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Sample records for a-receptor blockade attenuates

  1. Selective blockade of 5-HT2A receptors attenuates the increased temperature response in brown adipose tissue to restraint stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ootsuka, Youichirou; Blessing, William W; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that 5-HT2A receptors may be involved in the central control of thermoregulation and of the cardiovascular system. Our aim was to test whether these receptors mediate thermogenic and tachycardiac responses induced by acute psychological stress. Three groups of adult male Hooded Wistar rats were instrumented with: (i) a thermistor in the interscapular area (for recording brown adipose tissue temperature) and an ultrasound Doppler probe (to record tail blood flow); (ii) temperature dataloggers to record core body temperature; (iii) ECG electrodes. On the day of the experiment, rats were subjected to a 30-min restraint stress preceded by s.c. injection of either vehicle or SR-46349B (a serotonin 2A receptor antagonist) at doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg. The restraint stress caused a rise in brown adipose tissue temperature (from, mean +/- s.e.m., 36.6 +/- 0.2 to 38.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C), transient cutaneous vasoconstriction (tail blood flow decreased from 12 +/- 2 to 5 +/- 1 cm/s), increase in heart rate (from 303 +/- 15 to 453 +/- 15 bpm at the peak, then reduced to 393 +/- 12 bpm at the steady state), and defaecation (6 +/- 1 pellets per restraint session). The core body temperature was not affected by the restraint. Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors attenuated the increase in brown adipose tissue temperature and transient cutaneous vasoconstriction, but not tachycardia and defaecation elicited by restraint stress. These results indicate that psychological stress causes activation of 5-HT2A receptors in neural pathways that control thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue and facilitate cutaneous vasoconstriction.

  2. Remodeling of striatal NMDA receptors by chronic A(2A) receptor blockade in Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Martire, Alberto; Ferrante, Antonella; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Armida, Monica; Ferretti, Roberta; Pézzola, Antonella; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Popoli, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Excitotoxicity plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease (HD), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder. Adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) modulate excitotoxicity and have been suggested to play a pathogenetic role in HD. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of A(2A)R blockade on the expression and functions of NMDA receptors in the striatum of HD mice (R6/2). We found that 3 weeks' treatment with SCH 58261 (0.01 mg/kg/day i.p. from the 8th week of age) modified NR1 and NR2A/NR2B expression in the striatum of R6/2 (Western blotting) while had no effect on NMDA-induced toxicity in corticostriatal slices (electrophysiological experiments). In conclusion, in vivo A(2A)R blockade induced a remodeling of NMDA receptors in the striatum of HD mice. Even though the functional relevance of the above effect remains to be fully elucidated, these results add further evidence to the modulatory role of A(2A)Rs in HD.

  3. NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY:
    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses in mice. Mice administered an antibody against the low aff...

  4. Adenosine A2A receptor blockade differentially influences excitotoxic mechanisms at pre- and postsynaptic sites in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Tebano, Maria Teresa; Pintor, Annita; Frank, Claudio; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Martire, Alberto; Pepponi, Rita; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Grieco, Rosa; Popoli, Patrizia

    2004-07-01

    Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists are being regarded as potential neuroprotective drugs, although the mechanisms underlying their effects need to be better studied. The aim of this work was to investigate further the mechanism of the neuroprotective action of A(2A) receptor antagonists in models of pre- and postsynaptic excitotoxicity. In microdialysis studies, the intrastriatal perfusion of the A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM 241385 (5 and 50 nM) significantly reduced, in an inversely dose-dependent way, the raise in glutamate outflow induced by 5 mM quinolinic acid (QA). In rat corticostriatal slices, ZM 241385 (30-100 nM) significantly reduced 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced paired-pulse inhibition (PPI; an index of neurotransmitter release), whereas it worsened the depression of field potential amplitude elicited by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 12.5 and 50 microM). The A(2A) antagonist SCH 58261 (30 nM) mimicked the effects of ZM 241385, whereas the A(2A) agonist CGS 21680 (100 nM) showed a protective influence toward 50 microM NMDA. In rat striatal neurons, 50 nM ZM 241385 did not affect the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) or the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) induced by 100 and 300 microM NMDA, respectively. The ability of ZM 241385 to prevent QA-induced glutamate outflow and 4-AP-induced effects confirms that A(2A) receptor antagonists have inhibitory effects on neurotransmitter release, whereas the results obtained toward NMDA-induced effects suggest that A(2A) receptor blockade does not reduce, or even amplifies, excitotoxic mechanisms due to direct NMDA receptor stimulation. This indicates that the neuroprotective potential of A(2A) antagonists may be evident mainly in models of neurodegeneration in which presynaptic mechanisms play a major role.

  5. Endothelin A-receptor blockade in experimental diabetes improves glucose balance and gastrointestinal function.

    PubMed

    Balsiger, Bruno; Rickenbacher, Andreas; Boden, Penelope Jane; Biecker, Erwin; Tsui, Janice; Dashwood, Michael; Reichen, Jürg; Shaw, Sidney George

    2002-08-01

    Secondary complications of diabetes mellitus often involve gastrointestinal dysfunction. In the experimental Goto Kakizaki rat, a model of Type II diabetes, hyperglycaemia and reduced glucose clearance is associated with elevated plasma endothelin (ET)-1 levels and selective decreases in nitric oxide synthase in circular muscle, longitudinal muscle and neuronal elements of the gastrointestinal tract. Functionally, this is accompanied by decreased nitrergic relaxatory responses of jejunal longitudinal muscle to tetrodotoxin-sensitive electrical field stimulation. Long-term treatment with a selective ET A-type receptor antagonist, markedly reduced hyperglycaemia and restored plasma glucose clearance rates towards normal. This was associated with a restoration of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-sensitive relaxatory responses of jejunal longitudinal muscle to electrical field stimulation. The results indicate that beneficial effects of ETA receptor blockade on gastrointestinal function may result from an improvement in insulin sensitivity with concomitant reduction of the severity of hyperglycaemia. ETA receptor blockade may represent a new therapeutic principle for improving glucose tolerance in Type II diabetes and could be beneficial in alleviating or preventing hyperglycaemia-related secondary complications in this condition.

  6. BLOCKADE OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR (NGF) RECEPTOR TRKA ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC INFLAMMATION

    EPA Science Inventory


    Recent studies have shown that asthmatics have increased levels of the neurotrophin, NGF, in their lungs. In addition, antibody blockade of NGF in mice attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses. DEP has been linked to asthma exacerbation in many c...

  7. Adenosine A2A Receptor Blockade Prevents Rotenone-Induced Motor Impairment in a Rat Model of Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Fathalla, Ahmed M.; Soliman, Amira M.; Ali, Mohamed H.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological studies implicate the blockade of adenosine receptorsas an effective strategy for reducing Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptoms. The objective of this study is to elucidate the possible protective effects of ZM241385 and 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine, two selective A2A and A1 receptor antagonists, on a rotenone rat model of PD. Rats were split into four groups: vehicle control (1 ml/kg/48 h), rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/48 h, s.c.), ZM241385 (3.3 mg/kg/day, i.p) and 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine (5 mg/kg/day, i.p). After that, animals were subjected to behavioral (stride length and grid walking) and biochemical (measuring concentration of dopamine levels using high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC). In the rotenone group, rats displayed a reduced motor activity and disturbed movement coordination in the behavioral tests and a decreased dopamine concentration as foundby HPLC. The effect of rotenone was partially prevented in the ZM241385 group, but not with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine administration. The administration of ZM241385 improved motor function and movement coordination (partial increase of stride length and partial decrease in the number of foot slips) and an increase in dopamine concentration in the rotenone-injected rats. However, the 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine and rotenone groups were not significantly different. These results indicate that selective A2A receptor blockade by ZM241385, but not A1 receptor blockadeby 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, may treat PD motor symptoms. This reinforces the potential use of A2A receptor antagonists as a treatment strategy for PD patients. PMID:26973484

  8. Blockade of neuronal dopamine D2 receptor attenuates morphine tolerance in mice spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wen-Ling; Xiong, Feng; Yan, Bing; Cao, Zheng-Yu; Liu, Wen-Tao; Liu, Ji-Hua; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Tolerance induced by morphine remains a major unresolved problem and significantly limits its clinical use. Recent evidences have indicated that dopamine D2 receptor (D2DR) is likely to be involved in morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance. However, its exact effect and molecular mechanism remain unknown. In this study we examined the effect of D2DR on morphine antinociceptive tolerance in mice spinal cord. Chronic morphine treatment significantly increased levels of D2DR in mice spinal dorsal horn. And the immunoreactivity of D2DR was newly expressed in neurons rather than astrocytes or microglia both in vivo and in vitro. Blockade of D2DR with its antagonist (sulpiride and L-741,626, i.t.) attenuated morphine antinociceptive tolerance without affecting basal pain perception. Sulpiride (i.t.) also down-regulated the expression of phosphorylation of NR1, PKC, MAPKs and suppressed the activation of astrocytes and microglia induced by chronic morphine administration. Particularly, D2DR was found to interact with μ opioid receptor (MOR) in neurons, and chronic morphine treatment enhanced the MOR/D2DR interactions. Sulpiride (i.t.) could disrupt the MOR/D2DR interactions and attenuate morphine tolerance, indicating that neuronal D2DR in the spinal cord may be involved in morphine tolerance possibly by interacting with MOR. These results may present new opportunities for the treatment and management of morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance which often observed in clinic. PMID:28004735

  9. The alpha2 adrenergic receptor antagonist idazoxan, but not the serotonin-2A receptor antagonist M100907, partially attenuated reward deficits associated with nicotine, but not amphetamine, withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2010-10-01

    Based on phenomenological similarities between anhedonia (reward deficits) associated with drug withdrawal and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, we showed previously that the atypical antipsychotic clozapine attenuated reward deficits associated with psychostimulant withdrawal. Antagonism of alpha(2) adrenergic and 5-HT(2A) receptors may contribute to these effects of clozapine. We investigated here whether blockade of alpha(2) or 5-HT(2A) receptors by idazoxan and M100907, respectively, would reverse anhedonic aspects of psychostimulant withdrawal. Idazoxan treatment facilitated recovery from spontaneous nicotine, but not amphetamine, withdrawal by attenuating reward deficits and increase the number of somatic signs. Thus, alpha(2) adrenoceptor blockade may have beneficial effects against nicotine withdrawal and may be involved in the effects of clozapine previously observed. M100907 worsened the anhedonia associated with nicotine and amphetamine withdrawal, suggesting that monotherapy with M100907 may exacerbate the expression of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia or nicotine withdrawal symptoms in people, including schizophrenia patients, attempting to quit smoking.

  10. Cannabidiol attenuates catalepsy induced by distinct pharmacological mechanisms via 5-HT1A receptor activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Felipe V; Del Bel, Elaine A; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2013-10-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa plant that produces antipsychotic effects in rodents and humans. It also reverses L-dopa-induced psychotic symptoms and improves motor function in Parkinson's patients. This latter effect raised the possibility that CBD could have beneficial effects on motor related striatal disorders. To investigate this possibility we evaluated if CBD would prevent catalepsy induced by drugs with distinct pharmacological mechanisms. The catalepsy test is largely used to investigate impairments of motor function caused by interference on striatal function. Male Swiss mice received acute pretreatment with CBD (5, 15, 30 or 60mg/kg, ip) 30min prior to the D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.6mg/kg), the non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-nitro-N-arginine (L-NOARG, 80mg/kg) or the CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (5mg/kg). The mice were tested 1, 2 or 4h after haloperidol, L-NOARG or WIN55,212-2 injection. These drugs significantly increased catalepsy time and this effect was attenuated dose-dependently by CBD. CBD, by itself, did not induce catalepsy. In a second set of experiments the mechanism of CBD effects was investigated. Thirty minutes before CBD (30mg/kg) the animals received the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.1mg/kg). The anticataleptic effect of CBD was prevented by WAY100635. These findings indicate that CBD can attenuate catalepsy caused by different mechanisms (D2 blockade, NOS inhibition and CB1 agonism) via 5-HT1A receptor activation, suggesting that it could be useful in the treatment of striatal disorders.

  11. Angiotensin receptor blockade attenuates cigarette smoke-induced lung injury and rescues lung architecture in mice.

    PubMed

    Podowski, Megan; Calvi, Carla; Metzger, Shana; Misono, Kaori; Poonyagariyagorn, Hataya; Lopez-Mercado, Armando; Ku, Therese; Lauer, Thomas; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon; Berger, Alan; Cheadle, Christopher; Tuder, Rubin; Dietz, Harry C; Mitzner, Wayne; Wise, Robert; Neptune, Enid

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent smoking-related disease for which no disease-altering therapies currently exist. As dysregulated TGF-β signaling associates with lung pathology in patients with COPD and in animal models of lung injury induced by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), we postulated that inhibiting TGF-β signaling would protect against CS-induced lung injury. We first confirmed that TGF-β signaling was induced in the lungs of mice chronically exposed to CS as well as in COPD patient samples. Importantly, key pathological features of smoking-associated lung disease in patients, e.g., alveolar injury with overt emphysema and airway epithelial hyperplasia with fibrosis, accompanied CS-induced alveolar cell apoptosis caused by enhanced TGF-β signaling in CS-exposed mice. Systemic administration of a TGF-β-specific neutralizing antibody normalized TGF-β signaling and alveolar cell death, conferring improved lung architecture and lung mechanics in CS-exposed mice. Use of losartan, an angiotensin receptor type 1 blocker used widely in the clinic and known to antagonize TGF-β signaling, also improved oxidative stress, inflammation, metalloprotease activation and elastin remodeling. These data support our hypothesis that inhibition of TGF-β signaling through angiotensin receptor blockade can attenuate CS-induced lung injury in an established murine model. More importantly, our findings provide a preclinical platform for the development of other TGF-β-targeted therapies for patients with COPD.

  12. Blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels similarly attenuates postischemic damage

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros-Mejorado, Abraham; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Cavaliere, Fabio; Magnus, Tim; Koch-Nolte, Friederich; Scemes, Eliana; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Matute, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The role of P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels in ischemic damage remains controversial. Here, we analyzed their contribution to postanoxic depolarization after ischemia in cultured neurons and in brain slices. We observed that pharmacological blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels delayed the onset of postanoxic currents and reduced their slope, and that simultaneous inhibition did not further enhance the effects of blocking either one. These results were confirmed in acute cortical slices from P2X7 and pannexin-1 knockout mice. Oxygen-glucose deprivation in cortical organotypic cultures caused neuronal death that was reduced with P2X7 and pannexin-1 blockers as well as in organotypic cultures derived from mice lacking P2X7 and pannexin 1. Subsequently, we used transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to monitor the neuroprotective effect of those drugs in vivo. We found that P2X7 and pannexin-1 antagonists, and their ablation in knockout mice, substantially attenuated the motor symptoms and reduced the infarct volume to ~50% of that in vehicle-treated or wild-type animals. These results show that P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels are major mediators of postanoxic depolarization in neurons and of brain damage after ischemia, and that they operate in the same deleterious signaling cascade leading to neuronal and tissue demise. PMID:25605289

  13. Blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels similarly attenuates postischemic damage.

    PubMed

    Cisneros-Mejorado, Abraham; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Cavaliere, Fabio; Magnus, Tim; Koch-Nolte, Friederich; Scemes, Eliana; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Matute, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    The role of P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels in ischemic damage remains controversial. Here, we analyzed their contribution to postanoxic depolarization after ischemia in cultured neurons and in brain slices. We observed that pharmacological blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels delayed the onset of postanoxic currents and reduced their slope, and that simultaneous inhibition did not further enhance the effects of blocking either one. These results were confirmed in acute cortical slices from P2X7 and pannexin-1 knockout mice. Oxygen-glucose deprivation in cortical organotypic cultures caused neuronal death that was reduced with P2X7 and pannexin-1 blockers as well as in organotypic cultures derived from mice lacking P2X7 and pannexin 1. Subsequently, we used transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to monitor the neuroprotective effect of those drugs in vivo. We found that P2X7 and pannexin-1 antagonists, and their ablation in knockout mice, substantially attenuated the motor symptoms and reduced the infarct volume to ~50% of that in vehicle-treated or wild-type animals. These results show that P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels are major mediators of postanoxic depolarization in neurons and of brain damage after ischemia, and that they operate in the same deleterious signaling cascade leading to neuronal and tissue demise.

  14. NMDA receptor blockade attenuates locomotion elicited by intrastriatal dopamine D1-receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kreipke, Christian W; Walker, Paul D

    2004-07-01

    Previous behavioral studies suggest that the striatum mediates a hyperactive response to systemic NMDA receptor antagonism in combination with systemic D1 receptor stimulation. However, many experiments conducted at the cellular level suggest that inhibition of NMDA receptors should block D1 receptor-mediated locomotor activity. Therefore, we investigated the consequences of NMDA receptor blockade on the ability of striatal D1 receptors to elicit locomotor activity using systemic and intrastriatal injections of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 combined with intrastriatal injections of the D1 full agonist SKF 82958. Following drug treatment locomotor activity was measured via computerized activity monitors designed to quantify multiple parameters of rodent open-field behavior. Both systemic (0.1 mg/kg) and intrastriatal (1.0 microg) MK-801 pretreatments completely blocked locomotor and stereotypic activity elicited by 10 microg of SKF 82958 directly infused into the striatum. Further, increased activity triggered by intrastriatal SKF 82958 was attenuated by a posttreatment with intrastriatal infusion of 1 microg MK-801. These data suggest that D1-stimulated locomotor behaviors controlled by the striatum require functional NMDA channels.

  15. Role of adenosine A2A receptor signaling in the nicotine-evoked attenuation of reflex cardiac sympathetic control.

    PubMed

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M; El-Gowilly, Sahar M; Fouda, Mohamed A; Saad, Evan I

    2011-08-01

    Baroreflex dysfunction contributes to increased cardiovascular risk in cigarette smokers. Given the importance of adenosinergic pathways in baroreflex control, the hypothesis was tested that defective central adenosinergic modulation of cardiac autonomic activity mediates the nicotine-baroreflex interaction. Baroreflex curves relating changes in heart rate (HR) to increases or decreases in blood pressure (BP) evoked by i.v. doses (1-16μg/kg) of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively, were constructed in conscious rats; slopes of the curves were taken as measures of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Nicotine (25 and 100μg/kg i.v.) dose-dependently reduced BRS(SNP) in contrast to no effect on BRS(PE). BRS(SNP) was also attenuated after intracisternal (i.c.) administration of nicotine. Similar reductions in BRS(SNP) were observed in rats pretreated with atropine or propranolol. The combined treatment with nicotine and atropine produced additive inhibitory effects on BRS, an effect that was not demonstrated upon concurrent exposure to nicotine and propranolol. BRS(SNP) was reduced in preparations treated with i.c. 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist), 8-(3-Chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC, A(2A) antagonist), or VUF5574 (A(3) antagonist). In contrast, BRS(SNP) was preserved after blockade of A(1) (DPCPX) or A(2B) (alloxazine) receptors or inhibition of adenosine uptake by dipyridamole. CSC or 8-PT abrogated the BRS(SNP) depressant effect of nicotine whereas other adenosinergic antagonists were without effect. Together, nicotine preferentially impairs reflex tachycardia via disruption of adenosine A(2A) receptor-mediated facilitation of reflex cardiac sympathoexcitation. Clinically, the attenuation by nicotine of compensatory sympathoexcitation may be detrimental in conditions such as hypothalamic defense response, posture changes, and ventricular rhythms.

  16. EXTRINSIC COAGULATION BLOCKADE ATTENUATES LUNG INJURY AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE RELEASE AFTER INTRATRACHEAL LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initiation of coagulation by tissue factor (TF) is a potentially powerful regulator of local inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that blockade of TF-factor VIIa (FVIIa) complex would decrease lung inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine release after tracheal instillation o...

  17. PVN Blockade of p44/42 MAPK Pathway Attenuates Salt-induced Hypertension through Modulating Neurotransmitters and Attenuating Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong-Li; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Kai-Li; Shi, Xiao-Lian; Qi, Jie; Chen, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Yan; Bai, Juan; Yi, Qiu-Yue; Feng, Zhi-Peng; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Cui, Wei; Liu, Jin-Jun; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2017-01-01

    The imbalance of neurotransmitters and excessive oxidative stress responses contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension. In this study, we determined whether blockade of p44/42 MAPK pathway in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ameliorates the development of hypertension through modulating neurotransmitters and attenuating oxidative stress. Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats received a high-salt diet (HS, 8% NaCl) or a normal-salt diet (NS, 0.3% NaCl) for 6 weeks and were treated with bilateral PVN infusion of PD-98059 (0.025 μg/h), a p44/42 MAPK inhibitor, or vehicle via osmotic minipump. HS resulted in higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) and Fra-like (Fra-LI) activity, and plasma and PVN levels of norepinephrine (NE), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), NOX2 and NOX4, lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), as compared with NS group. PD-98059 infusion reduced NE, TH, NOX2 and NOX4 in the PVN, and induced Cu/Zn-SOD and GAD67 in the PVN. It suggests that PVN blockade of p44/42 MAPK attenuates hypertension through modulating neurotransmitters and attenuating oxidative stress. PMID:28225041

  18. Differential effects of presynaptic versus postsynaptic adenosine A2A receptor blockade on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Justinová, Zuzana; Redhi, Godfrey H; Goldberg, Steven R; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-05-07

    Different doses of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 [3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-ethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7 methyl-3-[3-(phosphooxy)propyl-1-(2 propynil)-1H-purine-2,6-dione] were found previously to either decrease or increase self-administration of cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or anandamide in squirrel monkeys. It was hypothesized that the decrease observed with a relatively low dose of MSX-3 was related to blockade of striatal presynaptic A2A receptors that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, whereas the increase observed with a higher dose was related to blockade of postsynaptic A2A receptors localized in striatopallidal neurons. This hypothesis was confirmed in the present study by testing the effects of the preferential presynaptic and postsynaptic A2A receptor antagonists SCH-442416 [2-(2-furanyl)-7-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine] and KW-6002 [(E)-1, 3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione], respectively, in squirrel monkeys trained to intravenously self-administer THC. SCH-442416 produced a significant shift to the right of the THC self-administration dose-response curves, consistent with antagonism of the reinforcing effects of THC. Conversely, KW-6002 produced a significant shift to the left, consistent with potentiation of the reinforcing effects of THC. These results show that selectively blocking presynaptic A2A receptors could provide a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of marijuana dependence and underscore corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission as a possible main mechanism involved in the rewarding effects of THC.

  19. Blockade of Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors Suppresses Behavioral Sensitization and Naloxone-Precipitated Withdrawal Symptoms in Morphine-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Gang; Wu, Xian; Tao, Xinrong; Mao, Ruoying; Liu, Xueke; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Li, Guangwu; Stackman, Robert W.; Dong, Liuyi; Zhang, Gongliang

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prescription of opioids is fueling an epidemic of addiction and overdose deaths. Morphine is a highly addictive drug characterized by a high relapse rate – even after a long period of abstinence. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission participates in the development of morphine dependence, as well as the expression of morphine withdrawal. In this study, we examined the effect of blockade of 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs) on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in male mice. 5-HT2AR antagonist MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) suppressed acute morphine (5.0 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced increase in locomotor activity. Mice received morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for 3 days and then drug treatment was suspended for 5 days. On day 9, a challenge dose of morphine (10 mg/kg) was administered to induce the expression of behavioral sensitization. MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) pretreatment suppressed the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of morphine over a 7-day period to induce morphine-dependence. MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice on day 7. Moreover, chronic morphine treatment increased 5-HT2AR protein level and decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the prefrontal cortex. Together, these results by the first time demonstrate that 5-HT2ARs modulate opioid dependence and blockade of 5-HT2AR may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of morphine use disorders. Highlights (i) Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors suppresses the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. (ii) Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors suppresses naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-treated mice. (iii) Chronic morphine exposure induces an increase in 5-HT2A receptor protein level and a decrease in ERK protein phosphorylation in prefrontal cortex. PMID:28082900

  20. Combined, but not individual, blockade of ASIC3, P2X, and EP4 receptors attenuates the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Stone, Audrey J; Copp, Steven W; Kim, Joyce S; Kaufman, Marc P

    2015-12-01

    In healthy humans, tests of the hypothesis that lactic acid, PGE2, or ATP plays a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex proved controversial. The findings in humans resembled ours in decerebrate rats that individual blockade of the receptors to lactic acid, PGE2, and ATP had only small effects on the exercise pressor reflex provided that the muscles were freely perfused. This similarity between humans and rats prompted us to test the hypothesis that in rats with freely perfused muscles combined receptor blockade is required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex. We first compared the reflex before and after injecting either PPADS (10 mg/kg), a P2X receptor antagonist, APETx2 (100 μg/kg), an activating acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC) channel antagonist, or L161982 (2 μg/kg), an EP4 receptor antagonist, into the arterial supply of the hindlimb of decerebrated rats. We then examined the effects of combined blockade of P2X receptors, ASIC3 channels, and EP4 receptors on the exercise pressor reflex using the same doses, intra-arterial route, and time course of antagonist injections as those used for individual blockade. We found that neither PPADS (n = 5), APETx2 (n = 6), nor L161982 (n = 6) attenuated the reflex. In contrast, combined blockade of these receptors (n = 7) attenuated the peak (↓27%, P < 0.019) and integrated (↓48%, P < 0.004) pressor components of the reflex. Combined blockade injected intravenously had no effect on the reflex. We conclude that combined blockade of P2X receptors, ASIC3 channels, and EP4 receptors on the endings of thin fiber muscle afferents is required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused hindlimbs.

  1. Selective blockade of TRPA1 channel attenuates pathological pain without altering noxious cold sensation or body temperature regulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Joshi, Shailen K; DiDomenico, Stanley; Perner, Richard J; Mikusa, Joe P; Gauvin, Donna M; Segreti, Jason A; Han, Ping; Zhang, Xu-Feng; Niforatos, Wende; Bianchi, Bruce R; Baker, Scott J; Zhong, Chengmin; Simler, Gricelda H; McDonald, Heath A; Schmidt, Robert G; McGaraughty, Steve P; Chu, Katharine L; Faltynek, Connie R; Kort, Michael E; Reilly, Regina M; Kym, Philip R

    2011-05-01

    Despite the increasing interest in TRPA1 channel as a pain target, its role in cold sensation and body temperature regulation is not clear; the efficacy and particularly side effects resulting from channel blockade remain poorly understood. Here we use a potent, selective, and bioavailable antagonist to address these issues. A-967079 potently blocks human (IC(50): 51 nmol/L, electrophysiology, 67 nmol/L, Ca(2+) assay) and rat TRPA1 (IC(50): 101 nmol/L, electrophysiology, 289 nmol/L, Ca(2+) assay). It is >1000-fold selective over other TRP channels, and is >150-fold selective over 75 other ion channels, enzymes, and G-protein-coupled receptors. Oral dosing of A-967079 produces robust drug exposure in rodents, and exhibits analgesic efficacy in allyl isothiocyanate-induced nocifensive response and osteoarthritic pain in rats (ED(50): 23.2 mg/kg, p.o.). A-967079 attenuates cold allodynia produced by nerve injury but does not alter noxious cold sensation in naive animals, suggesting distinct roles of TRPA1 in physiological and pathological states. Unlike TRPV1 antagonists, A-967079 does not alter body temperature. It also does not produce locomotor or cardiovascular side effects. Collectively, these data provide novel insights into TRPA1 function and suggest that the selective TRPA1 blockade may present a viable strategy for alleviating pain without untoward side effects.

  2. GABA(A) receptor blockade in dorsomedial and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus evokes panic-like elaborated defensive behaviour followed by innate fear-induced antinociception.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Uribe-Mariño, Andrés; Castiblanco-Urbina, Maria Angélica; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibraim; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2009-12-11

    Dysfunction in the hypothalamic GABAergic system has been implicated in panic syndrome in humans. Furthermore, several studies have implicated the hypothalamus in the elaboration of pain modulation. Panic-prone states are able to be experimentally induced in laboratory animals to study this phenomenon. The aim of the present work was to investigate the involvement of medial hypothalamic nuclei in the organization of panic-like behaviour and the innate fear-induced oscillations of nociceptive thresholds. The blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the neuronal substrates of the ventromedial or dorsomedial hypothalamus was followed by elaborated defensive panic-like reactions. Moreover, innate fear-induced antinociception was consistently elicited after the escape behaviour. The escape responses organized by the dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei were characteristically more elaborated, and a remarkable exploratory behaviour was recorded during GABA(A) receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus. The motor characteristic of the elaborated defensive escape behaviour and the patterns of defensive alertness and defensive immobility induced by microinjection of the bicuculline either into the dorsomedial or into the ventromedial hypothalamus were very similar. This was followed by the same pattern of innate fear-induced antinociceptive response that lasted approximately 40 min after the elaborated defensive escape reaction in both cases. These findings suggest that dysfunction of the GABA-mediated neuronal system in the medial hypothalamus causes panic-like responses in laboratory animals, and that the elaborated escape behaviour organized in both dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei are followed by significant innate-fear-induced antinociception. Our findings indicate that the GABA(A) receptor of dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei are critically involved in the modulation of panic-like behaviour.

  3. Alcohol-heightened aggression in mice: attenuation by 5-HT1A receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Miczek, K A; Hussain, S; Faccidomo, S

    1998-09-01

    One of the critical mechanisms by which alcohol heightens aggression involves forebrain serotonin (5-HT) systems, possibly via actions on 5-HT1A receptors. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that activating 5-HT1A receptors by selective agonists will block the aggression-heightening effects of ethanol. Initially, the selective antagonist WAY 100635 was used to assess whether or not the changes in aggressive behavior after treatment with 8-OH-DPAT and flesinoxan result from action at the 5-HT1A receptors. Resident male CFW mice engaged in aggressive behavior (i.e. attack bites, sideways threats, tail rattle) during 5-min confrontations with a group-housed intruder male. Quantitative analysis of the behavioral repertoire revealed systematic reductions in all salient elements of aggressive behavior after treatment with 8-OH-DPAT (0.1-0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or flesinoxan (0.1-1.0 mg/kg, i.p.). The 5-HT1A agonists also reduced motor activities such as walking, rearing and grooming, although to a lesser degree. Pretreatment with the antagonist WAY 100635 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) shifted the agonist dose-effect curves for behavioral effects to the right. In a further experiment, oral ethanol (1.0 g/kg, p.o.) increased the frequency of attacks in excess of 2 SD from their mean vehicle level of attacks in 19 out of 76 resident mice. Low doses of 8-OH-DPAT (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) and flesinoxan (0.1, 0.3, 0.6 mg/kg), given before the ethanol treatment, attenuated the alcohol-heightened aggression in a dose-dependent fashion. By contrast, these low 5-HT1A agonist doses affected motor activity in ethanol-treated resident mice to a lesser degree, suggesting behavioral specificity of these anti-aggressive effects. The current results support the hypothesized significant role of 5-HT1A receptors in the aggression-heightening effects of alcohol. If these effects are in fact due to action at somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors, then the anti-aggressive effects would be associated with

  4. Chronic and acute adenosine A2A receptor blockade prevents long-term episodic memory disruption caused by acute cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Mouro, Francisco M; Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Coelho, Joana E; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Lopes, Luísa V; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M

    2017-05-01

    Cannabinoid-mediated memory impairment is a concern in cannabinoid-based therapies. Caffeine exacerbates cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R)-induced memory deficits through an adenosine A1 receptor-mediated mechanism. We now evaluated how chronic or acute blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) affects long-term episodic memory deficits induced by a single injection of a selective CB1R agonist. Long-term episodic memory was assessed by the novel object recognition (NOR) test. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (1 mg/kg) immediately after the NOR training, being tested for novelty recognition 24 h later. Anxiety levels were assessed by the Elevated Plus Maze test, immediately after the NOR. Mice were also tested for exploratory behaviour at the Open Field. For chronic A2AR blockade, KW-6002 (istradefylline) (3 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 30 days; acute blockade of A2ARs was assessed by i.p. injection of SCH 58261 (1 mg/kg) administered either together with WIN 55,212-2 or only 30 min before the NOR test phase. The involvement of CB1Rs was assessed by using the CB1R antagonist, AM251 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). WIN 55,212-2 caused a disruption in NOR, an action absent in mice also receiving AM251, KW-6002 or SCH 58261 during the encoding/consolidation phase; SCH 58251 was ineffective if present during retrieval only. No effects were detected in the Elevated Plus maze or Open Field Test. The finding that CB1R-mediated memory disruption is prevented by antagonism of adenosine A2ARs, highlights a possibility to prevent cognitive side effects when therapeutic application of CB1R drugs is desired.

  5. Adenosine 2A receptor agonism: A single intrathecal administration attenuates motor paralysis in experimental autoimmune encephalopathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Loram, Lisa C; Strand, Keith A; Taylor, Frederick R; Sloane, Evan; Van Dam, Anne-Marie; Rieger, Jayson; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2015-05-01

    A single intrathecal dose of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) agonist was previously reported to produce a multi-week reversal of allodynia in two different models of neuropathic pain in addition to downregulating glial activation markers in the spinal cord. We aimed to determine whether a single intrathecal administration of an A2AR agonist was able to attenuate motor symptoms induced by experimental autoimmune encephalopathy. Two A2AR agonists (CGS21680 and ATL313) significantly attenuated progression of motor symptoms following a single intrathecal administration at the onset of motor symptoms. OX-42, a marker of microglial activation, was significantly attenuated in the lumbar spinal cord following A2AR administration compared to vehicle. Therefore, A2AR agonists attenuate motor symptoms of EAE by acting on A2AR in the spinal cord.

  6. 5-HT1A receptor blockade targeting the basolateral amygdala improved stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation and retrieval in rats.

    PubMed

    Sardari, M; Rezayof, A; Zarrindast, M-R

    2015-08-06

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) 5-HT1A receptors in memory formation under stress. We also examined whether the blockade of these receptors is involved in stress-induced state-dependent memory. Adult male Wistar rats received cannula implants that bilaterally targeted the BLA. Long-term memory was examined using the step-through type of passive avoidance task. Behavioral stress was evoked by exposure to an elevated platform (EP) for 10, 20 and 30min. Post-training exposure to acute stress (30min) impaired the memory consolidation. In addition, pre-test exposure to acute stress-(20 and 30min) induced the impairment of memory retrieval. Interestingly, the memory impairment induced by post-training exposure to stress was restored in the animals that received 20- or 30-min pre-test stress exposure, suggesting stress-induced state-dependent memory retrieval. Post-training BLA-targeted injection of a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, (S)-WAY-100135 (2μg/rat), prevented the impairing effect of stress on memory consolidation. Pre-test injection of the same doses of (S)-WAY-100135 that was targeted to the BLA also reversed stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. It should be considered that post-training or pre-test BLA-targeted injection of (S)-WAY-100135 (0.5-2μg/rat) by itself had no effect on the memory formation. Moreover, pre-test injection of (S)-WAY-100135 (2μg/rat) that targeted the BLA inhibited the stress-induced state-dependent memory retrieval. Taken together, our findings suggest that post-training or pre-test exposure to acute stress induced the impairment of memory consolidation, retrieval and state-dependent learning. The BLA 5-HT1A receptors have a critical role in learning and memory under stress.

  7. Aortic Remodeling Following Transverse Aortic Constriction in Mice is Attenuated with AT1 Receptor Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Geng, Liang; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Cao, Jiu-Mei; Guo, Steven; Villamizar, Carlos; Kwartler, Callie S.; Ju, Xiaoxi; Brasier, Allan R.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although hypertension is the most common risk factor for thoracic aortic diseases, it is not understood how increased pressures on the ascending aorta lead to aortic aneurysms. We investigated the role of Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor activation in ascending aortic remodeling in response to increased biomechanical forces using a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) mouse model. Approach and Results Two weeks after TAC, the increased biomechanical pressures led to ascending aortic dilatation, aortic wall thickening and medial hypertrophy. Significant adventitial hyperplasia and inflammatory responses in TAC ascending aortas were accompanied by increased adventitial collagen, elevated inflammatory and proliferative markers, and increased cell density due to accumulation of myofibroblasts and macrophages. Treatment with losartan significantly blocked TAC induced vascular inflammation and macrophage accumulation. However, losartan only partially prevented TAC induced adventitial hyperplasia, collagen accumulation and ascending aortic dilatation. Increased Tgfb2 expression and phosphorylated-Smad2 staining in the medial layer of TAC ascending aortas was effectively blocked with losartan. In contrast, the increased Tgfb1 expression and adventitial phospho-Smad2 staining were only partially attenuated by losartan. In addition, losartan significantly blocked Erk activation and ROS production in the TAC ascending aorta. Conclusions Inhibition of the AT1 receptor using losartan significantly attenuated the vascular remodeling associated with TAC but did not completely block the increased TGF- β1 expression, adventitial Smad2 signaling and collagen accumulation. These results help to delineate the aortic TGF-β signaling that is dependent and independent of the AT1 receptor after TAC. PMID:23868934

  8. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) attenuates high glucose-induced insulin signaling blockade in human hepG2 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Li; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2008-08-01

    Insulin resistance is the primary characteristic of type 2 diabetes which as a result of insulin signaling defects. It has been suggested that the tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) displays some antidiabetic effects, but the mechanism for EGCG insulin-enhancing effects is incompletely understood. In the present study, the investigations of EGCG on insulin signaling are performed in insulin-responsive human HepG2 cells cotreated with high glucose. We found that the high glucose condition causes significant increasing Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), leading to reduce insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. As the results, the insulin metabolic effects of glycogen synthesis and glucose uptake are inhibited by high glucose. However, the treatment of EGCG improves insulin-stimulated downsignaling by reducing IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation. Furthermore, we also demonstrated these EGCG effects are essential depends on the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Together, our data suggest a putative link between high glucose and insulin resistance in HepG2 cells, and the EGCG treatment attenuates insulin signaling blockade by reducing IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation through the AMPK activation pathway.

  9. CXCR4 Blockade Attenuates Hyperoxia Induced Lung Injury in Neonatal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Shelley; Ramachandran, Shalini; Torres, Eneida; Huang, Jian; Hehre, Dorothy; Suguihara, Cleide; Young, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) modulate the inflammatory response. Whether antagonism of CXCR4 will alleviate lung inflammation in neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury is unknown. Objective To determine whether CXCR4 antagonism would attenuate lung injury in rodents with experimental BPD by decreasing pulmonary inflammation. Methods Newborn rats exposed to normoxia (RA) or hyperoxia (FiO2=0.9) from postnatal day 2 (P2)-P16 were randomized to receive the CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100 or placebo (PL) from P5 to P15. Lung alveolarization, angiogenesis, and inflammation were evaluated at P16. Results As compared to RA, hyperoxic-PL pups had a decrease in alveolarization, reduced lung vascular density and increased lung inflammation. In contrast, AMD3100-treated hyperoxic pups had improved alveolarization and increased angiogenesis. This improvement in lung structure was accompanied by a decrease in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid macrophage and neutrophil count and reduced lung myeloperoxidase activity. Conclusion CXCR4 antagonism decreases lung inflammation and improves alveolar as well as vascular structure in neonatal rats with experimental BPD. These findings suggest a novel therapeutic strategy to alleviate lung injury in preterm infants with BPD. PMID:25825119

  10. Up-Regulation of Endothelin Type A Receptor in Human and Rat Radiation Proctitis: Preclinical Therapeutic Approach With Endothelin Receptor Blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Jullien, Nicolash; Blirando, Karl; Milliat, Fabien; Benderitter, Marc; Francois, Agnes

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Rectum radiation damage and fibrosis are often associated with radiation therapy of pelvic tumors. The endothelin (ET) system has been implicated in several fibrotic diseases but never studied in the context of gastrointestinal radiation damage. This study assessed modifications in ET type 1 (ET-1), ET type A receptor (ET{sub A}), and ET type B receptor (ET{sub B}) localization and/or expression in irradiated human rectal tissue and in a rat model of delayed colorectal injury. We also evaluated the therapeutic potential of long-term ET receptor blockade. Methods and Materials: Routine histological studies of sections of healthy and radiation-injured human rectum tissue were done; the sections were also immunostained for ET{sub A} and ET{sub B} receptors. The rat model involved the delivery of 27 Gy in a single dose to the colons and rectums of the animals. The ET-1/ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} expression and ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} localization were studied at 10 weeks postexposure. The abilities of bosentan and atrasentan to protect against delayed rectal injury were also investigated. Results: The immunolocalization of ET{sub A} and ET{sub B} in healthy human rectums was similar to that in rat rectums. However, strong ET{sub A} immunostaining was seen in the presence of human radiation proctitis, and increased ET{sub A} mRNA levels were seen in the rat following colorectal irradiation. Immunostaining for ET{sub A} was also strongly positive in rats in areas of radiation-induced mucosal ulceration, atypia, and fibroproliferation. However, neither bosentan nor atrasentan prevented radiation damage to the rectum when given long term. The only effect seen for atrasentan was an increased number of sclerotic vessel sections in injured tissues. Conclusions: As the result of the overexpression of ET{sub A}, radiation exposure deregulates the endothelin system through an 'ET{sub A} profile' in the human and rodent rectum. However, therapeutic interventions involving mixed or

  11. CRM1 Blockade by Selective Inhibitors of Nuclear Export (SINE) attenuates Kidney Cancer Growth

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hiromi; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Landesman, Yosef; Yang, Joy; Evans, Christopher P.; Weiss, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Since renal cell carcinoma (RCC) often presents asymptomatically, patients are commonly diagnosed at the metastatic stage when treatment options are limited and survival is poor. Given that progression-free survival with current therapies for metastatic RCC is only one to two years and existing drugs are associated with a high rate of resistance, new pharmacological targets are desperately needed. We identified and evaluated the nuclear exporter protein, chromosome region maintenance protein 1 (CRM1), as a novel potential therapeutic for RCC. Purpose To evaluate novel, selective inhibitors of nuclear export as potential RCC therapeutics. Materials and Methods Efficacy of the CRM1 inhibitors, KPT-185 and -251, was tested in several RCC cell lines and in a RCC xenograft model. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were quantified, and localization of p53 family proteins was assessed using standard techniques. Results KPT-185 attenuated CRM1 and showed increased cytotoxicity in RCC cells in vitro, with evidence of increased apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest. KPT-185 caused both p53 and p21 to remain primarily in the nucleus in all RCC cell lines, suggesting a mechanism of action of these compounds dependent upon tumor-suppressor protein localization. Furthermore, when administered orally in a high-grade RCC xenograft model, the bioavailable CRM1 inhibitor KPT-251 significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo with the expected on-target effects and with no obvious toxicity. Conclusions The CRM1 inhibitor family of proteins are novel therapeutic targets RCC and deserve further intensive investigation in this and other urologic malignancies. PMID:23079374

  12. Recovery from ketamine-induced amnesia by blockade of GABA-A receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice.

    PubMed

    Farahmandfar, Maryam; Akbarabadi, Ardeshir; Bakhtazad, Atefeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-03-06

    Ketamine and other noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists are known to induce deficits in learning and cognitive performance sensitive to prefrontal cortex (PFC) functions. The interaction of a glutamatergic and GABAergic systems is essential for many cognitive behaviors. In order to understand the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glutamate interactions on learning and memory, we investigated the effects of intra medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) injections of GABAergic agents on ketamine-induced amnesia using a one-trial passive avoidance task in mice. Pre-training systemic administration of ketamine (5, 10 and 15mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently decreased the memory acquisition of a one-trial passive avoidance task. Pre-training intra-mPFC injection of muscimol, GABAA receptor agonist (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2μg/mouse) and baclofen GABAB receptor agonist (0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1μg/mouse), impaired memory acquisition. However, co-pretreatment of different doses of muscimol and baclofen with a lower dose of ketamine (5mg/kg), which did not induce amnesia by itself, caused inhibition of memory formation. Our data showed that sole pre-training administration of bicuculline, GABA-A receptor antagonist and phaclofen GABA-B receptor antagonist into the mPFC, did not affect memory acquisition. In addition, the amnesia induced by pre-training ketamine (15mg/kg) was significantly decreased by the pretreatment of bicuculline (0.005, 0.1 and 0.5μg/mouse). It can be concluded that GABAergic system of the mPFC is involved in the ketamine-induced impairment of memory acquisition.

  13. Neuroprotection by estradiol: a role of aromatase against spine synapse loss after blockade of GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lepu; Lehan, Nadine; Wehrenberg, Uwe; Disteldorf, Erik; von Lossow, Richard; Mares, Ute; Jarry, Hubertus; Rune, Gabriele M

    2007-01-01

    Estrogen has been suggested to be pro-epileptic by reducing GABA synthesis, resulting in increased spine density and a decreased threshold for seizures in the hippocampus, which, once they occur, are characterized by a dramatic spine loss in the affected brain areas. As considerable amounts of estradiol are synthesized in the hippocampus, in this study we focused on aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen synthesis in order to examine the role of locally synthesized estrogens in epilepsy. To this end, we first examined the effects of letrozole, a potent aromatase inhibitor, on GABA metabolism in single interneurons of hippocampal dispersion cultures. Letrozole downregulated estradiol release into the medium, as well as glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) expression and GABA synthesis, and decreased the number of GAD positive cells in the cultures. Next, we counted spine synapses and measured estradiol release of hippocampal slice cultures, in which GABA(A) receptors had been blocked by bicuculline, in order to mimic epileptic activity. Treatment of slice cultures with bicuculline resulted in a dramatic decrease in the number of spine synapses and in a significant suppression of estrogen synthesis. The decrease in synapse number in response to bicuculline was restored by combined application of estradiol and bicuculline. Surprisingly, estradiol alone had no effect on either spine synapse number or on GAD expression and GABA synthesis. "Rescue" of synapse number in "epileptic slices" by estradiol and maintenance of GABA metabolism by hippocampus-derived estradiol points to a neuroprotective role of aromatase in epilepsy. Re-filling of estradiol stores after their depletion due to overexcitation may therefore add to therapeutical strategies in epilepsy.

  14. Muscarinic, but not nicotinic, acetylcholine receptor blockade in the ventral tegmental area attenuates cue-induced sucrose-seeking

    PubMed Central

    Addy, Nii A.; Nunes, Eric J.; Wickham, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is known to play a role in cue-mediated reward-seeking for natural rewards and drugs of abuse. Specifically, cholinergic and glutamatergic receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been shown to regulate cue-induced drug-seeking. However, the potential role of these VTA receptors in regulating cue-induced reward seeking for natural rewards is unknown. Here, we examined whether blockade of VTA acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) would alter cue-induced sucrose seeking in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Subjects underwent 10 days of sucrose self-administration training (fixed ratio 1 schedule) followed by 7 days of forced abstinence. On withdrawal day 7, rats received bilateral VTA infusion of vehicle, the muscarinic AChR antagonist scopolamine (2.4 or 24 μg/side), the nicotinic AChR antagonist mecamylamine (3 or 30 μg/side), or the NMDAR antagonist AP-5 (0.1 or 1 μg/side) immediately prior to examination of cue-induced sucrose-seeking. Scopolamine infusion led to robust attenuation, but did not completely block, sucrose-seeking behavior. In contrast, VTA administration of mecamylamine or AP-5 did not alter cue-induced sucrose-seeking. Together, the data suggest that VTA muscarinic AChRs, but not nicotinic AChRs nor NMDARs, facilitate the ability of food-associated cues to drive seeking behavior for a food reward. PMID:26026787

  15. Systemic modulation of serotonergic synapses via reuptake blockade or 5HT1A receptor antagonism does not alter perithreshold taste sensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Clare M; Spector, Alan C

    2014-09-01

    Systemic blockade of serotonin (5HT) reuptake with paroxetine has been shown to increase sensitivity to sucrose and quinine in humans. Here, using a 2-response operant taste detection task, we measured the effect of paroxetine and the 5HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 on the ability of rats to discriminate sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid from water. After establishing individual psychometric functions, 5 concentrations of each taste stimulus were chosen to represent the dynamic portion of the concentration-response curve, and the performance of the rats to these stimuli was assessed after vehicle, paroxetine (7mg/kg intraperitoneally), and WAY100635 (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously; 1mg/kg intravenously) administration. Although, at times, overall performance across concentrations dropped, at most, 5% from vehicle to drug conditions, no differences relative to vehicle were seen on the parameters of the psychometric function (asymptote, slope, or EC50) after drug administration. In contrast to findings in humans, our results suggest that modulation of 5HT activity has little impact on sucrose detectability at perithreshold concentrations in rats, at least at the doses used in this task. In the rat model, the purported paracrine/neurocrine action of serotonin in the taste bud may work in a manner that does not impact overt taste detection behavior.

  16. Systemic Modulation of Serotonergic Synapses via Reuptake Blockade or 5HT1A Receptor Antagonism Does Not Alter Perithreshold Taste Sensitivity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic blockade of serotonin (5HT) reuptake with paroxetine has been shown to increase sensitivity to sucrose and quinine in humans. Here, using a 2-response operant taste detection task, we measured the effect of paroxetine and the 5HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 on the ability of rats to discriminate sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid from water. After establishing individual psychometric functions, 5 concentrations of each taste stimulus were chosen to represent the dynamic portion of the concentration–response curve, and the performance of the rats to these stimuli was assessed after vehicle, paroxetine (7mg/kg intraperitoneally), and WAY100635 (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously; 1mg/kg intravenously) administration. Although, at times, overall performance across concentrations dropped, at most, 5% from vehicle to drug conditions, no differences relative to vehicle were seen on the parameters of the psychometric function (asymptote, slope, or EC50) after drug administration. In contrast to findings in humans, our results suggest that modulation of 5HT activity has little impact on sucrose detectability at perithreshold concentrations in rats, at least at the doses used in this task. In the rat model, the purported paracrine/neurocrine action of serotonin in the taste bud may work in a manner that does not impact overt taste detection behavior. PMID:25056731

  17. Blockade of Extracellular High-Mobility Group Box 1 Attenuates Systemic Inflammation and Coagulation Abnormalities in Rats with Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Zhao, Kun; Shen, Xiao; Fan, Xin-Xin; Ding, Kai; Liu, Ren-Min; Wang, Feng

    2016-07-20

    BACKGROUND As an extracellularly released mediator, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) initiates sterile inflammation following severe trauma. Serum HMGB1 levels correlate well with acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) in trauma patients, which is independently associated with higher mortality. We investigated the involvement of HMGB1 in ATC through blocking extracellular HMGB1. MATERIAL AND METHODS The ATC model was induced by polytrauma and hemorrhage in male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were randomly assigned to sham, ATC, and ATCH (ATC with HMGB1 blockade) groups. Thrombelastography (TEG) was performed to monitor changes in coagulation function. Serum levels of HMGB1, TNF-α, and IL-6 were measured, as well as lung levels of HMGB1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB and expression of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). RESULTS Compared with the sham group, HMGB1 increased the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6, whereas HMGB1 blockade inhibited the induction of TNF-α and IL-6. HMGB1 also induced elevated serum soluble P-selectin and fibrinolysis markers plasmin-antiplasmin complex, which both were reduced by HMGB1 blockade. Thrombelastography revealed the hypocoagulability status in the ATC group, which was attenuated by anti-HMGB1 antibody. Furthermore, the lung level of NF-κB and expression of RAGE were decreased by anti-HMGB1 antibody, suggesting the role of RAGE/NF-κB pathway in ATC. CONCLUSIONS HMGB1 blockade can attenuate inflammation and coagulopathy in ATC rats. Anti-HMGB1 antibody might exert protective effects partly through the RAGE/NF-κB pathway. Thus, HMGB1 has potential as a therapeutic target in ATC.

  18. Role of adenosine A{sub 2A} receptor signaling in the nicotine-evoked attenuation of reflex cardiac sympathetic control

    SciTech Connect

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M. El-gowilly, Sahar M.; Fouda, Mohamed A.; Saad, Evan I.

    2011-08-01

    Baroreflex dysfunction contributes to increased cardiovascular risk in cigarette smokers. Given the importance of adenosinergic pathways in baroreflex control, the hypothesis was tested that defective central adenosinergic modulation of cardiac autonomic activity mediates the nicotine-baroreflex interaction. Baroreflex curves relating changes in heart rate (HR) to increases or decreases in blood pressure (BP) evoked by i.v. doses (1-16 {mu}g/kg) of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively, were constructed in conscious rats; slopes of the curves were taken as measures of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Nicotine (25 and 100 {mu}g/kg i.v.) dose-dependently reduced BRS{sub SNP} in contrast to no effect on BRS{sub PE}. BRS{sub SNP} was also attenuated after intracisternal (i.c.) administration of nicotine. Similar reductions in BRS{sub SNP} were observed in rats pretreated with atropine or propranolol. The combined treatment with nicotine and atropine produced additive inhibitory effects on BRS, an effect that was not demonstrated upon concurrent exposure to nicotine and propranolol. BRS{sub SNP} was reduced in preparations treated with i.c. 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist), 8-(3-Chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC, A{sub 2A} antagonist), or VUF5574 (A{sub 3} antagonist). In contrast, BRS{sub SNP} was preserved after blockade of A{sub 1} (DPCPX) or A{sub 2B} (alloxazine) receptors or inhibition of adenosine uptake by dipyridamole. CSC or 8-PT abrogated the BRS{sub SNP} depressant effect of nicotine whereas other adenosinergic antagonists were without effect. Together, nicotine preferentially impairs reflex tachycardia via disruption of adenosine A{sub 2A} receptor-mediated facilitation of reflex cardiac sympathoexcitation. Clinically, the attenuation by nicotine of compensatory sympathoexcitation may be detrimental in conditions such as hypothalamic defense response, posture changes, and ventricular rhythms

  19. Chronic central nervous system MC3/4R blockade attenuates hypertension induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition but not by angiotensin II infusion.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Alexandre A; do Carmo, Jussara M; Dubinion, John H; Bassi, Mirian; Mokhtarpouriani, Kasra; Hamza, Shereen M; Hall, John E

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether central melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor (MC3/4R) blockade attenuates the blood pressure (BP) responses to chronic L-NAME or angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion in Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with telemetry transmitters, venous catheters, and intracerebroventricular cannula into the lateral ventricle. After 5 days of control measurements, L-NAME (10 μg/kg/min IV, groups 1 and 2) or Ang II (10 ng/kg/min IV, groups 3 and 4) were infused for 24 days, and starting on day 7 of L-NAME or Ang II infusion, the MC3/4R antagonist SHU-9119 (24 nmol/d, n=6/group; groups 1 and 3) or vehicle (saline 0.5 μL/h, n=6/group; groups 2 and 4) was infused intracerebroventricularly for 10 days. A control normotensive group also received SHU-9119 for 10 days (n=5). L-NAME and Ang II increased BP by 40±3 and 56±5 mm Hg, respectively, although heart rate was slightly reduced. MC3/4R blockade doubled food intake and reduced heart rate (≈40 to ≈50 bpm) in all groups. MC3/4R blockade caused only a small reduction in BP in normotensive group (4 mm Hg) and no change in rats receiving Ang II, although markedly reducing BP by 21±4 mm Hg in L-NAME-treated rats. After SHU-9119 infusion was stopped, food intake, heart rate, and BP gradually returned to values observed before SHU-9119 infusion was started. Ganglionic blockade at the end of L-NAME or Ang II infusion caused similar BP reduction in both groups. These results suggest that the brain MC3/4R contributes, at least in part, to the hypertension induced by chronic L-NAME infusion but not by Ang II.

  20. Salidroside attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension via adenosine A2a receptor related mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoying; Zou, Lizhen; Yu, Xiaoming; Chen, Mayun; Guo, Rui; Cai, Hui; Yao, Dan; Xu, Xiaomei; Chen, Yanfan; Ding, Cheng; Cai, Xueding; Wang, Liangxing

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pulmonary arterial remodeling mainly due to excess cellular proliferation and apoptosis resistance of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Salidroside, an active ingredient isolated from Rhodiola rosea is proposed to exert protective effects against PAH. However, the function of salidroside in PAH has not been investigated systematically and the underlying mechanisms are not clear. To investigate the effects of salidroside on PAH, the mice in chronic hypoxia model of PAH were given by an increasing concentration of salidroside (0, 16 mg/kg, 32 mg/kg, and 64 mg/kg). After salidroside treatment, the chronic hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary arterial remodeling were attenuated, suggesting a protective role played by salidroside in PAH. To explore the potential mechanisms, the apoptosis of PASMCs after salidroside treatment under hypoxia conditions were determined in vivo and in vitro, and also the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis factors, Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome C, and caspase 9 were examined. The results revealed that salidroside reversed hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis resistance at least partially via a mitochondria-dependent pathway. In addition, salidroside upregulated the expression of adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) in lung tissues of mice and in PASMCs in vitro after hypoxia exposure. Combined the evidence above, we conclude that salidroside can attenuate chronic hypoxia-induced PAH by promoting PASMCs apoptosis via an A2aR related mitochondria dependent pathway.

  1. Blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors in the striatum attenuates methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and reduces activation of the patch compartment.

    PubMed

    Horner, Kristen A; Logan, Mary Caroline; Fisher, Trevor J; Logue, Jordan B

    2017-02-05

    The behavioral effects of methamphetamine (METH) are mediated by the striatum, which is divided into the patch compartment, which mediates limbic and reward functions, and the matrix compartment, which mediates sensorimotor tasks. METH treatment results in repetitive behavior that is related to enhanced relative activation of the patch versus the matrix compartment. The patch, but not the matrix compartment contains a high density of μ opioid receptors, and localized blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors attenuates METH-induced patch-enhanced activity and repetitive behaviors. Numerous studies have examined patch-enhanced activity and the contribution of patch-associated μ opioid receptors to METH-induced repetitive behavior, but it is not known whether patch-enhanced activity occurs during METH-mediated reward, nor is it known if patch-based μ opioid receptors contribute to METH reward. The goals of this study were to determine if blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors alters METH-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), as well activation of the patch and matrix compartments following METH-mediated CPP. A biased conditioning paradigm was used to assess CPP, and conditioning occurred over an 8-d period. Animals were bilaterally infused in the striatum with the μ-specific antagonist CTAP or vehicle prior to conditioning. Animals were tested for preference 24h after the last day of conditioning, sacrificed and the brains processed for immunohistochemistry. Blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors reduced METH-induced CPP, and reduced patch-enhanced c-Fos expression in the striatum following METH-mediated CPP. These data indicate that patch-enhanced activity is associated with METH-mediated reward and patch-based μ opioid receptors contribute to this phenomenon.

  2. Blockade of CTLA-4 promotes the development of effector CD8+ T lymphocytes and the therapeutic effect of vaccination with an attenuated protozoan expressing NY-ESO-1.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Luara Isabela; Galvão-Filho, Bruno; de Faria, Paula Cristina; Junqueira, Caroline; Dutra, Miriam Santos; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Maurício Martins; Ritter, Gerd; Bannard, Oliver; Fearon, Douglas Thomas; Antonelli, Lis Ribeiro; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes

    2015-03-01

    The development of cancer immunotherapy has long been a challenge. Here, we report that prophylactic vaccination with a highly attenuated Trypanosoma cruzi strain expressing NY-ESO-1 (CL-14-NY-ESO-1) induces both effector memory and effector CD8(+) T lymphocytes that efficiently prevent tumor development. However, the therapeutic effect of such a vaccine is limited. We also demonstrate that blockade of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) during vaccination enhances the frequency of NY-ESO-1-specific effector CD8(+) T cells producing IFN-γ and promotes lymphocyte migration to the tumor infiltrate. As a result, therapy with CL-14-NY-ESO-1 together with anti-CTLA-4 is highly effective in controlling the development of an established melanoma.

  3. Deletion of the G2A receptor fails to attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Osmers, Inga; Smith, Sherry S.; Parks, Brian W.; Yu, Shaohua; Srivastava, Roshni; Wohler, Jillian E.; Barnum, Scott R.; Kabarowski, Janusz H.S.

    2009-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a chemotactic lysolipid produced during inflammation by the hydrolytic action of phospholipase A2 enzymes. LPC stimulates chemotaxis of T cells in vitro through activation of the G protein-coupled receptor, G2A. This has led to the proposition that G2A contributes to the recruitment of T cells to sites of inflammation and thus promotes chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases associated with the generation and subsequent tissue infiltration of auto-antigen-specific effector T cells. However, one study suggests that G2A may negatively regulate T cell proliferative responses to antigen receptor engagement and thereby attenuates autoimmunity by reducing the generation of autoreactive T cells. To address the relative contribution of these G2A-mediated effects to the pathophysiology of T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, we examined the impact of G2A inactivation on the onset and severity of murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Wild type (G2A+/+) and G2A-deficient (G2A-/-) C57BL/6J mice exhibited a similar incidence and onset of disease following immunization with MOG35-55 peptide. Disease severity was only moderately reduced in G2A-/- mice. Similar numbers of MOG35-55 specific T cells were generated in secondary lymphoid organs of MOG35-55-immunized G2A+/+ and G2A-/- mice. Comparable numbers of T cells were detected in spinal cords of G2A+/+ and G2A-/- mice. We conclude that the proposed anti-proliferative and chemotactic functions of G2A are not manifested in vivo and therefore therapeutic targeting of G2A is unlikely to be beneficial in the treatment of MS. PMID:19135725

  4. The blockade of GABAA receptors attenuates the inhibitory effect of orexin type 1 receptors antagonist on morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Mahnaz; Azizi, Hossein; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Semnanian, Saeed

    2016-03-23

    The aim of present study was to investigate the involvement of orexin-A neuropeptide in naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome via modulating neurons bearing GABAA receptors. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a sensitive site for expression of the somatic aspects of morphine withdrawal. Intra-LC microinjection of GABAA receptor agonist attenuates morphine withdrawal signs in rats. Here we studied the influence of LC orexin type 1 receptors blockade by SB-334867 in presence of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, on naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome. Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 250-300 g, were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of increasing morphine doses (6, 16, 26, 36, 46, 56 and 66 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg) at set intervals of 24 h for 7 days. On 8th day, naloxone (3 mg/kg, s.c.) was injected and the somatic signs of morphine withdrawal were evaluated. Intra-LC microinjections (0.2 μl) of either bicuculline (15 μM) or SB-334867 (3 mM) or a combination of both chemicals were done immediately before naloxone injection. Intra-LC microinjection of bicuculline (15 μM) had no significant effect on morphine withdrawal signs, whereas intra-LC microinjection of SB-334867 considerably attenuated morphine withdrawal signs. However, the effect of SB-334867 in attenuating naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal signs was blocked in presence of bicuculline. This finding, for the first time, indicated that orexin-A may participate in expression of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome partly through decreasing the activity of neurons bearing GABAA receptors.

  5. Lithium attenuated the behavioral despair induced by acute neurogenic stress through blockade of opioid receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Khaloo, Pegah; Sadeghi, Banafshe; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Zolfagharie, Samira; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder is disease with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Stressful events lead to depression and they can be used as a model of depression in rodents. In this study we aimed to investigate whether lithium modifies the stressed-induced depression through blockade of opioid receptors in mice. We used foot shock stress as stressor and forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT) to evaluation the behavioral responses in mice. We also used naltrexone hydrochloride (as opioid receptor antagonist), and morphine (as opioid receptor agonist). Our results displayed that foot-shock stress significantly increased the immobility time in TST and FST but it could not change the locomotor behavior in OFT. When we combined the low concentrations of lithium and naltrexone a significant reduction in immobility time was seen in the FST and TST in comparison with control foot-shock stressed group administered saline only. Despite the fact that our data showed low concentrations of lithium, when administered independently did not significantly affect the immobility time. Also our data indicated that concurrent administration of lithium and naltrexone had no effect on open field test. Further we demonstrated that simultaneous administration of morphine and lithium reverses the antidepressant like effect of active doses of lithium. Our data acclaimed that we lithium can augment stressed-induced depression and opioid pathways are involved in this action.

  6. Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jones G; Wanat, Matthew J; Soden, Marta E; Ahmad, Kinza; Zweifel, Larry S; Bamford, Nigel S; Palmiter, Richard D

    2011-11-23

    Phasic dopamine (DA) transmission encodes the value of reward-predictive stimuli and influences both learning and decision-making. Altered DA signaling is associated with psychiatric conditions characterized by risky choices such as pathological gambling. These observations highlight the importance of understanding how DA neuron activity is modulated. While excitatory drive onto DA neurons is critical for generating phasic DA responses, emerging evidence suggests that inhibitory signaling also modulates these responses. To address the functional importance of inhibitory signaling in DA neurons, we generated mice lacking the β3 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor specifically in DA neurons (β3-KO mice) and examined their behavior in tasks that assessed appetitive learning, aversive learning, and risk preference. DA neurons in midbrain slices from β3-KO mice exhibited attenuated GABA-evoked IPSCs. Furthermore, electrical stimulation of excitatory afferents to DA neurons elicited more DA release in the nucleus accumbens of β3-KO mice as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. β3-KO mice were more active than controls when given morphine, which correlated with potential compensatory upregulation of GABAergic tone onto DA neurons. β3-KO mice learned faster in two food-reinforced learning paradigms, but extinguished their learned behavior normally. Enhanced learning was specific for appetitive tasks, as aversive learning was unaffected in β3-KO mice. Finally, we found that β3-KO mice had enhanced risk preference in a probabilistic selection task that required mice to choose between a small certain reward and a larger uncertain reward. Collectively, these findings identify a selective role for GABA(A) signaling in DA neurons in appetitive learning and decision-making.

  7. EGFR-TKI, erlotinib, causes hypomagnesemia, oxidative stress, and cardiac dysfunction: attenuation by NK-1 receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Mak, I Tong; Kramer, Jay H; Chmielinska, Joanna J; Spurney, Christopher F; Weglicki, William B

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, erlotinib may cause hypomagnesemia, inflammation, and cardiac stress, erlotinib was administered to rats (10 mg · kg(-1)· d(-1)) for 9 weeks. Plasma magnesium decreased progressively between 3 and 9 weeks (-9% to -26%). Modest increases in plasma substance P (SP) occurred at 3 (27%) and 9 (25%) weeks. Neutrophil superoxide-generating activity increased 3-fold, and plasma 8-isoprostane rose 210%, along with noticeable appearance of cardiac perivascular nitrotyrosine. The neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist, aprepitant (2 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)), attenuated erlotinib-induced hypomagnesemia up to 42%, reduced circulating SP, suppressed neutrophil superoxide activity and 8-isoprostane elevations; cardiac nitrotyrosine was diminished. Echocardiography revealed mild to moderately decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (-11%) and % fractional shortening (-17%) by 7 weeks of erlotinib treatment and significant reduction (-17.5%) in mitral valve E/A ratio at week 9 indicative of systolic and early diastolic dysfunction. Mild thinning of the left ventricular posterior wall suggested early dilated cardiomyopathy. Aprepitant completely prevented the erlotinib-induced systolic and diastolic dysfunction and partially attenuated the anatomical changes. Thus, chronic erlotinib treatment does induce moderate hypomagnesemia, triggering SP-mediated oxidative/inflammation stress and mild-to-moderate cardiac dysfunction, which can largely be corrected by the administration of the SP receptor blocker.

  8. Cocoa flavonoids attenuate high glucose-induced insulin signalling blockade and modulate glucose uptake and production in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Martín, María Ángeles; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2014-02-01

    Insulin resistance is the primary characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Cocoa and its main flavanol, (-)-epicatechin (EC), display some antidiabetic effects, but the mechanisms for their preventive activities related to glucose metabolism and insulin signalling in the liver remain largely unknown. In the present work, the preventive effect of EC and a cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) on insulin signalling and on both glucose production and uptake are studied in insulin-responsive human HepG2 cells treated with high glucose. Pre-treatment of cells with EC or CPE reverted decreased tyrosine-phosphorylated and total levels of IR, IRS-1 and -2 triggered by high glucose. EC and CPE pre-treatment also prevented the inactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and AMPK, as well as the diminution of GLUT-2 levels induced by high glucose. Furthermore, pre-treatment of cells with EC and CPE avoided the increase in PEPCK levels and the diminished glucose uptake provoked by high glucose, returning enhanced levels of glucose production and decreased glycogen content to control values. These findings suggest that EC and CPE improved insulin sensitivity of HepG2 treated with high glucose, preventing or delaying a potential hepatic dysfunction through the attenuation of the insulin signalling blockade and the modulation of glucose uptake and production.

  9. Blockade of Toll-Like Receptors (TLR2, TLR4) Attenuates Pain and Potentiates Buprenorphine Analgesia in a Rat Neuropathic Pain Model

    PubMed Central

    Jurga, Agnieszka M.; Rojewska, Ewelina; Makuch, Wioletta; Pilat, Dominika; Przewlocka, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that microglial TLR2 and TLR4 play a significant role in nociception. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the contribution of TLR2 and TLR4 and their adaptor molecules to neuropathy and their ability to amplify opioid effectiveness. Behavioral tests (von Frey's and cold plate) and biochemical (Western blot and qRT-PCR) analysis of spinal cord and DRG tissue were conducted after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. Repeated intrathecal administration of LPS-RS (TLR2 and TLR4 antagonist) and LPS-RS Ultrapure (TLR4 antagonist) attenuated allodynia and hyperalgesia. Biochemical analysis revealed time-dependent upregulation of mRNA and/or protein levels of TLR2 and TLR4 and MyD88 and TRIF adaptor molecules, which was paralleled by an increase in IBA-1/CD40-positive cells under neuropathy. LPS-RS and LPS-RS Ultrapure similarly influenced opioid analgesia by enhancing the effectiveness of buprenorphine but not morphine. Summing up, in light of their upregulation over the course of pain, both TLR2 and TLR4 may indeed play a significant role in neuropathy, which could be linked to the observed activation of IBA-1/CD40-positive cells. Blockade of TLR2 and TLR4 produced analgesia and enhanced buprenorphine's effectiveness, which suggests that they may be a putative target for future pharmacological pain relief tools, especially for opioid rotation, when the effect of morphine is tolerated. PMID:26962463

  10. Blockade of Toll-Like Receptors (TLR2, TLR4) Attenuates Pain and Potentiates Buprenorphine Analgesia in a Rat Neuropathic Pain Model.

    PubMed

    Jurga, Agnieszka M; Rojewska, Ewelina; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Pilat, Dominika; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that microglial TLR2 and TLR4 play a significant role in nociception. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the contribution of TLR2 and TLR4 and their adaptor molecules to neuropathy and their ability to amplify opioid effectiveness. Behavioral tests (von Frey's and cold plate) and biochemical (Western blot and qRT-PCR) analysis of spinal cord and DRG tissue were conducted after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. Repeated intrathecal administration of LPS-RS (TLR2 and TLR4 antagonist) and LPS-RS Ultrapure (TLR4 antagonist) attenuated allodynia and hyperalgesia. Biochemical analysis revealed time-dependent upregulation of mRNA and/or protein levels of TLR2 and TLR4 and MyD88 and TRIF adaptor molecules, which was paralleled by an increase in IBA-1/CD40-positive cells under neuropathy. LPS-RS and LPS-RS Ultrapure similarly influenced opioid analgesia by enhancing the effectiveness of buprenorphine but not morphine. Summing up, in light of their upregulation over the course of pain, both TLR2 and TLR4 may indeed play a significant role in neuropathy, which could be linked to the observed activation of IBA-1/CD40-positive cells. Blockade of TLR2 and TLR4 produced analgesia and enhanced buprenorphine's effectiveness, which suggests that they may be a putative target for future pharmacological pain relief tools, especially for opioid rotation, when the effect of morphine is tolerated.

  11. Blockade of GABA, type A, receptors in the rat pontine reticular formation induces rapid eye movement sleep that is dependent upon the cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Marks, G A; Sachs, O W; Birabil, C G

    2008-09-22

    The brainstem reticular formation is an area important to the control of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The antagonist of GABA-type A (GABA(A)) receptors, bicuculline methiodide (BMI), injected into the rat nucleus pontis oralis (PnO) of the reticular formation resulted in a long-lasting increase in REM sleep. Thus, one factor controlling REM sleep appears to be the number of functional GABA(A) receptors in the PnO. The long-lasting effect produced by BMI may result from secondary influences on other neurotransmitter systems known to have long-lasting effects. To study this question, rats were surgically prepared for chronic sleep recording and additionally implanted with guide cannulas aimed at sites in the PnO. Multiple, 60 nl, unilateral injections were made either singly or in combination. GABA(A) receptor antagonists, BMI and gabazine (GBZ), produced dose-dependent increases in REM sleep with GBZ being approximately 35 times more potent than BMI. GBZ and the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, produced very similar results, both increasing REM sleep for about 8 h, mainly through increased period frequency, with little reduction in REM latency. Pre-injection of the muscarinic antagonist, atropine, completely blocked the REM sleep-increase by GBZ. GABAergic control of REM sleep in the PnO requires the cholinergic system and may be acting through presynaptic modulation of acetylcholine release.

  12. Myeloid-Specific Blockade of Notch Signaling Attenuates Choroidal Neovascularization through Compromised Macrophage Infiltration and Polarization in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Guo-Rui; Li, Na; Chang, Tian-Fang; Zhang, Ping; Gao, Xiang; Yan, Xian-Chun; Liang, Liang; Han, Hua; Wang, Yu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages have been recognized as an important inflammatory component in choroidal neovascularization (CNV). However, it is unclear how these cells are activated and polarized, how they affect angiogenesis and what the underlining mechanisms are during CNV. Notch signaling has been implicated in macrophage activation. Previously we have shown that inducible disruption of RBP-J, the critical transcription factor of Notch signaling, in adult mice results in enhanced CNV, but it is unclear what is the role of macrophage-specific Notch signaling in the development of CNV. In the current study, by using the myeloid specific RBP-J knockout mouse model combined with the laser-induced CNV model, we show that disruption of Notch signaling in macrophages displayed attenuated CNV growth, reduced macrophage infiltration and activation, and alleviated angiogenic response after laser induction. The inhibition of CNV occurred with reduced expression of VEGF and TNF-α in infiltrating inflammatory macrophages in myeloid specific RBP-J knockout mice. These changes might result in direct inhibition of EC lumen formation, as shown in an in vitro study. Therefore, clinical intervention of Notch signaling in CNV needs to pinpoint myeloid lineage to avoid the counteractive effects of global inhibition. PMID:27339903

  13. PD-L1 Blockade Attenuated Sepsis-Induced Liver Injury in a Mouse Cecal Ligation and Puncture Model

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Rui; Zhu, Jiali; Wang, Jiafeng; Li, Jinbao

    2013-01-01

    Liver plays a major role in hypermetabolism and produces acute phase proteins during systemic inflammatory response syndrome and it is of vital importance in host defense and bacteria clearance. Our previous studies indicated that programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are crucial modulators of host immune responses during sepsis. Our current study was designed to investigate the role of PD-L1 in sepsis-induced liver injury by a mouse cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Our results indicated that there was a significant increase of PD-L1 expression in liver after CLP challenge compared to sham-operated controls, in terms of levels of mRNA transcription and immunohistochemistry. Anti-PD-L1 antibody significantly alleviated the morphology of liver injury in CLP mice. Anti-PD-L1 antibody administration decreased ALT and AST release in CLP mice, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 mRNA in liver after sepsis challenge. Thus, anti-PD-L1 antibody might have a therapeutic potential in attenuating liver injury in sepsis. PMID:24324295

  14. Pharmacological blockade of the cold receptor TRPM8 attenuates autonomic and behavioral cold defenses and decreases deep body temperature.

    PubMed

    Almeida, M Camila; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Soriano, Renato N; Rao, Sara; Wang, Weiya; Wang, Judy; Tamayo, Nuria; Oliveira, Daniela L; Nucci, Tatiane B; Aryal, Prafulla; Garami, Andras; Bautista, Diana; Gavva, Narender R; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2012-02-08

    We studied N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(4-(benzyloxy)-3-methoxybenzyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide hydrochloride (M8-B), a selective and potent antagonist of the transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8) channel. In vitro, M8-B blocked cold-induced and TRPM8-agonist-induced activation of rat, human, and murine TRPM8 channels, including those on primary sensory neurons. In vivo, M8-B decreased deep body temperature (T(b)) in Trpm8(+/+) mice and rats, but not in Trpm8(-/-) mice, thus suggesting an on-target action. Intravenous administration of M8-B was more effective in decreasing T(b) in rats than intrathecal or intracerebroventricular administration, indicating a peripheral action. M8-B attenuated cold-induced c-Fos expression in the lateral parabrachial nucleus, thus indicating a site of action within the cutaneous cooling neural pathway to thermoeffectors, presumably on sensory neurons. A low intravenous dose of M8-B did not affect T(b) at either a constantly high or a constantly low ambient temperature (T(a)), but the same dose readily decreased T(b) if rats were kept at a high T(a) during the M8-B infusion and transferred to a low T(a) immediately thereafter. These data suggest that both a successful delivery of M8-B to the skin (high cutaneous perfusion) and the activation of cutaneous TRPM8 channels (by cold) are required for the hypothermic action of M8-B. At tail-skin temperatures <23°C, the magnitude of the M8-B-induced decrease in T(b) was inversely related to skin temperature, thus suggesting that M8-B blocks thermal (cold) activation of TRPM8. M8-B affected all thermoeffectors studied (thermopreferendum, tail-skin vasoconstriction, and brown fat thermogenesis), thus suggesting that TRPM8 is a universal cold receptor in the thermoregulation system.

  15. Pharmacological blockade of the cold receptor TRPM8 attenuates autonomic and behavioral cold defenses and decreases deep body temperature

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, M. Camila; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Soriano, Renato N.; Rao, Sara; Wang, Weiya; Wang, Judy; Tamayo, Nuria; Oliveira, Daniela L.; Nucci, Tatiane B.; Aryal, Prafulla; Garami, Andras; Bautista, Diana; Gavva, Narender R.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.

    2012-01-01

    We studied M8-B, a selective and potent antagonist of the transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8) channel. In vitro, M8-B blocked cold-induced and TRPM8-agonist-induced activation of rat, human, and murine TRPM8 channels, including those on primary sensory neurons. In vivo, M8-B decreased deep body temperature (Tb) in Trpm8+/+ mice and rats, but not in Trpm8−/− mice, thus suggesting an on-target action. The intravenous administration of M8-B was more effective in decreasing Tb in rats than the intrathecal or intracerebroventricular administration, indicating a peripheral action. M8-B attenuated cold-induced c-Fos expression in the lateral parabrachial nucleus, thus indicating a site of action within the cutaneous cooling neural pathway to thermoeffectors, presumably on sensory neurons. A low intravenous dose of M8-B did not affect Tb at either a constantly high or a constantly low ambient temperature (Ta), but the same dose readily decreased Tb if rats were kept at a high Ta during the M8-B infusion and transferred to a low Ta immediately thereafter. These data suggest that both a successful delivery of M8-B to the skin (high cutaneous perfusion) and the activation of cutaneous TRPM8 channels (by cold) are required for the hypothermic action of M8-B. At tail skin temperatures < 23°C, the magnitude of the M8-B-induced decrease in Tb was inversely related to skin temperature, thus suggesting that M8-B blocks thermal (cold) activation of TRPM8. M8-B affected all thermoeffectors studied (thermopreferendum, tail skin vasoconstriction, and brown fat thermogenesis), thus suggesting that TRPM8 is a universal cold receptor in the thermoregulation system. PMID:22323721

  16. Selective pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor attenuates light and 8-OH-DPAT induced phase shifts of mouse circadian wheel running activity

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Jonathan; Yun, Sujin; Losee Olson, Susan; Turek, Fred; Bonaventure, Pascal; Dvorak, Curt; Lovenberg, Timothy; Dugovic, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have illustrated a reciprocal relationship between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor may provide a crucial link between the two sides of this equation since the receptor plays a critical role in sleep, depression, and circadian rhythm regulation. To further define the role of the 5-HT7 receptor as a potential pharmacotherapy to correct circadian rhythm disruptions, the current study utilized the selective 5-HT7 antagonist JNJ-18038683 (10 mg/kg) in three different circadian paradigms. While JNJ-18038683 was ineffective at phase shifting the onset of wheel running activity in mice when administered at different circadian time (CT) points across the circadian cycle, pretreatment with JNJ-18038683 blocked non-photic phase advance (CT6) induced by the 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (3 mg/kg). Since light induced phase shifts in mammals are partially mediated via the modulation of the serotonergic system, we determined if JNJ-18038683 altered phase shifts induced by a light pulse at times known to phase delay (CT15) or advance (CT22) wheel running activity in free running mice. Light exposure resulted in a robust shift in the onset of activity in vehicle treated animals at both times tested. Administration of JNJ-18038683 significantly attenuated the light induced phase delay and completely blocked the phase advance. The current study demonstrates that pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor by JNJ-18038683 blunts both non-photic and photic phase shifts of circadian wheel running activity in mice. These findings highlight the importance of the 5-HT7 receptor in modulating circadian rhythms. Due to the opposite modulating effects of light resetting between diurnal and nocturnal species, pharmacotherapy targeting the 5-HT7 receptor in conjunction with bright light therapy may prove therapeutically beneficial by correcting the desynchronization of internal rhythms observed in depressed individuals. PMID:25642174

  17. Selective pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor attenuates light and 8-OH-DPAT induced phase shifts of mouse circadian wheel running activity.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Jonathan; Yun, Sujin; Losee Olson, Susan; Turek, Fred; Bonaventure, Pascal; Dvorak, Curt; Lovenberg, Timothy; Dugovic, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports have illustrated a reciprocal relationship between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor may provide a crucial link between the two sides of this equation since the receptor plays a critical role in sleep, depression, and circadian rhythm regulation. To further define the role of the 5-HT7 receptor as a potential pharmacotherapy to correct circadian rhythm disruptions, the current study utilized the selective 5-HT7 antagonist JNJ-18038683 (10 mg/kg) in three different circadian paradigms. While JNJ-18038683 was ineffective at phase shifting the onset of wheel running activity in mice when administered at different circadian time (CT) points across the circadian cycle, pretreatment with JNJ-18038683 blocked non-photic phase advance (CT6) induced by the 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (3 mg/kg). Since light induced phase shifts in mammals are partially mediated via the modulation of the serotonergic system, we determined if JNJ-18038683 altered phase shifts induced by a light pulse at times known to phase delay (CT15) or advance (CT22) wheel running activity in free running mice. Light exposure resulted in a robust shift in the onset of activity in vehicle treated animals at both times tested. Administration of JNJ-18038683 significantly attenuated the light induced phase delay and completely blocked the phase advance. The current study demonstrates that pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor by JNJ-18038683 blunts both non-photic and photic phase shifts of circadian wheel running activity in mice. These findings highlight the importance of the 5-HT7 receptor in modulating circadian rhythms. Due to the opposite modulating effects of light resetting between diurnal and nocturnal species, pharmacotherapy targeting the 5-HT7 receptor in conjunction with bright light therapy may prove therapeutically beneficial by correcting the desynchronization of internal rhythms observed in depressed individuals.

  18. Ethanol attenuates sensory stimulus-evoked responses in cerebellar granule cells via activation of GABA(A) receptors in vivo in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guang; Liu, Heng; Jin, Juan; Hong, Lan; Lan, Yan; Chu, Chun-Ping; Qiu, De-Lai

    2014-02-21

    Acute alcohol intoxication affects cerebellar motor regulation possibly by altering the transfer and integration of external information in cerebellar cortical neurons, resulting in a dysfunction of cerebellar motor regulation or a cerebellar atexia. However, the synaptic mechanisms of ethanol induced impairments of sensory information processing in cerebellar cortical neurons are not fully understand. In the present study, we used electrophysiological and pharmacological methods to study the effects of ethanol on the sensory stimulation-evoked responses in cerebellar granule cells (GCs) in vivo in urethane anesthetized mice. Air-puff stimulation of the ipsilateral whisker-pad evoked stimulus-on (P1) and stimulus-off responses (P2) in GCs of cerebellar Crus II. Cerebellar surface perfusion of ethanol did not alter the onset latency of the sensory stimulation-evoked responses, but reversible reduced the amplitude of P1 and P2. The ethanol-induced reduction of the GCs sensory responses was concentration-dependent. In the presence of ethanol, the mean half-width, area under curve, rise Tau and decay Tau of P1 were significantly decreased. Blockade of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors activity induced an increase in amplitude of P1, and abolished the ethanol induced inhibition of the GCs sensory responses. These results indicate that ethanol inhibits the tactile evoked responses in cerebellar GCs through enhancement of GABA(A) receptors activity.

  19. Dipyridamole attenuates ischemia reperfusion induced acute kidney injury through adenosinergic A1 and A2A receptor agonism in rats.

    PubMed

    Puri, Nikkita; Mohey, Vinita; Singh, Manjinder; Kaur, Tajpreet; Pathak, Devendra; Buttar, Harpal Singh; Singh, Amrit Pal

    2016-04-01

    Dipyridamole (DYP) is an anti-platelet agent with marked vasodilator, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity. The present study investigated the role of adenosine receptors in DYP-mediated protection against ischemia reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. The rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia for 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The renal damage induced by ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) was assessed by measuring creatinine clearance, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, plasma potassium, fractional excretion of sodium, and microproteinuria in rats. The oxidative stress in renal tissues was assessed by quantification of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, superoxide anion generation, and reduced glutathione level. The hematoxylin-eosin staining was carried out to observe histopathological changes in renal tissues. DYP (10 and 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.) was administered 30 min before subjecting the rats to renal IRI. In separate groups, caffeine (50 mg/kg, i.p.), an adenosinergic A1 and A2A receptor antagonist was administered with and without DYP treatment before subjecting the rats to renal IRI. The ischemia reperfusion-induced AKI was demonstrated by significant changes in serum as well as urinary parameters, enhanced oxidative stress, and histopathological changes in renal tissues. The administration of DYP demonstrated protection against AKI. The prior treatment with caffeine abolished DYP-mediated reno-protection suggesting role of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in DYP-mediated reno-protection in rats. It is concluded that adenosine receptors find their definite involvement in DYP-mediated anti-oxidative and reno-protective effect against ischemia reperfusion-induced AKI.

  20. Blockade of Cannabinoid CB1 receptor attenuates the acquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference along with a downregulation of ERK, CREB phosphorylation, and BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbo; Wang, Na; Chen, Bo; Wang, Yi'nan; He, Jing; Cai, Xintong; Zhang, Hongbo; Wei, Shuguang; Li, Shengbin

    2016-09-06

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) is highly expressed in the mesocorticolimbic system and associated with drug craving and relapse. Clinical trials suggest that CB1R antagonists may represent new therapies for drug addiction. However, the downstream signaling of CB1R is not fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between CB1R and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hippocampus in morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), which is used to assess the morphine-induced reward memory. The protein level of CB1R, ERK, CREB, and BDNF were detected by western blotting. Additionally, a CB1R antagonist, AM251, was used to study whether blockade of CB1R altered the CPP and above-mentioned molecules. We found an increase of CB1R expression in the NAc and hippocampus of the mice following morphine CPP, but not those after repeated morphine in home cage without context exposure (NO-CPP). Both morphine CPP and NO-CPP induced an upregulation of ERK, CREB phosphorylation and BDNF expression. Furthermore, pretreatment with AM251 before morphine attenuated the CPP acquisition and CB1R expression as well as the activation of ERK-CREB-BDNF cascade. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that (1) Repeated morphine with context exposures but not merely the pharmacological effects of morphine increased CB1R expression both in the NAc and hippocampus. (2) CB1R antagonist mediated blockade of ERK-CREB-BDNF signaling activation in the NAc and hippocampus may be an important mechanism underlying the attenuation of morphine CPP.

  1. Glycinergic inhibition in thalamus revealed by synaptic receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Ghavanini, Ahmad A; Mathers, David A; Puil, Ernest

    2005-09-01

    Using juvenile rat brain slices, we examined the possibility that strychnine-sensitive receptors for glycine-like amino acids contributed to synaptic inhibition in ventrobasal thalamus, where gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) is the prevalent inhibitory transmitter. Ventrobasal nuclei showed staining for antibodies against alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of the glycine receptor. Exogenously applied glycine, taurine and beta-alanine increased membrane conductance, effects antagonized by strychnine, indicative of functional glycine receptors. Using glutamate receptor antagonists, we isolated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and currents (IPSPs and IPSCs) evoked by high-threshold stimulation of medial lemniscus. Like the responses to glycine agonists, these synaptic responses reversed near E(Cl). In comparative tests with GABA receptor antagonists, strychnine attenuated inhibition in a majority of neurons, but did not alter slow, GABA(B) inhibition. For complete blockade, the majority of fast IPSPs required co-application of strychnine with bicuculline or gabazine, GABA(A) receptor antagonists. Strychnine acting with an IC50 approximately = 33 nM, eliminated residual fast inhibition during selective GABA(A) receptor blockade with gabazine. The latency of onset for IPSPs was compatible with polysynaptic pathways or prolonged axonal propagation time. Strychnine lacked effects on monosynaptic, GABAergic IPSPs from zona incerta. The specific actions of strychnine implicated a glycine receptor contribution to fast inhibition in somatosensory thalamus.

  2. Adenosine A2A receptor signaling attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation of mouse macrophages by inducing the expression of DUSP1.

    PubMed

    Köröskényi, Krisztina; Kiss, Beáta; Szondy, Zsuzsa

    2016-07-01

    Adenosine is known to reduce inflammation by suppressing the activity of most immune cells. Previous studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated mouse macrophages produce adenosine, and the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling activated in an autocrine manner attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation. It has been suggested that A2AR signaling inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production through a unique cAMP-dependent, but PKA- and Epac-independent signaling pathway. However, the mechanism of inhibition was not identified so far. Here we report that LPS stimulation enhances A2AR expression in mouse bone marrow derived macrophages, and loss of A2ARs results in enhanced LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response. Loss of A2ARs in A2AR null macrophages did not alter the LPS-induced NF-κB activation, but an enhanced basal and LPS-induced phosphorylation of MAP kinases (especially that of JNKs) was detected in A2AR null cells. A2AR signaling did not alter the LPS-induced phosphorylation of their upstream kinases, but by regulating adenylate cyclase activity it enhanced the expression of dual specific phosphatase (DUSP)1, a negative regulator of MAP kinases. As a result, lower basal and LPS-induced DUSP1 mRNA and protein levels can be detected in A2AR null macrophages. Silencing of DUSP1 mRNA expression resulted in higher basal and LPS-induced JNK phosphorylation and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation in wild type macrophages, but had no effect on that in A2AR null cells. Our data indicate that A2AR signaling regulates both basal and LPS-induced DUSP1 levels in macrophages via activating the adenylate cyclase pathway.

  3. PD-1 blockade attenuates immunosuppressive myeloid cells due to inhibition of CD47/SIRPα axis in HPV negative head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guang-Tao; Bu, Lin-Lin; Huang, Cong-Fa; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Chen, Wan-Jun; Gutkind, J Silvio; Kulkarni, Ashok B; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2015-12-08

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) play key roles in the tumor immune suppressive network and tumor progression. However, precise roles of programmed death-1 (PD-1) in immunological functions of MDSCs and TAMs in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we show that PD-1 and PD-L1 levels were significantly higher in human HNSCC specimen than in normal oral mucosa. MDSCs and TAMs were characterized in mice and human HNSCC specimen, correlated well with PD-1 and PD-L1 expression. αPD-1 treatment was well tolerated and significantly reduced tumor growth in the HNSCC mouse model along with significant reduction in MDSCs and TAMs in immune organs and tumors. Molecular analysis suggests a reduction in the CD47/SIRPα pathway by PD-1 blockade, which regulates MDSCs, TAMs, dendritic cell as well as effector T cells. Hence, these data identify that PD-1/PD-L1 axis is significantly increased in human and mouse HNSCC. Adoptive αPD-1 immunotherapy may provide a novel therapeutic approach to modulate the micro- and macro-environment in HNSCC.

  4. Angiotensin-(1-7) blockade attenuates captopril- or hydralazine-induced cardiovascular protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Benter, Ibrahim F; Yousif, Mariam H M; Al-Saleh, Fatemah M; Raghupathy, Raj; Chappell, Mark C; Diz, Debra I

    2011-05-01

    We assessed the contribution of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] to captopril-induced cardiovascular protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) chronically treated with the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (SHR-l). NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (80 mg/L) administration for 3 weeks increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 196 ± 6 to 229 ± 3 mm Hg (P < 0.05). Treatment of SHR-l with Ang-(1-7) antagonist [d-Ala7]-Ang-(1-7) (A779; 744 μg·kg(-1)·d(-1) ip) further elevated MAP to 253 ± 6 mm Hg (P < 0.05 vs SHR-l or SHR). Moreover, A779 treatment attenuated the reduction in MAP and proteinuria by either captopril (300 mg/L in drinking water) or hydralazine (1.5 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) ip). In isolated perfused hearts, the recovery of left ventricular function from global ischemia was enhanced by captopril or hydralazine treatment and was exacerbated with A779. The Ang-(1-7) antagonist attenuated the beneficial effects of captopril and hydralazine on cardiac function. Recovery from global ischemia was also improved in isolated SHR-l hearts acutely perfused with captopril during both the perfusion and reperfusion periods. The acute administration of A779 reduced the beneficial actions of captopril to improve recovery after ischemia. We conclude that during periods of reduced nitric oxide availability, endogenous Ang-(1-7) plays a protective role in effectively buffering the increase in blood pressure and renal injury and the recovery from cardiac ischemia. Moreover, Ang-(1-7) contributes to the blood pressure lowering and tissue protective actions of captopril and hydralazine in a model of severe hypertension and end-organ damage.

  5. Angiotensin-(1-7) Blockade Attenuates Captopril- or Hydralazine-Induced Cardiovascular Protection in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats-Treated with L-NAME

    PubMed Central

    Benter, Ibrahim F.; Yousif, Mariam H. M.; Al-Saleh, Fatemah M.; Chappell, Raj Raghupathy Mark C.; Diz, Debra I.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the contribution of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] to captopril-induced cardiovascular protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) chronically treated with the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor L-NAME (SHR-L). L-NAME (80 mg/L) administration for three weeks increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 196 ± 6 mmHg to 229 ± 3 mmHg (p<0.05). Treatment of SHR-L with Ang-(1-7) antagonist, [D-Ala7]-Angiotensin-(1-7) (A779; 744 μg/kg/day ip) further elevated MAP to 253 ± 6 mmHg (p<0.05 vs. SHR-L or SHR). Moreover, A779 treatment attenuated the reduction in MAP and proteinuria by either captopril (300 mg/L in drinking water) or hydralazine (1.5 mg/kg/day ip). In isolated perfused hearts, the recovery of left ventricular function from global ischemia was enhanced by captopril or hydralazine treatment, and was exacerbated with A779. The Ang-(1-7) antagonist attenuated the beneficial effects of captopril and hydralazine on cardiac function. Recovery from global ischemia was also improved in isolated SHR-L hearts acutely perfused with captopril during both the perfusion and reperfusion periods. The acute administration of A779 reduced the beneficial actions of captopril to improve recovery following ischemia. We conclude that during periods of reduced nitric oxide availability, endogenous Ang-(1-7) plays a protective role to effectively buffer the increase in blood pressure and renal injury, as well as the recovery from cardiac ischemia. Moreover, Ang-(1-7) contributes to the blood pressure lowering and tissue protective actions of captopril and hydralazine in a model of severe hypertension and end-organ damage. PMID:21326110

  6. Blockade of peripheral 5HT3 receptor attenuates the formalin-induced nocifensive behavior in persistent temporomandibular joint inflammation of rat.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Keiichiro; Imbe, Hiroki; Tashiro, Akimasa; Kumabe, Shunji; Senba, Emiko

    2004-09-02

    The role of peripheral 5HT3 receptors in the orofacial nocifensive behavior induced by the injection of formalin into masseter muscle was evaluated. The behavioral activities evoked by the formalin injection exhibited a biphasic response in the rats with or without temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation (CFA group or non-CFA group). The orofacial nocifensive behavioral activity was enhanced after TMJ inflammation. Systemic administration of tropisetron, 5HT3 receptor antagonist, reduced the nocifensive behavioral activities in the late phase of orofacial formalin test in CFA group, but not in non-CFA group. Local administration of tropisetron into the masseter muscle in CFA group, but not in non-CFA group also attenuated the behavioral activities in the late phase. Unexpectedly, low dose of local tropisetron reduced the nocifensive behavioral activities in the early phase of orofacial formalin test in CFA group. These data suggest that induction of TMJ inflammation causes the elevation of the orofacial nocifensive behavioral activities evoked by formalin injection into masseter muscle, and that peripheral 5HT3 receptors may play a critical role in nociception and the transmission of orofacial pain.

  7. CTLA-4 blockade enhances the therapeutic effect of an attenuated poxvirus vaccine targeting p53 in an established murine tumor model.

    PubMed

    Espenschied, Jonathan; Lamont, Jeffrey; Longmate, Jeff; Pendas, Solange; Wang, Zhongde; Diamond, Don J; Ellenhorn, Joshua D I

    2003-03-15

    p53 is overexpressed by half of all cancers, and is an attractive target for a vaccine approach to immunotherapy. p53 overexpression is frequently the result of point mutations, which leaves the majority of the protein in its wild-type form. Therefore, the majority of p53 sequence is wild type, making it a self-protein for which tolerance plays a role in limiting immune responses. To overcome tolerance to p53, we have expressed wild-type murine p53 in the nonpathogenic attenuated poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing wild-type murine p53 (rMVAp53)). Mice immunized with rMVAp53 vaccine developed vigorous p53-specific CTL responses. rMVAp53 vaccine was evaluated for its ability to inhibit the outgrowth of the syngeneic murine sarcoma Meth A, which overexpresses mutant p53. Mice were inoculated with a lethal dose (5 x 10(5) cells injected s.c.) of Meth A tumor cells and vaccinated by i.p. injection 3 days later with 5 x 10(7) PFU of rMVAp53. The majority of mice remained tumor free and resistant to rechallenge with Meth A tumor cells. We wished to determine whether rMVAp53 immunization could effect the rejection of an established, palpable Meth A tumor. In subsequent experiments, mice were injected with 10(6) Meth A tumor cells, and treated 6 days later with anti-CTLA-4 Ab (9H10) and rMVAp53. The majority of treated mice had complete tumor regression along with lasting tumor immunity. In vivo Ab depletion confirmed that the antitumor effect was primarily CD8 and to a lesser extent CD4 dependent. These experiments demonstrate the potential of a novel cell-free vaccine targeting p53 in malignancy.

  8. Tranexamic acid attenuates inflammatory response in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery through blockade of fibrinolysis: a case control study followed by a randomized double-blind controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Juan J; Iribarren, Jose L; Lorente, Leonardo; Rodriguez, Jose M; Hernandez, Domingo; Nassar, Ibrahim; Perez, Rosalia; Brouard, Maitane; Milena, Antonio; Martinez, Rafael; Mora, Maria L

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Extracorporeal circulation induces hemostatic alterations that lead to inflammatory response (IR) and postoperative bleeding. Tranexamic acid (TA) reduces fibrinolysis and blood loss after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, its effects on IR and vasoplegic shock (VS) are not well known and elucidating these effects was the main objective of this study. Methods A case control study was carried out to determine factors associated with IR after CPB. Patients undergoing elective CPB surgery were randomly assigned to receive 2 g of TA or placebo (0.9% saline) before and after intervention. We performed an intention-to-treat analysis, comparing the incidence of IR and VS. We also analyzed several biological parameters related to inflammation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis systems. We used SPSS version 12.2 for statistical purposes. Results In the case control study, 165 patients were studied, 20.6% fulfilled IR criteria, and the use of TA proved to be an independent protective variable (odds ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.81; P < 0.01). The clinical trial was interrupted. Fifty patients were randomly assigned to receive TA (24) or placebo (26). Incidence of IR was 17% in the TA group versus 42% in the placebo group (P = 0.047). In the TA group, we observed a significant reduction in the incidence of VS (P = 0.003), the use of norepinephrine (P = 0.029), and time on mechanical ventilation (P = 0.018). These patients showed significantly lower D-dimer, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and creatine-kinase levels and a trend toward lower levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor and interleukin-6 within the first 24 hours after CPB. Conclusion The use of TA attenuates the development of IR and VS after CPB. Trial registration number ISRCTN05718824. PMID:17988379

  9. Blockade of RyRs in the ER Attenuates 6-OHDA-Induced Calcium Overload, Cellular Hypo-Excitability and Apoptosis in Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lu; Xue, Ying; Feng, DaYun; Yang, RuiXin; Nie, Tiejian; Zhu, Gang; Tao, Kai; Gao, GuoDong; Yang, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) dyshomeostasis induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an important molecular mechanism of selective dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs), which are located on the ER surface, are the main endogenous Ca2+ release channels and play crucial roles in regulating Ca2+ homeostasis. However, the roles of these endogenous Ca2+ release channels in PD and their effects on the function and survival of DA neurons remain unknown. In this study, using a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced in vitro PD model (SN4741 Cell line), we found that 6-OHDA significantly increased cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i), which was attenuated by pretreatment with 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA; an ER stress inhibitor) or ryanodine (a RyRs blocker). In addition, in acute midbrain slices of male Sprague-Dawley rats, we found that 6-OHDA reduced the spike number and rheobase of DA neurons, which were also reversed by pretreatment with 4-PBA and ryanodine. TUNEL staining and MTT assays also showed that 4-PBA and ryanodine obviously alleviated 6-OHDA-induced cell apoptosis and devitalization. Interestingly, a IP3Rs blocker had little effect on the above 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in DA neurons. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence of the different roles of IP3Rs and RyRs in the regulation of endogenous Ca2+ homeostasis, neuronal excitability, and viability in DA neurons, and suggest a potential therapeutic strategy for PD by inhibiting the RyRs Ca2+ channels in the ER. PMID:28316566

  10. Protection of malonate-induced GABA but not dopamine loss by GABA transporter blockade in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Zeevalk, Gail D; Manzino, Lawrence; Sonsalla, Patricia K

    2002-07-01

    Previous work has shown that overstimulation of GABA(A) receptors can potentiate neuronal cell damage during excitotoxic or metabolic stress in vitro and that GABA(A) antagonists or GABA transport blockers are neuroprotective under these situations. Malonate, a reversible succinate dehydrogenase/mitochondrial complex II inhibitor, is frequently used in animals to model cell loss in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. To determine if GABA transporter blockade during mitochondrial impairment can protect neurons in vivo as compared with in vitro studies, rats received a stereotaxic infusion of malonate (2 micromol) into the left striatum to induce a metabolic stress. The nonsubstrate GABA transport blocker, NO711 (20 nmol) was infused in some rats 30 min before and 3 h following malonate infusion. After 1 week, dopamine and GABA levels in the striata were measured. Malonate caused a significant loss of striatal dopamine and GABA. Blockade of the GABA transporter significantly attenuated GABA, but not dopamine loss. In contrast with several in vitro reports, GABA(A) receptors were not a downstream mediator of protection by NO711. Intrastriatal infusion of malonate (2 micromol) plus or minus the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (1 micromol), the GABA(A) Cl- binding site antagonist picrotoxin (50 nmol) or the GABA(B) receptor antagonist saclofen (33 nmol) did not modify loss of striatal dopamine or GABA when examined 1 week following infusion. These data show that GABA transporter blockade during mitochondrial impairment in the striatum provides protection to GABAergic neurons. GABA transporter blockade, which is currently a pharmacological strategy for the treatment of epilepsy, may thus also be beneficial in the treatment of acute and chronic conditions involving energy inhibition such as stroke/ischemia or Huntington's disease. These findings also point to fundamental differences between immature and adult neurons in the

  11. Blockade of striatal adenosine A2A receptor reduces, through a presynaptic mechanism, quinolinic acid-induced excitotoxicity: possible relevance to neuroprotective interventions in neurodegenerative diseases of the striatum.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Pintor, Annita; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Frank, Claudio; Tebano, Maria Teresa; Pèzzola, Antonella; Scarchilli, Laura; Quarta, Davide; Reggio, Rosaria; Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella; Falchi, Mario; Massotti, Marino

    2002-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether, and by means of which mechanisms, the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261 [5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine] exerted neuroprotective effects in a rat model of Huntington's disease. In a first set of experiments, SCH 58261 (0.01 and 1 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to Wistar rats 20 min before the bilateral striatal injection of quinolinic acid (QA) (300 nmol/1 microl). SCH 58261 (0.01 but not 1 mg/kg, i.p.) did reduce significantly the effects of QA on motor activity, electroencephalographic changes, and striatal gliosis. Because QA acts by both increasing glutamate outflow and directly stimulating NMDA receptors, a second set of experiments was performed to evaluate whether SCH 58261 acted by preventing the presynaptic and/or the postsynaptic effects of QA. In microdialysis experiments in naive rats, striatal perfusion with QA (5 mm) enhanced glutamate levels by approximately 500%. Such an effect of QA was completely antagonized by pretreatment with SCH 58261 (0.01 but not 1 mg/kg, i.p.). In primary striatal cultures, bath application of QA (900 microm) significantly increased intracellular calcium levels, an effect prevented by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate]. In this model, bath application of SCH 58261 (15-200 nm) tended to potentiate QA-induced calcium increase. We conclude the following: (1) the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261 has neuroprotective effects, although only at low doses, in an excitotoxic rat model of HD, and (2) the inhibition of QA-evoked glutamate outflow seems to be the major mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of SCH 58261.

  12. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonism and genetic deletion attenuate the effects of dopamine D2 antagonism on effort-based decision making in mice.

    PubMed

    Pardo, M; Lopez-Cruz, L; Valverde, O; Ledent, C; Baqi, Y; Müller, C E; Salamone, J D; Correa, M

    2012-04-01

    Brain dopamine (DA) and adenosine interact in the regulation of behavioral activation and effort-related processes. In the present studies, a T-maze task was developed in mice for the assessment of effort-related decision making. With this task, the two arms of the maze have different reinforcement densities, and a vertical barrier is positioned in the arm with the higher density (HD), presenting the animal with an effort-related challenge. Under control conditions mice prefer the HD arm, and climb the barrier to obtain the larger amount of food. The DA D(2) receptor antagonist haloperidol decreased selection of the HD arm and increased selection of the arm with the low density of reinforcement. However, the HD arm was still the preferred choice in haloperidol-treated mice trained with barriers in both arms. Pre-feeding the mice to reduce food motivation dramatically increased omissions, an effect that was distinct from the actions of haloperidol. Co-administration of theophylline, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, partially reversed the effects of haloperidol. This effect seems to be mediated by the A(2A) receptor but not the A(1) receptor, since the A(2A) antagonist MSX-3, but not the A(1) antagonist CPT, dose dependently reversed the effects of haloperidol on effort-related choice and on c-Fos expression in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. In addition, adenosine A(2A) receptor knockout mice were resistant to the effects of haloperidol on effort-related choice in the maze. These results indicate that DA D(2) and adenosine A(2A) receptors interact to regulate effort-related decision making and effort expenditure in mice.

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Cognitive and Histological Deficits Are Attenuated by Delayed and Chronic Treatment with the 5-HT1A-Receptor Agonist Buspirone

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Adam S.; Sozda, Christopher N.; Cheng, Jeffrey P.; Hoffman, Ann N.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of the serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist buspirone (BUS) on behavioral and histological outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ninety-six isoflurane-anesthetized adult male rats were randomized to receive either a controlled cortical impact or sham injury, and then assigned to six TBI and six sham groups receiving one of five doses of BUS (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg) or saline vehicle (VEH, 1.0 mL/kg). Treatments began 24 h after surgery and were administered intraperitoneally once daily for 3 weeks. Motor function (beam-balance/beam-walk tests) and spatial learning/memory (Morris water maze) were assessed on post-operative days 1–5 and 14–19, respectively. Morphologically intact CA1/CA3 cells and cortical lesion volume were quantified at 3 weeks. No differences were observed among the BUS and VEH sham groups in any end-point measure and thus the data were pooled. Regarding the TBI groups, repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the 0.3 mg/kg dose of BUS enhanced cognitive performance relative to VEH and the other BUS doses (p<0.05), but did not significantly impact motor function. Moreover, the same dose conferred selective histological protection as evidenced by smaller cortical lesions, but not greater CA1/CA3 cell survival. No significant behavioral or histological differences were observed among the other BUS doses versus VEH. These data indicate that BUS has a narrow therapeutic dose response, and that 0.3 mg/kg is optimal for enhancing spatial learning and memory in this model of TBI. BUS may have potential as a novel pharmacotherapy for clinical TBI. PMID:22416854

  14. 5-HT2A receptors control body temperature in mice during LPS-induced inflammation via regulation of NO production.

    PubMed

    Voronova, Irina P; Khramova, Galina M; Kulikova, Elizabeth A; Petrovskii, Dmitrii V; Bazovkina, Daria V; Kulikov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled 5-HT2A receptors are involved in the regulation of numerous normal and pathological physiological functions. At the same time, its involvement in the regulation of body temperature (Tb) in normal conditions is obscure. Here we study the effect of the 5-HT2A receptor activation or blockade on Tb in sick animals. The experiments were carried out on adult C57BL/6 mouse males. Systemic inflammation and sickness were produced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1mg/kg, ip), while the 5-HT2A receptor was stimulated or blocked through the administration of the receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin (1mg/kg), respectively. LPS, DOI or ketanserin alone produced no effect on Tb. However, administration of LPS together with a peripheral or central ketanserin injection reduced Tb (32.2°C). Ketanserin reversed the LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase in the brain. Consequently, an involvement of NO in the mechanism of the hypothermic effect of ketanserin in sick mice was hypothesized. Administration of LPS together with NO synthase inhibitor, l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (60mg/kg, ip) resulted in deep (28.5°C) and prolonged (8h) hypothermia, while administration of l-nitro-arginine methyl ester alone produced no effect on Tb. Thus, 5-HT2A receptors play a key role in Tb control in sick mice. Blockade of this GPCR produces hypothermia in mice with systemic inflammation via attenuation of LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate an unexpected role of 5-HT2A receptors in inflammation and NO production and have a considerable biological impact on understanding the mechanism of animal adaptation to pathogens and parasites. Moreover, adverse side effects of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists in patients with inflammation may be expected.

  15. Role of 5-HT5A receptors in the consolidation of memory.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Roberto; Chávez-Pascacio, Karla; Meneses, Alfredo

    2013-09-01

    5-HT5 receptor occurs in brain areas implicated in learning and memory. Hence, the effects (0.01-3.0 mg/kg) of SB-6995516 (a 5-HT5A receptor antagonist) in the associative learning task of autoshaping were studied. The results showed that post-training injection of SB-699551 decreased conditioned responses (CR) during short-term (STM; 1.5h; at 0.1mg/kg) and long-term memory (LTM; 24 h; at 3.0 mg/kg) relative to the vehicle animals. Moreover, considering that there are no selective 5-HT5A receptor agonists, next, diverse doses of the serotonin precursor l-tryptophan were studied during STM and LTM, showing that l-tryptophan (5-100mg/kg) facilitated performance, particularly at 50mg/kg. In interactions experiments, l-tryptophan (50 mg/kg) attenuated the impairment effect induced by SB-699551 (either 0.3 or 3.0 mg/kg). All together this evidence suggests that the blockade of 5-HT5A receptor appear to be able to impair STM and LTM (24 h), while its stimulation might facilitate it. Of course further investigation is necessary, meanly with selective 5-HT5A compounds are necessary.

  16. A2aR antagonists: Next generation checkpoint blockade for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Leone, Robert D; Lo, Ying-Chun; Powell, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    The last several years have witnessed exciting progress in the development of immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer. This has been due in great part to the development of so-called checkpoint blockade. That is, antibodies that block inhibitory receptors such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 and thus unleash antigen-specific immune responses against tumors. It is clear that tumors evade the immune response by usurping pathways that play a role in negatively regulating normal immune responses. In this regard, adenosine in the immune microenvironment leading to the activation of the A2a receptor has been shown to represent one such negative feedback loop. Indeed, the tumor microenvironment has relatively high concentrations of adenosine. To this end, blocking A2a receptor activation has the potential to markedly enhance anti-tumor immunity in mouse models. This review will present data demonstrating the ability of A2a receptor blockade to enhance tumor vaccines, checkpoint blockade and adoptive T cell therapy. Also, as several recent studies have demonstrated that under certain conditions A2a receptor blockade can enhance tumor progression, we will also explore the complexities of adenosine signaling in the immune response. Despite important nuances to the A2a receptor pathway that require further elucidation, studies to date strongly support the development of A2a receptor antagonists (some of which have already been tested in phase III clinical trials for Parkinson Disease) as novel modalities in the immunotherapy armamentarium.

  17. Traceable Coulomb blockade thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahtela, O.; Mykkänen, E.; Kemppinen, A.; Meschke, M.; Prunnila, M.; Gunnarsson, D.; Roschier, L.; Penttilä, J.; Pekola, J.

    2017-02-01

    We present a measurement and analysis scheme for determining traceable thermodynamic temperature at cryogenic temperatures using Coulomb blockade thermometry. The uncertainty of the electrical measurement is improved by utilizing two sampling digital voltmeters instead of the traditional lock-in technique. The remaining uncertainty is dominated by that of the numerical analysis of the measurement data. Two analysis methods are demonstrated: numerical fitting of the full conductance curve and measuring the height of the conductance dip. The complete uncertainty analysis shows that using either analysis method the relative combined standard uncertainty (k  =  1) in determining the thermodynamic temperature in the temperature range from 20 mK to 200 mK is below 0.5%. In this temperature range, both analysis methods produced temperature estimates that deviated from 0.39% to 0.67% from the reference temperatures provided by a superconducting reference point device calibrated against the Provisional Low Temperature Scale of 2000.

  18. Magnolol Attenuates Concanavalin A-induced Hepatic Fibrosis, Inhibits CD4(+) T Helper 17 (Th17) Cell Differentiation and Suppresses Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation: Blockade of Smad3/Smad4 Signalling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongjun; Ju, Baoling; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhu, Yanfei; Nie, Ying; Xu, Yuanhong; Lei, Qiuxia

    2016-12-29

    Magnolol is a pharmacological biphenolic compound extracted from Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis, which displays anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study was aimed at exploring the potential effect of magnolol on immune-related liver fibrosis. Herein, BALB/c mice were injected with concanavalin A (ConA, 8 mg/kg/week) up to 6 weeks to establish hepatic fibrosis, and magnolol (10, 20, 30 mg/kg/day) was given to these mice orally throughout the whole experiment. We found that magnolol preserved liver function and attenuated liver fibrotic injury in vivo. In response to ConA stimulation, the CD4(+) T cells preferred to polarizing towards CD4(+) T helper 17 (Th17) cells in liver. Magnolol was observed to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation in ConA-treated liver in addition to suppressing interleukin (IL)-17A generation. Hepatic stellate cells were activated in fibrotic liver as demonstrated by increased alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin. More transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and activin A were secreted into the serum. Magnolol suppressed this abnormal HSC activation. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of Smad3 in its linker area (Thr179, Ser 204/208/213) was inhibited by magnolol. In vitro, the recombinant IL-17A plus TGF-β1 or activin A induced activation of human LX2 HSCs and promoted their collagen production. Smad3/Smad4 signalling pathway was activated in LX2 cells exposed to the fibrotic stimuli, as illustrated by the up-regulated phospho-Smad3 and the enhanced interaction between Smad3 and Smad4. These alterations were suppressed by magnolol. Collectively, our study reveals a novel antifibrotic effect of magnolol on Th17 cell-mediated fibrosis.

  19. 5-HT2A receptor activation is necessary for CO2-induced arousal

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Haleigh R.; MacAskill, Amanda; Richerson, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Hypercapnia-induced arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism pertinent to a number of diseases. Most notably among these are the sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Serotonin (5-HT) plays a significant role in hypercapnia-induced arousal. The mechanism of 5-HT's role in this protective response is unknown. Here we sought to identify the specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) involved in this response. Wild-type mice were pretreated with antagonists against 5-HT receptor subtypes, as well as antagonists against adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, and orexinergic receptors before challenge with inspired CO2 or hypoxia. Antagonists of 5-HT2A receptors dose-dependently blocked CO2-induced arousal. The 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, RS-102221, and the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuated but did not completely block CO2-induced arousal. Blockade of non-5-HT receptors did not affect CO2-induced arousal. None of these drugs had any effect on hypoxia-induced arousal. 5-HT2 receptor agonists were given to mice in which 5-HT neurons had been genetically eliminated during embryonic life (Lmx1bf/f/p) and which are known to lack CO2-induced arousal. Application of agonists to 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT2C, receptors, dose-dependently restored CO2-induced arousal in these mice. These data identify the 5-HT2A receptor as an important mediator of CO2-induced arousal and suggest that, while 5-HT neurons can be independently activated to drive CO2-induced arousal, in the absence of 5-HT neurons and endogenous 5-HT, 5-HT receptor activation can act in a permissive fashion to facilitate CO2-induced arousal via another as yet unidentified chemosensor system. PMID:25925320

  20. CCR3 Blockade Attenuates Eosinophilic Ileitis and Associated Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Joanne C; McNamee, Eóin N; Jedlicka, Paul; Fillon, Sophie; Ruybal, Joseph; Hosford, Lindsay; Rivera-Nieves, Jesús; Lee, James J; Furuta, Glenn T

    2011-11-01

    Intestinal remodeling and stricture formation is a complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that often requires surgical intervention. Although eosinophils are associated with mucosal remodeling in other organs and are increased in IBD tissues, their role in IBD-associated remodeling is unclear. Histological and molecular features of ileitis and remodeling were assessed using immunohistochemical, histomorphometric, flow cytometric, and molecular analysis (real-time RT-PCR) techniques in a murine model of chronic eosinophilic ileitis. Collagen protein was assessed by Sircol assay. Using a spontaneous eosinophilic Crohn's-like mouse model SAMP1/SkuSlc, we demonstrate an association between ileitis progression and remodeling over the course of 40 weeks. Mucosal and submucosal eosinophilia increased over the time course and correlated with increased histological inflammatory indices. Ileitis and remodeling increased over the 40 weeks, as did expression of fibronectin. CCR3-specific antibody-mediated reduction of eosinophils resulted in significant decrease in goblet cell hyperplasia, muscularis propria hypertrophy, villus blunting, and expression of inflammatory and remodeling genes, including fibronectin. Cellularity of local mesenteric lymph nodes, including T- and B-lymphocytes, was also significantly reduced. Thus, eosinophils participate in intestinal remodeling, supporting eosinophils as a novel therapeutic target.

  1. Coulomb-blockade and Pauli-blockade magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Széchenyi, Gábor; Pályi, András

    2017-01-01

    Scanning-probe magnetometry is a valuable experimental tool to investigate magnetic phenomena at the micro- and nanoscale. We theoretically analyze the possibility of measuring magnetic fields via the electrical current flowing through quantum dots. We characterize the shot-noise-limited magnetic-field sensitivity of two devices: a single dot in the Coulomb blockade regime, and a double dot in the Pauli blockade regime. Constructing such magnetometers using carbon nanotube quantum dots would benefit from the large, strongly anisotropic and controllable g tensors, the low abundance of nuclear spins, and the small detection volume allowing for nanoscale spatial resolution; we estimate that a sensitivity below 1 μ T/√{Hz} can be achieved with this material. As quantum dots have already proven to be useful as scanning-probe electrometers, our proposal highlights their potential as hybrid sensors having in situ switching capability between electrical and magnetic sensing.

  2. Angiogenesis and radiation response modulation after vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing; Huang Shyhmin; Armstrong, Eric A.; Fowler, John F.; Harari, Paul M. . E-mail: harari@humonc.wisc.edu

    2005-08-01

    The formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) represents a critical factor in the malignant growth of solid tumors and metastases. Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR2 represent central molecular targets for antiangiogenic intervention, because of their integral involvement in endothelial cell proliferation and migration. In the current study, we investigated in vitro and in vivo effects of receptor blockade on various aspects of the angiogenic process using monoclonal antibodies against VEGFR2 (cp1C11, which is human specific, and DC101, which is mouse specific). Molecular blockade of VEGFR2 inhibited several critical steps involved in angiogenesis. VEGFR2 blockade in endothelial cells attenuated cellular proliferation, reduced cellular migration, and disrupted cellular differentiation and resultant formation of capillary-like networks. Further, VEGFR2 blockade significantly reduced the growth response of human squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in athymic mice. The growth-inhibitory effect of VEGFR2 blockade in tumor xenografts seems to reflect antiangiogenic influence as demonstrated by vascular growth inhibition in an in vivo angiogenesis assay incorporating tumor-bearing Matrigel plugs. Further, administration of VEGFR2-blocking antibodies in endothelial cell cultures, and in mouse xenograft models, increased their response to ionizing radiation, indicating an interactive cytotoxic effect of VEGFR2 blockade with radiation. These data suggest that molecular inhibition of VEGFR2 alone, and in combination with radiation, can enhance tumor response through molecular targeting of tumor vasculature.

  3. Blockade of KCa3.1 potassium channels protects against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Lung; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Hu, Oliver Yoa-Pu; Pao, Li-Heng

    2016-09-01

    Tubular cell apoptosis significantly contributes to cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) pathogenesis. Although KCa3.1, a calcium-activated potassium channel, participates in apoptosis, its involvement in cisplatin-induced AKI is unknown. Here, we found that cisplatin treatment triggered an early induction of KCa3.1 expression associated with HK-2 cell apoptosis, the development of renal tubular damage, and apoptosis in mice. Treatment with the highly selective KCa3.1 blocker TRAM-34 suppressed cisplatin-induced HK-2 cell apoptosis. We further assessed whether KCa3.1 mediated cisplatin-induced AKI in genetic knockout and pharmacological blockade mouse models. KCa3.1 deficiency reduced renal function loss, renal tubular damage, and the induction of the apoptotic marker caspase-3 in the kidneys of cisplatin-treated KCa3.1 (-/-) mice. Pharmacological blockade of KCa3.1 by TRAM-34 similarly attenuated cisplatin-induced AKI in mice. Furthermore, we dissected the mechanisms underlying cisplatin-induced apoptosis reduction via KCa3.1 blockade. We found that KCa3.1 blockade attenuated cytochrome c release and the increase in the intrinsic apoptotic mediators Bax, Bak, and caspase-9 after cisplatin treatment. KCa3.1 blocking inhibited the cisplatin-induced activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediator caspase-12, which is independent of calcium-dependent protease m-calpain activation. Taken together, KCa3.1 blockade protects against cisplatin-induced AKI through the attenuation of apoptosis by interference with intrinsic apoptotic and ER stress-related mediators, providing a potential target for the prevention of cisplatin-induced AKI.

  4. Hypothermic anesthesia attenuates postoperative proteolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D J; Brooks, D C; Pressler, V M; Hulton, N R; Colpoys, M F; Smith, R J; Wilmore, D W

    1986-01-01

    The catabolic response that commonly occurs after major operation is characterized by net skeletal muscle proteolysis and accelerated nitrogen excretion. This response was absent in patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures associated with the combination of cardiopulmonary bypass, narcotic anesthesia, neuromuscular blockade, and hypothermia. Forearm nitrogen release was 422 +/- 492 nmol/100 ml X min on the first postoperative day, approximately 25% of preoperative values (1677 +/- 411, p less than 0.05). Nitrogen excretion and the degree of negative nitrogen balance were comparable to levels observed in nonstressed, fasting subjects. The potential role of hypothermia, high-dose fentanyl anesthesia, and neuromuscular blockade in modifying the catabolic response to laparotomy and retroperitoneal dissection was further evaluated in animal studies. Six hours after operation, amino acid nitrogen release from the hindquarter was 84% less than control values (p less than 0.05). Nitrogen excretion and urea production were also reduced compared to normothermic controls. It is concluded that the combination of hypothermia, narcotic anesthesia, and neuromuscular blockade attenuates the catabolic response to injury and thus may be useful in the care of critically ill surgical patients. PMID:3767477

  5. Attenuation of thermal nociception and hyperalgesia by VR1 blockers

    PubMed Central

    García-Martínez, Carolina; Humet, Marc; Planells-Cases, Rosa; Gomis, Ana; Caprini, Marco; Viana, Felix; De la Peña, Elvira; Sanchez-Baeza, Francisco; Carbonell, Teresa; De Felipe, Carmen; Pérez-Payá, Enrique; Belmonte, Carlos; Messeguer, Angel; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Vanilloid receptor subunit 1 (VR1) appears to play a critical role in the transduction of noxious chemical and thermal stimuli by sensory nerve endings in peripheral tissues. Thus, VR1 antagonists are useful compounds to unravel the contribution of this receptor to pain perception, as well as to induce analgesia. We have used a combinatorial approach to identify new, nonpeptidic channel blockers of VR1. Screening of a library of trimers of N-alkylglycines resulted in the identification of two molecules referred to as DD161515 {N-[2-(2-(N-methylpyrrolidinyl)ethyl]glycyl]-[N-[2,4-dichlorophenethyl]glycyl]-N-(2,4-dichlorophenethyl)glycinamide} and DD191515 {[N-[3-(N,N-diethylamino)propyl]glycyl]-[N-[2,4-dichlorophenethyl]glycyl]-N-(2,4-dichlorophenethyl)glycinamide} that selectively block VR1 channel activity with micromolar efficacy, rivaling that characteristic of vanilloid-related inhibitors. These compounds appear to be noncompetitive VR1 antagonists that recognize a receptor site distinct from that of capsaicin. Intraperitoneal administration of both trialkylglycines into mice significantly attenuated thermal nociception as measured in the hot plate test. It is noteworthy that these compounds eliminated pain and neurogenic inflammation evoked by intradermal injection of capsaicin into the animal hindpaw, as well as the thermal hyperalgesia induced by tissue irritation with nitrogen mustard. In contrast, responses to mechanical stimuli were not modified by either compound. Modulation of sensory nerve fibers excitability appears to underlie the peptoid analgesic activity. Collectively, these results indicate that blockade of VR1 activity attenuates chemical and thermal nociception and hyperalgesia, supporting the tenet that this ionotropic receptor contributes to chemical and thermal sensitivity and pain perception in vivo. These trialkylglycine-based, noncompetitive VR1 antagonists may likely be developed into analgesics to treat inflammatory pain. PMID:11854530

  6. Selective blockade of the endothelin subtype A receptor decreases early atherosclerosis in hamsters fed cholesterol.

    PubMed Central

    Kowala, M. C.; Rose, P. M.; Stein, P. D.; Goller, N.; Recce, R.; Beyer, S.; Valentine, M.; Barton, D.; Durham, S. K.

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that endothelin and its receptors may be involved in atherogenesis. To test this hypothesis, cholesterol-fed hamsters were treated with a selective endothelin subtype A (ETA) receptor antagonist BMS-182874. Characterization of hamster atherosclerotic plaques indicated that they contained a fibrous cap of smooth muscle cells, large macrophage-foam cells, and epitopes of oxidized low density lipoprotein. Messenger RNA for both ETA and ETB receptors was detected in aortic endothelial cells, in medial smooth muscle cells, and in macrophage-foam cells and smooth muscle cells of the fibro-fatty plaques. BMS-182874 inhibited the endothelin-1-induced pressor response whereas the depressor effect was unaltered, suggesting that vascular ETA receptors were selectively blocked in vivo. In hyperlipidemic hamsters, BMS-182874 decreased the area of the fatty streak by reducing the number and size of macrophage-foam cells. The results indicated that ETA receptors and thus endothelin promoted the early inflammatory phase of atherosclerosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7717449

  7. Observation of ionic Coulomb blockade in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jiandong; Liu, Ke; Graf, Michael; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Kis, Andras; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Radenovic, Aleksandra

    2016-08-01

    Emergent behaviour from electron-transport properties is routinely observed in systems with dimensions approaching the nanoscale. However, analogous mesoscopic behaviour resulting from ionic transport has so far not been observed, most probably because of bottlenecks in the controlled fabrication of subnanometre nanopores for use in nanofluidics. Here, we report measurements of ionic transport through a single subnanometre pore junction, and the observation of ionic Coulomb blockade: the ionic counterpart of the electronic Coulomb blockade observed for quantum dots. Our findings demonstrate that nanoscopic, atomically thin pores allow for the exploration of phenomena in ionic transport, and suggest that nanopores may also further our understanding of transport through biological ion channels.

  8. Pancreatic digestive enzyme blockade in the small intestine prevents insulin resistance in hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    DeLano, Frank A; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is associated with metabolic defects, including hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, but the mechanisms are unknown. We recently demonstrated that reduction of the extracellular domain of the insulin receptor by degrading proteases may lead to a reduced ability to maintain normal plasma glucose values. In shock, transfer of digestive enzymes from the lumen of the intestine into the systemic circulation after breakdown of the intestinal mucosal barrier causes inflammation and organ dysfunction. Suppression of the digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine with protease inhibitors is effective in reducing the level of the inflammatory reactions. To determine the degree to which blockade of digestive enzymes affects insulin resistance in shock, rats were exposed to acute hemorrhagic shock (mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg for 2 h) at which time all shed blood volume was returned. Digestive proteases in the intestine were blocked with a serine protease inhibitor (tranexamic acid in polyethylene glycol and physiological electrolyte solution), and the density of the insulin receptor was measured with immunohistochemistry in the mesentery microcirculation. The untreated rat without enzyme blockade had significantly attenuated levels of insulin receptor density as compared with control and treated rats. Blockade of the digestive proteases after 60 min of hypotension in the lumen of the small intestine led to a lesser decrease in insulin receptor density compared with controls without protease blockade. Glucose tolerance test indicates a significant increase in plasma glucose levels 2 h after hemorrhagic shock, which are reduced to control values in the presence of protease inhibition in the lumen of the intestine. The transient reduction of the plasma glucose levels after an insulin bolus is significantly attenuated after shock but is restored when digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine are blocked. These results suggest that in

  9. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonism and neuroprotection: mechanisms, lights, and shadows.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Minghetti, Luisa; Tebano, Maria Teresa; Pintor, Annita; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Massotti, Marino

    2004-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists are regarded as potential neuroprotective drugs, although the mechanisms underlying their effects remain to be elucidated. In this review, quinolinic acid (QA)-induced striatal toxicity was used as a tool to investigate the mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of A2A receptor antagonists. After having examined the effects of selective A2A receptor antagonists toward different mechanisms of QA toxicity, we conclude that (1) the effect elicited by A2A receptor blockade on QA-induced glutamate outflow may be one of the mechanisms of the neuroprotective activity of A2A receptor antagonists; (2) A2A receptor antagonists have a potentially worsening influence on QA-dependent NMDA receptor activation; and (3) the ability of A2A receptor antagonists to prevent QA-induced lipid peroxidation does not correlate with the neuroprotective effects. These results suggest that A2A receptor antagonists may have either potentially beneficial or detrimental influence in models of neurodegeneration that are mainly due to increased glutamate levels or enhanced sensitivity of NMDA receptors, respectively.

  10. Depressed GABA and glutamate synaptic signaling by 5-HT1A receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii and their role in cardiorespiratory function

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Tim D.; Ostrowski, Daniela; Hasser, Eileen M.

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT), and its 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) subtype, is a powerful modulator of the cardiorespiratory system and its sensory reflexes. The nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) serves as the first central station for visceral afferent integration and is critical for cardiorespiratory reflex responses. However, the physiological and synaptic role of 5-HT1ARs in the nTS is relatively unknown. In the present study, we examined the distribution and modulation of 5-HT1ARs on cardiorespiratory and synaptic parameters in the nTS. 5-HT1ARs were widely distributed to cell bodies within the nTS but not synaptic terminals. In anesthetized rats, activation of 5-HT1ARs by microinjection of the 5-HT1AR agonist 8-OH-DPAT into the caudal nTS decreased minute phrenic neural activity via a reduction in phrenic amplitude. In brain stem slices, 8-OH-DPAT decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic tractus solitarii-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents, and reduced overall spontaneous excitatory nTS network activity. These effects persisted in the presence of GABAA receptor blockade and were antagonized by coapplication of 5-HT1AR blocker WAY-100135. 5-HT1AR blockade alone had no effect on tractus solitarii-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents, but increased excitatory network activity. On the other hand, GABAergic nTS-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents did not change by activation of the 5-HT1ARs, but spontaneous inhibitory nTS network activity decreased. Blocking 5-HT1ARs tended to increase nTS-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents and inhibitory network activity. Taken together, 5-HT1ARs in the caudal nTS decrease breathing, likely via attenuation of afferent transmission, as well as overall nTS network activity. PMID:24671532

  11. INHIBITION OF PAN NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR P75 ATTENUATES DIESEL PARTICULATE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES IN C57/BL6J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance in allergic mice. Diesel exhaust particle...

  12. [Cancer immunotherapy by immuno-checkpoint blockade].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    As cancer immunotherapies utilizing anti-tumor T-cell responses, immuno-checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell immunotherapy have recently achieved durable responses even in advanced cancer patients with metastases. Administration of antibodies on the T-cell surface, CTLA-4 and PD-1 (or PD-1 ligand PD-L1), resulted in tumor regression of not only melanoma and renal cell cancer which were known to be relatively sensitive to immunotherapy, but also various malignancies including lung, bladder, ovarian, gastric, and head and neck cancers, as well as hematological malignancies such as Hodgkin and B-cell malignant lymphomas. These findings have changed the status of immunotherapy in the development of cancer treatments. Currently, development of combinations employing cancer immunotherapy with immuno-checkpoint blockade, as well as personalized cancer immunotherapy based on the evaluation of pretreatment immune status, are in progress.

  13. Hippocampal 5-HT1A Receptor and Spatial Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Glikmann-Johnston, Yifat; Saling, Michael M.; Reutens, David C.; Stout, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition is fundamental for survival in the topographically complex environments inhabited by humans and other animals. The hippocampus, which has a central role in spatial cognition, is characterized by high concentration of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptor binding sites, particularly of the 1A receptor (5-HT1A) subtype. This review highlights converging evidence for the role of hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors in spatial learning and memory. We consider studies showing that activation or blockade of the 5-HT1A receptors using agonists or antagonists, respectively, lead to changes in spatial learning and memory. For example, pharmacological manipulation to induce 5-HT release, or to block 5-HT uptake, have indicated that increased extracellular 5-HT concentrations maintain or improve memory performance. In contrast, reduced levels of 5-HT have been shown to impair spatial memory. Furthermore, the lack of 5-HT1A receptor subtype in single gene knockout mice is specifically associated with spatial memory impairments. These findings, along with evidence from recent cognitive imaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) with 5-HT1A receptor ligands, and studies of individual genetic variance in 5-HT1A receptor availability, strongly suggests that 5-HT, mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor subtype, plays a key role in spatial learning and memory. PMID:26696889

  14. Effect of beta blockade on singing performance.

    PubMed

    Gates, G A; Saegert, J; Wilson, N; Johnson, L; Shepherd, A; Hearne, E M

    1985-01-01

    The symptoms associated with performance anxiety, or the so-called stage fright syndrome, are similar to those of alpha and beta adrenergic stimulation. Suppression of symptoms and improvement in instrumentalist's performance after beta blockade suggest that this modality would be of benefit for singers as well. To evaluate the dose-effect relationship of beta blockade upon singing performance and the possible effect of these agents upon performance maturation, we studied 34 singing students during end of semester juries, using a double-blind crossover paradigm. Students performed once with either placebo, 20, 40, or 80 mg of nadolol, and again 48 hours later, with placebo. There was a significant dose-related, limiting effect upon intraperformance cardiac rate. A small, but statistically significant, dichotomous effect upon performance rating was noted: low-dose nadolol tended to enhance performance, whereas larger doses impaired performance. We conclude that the effects of low dose beta blockade upon singing are minimally helpful and high doses may detract from performance ability.

  15. Pharmacological blockade of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 elicits marked hyperthermia in humans.

    PubMed

    Gavva, Narender R; Treanor, James J S; Garami, Andras; Fang, Liang; Surapaneni, Sekhar; Akrami, Anna; Alvarez, Francisco; Bak, Annette; Darling, Mary; Gore, Anu; Jang, Graham R; Kesslak, James P; Ni, Liyun; Norman, Mark H; Palluconi, Gabrielle; Rose, Mark J; Salfi, Margaret; Tan, Edward; Romanovsky, Andrej A; Banfield, Christopher; Davar, Gudarz

    2008-05-01

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 has been identified as a molecular target for the treatment of pain associated with inflammatory diseases and cancer. Hence, TRPV1 antagonists have been considered for therapeutic evaluation in such diseases. During Phase I clinical trials with AMG 517, a highly selective TRPV1 antagonist, we found that TRPV1 blockade elicited marked, but reversible, and generally plasma concentration-dependent hyperthermia. Similar to what was observed in rats, dogs, and monkeys, hyperthermia was attenuated after repeated dosing of AMG 517 (at the highest dose tested) in humans during a second Phase I trial. However, AMG 517 administered after molar extraction (a surgical cause of acute pain) elicited long-lasting hyperthermia with maximal body temperature surpassing 40 degrees C, suggesting that TRPV1 blockade elicits undesirable hyperthermia in susceptible individuals. Mechanisms of AMG 517-induced hyperthermia were then studied in rats. AMG 517 caused hyperthermia by inducing tail skin vasoconstriction and increasing thermogenesis, which suggests that TRPV1 regulates vasomotor tone and metabolic heat production. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that: (a) TRPV1-selective antagonists like AMG 517 cannot be developed for systemic use as stand alone agents for treatment of pain and other diseases, (b) individual susceptibility influences magnitude of hyperthermia observed after TRPV1 blockade, and (c) TRPV1 plays a pivotal role as a molecular regulator for body temperature in humans.

  16. Blockade of store-operated calcium entry alleviates ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Ruibing; Yan, Lihui; Luo, Zheng; Guo, Xiaolan; Yan, Ming

    2015-08-15

    Extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx has been suggested to play a role in ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis. Previous studies indicated that store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) was involved in liver injury induced by ethanol in HepG2 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by SOCE remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of SOCE inhibition on liver injury induced by ethanol in BRL cells and Sprague–Dawley rats. Our data demonstrated that ethanol (0–400 mM) dose-dependently increased hepatocyte injury and 100 mM ethanol significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of SOC for at least 72 h in BRL cells. Blockade of SOCE by pharmacological inhibitors and sh-RNA knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 attenuated intracellular Ca{sup 2+} overload, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. STIM1 and Orai1 expression was greater in ethanol-treated than control rats, and the SOCE inhibitor corosolic acid ameliorated the histopathological findings and alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity as well as decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited alcohol-induced cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that SOCE blockade could alleviate alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis. SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases. - Highlights: • Blockade of SOCE alleviated overload of Ca{sup 2+} and hepatotoxicity after ethanol application. • Blockade of SOCE inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis after ethanol application. • SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases.

  17. The supramammillary nucleus mediates primary reinforcement via GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2005-06-01

    The supramammillary nucleus (SUM), a dorsal layer of the mammillary body, has recently been implicated in positive reinforcement. The present study examined whether GABA(A) receptors in the SUM or adjacent regions are involved in primary reinforcement using intracranial self-administration procedures. Rats learned quickly to lever-press for infusions of the GABA(A) antagonist picrotoxin into the SUM. Although picrotoxin was also self-administered into the posterior hypothalamic nuclei and anterior ventral tegmental area, these regions were less responsive to lower doses of picrotoxin than the SUM. The finding that rats learned to respond selectively on the lever triggering drug infusions is consistent with picrotoxin's reinforcing effect. Coadministration of the GABA(A) agonist muscimol disrupted picrotoxin self-administration, and another GABA(A) antagonist, bicuculline, was also self-administered into the SUM; thus, the reinforcing effect of picrotoxin is mediated by GABA(A) receptors. Since rats did not self-administer the GABA(B) antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen into the SUM, the role of GABA(B) receptors may be distinct from that of GABA(A) receptors. Pretreatment with the dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) extinguished picrotoxin self-administration into the SUM, suggesting that the reinforcing effects of GABA(A) receptor blockade depend on normal dopamine transmission. In conclusion, the blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the SUM is reinforcing, and the brain 'reward' circuitry appears to be tonically inhibited via supramammillary GABA(A) receptors and more extensive than the meso-limbic dopamine system.

  18. Adrenergic blockade does not abolish elevated glucose turnover during bacterial infection

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, D.M.; Bagby, G.J.; Lang, C.H.; Spitzer, J.J. )

    1988-01-01

    Infusions of adrenergic antagonists were used to investigate the role of catecholamines in infection-induced elevations of glucose kinetics. Infection was produced in conscious catheterized rats by repeated subcutaneous injections of live Escherichia coli over 24 h. Glucose kinetics were measured by the constant intravenous infusion of (6-{sup 3}H)- and (U-{sup 14}C)glucose. Compared with noninfected rats, infected animals were hyperthermic and showed increased rates of glucose appearance, clearance, and recycling as well as mild hyperlacticacidemia. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were increased by 50-70% in the infected rats, but there were no differences in plasma glucagon, corticosterone, and insulin levels. Adrenergic blockade was produced by primed constant infusion of both propranolol ({beta}-blocker) and phentolamine ({alpha}-blocker). A 2-h administration of adrenergic antagonists did not attenuate the elevated glucose kinetics or plasma lactate concentration in the infected rats, although it abolished the hyperthermia. In a second experiment, animals were infused with propranolol and phentolamine beginning 1 h before the first injection of E. coli and throughout the course of infection. Continuous adrenergic blockade failed to attenuate infection-induced elevations in glucose kinetics and plasma lactate. These results indicate that the adrenergic system does not mediate the elevated glucose metabolism observed in this mild model of infection.

  19. Therapeutic Opportunities for Caffeine and A2A Receptor Antagonists in Retinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Boia, Raquel; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine, the major component of coffee, is the most consumed psychostimulant in the world. Caffeine is an adenosine analog and acts as a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist. The majority of the effects of caffeine are mainly mediated by the blockade of adenosine receptors, and the proved neuroprotective effects of caffeine in brain disorders have been mimicked by the blockade of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). A growing body of evidence demonstrates that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of brain and retinal diseases. Moreover, the control of microglia reactivity by blocking A2AR has been proposed to be the mechanism underlying the observed protective effects of caffeine. Hence, it is conceivable that caffeine and A2AR antagonists offer therapeutic value for the treatment of retinal diseases, mainly those involving microglia-mediated neuroinflammation.

  20. Endogenous adenosine mediates coronary vasodilation during exercise after K(ATP)+ channel blockade.

    PubMed Central

    Duncker, D J; van Zon, N S; Pavek, T J; Herrlinger, S K; Bache, R J

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of coronary vasodilation produced by exercise is not understood completely. Recently, we reported that blockade of vascular smooth muscle K(ATP)+ channels decreased coronary blood flow at rest, but did not attenuate the increments in coronary flow produced by exercise. Adenosine is not mandatory for maintaining basal coronary flow, or the increase in flow produced by exercise during normal arterial inflow, but does contribute to coronary vasodilation in hypoperfused myocardium. Therefore, we investigated whether adenosine opposed the hypoperfusion produced by K(ATP)+ channel blockade, thereby contributing to coronary vasodilation during exercise. 11 dogs were studied at rest and during exercise under control conditions, during intracoronary infusion of the K(ATP)+ channel blocker glibenclamide (50 micrograms/kg per min), and during intracoronary glibenclamide in the presence of adenosine receptor blockade. Glibenclamide decreased resting coronary blood flow from 45 +/- 5 to 35 +/- 4 ml/min (P < 0.05), but did not prevent exercise-induced increases of coronary flow. Glibenclamide caused an increase in myocardial oxygen extraction at the highest level of exercise with a decrease in coronary venous oxygen tension from 15.5 +/- 0.7 to 13.6 +/- 0.8 mmHg (P < 0.05). The addition of the adenosine receptor antagonist 8-phenyltheophylline (5 mg/kg intravenous) to K(ATP)+ channel blockade did not further decrease resting coronary blood flow but did attenuate the increase in coronary flow produced by exercise. This was accompanied by a further decrease of coronary venous oxygen tension to 10.1 +/- 0.7 mmHg (P < 0.05), indicating aggravation of the mismatch between oxygen demand and supply. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that K+ATP channels modulate coronary vasomotor tone both under resting conditions and during exercise. However, when K(ATP)+ channels are blocked, adenosine released from the hypoperfused myocardium provides an alternate

  1. The Effect of Therapeutic Blockades of Dust Particles-Induced Ca2+ Signaling and Proinflammatory Cytokine IL-8 in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju Hee; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Hong, Jeong Hee

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells are the first barrier of defense against respiratory pathogens. Dust particles as extracellular stimuli are associated with inflammatory reactions after inhalation. It has been reported that dust particles induce intracellular Ca2+ signal, which subsequently increases cytokines production such as interleukin- (IL-) 8. However, the study of therapeutic blockades of Ca2+ signaling induced by dust particles in human bronchial epithelial cells is poorly understood. We investigated how to modulate dust particles-induced Ca2+ signaling and proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 expression. Bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to PM10 dust particles and subsequent mediated intracellular Ca2+ signaling and reactive oxygen species signal. Our results show that exposure to several inhibitors of Ca2+ pathway attenuated the PM10-induced Ca2+ response and subsequent IL-8 mRNA expression. PM10-mediated Ca2+ signal and IL-8 expression were attenuated by several pharmacological blockades such as antioxidants, IP3-PLC blockers, and TRPM2 inhibitors. Our results show that blockades of PLC or TRPM2 reduced both of PM10-mediated Ca2+ signal and IL-8 expression, suggesting that treatment with these blockades should be considered for potential therapeutic trials in pulmonary epithelium for inflammation caused by environmental events such as seasonal dust storm. PMID:26640326

  2. DC attenuation meter

    DOEpatents

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  3. Optimal Photon Blockade on the Maximal Atomic Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-shui

    2016-12-01

    There is generally no obvious evidence in any direct relation between photon blockade and atomic coherence. Here instead of only illustrating the photon statistics, we show an interesting relation between the steady-state photon blockade and the atomic coherence by designing a weakly driven cavity QED system with a two-level atom trapped. It is shown for the first time that the maximal atomic coherence has a perfect correspondence with the optimal photon blockade. The negative effects of the strong dissipations on photon statistics, atomic coherence and their correspondence are also addressed. The numerical simulation is also given to support all of our results.

  4. Activity blockade and GABAA receptor blockade produce synaptic scaling through chloride accumulation in embryonic spinal motoneurons and interneurons.

    PubMed

    Lindsly, Casie; Gonzalez-Islas, Carlos; Wenner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic scaling represents a process whereby the distribution of a cell's synaptic strengths are altered by a multiplicative scaling factor. Scaling is thought to be a compensatory response that homeostatically controls spiking activity levels in the cell or network. Previously, we observed GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic spinal motoneurons following in vivo blockade of either spiking activity or GABAA receptors (GABAARs). We had determined that activity blockade triggered upward GABAergic scaling through chloride accumulation, thus increasing the driving force for these currents. To determine whether chloride accumulation also underlies GABAergic scaling following GABAAR blockade we have developed a new technique. We expressed a genetically encoded chloride-indicator, Clomeleon, in the embryonic chick spinal cord, which provides a non-invasive fast measure of intracellular chloride. Using this technique we now show that chloride accumulation underlies GABAergic scaling following blockade of either spiking activity or the GABAAR. The finding that GABAAR blockade and activity blockade trigger scaling via a common mechanism supports our hypothesis that activity blockade reduces GABAAR activation, which triggers synaptic scaling. In addition, Clomeleon imaging demonstrated the time course and widespread nature of GABAergic scaling through chloride accumulation, as it was also observed in spinal interneurons. This suggests that homeostatic scaling via chloride accumulation is a common feature in many neuronal classes within the embryonic spinal cord and opens the possibility that this process may occur throughout the nervous system at early stages of development.

  5. The effect of caffeine to increase reaction time in the rat during a test of attention is mediated through antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy A; Grzelak, Michael E; Pond, Annamarie J; Cohen-Williams, Mary E; Hodgson, Robert A; Varty, Geoffrey B

    2007-12-11

    Caffeine produces effects on cognitive function particularly relating to aspects of attention such as reaction time. Considering the plasma exposure levels following regular caffeine intake, and the affinity of caffeine for known protein targets, these effects are likely mediated by either the adenosine A(1) or A(2A) receptor. In the present studies, two rat strains [Long-Evans (LE) and CD] were trained to asymptote performance in a test of selective attention, the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Next, the effects of caffeine were compared to the selective A(2A) antagonists, SCH 412348 and KW-6002 (Istradefylline), and the A(1) antagonist, DPCPX. Further studies compared the psychostimulant effects of each drug. Finally, we tested the A(2A) agonist, CGS-21680, on 5-CSRTT performance and given the antipsychotic potential of this drug class, studied the interaction between CGS-21680 and amphetamine in this task. Caffeine (3-10mg/kg IP) increased reaction time in both LE and CD rats, with no effect on accuracy, an effect replicated by SCH 412348 (0.1-1mg/kg PO) and KW-6002 (1-3mg/kg PO), but not DPCPX (3-30 mg/kg PO). At least with SCH 412348, these effects were at doses that were not overtly psychostimulant. In contrast, CGS-21680 (0.03-0. 3mg/kg IP) slowed reaction speed and increased omissions. Interestingly, at a comparatively low dose of 0.03 mg/kg, CGS-21680 attenuated the increased premature responding produced by amphetamine (1mg/kg IP). The present results suggest that the attention-enhancing effects of caffeine are mediated through A(2A) receptor blockade, and selective A(2A) receptor antagonists may have potential as therapies for attention-related disorders. Furthermore, the improvement in response control in amphetamine-treated rats following CGS-21680 pretreatment supports the view that A(2A) agonists have potential as novel antipsychotics.

  6. Alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade by phentolamine increases the efficacy of vasodilators in penile corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Kim, N N; Goldstein, I; Moreland, R B; Traish, A M

    2000-03-01

    Penile trabecular smooth muscle tone, a major determinant of erectile function, is highly regulated by numerous inter- and intracellular pathways. The interaction between pathways mediating contraction and relaxation has not been studied in detail. To this end, we investigated the functional effects of alpha adrenergic receptor blockade with phentolamine and its interaction with vasodilators (sildenafil, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and PGE1) that elevate cyclic nucleotides on penile cavernosal smooth muscle contractility. In organ bath preparations of cavernosal tissue strips contracted with phenylephrine, phentolamine significantly enhanced relaxation induced by sildenafil, VIP and PGE1. Sildenafil, VIP or PGE1 also significantly enhanced relaxation induced by phentolamine in cavernosal tissue strips contracted with phenylephrine. To study the effects of alpha adrenergic receptor blockade and modification of cyclic nucleotide metabolism during active neurogenic input, cavernosal tissue strips in organ bath preparations were contracted with the non-adrenergic agonist endothelin-1 and subjected to electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the absence or presence of phentolamine and/or sildenafil. EFS (5-40Hz) typically caused biphasic relaxation and contraction responses. Phentolamine alone enhanced relaxation and reduced or prevented contraction to EFS. Sildenafil enhanced relaxation to EFS at lower frequencies (< or = 5 Hz). The combination of phentolamine and sildenafil enhanced EFS-induced relaxation at all frequencies tested. EFS, in the presence of 10 nM phentolamine and 30 nM sildenafil, produced enhanced relaxation responses which were quantitatively similar to those obtained in the presence of 50 nM sildenafil alone. Thus, blockade of alpha-adrenergic receptors with phentolamine increases the efficacy of cyclic nucleotide-dependent vasodilators. Furthermore, phentolamine potentiates relaxation and attenuates contraction in response to endogenous

  7. Kinetics of cycle length dependence of ventricular repolarization: effect of autonomic blockade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raeder, E. A.; Albrecht, P.; Perrott, M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Beat-to-beat adaptation of ventricular repolarization duration to cardiac cycle length and autonomic activity has not been previously characterized in the spontaneously beating human heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ECG of 14 healthy subjects was recorded from the supine and upright positions. Autonomic blockade was accomplished by atropine and propranolol. RR and RT intervals were measured by a computer algorithm, and the impulse response (h) from RR to RT computed. In the supine position the maximal adjustment of the RT interval occurred in the first beat following a change in cycle length (hpeak = 17.8 +/- 1.6 msec/sec), but continued to be detectable for 3.8 seconds (2.9-4.7 sec). Propranolol attenuated the peak impulse response to 15.8 +/- 4.0 msec/sec (P = NS). In the standing position the peak impulse response was increased to 25.2 +/- 5.0 msec/sec (P = 0.004 vs supine), and the impulse response duration (hdur) shortened to 1.4 seconds (1.3-1.6). This was reversed by beta blockade (hpeak = 10.7 +/- 3.6 [P = 0.005 vs standing]; hdur = 5.5 sec [4.8-6.1]). Parasympathetic and combined autonomic blockade resulted in too little residual heart rate variability to estimate the impulse response accurately. The slope of the regression of delta RT and delta RR in the supine position was 0.0177 +/- 0.0016, which was closely correlated with the peak impulse response (r = 0.91). CONCLUSIONS: System identification techniques can assist in characterizing the cycle dependence of ventricular repolarization and may provide new insights into conditions associated with abnormal repolarization.

  8. Synaptic blockade plays a major role in the neural disturbance of experimental spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hideaki; Okada, Yasumasa; Maruiwa, Hirofumi; Fukuda, Kentaro; Nakamura, Masaya; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2003-12-01

    We analyzed dynamic processes of neural excitation propagation in the experimentally compressed spinal cord using a high-speed optical recording system. Transverse slices of the juvenile rat cervical spinal cord were stained with a voltage-sensitive dye (di-4-ANEPPS). Two components were identified in the depolarizing optical responses to dorsal root electrical stimulation: a fast component of short duration corresponding to pre-synaptic excitation and a slow component of long duration corresponding to post-synaptic excitation. In the directly compressed dorsal horn, the slow component was attenuated more (attenuated to 37.4 +/- 9.1% of the control) than the fast component (to 70.5 +/- 14.9%) (p < 0.01) at 400 msec after stimulation. Depolarizing optical responses to compression and to chemical synaptic blockade were similar. There was a regional difference between white matter (attenuated to 86.2 +/- 10.5%) and gray matter (to 72.6 +/- 10.4%) (p < 0.03) in compression-induced changes of the fast components; neural activity in the white matter was resistant to compression, especially in the dorsal root entry zone. Depolarizing optical signals in the region adjacent to the directly compressed site were also attenuated; the fast component was attenuated to 77.6 +/- 10.4% and the slow component to 31.8 +/- 11.3% of the control signals (p < 0.01). Spinal cord dysfunction induced by purely mechanical compression without tissue destruction was virtually restored with early decompression. We suggest that a disturbance of synaptic transmission plays an important role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of spinal cord compression, at least under in vitro experimental conditions of juvenile rats.

  9. Pancreatic digestive enzyme blockade in the intestine increases survival after experimental shock.

    PubMed

    DeLano, Frank A; Hoyt, David B; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2013-01-23

    Shock, sepsis, and multiorgan failure are associated with inflammation, morbidity, and high mortality. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is unknown, but evidence suggests that pancreatic enzymes in the intestinal lumen autodigest the intestine and generate systemic inflammation. Blocking these enzymes in the intestine reduces inflammation and multiorgan dysfunction. We investigated whether enzymatic blockade also reduces mortality after shock. Three rat shock models were used here: hemorrhagic shock, peritonitis shock induced by placement of cecal material into the peritoneum, and endotoxin shock. One hour after initiation of hemorrhagic, peritonitis, or endotoxin shock, animals were administered one of three different pancreatic enzyme inhibitors--6-amidino-2-naphtyl p-guanidinobenzoate dimethanesulfate, tranexamic acid, or aprotinin--into the lumen of the small intestine. In all forms of shock, blockade of digestive proteases with protease inhibitor attenuated entry of digestive enzymes into the wall of the intestine and subsequent autodigestion and morphological damage to the intestine, lung, and heart. Animals treated with protease inhibitors also survived in larger numbers than untreated controls over a period of 12 weeks. Surviving animals recovered completely and returned to normal weight within 14 days after shock. The results suggest that the active and concentrated digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine play a central role in shock and multiorgan failure, which can be treated with protease inhibitors that are currently available for use in the clinic.

  10. Potential effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade in adipose tissue and bone.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Hironori; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrated that dysregulation of adipocytokine functions seen in abdominal obesity may be involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Angiotensinogen, the precursor of angiotensin (Ang) II, is produced primarily in the liver, and also in adipose tissue, where it is up-regulated during the development of obesity and involved in blood pressure regulation and adipose tissue growth. Blockade of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) attenuates weight gain and adiposity by enhanced energy expenditure, and the favorable metabolic effects of telmisartan have been related to its Ang II receptor blockade and action as a partial agonist of peroxisome proliferators activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. PPARγ plays an important role in regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and ligands for PPARγ can improve insulin sensitivity and reduce triglyceride levels. Similarly, bone metabolism is closely regulated by hormones and cytokines, which have effects on both bone resorption and deposition. It is known that the receptors of Ang II are expressed in culture osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and Ang II is postulated to be able to act upon the cells involved in bone metabolism. In in vitro system, Ang II induced the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts responsible for bone resorption. Importantly, it was demonstrated by the sub-analysis of a recent clinical study that the fracture risk was significantly reduced by the usage of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. To treat the subgroups of hypertensive patients with osteoporosis RAS can be considered a novel target.

  11. Effect of intestinal chylomicron secretory blockade on apolipoprotein synthesis in the newborn piglet.

    PubMed

    Black, D D

    1992-04-01

    Pluronic L-81 is a hydrophobic surfactant which blocks intestinal chylomicron secretion at the pre-Golgi level without affecting triacylglycerol uptake and re-esterification. To study the effects of such blockade on apolipoprotein synthesis, newborn female piglets received 24 h intraduodenal infusions of low-triacylglycerol, or high-triacylglycerol with or without Pluronic L-81, diets, followed by determination of apolipoprotein (apo) B-48, A-I and A-IV synthesis and content and apo B and A-IV mRNA levels in the small intestine. Jejunal apo B-48 content, synthesis and mRNA levels were down-regulated below basal levels by the addition of Pluronic to the high-triacylglycerol infusion. The normal increase in apo A-I synthesis induced by triacylglycerol absorption was ablated in both jejunum and ileum, even though the expected increase in apo A-I content in jejunum still occurred. Although attenuated, the expected increase in jejunal apo A-IV synthesis and mRNA levels with triacylglycerol absorption was still present with Pluronic treatment. These results suggest very different mechanisms of cellular regulation and trafficking for the various apolipoproteins incorporated into nascent intestinal chylomicrons. Apo B may be specifically down-regulated by the chylomicron secretory blockade induced by Pluronic L-81.

  12. Structural basis of checkpoint blockade by monoclonal antibodies in cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Yeon; Lee, Hyun Tae; Shin, Woori; Chae, Jongseok; Choi, Jaemo; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lim, Heejin; Won Heo, Tae; Park, Kyeong Young; Lee, Yeon Ji; Ryu, Seong Eon; Son, Ji Young; Lee, Jee Un; Heo, Yong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells express tumour-specific antigens derived via genetic and epigenetic alterations, which may be targeted by T-cell-mediated immune responses. However, cancer cells can avoid immune surveillance by suppressing immunity through activation of specific inhibitory signalling pathways, referred to as immune checkpoints. In recent years, the blockade of checkpoint molecules such as PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4, with monoclonal antibodies has enabled the development of breakthrough therapies in oncology, and four therapeutic antibodies targeting these checkpoint molecules have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of several types of cancer. Here, we report the crystal structures of checkpoint molecules in complex with the Fab fragments of therapeutic antibodies, including PD-1/pembrolizumab, PD-1/nivolumab, PD-L1/BMS-936559 and CTLA-4/tremelimumab. These complex structures elucidate the precise epitopes of the antibodies and the molecular mechanisms underlying checkpoint blockade, providing useful information for the improvement of monoclonal antibodies capable of attenuating checkpoint signalling for the treatment of cancer. PMID:27796306

  13. Rydberg blockade effects at n ˜300 in strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Dunning, F. B.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2015-11-01

    Rydberg blockade at n ˜300 , is examined using strontium n F13 Rydberg atoms excited in an atomic beam in a small volume defined by two tightly focused crossed laser beams. The observation of blockade for such states is challenging due to their extreme sensitivity to stray fields and the many magnetic sublevels associated with F states which results in a high local density of states. Nonetheless, with a careful choice of laser polarization to selectively excite only a limited number of these sublevels, sizable blockade effects are observed on an ˜0.1 mm length scale extending blockade measurements into the near-macroscopic regime and enabling study of the dynamics of strongly coupled many-body high-n Rydberg systems under carefully controlled conditions.

  14. Blockade involving high- n, n ~ 300 , strontium Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Zhang, Xinyue; Dunning, F. Barry

    2016-05-01

    The blockade of high- n strontium n1F3 Rydberg states contained in a hot atomic beam is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. One difficulty in such experiments is that, once created, Rydberg atoms move out of the excitation volume reducing blockade effects. While the effects of such motion are apparent, the data provide strong evidence of blockade, consistent with theoretical predictions. Because of their relatively high angular momentum (L = 3) , a pair of n1F3 Rydberg atoms have many degenerate states whose degeneracy is removed by Rydberg-Rydberg interactions yielding a high density of states near the target energy. To evaluate the effect of blockade not only the energy shifts but also the modification of the oscillator strengths for excitation have to be taken into account. The n-scaling of the interactions and the importance of high-order multipoles will also be discussed. Research supported by the NSF and Robert A. Welch Foundation.

  15. Selective relaxant binding agents for reversal of neuromuscular blockade.

    PubMed

    Bom, Anton; Epemolu, Ola; Hope, Frank; Rutherford, Samantha; Thomson, Karen

    2007-06-01

    Traditionally, reversal of neuromuscular blockade during anaesthesia was achieved by increasing the acetylcholine concentration in the neuromuscular junction using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. However, this is ineffective against profound blockade. Furthermore, the increase in acetylcholine level is not limited to the neuromuscular junction, resulting in unwanted side effects requiring co-treatment with muscarinic antagonists. Selective relaxant binding agents offer a new approach for the reversal of neuromuscular blockade: encapsulation of the neuromuscular blocking agent, resulting in inactivation. As part of this new approach, cyclodextrin molecules have been designed that selectively encapsulate steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents. Both animal and human experiments have demonstrated that fast, effective and complete recovery from both normal and profound neuromuscular blockade is now possible. Furthermore, these cyclodextrin derivatives do not have the unwanted side effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

  16. Radiotherapy and immune checkpoint blockades: a snapshot in 2016

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Taeryool; Kim, In Ah

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint blockades including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed death-1 (PD-1), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have been emerged as a promising anticancer therapy. Several immune checkpoint blockades have been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and have shown notable success in clinical trials for patients with advanced melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer. Radiotherapy is a promising combination partner of immune checkpoint blockades due to its potent pro-immune effect. This review will cover the current issue and the future perspectives for combined with radiotherapy and immune checkpoint blockades based upon the available preclinical and clinical data. PMID:28030901

  17. Costimulation Blockade in Kidney Transplantation: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Malvezzi, Paolo; Jouve, Thomas; Rostaing, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the setting of solid-organ transplantation, calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based therapy remains the cornerstone of immunosuppression. However, long-term use of CNIs is associated with some degree of nephrotoxicity. This has led to exploring the blockade of some costimulation pathways as an efficient immunosuppressive tool instead of using CNIs. The only agent already in clinical use and approved by the health authorities for kidney transplant patients is belatacept (Nulojix), a fusion protein that interferes with cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4. Belatacept has been demonstrated to be as efficient as cyclosporine-based immunosuppression and is associated with significantly better renal function, that is, no nephrotoxicity. However, in the immediate posttransplant period, significantly more mild/moderate episodes of acute rejection have been reported, favored by the fact that cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein pathway has an inhibitory effect on the alloimmune response; thereby its inhibition is detrimental in this regard. This has led to the development of antibodies that target CD28. The most advanced is FR104, it has shown promise in nonhuman primate models of autoimmune diseases and allotransplantation. In addition, research into blocking the CD40-CD154 pathway is underway. A phase II study testing ASK1240, that is, anti-CD40 antibody has been completed, and the results are pending. PMID:27472094

  18. Interleukin-6 blockade in ocular inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mesquida, M; Leszczynska, A; Llorenç, V; Adán, A

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key cytokine featuring redundancy and pleiotropic activity. It plays a central role in host defence against environmental stress such as infection and injury. Dysregulated, persistent interleukin (IL)-6 production has been implicated in the development of various autoimmune, chronic inflammatory diseases and even cancers. Significant elevation of IL-6 has been found in ocular fluids derived from refractory/chronic uveitis patients. In experimental autoimmune uveitis models with IL-6 knock-out mice, IL-6 has shown to be essential for inducing inflammation. IL-6 blockade can suppress acute T helper type 17 (Th17) responses via its differentiation and, importantly, can ameliorate chronic inflammation. Tocilizumab, a recombinant humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, has been shown to be effective in several autoimmune diseases, including uveitis. Herein, we discuss the basic biology of IL-6 and its role in development of autoimmune conditions, focusing particularly on non-infectious uveitis. It also provides an overview of efficacy and safety of tocilizumab therapy for ocular inflammatory diseases. PMID:24528300

  19. Orbital excitation blockade and algorithmic cooling in quantum gases.

    PubMed

    Bakr, Waseem S; Preiss, Philipp M; Tai, M Eric; Ma, Ruichao; Simon, Jonathan; Greiner, Markus

    2011-12-21

    Interaction blockade occurs when strong interactions in a confined, few-body system prevent a particle from occupying an otherwise accessible quantum state. Blockade phenomena reveal the underlying granular nature of quantum systems and allow for the detection and manipulation of the constituent particles, be they electrons, spins, atoms or photons. Applications include single-electron transistors based on electronic Coulomb blockade and quantum logic gates in Rydberg atoms. Here we report a form of interaction blockade that occurs when transferring ultracold atoms between orbitals in an optical lattice. We call this orbital excitation blockade (OEB). In this system, atoms at the same lattice site undergo coherent collisions described by a contact interaction whose strength depends strongly on the orbital wavefunctions of the atoms. We induce coherent orbital excitations by modulating the lattice depth, and observe staircase-like excitation behaviour as we cross the interaction-split resonances by tuning the modulation frequency. As an application of OEB, we demonstrate algorithmic cooling of quantum gases: a sequence of reversible OEB-based quantum operations isolates the entropy in one part of the system and then an irreversible step removes the entropy from the gas. This technique may make it possible to cool quantum gases to have the ultralow entropies required for quantum simulation of strongly correlated electron systems. In addition, the close analogy between OEB and dipole blockade in Rydberg atoms provides a plan for the implementation of two-quantum-bit gates in a quantum computing architecture with natural scalability.

  20. Effect of global and regional sympathetic blockade on arterial pressure during water deprivation in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Veitenheimer, Britta J; Engeland, William C; Guzman, Pilar A; Fink, Gregory D; Osborn, John W

    2012-10-15

    Forty-eight hours of water deprivation (WD) in conscious rats results in a paradoxical increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Previous studies suggest this may be due to increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). However, this remains to be investigated in conscious, freely behaving animals. The purpose of this study was to determine, in conscious rats, the role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in mediating WD-induced increases in MAP and to identify which vascular beds are targeted by increased SNA. Each rat was chronically instrumented with a radiotelemetry transmitter to measure MAP and heart rate (HR) and an indwelling venous catheter for plasma sampling and/or drug delivery. MAP and HR were continuously measured during a 2-day baseline period followed by 48 h of WD and then a recovery period. By the end of the WD period, MAP increased by ∼15 mmHg in control groups, whereas HR did not change significantly. Chronic blockade of α(1)/β(1)-adrenergic receptors significantly attenuated the WD-induced increase in MAP, suggesting a role for global activation of the SNS. However, the MAP response to WD was unaffected by selective denervations of the hindlimb, renal, or splanchnic vascular beds, or by adrenal demedullation. In contrast, complete adrenalectomy (with corticosterone and aldosterone replaced) significantly attenuated the MAP response to WD in the same time frame as α(1)/β(1)-adrenergic receptor blockade. These results suggest that, in conscious water-deprived rats, the SNS contributes to the MAP response and may be linked to release of adrenocortical hormones. Finally, this sympathetically mediated response is not dependent on increased SNA to one specific vascular bed.

  1. Pressure surge attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.

    1985-01-01

    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  2. Impact of endothelin blockade on acute exercise-induced changes in blood flow and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Tim H A; van Lotringen, Jaap H; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-09-01

    Positive vascular effects of exercise training are mediated by acute increases in blood flow. Type 2 diabetes patients show attenuated exercise-induced increases in blood flow, possibly mediated by the endothelin pathway, preventing an optimal stimulus for vascular adaptation. We examined the impact of endothelin receptor blockade (bosentan) on exercise-induced blood flow in the brachial artery and on pre- and postexercise endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients (n = 9, 60 ± 7 years old) and control subjects (n = 10, 60 ± 5 years old). Subjects reported twice to the laboratory to perform hand-grip exercise in the presence of endothelin receptor blockade or placebo. We examined brachial artery endothelial function (via flow-mediated dilatation) before and after exercise, as well as blood flow during exercise. Endothelin receptor blockade resulted in a larger increase in blood flow during exercise in type 2 diabetes patients (P = 0.046), but not in control subjects (P = 0.309). Exercise increased shear rate across the exercise protocol, unaffected by endothelin receptor blockade. Exercise did not alter brachial artery diameter in either group, but endothelin receptor blockade resulted in a larger brachial artery diameter in type 2 diabetes patients (P = 0.033). Exercise significantly increased brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation in both groups, unaffected by endothelin receptor blockade. Endothelin receptor blockade increased exercise-induced brachial artery blood flow in type 2 diabetes patients, but not in control subjects. Despite this effect of endothelin receptor blockade on blood flow, we found no impact on baseline or post-exercise endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients or control subjects, possibly related to normalization of the shear stimulus during exercise. The successful increase in blood flow during exercise in type 2 diabetes patients through endothelin receptor blockade may have beneficial effects in

  3. Functions, dysfunctions and possible therapeutic relevance of adenosine A2A receptors in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Blum, David; Martire, Alberto; Ledent, Catherine; Ceruti, Stefania; Abbracchio, Maria P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize and critically discuss the complex role played by adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) in Huntington's disease (HD). Since A(2A)Rs are mainly localized on the neurons, which degenerate early in HD, and given their ability to stimulate glutamate outflow and inflammatory gliosis, it was hypothesized that they could be involved in the pathogenesis of HD, and that A(2A)R antagonists could be neuroprotective. This was further sustained by the demonstration that A(2A)Rs and underlying signaling systems undergo profound changes in cellular and animal models of HD. More recently, however, the equation A(2A) receptor blockade=neuroprotection has appeared too simplistic. First, it is now definitely clear that, besides mediating 'bad' responses (for example, stimulation of glutamate outflow and excessive glial activation), A(2A)Rs also promote 'good' responses (such as trophic and antinflammatory effects). This implies that A(2A)R blockade results either in pro-toxic or neuroprotective effects according to the mechanisms involved in a given experimental model. Second, since HD is a chronically progressive disease, the multiple mechanisms involving A(2A)Rs may play different relative roles along the degenerative process. Such different mechanisms can be influenced by A(2A)R activation or blockade in different ways, even leading to opposite outcomes depending on the time of agonist/antagonist administration. The number, and the complexity, of the possible scenarios is further increased by the influence of mutant Huntingtin on both the expression and functions of A(2A)Rs, and by the strikingly different effects mediated by A(2A)Rs expressed by different cell populations within the brain.

  4. Obesity and gastrointestinal hormones-dual effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade and a partial agonist of PPAR-γ.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Hironori; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2011-03-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, which is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is now clear that gut hormones play a role in the regulation of body weight and represent therapeutic targets for the future treatment of obesity. Recent evidence demonstrated that dysregulation of adipocytokine functions seen in abdominal obesity may be involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Angiotensinogen, the precursor of angiotensin (Ang) II, is produced primarily in the liver, but also in adipose tissue, where it is up-regulated during the development of obesity and involved in blood pressure regulation and adipose tissue growth. Importantly, blockade of the RAS attenuates weight gain and adiposity by enhanced energy expenditure. The favorable metabolic effects of telmisartan have been related to its Ang II receptor blockade and action as a partial agonist of peroxisome proliferators activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. PPARγ plays an important role in regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and ligands for PPARγ can improve insulin sensitivity and reduce triglyceride levels. We designed a comparative study of telmisartan and losartan in ApoE-deficient mice. Treatment with telmisartan or losartan significantly reduced the development of lipid-rich plaque. However, treatment with telmisartan significantly improved endothelial dysfunction and inhibited lipid accumulation in the liver. These favorable characteristics of telmisartan might be due to its action as a partial agonist of PPAR-γ, beyond its blood pressure-lowering effect, through Ang II blockade, which may be called "metabosartan".

  5. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  6. Genetic blockade of adenosine A2A receptors induces cognitive impairments and anatomical changes related to psychotic symptoms in mice.

    PubMed

    Moscoso-Castro, Maria; Gracia-Rubio, Irene; Ciruela, Francisco; Valverde, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic severe mental disorder with a presumed neurodevelopmental origin, and no effective treatment. Schizophrenia is a multifactorial disease with genetic, environmental and neurochemical etiology. The main theories on the pathophysiology of this disorder include alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in limbic and cortical areas of the brain. Early hypotheses also suggested that nucleoside adenosine is a putative affected neurotransmitter system, and clinical evidence suggests that adenosine adjuvants improve treatment outcomes, especially in poorly responsive patients. Hence, it is important to elucidate the role of the neuromodulator adenosine in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) subtypes are expressed in brain areas controlling motivational responses and cognition, including striatum, and in lower levels in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The aim of this study was to characterize A2AR knockout (KO) mice with complete and specific inactivation of A2AR, as an animal model for schizophrenia. We performed behavioral, anatomical and neurochemical studies to assess psychotic-like symptoms in adult male and female KO and wild-type (WT) littermates. Our results show impairments in inhibitory responses and sensory gating in A2AR KO animals. Hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and MK-801 was reduced in KO animals when compared to WT littermates. Moreover, A2AR KO animals show motor disturbances, social and cognitive alterations. Finally, behavioral impairments were associated with enlargement of brain lateral ventricles and decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus. These data highlight the role of adenosine in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and provide new possibilities for the therapeutic management of schizophrenia.

  7. Enhancement of Adipocyte Browning by Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Tsukuda, Kana; Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Kanno, Harumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Higaki, Akinori; Yamauchi, Toshifumi; Min, Li-Juan; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been highlighted as a new possible therapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders, because WAT browning could increase energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. The new clusters of adipocytes that emerge with WAT browning have been named ‘beige’ or ‘brite’ adipocytes. Recent reports have indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. The biological effects of angiotensin II, a major component of RAS, are mediated by two receptor subtypes, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R). However, the functional roles of angiotensin II receptor subtypes in WAT browning have not been defined. Therefore, we examined whether deletion of angiotensin II receptor subtypes (AT1aR and AT2R) may affect white-to-beige fat conversion in vivo. AT1a receptor knockout (AT1aKO) mice exhibited increased appearance of multilocular lipid droplets and upregulation of thermogenic gene expression in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) compared to wild-type (WT) mice. AT2 receptor-deleted mice did not show miniaturization of lipid droplets or alteration of thermogenic gene expression levels in iWAT. An in vitro experiment using adipose tissue-derived stem cells showed that deletion of the AT1a receptor resulted in suppression of adipocyte differentiation, with reduction in expression of thermogenic genes. These results indicate that deletion of the AT1a receptor might have some effects on the process of browning of WAT and that blockade of the AT1 receptor could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:27992452

  8. Theory of spin blockade in a triple quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Shim, Yun-Pil; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2011-03-01

    We present a theory of electronic properties and spin blockade in a linear triple quantum dots. We use micoroscopic LCHO-CI and double-band Hubbard model to analyze the electronic and spin properties of a triple quantum dots near a symmetrical quadruple point involving the (1,1,1) configuration which is essential for implementing quantum information processing with electron spin. We calculate spectral functions and relate them via the rate equation, including coupling with a phonon bath, to current as a function of applied bias. We show that the spin blockade in a triple quantum dots can serve as a spectroscopic tool to distinguish spin polarized states from spin depolarized states. We also show that a spin blockade is developed only at high bias when an onsite triplet state on the edge quantum dot connected to the source lead becomes accessible in the transport window. In contradiction to the case of double quantum dot molecule, the onsite triplet is not only essential for lifting spin blockade but also important for building up spin polarisation and spin blockade in the system. The authors would like to acknowledge financial support from NSERC, OGS, and QuantumWorks.

  9. Exploring dipole blockade using high- n strontium Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyue; Ye, Shuzhen; Dunning, F. Barry; Hiller, Moritz; Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Studies of the production of strongly-polarized quasi-1D high- n, n ~ 300 , strontium `` nF'' Rydberg states in an atomic beam by three-photon excitation in a weak dc field suggest that (in the absence of blockade effects) densities of ~106 cm-3 might be achieved. At such densities the interparticle separation, ~ 100 μm , becomes comparable to that at which dipole blockade effects are expected to become important. Apparatus modifications are underway to allow the exploration of blockade at very high- n and the effects of the high energy level density. Blockade is also being examined through calculations of the energy spectrum for two interaction atoms. Access to the blockade regime promises creation of Rydberg atoms at well-defined separations whose interactions can be coherently controlled using electric field pulses thereby enabling study of the dynamics of strongly-coupled Rydberg systems. Research supported by the NSF, the Robert A. Welch Foundation, and the FWF (Austria).

  10. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1A receptors in the dorsomedial hypothalamus connected to dorsal raphe nucleus inputs modulate defensive behaviours and mediate innate fear-induced antinociception.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, Audrey Franceschi; de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo; da Silva, Juliana Almeida; dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Roncon, Camila Marroni; Corrado, Alexandre Pinto; Zangrossi, Hélio; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2016-03-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is an important brainstem source of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and 5-HT plays a key role in the regulation of panic attacks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether 5-HT1A receptor-containing neurons in the medial hypothalamus (MH) receive neural projections from DRN and to then determine the role of this neural substrate in defensive responses. The neurotracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was iontophoretically microinjected into the DRN, and immunohistochemical approaches were then used to identify 5HT1A receptor-labelled neurons in the MH. Moreover, the effects of pre-treatment of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) with 8-OH-DPAT and WAY-100635, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively, followed by local microinjections of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, were investigated. We found that there are many projections from the DRN to the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) but also to DMH and ventromedial (VMH) nuclei, reaching 5HT1A receptor-labelled perikarya. DMH GABAA receptor blockade elicited defensive responses that were followed by antinociception. DMH treatment with 8-OH-DPAT decreased escape responses, which strongly suggests that the 5-HT1A receptor modulates the defensive responses. However, DMH treatment with WAY-100635 failed to alter bicuculline-induced defensive responses, suggesting that 5-HT exerts a phasic influence on 5-HT1A DMH neurons. The activation of the inhibitory 5-HT1A receptor had no effect on antinociception. However, blockade of the 5-HT1A receptor decreased fear-induced antinociception. The present data suggest that the ascending pathways from the DRN to the DMH modulate panic-like defensive behaviours and mediate antinociceptive phenomenon by recruiting 5-HT1A receptor in the MH.

  11. Dexamethasone added to lidocaine prolongs axillary brachial plexus blockade.

    PubMed

    Movafegh, Ali; Razazian, Mehran; Hajimaohamadi, Fatemeh; Meysamie, Alipasha

    2006-01-01

    Different additives have been used to prolong regional blockade. We designed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine on the onset and duration of axillary brachial plexus block. Sixty patients scheduled for elective hand and forearm surgery under axillary brachial plexus block were randomly allocated to receive either 34 mL lidocaine 1.5% with 2 mL of isotonic saline chloride (control group, n = 30) or 34 mL lidocaine 1.5% with 2 mL of dexamethasone (8 mg) (dexamethasone group, n = 30). Neither epinephrine nor bicarbonate was added to the treatment mixture. We used a nerve stimulator and multiple stimulations technique in all of the patients. After performance of the block, sensory and motor blockade of radial, median, musculocutaneous, and ulnar nerves were recorded at 5, 15, and 30 min. The onset time of the sensory and motor blockade was defined as the time between last injection and the total abolition of the pinprick response and complete paralysis. The duration of sensory and motor blocks were considered as the time interval between the administration of the local anesthetic and the first postoperative pain and complete recovery of motor functions. Sixteen patients were excluded because of unsuccessful blockade. The duration of surgery and the onset times of sensory and motor block were similar in the two groups. The duration of sensory (242 +/- 76 versus 98 +/- 33 min) and motor (310 +/- 81 versus 130 +/- 31 min) blockade were significantly longer in the dexamethasone than in the control group (P < 0.01). We conclude that the addition of dexamethasone to lidocaine 1.5% solution in axillary brachial plexus block prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blockade.

  12. 5-HT₂A receptor inactivation potentiates the acute antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram: involvement of the noradrenergic system.

    PubMed

    Quesseveur, G; Repérant, C; David, D J; Gardier, A M; Sanchez, C; Guiard, B P

    2013-04-01

    Evidence suggests that the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) modulates the therapeutic activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Indeed, among the genetic factors known to influence the individual response to antidepressants, the HTR2A gene has been associated with SSRIs response in depressed patients. However, in these pharmacogenetic studies, the consequences of HTR2A gene polymorphisms on 5-HT2AR expression or function are lacking and the precise role of this receptor is still matter of debate. This study examined the effect of 5-HT2AR agonism or antagonism with DOI and MDL100907, respectively, on the serotonergic system and the antidepressant-like activity of the SSRI escitalopram in mouse. The 5-HT2AR agonist DOI decreased the firing rate of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus of 5-HT2AR(+/+) anesthetized mice. This inhibitory response persisted in 5-HT2CR(-/-) but was completely blunted in 5-HT2AR(-/-) mutants. Moreover, the suppressant effect of DOI on DR 5-HT neuronal activity in 5-HT2AR(+/+) mice was attenuated by the loss of noradrenergic neurons induced by the neurotoxin DSP4. Conversely, in 5-HT2AR(+/+) mice, the pharmacological inactivation of the 5-HT2AR by the selective antagonist MDL100907 reversed escitalopram-induced decrease in DR 5-HT neuronal activity. Remarkably, in microdialysis experiments, a single injection of escitalopram increased cortical extracellular 5-HT, but not NE, levels in awake 5-HT2AR(+/+) mice. Although the addition of MDL100907 did not potentiate 5-HT neurotransmission, it allowed escitalopram to increase cortical NE outflow and consequently to elicit an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test. These results suggest that the blockade of the 5-HT2AR may strengthen the antidepressant-like effect of escitalopram by facilitating the enhancement of the brain NE transmission. They provide support for the use of atypical antipsychotics with SSRIs as a relevant antidepressant augmentation

  13. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  14. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, S.R.

    1987-05-29

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

  15. Involvement of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and endothelin-A receptors in the effect of agmatine on morphine and oxycodone-induced hypothermia in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Shaifali; Andurkar, Shridhar V; Gulati, Anil

    2013-10-01

    Potentiation of opioid analgesia by endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptor antagonist, BMS182874, and imidazoline receptor/α₂-adrenoceptor agonists such as clonidine and agmatine are well known. It is also known that agmatine blocks morphine hyperthermia in rats. However, the effect of agmatine on morphine or oxycodone hypothermia in mice is unknown. The present study was carried out to study the role of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and ET(A) receptors in morphine and oxycodone hypothermia in mice. Body temperature was determined over 6 h in male Swiss Webster mice treated with morphine, oxycodone, agmatine, and combination of agmatine with morphine or oxycodone. Yohimbine, idazoxan, and BMS182874 were used to determine involvement of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and ET(A) receptors, respectively. Morphine and oxycodone produced significant hypothermia that was not affected by α₂-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine, imidazoline receptor/α₂ adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan, or ET(A) receptor antagonist, BMS182874. Agmatine did not produce hypothermia; however, it blocked oxycodone but not morphine-induced hypothermia. Agmatine-induced blockade of oxycodone hypothermia was inhibited by idazoxan and yohimbine. The blockade by idazoxan was more pronounced compared with yohimbine. Combined administration of BMS182874 and agmatine did not produce changes in body temperature in mice. However, when BMS182874 was administered along with agmatine and oxycodone, it blocked agmatine-induced reversal of oxycodone hypothermia. This is the first report demonstrating that agmatine does not affect morphine hypothermia in mice, but reverses oxycodone hypothermia. Imidazoline receptors and α₂-adrenoceptors are involved in agmatine-induced reversal of oxycodone hypothermia. Our findings also suggest that ET(A) receptors may be involved in blockade of oxycodone hypothermia by agmatine.

  16. Pharmacology of the hypothermic response to 5-HT1A receptor activation in humans.

    PubMed

    Lesch, K P; Poten, B; Söhnle, K; Schulte, H M

    1990-01-01

    The selective 5-HT1A receptor ligand ipsapirone (IPS) caused dose-related hypothermia in humans. The response was attenuated by the nonselective 5-HT1/2 receptor antagonist metergoline and was completely antagonized by the nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist pindolol, which interacts stereoselectively with the 5-HT1A receptor. The selective beta 1-adrenergic antagonist betaxolol had no effect. The findings indicate that IPS-induced hypothermia specifically involves activation of (presynaptic) 5-HT1A receptors. Therefore, the hypothermic response to IPS may provide a convenient in vivo paradigma to assess the function of the presynaptic 5-HT receptor in affective disorders and its involvement in the effects of psychotropic drugs.

  17. Dexmedetomidine Inhibits Phenylephrine-induced Contractions via Alpha-1 Adrenoceptor Blockade and Nitric Oxide Release in Isolated Rat Aortae

    PubMed Central

    Byon, Hyo-Jin; Ok, Seong-Ho; Lee, Soo Hee; Kang, Sebin; Cho, Youngil; Han, Jeong Yeol; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of the alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine on phenylephrine (alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist)-induced contraction in isolated rat aortae and to elucidate the associated cellular mechanisms, with a particular focus on alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonism. Dexmedetomidine dose-response curves were generated in isolated endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded rat aortae precontracted with phenylephrine or 5-hydroxytryptamine. Endothelium-denuded aortic rings were pretreated with either dexmedetomidine or the reversible alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine, followed by post-treatment with the irreversible alpha-1 adrenoceptor blocker phenoxybenzamine. Control rings were treated with phenoxybenzamine alone. All rings were repeatedly washed with Krebs solution to remove all pretreatment drugs, including phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine and dexmedetomidine. Phenylephrine dose-response curves were then generated. The effect of rauwolscine on the dexmedetomidine-mediated change in phenylephrine-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was examined using western blotting. The magnitude of the dexmedetomidine-mediated inhibition of phenylephrine-induced contraction was higher in endothelium-intact aortae than in endothelium-denuded aortae or endothelium-intact aortae treated with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. However, dexmedetomidine did not significantly alter 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contraction. In further experiments, prazosin attenuated dexmedetomidine-induced contraction. Additionally, pretreatment with either dexmedetomidine plus phenoxybenzamine or phentolamine plus phenoxybenzamine produced greater phenylephrine-induced contraction than phenoxybenzamine alone, suggesting that dexmedetomidine protects aortae from the alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockade induced by phenoxybenzamine. Rauwolscine attenuated the dexmedetomidine

  18. The Use of Beta-Adrenergic Blockade in Preventing Trauma-Induced Hepatomegaly

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, Robert E.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Dasu, Mohan R.; Barrow, Laura N.; Herndon, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that hepatomegaly in burned children can be attenuated or reversed by blocking lipolysis and reducing free fatty acids delivered to the liver. Summary Background Data: Accelerated lipolysis in severely burned children has been shown to play an important role in the accumulation of hepatic TGs. Severely burned children who survive 10 days or more after injury commonly have enlarged livers often twice or more normal size for their sex, age, and weight. Methods: Ninety-eight children, 2 to 18 years of age, with burns covering more than 40% of their body surface and who received either propranolol (β-adrenergic blockade) or placebo were studied. Liver weights were measured by ultrasonic scanning. Body composition changes were identified by dual-image x-ray absorptiometry and validated by whole-body potassium-40 scintillation counting. Discarded abdominal cutaneous adipose tissue was collected before and after propranolol or placebo for microarray analysis. Results: In 80% of severely burned children studied not receiving propranolol, liver sizes increased by 100% or more while 86% of burned children receiving propranolol showed a decrease or no change in liver size over the same period of time after injury. Gene expression patterns of adipose tissue after propranolol treatment showed that all of the identified genes related to lipid metabolism were down-regulated. Conclusions: Data reported here support the hypothesis that β-adrenergic blockade can reduce delivery of fatty acids to the liver and hepatic congestion commonly found in severely burned children by inhibiting lipolysis and reducing hepatic blood flow. PMID:16371745

  19. Safety guideline: skin antisepsis for central neuraxial blockade.

    PubMed

    Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association; Campbell, J P; Plaat, F; Checketts, M R; Bogod, D; Tighe, S; Moriarty, A; Koerner, R

    2014-11-01

    Concise guidelines are presented that recommend the method of choice for skin antisepsis before central neuraxial blockade. The Working Party specifically considered the concentration of antiseptic agent to use and its method of application. The advice presented is based on previously published guidelines, laboratory and clinical studies, case reports, and on the known properties of antiseptic agents.

  20. Peripheral metabolic effects of endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Engeli, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system consists of endogenous arachidonic acid derivates that activate cannabinoid receptors. The two most prominent endocannabinoids are anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. In obesity, increased concentrations of circulating and tissue endocannabinoid levels have been described, suggesting increased activity of the endocannabinoid system. Increased availability of endocannabinoids in obesity may over-stimulate cannabinoid receptors. Blockade of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors was the only successful clinical development of an anti-obesity drug during the last decade. Whereas blockade of CB1 receptors acutely reduces food intake, the long-term effects on metabolic regulation are more likely mediated by peripheral actions in liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and the pancreas. Lipogenic effects of CB1 receptor signalling in liver and adipose tissue may contribute to regional adipose tissue expansion and insulin resistance in the fatty liver. The association of circulating 2-arachidonoyl glycerol levels with decreased insulin sensitivity strongly suggests further exploration of the role of endocannabinoid signalling for insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. A few studies have suggested a specific role for the regulation of adiponectin secretion from adipocytes by endocannabinoids, but that has to be confirmed by more experiments. Also, the potential role of CB1 receptor blockade for the stimulation of energy expenditure needs to be studied in the future. Despite the current discussion of safety issues of cannabinoid receptor blockade, these findings open a new and exciting perspective on endocannabinoids as regulators of body weight and metabolism.

  1. Merchant Shipping in a Chinese Blockade of Taiwan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    8:14:41 AM Color profile: Disabled Composite Default screen privateers, and blockade runners risking death in conflicts to which they had no...particular vessel at any given time, then, can be a challenging endeavor in- volving a maze of corporate relationships and contractual legalese. But more

  2. A new regime of Pauli-spin blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perron, Justin K.; Stewart, M. D.; Zimmerman, Neil M.

    2016-04-01

    Pauli-spin blockade (PSB) is a transport phenomenon in double quantum dots that allows for a type of spin to charge conversion often used to probe fundamental physics such as spin relaxation and singlet-triplet coupling. In this paper, we theoretically explore Pauli-spin blockade as a function of magnetic field B applied parallel to the substrate. In the well-studied low magnetic field regime, where PSB occurs in the forward (1, 1) → (0, 2) tunneling direction, we highlight some aspects of PSB that are not discussed in detail in existing literature, including the change in size of both bias triangles measured in the forward and reverse biasing directions as a function of B. At higher fields, we predict a crossover to "reverse PSB" in which current is blockaded in the reverse direction due to the occupation of a spin singlet as opposed to the traditional triplet blockade that occurs at low fields. The onset of reverse PSB coincides with the development of a tail like feature in the measured bias triangles and occurs when the Zeeman energy of the polarized triplet equals the exchange energy in the (0, 2) charge configuration. In Si quantum dots, these fields are experimentally accessible; thus, this work suggests a way to observe a crossover in magnetic field to qualitatively different behavior.

  3. Accurate Coulomb blockade thermometry up to 60 kelvin.

    PubMed

    Meschke, M; Kemppinen, A; Pekola, J P

    2016-03-28

    We demonstrate experimentally a precise realization of Coulomb blockade thermometry working at temperatures up to 60 K. Advances in nano-fabrication methods using electron beam lithography allow us to fabricate uniform arrays of sufficiently small tunnel junctions to guarantee an overall temperature reading precision of about 1%.

  4. CTLA-4 Blockade-Based Immunotherapy in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    V, Bok R, Small EJ. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics as a measure of the biologic effect of granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor in...Kwon ED, Truong T, Choi EM, Greenberg NM, et al. Combination immunotherapy of primary prostate cancer in a transgenic mouse model using CTLA-4 blockade

  5. P2X7 receptor blockade protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by decreasing the activities of inflammasome components, oxidative stress and caspase-3

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Fahuan; Cao, Xuejiao; Zhai, Zhifang; Gang Huang; Du, Xiang; Wang, Yiqin; Zhang, Jingbo; Huang, Yunjian; Zhao, Jinghong; Hou, Weiping

    2014-11-15

    Nephrotoxicity is a common complication of cisplatin chemotherapy and thus limits the use of cisplatin in clinic. The purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays important roles in inflammation and apoptosis in some inflammatory diseases; however, its roles in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain unclear. In this study, we first assessed the expression of P2X7R in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice, and then we investigated the changes of renal function, histological injury, inflammatory response, and apoptosis in renal tissues after P2X7R blockade in vivo using an antagonist A-438079. Moreover, we measured the changes of nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing proteins (NLRP3) inflammasome components, oxidative stress, and proapoptotic genes in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity after treatment with A-438079. We found that the expression of P2X7R was significantly upregulated in the renal tubular epithelial cells in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity compared with that of the normal control group. Furthermore, pretreatment with A-438079 markedly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury while lightening the histological damage, inflammatory response and apoptosis in renal tissue, and improved the renal function. These effects were associated with the significantly reduced levels of NLRP3 inflammasome components, oxidative stress, p53 and caspase-3 in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. In conclusions, our studies suggest that the upregulated activity of P2X7R might play important roles in the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, and P2X7R blockade might become an effective therapeutic strategy for this disease. - Highlights: • The P2X7R expression was markedly upregulated in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. • P2X7R blockade significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury. • P2X7R blockade reduced activities of NLRP3 inflammasome components in renal tissue. • P2X7R blockade

  6. Partial neuromuscular blockade in humans enhances muscle blood flow during exercise independently of muscle oxygen uptake and acetylcholine receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Hellsten, Ylva; Krustrup, Peter; Iaia, F Marcello; Secher, Niels H; Bangsbo, Jens

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the role of acetylcholine for skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise by use of the competitive neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium in combination with the acetylcholine receptor blocker glycopyrrone. Nine healthy male subjects performed a 10-min bout of one-legged knee-extensor exercise (18 W) during control conditions and with cisatracurium blockade, as well as with cisatracurium blockade with prior glycopyrrone infusion. Thigh blood flow and vascular conductance in control and with cisatracurium infusion were similar at rest and during passive movement of the leg, but higher (P < 0.05) during exercise with cisatracurium than in control (3.83 +/- 0.42 vs. 2.78 +/- 0.21 l/min and 26.9 +/- 3.4 vs. 21.8 +/- 2.0 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1) at the end of exercise). Thigh oxygen uptake was similar in control and with cisatracurium infusion both at rest and during exercise, being 354 +/- 33 and 406 +/- 34 ml/min, at the end of exercise. Combined infusion of cisatracurium and glycopyrrone caused a similar increase in blood flow as cisatracurium infusion alone. The current results demonstrate that neuromuscular blockade leads to enhanced thigh blood flow and vascular conductance during exercise, events that are not associated with either acetylcholine or an increased oxygen demand. The results do not support an essential role for acetylcholine, released form the neuromuscular junction, in exercise hyperemia or for the enhanced blood flow during neuromuscular blockade. The enhanced exercise hyperemia during partial neuromuscular blockade may be related to a greater recruitment of fast-twitch muscle fibers.

  7. RADIO FREQUENCY ATTENUATOR

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, S.

    1963-11-12

    A high peak power level r-f attenuator that is readily and easily insertable along a coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer annular conductor without breaking the ends thereof is presented. Spaced first and second flares in the outer conductor face each other with a slidable cylindrical outer conductor portion therebetween. Dielectric means, such as water, contact the cable between the flares to attenuate the radio-frequency energy received thereby. The cylindrical outer conductor portion is slidable to adjust the voltage standing wave ratio to a low level, and one of the flares is slidable to adjust the attenuation level. An integral dielectric container is also provided. (AFC)

  8. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  9. Adenosine A2A Receptors and A2A Receptor Heteromers as Key Players in Striatal Function

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, Sergi; Quiroz, César; Orru, Marco; Guitart, Xavier; Navarro, Gemma; Cortés, Antonio; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I.; Lluis, Carme; Franco, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    A very significant density of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) is present in the striatum, where they are preferentially localized postsynaptically in striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In this localization A2ARs establish reciprocal antagonistic interactions with dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). In one type of interaction, A2AR and D2R are forming heteromers and, by means of an allosteric interaction, A2AR counteracts D2R-mediated inhibitory modulation of the effects of NMDA receptor stimulation in the striatopallidal neuron. This interaction is probably mostly responsible for the locomotor depressant and activating effects of A2AR agonist and antagonists, respectively. The second type of interaction involves A2AR and D2R that do not form heteromers and takes place at the level of adenylyl cyclase (AC). Due to a strong tonic effect of endogenous dopamine on striatal D2R, this interaction keeps A2AR from signaling through AC. However, under conditions of dopamine depletion or with blockade of D2R, A2AR-mediated AC activation is unleashed with an increased gene expression and activity of the striatopallidal neuron and with a consequent motor depression. This interaction is probably the main mechanism responsible for the locomotor depression induced by D2R antagonists. Finally, striatal A2ARs are also localized presynaptically, in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals that contact the striato-nigral MSN. These presynaptic A2ARs heteromerize with A1 receptors (A1Rs) and their activation facilitates glutamate release. These three different types of A2ARs can be pharmacologically dissected by their ability to bind ligands with different affinity and can therefore provide selective targets for drug development in different basal ganglia disorders. PMID:21731559

  10. Unraveling mechanisms underlying partial agonism in 5-HT3A receptors.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Jeremías; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2014-12-10

    Partial agonists have emerged as attractive therapeutic molecules. 2-Me-5HT and tryptamine have been defined as partial agonists of 5-HT3 receptors on the basis of macroscopic measurements. Because several mechanisms may limit maximal responses, we took advantage of the high-conductance form of the mouse serotonin type 3A (5-HT3A) receptor to understand their molecular actions. Individual 5-HT-bound receptors activate in long episodes of high open probability, consisting of groups of openings in quick succession. The activation pattern is similar for 2-Me-5HT only at very low concentrations since profound channel blockade takes place within the activating concentration range. In contrast, activation episodes are significantly briefer in the presence of tryptamine. Generation of a full activation scheme reveals that the fully occupied receptor overcomes transitions to closed preopen states (primed states) before opening. Reduced priming explains the partial agonism of tryptamine. In contrast, 2-Me-5HT is not a genuine partial agonist since priming is not dramatically affected and its low apparent efficacy is mainly due to channel blockade. The analysis also shows that the first priming step is the rate-limiting step and partial agonists require an increased number of priming steps for activation. Molecular docking suggests that interactions are similar for 5-HT and 2-Me-5HT but slightly different for tryptamine. Our study contributes to understanding 5-HT3A receptor activation, extends the novel concept of partial agonism within the Cys-loop family, reveals novel aspects of partial agonism, and unmasks molecular actions of classically defined partial agonists. Unraveling mechanisms underlying partial responses has implications in the design of therapeutic compounds.

  11. [Comparative analysis of metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate striatal receptors blockade influence on rats locomotor behaviour].

    PubMed

    Iakimovskiĭ, A F; Kerko, T V

    2013-02-01

    The influence of NMDA and metabotropic neostriatal glutamate receptors blockade to avoidance conditioning (in shuttle box) and free locomotor behavior (in open field) in chronic experiments in rats were investigated. The glutamate receptor antagonists were injected bilateral into striatum separately and with the GABA-A receptor antagonist picrotoxin (2 microg), that produced in rats the impairment of avoidance conditioning and choreo-myoklonic hyperkinesis. The most effective in preventing of negative picrotoxin influence on behavior was 5-type metabotropic glutamate receptors antagonist MTEP (3 microg). Separately injected MTEP did not influence on avoidance conditioning and free locomotor behavior. Unlike that, 1-type metabotropic glutamate receptors antagonist EMQMCM (3 microg) impaired normal locomotor behavior and did not prevent the picrotoxin effects. The NMDA glutamate receptors MK 801 (disocilpin--1 and 5 microg) impaired the picrotoxin-induced hyperkinesis, but did not to prevent the negative effects on avoidance conditioning; separately injected MK 801 reduced free locomotor activity. Based on location of investigated receptor types in neostriatal neurons membranes, we proposed that the most effective influence on 5-type metabotropic glutamate receptors is associated with their involvement in "indirect" efferent pathway, suffered in hyperkinetic extrapyramidal motor dysfunction--Huntington's chorea in human.

  12. Attenuator And Conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Carson, Richard F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; Kemme, Shanalyn Adair; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.

    2006-04-04

    An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.

  13. Patch clamp reveals powerful blockade of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore by the D2-receptor agonist pramipexole.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Iqbal; Parvez, Suhel; Winkler-Stuck, Kirstin; Seitz, Gordon; Trieu, Isabelle; Wallesch, Claus-Werner; Schönfeld, Peter; Siemen, Detlef

    2006-03-01

    The dopamine-D2-agonist pramipexole (PPX) was tested for blocking mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) in order to give a possible explanation for its neuroprotective effect seen in PPX-treated Parkinson's disease patients. Patch-clamp techniques for studying single-channel currents in the inner mitochondrial membrane and large-amplitude swelling of energized mitochondria were used to study PPX action on the permeability transition pore (PTP), a key player in the mitochondrial route of the apoptotic cascade. Identity of the PTP was proven by measuring the concentration-response relation for cyclosporin A-blockade (IC50=26 nM). PPX inhibits the PTP reversibly with an IC50 of 500 nM, which is close to the values determined earlier as plasma concentrations after PPX medication in patients. Interaction of PPX with the PTP is further supported by demonstrating that it abolished Ca2+-triggered swelling in functionally intact mitochondria. Blockade of the PTP by PPX was attenuated by increasing concentrations of inorganic phosphate and by acidification. We suggest that PPX could exert part of its neuroprotective effect by inhibition of the PTP and thus, probably, blocking of the mitochondrial pathway of the apoptosis cascade.

  14. Conductance of a proximitized nanowire in the Coulomb blockade regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heck, B.; Lutchyn, R. M.; Glazman, L. I.

    2016-06-01

    We identify the leading processes of electron transport across finite-length segments of proximitized nanowires and build a quantitative theory of their two-terminal conductance. In the presence of spin-orbit interaction, a nanowire can be tuned across the topological transition point by an applied magnetic field. Due to a finite segment length, electron transport is controlled by the Coulomb blockade. Upon increasing of the field, the shape and magnitude of the Coulomb blockade peaks in the linear conductance are defined, respectively, by Andreev reflection, single-electron tunneling, and resonant tunneling through the Majorana modes emerging after the topological transition. Our theory provides the framework for the analysis of experiments with proximitized nanowires [such as reported in S. M. Albrecht et al., Nature (London) 531, 206 (2016), 10.1038/nature17162] and identifies the signatures of the topological transition in the two-terminal conductance.

  15. Combination Approaches with Immune-Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Swart, Maarten; Verbrugge, Inge; Beltman, Joost B

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, immune-checkpoint molecules prevent autoimmune responses and limit immune cell-mediated tissue damage. Tumors frequently exploit these molecules to evade eradication by the immune system. Over the past years, immune-checkpoint blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programed death-1 emerged as promising strategies to activate antitumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Although complete regression and long-term survival is achieved in some patients, not all patients respond. This review describes promising, novel combination approaches involving immune-checkpoint blockade in the context of the cancer-immunity cycle, aimed at increasing response rates to the single treatments. Specifically, we discuss combinations that promote antigen release and presentation, that further amplify T cell activation, that inhibit trafficking of regulatory T cells or MSDCs, that stimulate intratumoral T cell infiltration, that increase cancer recognition by T cells, and that stimulate tumor killing.

  16. Immunogenic chemotherapy sensitizes tumors to checkpoint blockade therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pfirschke, Christina; Engblom, Camilla; Rickelt, Steffen; Cortez-Retamozo, Virna; Garris, Christopher; Pucci, Ferdinando; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Colame, Vichnou Poirier; Newton, Andita; Redouane, Younes; Lin, Yi-Jang; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Huynh, Tiffany G.; Hynes, Richard O.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Kroemer, Guido; Zitvogel, Laurence; Weissleder, Ralph; Pittet, Mikael J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Checkpoint blockade immunotherapies can be extraordinarily effective, but may benefit only the minority of patients whose tumors are pre-infiltrated by T cells. Here, using lung adenocarcinoma mouse models, including genetic models, we show that autochthonous tumors that lacked T cell infiltration and resisted current treatment options could be successfully sensitized to host antitumor T cell immunity when using appropriately selected immunogenic drugs (e.g. oxaliplatin combined with cyclophosphamide for treatment against tumors expressing oncogenic Kras and lacking Trp53). The antitumor response was triggered by direct drug actions on tumor cells, relied on innate immune sensing through toll-like receptor 4 signaling, and ultimately depended on CD8+ T cell antitumor immunity. Furthermore, instigating tumor infiltration by T cells sensitized tumors to checkpoint inhibition and controlled cancer durably. These findings indicate that the proportion of cancers responding to checkpoint therapy can be feasibly and substantially expanded by combining checkpoint blockade with immunogenic drugs. PMID:26872698

  17. Combination Approaches with Immune-Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Maarten; Verbrugge, Inge; Beltman, Joost B.

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, immune-checkpoint molecules prevent autoimmune responses and limit immune cell-mediated tissue damage. Tumors frequently exploit these molecules to evade eradication by the immune system. Over the past years, immune-checkpoint blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programed death-1 emerged as promising strategies to activate antitumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Although complete regression and long-term survival is achieved in some patients, not all patients respond. This review describes promising, novel combination approaches involving immune-checkpoint blockade in the context of the cancer-immunity cycle, aimed at increasing response rates to the single treatments. Specifically, we discuss combinations that promote antigen release and presentation, that further amplify T cell activation, that inhibit trafficking of regulatory T cells or MSDCs, that stimulate intratumoral T cell infiltration, that increase cancer recognition by T cells, and that stimulate tumor killing. PMID:27847783

  18. Lifting the Franck-Condon blockade in driven quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haughian, Patrick; Walter, Stefan; Nunnenkamp, Andreas; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2016-11-01

    Electron-vibron coupling in quantum dots can lead to a strong suppression of the average current in the sequential tunneling regime. This effect is known as Franck-Condon blockade and can be traced back to an overlap integral between vibron states with different electron numbers which becomes exponentially small for large electron-vibron coupling strength. Here, we investigate the effect of a time-dependent drive on this phenomenon, in particular the effect of an oscillatory gate voltage acting on the electronic dot level. We employ two different approaches: perturbation theory based on nonequilibrium Keldysh Green's functions and a master equation in Born-Markov approximation. In both cases, we find that the drive can lift the blockade by exciting vibrons. As a consequence, the relative change in average current grows exponentially with the drive strength.

  19. Pauli spin blockade in CMOS double quantum dot devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotekar-Patil, D.; Corna, A.; Maurand, R.; Crippa, A.; Orlov, A.; Barraud, S.; Hutin, L.; Vinet, M.; Jehl, X.; De Franceschi, S.; Sanquer, M.

    2017-03-01

    Silicon quantum dots are attractive candidates for the development of scalable, spin-based qubits. Pauli spin blockade in double quantum dots provides an efficient, temperature independent mechanism for qubit readout. Here we report on transport experiments in double gate nanowire transistors issued from a CMOS process on 300 mm silicon-on-insulator wafers. At low temperature the devices behave as two few-electron quantum dots in series. We observe signatures of Pauli spin blockade with a singlet-triplet splitting ranging from 0.3 to 1.3 meV. Magneto-transport measurements show that transitions which conserve spin are shown to be magnetic-field independent up to B = 6 T.

  20. Study on Neuromuscular Blockade Action of Verapamil in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagaral, Jayashree; GH, Shashikala; K, Jagadeesh; Kumar K, Sharath; GS, Jayanth; PK, Chennaveerappa; Patil, Rajani

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calcium Channel Blockers (CCBs) are now widely employed in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and peri operative hypertension. It has been reported that calcium channel blockers inhibit neuromuscular transmission. They have been shown to increase the neuromuscular blockade produced by neuromuscular blocking agents in in-vitro muscle nerve preparations. The present study is undertaken to demonstrate the effect of calcium channel blocker, verapamil on neuromuscular transmission in albino rats. Objectives: To study the neuromuscular blockade action of verapamil in albino rats. Methods: Twenty four albino rats of either sex weigh 150-250gms are selected and are randomly divided into 4 equal groups. The experimental rats are divided into four groups of 6 rats each and they are given the following treatment. Group 1(Control) - Normal saline (1ml/ kg), Group 2 (Standard) - Pancuronium (0.04 mg/kg) Group 3-Verapamil (2.5mg/kg), Group 4-given Verapamil (10mg/kg). The time of onset of hind limb paralysis and total duration of recovery are noted using inclined screen method. Results: Analysis of the results of group 3 that was received 2.5mg/kg of Verapamil, there was no onset of paralysis, in group 4 that received injection Verapamil 10mg/kg, showed neuromuscular blockade activity. The mean onset of hind limb paralysis was delayed compared to standard group and the mean duration of hind limb paralysis was shorter than standard group. It was statistically significant (P≤ 0.05). Interpretation and conclusion: It is generally held that external calcium is not necessary for the contraction of mammalian skeletal muscle, the demonstration of inward calcium currents that can be abolished by CCBs in these muscles prompted to re-examine the effect of Verapamil on the neuromuscular transmission. The present study allows us to determine the neuromuscular blockade activity of Verapamil. PMID:24086855

  1. Beta-adrenergic blockade and atrio--ventricular conduction impairment.

    PubMed

    Giudicelli, J F; Lhoste, F; Boissier, J R

    1975-04-01

    Atrio--ventricular conduction and its modifications induced by six Beta-adrenergic blocking agents have been investigated in the dog. Premature atrial stimuli (St2) were applied at variable intervals following regular stimuli (St1) ensuring atrial pacing; atrial (AERP), nodoventricular (NERP) and global (GERP) effective refractory periods as well as global functional refractory period (GFRP) were determined before and after administration of each of the six drugs. When Beta-blockade was produced with d,1-propranolol which hwas membrane stabilizing effects (MSE) but no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) or with sotalol, which has neither MSE nor ISA, all parameters were significantly increased. When Beta-blockade was achieved with pindolol or practolol, which have only a poor Beta-adrenolytic potency and no ISA. Alprenolol showed intermediate effects. Thus, it appears that Beta-blockade and not MSE, is responsible for the onset of A-V conduction impairment but that ISA, probably through a metabolic mechanism, affords protection against this impairment. On the other hand, measurement of ventricular effective refractory period (VERP) has shown that at the Purkinje-free junction, it is MSE which is mainly involved in conduction impairment.

  2. PD-1 blockade expands intratumoral T memory cells

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Antoni; Shin, Daniel Sanghoon; Zaretsky, Jesse; Frederiksen, Juliet; Cornish, Andrew; Avramis, Earl; Seja, Elizabeth; Kivork, Christine; Siebert, Janet; Kaplan-Lefko, Paula; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Glaspy, John A.; Tumeh, Paul C.; Chodon, Thinle; Pe’er, Dana; Comin-Anduix, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    Tumor responses to PD-1 blockade therapy are mediated by T cells, which we characterized in 102 tumor biopsies obtained from 53 patients treated with pembrolizumab, an antibody to PD-1. Biopsies were dissociated and single cell infiltrates were analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry using two computational approaches to resolve the leukocyte phenotypes at the single cell level. There was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of T cells in patients who responded to therapy. The frequency of intratumoral B cells and monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (moMDSCs) significantly increased in patients’ biopsies taken on treatment. The percentage of cells with a T regulatory phenotype, monocytes, and NK cells did not change while on PD-1 blockade therapy. CD8+ T memory cells were the most prominent phenotype that expanded intratumorally on therapy. However, the frequency of CD4+ T effector memory cells significantly decreased on treatment, whereas CD4+ T effector cells significantly increased in nonresponding tumors on therapy. In peripheral blood, an unusual population of blood cells expressing CD56 were detected in two patients with regressing melanoma. In conclusion, PD-1 blockade increases the frequency of T cells, B cells, and MDSCs in tumors, with the CD8+ T effector memory subset being the major T-cell phenotype expanded in patients with a response to therapy. PMID:26787823

  3. Dynamical Coulomb blockade of tunnel junctions driven by alternating voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabert, Hermann

    2015-12-01

    The theory of the dynamical Coulomb blockade is extended to tunneling elements driven by a time-dependent voltage. It is shown that, for standard setups where an external voltage is applied to a tunnel junction via an impedance, time-dependent driving entails an excitation of the modes of the electromagnetic environment by the applied voltage. Previous approaches for ac driven circuits need to be extended to account for the driven bath modes. A unitary transformation involving also the variables of the electromagnetic environment is introduced which allows us to split off the time dependence from the Hamiltonian in the absence of tunneling. This greatly simplifies perturbation-theoretical calculations based on treating the tunneling Hamiltonian as a perturbation. In particular, the average current flowing in the leads of the tunnel junction is studied. Explicit results are given for the case of an applied voltage with a constant dc part and a sinusoidal ac part. The connection with standard dynamical Coulomb blockade theory for constant applied voltage is established. It is shown that an alternating voltage source reveals significant additional effects caused by the electromagnetic environment. The hallmark of the dynamical Coulomb blockade in ac driven devices is a suppression of higher harmonics of the current by the electromagnetic environment. The theory presented basically applies to all tunneling devices driven by alternating voltages.

  4. Angular momentum blockade in nanoscale high-Tc superconducting grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancarella, Francesco; Balatsky, Alexander; Wallin, Mats; Rosengren, Anders; Nordita-Condensed Matter Collaboration; KTH-Theoretical Physics Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    We discuss the angular momentum blockade in small d-wave SC grains in an external magnetic field. We find abrupt changes in angular momentum state of the condensate (''angular momentum blockade'') as a result of the variation of the external field. The effect represents a direct analog of the Coulomb blockade. We use the Ginzburg-Landau theory to illustrate how the field turns a d-wave order parameter (OP) into a(dx2 -y2 + idxy)-OP. We derive the volume magnetic susceptibility as a function of the field, and corresponding small jumps in magnetization at critical values of the field that should be experimentally observable in SC grains. The observation of these jumps requires a small grain, since their extent is inversely proportional to the number of Cooper pairs in the sample. The general source of instability of the pure d-wave gap is the presence of gap nodes, completely lifted by the secondary OP component. A d + id' -state is chiral and hence has an orbital moment carried by Cooper pairs. We consider fields H <

  5. Blockade of the dorsomedial hypothalamus and the perifornical area inhibits respiratory responses to arousing and stressful stimuli.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Evgeny; Beig, Mirza I; Hodgson, Deborah M; Braga, Valdir A; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2015-05-15

    The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and the perifornical area (DMH/PeF) is one of the key regions of central autonomic processing. Previous studies have established that this region contains neurons that may be involved in respiratory processing; however, this has never been tested in conscious animals. The aim of our study was to investigate the involvement of the DMH/PeF area in mediating respiratory responses to stressors of various intensities and duration. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 8) received microinjections of GABAA agonist muscimol or saline into the DMH/PeF bilaterally and were subjected to a respiratory recording using whole body plethysmography. Presentation of acoustic stimuli (500-ms white noise) evoked transient responses in respiratory rate, proportional to the stimulus intensity, ranging from +44 ± 27 to +329 ± 31 cycles/min (cpm). Blockade of the DMH/PeF almost completely abolished respiratory rate and tidal volume responses to the 40- to 70-dB stimuli and also significantly attenuated responses to the 80- to 90-dB stimuli. Also, it significantly attenuated respiratory rate during the acclimatization period (novel environment stress). The light stimulus (30-s 2,000 lux) as well as 15-min restraint stress significantly elevated respiratory rate from 95 ± 4.0 to 236 ± 29 cpm and from 117 ± 5.2 to 189 ± 13 cpm, respectively; this response was abolished after the DMH/PeF blockade. We conclude that integrity of the DMH/PeF area is essential for generation of respiratory responses to both stressful and alerting stimuli.

  6. Pharmacologic Blockade of αvβ1 Integrin Ameliorates Renal Failure and Fibrosis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yongen; Lau, Wei Ling; Jo, Hyunil; Tsujino, Kazuyuki; Gewin, Leslie; Reed, Nilgun Isik; Atakilit, Amha; Nunes, Ane Claudia Fernandes; DeGrado, William F; Sheppard, Dean

    2017-02-20

    Activated fibroblasts are deemed the main executors of organ fibrosis. However, regulation of the pathologic functions of these cells in vivo is poorly understood. PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) is highly expressed in activated pericytes, a main source of fibroblasts. Studies using a PDGFRβ promoter-driven Cre system to delete αv integrins in activated fibroblasts identified these integrins as core regulators of fibroblast activity across solid organs, including the kidneys. Here, we used the same PDGFRβ-Cre line to isolate and study renal fibroblasts ex vivo We found that renal fibroblasts express three αv integrins, namely αvβ1, αvβ3, and αvβ5. Blockade of αvβ1 prevented direct binding of fibroblasts to the latency-associated peptide of TGF-β1 and prevented activation of the latent TGF-β complex. Continuous administration of a recently described potent small molecule inhibitor of αvβ1, compound 8, starting the day of unilateral ureteral obstruction operation, inhibited collagen deposition in the kidneys of mice 14 days later. Compound 8 also effectively attenuated renal failure, as measured by BUN levels in mice fed an adenine diet known to cause renal injury followed by fibrosis. Inhibition of αvβ1 integrin could thus hold promise as a therapeutic intervention in CKD characterized by renal fibrosis.

  7. Cat carotid body chemoreceptor responses before and after nicotine receptor blockade with alpha-bungarotoxin.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, E; Lahiri, S

    1987-01-01

    The nature of nicotine receptors in the carotid body was studied in anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated cats. Chemoreceptor discharge in single or few-fiber preparations of the carotid sinus nerve was measured during isocapnic hypoxia, hyperoxic hypercapnia and in response to nicotine injections before and after administration of alpha-bungarotoxin (10 cats) and after alpha-bungarotoxin plus mecamylamine (7 cats) which binds to neuromuscular-type nicotine cholinergic receptors. alpha-Bungarotoxin caused a slight enhancement of the chemoreceptor response to hypoxia without affecting the chemoreceptor stimulation by nicotine. Mecamylamine (1-5 mg, i.v.), a ganglionic-type nicotinic receptor blocker, had no further effect on the response to hypoxia while it completely abolished the chemoreceptor stimulation by nicotine. Thus the nicotinic receptors in the cat carotid body which elicit excitation of chemosensory fibers appear to be of the ganglionic-type. Blockade of neuromuscular and ganglionic types of nicotinic receptors in the carotid body by alpha-bungarotoxin and mecamylamine does not attenuate the chemosensory responses to either hypoxia or hypercapnia. These nicotinic receptors therefore, do not appear to play an essential role in hypoxic or hypercapnic chemoreception in the cat carotid body.

  8. Blockade of IL-18 signaling diminished neuropathic pain and enhanced the efficacy of morphine and buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Pilat, Dominika; Piotrowska, Anna; Rojewska, Ewelina; Jurga, Agnieszka; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Makuch, Wioletta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the low efficacy of antinociceptive drugs for the treatment of neuropathic pain is a major therapeutic problem. Here, we show the potential role of interleukin (IL)-18 signaling in this phenomenon. IL-18 is an important molecule that performs various crucial functions, including the alteration of nociceptive transmission in response to neuropathic pain. We have studied the changes in the mRNA and protein levels (qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively) of IL-18, IL-18-binding protein (IL-18BP) and the IL-18 receptor (IL-18R) over time in rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Our study demonstrated that the spinal levels of IL-18BP were slightly downregulated at days 7 and 14 in the rats subjected to CCI. In contrast, the IL-18 and IL-18R mRNA expression and protein levels were elevated in the ipsilateral spinal cord on days 2, 7 and 14. Moreover, in rats exposed to a single intrathecal administration of IL-18BP (50 and 100 ng) 7 or 14 days following CCI, symptoms of neuropathic pain were attenuated, and the analgesia pursuant to morphine and buprenorphine (0.5 and 2.5 μg) was enhanced. In summary, the restoration of the analgesic activity of morphine and buprenorphine via the blockade of IL-18 signaling suggests that increased IL-18 pathway may account for the decreased analgesic efficacy of opioids for neuropathic pain.

  9. The selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 enhances antidepressant-like behavioral effects of the SSRI fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Marek, Gerard J; Martin-Ruiz, Raul; Abo, Allyson; Artigas, Francesc

    2005-12-01

    The addition of low doses of atypical antipsychotic drugs, which saturate 5-HT(2A) receptors, enhances the therapeutic effect of selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients with major depression as well as treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. The purpose of the present studies was to test the effects of combined treatment with a low dose of a highly selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist (M100907; formerly MDL 100,907) and low doses of a SSRI using a behavioral screen in rodents (the differential-reinforcement-of low rate 72-s schedule of reinforcement; DRL 72-s) which previously has been shown to be sensitive both to 5-HT(2) antagonists and SSRIs. M100907 has a approximately 100-fold or greater selectivity at 5-HT(2A) receptors vs other 5-HT receptor subtypes, and would not be expected to appreciably occupy non-5-HT(2A) receptors at doses below 100 microg/kg. M100907 increased the reinforcement rate, decreased the response rate, and shifted the inter-response time distributions to the right in a pattern characteristic of antidepressant drugs. In addition, a positive synergistic interaction occurred when testing low doses of the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist (6.25-12.5 microg/kg) with clinically relevant doses of the SSRI fluoxetine (2.5-5 mg/kg), which both exerted minimal antidepressant-like effects by themselves. In vivo microdialysis study revealed that a low dose of M100907 (12.5 microg/kg) did not elevate extracellular 5-HT levels in the prefrontal cortex over those observed with fluoxetine alone (5 mg/kg). These results will be discussed in the context that the combined blockade of 5-HT(2A) receptors and serotonin transporters (SERT) may result in greater efficacy in treating neuropsychiatric syndromes than blocking either site alone.

  10. Seismic attenuation in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, J.J.; Bartolini, T.J.; Lord, K.M.; Smith, D.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Seismic signals recorded by the expanded distribution of earthquake seismograph stations throughout Florida and data from a comprehensive review of record archives from stations GAI contribute to an initial seismic attenuation model for the Florida Plateau. Based on calculations of surface particle velocity, a pattern of attenuation exists that appears to deviate from that established for the remainder of the southeastern US. Most values suggest greater seismic attenuation within the Florida Plateau. However, a separate pattern may exist for those signals arising from the Gulf of Mexico. These results have important implications for seismic hazard assessments in Florida and may be indicative of the unique lithospheric identity of the Florida basement as an exotic terrane.

  11. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.

    2009-11-10

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  12. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  13. Differential effects of dopamine and opioid receptor blockade on motivated Coca-Cola drinking behavior and associated changes in brain, skin and muscle temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, E A

    2010-05-05

    metabolic activity. This treatment (approximately 60 min) had minimal effects on the latencies of drinking, but increased its total duration, with licking interrupted by pauses and retreats. This behavioral attenuation was coupled with weaker than in control locomotor activation and diminished temperature fluctuations in each recording location. Therefore, attenuation of normal behavioral and physiological responses to appetitive stimuli appears to underlie modest inhibiting effects of opiate receptor blockade on motivated behavior and consumption.

  14. Drug interactions at GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Korpi, Esa R; Gründer, Gerhard; Lüddens, Hartmut

    2002-06-01

    Neurotransmitter receptor systems have been the focus of intensive pharmacological research for more than 20 years for basic and applied scientific reasons, but only recently has there been a better understanding of their key features. One of these systems includes the type A receptor for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which forms an integral anion channel from a pentameric subunit assembly and mediates most of the fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the adult vertebrate central nervous system. Up to now, depending on the definition, 16-19 mammalian subunits have been cloned and localized on different genes. Their assembly into proteins in a poorly defined stoichiometry forms the basis of functional and pharmacological GABA(A) receptor diversity, i.e. the receptor subtypes. The latter has been well documented in autoradiographic studies using ligands that label some of the receptors' various binding sites, corroborated by recombinant expression studies using the same tools. Significantly less heterogeneity has been found at the physiological level in native receptors, where the subunit combinations have been difficult to dissect. This review focuses on the characteristics, use and usefulness of various ligands and their binding sites to probe GABA(A) receptor properties and to gain insight into the biological function from fish to man and into evolutionary conserved GABA(A) receptor heterogeneity. We also summarize the properties of the novel mouse models created for the study of various brain functions and review the state-of-the-art imaging of brain GABA(A) receptors in various human neuropsychiatric conditions. The data indicate that the present ligands are only partly satisfactory tools and further ligands with subtype-selective properties are needed for imaging purposes and for confirming the behavioral and functional results of the studies presently carried out in gene-targeted mice with other species, including man.

  15. Expression of 5-HT2A receptors in prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons projecting to nucleus accumbens. Potential relevance for atypical antipsychotic action.

    PubMed

    Mocci, Giuseppe; Jiménez-Sánchez, Laura; Adell, Albert; Cortés, Roser; Artigas, Francesc

    2014-04-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in higher brain functions altered in schizophrenia. Classical antipsychotic drugs modulate information processing in cortico-limbic circuits via dopamine D2 receptor blockade in nucleus accumbens (NAc) whereas atypical antipsychotic drugs preferentially target cortical serotonin (5-HT) receptors. The brain networks involved in the therapeutic action of atypical drugs are not fully understood. Previous work indicated that medial PFC (mPFC) pyramidal neurons projecting to ventral tegmental area express 5-HT2A receptors suggesting that atypical antipsychotic drugs modulate dopaminergic activity distally, via 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2A-R) blockade in PFC. Since the mPFC also projects heavily to NAc, we examined whether NAc-projecting pyramidal neurons also express 5-HT2A-R. Using a combination of retrograde tracing experiments and in situ hybridization we report that a substantial proportion of mPFC-NAc pyramidal neurons in rat brain express 5-HT2A-R mRNA in a layer- and area-specific manner (up to 68% in layer V of contralateral cingulate). The functional relevance of 5-HT2A-R to modulate mPFC-NAc projections was examined in dual-probe microdialysis experiments. The application of the preferential 5-HT2A-R agonist DOI into mPFC enhanced glutamate release locally (+66 ± 18%) and in NAc (+74 ± 12%) indicating that cortical 5-HT2A-R activation augments glutamatergic transmission in NAc. Since NAc integrates glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs, blockade of 5-HT2A-R by atypical drugs may reduce cortical excitatory inputs onto GABAergic neurons of NAc, adding to dopamine D2 receptor blockade. Together with previous observations, the present results suggest that atypical antipsychotic drugs may control the activity of the mesolimbic pathway at cell body and terminal level.

  16. Behavioural evidence for a functional interaction between central 5-HT2 and 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Backus, L. I.; Sharp, T.; Grahame-Smith, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    1. The possibility of 5-HT2 receptor modulation of central 5-HT1A receptor function has been examined using the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) behavioural syndrome induced by 5-HT1A receptor active drugs in rats. 2. The 5-HT2/5-HTIC antagonist ritanserin (0.1-2 mg kg-1) increased the 5-HT behavioural syndrome induced by submaximally effective doses of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT) and gepirone. 3. Pretreatment with the 5-HT2/5-HT1C antagonist ICI 170,809 (0.25-5 mg kg-1) also enhanced the behavioural syndrome induced by 8-OH-DPAT or 5-MeODMT. 4. The 5-HT2/alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist ketanserin in a low dose (0.25 mg kg-1) significantly increased the 5-HT behavioural syndrome induced by 8-OH-DPAT or 5-MeODMT, while in a higher dose (2.5 mg kg-1) this drug decreased the response. Experiments with prazosin indicate that the higher dose of ketanserin might reduce the 5-HT behavioural syndrome through blockade of alpha 1-adrenoceptors. 5. Ritanserin and ICI 170,809 had no effect on apomorphine-induced stereotypy or hyperactivity, indicating that these drugs do not produce non-specific behavioural activation. 6. Ritanserin and ICI 170,809 inhibited quipazine-induced wet dog shakes at doses similar to those enhancing the 5-HT behavioural syndrome. 7. We suggest that ritanserin, ICI 170,809 and ketanserin enhance 5-HT1A agonist-induced behaviour through blockade of an inhibitory 5-HT2 receptor regulating or coupled to 5-HT1A receptor-mediated function. PMID:2145051

  17. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  18. GABAergic involvement in motor effects of an adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist in mice.

    PubMed

    Khisti, R T; Chopde, C T; Abraham, E

    2000-04-03

    Adenosine A(2A) agonists are known to induce catalepsy and inhibit dopamine mediated motor hyperactivity. An antagonistic interaction between adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D(2) receptors is known to regulate GABA-mediated neurotransmission in striatopallidal neurons. Stimulation of adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D(2) receptors has been shown to increase and inhibit GABA release respectively in pallidal GABAergic neurons. However, the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in the motor effects of adenosine A(2A) receptors is not yet known. Therefore in the present study the effect of GABAergic agents on adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist (NECA- or CGS 21680) induced catalepsy and inhibition of amphetamine elicited motor hyperactivity was examined. Pretreatment with GABA, the GABA(A) agonist muscimol or the GABA(B) agonist baclofen potentiated whereas the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline attenuated NECA- or CGS 21680-induced catalepsy. However, the GABA(B) antagonists phaclophen and delta-aminovaleric acid had no effect. Administration of NECA or CGS 21680 not only reduced spontaneous locomotor activity but also antagonized amphetamine elicited motor hyperactivity. These effects of NECA and CGS 21680 were potentiated by GABA or muscimol and antagonized by bicuculline. These findings provide behavioral evidence for the role of GABA in the motor effects of adenosine A(2A) receptor agonists. Activation of adenosine A(2A) receptors increases GABA release which could reduce dopaminergic tone and induce catalepsy or inhibit amphetamine mediated motor hyperactivity.

  19. [The hemodynamic effect of thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade in the anesthetized adult mongrel dogs].

    PubMed

    Yamagami, H

    1994-03-01

    Hemodynamic alterations with the thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade were elucidated in the anesthetized open-chest dogs, under controlled ventilation with 100% oxygen and receiving fentanyl, pentobarbital and pancuronium administration, and the effect of blockade was assessed by increase in skin-surface temperature at the specific regions of the upper extremity. All dogs with thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade revealed the increased skin temperature in blocked extremities and decreased skin temperature in the contralateral side with simultaneous compensatory vasoconstriction ("Borrowing-Lending phenomenon"). Four groups were classified according to the side and range of blockade: A-group (right Th7.8 ganglion, N = 17), B-group (left-Th7.8 ganglion, N = 8), C-group (right Th2.3 ganglion, N = 13) and D-group (left-Th2.3 ganglion, N = 10). The hemodynamic variables after the middle thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade showed no remarkable changes but heart-rate, mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output decreased significantly with the upper right-side thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade, and the inhibited circulatory state lasted twenty minutes after blockade. No significant skin temperature changes were observed after blockade among four groups. The results suggest that the patient after upper thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade should be cared with these circulatory changes in mind.

  20. The Naval Blockade: A Study of Factors Necessary for Effective Utilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-05

    PERU AND BOLIVIA BY CHILE 1879-1884 THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR 1898 , . THE DECLARATION OF LONDON 1909 WORLD WAR I: THE BRITISH BLOCKADE OF...operations ashore can have on the blockade at sea. THE BLOCKADE DP PERU AND BOLIVIA BY CHILE 1B79-1S84 Beginning in 1379, Chile used a vastly superior...fleet to blockade the coasts of Peru and Bolivia . This Chilean Fleet had two British built battleships, giving it sea power greatly superior to that

  1. Blood flow, sympathetic activity and pain relief following lumbar sympathetic blockade or surgical sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J A; Glynn, C J; Cousins, M J; Basedow, R W

    1985-02-01

    The physiological effects of local anaesthetic (bupivacaine), neurolytic (phenol) blockade and surgical ablation of the lumbar sympathetic chain were assessed in patients with peripheral vascular disease or sympathetic dystrophy. Local anaesthetic blockade in 49 patients resulted in significant decrease in pain, plantar sweating and in the vasoconstrictor ice response of the foot, as well as a significant increase in skin temperature and foot blood flow. Subsequent neurolytic blockade in 31 of these patients achieved an effective denervation as assessed by the same physiological measurements. The magnitude of changes in blood flow and sympathetic activity were similar for local anaesthetic and neurolytic blockade as well as in six patients who underwent surgical sympathectomy.

  2. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiujun; Krieg, Sacha; Kuo, Calvin J.; Wiegand, Stanley J.; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Druzin, Maurice L.; Brenner, Robert M.; Giudice, Linda C.; Nayak, Nihar R.

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model and the decidualized mouse uterus as a murine model to examine angiogenesis during endometrial breakdown and regeneration. We found that blockade of VEGF action with VEGF Trap, a potent VEGF blocker, completely inhibited neovascularization during endometrial regeneration in both models but had no marked effect on preexisting or newly formed vessels, suggesting that VEGF is essential for neoangiogenesis but not survival of mature vessels in this vascular bed. Blockade of VEGF also blocked reepithelialization in both the postmenstrual endometrium and the mouse uterus after decidual breakdown, evidence that VEGF has pleiotropic effects in the endometrium. In vitro studies with a scratch wound assay showed that the migration of luminal epithelial cells during repair involved signaling through VEGF receptor 2–neuropilin 1 (VEGFR2-NP1) receptors on endometrial stromal cells. The leading front of tissue growth during endometrial repair was strongly hypoxic, and this hypoxia was the local stimulus for VEGF expression and angiogenesis in this tissue. In summary, we provide novel experimental data indicating that VEGF is essential for endometrial neoangiogenesis during postmenstrual/postpartum repair.—Fan, X., Krieg, S., Kuo, C. J., Wiegand, S. J., Rabinovitch, M., Druzin, M. L., Brenner, R. M., Giudice, L. C., Nayak, N. R. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium. PMID:18606863

  3. Role of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the development of cardiac hypertrophy in response to aortic constriction in mice.

    PubMed

    Lairez, O; Cognet, T; Schaak, S; Calise, D; Guilbeau-Frugier, C; Parini, A; Mialet-Perez, J

    2013-06-01

    Serotonin, in addition to its fundamental role as a neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in the cardiovascular system, where it is thought to be involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Indeed, we recently found that mice with deletion of monoamine oxidase A had enhanced levels of blood and cardiac 5-HT, which contributed to exacerbation of hypertrophy in a model of experimental pressure overload. 5-HT2A receptors are expressed in the heart and mediate a hypertrophic response to 5-HT in cardiac cells. However, their role in cardiac remodeling in vivo and the signaling pathways associated are not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, M100907, on the development of cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Cardiac 5-HT2A receptor expression was transiently increased after TAC, and was recapitulated in cardiomyocytes, as observed with 5-HT2A in situ labeling by immunohistochemistry. Selective blockade of 5-HT2A receptors prevented the development of cardiac hypertrophy, as measured by echocardiography, cardiomyocyte area and heart weight-to-body weight ratio. Interestingly, activation of calmodulin kinase (CamKII), which is a core mechanism in cardiac hypertrophy, was reduced in cardiac samples from M100907-treated TAC mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. In addition, phosphorylation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), a downstream partner of CamKII was significantly diminished in M100907-treated TAC mice. Thus, our results show that selective blockade of 5-HT2A receptors has beneficial effect in the development of cardiac hypertrophy through inhibition of the CamKII/HDAC4 pathway.

  4. Quantum confinement and Coulomb blockade in isolated nanodiamond crystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolker, Asaf; Saguy, Cecile; Tordjman, Moshe; Kalish, Rafi

    2013-07-01

    We present direct experimental evidence of quantum confinement effects in single isolated nanodiamonds by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. For grains smaller than 4.5 nm, the band gap was found to increase with decreasing nanodiamond size and a well-defined, evenly spaced, 12-peak structure was observed on the conduction band side of the conductance curves. We attribute these peaks to the Coulomb blockade effect, reflecting the 12-fold degeneracy of the first electron-energy level in the confined nanodiamond. The present results shed light on the size dependence of the electronic properties of single nanodiamonds and are of major importance for future nanodiamond-based applications.

  5. Classical Coulomb blockade of a silicon nanowire dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shaoyun; Fukata, Naoki; Shimizu, Maki; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Ishibashi, Koji

    2008-05-01

    Single electron transistors (SETs) have been fabricated with an individual n-type single-crystal silicon nanowire (SiNW) that was grown by a catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique, and their transport properties have been measured in low temperatures. The SiNW-SET in the present work exhibited well pronounced Coulomb oscillations in a wide gate voltage range from -10to10V, featuring in uniform peak height, uniform full width at half maximum, and equidistant peak spacing. The charging energy turned out to be 64μeV. The temperature dependence of Coulomb oscillations revealed that the dot worked within the classical Coulomb blockade model.

  6. GABA-A receptors regulate neocortical neuronal migration in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Heck, Nicolas; Kilb, Werner; Reiprich, Petra; Kubota, Hisahiko; Furukawa, Tomonori; Fukuda, Atsuo; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2007-01-01

    The cortical migration process depends on a number of trophic factors and on the activation of different voltage- and ligand-gated channels. We investigated the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors in the neuronal migration process of the newborn rat parietal cortex in vivo and in vitro. Local in vivo application of the GABA-A antagonist bicuculline methiodide (BMI) or the agonist muscimol via cortical surface Elvax implants induced prominent alterations in the cortical architecture when compared with untreated or sham-operated controls. BMI- and muscimol-treated animals revealed heterotopic cell clusters in the upper layers and a complete loss of the cortical lamination in the region underlying the Elvax implant. Immunocytochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and GABA demonstrated that heterotopia was not provoked by glial proliferation and confirmed the presence of both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. In organotypic neocortical slices from embryonic day 18-19 embryos, application of BMI and to a lesser extent also muscimol induced an increase in the migration speed and an accumulation of neurons in the upper cortical layers. Spontaneous intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) oscillations in neocortical slices from newborn rats were abolished by BMI (5 and 20 microM) and muscimol (1 and 10 microM), indicating that both compounds interfere with [Ca2+]i signaling required for normal neuronal migration. Electrophysiological recordings from migrating neurons in newborn rat neocortical slices indicate that long-term application of muscimol causes a pronounced reduction (1 microM muscimol) or blockade (10 microM) in the responsiveness of postsynaptic GABA-A receptors due to a pronounced receptor desensitization. Our results indicate that modulation of GABA-A receptors by compounds acting as agonists or antagonists may profoundly influence the neuronal migration process in the developing cerebral cortex.

  7. 5-HT2A receptors are involved in cognitive but not antidepressant effects of fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Castañé, Anna; Kargieman, Lucila; Celada, Pau; Bortolozzi, Analía; Artigas, Francesc

    2015-08-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a crucial role in cognitive and affective functions. It contains a rich serotonergic (serotonin, 5-HT) innervation and a high density of 5-HT receptors. Endogenous 5-HT exerts robust actions on the activity of pyramidal neurons in medial PFC (mPFC) via excitatory 5-HT2A and inhibitory 5-HT1A receptors, suggesting the involvement of 5-HT neurotransmission in cortical functions. However, the underlying mechanisms must be elucidated. Here we examine the role of 5-HT2A receptors in the processing of emotional and cognitive signals evoked by increasing the 5-HT tone after acute blockade of the 5-HT transporter. Fluoxetine (5-20mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently reduced the immobility time in the tail-suspension test in wild-type (WT) and 5-HT2Aknockout (KO2A) mice, with non-significant differences between genotypes. Fluoxetine (10mg/kg i.p.) significantly impaired mice performance in the novel object recognition test 24h post-administration in WT, but not in KO2A mice. The comparable effect of fluoxetine on extracellular 5-HT in the mPFC of both genotypes suggests that presynaptic differences are not accountable. In contrast, single unit recordings of mPFC putative pyramidal neurons showed that fluoxetine (1.8-7.2mg/kg i.v.) significantly increased neuronal discharge in KO2A but not in WT mice. This effect is possibly mediated by an altered excitatory/inhibitory balance in the PFC in KO2A mice. Overall, the present results suggest that 5-HT2A receptors play a detrimental role in long-term memory deficits mediated by an excess 5-HT in PFC.

  8. Clinical/pharmacological aspect of adenosine A2A receptor antagonist for dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Tomoyuki; Uchida, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine replacement therapy using the dopamine precursor, l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), with a peripheral dopa decarboxylase inhibitor is the most effective treatment currently available for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the long-term use of dopaminergic therapies for PD is often limited by the development of motor response complications, such as dyskinesia. Adenosine A2A receptors are a promising nondopaminergic target for the treatment of PD. The treatment of motor response complications involves combinations of regular and controlled release L-DOPA, perhaps with the addition of a COMT inhibitor or the use of a longer-acting dopamine agonist. However, when dyskinesia is already established, the increase in dopaminergic load produced by the addition of a dopamine agonist can result in an increase in the severity and duration of dyskinesia. Currently, there are no well-tolerated antidyskinesia agents available. Amantadine, which may exert its effects through the inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, shows some effects on established dyskinesia. Dyskinesia has a negative impact on the quality of life of patients, sometimes being more disabling than PD itself. Although some patients prefer experiencing dyskinesia than being in the OFF state and unable to move, alternative, more effective therapies are still required for severe disabling dyskinesia to afford patients an improved quality of life while in the ON state. The mechanisms causing and maintaining the dyskinesia have not been clarified. The application of a nondopaminergic approach to modify the basal ganglial activity would be helpful to better understand and treat dyskinesia. The use of an adenosine A2A receptor may provide one such approach. In this literature review, we will summarize the current knowledge from both clinical and nonclinical studies on the effects of adenosine A2A receptor blockade on dyskinesia.

  9. The serotonin 5-Hydroxytryptaphan1A receptor agonist, (+)8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin, stimulates sympathetic-dependent increases in venous tone during hypovolemic shock.

    PubMed

    Tiniakov, Ruslan; Scrogin, Karie E

    2006-11-01

    Adjuvant treatment of hypovolemic shock with vasoconstrictors is controversial due to their propensity to raise arterial resistance and exacerbate ischemia. A more advantageous therapeutic approach would use agents that also promote venoconstriction to augment perfusion pressure through increased venous return. Recent studies indicate that 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HT)(1A) receptor agonists increase blood pressure by stimulating sympathetic drive when administered after acute hypotensive hemorrhage. Given that venous tone is highly dependent upon sympathetic activation of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors, we hypothesized that the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, (+)8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), would increase venous tone in rats subject to hypovolemic shock through sympathetic activation of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors. Systemic administration of 8-OH-DPAT produced a sustained rise in blood pressure (+44 +/- 3 mm Hg 35 min after injection, P < 0.01 versus saline) and mean circulatory filling pressure (+4.2 +/- 0.7 mm Hg, P < 0.01 versus saline) in conscious rats subjected to hypovolemic shock. An equipressor infusion of epinephrine failed to influence mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP). Ganglionic blockade, alpha(1)-, or peripheral alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor blockade prevented the rise in MCFP observed with 8-OH-DPAT, but only alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor blockade diminished the pressor effect of the drug (P < 0.01). 8-OH-DPAT raises blood pressure in rats in hypovolemic shock through both direct vascular activation and sympathetic activation of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors. The sympathoexcitatory effect of 8-OH-DPAT contributes to elevated venous tone through concurrent activation of both alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors. The data suggest that 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists may provide an advantageous alternative to currently therapeutic interventions used to raise perfusion pressure in hypovolemic shock.

  10. Adenosine A2A receptor and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 are upregulated in hippocampal astrocytes of human patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE).

    PubMed

    Barros-Barbosa, Aurora R; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Oliveira, Ângela; Mendes, Marina; Lobo, M Graça; Santos, Agostinho; Rangel, Rui; Pelletier, Julie; Sévigny, Jean; Cordeiro, J Miguel; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2016-12-01

    Refractoriness to existing medications of up to 80 % of the patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) prompts for finding new antiepileptic drug targets. The adenosine A2A receptor emerges as an interesting pharmacological target since its excitatory nature partially counteracts the dominant antiepileptic role of endogenous adenosine acting via inhibitory A1 receptors. Gain of function of the excitatory A2A receptor has been implicated in a significant number of brain pathologies commonly characterized by neuronal excitotoxicity. Here, we investigated changes in the expression and cellular localization of the A2A receptor and of the adenosine-generating enzyme, ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73, in the hippocampus of control individuals and MTLE human patients. Western blot analysis indicates that the A2A receptor is more abundant in the hippocampus of MTLE patients compared to control individuals. Immunoreactivity against the A2A receptor predominates in astrocytes staining positively for the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). No co-localization was observed between the A2A receptor and neuronal cell markers, like synaptotagmin 1/2 (nerve terminals) and neurofilament 200 (axon fibers). Hippocampal astrogliosis observed in MTLE patients was accompanied by a proportionate increase in A2A receptor and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 immunoreactivities. Given our data, we hypothesize that selective blockade of excessive activation of astrocytic A2A receptors and/or inhibition of surplus adenosine formation by membrane-bound ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 may reduce neuronal excitability, thus providing a novel therapeutic target for drug-refractory seizures in MTLE patients.

  11. Evaluation of the safety of epinephrine in digital nerve blockade

    PubMed Central

    Chapeskie, Henry; Juliao, Alexis; Payne, Sonja; Koichopolos, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the safety profile of lidocaine containing 1:200 000 to 1:100 000 epinephrine with concurrent tourniquet use in patients undergoing toe surgery. Design A retrospective case series analysis of toe procedures performed under digital blockade with adjuvant vasopressor from January 25, 2009, to May 31, 2014, was conducted. Exclusion criteria were limited to procedures performed without adjuvant vasopressor use. Setting A single clinic in Ontario. Participants A total of 1334 toe procedures performed in 937 patients. Main outcome measures The primary study outcome was the incidence of postoperative digital necrosis. Secondary outcomes included other postoperative complications including infection, reperfusion injury, persistent granulation, and damage to the nail matrix. Results In total, 1334 toe procedures were included in this study, of which 45 involved patients with a pre-existing diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. The overall incidence of postoperative complications was low (4.6%). No cases of digital ischemia or gangrenous necrosis were observed. Subgroup analysis of patients with and without diabetes showed no statistically significant difference in the rate of complications. Conclusion This study demonstrates the safety of adjuvant vasopressor use in digital nerve blockade of the toes within a large, diverse population. This study adds to a growing base of evidence on the safety of lidocaine with 1:200 000 to 1:100 000 epinephrine for digital anesthesia.

  12. Angiopoietin-2 Blockade Promotes Survival of Corneal Transplants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liwei; Li, Guangyu; Sessa, Roberto; Kang, Gyeong Jin; Shi, Meng; Ge, Shaokui; Gong, Anna Jiang; Wen, Ying; Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar; Chen, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Corneal transplantation remains the last hope for vision restoration, and lymphangiogenesis (LG) is a primary mediator of transplant rejection. This study was to investigate the specific role of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in transplantation-associated LG and graft rejection. Methods Orthotopic corneal transplantation was performed between fully mismatched C57BL/6 (donor) and BALB/c (recipient) mice to assess the effects of Ang-2 blockade via neutralizing antibody. Grafts were evaluated in vivo by ophthalmic slit-lamp biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) up to 8 weeks after surgery. Additionally, whole-mount corneas were analyzed for lymphatic and blood vessels and macrophages by immunofluorescent microscopy, and draining lymph nodes were assessed for donor-derived cells by flow cytometry. Results Anti-Ang-2 treatment significantly suppressed LG and graft rejection. In this study, we achieved 75% suppression of LG and 80% graft survival. Our approach also inhibited donor-derived cell trafficking to draining lymph nodes and affected macrophage morphologic phenotypes in the grafted corneas. Additionally, Ang-2 blockade also reduced central corneal thickening, a parameter strongly associated with graft rejection. Conclusions Ang-2 is critically involved in corneal transplant rejection and anti-Ang-2 treatment significantly improves the outcomes of corneal grafts. Moreover, we have shown that anterior segment OCT offers a new tool to monitor murine corneal grafts in vivo. This study not only reveals new mechanisms for transplant rejection, but also offers a novel strategy to treat it. PMID:28061513

  13. CTLA4 blockade broadens the peripheral T cell receptor repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Lidia; Tsoi, Jennifer; Wang, Xiaoyan; Emerson, Ryan; Homet, Blanca; Chodon, Thinle; Mok, Stephen; Huang, Rong Rong; Cochran, Alistair J.; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Koya, Richard C.; Graeber, Thomas G.; Robins, Harlan; Ribas, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of CTLA-4 blockade with tremelimumab in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Experimental Design We used next generation sequencing to study the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) from the rearranged T cell receptor (TCR) variable beta (V-beta) in PBMC of 21 patients, at baseline and 30–60 days after receiving tremelimumab. Results After receiving tremelimumab there was a median of 30% increase in unique productive sequences of TCR V-beta CDR3 in 19 out of 21 patients, and a median decrease of 30% in only 2 out of 21 patients. These changes were significant for richness (p=0.01) and for Shannon index diversity (p=0.04). In comparison, serially collected PBMC from four healthy donors did not show a significant change in TCR V-beta CDR3 diversity over one year. There was a significant difference in the total unique productive TCR V-beta CDR3 sequences between patients experiencing toxicity with tremelimumab compared to patients without toxicity (p=0.05). No relevant differences were noted between clinical responders and non-responders. Conclusions CTLA4 blockade with tremelimumab diversifies the peripheral T cell pool, representing a pharmacodynamic effect of how this class of antibodies modulates the human immune system. PMID:24583799

  14. Inactivation gating determines nicotine blockade of human HERG channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Z; Shi, H; Liao, S J; Wang, Z

    1999-09-01

    We have previously found that nicotine blocked multiple K+ currents, including the rapid component of delayed rectifier K+ currents (IKr), by interacting directly with the channels. To shed some light on the mechanisms of interaction between nicotine and channels, we performed detailed analysis on the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (HERG) channels, which are believed to be equivalent to the native I(Kr) when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Nicotine suppressed the HERG channels in a concentration-dependent manner with greater potency with voltage protocols, which favor channel inactivation. Nicotine caused dramatic shifts of the voltage-dependent inactivation curve to more negative potentials and accelerated the inactivation process. Conversely, maneuvers that weakened the channel inactivation gating considerably relieved the blockade. Elevating the extracellular K+ concentration from 5 to 20 mM increased the nicotine concentration (by approximately 100-fold) needed to achieve the same degree of inhibition. Moreover, nicotine lost its ability to block the HERG channels when a single mutation was introduced to a residue located after transmembrane domain 6 (S631A) to remove the rapid channel inactivation. Our data suggest that the inactivation gating determines nicotine blockade of the HERG channels.

  15. Chlorpheniramine produces spinal motor, proprioceptive and nociceptive blockades in rats.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Jann-Inn; Lin, Heng-Teng; Chen, Yu-Wen; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2015-04-05

    This study aimed to assess the local anesthetic effects of chlorpheniramine in spinal anesthesia and is compared with mepivacaine, a widely-used local anesthetic. Spinal anesthesia with chlorpheniramine and mepivacaine was constructed in a dosage-dependent fashion after the rats were injected intrathecally. The spinal block effect of chlorpheniramine in motor function, nociception, and proprioception was compared to that of mepivacaine. We revealed that intrathecal chlorpheniramine and mepivacaine exhibited a dose-dependent spinal block of motor function, nociception, and proprioception. On the 50% effective dose (ED50) basis, the ranks of potencies in motor function, nociception, and proprioception were chlorpheniramine>mepivacaine (P<0.01 for the differences). On the equianesthetic basis (ED25, ED50, ED75), the duration of spinal anesthesia with chlorpheniramine was greater than that of mepivacaine (P<0.01 for the differences). Instead of mepivacaine, chlorpheniramine produced a greater duration of sensory blockade than the motor blockade. These preclinical data showed that chlorpheniramine has a better sensory-selective action over motor block to produce more potent and long-lasting spinal anesthesia than mepivacaine.

  16. Emerging role of checkpoint blockade therapy in lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Galanina, Natalie; Kline, Justin; Bishop, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Following the successful application of immune checkpoint blockade therapy (CBT) in refractory solid tumors, it has recently gained momentum as a promising modality in the treatment of relapsed lymphoma. This significant therapeutic advance stems from decades of research that elucidated the role of immune regulation pathways and the mechanisms by which tumors can engage these critical pathways to escape immune detection. To date, two main pathways, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), have emerged as key targets of CBT demonstrating unprecedented activity particularly in heavily pretreated relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma and some forms of non-Hodgkin disease. Herein we provide a brief discussion of checkpoint blockade in the context of lymphoma biology with a specific focus on novel checkpoint inhibitors and their therapeutic activity. We discuss current clinical trials and the landscape of CBT to underscore both the remarkable progress and foreseeable limitations of this novel treatment strategy. In particular, we build upon state-of-the-art knowledge and clinical insights gained from the early trials to review potential approaches to how CBT may be integrated with other treatment modalities, including chemoimmunotherapy to improve patient outcomes in the future. Finally, as the role of CBT evolves to potentially become a cornerstone of therapy in refractory/relapsed lymphoma, we briefly emphasize the importance of predictive biomarkers in an effort to select appropriate patients who are most likely to derive benefit from CBT. PMID:28203344

  17. Functional improvement of dystrophic muscle by myostatin blockade.

    PubMed

    Bogdanovich, Sasha; Krag, Thomas O B; Barton, Elisabeth R; Morris, Linda D; Whittemore, Lisa-Anne; Ahima, Rexford S; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2002-11-28

    Mice and cattle with mutations in the myostatin (GDF8) gene show a marked increase in body weight and muscle mass, indicating that this new member of the TGF-beta superfamily is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Inhibition of the myostatin gene product is predicted to increase muscle mass and improve the disease phenotype in a variety of primary and secondary myopathies. We tested the ability of inhibition of myostatin in vivo to ameliorate the dystrophic phenotype in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Blockade of endogenous myostatin by using intraperitoneal injections of blocking antibodies for three months resulted in an increase in body weight, muscle mass, muscle size and absolute muscle strength in mdx mouse muscle along with a significant decrease in muscle degeneration and concentrations of serum creatine kinase. The functional improvement of dystrophic muscle by myostatin blockade provides a novel, pharmacological strategy for treatment of diseases associated with muscle wasting such as DMD, and circumvents the major problems associated with conventional gene therapy in these disorders.

  18. OX40L blockade protects against inflammation-driven fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Elhai, Muriel; Avouac, Jérôme; Hoffmann-Vold, Anna Maria; Ruzehaji, Nadira; Amiar, Olivia; Ruiz, Barbara; Brahiti, Hassina; Ponsoye, Matthieu; Fréchet, Maxime; Burgevin, Anne; Pezet, Sonia; Sadoine, Jérémy; Guilbert, Thomas; Nicco, Carole; Akiba, Hisaya; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Subramaniam, Arun; Resnick, Robert; Molberg, Øyvind; Kahan, André; Chiocchia, Gilles; Allanore, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for fibrosis represents a critical unmet need, because fibrosis is the leading cause of death in industrialized countries, and there is no effective therapy to counteract the fibrotic process. The development of fibrosis relates to the interplay between vessel injury, immune cell activation, and fibroblast stimulation, which can occur in various tissues. Immunotherapies have provided a breakthrough in the treatment of immune diseases. The glycoprotein OX40–OX40 ligand (OX40L) axis offers the advantage of a targeted approach to costimulatory signals with limited impact on the whole immune response. Using systemic sclerosis (SSc) as a prototypic disease, we report compelling evidence that blockade of OX40L is a promising strategy for the treatment of inflammation-driven fibrosis. OX40L is overexpressed in the fibrotic skin and serum of patients with SSc, particularly in patients with diffuse cutaneous forms. Soluble OX40L was identified as a promising serum biomarker to predict the worsening of lung and skin fibrosis, highlighting the role of this pathway in fibrosis. In vivo, OX40L blockade prevents inflammation-driven skin, lung, and vessel fibrosis and induces the regression of established dermal fibrosis in different complementary mouse models. OX40L exerts potent profibrotic effects by promoting the infiltration of inflammatory cells into lesional tissues and therefore the release of proinflammatory mediators, thereafter leading to fibroblast activation. PMID:27298374

  19. Telmisartan ameliorates glutamate-induced neurotoxicity: roles of AT1 receptor blockade and PPARγ activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Pang, Tao; Hafko, Roman; Benicky, Julius; Sanchez-Lemus, Enrique; Saavedra, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Sartans (Angiotensin II AT1 Receptor Blockers, ARBs) are powerful neuroprotective agents in vivo and protect against IL-1β neurotoxicity in vitro. The purpose of this research was to determine the extent of sartan neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity, a common cause of neuronal injury and apoptosis. The results show that sartans are neuroprotective, significantly reducing glutamate-induced neuronal injury and apoptosis in cultured rat primary cerebellar granule cells (CGCs). Telmisartan was the most potent sartan studied, with an order of potency telmisartan > candesartan > losartan > valsartan. Mechanisms involved reduction of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 activation, protection of the survival PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway, and prevention of glutamate-induced ERK1/2 activation. NMDA receptor stimulation was essential for glutamate-induced cell injury and apoptosis. Participation of AT1A receptor was supported by glutamate-induced upregulation of AT1A gene expression and AT1 receptor binding. Conversely, AT1B or AT2 receptor played no role. Glutamate-induced neuronal injury and the neuroprotective effect of telmisartan were decreased, but not abolished, in CGCs obtained from AT1A knock-out mice. This indicates that although AT1 receptors are necessary for glutamate to exert its full neurotoxic potential, part of the neuroprotective effect of telmisartan is independent of AT1 receptor blockade. PPARγ activation was also involved in the neuroprotective effects of telmisartan, as telmisartan enhanced PPARγ nuclear translocation, and the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 partially reversed the neuroprotective effects of telmisartan. The present results substantiate the therapeutic use of sartans, in particular telmisartan, in neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain disorders where glutamate neurotoxicity plays a significant role. PMID:24316465

  20. Selective adenosine A2A receptor agonists and antagonists protect against spinal cord injury through peripheral and central effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    of the A2A agonist are due to A2A receptor desensitization. When the A2A antagonist and agonist were centrally injected into injured SC, only SCH58261 appeared neuroprotective, while CGS21680 was ineffective. Conclusions Our results indicate that the A2A antagonist protects against SCI by acting on centrally located A2A receptors. It is likely that blockade of A2A receptors reduces excitotoxicity. In contrast, neuroprotection afforded by the A2A agonist may be primarily due to peripheral effects. PMID:21486435

  1. Angiotensin II type 1a receptor signalling directly contributes to the increased arrhythmogenicity in cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yasuno, Shinji; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Yamada, Chinatsu; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Usami, Satoru; Kuwabara, Yoshihiro; Ueshima, Kenji; Harada, Masaki; Nishikimi, Toshio; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Angiotensin II has been implicated in the development of various cardiovascular ailments, including cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. The fact that inhibiting its signalling reduced the incidences of both sudden cardiac death and heart failure in several large-scale clinical trials suggests that angiotensin II is involved in increased cardiac arrhythmogenicity during the development of heart failure. However, because angiotensin II also promotes structural remodelling, including cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis, it has been difficult to assess its direct contribution to cardiac arrhythmogenicity independently of the structural effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We induced cardiac hypertrophy in wild-type (WT) and angiotensin II type 1a receptor knockout (AT1aR-KO) mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). The susceptibility to ventricular tachycardia (VT) assessed in an in vivo electrophysiological study was compared in the two genotypes. The effect of acute pharmacological blockade of AT1R on the incidences of arrhythmias was also assessed. KEY RESULTS As described previously, WT and AT1aR-KO mice with TAC developed cardiac hypertrophy to the same degree, but the incidence of VT was much lower in the latter. Moreover, although TAC induced an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of connexin 43, a critical component of gap junctional channels, and a reduction in ventricular levels of connexin 43 protein in both genotypes, the effect was significantly ameliorated in AT1aR-KO mice. Acute pharmacological blockade of AT1R also reduced the incidence of arrhythmias. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our findings demonstrate that AT1aR-mediated signalling makes a direct contribution to the increase in arrhythmogenicity in hypertrophied hearts independently of structural remodelling. PMID:23937445

  2. Caffeine and adenosine A(2a) receptor antagonists prevent beta-amyloid (25-35)-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Dall'Igna, Oscar P; Fett, Paulo; Gomes, Marcio W; Souza, Diogo O; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Lara, Diogo R

    2007-01-01

    Consumption of caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, was found to be inversely associated with the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, caffeine protects cultured neurons against beta-amyloid-induced toxicity, an effect mimicked by adenosine A(2A) but not A(1) receptor antagonists. We now tested if caffeine administration would prevent beta-amyloid-induced cognitive impairment in mice and if this was mimicked by A(2A) receptor blockade. One week after icv administration of the 25-35 fragment of beta-amyloid (Abeta, 3 nmol), mice displayed impaired performance in both inhibitory avoidance and spontaneous alternation tests. Prolonged treatment with caffeine (1 mg/ml) had no effect alone but prevented the Abeta-induced cognitive impairment in both tasks when associated with acute caffeine (30 mg/kg) 30 min treatment before Abeta administration. The same protective effect was observed after subchronic (4 days) treatment with daily injections of either caffeine (30 mg/kg) or the selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist SCH58261 (0.5 mg/kg). This provides the first direct in vivo evidence that caffeine and A(2A) receptor antagonists afford a protection against Abeta-induced amnesia, which prompts their interest for managing Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Postsynaptic Adenosine A2A Receptors Modulate Intrinsic Excitability of Pyramidal Cells in the Rat Basolateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Andrew R.; Ariwodola, Olusegun J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The basolateral amygdala plays a critical role in the etiology of anxiety disorders and addiction. Pyramidal neurons, the primary output cells of this region, display increased firing following exposure to stressors, and it is thought that this increase in excitability contributes to stress responsivity and the expression of anxiety-like behaviors. However, much remains unknown about the underlying mechanisms that regulate the intrinsic excitability of basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons. Methods: Ex vivo gramicidin perforated patch recordings were conducted in current clamp mode where hyper- and depolarizing current steps were applied to basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons to assess the effects of adenosine A2A receptor modulation on intrinsic excitability. Results: Activation of adenosine A2A receptors with the selective A2A receptor agonist CGS-21680 significantly increased the firing rate of basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons in rat amygdala brain slices, likely via inhibition of the slow afterhyperpolarization potential. Both of these A2A receptor-mediated effects were blocked by preapplication of a selective A2A receptor antagonist (ZM-241385) or by intra-pipette infusion of a protein kinase A inhibitor, suggesting a postsynaptic locus of A2A receptors on basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, bath application of the A2A receptor antagonist alone significantly attenuated basolateral amygdala pyramidal cell firing, consistent with a role for tonic adenosine in the regulation of the intrinsic excitability of these neurons. Conclusions: Collectively, these data suggest that adenosine, via activation of A2A receptors, may directly facilitate basolateral amygdala pyramidal cell output, providing a possible balance for the recently described inhibitory effects of adenosine A1 receptor activation on glutamatergic excitation of basolateral amygdala pyramidal cells. PMID:25716780

  4. Beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atrio-ventricular conduction in dogs. Role of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity.

    PubMed

    Giudicelli, J F; Lhoste, F

    1982-01-01

    1 Atrio-ventricular conduction and its modifications induced by six beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents and isoprenaline have been investigated in the anaesthetized dog using the extrastimulus technique and measuring atrial (AERP), nodal (NERP), global (GERP) effective refractory periods as well as global functional refractory period (GFRP). 2 When beta-adrenoceptor blockade was produced by (+/-)-propranolol (beta 1 + beta 2-adrenoceptor blockade) which is devoid of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) but has membrane stabilizing effects (MSE), sotalol (beta 1 + beta 2-adrenoceptor blockade, no ISA, no MSE) and atenolol (beta 1-adrenoceptor blockade, no ISA, no MSE), all parameters were significantly increased. When beta-adrenoceptor blockade was achieved with pindolol (beta 1 + beta 2-adrenoceptor blockade) and practolol (beta 1-adrenoceptor blockade) which have ISA but no MSE, all parameters remained unchanged, as was also the case with (+)-propranolol, which has MSE but neither ISA nor beta-adrenolytic properties. 3 Isoprenaline at high doses significantly reduced the refractory periods but when infusion was stopped, marked but reversible conduction depression was observed. 4 It thus appears that beta-adrenoceptor blockade but not MSE is responsible for the onset of atrial and AV-conduction impairment and that ISA affords protection against this impairment.

  5. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current

  6. Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel.

    PubMed

    Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A

    2014-03-01

    Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes.

  7. Cardiac beta-adrenoceptor blockade: the quest for selectivity.

    PubMed

    Barrett, A M

    1985-01-01

    In the search for improved drugs much attention has been focussed on the need for greater selectivity of action. Knowing that all drugs are poisons, the pharmacologist must attempt to define the required effect more narrowly but remain aware of potential unwanted effects. These may come as a result of the primary pharmacological effect or be due to other properties of the drug molecule manifesting themselves in clinical use. This paper illustrates the process of drug discovery and development with special reference to beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Starting from the role of noradrenaline in sympathetic transmission, many compounds have been synthesized with therapeutic aims in mind. From a series of bronchodilators, dichloro-isoprenaline emerged which unexpectedly blocked stimulation of beta-receptors. This compound proved unsatisfactory leading to the introduction of the first clinically successful beta-blocker, pronethalol. Concern about potential carcinogenic effects led to its being replaced by propanolol. Failure to recognise the full range of clinical contra-indications resulted in propranolol causing severe cardio-vascular and bronchial adverse reactions. Soon it was recognized that propranolol was a powerful local anaesthetic potentially acting as a myocardial depressant. More serious was the recognition that in certain circumstances high levels of sympathetic tone were an adaptive response to pathophysiological change and that interruption by beta-blockade was inevitably serious for the patient. Attempts to identify the properties responsible for unwanted effects directed attention to comparison with non-local anaesthetic water soluble compounds still retaining beta-blocking activity. One such compound, practolol, also proved to exhibit a higher affinity for beta-receptors in the heart than elsewhere leading to the concept of cardioselective beta-blockade. The pharmacology of this agent is reviewed but it proved to have unacceptable side effects in

  8. Involvement of serotonin 2A receptor activation in modulating medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuronal activation during novelty-exposure.

    PubMed

    Hervig, Mona El-Sayed; Jensen, Nadja Cecilie Hvid; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Rydbirk, Rasmus; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Pakkenberg, Bente; Aznar, Susana

    2017-03-02

    The medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a major role in executive function by exerting a top-down control onto subcortical areas. Novelty-induced frontal cortex activation is 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) dependent. Here, we further investigated how blockade of 5-HT2ARs in mice exposed to a novel open-field arena affects medial PFC activation and basolateral amygdala (BLA) reactivity. We used c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) as a marker of neuronal activation and stereological quantification for obtaining the total number of c-Fos-IR neurons as a measure of regional activation. We further examined the impact of 5-HT2AR blockade on the striatal-projecting BLA neurons. Systemic administration of ketanserin (0.5mg/kg) prior to novel open-field exposure resulted in reduced total numbers of c-Fos-IR cells in dorsomedial PFC areas and the BLA. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the relative time spent in the centre of the open-field and BLA c-Fos-IR in the ketanserin-treated animals. Unilateral medial PFC lesions blocked this effect, ascertaining an involvement of this frontal cortex area. On the other hand, medial PFC lesioning exacerbated the more anxiogenic-like behaviour of the ketanserin-treated animals, upholding its involvement in modulating averseness. Ketanserin did not affect the number of activated striatal-projecting BLA neurons (measured by number of Cholera Toxin b (CTb) retrograde labelled neurons also being c-Fos-IR) following CTb injection in the ventral striatum. These results support a role of 5-HT2AR activation in modulating mPFC and BLA activation during exposure to a novel environment, which may be interrelated. Conversely, 5-HT2AR blockade does not seem to affect the amygdala-striatal projection.

  9. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTOR BLOCKADE IN EXPERIMENTAL NON-ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Margarita; Solís, Nancy; Quintero, Pablo; Barrera, Francisco; Cabrera, Daniel; Santiago, Pamela Rojasde; Arab, Juan Pablo; Padilla, Oslando; Roa, Juan Carlos; Moshage, Han; Wree, Alexander; Inzaugarat, Eugenia; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Fardella, Carlos E.; Baudrand, Rene; Riquelme, Arnoldo; Arrese, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic options to treat Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are limited. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation could play a role in hepatic fibrogenesis and its modulation could be beneficial for NASH. Aim To investigate whether eplerenone, a specific MR antagonist, ameliorates liver damage in experimental NASH. Methods C57bl6 mice were fed a choline-deficient-amino-acid–defined (CDAA) diet for 22 weeks with or without eplerenone supplementation. Serum levels of aminotransferases and aldosterone were measured and hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis scored histologically. Hepatic triglyceride content (HTC) and hepatic mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory pro-fibrotic, oxidative stress-associated genes and of MR were also assessed. Results CDAA diet effectively induced fibrotic NASH, and increased the hepatic expression of pro-inflammatory, pro-fibrotic and oxidative stress-associated genes. Hepatic MR mRNA levels significantly correlated with the expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes and were significantly increased in hepatic stellate cells obtained from CDAA-fed animals. Eplerenone administration was associated to a reduction in histological steatosis and attenuation of liver fibrosis development, which was associated to a significant decrease in the expression of collagen-α1, collagen type III, alpha 1 and Matrix metalloproteinase-2. Conclusion The expression of MR correlates with inflammation and fibrosis development in experimental NASH. Specific MR blockade with eplerenone has hepatic anti-steatotic and anti-fibrotic effects. These data identifies eplerenone as a potential novel therapy for NASH. Considering its safety and FDA-approved status, human studies are warranted PMID:25646700

  10. Blockade of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Glutamate Receptor Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in rat kidney reduces renal perfusion and ultrafiltration. Hypoperfusion-induced ischemia is the most frequent cause of functional insufficiency in the endotoxemic kidney. Here, we used non-hypotensive rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia to examine whether NMDA receptor hyperfunction contributes to acute kidney injury. Lipopolysaccharide-induced renal damage via increased enzymuria and hemodynamic impairments were ameliorated by co-treatment with the NMDA receptor blocker, MK-801. The NMDA receptor NR1 subunit in the rat kidney mainly co-localized with serine racemase, an enzyme responsible for synthesizing the NMDA receptor co-agonist, D-serine. The NMDA receptor hyperfunction in lipopolysaccharide-treated kidneys was demonstrated by NR1 and serine racemase upregulation, particularly in renal tubules, and by increased D-serine levels. Lipopolysaccharide also induced cell damage in cultured tubular cell lines and primary rat proximal tubular cells. This damage was mitigated by MK-801 and by small interfering RNA targeting NR1. Lipopolysaccharide increased cytokine release in tubular cell lines via toll-like receptor 4. The release of interleukin-1β from these cells are the most abundant. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist not only attenuated cell death but also abolished lipopolysaccharide-induced NR1 and serine racemase upregulation and increases in D-serine secretion, suggesting that interleukin-1β-mediated NMDA receptor hyperfunction participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced tubular damage. The results of this study indicate NMDA receptor hyperfunction via cytokine effect participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced renal insufficiency. Blockade of NMDA receptors may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis-associated renal failure. PMID:26133372

  11. The 37kDa/67kDa Laminin Receptor acts as a receptor for Aβ42 internalization

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa Dias, Bianca; Jovanovic, Katarina; Gonsalves, Danielle; Moodley, Kiashanee; Reusch, Uwe; Knackmuss, Stefan; Weinberg, Marc S.; Little, Melvyn; Weiss, Stefan F. T.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal loss is a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The associations between soluble Aβ oligomers and cellular components cause this neurotoxicity. The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) has recently been implicated in Aβ pathogenesis. In this study the mechanism underlying the pathological role of LRP/LR was elucidated. Försters Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) revealed that LRP/LR and Aβ form a biologically relevant interaction. The ability of LRP/LR to form stable associations with endogenously shed Aβ was confirmed by pull down assays and Aβ-ELISAs. Antibody blockade of this association significantly lowered Aβ42 induced apoptosis. Furthermore, antibody blockade and shRNA mediated downregulation of LRP/LR significantly hampered Aβ42 internalization. These results suggest that LRP/LR is a receptor for Aβ42 internalization, mediating its endocytosis and contributing to the cytotoxicity of the neuropeptide by facilitating intra-cellular Aβ42 accumulation. These findings recommend anti-LRP/LR specific antibodies and shRNAs as potential therapeutic tools for AD treatment. PMID:24990253

  12. Structure of the adenosine A(2A) receptor in complex with ZM241385 and the xanthines XAC and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Doré, Andrew S; Robertson, Nathan; Errey, James C; Ng, Irene; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Tehan, Ben; Hurrell, Edward; Bennett, Kirstie; Congreve, Miles; Magnani, Francesca; Tate, Christopher G; Weir, Malcolm; Marshall, Fiona H

    2011-09-07

    Methylxanthines, including caffeine and theophylline, are among the most widely consumed stimulant drugs in the world. These effects are mediated primarily via blockade of adenosine receptors. Xanthine analogs with improved properties have been developed as potential treatments for diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Here we report the structures of a thermostabilized adenosine A(2A) receptor in complex with the xanthines xanthine amine congener and caffeine, as well as the A(2A) selective inverse agonist ZM241385. The receptor is crystallized in the inactive state conformation as defined by the presence of a salt bridge known as the ionic lock. The complete third intracellular loop, responsible for G protein coupling, is visible consisting of extended helices 5 and 6. The structures provide new insight into the features that define the ligand binding pocket of the adenosine receptor for ligands of diverse chemotypes as well as the cytoplasmic regions that interact with signal transduction proteins.

  13. Selective α1-adrenergic blockade disturbs the regional distribution of cerebral blood flow during static handgrip exercise.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Igor A; Mattos, João D; Campos, Monique O; Machado, Alessandro C; Rocha, Marcos P; Rocha, Natalia G; Vianna, Lauro C; Nobrega, Antonio C L

    2016-06-01

    Handgrip-induced increases in blood flow through the contralateral artery that supplies the cortical representation of the arm have been hypothesized as a consequence of neurovascular coupling and a resultant metabolic attenuation of sympathetic cerebral vasoconstriction. In contrast, sympathetic restraint, in theory, inhibits changes in perfusion of the cerebral ipsilateral blood vessels. To confirm whether sympathetic nerve activity modulates cerebral blood flow distribution during static handgrip (SHG) exercise, beat-to-beat contra- and ipsilateral internal carotid artery blood flow (ICA; Doppler) and mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finometer) were simultaneously assessed in nine healthy men (27 ± 5 yr), both at rest and during a 2-min SHG bout (30% maximal voluntary contraction), under two experimental conditions: 1) control and 2) α1-adrenergic receptor blockade. End-tidal carbon dioxide (rebreathing system) was clamped throughout the study. SHG induced increases in MAP (+31.4 ± 10.7 mmHg, P < 0.05) and contralateral ICA blood flow (+80.9 ± 62.5 ml/min, P < 0.05), while no changes were observed in the ipsilateral vessel (-9.8 ± 39.3 ml/min, P > 0.05). The reduction in ipsilateral ICA vascular conductance (VC) was greater compared with contralateral ICA (contralateral: -0.8 ± 0.8 vs. ipsilateral: -2.6 ± 1.3 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P < 0.05). Prazosin was effective to induce α1-blockade since phenylephrine-induced increases in MAP were greatly reduced (P < 0.05). Under α1-adrenergic receptor blockade, SHG evoked smaller MAP responses (+19.4 ± 9.2, P < 0.05) but similar increases in ICAs blood flow (contralateral: +58.4 ± 21.5 vs. ipsilateral: +54.3 ± 46.2 ml/min, P > 0.05) and decreases in VC (contralateral: -0.4 ± 0.7 vs. ipsilateral: -0.4 ± 1.0 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P > 0.05). These findings indicate a role of sympathetic nerve activity in the regulation of cerebral blood flow distribution during SHG.

  14. Edge-state blockade of transport in quantum dot arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, Mónica; Niklas, Michael; Platero, Gloria; Kohler, Sigmund

    2016-03-01

    We propose a transport blockade mechanism in quantum dot arrays and conducting molecules based on an interplay of Coulomb repulsion and the formation of edge states. As a model we employ a dimer chain that exhibits a topological phase transition. The connection to a strongly biased electron source and drain enables transport. We show that the related emergence of edge states is manifest in the shot noise properties as it is accompanied by a crossover from bunched electron transport to a Poissonian process. For both regions we develop a scenario that can be captured by a rate equation. The resulting analytical expressions for the Fano factor agree well with the numerical solution of a full quantum master equation.

  15. Inelastic Photon Scattering via the Intracavity Rydberg Blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grankin, A.; Brion, E.; Boddeda, R.; Ćuk, S.; Usmani, I.; Ourjoumtsev, A.; Grangier, P.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a ladder system involving a Rydberg level is known to yield giant optical nonlinearities for the probe field, even in the few-photon regime. This enhancement is due to the strong dipole-dipole interactions between Rydberg atoms and the resulting excitation blockade phenomenon. In order to study such highly correlated media, ad hoc models or low-excitation assumptions are generally used to tackle their dynamical response to optical fields. Here, we study the behavior of a cavity Rydberg-EIT setup in the nonequilibrium quantum field formalism, and we obtain analytic expressions for elastic and inelastic components of the cavity transmission spectrum, valid up to higher excitation numbers than previously achieved. This allows us to identify and interpret a polaritonic resonance structure, to our knowledge unreported so far.

  16. Ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors for Coulomb blockade devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotkhov, Sergey V.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the fabrication and low-temperature characterization of ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors made of a thin film of weakly oxidized titanium. Nearly linear voltage-current characteristics were measured at temperatures down to T ˜ 20 mK for films with sheet resistivities as high as ˜7 kΩ, i.e. about an order of magnitude higher than our previous findings for weakly oxidized Cr. Our analysis indicates that such an improvement can help to create an advantageous high-impedance environment for different Coulomb blockade devices. Further properties of the Ti film addressed in this work show the promise of low-noise behavior of the resistors when applied in different realizations of the quantum standard of current.

  17. Ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors for Coulomb blockade devices.

    PubMed

    Lotkhov, Sergey V

    2013-06-14

    In this paper, we report on the fabrication and low-temperature characterization of ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors made of a thin film of weakly oxidized titanium. Nearly linear voltage-current characteristics were measured at temperatures down to T ~ 20 mK for films with sheet resistivities as high as ~7 kΩ, i.e. about an order of magnitude higher than our previous findings for weakly oxidized Cr. Our analysis indicates that such an improvement can help to create an advantageous high-impedance environment for different Coulomb blockade devices. Further properties of the Ti film addressed in this work show the promise of low-noise behavior of the resistors when applied in different realizations of the quantum standard of current.

  18. Rescue of long-term memory after reconsolidation blockade

    PubMed Central

    Trent, Simon; Barnes, Philip; Hall, Jeremy; Thomas, Kerrie L.

    2015-01-01

    Memory reconsolidation is considered to be the process whereby stored memories become labile on recall, allowing updating. Blocking the restabilization of a memory during reconsolidation is held to result in a permanent amnesia. The targeted knockdown of either Zif268 or Arc levels in the brain, and inhibition of protein synthesis, after a brief recall results in a non-recoverable retrograde amnesia, known as reconsolidation blockade. These experimental manipulations are seen as key proof for the existence of reconsolidation. However, here we demonstrate that despite disrupting the molecular correlates of reconsolidation in the hippocampus, rodents are still able to recover contextual memories. Our results challenge the view that reconsolidation is a separate memory process and instead suggest that the molecular events activated initially at recall act to constrain premature extinction. PMID:26238574

  19. Sustained Neuromuscular Blockade after Vecuronium Use in a Premature Infant

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Mitali; Richardson, C. Joan; Jain, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) is very common in critically ill children both in pediatric and neonatal intensive care units. There are no guidelines available for use of NMBAs in children or neonates in the US, and the data for their safety in this age group is limited. Case Description Our case describes prolonged neuromuscular blockade following concurrent use of a NMBA along with aminoglycosides and steroids in the setting of renal failure in a premature infant. Conclusion Prolonged use of NMBAs in preterm infants should be avoided if possible or should be restricted to the shortest possible duration and the smallest possible physiologically effective dose. Concurrent use of NMBAs with aminoglycoside and steroids should be avoided, especially in the setting of renal failure. PMID:26495168

  20. Suppression of inflammatory events associated to intestinal ischemia-reperfusion by 5-HT1A blockade in mice.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Simona; Arcaro, Valentina; Vivo, Valentina; Rapalli, Alberto; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Cantoni, Anna Maria; Saccani, Francesca; Flammini, Lisa; Domenichini, Giuseppe; Ballabeni, Vigilio; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2014-03-01

    Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is a potentially life-threatening disease, ensuing from various clinical conditions. Experimentally, either protective or detrimental roles have been attributed to 5-HT in the functional and morphological injury caused by mesenteric I/R. Recently, we proved the involvement of 5-HT2A receptors in the intestinal dysmotility and leukocyte recruitment induced by 45min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) followed by 24h reperfusion in mice. Starting from these premises, the aim of our present work was to investigate the role played by endogenous 5-HT in the same experimental model where 45min SMA clamping was followed by 5h reflow. To this end, we first observed that ischemic preconditioning before I/R injury (IPC+I/R) reverted the increase in 5-HT tissue content and in inflammatory parameters induced by I/R in mice. Second, the effects produced by intravenous administration of 5-HT1A ligands (partial agonist buspirone 10mgkg(-1), antagonist WAY100135 0.5-5mgkg(-1)), 5-HT2A antagonist sarpogrelate (10mgkg(-1)), 5-HT3 antagonist alosetron (0.1mgkg(-1)), 5-HT4 antagonist GR125487 (5mgkg(-1)) and 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine (10mgkg(-1)) on I/R-induced inflammatory response were investigated in I/R mice and compared to those obtained in sham-operated animals (S). Our results confirmed the significant role played by 5-HT2A receptors not only in the late but also in the early I/R-induced microcirculatory dysfunction and showed that blockade of 5-HT1A receptors protected against the intestinal leukocyte recruitment, plasma extravasation and reactive oxygen species formation triggered by SMA occlusion and reflow. The ability of α7 nicotinic receptor (α7nAchR) antagonist methyllycaconitine (5mgkg(-1)) to counteract the beneficial action provided by buspirone on I/R-induced neutrophil infiltration suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect produced by 5-HT1A receptor antagonism could be partly ascribed to the

  1. Beta Blockade and Clinical Outcomes in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Melody M.; Raval, Ronak N.; Southerland, Jessie J.; Adewumi, Dare A.; Bahjri, Khaled A.; Samuel, Rajeev K.; Woods, Rafeek O.; Ajayi, Olaide O.; Lee, Bryan S.; Hsu, Frank P. K.; Applegate II, Richard L.; Dorotta, Ihab R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages are frequently complicated by hypertension and neurogenic myocardial stunning. Beta blockers may be used for management of these complications. We sought to investigate sympathetic nervous system modulation by beta blockers and their effect on radiographic vasospasm, delayed cerebral infarction, discharge destination and death. Methods: Retrospective chart review of 218 adults admitted to the ICU between 8/2004 and 9/2010 was performed. Groups were identified relevant to beta blockade: 77 were never beta blocked (No/No), 123 received post-admission beta blockers (No/Yes), and 18 were continued on their home beta blockers (Yes/Yes). Records were analyzed for baseline characteristics and the development of vasospasm, delayed cerebral infarction, discharge destination and death, expressed as adjusted odds ratio. Results: Of the 218 patients 145 patients developed vasospasm, 47 consequently infarcted, and 53 died or required care in a long-term facility. When compared to No/No patients, No/Yes patients had significantly increased vasospasm (OR 2.11 (1.06-4.16)). However, these patients also had significantly fewer deaths or need for long term care (OR 0.17 (0.05-0.64)), with decreased tendency for infarcts (OR 0.70 (0.32-1.55)). When compared to No/No patients, Yes/Yes patients demonstrated a trend toward increased vasospasm (OR 1.61 (0.50-5.29)) that led to infarction (OR 1.51 (0.44-5.13)), but with decreased mortality or need for long term care in a facility (OR 0.13 (0.01-1.30)). Conclusion: Post-admission beta blockade in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients was associated with increased incidence of vasospasm. However, despite the increased occurrence of vasospasm, beta blockers were associated with improved discharge characteristics and fewer deaths. PMID:28217182

  2. Assessment of Methods for the Intracellular Blockade of GABAA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Atherton, Laura A.; Burnell, Erica S.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    Selective blockade of inhibitory synaptic transmission onto specific neurons is a useful tool for dissecting the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic components of ongoing network activity. To achieve this, intracellular recording with a patch solution capable of blocking GABAA receptors has advantages over other manipulations, such as pharmacological application of GABAergic antagonists or optogenetic inhibition of populations of interneurones, in that the majority of inhibitory transmission is unaffected and hence the remaining network activity preserved. Here, we assess three previously described methods to block inhibition: intracellular application of the molecules picrotoxin, 4,4’-dinitro-stilbene-2,2’-disulphonic acid (DNDS) and 4,4’-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2’-disulphonic acid (DIDS). DNDS and picrotoxin were both found to be ineffective at blocking evoked, monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) onto mouse CA1 pyramidal cells. An intracellular solution containing DIDS and caesium fluoride, but lacking nucleotides ATP and GTP, was effective at decreasing the amplitude of IPSCs. However, this effect was found to be independent of DIDS, and the absence of intracellular nucleotides, and was instead due to the presence of fluoride ions in this intracellular solution, which also blocked spontaneously occurring IPSCs during hippocampal sharp waves. Critically, intracellular fluoride ions also caused a decrease in both spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic currents and precluded the inclusion of nucleotides in the intracellular solution. Therefore, of the methods tested, only fluoride ions were effective for intracellular blockade of IPSCs but this approach has additional cellular effects reducing its selectivity and utility. PMID:27501143

  3. Defining Effective Combinations of Immune Checkpoint Blockade and Oncolytic Virotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Juan J; Sampath, Padma; Hou, Weizhou; Thorne, Steve H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent data from randomized clinical trials with oncolytic viral therapies and with cancer immunotherapies have finally recapitulated the promise these platforms demonstrated in pre-clinical models. Perhaps the greatest advance with oncolytic virotherapy has been the appreciation of the importance of activation of the immune response in therapeutic activity. Meanwhile, the understanding that blockade of immune checkpoints (with antibodies that block the binding of PD1 to PDL1 or CTLA4 to B7-2) is critical for an effective anti-tumor immune response has revitalized the field of immunotherapy. The combination of immune activation using an oncolytic virus and blockade of immune checkpoints is therefore a logical next step. Experimental Design Here we explore such combinations and demonstrate their potential to produce enhanced responses in mouse tumor models. Different combinations and regimens were explored in immunocompetent mouse models of renal and colorectal cancer. Bioluminescence imaging and immune assays were used to determine the mechanisms mediating synergistic or antagonistic combinations. Results Interaction between immune checkpoint inhibitors and oncolytic virotherapy was found to be complex, with correct selection of viral strain, antibody and timing of the combination being critical for synergistic effects. Indeed, some combinations produced antagonistic effects and loss of therapeutic activity. A period of oncolytic viral replication and directed targeting of the immune response against the tumor were required for the most beneficial effects, with CD8+ and NK, but not CD4+ cells mediating the effects. Conclusions These considerations will be critical in the design of the inevitable clinical translation of these combination approaches. PMID:26187615

  4. Blockade of Ets-1 attenuates epidermal growth factor-dependent collagen loss in human carotid plaque smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Rao, Velidi H; Rai, Vikrant; Stoupa, Samantha; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2015-09-15

    Although degradation of extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is thought to be involved in symptomatic (S) carotid plaques in atherosclerosis, the mechanisms of MMP expression are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that collagen loss in vascular smooth vessel cells (VSMCs) isolated from S plaques was induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) through the activation of p38-MAPK and JNK-MAPK pathways. Inhibitors of p38-MAPK and JNK-MAPK signaling pathways downregulated the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9. In addition, we examined whether v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homologue 1 (Ets-1), an important regulator of different genes, is involved in destabilizing S plaques in patients with carotid stenosis. We demonstrate that EGF induces Ets-1 expression and decreases interstitial and basement membrane collagen in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from patients with carotid stenosis. Increased expression of MMP-1 and -9 and decreased collagen mRNA transcripts were also found in Ets-1-overexpressed VSMCs. Transfection with both dominant-negative form of Ets-1 and small interfering RNA blocked EGF-induced MMP-1 and -9 expressions and increased the mRNA transcripts for collagen I (α1) and collagen III (α1) in S compared with asymptomatic (AS) carotid plaques. Inhibitors of p38-MAPK (SB202190) and JNK-MAPK (SP600125) signaling pathways decreased the expression of Ets-1, MMP-1, and MMP-9 and increased collagen type I and III expression in EGF-treated VSMCs. This study provides a mechanistic insight into the role of Ets-1 in the plaque destabilization in patients with carotid stenosis involving p38-MAPK and JNK signaling pathways.

  5. Central blockade of melanocortin receptors attenuates the metabolic and locomotor responses to peripheral interleukin-1beta administration.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Keith W; Reyes, Teresa M

    2008-03-01

    Loss of appetite and cachexia is an obstacle in the treatment of chronic infection and cancer. Proinflammatory cytokines released from activated immune cells and acting in the central nervous system (CNS) are prime candidates for mediating these metabolic changes, potentially affecting both energy intake as well as energy expenditure. The effect of intravenous administration of two proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1beta (15 microg/kg) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (10 microg/kg), on food and water intake, locomotor activity, oxygen consumption (VO2), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was evaluated. The two cytokines elicited a comparable decrease in food intake and activated similar numbers of cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), a region that plays a critical role in the regulation of appetite and metabolism (determined via expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos). However, only IL-1beta reduced locomotion and RER, and increased VO2, while TNF-alpha was without effect. To examine the role of the melanocortins in mediating IL-1beta- induced metabolic changes, animals were pretreated centrally with a melanocortin receptor antagonist, HS014. Pretreatment with HS014 blocked the effect of IL-1beta on food intake and RER at later time points (beyond 8 h post injection), as well as the hypoactivity and increased metabolic rate. Further, HS014 blocked the induction of Fos-ir in the PVH. These data highlight the importance of the melanocortin system, particularly within the PVH, in mediating a broad range of metabolic responses to IL-1beta.

  6. Effects of Long-term Blockade of Vasopressin Receptor Types 1a and 2 on Cardiac and Renal Damage in a Rat Model of Hypertensive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tomoyuki; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Heitaro; Morooka, Hanako; Akahoshi, Yasumitsu; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Shunichi

    2015-11-01

    The effects of chronic blockade of vasopressin type 1a receptors (V1aR) and the additive effects of a type 2 receptor (V2R) antagonist on the treatment of hypertension-induced heart failure and renal injury remain to be unknown. In this study, Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats were chronically treated with a vehicle (CONT), a V1aR antagonist (OPC21268; OPC), a V2R antagonist (tolvaptan; TOLV), or a combination of OPC21268 and tolvaptan (OPC/TOLV) from the pre-hypertrophic stage (6 weeks). No treatment altered blood pressure during the study. Significant improvements were seen in median survival for the OPC and TOLV, and the OPC/TOLV showed a further improvement in Kaplan-Meier analysis. Echocardiography showed suppressed left ventricular hypertrophy in the OPC and OPC/TOLV at 11 weeks with improved function in all treatment groups by 17 weeks. In all treatment groups, improvements were seen in the following: myocardial histological changes, creatinine clearance, urinary albumin excretion, and renal histopathologic damage. Also, key mRNA levels were suppressed (eg, endothelin-1 and collagen). In conclusion, chronic V1aR blockade ameliorated disease progression in this rat model, with additive benefits from the combination of V1aR and V2R antagonists. It was associated with protection of both myocardial and renal damage, independent of blood pressure.

  7. Diminished trkA receptor signaling reveals cholinergic-attentional vulnerability of aging

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Vinay; Howe, William M.; Welchko, Ryan M.; Naughton, Sean X.; D'Amore, Drew E.; Han, Daniel H.; Deo, Monika; Turner, David L.; Sarter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying the exceptional vulnerability of the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons during pathological aging have remained elusive. Here we employed an adeno-associated viral vector-based RNA interference (AAV-RNAi) strategy to suppress the expression of trkA receptors by cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert/ substantia innominata (nMB/SI) of adult and aged rats. Suppression of trkA receptor expression impaired attentional performance selectively in aged rats. Performance correlated with trkA levels in the nMB/SI. TrkA knockdown neither affected nMB/SI cholinergic cell counts nor the decrease in cholinergic cell size observed in aged rats. However, trkA suppression augmented an age-related decrease in the density of cortical cholinergic processes and attenuated the capacity of cholinergic neurons to release ACh. The capacity of cortical synapses to release acetylcholine (ACh) in vivo was also lower in aged/trkA-AAV-infused rats than in aged or young controls, and it correlated with their attentional performance. Furthermore, age-related increases in cortical proNGF and p75 receptor levels interacted with the vector-induced loss of trkA receptors to shift NGF signaling toward p75-mediated suppression of the cholinergic phenotype, thereby attenuating cholinergic function and impairing attentional performance. These effects model the abnormal trophic regulation of cholinergic neurons and cognitive impairments in patients with early Alzheimer's disease. This rat model is useful for identifying the mechanisms rendering aging cholinergic neurons vulnerable as well as for studying the neuropathological mechanisms that are triggered by disrupted trophic signaling. PMID:23228124

  8. Ultrasonic Attenuation in Zircaloy-4

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, M.P.; Banchik, A.D.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Ruzzante, J.E.

    2005-04-09

    In this work the relationship between Zircaloy-4 grain size and ultrasonic attenuation behavior was studied for longitudinal waves in the frequency range of 10-90 MHz. The attenuation was analyzed as a function of frequency for samples with different mechanical and heat treatments having recrystallized and Widmanstatten structures with different grain size. The attenuation behavior was analyzed by different scattering models, depending on grain size, wavelength and frequency.

  9. Attenuation of Cavity Bay Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    amplification, known as peaking. Overall, the palliative devices based on resonant arrays have demonstrated high levels of attenuation which are...when the resonant frequency condition is met. The attenuation from a Helmholtz type resonator is achieved through frictional losses, vortex shedding...3 the λ/4 condition can be fulfilled and therefore porous mesh devices may not be able to provide a high level of attenuation . Resonant arrays

  10. Potentiation of the time-dependent, antidepressant-induced changes in the agonistic behaviour of resident rats by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100635.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, P J; Redfern, P H

    1997-11-01

    Acute and chronic antidepressant drug treatments respectively decrease and increase the aggressive behaviour of resident rats during encounters with unfamiliar conspecifics. We have now examined the effect of the 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100635, on fluoxetine-, paroxetine- or venlafaxine-induced changes in aggression. WAY-100635 (0.1 mg/kg), which did not modify behaviour when given alone, potentiated the venlafaxine (5.54 mg/kg)-induced reduction in aggression after acute treatment and, during chronic treatment, accelerated the fluoxetine (0.34 mg/kg/day)-induced increase in aggression, from day 5 to day 2. A similar change in time course was seen with paroxetine (0.33 mg/kg/day), although the increase in aggression was smaller. Venlafaxine (5.54 mg/kg/day, alone or co-administered with WAY-100635) increased aggression by day 2. During chronic treatment, therefore, venlafaxine, at the dose used, had a more rapid onset of action than either fluoxetine or paroxetine, whereas the fluoxetine- and paroxetine-, but not the venlafaxine-, induced increase in aggression was accelerated by WAY-100635. These studies further support the hypothesis that selective blockade of the 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor augments the effects of antidepressant drugs in an animal model predictive of antidepressant activity, presumably by concomitant blockade of the somatodendritic 5-hydroxytryptamine1A autoreceptor-mediated negative feedback system of serotonergic neurones.

  11. 5-HT(1A) receptors and memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo; Perez-Garcia, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    The study of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) systems has benefited from the identification, classification and cloning of multiple 5-HT receptors (5-HT(1)-5-HT(7)). Increasing evidence suggests that 5-HT pathways, reuptake site/transporter complex and 5-HT receptors represent a strategic distribution for learning and memory. A key question still remaining is whether 5-HT markers (e.g., receptors) are directly or indirectly contributing to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis or, rather, if they represent protective or adaptable mechanisms (at least in initial stages). In the current paper, the major aim is to revise recent advances regarding mammalian 5-HT(1A) receptors in light of their physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic implications in memory. An attempt is made to identify and discuss sources of discrepancies by employing an analytic approach to examine the nature and degree of difficulty of behavioral tasks used, as well as implicating other factors (for example, brain areas, training time or duration, and drug administration) which might offer new insights into the understanding and interpretation of these data. In this context, 8-OH-DPAT deserves special attention since for many years it has been the more selective 5-HT drug and, hence, more frequently used. As 5-HT(1A) receptors are key components of serotonergic signaling, investigation of their memory mechanisms and action sites and the conditions under which they might operate, could yield valuable insights. Moreover, selective drugs with agonists, neutral antagonists or inverse agonist properties for 5-HT(1A) (and 5-HT(7)) receptors may constitute a new therapeutic opportunity for learning and memory disorders.

  12. LINE-ABOVE-GROUND ATTENUATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wilds, R.B.; Ames, J.R.

    1957-09-24

    The line-above-ground attenuator provides a continuously variable microwave attenuator for a coaxial line that is capable of high attenuation and low insertion loss. The device consists of a short section of the line-above- ground plane type transmission lime, a pair of identical rectangular slabs of lossy material like polytron, whose longitudinal axes are parallel to and indentically spaced away from either side of the line, and a geared mechanism to adjust amd maintain this spaced relationship. This device permits optimum fineness and accuracy of attenuator control which heretofore has been difficult to achieve.

  13. Room temperature Coulomb blockade mediated field emission via self-assembled gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Fang, Jingyue; Chang, Shengli; Qin, Shiqiao; Zhang, Xueao; Xu, Hui

    2017-02-01

    Coulomb blockade mediated field-emission current was observed in single-electron tunneling devices based on self-assembled gold nanoparticles at 300 K. According to Raichev's theoretical model, by fixing a proper geometric distribution of source, island and drain, the transfer characteristics can be well explained through a combination of Coulomb blockade and field emission. Coulomb blockade and field emission alternately happen in our self-assembled devices. The Coulomb island size derived from the experimental data is in good agreement with the average size of the gold nanoparticles used in the device. The integrated tunneling can be adjusted via a gate electrode.

  14. Propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, attenuates the decrease in trabecular bone mass in high calorie diet fed growing mice.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kyunghwa; Hwang, Hyo Rin; Park, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Arang; Qadir, Abdul S; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of high calorie and low calorie diets on skeletal integrity, and whether β-adrenergic blockade (BB) attenuates bone loss induced by dietary calorie alteration. Male 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to either an ad-lib fed control diet (CON), a high calorie diet (HIGH), or a low calorie diet (LOW) group. In each diet group, mice were treated with either vehicle (VEH) or propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist. Over 12-weeks, β-blockade mitigated body weight and fat mass increases induced by the high calorie diet. Femoral trabecular bone mineral density and the expression levels of osteogenic marker genes in bone marrow cells were reduced in HIGHVEH and LOWVEH mice, and BB significantly attenuated this decline only in HIGH mice. In summary, the magnitude of bone loss induced by low calorie diet was greater than that caused by high calorie diet in growing mice, and β-blockade mitigated high calorie diet-induced bone loss.

  15. Impact of in vivo fatty acid oxidation blockade on glucose turnover and muscle glucose metabolism during low-dose AICAR infusion.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Michael; Rantzau, Christian; Chen, Zhi-Ping; Snow, Rodney; Kemp, Bruce; Alford, Frank P

    2006-11-01

    AMPK plays a central role in influencing fuel usage and selection. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of low-dose AMP analog 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribosyl monophosphate (ZMP) on whole body glucose turnover and skeletal muscle (SkM) glucose metabolism. Dogs were restudied after prior 48-h fatty acid oxidation (FA(OX)) blockade by methylpalmoxirate (MP; 5 x 12 hourly 10 mg/kg doses). During the basal equilibrium period (0-150 min), fasting dogs (n = 8) were infused with [3-(3)H]glucose followed by either 2-h saline or AICAR (1.5-2.0 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) infusions. SkM was biopsied at completion of each study. On a separate day, the same protocol was undertaken after 48-h in vivo FA(OX) blockade. The AICAR and AICAR + MP studies were repeated in three chronic alloxan-diabetic dogs. AICAR produced a transient fall in plasma glucose and increase in insulin and a small decline in free fatty acid (FFA). Parallel increases in hepatic glucose production (HGP), glucose disappearance (R(d tissue)), and glycolytic flux (GF) occurred, whereas metabolic clearance rate of glucose (MCR(g)) did not change significantly. Intracellular SkM glucose, glucose 6-phosphate, and glycogen were unchanged. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC approximately pSer(221)) increased by 50%. In the AICAR + MP studies, the metabolic responses were modified: the glucose was lower over 120 min, only minor changes occurred with insulin and FFA, and HGP and R(d tissue) responses were markedly attenuated, but MCR(g) and GF increased significantly. SkM substrates were unchanged, but ACC approximately pSer(221) rose by 80%. Thus low-dose AICAR leads to increases in HGP and SkM glucose uptake, which are modified by prior FA(ox) blockade.

  16. PD-1 Blockade in Tumors with Mismatch-Repair Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Le, D.T.; Uram, J.N.; Wang, H.; Bartlett, B.R.; Kemberling, H.; Eyring, A.D.; Skora, A.D.; Luber, B.S.; Azad, N.S.; Laheru, D.; Biedrzycki, B.; Donehower, R.C.; Zaheer, A.; Fisher, G.A.; Crocenzi, T.S.; Lee, J.J.; Duffy, S.M.; Goldberg, R.M.; de la Chapelle, A.; Koshiji, M.; Bhaijee, F.; Huebner, T.; Hruban, R.H.; Wood, L.D.; Cuka, N.; Pardoll, D.M.; Papadopoulos, N.; Kinzler, K.W.; Zhou, S.; Cornish, T.C.; Taube, J.M.; Anders, R.A.; Eshleman, J.R.; Vogelstein, B.; Diaz, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Somatic mutations have the potential to encode “non-self” immunogenic antigens. We hypothesized that tumors with a large number of somatic mutations due to mismatch-repair defects may be susceptible to immune checkpoint blockade. METHODS We conducted a phase 2 study to evaluate the clinical activity of pembrolizumab, an anti–programmed death 1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, in 41 patients with progressive metastatic carcinoma with or without mismatch-repair deficiency. Pembrolizumab was administered intravenously at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight every 14 days in patients with mismatch repair–deficient colorectal cancers, patients with mismatch repair–proficient colorectal cancers, and patients with mismatch repair–deficient cancers that were not colorectal. The coprimary end points were the immune-related objective response rate and the 20-week immune-related progression-free survival rate. RESULTS The immune-related objective response rate and immune-related progression-free survival rate were 40% (4 of 10 patients) and 78% (7 of 9 patients), respectively, for mismatch repair–deficient colorectal cancers and 0% (0 of 18 patients) and 11% (2 of 18 patients) for mismatch repair–proficient colorectal cancers. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were not reached in the cohort with mismatch repair–deficient colorectal cancer but were 2.2 and 5.0 months, respectively, in the cohort with mismatch repair–proficient colorectal cancer (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.10 [P<0.001], and hazard ratio for death, 0.22 [P = 0.05]). Patients with mismatch repair–deficient noncolorectal cancer had responses similar to those of patients with mismatch repair–deficient colorectal cancer (immune-related objective response rate, 71% [5 of 7 patients]; immune-related progression-free survival rate, 67% [4 of 6 patients]). Whole-exome sequencing revealed a mean of 1782 somatic mutations per tumor in

  17. Activation of GABA-A Receptor Ameliorates Homocysteine-Induced MMP-9 Activation by ERK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    TYAGI, NEETU; GILLESPIE, WILLIAM; VACEK, JONATHAN C.; SEN, UTPAL; TYAGI, SURESH C.; LOMINADZE, DAVID

    2010-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a risk factor for neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Homocysteine (Hcy) induces redox stress, in part, by activating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the matrix and leads to blood–brain barrier dysfunction. Hcy competitively binds to γ-aminbutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which are excitatory neurotransmitter receptors. However, the role of GABA-A receptor in Hcy-induced cerebrovascular remodeling is not clear. We hypothesized that Hcy causes cerebrovascular remodeling by increasing redox stress and MMP-9 activity via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway and by inhibition of GABA-A receptors, thus behaving as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Hcy-induced reactive oxygen species production was detected using the fluorescent probe, 2′–7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Hcy increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase-4 concomitantly suppressing thioredoxin. Hcy caused activation of MMP-9, measured by gelatin zymography. The GABA-A receptor agonist, muscimol ameliorated the Hcy-mediated MMP-9 activation. In parallel, Hcy caused phosphorylation of ERK and selectively decreased levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP-4). Treatment of the endothelial cell with muscimol restored the levels of TIMP-4 to the levels in control group. Hcy induced expression of iNOS and decreased eNOS expression, which lead to a decreased NO bioavailability. Furthermore muscimol attenuated Hcy-induced MMP-9 via ERK signaling pathway. These results suggest that Hcy competes with GABA-A receptors, inducing the oxidative stress transduction pathway and leading to ERK activation. PMID:19308943

  18. Suicide Risk: Amplifiers and Attenuators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plutchik, Robert; Van Praag, Herman M.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to integrate findings on correlates of suicide and violent risk in terms of a theory called a two-stage model of countervailing forces, which assumes that the strength of aggressive impulses is modified by amplifiers and attenuators. The vectorial interaction of amplifiers and attenuators creates an unstable equilibrium making prediction…

  19. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  20. The effect of dopamine receptor blockade in the rodent nucleus accumbens on local field potential oscillations and motor activity in response to ketamine.

    PubMed

    Matulewicz, Pawel; Kasicki, Stefan; Hunt, Mark Jeremy

    2010-12-17

    Altered functioning of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been implicated in the psychotomimetic actions of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We have shown previously that NMDAR antagonists enhance the power of high-frequency oscillations (HFO) in the NAc in a dose-dependent manner, as well as increase locomotor activity. Systemic administration of NMDAR antagonists is known to increase the release of dopamine in the NAc and dopamine antagonists can reduce ketamine-induced hyperactivity. In this study, we examined the effect of 0.5 μl intra-NAc infusion of 3.2 μg SCH23390 (D1 antagonist), 10 μg raclopride (D2 antagonist) and saline on ketamine-induced changes in motor and oscillatory activity. We found that local blockade of D1 receptors attenuated ketamine-induced increases in motor activity and blockade of D2 receptors produced a much weaker effect, with respect to saline-infused control groups. In contrast, none of the antagonists, infused separately or together, significantly modified the power or dominant frequency of ketamine-induced increases in HFO, but changes in delta and theta frequency bands were observed. Together, these findings suggest, that, in contrast to delta and theta frequency bands, the generation of ketamine enhanced-HFO in the NAc is not causally related to locomotor activation and occurs largely independently of local changes in dopamine receptor activation.

  1. Fano effect dominance over Coulomb blockade in transport properties of parallel coupled quantum dot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogi, Bharat Bhushan; Chand, Shyam; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2015-06-01

    Theoretical study of the Coulomb blockade effect on transport properties (Transmission Probability and I-V characteristics) for varied configuration of coupled quantum dot system has been studied by using Non Equilibrium Green Function(NEGF) formalism and Equation of Motion(EOM) method in the presence of magnetic flux. The self consistent approach and intra-dot Coulomb interaction is being taken into account. As the key parameters of the coupled quantum dot system such as dot-lead coupling, inter-dot tunneling and magnetic flux threading through the system can be tuned, the effect of asymmetry parameter and magnetic flux on this tuning is being explored in Coulomb blockade regime. The presence of the Coulomb blockade due to on-dot Coulomb interaction decreases the width of transmission peak at energy level ɛ + U and by adjusting the magnetic flux the swapping effect in the Fano peaks in asymmetric and symmetric parallel configuration sustains despite strong Coulomb blockade effect.

  2. Blockade of Metallothioneins 1 and 2 Increases Skeletal Muscle Mass and Strength.

    PubMed

    Summermatter, Serge; Bouzan, Anais; Pierrel, Eliane; Melly, Stefan; Stauffer, Daniela; Gutzwiller, Sabine; Nolin, Erin; Dornelas, Christina; Fryer, Christy; Leighton-Davies, Juliet; Glass, David J; Fournier, Brigitte

    2017-03-01

    Metallothioneins are proteins that are involved in intracellular zinc storage and transport. Their expression levels have been reported to be elevated in several settings of skeletal muscle atrophy. We therefore investigated the effect of metallothionein blockade on skeletal muscle anabolism in vitro and in vivo We found that concomitant abrogation of metallothioneins 1 and 2 results in activation of the Akt pathway and increases in myotube size, in type IIb fiber hypertrophy, and ultimately in muscle strength. Importantly, the beneficial effects of metallothionein blockade on muscle mass and function was also observed in the setting of glucocorticoid addition, which is a strong atrophy-inducing stimulus. Given the blockade of atrophy and the preservation of strength in atrophy-inducing settings, these results suggest that blockade of metallothioneins 1 and 2 constitutes a promising approach for the treatment of conditions which result in muscle atrophy.

  3. Coulomb blockade and Coulomb staircase behavior observed at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uky Vivitasari, Pipit; Azuma, Yasuo; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Majima, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    A single-electron transistor (SET) consists of source, drain, Coulomb island, and gate to modulate the number of electrons and control the current. For practical applications, it is important to operate a SET at room temperature. One proposal towards the ability to operate at room temperature is to decrease Coulomb island size down to a few nanometres. We investigate a SET using Sn-porphyrin (Sn-por) protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with 1.4 nm in core diameter as a Coulomb island. The fabrication method of nanogap electrodes uses the combination of a top-down technique by electron beam lithography (EBL) and a bottom-up process through electroless gold plating (ELGP) as our group have described before. The electrical measurement was conducted at room temperature (300 K). From current–voltage (I d–V d) characteristics, we obtained clear Coulomb blockade phenomena together with a Coulomb staircase due to a Sn-por protected gold NP as a Coulomb island. Experimental results of I d–V d characteristics agree with a theoretical curve based on using the orthodox model. Clear dI d/dV d peaks are observed in the Coulomb staircase at 9 K which suggest the electron transports through excited energy levels of Au NPs. These results are a big step for obtaining SETs that can operate at room temperature.

  4. Primary combined androgen blockade in localized disease and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Mikio; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Mizokami, Atsushi; Koh, Eitetsu

    2008-04-01

    In spite of clinical practice guidelines such as NCI-PDQ - in which primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT) is not recommended as the primary treatment for localized prostate cancer - many patients have been treated with PADT. One of the reasons is that urologists themselves permit patients' desire because they know the effectiveness of PADT for some patients in their experiences. In this review we demonstrate basic mechanisms and the clinical efficacy of primary combined androgen blockade (PCAB) for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer. Then we discuss which patients are candidates for PCAB, and show that more than 30% of low- or intermediate-risk localized prostate cancers could be controlled in the long term with only PCAB. Short-term or intermittent PADT could not be recommended because of the possibilities of changing the character of the cancer cells by incomplete androgen ablation. We propose algorithms for the treatment of localized prostate cancer not only in low- and intermediate-risk groups but also in the high-risk group.

  5. Long term Survival with CTLA-4 blockade Using Tremelimumab

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Zeynep; Kim, Dae Won; Wang, Xiaoyan; Camacho, Luis H.; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Seja, Elizabeth; Villanueva, Arturo; Ruchalski, Kathleen; Glaspy, John A.; Kim, Kevin B.; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Ribas, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Purpose One of the hallmarks of cancer immunotherapy is the long duration of responses, evident with cytokines like interleukin-2 or a variety of cancer vaccines. However, there is limited information available on very long term outcomes of patients treated with anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. Tremelimumab is an anti-CTLA-4 antibody of Ig G2 istoype initially tested in patients with advanced melanoma over 12 years ago. Methods We reviewed the outcomes of patients with advanced melanoma enrolled in four phase 1 and 2 tremelimumab trials at two sites to determine response rates and long-term survival. Results A total of 143 patients were enrolled at two institutions from 2002 to 2008. Tremelimumab administration varied between a single dose of 0.01 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg every 3 months. Median overall survival was 13 months (95% CI, 10–16.6), ranging from less than a month to 12+ years. An objective response rate of 15.6% was observed, with median duration of response of 6.5 years, range of 3 to 136+ months. The Kaplan-Meier estimated 5 year survival rate was 20% (95% CI, 13–26%), with 10 and 12.5 year survival rates of 16% (95% CI, 9–23%). Conclusions CTLA-4 blockade with tremelimumab can lead to very long duration of objective anti-tumor responses beyond 12 years. PMID:26364516

  6. Novel pharmacological approaches for the antagonism of neuromuscular blockade.

    PubMed

    Pic, Lisa C

    2005-02-01

    Gamma cyclodextrin and purified plasma cholinesterase are 2 novel pharmacological agents being investigated as to their suitability for antagonism of neuromuscular blockade. Both of these agents are devoid of cholinergic stimulation and the accompanying side effects because their action is independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Gamma cyclodextrin antagonizes the steroidal neuromuscular blocker rocuronium via the chemical encapsulation of the molecule forming a "host-guest" complex through van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions in the plasma. Encapsulation decreases plasma drug concentrations, shifting the neuromuscular blocking drug molecules from the neuromuscular junction back to the plasma compartment resulting in a rapid recovery of the neuromuscular function. Org 25969, a modified gamma cyclodextrin, will antagonize profound neuromuscular block induced by rocuronium in approximately 2 minutes. A commercial preparation of purified human plasma cholinesterase has been shown to be effective in reversing succinylcholine or mivacurium-induced block. Administration of exogenous plasma cholinesterase also has been shown to be effective in antagonizing mivacurium-induced neuromuscular block, cocaine toxicity, and organophosphate poisoning.

  7. Observation of the Photon-Blockade Breakdown Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, J. M.; Dombi, A.; Vukics, A.; Wallraff, A.; Domokos, P.

    2017-01-01

    Nonequilibrium phase transitions exist in damped-driven open quantum systems when the continuous tuning of an external parameter leads to a transition between two robust steady states. In second-order transitions this change is abrupt at a critical point, whereas in first-order transitions the two phases can coexist in a critical hysteresis domain. Here, we report the observation of a first-order dissipative quantum phase transition in a driven circuit quantum electrodynamics system. It takes place when the photon blockade of the driven cavity-atom system is broken by increasing the drive power. The observed experimental signature is a bimodal phase space distribution with varying weights controlled by the drive strength. Our measurements show an improved stabilization of the classical attractors up to the millisecond range when the size of the quantum system is increased from one to three artificial atoms. The formation of such robust pointer states could be used for new quantum measurement schemes or to investigate multiphoton phases of finite-size, nonlinear, open quantum systems.

  8. Immune Checkpoint Blockade and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.

    PubMed

    Merryman, Reid W; Armand, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) relies primarily upon graft-versus-tumor activity for cancer eradication. Relapse remains the principal cause of treatment failure after HSCT, implying frequent immune escape, which in at least some cases, appears to be mediated by increased expression of inhibitory immune checkpoints. In an attempt to restore anti-tumor immunity, checkpoint blockade therapy (CBT) targeting PD-1 and CLTA-4 has been used in conjunction with both allogeneic and autologous HSCT. Clinical experience in this setting is limited to several small clinical trials and case series, but together they suggest that treatment with CBT can effectively amplify anti-tumor immune responses. However, intrinsic to its mechanism is also the risk that CBT in the HSCT setting may also cause significant immune toxicity. Fatal immune-related adverse events and graft-versus-host disease have been observed, but in most cases, immune side effects appear to be reversible with steroids and CBT discontinuation. As clinical investigation continues, improved understanding of immune checkpoint biology will be critical to optimize safe and efficacious treatment strategies.

  9. Mefloquine gap junction blockade and risk of pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Nevin, Remington Lee

    2012-09-01

    Obstetric use of the antimalarial drug mefloquine has historically been discouraged during the first trimester and immediately before conception owing to concerns of potential fetal harm. With the rise of resistance to the antimalarial drug sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), mefloquine is now being considered as a replacement for SP for universal antenatal administration to women from malaria-endemic regions. Recent recommendations have also suggested that mefloquine may be used cautiously among pregnant travelers who cannot otherwise avoid visiting these areas. Mefloquine has been demonstrated to cause blockade of gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1) gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC), and recent evidence suggests that GJA1 GJIC is critical to successful embryonic implantation and early placental development. During routine use, mefloquine accumulates in organ and peripheral tissue, crosses the blood-placental barrier, and may plausibly accumulate in developing decidua and trophoblast at concentrations sufficient to interfere with GJA1 GJIC and, thus, cause deleterious effects on fetal outcomes. This conclusion is supported by epidemiological evidence that demonstrates use of the drug during early development is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage and stillbirth. Confirmatory studies are pending, but the available experimental and epidemiological evidence support renewed adherence, where feasible, to existing mefloquine package insert guidance that women avoid the drug during the periconceptional period.

  10. Absence of excess peripheral muscle fatigue during beta-adrenoceptor blockade.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, R G; Stokes, M J; Edwards, R H; Stark, R D

    1988-01-01

    1. In eight normal volunteers, the adductor pollicis (AP) was fatigued using intermittent trains of programmed, supramaximal stimulation at 1, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 1 Hz. Activity protocols were performed both with and without circulatory occlusion, both without and during propranolol 80 mg thrice daily in order to investigate the effects of beta-adrenoceptor blockade on 'peripheral' fatigue mechanisms. 2. The degree of beta-adrenoceptor blockade was assessed by the reduction of exercise tachycardia during cycle ergometry, e.g. pulse rates at 210 watts were reduced from 190 +/- 15 to 127 +/- 5 beats min-1 (mean +/- 1 s.d.) indicating that beta-adrenoceptor blockade was substantial and highly significant (P less than 0.001). 3. Before, during and following fatiguing activity with circulatory occlusion force declines were identical during and without beta-adrenoceptor blockade. During and following activity without occlusion, there were slight declines in force which were questionably significantly different at 20 Hz (P less than 0.05). 4. The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude, measured from the skin surface over the muscle, was unaltered by beta-adrenoceptor blockade before, during or after activity whether with or without circulatory occlusion. 5. The maximal relaxation rate (MRR) was not significantly reduced in previously unfatigued muscle during beta-adrenoceptor blockade. During activity, both with and without circulatory occlusion, there was no evidence that MRR was reduced significantly more during beta-adrenoceptor blockade. 6. The absence of a convincing effect of beta-adrenoceptor blockade on peripheral fatigue mechanisms may indicate that central mechanisms are involved or that impairments of peripheral force production, of a specific nature or as a result of exacerbation of limitations of circulatory oxygen transport, though small are detected during voluntary exercise and give rise to increases in motor unit recruitment and/or firing rates

  11. Evaluation of contraindications and efficacy of oral Beta blockade before computed tomographic coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Fleur R; Schuijf, Joanne D; van Velzen, Joëlla E; Kroft, Lucia J; de Roos, Albert; Sieders, Allard; Jukema, J Wouter; Schalij, Martin J; van der Wall, Ernst E; Bax, Jeroen J

    2010-03-15

    Multidetector computed tomographic coronary angiography (CTA) image quality is inversely related to the heart rate (HR). As a result beta-blocking medication is routinely administered before investigation. In the present study, the use, contraindications, and efficacy of prescan beta blockade with regard to HR reduction and CTA image quality were assessed. In 537 patients referred for CTA, the baseline HR and blood pressure were measured on arrival, and contraindications for beta blockade were noted. Unless contraindicated, a single dose of metoprolol was administered orally 1 hour before data acquisition in patients with a HR of > or =65 beats/min according to a predefined medication protocol. After 1 hour, the HR was remeasured. A total of 283 patients (53%) had a HR of > or =65 beats/min. In this group, beta blockade was contraindicated in 46 patients (16%). Metoprolol was administered to the remaining 237 patients. However, 26 patients (11%) received suboptimal (lower dose than prescribed by protocol) beta blockade because of contraindications. Of the 211 patients receiving optimal beta blockade, 57 (27%) did not achieve the target HR. Of the patients with contraindications to beta blockade, 43 (60%) did not achieve the target HR. Compared to patients with optimal HR control, those receiving no or suboptimal beta blockade because of contraindications had significantly fewer examinations of good image quality (40% vs 74%, p <0.001), and significantly more examinations of poor image quality (20% vs 6%, p <0.001). In conclusion, most patients require HR reduction before CTA. Contraindications to beta blockade are present in a substantial proportion of patients. This results in suboptimal HR control and image quality, indicating the need for alternative approaches for HR reduction.

  12. [Continuous epidural blockade for frostbite of the lower extremities (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schlarb, K

    1980-06-01

    We describe the case of a patient suffering from freezing of the lower extremities, for which continuous epidural-blockade, over a period of four days, was conducted. By this means it was possible to relieve the vessel-spasm caused by the freezing and the patient was spared bilateral upper-thigh amputation. As the lower extremities are concerned in many cases of freezing, a continuous epidural-blockade as described here, seems to be the therapy to choose.

  13. Effect of H1- and H2-histamine receptor blockade on postexercise insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Pellinger, Thomas K; Dumke, Breanna R; Halliwill, John R

    2013-01-01

    Following a bout of dynamic exercise, humans experience sustained postexercise vasodilatation in the previously exercised skeletal muscle which is mediated by activation of histamine (H1 and H2) receptors. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake is also enhanced following dynamic exercise. Our aim was to determine if blunting the vasodilatation during recovery from exercise would have an adverse effect on blood glucose regulation. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that insulin sensitivity following exercise would be reduced with H1- and H2-receptor blockade versus control (no blockade). We studied 20 healthy young subjects (12 exercise; eight nonexercise sham) on randomized control and H1- and H2-receptor blockade (fexofenadine and ranitidine) days. Following 60 min of upright cycling at 60% VO2 peak or nonexercise sham, subjects consumed an oral glucose tolerance beverage (1.0 g/kg). Blood glucose was determined from “arterialized” blood samples (heated hand vein). Postexercise whole-body insulin sensitivity (Matsuda insulin sensitivity index) was reduced 25% with H1- and H2-receptor blockade (P < 0.05), whereas insulin sensitivity was not affected by histamine receptor blockade in the sham trials. These results indicate that insulin sensitivity following exercise is blunted by H1- and H2-receptor blockade and suggest that postexercise H1- and H2-receptor–mediated skeletal muscle vasodilatation benefits glucose regulation in healthy humans. PMID:24303118

  14. Primary and acquired resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiaohong; Wu, Xia

    2017-05-01

    PD-1/PD-L1 blockade appears to be a very promising immunotherapy with significant clinical benefits and durable responses in multiple tumor types. However, the effectual clinical benefits of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade are hampered by a high rate of primary resistance, where patients do not respond to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade initially. And more distressingly, most patients eventually develop acquired resistance after an initial response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. The mechanisms underlying primary and acquired resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade have remained ambiguous. This review documents in detail the current understanding of the mechanisms through which resistance to anti-PD1/PD-L1 therapy occurs. The mechanisms underlying primary resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade contain several immunoregulatory factors affecting tumor-specific immune responses within the immune microenvironment, co-enrichment of a group of 26 transcriptomic signatures (named innate anti-PD-1 resistance (IPRES) signatures) and cancer-cell-autonomous cues. The mechanism attributable to acquired resistance harbors evolution of neoantigen landscape, mutations of JAK and β-2-microglobulin, and epigenetic stability of exhausted T cells. At last, the promising therapeutic strategies to sensitize the resistant patients are also briefly discussed.

  15. Chronic GABAergic blockade in the spinal cord in vivo induces motor alterations and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Jarquín, Uri Nimrod; Tapia, Ricardo

    2017-05-01

    Inhibitory GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission in the spinal cord play a central role in the regulation of neuronal excitability, by maintaining a balance with the glutamate-mediated excitatory transmission. Glutamatergic agonists infusion in the spinal cord induce motor neuron death by excitotoxicity, leading to motor deficits and paralysis, but little is known on the effect of the blockade of inhibitory transmission. In this work we studied the effects of GABAergic and glycinergic blockade, by means of microdialysis perfusion (acute administration) and osmotic minipumps infusion (chronic administration) of GABA and glycine receptors antagonists directly in the lumbar spinal cord. We show that acute glycinergic blockade with strychnine or GABAergic blockade with bicuculline had no significant effects on motor activity and on motor neuron survival. However, chronic bicuculline infusion, but not strychnine, induced ipsilateral gait alterations, phalange flaccidity and significant motor neuron loss, and these effects were prevented by AMPA receptor blockade with CNQX but not by NMDA receptor blockade with MK801. In addition, we demonstrate that the chronic infusion of bicuculline enhanced the excitotoxic effect of AMPA, causing faster bilateral paralysis and increasing motor neuron loss. These findings indicate a relevant role of GABAergic inhibitory circuits in the regulation of motor neuron excitability and suggest that their alterations may be involved in the neurodegeneration processes characteristic of motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  16. Effect of acute aerobic exercise and histamine receptor blockade on arterial stiffness in African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-02-01

    African Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared with Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility after submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained postexercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA. Forty-nine (22 AA, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either histamine receptor antagonist or control placebo. Central blood BP and arterial stiffness measurements were obtained at baseline, and at 30, 60, and 90 min after 45 min of moderate treadmill exercise. AA exhibited greater central diastolic BP, elevated brachial PWV, and local carotid arterial stiffness after an acute bout of submaximal exercise compared with CA, which may contribute to their higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Unexpectedly, histamine receptor blockade did not affect central BP or PWV in AA or CA after exercise, but it may play a role in mediating local carotid arterial stiffness. Furthermore, histamine may mediate postexercise carotid arterial dilation in CA but not in AA. These observations provide evidence that young and healthy AA exhibit an exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and attenuated vasodilator response compared with CA.NEW & NOTEWORTHY African Americans are at greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Caucasians. We are the first to show that young and healthy African Americans exhibit greater central blood pressure, elevated brachial stiffness, and local carotid arterial stiffness following an acute bout of submaximal exercise

  17. Chronic treatment with LY341495 decreases 5-HT(2A) receptor binding and hallucinogenic effects of LSD in mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno, José L; Holloway, Terrell; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Sealfon, Stuart C; González-Maeso, Javier

    2013-03-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline and psilocybin, alter perception and cognitive processes. All hallucinogenic drugs have in common a high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor. Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor ligands show efficacy in modulating the cellular and behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs. Here, we explored the effect of chronic treatment with the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropan-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)-propionic acid (LY341495) on the hallucinogenic-like effects induced by LSD (0.24mg/kg). Mice were chronically (21 days) treated with LY341495 (1.5mg/kg), or vehicle, and experiments were carried out one day after the last injection. Chronic treatment with LY341495 down-regulated [(3)H]ketanserin binding in somatosensory cortex of wild-type, but not mGlu2 knockout (KO), mice. Head-twitch behavior, and expression of c-fos, egr-1 and egr-2, which are responses induced by hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) agonists, were found to be significantly decreased by chronic treatment with LY341495. These findings suggest that repeated blockade of the mGlu2 receptor by LY341495 results in reduced 5-HT(2A) receptor-dependent hallucinogenic effects of LSD.

  18. An mRNA expression analysis of stimulation and blockade of 5-HT7 receptors during memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Georgina; Gonzalez-Espinosa, Claudia; Meneses, Alfredo

    2006-04-25

    Despite the compelling support for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors participation in learning and memory in mammal species, the molecular basis had been largely absent from any discussion of its mechanistic underpinnings. Here, we report that reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that there was a higher level of expression of the investigated 5-HT receptor mRNAs in autoshaping-trained relative to untrained groups. Actually, pharmacological naïve untrained and autoshaping-trained rats showed significant differences, the latter groups expressing, in decreasing order, 5-HT1A < 5-HT6 < 5-HT4 < or = 5-HT7 receptors mRNA in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. In order to determine more precisely mRNA expression and memory consolidation, we combined selective 5-HT7 receptors stimulation or blockade in the same animals, and brain areas individually analyzed. 5-HT7 receptors were strongly expressed in all the three brain areas of vehicle-trained rats relative to untrained group. The potential selective 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS 19 enhanced memory consolidation, attenuated mRNA receptors expression, and the facilitatory memory effect was reversed by SB-269970. Finally, pharmacological stimulation of 5-HT7 receptors reversed scopolamine- or dizocilpine-induced amnesia and receptor down-regulation.

  19. Persistent reduction of cocaine seeking by pharmacological manipulation of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors during extinction training in rats

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Casey E.; Hobson, Benjamin D.; Levis, Sophia C.; Bachtell, Ryan K.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Adenosine receptor stimulation and blockade has been shown to modulate a variety of cocaine related behaviors. Objectives These studies identify the direct effects of adenosine receptor stimulation on cocaine seeking during extinction training and the persistent effects on subsequent reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Methods Rats self-administered cocaine on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule in daily sessions over 3 weeks. Following 1 week withdrawal, the direct effects of adenosine receptor modulation were tested by administering the adenosine A1 receptor agonist, CPA (0.03 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg), the adenosine A2A agonist, CGS 21680 (0.03 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg), the presynaptic adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, SCH 442416 (0.3 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, and 3 mg/kg), or vehicle prior to each of 6 daily extinction sessions. The persistent effects of adenosine receptor modulation during extinction training were subsequently tested on reinstatement to cocaine seeking induced by cues, cocaine, and the dopamine D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole. Results All doses of CPA and CGS 21680 impaired initial extinction responding, however only CPA treatment during extinction produced persistent impairment in subsequent cocaine- and quinpirole-induced seeking. Dissociating CPA treatment from extinction did not alter extinction responding or subsequent reinstatement. Administration of SCH 442416 had no direct effects on extinction responding, but produced dose-dependent persistent impairment of cocaine- and quinpirole-induced seeking. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that adenosine A1 or A2A receptor stimulation directly impair extinction responding. Interestingly, adenosine A1 receptor stimulation or presynaptic adenosine A2A receptor blockade during extinction produces lasting changes in relapse susceptibility. PMID:24562064

  20. PD-1 blockade induces responses by inhibiting adaptive immune resistance

    PubMed Central

    Tumeh, Paul C.; Harview, Christina L.; Yearley, Jennifer H.; Shintaku, I. Peter; Taylor, Emma J. M.; Robert, Lidia; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Spasic, Marko; Henry, Gina; Ciobanu, Voicu; West, Alisha N.; Carmona, Manuel; Kivork, Christine; Seja, Elizabeth; Cherry, Grace; Gutierrez, Antonio; Grogan, Tristan R.; Mateus, Christine; Tomasic, Gorana; Glaspy, John A.; Emerson, Ryan O.; Robins, Harlan; Pierce, Robert H.; Elashoff, David A.; Robert, Caroline; Ribas, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Therapies that target the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor have shown unprecedented rates of durable clinical responses in patients with various cancer types.1–5 One mechanism by which cancer tissues limit the host immune response is via upregulation of PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) and its ligation to PD-1 on antigen-specific CD8 T-cells (termed adaptive immune resistance).6,7 Here we show that pre-existing CD8 T-cells distinctly located at the invasive tumour margin are associated with expression of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune inhibitory axis and may predict response to therapy. We analyzed samples from 46 patients with metastatic melanoma obtained before and during anti-PD1 therapy (pembrolizumab) using quantitative immunohistochemistry, quantitative multiplex immunofluorescence, and next generation sequencing for T-cell receptors (TCR). In serially sampled tumours, responding patients showed proliferation of intratumoural CD8+ T-cells that directly correlated with radiographic reduction in tumour size. Pre-treatment samples obtained from responding patients showed higher numbers of CD8, PD1, and PD-L1 expressing cells at the invasive tumour margin and inside tumours, with close proximity between PD-1 and PD-L1, and a more clonal TCR repertoire. Using multivariate analysis, we established a predictive model based on CD8 expression at the invasive margin and validated the model in an independent cohort of 15 patients. Our findings indicate that tumour regression following therapeutic PD-1 blockade requires pre-existing CD8+ T cells that are negatively regulated by PD-1/PD-L1 mediated adaptive immune resistance. PMID:25428505

  1. Adenosine A2A receptor deletion affects social behaviors and anxiety in mice: Involvement of anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Laura; Carbó-Gas, Maria; Pardo, Marta; Bayarri, Pilar; Valverde, Olga; Ledent, Catherine; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercè

    2017-03-15

    Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors can potentiate motivation to work for natural reinforcers such as food. Conspecific interaction is a potent natural reinforcer in social animals that can be manifested as preference for social exploration versus other sources of novel stimulation. Deficiencies in this type of motivated behavior (social withdrawal) have been seen in several pathologies such as autism and depression. However, the role of A2A receptors in motivation for social interaction has not been widely explored. Social interaction paradigms evaluate the natural preference of animals for exploring other conspecifics, and the ability to differentiate between familiar versus novel ones. Anxiety is one of the factors that can induce avoidance of social interaction. In the present study, adenosine A2A knockout (A2AKO) and wild-type (WT) mice were assessed for social and anxiety-related behaviors. c-Fos immunoreactivity was evaluated as a measure of neuronal activation in brain areas involved in different aspects of motivation and emotional processes. Although A2AKO mice showed an anxious profile, they displayed higher levels of sociability and were less sensitive to social novelty. WT mice displayed a typical pattern of social recognition 24h later, but not A2AKO mice, which explored equally both conspecifics. There were no differences between strains in aggressiveness, perseverance or social odor preferences. c-Fos immunoreactivity in A2AKO mice was higher in anterior cingulate and amygdala compared to WT mice. Thus, A2A receptors appear to be potential targets for the improvement of pathologies related to social function.

  2. Interactions between opioid-peptides-containing pathways and GABA(A)-receptors-mediated systems modulate panic-like-induced behaviors elicited by electric and chemical stimulation of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Fabrício; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2006-08-09

    Aiming to clarify the effect of interactive interconnections between the endogenous opioid peptides-neural links and GABAergic pathways on panic-like responses, in the present work, the effect of the peripheral and central administration of morphine or the non-specific opioid receptors antagonist naloxone was evaluated on the fear-induced responses (defensive attention, defensive immobility and escape behavior) elicited by electric and chemical stimulation of the inferior colliculus. Central microinjections of opioid drugs in the inferior colliculus were also performed followed by local administration of the GABA(A)-receptor antagonist bicuculline. The defensive behavior elicited by the blockade of GABAergic receptors in the inferior colliculus had been quantitatively analyzed, recording the number of crossing, jump, rotation and rearing, in each minute, during 30 min, in the open-field test. The opioid receptors stimulation with morphine decreased the defensive attention, the defensive immobility and escape behavior thresholds, and the non-specific opioid receptors blockade caused opposite effects, enhancing the defensive behavior thresholds. These effects were corroborated by either the stimulation or the inhibition of opioid receptors followed by the GABA(A) receptor blockade with bicuculline, microinjected into the inferior colliculus. There was a significant increase in the diverse fear-induced responses caused by bicuculline with the pretreatment of the inferior colliculus with morphine, and the opposite effect was recorded after the pretreatment of the inferior colliculus nuclei with naloxone followed by bicuculline local administration. These findings suggest an interaction between endogenous opioid-peptides-containing connections and GABA(A)-receptor-mediated system with direct influence on the organization of the panic-like or fear-induced responses elaborated in the inferior colliculus during critical emotional states.

  3. Serotonin blockade delays learning performance in a cooperative fish.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marta C; Paula, José R; Bshary, Redouan

    2016-09-01

    Animals use learning and memorizing to gather information that will help them to make ecologically relevant decisions. Neuro-modulatory adjustments enable them to make associations between stimuli and appropriate behavior. A key candidate for the modulation of cooperative behavior is serotonin. Previous research has shown that modulation of the serotonergic system spontaneously affects the behavior of the cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus during interactions with so-called 'client' reef fish. Here, we asked whether shifts in serotonin function affect the cleaners' associative learning abilities when faced with the task to distinguish two artificial clients that differ in their value as a food source. We found that the administration of serotonin 1A receptor antagonist significantly slowed learning speed in comparison with saline treated fish. As reduced serotonergic signaling typically enhances fear, we discuss the possibility that serotonin may affect how cleaners appraise, acquire information and respond to client-derived stimuli via manipulation of the perception of danger.

  4. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists improve deficits in initiation of movement and sensory motor integration in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Annalisa; Pontis, Silvia; Borsini, Franco; Morelli, Micaela

    2007-08-01

    Evidence obtained in rodent and primate models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and preliminary clinical trials, indicates that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists might represent a promising nondopaminergic therapeutic tool for the treatment of PD. Those studies demonstrated the ability of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists to potentiate l-dopa-mediated motor improvement, whereas very little is known about counteraction of specific motor deficits and on the effects of these compounds when administered alone. To this aim we evaluated the effects of different adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists on initiation of movement deficits, gait impairment and sensory-motor deficits, induced in rats by a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. The following tests were used: (1) initiation time of stepping; (2) adjusting step (stepping with forelimb was measured as the forelimb was dragged laterally); (3) vibrissae-elicited forelimb placing (as index of sensory-motor integration deficits). Acute administration of the A(2A) receptor antagonists SCH 58261 (5 mg/kg i.p.) and ST 1535 (20 mg/kg i.p.) similarly to l-dopa (6 mg/kg i.p.) counteracted the impairments in the initiation time of stepping test, in the adjusting step and in the vibrissae-elicited forelimb placing induced by the lesion. The intensity of the effect was l-dopa > SCH 58261 > ST 1535. The results provide the first evidence that blockade of A(2A) receptors is effective in antagonizing specific motor deficit induced by DA neuron degeneration, such as initiation of movement and sensory-motor integration deficits, even without l-dopa combined administration.

  5. Aripiprazole attenuates established behavioral sensitization induced by methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Futamura, Takashi; Akiyama, Satoshi; Sugino, Haruhiko; Forbes, Andy; McQuade, Robert D; Kikuchi, Tetsuro

    2010-08-16

    Psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization is an experimental model of the stimulant psychosis and the vulnerability to relapse in schizophrenia. This study investigated the effects of aripiprazole, an antipsychotic drug that has dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist activity, on established sensitization induced by methamphetamine (MAP) in mice. Repeated treatment with MAP (1.0mg/kg, s.c.) for 10 days progressively increased the ability of MAP to increase locomotor activity. The enhanced locomotion induced by a challenge dose of MAP (0.24 mg/kg, s.c.) also occurred after withdrawal from MAP pretreatment. Repeated treatment with aripiprazole from days 10 to 14 during withdrawal from MAP administration attenuated the effect of MAP pretreatment, enhancing the motor response to a challenge dose of stimulant 3 days after the aripiprazole preparation. In contrast, sulpiride, a dopamine D2 receptor specific antagonist, and risperidone, a serotonin 5-HT2 and dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, did not show effects similar to aripiprazole. The attenuation effect of aripiprazole was blocked by pretreatment with the specific serotonin 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635. These results of aripiprazole suggest that the attenuation effect of aripiprazole was mediated by 5-HT1A receptors and imply that aripiprazole may have therapeutic value in treating drug-induced psychosis and schizophrenia.

  6. Blockade of porcine carotid vascular response to sumatriptan by GR 127935, a selective 5-HT1D receptor antagonist.

    PubMed Central

    De Vries, P.; Heiligers, J. P.; Villalón, C. M.; Saxena, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. It has previously been shown that the antimigraine drug, sumatriptan, a putative 5-HT1D receptor agonist, decreases porcine common carotid and arteriovenous anastomotic blood flows, but slightly increases the arteriolar (capillary) blood flow to the skin and ears. Interestingly, such responses, being mediated by 5-HT1-like receptors, are resistant to blockade by metergoline, which, in addition to displaying a very high affinity for (and occasionally intrinsic efficacy at) the 5-HT1D receptor subtypes, blocks (with lower potency than methiothepin) some 5-HT1D receptor-mediated vascular responses. These findings raise doubts whether sumatriptan-sensitive 5-HT1-like receptors mediating changes in the distribution of porcine carotid blood flow are identical to cloned 5-HT1D receptors. With the recent advent of the potent and selective 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, GR127935, we have examined in the present study whether the carotid vascular effects of sumatriptan in the pig are amenable to blockade by GR127935. 2. In animals pretreated with saline, sumatriptan (30, 100 and 300 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) reduced the total carotid and arteriovenous anastomotic blood flows in a dose dependent manner. In contrast, sumatriptan increased blood flow to the skin, ears and fat, although the total capillary fraction was not significantly affected. 3. While GR127935 pretreatment (0.25 and 0.5 mg kg-1) itself slightly reduced the total carotid and arteriovenous anastomotic blood flows, carotid vasoconstrictor responses to sumatriptan were either partly (0.25 mg kg-1) or completely (0.5 mg kg-1) blocked by the compound. In GR127935 pretreated animals, the sumatriptan-induced increases in blood flow to the skin, ears and fat were also attenuated. 4. Taken together, the results suggest that arteriovenous anastomotic constriction and, possibly, arteriolar dilatation in the skin, ears and fat by sumatriptan are mediated by 5-HT1D receptors. Therefore, vascular 5-HT1-like receptors in the

  7. [Pulmonary hemodynamics following experimental myocardial ischemia after the blockade of adrenergic receptors].

    PubMed

    Evlakhov, V I; Poiasov, I Z

    2015-01-01

    In acute experiments in anesthetized rabbits the changes of the pulmonary hemodynamics following 60 s myocardial ischemia in the region of the descendent left coronary artery were studied in control animals and after the blockade of α-adrenoreceptors by phentolamine or β-adrenoreceptors by propranolol. Following myocardial ischemia in control animals the pulmonary artery pressure and flow decreased, the pulmonary vascular resistance did not change, the left atrial pressure elevated; the cardiac output decreased more than pulmonary artery flow. Following myocardial ischemia after the blockade of β-adrenoreceptors the pulmonary artery pressure decreased more than in control animals, the pulmonary artery flow was decreased in the same level as in the last case. The pulmonary vascular resistance was diminished, the left atrial pressure increased; the pulmonary artery flow and cardiac output decreased in the same level. Following myocardial ischemia after the blockade of β-adrenoreceptors the pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance decreased more than after the blockade of α-adrenoreceptors, the left atrial pressure did not change. In both cases the pulmonary artery flow decreased in the same level and its changes were correlated with venous return shifts. The differences of the pulmonary artery changes following myocardial ischemia after the blockade of α- and β-adrenoreceptors are caused not only the different pulmonary vascular resistance changes, but also the left atrial pressure.

  8. Quantum Interference Induced Photon Blockade in a Coupled Single Quantum Dot-Cavity System

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jing; Geng, Weidong; Xu, Xiulai

    2015-01-01

    We propose an experimental scheme to implement a strong photon blockade with a single quantum dot coupled to a nanocavity. The photon blockade effect can be tremendously enhanced by driving the cavity and the quantum dot simultaneously with two classical laser fields. This enhancement of photon blockade is ascribed to the quantum interference effect to avoid two-photon excitation of the cavity field. Comparing with Jaynes-Cummings model, the second-order correlation function at zero time delay g(2)(0) in our scheme can be reduced by two orders of magnitude and the system sustains a large intracavity photon number. A red (blue) cavity-light detuning asymmetry for photon quantum statistics with bunching or antibunching characteristics is also observed. The photon blockade effect has a controllable flexibility by tuning the relative phase between the two pumping laser fields and the Rabi coupling strength between the quantum dot and the pumping field. Moreover, the photon blockade scheme based on quantum interference mechanism does not require a strong coupling strength between the cavity and the quantum dot, even with the pure dephasing of the system. This simple proposal provides an effective way for potential applications in solid state quantum computation and quantum information processing. PMID:25783560

  9. Individual relationship between heart rate and electromechanic systole in orthostatic test during autonomic blockade.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, M; Antila, K; Halkola, L; Kero, P; Länsimies, E

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the usefulness of the individual regression coefficients between the HR and the Q-A2 when studying their relationship during simultaneous changes in afterload and preload in combination with autonomic blockade. Twelve healthy male volunteers were studied in an orthostatic test done four times: without drugs (control test), after atropinization, after beta-blockade, as well as after combined beta-blockade and atropinization. The individual regression coefficients showed great inter-individual variation, and in average they were not significantly different in the four tests. However, it was observed that during the control test four, during the atropinization eight, during the beta-blockade three and during the combined beta-blockade and atropinization five individual regression coefficients were greater than -2.1, which is the regression coefficient used for the rate correction of the Q-A2 in males in the Weissler formula. It seems to use that the individual regression coefficents are useful in the evaluation of the relationship between the HR and the Q-A2 in pharmacological or physiological interventions, in which the intra-individual variation is great, and in which the number of subjects is often so small that group regressions are not very informative.

  10. FAP positive fibroblasts induce immune checkpoint blockade resistance in colorectal cancer via promoting immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingling; Qiu, Xiangting; Wang, Xinhua; He, Jian

    2017-03-13

    Immune checkpoint blockades that significantly prolonged survival of melanoma patients have been less effective on colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Growing evidence suggested that fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP) on cancer associate fibroblasts (CAFs) has critical roles in regulating antitumor immune response by inducing tumor-promoting inflammation. In this study, we explored the roles of FAP in regulating the tumor immunity and immune checkpoint blockades resistance in CRC experimental systems. We found that CAFs with high FAP expression could induce immune checkpoint blockade resistance in CRC mouse model. Mechanistically, CAFs with high FAP expression promoted immunosuppression in the CRC tumor immune microenvironment by up-regulating CCL2 secretion, recruiting myeloid cells, and decreasing T-cell activity. In human CRC samples, FAP expression was proportional to myeloid cells number, but inversely related to T-cell number. High FAP expression also predicted poor survival of CRC patients. Taken together, our study suggested that high FAP expression in CAFs is one reason leading to immune checkpoint blockades resistance in CRC patients and FAP is an optional target for reversing immune checkpoint blockades resistance.

  11. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine induces spontaneous tail-flicks in the rat via 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Millan, M J; Colpaert, F C

    1991-02-07

    In rats lightly restrained in horizontal cylinders, (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) dose dependently (0.16-10.0 mg/kg, s.c.) elicited spontaneous tail-flicks; that is, tail-flicks in the absence of extraneous stimulation. In contrast, amphetamine over a similar dose-range was inactive. Selective inhibitors of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake and carrier-mediated 5-HT release, paroxetine and citalopram, did not induce spontaneous tail-flicks themselves and blocked those induced by MDMA. In distinction, maprotiline and bupropion, selective inhibitors of noradrenaline and dopamine uptake, respectively, failed to modify the action of MDMA. Spontaneous tail-flicks elicited by MDMA were unaffected by the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, ICS 205,930 and GR 38032F. They were attenuated by the mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 receptor antagonist, methiotepin, the mixed 5-HT1A/5-HT1B receptor antagonist, (-)-alprenolol and the mixed 5-HT1A/5-HT2 receptor antagonist, spiperone, but not by the selective 5-HT1C/5-HT2 receptor antagonists, ritanserin, ICI 169,369 and ketanserin. The novel 5-HT1A receptor antagonists, BMY 7378 and NAN-190, each abolished MDMA-evoked spontaneous tail-flicks. Selective D1, D2, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1 and beta 2 antagonists had little influence upon induction of spontaneous tail-flicks by MDMA. These data indicate that MDMA evokes spontaneous tail-flicks in the rat via a release of 5-HT which acts at 5-HT1A receptors. Thus, 5-HT1A receptors appear to be involved in the acute functional actions of MDMA.

  12. Oleanolic acid acrylate elicits antidepressant-like effect mediated by 5-HT1A receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fajemiroye, James O.; Polepally, Prabhakar R.; Chaurasiya, Narayan D.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Zjawiony, Jordan K.; Costa, Elson A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of new drugs for the treatment of depression is strategic to achieving clinical needs of patients. This study evaluates antidepressant-like effect and neural mechanisms of four oleanolic acid derivatives i.e. acrylate (D1), methacrylate (D2), methyl fumarate (D3) and ethyl fumarate (D4). All derivatives were obtained by simple one-step esterification of oleanolic acid prior to pharmacological screening in the forced swimming (FS) and open field (OF) tests. Pharmacological tools like α-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT, catecholamine depletor), p-chlorophenylalanine (serotonin depletor), prazosin (PRAZ, selective α1-receptor antagonist), WAY-100635 (selective serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist) as well as monoamine oxidase (MAO) and functional binding assays were conducted to investigate possible neural mechanisms. In the FS test, D1 showed the most promising antidepressant-like effect without eliciting locomotor incoordination. Unlike group of mice pretreated with AMPT 100 mg/kg, PCPA 100 mg/kg or PRAZ 1 mg/kg, the effect of D1 was attenuated by WAY-100635 0.3 mg/kg pretreatment. D1 demonstrated moderate inhibition of MAO-A (IC50 = 48.848 ± 1.935 μM), potency (pEC50 = 6.1 ± 0.1) and intrinsic activity (Emax = 26 ± 2.0%) on 5-HT1A receptor. In conclusion, our findings showed antidepressant-like effect of D1 and possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptor. PMID:26199018

  13. Angiotensin Blockade in Late Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Vicente E.; Abebe, Kaleab Z.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Schrier, Robert W.; Braun, William E.; Steinman, Theodore I.; Winklhofer, Franz T.; Brosnahan, Godela; Czarnecki, Peter G.; Hogan, Marie C.; Miskulin, Dana C.; Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic F.; Grantham, Jared J.; Harris, Peter C.; Flessner, Michael F.; Moore, Charity G.; Perrone, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hypertension develops early in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with disease progression. The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with ADPKD. Dual blockade of the RAAS may circumvent compensatory mechanisms that limit the efficacy of monotherapy with an angiotensin-converting–enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin II–receptor blocker (ARB). METHODS In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 486 patients, 18 to 64 years of age, with ADPKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR], 25 to 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area) to receive an ACE inhibitor (lisinopril) and placebo or lisinopril and an ARB (telmisartan), with the doses adjusted to achieve a blood pressure of 110/70 to 130/80 mm Hg. The composite primary outcome was the time to death, end-stage renal disease, or a 50% reduction from the baseline estimated GFR. Secondary outcomes included the rates of change in urinary aldosterone and albumin excretion, frequency of hospitalizations for any cause and for cardiovascular causes, incidence of pain, frequency of ADPKD-related symptoms, quality of life, and adverse study-medication effects. Patients were followed for 5 to 8 years. RESULTS There was no significant difference between the study groups in the incidence of the composite primary outcome (hazard ratio with lisinopril–telmisartan, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.42). The two treatments controlled blood pressure and lowered urinary aldosterone excretion similarly. The rates of decline in the estimated GFR, urinary albumin excretion, and other secondary outcomes and adverse events, including hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury, were also similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Monotherapy with an ACE inhibitor was associated with blood-pressure control in most patients with ADPKD and stage 3 chronic kidney disease

  14. Blockade of Notch signaling promotes acetaminophen-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Longfeng; Ke, Michael; Yue, Shi; Xiao, Wen; Yan, Youde; Deng, Xiaozhao; Ying, Qi-Long; Li, Jun; Ke, Bibo

    2017-03-13

    Liver injury after experimental acetaminophen treatment is mediated both by direct hepatocyte injury through a P450-generated toxic metabolite and indirectly by activated liver Kupffer cells and neutrophils. This study was designed to investigate the role of Notch signaling in the regulation of innate immune responses in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury. Using a mouse model of APAP-induced liver injury, wild-type (WT) and toll-like receptor 4 knockout (TLR4 KO) mice were injected intraperitoneally with APAP or PBS. Some animals were injected with γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT or DMSO vehicle. For the in vitro study, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were transfected with Notch1 siRNA, TLR4 siRNA, and non-specific (NS) siRNA and stimulated with LPS. Indeed, paracetamol/acetaminophen-induced liver damage was worse after Notch blockade with DAPT in wild-type mice, which was accompanied by significantly increased ALT levels, diminished hairy and enhancer of split-1 (Hes1), and phosphorylated Stat3 and Akt but enhanced high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), TLR4, NF-κB, and NLRP3 activation after APAP challenge. Mice receiving DAPT increased macrophage and neutrophil accumulation and hepatocellular apoptosis. However, TLR4 KO mice that received DAPT reduced APAP-induced liver damage and NF-κB, NLRP3, and cleaved caspase-1 activation. BMMs transfected with Notch1 siRNA reduced Hes1 and phosphorylated Stat3 and Akt but augmented HMGB1, TLR4, NF-κB, and NLRP3. Furthermore, TLR4 siRNA knockdown resulted in decreased NF-κB and NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1 and IL-1β levels following LPS stimulation. These results demonstrate that Notch signaling regulates innate NLRP3 inflammasome activation through regulation of HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB activation in APAP-induced liver injury. Our novel findings underscore the critical role of the Notch1-Hes1 signaling cascade in the regulation of innate immunity in APAP-triggered liver inflammation. This might imply a novel therapeutic

  15. Anteroventral Third Ventricle Lesions Attenuate Pressor Responses to Serotonin in Anesthetized Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muntzel, Martin S.; Lewis, Stephen J.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    1996-01-01

    When administered intravenously, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) evokes a triphasic blood pressure response, consisting of the Bezold-Jarisch-associated depressor response, a pressor action, and long-lasting depressor response. Because the pressor response may, in part, be caused by central nervous system (CNS) activation by 5-HT, we predicted that destruction of the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region, an area rich in 5-HT receptors, would attenuate increases in blood pressure to intravenous 5-HT. In anesthetized sham-lesioned and AV3V-lesioned Sprague-Dawley rats. we measured mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to increasing bolus doses of intravenous 5-HT (1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25 microg/kg), before and after blockade of bradycardia using methylatropine (200 microg/kg). In all rats, bolus injections of 5-HT elicited bradycardia accompanied by a fall in lumbar SNA and an initial hypotension followed by a pressor response and a longer lasting hypotensive response. The bradycardia, reduction in lumbar SNA, and both depressor responses were equivalent in sham-lesioned and AV3V-lesioned groups. Importantly, AV3V lesions attenuated pressor responses to increasing doses of 5-HT (3 +/- 1, 6 +/- 4, 6 +/- 4, 17 +/- 4, 35 +/- 3 mmHg) compared to sham-lesioned controls (6 +/- 3, 16 +/- 7, 33 +/- 5, 54 +/- 4, 51 +/- 6 mmHg; P < 0.0001). This attenuation was conserved following blockade of bradycardia with methylatropine (P < 0.01). In summary, pressor responses to intravenous 5-HT are diminished by AV3V lesions. These data indicate that the pressor component of the blood pressure response to intravenous 5-HT is partly dependent upon interaction with the CNS.

  16. Alkalinisation of lignocaine to reduce the pain of digital nerve blockade.

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, P; Kendall, J; Meek, S; Rajan, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To see if the alkalinisation of lignocaine caused a reduction in the pain of injection for digital nerve blockade. METHODS: The study was a prospective randomised double blind study with each patient acting as their own control. During the study period, all patients aged 16 years and over presenting to the accident and emergency department with a condition requiring digital nerve blockade were considered for inclusion in the study. Each patient received an injection of both alkalinised and non-alkalinised lignocaine. The pain of each injection was then assessed on a visual analogue scale. RESULTS: 98 patients were entered in the study. The mean difference in pain scores between the non-alkalinised and alkalinised injections was 0.739, P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 1.01. CONCLUSIONS: Alkalinisation of lignocaine reduces the pain of injection for digital nerve blockade. PMID:8894861

  17. Current hot spot in the spin-valley blockade in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Széchenyi, Gábor; Pályi, András

    2013-12-01

    We present a theoretical study of the spin-valley blockade transport effect in a double quantum dot defined in a straight carbon nanotube. We find that intervalley scattering due to short-range impurities completely lifts the spin-valley blockade and induces a large leakage current in a certain confined range of the external magnetic field vector. This current hot spot emerges due to different effective magnetic fields acting on the spin-valley qubit states of the two quantum dots. Our predictions are compared to a recent measurement [F. Pei , Nat. Nanotech.1748-338710.1038/nnano.2012.160 7, 630 (2012)]. We discuss the implications for blockade-based schemes for qubit initialization/readout and motion sensing of nanotube-based mechanical resonators.

  18. Local identifiability and sensitivity analysis of neuromuscular blockade and depth of hypnosis models.

    PubMed

    Silva, M M; Lemos, J M; Coito, A; Costa, B A; Wigren, T; Mendonça, T

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the local identifiability and sensitivity properties of two classes of Wiener models for the neuromuscular blockade and depth of hypnosis, when drug dose profiles like the ones commonly administered in the clinical practice are used as model inputs. The local parameter identifiability was assessed based on the singular value decomposition of the normalized sensitivity matrix. For the given input signal excitation, the results show an over-parameterization of the standard pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models. The same identifiability assessment was performed on recently proposed minimally parameterized parsimonious models for both the neuromuscular blockade and the depth of hypnosis. The results show that the majority of the model parameters are identifiable from the available input-output data. This indicates that any identification strategy based on the minimally parameterized parsimonious Wiener models for the neuromuscular blockade and for the depth of hypnosis is likely to be more successful than if standard models are used.

  19. Two-atom Rydberg blockade using direct 6S to nP excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, A. M.; Jau, Y.-Y.; Parazzoli, L. P.; Chou, C. W.; Armstrong, D. J.; Landahl, A. J.; Biedermann, G. W.

    2014-03-01

    We explore a single-photon approach to Rydberg state excitation and Rydberg blockade. Using detailed theoretical models, we show the feasibility of direct excitation, predict the effect of background electric fields, and calculate the required interatomic distance to observe Rydberg blockade. We then measure and control the electric field environment to enable coherent control of Rydberg states. With this coherent control, we demonstrate Rydberg blockade of two atoms separated by 6.6(3) μm. When compared with the more common two-photon excitation method, this single-photon approach is advantageous because it eliminates channels for decoherence through photon scattering and ac Stark shifts from the intermediate state while moderately increasing Doppler sensitivity.

  20. Acquired RAS or EGFR mutations and duration of response to EGFR blockade in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Van Emburgh, Beth O.; Arena, Sabrina; Siravegna, Giulia; Lazzari, Luca; Crisafulli, Giovanni; Corti, Giorgio; Mussolin, Benedetta; Baldi, Federica; Buscarino, Michela; Bartolini, Alice; Valtorta, Emanuele; Vidal, Joana; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Germano, Giovanni; Pietrantonio, Filippo; Ponzetti, Agostino; Albanell, Joan; Siena, Salvatore; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Montagut, Clara; Bardelli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Blockade of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab or panitumumab is effective in a subset of colorectal cancers (CRCs), but the emergence of resistance limits the efficacy of these therapeutic agents. At relapse, the majority of patients develop RAS mutations, while a subset acquires EGFR extracellular domain (ECD) mutations. Here we find that patients who experience greater and longer responses to EGFR blockade preferentially develop EGFR ECD mutations, while RAS mutations emerge more frequently in patients with smaller tumour shrinkage and shorter progression-free survival. In circulating cell-free tumour DNA of patients treated with anti-EGFR antibodies, RAS mutations emerge earlier than EGFR ECD variants. Subclonal RAS but not EGFR ECD mutations are present in CRC samples obtained before exposure to EGFR blockade. These data indicate that clonal evolution of drug-resistant cells is associated with the clinical outcome of CRC patients treated with anti-EGFR antibodies. PMID:27929064

  1. Charge Sensed Pauli Blockade in a Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor Lateral Double Quantum Dot

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Khoi T.; Lilly, Michael P.; Nielsen, Erik; Bishop, Nathan; Rahman, Rajib; Young, Ralph; Wendt, Joel; Dominguez, Jason; Pluym, Tammy; Stevens, Jeffery; Lu, Tzu-Ming; Muller, Richard; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2013-12-11

    We report Pauli blockade in a multielectron silicon metal–oxide–semiconductor double quantum dot with an integrated charge sensor. The current is rectified up to a blockade energy of 0.18 ± 0.03 meV. The blockade energy is analogous to singlet–triplet splitting in a two electron double quantum dot. Built-in imbalances of tunnel rates in the MOS DQD obfuscate some edges of the bias triangles. A method to extract the bias triangles is described, and a numeric rate-equation simulation is used to understand the effect of tunneling imbalances and finite temperature on charge stability (honeycomb) diagram, in particular the identification of missing and shifting edges. A bound on relaxation time of the triplet-like state is also obtained from this measurement.

  2. A slow axon antidromic blockade hypothesis for tremor reduction via deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    García, Míriam R; Pearlmutter, Barak A; Wellstead, Peter E; Middleton, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    Parkinsonian and essential tremor can often be effectively treated by deep brain stimulation. We propose a novel explanation for the mechanism by which this technique ameliorates tremor: a reduction of the delay in the relevant motor control loops via preferential antidromic blockade of slow axons. The antidromic blockade is preferential because the pulses more rapidly clear fast axons, and the distribution of axonal diameters, and therefore velocities, in the involved tracts, is sufficiently long-tailed to make this effect quite significant. The preferential blockade of slow axons, combined with gain adaptation, results in a reduction of the mean delay in the motor control loop, which serves to stabilize the feedback system, thus ameliorating tremor. This theory, without any tuning, accounts for several previously perplexing phenomena, and makes a variety of novel predictions.

  3. Cerebrocortical and medullary blood flow changes after general opiate receptor blockade during hemorrhagic shock in cats.

    PubMed

    Komjáti, K; Sandor, P; Sandor, N; Szirmai, L; H-Velkei, M; Kovach, A G

    1997-04-01

    The effect of centrally induced opiate receptor blockade on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied in anesthetized, ventilated cats during the course of hemorrhagic shock. The blood flow of the medulla and the parietal cortex was measured with the H2-gas clearance technique. Hemorrhagic shock was produced by lowering the systemic mean arterial pressure to 60 mmHg for 120 min by blood withdrawal. Central opiate receptor blockade was induced by 10 micrograms/kg intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected naloxone at the 60th min of the bleeding period. Cortical blood flow showed no improvement after i.c.v. naloxone administration. Medullary blood flow, however, increased significantly and approached the pre-bleeding control flow values following central opiate receptor blockade. The results indicate involvement of endogenous opioid mechanisms in the regulation of rCBF during hemorrhage and may provide an explanation for the previously described beneficial effects of naloxone in hemorrhagic shock.

  4. Charge sensed Pauli blockade in a metal-oxide-semiconductor lateral double quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khoi T; Lilly, Michael P; Nielsen, Erik; Bishop, Nathan; Rahman, Rajib; Young, Ralph; Wendt, Joel; Dominguez, Jason; Pluym, Tammy; Stevens, Jeffery; Lu, Tzu-Ming; Muller, Richard; Carroll, Malcolm S

    2013-01-01

    We report Pauli blockade in a multielectron silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot with an integrated charge sensor. The current is rectified up to a blockade energy of 0.18 ± 0.03 meV. The blockade energy is analogous to singlet-triplet splitting in a two electron double quantum dot. Built-in imbalances of tunnel rates in the MOS DQD obfuscate some edges of the bias triangles. A method to extract the bias triangles is described, and a numeric rate-equation simulation is used to understand the effect of tunneling imbalances and finite temperature on charge stability (honeycomb) diagram, in particular the identification of missing and shifting edges. A bound on relaxation time of the triplet-like state is also obtained from this measurement.

  5. Blockade of receptor for advanced glycation end products protects against systolic overload-induced heart failure after transverse aortic constriction in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Yu, Manli; Zhang, Zhigang; Yu, Yunhua; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Xianxian

    2016-11-15

    Heart failure is the consequence of sustained, abnormal neurohormonal and mechanical stress and remains a leading cause of death worldwide. The aim of this work was to identify whether blockade of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) protected against systolic overload-induced heart failure and investigate the possible underlying mechanism. It was found that RAGE mRNA and protein expression was up-regulated in cardiac tissues from mice subjected to pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Importantly, inhibition of RAGE by treatment with soluble RAGE (sRAGE) or FPS-ZM1 (a high-affinity RAGE-specific inhibitor) for 8 weeks attenuated cardiac remodeling (including cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis), and dysfunction in mice exposed to TAC. Furthermore, treatment of TAC mice with sRAGE or FPS-ZM1 enhanced phosphorylation of AMPK and reduced phosphorylation of mTOR and protein expression of NFκB p65 in cardiac tissues. In addition, treatment of TAC mice with sRAGE or FPS-ZM1 abated oxidative stress, attenuated endoplasmic reticulum stress, and suppressed inflammation in cardiac tissues. These data demonstrated the benefits of blocking RAGE on the progression of systolic overload-induced heart failure in mice, which was possibly through modulating AMPK/mTOR and NFκB pathways.

  6. [Antidepressants, stressors and the serotonin 1A receptor].

    PubMed

    Kirilly, Eszter; Gonda, Xénia; Bagdy, György

    2015-06-01

    5-HT(1A) receptor is a receptor of surprises. Buspirone, an anxiolytic drug with a then yet unidentified mechanism of action had been marketed for years when it was discovered that it is a 5-HT(1A) partial agonist. Several more years had to pass before it was accepted that this receptor plays the key role in the action mechanism of buspirone. This was followed by further surprises. It was discovered that in spite of its anxiolytic effect buspirone activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis, furthermore, it increases peripheral noradrenaline and adrenaline concentration via a central mechanism. Thus activation of this receptor leads to ACTH/corticosterone and catecholamine release and also increases beta-endorphine, oxytocin and prolactin secretion while decreasing body temperature, increasing food uptake, eliciting characteristic behavioural responses in rodents and also playing a role in the development of certain types of epilepsy. Human genetic studies revealed the role of 5-HT(1A) receptors in cognitive processes playing a role in the development of depression such as impulsiveness or response to environmental stress. This exceptionally wide spectrum of effects is attributable to the presence of 5-HT1A receptors in serotonergic as well as other, for example glutamatergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons. The majority of the effects of 5-HT(1A) receptors is manifested via the mediation of Gi proteins through the hyperpolarisation or inhibition of the neuron carrying the receptor. 5-HT(1A) receptors on serotonergic neurons can be found in the somatodendritic area and play a significant role in delaying the effects of antidepressants which is an obvious disadvantage. Therefore the newest serotonergic antidepressants including vilazodone and vortioxetine have been designed to possess 5-HT(1A) receptor partial agonist properties. In the present paper we focus primarily on the role of 5-HT(1A) receptors in stress and

  7. Beta adrenergic receptor blockade of feline myocardium. Cardiac mechanics, energetics, and beta adrenoceptor regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, G; Kent, R L; McGonigle, P; Watanabe, A M

    1986-01-01

    Myocardial oxygen consumption is regulated by interrelated mechanical and inotropic conditions; there is a parallel increase in the aerobic metabolism and inotropic state during beta-adrenergic stimulation under fixed mechanical conditions. In contrast, there is some evidence that beta-blockade may reduce oxygen consumption through effects independent of its influence on mechanical conditions and contractile state, and that prolonged beta-blockade may sensitize the myocardium to beta-adrenergic stimulation. To clarify these two points, the present study examined the relationship of myocardial energetics to mechanics and inotropism during acute beta-blockade and after the withdrawal of long-term beta-blockade, whereupon the basis for any effect observed was sought by characterizing the number, affinity, and affinity states of the beta-receptors as well as the coupling of activated beta-receptors to cyclic AMP generation. Studies of right ventricular papillary muscles from control and chronically beta-blocked cats demonstrated contractile and energetic properties as well as dose-response behavior and inotropic specificity suggestive of an increase in myocardial sensitivity to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in the latter group. Assays of cardiac beta-adrenoceptors from further groups of control and pretreated cats, both in cardiac tissue and in isolated cardiac muscle cells, failed to define a difference between the two groups either in terms of receptor number and affinity or in terms of the proportion of receptors in the high-affinity state. However, coupling of the activated beta-adrenoceptors to cyclic AMP generation was enhanced in cardiac muscle cells from chronically beta-blocked cats. These data demonstrate that beta-adrenoceptor blockade (a) produces parallel effects on inotropic state and oxygen consumption without an independent effect on either and (b) increases myocardial sensitivity to beta-adrenergic stimulation after beta-blockade withdrawal, not by "up

  8. Intralipid therapy for inadvertent peripheral nervous system blockade resulting from local anesthetic overdose.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Ihab; Trehan, Gaurav; Barnette, Rodger

    2015-01-01

    Although local anesthetics have an acceptable safety profile, significant morbidity and mortality have been associated with their use. Inadvertent intravascular injection of local anesthetics and/or the use of excessive doses have been the most frequent causes of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST). Furthermore, excessive doses of local anesthetics injected locally into the tissues may lead to inadvertent peripheral nerve infiltration and blockade. Successful treatment of LAST with intralipid has been reported. We describe a case of local anesthetic overdose that resulted in LAST and in unintentional blockade of peripheral nerves of the lower extremity; both effects completely resolved with administration of intralipid.

  9. Increasing the Brightness of Cold Ion Beams by Suppressing Disorder-Induced Heating with Rydberg Blockade.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D; Scholten, R E; Sparkes, B M

    2015-11-20

    A model for the equilibrium coupling of an ion system with varying initial hard-sphere Rydberg blockade correlations is used to quantify the suppression of disorder-induced heating in Coulomb-expanding cold ion bunches. We show that bunches with experimentally achievable blockade parameters have an emittance reduced by a factor of 2.6 and increased focusability and brightness compared to a disordered bunch. Demonstrating suppression of disorder-induced heating is an important step in the development of techniques for the creation of beam sources with sufficient phase-space density for ultrafast, single-shot coherent diffractive imaging.

  10. Prevention of induced atherosclerosis by diversion of bile or blockade of intestinal lymphatics in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, P J; Karipineni, R C; Pertsemlidis, D; Danese, C A

    1976-01-01

    The prevention of induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis was studied by means of intestinal lymphatic blockade and of bile diversion in the dog. Hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were produced by high cholesterol feeding after induction of hypothyroidism with radio-iodine plus thiouracil. Complete diversion of bile, by shunting all bile into the urinary bladder, effectively prevented hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis; in contrast, blockade of the intestinal lymphatics failed to prevent the consequences of the atherogenic regimen, because of the development of collateral lymphatic channels. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:817679

  11. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-04-01

    In this report we will show results of seismic and well log derived attenuation attributes from a deep water Gulf of Mexico data set. This data was contributed by Burlington Resources and Seitel Inc. The data consists of ten square kilometers of 3D seismic data and three well penetrations. We have computed anomalous seismic absorption attributes on the seismic data and have computed Q from the well log curves. The results show a good correlation between the anomalous absorption (attenuation) attributes and the presence of gas as indicated by well logs.

  12. CAR T-cell intrinsic PD-1 checkpoint blockade: A two-in-one approach for solid tumor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Morello, Aurore; Tano, Zachary; Adusumilli, Prasad S

    2017-01-01

    PD-L1/2 expression in solid tumors inhibits chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell efficacy. A PD-1 dominant negative receptor expressed in CAR T cells provides cell-intrinsic checkpoint blockade and augments antitumor efficacy. A combinatorial immunotherapeutic strategy of combining CAR T cells with checkpoint blockade is a promising treatment approach for solid tumors.

  13. Blockade of Urotensin II Receptor Prevents Vascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Ae; Lee, Dong Gil; Yi, Kyu Yang; Lee, Byung Ho; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Urotensin II (UII) is a potent vasoactive peptide and mitogenic agent to induce proliferation of various cells including vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we examined the effects of a novel UII receptor (UT) antagonist, KR-36676, on vasoconstriction of aorta and proliferation of aortic SMCs. In rat aorta, UII-induced vasoconstriction was significantly inhibited by KR-36676 in a concentration-dependent manner. In primary human aortic SMCs (hAoSMCs), UII-induced cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by KR-36676 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, KR-36676 decreased UII-induced phosphorylation of ERK, and UII-induced cell proliferation was also significantly inhibited by a known ERK inhibitor U0126. In mouse carotid ligation model, intimal thickening of carotid artery was dramatically suppressed by oral treatment with KR-36676 (30 mg/ kg/day) for 4 weeks compared to vehicle-treated group. From these results, it is indicated that KR-36676 suppress UII-induced proliferation of VSMCs at least partially through inhibition of ERK activation, and that it also attenuates UII-induced vasoconstriction and vascular neointima formation. Our study suggest that KR-36676 may be an attractive candidate for the pharmacological management of vascular dysfunction. PMID:27582556

  14. Inhibitory effects of dextrorotatory morphinans on the human 5-HT(3A) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes: Involvement of the N-terminal domain of the 5-HT(3A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hwan; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Choi, Sun-Hye; Shin, Tae-Joon; Kang, Jiyeon; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Lee, Joon-Hee; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2012-07-05

    We previously developed a series of dextromethorphan (DM, 3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan) analogs modified at positions 3 and 17 of the morphinan ring system. Recent reports have shown that DM attenuates abdominal pain caused by irritable bowel syndrome, and multidrug regimens that include DM prevent nausea/vomiting following cancer surgery. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of DM. Here, we investigated the effects of DM, 3 of its analogs (AM, 3-allyloxy-17-methoxymorphian; CM, 3-cyclopropyl-17-methoxymorphinan; and DF, 3-methyl-17-methylmorphinan), and 1 of its metabolites (HM, 3-methoxymorphinan) on the activity of the human 5-HT(3A) receptor channel expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, using the 2-microelectrode voltage clamp technique. We found that intra-oocyte injection of human 5-HT(3A) receptor cRNAs elicited an inward current (I(5-HT)) in the presence of 5-HT. Cotreatment with AM, CM, DF, DM, or HM inhibited I(5-HT) in a dose-dependent, voltage-independent, and reversible manner. The IC(50) values for AM, CM, DF, DM, and HM were 24.5±1.4, 21.5±4.2, 132.6±35.8, 181.3±23.5, and 191.3±31.5μM, respectively. The IC(50) values of AM and CM were 7-fold lower than that of DM, and mechanistic analysis revealed that DM, DF, HM, AM, and CM were competitive inhibitors of I(5-HT). Point mutations of Arg241 in the N-terminal, but not amino acids in the pore region, to other amino acid residues attenuated or abolished DM- and DM-analog-induced inhibition of I(5-HT). Together, these results demonstrated that dextrorotatory morphinans might regulate 5-HT(3A) receptor channel activity via interaction with its N-terminal domain.

  15. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-07-01

    In fully-saturated rock and at ultrasonic frequencies, the microscopic squirt flow induced between the stiff and soft parts of the pore space by an elastic wave is responsible for velocity-frequency dispersion and attenuation. In the seismic frequency range, it is the macroscopic cross-flow between the stiffer and softer parts of the rock. We use the latter hypothesis to introduce simple approximate equations for velocity-frequency dispersion and attenuation in a fully water saturated reservoir. The equations are based on the assumption that in heterogeneous rock and at a very low frequency, the effective elastic modulus of the fully-saturated rock can be estimated by applying a fluid substitution procedure to the averaged (upscaled) dry frame whose effective porosity is the mean porosity and the effective elastic modulus is the Backus-average (geometric mean) of the individual dry-frame elastic moduli of parts of the rock. At a higher frequency, the effective elastic modulus of the saturated rock is the Backus-average of the individual fully-saturated-rock elastic moduli of parts of the rock. The difference between the effective elastic modulus calculated separately by these two methods determines the velocity-frequency dispersion. The corresponding attenuation is calculated from this dispersion by using (e.g.) the standard linear solid attenuation model.

  16. VAP-1 blockade prevents subarachnoid hemorrhage-associated cerebrovascular dilating dysfunction via repression of a neutrophil recruitment-related mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haoliang; Testai, Fernando D; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; N Pavuluri, Mani; Zhai, Fengguo; Nanegrungsunk, Danop; Paisansathan, Chanannait; Pelligrino, Dale A

    2015-04-07

    Our previous findings indicated that in rats subjected to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), suppression of post-SAH neuroinflammation via vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) blockade provides significant neuroprotection. We and others have reported that neuroinflammation contributes to cerebral microvascular impairment. Thus, in the present study, we tested the hypotheses that: (1) treatment with LJP-1586, a selective VAP-1 blocker, prevents SAH-associated pial arteriolar dilating dysfunction; and (2) the vasculoprotective effect of LJP-1586 arises from inhibiting SAH-elicited neutrophil recruitment. We utilized an endovascular perforation model of SAH. Rats subjected to SAH were either treated with LJP-1586 or rendered neutropenic via anti-neutrophil-antibody treatment. Findings from these groups were compared to their respective control groups. At 48 h post-SAH, rats were evaluated for neurobehavioral function, pial venular leukocyte trafficking, and pial arteriolar reactivity to topically-applied acetylcholine (ACh) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP). Pial arteriolar responses decreased at 48 h post-SAH. However, in the presence of LJP-1586, those responses were significantly preserved. Neutrophil-depletion yielded a substantial suppression of SAH-associated leukocyte adhesion and infiltration. This was accompanied by a significant preservation of pial arteriolar dilating function, suggesting a direct link between neutrophil recruitment and the loss of cerebral microvascular reactivity. Moreover, neutrophil depletion also was associated with significant protection of neurobehavioral function. The present findings suggest that attenuating SAH-linked elevation in neutrophil trafficking will protect against the development of microvascular dysfunction and subsequent neurological impairment.

  17. Stormwater Attenuation by Green Roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.; Smart, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Innovative municipal stormwater management technologies are urgently required in urban centers. Inadequate stormwater management can lead to excessive flooding, channel erosion, decreased stream baseflows, and degraded water quality. A major source of urban stormwater is unused roof space. Green roofs can be used as a stormwater management tool to reduce roof generated stormwater and generally improve the quality of runoff. With recent legislation in some North American cities, including Toronto, requiring the installation of green roofs on large buildings, research on the effectiveness of green roofs for stormwater management is important. This study aims to assess the hydrologic response of an extensive sedum green roof in London, Ontario, with emphasis on the response to large precipitation events that stress municipal stormwater infrastructure. A green roof rapidly reaches field capacity during large storm events and can show significantly different behavior before and after field capacity. At field capacity a green roof has no capillary storage left for retention of stormwater, but may still be an effective tool to attenuate peak runoff rates by transport through the green roof substrate. The attenuation of green roofs after field capacity is linked to gravity storage, where gravity storage is the water that is temporarily stored and can drain freely over time after field capacity has been established. Stormwater attenuation of a modular experimental green roof is determined from water balance calculations at 1-minute intervals. Data is used to evaluate green roof attenuation and the impact of field capacity on peak flow rates and gravity storage. In addition, a numerical model is used to simulate event based stormwater attenuation. This model is based off of the Richards equation and supporting theory of multiphase flow through porous media.

  18. P2X7 receptor blockade protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by decreasing the activities of inflammasome components, oxidative stress and caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Fahuan; Cao, Xuejiao; Zhai, Zhifang; GangHuang; Du, Xiang; Wang, Yiqin; Zhang, Jingbo; Huang, Yunjian; Zhao, Jinghong; Hou, Weiping

    2014-11-15

    Nephrotoxicity is a common complication of cisplatin chemotherapy and thus limits the use of cisplatin in clinic. The purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays important roles in inflammation and apoptosis in some inflammatory diseases; however, its roles in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain unclear. In this study, we first assessed the expression of P2X7R in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice, and then we investigated the changes of renal function, histological injury, inflammatory response, and apoptosis in renal tissues after P2X7R blockade in vivo using an antagonist A-438079. Moreover, we measured the changes of nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing proteins (NLRP3) inflammasome components, oxidative stress, and proapoptotic genes in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity after treatment with A-438079. We found that the expression of P2X7R was significantly upregulated in the renal tubular epithelial cells in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity compared with that of the normal control group. Furthermore, pretreatment with A-438079 markedly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury while lightening the histological damage, inflammatory response and apoptosis in renal tissue, and improved the renal function. These effects were associated with the significantly reduced levels of NLRP3 inflammasome components, oxidative stress, p53 and caspase-3 in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. In conclusions, our studies suggest that the upregulated activity of P2X7R might play important roles in the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, and P2X7R blockade might become an effective therapeutic strategy for this disease.

  19. CB1 cannabinoid receptor-mediated anandamide signalling reduces the defensive behaviour evoked through GABAA receptor blockade in the dorsomedial division of the ventromedial hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Ullah, Farhad; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2017-02-01

    The effects of cannabinoids in brain areas expressing cannabinoid receptors, such as hypothalamic nuclei, are not yet well known. Several studies have demonstrated the role of hypothalamic nuclei in the organisation of behavioural responses induced through innate fear and panic attacks. Panic-prone states are experimentally induced in laboratory animals through a reduction in the GABAergic activity. The aim of the present study was to examine panic-like elaborated defensive behaviour evoked by GABAA receptor blockade with bicuculline (BIC) in the dorsomedial division of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHdm). We also aimed to characterise the involvement of endocannabinoids and the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the modulation of elaborated defence behavioural responses organised with the VMHdm. The guide-cannula was stereotaxicaly implanted in VMHdm and the animals were treated with anandamide (AEA) at different doses, and the effective dose was used after the pre-treatment with the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251, followed by GABAA receptor blockade in VMHdm. The results showed that the intra-hypothalamic administration of AEA at an intermediate dose (5 pmol) attenuated defence responses induced through the intra-VMHdm microinjection of bicuculline (40 ng). This effect, however, was inhibited when applied central microinjection of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 in the VMHdm. Moreover, AM251 potentiates de non-oriented escape induced by bicuculline, effect blocked by pre-treatment with the TRPV1 channel antagonist 6-I-CPS. These results indicate that AEA modulates the pro-aversive effects of intra-VMHdm-bicuculline treatment, recruiting CB1 cannabinoid receptors and the TRPV1 channel is involved in the AM251-related potentiation of bicuculline effects on non-oriented escape behaviour.

  20. Nonlinear modifications of photon correlations via controlled single and double Rydberg blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Mou; Tian, Xue-Dong; Yan, Dong; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Cui-Li; Wu, Jin-Hui

    2015-04-01

    We study the optical response of cold rubidium atoms driven into the four-level Y configuration exhibiting two high Rydberg levels in the regime of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Atoms excited to either Rydberg level interact with each other just via self-blockade potentials (I) or also via cross blockade potentials (II). Numerical results show a few interesting quantum phenomena on the transmitted properties of a weak probe field owing to controlled single and double Rydberg blockade. In case (I), it is viable to switch between single-photon outputs with vanishing (invariable) two-photon (three-photon) correlation and photon-pair outputs with vanishing (invariable) three-photon (two-photon) correlation. Such output switch can be easily done by modulating frequencies and intensities of two strong coupling fields to create a degenerate EIT window or two separated EIT windows. In case (II), we find that two-photon and three-photon correlations decrease together at a degenerate EIT window center while increasing together between two separated EIT windows. Such consistent changes are observed because both correlations are modified by the identical polarizability degradation though depending on single and double Rydberg blockade, respectively.

  1. Studies Introducing Costimulation Blockade for Vascularized Composite Allografts in Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, AM; Samy, KP; Farris, AB; Leopardi, FV; Song, M; Stempora, L; Strobert, EA; Jenkins, JA; Kirk, AD; Cendales, LC

    2016-01-01

    Vascularized composite allografts (VCAs) are technically feasible. Similar to other organ transplants, VCAs are hampered by the toxicity and incomplete efficacy associated with conventional immunosuppression. Complications attributable to calcineurin inhibitors remain prevalent in the clinical cases reported to date, and these loom particularly large given the non-lifesaving nature of VCAs. Additionally, acute rejection remains almost ubiquitous, albeit controllable with current agents. Costimulation blockade offers the potential to provide prophylaxis from rejection without the adverse consequences of calcineurin-based regimens. In this study, we used a non-human-primate model of VCA in conjunction with immunosuppressive regimens containing combinations of B7-specific costimulation blockade with and without adhesion blockade with LFA3-Ig to determine what adjunctive role these agents could play in VCA transplantation when combined with more conventional agents. Compared to tacrolimus, the addition of belatacept improved rejection free allograft survival. The combination with LFA3-Ig reduced CD2hi memory T cells, however did not provide additional protection against allograft rejection and hindered protective immunity. Histology paralleled clinical histopathology and Banff grading. These data provide the basis for the study of costimulation blockade in VCA in a relevant preclinical model. PMID:26139552

  2. The future of cancer therapy: Selecting patients who respond to PD-1/L1 blockade

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Antoni; Tumeh, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary It is conceivable that, in the near future, an assay that defines the likelihood of a patient with advanced cancer to respond to immunotherapy based on PD-1/L1 blockade will be the initial decision point to select the treatment of patients with any cancer type. PMID:24970841

  3. The mechanism of coronary collateral vasoconstriction in response to cyclooxygenase blockade.

    PubMed

    Altman, J D; Bache, R J

    1994-02-01

    The present study was performed to examine the mechanism by which cyclooxygenase blockade produces vasoconstriction in well-developed coronary collateral vessels. Eight dogs were studied 4 to 6 months after occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) had been performed to stimulate collateral vessel growth. At the time of study, the LAD was cannulated at the site of occlusion for measurement of retrograde blood flow as an index of collateral blood flow. Levels of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha were 32 +/- 13% higher in blood diverted from the collateral-dependent LAD than in aortic blood (P < .05); the increase in this stable product of prostacyclin metabolism indicated production of prostacyclin across the coronary collateral system. Administration of arachidonic acid into the left main coronary artery to reach collateral vessels entering the LAD resulted in a 21 +/- 6% increase in retrograde flow (P < .01), demonstrating cyclooxygenase activity with production of vasodilator prostaglandins in the collateral system. Ibuprofen (10 mg/kg IV) caused a 55 +/- 7% decrease in retrograde flow (P < .03), suggesting that cyclooxygenase blockade inhibited tonic production of vasodilator prostaglandins in the collateral system. In contrast, neither thromboxane synthase inhibition with dazmegrel nor thromboxane receptor blockade with SQ 30741 caused a significant change in collateral flow, thus failing to support thromboxane-induced collateral constriction. After cyclooxygenase blockade, prostacyclin infused into the left main coronary artery was able to restore retrograde flow to the preibuprofen level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Divergent effects of RIP1 or RIP3 blockade in murine models of acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, M; Graffeo, C S; Rokosh, R; Pansari, M; Ochi, A; Levie, E M; Van Heerden, E; Tippens, D M; Greco, S; Barilla, R; Tomkötter, L; Zambirinis, C P; Avanzi, N; Gulati, R; Pachter, H L; Torres-Hernandez, A; Eisenthal, A; Daley, D; Miller, G

    2015-05-07

    Necroptosis is a recently described Caspase 8-independent method of cell death that denotes organized cellular necrosis. The roles of RIP1 and RIP3 in mediating hepatocyte death from acute liver injury are incompletely defined. Effects of necroptosis blockade were studied by separately targeting RIP1 and RIP3 in diverse murine models of acute liver injury. Blockade of necroptosis had disparate effects on disease outcome depending on the precise etiology of liver injury and component of the necrosome targeted. In ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis, RIP3 deletion was protective, whereas RIP1 inhibition exacerbated disease, accelerated animal death, and was associated with increased hepatocyte apoptosis. Conversely, in acetaminophen-mediated liver injury, blockade of either RIP1 or RIP3 was protective and was associated with lower NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our work highlights the fact that diverse modes of acute liver injury have differing requirements for RIP1 and RIP3; moreover, within a single injury model, RIP1 and RIP3 blockade can have diametrically opposite effects on tissue damage, suggesting that interference with distinct components of the necrosome must be considered separately.

  5. Sodium permeability and myocardial resistance to cell swelling during metabolic blockade.

    PubMed

    Pine, M B; Kahne, D; Jaski, B; Apstein, C S; Thorp, K; Abelmann, W H

    1980-07-01

    The role of cell membrane permeability to sodium in cell volume regulation during inhibition of the sodium-potassium exchange pump with ouabain and during total metabolic blockade was evaluated in sections of guinea pig renal cortex, ventricle, and atrium incubated in Krebs-Henseleit solution. In all tissues, 2 and 3 h of ouabain and metabolic blockade resulted in similar marked losses of potassium and parallel continuous reductions in resting membrane potentials. Only metabolic blockade of renal cortex increased cell water, chloride, and total monovalent cations (potassium plus sodium) significantly. Compared to ouabain, metabolic blockade markedly increased the rate of cellular washout of 24Na+ from renal cortex (t 1/2 reduced by 47%), which was significantly greater than reductions in t 1/2 from ventricle (16%) and atrium (15%). Thus, inhibition of sodium-potassium exchange pump activity was not sufficient to produce cell swelling unless associated with marked increases in cell membrane permeability to sodium, in which case sodium influx exceeded potassium loss and substantial increases in monovalent cations, chloride, and water occurred.

  6. Influence of phonon reservoir on photon blockade in a driven quantum dot-cavity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bo; Zhu, Jia-pei; Li, Gao-xiang

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the influence of the phonon bath on photon blockade in a simultaneously driven dot-cavity system. An optimal condition for avoiding two-photon excitation of a cavity field is put forward which can be achieved by modulating the phase difference and the strengths of the driving fields. The second-order correlation function and the mean photon number of the cavity field are discussed. In the absence of phonon effect, the strong photon blockade in a moderate quantum dot (QD)-cavity coupling regime occurs, which can be attributed to the destructive quantum interference arisen from different transition paths induced by simultaneously driving the dressed QD-cavity system. The participation of acoustic-phonon reservoir produces new transition channels for the QD-cavity system, which leads to the damage of destructive interference. As a result, the photon blockade effect is hindered when taking the electron-phonon interaction into account. It is also found that the temperature of the phonon reservoir is disadvantageous for the generation of photon blockade.

  7. Blockade of ActRIIB Signaling Triggers Muscle Fatigability and Metabolic Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Relizani, Karima; Mouisel, Etienne; Giannesini, Benoit; Hourdé, Christophe; Patel, Ketan; Morales Gonzalez, Susanne; Jülich, Kristina; Vignaud, Alban; Piétri-Rouxel, France; Fortin, Dominique; Garcia, Luis; Blot, Stéphane; Ritvos, Olli; Bendahan, David; Ferry, Arnaud; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Schuelke, Markus; Amthor, Helge

    2014-01-01

    Myostatin regulates skeletal muscle size via the activin receptor IIB (ActRIIB). However, its effect on muscle energy metabolism and energy-dependent muscle function remains largely unexplored. This question needs to be solved urgently since various therapies for neuromuscular diseases based on blockade of ActRIIB signaling are being developed. Here, we show in mice, that 4-month pharmacological abrogation of ActRIIB signaling by treatment with soluble ActRIIB-Fc triggers extreme muscle fatigability. This is associated with elevated serum lactate levels and a severe metabolic myopathy in the mdx mouse, an animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Blockade of ActRIIB signaling downregulates porin, a crucial ADP/ATP shuttle between cytosol and mitochondrial matrix leading to a consecutive deficiency of oxidative phosphorylation as measured by in vivo Phophorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Further, ActRIIB blockade reduces muscle capillarization, which further compounds the metabolic stress. We show that ActRIIB regulates key determinants of muscle metabolism, such as Pparβ, Pgc1α, and Pdk4 thereby optimizing different components of muscle energy metabolism. In conclusion, ActRIIB signaling endows skeletal muscle with high oxidative capacity and low fatigability. The severe metabolic side effects following ActRIIB blockade caution against deploying this strategy, at least in isolation, for treatment of neuromuscular disorders. PMID:24861054

  8. β-Adrenergic receptor blockade blunts postexercise skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis rates in humans

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew M.; Bell, Christopher; Peelor, Frederick F.

    2011-01-01

    β-Adrenergic receptor (AR) signaling is a regulator of skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in mice. We hypothesized that β-AR blockade blunts postexercise skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis rates in adult humans. Six healthy men (mean ± SD: 26 ± 6 yr old, 39.9 ± 4.9 ml·kg−1·min−1 peak O2 uptake, 26.7 ± 2.0 kg/m2 body mass index) performed 1 h of stationary cycle ergometer exercise (60% peak O2 uptake) during 1) β-AR blockade (intravenous propranolol) and 2) administration of saline (control). Skeletal muscle mitochondrial, myofibrillar, and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis rates were assessed using [2H5]phenylalanine incorporation into skeletal muscle proteins after exercise. The mRNA content of signals for mitochondrial biogenesis was determined using real-time PCR. β-AR blockade decreased mitochondrial (from 0.217 ± 0.076 to 0.135 ± 0.031%/h, P < 0.05), but not myofibrillar or sarcoplasmic, protein synthesis rates. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α mRNA was increased ∼2.5-fold (P < 0.05) at 5 h compared with 1 h postexercise but was not influenced by β-AR blockade. We conclude that decreased β-AR signaling during cycling can blunt the postexercise increase in mitochondrial protein synthesis rates without affecting mRNA content. PMID:21613574

  9. Divergent effects of RIP1 or RIP3 blockade in murine models of acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, M; Graffeo, C S; Rokosh, R; Pansari, M; Ochi, A; Levie, E M; Van Heerden, E; Tippens, D M; Greco, S; Barilla, R; Tomkötter, L; Zambirinis, C P; Avanzi, N; Gulati, R; Pachter, H L; Torres-Hernandez, A; Eisenthal, A; Daley, D; Miller, G

    2015-01-01

    Necroptosis is a recently described Caspase 8-independent method of cell death that denotes organized cellular necrosis. The roles of RIP1 and RIP3 in mediating hepatocyte death from acute liver injury are incompletely defined. Effects of necroptosis blockade were studied by separately targeting RIP1 and RIP3 in diverse murine models of acute liver injury. Blockade of necroptosis had disparate effects on disease outcome depending on the precise etiology of liver injury and component of the necrosome targeted. In ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis, RIP3 deletion was protective, whereas RIP1 inhibition exacerbated disease, accelerated animal death, and was associated with increased hepatocyte apoptosis. Conversely, in acetaminophen-mediated liver injury, blockade of either RIP1 or RIP3 was protective and was associated with lower NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our work highlights the fact that diverse modes of acute liver injury have differing requirements for RIP1 and RIP3; moreover, within a single injury model, RIP1 and RIP3 blockade can have diametrically opposite effects on tissue damage, suggesting that interference with distinct components of the necrosome must be considered separately. PMID:25950489

  10. Prolonged analgesia following preoperative bupivacaine neural blockade for oral surgery performed under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Chapman, P J; Ganendran, A

    1987-03-01

    The effectiveness of prolonged neural blockade following removal of impacted third molars under general anesthesia was evaluated in a controlled clinical study. There was a significant reduction in the amount of postoperative pain experienced, and no complications, either local or systemic, occurred. The technique has advantages, especially when general anesthesia is administered to outpatients.

  11. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade in Diabetic Nephropathy. Present Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Maneiro, Luz; Puente-García, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease in developed countries and its prevalence has increased dramatically in the past few decades. These patients are at an increased risk for premature death, cardiovascular disease, and other severe illnesses that result in frequent hospitalizations and increased health-care utilization. Although much progress has been made in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy, renal dysfunction and the development of end-stage renal disease remain major concerns in diabetes. Dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) results in progressive renal damage. RAAS blockade is the cornerstone of treatment of DKD, with proven efficacy in many arenas. The theoretically-attractive option of combining these medications that target different points in the pathway, potentially offering a more complete RAAS blockade, has also been tested in clinical trials, but long-term outcomes were disappointing. This review examines the “state of play” for RAAS blockade in DKD, dual blockade of various combinations, and a perspective on its benefits and potential risks. PMID:26569322

  12. Photon routing in cavity QED: Beyond the fundamental limit of photon blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, Serge; Dayan, Barak; Parkins, Scott

    2011-09-15

    The most simple and seemingly straightforward application of the photon blockade effect, in which the transport of one photon prevents the transport of others, would be to separate two incoming indistinguishable photons to different output ports. We show that time-energy uncertainty relations inherently prevent this ideal situation when the blockade is implemented by a two-level system. The fundamental nature of this limit is revealed in the fact that photon blockade in the strong coupling regime of cavity QED, resulting from the nonlinearity of the Jaynes-Cummings energy level structure, exhibits efficiency and temporal behavior identical to those of photon blockade in the bad cavity regime, where the underlying nonlinearity is that of the atom itself. We demonstrate that this limit can be exceeded, yet not avoided, by exploiting time-energy entanglement between the incident photons. Finally, we show how this limit can be circumvented completely by using a three-level atom coupled to a single-sided cavity, enabling an ideal and robust photon routing mechanism.

  13. Cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation does not attenuate dynamic vagal control of heart rate via alpha-adrenergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Kawada, Toru; Yanagiya, Yusuke; Inagaki, Masashi; Takaki, Hiroshi; Sugimachi, Masaru; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2004-08-01

    Complex sympathovagal interactions govern heart rate (HR). Activation of the postjunctional beta-adrenergic receptors on the sinus nodal cells augments the HR response to vagal stimulation, whereas exogenous activation of the presynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors on the vagal nerve terminals attenuates vagal control of HR. Whether the alpha-adrenergic mechanism associated with cardiac postganglionic sympathetic nerve activation plays a significant role in modulation of the dynamic vagal control of HR remains unknown. The right vagal nerve was stimulated in seven anesthetized rabbits that had undergone sinoaortic denervation and vagotomy according to a binary white-noise signal (0-10 Hz) for 10 min; subsequently, the transfer function from vagal stimulation to HR was estimated. The effects of beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol (1 mg/kg i.v.) and the combined effects of beta-adrenergic blockade and tonic cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation at 5 Hz were examined. The transfer function from vagal stimulation to HR approximated a first-order, low-pass filter with pure delay. beta-Adrenergic blockade decreased the dynamic gain from 6.0 +/- 0.4 to 3.7 +/- 0.6 beats x min(-1) x Hz(-1) (P < 0.01) with no alteration of the corner frequency or pure delay. Under beta-adrenergic blockade conditions, tonic sympathetic stimulation did not further change the dynamic gain (3.8 +/- 0.5 beats x min(-1) x Hz(-1)). In conclusion, cardiac postganglionic sympathetic nerve stimulation did not affect the dynamic HR response to vagal stimulation via the alpha-adrenergic mechanism.

  14. The distinct role of medium spiny neurons and cholinergic interneurons in the D₂/A₂A receptor interaction in the striatum: implications for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Alessandro; de Iure, Antonio; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; Tantucci, Michela; Costa, Cinzia; Borsini, Franco; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Giampà, Carmen; Fusco, Francesca Romana; Picconi, Barbara; Calabresi, Paolo

    2011-02-02

    A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonists are currently under investigation as potential therapeutic agents for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect is still unclear. A functional antagonism exists between A(2A) adenosine and D(2) dopamine (DA) receptors that are coexpressed in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the indirect pathway. Since this interaction could also occur in other neuronal subtypes, we have analyzed the pharmacological modulation of this relationship in murine MSNs of the direct and indirect pathways as well in striatal cholinergic interneurons. Under physiological conditions, endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) play a major role in the inhibitory effect on striatal glutamatergic transmission exerted by the concomitant activation of D(2) DA receptors and blockade of A(2A) receptors in both D(2)- and D(1)-expressing striatal MSNs. In experimental models of PD, the inhibition of striatal glutamatergic activity exerted by D(2) receptor activation did not require the concomitant inhibition of A(2A) receptors, while it was still dependent on the activation of CB(1) receptors in both D(2)- and D(1)-expressing MSNs. Interestingly, the antagonism of M1 muscarinic receptors blocked the effects of D(2)/A(2A) receptor modulation on MSNs. Moreover, in cholinergic interneurons we found coexpression of D(2) and A(2A) receptors and a reduction of the firing frequency exerted by the same pharmacological agents that reduced excitatory transmission in MSNs. This evidence supports the hypothesis that striatal cholinergic interneurons, projecting to virtually all MSN subtypes, are involved in the D(2)/A(2A) and endocannabinoid-mediated effects observed on both subpopulations of MSNs in physiological conditions and in experimental PD.

  15. Cannabidiol induces rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects and enhances cortical 5-HT/glutamate neurotransmission: role of 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Linge, Raquel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Laura; Campa, Leticia; Pilar-Cuéllar, Fuencisla; Vidal, Rebeca; Pazos, Angel; Adell, Albert; Díaz, Álvaro

    2016-04-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotomimetic component of marihuana, exhibits anxiolytic-like properties in many behavioural tests, although its potential for treating major depression has been poorly explored. Moreover, the mechanism of action of CBD remains unclear. Herein, we have evaluated the effects of CBD following acute and chronic administration in the olfactory bulbectomy mouse model of depression (OBX), and investigated the underlying mechanism. For this purpose, we conducted behavioural (open field and sucrose preference tests) and neurochemical (microdialysis and autoradiography of 5-HT1A receptor functionality) studies following treatment with CBD. We also assayed the pharmacological antagonism of the effects of CBD to dissect out the mechanism of action. Our results demonstrate that CBD exerts fast and maintained antidepressant-like effects as evidenced by the reversal of the OBX-induced hyperactivity and anhedonia. In vivo microdialysis revealed that the administration of CBD significantly enhanced serotonin and glutamate levels in vmPFCx in a different manner depending on the emotional state and the duration of the treatment. The potentiating effect upon neurotransmitters levels occurring immediately after the first injection of CBD might underlie the fast antidepressant-like actions in OBX mice. Both antidepressant-like effect and enhanced cortical 5-HT/glutamate neurotransmission induced by CBD were prevented by 5-HT1A receptor blockade. Moreover, adaptive changes in pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptor functionality were also found after chronic CBD. In conclusion, our findings indicate that CBD could represent a novel fast antidepressant drug, via enhancing both serotonergic and glutamate cortical signalling through a 5-HT1A receptor-dependent mechanism.

  16. Assessment of temperature-induced hERG channel blockade variation by drugs.

    PubMed

    Kauthale, Rahul R; Dadarkar, Shruta S; Husain, Raghib; Karande, Vikas V; Gatne, Madhumanjiri M

    2015-07-01

    Drug-induced QT prolongation has been reported in humans and animals. This potentially lethal effect can be induced by drugs interacting with a cardiac potassium channel, namely hERG (human ether-a go-go-related gene) leading to arrhythmia or torsade de pointes (TdP). Hence, in vitro evaluation of therapeutics for their effects on the rapid delayed rectifier current (IKr) mediated by the K(+) ion channel encoded by hERG is a valuable tool for identifying potential arrhythmic side effects during drug safety testing. Our objective was to evaluate the temperature-induced hERG channel blockade variation by human and veterinary drugs using the IonFlux 16 system. A panel of eight drugs was tested for IKr inhibition at both ambient (23 °C) and physiological (37 °C) temperatures at various concentrations using IonFlux 16, an automated patch clamp system. Our results established that both amiodarone (IC(50)  = 0.56 μM at 23 °C and 0.30 μM at 37 °C) and β-estradiol (IC(50)  = 24.72 μM at 23 °C and 8.17 μM at 37 °C) showed a dose-dependent IKr blockade with a higher blockade at 37 °C. Whereas, blockade of IKr by both ivermectin (IC(50)  = 12.52 μM at 23 °C and 24.41 μM at 37 °C) and frusemide (IC(50)  = 12.58 μM at 23 °C and 25.55 μM at 37 °C) showed a dose-dependent IKr blockade with a lower blockade at 37 °C. Gentamicin, enrofloxacin, xylazine and albendazole did not block IKr at both the assessed temperatures. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the effect of temperature variation should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of test drugs for their hERG channel blockade potential.

  17. Catheter-based antegrade intracoronary viral gene delivery with coronary venous blockade

    PubMed Central

    Hayase, Motoya; Monte, Federica del; Kawase, Yoshiaki; MacNeill, Briain D.; McGregor, Jennifer; Yoneyama, Ryuichi; Hoshino, Kozo; Tsuji, Tsuyoshi; De Grand, Alec M.; Gwathmey, Judith K.; Frangioni, John V.; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2005-01-01

    Hayase, Motoya, Federica del Monte, Yoshiaki Kawase, Brian D. MacNeill, Jennifer McGregor, Ryuichi Yoneyama, Kozo Hoshino, Tsuyoshi Tsuji, Alec M. De Grand, Judith K. Gwathmey, John V. Frangioni, and Roger J. Hajjar. Catheter-based antegrade intracoronary viral gene delivery with coronary venous blockade. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 288: H2995–H3000, 2005; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00703.2004.—The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of percutaneous antegrade myocardial gene transfer (PAMGT). A consistent and safe technique for in vivo gene transfer is required for clinical application of myocardial gene therapy. PAMGT with concomitant coronary venous blockade was performed in 12 swine. The myocardium was preconditioned with 1 min of occlusion of the left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries. The anterior interventricular vein was occluded during left anterior descending artery delivery, and the great cardiac vein at the entrance of the middle cardiac vein was occluded during left circumflex artery delivery. With arterial and venous balloons inflated (3 min) and after adenosine (25 μg) injection, PAMGT was performed by antegrade injection of an adenoviral solution (1 ml of 1011 plaque-forming units in each coronary artery) carrying β-galactosidase or saline through the center lumen of the angioplasty balloon. In one set of animals, PAMGT was performed with selective coronary vein blockade (n = 9); in another set of animals, PAMGT was performed without coronary vein blockade (n = 5). At 1 wk after gene delivery, the animals were killed. Quantitative β-galactosidase analysis was performed in the left and right ventricular walls. PAMGT was successfully performed in all animals with and without concomitant occlusion of the coronary veins. Quantitative β-galactosidase analysis showed that PAMGT with coronary blockade was superior to PAMGT without coronary blockade. β-Galactosidase activity increased significantly in the

  18. Blockade of maitotoxin-induced oncotic cell death reveals zeiosis

    PubMed Central

    Estacion, Mark; Schilling, William P

    2002-01-01

    Background Maitotoxin (MTX) initiates cell death by sequentially activating 1) Ca2+ influx via non-selective cation channels, 2) uptake of vital dyes via formation of large pores, and 3) release of lactate dehydrogenase, an indication of cell lysis. MTX also causes formation of membrane blebs, which dramatically dilate during the cytolysis phase. To determine the role of phospholipase C (PLC) in the cell death cascade, U73122, a specific inhibitor of PLC, and U73343, an inactive analog, were examined on MTX-induced responses in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Results Addition of either U73122 or U73343, prior to MTX, produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the cell death cascade (IC50 ≈ 1.9 and 0.66 μM, respectively) suggesting that the effect of these agents was independent of PLC. Addition of U73343 shortly after MTX, prevented or attenuated the effects of the toxin, but addition at later times had little or no effect. Time-lapse videomicroscopy showed that U73343 dramatically altered the blebbing profile of MTX-treated cells. Specifically, U73343 blocked bleb dilation and converted the initial blebbing event into "zeiosis", a type of membrane blebbing commonly associated with apoptosis. Cells challenged with MTX and rescued by subsequent addition of U73343, showed enhanced caspase-3 activity 48 hr after the initial insult, consistent with activation of the apoptotic program. Conclusions Within minutes of MTX addition, endothelial cells die by oncosis. Rescue by addition of U73343 shortly after MTX showed that a small percentage of cells are destined to die by oncosis, but that a larger percentage survive; cells that survive the initial insult exhibit zeiosis and may ultimately die by apoptotic mechanisms. PMID:11825342

  19. Cholinergic blockade frees fear extinction from its contextual dependency

    PubMed Central

    Zelikowsky, Moriel; Hast, Timothy A.; Bennett, Rebecca Z.; Merjanian, Michael; Nocera, Nathaniel A.; Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Fanselow, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fears that are maladaptive or inappropriate can be reduced through extinction training. However, extinction is highly context-sensitive, resulting in the renewal of fear following shifts in context, and limiting the clinical efficacy of extinction training. Lesion and inactivation studies have shown that the contextualization of extinction depends on the hippocampus. Parallel studies have found that intrahippocampal scopolamine blocks contextual fear conditioning. Importantly, this effect was replicated using a non-invasive technique in which a low dose of scopolamine was administered systemically. We aimed to transfer the effects of this non-invasive approach to block the contextualization of fear extinction. Methods Rats were tone fear conditioned and extinguished under various systemic doses of scopolamine or the saline vehicle. They were subsequently tested (off drug) for tone fear in a context that was the same (controls) or shifted (renewal group) with respect to the extinction context. Results The lowest dose of scopolamine produced a significant attenuation of fear renewal when renewal was tested either in the original training context or a novel context. The drug also slowed the rate of long-term extinction memory formation, which was readily overcome by extending extinction training. Scopolamine only gave this effect when it was administered during, but not after extinction training. Higher doses of scopolamine severely disrupted extinction learning. Conclusions We discovered that disrupting contextual processing during extinction with the cholinergic antagonist scopolamine blocked subsequent fear renewal. Low doses of scopolamine may be a clinically promising adjunct to exposure therapy by making extinction more relapse-resistant. PMID:22981655

  20. Resolvin E1 inhibits dendritic cell migration in the skin and attenuates contact hypersensitivity responses.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Yu; Honda, Tetsuya; Hanakawa, Sho; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Murata, Teruasa; Ueharaguchi-Tanada, Yuri; Ono, Sachiko; Amano, Wataru; Nakajima, Saeko; Egawa, Gyohei; Tanizaki, Hideaki; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kitoh, Akihiko; Dainichi, Teruki; Ogawa, Narihito; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Arita, Makoto; Nakamura, Motonobu; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2015-10-19

    Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is a lipid mediator derived from ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that exerts potent antiinflammatory roles in several murine models. The antiinflammatory mechanism of RvE1 in acquired immune responses has been attributed to attenuation of cytokine production by dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we newly investigated the effect of RvE1 on DC motility using two-photon microscopy in a contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model and found that RvE1 impaired DC motility in the skin. In addition, RvE1 attenuated T cell priming in the draining lymph nodes and effector T cell activation in the skin, which led to the reduced skin inflammation in CHS. In contrast, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) induced actin filament reorganization in DCs and increased DC motility by activating Cdc42 and Rac1 via BLT1, which was abrogated by RvE1. Collectively, our results suggest that RvE1 attenuates cutaneous acquired immune responses by inhibiting cutaneous DC motility, possibly through LTB4-BLT1 signaling blockade.

  1. Chemically Homogenous Compounds with Antagonistic Properties at All α1-Adrenoceptor Subtypes but not β1-Adrenoceptor Attenuate Adrenaline-Induced Arrhythmia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pytka, Karolina; Lustyk, Klaudia; Żmudzka, Elżbieta; Kotańska, Magdalena; Siwek, Agata; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Dziedziczak, Agnieszka; Śniecikowska, Joanna; Olczyk, Adrian; Gałuszka, Adam; Śmieja, Jarosław; Waszkielewicz, Anna M.; Marona, Henryk; Filipek, Barbara; Sapa, Jacek; Mogilski, Szczepan

    2016-01-01

    rhythm at ED84. All compounds significantly lowered blood pressure in normotensive rats. HBK-18 showed the strongest hypotensive properties (the lowest active dose: 0.01 mg/kg). HBK-19 was the only compound in the group, which did not show hypotensive effect at antiarrhythmic doses. HBK-16, HBK-17, HBK-18, HBK-19 showed weak antioxidant properties. Our results indicate that the studied 2-methoxyphenylpiperazine derivatives that possessed stronger α1A-adrenolytic properties (i.e., HBK-16, HBK-17, HBK-18, and HBK-19) were the most active compounds in adrenaline-induced arrhythmia. Thus, we suggest that the potent blockade of α1A-receptor subtype is essential to attenuate adrenaline-induced arrhythmia. PMID:27536240

  2. Ferrite attenuator modulation improves antenna performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, J. C.; Larson, S. G.; Shorkley, F. H.; Williams, B. T.

    1970-01-01

    Ferrite attenuator inserted into appropriate waveguide reduces the gain of the antenna element which is causing interference. Modulating the ferrite attenuator to change the antenna gain at the receive frequency permits ground tracking until the antenna is no longer needed.

  3. IL-33 targeting attenuates intestinal mucositis and enhances effective tumor chemotherapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Guabiraba, R; Besnard, A G; Menezes, G B; Secher, T; Jabir, M S; Amaral, S S; Braun, H; Lima-Junior, R C P; Ribeiro, R A; Cunha, F Q; Teixeira, M M; Beyaert, R; Graham, G J; Liew, F Y

    2014-09-01

    Intestinal damage and severe diarrhea are serious side effects of cancer chemotherapy and constrain the usage of most such therapies. Here we show that interleukin-33 (IL-33) mediates the severe intestinal mucositis in mice treated with irinotecan (CPT-11), a commonly used cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Systemic CPT-11 administration led to severe mucosal damage, diarrhea, and body weight loss concomitant with the induction of IL-33 in the small intestine (SI). This mucositis was markedly reduced in mice deficient in the IL-33R (ST2(-/-)). Moreover, recombinant IL-33 exacerbated the CPT-11-induced mucositis, whereas IL-33 blockade with anti-IL-33 antibody or soluble ST2 markedly attenuated the disease. CPT-11 treatment increased neutrophil accumulation in the SI and adhesion to mesenteric veins. Supernatants from SI explants treated with CPT-11 enhanced transmigration of neutrophils in vitro in an IL-33-, CXCL1/2-, and CXCR2-dependent manner. Importantly, IL-33 blockade reduced mucositis and enabled prolonged CPT-11 treatment of ectopic CT26 colon carcinoma, leading to a beneficial outcome of the chemotherapy. These results suggest that inhibition of the IL-33/ST2 pathway may represent a novel approach to limit mucositis and thus improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy.

  4. Targeting the MAPK and PI3K pathways in combination with PD1 blockade in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Deken, Marcel A.; Gadiot, Jules; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; Lacroix, Ruben; van Gool, Melissa; Kroon, Paula; Pineda, Cristina; Geukes Foppen, Marnix H.; Scolyer, Richard; Song, Ji-Ying; Verbrugge, Inge; Hoeller, Christoph; Dummer, Reinhard; Haanen, John B. A. G.; Long, Georgina V.; Blank, Christian U.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immunotherapy of advanced melanoma with CTLA-4 or PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint blockade induces in a proportion of patients long durable responses. In contrast, targeting the MAPK-pathway by selective BRAF and MEK inhibitors induces high response rates, but most patients relapse. Combining targeted therapy with immunotherapy is proposed to improve the long-term outcomes of patients. Preclinical data endorsing this hypothesis are accumulating. Inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway may be a promising treatment option to overcome resistance to MAPK inhibition and for additional combination with immunotherapy. We therefore evaluated to which extent dual targeting of the MAPK and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways affects tumor immune infiltrates and whether it synergizes with PD-1 checkpoint blockade in a BRAFV600E/PTEN−/−-driven melanoma mouse model. Short-term dual BRAF + MEK inhibition enhanced tumor immune infiltration and improved tumor control when combined with PD-1 blockade in a CD8+ T cell dependent manner. Additional PI3K inhibition did not impair tumor control or immune cell infiltration and functionality. Analysis of on-treatment samples from melanoma patients treated with BRAF or BRAF + MEK inhibitors indicates that inhibitor-mediated T cell infiltration occurred in all patients early after treatment initiation but was less frequent found in on-treatment biopsies beyond day 15. Our findings provide a rationale for clinical testing of short-term BRAF + MEK inhibition in combination with immune checkpoint blockade, currently implemented at our institutes. Additional PI3K inhibition could be an option for BRAF + MEK inhibitor resistant patients that receive targeted therapy in combination with immune checkpoint blockade. PMID:28123875

  5. Selective versus Non-Selective Alpha-Blockade prior to Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Randle, Reese W.; Balentine, Courtney J.; Pitt, Susan C.; Schneider, David F.; Sippel, Rebecca S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The optimal pre-operative alpha-blockade strategy is debated for patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytomas. We evaluated the impact of selective versus non-selective alpha-blockade on intra-operative hemodynamics and post-operative outcomes. Methods We identified patients having laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytomas from 2001-2015. As a marker of overall intra-operative hemodynamics, we combined systolic blood pressure (SBP) >200, SBP <80, SBP <80 AND >200, pulse >120, vasopressor infusion, and vasodilator infusion into a single variable. Similarly, the combination of vasopressor infusion in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission provided an overview of post-operative support. Results We identified 52 patients undergoing unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma. Selective alpha-blockade (i.e. Doxazosin) was performed in 35% (n=18), and non-selective blockade with Phenoxybenzamine was performed in 65% (n=34). Demographics and tumor characteristics were similar between groups. Patients blocked selectively were more likely to have a SBP <80 (67%) than those blocked with phenoxybenzamine (35%) (p=0.03), but we found no significant difference in overall intra-operative hemodynamics between patients blocked selectively and non-selectively (p=0.09). Post-operatively, however, patients blocked selectively were more likely to require additional support with vasopressor infusions in the PACU or ICU admission (p=0.02). Hospital stay and complication rates were similar. Conclusion Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma is safe regardless of the pre-operative alpha-blockade strategy employed, but patients blocked selectively may have a higher incidence of transient hypotension during surgery and a greater need for post-operative support. These differences did not result in longer hospital stay or increased complications. PMID:27561909

  6. Interaction of anesthesia, beta-receptor blockade, and blood loss in dogs with induced myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Prys-Roberts, C; Roberts, J G; Foëx, P; Clarke, T N; Bennett, M J; Ryder, W A

    1976-09-01

    The cardiovascular effects of halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia, and beta-receptor blockade with either propranolol or practolol, were studied in 15 dogs in which severe myocardial infarction had been induced ten days earlier. The hemodynamic responses to blood loss amounting to 25 per cent of estimated blood volume, and its subsequent replacement, were studied before and after induction of beta-receptor blockade. In terms of cardiac output and aortic blood flow acceleration, cardiac performance in the absence of beta-blockade was markedly impaired during steady-state anesthesia, compared with corresponding values in normal dogs. Practolol (2.0 mg/kg) administered during anesthesia induced no significant circulatory change other than a 14 per cent decrease in heart rate and a 25 per cent increase in strode volum. Propranolol (0.3 mg/kg) caused a comparable reduction of heart rate, but significantly reduced cardiac output (-27 per cent), aortic blood flow acceleration (-26 per cent), and peak LV power (-19 per cent), and increased systemic vascular resistance (+49 per cent). The two drugs caused comparable shifts of the isoproterenol dose-response curve during anesthesia. Graduated blood loss during anesthesia, to a total of 25 per cent of blood volume, caused consistent circulatory changes (decreased mean arterial pressure cardiac output, peak LV power, LV minute work) that were essentially similar before and after beta-receptor blockade with either propranolol or practolol. The positive inotropic effect of calcium gluconate during halothane anesthesia was significantly reduced following either propranolol or practolol, but the hemodynamic responses to changes of systemic vascular resistance induced with acetylcholine or phenylephrine were not modified by beta-receptor blockade.

  7. ENHANCEMENTS TO NATURAL ATTENUATION: SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K; W. H. Albright, W; E. S. Becvar, E; C. H. Benson, C; T. O. Early, T; E. Hood, E; P. M. Jardine, P; M. Lorah, M; E. Majche, E; D. Major, D; W. J. Waugh, W; G. Wein, G; O. R. West, O

    2007-05-15

    In 2003 the US Department of Energy (DOE) embarked on a project to explore an innovative approach to remediation of subsurface contaminant plumes that focused on introducing mechanisms for augmenting natural attenuation to achieve site closure. Termed enhanced attenuation (EA), this approach has drawn its inspiration from the concept of monitored natural attenuation (MNA).

  8. [5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptor interplay: Chronic activation of 5-HT7 receptors decreases the functional activity of 5-HT1A receptor and its сontent in the mouse brain].

    PubMed

    Kondaurova, E M; Bazovkina, D V; Naumenko, V S

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin receptors 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 are involved in the development of various psychopathologies. Some data indicate that there is an interplay between 5-HT1A 5-HT7 receptors that could be implicated in the regulation of their function. This work analyzed the effects of chronic 5-HT7 activation on the functional activity of 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors, on the corresponding protein levels, and on the expression of genes encoding 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors in the mouse brain. Chronic administration of the 5-HT7 selective agonist LP44 (20.5 nmol, i.c.v., 14 days) produced considerable desensitization of both 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors. In LP44-treated mice, the hypothermic responses mediated by both 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors were attenuated. Moreover, the levels of 5-HT1A receptor protein in the midbrain and the frontal cortex of LP44-treated mice were significantly decreased. However, the brain levels of 5-HT7 receptor protein did not differ between LP44-treated and control mice. Chronic LP44 treatment did not alter the expression of the 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptor genes in all investigated brain structure. These data suggest that 5-HT7 receptors participate in the posttranscriptional regulation of the 5-HT1A receptors functioning.

  9. Identification and characterization of poly(I:C)-induced molecular responses attenuated by nicotine in mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wen-Yan; Zhao, Shufang; Polanowska-Grabowska, Renata; Wang, Ju; Wei, Jinxue; Dash, Bhagirathi; Chang, Sulie L; Saucerman, Jeffrey J; Gu, Jun; Li, Ming D

    2013-01-01

    To further our understanding of the effects of nicotine on the molecular responses of macrophages during virus or virus-like infections, poly(I:C)-stimulated macrophage-like RAW264.2 cells or mouse primary peritoneal macrophages were challenged with nicotine; and their molecular responses were evaluated using a qRT-PCR array, antibody array, ELISA, Western blotting, and Ca(2+) imaging. Of 51 genes expressed in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathways, mRNA expression of 15 genes in RAW264.7 cells was attenuated by nicotine, of which mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β was confirmed to be attenuated in peritoneal macrophages. Concurrently, nicotine treatment attenuated the release of IL-6 and TNF-α from poly(I:C)-stimulated macrophages. However, when poly(I:C)-stimulated macrophages were challenged with nicotine plus α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX), secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α was found to be in a level seen with poly(I:C) stimulation only, indicating that α7-nAChR, a highly Ca(2+) permeable ion channel sensitive to blockade by α-BTX, is involved in this process. Furthermore, results from an antibody array indicated that nicotine treatment attenuated the phosphorylation of 82 sites, including Thr286 on CaMKIIα, from poly(I:C)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, of which 28 are expressed in the downstream cascade of Ca(2+) signaling. Coincidentally, poly(I:C)-stimulated macrophages showed attenuated expression of phosphorylated CaMKIIα when pretreated with nicotine. In addition, nicotine attenuated intracellular Ca(2+) signal from poly(I:C)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Collectively, these results indicate that poly(I:C)-induced molecular responses of macrophages could be significantly attenuated by nicotine.

  10. Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2015-11-01

    The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method.

  11. Ultrasound fields in attenuating media.

    PubMed

    Lerch, R; Friedrich, W

    1986-10-01

    For medical ultrasonic imaging and for nondestructive testing, the attenuation of pressure waves and the resulting shift in wave velocity are important features in commonly used transmission media such as biological tissue. An algorithm for the numerical evaluation of pressure field distributions generated by ultrasonic transducers is presented. The attenuation and dispersion of the sound transmission medium are taken into consideration. The sound fields are computed numerically for continuous wave as well as pulse excitation. The transducer has plane or gently curved geometry and is embedded in a plane rigid baffle. The numerically determined pressure fields are presented as 3D plots, as gray-scale images for a fixed time stamp (like a snapshot), or as isobars regarding the maximum values over time for each local point in the area under investigation. The algorithm described here can be utilized as a tool for design of ultrasound transducers, especially array antennas.

  12. Mapping Lateral Pn Attenuation Variation in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Phillips, W. S.; Randall, G. E.

    2009-12-01

    Pn travels most of its path in the uppermost mantle. Mapping of the lateral variation of Pn amplitude attenuation may shed light on the physical and chemical state, and dynamics of the upper mantle. In addition to material attenuation, Pn amplitudes are affected by other factors including the spherical shape of the Earth and Moho topography. In order to derive reliable Pn attenuation, we adopt a frequency-dependent Pn geometric-spreading model, which was designed to account for the effect of the Earth’s sphericity, to correct Pn amplitudes in preparation for attenuation estimation. We obtain physically reasonable attenuation estimates from Pn amplitudes corrected using the new spreading model. Pn amplitudes corrected using the traditional frequency-independent power-law spreading model, on the other hand, yield attenuation estimates that are either too large or negative. Using properly geometric-spreading corrected Pn amplitudes, we conducted attenuation tomography and developed 2D Pn attenuation models at multiple frequencies from 0.5 Hz to 8 Hz for Asia. Overall Pn attenuation patterns correlate, to some degree, with our current knowledge of the state of the upper mantle of the region. We see consistent low attenuation in cratonic regions and high attenuation along the western Pacific Ocean. The attenuation pattern in the Tibetan Plateau region seems to be frequency dependent with high attenuation around 1 Hz and low attenuation at 8 Hz. Application of the attenuation model to the nuclear-explosion discrimination problem leads to appreciable improvements of the discriminant compared with currently adopted method.

  13. The Next Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors: PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Kathleen M.; Freeman, Gordon J.; McDermott, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Blocking the interaction between the programmed cell death (PD)-1 protein and one of its ligands, PD-L1, has been reported to have impressive antitumor responses. Therapeutics targeting this pathway are currently in clinical trials. Pembrolizumab and nivolumab are the first of this anti-PD-1 pathway family of checkpoint inhibitors to gain accelerated approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of ipilimumab-refractory melanoma. Nivolumab has been associated with improved overall survival compared with dacarbazine in patients with previously untreated wild-type serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf proto-oncogene BRAF melanoma. Although the most mature data are in the treatment of melanoma, the FDA has granted approval of nivolumab for squamous cell lung cancer and the breakthrough therapy designation to immune-checkpoint inhibitors for use in other cancers: nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody, for Hodgkin lymphoma, and MPDL-3280A, an anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody, for bladder cancer and non–small cell lung cancer. Here we review the literature on PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade and focus on the reported clinical studies that have included patients with melanoma. Methods PubMed was searched to identify relevant clinical studies of PD-1/PD-L1–targeted therapies in melanoma. A review of data from the current trials on clinicaltrial.gov was incorporated, as well as data presented in abstracts at the 2014 annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, given the limited number of published clinical trials on this topic. Findings The anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 agents have been reported to have impressive antitumor effects in several malignancies, including melanoma. The greatest clinical activity in unselected patients has been seen in melanoma. Tumor expression of PD-L1 is a suggestive, but inadequate, biomarker predictive of response to immune-checkpoint blockade. However, tumors expressing little or no PD-L1 are

  14. Action of tremorgenic mycotoxins on GABA/sub A/ receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gant, D.B.; Cole, R.J.; Valdes, J.J.; Eldefrawi, M.E.; Eldefrawi, A.T.

    1987-11-09

    The effects of four tremorgenic and one nontremorgenic mycotoxins were studied on ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA/sub A/) receptor binding and function in rat brain and on binding of a voltage-operated Cl/sup -/ channel in Torpedo electric organ. None of the mycotoxins had significant effect on (/sup 3/H)muscimol or (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam binding to the GAMA/sup A/ receptor. However, only the four tremorgenic mycotoxins inhibited GABA-induced /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ influx and (/sup 35/S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ((/sup 35/S)TBPS) binding in rate brain membranes, while the nontremorgenic verruculotoxin had no effect. Inhibition of (/sup 35/S)TBPS binding by paspalinine was non-competitive. This suggests that tremorgenic mycotoxins inhibit GABA/sub A/ receptor function by binding close to the receptor's Cl/sup -/ channel. On the voltage-operated Cl/sup -/ channel, only high concentrations of verruculogen and verruculotoxin caused significant inhibition of the channel's binding of (/sup 35/S)TBPS. The data suggest that the tremorgenic action of these mycotoxins may be due in part to their inhibition of GABA/sub A/ receptor function. 21 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Age-related changes in the gene expression profile of antigen-specific mouse CD8+ T cells can be partially reversed by blockade of the BTLA/CD160 pathways during vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Dawany, Noor; Parzych, Elizabeth M; Showe, Louise C; Ertl, Hildegund CJ

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed gene expression profiles of young and aged mouse CD8+ T cells specific for the nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza A/PR8/34 virus. CD8+ T cells were stimulated either by the NP antigen expressed in its native form or fused into the herpes virus (HSV)-1 glycoprotein D (gD) protein, which blocks signaling through the immunoinhibitory B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and CD160 pathways. We show that NP-specific CD8+ T cells from aged mice exhibit numerous differences in gene expression compared to NP-specific CD8+ T cells from young mice, including a significant reduction of expression in genes involved in T cell receptor (TcR) and CD28 signaling. We also show that these changes can be reversed in a sub-population (∼50%) of the aged mice by a BTLA/CD160 checkpoint blockade. These results suggest that BTLA/CD160 checkpoint blockade has potential value as a vaccine additive to induce better CD8+ T cell responses in the aged. PMID:27922818

  16. Blockade of constitutively activated ERK signaling enhances cytotoxicity of microtubule-destabilizing agents in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Susumu; Uchiyama, Aya; Watanabe, Kazushi; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Inada, Yoshiyuki; Kawabata, Takumi; Iwashita, Ken-Ichi; Noda, Sinji; Ozaki, Kei-Ichi; Kohno, Michiaki

    2009-01-16

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway is constitutively activated in many human tumor cell types. Given the cytoprotective role of this pathway, we examined whether its specific blockade might sensitize human tumor cells to the induction of apoptosis by various anticancer drugs. Although blockade of ERK signaling alone did not induce substantial cell death, it resulted in marked and selective enhancement of the induction of apoptosis by microtubule-destabilizing agents in tumor cells in which the ERK pathway is constitutively activated. The synergistic activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase by the combination of an ERK pathway inhibitor and a microtubule-destabilizing agent appeared to be responsible, at least in part, for this effect. These results suggest that administration of the combination of an ERK pathway inhibitor and a microtubule-destabilizing agent is a potential chemotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of tumor cells with constitutive activation of the ERK pathway.

  17. Quantum transport through a Coulomb blockaded quantum emitter coupled to a plasmonic dimer.

    PubMed

    Goker, A; Aksu, H

    2016-01-21

    We study the electron transmission through a Coulomb blockaded quantum emitter coupled to metal nanoparticles possessing plasmon resonances by employing the time-dependent non-crossing approximation. We find that the coupling of the nanoparticle plasmons with the excitons results in a significant enhancement of the conductance through the discrete state with higher energy beyond the unitarity limit while the other discrete state with lower energy remains Coulomb blockaded. We show that boosting the plasmon-exciton coupling well below the Kondo temperature increases the enhancement adding another quantum of counductance upon saturation. Finite bias and increasing emitter resonance energy tend to reduce this enhancement. We attribute these observations to the opening of an additional transport channel via the plasmon-exciton coupling.

  18. Erythromelalgia in the pediatric patient: role of computed-tomography-guided lumbar sympathetic blockade

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Anjana; Rafiq, Mahmood; Warren, Patrick S; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    Erythromelalgia (EM) is an uncommon condition characterized by erythema, increased skin temperature, and burning pain, most frequently occurring in the lower extremities. The pain is generally very severe and treatment can be extremely challenging, especially in the pediatric and adolescent population. We report a series of three cases of primary EM in pediatric patients involving the lower extremities, refractory to medical treatment that responded favorably to computed-tomography-guided lumbar sympathetic blockade. There was a significant improvement in pain scores, quality of life, and overall function as well as decreased analgesic requirements. Lumbar sympathetic blockade should be considered as a therapeutic modality in pediatric and adolescent patients with EM who are refractory to other treatments. PMID:27799815

  19. Challenges and opportunities for checkpoint blockade in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Tycel; Devata, Sumana; Wilcox, Ryan A

    2016-01-01

    The T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders are a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) for which current therapeutic strategies are inadequate, as most patients afflicted with these NHL will succumb to disease progression within 2 years of diagnosis. Appreciation of the genetic and immunologic landscape of these aggressive NHL, including PD-L1 (B7-H1, CD274) expression by malignant T cells and within the tumor microenvironment, provides a strong rationale for therapeutic targeting this immune checkpoint. While further studies are needed, the available data suggests that responses with PD-1 checkpoint blockade alone will unlikely approach those achieved in other lymphoproliferative disorders. Herein, we review the unique challenges posed by the T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and discuss potential strategies to optimize checkpoint blockade in these T-cell derived malignancies.

  20. Dynamic versus static biomarkers in cancer immune checkpoint blockade: unravelling complexity.

    PubMed

    Lesterhuis, W Joost; Bosco, Anthony; Millward, Michael J; Small, Michael; Nowak, Anna K; Lake, Richard A

    2017-04-01

    Recently, there has been a coordinated effort from academic institutions and the pharmaceutical industry to identify biomarkers that can predict responses to immune checkpoint blockade in cancer. Several biomarkers have been identified; however, none has reliably predicted response in a sufficiently rigorous manner for routine use. Here, we argue that the therapeutic response to immune checkpoint blockade is a critical state transition of a complex system. Such systems are highly sensitive to initial conditions, and critical transitions are notoriously difficult to predict far in advance. Nevertheless, warning signals can be detected closer to the tipping point. Advances in mathematics and network biology are starting to make it possible to identify such warning signals. We propose that these dynamic biomarkers could prove to be useful in distinguishing responding from non-responding patients, as well as facilitate the identification of new therapeutic targets for combination therapy.

  1. Evidence that the positive inotropic effects of the alkylxanthines are not due to adenosine receptor blockade.

    PubMed Central

    Collis, M. G.; Keddie, J. R.; Torr, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    We investigated the possibility that the positive inotropic effects of the alkylxanthines are due to adenosine receptor blockade. The potency of 8-phenyltheophylline, theophylline and enprofylline as adenosine antagonists was assessed in vitro, using the guinea-pig isolated atrium, and in vivo, using the anaesthetized dog. The order of potency of the alkylxanthines as antagonists of the negative inotropic response to 2-chloroadenosine in vitro, and of the hypotensive response to adenosine in vivo was 8-phenyltheophylline greater than theophylline greater than enprofylline. The order of potency of the alkylxanthines as positive inotropic and chronotropic agents in the anaesthetized dog was enprofylline greater than theophylline greater than 8-phenyltheophylline. The results of this study indicate that the inotropic effects of the alkylxanthines in the anaesthetized dog are not due to adenosine receptor blockade. PMID:6322898

  2. [Organization of medical support for troops, defending Leningrad and the people of the blockaded city].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Kryuchkov, O A

    2015-03-01

    The data on the composition of forces of medical services and organization of medical-evacuation support for troops defending the blockaded Leningrad are presented. The information about the health losses among the population of Leningrad as a result of bombing, shelling and disease is given. Extremely high rates of morbidity and mortality in residents were associated with hunger, hypothermia and emotional stress. The clinical picture of some diseases has different peculiarities because of alimentary dystrophy background. The city health service suffered huge losses: 482 medical institutions were destroyed, only about 300 people from 1.5 thousand of medical personnel in 1942 saved working capability. The health care service of the local air defense played an essential role in delivery of medical aid. The contribution of civil and military health workers in saving residents lives in the blockaded Leningrad was appreciated.

  3. Opioid Facilitation of β-Adrenergic Blockade: A New Pharmacological Condition?

    PubMed Central

    Vamecq, Joseph; Mention-Mulliez, Karine; Leclerc, Francis; Dobbelaere, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Recently, propranolol was suggested to prevent hyperlactatemia in a child with hypovolemic shock through β-adrenergic blockade. Though it is a known inhibitor of glycolysis, propranolol, outside this observation, has never been reported to fully protect against lactate overproduction. On the other hand, literature evidence exists for a cross-talk between β-adrenergic receptors (protein targets of propranolol) and δ-opioid receptor. In this literature context, it is hypothesized here that anti-diarrheic racecadotril (a pro-drug of thiorphan, an inhibitor of enkephalinases), which, in the cited observation, was co-administered with propranolol, might have facilitated the β-blocker-driven inhibition of glycolysis and resulting lactate production. The opioid-facilitated β-adrenergic blockade would be essentially additivity or even synergism putatively existing between antagonism of β-adrenergic receptors and agonism of δ-opioid receptor in lowering cellular cAMP and dependent functions. PMID:26426025

  4. Hypocretin receptor 1 blockade preferentially reduces high effort responding for cocaine without promoting sleep

    PubMed Central

    Brodnik, Zachary D.; Bernstein, David L.; Prince, Courtney D.; España, Rodrigo A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that blockade of the hypocretin receptor 1 may act as a useful pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse. Here we investigated the extent to which various doses of a hypocretin receptor 1 antagonist, SB-334867, affect cocaine self-administration at varying doses of cocaine and across a range of effort requirements, and tested if these SB-334867 doses produce sedative effects. First, we trained animals to self-administer one of three doses of cocaine on a progressive ratio schedule, and then tested the effects of three doses of SB-334867. Responding for cocaine was then analyzed to segregate features of relatively high and low effort requirements across the progressive ratio session. In another set of experiments we tested the sleep-promoting effects of the same doses of SB-334867. Our data indicate that blockade of hypocretin receptor 1 preferentially reduces high effort responding for cocaine at levels that do not promote sedation. PMID:26049058

  5. Chronic monoacylglycerol lipase blockade causes functional antagonism of the endocannabinoid system

    PubMed Central

    Schlosburg, Joel E.; Blankman, Jacqueline L.; Long, Jonathan Z.; Nomura, Daniel K.; Pan, Bin; Kinsey, Steven G.; Nguyen, Peter T.; Ramesh, Divya; Booker, Lamont; Burston, James J.; Thomas, Elizabeth A.; Selley, Dana E.; Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Liu, Qingsong; Lichtman, Aron H.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to drugs of abuse, such as cannabinoids and opioids, leads to pharmacological tolerance and receptor desensitization in the nervous system. Here we show that a similar form of functional antagonism is produced by sustained inactivation of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the principal degradative enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). After repeated administration, the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 lost its analgesic activity and produced cross-tolerance to cannabinoid receptor (CB1) agonists in mice, effects that were phenocopied by genetic disruption of MAGL. Chronic MAGL blockade also caused physical dependence, impaired endocannabinoid-dependent synaptic plasticity, and desensitization of brain CB1 receptors. These data contrasted with blockade of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an enzyme that degrades the other major endocannabinoid anandamide, which produced sustained analgesia without impairing CB1 receptors. Thus, individual endocannabinoids generate distinct analgesic profiles that are either sustained or transitory and associated with agonism and functional antagonism of the brain cannabinoid system, respectively. PMID:20729846

  6. Rydberg-blockade effects in Autler-Townes spectra of ultracold strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSalvo, B. J.; Aman, J. A.; Gaul, C.; Pohl, T.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.; Hazzard, K. R. A.; Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.

    2016-02-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the effects of Rydberg interactions on Autler-Townes spectra of ultracold gases of atomic strontium. Realizing two-photon Rydberg excitation via a long-lived triplet state allows us to probe the regime where Rydberg state decay presents the dominant decoherence mechanism. The effects of Rydberg interactions are observed in shifts, asymmetries, and broadening of the measured atom-loss spectra. The experiment is analyzed within a one-body density-matrix approach, accounting for interaction-induced level shifts and dephasing through nonlinear terms that approximately incorporate correlations due to the Rydberg blockade. This description yields good agreement with our experimental observations for short excitation times. For longer excitation times, the loss spectrum is altered qualitatively, suggesting additional dephasing mechanisms beyond the standard blockade mechanism based on pure van der Waals interactions.

  7. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-04-01

    In this report we will show some new Q related seismic attributes on the Burlington-Seitel data set. One example will be called Energy Absorption Attribute (EAA) and is based on a spectral analysis. The EAA algorithm is designed to detect a sudden increase in the rate of exponential decay in the relatively higher frequency portion of the spectrum. In addition we will show results from a hybrid attribute that combines attenuation with relative acoustic impedance to give a better indication of commercial gas saturation.

  8. Subverting the adaptive immune resistance mechanism to improve clinical responses to immune checkpoint blockade therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young J

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)-expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and clinical responsiveness to the PD-1 blocking antibody nivolumab implicates adaptive immune evasion mechanisms in cancer. We review our findings that tumor cell PD-L1 expression is induced by interferon γ (IFNγ) producing TILs. We provide a mechanistic rationale for combining IFNγ+ T helper type 1 (Th1)-inducing cancer vaccines with PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade. PMID:25964860

  9. CT-guided thoracic sympathetic blockade for palmar hyperhidrosis: Immediate results and postoperative quality of life.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Guo; Fei, Yong; Huang, Bing; Yao, Ming

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results, complications, and degree of satisfaction among patients who underwent a CT-guided percutaneous puncture thoracic sympathetic blockade. A total of 186 patients underwent CT-guided thoracic sympathetic blockade based on case histories and a prospective pre- and postoperative questionnaire survey. The study sample was composed of 93 patients with an age range from 18 to 34years and a diagnosis with primary palmar hyperhidrosis (severe in some patients). Percutaneous puncture thoracic sympathetic blockade guided by CT was performed under local anesthesia in all patients. Heart rate (HR), non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP), arterial oxygen saturation (SPO2), perfusion index (PI), and palmar temperature (T) were monitored before and after treatment. Follow-up included a questionnaire on life quality and degree of satisfaction. Ten minutes after treatment, the SPO2, PI, and temperature all raised remarkably ([92.75±2.02]% vs. [98.85±1.09]%, [1.55±0.69]% vs. [8.60±0.94]%, [30.95±1.27]°C vs. [35.75±0.55]°C, respectively, P<0.001). The therapeutic success rate was 96.7%. No operative mortality was recorded. No complications were observed, except transient bradycardia in one patient and transient injection site pain in 25 patients. Of the 89 patients who were monitored over a period of 6-12months through follow-up interviews and questionnaires, 46% developed compensatory hyperhidrosis, 87.6% reported improvement in their quality of life. CT-guided percutaneous puncture thoracic sympathetic blockade is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive technique for the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis. Despite the high rate of compensatory hyperhidrosis, it produces a high rate of patient satisfaction.

  10. Violation of detailed balance for charge-transfer statistics in Coulomb-blockade systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmann, Philipp; König, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    We discuss the possibility to generate in Coulomb-blockade systems steady states that violate detailed balance. This includes both voltage biased and non-biased scenarios. The violation of detailed balance yields that the charge-transfer statistics for electrons tunneling into an island experiencing strong Coulomb interaction is different from the statistics for tunneling out. This can be experimentally tested by time-resolved measurement of the island's charge state. We demonstrate this claim for two model systems.

  11. The genomic landscape of response to EGFR blockade in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bertotti, Andrea; Papp, Eniko; Jones, Siân; Adleff, Vilmos; Anagnostou, Valsamo; Lupo, Barbara; Sausen, Mark; Phallen, Jillian; Hruban, Carolyn A; Tokheim, Collin; Niknafs, Noushin; Nesselbush, Monica; Lytle, Karli; Sassi, Francesco; Cottino, Francesca; Migliardi, Giorgia; Zanella, Eugenia R; Ribero, Dario; Russolillo, Nadia; Mellano, Alfredo; Muratore, Andrea; Paraluppi, Gianluca; Salizzoni, Mauro; Marsoni, Silvia; Kragh, Michael; Lantto, Johan; Cassingena, Andrea; Li, Qing Kay; Karchin, Rachel; Scharpf, Robert; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Siena, Salvatore; Diaz, Luis A; Trusolino, Livio; Velculescu, Victor E

    2015-10-08

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, with 1.2 million patients diagnosed annually. In late-stage colorectal cancer, the most commonly used targeted therapies are the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab, which prevent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. Recent studies have identified alterations in KRAS and other genes as likely mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance to anti-EGFR antibody therapy. Despite these efforts, additional mechanisms of resistance to EGFR blockade are thought to be present in colorectal cancer and little is known about determinants of sensitivity to this therapy. To examine the effect of somatic genetic changes in colorectal cancer on response to anti-EGFR antibody therapy, here we perform complete exome sequence and copy number analyses of 129 patient-derived tumour grafts and targeted genomic analyses of 55 patient tumours, all of which were KRAS wild-type. We analysed the response of tumours to anti-EGFR antibody blockade in tumour graft models and in clinical settings and functionally linked therapeutic responses to mutational data. In addition to previously identified genes, we detected mutations in ERBB2, EGFR, FGFR1, PDGFRA, and MAP2K1 as potential mechanisms of primary resistance to this therapy. Novel alterations in the ectodomain of EGFR were identified in patients with acquired resistance to EGFR blockade. Amplifications and sequence changes in the tyrosine kinase receptor adaptor gene IRS2 were identified in tumours with increased sensitivity to anti-EGFR therapy. Therapeutic resistance to EGFR blockade could be overcome in tumour graft models through combinatorial therapies targeting actionable genes. These analyses provide a systematic approach to evaluating response to targeted therapies in human cancer, highlight new mechanisms of responsiveness to anti-EGFR therapies, and delineate new avenues for intervention in managing colorectal cancer.

  12. Touch Perception Altered by Chronic Pain and by Opioid Blockade1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Gracely, John L.; Richards, Emily A.; Olausson, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Touch plays a significant role in human social behavior and social communication, and its rewarding nature has been suggested to involve opioids. Opioid blockade in monkeys leads to increased solicitation and receipt of grooming, suggesting heightened enjoyment of touch. We sought to study the role of endogenous opioids in perception of affective touch in healthy adults and in patients with fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition shown to involve reduced opioid receptor availability. The pleasantness of touch has been linked to the activation of C-tactile fibers, which respond maximally to slow gentle touch and correlate with ratings of pleasantness. We administered naloxone to patients and healthy controls to directly observe the consequences of µ-opioid blockade on the perceived pleasantness and intensity of touch. We found that at baseline chronic pain patients showed a blunted distinction between slow and fast brushing for both intensity and pleasantness, suggesting reduced C-tactile touch processing. In addition, we found a differential effect of opioid blockade on touch perception in healthy subjects and pain patients. In healthy individuals, opioid blockade showed a trend toward increased ratings of touch pleasantness, while in chronic pain patients it significantly decreased ratings of touch intensity. Further, in healthy individuals, naloxone-induced increase in touch pleasantness was associated with naloxone-induced decreased preference for slow touch, suggesting a possible effect of opioid levels on processing of C-tactile fiber input. These findings suggest a role for endogenous opioids in touch processing, and provide further evidence for altered opioid functioning in chronic pain patients. PMID:27022625

  13. Genetic Basis for Clinical Response to CTLA-4 Blockade in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Zaretsky, Jesse M.; Desrichard, Alexis; Walsh, Logan A.; Postow, Michael A.; Wong, Phillip; Ho, Teresa S.; Hollmann, Travis J.; Bruggeman, Cameron; Kannan, Kasthuri; Li, Yanyun; Elipenahli, Ceyhan; Liu, Cailian; Harbison, Christopher T.; Wang, Lisu; Ribas, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immune checkpoint inhibitors are effective cancer treatments, but molecular determinants of clinical benefit are unknown. Ipilimumab and tremelimumab are antibodies against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4). Anti–CTLA-4 treatment prolongs overall survival in patients with melanoma. CTLA-4 blockade activates T cells and enables them to destroy tumor cells. METHODS We obtained tumor tissue from patients with melanoma who were treated with ipilimumab or tremelimumab. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on tumors and matched blood samples. Somatic mutations and candidate neoantigens generated from these mutations were characterized. Neoantigen peptides were tested for the ability to activate lymphocytes from ipilimumab-treated patients. RESULTS Malignant melanoma exomes from 64 patients treated with CTLA-4 blockade were characterized with the use of massively parallel sequencing. A discovery set consisted of 11 patients who derived a long-term clinical benefit and 14 patients who derived a minimal benefit or no benefit. Mutational load was associated with the degree of clinical benefit (P = 0.01) but alone was not sufficient to predict benefit. Using genomewide somatic neoepitope analysis and patient-specific HLA typing, we identified candidate tumor neoantigens for each patient. We elucidated a neo-antigen landscape that is specifically present in tumors with a strong response to CTLA-4 blockade. We validated this signature in a second set of 39 patients with melanoma who were treated with anti–CTLA-4 antibodies. Predicted neoantigens activated T cells from the patients treated with ipilimumab. CONCLUSIONS These findings define a genetic basis for benefit from CTLA-4 blockade in melanoma and provide a rationale for examining exomes of patients for whom anti–CTLA-4 agents are being considered. (Funded by the Frederick Adler Fund and others.) PMID:25409260

  14. Cyclooxygenase blockade limits blood flow to collateral-dependent myocardium during exercise.

    PubMed

    Altman, J D; Klassen, C L; Bache, R J

    1995-11-01

    Cyclooxygenase blockade has been found to cause vasoconstriction of coronary collateral vessels in open-chest animals. This study was carried out to determine whether cyclooxygenase blockade can limit blood flow to collateral-dependent myocardium during exercise. Studies were performed in 8 adult mongrel dogs in which intermittent followed by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery produced an area of collateral-dependent myocardium. Myocardial blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres at rest and during treadmill exercise to produce heart rates of 215 +/-0 7 beats/min. At rest collateral zone blood flow (1.00 +/- 0.10 ml/min per g) was significantly less than normal zone flow (1.23 +/- 0.14) (P < 0.05). During control exercise blood flow increased 91 +/- 22% in the collateral zone and 102 +/- 28% in the normal zone (each P < 0.05). Thirty minutes after cyclooxygenase blockade with indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.v.) blood flow in the normal zone and the collateral zone was not different from control during resting conditions. Indomethacin did not change heart rate or arterial pressure during exercise, but significantly increased the aortic-to-distal coronary pressure gradient from 33 +/- 3 to 40 +/- 5 mmHg (P < 0.05). Indomethacin increased transcollateral resistance during exercise by 42 +/- 10% (P < 0.05); this was associated with a 27 +/- 11% decrease in subendocardial flow in the collateral zone (P < 0.05) with no significant change in subepicardial flow, and no change in normal zone blood flow. These findings demonstrate that in the intact awake animal cyclooxygenase blockade causes coronary collateral vasoconstriction which can impair blood flow to the dependent myocardium during exercise.

  15. N(N)-nicotinic blockade as an acute human model of autonomic failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Black, B. K.; Lance, R. H.; Squillante, M. D.; Costa, F.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pure autonomic failure has been conceptualized as deficient sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation. Several recent observations in chronic autonomic failure, however, cannot be explained simply by loss of autonomic innervation, at least according to our current understanding. To simulate acute autonomic failure, we blocked N(N)-nicotinic receptors with intravenous trimethaphan (6+/-0.4 mg/min) in 7 healthy subjects (4 men, 3 women, aged 32+/-3 years, 68+/-4 kg, 171+/-5 cm). N(N)-Nicotinic receptor blockade resulted in near-complete interruption of sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents as indicated by a battery of autonomic function tests. With trimethaphan, small postural changes from the horizontal were associated with significant blood pressure changes without compensatory changes in heart rate. Gastrointestinal motility, pupillary function, saliva production, and tearing were profoundly suppressed with trimethaphan. Plasma norepinephrine level decreased from 1.1+/-0.12 nmol/L (180+/-20 pg/mL) at baseline to 0.23+/-0.05 nmol/L (39+/-8 pg/mL) with trimethaphan (P<.001). There was a more than 16-fold increase in plasma vasopressin (P<.01) and no change in plasma renin activity. We conclude that blockade of N(N)-cholinergic receptors is useful to simulate the hemodynamic alterations of acute autonomic failure in humans. The loss of function with acute N(N)-cholinergic blockade is more complete than in most cases of chronic autonomic failure. This difference may be exploited to elucidate the contributions of acute denervation and chronic adaptation to the pathophysiology of autonomic failure. N(N)-Cholinergic blockade may also be applied to study human cardiovascular physiology and pharmacology in the absence of confounding baroreflexes.

  16. Overcoming Drug Resistant Prostate Cancer with APE1/Ref 1 Blockade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0525 TITLE: Overcoming Drug -Resistant Prostate Cancer with APE1/Ref-1 Blockade PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Travis...Jerde RECIPIENT: TRUSTEES OF INDIANA UNIVERSITY REPORT DATE: October 2015 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and...REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Overcoming Drug -Resistant Prostate Cancer

  17. Overcoming Drug Resistant Prostate Cancer with APE1/Ref-1 Blockade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0525 TITLE: Overcoming Drug -Resistant Prostate Cancer with APE1/Ref-1 Blockade PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Travis...Jerde RECIPIENT: TRUSTEES OF INDIANA UNIVERSITY REPORT DATE: October 2015 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and...REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Overcoming Drug -Resistant Prostate Cancer

  18. Improvement of sodium status to optimize the efficacy of Renin-Angiotensin system blockade.

    PubMed

    Laverman, Gozewijn D; Navis, Gerjan

    2011-12-01

    Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) offers superior renoprotection in the treatment of patients with hypertension, but the efficacy of RAAS inhibition strongly depends on sodium status, presumably in relation to extracellular volume status. Because assessing volume status by physical examination is challenging, 24-hour urine collection and NT-proBNP levels are useful tools for guiding volume management and achieving sodium status targets.

  19. Effect of {beta}{sub 1} adrenergic receptor blockade on myocardial blood flow and vasodilatory capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Boettcher, M.; Czernin, J.; Sun, K.

    1997-03-01

    The {beta}{sub 1} receptor blockade reduces cardiac work and may thereby lower myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest. The effect of {beta}{sub 1} receptor blockade on hyperemic MBF is unknown. To evaluate the effect of selective {beta}{sub 1} receptor blockade on MBF at rest and during dipyridamole induced hyperemia, 10 healthy volunteers (8 men, 2 women, mean age 24 {+-} 5 yr) were studied using {sup 13}N-ammonia PET (two-compartment model) under control conditions and again during metoprolol (50 mg orally 12 hr and 1 hr before the study). The resting rate pressure product (6628 {+-} 504 versus 5225 {+-} 807) and heart rate (63 {+-} 6-54 {plus_minus} 5 bpm) declined during metoprolol (p < 0.05). Similarly, heart rate and rate pressure product declined from the baseline dipyridamole study to dipyridamole plus metoprolol (p < 0.05). Resting MBF declined in proportion to cardiac work by approximately 20% from 0.61 {+-} 0.09-0.51 {+-} 0.10 ml/g/min (p < 0.05). In contrast, hyperemic MBF increased when metoprolol was added to dipyridamole (1.86 {plus_minus} 0.27 {+-} 0.45 ml/g/min; p<0.05). The decrease in resting MBF together with the increase in hyperemic MBF resulted in a significant increase in the myocardial flow reserve during metoprolol (3.14 {+-} 0.80-4.61 {+-} 0.68; p<0.01). The {beta}{sub 1} receptor blockade increases coronary vasodilatory capacity and myocardial flow reserve. However, the mechanisms accounting for this finding remain uncertain. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The Genomic Landscape of Response to EGFR Blockade in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bertotti, Andrea; Papp, Eniko; Jones, Siân; Adleff, Vilmos; Anagnostou, Valsamo; Lupo, Barbara; Sausen, Mark; Phallen, Jillian; Hruban, Carolyn A.; Tokheim, Collin; Niknafs, Noushin; Nesselbush, Monica; Lytle, Karli; Sassi, Francesco; Cottino, Francesca; Migliardi, Giorgia; Zanella, Eugenia R.; Ribero, Dario; Russolillo, Nadia; Mellano, Alfredo; Muratore, Andrea; Paraluppi, Gianluca; Salizzoni, Mauro; Marsoni, Silvia; Kragh, Michael; Lantto, Johan; Cassingena, Andrea; Li, Qing Kay; Karchin, Rachel; Scharpf, Robert; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Siena, Salvatore; Diaz, Luis A.; Trusolino, Livio; Velculescu, Victor E.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer world-wide with 1.2 million patients diagnosed yearly. In late stage CRC, the most commonly used targeted therapies are monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab, which inactivate EGFR1. Recent studies have identified alterations in KRAS2–4 and other genes5–13 as likely mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance to anti-EGFR antibody therapy. Despite these efforts, additional mechanisms of resistance to EGFR blockade are thought to be present in CRC and little is known about determinants of sensitivity to this therapy. To examine the effect of somatic genetic changes in CRC on response to anti-EGFR antibody therapy, we performed complete exome sequence and copy number analyses of 129 patient-derived tumorgrafts and targeted genomic analyses of 55 patient tumors, all of which were KRAS wild-type. We analyzed the response of tumors to anti-EGFR antibody blockade in tumorgraft models or in clinical settings. In addition to previously identified genes, we detected mutations in ERBB2, EGFR, FGFR1, PDGFRA, and MAP2K1 as potential mechanisms of primary resistance to this therapy. Novel alterations in the ectodomain of EGFR were identified in patients with acquired resistance to EGFR blockade. Amplifications and sequence changes in the tyrosine kinase receptor adaptor gene IRS2 were identified in tumors with increased sensitivity to anti-EGFR therapy. Therapeutic resistance to EGFR blockade could be overcome in tumorgraft models through combinatorial therapies targeting actionable genes. These analyses provide a systematic approach to evaluate response to targeted therapies in human cancer, highlight new mechanisms of responsiveness to anti-EGFR therapies, and provide new avenues for intervention in the management of CRC. PMID:26416732

  1. NDRG1 attenuates epithelial-mesenchymal transition of nasopharyngeal cancer cells via blocking Smad2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-Yan; Xie, Wei-Bing; Yang, Fang; Xiao, Li-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Shi-You; Li, Zu-Guo

    2015-09-01

    N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis in different cancers. However, its role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains unknown. We found that NDRG1 expression level was high in nasopharyngeal cancer 5-8F cells but low in 5-8F-LN cells with lymphatic metastasis potential. Knockdown of NDRG1 by shRNA promoted 5-8F cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and its tumorigenesis in vivo. Moreover, NDRG1 deficiency induced an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of 5-8F cells as shown by an attenuation of E-cadherin and an induction of N-cadherin and vimentin expression. NDRG1 knockdown also enhanced Smad2 expression and phosphorylation. Smad2 signaling was attenuated in 5-8F cells but was significantly activated in 5-8F-LN cells. Knockdown of Smad2 restored E-cadherin but attenuated N-cadherin expression in NDRG1-deficient 5-8F cells, suggesting a reduction of EMT. Consistently, blockade of Smad2 in 5-8F-LN cells increased E-cadherin while diminishing N-cadherin and vimentin expression. These data indicate that Smad2 mediates the NDRG1 deficiency-induced EMT of 5-8F cells. In tumors derived from NDRG1-deficient 5-8F cells, E-cadherin expression was inhibited while vimentin and Smad2 were increased in a large number of cancer cells. Most importantly, NDRG1 expression was attenuated in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues, resulted in a lower survival rate in patients. The NDRG1 was further decreased in the detached nasopharyngeal cancer cells, which was associated with a further reduced survival rate in patients with lymphatic metastasis. Taken together, these results demonstrated that NDRG1 prevents nasopharyngeal tumorigenesis and metastasis via inhibiting Smad2-mediated EMT of nasopharyngeal cells.

  2. Imaging Rayleigh wave attenuation with USArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xueyang; Dalton, Colleen A.; Jin, Ge; Gaherty, James B.; Shen, Yang

    2016-07-01

    The EarthScope USArray provides an opportunity to obtain detailed images of the continental upper mantle at an unprecedented scale. The majority of mantle models derived from USArray data to date contain spatial variations in seismic-wave speed; however, in many cases these data sets do not by themselves allow a non-unique interpretation. Joint interpretation of seismic attenuation and velocity models can improve upon the interpretations based only on velocity and provide important constraints on the temperature, composition, melt content, and volatile content of the mantle. The surface wave amplitudes that constrain upper-mantle attenuation are sensitive to factors in addition to attenuation, including the earthquake source excitation, focusing and defocusing by elastic structure, and local site amplification. Because of the difficulty of isolating attenuation from these other factors, little is known about the attenuation structure of the North American upper mantle. In this study, Rayleigh wave traveltime and amplitude in the period range 25-100 s are measured using an interstation cross-correlation technique, which takes advantage of waveform similarity at nearby stations. Several estimates of Rayleigh wave attenuation and site amplification are generated at each period, using different approaches to separate the effects of attenuation and local site amplification on amplitude. It is assumed that focusing and defocusing effects can be described by the Laplacian of the traveltime field. All approaches identify the same large-scale patterns in attenuation, including areas where the attenuation values are likely contaminated by unmodelled focusing and defocusing effects. Regionally averaged attenuation maps are constructed after removal of the contaminated attenuation values, and the variations in intrinsic shear attenuation that are suggested by these Rayleigh wave attenuation maps are explored.

  3. [Sympathetically maintained pain (SMP): phentolamine test vs sympathetic nerve blockade. Comparison of two diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Wehnert, Y; Müller, B; Larsen, B; Kohn, D

    2002-11-01

    The objective of our study was to clarify whether the phentolamine test is as suitable as sympathetic blockade in diagnosing cases of sympathetically maintained pain. The specificity and the sensitivity of both procedures were examined within a prospective and randomized study. Both a local sympathetic blockade and an intravenous phentolamine infusion were carried out in 29 patients with persistent pain in the area of the upper or lower extremities. A significant improvement was defined as reduction of pain of at least 50%. There were no complications in either test procedure. The phentolamine test registers sympathetically maintained pain well when it has a positive result (specificity of 83%). However, the phentolamine test shows only a low sensitivity of 69%. The phentolamine test, on the other hand, can be realized very easily and safely. Therefore, based on the results obtained, it is recommended that the phentolamine test be applied for primary diagnosis. In case of a negative result, further diagnosis should follow subsequently, for example with local sympathetic blockade.

  4. Gastrin-releasing peptide blockade as a broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory therapy for asthma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shutang; Potts, Erin N.; Cuttitta, Frank; Foster, W. Michael; Sunday, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is synthesized by pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in inflammatory lung diseases, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Many BPD infants develop asthma, a serious disorder of intermittent airway obstruction. Despite extensive research, early mechanisms of asthma remain controversial. The incidence of asthma is growing, now affecting >300 million people worldwide. To test the hypothesis that GRP mediates asthma, we used two murine models: ozone exposure for air pollution-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR), and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway disease. BALB/c mice were given small molecule GRP blocking agent 77427, or GRP blocking antibody 2A11, before exposure to ozone or OVA challenge. In both models, GRP blockade abrogated AHR and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) macrophages and granulocytes, and decreased BAL cytokines implicated in asthma, including those typically derived from Th1 (e.g., IL-2, TNFα), Th2 (e.g., IL-5, IL-13), Th17 (IL-17), macrophages (e.g., MCP-1, IL-1), and neutrophils (KC = IL-8). Dexamethasone generally had smaller effects on all parameters. Macrophages, T cells, and neutrophils express GRP receptor (GRPR). GRP blockade diminished serine phosphorylation of GRPR with ozone or OVA. Thus, GRP mediates AHR and airway inflammation in mice, suggesting that GRP blockade is promising as a broad-spectrum therapeutic approach to treat and/or prevent asthma in humans. PMID:21252304

  5. Baroreflex sensitivity is higher during acute psychological stress in healthy subjects under β-adrenergic blockade

    PubMed Central

    Truijen, Jasper; Davis, Shyrin C.A.T.; Stok, Wim J.; Kim, Yu-Sok; van Westerloo, David J.; Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom; Westerhof, Berend E.; Karemaker, John M.; van Lieshout, Johannes J.

    2010-01-01

    Acute psychological stress challenges the cardiovascular system with an increase in BP (blood pressure), HR (heart rate) and reduced BRS (baroreflex sensitivity). β-adrenergic blockade enhances BRS during rest, but its effect on BRS during acute psychological stress is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that BRS is higher during acute psychological stress in healthy subjects under β-adrenergic blockade. Twenty healthy novice male bungee jumpers were randomized and studied with (PROP, n=10) or without (CTRL, n=10) propranolol. BP and HR responses and BRS [cross-correlation time-domain (BRSTD) and cross-spectral frequency-domain (BRSFD) analysis] were evaluated from 30 min prior up to 2 h after the jump. HR, cardiac output and pulse pressure were lower in the PROP group throughout the study. Prior to the bungee jump, BRS was higher in the PROP group compared with the CTRL group [BRSTD: 28 (24–42) compared with 17 (16–28) ms·mmHg−1, P<0.05; BRSFD: 27 (20–34) compared with 14 (9–19) ms·mmHg−1, P<0.05; values are medians (interquartile range)]. BP declined after the jump in both groups, and post-jump BRS did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, during acute psychological stress, BRS is higher in healthy subjects treated with non-selective β-adrenergic blockade with significantly lower HR but comparable BP. PMID:20828371

  6. Phonon blockade in a nanomechanical resonator resonantly coupled to a qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xun-Wei; Chen, Ai-Xi; Liu, Yu-xi

    2016-12-01

    We study phonon statistics in a nanomechanical resonator (NAMR) which is resonantly coupled to a qubit. We find that there are two different mechanisms for phonon blockade in such a resonantly coupled NAMR-qubit system. One is due to the strong anharmonicity of the NAMR-qubit system with large coupling strength; the other one is due to the destructive interference between different paths for two-phonon excitation in the NAMR-qubit system with a moderate coupling strength. We find that the phonon blockade is fragile towards thermal mode occupations and can only be observed for NAMR being at ultracold effective temperature. In order to enlarge the mean phonon number for strong phonon antibunching with a moderate NAMR-qubit coupling strength, we assume that two external driving fields are applied to the NAMR and qubit, respectively. In this case, we find that the phonon blockades under two mechanisms can appear at the same frequency regime by optimizing the strength ratio and phase difference of the two external driving fields.

  7. The Impact of CXCR4 Blockade on the Survival of Rat Brain Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Merino, José Joaquín; Garcimartín, Alba; López-Oliva, María Elvira; Benedí, Juana; González, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) plays a role in neuronal survival/cell repair and also contributes to the progression of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) binds to CXCR4. In this study, we have investigated whether CXCR4 blockade by AMD3100 (a CXCR4 antagonist, member of bicyclam family) may affect neuronal survival in the absence of insult. Thus, we have measured the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), Bax and Bcl-2 protein translocation, and cytochrome c release in AMD3100-treated brain cortical neurons at 7 DIV (days in vitro). Methods: For this aim, AMD3100 (200 nM) was added to cortical neurons for 24 h, and several biomarkers like cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, caspase-3/9 activity, proteins Bax and Bcl-2 translocation, and cytochrome c release were analyzed by immunoblot. Results: CXCR4 blockade by AMD3100 (200 nM, 24 h) induces mitochondrial hyperpolarization and increases caspase-3/9 hyperpolarization without affecting LDH release as compared to untreated controls. AMD3100 also increases cytochrome c release and promotes Bax translocation to the mitochondria, whereas it raises cytosolic Bcl-2 levels in brain cortical neurons. Conclusion: CXCR4 blockade induces cellular death via intrinsic apoptosis in rat brain cortical neurons in absence of insult. PMID:27916896

  8. IL-7 receptor blockade following T cell depletion promotes long-term allograft survival

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Hoa-Le; Boeffard, Françoise; Longis, Julie; Danger, Richard; Martinet, Bernard; Haspot, Fabienne; Vanhove, Bernard; Brouard, Sophie; Soulillou, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    T cell depletion is commonly used in organ transplantation for immunosuppression; however, a restoration of T cell homeostasis following depletion leads to increased memory T cells, which may promote transplant rejection. The cytokine IL-7 is important for controlling lymphopoiesis under both normal and lymphopenic conditions. Here, we investigated whether blocking IL-7 signaling with a mAb that targets IL-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) alone or following T cell depletion confers an advantage for allograft survival in murine transplant models. We found that IL-7R blockade alone induced indefinite pancreatic islet allograft survival if anti–IL-7R treatment was started 3 weeks before graft. IL-7R blockade following anti-CD4– and anti-CD8–mediated T cell depletion markedly prolonged skin allograft survival. Furthermore, IL-7 inhibition in combination with T cell depletion synergized with either CTLA-4Ig administration or suboptimal doses of tacrolimus to induce long-term skin graft acceptance in this stringent transplant model. Together, these therapies inhibited T cell reconstitution, decreased memory T cell numbers, increased the relative frequency of Tregs, and abrogated both cellular and humoral alloimmune responses. Our data suggest that IL-7R blockade following T cell depletion has potential as a robust, immunosuppressive therapy in transplantation. PMID:24569454

  9. Hepatic structural enhancement and insulin resistance amelioration due to AT1 receptor blockade

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on the development of obesity and its comorbidities has been extensively addressed. Both circulating and local RAS components are up-regulated in obesity and involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease onset. Pharmacological manipulations of RAS are viable strategies to tackle metabolic impairments caused by the excessive body fat mass. Renin inhibitors rescue insulin resistance, but do not have marked effects on hepatic steatosis. However, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) yield beneficial hepatic remodeling. ARBs elicit body mass loss and normalize insulin levels, tackling insulin resistance. Also, this drug class increases adiponectin levels, besides countering interleukin-6, tumoral necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor-beta 1. The latter is essential to prevent from liver fibrosis. When conjugated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activation, ARB fully rescues fatty liver. These effects might be orchestrated by an indirect up-regulation of MAS receptor due to angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) blockade. These associations of ARB with PPAR activation and ACE2-angiotensin (ANG) (1-7)-MAS receptor axis deserve a better understanding. This editorial provides a brief overview of the current knowledge regarding AT1R blockade effects on sensitivity to insulin and hepatic structural alterations as well as the intersections of AT1R blockade with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activation and ACE2-ANG (1-7) - MAS receptor axis. PMID:28144388

  10. Hypotensive effect of angiotensin II after AT1-receptor blockade with losartan.

    PubMed

    Matys, T; Pawlak, R; Kucharewicz, I; Chabielska, E; Buczko, W

    2000-03-01

    Recent data suggest that hypotensive effect of losartan may not be attributed solely to AT1-receptor blockade, but also to excessive AT2 or other receptors stimulation by elevated angiotensin II and its derivative peptides. Therefore in the present study we examined the effect of angiotensin II on mean blood pressure after AT -receptor blockade with losartan. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetised and received injection of either losartan (30 mg/kg, 1 ml/kg, i.v.) or saline (the same volume and route) followed by bolus injection of angiotensin II (100, 300 or 1,000 ng/kg; 1 ml/kg, i.v.) or 1-hour infusion of angiotensin II (200 ng/kg/min; 2.5 ml/kg/h, i.v.). Control animals received saline instead. Angiotensin II, given either as the injection or the infusion, caused an evident increase in mean blood pressure (p ranged from 0.05 to 0.001 depending on the experimental group). Losartan caused a rapid drop in mean blood pressure and blunted the hypertensive effect of angiotensin II (p < 0.01). Moreover, in the losartan-pretreated animals the hypotensive phase was enhanced by the infusion, but not single injection of angiotensin II, which was most evident from the 30 th minute of observation (p < 0.05 vs control). In conclusion, hypotensive effect of losartan may be amplified by simultaneous increase in angiotensin II level, the situation observed during chronic AT1-receptor blockade.

  11. System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control: effects of posture and autonomic blockade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, T. J.; Appel, M. L.; Mukkamala, R.; Mathias, J. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    We applied system identification to the analysis of fluctuations in heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize quantitatively the physiological mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these variables. We characterized two autonomically mediated coupling mechanisms [the heart rate baroreflex (HR baroreflex) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (ILV-HR)] and two mechanically mediated coupling mechanisms [the blood pressure wavelet generated with each cardiac contraction (circulatory mechanics) and the direct mechanical effects of respiration on blood pressure (ILV-->ABP)]. We evaluated the method in humans studied in the supine and standing postures under control conditions and under conditions of beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic pharmacological blockades. Combined beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade abolished the autonomically mediated couplings while preserving the mechanically mediated coupling. Selective autonomic blockade and postural changes also altered the couplings in a manner consistent with known physiological mechanisms. System identification is an "inverse-modeling" technique that provides a means for creating a closed-loop model of cardiovascular regulation for an individual subject without altering the underlying physiological control mechanisms.

  12. Hepatic structural enhancement and insulin resistance amelioration due to AT1 receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2017-01-18

    Over the last decade, the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on the development of obesity and its comorbidities has been extensively addressed. Both circulating and local RAS components are up-regulated in obesity and involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease onset. Pharmacological manipulations of RAS are viable strategies to tackle metabolic impairments caused by the excessive body fat mass. Renin inhibitors rescue insulin resistance, but do not have marked effects on hepatic steatosis. However, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) yield beneficial hepatic remodeling. ARBs elicit body mass loss and normalize insulin levels, tackling insulin resistance. Also, this drug class increases adiponectin levels, besides countering interleukin-6, tumoral necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor-beta 1. The latter is essential to prevent from liver fibrosis. When conjugated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activation, ARB fully rescues fatty liver. These effects might be orchestrated by an indirect up-regulation of MAS receptor due to angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) blockade. These associations of ARB with PPAR activation and ACE2-angiotensin (ANG) (1-7)-MAS receptor axis deserve a better understanding. This editorial provides a brief overview of the current knowledge regarding AT1R blockade effects on sensitivity to insulin and hepatic structural alterations as well as the intersections of AT1R blockade with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activation and ACE2-ANG (1-7) - MAS receptor axis.

  13. Two stages in lymphocyte mediator production by differential susceptibility to blockade using niridazole.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, J C; Fajardo, I; David, J R

    1975-01-01

    Sera from guinea pigs given niridazole, an anti-schistosomal compound, have been shown to reversibly block the production of antigen-induced migration inhibitory factor by sensitized guinea pig lymph node cells. Since niridazole itself has no effect in vitro, the blockade of production of migration inhibitory factor is probably due to drug metabolites in the serum. We report here further studies on the mechanism of this drug-induced suppression of cellular hypersensitivity; the data show that niridazole active serum does not block the production of migration inhibitory factor once it has been initiated. Indeed, if niridazole active serum is added a little as 60 sec after the addition of antigen, the lymphocytes will produce migration inhibitory factor. These results suggest the presence of at least two stages in production of migration inhibitory factor after the addition of antigen to lymphocytes. The first, lasting less than 60 sec, is susceptible to blockade by niridazole active serum; the second is not. The elucidation of the mechanism of this blockade should lead to further understanding of the early events after antigen triggering of sensitized lymphocytes. PMID:1105584

  14. The effect of beta blockade on stress-induced cognitive dysfunction in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Faigel, H C

    1991-07-01

    Test anxiety is severely disabling to students whose fear of examinations causes cognitive dysfunction that paralyzes their thinking the way stage fright impairs actors ability to act. In studies using subjective evaluations among actors and musicians, beta-blockade relieved stage fright and has been used informally to treat test anxiety in students without objective measures of effectiveness. The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) was chosen as an objective test instrument to confirm the effect of beta-blockade on test anxiety and performance. Thirty-two high school students who had already taken the SAT before enrolling in this study and who had stress-induced cognitive dysfunction on exams were given 40 mg of propranolol one hour before they retook those tests. Mean SAT scores with beta-blockade were 130 points higher than on the initial SAT done before entering the study without medication (p = less than .01). A single dose of propranolol immediately before the SAT permitted improved performance in students prone to cognitive dysfunction due to test anxiety.

  15. The organ-protective effect of N-type Ca(2+) channel blockade.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Koichiro; Kimura, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    The six subtypes of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) mediate a wide range of physiological responses. N-type VDCCs (NCCs) were originally identified as a high voltage-activated Ca(2+) channel selectively blocked by omega-conotoxin (ω-CTX)-GVIA. Predominantly localized in the nervous system, NCCs are key regulators of neurotransmitter release. Both pharmacological blockade with ω-CTX-GVIA and, more recently, mice lacking CNCNA1B, encoding the α1B subunit of NCC, have been used to assess the physiological and pathophysiological functions of NCCs, revealing in part their significant roles in sympathetic nerve activation and nociceptive transmission. The evidence now available indicates that NCCs are a potentially useful therapeutic target for the treatment of several pathological conditions. Efforts are therefore being made to develop effective NCC blockers, including both synthetic ω-CTX-GVIA derivatives and small-molecule inhibitors. Cilnidipine, for example, is a dihydropyridine L-type VDCC blocking agent that also possesses significant NCC blocking ability. As over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system appears to contribute to the pathological processes underlying cardiovascular, renal and metabolic diseases, NCC blockade could be a useful approach to treating these ailments. In this review article, we provide an overview of what is currently known about the physiological and pathophysiological activities of NCCs and the potentially beneficial effects of NCC blockade in several disease conditions, in particular cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Differential effects of acetylcholine and glutamate blockade on the spatiotemporal dynamics of retinal waves.

    PubMed

    Sernagor, E; Eglen, S J; O'Donovan, M J

    2000-01-15

    In the immature vertebrate retina, neighboring ganglion cells express spontaneous bursting activity (SBA), resulting in propagating waves. Previous studies suggest that the spontaneous bursting activity, asynchronous between the two eyes, controls the refinement of retinal ganglion cell projections to central visual targets. To understand how the patterns encoded within the waves contribute to the refinement of connections in the visual system, it is necessary to understand how wave propagation is regulated. We have used video-rate calcium imaging of spontaneous bursting activity in chick embryonic retinal ganglion cells to show how glutamatergic and cholinergic connections, two major excitatory synaptic drives involved in spontaneous bursting activity, contribute differentially to the spatiotemporal patterning of the waves. During partial blockade of cholinergic connections, cellular recruitment declines, leading to spatially more restricted waves. The velocity of wave propagation decreases during partial blockade of glutamatergic connections, but cellular recruitment remains substantially higher than during cholinergic blockade, thereby altering correlations in the activity of neighboring and distant ganglion cells. These findings show that cholinergic and glutamatergic connections exert different influences on the spatial and temporal properties of the waves, raising the possibility that they may play distinct roles during visual development.

  17. Durable antitumor responses to CD47 blockade require adaptive immune stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Sockolosky, Jonathan T.; Dougan, Michael; Ingram, Jessica R.; Ho, Chia Chi M.; Kauke, Monique J.; Almo, Steven C.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic antitumor antibodies treat cancer by mobilizing both innate and adaptive immunity. CD47 is an antiphagocytic ligand exploited by tumor cells to blunt antibody effector functions by transmitting an inhibitory signal through its receptor signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα). Interference with the CD47–SIRPα interaction synergizes with tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies to eliminate human tumor xenografts by enhancing macrophage-mediated antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), but synergy between CD47 blockade and ADCP has yet to be demonstrated in immunocompetent hosts. Here, we show that CD47 blockade alone or in combination with a tumor-specific antibody fails to generate antitumor immunity against syngeneic B16F10 tumors in mice. Durable tumor immunity required programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade in combination with an antitumor antibody, with incorporation of CD47 antagonism substantially improving response rates. Our results highlight an underappreciated contribution of the adaptive immune system to anti-CD47 adjuvant therapy and suggest that targeting both innate and adaptive immune checkpoints can potentiate the vaccinal effect of antitumor antibody therapy. PMID:27091975

  18. Investigation of Prolactin Receptor Activation and Blockade Using Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Tallet, Estelle; Fernandez, Isabelle; Zhang, Chi; Salsac, Marion; Gregor, Nathalie; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli; Pin, Jean Philippe; Trinquet, Eric; Goffin, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The prolactin receptor (PRLR) is emerging as a therapeutic target in oncology. Knowledge-based drug design led to the development of a pure PRLR antagonist (Del1-9-G129R-hPRL) that was recently shown to prevent PRL-induced mouse prostate tumorogenesis. In humans, the first gain-of-function mutation of the PRLR (PRLRI146L) was recently identified in breast tumor patients. At the molecular level, the actual mechanism of action of these two novel players in the PRL system remains elusive. In this study, we addressed whether constitutive PRLR activation (PRLRI146L) or PRLR blockade (antagonist) involved alteration of receptor oligomerization and/or of inter-chain distances compared to unstimulated and PRL-stimulated PRLR. Using a combination of various biochemical and spectroscopic approaches (co-IP, blue native electrophoresis, BRET1), we demonstrated that preformed PRLR homodimers are altered neither by PRL- or I146L-induced receptor triggering, nor by antagonist-mediated blockade. These findings were confirmed using a novel time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) technology that allows monitoring distance changes between cell surface tagged receptors. This technology revealed that PRLR blockade or activation did not involve detectable distance changes between extracellular domains of receptor chains within the dimer. This study merges with our previous structural investigations suggesting that the mechanism of PRLR activation solely involves intermolecular contact adaptations leading to subtle intramolecular rearrangements. PMID:22649370

  19. A pharmacological analysis of serotonergic receptors: effects of their activation of blockade in learning.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Hong, E

    1997-02-01

    1. The authors have tested several 5-HT selective agonists and antagonists (5-HT1A/1B, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4), an uptake inhibitor and 5-HT depletors in the autoshaping learning task. 2. The present work deals with the receptors whose stimulation increases or decreases learning. 3. Impaired consolidation of learning was observed after the presynaptic activation of 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 or the blockade of postsynaptic 5-HT2C/2B receptors. 4. In contrast, an improvement occurred after the presynaptic activation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2C, and the blockade of presynaptic 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors. 5. The blockade of postsynaptic 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 receptors and 5-HT inhibition of synthesis and its depletion did no alter learning by themselves. 6. The present data suggest that multiple pre- and postsynaptic serotonergic receptors are involved in the consolidation of learning. 7. Stimulation of most 5-HT receptors increases learning, however, some of 5-HT subtypes seem to limit the data storage. 8. Furthermore, the role of 5-HT receptors in learning seem to require an interaction with glutamatergic, GABAergic and cholinergic neurotransmission systems.

  20. Down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptors by blockade of mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Alcázar, J A; Hernández, I; De la Torre, M P; García, I; Santiago, E; Muñoz-Yagüe, M T; Solís-Herruzo, J A

    1995-10-13

    We have studied the effect of blockade of mitochondrial respiration on the binding of human 125I-TNF alpha to L929 cell receptors. Specific TNF alpha binding was decreased to about 20-40% of controls by blocking mitochondrial respiration. This effect was dose- and time-related and was observed independently of the level at which the respiration was blocked (respiratory chain, proton backflow, ATPase, anaerobiosis). This blockade had no effect on the half-life of the specific TNF alpha binding, the internalization or degradation of TNF alpha-receptor complexes, or the number of TNF alpha-binding sites. Scatchard analysis of TNF alpha binding data indicated a 2-4-fold decrease in the affinity of these binding sites. These effects did not appear to be related to the protein kinase C activity or to reactive oxygen radicals, since they were not antagonized by pretreatment of cells with oxygen radical scavengers, deferoxamine, or inhibitors of protein kinase C. Decrease in TNF alpha binding capacity correlated significantly with cellular ATP content (r = 0.94; p < 0.01) and with the cytocidal activity of TNF alpha against L929 cells. These findings suggest that blockade of mitochondrial respiration down-regulates the binding of TNF alpha to cells, most likely by changing the affinity of receptors for this cytokine. This down-regulation may increase the resistance of cells to TNF alpha cytotoxicity.

  1. Some effects of vagal blockade on abdominal muscle activation and shortening in awake dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Leevers, A M; Road, J D

    1995-01-01

    1. The mechanisms of abdominal muscle activation are thought to be different during expiratory threshold loading (ETL) compared with hypercapnia. Our objectives in the present study were to determine the effects of removing excitatory vagal feedback on abdominal muscle activation, shortening and pattern of recruitment during ETL and hypercapnia. Six tracheotomized dogs were chronically implanted with sonomicrometer transducers and fine wire EMG electrodes in each of the four abdominal muscles. Muscle length changes and EMG activity were studied in the awake dog during ETL (6 dogs) and CO2 rebreathing (3 dogs), before and after vagal blockade. 2. Following vagal blockade, the change in volume (increase in functional residual capacity, FRC) during ETL was greater and active phasic shortening of all the abdominal muscles was reduced, when shortening was compared with a similar change in lung volume. Similarly, at comparable minute ventilation, abdominal muscle active shortening was also reduced during hypercapnia. The internal muscle layer was recruited preferentially in both control and vagally blocked dogs during both ETL and hypercapnia. 3. The degree of recruitment of the abdominal muscles during ETL and hypercapnia in awake dogs is influenced by vagal feedback, but less so than in anaesthetized dogs. These results illustrate the importance of the vagi and abdominal muscle activation in load compensation. However, vagal reflexes are apparently not contributing to the preferential recruitment of the internal muscle layer. In awake dogs during vagal blockade abdominal muscle recruitment still occurs by extravagal mechanisms. PMID:8568685

  2. Monitoring clonal evolution and resistance to EGFR blockade in the blood of metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Siravegna, Giulia; Mussolin, Benedetta; Buscarino, Michela; Corti, Giorgio; Cassingena, Andrea; Crisafulli, Giovanni; Ponzetti, Agostino; Cremolini, Chiara; Amatu, Alessio; Lauricella, Calogero; Lamba, Simona; Hobor, Sebastijan; Avallone, Antonio; Valtorta, Emanuele; Rospo, Giuseppe; Medico, Enzo; Motta, Valentina; Antoniotti, Carlotta; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Veronese, Silvio; Budillon, Alfredo; Montagut, Clara; Racca, Patrizia; Marsoni, Silvia; Falcone, Alfredo; Corcoran, Ryan B.; Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Loupakis, Fotios; Siena, Salvatore; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Bardelli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a genetic disease governed by clonal evolution1. Genotyping CRC tissue is employed for therapeutic purposes but this approach has significant limitations. A tissue sample represents a single snapshot in time, is subjected to selection bias due to tumor heterogeneity, and can be difficult to obtain. We exploited circulating DNA (ctDNA) to genotype colorectal tumors and track clonal evolution during therapies with the anti-EGFR antibodies cetuximab or panitumumab. We identified genomic alterations in KRAS, NRAS, MET, ERBB2, FLT3, EGFR and MAP2K1 in ctDNA of patients with primary or acquired resistance to EGFR blockade. Mutant RAS clones, which rise in blood during EGFR blockade, decline upon withdrawal of anti-EGFR antibodies indicating that clonal evolution continues beyond clinical progression. Pharmacogenomic analysis of CRC cells, which had acquired resistance to cetuximab, reveals that upon antibody withdrawal KRAS clones decay, while the population regains drug sensitivity. ctDNA profiles of patients who benefit from multiple challenging with anti-EGFR antibodies exhibit pulsatile levels of mutant KRAS. These results reveal that the CRC genome adapts dynamically to intermittent drug schedules and provide a molecular explanation for the efficacy of re-challenge therapies based on EGFR blockade. PMID:26030179

  3. Durable antitumor responses to CD47 blockade require adaptive immune stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sockolosky, Jonathan T; Dougan, Michael; Ingram, Jessica R; Ho, Chia Chi M; Kauke, Monique J; Almo, Steven C; Ploegh, Hidde L; Garcia, K Christopher

    2016-05-10

    Therapeutic antitumor antibodies treat cancer by mobilizing both innate and adaptive immunity. CD47 is an antiphagocytic ligand exploited by tumor cells to blunt antibody effector functions by transmitting an inhibitory signal through its receptor signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα). Interference with the CD47-SIRPα interaction synergizes with tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies to eliminate human tumor xenografts by enhancing macrophage-mediated antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), but synergy between CD47 blockade and ADCP has yet to be demonstrated in immunocompetent hosts. Here, we show that CD47 blockade alone or in combination with a tumor-specific antibody fails to generate antitumor immunity against syngeneic B16F10 tumors in mice. Durable tumor immunity required programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade in combination with an antitumor antibody, with incorporation of CD47 antagonism substantially improving response rates. Our results highlight an underappreciated contribution of the adaptive immune system to anti-CD47 adjuvant therapy and suggest that targeting both innate and adaptive immune checkpoints can potentiate the vaccinal effect of antitumor antibody therapy.

  4. Effects of intra-prelimbic prefrontal cortex injection of cannabidiol on anxiety-like behavior: involvement of 5HT1A receptors and previous stressful experience.

    PubMed

    Fogaça, M V; Reis, F M C V; Campos, A C; Guimarães, F S

    2014-03-01

    The prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL) is an important encephalic structure involved in the expression of emotional states. In a previous study, intra-PL injection of cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant, reduced the expression of fear conditioning response. Although its mechanism remains unclear, CBD can facilitate 5HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission when injected into several brain structures. This study was aimed at verifying if intra-PL CBD could also induce anxiolytic-like effect in a conceptually distinct animal model, the elevated plus maze (EPM). We also verified if CBD effects in the EPM and contextual fear conditioning test (CFC) depend on 5HT1A receptors and previous stressful experience. CBD induced opposite effects in the CFC and EPM, being anxiolytic and anxiogenic, respectively. Both responses were prevented by WAY100,635, a 5HT1A receptor antagonist. In animals that had been previously (24h) submitted to a stressful event (2h-restraint) CBD caused an anxiolytic, rather than anxiogenic, effect in the EPM. This anxiolytic response was abolished by previous injection of metyrapone, a glucocorticoid synthesis blocker. Moreover, restraint stress increased 5HT1A receptors expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus, an effect that was attenuated by injection of metyrapone before the restraint procedure. Taken together, these results suggest that CBD modulation of anxiety in the PL depend on 5HT1A-mediated neurotransmission and previous stressful experience.

  5. Blockade of multiple human cardiac potassium currents by the antihistamine terfenadine: possible mechanism for terfenadine-associated cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Crumb, W J; Wible, B; Arnold, D J; Payne, J P; Brown, A M

    1995-01-01

    Use of the antihistamine terfenadine has been associated with QT prolongation and torsade de pointes. One possible mechanism is blockade of cardiac potassium channels. We therefore characterized the effects of terfenadine on potassium currents recorded from isolated human cardiac myocytes. We demonstrated terfenadine block of the transient outward current and a novel, ultra-rapidly activating, delayed rectifier K+ current (IKur), which is very sensitive to 4-aminopyridine. IKur is probably produced by the protein product of Kv1.5a, a Shaker-like potassium channel cDNA cloned from human heart. We also compared terfenadine blockade of fHK (Kv1.5a) currents stably expressed in a human embryonic kidney cell line with terfenadine blockade of IKur in human atrial myocytes. Using the patch-clamp technique, we found that terfenadine produced a time-dependent reduction in Kv1.5a current that was consistent with blockade from the cytoplasmic side of the channel. The terfenadine-sensitive Kv1.5a current in human embryonic kidney cells was similar to the 4-aminopyridine-sensitive current in human atrial myocytes. In addition to blockade of the transient outward current and IKur, terfenadine at clinically relevant concentrations blocked both the rapidly and slowly activating components of the delayed rectifier in human atrial myocytes. Blockade of these K+ currents may contribute to the cardiotoxicity associated with terfenadine usage.

  6. The taurine uptake inhibitor guanidinoethyl sulphonate is an agonist at gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors in cultured murine cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Mellor, J R; Gunthorpe, M J; Randall, A D

    2000-05-26

    In patch clamp experiments the beta-amino acid uptake inhibitor guanidinoethyl sulphonate (GES) activated currents in intact cultured murine cerebellar granule neurones. These responses could be attenuated by the gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptor antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin. With intracellular chloride concentrations of either 20 or 130 mM, GES-induced current responses reversed polarity near the chloride equilibrium potential. When fast applications of agonist were made to excised granule cell macropatches GES responses were dose-dependent and exhibited significant outward rectification. Like taurine (but unlike GABA and beta-alanine) responses, macroscopic desensitisation of GES-induced currents was slow. Our data indicate that care should be exercised when using GES as a taurine uptake inhibitor in systems that also contain GABA(A) receptors.

  7. Exercise preconditioning attenuates pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tongyi; Tang, Hao; Zhang, Ben; Cai, Chengliang; Liu, Xiaohong; Han, Qingqi; Zou, Liangjian

    2015-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, a common response of the heart to a variety of cardiovascular diseases, is typically associated with myocytes remodeling and fibrotic replacement, cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) increases the myocardial mechanical load and enhances tolerance of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), however, is less reported in pathological cardiac hypertrophy. To determine the effect of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy, Male 10-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30) were subjected to 4 weeks of EP followed by 4-8 weeks of pressure overload (transverse aortic constriction, TAC) to induce pathological remodeling. TAC in untrained controls (n=30) led to pathological cardiac hypertrophy, depressed systolic function. We observed that left ventricular wall thickness in end diastole, heart size, heart weight-to-body weight ratio, heart weight-to-tibia length ratio, cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes and the reactivation of fetal genes (atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide) were markedly increased, meanwhile left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole, systolic function were significantly decreased by TAC at 4 wks after operation (P < 0.01), all of which were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (P < 0.05), but the differences of these parameters were decreased at 8 wks after operation. Furthermore, EP treatment inhibited degradation of IκBα, and decreased NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and then reduced IL2 levels in the myocardium of rats subject to TAC. EP can effectively attenuate pathological cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC possibly through inhibition of degradation of IκB and blockade of the NF-κB signaling pathway in the early stage of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25755743

  8. The Intraocular Pressure under Deep versus Moderate Neuromuscular Blockade during Low-Pressure Robot Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy in a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seokyung; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Jung Hwa; Kim, Chan Yun; Park, HeeJoon; Bai, Sun-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine whether continuous deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) improves the surgical conditions and facilitates robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) under low intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) to attenuate the increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) during CO2 pneumoperitoneum in the steep Trendelenburg (ST) position. Methods Sixty-seven patients undergoing RALRP were randomly assigned to a moderate NMB group (Group M), including patients who received atracurium infusion until the end of the ST position, maintaining a train of four count of 1–2; and the deep NMB group (Group D), including patients who received rocuronium infusion, maintaining a post-tetanic count of 1–2. IOP was measured in all patients at nine separate time points. All RALRPs were performed by one surgeon, who rated the overall and worst surgical conditions at the end of the ST position. Results The highest IOP value was observed at T4 (60 min after the ST position) in both Group M (23.3 ± 2.7 mmHg) and Group D (19.8 ± 2.1 mmHg). RALRP was accomplished at an IAP of 8 mmHg in 88% Group D patients and 25% Group M patients. The overall surgical condition grade was 4.0 (3.0–5.0) in Group D and 3.0 (2.0–5.0) in Group M (P < 0.001). Conclusion The current study demonstrated that continuous deep NMB may improve surgical conditions and facilitate RALRP at a low IAP, resulting in significant attenuation of the increase on IOP. Moreover, low-pressure pneumoperitoneum, facilitated by deep NMB still provided acceptable surgical conditions. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02109133 PMID:26317357

  9. Substance P selectively modulates GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in striatal cholinergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Govindaiah, G; Wang, Yanyan; Cox, Charles L

    2010-02-01

    Substance P (SP) is co-localized and co-released with gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) from approximately 50% of GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum. MSNs innervate several cellular targets including neighboring MSNs and cholinergic interneurons via collaterals. However, the functional role of SP release onto striatal interneurons is unknown. Here we examined SP-mediated actions on inhibitory synaptic transmission in cholinergic interneurons using whole-cell recordings in mouse corticostriatal slices. We found that SP selectively suppressed GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs), but not excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) in cholinergic interneurons. In contrast, SP did not alter IPSCs in fast-spiking interneurons and MSNs. SP suppressed IPSC amplitude in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner, and the NK1 receptor antagonist RP67580 attenuated the SP-mediated suppression. In addition, RP67580 alone enhanced the evoked IPSC amplitude in cholinergic interneurons, suggesting an endogenous action of SP on regulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission. SP did not alter the paired-pulse ratio, but reduced the amplitudes of GABA(A) agonist muscimol-induced outward currents and miniature IPSCs in cholinergic interneurons, suggesting SP exerts its effects primarily at the post-synaptic site. Our results indicate that the physiological effects of SP are to enhance the activity of striatal cholinergic interneurons and provide a rationale for designing potential new antiparkinsonian agents.

  10. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  11. Expression of α(1)-adrenergic receptors in rat prefrontal cortex: cellular co-localization with 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Santana, Noemí; Mengod, Guadalupe; Artigas, Francesc

    2013-06-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in behavioural control and cognitive processes that are altered in schizophrenia. The brainstem monoaminergic systems control PFC function, yet the cells/networks involved are not fully known. Serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) increase PFC neuronal activity through the activation of α(1)-adrenergic receptors (α(1)ARs) and 5-HT(2A) receptors (5-HT(2A)Rs), respectively. Neurochemical and behavioural interactions between these receptors have been reported. Further, classical and atypical antipsychotic drugs share nm in vitro affinity for α(1)ARs while having preferential affinity for D(2) and 5-HT(2A)Rs, respectively. Using double in situ hybridization we examined the cellular expression of α(1)ARs in pyramidal (vGluT1-positive) and GABAergic (GAD(65/67)-positive) neurons in rat PFC and their co-localization with 5-HT(2A)Rs. α(1)ARs are expressed by a high proportion of pyramidal (59-85%) and GABAergic (52-79%) neurons. The expression in pyramidal neurons exhibited a dorsoventral gradient, with a lower percentage of α(1)AR-positive neurons in infralimbic cortex compared to anterior cingulate and prelimbic cortex. The expression of α(1A), α(1B) and α(1D) adrenergic receptors was segregated in different layers and subdivisions. In all them there is a high co-expression with 5-HT(2A)Rs (∼80%). These observations indicate that NE controls the activity of most PFC pyramidal neurons via α(1)ARs, either directly or indirectly, via GABAergic interneurons. Antipsychotic drugs can thus modulate the activity of PFC via α(1)AR blockade. The high co-expression with 5-HT(2A)Rs indicates a convergence of excitatory serotonergic and noradrenergic inputs onto the same neuronal populations. Moreover, atypical antipsychotics may exert a more powerful control of PFC function through the simultaneous blockade of α(1)ARs and 5-HT(2A)Rs.

  12. The 5-HT1A receptor in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Joshua; DeLorenzo, Christine; Choudhury, Sunia; Parsey, Ramin V.

    2016-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric diagnosis that is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. This debilitating disorder is currently one of the leading causes of disability nationwide and is predicted to be the leading cause of disease burden by the year 2030. A large body of previous research has theorized that serotonergic dysfunction, specifically of the serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor, plays a key role in the development of MDD. The purpose of this review is to describe the evolution of our current understanding of the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor and its role in the pathophysiology MDD through the discussion of animal, post-mortem, positron emission tomography (PET), pharmacologic and genetic studies. PMID:26851834

  13. [Autoimmune encephalitis induced by antibodies against GABA-A receptor].

    PubMed

    González R, Pablo; Hudson A, Lorena; Basáez M, Esteban; Miranda C, Marcelo

    2016-11-01

    Among autoimmune encephalitides, a prevalent group are those associated with antibodies against the N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor, which present with behavior abnormalities, psychosis, seizures and abnormal movements. A new variant, mediated by antibodies against the GABA-A receptor, was recen-tly described. We report a 66-years-old female with this form of encephalitis whose main manifestation was the presence of severe seizures leading to status epilepticus. The patient had a good response to immunomodulatory therapy with intravenous methylprednisolone, azathioprine and anticonvulsants. The laboratory tests initially detected anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies which lead to the misdiagnosis of Hashimoto Encephalitis, which was ruled out after the detection of antibodies against GABA-A receptor. No malignancy was detected.

  14. The 5-HT1A receptor in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joshua; DeLorenzo, Christine; Choudhury, Sunia; Parsey, Ramin V

    2016-03-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric diagnosis that is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. This debilitating disorder is currently one of the leading causes of disability nationwide and is predicted to be the leading cause of disease burden by the year 2030. A large body of previous research has theorized that serotonergic dysfunction, specifically of the serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor, plays a key role in the development of MDD. The purpose of this review is to describe the evolution of our current understanding of the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor and its role in the pathophysiology MDD through the discussion of animal, post-mortem, positron emission tomography (PET), pharmacologic and genetic studies.

  15. The role of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Górska, A M; Gołembiowska, K

    2015-04-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") popular as a designer drug is often used with caffeine to gain a stronger stimulant effect. MDMA induces 5-HT and DA release by interaction with monoamine transporters. Co-administration of caffeine and MDMA may aggravate MDMA-induced toxic effects on DA and 5-HT terminals. In the present study, we determined whether caffeine influences DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. We also tried to find out if adenosine A1 and A2A receptors play a role in the effect of caffeine by investigating the effect of the selective adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists, DPCPX and KW 6002 on DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. Mice were treated with caffeine (10 mg/kg) and MDMA (20 or 40 mg/kg) alone or in combination. DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum was measured using in vivo microdialysis. Caffeine exacerbated the effect of MDMA on DA and 5-HT release. DPCPX or KW 6002 co-administered with MDMA had similar influence as caffeine, but KW 6002 was more potent than caffeine or DPCPX. To exclude the contribution of MAO inhibition by caffeine in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced increase in DA and 5-HT, we also tested the effect of the nonxanthine adenosine receptor antagonist CGS 15943A lacking properties of MAO activity modification. Our findings indicate that adenosine A1 and A2A receptor blockade may account for the caffeine-induced exacerbation of the MDMA effect on DA and 5-HT release and may aggravate MDMA toxicity.

  16. The effects of a 5-HT5A receptor antagonist in a ketamine-based rat model of cognitive dysfunction and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Hołuj, Małgorzata; Kos, Tomasz; Popik, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors still represent promising targets for the development of novel multireceptor or stand-alone antipsychotic drugs with a potential to ameliorate cognitive impairments and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The 5-HT5A receptor, one of the least known members of the serotonin receptor family, has also drawn attention in this regard. Although the antipsychotic efficacy of 5-HT5A antagonists is still equivocal, recent experimental data suggest the cognitive-enhancing activity of this strategy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate pro-cognitive and pro-social efficacies of the 5-HT5A receptor antagonist in a rat pharmacological model of schizophrenia employing the administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist, ketamine. The ability of SB-699551 to reverse ketamine-induced cognitive deficits in the attentional set-shifting task (ASST) and novel object recognition task (NORT) was examined. The compound's efficacy against ketamine-induced social withdrawal was assessed in the social interaction test (SIT) and in the social choice test (SCT). The results demonstrated the efficacy of SB-699551 in ameliorating ketamine-induced impairments on the ASST and NORT. Moreover, the tested compound also enhanced set-shifting performance in cognitively unimpaired control rats and improved object recognition memory in conditions of delay-induced natural forgetting. The pro-social activity of SB-699551 was demonstrated on both employed paradigms, the SIT and SCT. The present study suggests the preclinical efficacy of a strategy based on the blockade of 5-HT5A receptors against schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits and negative symptoms. The utility of this receptor as a target for improvement of cognitive and social dysfunctions warrants further studies.

  17. Role of complement C5a in mechanical inflammatory hypernociception: potential use of C5a receptor antagonists to control inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    Ting, E; Guerrero, A T G; Cunha, T M; Verri, W A; Taylor, S M; Woodruff, T M; Cunha, F Q; Ferreira, S H

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: C5a, a complement activation product, exhibits a broad spectrum of inflammatory activities particularly neutrophil chemoattraction. Herein, the role of C5a in the genesis of inflammatory hypernociception was investigated in rats and mice using the specific C5a receptor antagonist PMX53 (AcF-[OP(D-Cha)WR]). Experimental approach: Mechanical hypernociception was evaluated with a modification of the Randall–Selitto test in rats and electronic pressure meter paw test in mice. Cytokines were measured by ELISA and neutrophil migration was determined by myeloperoxidase activity. Key results: Local pretreatment of rats with PMX53 (60–180 μg per paw) inhibited zymosan-, carrageenan-, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and antigen-induced hypernociception. These effects were associated with C5a receptor blockade since PMX53 also inhibited the hypernociception induced by zymosan-activated serum and C5a but not by the direct-acting hypernociceptive mediators, prostaglandin E2 and dopamine. Underlying the C5a hypernociceptive mechanisms, PMX53 did not alter the cytokine release induced by inflammatory stimuli. However, PMX53 inhibited cytokine-induced hypernociception. PMX53 also inhibited the recruitment of neutrophils induced by zymosan but not by carrageenan or LPS, indicating an involvement of neutrophils in the hypernociceptive effect of C5a. Furthermore, the C5a-induced hypernociception was reduced in neutrophil-depleted rats. Extending these findings in rats, blocking C5a receptors also reduced zymosan-induced joint hypernociception in mice. Conclusions and implications: These results suggest that C5a is an important inflammatory hypernociceptive mediator, acting by a mechanism independent of hypernociceptive cytokine release, but dependent on the presence of neutrophils. Therefore, we suggest that inhibiting the action of C5a has therapeutic potential in the control of inflammatory pain. PMID:18084313

  18. Blockade of PAR1 signaling with cell-penetrating pepducins inhibits Akt-survival pathways in breast cancer cells and suppresses tumor survival and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eric; Boire, Adrienne; Agarwal, Anika; Nguyen, Nga; O'Callaghan, Katie; Tu, Powen; Kuliopulos, Athan; Covic, Lidija

    2009-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is not expressed in normal breast epithelia, but is up-regulated in invasive breast carcinomas. In the present study, we found that matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1) robustly activates the PAR1-Akt survival pathway in breast carcinoma cells. This process is blocked by a cell-penetrating lipopeptide ‘pepducin’, P1pal-7, which is a potent inhibitor of cell viability in breast carcinoma cells expressing PAR1. Both a MMP-1 inhibitor and P1pal-7 significantly promote apoptosis in breast tumor xenografts and inhibit metastasis to the lungs by up to 88%. Dual therapy with P1pal-7 and taxotere inhibits the growth of MDA-MB-231 xenografts by 95%. Consistently, biochemical analysis of xenograft tumors treated with P1pal-7 or MMP-1 inhibitor demonstrated attenuated Akt activity. Ectopic expression of constitutively active Akt rescues breast cancer cells from the synergistic cytotoxicity of P1pal-7 and taxotere, suggesting that Akt is a critical component of PAR1-dependent cancer cell viability. Together, these findings indicate that blockade of MMP1-PAR1 signaling may provide a benefit beyond treatment with taxotere alone in advanced, metastatic breast cancer. PMID:19622769

  19. Motor effects of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol that are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Espejo-Porras, Francisco; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Pertwee, Roger G; Mechoulam, Raphael; García, Concepción

    2013-12-01

    The broad presence of CB1 receptors in the basal ganglia, mainly in GABA- or glutamate-containing neurons, as well as the presence of TRPV1 receptors in dopaminergic neurons and the identification of CB2 receptors in some neuronal subpopulations within the basal ganglia, explain the powerful motor effects exerted by those cannabinoids that can activate/block these receptors. By contrast, cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid with a broad therapeutic profile, is generally presented as an example of a cannabinoid compound with no motor effects due to its poor affinity for the CB1 and the CB2 receptor, despite its activity at the TRPV1 receptor. However, recent evidence suggests that CBD may interact with the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor to produce some of its beneficial effects. This may enable CBD to directly influence motor activity through the well-demonstrated role of serotonergic transmission in the basal ganglia. We have investigated this issue in rats using three different pharmacological and neurochemical approaches. First, we compared the motor effects of various i.p. doses of CBD with the selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT; i.p.). Second, we investigated whether the motor effects of CBD are sensitive to 5-HT1A receptor blockade in comparison with CB1 receptor antagonism. Finally, we investigated whether CBD was able to potentiate the effect of a sub-effective dose of 8-OH-DPAT. Our results demonstrated that: (i) only high doses of CBD (>10 mg/kg) altered motor behavior measured in a computer-aided actimeter; (ii) these alterations were restricted to vertical activity (rearing) with only modest changes in other parameters; (iii) similar effects were produced by 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg/kg), although this agonist affected exclusively vertical activity, with no effects on other motor parameters, and it showed always more potency than CBD; (iv) the effects of 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg/kg) and CBD (20 mg/kg) on vertical activity

  20. Stimulation of postsynapse adrenergic α2A receptor improves attention/cognition performance in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Karasawa, Jun-ichi; Chaki, Shigeyuki; Hikichi, Hirohiko

    2014-08-15

    A 5-trial inhibitory avoidance test using spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) pups has been used as an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the roles of noradrenergic systems, which are involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD, have not been investigated in this model. In the present study, the effects of adrenergic α2 receptor stimulation, which has been an effective treatment for ADHD, on attention/cognition performance were investigated in this model. Moreover, neuronal mechanisms mediated through adrenergic α2 receptors were investigated. We evaluated the effects of both clonidine, a non-selective adrenergic α2 receptor agonist, and guanfacine, a selective adrenergic α2A receptor agonist, using a 5-trial inhibitory avoidance test with SHR pups. Juvenile SHR exhibited a shorter transfer latency, compared with juvenile Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Both clonidine and guanfacine significantly prolonged the transfer latency of juvenile SHR. The effects of clonidine and guanfacine were significantly blocked by pretreatment with an adrenergic α2A receptor antagonist. In contrast, the effect of clonidine was not attenuated by pretreatment with an adrenergic α2B receptor antagonist, or an adrenergic α2C receptor antagonist, while it was attenuated by a non-selective adrenergic α2 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the effects of neither clonidine nor guanfacine were blocked by pretreatment with a selective noradrenergic neurotoxin. These results suggest that the stimulation of the adrenergic α2A receptor improves the attention/cognition performance of juvenile SHR in the 5-trial inhibitory avoidance test and that postsynaptic, rather than presynaptic, adrenergic α2A receptor is involved in this effect.

  1. Calculation Of Pneumatic Attenuation In Pressure Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    Errors caused by attenuation of air-pressure waves in narrow tubes calculated by method based on fundamental equations of flow. Changes in ambient pressure transmitted along narrow tube to sensor. Attenuation of high-frequency components of pressure wave calculated from wave equation derived from Navier-Stokes equations of viscous flow in tube. Developed to understand and compensate for frictional attenuation in narrow tubes used to connect aircraft pressure sensors with pressure taps on affected surfaces.

  2. Global Attenuation Model of the Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenis, A.; Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present a three-dimensional shear attenuation model based on a massive surface wave data-set (372,629 Rayleigh waveforms analysed in the period range 50-300s by Debayle and Ricard, 2012). For each seismogram, this approach yields depth-dependent path average models of shear velocity and quality factor, and a set of fundamental and higher-mode dispersion and attenuation curves. We combine these attenuation measurements in a tomographic inversion after a careful rejection of the noisy data. We first remove data likely to be biased by a poor knowledge of the source. Then we assume that waves corresponding to events having close epicenters and recorded at the same station sample the same elastic and anelastic structure, we cluster the corresponding rays and average the attenuation measurements. Logarithms of the attenuations are regionalized using the non-linear east square formalism of Tarantola and Valette (1982), resulting in attenuation tomographic maps between 50s and 300s. After a first inversion, outlyers are rejected and a second inversion yields a moderate variance reduction of about 20%. We correct the attenuation curves for focusing effect using the linearized ray theory of Woodhouse and Wong (1986). Accounting for focussing effects allows building tomographic maps with variance reductions reaching 40%. In the period range 120-200s, the root mean square of the model perturbations increases from about 5% to 20%. Our 3-D attenuation models present strong agreement with surface tectonics at period lower than 200s. Areas of low attenuation are located under continents and areas of high attenuation are associated with oceans. Surprisingly, although mid oceanic ridges are located in attenuating regions, their signature, even if enhanced by focusing corrections, remains weaker than in the shear velocity models. Synthetic tests suggests that regularisation contributes to damp the attenuation signature of ridges, which could therefore be underestimated.

  3. General relationships between ultrasonic attenuation and dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, M.; Jaynes, E. T.; Miller, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    General relationships between the ultrasonic attenuation and dispersion are presented. The validity of these nonlocal relationships hinges only on the properties of causality and linearity, and does not depend upon details of the mechanism responsible for the attenuation and dispersion. Approximate, nearly local relationships are presented and are demonstrated to predict accurately the ultrasonic dispersion in solutions of hemoglobin from the results of attenuation measurements.

  4. Optimal ultrasonic array focusing in attenuative media.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, A; Gao, R X; Liang, K; Jundt, J

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a parametric study on the efficiency of ultrasound focusing in an attenuative medium, using phased arrays. Specifically, an analytical model of ultrasound wave focusing in a homogeneous, isotropic and attenuative fluid with point sources is presented. Calculations based on the model have shown that in an attenuative medium, an optimum frequency exists for the best focusing performance for a particular size of aperture and focal distance. The effect of different f numbers on the focusing performance in the attenuative medium is further investigated. The information obtained from the analytical model provides insights into the design and installation of a phased transducer array for energy efficient wave focusing.

  5. Differential dust attenuation in CALIFA galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vale Asari, N.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Amorim, A. L.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; Schlickmann, M.; Wild, V.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    Dust attenuation has long been treated as a simple parameter in SED fitting. Real galaxies are, however, much more complicated: The measured dust attenuation is not a simple function of the dust optical depth, but depends strongly on galaxy inclination and the relative distribution of stars and dust. We study the nebular and stellar dust attenuation in CALIFA galaxies, and propose some empirical recipes to make the dust treatment more realistic in spectral synthesis codes. By adding optical recombination emission lines, we find better constraints for differential attenuation. Those recipes can be applied to unresolved galaxy spectra, and lead to better recovered star formation rates.

  6. Central blockade of nitric oxide transmission impairs exercise-induced neuronal activation in the PVN and reduces physical performance.

    PubMed

    Lima, Paulo M A; Santiago, Henrique P; Szawka, Raphael E; Coimbra, Cândido C

    2014-09-01

    The blockade of central nitric oxide (NO) signaling modifies the thermoregulatory and metabolic adjustments that occur during exercise, thereby impairing physical performance. However, the brain areas involved in this response remain unknown. Nitrergic neurons are present in the hypothalamic areas that are activated during exercise and participate in autonomic and neuroendocrine responses, such as, the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). To investigate whether brain NO signaling affects thermoregulation during exercise through the activation of hypothalamic neurons, rats underwent acute submaximal treadmill exercise (18 mmin(-1), 5% inclination) until fatigue received an intracerebroventricular injection of 1.43 μmol Nω-nitro-l-arginine metil ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, or saline (SAL). Skin tail temperature (Tsk) and internal body temperature (Ti) were continuously recorded and c-Fos expression was determined in the PVN and the SON. L-NAME treatment reduced physical performance by 48%, which was positively correlated with tail vasodilation capacity, which was reduced by 28%, and negatively correlated with heat storage rate (HSR), which was increased by 38%. Physical exercise until fatigue increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the PVN and the SON. L-NAME-treatment significantly reduced the exercise-induced c-Fos expression in the PVN, whereas it had no effect in the SON. Interestingly, the number of c-Fos-ir neurons in the PVN was closely correlated with physical performance and inversely associated with HSR. Thus, the inhibition of central NO attenuates neuronal activation induced by exercise in the PVN, impairs the autonomic regulation of heat dissipation, and anticipates the fatigue. Brain NO seems to play a role in exercise performance through the regulation of neuronal activation in the PVN, but not in the SON, although the SON neurons are also activated by running

  7. Effects of dopamine D1 receptor activation and blockade on dopamine and noradrenaline levels in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Avila-Luna, Alberto; Verduzco-Mendoza, Antonio; Bueno-Nava, Antonio

    2016-01-26

    The noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems are associated with the motor system and have anatomical and functional connections that have not yet been studied. The present study aimed to examine the specific role of D1 receptors (D1Rs) on noradrenergic and dopaminergic responses in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats were assigned to eight groups to receive systemic injection of a D1R agonist (SKF-38393) at 0, 1, 5 or 10mg/kg or injection of a D1R antagonist (SCH-23390) at 0, 0.25, 0.5 or 1mg/kg. Dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Injection of SKF-38393 alone at 1, 5 and 10mg/kg did not alter DA levels in the midbrain, cerebral cortex or pons, while it significantly increased these levels in the striatum (at 1 and 10mg/kg), hippocampus (at 1mg/kg) and cerebellum (at 1 and 5mg/kg). Administration of SKF-38393 at 1, 5, and 10mg/kg decreased the NA levels in the midbrain, pons, hippocampus (except at 1mg/kg) and cortex (except at 5mg/kg), whereas the opposite effect was observed in the striatum. SCH-23390 decreased the DA levels in the cortex (at 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg) and pons (at 0.5mg/kg). In contrast, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/kg SCH-23390 increased the DA levels in the cerebellum, whereas no differences from the control levels were observed for the DA levels in the striatum, midbrain and hippocampus. SCH-23390 at 0.5 and 1mg/kg increased the NA levels in the striatum. In contrast, the midbrain, hippocampus, cortex, pons and cerebellum did not exhibit altered NA levels. Our results demonstrate that the activation of D1Rs modulates the response of the noradrenergic system in nearly all of the investigated brain structures; thus, the blockade of D1Rs attenuates the effects induced by D1R activation.

  8. Habituation deficits induced by metabotropic glutamate receptors 2/3 receptor blockade in mice: reversal by antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Bespalov, Anton; Jongen-Rêlo, Ana-Lucia; van Gaalen, Marcel; Harich, Silke; Schoemaker, Hans; Gross, Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Cortical metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) seem to be involved in habituation of simple stimulus-bound behaviors (e.g., habituation to acoustic startle or odor-elicited orienting response). Habituation deficits may contribute to the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. In the present study, male NMRI mice were injected with mGluR2/3 antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropyl-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)propanoic acid (LY-341495) 30 min before being placed into novel arenas for automatic motor activity recording (2-h sessions). Administration of LY-341495 (1-10 mg/kg s.c.) dose-dependently prevented the habituation of the locomotor activity. Effects of LY-341495 (10 mg/kg) were fully and dose-dependently reversed by i.p. administration of haloperidol (0.03-0.3 mg/kg), clozapine (1-10 mg/kg), risperidone (0.01-0.1 mg/kg), olanzapine (0.3-3 mg/kg), aripiprazole (1-10 mg/kg), and sulpiride (3-30 mg/kg), each of which was given 15 min before the test. Effects of antipsychotic drugs were observed at the dose levels that did not affect spontaneous motor activity. LY-341495-induced delayed hyperactivity was also partially attenuated by lithium (50-200 mg/kg), amisulpride (1-10 mg/kg), and the selective dopamine D3 antagonist trans-N-[4-[2-(6-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl]cyclohexyl]-4-quinolinecarboxamide (SB-277011A; 3-30 mg/kg). Application of diazepam, imipramine, or several agonists and/or antagonists acting at various receptors that are thought to be relevant for antipsychotic treatment [e.g., 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A), 5-HT(3), and 5-HT(6) antagonists; 5-HT(1A) agonist; D4 antagonist; CB1 antagonist; ampakines; and glycine transporter inhibitor) had no appreciable effects. Thus, behavioral deficits induced by mGluR2/3 blockade (such as delayed motor hyperactivity) are selectively reversed by clinically used antipsychotic drugs.

  9. Tandospirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist, ameliorates aberrant lactate production in the prefrontal cortex of rats exposed to blockade of N-methy-D-aspartate receptors; Toward the therapeutics of cognitive impairment of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Takashi; Matsuoka, Tadasu; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Augmentation therapy with serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor partial agonists has been suggested to improve cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia. Decreased activity of prefrontal cortex may provide a basis for cognitive deficits of the disease. Lactate plays a significant role in the supply of energy to the brain, and glutamatergic neurotransmission contributes to lactate production. Objectives and methods: The purposes of this study were to examine the effect of repeated administration (once a daily for 4 days) of tandospirone (0.05 or 5 mg/kg) on brain energy metabolism, as represented by extracellular lactate concentration (eLAC) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of a rat model of schizophrenia. Results: Four-day treatment with MK-801, an NMDA-R antagonist, prolonged eLAC elevation induced by foot-shock stress (FS). Co-administration with the high-dose tandospirone suppressed prolonged FS-induced eLAC elevation in rats receiving MK-801, whereas tandospirone by itself did not affected eLAC increment. Conclusions: These results suggest that stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors ameliorates abnormalities of energy metabolism in the mPFC due to blockade of NMDA receptors. These findings provide a possible mechanism, based on brain energy metabolism, by which 5-HT1A agonism improve cognitive impairment of schizophrenia and related disorders. PMID:25232308

  10. Intraluminal Blockade of Cell-Surface CD74 and Glucose Regulated Protein 78 Prevents Substance P-Induced Bladder Inflammatory Changes in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Vera, Pedro L.; Wang, Xihai; Bucala, Richard J.; Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine constitutively expressed by urothelial cells. During inflammatory stimuli, MIF is released into the lumen complexed to other proteins and these complexes can bind to urothelial cell-surface receptors to activate signaling pathways. Since MIF is complexed to α1-inhibitor III (A1-I3; a member of the α2-macroglubulin family) and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a receptor for A1-I3 the goals of this study were to determine if substance P elicits urothelial cell-surface expression of GRP78 and to assess the functional role of CD74 (receptor for MIF) or GRP78 in substance P-induced bladder inflammatory changes. Methodology/Principal Findings Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats received either saline or substance P (s.c.), bladders were collected 1 hour after treatment and processed for histology or protein/mRNA. The expression of GRP78 at urothelial cell-surface was determined by performing in vivo biotinylation of urothelial cell-surface proteins. Finally, in order to determine the effects of receptor blockade on substance P-induced MIF release and inflammatory changes, rats received either intraluminal antibodies to CD74, GRP78, both, or non-specific IgG (as a control). GRP78 and MIF immunostaining was simultaneously visualized in umbrella cells only after substance P treatment. Immunoprecipitation studies showed GRP78-MIF complexes increased after substance P while in vivo biotinylation confirmed substance P-induced GRP78 cell-surface expression in urothelial cells. Intraluminal blockade of CD74 and/or GRP78 prevented substance P-induced changes, including bladder edema, intraluminal MIF release by urothelial cells and production of inflammatory cytokines by urothelial cells. Conclusions/Significance GRP78 is expressed on the surface of urothelial cells after substance P treatment where it can bind MIF complexes. Blocking CD74 (receptor for MIF) and/or GRP78 prevented

  11. Ultrasonic attenuation in molecular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Bernard

    1981-11-01

    It is now well established from an experimental point of view that, concerning the ultrasonic attenuation, molecular crystals exhibit a specific behavior among dielectric crystals. This fact suggests the presence of a relaxation process. Liebermann, who has introduced this field, has proposed a way to analyze this problem and in particular has given an expression for the ultrasonic absorption coefficient in terms of a relaxation time and some thermodynamic quantities. In contrast to Liebermann's approach, a solid-state viewpoint is presented here, and it is shown that this ultrasonic relaxation can be taken into account in the framework of Akhieser's theory. A general expression of the ultrasonic absorption coefficient is calculated in terms of the phonon collision operator using the Boltzmann-equation approach of Woodruff and Ehrenreich. The collision-time approximation widely used in dielectric crystals fails in molecular crystals for which the presence of slow relaxation times in the collision operator prevents the thermalization of the whole set of phonons and gives rise to an ultrasonic relaxation. Thus a more suitable approximation is suggested here, which leads to a new expression of the ultrasonic attenuation valid in molecular crystals. Different forms of this expression are discussed, and comparison with Liebermann's expression used in most of the previous papers shows that the present treatment takes better account of the anisotropy of the solid state. The fit of experimental results obtained for some ionic-molecular crystals also shows that the expression derived here gives better agreement than does Liebermann's. Finally, it is shown that in the framework of the present treatment and under rather general conditions, the anisotropy affects primarily the magnitude of the ultrasonic absorption due to the molecular relaxation, but it does not affect its frequency dependence.

  12. Using psilocybin to investigate the relationship between attention, working memory, and the serotonin 1A and 2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Carter, Olivia L; Burr, David C; Pettigrew, John D; Wallis, Guy M; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2005-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a link between attention, working memory, serotonin (5-HT), and prefrontal cortex activity. In an attempt to tease out the relationship between these elements, this study tested the effects of the hallucinogenic mixed 5-HT1A/2A receptor agonist psilocybin alone and after pretreatment with the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. Eight healthy human volunteers were tested on a multiple-object tracking task and spatial working memory task under the four conditions: placebo, psilocybin (215 microg/kg), ketanserin (50 mg), and psilocybin and ketanserin. Psilocybin significantly reduced attentional tracking ability, but had no significant effect on spatial working memory, suggesting a functional dissociation between the two tasks. Pretreatment with ketanserin did not attenuate the effect of psilocybin on attentional performance, suggesting a primary involvement of the 5-HT1A receptor in the observed deficit. Based on physiological and pharmacological data, we speculate that this impaired attentional performance may reflect a reduced ability to suppress or ignore distracting stimuli rather than reduced attentional capacity. The clinical relevance of these results is also discussed.

  13. Robust GLP-1 secretion by basic L-amino acids does not require the GPRC6A receptor.

    PubMed

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Jørgensen, Christinna V; Smajilovic, Sanela; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2017-04-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor GPRC6A (GPCR, Class C, group 6, subtype A) has been proposed to be a sensor for basic L-amino acids that are hypothesized to translate ingestive behaviour to endocrine information. However, the contribution of the GPRC6A receptor to L-amino acid-induced glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion is unclear. Therefore, to discover whether the GPRC6A receptor is indispensible for amino acid-induced secretion of GLP-1, we treated, with oral gavage, GPRC6A knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) littermate mice with GPRC6A ligands (L-arginine and L-ornithine) and assessed GLP-1 levels in circulation. We found that oral administration of both L-arginine and L-ornithine significantly increased total plasma GLP-1 levels to a similar level in GPRC6A KO and WT mice 15 minutes after gavage (both amino acids) and accumulated up to 60 minutes after gavage (L-arginine). Conversely, GLP-1 secretion at the 30- and 60-minute time points in the KO mice was attenuated and did not reach statistical significance. In summary, these data confirm that L-arginine is a potent GLP-1 secretagogue and show that the main effect occurs independently of GPRC6A. In addition, this is the first study to show that also L-ornithine powerfully elicits GLP-1 release in vivo.

  14. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system mediates hypophagic and anxiety-like effects of CB₁ receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Bellocchio, Luigi; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Quarta, Carmelo; Metna-Laurent, Mathilde; Cardinal, Pierre; Binder, Elke; Cannich, Astrid; Delamarre, Anna; Häring, Martin; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Vega, David; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Bartsch, Dusan; Monory, Krisztina; Lutz, Beat; Chaouloff, Francis; Pagotto, Uberto; Guzman, Manuel; Cota, Daniela; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2013-03-19

    Complex interactions between periphery and the brain regulate food intake in mammals. Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor antagonists are potent hypophagic agents, but the sites where this acute action is exerted and the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. To dissect the mechanisms underlying the hypophagic effect of CB1 receptor blockade, we combined the acute injection of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant with the use of conditional CB1-knockout mice, as well as with pharmacological modulation of different central and peripheral circuits. Fasting/refeeding experiments revealed that CB1 receptor signaling in many specific brain neurons is dispensable for the acute hypophagic effects of rimonabant. CB1 receptor antagonist-induced hypophagia was fully abolished by peripheral blockade of β-adrenergic transmission, suggesting that this effect is mediated by increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Consistently, we found that rimonabant increases gastrointestinal metabolism via increased peripheral β-adrenergic receptor signaling in peripheral organs, including the gastrointestinal tract. Blockade of both visceral afferents and glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii abolished rimonabant-induced hypophagia. Importantly, these mechanisms were specifically triggered by lipid-deprivation, revealing a nutrient-specific component acutely regulated by CB1 receptor blockade. Finally, peripheral blockade of sympathetic neurotransmission also blunted central effects of CB1 receptor blockade, such as fear responses and anxiety-like behaviors. These data demonstrate that, independently of their site of origin, important effects of CB1 receptor blockade are expressed via activation of peripheral sympathetic activity. Thus, CB1 receptors modulate bidirectional circuits between the periphery and the brain to regulate feeding and other behaviors.

  15. LONG TERM MONITORING FOR NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have good statistical methods to: (1) determine whether concentrations of a contaminant are attenuating over time, (2) determine the rate of attenuation and confidence interval on the rate, and (3) determine whether concentrations have met a particular clean up goal. We do no...

  16. Inhibition of phospholipase D activation by CYL-26z in formyl peptide-stimulated neutrophils involves the blockade of RhoA activation.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Ruey-Hseng; Tsao, Lo-Ti; Chen, Yeh-Long; Tzeng, Cherng-Chyi; Wang, Jih-Pyang

    2005-09-15

    5-[4-Acridin-9-ylamino]phenyl]-5-methyl-3-methylenedihydrofuran-2-one (CYL-26z) inhibited the formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP)-stimulated phospholipase D (PLD) activity, which was assessed by the production of phosphatidylethanol (PEt) in the presence of ethanol, in rat neutrophils (IC50 1.2+/-0.2 microM). CYL-26z caused a slight but significant attenuation of the global protein tyrosine phosphorylation stimulated by fMLP only at concentrations of CYL-26z up to 30 microM. CYL-26z blocked the membrane recruitment of protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) at concentrations of CYL-26z > or =3 microM, but failed to affect the membrane association of PKC-betaI and -betaII. The translocation of RhoA to the membrane was attenuated by CYL-26z (IC50 3.8+/-0.8 microM) in fMLP-stimulated neutrophils, whereas CYL-26z caused no significant inhibition of the membrane recruitment of ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf). CYL-26z inhibited the activation of RhoA and dissociation of the RhoA-Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) complex in fMLP-stimulated neutrophils (IC50 1.8+/-1.0 microM and 1.8+/-0.9 microM, respectively). In a cell-free system, CYL-26z effectively attenuated the membrane association of RhoA in response to GTPgammaS (IC50 1.3+/-0.5 microM). In contrast, the GTPgammaS-stimulated translocation of Arf to membrane was suppressed only at concentrations of CYL-26z up to 30 microM. CYL-26z inhibited the fMLP-stimulated membrane expression of CD11b, CD45 and CD63, and the release of lysozyme and beta-glucuronidase. These results indicate that CYL-26z inhibited the fMLP-stimulated PLD activity, mainly through the blockade of RhoA activation, and degranulation in rat neutrophils.

  17. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, A.N.

    1991-04-01

    Experiments investigating the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very small capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters; the tunneling rate in the moderately damped (Q {approx} 1) junction is seen to be reduced by a factor of 300 from that predicted for an undamped junction. The phase is seen to be a good quantum-mechanical variable. The experiments on small capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the larger-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wavefunction has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias. I present the first clear observation of the Coulomb blockade in single junctions. The electrical environment of the tunnel junction, however, strongly affects the behavior of the junction: higher resistance leads are observed to greatly sharpen the Coulomb blockade over that seen with lower resistance leads. I present theoretical descriptions of how the environment influences the junctions; comparisons with the experimental results are in reasonable agreement.

  18. Angiotensin 2 type 1 receptor blockade different affects postishemic kidney injury in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Miloradović, Zoran; Ivanov, Milan; Jovović, Đurđica; Karanović, Danijela; Vajić, Una Jovana; Marković-Lipkovski, Jasmina; Mihailović-Stanojević, Nevena; Milanović, Jelica Grujić

    2016-12-01

    Many studies demonstrated that angiotensin 2 type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockade accelerates renal recovery in post-ischaemic kidney but there are many controversies related to its net effect on kidney structure and function. During the past years, our research group was trying to define the pathophysiological significance of the renin-angiotensin system on post-ischemic acute renal failure (ARF) development in normotensive Wistar as well as hypertensive rats (SHR). This review mostly summarizes our experience in that field. Our previous studies in normotensive rats revealed that AT1R blockade, except slightly renal vascular resistance improvement, had no other obvious beneficial effects, and therefore implies angiotensin 2 (Ang-2) overexpression as non-dominant on kidney reperfusion injuries development. Similarly it was observed in Wistar rats with induced mild (L-NAME, 3 mg/kg b.w.) nitric oxide (NO) deficiency. Expectably, in strong induced (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg b.w.) NO deficiency associated with ARF, massive tubular injuries indicate harmful effects of AT1R blockade, implying strongly disturbed glomerular filtration and suggesting special precaution related to AT1R blockers usage. Opposite to previous, by our opinion, AT1R antagonism promises new advance in treatment of essentially hypertensive subjects who develop ARF. Increased glomerular filtration, diminished oxidative stress, and most importantly improved tubular structure in postishemic SHR treated with AT1R blocker losartan, implicate Ang-2 over production as potently agent in the kidney ischemic injury, partly trough generation of reactive oxygen species. These data contribute understanding the pathogenesis of this devastating illness in hypertensive surroundings.

  19. Angiotensin II receptor blockade limits glomerular injury in rats with reduced renal mass.

    PubMed Central

    Lafayette, R A; Mayer, G; Park, S K; Meyer, T W

    1992-01-01

    The effects of angiotensin II (AII) blockade were compared with the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in rats with reduced nephron number. Rats were subjected to five-sixths renal ablation and divided into four groups with similar values for blood pressure and serum creatinine after 2 wk. Group 1 then served as untreated controls, while group 2 received the AII receptor antagonist MK954 (which has previously been designated DuP753), group 3 received the converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril, and group 4 received a combination of reserpine, hydralazine, and hydrochlorothiazide. Micropuncture and morphologic studies were performed 10 wk later. Converting enzyme inhibition, AII receptor blockade, and the combination regimen were equally effective in reversing systemic hypertension (time-averaged systolic blood pressure: group 1, 185 +/- 5 mmHg; group 2, 125 +/- 2 mmHg; group 3, 127 +/- 2 mmHg; group 4, 117 +/- 4 mmHg). Micropuncture studies showed that glomerular transcapillary pressure was reduced significantly by converting enzyme inhibition and by AII blockade but not by the combination regimen (delta P: group 1, 49 +/- 1 mmHg; group 2, 42 +/- 1 mmHg; group 3, 40 +/- 2 mmHg, group 4, 47 +/- 1 mmHg). Reduction of systemic blood pressure was associated with the development of markedly less proteinuria and segmental glomerular sclerosis in rats receiving enalapril and MK954 but not in rats receiving the combination regimen (prevalence of glomerular sclerotic lesions: group 1, 41 +/- 4%; group 2, 9 +/- 1%; group 3, 9 +/- 1%; group 4, 33 +/- 6%). These results indicate that the effects of converting enzyme inhibition on remnant glomerular function and structure depend on reduction in AII activity and are not attributable simply to normalization of systemic blood pressure. PMID:1522231

  20. Ventral Midbrain NMDA Receptor Blockade: From Enhanced Reward and Dopamine Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Giovanni; Cossette, Marie-Pierre; Shizgal, Peter; Rompré, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate stimulates ventral midbrain (VM) N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDAR) to initiate dopamine (DA) burst firing activity, a mode of discharge associated with enhanced DA release and reward. Blockade of VM NMDAR, however, enhances brain stimulation reward (BSR), the results can be explained by a reduction in the inhibitory drive on DA neurons that is also under the control of glutamate. In this study, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in anesthetized animals to determine whether this enhancement is associated with a change in phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens. Rats were implanted with a stimulation electrode in the dorsal-raphe (DR) and bilateral cannulae above the VM and trained to self-administer trains of electrical stimulation. The curve-shift method was used to evaluate the effect of a single dose (0.825 nmol/0.5 μl/side) of the NMDAR antagonist, (2R,4S)-4-(3-Phosphopropyl)-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid (PPPA), on reward. These animals were then anesthetized and DA release was measured during delivery of electrical stimulation before and after VM microinjection of the vehicle followed by PPPA. As expected, phasic DA release and operant responding depended similarly on the frequency of rewarding electrical stimulation. As anticipated, PPPA produced a significant reward enhancement. Unexpectedly, PPPA produced a decrease in the magnitude of DA transients at all tested frequencies. To test whether this decrease resulted from excessive activation of DA neurons, we injected apomorphine 20 min after PPPA microinjection. At a dose (100 μg s.c.) sufficient to reduce DA firing under control conditions, apomorphine restored electrical stimulation-induced DA transients. These findings show that combined electrical stimulation and VM NMDARs blockade induce DA inactivation, an effect that indirectly demonstrates that VM NMDARs blockade enhances reward by potentiating stimulation-induced excitation in the mesoaccumbens DA pathway. PMID:27616984

  1. Androgen receptor blockade using flutamide skewed sex ratio of litters in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Vojgani, Mehdi; Akbarinejad, Vahid; Rafiee, Ghazaleh

    2016-01-01

    Maternal testosterone has been indicated to affect sex ratio of offspring. The present study was conducted to elucidate the role of androgen receptor in this regard by blockade of androgen receptor using flutamide in female mice. Mice were randomly assigned to two experimental groups. Mice in the control (n = 20) and treatment (n = 20) groups received 8 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection (8 IU) 47 hr later. In addition, mice in the control and treatment groups received four injections of ethanol-saline vehicle and flutamide solution (2.50 mg), respectively, started from 1 hr before eCG injection until hCG injection at 12-hr intervals. Conception rate was not different between the treatment (18/20: 90.00%) and control (19/20: 95.00%) groups (p > 0.05). Litter size was higher in the treatment (8.22 ± 0.26) than control (7.21 ± 0.28) group (p < 0.05). Male sex ratio was lower in the flutamide-treated mice (67/148: 45.30%) as compared with the untreated ones (80/137: 58.40%; odds ratio = 1.69; p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results showed that androgen receptor blockade could skew sex ratio of offspring toward females implying that the effect of testosterone on sex ratio might be through binding to androgen receptor. In addition, the blockade of androgen receptor using flutamide appeared to enhance litter size. PMID:27482363

  2. Mechanism of blood pressure and R-R variability: insights from ganglion blockade in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Rong; Iwasaki, Kenichi; Zuckerman, Julie H.; Behbehani, Khosrow; Crandall, Craig G.; Levine, Benjamin D.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous blood pressure (BP) and R-R variability are used frequently as 'windows' into cardiovascular control mechanisms. However, the origin of these rhythmic fluctuations is not completely understood. In this study, with ganglion blockade, we evaluated the role of autonomic neural activity versus other 'non-neural' factors in the origin of BP and R-R variability in humans. Beat-to-beat BP, R-R interval and respiratory excursions were recorded in ten healthy subjects (aged 30 +/- 6 years) before and after ganglion blockade with trimethaphan. The spectral power of these variables was calculated in the very low (0.0078-0.05 Hz), low (0.05-0.15 Hz) and high (0.15-0.35 Hz) frequency ranges. The relationship between systolic BP and R-R variability was examined by cross-spectral analysis. After blockade, R-R variability was virtually abolished at all frequencies; however, respiration and high frequency BP variability remained unchanged. Very low and low frequency BP variability was reduced substantially by 84 and 69 %, respectively, but still persisted. Transfer function gain between systolic BP and R-R interval variability decreased by 92 and 88 % at low and high frequencies, respectively, while the phase changed from negative to positive values at the high frequencies. These data suggest that under supine resting conditions with spontaneous breathing: (1) R-R variability at all measured frequencies is predominantly controlled by autonomic neural activity; (2) BP variability at high frequencies (> 0.15 Hz) is mediated largely, if not exclusively, by mechanical effects of respiration on intrathoracic pressure and/or cardiac filling; (3) BP variability at very low and low frequencies (< 0.15 Hz) is probably mediated by both sympathetic nerve activity and intrinsic vasomotor rhythmicity; and (4) the dynamic relationship between BP and R-R variability as quantified by transfer function analysis is determined predominantly by autonomic neural activity rather than other

  3. Human milk effects on neutrophil calcium metabolism: blockade of calcium influx after agonist stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Cruz, E; Oelberg, D G; Buescher, E S

    1999-08-01

    Neutrophils are the predominant cellular mediators of acute inflammation, and human milk suppresses multiple neutrophil functions. We sought to determine whether these effects were mediated through disruption of normal intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Exposure of human neutrophils to human milk, followed by washing, resulted in altered Ca2+ transient responses to formyl-peptide stimulation in which the peak cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([free Ca]) was the same as in unexposed cells, but the postpeak decline in [free Ca] was more rapid. This effect was observed after human milk exposures as brief as 10 s, persisted for up to 4 h after human milk removal, and was concentration dependent. On the basis of experiments examining Ca2+-free conditions followed by Ca2+ supplementation, and experiments examining spontaneous and stimulated manganese and barium influx into neutrophils, the human milk effect was due to blockade of Ca2+ influx. Decreased Ca2+ transient responses to other physiologic stimuli (IL-8, opsonized Staphylococcus aureus, and immune complexes) were observed after human milk exposures. Rat intestinal epithelial cells and HL-60 cells failed to show these effects, suggesting a selective effect on mature inflammatory cells. Characterization of the Ca2+-blocking activity showed it was heat and acid stable in human milk with a molecular mass between 30-100 kD. Commercial human milk lactoferrin exhibited Ca2+ influx blockade activity, but recombinant human lactoferrin showed none. Separation of the activity by heparin affinity chromatography showed that it was distinct from lactoferrin. Human milk-induced blockade of Ca2+ influx provides a potential mechanism for broad suppression of neutrophil functions that may contribute to the antiinflammatory properties of human milk.

  4. Evolution of Neoantigen Landscape during Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Valsamo; Smith, Kellie N; Forde, Patrick M; Niknafs, Noushin; Bhattacharya, Rohit; White, James; Zhang, Theresa; Adleff, Vilmos; Phallen, Jillian; Wali, Neha; Hruban, Carolyn; Guthrie, Violeta B; Rodgers, Kristen; Naidoo, Jarushka; Kang, Hyunseok; Sharfman, William; Georgiades, Christos; Verde, Franco; Illei, Peter; Li, Qing Kay; Gabrielson, Edward; Brock, Malcolm V; Zahnow, Cynthia A; Baylin, Stephen B; Scharpf, Robert B; Brahmer, Julie R; Karchin, Rachel; Pardoll, Drew M; Velculescu, Victor E

    2017-03-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown significant therapeutic responses against tumors containing increased mutation-associated neoantigen load. We have examined the evolving landscape of tumor neoantigens during the emergence of acquired resistance in patients with non-small cell lung cancer after initial response to immune checkpoint blockade with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-1/anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. Analyses of matched pretreatment and resistant tumors identified genomic changes resulting in loss of 7 to 18 putative mutation-associated neoantigens in resistant clones. Peptides generated from the eliminated neoantigens elicited clonal T-cell expansion in autologous T-cell cultures, suggesting that they generated functional immune responses. Neoantigen loss occurred through elimination of tumor subclones or through deletion of chromosomal regions containing truncal alterations, and was associated with changes in T-cell receptor clonality. These analyses provide insight into the dynamics of mutational landscapes during immune checkpoint blockade and have implications for the development of immune therapies that target tumor neoantigens.Significance: Acquired resistance to immune checkpoint therapy is being recognized more commonly. This work demonstrates for the first time that acquired resistance to immune checkpoint blockade can arise in association with the evolving landscape of mutations, some of which encode tumor neoantigens recognizable by T cells. These observations imply that widening the breadth of neoantigen reactivity may mitigate the development of acquired resistance. Cancer Discov; 7(3); 264-76. ©2017 AACR.See related commentary by Yang, p. 250This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 235.

  5. P2X1 receptor blockade inhibits whole kidney autoregulation of renal blood flow in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, David A.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro experiments demonstrate that P2X1 receptor activation is important for normal afferent arteriolar autoregulatory behavior, but direct in vivo evidence for this relationship occurring in the whole kidney is unavailable. Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that P2X1 receptors are important for autoregulation of whole kidney blood flow. Renal blood flow (RBF) was measured in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats before and during P2 receptor blockade with PPADS, P2X1 receptor blockade with IP5I, or A1 receptor blockade with DPCPX. Both P2X1 and A1 receptor stimulation with α,β-methylene ATP and CPA, respectively, caused dose-dependent decreases in RBF. Administration of either PPADS or IP5I significantly blocked P2X1 receptor stimulation. Likewise, administration of DPCPX significantly blocked A1 receptor activation to CPA. Autoregulatory behavior was assessed by measuring RBF responses to reductions in renal perfusion pressure. In vehicle-infused rats, as pressure was decreased from 120 to 100 mmHg, there was no decrease in RBF. However, in either PPADS- or IP5I-infused rats, each decrease in pressure resulted in a significant decrease in RBF, demonstrating loss of autoregulatory ability. In DPCPX-infused rats, reductions in pressure did not cause significant reductions in RBF over the pressure range of 100–120 mmHg, but the autoregulatory curve tended to be steeper than vehicle-infused rats over the range of 80–100 mmHg, suggesting that A1 receptors may influence RBF at lower pressures. These findings are consistent with in vitro data from afferent arterioles and support the hypothesis that P2X1 receptor activation is important for whole kidney autoregulation in vivo. PMID:20335318

  6. Endothelin receptor a blockade is an ineffective treatment for adriamycin nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Roderick J; Zhou, Lili; Zhou, Dong; Lin, Lin; Liu, Youhua

    2013-01-01

    Endothelin is a vasoconstricting peptide that plays a key role in vascular homeostasis, exerting its biologic effects via two receptors, the endothelin receptor A (ETA) and endothelin receptor B (ETB). Activation of ETA and ETB has opposing actions, in which hyperactive ETA is generally vasoconstrictive and pathologic. Selective ETA blockade has been shown to be beneficial in renal injuries such as diabetic nephropathy and can improve proteinuria. Atrasentan is a selective pharmacologic ETA blocker that preferentially inhibits ETA activation. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of ETA blockade by atrasentan in ameliorating proteinuria and kidney injury in murine adriamycin nephropathy, a model of human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. We found that ETA expression was unaltered during the course of adriamycin nephropathy. Whether initiated prior to injury in a prevention protocol (5 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or after injury onset in a therapeutic protocol (7 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg three times a week, i.p.), atrasentan did not significantly affect the initiation and progression of adriamycin-induced albuminuria (as measured by urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios). Indices of glomerular damage were also not improved in atrasentan-treated groups, in either the prevention or therapeutic protocols. Atrasentan also failed to improve kidney function as determined by serum creatinine, histologic damage, and mRNA expression of numerous fibrosis-related genes such as collagen-I and TGF-β1. Therefore, we conclude that selective blockade of ETA by atrasentan has no effect on preventing or ameliorating proteinuria and kidney injury in adriamycin nephropathy.

  7. Tumour necrosis factor blockade and the risk of osteoporosis: back to the future.

    PubMed

    Sambrook, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common clinical problem, especially in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) of the axial and appendicular skeleton ranging from 7% to 15% has been reported in RA in studies employing a variety of densitometric techniques. Reports consistent with a beneficial effect of tumour necrosis factor blockade on BMD have begun to emerge in recent years, and in Arthritis Research and Therapy, a case control study reports that patients treated with infliximab for RA had preservation of BMD in the lumbar spine and femoral neck compared to those treated with methotrexate.

  8. Transport in superlattices of magnetic nanoparticles: coulomb blockade, hysteresis, and switching induced by a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Tan, Reasmey P; Carrey, Julian; Desvaux, Céline; Grisolia, Jérémie; Renaud, Philippe; Chaudret, Bruno; Respaud, Marc

    2007-10-26

    We report on magnetotransport measurements on millimetric superlattices of Co-Fe nanoparticles surrounded by an organic layer. At low temperature, the transition between the Coulomb blockade and the conductive regime becomes abrupt and hysteretic. The transition between both regimes can be induced by a magnetic field, leading to a novel mechanism of magnetoresistance. Between 1.8 and 10 K, a high-field magnetoresistance attributed to magnetic disorder at the surface of the particles is also observed. Below 1.8 K, this magnetoresistance abruptly collapses and a low-field magnetoresistance is observed.

  9. Predicting transport regime and local electrostatic environment from Coulomb blockade diamond sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Stine T.; Hansen, Thorsten; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.

    2017-03-01

    Electron transport through a molecule is often described in one of the two regimes: the coherent tunnelling regime or the Coulomb blockade regime. The twilight zone of the two regimes still possesses many unsolved questions. A theoretical analysis of the oligophenylenevinylene OPV3 experiments by Bjørnholm and co-workers is performed. The experiments showed how two OPV3 derivatives performed very differently despite the strong similarity of the molecular structure, hence the experimental data showed two different transport mechanisms. The different transport mechanisms of the two OPV3 derivatives are explained from quantum mechanical calculations of the molecular redox energies and from the experimentally accessible window size.

  10. Effects of semax against the background of dopaminergic receptor blockade with haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Sebentsova, E A; Levitskaya, N G; Andreeva, L A; Alfeeva, L Yu; Kamenskii, A A; Myasoedov, N F

    2006-02-01

    We studied the neurotropic effects of ACTH(4-10) analog semax against the background of dopaminergic receptors blockade with haloperidol. Intranasal administration of semax (0.05, 0.2, and 0.6 mg/kg) produced virtually no effect on disturbances of orientation and exploratory reactions and motor activity caused by intraperitoneal injection of 0.2 mg/kg haloperidol. By contrast, preliminary administration of 0.05 mg/kg semax prevented haloperidol-induced disturbances in active avoidance conditioning.

  11. Dopamine blockade and clinical response: Evidence for two biological subgroups of schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Wolkin, A.; Barouche, F.; Wolf, A.P.; Rotrosen, J.; Fowler, J.S.; Shiue, C.Y.; Cooper, T.B.; Brodie, J.D. )

    1989-07-01

    Because CNS neuroleptic concentration cannot be directly measured in patients, the relation between clinical response and extent of dopamine receptor blockade is unknown. This relationship is critical in ascertaining whether nonresponse to neuroleptics is the result merely of inadequate CNS drug levels or of more basic biological differences in pathophysiology. Using ({sup 18}F)N-methylspiroperidol and positron emission tomography, the authors assessed dopamine receptor occupancy in 10 schizophrenic patients before and after treatment with haloperidol. Responders and nonresponders had virtually identical indices of ({sup 18}F)N-methylspiroperidol uptake after treatment, indicating that failure to respond clinically was not a function of neuroleptic uptake or binding in the CNS.

  12. Transition from Coulomb Blockade to Resonant Transmission in a MoS2 Nanoribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanjing; Mason, Nadya

    2014-03-01

    We have measured a side-gated nanoribbon of MoS2 at low temperature, and observed the transition from Coulomb blockade to resonant transmission when the Fermi level is tuned with a gate. We show that near the crossover between these regimes, the entire nanoribbon acts as a single quantum dot. Our findings may shed light on quasi-ballistic transport in the material. We also discuss the quantum dot formation in terms of a substrate-induced disorder potential, and consider other possible origins of disorder.

  13. Use of β-Blockade and Hemoperfusion for Acute Theophylline Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Biberstein, Michael P.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Ward, David M.

    1984-01-01

    Five adults were treated successfully for severe theophylline poisoning due to intentional overdosage. Clinical features included nausea, tremor, delirium, hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias, metabolic acidosis, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia. No seizures or deaths occurred despite very high serum theophylline concentrations (between 96 and 194 μg per ml). Extreme elevations of plasma catecholamines were documented and are implicated in the toxicity. β-Blockade with intravenous administration of propranolol hydrochloride was the most effective therapy for theophylline-induced hypotension. All patients were treated with resin hemoperfusion, which resulted in significant clinical improvement and rapid lowering of the serum theophylline level. PMID:6506685

  14. Effects of beta-adrenoceptor-blockade on stress-induced adrenocorticotrophin release in humans.

    PubMed

    Oberbeck, R; Schürmeyer, T h; Jacobs, R; Benschop, R J; Sommer, B; Schmidt, R E; Schedlowski, M

    1998-05-01

    We investigated the mechanisms of stress-induced alterations in adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) release. Tandem parachutists received either a placebo or the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol prior to a first time parachute jump. Blood samples were drawn 4 h before, immediately after, and 1 h after the jump. Cortisol and catecholamine concentrations displayed a significant stress-induced increase in both groups. The ACTH plasma concentrations significantly increased in the placebo and the propranolol group, with significantly more pronounced changes in the propranolol-treated subjects compared to the placebo group. These data demonstrated a stress-induced increase of ACTH plasma concentrations in humans that was enhanced by beta-blockade.

  15. PD-1 and PD-L1 Immune Checkpoint Blockade to Treat Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hartkopf, Andreas D; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Wallwiener, Markus; Walter, Christina B; Krämer, Bernhard; Grischke, Eva-Maria; Brucker, Sara Y

    2016-12-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibition represents a major recent breakthrough in the treatment of malignant diseases including breast cancer. Blocking the programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1, has shown impressive antitumor activity and may lead to durable long-term disease control, especially in the triple-negative subtypes of breast cancer (TNBC). Although immune checkpoint blockade is generally well tolerated, specific immune-related adverse events (irAEs) may occur. This review summarizes the clinical efficacy, perspectives, and future challenges of using PD-1/PD-L1-directed antibodies in the treatment of breast cancer.

  16. Density functional theory of the Seebeck coefficient in the Coulomb blockade regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kaike; Perfetto, Enrico; Kurth, Stefan; Stefanucci, Gianluca; D'Agosta, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The Seebeck coefficient plays a fundamental role in identifying the efficiency of a thermoelectric device. Its theoretical evaluation for atomistic models is routinely based on density functional theory calculations combined with the Landauer-Büttiker approach to quantum transport. This combination, however, suffers from serious drawbacks for devices in the Coulomb blockade regime. We show how to cure the theory through a simple correction in terms of the temperature derivative of the exchange correlation potential. Our results compare well with both rate equations and experimental findings on carbon nanotubes.

  17. Mitochondrial activation chemicals synergize with surface receptor PD-1 blockade for T cell-dependent antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Chamoto, Kenji; Chowdhury, Partha S.; Kumar, Alok; Sonomura, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Honjo, Tasuku

    2017-01-01

    Although immunotherapy by PD-1 blockade has dramatically improved the survival rate of cancer patients, further improvement in efficacy is required to reduce the fraction of less sensitive patients. In mouse models of PD-1 blockade therapy, we found that tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in draining lymph nodes (DLNs) carry increased mitochondrial mass and more reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that ROS generation by ROS precursors or indirectly by mitochondrial uncouplers synergized the tumoricidal activity of PD-1 blockade by expansion of effector/memory CTLs in DLNs and within the tumor. These CTLs carry not only the activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) but also an increment of their downstream transcription factors such as PPAR-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and T-bet. Furthermore, direct activators of mTOR, AMPK, or PGC-1α also synergized the PD-1 blockade therapy whereas none of above-mentioned chemicals alone had any effects on tumor growth. These findings will pave a way to developing novel combinatorial therapies with PD-1 blockade. PMID:28096382

  18. Mitochondrial activation chemicals synergize with surface receptor PD-1 blockade for T cell-dependent antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Chamoto, Kenji; Chowdhury, Partha S; Kumar, Alok; Sonomura, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Honjo, Tasuku

    2017-01-31

    Although immunotherapy by PD-1 blockade has dramatically improved the survival rate of cancer patients, further improvement in efficacy is required to reduce the fraction of less sensitive patients. In mouse models of PD-1 blockade therapy, we found that tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in draining lymph nodes (DLNs) carry increased mitochondrial mass and more reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that ROS generation by ROS precursors or indirectly by mitochondrial uncouplers synergized the tumoricidal activity of PD-1 blockade by expansion of effector/memory CTLs in DLNs and within the tumor. These CTLs carry not only the activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) but also an increment of their downstream transcription factors such as PPAR-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and T-bet. Furthermore, direct activators of mTOR, AMPK, or PGC-1α also synergized the PD-1 blockade therapy whereas none of above-mentioned chemicals alone had any effects on tumor growth. These findings will pave a way to developing novel combinatorial therapies with PD-1 blockade.

  19. Does calcium channel blockade have a role in prevention of expression of sepsis in renal transplant recipients?

    PubMed Central

    D’Elia, John A; Gleason, Ray E; Monaco, Anthony P; Weinrauch, Larry A

    2016-01-01

    Many antihypertensive agents have been demonstrated to assist in preservation of kidney function, among them those that modulate calcium channels. Calcium channel blockers may also be of value in protecting hemodialysis patients from complications of sepsis. In diabetic recipients of kidney transplant allografts treated with cyclosporine, calcium channel blockade has been retrospectively linked to improved graft preservation and to fewer episodes of sepsis. This brief review outlines clinical and experimental publications on potential protection from sepsis by addition of calcium channel blockers to standard antibiotic therapy in individuals who may or may not have normal kidney function, or in the presence or absence of immunosuppression. Such mechanisms include blockade of antibiotic cytosolic extrusion in the cases of Pneumococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Plasmodium falciparum malaria, or Schistosoma mansoni; blockade of the calcineurin/calmodulin pathway (in immunosuppressed patients allowing for lower dosage of cyclosporine); stabilization of calcium movement at the level of sarcoplasmic reticulum by which shock (vasopressor instability) is prevented; or of cytosolic calcium influx and cell death (in the case of allograft acute tubular necrosis). Given the high cost of development of new antibiotics, a role for generic calcium channel blockade in sepsis prevention should be pursued by additional studies to investigate potential links between blockade of calcium channels and expression of sepsis in at-risk populations. PMID:27920569

  20. Enhanced astroglial GABA uptake attenuates tonic GABAA inhibition of the presympathetic hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Sudip; Jo, Ji Yoon; Lee, Sang Ung; Lee, Young Jae; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong; Lee, Jung Un; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Park, Jin Bong

    2015-08-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) generates persistent tonic inhibitory currents (Itonic) and conventional inhibitory postsynaptic currents in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) via activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs). We investigated the pathophysiological significance of astroglial GABA uptake in the regulation of Itonic in the PVN neurons projecting to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (PVN-RVLM). The Itonic of PVN-RVLM neurons were significantly reduced in heart failure (HF) compared with sham-operated (SHAM) rats. Reduced Itonic sensitivity to THIP argued for the decreased function of GABAAR δ subunits in HF, whereas similar Itonic sensitivity to benzodiazepines argued against the difference of γ2 subunit-containing GABAARs in SHAM and HF rats. HF Itonic attenuation was reversed by a nonselective GABA transporter (GAT) blocker (nipecotic acid, NPA) and a GAT-3 selective blocker, but not by a GAT-1 blocker, suggesting that astroglial GABA clearance increased in HF. Similar and minimal Itonic responses to bestrophin-1 blockade in SHAM and HF neurons further argued against a role for astroglial GABA release in HF Itonic attenuation. Finally, the NPA-induced inhibition of spontaneous firing was greater in HF than in SHAM PVN-RVLM neurons, whereas diazepam induced less inhibition of spontaneous firing in HF than in SHAM neurons. Overall, our results showed that combined with reduced GABAARs function, the enhanced astroglial GABA uptake-induced attenuation of Itonic in HF PVN-RVLM neurons explains the deficit in tonic GABAergic inhibition and increased sympathetic outflow from the PVN during heart failure.

  1. Attenuation of angiotensin type 2 receptor function in the rostral ventrolateral medullary pressor area of the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    PubMed Central

    Kawabe, Tetsuya; Iwasa, Masamitsu; Kawabe, Kazumi; Sapru, Hreday N.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that blockade of angiotensin II type 2 receptors (AT2Rs) in the rostral ventrolateral medullary pressor area (RVLM) may elicit sympathoexcitatory responses which are smaller in hypertensive rats compared to normotensive rats. This hypothesis was tested in urethane-anesthetized, artificially ventilated male 14-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Age-matched male Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and Wistar rats were used as controls. PD123319 (AT2R antagonist) was microinjected into the RVLM and mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and greater splanchnic nerve activity (GSNA) were recorded. Increases in MAP, HR and GSNA elicited by unilateral microinjections of PD123319 into the RVLM were significantly smaller in SHR when compared to those in WKY and Wistar rats. Unilateral microinjections of L-glutamate (L-Glu) into the RVLM elicited greater increases in MAP and GSNA in SHR compared to those in WKY. AT2R immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the RVLM neurons which were retrogradely labeled from the intermediolateral cell column (IML) of the spinal cord. These results indicate that AT2Rs are present on the RVLM neurons projecting to the IML and their blockade results in sympathoexcitatory responses. Activation of AT2Rs has an inhibitory influence in the RVLM and these receptors are tonically active. Attenuation of the function of AT2Rs in the RVLM may play a role in genesis and/or maintenance of hypertension in SHR. PMID:26818039

  2. Nitrogen narcosis attenuates shivering thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mekjavić, I B; Savić, S A; Eiken, O

    1995-06-01

    Thermoregulatory responses of eight healthy subjects (six men and two women) were compared when they were head-out immersed in 15 degrees C water at both 1 and 6 ATA. Both trials were conducted in a hyperbaric chamber. During the immersions, esophageal temperature (T(es)) and skin temperature at two sites (chest and calf) were recorded at minute intervals. Oxygen uptake was determined at 5-min intervals with the Douglas bag method. The order of the two trials was alternated. The rate of T(es) cooling was greater during the 6-ATA trial [2.1 +/- 0.5 degrees C/h (SE)] than during the 1-ATA trial (1.3 +/- 0.5 degrees C/h; P < 0.01). Despite the greater rate of core cooling, and presumably a greater thermal drive for shivering, the oxygen uptake response for a similar decrement in T(es) was lower during exposure to 6 than to 1 ATA (P < 0.05). Also, for similar displacement in T(es), the subjects perceived the immersions at 6 ATA to be less cold than those at 1 ATA (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the development of hypothermia in compressed-air divers may be due, in large part, to the attenuation of heat production and cold perception. Most likely, the observed effects on the autonomic responses and thermal perception are due to an inhibitory action of hyperbaric nitrogen on central neural structures involved in temperature regulation.

  3. Modafinil attenuates reinstatement of cocaine seeking: role for cystine-glutamate exchange and metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Stephen V; Hensley-Simon, Megan; Tahsili-Fahadan, Pouya; LaLumiere, Ryan T; Thomas, Charles; Fallon, Rebecca V; Kalivas, Peter W; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Modafinil may be useful for treating stimulant abuse, but the mechanisms by which it acts to do so are unknown. Indeed, a primary effect of modafinil is to inhibit dopamine transport, which typically promotes rather than inhibits motivated behavior. Therefore, we examined the role of nucleus accumbens extracellular glutamate and the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2/3) in modafinil effects. One group of rats was trained to self-administer cocaine for 10 days and extinguished, then given priming injections of cocaine to elicit reinstatement. Modafinil (300 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) inhibited reinstated cocaine seeking (but did not alter extinction responding by itself), and this effect was prevented by pre-treatment with bilateral microinjections of the mGluR2/3 antagonist LY-341495 (LY) into nucleus accumbens core. No reversal of modafinil effects was seen after unilateral accumbens core LY, or bilateral LY in the rostral pole of accumbens. Next, we sought to explore effects of modafinil on extracellular glutamate levels in accumbens after chronic cocaine. Separate rats were administered non-contingent cocaine, and after 3 weeks of withdrawal underwent accumbens microdialysis. Modafinil increased extracellular accumbens glutamate in chronic cocaine, but not chronic saline-pre-treated animals. This increase was prevented by reverse dialysis of cystine-glutamate exchange or voltage-dependent calcium channel antagonists. Voltage-dependent sodium channel blockade partly attenuated the increase in glutamate, but mGluR1 blockade did not. We conclude that modafinil increases extracellular glutamate in nucleus accumbens from glial and neuronal sources in cocaine-exposed rats, which may be important for its mGluR2/3-mediated antirelapse properties.

  4. Effect of local anesthetics on serotonin1A receptor function.

    PubMed

    Rao, Bhagyashree D; Shrivastava, Sandeep; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-12-01

    The fundamental mechanism behind the action of local anesthetics is still not clearly understood. Phenylethanol (PEtOH) is a constituent of essential oils with a pleasant odor and can act as a local anesthetic. In this work, we have explored the effect of PEtOH on the function of the hippocampal serotonin1A receptor, a representative neurotransmitter receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Our results show that PEtOH induces reduction in ligand binding to the serotonin1A receptor due to lowering of binding affinity, along with a concomitant decrease in the degree of G-protein coupling. Analysis of membrane order using the environment-sensitive fluorescent probe DPH revealed decrease in membrane order with increasing PEtOH concentration, as evident from reduction in rotational correlation time of the probe. Analysis of results obtained shows that the action of local anesthetics could be attributed to the combined effects of specific interaction of the receptor with anesthetics and alteration of membrane properties (such as membrane order). These results assume relevance in the perspective of anesthetic action and could be helpful to achieve a better understanding of the possible role of anesthetics in the function of membrane receptors.

  5. Effects of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58621 on cyclooxygenase-2 expression, glial activation, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor availability in a rat model of striatal neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Minghetti, Luisa; Greco, Anita; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Pezzola, Antonella; Blum, David; Bantubungi, Kadiombo; Popoli, Patrizia

    2007-05-01

    Inhibition of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) is neuroprotective in several experimental models of striatal diseases. However, the mechanisms elicited by A2AR blockade are only partially known, and critical aspects about the potential beneficial effects of A2AR antagonism in models of neurodegeneration still await elucidation. In the present study, we analyzed the influence of the selective A2AR antagonist SCH 58261 in a rat model of striatal excitotoxicity obtained by unilateral intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (QA). We found that SCH 58261 differently affected the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) induced by QA in cortex and striatum. The antagonist enhanced COX-2 expression in cortical neurons and prevented it in striatal microglia-like cells. Similarly, SCH 58261 differently regulated astrogliosis and microglial activation in the 2 brain regions. In addition, the A2AR antagonist prevented the QA-induced increase in striatal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Because COX-2 activity has been linked to excitotoxic processes and because brain-derived neurotrophic factor depletion has been observed in mouse models as well as in patients with Huntington disease, we suggest that the final outcome of A2AR blockade (namely neuroprotection vs neurodegeneration) is likely to depend on the balance among its various and region-specific effects.

  6. Blockade of NF-κB and MAPK pathways by ulinastatin attenuates wear particle-stimulated osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Jiang-Ying; Xu, Hai-Dong; Shi, Dai; Pan, Jun-Bo; Pan, Xiao-Jin; Wang, Yan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Ulinastatin, a urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI), is widely used to clinically treat lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-related inflammatory disorders recently. Adherent pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), of which LPS is the best-studied and classical endotoxin produced by Gram-negative bacteria, act to increase the biological activity of osteopedic wear particles such as polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and titanium particles in cell culture and animal models of implant loosening. The present study was designed to explore the inhibitory effect of UTI on osteoclastogenesis and inflammatory osteolysis in LPS/PMMA-mediated Raw264.7 cells and murine osteolysis models, and investigate the potential mechanism. The in vitro study was divided into the control group, LPS-induced group, PMMA-stimulated group and UTI-pretreated group. UTI (500 or 5000 units/ml) pretreatment was followed by PMMA (0.5 mg/ml) with adherent LPS. The levels of inflammatory mediators including tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), matrixmetallo-proteinases-9 (MMP-9) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), receptor activation of nuclear factor NF-κB (RANK), and cathepsin K were examined and the amounts of phosphorylated I-κB, MEK, JNK and p38 were measured. In vivo study, murine osteolysis models were divided into the control group, PMMA-induced group and UTI-treated group. UTI (500 or 5000 units/kg per day) was injected intraperitoneally followed by PMMA suspension with adherent LPS (2×108 particles/25 μl) in the UTI-treated group. The thickness of interfacial membrane and the number of infiltrated inflammatory cells around the implants were assessed, and bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular number (Tb.N.), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th.), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp.), relative bone volume over total volume (BV/TV) of distal femur around the implants were calculated. Our results showed that UTI pretreatment suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines including MMP-9, IL-6, TNF-α, RANK and cathepsin K through down-regulating the activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and MAPKs partly in LPS/PMMA-mediated Raw264.7 cells. Finally, UTI treatment decreased the inflammatory osteolysis reaction in PMMA-induced murine osteolysis models. In conclusion, these results confirm the anti-inflammatory potential of UTI in the prevention of particle disease. PMID:27638499

  7. Nociceptive Flexion Reflex and Pain Rating Responses During Endogenous Opiate Blockade with Naltrexone in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    France, Christopher R.; al'Absi, Mustafa; Ring, Christopher; France, Janis L.; Harju, Angie; Wittmers, Lorentz E.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of opioid blockade on nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) activity and subjective pain ratings was examined in 151 healthy young men and women. Using a within-subjects design, NFR threshold was assessed on two days after administration of either placebo or a 50 mg dose of naltrexone. Electrocutaneous pain threshold and tolerance levels were measured after NFR threshold assessment on each day. Results indicated that administration of naltrexone was consistently associated with hypoalgesic responding. Specifically, participants exhibited lower levels of NFR activity and reported lower pain ratings for electrocutaneous stimulation delivered at pain threshold and tolerance levels following administration of naltrexone as compared to placebo. These findings indicate that opiate blockade using the current standard dose may elicit hypoalgesia. A potential moderating effect of dose of opiate blockade medication and level of endogenous opioid activation should be carefully examined in future research. PMID:17244518

  8. Spin blockade and coherent dynamics of high-spin states in a three-electron double quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bao-Bao; Wang, Bao-Chuan; Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Hu, Xuedong; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Asymmetry in a three-electron double quantum dot (DQD) allows spin blockade, when spin-3/2 (quadruplet) states and spin-1/2 (doublet) states have different charge configurations. We have observed this DQD spin blockade near the (1,2)-(2,1) charge transition using a pulsed-gate technique and a charge sensor. We, then, use this spin blockade to detect Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference and coherent oscillations between the spin quadruplet and doublet states. Such studies add to our understandings of coherence and control properties of three-spin states in a double dot, which, in turn, would benefit explorations into various qubit encoding schemes in semiconductor nanostructures.

  9. Immune checkpoint blockade in small cell lung cancer: is there a light at the end of the tunnel?

    PubMed Central

    Paglialunga, Luca; Salih, Zena; Ricciuti, Biagio; Califano, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a very aggressive disease, characterised by rapid growth, high response rates to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy and subsequent development of treatment resistance in the vast majority of patients. In the past 30 years, little progress has been made in systemic treatments and the established management paradigm of platinum-based chemotherapy has reached an efficacy plateau. Several clinical trials have investigated targeted therapies, without producing clinically significant benefits. Recently presented early phase clinical trials with immune checkpoint inhibitors (blockade of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and blockade of the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) receptor) have shown promising results. In this review, we present the emerging evidence on immune checkpoint blockade for SCLC. PMID:27843619

  10. Natural attenuation general data guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kram, M.L.; Goetz, F.

    1999-02-01

    This guide is a decision-making tool to help remedial project managers (RPMs) determine whether natural attenuation can be used as a remedial option at contaminant release sites. Data requirements and methodology to evaluate the potential for using natural attenuation are presented. For sites where the natural attenuation remedial option is implemented, tables of commonly measured parameters, general data collection rationale, and interpretation guidance are included. This format allows the RPM to recognize data gaps, interpret data, construct a conceptual site model, and develop a sampling and analysis plan for evaluation and monitoring purposes.

  11. Photothermal therapy with immune-adjuvant nanoparticles together with checkpoint blockade for effective cancer immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qian; Xu, Ligeng; Liang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Peng, Rui; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-10-01

    A therapeutic strategy that can eliminate primary tumours, inhibit metastases, and prevent tumour relapses is developed herein by combining adjuvant nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy with checkpoint-blockade immunotherapy. Indocyanine green (ICG), a photothermal agent, and imiquimod (R837), a Toll-like-receptor-7 agonist, are co-encapsulated by poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA). The formed PLGA-ICG-R837 nanoparticles composed purely by three clinically approved components can be used for near-infrared laser-triggered photothermal ablation of primary tumours, generating tumour-associated antigens, which in the presence of R837-containing nanoparticles as the adjuvant can show vaccine-like functions. In combination with the checkpoint-blockade using anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4), the generated immunological responses will be able to attack remaining tumour cells in mice, useful in metastasis inhibition, and may potentially be applicable for various types of tumour models. Furthermore, such strategy offers a strong immunological memory effect, which can provide protection against tumour rechallenging post elimination of their initial tumours.

  12. Localized oncolytic virotherapy overcomes systemic tumor resistance to immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zamarin, Dmitriy; Holmgaard, Rikke B; Subudhi, Sumit K; Park, Joon Seok; Mansour, Mena; Palese, Peter; Merghoub, Taha; Wolchok, Jedd D; Allison, James P

    2014-03-05

    Preexisting lymphocytic infiltration of tumors is associated with superior prognostic outcomes in a variety of cancers. Recent studies also suggest that lymphocytic responses may identify patients more likely to benefit from therapies targeting immune checkpoints, suggesting that therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade can be enhanced through strategies that induce tumor inflammation. To achieve this effect, we explored the immunotherapeutic potential of oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV). We find that localized intratumoral therapy of B16 melanoma with NDV induces inflammatory responses, leading to lymphocytic infiltrates and antitumor effect in distant (nonvirally injected) tumors without distant virus spread. The inflammatory effect coincided with distant tumor infiltration with tumor-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, which was dependent on the identity of the virus-injected tumor. Combination therapy with localized NDV and systemic CTLA-4 blockade led to rejection of preestablished distant tumors and protection from tumor rechallenge in poorly immunogenic tumor models, irrespective of tumor cell line sensitivity to NDV-mediated lysis. Therapeutic effect was associated with marked distant tumor infiltration with activated CD8(+) and CD4(+) effector but not regulatory T cells, and was dependent on CD8(+) cells, natural killer cells, and type I interferon. Our findings demonstrate that localized therapy with oncolytic NDV induces inflammatory immune infiltrates in distant tumors, making them susceptible to systemic therapy with immunomodulatory antibodies, which provides a strong rationale for investigation of such combination therapies in the clinic.

  13. Neural blockade during exercise augments central command's contribution to carotid baroreflex resetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querry, R. G.; Smith, S. A.; Stromstad, M.; Ide, K.; Raven, P. B.; Secher, N. H.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine central command's role on carotid baroreflex (CBR) resetting during exercise. Nine volunteer subjects performed static and rhythmic handgrip exercise at 30 and 40% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), respectively, before and after partial axillary neural blockade. Stimulus-response curves were developed using the neck pressure-neck suction technique and a rapid pulse train protocol (+40 to -80 Torr). Regional anesthesia resulted in a significant reduction in MVC. Heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were used as indexes of central command and were elevated during exercise at control force intensity after induced muscle weakness. The CBR function curves were reset vertically with a minimal lateral shift during control exercise and exhibited a further parallel resetting during exercise with neural blockade. The operating point was progressively reset to coincide with the centering point of the CBR curve. These data suggest that central command was a primary mechanism in the resetting of the CBR during exercise. However, it appeared that central command modulated the carotid-cardiac reflex proportionately more than the carotid-vasomotor reflex.

  14. Entangling atomic spins with a Rydberg-dressed spin-flip blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Jau, Y. -Y.; Hankin, A. M.; Keating, T.; Deutsch, I. H.; Biedermann, G. W.

    2015-10-05

    Controlling the quantum entanglement between parts of a many-body system is key to unlocking the power of quantum technologies such as quantum computation, high-precision sensing, and the simulation of many-body physics. The spin degrees of freedom of ultracold neutral atoms in their ground electronic state provide a natural platform for such applications thanks to their long coherence times and the ability to control them with magneto-optical fields. However, the creation of strong coherent coupling between spins has been challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate a strong and tunable Rydberg-dressed interaction between spins of individually trapped caesium atoms with energy shifts of order 1 MHz in units of Planck’s constant. This interaction leads to a ground-state spin-flip blockade, whereby simultaneous hyperfine spin flips of two atoms are inhibited owing to their mutual interaction. Finally, we employ this spin-flip blockade to rapidly produce single-step Bell-state entanglement between two atoms with a fidelity ≥81(2)%.

  15. Ablation of type I hypersensitivity in experimental allergic conjunctivitis by eotaxin-1/CCR3 blockade

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takao; Ohbayashi, Masaharu; Kuo, Chuan Hui; Komatsu, Naoki; Yakura, Keiko; Tominaga, Takeshi; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Higashi, Hidemitsu; Murata, Meguru; Takeda, Shuzo; Fukushima, Atsuki; Liu, Fu-Tong; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Ono, Santa Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    The immune response is regulated, in part, by effector cells whose activation requires multiple signals. For example, T cells require signals emanating from the T cell antigen receptor and co-stimulatory molecules for full activation. Here, we present evidence indicating that IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in vivo also require cognate signals to activate mast cells. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions in the conjunctiva are ablated in mice deficient in eotaxin-1, despite normal numbers of tissue mast cells and levels of IgE. To further define the co-stimulatory signals mediated by chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3), an eotaxin-1 receptor, effects of CCR3 blockade were tested with an allergic conjunctivitis model and in ex vivo isolated connective tissue-type mast cells. Our results show that CCR3 blockade significantly suppresses allergen-mediated hypersensitivity reactions as well as IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation. We propose that a co-stimulatory axis by CCR3, mainly stimulated by eotaxin-1, is pivotal in mast cell-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. PMID:19147836

  16. Stroke, mTBI, infection, antibiotics and beta blockade: Connecting the dots.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Gerald Dieter

    2015-08-01

    Several themes supported by a robust literature are addressed in this clinical translational review and research paper: (1) the inadequate stan