serves for attaching AuNPs covalently. The second tunnel junction is made by the tip of an STM. We show that this device exhibits reproducible Coulomb blockade I-V curves at 40 K in vacuum. We also show that depending on the doping of the silicon substrate, the whole Coulomb staircase can be adjusted. We have developed a simulation approach based on the orthodox theory that was completed by calculating the bias dependent tunnel barriers and by including an accurate calculation of the band bending. This model accounts for the experimental data and the doping dependence of Coulomb oscillations. This study opens new perspectives toward designing new kind of single electron transistors (SET) based on this dependence of the Coulomb staircase with the charge carrier concentration.

  13. α-blockade, apoptosis, and prostate shrinkage: how are they related?

    PubMed

    Chłosta, Piotr; Drewa, Tomasz; Kaplan, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The α1-adrenoreceptor antagonists, such as terazosin and doxazosin, induce prostate programmed cell death (apoptosis) within prostate epithelial and stromal cells in vitro. This treatment should cause prostate volume decrease, However, this has never been observed in clinical conditions. The aim of this paper is to review the disconnect between these two processes. PubMed and DOAJ were searched for papers related to prostate, apoptosis, and stem cell death. The following key words were used: prostate, benign prostate hyperplasia, programmed cell death, apoptosis, cell death, α1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, α-blockade, prostate epithelium, prostate stroma, stem cells, progenitors, and in vitro models. We have shown how discoveries related to stem cells can influence our understanding of α-blockade treatment for BPH patients. Prostate epithelial and mesenchymal compartments have stem (progenitors) and differentiating cells. These compartments are described in relation to experimental in vitro and in vivo settings. Apoptosis is observed within prostate tissue, but this effect has no clinical significance and cannot lead to prostate shrinkage. In part, this is due to stem cells that are responsible for prostate tissue regeneration and are resistant to apoptosis triggered by α1-receptor antagonists.

  14. Connexin hemichannel blockade is neuroprotective after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Joanne O; Drury, Paul P; Green, Colin R; Nicholson, Louise F; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J

    2014-01-01

    Asphyxia around the time of preterm birth is associated with neurodevelopmental disability. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that blockade of connexin hemichannels would improve recovery of brain activity and reduce cell loss after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep. Asphyxia was induced by 25 min of complete umbilical cord occlusion in preterm fetal sheep (103-104 d gestational age). Connexin hemichannels were blocked by intracerebroventricular infusion of mimetic peptide starting 90 min after asphyxia at a concentration of 50 µM/h for one hour followed by 50 µM/24 hour for 24 hours (occlusion-peptide group, n = 6) or vehicle infusion for controls (occlusion-vehicle group, n = 7). Peptide infusion was associated with earlier recovery of electroencephalographic power after asphyxia compared to occlusion-vehicle (p<0.05), with reduced neuronal loss in the caudate and putamen (p<0.05), but not in the hippocampus. In the intragyral and periventricular white matter, peptide administration was associated with an increase in total oligodendrocyte numbers (p<0.05) and immature/mature oligodendrocytes compared to occlusion-vehicle (p<0.05), with a significant increase in proliferation (p<0.05). Connexin hemichannel blockade was neuroprotective and reduced oligodendrocyte death and improved recovery of oligodendrocyte maturation in preterm fetuses after asphyxia.

  15. Blockade of NMDA receptors prevents analgesic tolerance to repeated transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hingne, Priyanka M.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2008-01-01

    Repeated daily application transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) results in tolerance, at spinal opioid receptors, to the anti-hyperalgesia produced by TENS. Since N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists prevent analgesic tolerance to opioid agonists