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Sample records for a-resistant ascomycete fungus

  1. The genome sequence of the model ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Espagne, Eric; Lespinet, Olivier; Malagnac, Fabienne; Da Silva, Corinne; Jaillon, Olivier; Porcel, Betina M; Couloux, Arnaud; Aury, Jean-Marc; Ségurens, Béatrice; Poulain, Julie; Anthouard, Véronique; Grossetete, Sandrine; Khalili, Hamid; Coppin, Evelyne; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Picard, Marguerite; Contamine, Véronique; Arnaise, Sylvie; Bourdais, Anne; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Gautheret, Daniel; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne Gj; Henrissat, Bernard; Khoury, Riyad El; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Boivin, Antoine; Pinan-Lucarré, Bérangère; Sellem, Carole H; Debuchy, Robert; Wincker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Silar, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The dung-inhabiting ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina is a model used to study various aspects of eukaryotic and fungal biology, such as ageing, prions and sexual development. We present a 10X draft sequence of P. anserina genome, linked to the sequences of a large expressed sequence tag collection. Similar to higher eukaryotes, the P. anserina transcription/splicing machinery generates numerous non-conventional transcripts. Comparison of the P. anserina genome and orthologous gene set with the one of its close relatives, Neurospora crassa, shows that synteny is poorly conserved, the main result of evolution being gene shuffling in the same chromosome. The P. anserina genome contains fewer repeated sequences and has evolved new genes by duplication since its separation from N. crassa, despite the presence of the repeat induced point mutation mechanism that mutates duplicated sequences. We also provide evidence that frequent gene loss took place in the lineages leading to P. anserina and N. crassa. P. anserina contains a large and highly specialized set of genes involved in utilization of natural carbon sources commonly found in its natural biotope. It includes genes potentially involved in lignin degradation and efficient cellulose breakdown. The features of the P. anserina genome indicate a highly dynamic evolution since the divergence of P. anserina and N. crassa, leading to the ability of the former to use specific complex carbon sources that match its needs in its natural biotope.

  2. The genome sequence of the model ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Espagne, Eric; Lespinet, Olivier; Malagnac, Fabienne; Da Silva, Corinne; Jaillon, Olivier; Porcel, Betina M; Couloux, Arnaud; Aury, Jean-Marc; Ségurens, Béatrice; Poulain, Julie; Anthouard, Véronique; Grossetete, Sandrine; Khalili, Hamid; Coppin, Evelyne; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Picard, Marguerite; Contamine, Véronique; Arnaise, Sylvie; Bourdais, Anne; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Gautheret, Daniel; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne GJ; Henrissat, Bernard; Khoury, Riyad EL; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Boivin, Antoine; Pinan-Lucarré, Bérangère; Sellem, Carole H; Debuchy, Robert; Wincker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Silar, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background The dung-inhabiting ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina is a model used to study various aspects of eukaryotic and fungal biology, such as ageing, prions and sexual development. Results We present a 10X draft sequence of P. anserina genome, linked to the sequences of a large expressed sequence tag collection. Similar to higher eukaryotes, the P. anserina transcription/splicing machinery generates numerous non-conventional transcripts. Comparison of the P. anserina genome and orthologous gene set with the one of its close relatives, Neurospora crassa, shows that synteny is poorly conserved, the main result of evolution being gene shuffling in the same chromosome. The P. anserina genome contains fewer repeated sequences and has evolved new genes by duplication since its separation from N. crassa, despite the presence of the repeat induced point mutation mechanism that mutates duplicated sequences. We also provide evidence that frequent gene loss took place in the lineages leading to P. anserina and N. crassa. P. anserina contains a large and highly specialized set of genes involved in utilization of natural carbon sources commonly found in its natural biotope. It includes genes potentially involved in lignin degradation and efficient cellulose breakdown. Conclusion The features of the P. anserina genome indicate a highly dynamic evolution since the divergence of P. anserina and N. crassa, leading to the ability of the former to use specific complex carbon sources that match its needs in its natural biotope. PMID:18460219

  3. Specific, non-nutritional association between an ascomycete fungus and Allomerus plant-ants

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-González, Mario X.; Malé, Pierre-Jean G.; Leroy, Céline; Dejean, Alain; Gryta, Hervé; Jargeat, Patricia; Quilichini, Angélique; Orivel, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    Ant–fungus associations are well known from attine ants, whose nutrition is based on a symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi. Otherwise, only a few non-nutritional ant–fungus associations have been recorded to date. Here we focus on one of these associations involving Allomerus plant-ants that build galleried structures on their myrmecophytic hosts in order to ambush prey. We show that this association is not opportunistic because the ants select from a monophyletic group of closely related fungal haplotypes of an ascomycete species from the order Chaetothyriales that consistently grows on and has been isolated from the galleries. Both the ants' behaviour and an analysis of the genetic population structure of the ants and the fungus argue for host specificity in this interaction. The ants' behaviour reveals a major investment in manipulating, growing and cleaning the fungus. A molecular analysis of the fungus demonstrates the widespread occurrence of one haplotype and many other haplotypes with a lower occurrence, as well as significant variation in the presence of these fungal haplotypes between areas and ant species. Altogether, these results suggest that such an interaction might represent an as-yet undescribed type of specific association between ants and fungus in which the ants cultivate fungal mycelia to strengthen their hunting galleries. PMID:21084334

  4. Antarctomyces pellizariae sp. nov., a new, endemic, blue, snow resident psychrophilic ascomycete fungus from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Graciéle C A; Godinho, Valéria M; Porto, Bárbara A; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Rosa, Luiz H

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, we have identified and characterised a new snow resident ascomycete blue stain fungus from Antarctica named Antarctomyces pellizariae sp. nov. Menezes, Godinho, Porto, Gonçalves and Rosa, using polyphasic taxonomy techniques. This fungal species was recovered from the seasonal snow of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctomyces pellizariae displayed different macro- and micromorphology when compared with A. psychrotrophicus Stchigel and Guarro, the only other Antarctomyces species reported until date. Antarctomyces pellizariae showed psychrophilic behavior and very low growth rate at 22-25 °C, quite different from A. psychrotrophicus that has a higher growth rate at mesophilic temperatures. In addition, micromorphological characteristics and the analysis of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and RNA polymerase II regions revealed that A. pellizariae is a new species that is related to A. psychrotrophicus and Thelebolus species. Since the Antarctic Peninsula is reported to be one of the main regions of the earth experiencing the effects of global change in climate, species, such as A. pellizariae, might provide information about these effects on the endemic Antarctic biota. In addition, A. pellizariae displayed psychrophilic behavior and might be a source of interesting anti-freeze compounds that might prove useful in biotechnological processes.

  5. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Colleen M; Zeiner, Carolyn A; Santelli, Cara M; Webb, Samuel M

    2012-07-31

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

  6. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hansel, C. M.; Zeiner, C. A.; Santelli, C. M.; Webb, S. M.

    2012-07-16

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Finally, given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

  7. The draft genome sequence of the ascomycete fungus Penicillium subrubescens reveals a highly enriched content of plant biomass related CAZymes compared to related fungi.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mao; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mäkelä, Miia R; Hildén, Kristiina; Bervoets, Sander; Riley, Robert; Grigoriev, Igor V; Hainaut, Matthieu; Henrissat, Bernard; de Vries, Ronald P; Granchi, Zoraide

    2017-03-20

    Here we report the genome sequence of the ascomycete saprobic fungus Penicillium subrubescens FBCC1632/CBS132785 isolated from a Jerusalem artichoke field in Finland. The 39.75Mb genome containing 14,188 gene models is highly similar for that reported for other Penicillium species, but contains a significantly higher number of putative carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) encoding genes.

  8. Identification and functional characterization of genes involved in the sexual reproduction of the ascomycete fungus Gibberella zeae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungkwan; Park, Chanju; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Jung-Eun; Lee, Yin-Won

    2010-10-08

    We previously reported that G protein alpha subunit 1 (GPA1) is essential for sexual reproduction in the homothallic ascomycete fungus Gibberella zeae. In this study we performed microarray analyses on a GPA1 deletion mutant of G. zeae (Δgpa1) to identify genes involved in the sexual reproduction of this fungus. In the Δgpa1 strain, 645 genes were down-regulated and 550 genes were up-regulated during sexual reproduction when compared to the wild-type strain. One hundred of the down-regulated genes were selected for further investigation based on orthologous group clusters and differences in transcript levels. Quantitative real time-PCR was used to determine transcriptional profiles of these genes at various sexual and vegetative stages. We observed that transcript levels of 78 of these genes were dramatically increased in the wild-type strain during sexual reproduction compared to levels observed during vegetative growth, and were down-regulated in Δgpa1 compared to the wild-type strain. We deleted 57 of these genes and found that four of the deletion mutants lost self-fertility and five produced fewer perithecia compared to the wild-type strain. Two mutants produced wild-type numbers of perithecia, but maturation of perithecia and ascospores was delayed. In all we identified 11 genes that are involved in sexual reproduction of G. zeae and present evidence that some of these genes function at distinct stages during sexual reproduction in the fungus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mating-type genes from the homothallic fungus Sordaria macrospora are functionally expressed in a heterothallic ascomycete.

    PubMed

    Pöggeler, S; Risch, S; Kück, U; Osiewacz, H D

    1997-10-01

    Homokaryons from the homothallic ascomycte Sordaria macrospora are able to enter the sexual pathway and to form fertile fruiting bodies. To analyze the molecular basis of homothallism and to elucidate the role of mating-products during fruiting body development, we cloned and sequenced the entire S. macrospora mating-type locus. Comparison of the Sordaria mating-type locus with mating-type idiomorphs from the heterothallic ascomycetes Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina revealed that sequences from both idiomorphs (A/a and mat-/mat+, respectively) are contiguous in S. macrospora. DNA sequencing of the S. macrospora mating-type region allowed the identification of four open reading frames (ORFs), which were termed Smt-a1, SmtA-1, SmtA-2 and SmtA-3. While Smt-a1, SmtA-1, and SmtA-2 show strong sequence similarities with the corresponding N. crassa mating-type ORFs, SmtA-3 has a chimeric character. It comprises sequences that are similar to the A and a mating-type idiomorph from N. crassa. To determine functionality of the S. macrospora mating-type genes, we show that all ORFs are transcriptionally expressed. Furthermore, we transformed the S. macrospora mating-type genes into mat- and mat+ strains of the closely related heterothallic fungus P. anserina. The transformation experiments show that mating-type genes from S. macrospora induce fruiting body formation in P. anserina.

  10. Identification and Isolation of Two Ascomycete Fungi from Spores of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Scutellospora castanea

    PubMed Central

    Hijri, Mohamed; Redecker, Dirk; Petetot, Jean A. MacDonald-Comber; Voigt, Kerstin; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Sanders, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Two filamentous fungi with different phenotypes were isolated from crushed healthy spores or perforated dead spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Scutellospora castanea. Based on comparative sequence analysis of 5.8S ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer fragments, one isolate, obtained from perforated dead spores only, was assigned to the genus Nectria, and the second, obtained from both healthy and dead spores, was assigned to Leptosphaeria, a genus that also contains pathogens of plants in the Brassicaceae. PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR analyses, however, did not indicate similarities between pathogens and the isolate. The presence of the two isolates in both healthy spores and perforated dead spores of S. castanea was finally confirmed by transmission electron microscopy by using distinctive characteristics of the isolates and S. castanea. The role of this fungus in S. castanea spores remains unclear, but the results serve as a strong warning that sequences obtained from apparently healthy AMF spores cannot be presumed to be of glomalean origin and that this could present problems for studies on AMF genes. PMID:12200315

  11. Three types of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from the medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Lian, Tiantian; Dong, Cai-Hong; Yang, Tao; Sun, Junde

    2014-01-01

    Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) is a key enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing the synthesis of its C20 precursor. In the present study, three types of ggpps genes were cloned and analyzed from the Caterpillar Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps militaris, a valued carotenoid-producing species. The sequences were named as ggpps727, ggpps191, and ggpps595. The open reading frame codes for predicted polypeptides of 464, 550, and 431 aa. Three predicted GGPPSs had a high similarity to that from Beauveria bassiana ARSEF 2860 with identity of 73%, 71%, and 56%, respectively. Homology comparison of the deduced peptide sequences of the various GGPPSs revealed highly conserved domains. Both GGPPS727 and GGPPS191 from C. militaris contained all five domains highly conserved among prenyltransferases as well as two aspartate-rich DDXX(XX)D motifs in domains II and V, which have been proven essential for prenyltransferase activity. By constructing the phylogenetic tree of fungal GGPPSs, it was found that fungi-derived GGPPSs could be divided into three clusters, suggesting there were three types of GGPPSs in fungi. Each type may be responsible for a different metabolism. Three types of GGPPSs from C. militaris belonged to the different clusters separately. Expression analysis of three ggpps genes during the fruit body cultivation of C. militaris by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) suggested the ggpps 191 gene may be involved in the synthesis of carotenoids and ggpps 727 may be responsible for primary metabolism. This is the first report of the GGPPS from C. militaris, a valued edible and medicinal fungus.

  12. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Mycelial Extracts from the Medicinal Fungus Paecilomyces hepiali (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lan; Li, Yi; Wang, Wen-Jing; Imoulan, Abdessamad; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2017-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepialid, a fungus originating in the Tibetan Plateau, has been used as a substitute for Ophiocordyceps sinensis because the primary chemical compounds and pharmacological effects of P. hepialid are similar to those of O. sinensis. P. hepialid has been developed into a dietary supplement and pharmaceutical products. The antioxidant activity of extracts using 2 solvents (water and ethanol) from mycelia obtained from 2 cultivation modes (solid-state and submerged cultivation) were evaluated in this study. Four strains of P. hepialid obtained from Qinghai, Sichuan, and Yunnan Provinces were included; the total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity of mycelial extracts were compared. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of strains were found to be affected by the cultivation mode and extraction solvent. The ethanol extracts of solid-state cultivation of strain 2138, obtained from Sichuan Province, exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The results showed that different strains might require different cultivation modes and extraction solvents for better antioxidant activity. However, solid-state cultivation and ethanol extraction are generally recommended based on the analyses conducted. Strain 2138 may be a good candidate for the purpose of producing functional foods. The results suggest that strain selection is important when P. hepialid is used to manufacture pharmaceutical products.

  13. Genomic Analysis of an Ascomycete Fungus from the Rice Planthopper Reveals How It Adapts to an Endosymbiotic Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hai-Wei; Noda, Hiroaki; Xie, Hong-Qing; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Zhu, Qian-Hua; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2015-01-01

    A number of sap-sucking insects harbor endosymbionts, which are thought to play an important role in the development of their hosts. One of the most important rice pests, the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), harbors an obligatory yeast-like symbiont (YLS) that cannot be cultured in vitro. Genomic information on this YLS would be useful to better understand its evolution. In this study, we performed genome sequencing of the YLS using both 454 and Illumina approaches, generating a draft genome that shows a slightly smaller genome size and relatively higher GC content than most ascomycete fungi. A phylogenomic analysis of the YLS supported its close relationship with insect pathogens. We analyzed YLS-specific genes and the categories of genes that are likely to have changed in the YLS during its evolution. The loss of mating type locus demonstrated in the YLS sheds light on the evolution of eukaryotic symbionts. This information about the YLS genome provides a helpful guide for further understanding endosymbiotic associations in hemiptera and the symbiotic replacement of ancient bacteria with a multifunctional YLS seems to have been a successful change. PMID:26338189

  14. Soudanones A-G: Antifungal Isochromanones from the Ascomycetous Fungus Cadophora sp. Isolated from an Iron Mine.

    PubMed

    Rusman, Yudi; Held, Benjamin W; Blanchette, Robert A; Wittlin, Sergio; Salomon, Christine E

    2015-06-26

    One new isochromane (pseudoanguillosporin C, 2), seven isochromanones (soudanones A-G, 3-9), and six known analogues including 10 and 11 were isolated from a culture of the fungus Cadophora sp. 10-5-2 M, collected from the subterranean 10th level of the Soudan Underground Iron Mine in Minnesota. All of the compounds were tested against a panel of microbial pathogens, and 2, 3, 10, and 11 were found to have activity against Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC = 35, 40, 20, and 30 μg/mL, respectively). Compound 11 was also active against Candida albicans, with an MIC of 40 μg/mL.

  15. FgFlbD regulates hyphal differentiation required for sexual and asexual reproduction in the ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2014-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal plant pathogen that infects major cereal crops. The fungus produces both sexual and asexual spores in order to endure unfavorable environmental conditions and increase their numbers and distribution across plants. In a model filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, early induction of conidiogenesis is orchestrated by the fluffy genes. The objectives of this study were to characterize fluffy gene homologs involved in conidiogenesis and their mechanism of action in F. graminearum. We characterized five fluffy gene homologs in F. graminearum and found that FlbD is the only conserved regulator for conidiogenesis in A. nidulans and F. graminearum. Deletion of fgflbD prevented hyphal differentiation and the formation of perithecia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans flbD demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for FlbD functions are conserved in F. graminearum. Moreover, abaA-wetA pathway is positively regulated by FgFlbD during conidiogenesis in F. graminearum. Deleting fgflbD abolished morphological effects of abaA overexpression, which suggests that additional factors for FgFlbD or an AbaA-independent pathway for conidiogenesis are required for F. graminearum conidiation. Importantly, this study led to the construction of a genetic pathway of F. graminearum conidiogenesis and provides new insights into the genetics of conidiogenesis in fungi.

  16. [Selection of isolates of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae) for control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)].

    PubMed

    Barci, Leila A G; de Almeida, José Eduardo M; de Campos Nogueira, Adriana H; Zappelini, Luciano O; do Prado, Angelo P

    2009-12-01

    This study was carried out to select isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with pathogenic potential to control the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick. The effectiveness of thirty isolates was first tested at a concentration of 5 x 108 conidia.mL(-1). Of these, eight were evaluated (IBCB01, IBCB02, IBCB07, IBCB17, IBCB21, IBCB74, IBCB149, IBCB165) and showed an effectiveness between 90 and 99%; thirteen (IBCB03, IBCB14, IBCB16, IBCB24, IBCB95, IBCB97, IBCB102, IBCB141, IBCB146, IBCB147, IBCB150, IBCB154, IBCB157) between 80 and 89,5%; six (IBCB47, IBCB75, IBCB84, IBCB145, IBCB161, IBCB164) between 70 and 79%, and only two (IBCB13 and IBCB143) had lower pathogenicity (70% or below). In the second step of the study, the five more effective strains in the first phase of the experiment (IBCB01, IBCB07, IBCB21, IBCB66, IBCB165) were analyzed comparatively. Based on in vitro results, it can be concluded that IBCB66 and IBCB21 are the isolates with higher potential for field control of R. (B.) microplus. IBCB01, IBCB07, IBCB21, IBCB66 e IBCB165 isolates were submitted to a conidial production test using a rice-based substrate. The best mass production of the entomopathogenic fungus was obtained with the IBCB66 strain.

  17. A transcriptomic study of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) interaction with the vascular ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata

    PubMed Central

    Camps, Céline; Kappel, Christian; Lecomte, Pascal; Léon, Céline; Gomès, Eric; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Delrot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. In the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) responses to Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes that may prevent symptom development. Qiagen/Operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14 500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhouse, and in the vineyard), foliar material of infected symptomatic plants (S+R+), infected asymptomatic plants (S–R+), and healthy plants (S–R–). These plants were characterized by symptom notation after natural (vineyard) or experimental (in vitro and greenhouse) infection, re-isolation of the fungus located in the lignified parts, and the formal identification of E. lata mycelium by PCR. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR experiments were run to confirm the expression of some genes of interest in response to E. lata. Their expression profiles were also studied in response to other grapevine pathogens (Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea). (i) Five functional categories of genes, that is those involved in metabolism, defence reactions, interaction with the environment, transport, and transcription, were up-regulated in S+R+ plants compared with S–R– plants. These genes, which cannot prevent infection and symptom development, are not specific since they were also up-regulated after infection by powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot. (ii) Most of the genes that may prevent symptom development are associated with the light phase of photosynthesis. This finding is discussed in the context of previous data on the mode of action of eutypin and the polypeptide fraction secreted by Eutypa. PMID:20190040

  18. Long-term preservation, regeneration, and cultivation of Paecilomyces tenuipes (Peck) Samson (Ascomycetes), an entomopathogenic fungus inoculated into the silkworm larva of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sung Hee; Li, Chun Ru; Li, Zeng-Zhi; Fan, Mei-Zhen; Kang, Seok Woo; Lee, Kwang Gill; Yeo, Joo Hong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Choi, Ji Young; Han, Sang Mi; Lee, Ki Man

    2011-01-01

    Paecilomyces tenuipes reportedly have anticancer and immune activities, along with various other medicinal uses. Cultured products with P. tenuipes are certified for use in food in South Korea, and processed goods containing this fungus have been developed in many countries, particularly South Korea, Japan, and China. Research on mass production technology-procured raw materials for the manufacture of P. tenuipes is very important; however, cultures of the fungus have been unstable. This study identified stable cultivation conditions, focusing on growth inhibition and revitalization. Moisture regulation and preservation of pupae inoculated with P. tenuipes were used to control growth inhibition and revitalization. When inoculated silkworm pupae were dehydrated to 4% moisture and preserved freeze-dried or at -70 degrees C, -20 degrees C, or 4 degrees C, the mycelia in their bodies were able to survive for 14 d. Inoculated silkworm pupae were rehydrated for 3 h and the mycelia within their bodies were recovered at 94.3-96.3%. Silkworm pupae at 4% moisture were able to survive for 135 d at temperatures < 4 degrees C and for 1 y after freeze-drying. Optimal conditions for synnemata induction were 25 degrees C and 100-300 1x.

  19. Use of gradient plates to study combined effects of temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration on growth of Monascus ruber van Tieghem, an Ascomycetes fungus isolated from green table olives.

    PubMed

    Panagou, E Z; Skandamis, P N; Nychas, G-J E

    2005-01-01

    The effect of temperature, pH, and sodium chloride concentration on the growth of the Ascomycetes fungus Monascus ruber van Tieghem, the main spoilage microorganism during storage of table olives, was studied by using the gradient plate technique. Gradients of NaCl (3 to 9%, wt/vol) at right angles to gradients of pH (2 to 6.8) were prepared for the plates, which were incubated at 25, 30, and 35 degrees C. Visible fungal growth, expressed in optical density units, was recorded by image analysis and graphically presented in the form of three-dimensional grids. Results obtained from the plates indicated that the fungus was salt and acid tolerant, being able to grow at NaCl concentrations of up to 9% (wt/vol) and pH values of as low as 2.2, depending on the incubation temperature. The inhibitory effect of NaCl increased as the pH decreased progressively at 25 and 30 degrees C but not at 35 degrees C. Growth was better at 30 and 25 degrees C as judged by the larger extent of the plates covered by mycelium compared with that at 35 degrees C, where no growth was observed at pHs below 3.7. Differentiation between vegetative (imperfect-stage) and reproductive (perfect-stage) growth was evident on all plates, providing useful information about the effect of environmental conditions on the form of fungal growth. When the growth/no-growth surface model was obtained by applying linear logistic regression, it was found that all factors (pH, NaCl, and temperature) and their interactions were significant. Plots of growth/no-growth interfaces for P values of 0.1, 0.5, and 0.9 described the results satisfactorily at 25 and 35 degrees C, whereas at 35 degrees C the model predicted lower minimum pH values for growth in the range of 7 to 10% NaCl than those observed on the plates. Overall, it is suggested that the fungus cannot be inhibited by any combination of pH and NaCl within the limits of the brine environment, so further processing is required to ensure product stability in the

  20. Photoperiodic Responses and Characterization of the Cmvvd Gene Encoding a Blue Light Photoreceptor from the Medicinal Caterpillar Fungus Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Dong, Xiaoming; Song, Xinhua; Wang, Fen; Dong, Caihong

    2017-01-01

    Light is a necessary environmental factor for production of conidia and pigment, formation of stroma, and development of Cordyceps militaris, a well-known edible and medicinal mushroom. In this study, an obvious rhythm loop was observed in certain strains of C. militaris under conditions of alternating 12-hour intervals of dark and light. A possibly related gene, Cmvvd, the homologue of the blue-light photoreceptor of Neurospora crassa, was cloned from the genome of C. militaris. The protein CmVVD is predicted to be 203 amino acids in length and is characterized by the presence of a light, oxygen, or voltage domain. Analysis of the CmVVD sensor domain (light, oxygen, or voltage) suggested that it is a blue-light receptor. Cysteine 108 is essential for the in vivo function of VIVID (VVD) in N. crassa photoadaptation. However, proline is in this position instead in all of the tested CmVVD proteins, suggesting that CmVVD may have a different function or may function in ways different from VVD in N. crassa. Genetic variation analysis of CmVVD in 6 representative strains indicated that 3 informative sites exist. Cmvvd messenger RNA was able to be induced by light, and the expression level increased over 10 times after irradiation and was maintained at high levels in the nascent fruiting body. The light-induced expression of Cmvvd was abolished in Cmwc-1 mutants, suggesting that the expression of Cmvvd is dependent on the photoreceptor CmWC-1 or on a functional CmWC-1/WC-2 complex. This article will help to open the still-unexplored field of circadian rhythms for this fungus.

  1. Effects of medium components and culture conditions on mycelial biomass and the production of bioactive ingredients in submerged culture of Xylaria nigripes (Ascomycetes), a Chinese medicinal fungus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Zhi; Lo, Hui-Chen; Lin, Fang-Yi; Chang, Shih-Liang; Hsieh, Changwei; Liang, Zeng-Chin; Ho, Wai-Jane; Hsu, Tai-Hao

    2014-01-01

    The optimal culture conditions were investigated to maximize the production of mycelial biomass and bioactive ingredients in submerged cultivation of Xylaria nigripes, a Chinese medicinal fungus. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to explore the effects of medium components, including carbon, nitrogen, mineral sources, and initial pH of the medium and environmental factors, such as culture temperature and rotation speed, on mycelial growth and production of bioactive ingredients. The results indicated that the optimal culture temperature and rotation speed were 25°C and 100 rpm in a medium with 20 g fructose, 6 g yeast extract, and 2 g magnesiun sulfate heptahydrate as carbon, nitrogen, and mineral sources, respectively, in 1 L distilled water with an initial medium pH of 5.5. With optimal medium components and conditions of cultivation, the maximal production of mycelial biomass was 6.64 ± 0.88 g/L, with maximal production of bioactive ingredients such as extracellular polysaccharides (2.36 ± 0.18 mg/mL), intracellular polysaccharides (2.38 ± 0.07 mg/g), adenosine (43.27 ± 2.37 mg/g), total polyphenols (36.57 ± 1.36 mg/g), and triterpenoids (31.29 ± 1.17 mg/g) in a shake flask culture. These results suggest that different bioactive ingredients including intracellular polysaccharides, adenosine, total polyphenols and triterpenoids in mycelia and extracellular polysaccharides in broth can be obtained from one simple medium for submerged cultivation of X. nigripes.

  2. Phylogeny of filamentous ascomycetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumbsch, H. T.

    Phylogenetic studies of higher ascomycetes are enhanced by the introduction of molecular markers. Most studies employed sequences of the SSU rRNA gene, but recently data from additional genes (RPB2, LSU rRNA) have become available. Several groups defined by their ascoma-type, such as Pyrenomycetes, are supported while others, like the Discomycetes, appear to be paraphyletic. The Pezizales with operculate asci are basal to other eu-ascomycetes, while other Discomycetes appear to be derived eu-ascomycetes. The re-evaluation of classical characters using molecular data is discussed using three examples. Ascus types are often regarded as being of major importance in ascomycete systematics, but prototunicate asci were found to be of poor taxonomic value, since ascomycetes with prototunicate asci are polyphyletic. The independence of the Agyriales, assumed from their morphological characters, is supported by sequence data but the relationship to supposed sister groups remains dubious. The phylogeny of ascolocularous fungi and their circumscription requires further study. While a circumscription based on bitunicate asci can be rejected, it remains unclear whether fungi with ascolocularous ascoma development represent a monophyletic entity.

  3. Evolutionary history of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 20 ascomyceteous yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comp...

  4. Steroid toxicity and detoxification in ascomycetous fungi.

    PubMed

    Cvelbar, Damjana; Zist, Vanja; Kobal, Katja; Zigon, Dušan; Zakelj-Mavrič, Marija

    2013-02-25

    In the last couple of decades fungal infections have become a significant clinical problem. A major interest into fungal steroid action has been provoked since research has proven that steroid hormones are toxic to fungi and affect the host/fungus relationship. Steroid hormones were found to differ in their antifungal activity in ascomycetous fungi Hortaea werneckii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae. Dehydroepiandrosterone was shown to be the strongest inhibitor of growth in all three varieties of fungi followed by androstenedione and testosterone. For their protection, fungi use several mechanisms to lower the toxic effects of steroids. The efficiency of biotransformation in detoxification depended on the microorganism and steroid substrate used. Biotransformation was a relatively slow process as it also depended on the growth phase of the fungus. In addition to biotransformation, steroid extrusion out of the cells contributed to the lowering of the active intracellular steroid concentration. Plasma membrane Pdr5 transporter was found to be the most effective, followed by Snq2 transporter and vacuolar transporters Ybt1 and Ycf1. Proteins Aus1 and Dan1 were not found to be involved in steroid import. The research of possible targets of steroid hormone action in fungi suggests that steroid hormones inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae and H. werneckii. Results of this inhibition caused changes in the sterol content of the cellular membrane. The presence of steroid hormones most probably causes the degradation of the Tat2 permease and impairment of tryptophan import.

  5. Ascomycetes on Polytrichadelphus aristatus (Musci).

    PubMed

    Döbbeler, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Fourteen herbarium specimens of Polytrichadelphus aristatus (Polytrichaceae, Musci) from the northern Andes were found to be colonized by ascomycetes. Thirty fungal specimens are indicated representing nine species and six genera. They belong to the first records of bryophilous fungi of northern South America. Five taxa are proposed as new: the genus Aphanotria, and the species A. paradoxa, Bryochiton macrosporus, Bryorella imitans, and Massarina polytrichadelphi. Most frequently found were Rogellia triseptata with six and Bryochiton macrosporus with five records. Four species develop their ascomata between the photosynthetic leaf lamellae, three are immersed within the abaxial side of the leaf nerve and two grow below the adaxial cuticle. The hypocrealean A. paradoxa, which has huge but almost invisible ascomata, merits special attention. Apart from a pronounced rostrum, these are completely immersed within the leaf nerve but longitudinally orientated occupying a type of microniche hitherto unknown. Hyphae of several species attack the thick-walled stereids of the leaf nerve and strongly contribute to leaf decomposition. Polytrichadelphus aristatus has an assemblage of parasitic ascomycetes quite different from that of P. magellanicus from southern South America.

  6. Two pheromone precursor genes are transcriptionally expressed in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Pöggeler, S

    2000-06-01

    In order to analyze the involvement of pheromones in cell recognition and mating in a homothallic fungus, two putative pheromone precursor genes, named ppg1 and ppg2, were isolated from a genomic library of Sordaria macrospora. The ppg1 gene is predicted to encode a precursor pheromone that is processed by a Kex2-like protease to yield a pheromone that is structurally similar to the alpha-factor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ppg2 gene encodes a 24-amino-acid polypeptide that contains a putative farnesylated and carboxy methylated C-terminal cysteine residue. The sequences of the predicted pheromones display strong structural similarity to those encoded by putative pheromones of heterothallic filamentous ascomycetes. Both genes are expressed during the life cycle of S. macrospora. This is the first description of pheromone precursor genes encoded by a homothallic fungus. Southern-hybridization experiments indicated that ppg1 and ppg2 homologues are also present in other homothallic ascomycetes.

  7. Evolutionary History of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Haridas, Sajeet; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Goker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor; Jeffries, Thomas W.

    2014-06-06

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comparison of these with several other previously published yeast genomes have added increased confidence to the phylogenetic positions of previously poorly placed species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that yeasts with alternative nuclear codon usage where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with a large fraction of single exon genes with Lipomyces starkeyi and the previously published Pneumocystis jirovecii being notable exceptions. Intron analysis suggests that early diverging species have more introns. We also observed a large number of unclassified lineage specific non-simple repeats in these genomes.

  8. Genomic evolution of the ascomycetous yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphr...

  9. Molecular evolution of the fungi: relationship of the Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Chytridiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Bowman, B H; Taylor, J W; Brownlee, A G; Lee, J; Lu, S D; White, T J

    1992-03-01

    Establishing the phylogeny of fungi and protists often has proved difficult owing to the simple morphologies and convergent characters in these organisms. We used DNA sequences of nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes to determine phylogenetic relationships among three major classes of organisms considered to be fungi--Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes and Chytridiomycetes--and to assess the taxonomic position of Neocallimastix, an economically important anaerobic rumen microorganism whose classification is controversial. The Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes, two classes of nonflagellated fungi, are the most closely related taxa. Chytridiomycetes, though bearing flagella, group with these higher fungi rather than with the protists. Neocallimastix, a eukaryote lacking mitochondria and variously classified as a protist or as a fungus, shows closest molecular affinities with the Chytridiomycete fungi in the order Spizellomycetales.

  10. A novel class of peptide pheromone precursors in ascomycetous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Schmoll, Monika; Seibel, Christian; Tisch, Doris; Dorrer, Marcel; Kubicek, Christian P

    2010-01-01

    Recently, sexual development in the heterothallic ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina) has been achieved and thus initiated attempts to elucidate regulation and determinants of this process. While the α-type pheromone of this fungus fits the consensus known from other fungi, the assumed a-type peptide pheromone precursor shows remarkably unusual characteristics: it comprises three copies of the motif (LI)GC(TS)VM thus constituting a CAAX domain at the C-terminus and two Kex2-protease sites. This structure shares characteristics of both a- and α-type peptide pheromone precursors. Presence of hybrid-type peptide pheromone precursor 1 (hpp1) is essential for male fertility, thus indicating its functionality as a peptide pheromone precursor, while its phosphorylation site is not relevant for this process. However, sexual development in a female fertile background is not perturbed in the absence of hpp1, which rules out a higher order function in this process. Open reading frames encoding proteins with similar characteristics to HPP1 were also found in Fusarium spp., of which Fusarium solani still retains a putative a-factor-like protein, but so far in no other fungal genome available. We therefore propose the novel class of h-type (hybrid) peptide pheromone precursors with H. jecorina HPP1 as the first member of this class. PMID:20735770

  11. Dibenzofurans and derivatives from lichens and ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Millot, Marion; Dieu, Amandine; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-06-02

    Covering: up to 2016.When looking for dibenzofuran in the biochemical databases, most papers and reviews deal with pollutants and polychlorinated dibenzofurans like dioxins. But dibenzofurans are also biosynthetized by a wide diversity of organisms in nature. Even if dibenzofurans from natural sources represent a small class of secondary metabolites, compared to flavonoids, xanthones or terpenoids, they are often endowed with interesting biological properties which have been recently described. This review provides an update on papers describing dibenzofurans from lichens, ascomycetes and cultured mycobionts. Other sources, such as basidiomycetes, myxomycetes or plants produce sporadically interesting dibenzofurans in terms of structures and activities.

  12. Prevalence of transcription factors in ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene regulation underlies fungal physiology and therefore is a major factor in fungal biodiversity. Analysis of genome sequences has revealed a large number of putative transcription factors in most fungal genomes. The presence of fungal orthologs for individual regulators has been analysed and appears to be highly variable with some regulators widely conserved and others showing narrow distribution. Although genome-scale transcription factor surveys have been performed before, no global study into the prevalence of specific regulators across the fungal kingdom has been presented. Results In this study we have analysed the number of members for 37 regulator classes in 77 ascomycete and 31 basidiomycete fungal genomes and revealed significant differences between ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. In addition, we determined the presence of 64 regulators characterised in ascomycetes across these 108 genomes. This demonstrated that overall the highest presence of orthologs is in the filamentous ascomycetes. A significant number of regulators lacked orthologs in the ascomycete yeasts and the basidiomycetes. Conversely, of seven basidiomycete regulators included in the study, only one had orthologs in ascomycetes. Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant difference in the regulatory repertoire of ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi, at the level of both regulator class and individual regulator. This suggests that the current regulatory systems of these fungi have been mainly developed after the two phyla diverged. Most regulators detected in both phyla are involved in central functions of fungal physiology and therefore were likely already present in the ancestor of the two phyla. PMID:24650355

  13. Genomic Evolution of the Ascomycete Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Salamov, Asaf; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Goker, Markus; Hittinger, Chris; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lopes, Mariana; Meir-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos; Scheuner, Carmen; Soares, Marco; Stielow, Benjamin; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Wolfe, Ken; Blackwell, Meredith; Kurtzman, Cletus; Grigoriev, Igor; Jeffries, Thomas

    2015-03-16

    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. Phylogenetic analysis of these and previously published yeast genomes helped resolve the placement of species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora, Hyphopichia burtonii, and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Moreover, we find that alternative nuclear codon usage, where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine, are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with a large fraction of single exon genes, and a tendency towards more introns in early-diverging species. Analysis of enzyme phylogeny gives insights into the evolution of metabolic capabilities such as methanol utilization and assimilation of alternative carbon sources.

  14. Plant cell wall deconstruction by ascomycete fungi.

    PubMed

    Glass, N Louise; Schmoll, Monika; Cate, Jamie H D; Coradetti, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi requires a diverse set of secreted enzymes and significantly contributes to the global carbon cycle. Recent advances in genomic and systems-level studies have begun to reveal how filamentous ascomycete species exploit carbon sources in different habitats. These studies have laid the groundwork for unraveling new enzymatic strategies for deconstructing the plant cell wall, including the discovery of polysaccharide monooxygenases that enhance the activity of cellulases. The identification of genes encoding proteins lacking functional annotation, but that are coregulated with cellulolytic genes, suggests functions associated with plant biomass degradation remain to be elucidated. Recent research shows that signaling cascades mediating cellulolytic responses often act in a light-dependent manner and show crosstalk with other metabolic pathways. In this review, we cover plant biomass degradation, from sensing, to transmission and modulation of signals, to activation of transcription factors and gene induction, to enzyme complement and function.

  15. Freshwater ascomycetes: Alascospora evergladensis, a new genus and species from the Florida Everglades.

    PubMed

    Raja, Huzefa A; Violi, Helen A; Shearer, Carol A

    2010-01-01

    Alascospora evergladensis, a freshwater ascomycete collected from submerged dead petioles of Nymphaea odorata during a survey of aquatic fungi along a phosphorus gradient in the Florida Everglades, is described and illustrated as a new genus and species in the Pleosporales (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes). The new fungus is unique among genera in the Pleosporales based on a combination of morphological characters that include light brown, translucent, membranous, ostiolate ascomata with dark, amorphous material irregularly deposited on the peridium, especially around the ostiole; globose, fissitunicate, thick-walled asci; septate pseudoparaphyses; and 1-septate ascospores that are hyaline when young, and surrounded by a hyaline gelatinous sheath that is wing-shaped in outline on each side of the ascospore. The sheath is distinctive in that it first expands in water and is translucent, then condenses and darkens around older ascospores, giving them a dark brown, verruculose appearance.

  16. Phylogenetics of Saccharomycetales, the ascomycete yeasts.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Lachance, Marc-André

    2006-01-01

    Ascomycete yeasts (phylum Ascomycota: subphylum Saccharomycotina: class Saccharomycetes: order Saccharomycetales) comprise a monophyletic lineage with a single order of about 1000 known species. These yeasts live as saprobes, often in association with plants, animals and their interfaces. A few species account for most human mycotic infections, and fewer than 10 species are plant pathogens. Yeasts are responsible for important industrial and biotechnological processes, including baking, brewing and synthesis of recombinant proteins. Species such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae are model organisms in research, some of which led to a Nobel Prize. Yeasts usually reproduce asexually by budding, and their sexual states are not enclosed in a fruiting body. The group also is well defined by synapomorphies visible at the ultrastructural level. Yeast identification and classification changed dramatically with the availability of DNA sequencing. Species identification now benefits from a constantly updated sequence database and no longer relies on ambiguous growth tests. A phylogeny based on single gene analyses has shown the order to be remarkably divergent despite morphological similarities among members. The limits of many previously described genera are not supported by sequence comparisons, and multigene phylogenetic studies are under way to provide a stable circumscription of genera, families and orders. One recent multigene study has resolved species of the Saccharomycetaceae into genera that differ markedly from those defined by analysis of morphology and growth responses, and similar changes are likely to occur in other branches of the yeast tree as additional sequences become available.

  17. ASYMMETRY IN SEXUAL PHEROMONES IS NOT REQUIRED FOR ASCOMYCETE MATING

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves-Sá, Joana; Murray, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Background We investigated the determinants of sexual identity in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The higher fungi are divided into the Ascomycetes and the Basidiomycetes. Most Ascomycetes have two mating types: one (called α in yeasts and MAT1-1 in filamentous fungi) produces a small, unmodified, peptide pheromone, and the other (a in yeasts and MAT1-2 in filamentous fungi) produces a peptide pheromone conjugated to a C terminal farnesyl group that makes it very hydrophobic. In the Basidiomycetes, all pheromones are lipid-modified, and this difference is a distinguishing feature between the phyla. We asked whether the asymmetry in pheromone modification is required for successful mating in Ascomycetes. Results We cloned receptor and pheromone genes from a filamentous Ascomycete and a Basidiomycete and expressed these in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to generate novel, alternative mating pairs. We find that two yeast cells can mate even when both cells secrete a-like or α-like peptides. Importantly, this is true regardless of whether the cells express the a- or α-mating type loci, which control the expression of other, sex-specific genes, in addition to the pheromones and pheromone receptors. Conclusions We demonstrate that the asymmetric pheromone modification is not required for successful mating of ascomycete fungi and confirm that, in budding yeast, the primary determinants of mating are the specificity of the receptors and their corresponding pheromones. PMID:21835624

  18. Asymmetry in sexual pheromones is not required for ascomycete mating.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Sá, Joana; Murray, Andrew

    2011-08-23

    We investigated the determinants of sexual identity in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The higher fungi are divided into the ascomycetes and the basidiomycetes. Most ascomycetes have two mating types: one (called α in yeasts and MAT1-1 in filamentous fungi) produces a small, unmodified, peptide pheromone, and the other (a in yeasts and MAT1-2 in filamentous fungi) produces a peptide pheromone conjugated to a C-terminal farnesyl group that makes it very hydrophobic. In the basidiomycetes, all pheromones are lipid-modified, and this difference is a distinguishing feature between the phyla. We asked whether the asymmetry in pheromone modification is required for successful mating in ascomycetes. We cloned receptor and pheromone genes from a filamentous ascomycete and a basidiomycete and expressed these in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to generate novel, alternative mating pairs. We find that two yeast cells can mate even when both cells secrete a-like or α-like peptides. Importantly, this is true regardless of whether the cells express the a- or α-mating-type loci, which control the expression of other, sex-specific genes, in addition to the pheromones and pheromone receptors. We demonstrate that the asymmetric pheromone modification is not required for successful mating of ascomycete fungi and confirm that, in budding yeast, the primary determinants of mating are the specificity of the receptors and their corresponding pheromones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New records of some Ascomycete truffle fungi from Turkey

    Treesearch

    Aziz TÜRKOÐLU; Michael Angelo CASTELLANO

    2014-01-01

    We report the first records of 6 Ascomycete truffle taxa in Turkey: Genea verrucosa Vittad., Genea klotzschii Berk. & Broome, Stephensia bombycina (Vittad.) Tul. & C.Tul., Terfezia olbiensis Tul. & C.Tul., Tuber excavatum Vittad., and Tuber rufum Pico. We also...

  20. Fungus Amongus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  1. Fungus Amongus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  2. [Comparison of genomes between Aspergillus nidulans and 30 filamentous ascomycetes].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhao-Qing; Zhao, Fu-Yong; Hsiang, Tom; Yu, Zhi-He

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the conserved homologs of filamentous ascomycetes genomes, the local fungal genome database used in this analysis was established, which consisted of 31 latest and complete genome data publicly available on the Internet. An expectation value cutoff of 0.1 was used to identify significant hits. Each complete gene set of the query genome Aspergillus nidulans genome with 10,560 annotated genes was splitted into individual FASTA files with Seqverter and then compared separately against each filamentous ascomycete genome using Standalone BLASTN. The result indicated that the number of matches reflected the evolutional relationships of the filamentous ascomycetes analysed. Of 10,560 genes in Aspergillus nidulans genome, 924 had match sequences with other 30 filamentous ascomycetes ones. The number of homology sequences were 6, 3, 6, and 6 at E-values in the range of 10(-5) to 0.1, 10(-30) to 10(-5), 10(-100) to 10(-30) and 0 to 1000(-100), respectively. Six homologs at E-values ranging from 10(-5) to 0.1 and 3 at E-values ranging from 10(-30) to 10(-5) were variable, while the 6 at E-values ranging from 0 to 10(-100) were highly conserved based on the alignments using ClustalX. Six homologs were relatively conserved at E-values in the range of 10(-100) to 10(-30), which can be used in phylogeny of these filamentous ascomycetes in this study.

  3. Characterization of a hydrophobin of the ascomycete Paecilomyces farinosus.

    PubMed

    Lunkenbein, Stefan; Takenberg, Meike; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf G

    2011-08-01

    The entomopathogenic ascomycete Paecilomyces farinosus (alternative name Isaria farinosa) synthesized a hydrophobin, irrespective of being grown in submerged or surface culture. The protein was extracted using trifluoroacetic acid and purified using preparative HPLC and SDS-PAGE. Partial sequences were obtained using ESI-MS/MS. The peptides were used as a start to apply a 'template switching oligo' protocol to elucidate the complete open reading frame of P. farinosus hydrophobin 1 (pfah1). The deduced protein sequence comprised 107 amino acids (10.7 kDa) including a 16 amino acid long hydrophobic signal peptide, showed a calculated pI of 4.56, and was interrupted by one intron. Phylogenetic analyses revealed relationships to hydrophobins of the ascomycetes Magnaporthe grisea and Metarhizium anisopliae. Based on solubility, hydropathy pattern and phylogeny PfaH1 was assigned to the class Ia hydrophobins. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Ascomycetous Yeasts Isolated from Animals

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; García, Marta E.; Peláez, Teresa; Martínez-Nevado, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that antifungal resistance in yeast isolates of veterinary origin may be an underdiagnosed threat. We tested a collection of 92 ascomycetous yeast isolates that were obtained in Spain from birds, mammals and insects for antifungal susceptibility. MICs to amphotericin B and azoles were low, and no resistant isolates were detected. Despite these results, and given the potential role of animals as reservoirs of resistant strains, continuous monitoring of antifungal susceptibility in the veterinary setting is recommended. PMID:27216048

  5. The completed genome sequence of the pathogenic ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    King, Robert; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Michael C U; Hassani-Pak, Keywan; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

    2015-07-22

    Accurate genome assembly and gene model annotation are critical for comparative species and gene functional analyses. Here we present the completed genome sequence and annotation of the reference strain PH-1 of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of head scab disease of small grain cereals which threatens global food security. Completion was achieved by combining (a) the BROAD Sanger sequenced draft, with (b) the gene predictions from Munich Information Services for Protein Sequences (MIPS) v3.2, with (c) de novo whole-genome shotgun re-sequencing, (d) re-annotation of the gene models using RNA-seq evidence and Fgenesh, Snap, GeneMark and Augustus prediction algorithms, followed by (e) manual curation. We have comprehensively completed the genomic 36,563,796 bp sequence by replacing unknown bases, placing supercontigs within their correct loci, correcting assembly errors, and inserting new sequences which include for the first time complete AT rich sequences such as centromere sequences, subtelomeric regions and the telomeres. Each of the four F. graminearium chromosomes was found to be submetacentric with respect to centromere positioning. The position of a potential neocentromere was also defined. A preferentially higher frequency of genetic recombination was observed at the end of the longer arm of each chromosome. Within the genome 1529 gene models have been modified and 412 new gene models predicted, with a total gene call of 14,164. The re-annotation impacts upon 69 entries held within the Pathogen-Host Interactions database (PHI-base) which stores information on genes for which mutant phenotypes in pathogen-host interactions have been experimentally tested, of which 59 are putative transcription factors, 8 kinases, 1 ATP citrate lyase (ACL1), and 1 syntaxin-like SNARE gene (GzSYN1). Although the completed F. graminearum contains very few transposon sequences, a previously unrecognised and potentially active gypsy-type long-terminal-repeat (LTR) retrotransposon was identified. In addition, each of the sub-telomeres and centromeres contained either a LTR or MarCry-1_FO element. The full content of the proposed ancient chromosome fusion sites has also been revealed and investigated. Regions with high recombination previously noted to be rich in secretome encoding genes were also found to be rich in tRNA sequences. This study has identified 741 F. graminearum species specific genes and provides the first complete genome assembly for a Sordariomycetes species. This fully completed F. graminearum PH-1 genome and manually curated annotation, available at Ensembl Fungi, provides the optimum resource to perform interspecies comparative analyses and gene function studies.

  6. The crystal structure of an extracellular catechol oxidase from the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Hakulinen, Nina; Gasparetti, Chiara; Kaljunen, Heidi; Kruus, Kristiina; Rouvinen, Juha

    2013-12-01

    Catechol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.1) catalyse the oxidation of o-diphenols to their corresponding o-quinones. These oxidases contain two copper ions (CuA and CuB) within the so-called coupled type 3 copper site as found in tyrosinases (EC 1.14.18.1) and haemocyanins. The crystal structures of a limited number of bacterial and fungal tyrosinases and plant catechol oxidases have been solved. In this study, we present the first crystal structure of a fungal catechol oxidase from Aspergillus oryzae (AoCO4) at 2.5-Å resolution. AoCO4 belongs to the newly discovered family of short-tyrosinases, which are distinct from other tyrosinases and catechol oxidases because of their lack of the conserved C-terminal domain and differences in the histidine pattern for CuA. The sequence identity of AoCO4 with other structurally known enzymes is low (less than 30 %), and the crystal structure of AoCO4 diverges from that of enzymes belonging to the conventional tyrosinase family in several ways, particularly around the central α-helical core region. A diatomic oxygen moiety was identified as a bridging molecule between the two copper ions CuA and CuB separated by a distance of 4.2-4.3 Å. The UV/vis absorption spectrum of AoCO4 exhibits a distinct maximum of absorbance at 350 nm, which has been reported to be typical of the oxy form of type 3 copper enzymes.

  7. WetA Is Required for Conidiogenesis and Conidium Maturation in the Ascomycete Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Min, Kyunghun; Lim, Jae Yun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Chae, Suhn-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum, a prominent fungal pathogen that infects major cereal crops, primarily utilizes asexual spores to spread disease. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum, we functionally characterized the F. graminearum ortholog of Aspergillus nidulans wetA, which has been shown to be involved in conidiogenesis and conidium maturation. Deletion of F. graminearum wetA did not alter mycelial growth, sexual development, or virulence, but the wetA deletion mutants produced longer conidia with fewer septa, and the conidia were sensitive to acute stresses, such as oxidative stress and heat stress. Furthermore, the survival rate of aged conidia from the F. graminearum wetA deletion mutants was reduced. The wetA deletion resulted in vigorous generation of single-celled conidia through autophagy-dependent microcycle conidiation, indicating that WetA functions to maintain conidial dormancy by suppressing microcycle conidiation in F. graminearum. Transcriptome analyses demonstrated that most of the putative conidiation-related genes are expressed constitutively and that only a few genes are specifically involved in F. graminearum conidiogenesis. The conserved and distinct roles identified for WetA in F. graminearum provide new insights into the genetics of conidiation in filamentous fungi. PMID:24186953

  8. Conserved and essential transcription factors for cellulase gene expression in ascomycete fungi

    PubMed Central

    Coradetti, Samuel T.; Craig, James P.; Xiong, Yi; Shock, Teresa; Tian, Chaoguang; Glass, N. Louise

    2012-01-01

    Rational engineering of filamentous fungi for improved cellulase production is hampered by our incomplete knowledge of transcriptional regulatory networks. We therefore used the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa to search for uncharacterized transcription factors associated with cellulose deconstruction. A screen of a N. crassa transcription factor deletion collection identified two uncharacterized zinc binuclear cluster transcription factors (clr-1 and clr-2) that were required for growth and enzymatic activity on cellulose, but were not required for growth or hemicellulase activity on xylan. Transcriptional profiling with next-generation sequencing methods refined our understanding of the N. crassa transcriptional response to cellulose and demonstrated that clr-1 and clr-2 were required for the bulk of that response, including induction of all major cellulase and some major hemicellulase genes. Functional CLR-1 was necessary for expression of clr-2 and efficient cellobiose utilization. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CLR-1 and CLR-2 are conserved in the genomes of most filamentous ascomycete fungi capable of degrading cellulose. In Aspergillus nidulans, a strain carrying a deletion of the clr-2 homolog (clrB) failed to induce cellulase gene expression and lacked cellulolytic activity on Avicel. Further manipulation of this control system in industrial production strains may significantly improve yields of cellulases for cellulosic biofuel production. PMID:22532664

  9. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Facultative Anaerobic Filamentous Fungus from Japanese Rice Field Soil

    PubMed Central

    Tonouchi, Akio

    2009-01-01

    A novel filamentous fungus strain designated RB-1 was isolated into pure culture from Japanese rice field soil through an anaerobic role tube technique. The strain is a mitosporic fungus that grows in both aerobic and strict anaerobic conditions using various mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides with acetate and ethanol productions. The amount of acetate produced was higher than that of ethanol in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The characteristic verrucose or punctuate conidia of RB-1 closely resembled those of some strains of the genus Thermomyces, a thermophilic or mesophilic anamorphic ascomycete. However, based on phylogenetic analysis with the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences, RB-1 was characterized as a member of the class Lecanoromycetes of the phylum Ascomycota. Currently, RB-1 is designated as an anamorphic ascomycete and is phylogenetically considered an incertae sedis within the class Lecanoromycetes. PMID:20148171

  10. A disseminated infection with the antifungal-multiresistant teleomorphic fungus Neocosmospora vasinfecta in a patient with acute B-lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Frédéric; D’Almeida, Mahussi; Albert, Olivier; Fitton-Ouhabi, Valérie; Noël, Thierry; Accoceberry, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We report on a fatal invasive infection due to the ascomycetous fungus Neocosmospora vasinfecta, in a 20-year-old European patient suffering from an acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The infection could not be controlled by a bitherapy combining liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole. This is the second case of disseminated infection reported with this unusual fungus, which develops under its teleomorphic state, is fully resistant to all systemic antifungals, and which is known to live in tropical countries. PMID:24432214

  11. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Ascomycetous Yeasts Isolated from Animals.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; García, Marta E; Peláez, Teresa; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Blanco, José L

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that antifungal resistance in yeast isolates of veterinary origin may be an underdiagnosed threat. We tested a collection of 92 ascomycetous yeast isolates that were obtained in Spain from birds, mammals and insects for antifungal susceptibility. MICs to amphotericin B and azoles were low, and no resistant isolates were detected. Despite these results, and given the potential role of animals as reservoirs of resistant strains, continuous monitoring of antifungal susceptibility in the veterinary setting is recommended. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Expression and Function of Sex Pheromones and Receptors in the Homothallic Ascomycete Gibberella zeae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In heterothallic ascomycete fungi, idiomorphic alleles at the MAT locus control two sex pheromone/receptor pairs that function in recognition and chemoattraction of strains with opposite mating types. In the ascomycete Gibberella zeae, the MAT locus is rearranged such that both alleles are adjacent...

  13. Genomics of alternative sulfur utilization in ascomycetous yeasts.

    PubMed

    Linder, Tomas

    2012-10-01

    Thirteen ascomycetous yeast strains with sequenced genomes were assayed for their ability to grow on chemically defined medium with 16 different sulfur compounds as the only significant source of sulfur. These compounds included sulfoxides, sulfones, sulfonates, sulfamates and sulfate esters. Broad utilization of alternative sulfur sources was observed in Komagataella pastoris (syn. Pichia pastoris), Lodderomyces elongisporus, Millerozyma farinosa (syn. Pichia sorbitophila), Pachysolen tannophilus, Scheffersomyces stipitis (syn. Pichia stipitis), Spathaspora passalidarum, Yamadazyma tenuis (syn. Candida tenuis) and Yarrowia lipolytica. Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii were mainly able to utilize sulfonates and sulfate esters, while Lachancea thermotolerans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe were limited to aromatic sulfate esters. Genome analysis identified several candidate genes with bacterial homologues that had been previously shown to be involved in the utilization of alternative sulfur sources. Analysis of candidate gene promoter sequences revealed a significant overrepresentation of DNA motifs that have been shown to regulate sulfur metabolism in Sacc. cerevisiae.

  14. Mla- and Rom1-mediated control of microRNA398 and chloroplast copper/zinc superoxide dismutase regulates cell death in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Barley Mla (Mildew resistance locus a) confers allele-specific interactions with natural variants of the ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causal agent of powdery mildew disease. Significant reprogramming of host gene expression occurs upon infection by this obligate biotrop...

  15. Antifungal mechanisms of a plant defensin MtDef4 are not conserved between the ascomycete fungi Neurospora crassa and Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Islam, Kazi T; Hernández-Ortiz, Patricia; Read, Nick D; Shah, Dilip M

    2016-05-01

    Defensins play an important role in plant defense against fungal pathogens. The plant defensin, MtDef4, inhibits growth of the ascomycete fungi, Neurospora crassa and Fusarium graminearum, at micromolar concentrations. We have reported that MtDef4 is transported into the cytoplasm of these fungi and exerts its antifungal activity on intracellular targets. Here, we have investigated whether the antifungal mechanisms of MtDef4 are conserved in these fungi. We show that N. crassa and F. graminearum respond differently to MtDef4 challenge. Membrane permeabilization is required for the antifungal activity of MtDef4 against F. graminearum but not against N. crassa. We find that MtDef4 is targeted to different subcellular compartments in each fungus. Internalization of MtDef4 in N. crassa is energy-dependent and involves endocytosis. By contrast, MtDef4 appears to translocate into F. graminearum autonomously using a partially energy-dependent pathway. MtDef4 has been shown to bind to the phospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA). We provide evidence that the plasma membrane localized phospholipase D, involved in the biosynthesis of PA, is needed for entry of this defensin in N. crassa, but not in F. graminearum. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a defensin which inhibits the growth of two ascomycete fungi via different mechanisms. © 2016 The Authors Molecular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Genetic diversity of algal and fungal partners in four species of Umbilicaria (Lichenized Ascomycetes) along a transect of the Antarctic peninsula.

    PubMed

    Romeike, J; Friedl, T; Helms, G; Ott, S

    2002-08-01

    Lichens from the genus Umbilicaria were collected across a 5,000-km transect through Antarctica and investigated for DNA sequence polymorphism in a region of 480-660 bp of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA. Sequences from both fungal (16 ascomycetes) and photosynthetic partners (22 chlorophytes from the genus Trebouxia) were determined and compared with homologs from lichens inhabiting more temperate, continental climates. The phylogenetic analyses reveal that Antarctic lichens have colonized their current habitats both through multiple independent colonization events from temperate embarkation zones and through recent long-range dispersal in the Antarctic of successful preexisting colonizers. Furthermore, the results suggest that relichenization-de novo establishment of the fungus-photosynthesizer symbiosis from nonlichenized algal and fungal cells-has occurred during the process of Antarctic lichen dispersal. Independent dispersal of algal and fungal cultures therefore can lead to a successful establishment of the lichen symbiosis even under harsh Antarctic conditions.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum and its relationship with families (GH10 and GH11) of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Cervantes, Jorge; Díaz-Godínez, Gerardo; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the amino acid sequence of the β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum, which is a pathogenic fungus of maize was used as a model protein to find its phylogenetic relationship with other xylanases of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes and the information obtained allowed to establish a hypothesis of monophyly and of biological role. 84 amino acid sequences of β-xylanase obtained from the GenBank database was used. Groupings analysis of higher-level in the Pfam database allowed to determine that the proteins under study were classified into the GH10 and GH11 families, based on the regions of highly conserved amino acids, 233–318 and 180–193 respectively, where glutamate residues are responsible for the catalysis. PMID:27040368

  18. Ascomycete fungal communities associated with early decaying leaves of Spartina spp. from central California estuaries.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Justine I; Alber, Merryl; Hollibaugh, James T

    2010-02-01

    Ascomycetous fungi play an important role in the early stages of decomposition of Spartina alterniflora, but their role in the decomposition of other Spartina species has not been investigated. Here we use fingerprint (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) and phylogenetic analyses of the 18S to 28S internal transcribed spacer region to compare the composition of the ascomycete fungal communities on early decay blades of Spartina species (Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora, Spartina foliosa, and a hybrid (S. alterniflora x S. foliosa)) collected from three salt marshes in San Francisco Bay and one in Tomales Bay, California, USA. Phaeosphaeria spartinicola was found on all samples collected and was often dominant. Two other ascomycetes, Phaeosphaeria halima and Mycosphaerella sp. strain 2, were also common. These three species are the same ascomycetes previously identified as the dominant fungal decomposers on S. alterniflora on the east coast. Ascomycetes appeared to exhibit varying degrees of host specificity, demonstrated by grouping patterns on phylogenetic trees. Neither the exotic S. alterniflora nor the hybrid supported fungal flora different from that of the native S. foliosa. However, S. densiflora had a significantly different fungal community than the other species, and hosted at least two unique ascomycetes. Significant differences in the fungal decomposer communities were also detected within species (two clones of S. foliosa), but these were minor and may be due to morphological differences among the plants.

  19. Botryane, noreudesmane and abietane terpenoids from the ascomycete Hypoxylon rickii.

    PubMed

    Kuhnert, Eric; Surup, Frank; Wiebach, Vincent; Bernecker, Steffen; Stadler, Marc

    2015-09-01

    In the course of our screening for new bioactive natural products, a culture of Hypoxylon rickii, a xylariaceous ascomycete collected from the Caribbean island Martinique, was identified as extraordinary prolific producer of secondary metabolites. Ten metabolites of terpenoid origin were isolated from submerged cultures of this species by preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated using spectral techniques including 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Three of the compounds were elucidated as new botryanes (1-3) along with three known ones, i.e. (3aS)-3a,5,5,8-tetramethyl-3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-cyclopenta[de]isochromen-1-one (4), (3aS,8R)-3a,5,5,8-tetramethyl-3,3a,4,5,7,8-hexahydro-1H-cyclopenta[de]isochromen-1-one (5) and botryenanol (6). Further three new sesquiterpenoids featured a 14-noreudesmane-type skeleton and were named hypoxylan A-C (7-9); the diterpenoid rickitin A (10) contains an abietane-type backbone. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 7, and 10 showed cytotoxic effects against murine cells.

  20. Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts--the ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several other yeast species are among the most important groups of biotechnological organisms. S. cerevisiae and closely related ascomycetous yeasts are the major producer of biotechnology products worldwide, exceeding other groups of industrial microorganisms in productivity and economic revenues. Traditional industrial attributes of the S. cerevisiae group include their primary roles in food fermentations such as beers, cider, wines, sake, distilled spirits, bakery products, cheese, sausages, and other fermented foods. Other long-standing industrial processes involving S. cerevisae yeasts are production of fuel ethanol, single-cell protein (SCP), feeds and fodder, industrial enzymes, and small molecular weight metabolites. More recently, non-Saccharomyces yeasts (non-conventional yeasts) have been utilized as industrial organisms for a variety of biotechnological roles. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts are increasingly being used as hosts for expression of proteins, biocatalysts and multi-enzyme pathways for the synthesis of fine chemicals and small molecular weight compounds of medicinal and nutritional importance. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts also have important roles in agriculture as agents of biocontrol, bioremediation, and as indicators of environmental quality. Several of these products and processes have reached commercial utility, while others are in advanced development. The objective of this mini-review is to describe processes currently used by industry and those in developmental stages and close to commercialization primarily from non-Saccharomyces yeasts with an emphasis on new opportunities. The utility of S. cerevisiae in heterologous production of selected products is also described.

  1. Halide uptake by the filamentous ascomycete Neocosmospora vasinfecta.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A G; Budd, K

    1975-01-01

    The uptake of Cl minus by the ascomycetes Neocosmospora vasinfecta was investigated. Intramycelial concentrations of more than 55 mM (890-fold the external concentration) were reached. Accumulation was as inorganic Cl minus and nystatin induced total loss of mycelial Cl minus without extensive protein loss, implying that Cl minus retention was not due to binding to macromolecules. Cl minus transport was largely unidirectional with efflux being low under all conditions. Uptake was temperature dependent (maximal Arrhenius activation energy of 18.0 kcal/mol) and was severely reduced by KCN, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and anaerobiosis. A comparison with the inhibition of oxygen uptake under the same conditions implied that Cl minus transport was not directly coupled to aerobic electron transport. Cl minus uptake was a saturatable function of the external Cl minus concentration, and apparent Km values of 6.4 times 10-6 M and 10-4 M were calculated. Of the anions tested, only Br minus effectively inhibited Cl minus uptake and I minus, NO3 minus, SO4 minus 2, HCO3 minus, and H2PO4 minus were without effect. Cl minus uptake did not require concomitant cation uptake. PMID:234943

  2. Mating types and sexual development in filamentous ascomycetes.

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, E; Debuchy, R; Arnaise, S; Picard, M

    1997-01-01

    The progress made in the molecular characterization of the mating types in several filamentous ascomycetes has allowed us to better understand their role in sexual development and has brought to light interesting biological problems. The mating types of Neurospora crassa, Podospora anserina, and Cochliobolus heterostrophus consist of unrelated and unique sequences containing one or several genes with multiple functions, related to sexuality or not, such as vegetative incompatibility in N. crassa. The presence of putative DNA binding domains in the proteins encoded by the mating-type (mat) genes suggests that they may be transcriptional factors. The mat genes play a role in cell-cell recognition at fertilization, probably by activating the genes responsible for the hormonal signal whose occurrence was previously demonstrated by physiological experiments. They also control recognition between nuclei at a later stage, when reproductive nuclei of each mating type which have divided in the common cytoplasm pair within the ascogenous hyphae. How self is distinguished from nonself at the nuclear level is not known. The finding that homothallic species, able to mate in the absence of a partner, contain both mating types in the same haploid genome has raised more issues than it has resolved. The instability of the mating type, in particular in Sclerotinia trifolorium and Botrytinia fuckeliana, is also unexplained. This diversity of mating systems, still more apparent if the yeasts and the basidiomycetes are taken into account, clearly shows that no single species can serve as a universal mating-type model. PMID:9409146

  3. Relationships between Swiss needle cast and ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity.

    PubMed

    Luoma, Daniel L; Eberhart, Joyce L

    2014-01-01

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a disease specific to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) caused by the ascomycete Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Here we examine characteristics of the EM fungus community that are potentially useful in predictive models that would monitor forest health. We found that mean EM density (number of colonized root tips/soil core) varied nearly 10-fold among sites of varying levels of SNC, while mean EM fungus species richness (number of species/soil core) varied by about 2.5 times. Strong relationships were found between EM and SNC parameters: EM species richness was positively correlated with both Douglas-fir needle retention (R(2) = 0.93) and EM density (R(2) = 0.65); EM density also was significantly correlated with Douglas-fir needle retention (R(2) = 0.70). These simple characteristics of the EM fungus community could be used to monitor forest health and generate predictive models of site suitability for Douglas-fir. Based on previous findings that normally common EM types were reduced in frequency on sites with severe SNC, we also hypothesized that some EM fungi would be stress tolerant-dominant species. Instead, we found that various fungi were able to form EM with the stressed trees, but none were consistently dominant across samples in the severely diseased areas.

  4. Fungus Infections: Tinea

    MedlinePlus

    ... cat, or from exposure to fungus in the soil. Itchy red scaly patches come up anywhere the ... Truth 12/19/2013 Osteopathic Training Statement Online Surveys About AOCD The AOCD was recognized in 1958 ...

  5. The chestnut blight fungus for studies on virus/host and virus/virus interactions: from a natural to a model host.

    PubMed

    Eusebio-Cope, Ana; Sun, Liying; Tanaka, Toru; Chiba, Sotaro; Kasahara, Shin; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-03-01

    The chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, is an important plant pathogenic ascomycete. The fungus hosts a wide range of viruses and now has been established as a model filamentous fungus for studying virus/host and virus/virus interactions. This is based on the development of methods for artificial virus introduction and elimination, host genome manipulability, available host genome sequence with annotations, host mutant strains, and molecular tools. Molecular tools include sub-cellular distribution markers, gene expression reporters, and vectors with regulatable promoters that have been long available for unicellular organisms, cultured cells, individuals of animals and plants, and certain filamentous fungi. A comparison with other filamentous fungi such as Neurospora crassa has been made to establish clear advantages and disadvantages of C. parasitica as a virus host. In addition, a few recent studies on RNA silencing vs. viruses in this fungus are introduced.

  6. Cultivation of medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), and production of cordycepin using the spent medium from levan fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang-Chen; Chen, Yi-Lin; Chang, Shu-Ming; Shih, Ing-Lung

    2013-01-01

    A process of tandem cultivation for the production of green and invaluable bioproducts (levan and Cordycepes militaris) useful for medical applications has been successfully developed. The process involves first cultivating Bacillus subtilis strain natto in sucrose medium to produce levan, followed by the subsequent cultivation of C. militaris in liquid- and solid-state cultures using the spent medium from levan fermentation as substrates. The factors affecting the cell growth and production of metabolites of C. militaris were investigated, and the various metabolites produced in the culture filtrate, mycelia, and fruiting body were analyzed. In addition, cordycepin was prepared from the solid waste medium of C. militaris. This is an excellent example in the development of cost effective biorefineries that maximize useful product formation from the available biomass. The preparation of cordycepin from solid waste medium of C. militaris using a method with high extraction efficiency and minimum solvent usage is also environmentally friendly.

  7. Evaluation of therapeutic activity of hypogeous Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes from North America

    Treesearch

    Rita Stanikunaite; James M. Trappe; Shabana I. Khan; Samir A. Rossu

    2007-01-01

    This study is the first broad investigation of therapeutic activities of hypogeous truffles and trufflelike fungi (Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes) from North America. Twenty-two species from 12 families were evaluated in several biological assays for antimicrobial, antimalarial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antituberculosis, and anticancer activities. Biological...

  8. New insights into the ligninolytic capability of a wood decay ascomycete

    Treesearch

    Semarjit Shary; Sally A. Ralph; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2007-01-01

    Wood-grown cultures of Daldinia concentrica oxidized a permethylated [beta]-14C- labeled synthetic lignin to 14CO2 and also cleaved a permethylated [alpha]-13C-labeled synthetic lignin to give C[alpha]-C[beta] cleavage products that were detected by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Therefore, this ascomycete resembles white-rot basidiomycetes in attacking...

  9. Deuteromycetes and selected ascomycetes that occur on or in wood: an indexed bibliography

    Treesearch

    E. L. Stewart; M. E. Palm; J. G. Palmer; W. E. Eslyn

    1979-01-01

    This report lists 1,008 publications that include deuteromycetous and ascomycetous fungi occurring on wood--principally wood in storage and use. Each publication is numbered and indexed by the one or more manmade or natural substrates, by general subject areas, and by authors. More than 1,150 fungi in 269 genera are listed alphabetically by genus and species. An...

  10. Impact of recent molecular phylogenetic studies on classification of ascomycete yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Analyses of concatenated gene sequences as well as whole genome sequences are resolving relationships among the ascomycete yeasts (Saccharomycotina), thus allowing classification of members of this subphylum to be based on phylogeny. In addition, changes implemented in the new Botanical Code [Intern...

  11. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Meredith

    2017-06-01

    Fungi and insects live together in the same habitats, and many species of both groups rely on each other for success. Insects, the most successful animals on Earth, cannot produce sterols, essential vitamins, and many enzymes; fungi, often yeast-like in growth form, make up for these deficits. Fungi, however, require constantly replenished substrates because they consume the previous ones, and insects, sometimes lured by volatile fungal compounds, carry fungi directly to a similar, but fresh, habitat. Yeasts associated with insects include Ascomycota (Saccharomycotina, Pezizomycotina) and a few Basidiomycota. Beetles, homopterans, and flies are important associates of fungi, and in turn the insects carry yeasts in pits, specialized external pouches, and modified gut pockets. Some yeasts undergo sexual reproduction within the insect gut, where the genetic diversity of the population is increased, while others, well suited to their stable environment, may never mate. The range of interactions extends from dispersal of yeasts on the surface of insects (e.g., cactus-Drosophila-yeast and ephemeral flower communities, ambrosia beetles, yeasts with holdfasts) to extremely specialized associations of organisms that can no longer exist independently, as in the case of yeast-like symbionts of planthoppers. In a few cases yeast-like fungus-insect associations threaten butterflies and other species with extinction. Technical advances improve discovery and identification of the fungi but also inform our understanding of the evolution of yeast-insect symbioses, although there is much more to learn.

  12. Fatal cerebral mycoses caused by the ascomycete Chaetomium strumarium.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, S P; Sigler, L; McAleer, R; McGough, D A; Rinaldi, M G; Mizell, G

    1995-01-01

    Three cases of fatal cerebral mycosis in males with prior histories of intravenous drug use from the United States and Australia are reported. Infection in each case was limited to brain abscess; no other sites of infection were observed. The fungus seen by histopathology and isolated from the brain tissue in each case was identified as Chaetomium strumarium. This is the first report of human infection by this species, and C. strumarium is the second species of Chaetomium known to cause primary brain infection. Chaetomium strumarium is unusual among members of the genus Chaetomium in forming ascocarps covered with pale, thin-walled, flexuous hairs, a feature leading to its original placement in the genus Achaetomium. Presence of pinkish exudate droplets and/or crystals associated with hyphae or ascocarps, sometimes accompanied by a pinkish diffusible pigment; good growth at 42 degrees C; and production of small conidia further distinguish this species. The brain abscess isolates were compared with isolates from prior cases of cerebral infection which had been identified as either Chaetomium atrobrunneum or Chaetomium globosum. With reidentification of one isolate originally identified as C. globosum to C. atrobrunneum, only C. strumarium and C. atrobrunneum have been confirmed to cause infection involving the brain. PMID:8567907

  13. De novo genome assembly of the soil-borne fungus and tomato pathogen Pyrenochaeta lycopersici

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pyrenochaeta lycopersici is a soil-dwelling ascomycete pathogen that causes corky root rot disease in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and other Solanaceous crops, reducing fruit yields by up to 75%. Fungal pathogens that infect roots receive less attention than those infecting the aerial parts of crops despite their significant impact on plant growth and fruit production. Results We assembled a 54.9Mb P. lycopersici draft genome sequence based on Illumina short reads, and annotated approximately 17,000 genes. The P. lycopersici genome is closely related to hemibiotrophs and necrotrophs, in agreement with the phenotypic characteristics of the fungus and its lifestyle. Several gene families related to host–pathogen interactions are strongly represented, including those responsible for nutrient absorption, the detoxification of fungicides and plant cell wall degradation, the latter confirming that much of the genome is devoted to the pathogenic activity of the fungus. We did not find a MAT gene, which is consistent with the classification of P. lycopersici as an imperfect fungus, but we observed a significant expansion of the gene families associated with heterokaryon incompatibility (HI). Conclusions The P. lycopersici draft genome sequence provided insight into the molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyle, characterizing previously unknown pathogenic behaviors and defining strategies that allow this asexual fungus to increase genetic diversity and to acquire new pathogenic traits. PMID:24767544

  14. RNA editing during sexual development occurs in distantly related filamentous ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Ines; Dahlmann, Tim; Kück, Ulrich; Nowrousian, Minou

    2017-03-09

    RNA editing is a posttranscriptional process that modifies RNA molecules leading to transcript sequences that differ from their template DNA. A-to-I editing was found to be widely distributed in nuclear transcripts of metazoa, but was detected in fungi only recently in a study of the filamentous ascomycete Fusarium graminearum that revealed extensive A-to-I editing of mRNAs in sexual structures (fruiting bodies). Here, we searched for putative RNA editing events in RNA-seq data from Sordaria macrospora and Pyronema confluens, two distantly related filamentous ascomycetes, and in data from the Taphrinomycete Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Like F. graminearum, S. macrospora is a member of the Sordariomycetes, whereas P. confluens belongs to the early-diverging group of Pezizomycetes. We found extensive A-to-I editing in RNA-seq data from sexual mycelium from both filamentous ascomycetes, but not in vegetative structures. A-to-I editing was not detected in different stages of meiosis of S. pombe. A comparison of A-to-I editing in S. macrospora with F. graminearum and P. confluens, respectively, revealed little conservation of individual editing sites. An analysis of RNA-seq data from two sterile developmental mutants of S. macrospora showed that A-to-I editing is strongly reduced in these strains. Sequencing of cDNA fragments containing more than one editing site from P. confluens showed that at the beginning of sexual development, transcripts were incompletely edited or unedited, whereas in later stages transcripts were more extensively edited. Taken together, these data suggest that A-to-I RNA editing is an evolutionary conserved feature during fruiting body development in filamentous ascomycetes.

  15. RNA Editing During Sexual Development Occurs in Distantly Related Filamentous Ascomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Teichert, Ines; Dahlmann, Tim A.; Kück, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that modifies RNA molecules leading to transcript sequences that differ from their template DNA. A-to-I editing was found to be widely distributed in nuclear transcripts of metazoa, but was detected in fungi only recently in a study of the filamentous ascomycete Fusarium graminearum that revealed extensive A-to-I editing of mRNAs in sexual structures (fruiting bodies). Here, we searched for putative RNA editing events in RNA-seq data from Sordaria macrospora and Pyronema confluens, two distantly related filamentous ascomycetes, and in data from the Taphrinomycete Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Like F. graminearum, S. macrospora is a member of the Sordariomycetes, whereas P. confluens belongs to the early-diverging group of Pezizomycetes. We found extensive A-to-I editing in RNA-seq data from sexual mycelium from both filamentous ascomycetes, but not in vegetative structures. A-to-I editing was not detected in different stages of meiosis of S. pombe. A comparison of A-to-I editing in S. macrospora with F. graminearum and P. confluens, respectively, revealed little conservation of individual editing sites. An analysis of RNA-seq data from two sterile developmental mutants of S. macrospora showed that A-to-I editing is strongly reduced in these strains. Sequencing of cDNA fragments containing more than one editing site from P. confluens showed that at the beginning of sexual development, transcripts were incompletely edited or unedited, whereas in later stages transcripts were more extensively edited. Taken together, these data suggest that A-to-I RNA editing is an evolutionary conserved feature during fruiting body development in filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:28338982

  16. rRNA Pseudogenes in Filamentous Ascomycetes as Revealed by Genome Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Yang, Rui-Heng; Jiang, Lan; Hu, Xiao-Di; Wu, Zu-Jian; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is considered as a paradigm of concerted evolution. Components of the rDNA tandem repeats (45S) are widely used in phylogenetic studies of different organisms and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was recently selected as a fungal DNA bar code. However, rRNA pseudogenes, as one kind of escape from concerted evolution, were reported in a wide range of organisms, especially in plants and animals. Moreover, large numbers of 5S rRNA pseudogenes were identified in several filamentous ascomycetes. To study whether rDNA evolves in a strict concerted manner and test whether rRNA pseudogenes exist in more species of ascomycetes, intragenomic rDNA polymorphisms were analyzed using whole genome sequences. Divergent rDNA paralogs were found to coexist within a single genome in seven filamentous ascomycetes examined. A great number of paralogs were identified as pseudogenes according to the mutation and secondary structure analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of the three rRNA coding regions of the 45S rDNA repeats, i.e., 18S, 5.8S, and 28S, revealed an interspecies clustering pattern of those different rDNA paralogs. The identified rRNA pseudogenic sequences were validated using specific primers designed. Mutation analyses revealed that the repeat-induced point (RIP) mutation was probably responsible for the formation of those rRNA pseudogenes. PMID:28637809

  17. rRNA Pseudogenes in Filamentous Ascomycetes as Revealed by Genome Data.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Yang, Rui-Heng; Jiang, Lan; Hu, Xiao-Di; Wu, Zu-Jian; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2017-08-07

    The nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is considered as a paradigm of concerted evolution. Components of the rDNA tandem repeats (45S) are widely used in phylogenetic studies of different organisms and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was recently selected as a fungal DNA bar code. However, rRNA pseudogenes, as one kind of escape from concerted evolution, were reported in a wide range of organisms, especially in plants and animals. Moreover, large numbers of 5S rRNA pseudogenes were identified in several filamentous ascomycetes. To study whether rDNA evolves in a strict concerted manner and test whether rRNA pseudogenes exist in more species of ascomycetes, intragenomic rDNA polymorphisms were analyzed using whole genome sequences. Divergent rDNA paralogs were found to coexist within a single genome in seven filamentous ascomycetes examined. A great number of paralogs were identified as pseudogenes according to the mutation and secondary structure analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of the three rRNA coding regions of the 45S rDNA repeats, i.e., 18S, 5.8S, and 28S, revealed an interspecies clustering pattern of those different rDNA paralogs. The identified rRNA pseudogenic sequences were validated using specific primers designed. Mutation analyses revealed that the repeat-induced point (RIP) mutation was probably responsible for the formation of those rRNA pseudogenes. Copyright © 2017 Li et al.

  18. SmATG7 is required for viability in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Nolting, Nicole; Bernhards, Yasmine; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2009-08-01

    In filamentous ascomycetes, autophagy is involved in several developmental processes. Nevertheless, until now little is known about its role in fruiting-body development. We therefore isolated a gene of the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora with high sequence similarity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae autophagy-related gene ATG7, encoding a core autophagy regulator. This is the first characterization of an ATG7 homolog in filamentous ascomycetes. A S. cerevisiae complementation assay demonstrated that the S. macrospora Smatg7 gene functionally replaces the yeast homolog. We were not able to generate a homokaryotic knock-out mutant in S. macrospora, suggesting that Smatg7 is required for viability. However, a heterokaryotic DeltaSmatg7/Smatg7 strain and transformants generated by RNA interference showed considerable morphological phenotypes during fruiting-body development. Using real-time PCR, we demonstrated that in the wild type, the transcriptional expression of Smatg7 is markedly up-regulated under amino acid starvation conditions and at late stages during sexual development. Moreover, we showed that transcriptionally down-regulation of Smatg7 disturbs autophagy in S. macrospora.

  19. Causes and consequences of variability in peptide mating pheromones of ascomycete fungi.

    PubMed

    Martin, Simon H; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J; Steenkamp, Emma T

    2011-07-01

    The reproductive genes of fungi, like those of many other organisms, are thought to diversify rapidly. This phenomenon could be associated with the formation of reproductive barriers and speciation. Ascomycetes produce two classes of mating type-specific peptide pheromones. These are required for recognition between the mating types of heterothallic species. Little is known regarding the diversity or the extent of species specificity in pheromone peptides among these fungi. We compared the putative protein-coding DNA sequences of the 2 pheromone classes from 70 species of Ascomycetes. The data set included previously described pheromones and putative pheromones identified from genomic sequences. In addition, pheromone genes from 12 Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex were amplified and sequenced. Pheromones were largely conserved among species in this complex and, therefore, cannot alone account for the reproductive barriers observed between these species. In contrast, pheromone peptides were highly diverse among many other Ascomycetes, with evidence for both positive diversifying selection and relaxed selective constraint. Repeats of the α-factor-like pheromone, which occur in tandem arrays of variable copy number, were found to be conserved through purifying selection and not concerted evolution. This implies that sequence specificity may be important for pheromone reception and that interspecific differences may indeed be associated with functional divergence. Our findings also suggest that frequent duplication and loss causes the tandem repeats to experience "birth-and-death" evolution, which could in fact facilitate interspecific divergence of pheromone peptide sequences.

  20. The High-Affinity Phosphodiesterase BcPde2 Has Impact on Growth, Differentiation and Virulence of the Phytopathogenic Ascomycete Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Harren, Karin; Brandhoff, Beate; Knödler, Michael; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Components of the cAMP signaling pathway, such as the adenylate cyclase Bac and the protein kinase A (PKA) were shown to affect growth, morphogenesis and differentiation as well as virulence of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. While loss of Bac caused drastically reduced intracellular cAMP levels, deletion of the PKA resulted in extremely increased cAMP concentrations. To regulate the intracellular level of the second messenger cAMP, a balance between its biosynthesis through adenylate cyclase activity and its hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases (PDEs) is crucial. Here, we report the functional characterization of the two PDEs in the ascomycete B. cinerea, BcPde1 and BcPde2. While deletion of bcpde2 resulted in severely affected vegetative growth, conidiation, germination and virulence, the bcpde1 deletion strain displayed a wild-type-like phenotype. However, the double bcpde1/2 deletion mutant exhibited an even stronger phenotype. Localization studies revealed that BcPde2 accumulates at the plasma membrane, but is also localized in the cytoplasm. BcPde1 was shown to be distributed in the cytoplasm as well, but also accumulates in so far unknown mobile vesicles. Overexpression of bcpde1 in the Δbcpde2 background rescued the deletion phenotype, and in addition an increased transcript level of bcpde1 in the Δbcpde2 strain was observed, indicating redundant functions of both PDEs and an interdependent gene expression. PMID:24265695

  1. Beta-carbonic anhydrases play a role in fruiting body development and ascospore germination in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is among the most important gases for all organisms. Its reversible interconversion to bicarbonate (HCO(3) (-)) reaches equilibrium spontaneously, but slowly, and can be accelerated by a ubiquitous group of enzymes called carbonic anhydrases (CAs). These enzymes are grouped by their distinct structural features into alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and zeta-classes. While physiological functions of mammalian, prokaryotic, plant and algal CAs have been extensively studied over the past years, the role of beta-CAs in yeasts and the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has been elucidated only recently, and the function of CAs in multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is mostly unknown. To assess the role of CAs in the development of filamentous ascomycetes, the function of three genes, cas1, cas2 and cas3 (carbonic anhydrase of Sordaria) encoding beta-class carbonic anhydrases was characterized in the filamentous ascomycetous fungus Sordaria macrospora. Fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the localization of GFP- and DsRED-tagged CAs. While CAS1 and CAS3 are cytoplasmic enzymes, CAS2 is localized to the mitochondria. To assess the function of the three isoenzymes, we generated knock-out strains for all three cas genes (Deltacas1, Deltacas2, and Deltacas3) as well as all combinations of double mutants. No effect on vegetative growth, fruiting-body and ascospore development was seen in the single mutant strains lacking cas1 or cas3, while single mutant Deltacas2 was affected in vegetative growth, fruiting-body development and ascospore germination, and the double mutant strain Deltacas1/2 was completely sterile. Defects caused by the lack of cas2 could be partially complemented by elevated CO(2) levels or overexpression of cas1, cas3, or a non-mitochondrial cas2 variant. The results suggest that CAs are required for sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes and that the multiplicity of isoforms results in redundancy of specific and

  2. A new endophytic ascomycete from El Eden Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During a preliminary survey to report the biodiversity of endophytic fungi associated with leaves of some woody plants from El Eden Ecological Reserve in Mexico, a new fungus was isolated from Callicarpa acuminata leaves. Cultures of this fungus on PDA form a white floccose colony with a reddish-bro...

  3. Role of Reactive Intermediates in Manganese Oxide Formation By Filamentous Ascomycete Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiner, C. A.; Anderton, C.; Wu, S.; Purvine, S.; Zink, E.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Santelli, C. M.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic manganese (Mn) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in the environment, and their high reactivity can profoundly impact the fate of contaminants and cycling of carbon and nutrients. In contrast to bacteria, the pathways utilized by fungi to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III,IV) oxides remain largely unknown. Here, we explore the mechanisms of Mn(II) oxidation by a phylogenetically diverse group of filamentous Ascomycete fungi using a combination of chemical assays and bulk and spatially-resolved mass spectrometry. We show that the mechanisms of Mn(II) oxidation vary with fungal species, over time during secretome compositional changes, and in the presence of other fungi. Specifically, our work implicates a dynamic transition in Mn(II) oxidation pathways that varies between species. In particular, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced via transmembrane NADPH oxidases are involved in initial oxidation, over time, secreted enzymes become important Mn(II) oxidation mediators for some species. In addition, the overall secretome oxidation capacity varies with time and fungal species. Secretome analysis reveals a surprising absence of enzymes currently considered to be Mn(II)-oxidizing enzymes in these organisms, and instead highlights a wide variety of redox-active enzymes. Furthermore, we implicate fungal cell defense mechanisms in the formation of distinct Mn oxide patterns when fungi are grown in head-to-head competition. The identification and regulation of these secreted enzymes are under current investigation within the bulk secretome and within the interaction zone of structured fungal communities. Overall, our findings illustrate that Ascomycete Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms are highly variable and are dictated by complex environmental and ecological interactions. Future work will explore the connection between Ascomycete Mn(II) oxidation and the ability to degrade cellulose, a key carbon reservoir for biofuel production.

  4. Interaction between mating-type proteins from the homothallic fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Sabine; Wittig, Michael; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2002-06-01

    Mating-type genes control sexual development in ascomycetes. Little is known about their function in homothallic species, which are self-fertile and do not require a mating partner for sexual reproduction. The function of mating-type genes in the homothallic fungus Sordaria macrospora was assayed using a yeast system in order to find properties typical of eukaryotic transcription factors. We were able to demonstrate that the mating-type proteins SMTA-1 and SMTa-1 have domains capable of activating transcription of yeast reporter genes. Two-hybrid analysis for heterodimerization and homodimerization revealed the ability of SMTA-1 to interact with SMTa-1 and vice versa. These two proteins are encoded by different mating types in the related heterothallic species Neurospora crassa. The interaction between SMTA-1 and SMTa-1 was defined by experiments with truncated versions of SMTA-1 and in vitro by means of protein cross-linking. Moreover, we gained evidence for homodimerization of SMTA-1. Possible functions of mating-type proteins in the homothallic ascomycete S. macrospora are discussed.

  5. Fungus Resistant XM205 Nonmetallic Cartridge Case,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CARTRIDGE CASES, *FUNGICIDES, FUNGUS PROOFING, FUNGUS DETERIORATION, RESISTANCE, NITROCELLULOSE, POLYMERS, FIBERS, SYNTHETIC FIBERS, MATERIALS, ZINC COMPOUNDS, ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, ORGANIC SULFUR COMPOUNDS.

  6. Conservation and evolution of cis-regulatory systems in ascomycete fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Gasch, Audrey P.; Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Fraser, Hunter B.; Berardini, Mark; Eisen, Michael B.

    2004-03-15

    Relatively little is known about the mechanisms through which gene expression regulation evolves. To investigate this, we systematically explored the conservation of regulatory networks in fungi by examining the cis-regulatory elements that govern the expression of coregulated genes. We first identified groups of coregulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes enriched for genes with known upstream or downstream cis-regulatory sequences. Reasoning that many of these gene groups are coregulated in related species as well, we performed similar analyses on orthologs of coregulated S. cerevisiae genes in 13 other ascomycete species. We find that many species-specific gene groups are enriched for the same flanking regulatory sequences as those found in the orthologous gene groups from S. cerevisiae, indicating that those regulatory systems have been conserved in multiple ascomycete species. In addition to these clear cases of regulatory conservation, we find examples of cis-element evolution that suggest multiple modes of regulatory diversification, including alterations in transcription factor-binding specificity, incorporation of new gene targets into an existing regulatory system, and cooption of regulatory systems to control a different set of genes. We investigated one example in greater detail by measuring the in vitro activity of the S. cerevisiae transcription factor Rpn4p and its orthologs from Candida albicans and Neurospora crassa. Our results suggest that the DNA binding specificity of these proteins has coevolved with the sequences found upstream of the Rpn4p target genes and suggest that Rpn4p has a different function in N. crassa.

  7. A novel class of gene controlling virulence in plant pathogenic ascomycete fungi

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shun-Wen; Kroken, Scott; Lee, Bee-Na; Robbertse, Barbara; Churchill, Alice C. L.; Yoder, O. C.; Turgeon, B. Gillian

    2003-01-01

    Insertional mutants of the fungal maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus were screened for altered virulence. One mutant had 60% reduction in lesion size relative to WT but no other detectable change in phenotype. Analysis of sequence at the insertion site revealed a gene (CPS1) encoding a protein with two AMP-binding domains. CPS1 orthologs were detected in all Cochliobolus spp. examined, in several other classes of ascomycete fungi, and in animals but not in basidiomycete fungi, bacteria, or plants. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that CPS1 represents a previously undescribed subset of adenylate-forming enzymes that have diverged from certain acyl-CoA ligases, which in bacteria are involved in biosynthesis of nonribosomal peptides or polyketide/peptide hybrids. Disruption of CPS1 caused reduced virulence of both race T and race O of C. heterostrophus on maize, of Cochliobolus victoriae on oats, and of Gibberella zeae on wheat. These results suggest that CPS1 functions as a general fungal virulence factor in plant pathogenic ascomycetes. PMID:12730371

  8. Ascomycetous yeasts associated with naturally occurring fruits in a tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Prada, G M; Pagnocca, F C

    1997-01-01

    Fruits from twenty different species of angiosperms were collected during the period from November, 1991 to January, 1992. Two hundred and two strains of yeasts and yeast-like fungi were isolated, of which 74% showed ascomycetic affinity. Candida was the predominant genus, followed by (in descending order of occurrence): Cryptococcus, Kloeckera, Sporobolomyces, Pichia, Hanseniaspora and Bullera. Black yeasts and other strains showing basidiomycetic affinity were also isolated. The genus Candida represented the highest number of identified species and the greatest variety of associated substrates. Among the ascomycetes and their anamorphs, 38 species were identified, with Kloeckera apiculata being the most frequent among the isolates and the one which occurred in the largest variety of substrates. Some of the biotypes designated as Candida sp. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and Pichia sp. did not correspond to the standard species description found in the literature, and may represent new species. The strains of yeasts isolated in this study were characterized and incorporated into the Tropical Culture Collection of the Fundaao Tropical de Pesquisas e Tecnologia Andŕe Tosello, Campinas, São Paulo.

  9. Functional Analysis of Developmentally Regulated Genes chs7 and sec22 in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Traeger, Stefanie; Nowrousian, Minou

    2015-04-14

    During sexual development, filamentous ascomycetes form complex, three-dimensional fruiting bodies for the generation and dispersal of spores. In previous studies, we identified genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns during fruiting body formation in several fungal species. Here, we present the functional analysis of two developmentally up-regulated genes, chs7 and sec22, in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. The genes encode a class VII (division III) chitin synthase and a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, respectively. Deletion mutants of chs7 had normal vegetative growth and were fully fertile but showed sensitivity toward cell wall stress. Deletion of sec22 resulted in a reduced number of ascospores and in defects in ascospore pigmentation and germination, whereas vegetative growth was normal in the mutant. A SEC22-EGFP fusion construct under control of the native sec22 promoter and terminator regions was expressed during different stages of sexual development. Expression of several development-related genes was deregulated in the sec22 mutant, including three genes involved in melanin biosynthesis. Our data indicate that chs7 is dispensable for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora, whereas sec22 is required for ascospore maturation and germination and thus involved in late stages of sexual development. Copyright © 2015 Traeger and Nowrousian.

  10. Functional Analysis of Developmentally Regulated Genes chs7 and sec22 in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Stefanie; Nowrousian, Minou

    2015-01-01

    During sexual development, filamentous ascomycetes form complex, three-dimensional fruiting bodies for the generation and dispersal of spores. In previous studies, we identified genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns during fruiting body formation in several fungal species. Here, we present the functional analysis of two developmentally up-regulated genes, chs7 and sec22, in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. The genes encode a class VII (division III) chitin synthase and a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, respectively. Deletion mutants of chs7 had normal vegetative growth and were fully fertile but showed sensitivity toward cell wall stress. Deletion of sec22 resulted in a reduced number of ascospores and in defects in ascospore pigmentation and germination, whereas vegetative growth was normal in the mutant. A SEC22-EGFP fusion construct under control of the native sec22 promoter and terminator regions was expressed during different stages of sexual development. Expression of several development-related genes was deregulated in the sec22 mutant, including three genes involved in melanin biosynthesis. Our data indicate that chs7 is dispensable for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora, whereas sec22 is required for ascospore maturation and germination and thus involved in late stages of sexual development. PMID:25873638

  11. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora can survive in ambient air without carbonic anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Lehneck, Ronny; Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2014-06-01

    The rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) is catalysed by metalloenzymes termed carbonic anhydrases (CAs). CAs have been identified in all three domains of life and can be divided into five evolutionarily unrelated classes (α, β, γ, δ and ζ) that do not share significant sequence similarities. The function of the mammalian, prokaryotic and plant α-CAs has been intensively studied but the function of CAs in filamentous ascomycetes is mostly unknown. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora codes for four CAs, three of the β-class and one of the α-class. Here, we present a functional analysis of CAS4, the S. macrospora α-class CA. The CAS4 protein was post-translationally glycosylated and secreted. The knockout strain Δcas4 had a significantly reduced rate of ascospore germination. To determine the cas genes required for S. macrospora growth under ambient air conditions, we constructed double and triple mutations of the four cas genes in all possible combinations and a quadruple mutant. Vegetative growth rate of the quadruple mutant lacking all cas genes was drastically reduced compared to the wild type and invaded the agar under normal air conditions. Likewise the fruiting bodies were embedded in the agar and completely devoid of mature ascospores. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Autochthonous ascomycetes in depollution of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil and sediment.

    PubMed

    Sage, Lucile; Périgon, Sophie; Faure, Mathieu; Gaignaire, Carole; Abdelghafour, Mohamed; Mehu, Jacques; Geremia, Roberto A; Mouhamadou, Bello

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the capacity of a consortium of ascomycetous strains, Doratomyces nanus, Doratomyces purpureofuscus, Doratomyces verrucisporus, Myceliophthora thermophila, Phoma eupyrena and Thermoascus crustaceus in the mycoremediation of historically contaminated soil and sediment by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Analyses of 15 PCB concentrations in three mesocosms containing soil from which the fungal strains had previously been isolated, revealed significant PCB depletions of 16.9% for the 6 indicator PCBs (i-PCBs) and 18.7% for the total 15 PCBs analyzed after 6months treatment. The degradation rate did not statistically vary whether the soil had been treated with non-inoculated straw or colonized straw or without straw and inoculated with the consortium of the six strains. Concerning the sediment, we evidenced significant depletions of 31.8% for the 6 i-PCBs and 33.3% for the 15 PCB congeners. The PCB depletions affected most of the 15 PCBs analyzed without preference for lower chlorinated congeners. Bioaugmented strains were evidenced in different mesocosms, but their reintroduction, after six months treatment, did not improve the rate of PCB degradation, suggesting that the biodegradation could affect the bioavailable PCB fraction. Our results demonstrate that the ascomycetous strains potentially adapted to PCBs may be propitious to the remediation of PCB contaminated sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Explosively launched spores of ascomycete fungi have drag-minimizing shapes.

    PubMed

    Roper, Marcus; Pepper, Rachel E; Brenner, Michael P; Pringle, Anne

    2008-12-30

    The forcibly launched spores of ascomycete fungi must eject through several millimeters of nearly still air surrounding fruiting bodies to reach dispersive air flows. Because of their microscopic size, spores experience great fluid drag, and although this drag can aid transport by slowing sedimentation out of dispersive air flows, it also causes spores to decelerate rapidly after launch. We hypothesize that spores are shaped to maximize their range in the nearly still air surrounding fruiting bodies. To test this hypothesis we numerically calculate optimal spore shapes-shapes of minimum drag for prescribed volumes-and compare these shapes with real spore shapes taken from a phylogeny of >100 species. Our analysis shows that spores are constrained to remain within 1% of the minimum possible drag for their size. From the spore shapes we predict the speed of spore launch, and confirm this prediction through high-speed imaging of ejection in Neurospora tetrasperma. By reconstructing the evolutionary history of spore shapes within a single ascomycete family we measure the relative contributions of drag minimization and other shape determinants to spore shape evolution. Our study uses biomechanical optimization as an organizing principle for explaining shape in a mega-diverse group of species and provides a framework for future measurements of the forces of selection toward physical optima.

  14. When Is It Nail Fungus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167455.html When Is It Nail Fungus? Dermatologist says only an expert can ... but you shouldn't be embarrassed to discuss it with a board-certified dermatologist, who can help ...

  15. Comparative EST analysis provides insights into the basal aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii

    PubMed Central

    Ribichich, Karina F; Georg, Raphaela C; Gomes, Suely L

    2006-01-01

    Background Blastocladiella emersonii is an aquatic fungus of the Chytridiomycete class, which is at the base of the fungal phylogenetic tree. In this sense, some ancestral characteristics of fungi and animals or fungi and plants could have been retained in this aquatic fungus and lost in members of late-diverging fungal species. To identify in B. emersonii sequences associated with these ancestral characteristics two approaches were followed: (1) a large-scale comparative analysis between putative unigene sequences (uniseqs) from B. emersonii and three databases constructed ad hoc with fungal proteins, animal proteins and plant unigenes deposited in Genbank, and (2) a pairwise comparison between B. emersonii full-length cDNA sequences and their putative orthologues in the ascomycete Neurospora crassa and the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis. Results Comparative analyses of B. emersonii uniseqs with fungi, animal and plant databases through the two approaches mentioned above produced 166 B. emersonii sequences, which were identified as putatively absent from other fungi or not previously described. Through these approaches we found: (1) possible orthologues of genes previously identified as specific to animals and/or plants, and (2) genes conserved in fungi, but with a large difference in divergence rate in B. emersonii. Among these sequences, we observed cDNAs encoding enzymes from coenzyme B12-dependent propionyl-CoA pathway, a metabolic route not previously described in fungi, and validated their expression in Northern blots. Conclusion Using two different approaches involving comparative sequence analyses, we could identify sequences from the early-diverging fungus B. emersonii previously considered specific to animals or plants, and highly divergent sequences from the same fungus relative to other fungi. PMID:16836762

  16. Kazachstania hellenica sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast from a Botrytis-affected grape must fermentation.

    PubMed

    Nisiotou, Aspasia A; Nychas, George-John E

    2008-05-01

    Four ascomycetous yeast strains (D4W13, D9W2, D9W4 and D9W17T) were isolated from Botrytis-affected fermenting grape juice originating from Attica Province, Greece. Phylogenetic analysis of rRNA gene sequences (18S, 26S and 5.8S-ITS) showed that the four strains represent a distinct species within the genus Kazachstania, closely related to Kazachstania zonata NBRC 100504T and Kazachstania gamospora NBRC 11056T. Electrophoretic karyotyping and physiological analysis support the affiliation of the four strains in a novel species for which the name Kazachstania hellenica sp. nov. is proposed, with D9W17T (=CBS 10706T=NBRC 103637T) as the type strain.

  17. Waste biorefineries using filamentous ascomycetes fungi: Present status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge A; Mahboubi, Amir; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    Filamentous ascomycetes fungi have had important roles in natural cycles, and are already used industrially for e.g. supplying of citric, gluconic and itaconic acids as well as many enzymes. Faster human activities result in higher consumption of our resources and producing more wastes. Therefore, these fungi can be explored to use their capabilities to convert back wastes to resources. The present paper reviews the capabilities of these fungi in growing on various residuals, producing lignocellulose-degrading enzymes and production of organic acids, ethanol, pigments, etc. Particular attention has been on Aspergillus, Fusarium, Neurospora and Monascus genera. Since various species are used for production of human food, their biomass can be considered for feed applications and so biomass compositional characteristics as well as aspects related to culture in bioreactor are also provided. The review has been further complemented with future research avenues. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. [Massive isolation of anamorphous ascomycete yeasts Candida oleophila from plant phyllosphere].

    PubMed

    Glushakova, A M; Iurkov, A M; Chernov, I Iu

    2007-01-01

    Many years of research has confirmed a wide distribution of anamorphous ascomycete yeasts in the phyllosphere of diverse plants of the Moscow oblast. Based on the standard morphological and physiological criteria, on the results of restriction analysis of the 5.8S-ITS rDNA region, and on the sequencing of the D1D2 region of 26S rDNA, these yeasts were identified as Candida oleophila Montrocher. Previous isolation of this species has been rare, possibly due to its incorrect identification. This species, together with phytobiotic basidiomycete yeasts, was shown to be dominant in the yeast epiphytic communities on the surface parts of plants. The relative abundance of C. oleophila is highest on plant fruits and increases significantly by the end of the vegetation period. Wide occurrence of this yeast species on fruits and in the phyllosphere may be related to its ability to compete with rapidly growing phytopathogenic fungi.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment. PMID:27434633

  20. Eisosome Organization in the Filamentous AscomyceteAspergillus nidulans▿†

    PubMed Central

    Vangelatos, Ioannis; Roumelioti, Katerina; Gournas, Christos; Suarez, Teresa; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Sophianopoulou, Vicky

    2010-01-01

    Eisosomes are subcortical organelles implicated in endocytosis and have hitherto been described only in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They comprise two homologue proteins, Pil1 and Lsp1, which colocalize with the transmembrane protein Sur7. These proteins are universally conserved in the ascomycetes. We identify in Aspergillus nidulans (and in all members of the subphylum Pezizomycotina) two homologues of Pil1/Lsp1, PilA and PilB, originating from a duplication independent from that extant in the subphylum Saccharomycotina. In the aspergilli there are several Sur7-like proteins in each species, including one strict Sur7 orthologue (SurG in A. nidulans). In A. nidulans conidiospores, but not in hyphae, the three proteins colocalize at the cell cortex and form tightly packed punctate structures that appear different from the clearly distinct eisosome patches observed in S. cerevisiae. These structures are assembled late during the maturation of conidia. In mycelia, punctate structures are present, but they are composed only of PilA, while PilB is diffused in the cytoplasm and SurG is located in vacuoles and endosomes. Deletion of each of the genes does not lead to any obvious growth phenotype, except for moderate resistance to itraconazole. We could not find any obvious association between mycelial (PilA) eisosome-like structures and endocytosis. PilA and SurG are necessary for conidial eisosome organization in ways that differ from those for their S. cerevisiae homologues. These data illustrate that conservation of eisosomal proteins within the ascomycetes is accompanied by a striking functional divergence. PMID:20693301

  1. Molecular organization of the mating-type loci in the homothallic Ascomycete Eupenicillium crustaceum.

    PubMed

    Pöggeler, Stefanie; O'Gorman, Céline M; Hoff, Birgit; Kück, Ulrich

    2011-07-01

    Eupenicillium species are the teleomorphic (sexual) forms of anamorphic (asexual) members of the genus Penicillium, which contains many species of industrial importance. Here we describe the first molecular analysis of the mating-type (MAT) locus from a homothallic (self-fertile) Eupenicillium species, E. crustaceum. This ascomycete is a sexual relative of the penicillin producer Penicillium chrysogenum, which while long considered asexual, was recently shown to possess the required genetic machinery for heterothallic breeding. The E. crustaceum genome contains two MAT loci, MAT1-1 and MAT1-2, in an arrangement characteristic of other known homothallic euascomycetes, such as Neosartorya fischeri. MAT1-1 is flanked by conserved APN2 (DNA lyase) and SLA2 (cytoskeleton assembly control) genes and encodes a homologue of the α-box domain protein MAT1-1-1. Conversely, MAT1-2 carries a HMG-domain gene MAT1-2-1, and is flanked by a degenerate SLA2 gene and an intact homologue of the P. chrysogenum ORF Pc20g08960. Here we demonstrate the transcriptional expression of both mating-type genes during vegetative development. Furthermore, the MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 sequences were used to resolve the phylogenetic relationship of E. crustaceum with other ascomycetes. Phylogenetic trees confirmed a very close relationship between the homothallic E. crustaceum and the supposedly heterothallic P. chrysogenum. This close taxonomic association makes E. crustaceum an ideal candidate for future expression and evolutionary studies of sexual reproduction, with the ultimate aim of inducing sex in P. chrysogenum.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-07-19

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  3. Analysis of Circadian Rhythms in the Basal Filamentous Ascomycete Pyronema confluens

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Stefanie; Nowrousian, Minou

    2015-01-01

    Many organisms use circadian clocks to adapt to daily changes in the environment. Major insights into the molecular mechanisms of circadian oscillators have been gained through studies of the model organism Neurospora crassa; however, little is known about molecular components of circadian clocks in other fungi. An important part of the N. crassa circadian clock is the frequency (frq) gene, homologs of which can be found in Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, and Leotiomycetes, but not Eurotiomycetes. Recently, we identified a frq homolog in Pyronema confluens, a member of the early-diverging Pezizomycete lineage of filamentous ascomycetes. The P. confluens FRQ shares many conserved domains with the N. crassa FRQ. However, there is no known morphological phenotype showing overt circadian rhythmicity in P. confluens. To investigate whether a molecular clock is present, we analyzed frq transcription in constant darkness, and found circadian oscillation of frq with a peak in the subjective morning. This rhythm was temperature compensated. To identify additional clock-controlled genes, we performed RNA sequencing of two time points (subjective morning and evening). Circadian expression of two morning-specific genes was verified by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) over a full time course, whereas expression of two putative morning-specific and five putative evening-specific genes could not be verified as circadian. frq expression was synchronized, but not entrained by light. In summary, we have found evidence for two of the three main properties of circadian rhythms (free-running rhythm, temperature compensation) in P. confluens, suggesting that a circadian clock with rhythmically expressed frq is present in this basal filamentous ascomycete. PMID:26254031

  4. Saccharification of Lignocelluloses by Carbohydrate Active Enzymes of the White Rot Fungus Dichomitus squalens

    PubMed Central

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Mäkinen, Susanna; Vehmaanperä, Jari; Hatakka, Annele; Mäkelä, Miia R.

    2015-01-01

    White rot fungus Dichomitus squalens is an efficient lignocellulose degrading basidiomycete and a promising source for new plant cell wall polysaccharides depolymerizing enzymes. In this work, we focused on cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) of D. squalens. The native CBHI fraction of the fungus, consisting three isoenzymes, was purified and it maintained the activity for 60 min at 50°C, and was stable in acidic pH. Due to the lack of enzyme activity assay for detecting only CBHII activity, CBHII of D. squalens was produced recombinantly in an industrially important ascomycete host, Trichoderma reesei. CBH enzymes of D. squalens showed potential in hydrolysis of complex lignocellulose substrates sugar beet pulp and wheat bran, and microcrystalline cellulose, Avicel. Recombinant CBHII (rCel6A) of D. squalens hydrolysed all the studied plant biomasses. Compared to individual activities, synergistic effect between rCel6A and native CBHI fraction of D. squalens was significant in the hydrolysis of Avicel. Furthermore, the addition of laccase to the mixture of CBHI fraction and rCel6A significantly enhanced the amount of released reducing sugars from sugar beet pulp. Especially, synergy between individual enzymes is a crucial factor in the tailor-made enzyme mixtures needed for hydrolysis of different plant biomass feedstocks. Our data supports the importance of oxidoreductases in improved enzyme cocktails for lignocellulose saccharification. PMID:26660105

  5. Sympatric genetic differentiation of a generalist pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea, on two different host plants, grapevine and bramble.

    PubMed

    Fournier, E; Giraud, T

    2008-01-01

    Prime candidates for sympatric ecological divergence include parasites that differentiate via host shifts, because different host species exert strong disruptive selection and because both hosts and parasites are continually co-evolving. Sympatric divergence may be fostered even more strongly in phytopathogenic fungi, in particular those where sex must occur on the host, which allows adaptation alone to restrict gene flow between populations developing on different hosts. We sampled populations of Botrytis cinerea, a generalist ascomycete fungus, on sympatric grapes and brambles in six regions in France. Microsatellite data were analyzed using standard population genetics, a population graph analysis and a Bayesian approach. In addition to confirming that B. cinerea reproduces sexually, our results showed that the fungal populations on the two hosts were significantly differentiated, indicating restricted gene flow, even in sympatry. In contrast, only weak geographical differentiation could be detected. These results support the possibility of sympatric divergence associated with host use in generalist parasites.

  6. Long-term experimental warming alters community composition of ascomycetes in Alaskan moist and dry arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Semenova, Tatiana A; Morgado, Luis N; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2015-01-01

    Arctic tundra regions have been responding to global warming with visible changes in plant community composition, including expansion of shrubs and declines in lichens and bryophytes. Even though it is well known that the majority of arctic plants are associated with their symbiotic fungi, how fungal community composition will be different with climate warming remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the effects of long-term (18 years) experimental warming on the community composition and taxonomic richness of soil ascomycetes in dry and moist tundra types. Using deep Ion Torrent sequencing, we quantified how OTU assemblage and richness of different orders of Ascomycota changed in response to summer warming. Experimental warming significantly altered ascomycete communities with stronger responses observed in the moist tundra compared with dry tundra. The proportion of several lichenized and moss-associated fungi decreased with warming, while the proportion of several plant and insect pathogens and saprotrophic species was higher in the warming treatment. The observed alterations in both taxonomic and ecological groups of ascomycetes are discussed in relation to previously reported warming-induced shifts in arctic plant communities, including decline in lichens and bryophytes and increase in coverage and biomass of shrubs.

  7. Vesicular transport in Histoplasma capsulatum: an effective mechanism for trans-cell wall transfer of proteins and lipids in ascomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Priscila Costa; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Frases, Susana; Casadevall, Arturo; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Almeida, Igor C.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

    2008-01-01

    Vesicular secretion of macromolecules has recently been described in the basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans raising the question as to whether ascomycetes similarly utilize vesicles for transport. In the present study, we examine whether the clinically important ascomycete Histoplasma capsulatum produce vesicles and utilized these structures to secrete macromolecules. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show transcellular secretion of vesicles by yeast cells. Proteomic and lipidomic analyses of vesicles isolated from culture supernatants reveals a rich collection of macromolecules involved in diverse processes including metabolism, cell recycling, signaling, and virulence. The results demonstrate that H. capsulatum can utilize a trans-cell wall vesicular transport secretory mechanism to promote virulence. Additionally, TEM of supernatants collected from Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Sporothrix schenckii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae document that vesicles are similarly produced by additional ascomycetes. The vesicles from H. capsulatum react with immune serum from patients with histoplasmosis providing an association of the vesicular products with pathogenesis. The findings support the proposal that vesicular secretion is a general mechanism in fungi for the transport of macromolecules related to virulence and that this process could be a target for novel therapeutics. PMID:18419773

  8. Description of Taphrina antarctica f.a. sp. nov., a new anamorphic ascomycetous yeast species associated with Antarctic endolithic microbial communities and transfer of four Lalaria species in the genus Taphrina.

    PubMed

    Selbmann, Laura; Turchetti, Benedetta; Yurkov, Andrey; Cecchini, Clarissa; Zucconi, Laura; Isola, Daniela; Buzzini, Pietro; Onofri, Silvano

    2014-07-01

    In the framework of a large-scale rock sampling in Continental Antarctica, a number of yeasts have been isolated. Two strains that are unable to grow above 20 °C and that have low ITS sequence similarities with available data in the public domain were found. The D1/D2 LSU molecular phylogeny placed them in an isolated position in the genus Taphrina, supporting their affiliation to a not yet described species. Because the new species is able to grow in its anamorphic state only, the species Taphrina antarctica f.a. (forma asexualis) sp. nov. has been proposed to accommodate both strains (type strain DBVPG 5268(T), DSM 27485(T) and CBS 13532(T)). Lalaria and Taphrina species are dimorphic ascomycetes, where the anamorphic yeast represents the saprotrophic state and the teleomorph is the parasitic counterpart on plants. This is the first record for this genus in Antarctica; since plants are absent on the continent, we hypothesize that the fungus may have focused on the saprotrophic part of its life cycle to overcome the absence of its natural host and adapt environmental constrains. Following the new International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (Melbourne Code 2011) the reorganization of Taphrina-Lalaria species in the teleomorphic genus Taphrina is proposed. We emend the diagnosis of the genus Taphrina to accommodate asexual saprobic states of these fungi. Taphrina antarctica was registered in MycoBank under MB 808028.

  9. β-Carbonic Anhydrases Play a Role in Fruiting Body Development and Ascospore Germination in the Filamentous Fungus Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is among the most important gases for all organisms. Its reversible interconversion to bicarbonate (HCO3−) reaches equilibrium spontaneously, but slowly, and can be accelerated by a ubiquitous group of enzymes called carbonic anhydrases (CAs). These enzymes are grouped by their distinct structural features into α-, β-, γ-, δ- and ζ-classes. While physiological functions of mammalian, prokaryotic, plant and algal CAs have been extensively studied over the past years, the role of β-CAs in yeasts and the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has been elucidated only recently, and the function of CAs in multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is mostly unknown. To assess the role of CAs in the development of filamentous ascomycetes, the function of three genes, cas1, cas2 and cas3 (carbonic anhydrase of Sordaria) encoding β-class carbonic anhydrases was characterized in the filamentous ascomycetous fungus Sordaria macrospora. Fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the localization of GFP- and DsRED-tagged CAs. While CAS1 and CAS3 are cytoplasmic enzymes, CAS2 is localized to the mitochondria. To assess the function of the three isoenzymes, we generated knock-out strains for all three cas genes (Δcas1, Δcas2, and Δcas3) as well as all combinations of double mutants. No effect on vegetative growth, fruiting-body and ascospore development was seen in the single mutant strains lacking cas1 or cas3, while single mutant Δcas2 was affected in vegetative growth, fruiting-body development and ascospore germination, and the double mutant strain Δcas1/2 was completely sterile. Defects caused by the lack of cas2 could be partially complemented by elevated CO2 levels or overexpression of cas1, cas3, or a non-mitochondrial cas2 variant. The results suggest that CAs are required for sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes and that the multiplicity of isoforms results in redundancy of specific and non-specific functions. PMID:19365544

  10. Candida hyderabadensis sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast isolated from wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ravella Sreenivas; Bhadra, Bhaskar; Kumar, Neradugomma Naveen; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2007-05-01

    Three ascomycetous yeast strains were isolated from decaying green wine grapes, collected from Hyderabad city in India. Two strains, YS9 and YS21, were identified as Kodamaea ohmeri and Candida fermentati, respectively. The third strain, YS12(T), differs from Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, the nearest phylogenetic neighbours, by 1.6-1.9% with respect to the nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and by 1.4-9.2% with respect to the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 region. YS12(T) also differs from C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis by some phenotypic characteristics. Thus, based on the phenotypic differences and phylogenetic analysis, strain YS12(T) is assigned the status of a new species of Candida, for which the name C. hyderabadensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YS12(T) (NRRL Y-27953(T)=CBS10444(T)=IAM15334(T)).

  11. PfaH2: a novel hydrophobin from the ascomycete Paecilomyces farinosus.

    PubMed

    Zelena, Katerina; Takenberg, Meike; Lunkenbein, Stefan; Woche, Susanne K; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf G

    2013-01-01

    The pfah2 gene coding for a novel hydrophobin PfaH2 from the ascomycete Paecilomyces farinosus was identified during sequencing of random clones from a cDNA library. The corresponding protein sequence of PfaH2 deduced from the cDNA comprised 134 amino acids (aa). A 16 aa signal sequence preceded the N-terminus of the mature protein. PfaH2 belonged to the class Ia hydrophobins. The protein was isolated using trifluoroacetic acid extraction and purified via SDS-PAGE and high-performance liquid chromatography. The surface activity of the recently described PfaH1 and of PfaH2 was compared by the determination of contact angles (CAs) on glass slides and Teflon tape, and the CA of distilled water droplets was measured on glass slides coated with hydrophobin PfaH1 or PfaH2. Surprisingly, both hydrophobins adsorbed to hydrophilic surfaces and changed their physicochemical properties to a similar quantitative extent, although little aa sequence homology was found. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Interactions of sterile-cultured lichen-forming ascomycetes with asbestos fibres.

    PubMed

    Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Girlanda, Mariangela; Honegger, Rosmarie; Fubini, Bice; Piervittori, Rosanna

    2007-04-01

    Sterile cultured isolates of lichen-forming ascomycetes have not yet been used to investigate mycobiont-mineral substrate interactions under controlled conditions. In this study Candelariella vitellina, Xanthoparmelia tinctina and Lecanora rupicola mycobionts were isolated and inoculated with chrysotile fibres in the laboratory, in order to verify whether physical and chemical weathering processes, which were already described in the field, may be reproduced in vitro. Tight adhesion of hyphae to chrysotile fibres was observed in all species. The adhering hyphae affected the chemical composition of asbestos fibres, with the selective depletion of magnesium being a prominent feature, as is the case in field conditions. Oxalic acid and pulvinic acid, mycobiont-derived metabolites of X. tinctina and C. vitellina, were involved in the weathering action. Time and environmental factors and the absence of biological synergisms strongly limited the chemical weathering in vitro compared with what was observed in the field. Nevertheless, the results show that in vitro incubation of sterile-cultured lichen-forming fungi with minerals is a practicable experimental system to investigate the weathering effects of different mycobionts and fungal compounds under controlled conditions.

  13. Bradymyces gen. nov. (Chaetothyriales, Trichomeriaceae), a new ascomycete genus accommodating poorly differentiated melanized fungi.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Réblová, Martina; Rehulka, Jiří; Selbmann, Laura; Isola, Daniela; de Hoog, Sybren G; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2014-11-01

    Three slow growing, melanized and morphologically poorly differentiated fungal strains were isolated from a hyperaemic focus near the enlarged spleen of a farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and from a rock collected at 3,200 m a. s. l. (Alps, Italy). Two phylogenetic analyses of the combined nuc18S and nuc28S rDNA and ITS rDNA and β-tubulin sequences showed that these isolates belong to the Trichomeriaceae, a family of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales containing black yeasts that cause infections in humans and animals. The strains form a well-supported monophyletic clade. The new genus Bradymyces, with two new species, Bradymyces oncorhynchi and Bradymyces alpinus, is proposed based on phylogenetic, ecophysiological and morphological data. It is characterized by the presence of moniliform hyphae, blastic proliferation, endoconidia, multicellular and muriform bodies, and bodies with dark fragmented incrustations on the surface. Bradymyces most closely resembles members of Knufia. The ex-type isolate of B. oncorhynchi CCF 4369(T) ( = CBS 133066(T) = CCFEE 6134(T)) represents the first case of a Trichomeriaceae member isolated from cold-blooded water vertebrates. B. alpinus [ex-type strain CCFEE 5493(T) ( = CBS 138368(T) = CCF 4803(T))] is represented by two isolates from a single locality in the Alps and in contrast to B. oncorhynchi shows overall slower growth parameters and does not grow at 25 °C.

  14. Pheromones and pheromone receptors are required for proper sexual development in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Severine; Weber, Jan M; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-03-01

    The homothallic, filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora is self-fertile and produces sexual fruiting bodies (perithecia) without a mating partner. Even so, S. macrospora transcriptionally expresses two pheromone-precursor genes (ppg1 and ppg2) and two pheromone-receptor genes (pre1 and pre2). The proteins encoded by these genes are similar to alpha-factor-like and a-factor-like pheromones and to G-protein-coupled pheromone receptors of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has been suggested that in S. macrospora, PPG1/PRE2 and PPG2/PRE1 form two cognate pheromone-receptor pairs. To investigate their function, we deleted (delta) pheromone-precursor genes (delta ppg1, delta ppg2) and receptor genes (delta pre1, delta pre2) and generated single- as well as double-knockout strains. No effect on vegetative growth, fruiting-body, and ascospore development was seen in the single pheromone-mutant and receptor-mutant strains, respectively. However, double-knockout strains lacking any compatible pheromone-receptor pair (delta pre2/delta ppg2, delta pre1/delta ppg1) and the double-pheromone mutant (delta ppg1/delta ppg2) displayed a drastically reduced number of perithecia and sexual spores, whereas deletion of both receptor genes (delta pre1/delta pre2) completely eliminated fruiting-body and ascospore formation. The results suggest that pheromones and pheromone receptors are required for optimal sexual reproduction of the homothallic S. macrospora.

  15. Phylogenomic analysis of type I polyketide synthase genes in pathogenic and saprobic ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Kroken, Scott; Glass, N Louise; Taylor, John W; Yoder, O C; Turgeon, B Gillian

    2003-12-23

    Fungal type I polyketides (PKs) are synthesized by PK synthases (PKSs) and include well known secondary metabolites such as the anticholesterol drug lovastatin and the potent natural carcinogen aflatoxin. Other type I PKs are known to be virulence factors for some plant pathogens and pigments such as melanin. In this study, a phylogenomic approach was used to investigate the origin and diversity of fungal genes encoding putative PKSs that are predicted to synthesize type I PKs. The resulting genealogy, constructed by using the highly conserved PKS ketosynthase (KS) domain, indicated that: (i). Species within subphylum Pezizomycotina (phylum Ascomycota) but not early diverging ascomycetes, like Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Saccharomycotina) or Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Taphrinomycotina), had large numbers (7-25) of PKS genes. (ii). Bacteria and fungi had separate groups of PKS genes; the few exceptions are the likely result of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to various sublineages of fungi. (iii). The bulk of genes encoding fungal PKSs fell into eight groups. Four groups were predicted to synthesize variously reduced PKs, and four groups were predicted to make unreduced PKs. (iv). Species within different classes of Pezizomycotina shared the same groups of PKS genes. (v). Different fungal genomes shared few putative orthologous PKS genes, even between closely related genomes in the same class or genus. (vi) The discontinuous distributions of orthologous PKSs among fungal species can be explained by gene duplication, divergence, and gene loss; horizontal gene transfer among fungi does not need to be invoked.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Deep-Sea Ascomycetous Filamentous Fungus Cadophora malorum Mo12 from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Reveals Its Biotechnological Potential.

    PubMed

    Rédou, Vanessa; Kumar, Abhishek; Hainaut, Matthieu; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric; Barbier, Georges; Burgaud, Gaëtan

    2016-07-07

    Cadophora malorum Mo12 was isolated from the Rainbow hydrothermal site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We present the draft genome sequence of this filamentous fungal strain, which has high biotechnological potentials as revealed by the presence of genes encoding biotechnologically important enzymes and genes involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Rédou et al.

  17. Mycelial fermentation characteristics and anti-fatigue activities of a Chinese caterpillar fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis strain Cs-HK1 (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Yong; Leung, Hong-Po; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Xu, Chunping

    2014-01-01

    Mycelial fermentation of an Ophiocordyceps sinensis strain Cs-HK1 was carried out in various volumes of stirred-tank fermenters from 1.6-L and 15-L laboratory scale to 2000-L industrial scale. The mycelial growth in most fermenters had a higher rate, due probably to more efficient oxygen supply, than in shake-flasks. The mycelial fermentation was successfully scaled up to 2000-L industrial fermenters, achieving 30 g/L maximum biomass in 5 days. The Cs-HK1 mycelia formed hairy and fluffy pellets in the fermentation medium and the mycelial broth exhibited pseudoplastic rheology following the power law, with the flow behavior index n decreasing from 0.5 to 0.3, and the flow consistency K and the apparent viscosity µα increasing with time and biomass concentration. The mycelial broth containing biomass and extracellular products harvested from 2000-L fermenters was tested for anti-fatigue activities in forced animal swimming experiments. The mycelium hot water extract showed the most significant effects, increasing the swimming endurance of mice up to 100%, and also increasing the glycogen levels and reducing the lactic acid and blood urea nitrogen levels significantly. The results demonstrated the feasibility of Cs-HK1 mycelial fermentation for large-scale production of bioactive and medicinal materials.

  18. Effect of UV-B Irradiation on Physiologically Active Substance Content and Antioxidant Properties of the Medicinal Caterpillar Fungus Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Jeng; Lin, Chun-Ping; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Li, Yu-Shan; Tsai, Shu-Yao

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light irradiation is a well-known technique for converting vitamin D2 from ergosterol in mushroom fruit bodies. Mushrooms are a natural and nonanimal food source of vitamin D2. We studied the effect of UV-B light irradiation on the amount of vitamin D2 and physiologically active substances in Cordyceps militaris and their antioxidant properties. After UV-B irradiation for 2 hours, the vitamin D2 content of freshly harvested C. militaris fruiting bodies, mycelia, whole submerged culture (WSC), and homogenized submerged culture (HSC) increased from 0 to 0.03 to 0.22 to 1.11 mg/g, but the ergosterol content was reduced from 1.36 to 2.50 to 1.24 to 2.06 mg/g, respectively. After UV-B irradiation, the amount of adenosine, cordycepin, and ergothioneine of fruiting bodies dramatically increased 32-128%, but the polysaccharide content slightly decreased 36%. The reverse trends were observed in mycelia, WSC, and HSC. UV-B irradiation could reduce the effective concentrations at 50% of fruiting bodies for ethanolic and hot water extracts in reducing power, scavenging, and chelating abilities, whereas mycelia, WSC, and HSC of ethanolic extracts increased effective concentrations at 50% in reducing power, scavenging, and chelating abilities. UV-B irradiation slightly increased flavonoid content (10-56%) and slightly affected total phenol content.

  19. Omics data reveal the unusual asexual-fruiting nature and secondary metabolic potentials of the medicinal fungus Cordyceps cicadae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuzhen; Luo, Feifei; Cen, Kai; Xiao, Guohua; Yin, Ying; Li, Chunru; Li, Zengzhi; Zhan, Shuai; Zhang, Huizhan; Wang, Chengshu

    2017-08-30

    Ascomycete Cordyceps species have been using as valued traditional Chinese medicines. Particularly, the fruiting bodies of Cordyceps cicadae (syn. Isaria cicadae) have long been utilized for the treatment of chronic kidney disease. However, the genetics and bioactive chemicals in this fungus have been largely unexplored. In this study, we performed comprehensive omics analyses of C. cicadae, and found that, in contrast to other Cordyceps fungi, C. cicadae produces asexual fruiting bodies with the production of conidial spores instead of the meiotic ascospores. Genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis indicate that the protein families encoded by C. cicadae are typical of entomopathogenic fungi, including the expansion of proteases and chitinases for targeting insect hosts. Interestingly, we found that the MAT1-2 mating-type locus of the sequenced strain contains an abnormally truncated MAT1-1-1 gene. Gene deletions revealed that asexual fruiting of C. cicadae is independent of the MAT locus control. RNA-seq transcriptome data also indicate that, compared to growth in a liquid culture, the putative genes involved in mating and meiosis processes were not up-regulated during fungal fruiting, further supporting asexual reproduction in this fungus. The genome of C. cicadae encodes an array of conservative and divergent gene clusters for secondary metabolisms. Based on our analysis, the production of known carcinogenic metabolites by this fungus could be potentially precluded. However, the confirmed production of oosporein raises health concerns about the frequent consumption of fungal fruiting bodies. The results of this study expand our knowledge of fungal genetics that asexual fruiting can occur independent of the MAT locus control. The obtained genomic and metabolomic data will benefit future investigations of this fungus for medicinal uses.

  20. Functional properties and differential mode of regulation of the nitrate transporter from a plant symbiotic ascomycete

    PubMed Central

    Montanini, Barbara; Viscomi, Arturo R.; Bolchi, Angelo; Martin, Yusé; Siverio, José M.; Balestrini, Raffaella; Bonfante, Paola; Ottonello, Simone

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen assimilation by plant symbiotic fungi plays a central role in the mutualistic interaction established by these organisms, as well as in nitrogen flux in a variety of soils. In the present study, we report on the functional properties, structural organization and distinctive mode of regulation of TbNrt2 (Tuber borchii NRT2 family transporter), the nitrate transporter of the mycorrhizal ascomycete T. borchii. As revealed by experiments conducted in a nitrate-uptake-defective mutant of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, TbNrt2 is a high-affinity transporter (Km=4.7 μM nitrate) that is bispecific for nitrate and nitrite. It is expressed in free-living mycelia and in mycorrhizae, where it preferentially accumulates in the plasma membrane of root-contacting hyphae. The TbNrt2 mRNA, which is transcribed from a single-copy gene clustered with the nitrate reductase gene in the T. borchii genome, was specifically up-regulated following transfer of mycelia to nitrate- (or nitrite)-containing medium. However, at variance with the strict nitrate-dependent induction commonly observed in other organisms, TbNrt2 was also up-regulated (at both the mRNA and the protein level) following transfer to a nitrogen-free medium. This unusual mode of regulation differs from that of the adjacent nitrate reductase gene, which was expressed at basal levels under nitrogen deprivation conditions and required nitrate for induction. The functional and expression properties, described in the present study, delineate TbNrt2 as a versatile transporter that may be especially suited to cope with the fluctuating (and often low) mineral nitrogen concentrations found in most natural, especially forest, soils. PMID:16201972

  1. Crystal structures of two tetrameric β-carbonic anhydrases from the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Lehneck, Ronny; Neumann, Piotr; Vullo, Daniela; Elleuche, Skander; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ficner, Ralf; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2014-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are metalloenzymes catalyzing the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) and protons. CAs have been identified in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes and can be classified into five groups (α, β, γ, δ, ζ) that are unrelated in sequence and structure. The fungal β-class has only recently attracted attention. In the present study, we investigated the structure and function of the plant-like β-CA proteins CAS1 and CAS2 from the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. We demonstrated that both proteins can substitute for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae β-CA Nce103 and exhibit an in vitro CO2 hydration activity (kcat /Km of CAS1: 1.30 × 10(6) m(-1) ·s(-1) ; CAS2: 1.21 × 10(6 ) m(-1) ·s(-1) ). To further investigate the structural properties of CAS1 and CAS2, we determined their crystal structures to a resolution of 2.7 Å and 1.8 Å, respectively. The oligomeric state of both proteins is tetrameric. With the exception of the active site composition, no further major differences have been found. In both enzymes, the Zn(2) (+) -ion is tetrahedrally coordinated; in CAS1 by Cys45, His101 and Cys104 and a water molecule and in CAS2 by the side chains of four residues (Cys56, His112, Cys115 and Asp58). Both CAs are only weakly inhibited by anions, making them good candidates for industrial applications. CAS1 and CAS2 bind by x-ray crystallography (View interaction) Structural data have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank database under accession numbers 4O1J for CAS1 and 4O1K for CAS2. © 2014 FEBS.

  2. Comparative Xylose Metabolism among the Ascomycetes C. albicans, S. stipitis and S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lépine, Guylaine; Askew, Chris; Raymond, Martine; Whiteway, Malcolm; Wu, Cunle

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycetes Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Scheffersomyces stipitis metabolize the pentose sugar xylose very differently. S. cerevisiae fails to grow on xylose, while C. albicans can grow, and S. stipitis can both grow and ferment xylose to ethanol. However, all three species contain highly similar genes that encode potential xylose reductases and xylitol dehydrogenases required to convert xylose to xylulose, and xylulose supports the growth of all three fungi. We have created C. albicans strains deleted for the xylose reductase gene GRE3, the xylitol dehydrogenase gene XYL2, as well as the gre3 xyl2 double mutant. As expected, all the mutant strains cannot grow on xylose, while the single gre3 mutant can grow on xylitol. The gre3 and xyl2 mutants are efficiently complemented by the XYL1 and XYL2 from S. stipitis. Intriguingly, the S. cerevisiae GRE3 gene can complement the Cagre3 mutant, while the ScSOR1 gene can complement the Caxyl2 mutant, showing that S. cerevisiae contains the enzymatic capacity for converting xylose to xylulose. In addition, the gre3 xyl2 double mutant of C. albicans is effectively rescued by the xylose isomerase (XI) gene of either Piromyces or Orpinomyces, suggesting that the XI provides an alternative to the missing oxido-reductase functions in the mutant required for the xylose-xylulose conversion. Overall this work suggests that C. albicans strains engineered to lack essential steps for xylose metabolism can provide a platform for the analysis of xylose metabolism enzymes from a variety of species, and confirms that S. cerevisiae has the genetic potential to convert xylose to xylulose, although non-engineered strains cannot proliferate on xylose as the sole carbon source. PMID:24236198

  3. The ura5 gene of the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora: molecular cloning, characterization and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Le Chevanton, L; Leblon, G

    1989-04-15

    We cloned the ura5 gene coding for the orotate phosphoribosyl transferase from the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora by heterologous probing of a Sordaria genomic DNA library with the corresponding Podospora anserina sequence. The Sordaria gene was expressed in an Escherichia coli pyrE mutant strain defective for the same enzyme, and expression was shown to be promoted by plasmid sequences. The nucleotide sequence of the 1246-bp DNA fragment encompassing the region of homology with the Podospora gene has been determined. This sequence contains an open reading frame of 699 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 72% similarity with the corresponding Podospora protein.

  4. Molecular and ultrastructural characterization of two ascomycetes found on sunken wood off Vanuatu islands in the deep Pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Joëlle; Magnin, Sandrine; Rousseau, Florence; Zbinden, Magali; Frebourg, Ghislaine; Samadi, Sarah; de Forges, Bertrand Richer; Jones, E B Gareth

    2009-12-01

    A new genus of a deep-sea ascomycete with one new species, Alisea longicolla, is described based on analyses of 18S and 28S rDNA sequences and morphological characters. A. longicolla was found together with Oceanitis scuticella, on small twigs and sugar cane debris trawled from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean off Vanuatu Islands. Molecular and morphological characters indicate that both fungi are members of Halosphaeriaceae. Within this family, O. scuticella is phylogenetically related to Ascosalsum and shares similar ascospore morphology and appendage ontogeny. The genus Ascosalsum is considered congeneric with Oceanitis and Ascosalsum cincinnatulum, Ascosalsum unicaudatum and Ascosalsum viscidulum are transferred to Oceanitis, an earlier generic name.

  5. Insect peptide metchnikowin confers on barley a selective capacity for resistance to fungal ascomycetes pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rahnamaeian, Mohammad; Langen, Gregor; Imani, Jafargholi; Khalifa, Walaa; Altincicek, Boran; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The potential of metchnikowin, a 26-amino acid residue proline-rich antimicrobial peptide synthesized in the fat body of Drosophila melanogaster was explored to engineer disease resistance in barley against devastating fungal plant pathogens. The synthetic peptide caused strong in vitro growth inhibition (IC50 value ∼1 μM) of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. Transgenic barley expressing the metchnikowin gene in its 52-amino acid pre-pro-peptide form under the control of the inducible mannopine synthase (mas) gene promoter from the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens displayed enhanced resistance to powdery mildew as well as Fusarium head blight and root rot. In response to these pathogens, metchnikowin accumulated in plant apoplastic space, specifying that the insect signal peptide is functional in monocotyledons. In vitro and in vivo tests revealed that the peptide is markedly effective against fungal pathogens of the phylum Ascomycota but, clearly, less active against Basidiomycota fungi. Importantly, germination of the mutualistic basidiomycete mycorrhizal fungus Piriformospora indica was affected only at concentrations beyond 50 μM. These results suggest that antifungal peptides from insects are a valuable source for crop plant improvements and their differential activities toward different phyla of fungi denote a capacity for insect peptides to be used as selective measures on specific plant diseases. PMID:19734262

  6. Biosynthesis and accumulation of ergoline alkaloids in a mutualistic association between Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae) and a clavicipitalean fungus.

    PubMed

    Markert, Anne; Steffan, Nicola; Ploss, Kerstin; Hellwig, Sabine; Steiner, Ulrike; Drewke, Christel; Li, Shu-Ming; Boland, Wilhelm; Leistner, Eckhard

    2008-05-01

    Ergoline alkaloids occur in taxonomically unrelated taxa, such as fungi, belonging to the phylum Ascomycetes and higher plants of the family Convolvulaceae. The disjointed occurrence can be explained by the observation that plant-associated epibiotic clavicipitalean fungi capable of synthesizing ergoline alkaloids colonize the adaxial leaf surface of certain Convolvulaceae plant species. The fungi are seed transmitted. Their capacity to synthesize ergoline alkaloids depends on the presence of an intact differentiated host plant (e.g. Ipomoea asarifolia or Turbina corymbosa [Convolvulaceae]). Here, we present independent proof that these fungi are equipped with genetic material responsible for ergoline alkaloid biosynthesis. The gene (dmaW) for the determinant step in ergoline alkaloid biosynthesis was shown to be part of a cluster involved in ergoline alkaloid formation. The dmaW gene was overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the encoded DmaW protein purified to homogeneity, and characterized. Neither the gene nor the biosynthetic capacity, however, was detectable in the intact I. asarifolia or the taxonomically related T. corymbosa host plants. Both plants, however, contained the ergoline alkaloids almost exclusively, whereas alkaloids are not detectable in the associated epibiotic fungi. This indicates that a transport system may exist translocating the alkaloids from the epibiotic fungus into the plant. The association between the fungus and the plant very likely is a symbiotum in which ergoline alkaloids play an essential role.

  7. Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Ergoline Alkaloids in a Mutualistic Association between Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae) and a Clavicipitalean Fungus1

    PubMed Central

    Markert, Anne; Steffan, Nicola; Ploss, Kerstin; Hellwig, Sabine; Steiner, Ulrike; Drewke, Christel; Li, Shu-Ming; Boland, Wilhelm; Leistner, Eckhard

    2008-01-01

    Ergoline alkaloids occur in taxonomically unrelated taxa, such as fungi, belonging to the phylum Ascomycetes and higher plants of the family Convolvulaceae. The disjointed occurrence can be explained by the observation that plant-associated epibiotic clavicipitalean fungi capable of synthesizing ergoline alkaloids colonize the adaxial leaf surface of certain Convolvulaceae plant species. The fungi are seed transmitted. Their capacity to synthesize ergoline alkaloids depends on the presence of an intact differentiated host plant (e.g. Ipomoea asarifolia or Turbina corymbosa [Convolvulaceae]). Here, we present independent proof that these fungi are equipped with genetic material responsible for ergoline alkaloid biosynthesis. The gene (dmaW) for the determinant step in ergoline alkaloid biosynthesis was shown to be part of a cluster involved in ergoline alkaloid formation. The dmaW gene was overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the encoded DmaW protein purified to homogeneity, and characterized. Neither the gene nor the biosynthetic capacity, however, was detectable in the intact I. asarifolia or the taxonomically related T. corymbosa host plants. Both plants, however, contained the ergoline alkaloids almost exclusively, whereas alkaloids are not detectable in the associated epibiotic fungi. This indicates that a transport system may exist translocating the alkaloids from the epibiotic fungus into the plant. The association between the fungus and the plant very likely is a symbiotum in which ergoline alkaloids play an essential role. PMID:18344419

  8. Carbohydrate and Amino Acid Metabolism in the Ectomycorrhizal Ascomycete Sphaerosporella brunnea during Glucose Utilization 1

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Francis; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Canet, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was utilized to study the metabolism of [1-13C]glucose in mycelia of the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete Sphaerosporella brunnea. The main purpose was to assess the biochemical pathways for the assimilation of glucose and to identify the compounds accumulated during glucose assimilation. The majority of the 13C label was incorporated into mannitol, while glycogen, trehalose and free amino acids were labeled to a much lesser extent. The high enrichment of the C1/C6 position of mannitol indicated that the polyol was formed via a direct route from absorbed glucose. Randomization of the 13C label was observed to occur in glucose and trehalose leading to the accumulation of [1,6-13C]trehalose and [1,6-13C]glucose. This suggests that the majority of the glucose carbon used to form trehalose was cycled through the metabolically active mannitol pool. The proportion of label entering the free amino acids represented 38% of the soluble 13C after 6 hours of continuous glucose labeling. Therefore, amino acid biosynthesis is an important sink of assimilated carbon. Carbon-13 was incorporated into [3-13C]alanine and [2-13C]-, [3-13C]-, and [4-13C]glutamate and glutamine. From the analysis of the intramolecular 13C enrichment of these amino acids, it is concluded that [3-13C]pyruvate, arising from [1-13C]glucose catabolism, was used by alanine aminotransferase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate carboxylase (or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase). Intramolecular 13C labeling patterns of glutamate and glutamine were similar and are consistent with the operation of the Krebs cycle. There is strong evidence for (a) randomization of the label on C2 and C3 positions of oxaloacetate via malate dehydrogenase and fumarase, and (b) the dual biosynthetic and respiratory role of the citrate synthase, aconitase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase reactions. The high flux of carbon through the carboxylation (presumably pyruvate carboxylase) step indicates that CO

  9. Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of the Fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora Provide Insights into Nematode-Trap Formation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yun; Li, Xiaomin; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ren, Yan; Mi, Qili; Wu, Junli; Liu, Shuqun; Liu, Yu; Huang, Xiaowei; Wang, Haiyan; Niu, Xuemei; Li, Juan; Liang, Lianming; Luo, Yanlu; Ji, Kaifang; Zhou, Wei; Yu, Zefen; Li, Guohong; Liu, Yajun; Li, Lei; Qiao, Min; Feng, Lu; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2011-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are “carnivorous” and attack their hosts using specialized trapping devices. The morphological development of these traps is the key indicator of their switch from saprophytic to predacious lifestyles. Here, the genome of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora Fres. (ATCC24927) was reported. The genome contains 40.07 Mb assembled sequence with 11,479 predicted genes. Comparative analysis showed that A. oligospora shared many more genes with pathogenic fungi than with non-pathogenic fungi. Specifically, compared to several sequenced ascomycete fungi, the A. oligospora genome has a larger number of pathogenicity-related genes in the subtilisin, cellulase, cellobiohydrolase, and pectinesterase gene families. Searching against the pathogen-host interaction gene database identified 398 homologous genes involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The analysis of repetitive sequences provided evidence for repeat-induced point mutations in A. oligospora. Proteomic and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses revealed that 90 genes were significantly up-regulated at the early stage of trap-formation by nematode extracts and most of these genes were involved in translation, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall and membrane biogenesis. Based on the combined genomic, proteomic and qPCR data, a model for the formation of nematode trapping device in this fungus was proposed. In this model, multiple fungal signal transduction pathways are activated by its nematode prey to further regulate downstream genes associated with diverse cellular processes such as energy metabolism, biosynthesis of the cell wall and adhesive proteins, cell division, glycerol accumulation and peroxisome biogenesis. This study will facilitate the identification of pathogenicity-related genes and provide a broad foundation for understanding the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying fungi-nematodes interactions. PMID:21909256

  10. Ecological and Evolutionary Determinants of Bark Beetle —Fungus Symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Six, Diana L.

    2012-01-01

    Ectosymbioses among bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae) and fungi (primarily ophiostomatoid Ascomycetes) are widespread and diverse. Associations range from mutualistic to commensal, and from facultative to obligate. Some fungi are highly specific and associated only with a single beetle species, while others can be associated with many. In addition, most of these symbioses are multipartite, with the host beetle associated with two or more consistent partners. Mycangia, structures of the beetle integument that function in fungal transport, have evolved numerous times in the Scolytinae. The evolution of such complex, specialized structures indicates a high degree of mutual dependence among the beetles and their fungal partners. Unfortunately, the processes that shaped current day beetle-fungus symbioses remain poorly understood. Phylogeny, the degree and type of dependence on partners, mode of transmission of symbionts (vertical vs. horizontal), effects of the abiotic environment, and interactions among symbionts themselves or with other members of the biotic community, all play important roles in determining the composition, fidelity, and longevity of associations between beetles and their fungal associates. In this review, I provide an overview of these associations and discuss how evolution and ecological processes acted in concert to shape these fascinating, complex symbioses. PMID:26467964

  11. Genome sequence of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris, a valued traditional chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Species in the ascomycete fungal genus Cordyceps have been proposed to be the teleomorphs of Metarhizium species. The latter have been widely used as insect biocontrol agents. Cordyceps species are highly prized for use in traditional Chinese medicines, but the genes responsible for biosynthesis of bioactive components, insect pathogenicity and the control of sexuality and fruiting have not been determined. Results Here, we report the genome sequence of the type species Cordyceps militaris. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that different species in the Cordyceps/Metarhizium genera have evolved into insect pathogens independently of each other, and that their similar large secretomes and gene family expansions are due to convergent evolution. However, relative to other fungi, including Metarhizium spp., many protein families are reduced in C. militaris, which suggests a more restricted ecology. Consistent with its long track record of safe usage as a medicine, the Cordyceps genome does not contain genes for known human mycotoxins. We establish that C. militaris is sexually heterothallic but, very unusually, fruiting can occur without an opposite mating-type partner. Transcriptional profiling indicates that fruiting involves induction of the Zn2Cys6-type transcription factors and MAPK pathway; unlike other fungi, however, the PKA pathway is not activated. Conclusions The data offer a better understanding of Cordyceps biology and will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:22112802

  12. NMR Solution Structure of a Cyanovirin Homolog from Wheat Head Blight Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Matei, Elena; Louis, John M.; Jee, JunGoo; Gronenborn, Angela M.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the cyanovirin-N homolog (CVNH) lectin family are found in bacteria, fungi and plants. As part of our ongoing work on CVNH structure-function studies, we determined the high-resolution NMR solution structure of the homolog from the wheat head blight disease causing ascomycetous fungus Gibberella zeae (or Fusarium graminearum), hereafter called GzCVNH. Like cyanovirin-N (CV-N), GzCVNH comprises two tandem sequence repeats and the protein sequence exhibits 30% identity with CV-N. The overall structure is similar to those of other members of the CVNH family, with the conserved pseudo-symmetric halves of the structure, domains A and B, closely resembling recently determined structures of Tuber borchii, Neurospora crassa and Ceratopteris richardii CVNH proteins. Although GzCVNH exhibits a similar glycan recognition profile to CV-N and specifically binds to Manα(1–2)Manα, its weak carbohydrate binding affinity to only one binding site is insufficient for conferring anti-HIV activity. PMID:21365681

  13. Genome sequence of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris, a valued traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Peng; Xia, Yongliang; Xiao, Guohua; Xiong, Chenghui; Hu, Xiao; Zhang, Siwei; Zheng, Huajun; Huang, Yin; Zhou, Yan; Wang, Shengyue; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Liu, Xingzhong; St Leger, Raymond J; Wang, Chengshu

    2011-11-23

    Species in the ascomycete fungal genus Cordyceps have been proposed to be the teleomorphs of Metarhizium species. The latter have been widely used as insect biocontrol agents. Cordyceps species are highly prized for use in traditional Chinese medicines, but the genes responsible for biosynthesis of bioactive components, insect pathogenicity and the control of sexuality and fruiting have not been determined. Here, we report the genome sequence of the type species Cordyceps militaris. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that different species in the Cordyceps/Metarhizium genera have evolved into insect pathogens independently of each other, and that their similar large secretomes and gene family expansions are due to convergent evolution. However, relative to other fungi, including Metarhizium spp., many protein families are reduced in C. militaris, which suggests a more restricted ecology. Consistent with its long track record of safe usage as a medicine, the Cordyceps genome does not contain genes for known human mycotoxins. We establish that C. militaris is sexually heterothallic but, very unusually, fruiting can occur without an opposite mating-type partner. Transcriptional profiling indicates that fruiting involves induction of the Zn2Cys6-type transcription factors and MAPK pathway; unlike other fungi, however, the PKA pathway is not activated. The data offer a better understanding of Cordyceps biology and will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus.

  14. Simulated aerial sprays for field cage evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycetes: Hypocreales) against Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) in Montana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field efficacy of the entomopathogenic Ascomycete Beauveria bassiana strain GHA and Metarhizium brunneum strain F52 was evaluated against nymphs of the Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex. Fungi were applied with a new apparatus that allows simulated aerial sprays to 0.1m2 areas in the field. The Mormon...

  15. Remispora spitsbergenensis sp. nov., a marine lignicolous ascomycete from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ka-Lai; Chiang, Michael W L; Vrijmoed, Lilian L P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Remispora was established for R. maritima, a fungus with globose/subglobose, lightly colored and coriaceous ascomata; deliquescing asci; ellipsoidal ascospores; and bipolar, pleomorphic ascospore appendages. Seven species currently are included in Remispora: R crispa, R. galerita, R maritima, R. minuta, R. pilleata, R. quadriremis and R stellata. Variations on ascospore appendages can be observed in Remispora. In general the appendage is exosporic in nature and comprises an amorphous, electron-transparent matrix, and a fibrous, electron-dense component. An eighth Remispora species, R. spitsbergenensis sp. nov., is described here, discovered from washed-up wood collected at the shore of Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway. Ascospore appendages of R. spitsbergenensis appear as fibrous strands and amorphic material under the scanning electron microscope, which are characteristic of a Remispora species. Remispora spitsbergenensis resembles R. quadriremis and R. stellata because all possess four or more ascospore appendages at one end. Remispora spitsbergenensis possesses consistently four polar appendages at each end in contrast to six in R. stellata. Also ascospore appendages of R. spitsbergenensis are ribbon-like, compared with the obclavate, curved and attenuate appendages in R. quadriremis and R. stellata. A key for the identification of the eight Remispora species is provided.

  16. [Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae) with chemicals acaricides used in the control of cattle tick].

    PubMed

    Barci, Leila A G; Wenzel, Inajá M; de Almeida, José Eduardo M; de Campos Nogueira, Adriana H; do Prado, Angelo P

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess compatibility between IBCB66 and IBCB21 isolates of Beauveria bassiana and acaricides: Flumethrin+Coumaphos, Deltamethrin, Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos+Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin High Cis, Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin High Cis, Cypermethrin and Amitraz, utilized on the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in our country. The effect of commercial products on the isolates was assayed according to observation of vegetative growth, conidia production, and viability of strains of B. bassiana fungus. With concerning about IBCB66 isolate, products Deltamethrin, Cypermethrin High Cis and Amitraz were compatible, not affecting the entomopathogen development. Product Cypermethrin was toxic, and products Flumethrin+Coumaphos, Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos+Chlorpyrifos and Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin High Cis were very toxic. In regard to IBCB21 isolate, products Flumethrin+Coumaphos, Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos+Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin High Cis, Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin High Cis and Cypermethrin were very toxic and product Amitraz was toxic. From the acaricides evaluated, product Deltamethrin was the single agent that did not produce toxic effect on the entomopathogen.

  17. Tetrapisispora namnaonensis sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast species isolated from forest soil of Nam Nao National Park, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sumpradit, Tawatchai; Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Seki, Tatsuji

    2005-07-01

    Twenty-one strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were isolated from soil collected in three kinds of natural forest, namely a dry dipterocarp forest, a mixed deciduous forest and a pine forest, in Nam Nao National Park, Phetchabun province, Thailand. The strains formed asci containing one to four ovoid to reniform ascospores, assimilated glucose, galactose and glycerol, fermented glucose and galactose vigorously and contained ubiquinone Q-6, indicating that they belonged to the genus Tetrapisispora. A comparative analysis of the small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rDNA (LSU rDNA) of all available sequences for ascomycetous yeasts confirmed that the strains were phylogenetically related to the genus Tetrapisispora. All strains had identical nucleotide sequences in the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA and differed from the nearest species, Tetrapisispora arboricola IFO 10925(T), by 6.4% nucleotide substitutions. The strains differed from Tetrapisispora arboricola by the ability to assimilate D-gluconic acid, the inability to grow on 50% glucose medium, the nuclear DNA base composition and deliquescent asci. The strains were differentiated from the other four species of Tetrapisispora on the basis of trehalose assimilation, the ability to grow on 50% glucose or 10% NaCl plus 5% glucose, vitamin requirement, the nuclear DNA base composition and the type of ascus. Based on the characteristics mentioned above, the strains are recognized as a single novel species of the genus Tetrapisispora and the name Tetrapisispora namnaonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TN1-01(T) (=TISTR 5828(T)=JCM 12664(T)=CBS 10093(T)).

  18. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    PubMed

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list.

  19. [Insecticidal and immunosuppressive effect of ascomycete Cordyceps militaris on the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata].

    PubMed

    Kriukov, V Iu; Iaroslavtseva, O N; Dubovskiĭ, I M; Tiurin, M V; Kriukova, N A; Glupov, V V

    2014-01-01

    The immunosuppressive and insecticidal activity of cultures of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris on the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata has been established for the first time. It was found that the peroral effect of the fungal culture resulted in dose-dependent decrease in survival, delayed in development time and molting, decreases in the total hemocyt counts, increased activity of phenoloxidases in the hemolymph, and reduced activity of the enzyme in the cuticle, as well as increased sensitivity of larvae to the fungus Beauveria bassiana at the level of the synergistic effect.

  20. Exploring fungus-plant N transfer in a tripartite ant-plant-fungus mutualism.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Céline; Jauneau, Alain; Martinez, Yves; Cabin-Flaman, Armelle; Gibouin, David; Orivel, Jérôme; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie

    2017-09-01

    The plant Hirtella physophora, the ant Allomerus decemarticulatus and a fungus, Trimmatostroma sp., form a tripartite association. The ants manipulate both the plant trichomes and the fungus to build galleries under the stems of their host plant used to capture prey. In addition to its structural role, the fungus also improves nutrient uptake by the host plant. But it still remains unclear whether the fungus plays an indirect or a direct role in transferring nutrients to the plant. This study aimed to trace the transfer of N from the fungus to the plant's stem tissue. Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the presence of fungal hyphae in the stem tissues. Then, a 15N-labelling experiment was combined with a nanoscale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS 50) isotopic imaging approach to trace the movement of added 15N from the fungus to plant tissues. The TEM images clearly showed hyphae inside the stem tissue in the cellular compartment. Also, fungal hyphae were seen perforating the wall of the parenchyma cell. The 15N provisioning of the fungus in the galleries resulted in significant enrichment of the 15N signature of the plant's leaves 1 d after the 15N-labelling solution was deposited on the fungus-bearing trap. Finally, NanoSIMS imaging proved that nitrogen was transferred biotrophically from the fungus to the stem tissue. This study provides evidence that the fungi are connected endophytically to an ant-plant system and actively transfer nitrogen from 15N-labelling solution to the plant's stem tissues. Overall, this study underlines how complex the trophic structure of ant-plant interactions is due to the presence of the fungus and provides insight into the possibly important nutritional aspects and tradeoffs involved in myrmecophyte-ant mutualisms.

  1. A MADS box protein interacts with a mating-type protein and is required for fruiting body development in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Nolting, Nicole; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-07-01

    MADS box transcription factors control diverse developmental processes in plants, metazoans, and fungi. To analyze the involvement of MADS box proteins in fruiting body development of filamentous ascomycetes, we isolated the mcm1 gene from the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora, which encodes a putative homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MADS box protein Mcm1p. Deletion of the S. macrospora mcm1 gene resulted in reduced biomass, increased hyphal branching, and reduced hyphal compartment length during vegetative growth. Furthermore, the S. macrospora Deltamcm1 strain was unable to produce fruiting bodies or ascospores during sexual development. A yeast two-hybrid analysis in conjugation with in vitro analyses demonstrated that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein can interact with the putative transcription factor SMTA-1, encoded by the S. macrospora mating-type locus. These results suggest that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein is involved in the transcriptional regulation of mating-type-specific genes as well as in fruiting body development.

  2. A new pullulan and a branched (1-->3)-, (1-->6)-linked beta-glucan from the lichenised ascomycete Teloschistes flavicans.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rodrigo A; Tischer, Cesar A; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

    2002-04-23

    The polysaccharides formed on hot alkaline extraction of the ascomycetous lichen Teloschistes flavicans were fractionated to give two glucans, which were characterised by methylation analysis and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. One was a branched beta-glucan containing (1-->3) and (1-->6) linkages, a structure which is more typical of basidiomycetes rather than ascomycetes, which have linear glucans. The other was an alpha-glucan with alternating (1-->4) and (1-->6) linkages, found for the first time in Nature. This structure can be classified as a pullulan, which has been isolated from the fungi Aureobasidium pullulans, Tremella mesenterica, and Cyttaria harioti, but has different ratios of the component glycosidic linkages. The significance of the presence of the isolated alpha- and beta-glucans is discussed.

  3. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods.

  4. Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, Evgeny; Kittl, Roman; Shleev, Sergey; Dorovatovsky, Pavel; Tikhonova, Tamara; Popov, Vladimir

    2014-11-01

    The structures of the ascomycetous B. aclada laccase and its L499M T1-site mutant have been solved at 1.7 Å resolution. The mutant enzyme shows a 140 mV lower redox potential of the type 1 copper and altered kinetic behaviour. The wild type and the mutant have very similar structures, which makes it possible to relate the changes in the redox potential to the L499M mutation Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7 Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E{sub 0} = 720 and 580 mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme.

  5. The molecular response of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens to wood and non-woody biomass as examined by transcriptome and exoproteome analyses.

    PubMed

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Di Falco, Marcos; Zhou, Miaomiao; Aguilar-Pontes, Maria Victoria; Sietiö, Outi-Maaria; Tsang, Adrian; de Vries, Ronald P; Mäkelä, Miia R

    2017-03-01

    The ability to obtain carbon and energy is a major requirement to exist in any environment. For several ascomycete fungi, (post-)genomic analyses have shown that species that occupy a large variety of habitats possess a diverse enzymatic machinery, while species with a specific habitat have a more focused enzyme repertoire that is well-adapted to the prevailing substrate. White-rot basidiomycete fungi also live in a specific habitat, as they are found exclusively in wood. In this study, we evaluated how well the enzymatic machinery of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens is tailored to degrade its natural wood substrate. The transcriptome and exoproteome of D. squalens were analyzed after cultivation on two natural substrates, aspen and spruce wood, and two non-woody substrates, wheat bran and cotton seed hulls. D. squalens produced ligninolytic enzymes mainly at the early time point of the wood cultures, indicating the need to degrade lignin to get access to wood polysaccharides. Surprisingly, the response of the fungus to the non-woody polysaccharides was nearly as good a match to the substrate composition as observed for the wood polysaccharides. This indicates that D. squalens has preserved its ability to efficiently degrade plant biomass types not present in its natural habitat. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. RNAseq Analysis Highlights Specific Transcriptome Signatures of Yeast and Mycelial Growth Phases in the Dutch Elm Disease Fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Martha; Laroche, Jérôme; Landry, Christian R; Bernier, Louis

    2015-09-17

    Fungal dimorphism is a complex trait and our understanding of the ability of fungi to display different growth morphologies is limited to a small number of model species. Here we study a highly aggressive dimorphic fungus, the ascomycete Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, which is a model in plant pathology and the causal agent of Dutch elm disease. The two growth phases that this fungus displays, i.e., a yeast phase and mycelial phase, are thought to be involved in key steps of disease development. We used RNAseq to investigate the genome-wide gene expression profiles that are associated with yeast and mycelial growth phases in vitro. Our results show a clear molecular distinction between yeast and mycelial phase gene expression profiles. Almost 12% of the gene content is differentially expressed between the two phases, which reveals specific functions related to each growth phase. We compared O. novo-ulmi transcriptome profiles with those of two model dimorphic fungi, Candida albicans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Few orthologs showed similar expression regulation between the two growth phases, which suggests that, globally, the genes associated with these two life forms are poorly conserved. This poor conservation underscores the importance of developing specific tools for emerging model species that are distantly related to the classical ones. Taken together, our results provide insights into transcriptome regulation and molecular specificity in O. novo-ulmi and offer a new perspective for understanding fungal dimorphism. Copyright © 2015 Nigg et al.

  7. Comparison of pectin-degrading fungal communities in temperate forests using glycosyl hydrolase family 28 pectinase primers targeting Ascomycete fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Gacura, Matthew D.; Sprockett, Daniel D.; Heidenreich, Bess; Blackwood, Christopher B.

    2016-02-17

    Here, fungi have developed a wide assortment of enzymes to break down pectin, a prevalent polymer in plant cell walls that is important in plant defense and structure. One enzyme family used to degrade pectin is the glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28). In this studywe developed primers for the amplification of GH28 coding genes from a database of 293 GH28 sequences from40 fungal genomes. The primerswere used to successfully amplify GH28 pectinases from all Ascomycota cultures tested, but only three out of seven Basidiomycota cultures. In addition, we further tested the primers in PCRs on metagenomic DNA extracted from senesced tree leaves from different forest ecosystems, followed by cloning and sequencing. Taxonomic specificity for Ascomycota GH28 genes was tested by comparing GH28 composition in leaves to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon composition using pyrosequencing. All sequences obtained from GH28 primers were classified as Ascomycota; in contrast, ITS sequences indicated that fungal communitieswere up to 39% Basidiomycetes. Analysis of leaf samples indicated that both forest stand and ecosystemtype were important in structuring fungal communities. However, site played the prominent role in explaining GH28 composition, whereas ecosystem type was more important for ITS composition, indicating possible genetic drift between populations of fungi. Overall, these primers will have utility in understanding relationships between fungal community composition and ecosystem processes, as well as detection of potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes.

  8. Comparison of pectin-degrading fungal communities in temperate forests using glycosyl hydrolase family 28 pectinase primers targeting Ascomycete fungi

    DOE PAGES

    Gacura, Matthew D.; Sprockett, Daniel D.; Heidenreich, Bess; ...

    2016-02-17

    Here, fungi have developed a wide assortment of enzymes to break down pectin, a prevalent polymer in plant cell walls that is important in plant defense and structure. One enzyme family used to degrade pectin is the glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28). In this studywe developed primers for the amplification of GH28 coding genes from a database of 293 GH28 sequences from40 fungal genomes. The primerswere used to successfully amplify GH28 pectinases from all Ascomycota cultures tested, but only three out of seven Basidiomycota cultures. In addition, we further tested the primers in PCRs on metagenomic DNA extracted from senescedmore » tree leaves from different forest ecosystems, followed by cloning and sequencing. Taxonomic specificity for Ascomycota GH28 genes was tested by comparing GH28 composition in leaves to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon composition using pyrosequencing. All sequences obtained from GH28 primers were classified as Ascomycota; in contrast, ITS sequences indicated that fungal communitieswere up to 39% Basidiomycetes. Analysis of leaf samples indicated that both forest stand and ecosystemtype were important in structuring fungal communities. However, site played the prominent role in explaining GH28 composition, whereas ecosystem type was more important for ITS composition, indicating possible genetic drift between populations of fungi. Overall, these primers will have utility in understanding relationships between fungal community composition and ecosystem processes, as well as detection of potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes.« less

  9. Valorization of sugar-to-ethanol process waste vinasse: A novel biorefinery approach using edible ascomycetes filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the integration of edible ascomycetes filamentous fungi into the existing sugar- or molasses-to-ethanol processes, to grow on vinasse or stillage and produce ethanol and protein-rich fungal biomass. Two fungal strains, Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae were examined in shake flasks and airlift-bioreactors, resulting in reduction of vinasse COD by 34% and viscosity by 21%. Utilization of glycerol and sugars were observed, yielding 202.4 or 222.8g dry fungal biomass of N. intermedia or A. oryzae respectively, per liter of vinasse. Integration of the current process at an existing ethanol facility producing about 100,000m(3) of ethanol per year could produce around 200,000-250,000tons of dry fungal biomass (40-45% protein) together with about 8800-12,600m(3) extra ethanol (8.8-12.6% of production-rate improvement). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High-Coverage ITS Primers for the DNA-Based Identification of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes in Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom Fungi is estimated to include 1.5 million or more species, playing key roles as decomposers, mutualists, and parasites in every biome on the earth. To comprehensively understand the diversity and ecology of this huge kingdom, DNA barcoding targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat has been regarded as a prerequisite procedure. By extensively surveying ITS sequences in public databases, we designed new ITS primers with improved coverage across diverse taxonomic groups of fungi compared to existing primers. An in silico analysis based on public sequence databases indicated that the newly designed primers matched 99% of ascomycete and basidiomycete ITS taxa (species, subspecies or varieties), causing little taxonomic bias toward either fungal group. Two of the newly designed primers could inhibit the amplification of plant sequences and would enable the selective investigation of fungal communities in mycorrhizal associations, soil, and other types of environmental samples. Optimal PCR conditions for the primers were explored in an in vitro investigation. The new primers developed in this study will provide a basis for ecological studies on the diversity and community structures of fungi in the era of massive DNA sequencing. PMID:22808280

  11. Primer Sets Developed To Amplify Conserved Genes from Filamentous Ascomycetes Are Useful in Differentiating Fusarium Species Associated with Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, G. C.; Ball, L. A.; Axelrood, P. E.; Glass, N. L.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the usefulness of primer sets designed to amplify introns within conserved genes in filamentous ascomycetes to differentiate 35 isolates representing six different species of Fusarium commonly found in association with conifer seedlings. We analyzed restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in five amplified PCR products from each Fusarium isolate. The primers used in this study were constructed on the basis of sequence information from the H3, H4, and (beta)-tubulin genes in Neurospora crassa. Primers previously developed for the intergenic transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA were also used. The degree of interspecific polymorphism observed in the PCR products from the six Fusarium species allowed differentiation by a limited number of amplifications and restriction endonuclease digestions. The level of intraspecific RFLP variation in the five PCR products was low in both Fusarium proliferatum and F. avenaceum but was high in a population sample of F. oxysporum isolates. Clustering of the 35 isolates by statistical analyses gave similar dendrograms for H3, H4, and (beta)-tubulin RFLP analysis, but a dendrogram produced by intergenic transcribed spacer analysis varied in the placement of some F. oxysporum isolates. PMID:16534991

  12. Regulation of melanin biosynthesis via the dihydroxynaphthalene pathway is dependent on sexual development in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Engh, Ines; Nowrousian, Minou; Kück, Ulrich

    2007-10-01

    The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora accumulates melanin during sexual development. The four melanin biosynthesis genes pks, teh, sdh and tih were isolated and their homology to genes involved in 1,8 dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin biosynthesis was shown. The presence of DHN melanin in S. macrospora was further confirmed by disrupting the pks gene encoding a putative polyketide synthase and by RNA interference-mediated silencing of the sdh gene encoding a putative scytalone dehydratase. Because melanin occurs in fruiting bodies that develop through several intermediate stages within 7 days of growth, a Northern analysis of a developmental time-course was conducted. These data revealed a time-dependent regulation of teh and sdh transcript levels. Comparing the transcriptional expression by real-time PCR of melanin biosynthesis genes in the wild type under conditions allowing or repressing sexual development, a significant downregulation during vegetative growth was detected. Quantitative real-time PCR and Northern blot analysis of melanin biosynthesis gene expression in different developmental mutants confirmed that melanin biosynthesis is linked to fruiting body development and is under the control of specific regulatory genes that participate in sexual differentiation.

  13. Gene Overexpression and RNA Silencing Tools for the Genetic Manipulation of the S-(+)-Abscisic Acid Producing Ascomycete Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhong-Tao; Zhang, Zhi; Luo, Di; Zhou, Jin-Yan; Zhong, Juan; Yang, Jie; Xiao, Liang; Shu, Dan; Tan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea produces several secondary metabolites that have biotechnical significance and has been particularly used for S-(+)-abscisic acid production at the industrial scale. To manipulate the expression levels of specific secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes of B. cinerea with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system, two expression vectors (pCBh1 and pCBg1 with different selection markers) and one RNA silencing vector, pCBSilent1, were developed with the In-Fusion assembly method. Both expression vectors were highly effective in constitutively expressing eGFP, and pCBSilent1 effectively silenced the eGFP gene in B. cinerea. Bcaba4, a gene suggested to participate in ABA biosynthesis in B. cinerea, was then targeted for gene overexpression and RNA silencing with these reverse genetic tools. The overexpression of bcaba4 dramatically induced ABA formation in the B. cinerea wild type strain Bc-6, and the gene silencing of bcaba4 significantly reduced ABA-production in an ABA-producing B. cinerea strain. PMID:25955649

  14. Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R; Clardy, Jon

    2009-06-01

    Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. We have analyzed one such system at the molecular level and found that the bacterium associated with the ant Apterostigma dentigerum produces dentigerumycin, a cyclic depsipeptide with highly modified amino acids, to selectively inhibit the associated parasitic fungus (Escovopsis sp.).

  15. Small RNA-Based Antiviral Defense in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Even though the fungal kingdom contains more than 3 million species, little is known about the biological roles of RNA silencing in fungi. The Colletotrichum genus comprises fungal species that are pathogenic for a wide range of crop species worldwide. To investigate the role of RNA silencing in the ascomycete fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum, knock-out mutants affecting genes for three RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR), two Dicer-like (DCL), and two Argonaute (AGO) proteins were generated by targeted gene replacement. No effects were observed on vegetative growth for any mutant strain when grown on complex or minimal media. However, Δdcl1, Δdcl1Δdcl2 double mutant, and Δago1 strains showed severe defects in conidiation and conidia morphology. Total RNA transcripts and small RNA populations were analyzed in parental and mutant strains. The greatest effects on both RNA populations was observed in the Δdcl1, Δdcl1Δdcl2, and Δago1 strains, in which a previously uncharacterized dsRNA mycovirus [termed Colletotrichum higginsianum non-segmented dsRNA virus 1 (ChNRV1)] was derepressed. Phylogenetic analyses clearly showed a close relationship between ChNRV1 and members of the segmented Partitiviridae family, despite the non-segmented nature of the genome. Immunoprecipitation of small RNAs associated with AGO1 showed abundant loading of 5’U-containing viral siRNA. C. higginsianum parental and Δdcl1 mutant strains cured of ChNRV1 revealed that the conidiation and spore morphology defects were primarily caused by ChNRV1. Based on these results, RNA silencing involving ChDCL1 and ChAGO1 in C. higginsianum is proposed to function as an antiviral mechanism. PMID:27253323

  16. Novel G-protein-coupled receptor-like proteins in the plant pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe grisea

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Resham D; Thon, Michael R; Pan, Huaqin; Dean, Ralph A

    2005-01-01

    Background The G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the largest protein families in human and other animal genomes, but no more than 10 GPCRs have been characterized in fungi. Do fungi contain only this handful or are there more receptors to be discovered? We asked this question using the recently sequenced genome of the fungal plant pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. Results Proteins with significant similarity to fungus-specific and other eukaryotic GPCRs were identified in M. grisea. These included homologs of known fungal GPCRs, the cAMP receptors from Dictyostelium, and a steroid receptor mPR. We also identified a novel class of receptors typified by PTH11, a cell-surface integral membrane protein required for pathogenicity. PTH11 has seven transmembrane regions and an amino-terminal extracellular cysteine-rich EGF-like domain (CFEM domain), a characteristic also seen in human GPCRs. Sixty-one PTH11-related proteins were identified in M. grisea that shared a common domain with homologs in Neurospora crassa and other fungi belonging to this subphylum of the Ascomycota (the Pezizomycotina). None was detected in other fungal groups (Basidiomycota or other Ascomycota subphyla, including yeasts) or any other eukaryote. The subclass of PTH11 containing the CFEM domain is highly represented in M. grisea. Conclusion In M. grisea we identified homologs of known GPCRs and a novel class of GPCR-like receptors specific to filamentous ascomycetes. A member of this new class, PTH11, is required for pathogenesis, thus suggesting roles in pathogenicity for other members. The identified classes constitute the largest number of GPCR-like proteins reported in fungi to date. PMID:15774025

  17. Effects of Secondary Metabolites from the Fungus Septofusidium berolinense on DNA Cleavage Mediated by Human Topoisomerase IIα

    PubMed Central

    Vann, Kendra R.; Ekiz, Güner; Zencir, Sevil; Bedir, Erdal; Topcu, Zeki; Osheroff, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Two metabolites from the ascomycete fungus Septofusidium berolinense were recently identified as having antineoplastic activity [Ekiz, et al. (2015) J. Antibiot. (Tokyo)]. However, the basis for this activity is not known. One of the compounds [3,6-dihydroxy-2-propylbenzaldehyde (GE-1)] is a hydroquinone and the other [2-hydroxymethyl-3-propylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (GE-2)] is a quinone. Because some hydroquinones and quinones act as topoisomerase II poisons, the effects of GE-1 and GE-2 on DNA cleavage mediated by human topoisomerase IIα were assessed. GE-2 enhanced DNA cleavage ~4–fold and induced scission with a site specificity similar to that of the anticancer drug etoposide. Similar to other quinone-based topoisomerase II poisons, GE-2 displayed several hallmark characteristics of covalent topoisomerase II poisons, including: 1) the inability to poison a topoisomerase IIα construct that lacks the N-terminal domain; 2) the inhibition of DNA cleavage when the compound was incubated with the enzyme prior to the addition of plasmid, and 3) the loss of poisoning activity in the presence of a reducing agent. In contrast to GE-2, GE-1 did not enhance DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase IIα except at very high concentrations. However, the activity and potency of the metabolite were dramatically enhanced under oxidizing conditions. Results suggest that topoisomerase IIα may play a role in mediating the cytotoxic effects of these fungal metabolites. PMID:26894873

  18. Cloning, characterization, and transcription of three laccase genes from Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, the take-all fungus.

    PubMed

    Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Henson, Joan M

    2002-03-01

    Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, a filamentous ascomycete, is an important root pathogen of cereals that causes take-all disease and results in severe crop losses worldwide. Previously we identified a polyphenol oxidase (laccase) secreted by the fungus when induced with copper. Here we report cloning and partial characterization of three laccase genes (LAC1, LAC2, and LAC3) from G. graminis var. tritici. Predicted polypeptides encoded by these genes had 38 to 42% amino acid sequence identity and had conserved copper-binding sites characteristic of laccases. The sequence of the LAC2 predicted polypeptide matched the N-terminal sequence of the secreted laccase that we purified in earlier studies. We also characterized expression patterns of these genes by reverse transcription-PCR. LAC1 was transcribed constitutively, and transcription of LAC2 was Cu inducible. All three genes were transcribed in planta; however, transcription of LAC3 was observed only in planta or in the presence of host (wheat) plant homogenate.

  19. The echinocandin B producer fungus Aspergillus nidulans var. roseus ATCC 58397 does not possess innate resistance against its lipopeptide antimycotic.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Viktória; Nagy, Csilla Terézia; Pócsi, István; Emri, Tamás

    2012-07-01

    Aspergillus nidulans var. roseus ATCC 58397 is an echinocandin B (ECB) producer ascomycete with great industrial importance. As demonstrated by ECB/caspofungin sensitivity assays, A. nidulans var. roseus does not possess any inherent resistance to echinocandins, and its tolerance to these lipopeptide antimycotics are even lower than those of the non-producer A. nidulans FGSC A4 strain. Under ECB producing conditions or ECB exposures, A. nidulans var. roseus induced its ECB tolerance via up-regulating elements of the chitin biosynthetic machinery and, hence, through changing dynamically the composition of its own cell wall. Importantly, although the specific β-1,3-glucan synthase activity was elevated, these changes reduced the β-glucan content of hyphae considerably, but the expression of fksA, encoding the catalytic subunit of β-1,3-glucan synthase, the putative target of echinocandins in the aspergilli, was not affected. These data suggest that compensatory chitin biosynthesis is the centerpiece of the induced ECB tolerance of A. nidulans var. roseus. It is important to note that the induced tolerance to ECB (although resulted in paradoxical growth at higher ECB concentrations) was accompanied with reduced growth rate and, under certain conditions, even sensitized the fungus to other stress-generating agents like SDS. We hypothesize that although ECB-resistant mutants may arise in vivo in A. nidulans var. roseus cultures, their widespread propagation is severely restricted by the disadvantageous physiological effects of such mutations.

  20. Current understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms against the biotrophic fungus (Erysiphe necator), the causal agent of powdery mildew disease

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wenping; Feechan, Angela; Dry, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The most economically important disease of cultivated grapevines worldwide is powdery mildew (PM) caused by the ascomycete fungus Erysiphe necator. The majority of grapevine cultivars used for wine, table grape, and dried fruit production are derived from the Eurasian grape species Vitis vinifera because of its superior aroma and flavor characteristics. However, this species has little genetic resistance against E. necator meaning that grape production is highly dependent on the frequent use of fungicides. The integration of effective genetic resistance into cultivated grapevines would lead to significant financial and environmental benefits and represents a major challenge for viticultural industries and researchers worldwide. This review will outline the strategies being used to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of V. vinifera susceptibility to this fungal pathogen. It will summarize our current knowledge of different resistance loci/genes that have evolved in wild grapevine species to restrict PM infection and assess the potential application of these defense genes in the generation of PM-resistant grapevine germplasm. Finally, it addresses future research priorities which will be important in the rapid identification, evaluation, and deployment of new PM resistance genes which are capable of conferring effective and durable resistance in the vineyard. PMID:26504571

  1. Interspecific Comparison and annotation of two complete mitochondrial genome sequences from the plant pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola

    SciTech Connect

    Millenbaugh, Bonnie A; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Torriani, Stefano F.F.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H.J.; McDonald, Bruce A.

    2007-12-07

    The mitochondrial genomes of two isolates of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola were sequenced completely and compared to identify polymorphic regions. This organism is of interest because it is phylogenetically distant from other fungi with sequenced mitochondrial genomes and it has shown discordant patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial diversity. The mitochondrial genome of M. graminicola is a circular molecule of approximately 43,960 bp containing the typical genes coding for 14 proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation, one RNA polymerase, two rRNA genes and a set of 27 tRNAs. The mitochondrial DNA of M. graminicola lacks the gene encoding the putative ribosomal protein (rps5-like), commonly found in fungal mitochondrial genomes. Most of the tRNA genes were clustered with a gene order conserved with many other ascomycetes. A sample of thirty-five additional strains representing the known global mt diversity was partially sequenced to measure overall mitochondrial variability within the species. Little variation was found, confirming previous RFLP-based findings of low mitochondrial diversity. The mitochondrial sequence of M. graminicola is the first reported from the family Mycosphaerellaceae or the order Capnodiales. The sequence also provides a tool to better understand the development of fungicide resistance and the conflicting pattern of high nuclear and low mitochondrial diversity in global populations of this fungus.

  2. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bat, France

    PubMed Central

    Puechmaille, Sébastien J.; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michaël

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding. PMID:20113562

  3. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bat, France.

    PubMed

    Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michael; Teeling, Emma C

    2010-02-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding.

  4. Contamination of Pine Seeds by the Pitch Canker Fungus

    Treesearch

    L. David Dwinell; S.W. Fraedrich

    1999-01-01

    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, has been identified as a significant problem in man pine seed orchards and nursuries in the South. THe fungus causes strobilus mortality, seed deterioation, and cankers on the main stem, branches, and shoots of pines Dwinell and others 1985). The pitche canker fungus...

  5. Genome-wide microsatellite identification in the fungus Anisogramma anomala using Illumina sequencing and genome assembly.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guohong; Leadbetter, Clayton W; Muehlbauer, Megan F; Molnar, Thomas J; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing has been dramatically accelerating the discovery of microsatellite markers (also known as Simple Sequence Repeats). Both 454 and Illumina reads have been used directly in microsatellite discovery and primer design (the "Seq-to-SSR" approach). However, constraints of this approach include: 1) many microsatellite-containing reads do not have sufficient flanking sequences to allow primer design, and 2) difficulties in removing microsatellite loci residing in longer, repetitive regions. In the current study, we applied the novel "Seq-Assembly-SSR" approach to overcome these constraints in Anisogramma anomala. In our approach, Illumina reads were first assembled into a draft genome, and the latter was then used in microsatellite discovery. A. anomala is an obligate biotrophic ascomycete that causes eastern filbert blight disease of commercial European hazelnut. Little is known about its population structure or diversity. Approximately 26 M 146 bp Illumina reads were generated from a paired-end library of a fungal strain from Oregon. The reads were assembled into a draft genome of 333 Mb (excluding gaps), with contig N50 of 10,384 bp and scaffold N50 of 32,987 bp. A bioinformatics pipeline identified 46,677 microsatellite motifs at 44,247 loci, including 2,430 compound loci. Primers were successfully designed for 42,923 loci (97%). After removing 2,886 loci close to assembly gaps and 676 loci in repetitive regions, a genome-wide microsatellite database of 39,361 loci was generated for the fungus. In experimental screening of 236 loci using four geographically representative strains, 228 (96.6%) were successfully amplified and 214 (90.7%) produced single PCR products. Twenty-three (9.7%) were found to be perfect polymorphic loci. A small-scale population study using 11 polymorphic loci revealed considerable gene diversity. Clustering analysis grouped isolates of this fungus into two clades in accordance with their geographic origins. Thus, the

  6. Global distribution of the pitch canker fungus

    Treesearch

    L. David Dwinell

    1998-01-01

    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, causes diseases of pines in the United States, Haiti, Japan, Mexico, Spain, and South Africa. Pitch canker was first reported in Virginia pine in North Carolina in 1946. Although the disease was reported in Haitian pine in 1953, pitch canker was generally considered a...

  7. Solanapyrone analogues from a Hawaiian fungicolous fungus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four new solanayrone analogues (solanapyrones J-M; 1-4) have been isolated from an unidentified fungicolous fungus collected in Hawaii. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by analysis of ID NMR, 2D NMR, and MS data. Solanapyrone J(1) showed antifungal acti...

  8. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycete), Cypermethrin, and D-limonene, alone and combined, on larval mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Ma14 strain, D-limonene and cypermethrin, alone and combined, on the mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae was evaluated. Eight groups with 25 tick larvae were inoculated with the fungus, eight groups were treated with cypermethrin, eight groups...

  9. A new proteinaceous pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) identified in Ascomycete fungi induces cell death in Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Franco-Orozco, Barbara; Berepiki, Adokiye; Ruiz, Olaya; Gamble, Louise; Griffe, Lucie L; Wang, Shumei; Birch, Paul R J; Kanyuka, Kostya; Avrova, Anna

    2017-04-07

    Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are detected by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which gives rise to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). We characterized a novel fungal PAMP, Cell Death Inducing 1 (RcCDI1), identified in the Rhynchosporium commune transcriptome sampled at an early stage of barley (Hordeum vulgare) infection. The ability of RcCDI1 and its homologues from different fungal species to induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana was tested following agroinfiltration or infiltration of recombinant proteins produced by Pichia pastoris. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and transient expression of Phytophthora infestans effectors PiAVR3a and PexRD2 were used to assess the involvement of known components of PTI in N. benthamiana responses to RcCDI1. RcCDI1 was highly upregulated early during barley colonization with R. commune. RcCDI1 and its homologues from different fungal species, including Zymoseptoria tritici, Magnaporthe oryzae and Neurospora crassa, exhibited PAMP activity, inducing cell death in Solanaceae but not in other families of dicots or monocots. RcCDI1-triggered cell death was shown to require N. benthamiana Brassinosteroid insensitive 1-Associated Kinase 1 (NbBAK1), N. benthamiana suppressor of BIR1-1 (NbSOBIR1) and N. benthamiana SGT1 (NbSGT1), but was not suppressed by PiAVR3a or PexRD2. We report the identification of a novel Ascomycete PAMP, RcCDI1, recognized by Solanaceae but not by monocots, which activates cell death through a pathway that is distinct from that triggered by the oomycete PAMP INF1.

  10. Species-specific detection of Lobaria pulmonaria (lichenized ascomycete) diaspores in litter samples trapped in snow cover.

    PubMed

    Walser, J C; Zoller, S; Büchler, U; Scheidegger, C

    2001-09-01

    The foliose lichen Lobaria pulmonaria has suffered a substantial decline in central and northern Europe during the twentieth century and is now considered to be critically endangered in many European lowland regions. Based on demographic studies, it has been proposed that under the present environmental conditions and forest management regimes, dispersal of diaspores and subsequent establishment of new thalli are insufficient to maintain the remnant small lowland populations. Chances of long-term survival may therefore be reduced. The data and analytical power of these demographic studies are limited. Since lichen diaspores show very few species-specific morphological characteristics, and are therefore almost indistinguishable, the accurate assessment of diaspore flux would be a fundamental first step in better understanding the life cycle of L. pulmonaria. Here we present a new molecular approach to investigate the dispersal of L. pulmonaria diaspores in its natural environment by specifically identifying small amounts of DNA in snow litter samples at varying distances from known sources. We used a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer pair to amplify the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS rDNA) and a sensitive automated PCR product detection system using fluorescent labelled primers. We detected considerable amounts of naturally dispersed diaspores, deposited as far as 50 m away from the closest potential source. Diaspores were only found in the direction of the prevailing wind. Diaspore deposition varied from 1.2 diaspores per m(2) per day at 50 m distance from the source to 15 diaspores per m(2) per day at 1 m distance. The method described in this paper opens up perspectives for studies of population dynamics and dispersal ecology mainly in lichenized ascomycetes but also in other organisms with small, wind-dispersed diaspores.

  11. Large-Scale Introgression Shapes the Evolution of the Mating-Type Chromosomes of the Filamentous Ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma

    PubMed Central

    Menkis, Audrius; Whittle, Carrie A.; Andersson, Siv G. E.; Johannesson, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    The significance of introgression as an evolutionary force shaping natural populations is well established, especially in animal and plant systems. However, the abundance and size of introgression tracts, and to what degree interspecific gene flow is the result of adaptive processes, are largely unknown. In this study, we present medium coverage genomic data from species of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora, and we use comparative genomics to investigate the introgression landscape at the genomic level in this model genus. We revealed one large introgression tract in each of the three investigated phylogenetic lineages of Neurospora tetrasperma (sizes of 5.6 Mbp, 5.2 Mbp, and 4.1 Mbp, respectively). The tract is located on the chromosome containing the locus conferring sexual identity, the mating-type (mat) chromosome. The region of introgression is confined to the region of suppressed recombination and is found on one of the two mat chromosomes (mat a). We used Bayesian concordance analyses to exclude incomplete lineage sorting as the cause for the observed pattern, and multilocus genealogies from additional species of Neurospora show that the introgression likely originates from two closely related, freely recombining, heterothallic species (N. hispaniola and N. crassa/N. perkinsii). Finally, we investigated patterns of molecular evolution of the mat chromosome in Neurospora, and we show that introgression is correlated with reduced level of molecular degeneration, consistent with a shorter time of recombination suppression. The chromosome specific (mat) and allele specific (mat a) introgression reported herein comprise the largest introgression tracts reported to date from natural populations. Furthermore, our data contradicts theoretical predictions that introgression should be less likely on sex-determining chromosomes. Taken together, the data presented herein advance our general understanding of introgression as a force shaping eukaryotic genomes. PMID

  12. Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties

    PubMed Central

    Osipov, Evgeny; Polyakov, Konstantin; Kittl, Roman; Shleev, Sergey; Dorovatovsky, Pavel; Tikhonova, Tamara; Hann, Stephan; Ludwig, Roland; Popov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7 Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E 0 = 720 and 580 mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme. PMID:25372682

  13. Contrasting Diversity and Host Association of Ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycetes versus Root-Associated Ascomycetes in a Dipterocarp Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S.; Toju, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota) in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) region and fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region were sequenced using tag-encoded, massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to identify host plant and root-associated fungal taxa in root samples. In total, 1245 ascomycetous and 127 putative ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous taxa were detected from 442 root samples. The putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota were likely to be associated with closely related dipterocarp taxa to greater or lesser extents, whereas host association patterns of the root-associated Ascomycota were much less distinct. The community structure of the putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota was possibly more influenced by host genetic distances than was that of the root-associated Ascomycota. This study also indicated that in dipterocarp rainforests, root-associated Ascomycota were characterized by high biodiversity and indistinct host association patterns, whereas ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota showed less biodiversity and a strong host phylogenetic preference for dipterocarp trees. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that root-associated Ascomycota, which might be mainly represented by root-endophytic fungi, have biodiversity hotspots in the tropics, whereas biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota increases with host genetic diversity. PMID:25884708

  14. Ant-fungus species combinations engineer physiological activity of fungus gardens.

    PubMed

    Seal, J N; Schiøtt, M; Mueller, U G

    2014-07-15

    Fungus-gardening insects are among the most complex organisms because of their extensive co-evolutionary histories with obligate fungal symbionts and other microbes. Some fungus-gardening insect lineages share fungal symbionts with other members of their lineage and thus exhibit diffuse co-evolutionary relationships, while others exhibit little or no symbiont sharing, resulting in host-fungus fidelity. The mechanisms that maintain this symbiont fidelity are currently unknown. Prior work suggested that derived leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta interact synergistically with leaf-cutter fungi (Attamyces) by exhibiting higher fungal growth rates and enzymatic activities than when growing a fungus from the sister-clade to Attamyces (so-called 'Trachymyces'), grown primarily by the non-leaf cutting Trachymyrmex ants that form, correspondingly, the sister-clade to leaf-cutting ants. To elucidate the enzymatic bases of host-fungus specialization in leaf-cutting ants, we conducted a reciprocal fungus-switch experiment between the ant Atta texana and the ant Trachymyrmex arizonensis and report measured enzymatic activities of switched and sham-switched fungus gardens to digest starch, pectin, xylan, cellulose and casein. Gardens exhibited higher amylase and pectinase activities when A. texana ants cultivated Attamyces compared with Trachymyces fungi, consistent with enzymatic specialization. In contrast, gardens showed comparable amylase and pectinase activities when T. arizonensis cultivated either fungal species. Although gardens of leaf-cutting ants are not known to be significant metabolizers of cellulose, T. arizonensis were able to maintain gardens with significant cellulase activity when growing either fungal species. In contrast to carbohydrate metabolism, protease activity was significantly higher in Attamyces than in Trachymyces, regardless of the ant host. Activity of some enzymes employed by this symbiosis therefore arises from complex interactions between the

  15. Quantitative iTRAQ-based secretome analysis reveals species-specific and temporal shifts in carbon utilization strategies among manganese(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi

    DOE PAGES

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; ...

    2017-07-01

    Fungi generate a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes and reactive metabolites, collectively known as the secretome, that synergistically drive plant litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates, particularly filamentous Ascomycetes, or directly compared temporal patterns of enzyme utilization among diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon (C) degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here in this study we use a combination of iTRAQ proteomics and extracellular enzyme activity assays to compare the protein compositionmore » of the secretomes of four manganese(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi over a three-week time course. We demonstrate that the fungi exhibit striking differences in the regulation of extracellular lignocellulose-degrading enzymes among species and over time, revealing species-specific and temporal shifts in C utilization strategies as they degrade the same substrate. Specifically, our findings suggest that Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a employ sequential enzyme secretion patterns concomitant with decreasing resource availability. Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a preferentially degrades proteinaceous substrate before switching to carbohydrates, and Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a utilizes primarily peptidases to aggressively attack carbon sources in a concentrated burst. In conclusion, this work highlights the diversity of operative metabolic strategies among understudied yet ubiquitous cellulose-degrading Ascomycetes, enhancing our understanding of their contribution to C turnover in the environment.« less

  16. Immune-Modulating Activity of Extract Prepared from Mycelial Culture of Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Kim, Sae-Hae; Lee, Ha-Yan; Jang, Seung-Hwan; Jang, Hyonseok; Chae, Soo-Wan; Jung, Su-Jin; So, Byung-Ok; Ha, Ki-Chan; Sin, Hong-Sig; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild O. sinensis is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitats, and its price is out of reach for clinical practice. For these reasons, development of a standardized alternative is a great focus of research to allow the use of O. sinensis as a medicine. To develop an alternative for wild O. sinensis, a refined standardized extract, CBG-CS-2, was produced by artificial fermentation and extraction of the mycelial strain Paecilomyces hepiali CBG-CS-1, which originated from wild O. sinensis. In this study, we analyzed the in vivo immune-modulating effect of CBG-CS-2 in mice. Oral administration of CBG-CS-2 supported splenocyte stimulation and enhanced Th1-type cytokine expression from the splenocytes. Importantly, the same treatment significantly enhanced the natural killer cell activity of the splenocytes. Finally, oral administration of CBG-CS-2 enhanced the potential for inflammatory responses. Together, these findings indicate that the mycelial culture extract prepared from O. sinensis exhibited immune-modulating activity and suggest its possible use in the treatment of diseases caused by abnormal immune function.

  17. Autophagy genes Smatg8 and Smatg4 are required for fruiting-body development, vegetative growth and ascospore germination in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Oliver; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a tightly controlled degradation process involved in various developmental aspects of eukaryotes. However, its involvement in developmental processes of multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the impact of the autophagic proteins SmATG8 and SmATG4 on the sexual and vegetative development of the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae complementation assay demonstrated that the S. macrospora Smatg8 and Smatg4 genes can functionally replace the yeast homologs. By generating homokaryotic deletion mutants, we showed that the S. macrospora SmATG8 and SmATG4 orthologs were associated with autophagy-dependent processes. Smatg8 and Smatg4 deletions abolished fruiting-body formation and impaired vegetative growth and ascospore germination, but not hyphal fusion. We demonstrated that SmATG4 was capable of processing the SmATG8 precursor. SmATG8 was localized to autophagosomes, whereas SmATG4 was distributed throughout the cytoplasm of S. macrospora. Furthermore, we could show that Smatg8 and Smatg4 are not only required for nonselective macroautophagy, but for selective macropexophagy as well. Taken together, our results suggest that in S. macrospora, autophagy seems to be an essential and constitutively active process to sustain high energy levels for filamentous growth and multicellular development even under nonstarvation conditions. PMID:23064313

  18. Autophagic kinases SmVPS34 and SmVPS15 are required for viability in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Oliver; Herzog, Britta; Jakobshagen, Antonia; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a tightly controlled degradation process of all eukaryotes. It includes the sequestration of cytoplasmic contents and organelles within a double-membraned autophagosome. Autophagy involves core autophagy related (atg) genes as well as genes regulating vesicle trafficking. Previously, we analyzed the impact of proteins of the core autophagic machinery SmATG7, SmATG8 and SmATG4 on the sexual and vegetative development of the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. While deletion of Smatg8 and Smatg4 abolished fruiting-body formation and impaired vegetative growth, Smatg7 is required for viability. In yeast, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34) and its myristoylated membrane targeting unit, the protein kinase Vps15 have been shown to be important regulators of autophagy and vacuolar protein sorting. However, their exact role in filamentous ascomycetes remains elusive. To determine the function of Smvps34 and Smvps15 we isolated genes with high sequence similarity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae VPS34 and VPS15. For both genes we were not able to generate a homokaryotic knockout mutant in S. macrospora, suggesting that Smvps34 and Smvps15 are required for viability. Furthermore, we analyzed the repertoire of vps genes encoded by S. macrospora and could identify putative homologs of nearly all of the 61 VPS genes of S. cerevisiae.

  19. Deletion of Smgpi1 encoding a GPI-anchored protein suppresses sterility of the STRIPAK mutant ΔSmmob3 in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Frey, Stefan; Lahmann, Yasmine; Hartmann, Thomas; Seiler, Stephan; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2015-08-01

    The striatin interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex, which is composed of striatin, protein phosphatase PP2A and kinases, is required for fruiting-body development and cell fusion in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. Here, we report on the interplay of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein SmGPI1 with the kinase activator SmMOB3, a core component of human and fungal STRIPAK complexes. SmGPI1 is conserved among filamentous ascomycetes and was first identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen using SmMOB3 as bait. The physical interaction of SmMOB3 and SmGPI1 was verified by co-immunoprecipitation. In vivo localization and differential centrifugation revealed that SmGPI1 is predominantly secreted and attached to the cell wall but is also associated with mitochondria and appears to be a dual-targeted protein. Deletion of Smgpi1 led to an increased number of fruiting bodies that were normally shaped but reduced in size. In addition, Smmob3 and Smgpi1 genetically interact. In the sterile ΔSmmob3 background deletion of Smgpi1 restores fertility, vegetative growth as well as hyphal-fusion defects. The suppression effect was specific for the ΔSmmob3 mutant as deletion of Smgpi1 in other STRIPAK mutants does not restore fertility. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Functional characterization of MAT1-1-specific mating-type genes in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora provides new insights into essential and nonessential sexual regulators.

    PubMed

    Klix, V; Nowrousian, M; Ringelberg, C; Loros, J J; Dunlap, J C; Pöggeler, S

    2010-06-01

    Mating-type genes in fungi encode regulators of mating and sexual development. Heterothallic ascomycete species require different sets of mating-type genes to control nonself-recognition and mating of compatible partners of different mating types. Homothallic (self-fertile) species also carry mating-type genes in their genome that are essential for sexual development. To analyze the molecular basis of homothallism and the role of mating-type genes during fruiting-body development, we deleted each of the three genes, SmtA-1 (MAT1-1-1), SmtA-2 (MAT1-1-2), and SmtA-3 (MAT1-1-3), contained in the MAT1-1 part of the mating-type locus of the homothallic ascomycete species Sordaria macrospora. Phenotypic analysis of deletion mutants revealed that the PPF domain protein-encoding gene SmtA-2 is essential for sexual reproduction, whereas the alpha domain protein-encoding genes SmtA-1 and SmtA-3 play no role in fruiting-body development. By means of cross-species microarray analysis using Neurospora crassa oligonucleotide microarrays hybridized with S. macrospora targets and quantitative real-time PCR, we identified genes expressed under the control of SmtA-1 and SmtA-2. Both genes are involved in the regulation of gene expression, including that of pheromone genes.

  1. Autophagy genes Smatg8 and Smatg4 are required for fruiting-body development, vegetative growth and ascospore germination in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Oliver; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a tightly controlled degradation process involved in various developmental aspects of eukaryotes. However, its involvement in developmental processes of multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the impact of the autophagic proteins SmATG8 and SmATG4 on the sexual and vegetative development of the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae complementation assay demonstrated that the S. macrospora Smatg8 and Smatg4 genes can functionally replace the yeast homologs. By generating homokaryotic deletion mutants, we showed that the S. macrospora SmATG8 and SmATG4 orthologs were associated with autophagy-dependent processes. Smatg8 and Smatg4 deletions abolished fruiting-body formation and impaired vegetative growth and ascospore germination, but not hyphal fusion. We demonstrated that SmATG4 was capable of processing the SmATG8 precursor. SmATG8 was localized to autophagosomes, whereas SmATG4 was distributed throughout the cytoplasm of S. macrospora. Furthermore, we could show that Smatg8 and Smatg4 are not only required for nonselective macroautophagy, but for selective macropexophagy as well. Taken together, our results suggest that in S. macrospora, autophagy seems to be an essential and constitutively active process to sustain high energy levels for filamentous growth and multicellular development even under nonstarvation conditions.

  2. A MADS Box Protein Interacts with a Mating-Type Protein and Is Required for Fruiting Body Development in the Homothallic Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Nolting, Nicole; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-01-01

    MADS box transcription factors control diverse developmental processes in plants, metazoans, and fungi. To analyze the involvement of MADS box proteins in fruiting body development of filamentous ascomycetes, we isolated the mcm1 gene from the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora, which encodes a putative homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MADS box protein Mcm1p. Deletion of the S. macrospora mcm1 gene resulted in reduced biomass, increased hyphal branching, and reduced hyphal compartment length during vegetative growth. Furthermore, the S. macrospora Δmcm1 strain was unable to produce fruiting bodies or ascospores during sexual development. A yeast two-hybrid analysis in conjugation with in vitro analyses demonstrated that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein can interact with the putative transcription factor SMTA-1, encoded by the S. macrospora mating-type locus. These results suggest that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein is involved in the transcriptional regulation of mating-type-specific genes as well as in fruiting body development. PMID:16835449

  3. A STE12 homologue of the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora interacts with the MADS box protein MCM1 and is required for ascosporogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nolting, Nicole; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-11-01

    The MADS box protein MCM1 controls diverse developmental processes and is essential for fruiting body formation in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. MADS box proteins derive their regulatory specificity from a wide range of different protein interactions. We have recently shown that the S. macrospora MCM1 is able to interact with the alpha-domain mating-type protein SMTA-1. To further evaluate the functional roles of MCM1, we used the yeast two-hybrid approach to identify MCM1-interacting proteins. From this screen, we isolated a protein with a putative N-terminal homeodomain and C-terminal C2/H2-Zn2+ finger domains. The protein is a member of the highly conserved fungal STE12 transcription factor family of proteins and was therefore termed STE12. Furthermore, we demonstrate by means of two-hybrid and far western analysis that in addition to MCM1, the S. macrospora STE12 protein is able to interact with the mating-type protein SMTA-1. Unlike the situation in the closely related heterothallic ascomycete Neurospora crassa, deletion (Delta) of the ste12 gene in S. macrospora neither affects vegetative growth nor fruiting body formation. However, ascus and ascospore development are highly impaired by the Deltaste12 mutation. Our data provide another example of the functional divergence within the fungal STE12 transcription factor family.

  4. A Fox2-Dependent Fatty Acid ß-Oxidation Pathway Coexists Both in Peroxisomes and Mitochondria of the Ascomycete Yeast Candida lusitaniae

    PubMed Central

    Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Salin, Bénédicte; Lucas-Guérin, Marine; Manon, Stephen; Dementhon, Karine; Noël, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    It is generally admitted that the ascomycete yeasts of the subphylum Saccharomycotina possess a single fatty acid ß-oxidation pathway located exclusively in peroxisomes, and that they lost mitochondrial ß-oxidation early during evolution. In this work, we showed that mutants of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida lusitaniae which lack the multifunctional enzyme Fox2p, a key enzyme of the ß-oxidation pathway, were still able to grow on fatty acids as the sole carbon source, suggesting that C. lusitaniae harbored an alternative pathway for fatty acid catabolism. By assaying 14Cα-palmitoyl-CoA consumption, we demonstrated that fatty acid catabolism takes place in both peroxisomal and mitochondrial subcellular fractions. We then observed that a fox2Δ null mutant was unable to catabolize fatty acids in the mitochondrial fraction, thus indicating that the mitochondrial pathway was Fox2p-dependent. This finding was confirmed by the immunodetection of Fox2p in protein extracts obtained from purified peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. Finally, immunoelectron microscopy provided evidence that Fox2p was localized in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. This work constitutes the first demonstration of the existence of a Fox2p-dependent mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway in an ascomycetous yeast, C. lusitaniae. It also points to the existence of an alternative fatty acid catabolism pathway, probably located in peroxisomes, and functioning in a Fox2p-independent manner. PMID:25486052

  5. Effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis-Transgenic Chickpeas and the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in Controlling Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)▿

    PubMed Central

    Lawo, N. C.; Mahon, R. J.; Milner, R. J.; Sarmah, B. K.; Higgins, T. J. V.; Romeis, J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of genetically modified (Bt) crops expressing lepidopteran-specific Cry proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis is an effective method to control the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera. As H. armigera potentially develops resistance to Cry proteins, Bt crops should be regarded as one tool in integrated pest management. Therefore, they should be compatible with biological control. Bioassays were conducted to understand the interactions between a Cry2Aa-expressing chickpea line, either a susceptible or a Cry2A-resistant H. armigera strain, and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. In a first concentration-response assay, Cry2A-resistant larvae were more tolerant of M. anisopliae than susceptible larvae, while in a second bioassay, the fungus caused similar mortalities in the two strains fed control chickpea leaves. Thus, resistance to Cry2A did not cause any fitness costs that became visible as increased susceptibility to the fungus. On Bt chickpea leaves, susceptible H. armigera larvae were more sensitive to M. anisopliae than on control leaves. It appeared that sublethal damage induced by the B. thuringiensis toxin enhanced the effectiveness of M. anisopliae. For Cry2A-resistant larvae, the mortalities caused by the fungus were similar when they were fed either food source. To examine which strain would be more likely to be exposed to the fungus, their movements on control and Bt chickpea plants were compared. Movement did not appear to differ among larvae on Bt or conventional chickpeas, as indicated by the number of leaflets damaged per leaf. The findings suggest that Bt chickpeas and M. anisopliae are compatible to control H. armigera. PMID:18487396

  6. The role of a dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, in Fusarium disease suppression in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Khastini, Rida O; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-08-01

    The soil-inhabiting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum has been an increasing threat to Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). A dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, isolated from Yaku Island, Japan, was evaluated in vitro for the ability to suppress Fusarium disease. Seedlings grown in the presence of the endophyte showed a 71% reduction in Fusarium wilt disease and still had good growth. The disease control was achieved through a synergetic effect involving a mechanical resistance created by a dense network of V. simplex Y34 hyphae, which colonized the host root, and siderophore production acting indirectly to induce a resistance mechanism in the plant. Changes in the relative abundance of the fungal communities in the soil as determined by fluorescently labelled T-RFs (terminal restriction fragments), appeared 3 weeks after application of the fungus. Results showed the dominance of V. simplex Y34, which became established in the rhizosphere and out-competed F. oxysporum.

  7. Erythritol Production by a Yeastlike Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Hajny, G. J.; Smith, J. H.; Garver, J. C.

    1964-01-01

    A yeastlike fungus, probably belonging to the genus Torula, was isolated from fresh pollen and was shown to produce erythritol in yields of 35 to 40% of the sugar utilized. The ability to produce erythritol is an inherent characteristic of the isolate, but unfavorable fermentation conditions can lead to the production of glycerol at the expense of erythritol. By the use of a synthetic medium, it was shown that the concentrations of both nitrogen and phosphorous in the medium must be closely controlled to obtain satisfactory erythritol yields. PMID:14171841

  8. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Martel, An; Asselberghs, Johan; Bales, Emma K.; Beukema, Wouter; Bletz, Molly C.; Dalbeck, Lutz; Goverse, Edo; Kerres, Alexander; Kinet, Thierry; Kirst, Kai; Laudelout, Arnaud; Marin da Fonte, Luis F.; Nöllert, Andreas; Ohlhoff, Dagmar; Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Speybroeck, Jeroen; Spikmans, Frank; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Veith, Michael; Vences, Miguel; Wagner, Norman; Pasmans, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010–2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity. PMID:27070102

  9. Metacridamides A and B from the biocontrol fungus metarhizium acridum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. As part of an effort to catalog the secondary metabolites of this fungus we discovered that its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycl...

  10. Phomalactone from a phytopathogenic fungus infecting Zinnia elegans (Asteraceae) leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinnia elegans plants are infected by a fungus that causes necrosis with dark red spots particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South part of the United States. This fungal disease when untreated causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated...

  11. Analysis of cytochrome b5 reductase-mediated metabolism in the phytopathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici reveals novel functionalities implicated in virulence

    PubMed Central

    Derbyshire, Mark C.; Michaelson, Louise; Parker, Josie; Kelly, Steven; Thacker, Urvashi; Powers, Stephen J.; Bailey, Andy; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Courbot, Mikael; Rudd, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by the Ascomycete fungus Zymoseptoria tritici is one of the most economically damaging diseases of wheat worldwide. Z. tritici is currently a major target for agricultural fungicides, especially in temperate regions where it is most prevalent. Many fungicides target electron transfer enzymes because these are often important for cell function. Therefore characterisation of genes encoding such enzymes may be important for the development of novel disease intervention strategies. Microsomal cytochrome b5 reductases (CBRs) are an important family of electron transfer proteins which in eukaryotes are involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and complex lipids including sphingolipids and sterols. Unlike the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which possesses only one microsomal CBR, the fully sequenced genome of Z. tritici bears three possible microsomal CBRs. RNA sequencing analysis revealed that ZtCBR1 is the most highly expressed of these genes under all in vitro and in planta conditions tested, therefore ΔZtCBR1 mutant strains were generated through targeted gene disruption. These strains exhibited delayed disease symptoms on wheat leaves and severely limited asexual sporulation. ΔZtCBR1 strains also exhibited aberrant spore morphology and hyphal growth in vitro. These defects coincided with alterations in fatty acid, sphingolipid and sterol biosynthesis observed through GC–MS and HPLC analyses. Data is presented which suggests that Z. tritici may use ZtCBR1 as an additional electron donor for key steps in ergosterol biosynthesis, one of which is targeted by azole fungicides. Our study reports the first functional characterisation of CBR gene family members in a plant pathogenic filamentous fungus. This also represents the first direct observation of CBR functional ablation impacting upon fungal sterol biosynthesis. PMID:26074495

  12. OmGOGAT-disruption in the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius induces reorganization of the N pathway and reduces tolerance to heavy-metals.

    PubMed

    Khouja, H R; Daghino, S; Abbà, S; Boutaraa, F; Chalot, M; Blaudez, D; Martino, E; Perotto, S

    2014-10-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are key mediators of soil-to-plant movement of mineral nutrients, including essential and non-essential metals. In soil conditions that facilitate mobilization of metal ions, potentially toxic metals can interfere with nitrogen metabolism in both plants and microorganisms. Less is known about possible relationships between nitrogen metabolism and responses to heavy metals. Aim of this study was to investigate this aspect in the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius strain Zn, a metal tolerant ascomycete. Growth of O. maius Zn on zinc and cadmium containing media was significantly affected by the nitrogen source. Screening of a library of O. maius Zn random genetic transformants for sensitivity to heavy metals (zinc and cadmium) and oxidative stress (menadione) yielded a mutant strain that carried a partial deletion of the glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT EC 1.4.1.14) gene and its adjacent gene, the APC15 subunit of the anaphase promoting complex. Comparison of WT and OmGOGAT-OmAPC15 mutant strains indicated an impaired N-metabolism and altered stress tolerance, and assays on the OmAPC15-recomplemented strains ascribed the observed phenotypes to the deletion in the OmGOGAT gene. OmGOGAT disruption modified the nitrogen pathway, with a strong reduction of the associated glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) activity and an up-regulation of the alternative NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH, EC 1.4.1.4) pathway for glutamate biosynthesis. Unless they were supplemented with glutamine, O. maius Zn transformants lacking OmGOGAT were very sensitive to zinc. These results highlight the importance of nitrogen metabolism not only for nitrogen assimilation and transformation, but also for stress tolerance. For mycorrhizal fungi, such as O. maius, this may bear consequences not only to the fungus, but also to the host plant.

  13. Bacterial farming by the fungus Morchella crassipes.

    PubMed

    Pion, Martin; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Simon, Anaele; Bindschedler, Saskia; Flury, Coralie; Chatelain, Auriel; Bshary, Redouan; Job, Daniel; Junier, Pilar

    2013-12-22

    The interactions between bacteria and fungi, the main actors of the soil microbiome, remain poorly studied. Here, we show that the saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal soil fungus Morchella crassipes acts as a bacterial farmer of Pseudomonas putida, which serves as a model soil bacterium. Farming by M. crassipes consists of bacterial dispersal, bacterial rearing with fungal exudates, as well as harvesting and translocation of bacterial carbon. The different phases were confirmed experimentally using cell counting and (13)C probing. Common criteria met by other non-human farming systems are also valid for M. crassipes farming, including habitual planting, cultivation and harvesting. Specific traits include delocalization of food production and consumption and separation of roles in the colony (source versus sink areas), which are also found in human agriculture. Our study evidences a hitherto unknown mutualistic association in which bacteria gain through dispersal and rearing, while the fungus gains through the harvesting of an additional carbon source and increased stress resistance of the mycelium. This type of interaction between fungi and bacteria may play a key role in soils.

  14. Bacterial farming by the fungus Morchella crassipes

    PubMed Central

    Pion, Martin; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Simon, Anaele; Bindschedler, Saskia; Flury, Coralie; Chatelain, Auriel; Bshary, Redouan; Job, Daniel; Junier, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between bacteria and fungi, the main actors of the soil microbiome, remain poorly studied. Here, we show that the saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal soil fungus Morchella crassipes acts as a bacterial farmer of Pseudomonas putida, which serves as a model soil bacterium. Farming by M. crassipes consists of bacterial dispersal, bacterial rearing with fungal exudates, as well as harvesting and translocation of bacterial carbon. The different phases were confirmed experimentally using cell counting and 13C probing. Common criteria met by other non-human farming systems are also valid for M. crassipes farming, including habitual planting, cultivation and harvesting. Specific traits include delocalization of food production and consumption and separation of roles in the colony (source versus sink areas), which are also found in human agriculture. Our study evidences a hitherto unknown mutualistic association in which bacteria gain through dispersal and rearing, while the fungus gains through the harvesting of an additional carbon source and increased stress resistance of the mycelium. This type of interaction between fungi and bacteria may play a key role in soils. PMID:24174111

  15. Assembly of complex plant–fungus networks

    PubMed Central

    Toju, Hirokazu; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Olesen, Jens M.; Thompson, John N.

    2014-01-01

    Species in ecological communities build complex webs of interaction. Although revealing the architecture of these networks is fundamental to understanding ecological and evolutionary dynamics in nature, it has been difficult to characterize the structure of most species-rich ecological systems. By overcoming this limitation through next-generation sequencing technology, we herein uncover the network architecture of below-ground plant–fungus symbioses, which are ubiquitous to terrestrial ecosystems. The examined symbiotic network of a temperate forest in Japan includes 33 plant species and 387 functionally and phylogenetically diverse fungal taxa, and the overall network architecture differs fundamentally from that of other ecological networks. In contrast to results for other ecological networks and theoretical predictions for symbiotic networks, the plant–fungus network shows moderate or relatively low levels of interaction specialization and modularity and an unusual pattern of ‘nested’ network architecture. These results suggest that species-rich ecological networks are more architecturally diverse than previously recognized. PMID:25327887

  16. Population structure of dogwood anthracnose fungus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Blackwell, Meredith

    2002-12-01

    ABSTRACT Dogwood anthracnose, caused by Discula destructiva, affects several native dogwood species in North America, especially flowering dogwood in the east and Pacific dogwood in the west. The fungus behaves as a recently introduced plant pathogen under episodic selection. Two distinct disjunct groups of fungal isolates corresponding to eastern and western groups were detected by amplified fragment length polymorphisms and sequences of the intergenic spacer (IGS) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA, translation elongation factor-1alpha, and beta-tubulin genes. Of 20 genotypes identified among 72 isolates, 17 genotypes were from the eastern United States (n = 50), but only three were present among the western isolates (n = 22), indicating that the eastern population may be more diverse. Most eastern and western isolates belonged to a few widespread clones, and the genetic variability of this apparently asexual fungus was remarkably low compared with that of many other asexual fungi. We conclude that D. destructiva is still under intense selection pressure and that episodic selection may still be in effect. The New York City area, a possible epidemic center in the east, had relatively higher genetic variability than samples from other areas.

  17. Hazardous waste treatment using fungus enters marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Illman, D.L.

    1993-07-01

    When the announcement was made eight years ago that a common fungus had been found that could degrade a variety of environmental pollutants, the news stirred interest in the scientific community, the private sector, and the general public. Here was the promise of a new technology that might be effective and economical in treating hazardous waste, especially the most recalcitrant of toxic pollutants. Today, commercialization is beginning amid a mixture of optimism and skepticism. The organism in question is white rot fungus, or Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and it belongs to a family of woodrotting fungi common all over North America. The fungi secrete enzymes that break down lignin in wood to carbon dioxide and water--a process called mineralization. These lignin-degrading enzymes are not very discriminating, however. The white rot fungi have been shown to degrade such materials as DDT, the herbicide (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote, coal tars, and heavy fuels, in many cases mineralizing these pollutants to a significant extent.

  18. General metabolism of the dimorphic and pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Arraes, Fabrício B M; Benoliel, Bruno; Burtet, Rafael T; Costa, Patrícia L N; Galdino, Alexandro S; Lima, Luanne H A; Marinho-Silva, Camila; Oliveira-Pereira, Luciana; Pfrimer, Pollyanna; Procópio-Silva, Luciano; Reis, Viviane Castelo-Branco; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2005-06-30

    Annotation of the transcriptome of the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has set the grounds for a global understanding of its metabolism in both mycelium and yeast forms. This fungus is able to use the main carbohydrate sources, including starch, and it can store reduced carbons in the form of glycogen and trehalose; these provide energy reserves that are relevant for metabolic adaptation, protection against stress and infectivity mechanisms. The glyoxylate cycle, which is also involved in pathogenicity, is present in this fungus. Classical pathways of lipid biosynthesis and degradation, including those of ketone body and sterol production, are well represented in the database of P. brasiliensis. It is able to synthesize de novo all nucleotides and amino acids, with the sole exception of asparagine, which was confirmed by the fungus growth in minimal medium. Sulfur metabolism, as well as the accessory synthetic pathways of vitamins and co-factors, are likely to exist in this fungus.

  19. Molecular and functional characterization of a Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor in the filamentous fungus Tuber borchii

    PubMed Central

    Menotta, Michele; Amicucci, Antonella; Basili, Giorgio; Polidori, Emanuela; Stocchi, Vilberto; Rivero, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Background Small GTPases of the Rho family function as tightly regulated molecular switches that govern important cellular functions in eukaryotes. Several families of regulatory proteins control their activation cycle and subcellular localization. Members of the guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) family sequester Rho GTPases from the plasma membrane and keep them in an inactive form. Results We report on the characterization the RhoGDI homolog of Tuber borchii Vittad., an ascomycetous ectomycorrhizal fungus. The Tbgdi gene is present in two copies in the T. borchii genome. The predicted amino acid sequence shows high similarity to other known RhoGDIs. Real time PCR analyses revealed an increased expression of Tbgdi during the phase preparative to the symbiosis instauration, in particular after stimulation with root exudates extracts, that correlates with expression of Tbcdc42. In a translocation assay TbRhoGDI was able to solubilize TbCdc42 from membranes. Surprisingly, TbRhoGDI appeared not to interact with S. cerevisiae Cdc42, precluding the use of yeast as a surrogate model for functional studies. To study the role of TbRhoGDI we performed complementation experiments using a RhoGDI null strain of Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism where the roles of Rho signaling pathways are well established. For comparison, complementation with mammalian RhoGDI1 and LyGDI was also studied in the null strain. Although interacting with Rac1 isoforms, TbRhoGDI was not able to revert the defects of the D. discoideum RhoGDI null strain, but displayed an additional negative effect on the cAMP-stimulated actin polymerization response. Conclusion T. borchii expresses a functional RhoGDI homolog that appears as an important modulator of cytoskeleton reorganization during polarized apical growth that antecedes symbiosis instauration. The specificity of TbRhoGDI actions was underscored by its inability to elicit a growth defect in S. cerevisiae or to compensate the

  20. Genome-wide exonic small interference RNA-mediated gene silencing regulates sexual reproduction in the homothallic fungus Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ae Ran; Lim, Jae Yun; Shin, Chanseok

    2017-01-01

    Various ascomycete fungi possess sex-specific molecular mechanisms, such as repeat-induced point mutations, meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA, and unusual adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing, for genome defense or gene regulation. Using a combined analysis of functional genetics and deep sequencing of small noncoding RNA (sRNA), mRNA, and the degradome, we found that the sex-specifically induced exonic small interference RNA (ex-siRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism has an important role in fine-tuning the transcriptome during ascospore formation in the head blight fungus Fusarium graminearum. Approximately one-third of the total sRNAs were produced from the gene region, and sRNAs with an antisense direction or 5′-U were involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation by reducing the stability of the corresponding gene transcripts. Although both Dicers and Argonautes partially share their functions, the sex-specific RNAi pathway is primarily mediated by FgDicer1 and FgAgo2, while the constitutively expressed RNAi components FgDicer2 and FgAgo1 are responsible for hairpin-induced RNAi. Based on our results, we concluded that F. graminearum primarily utilizes ex-siRNA-mediated RNAi for ascosporogenesis but not for genome defenses and other developmental stages. Each fungal species appears to have evolved RNAi-based gene regulation for specific developmental stages or stress responses. This study provides new insights into the regulatory role of sRNAs in fungi and other lower eukaryotes. PMID:28146558

  1. Hypopulvins, novel peptaibiotics from the polyporicolous fungus Hypocrea pulvinata, are produced during infection of its natural hosts

    PubMed Central

    Jaklitsch, Walter Michael; Voglmayr, Hermann; Berg, Albrecht; Dörfelt, Heinrich; Thrane, Ulf; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Von Döhren, Hans; Brückner, Hans; Degenkolb, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the significance of antibiotics for the producing organism(s) in the natural habitat, we screened specimens of the polyporicolous fungus Hypocrea pulvinata growing on its natural hosts Piptoporus betulinus and Fomitopsis pinicola. Results showed that a particular group of nonribosomally biosynthesised antibiotic polypeptides, the peptaibiotics, which contain the nonproteinogenic marker amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), was produced in the natural habitat by the fungicolous producer and, consequently, released into the host. Using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray high-resolution mass spectrometry we detected especially 19-, but also 11-, 18-, and 20-residue peptaibiotics in the five infected specimens analysed. Structures of peptaibiotics found were confirmed by analysing the peptaibiome of pure agar cultures obtained by single-ascospore isolation from the specimens. The 19-residue peptaibols were determined as deletion sequences of the trichosporins B lacking the Aib residue in position 6. Notably, 26 of the 28 peptaibiotics sequenced were novel; therefore the name ‘hypopulvins’ was introduced. Considering not only the ubiquity of both the two host species but also the highly specific association between H. pulvinata and P. betulinus/F. pinicola, and the abundance of this fungicolous species in north temperate regions of the world, a decisive role for the peptaibiotics detected in this study is predicted, which may act as mediators of the complex interactions between the basidiomycetous host and its fungicolous ascomycete ‘partner’. Structural analogies of the hypopulvins, particularly with other 18-, 19-, and 20-residue peptaibiotics, suggest that the hypopulvins are forming transmembrane ion channels and could thus support the hypothesis of a parasitic lifestyle of the fungicolous producer. PMID:23245616

  2. Hypopulvins, novel peptaibiotics from the polyporicolous fungus Hypocrea pulvinata, are produced during infection of its natural hosts.

    PubMed

    Röhrich, Christian René; Iversen, Anita; Jaklitsch, Walter Michael; Voglmayr, Hermann; Berg, Albrecht; Dörfelt, Heinrich; Thrane, Ulf; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; von Döhren, Hans; Brückner, Hans; Degenkolb, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    In order to investigate the significance of antibiotics for the producing organism(s) in the natural habitat, we screened specimens of the polyporicolous fungus Hypocrea pulvinata growing on its natural hosts Piptoporus betulinus and Fomitopsis pinicola. Results showed that a particular group of nonribosomally biosynthesised antibiotic polypeptides, the peptaibiotics, which contain the nonproteinogenic marker amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), was produced in the natural habitat by the fungicolous producer and, consequently, released into the host. Using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray high-resolution mass spectrometry we detected especially 19-, but also 11-, 18-, and 20-residue peptaibiotics in the five infected specimens analysed. Structures of peptaibiotics found were confirmed by analysing the peptaibiome of pure agar cultures obtained by single-ascospore isolation from the specimens. The 19-residue peptaibols were determined as deletion sequences of the trichosporins B lacking the Aib residue in position 6. Notably, 26 of the 28 peptaibiotics sequenced were novel; therefore the name 'hypopulvins' was introduced. Considering not only the ubiquity of both the two host species but also the highly specific association between H. pulvinata and P. betulinus/F. pinicola, and the abundance of this fungicolous species in north temperate regions of the world, a decisive role for the peptaibiotics detected in this study is predicted, which may act as mediators of the complex interactions between the basidiomycetous host and its fungicolous ascomycete 'partner'. Structural analogies of the hypopulvins, particularly with other 18-, 19-, and 20-residue peptaibiotics, suggest that the hypopulvins are forming transmembrane ion channels and could thus support the hypothesis of a parasitic lifestyle of the fungicolous producer.

  3. Streptomyces lividans inhibits the proliferation of the fungus Verticillium dahliae on seeds and roots of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Meschke, Holger; Schrempf, Hildgund

    2010-01-01

    Summary Verticillium wilt, a vascular disease in more than 200 dicotyledonous plants, is due to the ascomycete fungus Verticillium dahliae. As documented by video‐microscopy, the soil bacterium Streptomyces lividans strongly reduces the germination of V. dahliae conidia, and the subsequent growth of hyphae. Quantification by the use of DNA‐intercalating dyes and Calcofluor‐staining revealed that during prolonged co‐cultivation, bacterial hyphae proliferate to a dense network, provoke a poor development of V. dahliae vegetative hyphae and lead to an enormous reduction of conidia and microsclerotia. Upon individual application to seeds of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, either the bacterial spores or the fungal conidia germinate at or within the mucilage, including its volcano‐shaped structures. The extension of hyphae from each individual strain correlates with the reduction of the pectin‐containing mucilage‐layer. Proliferating hyphae then spread to roots of the emerging seedlings. Plants, which arise in the presence of V. dahliae within agar or soil, have damaged root cells, an atrophied stem and root, as well as poorly developed leaves with chlorosis symptoms. In contrast, S. lividans hyphae settle in bunches preferentially at the outer layer near tips and alongside roots. Resulting plants have a healthy appearance including an intact root system. Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, which are co‐inoculated with V. dahliae and S. lividans, have preferentially proliferating bacterial hyphae within the mucilage, and at roots of the outgrowing seedlings. As a result, plants have considerably reduced disease symptoms. As spores of the beneficial S. lividans strain are obtainable in large quantity, its application is highly attractive. PMID:21255341

  4. The tomato wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares common ancestors with nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from wild tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragón; de Baldarrago, Fatima Cáceres; Roco, Mauricio Jiménez; Madadi, Khalid A; Peever, Tobin L; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity.

  5. Application of response surface methodology for rapid chrysene biodegradation by newly isolated marine-derived fungus Cochliobolus lunatus strain CHR4D.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Jwalant K; Ghevariya, Chirag M; Dudhagara, Dushyant R; Rajpara, Rahul K; Dave, Bharti P

    2014-11-01

    For the first time, Cochliobolus lunatus strain CHR4D, a marine-derived ascomycete fungus isolated from historically contaminated crude oil polluted shoreline of Alang-Sosiya ship-breaking yard, at Bhavnagar coast, Gujarat has been reported showing the rapid and enhanced biodegradation of chrysene, a four ringed high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Mineral Salt Broth (MSB) components such as ammonium tartrate and glucose along with chrysene, pH and trace metal solution have been successfully optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using central composite design (CCD). A validated, two-step optimization protocol has yielded a substantial 93.10% chrysene degradation on the 4(th) day, against unoptimized 56.37% degradation on the 14(th) day. The results depict 1.65 fold increase in chrysene degradation and 1.40 fold increase in biomass with a considerable decrement in time. Based on the successful laboratory experiments, C. lunatus strain CHR4D can thus be predicted as a potential candidate for mycoremediation of HMW PAHs impacted environments.

  6. The Tomato Wilt Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares Common Ancestors with Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from Wild Tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragón; de Baldarrago, Fatima Cáceres; Roco, Mauricio Jiménez; Madadi, Khalid A.; Peever, Tobin L.; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity. PMID:24909710

  7. The mitochondrial genome of the ethanol-metabolizing, wine cellar mold Zasmidium cellare is the smallest for a filamentous ascomycete

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, Stephen; McCorison, Cassandra B.; Cavaletto, Jessica R.; Culley, David E.; LaButti, Kurt M.; Baker, Scott E.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2016-05-20

    Fungi in the class Dothideomycetes often live in extreme environments or have unusual physiology. One of these, the wine cellar mold Zasmidium cellare, produces thick curtains of mycelial growth in cellars with high humidity, and its ability to metabolize volatile organic compounds including alcohols, esters and formaldehyde is thought to improve air quality. It grows slowly but appears to outcompete ordinarily faster-growing species under anaerobic conditions.Whether these abilities have affected its mitochondrial genome is not known.To fill this gap, its mitochondrial genome was assembled as part of a whole- genome shotgun-sequencing project.The circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Z. cellare, at only 23,743 bp, is the smallest yet reported for a filamentous fungus.It contains the complete set of 14 protein-coding genes seen typically in other filamentous fungi, along with genes for large and small ribosomal RNA subunits, 25 predicted tRNA genes capable of decoding all 20 amino acids, and a single open reading frame potentially coding for a protein of unknown function.The Z. cellare mitochondrial genome had genes encoded on both strands with a single change of direction, different from most other fungi but consistent with the Dothideomycetes. The high synteny among mitochondrial genomes of fungi in the Eurotiomycetes broke down almost completely in the Dothideomycetes.Only a low level of microsynteny was observed among protein-coding and tRNA genes in comparison with Mycosphaerella graminicola (synonym Zymoseptoria tritici), the only other fungus in the order Capnodiales with a sequenced mitochondrial genome, involving the three gene pairs atp8-atp9, nad2-nad3, and nad4L-nad5.However, even this low level of microsynteny did not extend to other fungi in the Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated protein-coding genes confirmed the relationship between Z. cellare and M. graminicola in the Capnodiales, although conclusions were

  8. Complete life cycle of the lichen fungus Calopadia puiggarii (Pilocarpaceae, Ascomycetes) documented in situ: propagule dispersal, establishment of symbiosis, thallus development, and formation of sexual and asexual reproductive structures.

    PubMed

    Sanders, William B

    2014-11-01

    The life histories of lichen fungi are not well known and cannot be readily studied in laboratory culture. This work documents in situ the complete life cycle of the widespread crustose lichen Calopadia puiggarii, which reproduces sexually and asexually on the surfaces of leaves. Plastic cover slips held in a mesh frame were placed over leaves in the field and successively removed for microphotography of colonizing lichens. Macroconidia produced within campylidia encircled photobiont cells and codispersed with them, a feature not reported previously for C. puiggarii. Dispersed macroconidia readily germinated and lichenized the photobionts. Algal cells were often dislodged from the encircling macroconidia, providing a likely source for the free-living populations observed. Aposymbiotically dispersed ascospores germinated and lichenized nearby algal cells soon after dispersal. Thallus areolae merged readily in early development, although adjacent mature thalli were often separated by growth inhibition zones. Pycnidia are reported for the first time in Calopadia; their pyriform microconidia probably function as male gametes (spermatia). Pycnidia, apothecia, and campylidia began development similarly as darkly pigmented primordia on the fungal prothallus. Abundant dispersal of ascospores, conidia, and photobionts allows C. puiggarii to quickly colonize leaves with the dual advantages of sexual and asexual reproduction, and with the added convenience of having its algal partner on hand. Fusions and prothallic capture of additional algae provide many opportunities for multiple mycobiont and photobiont genotypes to be combined in a single thallus, but the outcomes of such events remain to be explored. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  9. Infection of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by Hesperomyces virescens (Ascomycetes: Laboulbeniales): role of mating status and aggregation behavior.

    PubMed

    Nalepa, Christine A; Weir, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    The ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens was studied on Harmonia axyridis in North Carolina, in the southeastern United States. A primary goal was to investigate transmission of the disease by examining the correlation between the pattern of fungal infection and seasonal change in host behavior. Beetles were collected as they arrived at their winter quarters at two sites; in one site they were also subsampled at mid- and late winter. Insects were sexed and weighed, fungal thalli were counted, and their location on the host body mapped; spermathecae of females were examined for sperm. Infection levels varied between sites, differed significantly between the sexes in one site but not the other, and increased by approximately 40% during winter. The distribution of thalli on the body changed seasonally, in concert with behavioral changes in the host. At fall flight, thalli were found most often on the posterior elytra of mated females, virgin females, and males. This is suggestive that the disease had been spread among both sexes via successful and failed copulation attempts; however, the relatively low incidence of infection on the male venter does not fit the sexual transmission scenario. During winter, thallus location shifts in concert with beetle aggregation behavior, with infections more often located on the head and legs. Fresh weight of beetles decreased by approx. 20% during winter, but was not affected by disease status. Prior to spring flight, uninfected females were preferred as mating partners, but the probable relationship between female age and infection status complicates interpretation of the data.

  10. Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2012-10-01

    The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function.

  11. Is the Fungus Magnaporthe Losing DNA Methylation?

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Van Vu, Ba; Kadotani, Naoki; Tanaka, Masaki; Murata, Toshiki; Shiina, Kohta; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The long terminal repeat retrotransposon, Magnaporthe gypsy-like element (MAGGY), has been shown to be targeted for cytosine methylation in a subset of Magnaporthe oryzae field isolates. Analysis of the F1 progeny from a genetic cross between methylation-proficient (Br48) and methylation-deficient (GFSI1-7-2) isolates revealed that methylation of the MAGGY element was governed by a single dominant gene. Positional cloning followed by gene disruption and complementation experiments revealed that the responsible gene was the DNA methyltransferase, MoDMT1, an ortholog of Neurospora crassa Dim-2. A survey of MAGGY methylation in 60 Magnaporthe field isolates revealed that 42 isolates from rice, common millet, wheat, finger millet, and buffelgrass were methylation proficient while 18 isolates from foxtail millet, green bristlegrass, Japanese panicgrass, torpedo grass, Guinea grass, and crabgrass were methylation deficient. Phenotypic analyses showed that MoDMT1 plays no major role in development and pathogenicity of the fungus. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the average copy number of genomic MAGGY elements was not significantly different between methylation-deficient and -proficient field isolates even though the levels of MAGGY transcript were generally higher in the former group. MoDMT1 gene sequences in the methylation-deficient isolates suggested that at least three independent mutations were responsible for the loss of MoDMT1 function. Overall, our data suggest that MoDMT1 is not essential for the natural life cycle of the fungus and raise the possibility that the genus Magnaporthe may be losing the mechanism of DNA methylation on the evolutionary time scale. PMID:23979580

  12. Specificity in the interaction between an epibiotic clavicipitalean fungus and its convolvulaceous host in a fungus/plant symbiotum

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Ulrike; Hellwig, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa (Convolvulaceae) are associated with epibiotic clavicipitalean fungi responsible for the presence of ergoline alkaloids in these plants. Experimentally generated plants devoid of these fungi were inoculated with different epibiotic and endophytic fungi resulting in a necrotic or commensal situation. A symbiotum of host plant and its respective fungus was best established by integration of the fungus into the morphological differentiation of the host plant. This led us to suppose that secretory glands on the leaf surface of the host plant may play an essential role in ergoline alkaloid biosynthesis which takes place in the epibiotic fungus. PMID:19704834

  13. An insect parasitoid carrying an ochratoxin producing fungus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Fernando E.; Posada, Francisco; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Chaves, Fabio C.; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2006-06-01

    The insect parasitoid Prorops nasuta has been introduced from Africa to many coffee-producing countries in an attempt to control the coffee berry borer. In this paper, we report on the sequencing of the ITS LSU-rDNA and beta-tubulin loci used to identify a fungus isolated from the cuticle of a P. nasuta that emerged from coffee berries infected with the coffee berry borer. The sequences were compared with deposits in GenBank and the fungus was identified as Aspergillus westerdijkiae. The fungus tested positive for ochratoxin A production, with varying levels depending on the media in which it was grown. These results raise the possibility that an insect parasitoid might be disseminating an ochratoxin-producing fungus in coffee plantations.

  14. An insect parasitoid carrying an ochratoxin producing fungus.

    PubMed

    Vega, Fernando E; Posada, Francisco; Gianfagna, Thomas J; Chaves, Fabio C; Peterson, Stephen W

    2006-06-01

    The insect parasitoid Prorops nasuta has been introduced from Africa to many coffee-producing countries in an attempt to control the coffee berry borer. In this paper, we report on the sequencing of the ITS LSU-rDNA and beta-tubulin loci used to identify a fungus isolated from the cuticle of a P. nasuta that emerged from coffee berries infected with the coffee berry borer. The sequences were compared with deposits in GenBank and the fungus was identified as Aspergillus westerdijkiae. The fungus tested positive for ochratoxin A production, with varying levels depending on the media in which it was grown. These results raise the possibility that an insect parasitoid might be disseminating an ochratoxin-producing fungus in coffee plantations.

  15. Parasitic Aspects of a Fairy Ring Fungus, Marasmius oreades

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer

    1965-01-01

    Marasmius oreades parasitizes Poa pratensis, Festuca rubra, and Agrostis tenuis. The fungus penetrates the root directly in all three species and does not require natural openings or wounds. The mycelium ramifies in the cortical cells and destroys the cell contents.

  16. FLUORESCENT-SERIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF A PATHOGENIC FUNGUS (SPOROTRICHUM SCHENCKII),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    coloration of numerous other species of fungus no cross reactions with Sporotrichum schenkii were found. The use of this fluorescent coloring method for the diagnosis of Sporotrichosis is suggested. (Author)

  17. The role of mites in insect-fungus associations.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, R W; Moser, J C

    2014-01-01

    The interactions among insects, mites, and fungi are diverse and complex but poorly understood in most cases. Associations among insects, mites, and fungi span an almost incomprehensible array of ecological interactions and evolutionary histories. Insects and mites often share habitats and resources and thus interact within communities. Many mites and insects rely on fungi for nutrients, and fungi benefit from them with regard to spore dispersal, habitat provision, or nutrient resources. Mites have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity within many insect-fungus systems. Given that mites are understudied but highly abundant, they likely have bigger, more important, and more widespread impacts on communities than previously recognized. We describe mutualistic and antagonistic effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, explore the processes that underpin ecological and evolutionary patterns of these multipartite communities, review well-researched examples of the effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, and discuss approaches for studying mites within insect-fungus communities.

  18. Fungus Ball in Concha Bullosa: A Rare Case with Anosmia

    PubMed Central

    Özkırıs, Mahmut; Kapusuz, Zeliha; Seçkın, Selda; Saydam, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Concha bullosa is the pneumatization of the concha and is one of the most common variations of the sinonasal anatomy. The histopathological changes caused by the infections which arise from the impaired aeration of conchal cavity are frequently found. Fungus ball of the nasal cavity is an extremely rare, fungal infection with only three cases reported previously. In this paper, we present the fourth fungus ball case which developed within a concha bullosa and presented with anosmia. PMID:23936708

  19. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs.

  20. Pathogenic nature of Syncephalastrum in Atta sexdens rubropilosa fungus gardens.

    PubMed

    Barcoto, Mariana O; Pedrosa, Felipe; Bueno, Odair C; Rodrigues, Andre

    2017-05-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are considered to be a major herbivore and agricultural pest in the Neotropics. They are often controlled by environmentally persistent insecticides. Biological control using pathogenic fungi is regarded as an alternative for the management of these insects. Here, we assess whether the filamentous fungus Syncephalastrum sp. is a pathogenic microorganism responsible for a characteristic disease in fungus gardens. We also characterise the damage caused by this fungus by evaluating physiological and behavioural responses of Atta sexdens rubropilosa subcolonies infected with Syncephalastrum sp. Syncephalastrum sp. fulfils Koch's postulates characterising it as a pathogenic microorganism. Ant workers recognise the infection and remove contaminated fragments from the fungus garden. Syncephalastrum sp. infection causes an interruption of foraging activity, an increase in ant mortality, subcolony deterioration and an increase in the amount of waste generated, all resulting in subcolony death. Syncephalastrum sp. also inhibits the ant fungal cultivar in vitro. The pathogenic effect of Syncephalastrum sp. does not depend on host morbidity or stress (e.g. worker mortality caused by an entomopathogenic fungus). Syncephalastrum sp. treatment resulted in progressive damage in subcolonies. The interactions among Syncephalastrum sp., fungus garden and ants offer new opportunities in integrated pest management of leaf-cutter ants. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Secondary Metabolites from the Fungus Emericella nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Tarawneh, Amer H.; León, Francisco; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Rosa, Luiz H.

    2014-01-01

    A new polyketide derivative koninginin H (1), has been isolated from the fungus Emericella nidulans, together with koninginin E (2), koninginin A (3), trichodermatide B (4), citrantifidiol (5), (4S,5R)-4-hydroxy-5-methylfuran-2-one (6), the glycerol derivatives gingerglycolipid B (7), (2S)-bis[9Z,12Z]-1-O, 2-O-dilinoleoyl-3-O-[α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1″→6′)β-d-galactopyranosyl]glycerol (8), (2S)-bis[9Z,12Z]-1-O, 2-O-dilinoleoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosylglycerol (9), the cerebroside flavuside B (10), and the known sterols β-sitosterol glucoside and ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3-ol. Their structures were established by extensive NMR studies (1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, 1H–1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC) and mass spectrometry. The antibacterial, antimalarial, antifungal and antileishmanial activities of compounds 1-10 were examined and the results indicated that compound 4 showed good antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 4.9 μg /mL. PMID:24273867

  2. Malaria Mosquitoes Attracted by Fatal Fungus

    PubMed Central

    George, Justin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors. PMID:23658757

  3. The agricultural pathology of ant fungus gardens

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Cameron R.; Mueller, Ulrich G.; Malloch, David

    1999-01-01

    Gardens of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) traditionally have been thought to be free of microbial parasites, with the fungal mutualist maintained in nearly pure “monocultures.” We conducted extensive isolations of “alien” (nonmutualistic) fungi from ant gardens of a phylogenetically representative collection of attine ants. Contrary to the long-standing assumption that gardens are maintained free of microbial pathogens and parasites, they are in fact host to specialized parasites that are only known from attine gardens and that are found in most attine nests. These specialized garden parasites, belonging to the microfungus genus Escovopsis (Ascomycota: anamorphic Hypocreales), are horizontally transmitted between colonies. Consistent with theory of virulence evolution under this mode of pathogen transmission, Escovopsis is highly virulent and has the potential for rapid devastation of ant gardens, leading to colony mortality. The specialized parasite Escovopsis is more prevalent in gardens of the more derived ant lineages than in gardens of the more “primitive” (basal) ant lineages. Because fungal cultivars of derived attine lineages are asexual clones of apparently ancient origin whereas cultivars of primitive ant lineages were domesticated relatively recently from free-living sexual stocks, the increased virulence of pathogens associated with ancient asexual cultivars suggests an evolutionary cost to cultivar clonality, perhaps resulting from slower evolutionary rates of cultivars in the coevolutionary race with their pathogens. PMID:10393936

  4. The first fossil fungus gardens of Isoptera: oldest evidence of symbiotic termite fungiculture (Miocene, Chad basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duringer, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Genise, Jorge F.; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2006-12-01

    Higher termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae (fungus-growing termites) are known to build fungus gardens where a symbiotic fungus ( Termitomyces sp.) is cultivated. The fungus grows on a substrate called fungus comb, a structure built with the termites’ own faeces. Here we present the first fossil fungus combs ever found in the world. They were extracted from 7-million-year-old continental sandstone (Chad basin). Fossilized fungus combs have an ovoid morphology with a more or less flattened concave base and a characteristic general alveolar aspect. Under lens, they display a typical millimetre-scale pelletal structure. The latter, as well as the general shape and alveolar aspect, are similar to the morphology of fungus combs from extant fungus-growing termites.

  5. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    DOEpatents

    Lasure, Linda L [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  6. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Westwood, Greg S; Huang, Shih-Wen; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2005-01-11

    BACKGROUND: Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. METHODS: IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. RESULTS: Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase) treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. CONCLUSIONS: Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa) was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana.

  7. Metabolites from nematophagous fungi and nematicidal natural products from fungi as an alternative for biological control. Part I: metabolites from nematophagous ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Degenkolb, Thomas; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are estimated to cause global annual losses of more than US$ 100 billion. The number of registered nematicides has declined substantially over the last 25 years due to concerns about their non-specific mechanisms of action and hence their potential toxicity and likelihood to cause environmental damage. Environmentally beneficial and inexpensive alternatives to chemicals, which do not affect vertebrates, crops, and other non-target organisms, are therefore urgently required. Nematophagous fungi are natural antagonists of nematode parasites, and these offer an ecophysiological source of novel biocontrol strategies. In this first section of a two-part review article, we discuss 83 nematicidal and non-nematicidal primary and secondary metabolites found in nematophagous ascomycetes. Some of these substances exhibit nematicidal activities, namely oligosporon, 4',5'-dihydrooligosporon, talathermophilins A and B, phomalactone, aurovertins D and F, paeciloxazine, a pyridine carboxylic acid derivative, and leucinostatins. Blumenol A acts as a nematode attractant. Other substances, such as arthrosporols and paganins, play a decisive role in the life cycle of the producers, regulating the formation of reproductive or trapping organs. We conclude by considering the potential applications of these beneficial organisms in plant protection strategies.

  8. Autophagy-Associated Protein SmATG12 Is Required for Fruiting-Body Formation in the Filamentous Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Antonia; Herzog, Britta; Frey, Stefan; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, autophagy functions as a catabolic mechanism to overcome starvation and to control diverse developmental processes under normal nutritional conditions. Autophagy involves the formation of double-membrane vesicles, termed autophagosomes that engulf cellular components and bring about their degradation via fusion with vacuoles. Two ubiquitin-like (UBL) conjugation systems are essential for the expansion of the autophagosomal membrane: the UBL protein ATG8 is conjugated to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine and the UBL protein ATG12 is coupled to ATG5. We recently showed that in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora autophagy-related genes encoding components of the conjugation systems are required for fruiting-body development and/or are essential for viability. In the present work, we cloned and characterized the S. macrospora (Sm)atg12 gene. Two-hybrid analysis revealed that SmATG12 can interact with SmATG7 and SmATG3. To examine its role in S. macrospora, we replaced the open reading frame of Smatg12 with a hygromycin resistance cassette and generated a homokaryotic ΔSmatg12 knockout strain, which displayed slower vegetative growth under nutrient starvation conditions and was unable to form fruiting bodies. In the hyphae of S. macrospora EGFP-labeled SmATG12 was detected in the cytoplasm and as punctate structures presumed to be phagophores or phagophore assembly sites. Delivery of EGFP-labelled SmATG8 to the vacuole was entirely dependent on SmATG12. PMID:27309377

  9. The phocein homologue SmMOB3 is essential for vegetative cell fusion and sexual development in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Bernhards, Yasmine; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2011-04-01

    Members of the striatin family and their highly conserved interacting protein phocein/Mob3 are key components in the regulation of cell differentiation in multicellular eukaryotes. The striatin homologue PRO11 of the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora has a crucial role in fruiting body development. Here, we functionally characterized the phocein/Mob3 orthologue SmMOB3 of S. macrospora. We isolated the gene and showed that both, pro11 and Smmob3 are expressed during early and late developmental stages. Deletion of Smmob3 resulted in a sexually sterile strain, similar to the previously characterized pro11 mutant. Fusion assays revealed that ∆Smmob3 was unable to undergo self-fusion and fusion with the pro11 strain. The essential function of the SmMOB3 N-terminus containing the conserved mob domain was demonstrated by complementation analysis of the sterile S. macrospora ∆Smmob3 strain. Downregulation of either pro11 in ∆Smmob3, or Smmob3 in pro11 mutants by means of RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in synthetic sexual defects, demonstrating for the first time the importance of a putative PRO11/SmMOB3 complex in fruiting body development.

  10. The control of fruiting body formation in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora Auersw. by regulation of hyphal development : An analysis based on scanning electron and light microscopic observations.

    PubMed

    Hock, B; Bahn, M; Walk, R A; Nitschke, U

    1978-01-01

    The morphological effects of biotin and L-arginine on fruiting body formation of the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora are investigated by scanning electron and light microscopy. Biotin is recognized as an elongation factor and arginine as a branching factor in vegetative and reproductive hyphae. In the absence of exogenous biotin, development is blocked after the ascogonium-core hypha stage of protoperithecial morphogenesis, whereas linear growth of the myceliar front is maintained. The addition of exogenous arginine to a biotin deficient culture induces the formation of numerous side branches even in the older mycelium. Fruiting body formation, however, remains blocked at the protoperithecial stage as before, because of the inability of the side branches to elongate. When biotin and arginine are administered simultaneously, a most vigorous branching and growth are induced in the older mycelium, accompanied by a rapid and maximal formation of fruiting bodies. The results are summarized in a model of the exogenous control of hyphal morphogenesis. The model is designed to explain the relationship between fruiting and hyphal density as well as the edge effect on fruiting body formation.

  11. Autophagy-Associated Protein SmATG12 Is Required for Fruiting-Body Formation in the Filamentous Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Werner, Antonia; Herzog, Britta; Frey, Stefan; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, autophagy functions as a catabolic mechanism to overcome starvation and to control diverse developmental processes under normal nutritional conditions. Autophagy involves the formation of double-membrane vesicles, termed autophagosomes that engulf cellular components and bring about their degradation via fusion with vacuoles. Two ubiquitin-like (UBL) conjugation systems are essential for the expansion of the autophagosomal membrane: the UBL protein ATG8 is conjugated to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine and the UBL protein ATG12 is coupled to ATG5. We recently showed that in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora autophagy-related genes encoding components of the conjugation systems are required for fruiting-body development and/or are essential for viability. In the present work, we cloned and characterized the S. macrospora (Sm)atg12 gene. Two-hybrid analysis revealed that SmATG12 can interact with SmATG7 and SmATG3. To examine its role in S. macrospora, we replaced the open reading frame of Smatg12 with a hygromycin resistance cassette and generated a homokaryotic ΔSmatg12 knockout strain, which displayed slower vegetative growth under nutrient starvation conditions and was unable to form fruiting bodies. In the hyphae of S. macrospora EGFP-labeled SmATG12 was detected in the cytoplasm and as punctate structures presumed to be phagophores or phagophore assembly sites. Delivery of EGFP-labelled SmATG8 to the vacuole was entirely dependent on SmATG12.

  12. Sex-linked phenotypic divergence in the hermaphrodite fungus Neurospora tetrasperma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here we present a study of the molecular phenotype linked to a large region of suppressed recombination (extending over ~ 7 Mbp and >1,500 genes) surrounding the mating-type (mat) locus of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma. While the remainder of the genome is largely homoallelic, th...

  13. Metabolite diversification by cultivation of the endophytic fungus Dothideomycete sp. in halogen containing media: Cultivation of terrestrial fungus in seawater.

    PubMed

    Wijesekera, Kanchana; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2017-06-01

    The endophytic fungus, Dothideomycete sp. CRI7, isolated from the terrestrial plant, Tiliacora triandra, was salt tolerant, capable of growing in the culture medium prepared from seawater; salts in seawater did not have any effects on the fungal growth. Metabolite productions of the fungus CRI7 cultivated in media prepared from seawater (MSW), prepared from deionized water supplemented with potassium bromide (MKBr) or potassium iodide (MKI), and prepared from deionized water (MDW) were investigated. It was found that the cultivation of the fungus CRI7 in MKBr and MSW enabled the fungus to produce nine new metabolites (1-9). The production of an azaphilone, austdiol (10), of the fungus CRI7 grown in MDW was 0.04g/L, which was much lower than that grown in MSW, MKBr, and MKI media which provided the yields of 0.5, 0.9, and 1.2g/L, respectively, indicating that halogen salts significantly enhanced the production of the polyketide 10. The cultivation of terrestrial fungi in media containing halogen salts could therefore be useful for the metabolite diversification by one strain-many compounds (OSMAC) approach. Moreover, the isolated polyketides had significant biosynthetic relationship, suggesting that the cultivation of fungi in halogen containing media could provide the insights into certain polyketide biosynthesis. One of the isolated compounds exhibited antibacterial activity with the MIC value of 100μg/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phomalactone from a Phytopathogenic Fungus Infecting ZINNIA elegans (ASTERACEAE) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Meepagala, Kumudini M; Johnson, Robert D; Techen, Natascha; Wedge, David E; Duke, Stephen O

    2015-07-01

    Zinnia elegans Jacq. plants are infected by a fungus that causes dark red spots with necrosis on leaves, particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South of the United States. This fungal disease causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated, cultured in potato dextrose broth, and identified as Nigrospora sphaerica by molecular techniques. Two major lactone metabolites (phomalactone and catenioblin A) were isolated from liquid culture of N. sphaerica isolated from Z. elegans. When injected into leaves of Z. elegans, phomalactone caused lesions similar to those of the fungus. The lesion sizes were proportional to the concentration of the phomalactone. Phomalactone, but not catenioblin A, was phytotoxic to Z. elegans and other plant species by inhibition of seedling growth and by causing electrolyte leakage from photosynthetic tissues of both Z. elegans leaves and cucumber cotyledons. This latter effect may be related to the wilting caused by the fungus in mature Z. elegans plants. Phomalactone was moderately fungicidal to Coletotrichum fragariae and two Phomopsis species, indicating that the compound may keep certain other fungi from encroaching into plant tissue that N. sphaerica has infected. Production of large amounts of phomalactone by N. sphaerica contributes to the pathogenic behavior of this fungus, and may have other ecological functions in the interaction of N. sphaerica with other fungi. This is the first report of isolation of catenioblin A from a plant pathogenic fungus. The function of catenioblin A is unclear, as it was neither significantly phyto- nor fungitoxic.

  15. Rust-red stringy white rot: The Indian paint fungus, Echinodontium tinctorium

    Treesearch

    A. D. Wilson

    1997-01-01

    Older trees are more susceptible to damage by this fungus, although even very young trees are susceptible to infection. Infections occur most frequently in dense stands where selfpruning creates infection courts for the fungus.

  16. Roles of Peroxisomes in the Rice Blast Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is a model plant pathogenic fungus and is a severe threat to global rice production. Over the past two decades, it has been found that the peroxisomes play indispensable roles during M. oryzae infection. Given the importance of the peroxisomes for virulence, we review recent advances of the peroxisomes roles during M. oryzae infection processes. We firstly introduce the molecular mechanisms and life cycles of the peroxisomes. And then, metabolic functions related to the peroxisomes are also discussed. Finally, we provide an overview of the relationship between peroxisomes and pathogenicity. PMID:27610388

  17. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose

  18. Detection of 3-hydroxykynurenine in a plant pathogenic fungus.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, T J Greer; Thomsen, Karl Kristian; Petersen, Bent O; Duus, Jens Ø; Oliver, Richard P

    2003-01-01

    A redox-active compound has been purified from the barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria ( Erysiphe ) graminis f. sp. hordei. A combination of spectrophotometry, MS and NMR has identified it as 3-hydroxykynurenine (3OHKyn). This compound, never previously detected in any fungus or pathogen, is best known for its role in vertebrate cataracts. It is found abundantly in developing and germinating spores and also in runner hyphae. Two roles for 3OHKyn are discussed: first, the presence of active oxygen species would enable 3OHKyn to cross-link the spore chemically with the plant. Secondly, it may be acting as an UV protectant and an antioxidant. PMID:12556224

  19. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles.

    PubMed

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2012-06-06

    In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray

  20. From Alaska to Antarctica: Species boundaries and genetic diversity of Prasiola (Trebouxiophyceae), a foliose chlorophyte associated with the bipolar lichen-forming fungus Mastodia tessellata.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Benavent, Isaac; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; de Los Ríos, Asunción

    2017-02-01

    Symbiotic associations between green algae (Chlorophyta) and fungi give rise to morphologically and eco-physiologically distinct entities, or so-called, lichens. In one of the most peculiar of these associations, the partners are species of the macroscopic genus Prasiola (Trebouxiophyceae) and the ascomycete Mastodia tessellata (Verrucariaceae). This is the only known case of a lichen symbiosis involving a foliose green alga. Despite intense research targeted at understanding the biology of this particular association, little is known about the genetic variability of its symbionts. This study focuses on the photobiont partner of this lichen and was designed to explore and compare its genetic diversity along a latitudinal axis from Alaska to Antarctica. Molecular sequence data were generated for three loci: two nuclear markers (nrITS, RPL10A) and one plastid-encoded marker (tufA). The usefulness of the Prasiola nrITS and RPL10A data was examined at the species and intraspecific levels. We used the population assignment tests implemented in BAPS and STRUCTURE and two algorithmic species delimitation procedures (ABGD, GMYC) to generate species boundary discovery hypotheses, which were subsequently tested using Bayes factors. Population genetic differentiation and structure were also assessed through fixation indices, polymorphism statistics and haplotype networks. Based on the results of the species validation method, we propose that at least two species of Prasiola associate with the lichen-forming fungus Mastodia tessellata. Of these, P. borealis is broadly distributed in Alaska, Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctic Peninsula, whereas the second, undescribed, species is restricted to the Antarctic Peninsula. We detected significant phylogeographic substructure in P. borealis, including greater haplotype diversity in the Tierra del Fuego populations. Our findings provide new data that will be useful to unravel the cryptic diversity and phylogeographic patterns of the

  1. De novo Analysis of the Epiphytic Transcriptome of the Cucurbit Powdery Mildew Fungus Podosphaera xanthii and Identification of Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vela-Corcía, David; Bautista, Rocío; de Vicente, Antonio; Spanu, Pietro D.; Pérez-García, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The cucurbit powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera xanthii is a major limiting factor for cucurbit production worldwide. Despite the fungus’s agronomic and economic importance, very little is known about fundamental aspects of P. xanthii biology, such as obligate biotrophy or pathogenesis. To design more durable control strategies, genomic information about P. xanthii is needed. Powdery mildews are fungal pathogens with large genomes compared with those of other fungi, which contain vast amounts of repetitive DNA sequences, much of which is composed of retrotransposons. To reduce genome complexity, in this work we aimed to obtain and analyse the epiphytic transcriptome of P. xanthii as a starting point for genomic research. Total RNA was isolated from epiphytic fungal material, and the corresponding cDNA library was sequenced using a 454 GS FLX platform. Over 676,562 reads were obtained and assembled into 37,241 contigs. Annotation data identified 8,798 putative genes with different orthologues. As described for other powdery mildew fungi, a similar set of missing core ascomycete genes was found, which may explain obligate biotrophy. To gain insight into the plant-pathogen relationships, special attention was focused on the analysis of the secretome. After this analysis, 137 putative secreted proteins were identified, including 53 candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs). Consistent with a putative role in pathogenesis, the expression profile observed for some of these CSEPs showed expression maxima at the beginning of the infection process at 24 h after inoculation, when the primary appressoria are mostly formed. Our data mark the onset of genomics research into this very important pathogen of cucurbits and shed some light on the intimate relationship between this pathogen and its host plant. PMID:27711117

  2. Population genomics reveals that within-fungus polymorphism is common and maintained in populations of the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis

    PubMed Central

    Wyss, Tania; Masclaux, Frédéric G; Rosikiewicz, Pawel; Pagni, Marco; Sanders, Ian R

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are symbionts of most plants, increasing plant growth and diversity. The model AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (isolate DAOM 197198) exhibits low within-fungus polymorphism. In contrast, another study reported high within-fungus variability. Experiments with other R. irregularis isolates suggest that within-fungus genetic variation can affect the fungal phenotype and plant growth, highlighting the biological importance of such variation. We investigated whether there is evidence of differing levels of within-fungus polymorphism in an R. irregularis population. We genotyped 20 isolates using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing and developed novel approaches for characterizing polymorphism among haploid nuclei. All isolates exhibited higher within-isolate poly-allelic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) densities than DAOM 197198 in repeated and non-repeated sites mapped to the reference genome. Poly-allelic SNPs were independently confirmed. Allele frequencies within isolates deviated from diploids or tetraploids, or that expected for a strict dikaryote. Phylogeny based on poly-allelic sites was robust and mirrored the standard phylogeny. This indicates that within-fungus genetic variation is maintained in AM fungal populations. Our results predict a heterokaryotic state in the population, considerable differences in copy number variation among isolates and divergence among the copies, or aneuploidy in some isolates. The variation may be a combination of all of these hypotheses. Within-isolate genetic variation in R. irregularis leads to large differences in plant growth. Therefore, characterizing genomic variation within AM fungal populations is of major ecological importance. PMID:26953600

  3. [Study of water-soluble compounds from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus].

    PubMed

    Xue, Dejun; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Min; Xie, Kang; Zhang, Yong

    2005-10-01

    To study water-soluble compounds from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus. The chemical constituents of fungus garden were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. 28 compounds were separated and 11 chemical constituents were identified. The main constituents in water-solubles from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus are palmitic acid, linolei acid and oleic aid.

  4. Candida alocasiicola sp. nov., Candida hainanensis sp. nov., Candida heveicola sp. nov. and Candida musiphila sp. nov., novel anamorphic, ascomycetous yeast species isolated from plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-An; Jia, Jian-Hua; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2008-08-01

    In a taxonomic study on the ascomycetous yeasts isolated from plant materials collected in tropical forests in Yunnan and Hainan Provinces, southern China, four strains isolated from tree sap (YJ2E(T)) and flowers (YF9E(T), YWZH3C(T) and YYF2A(T)) were revealed to represent four undescribed yeast species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene D1/D2 domain sequences showed that strain YJ2E(T) was located in a clade together with Candida haemulonii and C. pseudohaemulonii. Strain YF9E(T) was most closely related to C. azyma and strain YWZH3C(T) to C. sorbophila and C. spandovensis. Strain YYF2A(T) was clustered in a clade containing small-spored Metschnikowia species and related anamorphic Candida species. The new strains differed from their closely related described species by more than 10% mismatches in the D1/D2 domain. No sexual states were observed for the four strains on various sporulation media. The new species are therefore assigned to the genus Candida and described as Candida alocasiicola sp. nov. (type strain, YF9E(T) = AS 2.3484(T) = CBS 10702(T)), Candida hainanensis sp. nov. (type strain, YYF2A(T) = AS 2.3478(T) = CBS 10696(T)), Candida heveicola sp. nov. (type strain, YJ2E(T) = AS 2.3483(T) = CBS 10701(T)) and Candida musiphila sp. nov. (type strain, YWZH3C(T) = AS 2.3479(T) = CBS 10697(T)).

  5. Yamadazyma barbieri f.a. sp. nov., an ascomycetous anamorphic yeast isolated from a Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal site (-2300 m) and marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Burgaud, Gaëtan; Coton, Monika; Jacques, Noémie; Debaets, Stella; Maciel, Natália O P; Rosa, Carlos A; Gadanho, Mário; Sampaio, José Paulo; Casaregola, Serge

    2016-09-01

    Two yeast strains that are members of the same species were isolated from different marine habitats, i.e. one from Mid-Atlantic Ridge ocean water samples located in the direct vicinity of black smokers near the Rainbow deep-sea hydrothermal vent and one from Brazilian marine water samples off the Ipanema beach. Strains CLIB 1964T and CLIB 1965 are anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts affiliated to the Yamadazyma clade of Saccharomycetales. Interestingly, these strains were phylogenetically and distinctly positioned into a group of species comprising all species of the genus Yamadazyma isolated from marine habitats including deep-sea hydrothermal vents, i.e.Candida atmosphaerica,C. spencermartinsiae,C. atlantica,C. oceani and C. taylorii. These strains differed significantly in their D1/D2 domain sequences of the LSU rRNA gene from the closely related species mentioned above, by 2.6, 3.0, 3.4, 3.8 and 6.0 %, respectively. Internal transcribed spacer region sequence divergence was also significant and corresponded to 4.6, 4.7, 4.7, 12.0 and 24.7 % with C. atlantica,C. atmosphaerica, C. spencermartinsiae,C. oceani and C. taylorii, respectively. Phenotypically, strains CLIB 1964T and CLIB 1965 could be distinguished from closely related species by their inability to assimilate l-sorbose. CLIB 1964T (=CBS 14301T=UBOCC-A-214001T) is the designated type strain for Yamadazyma barbieri sp. nov. The MycoBank number is MB 815884.

  6. Rapid identification of ascomycetous yeasts from clinical specimens by a molecular method based on flow cytometry and comparison with identifications from phenotypic assays.

    PubMed

    Page, Brent T; Shields, Christine E; Merz, William G; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2006-09-01

    This study was designed to compare the identification of ascomycetous yeasts recovered from clinical specimens by using phenotypic assays (PA) and a molecular flow cytometric (FC) method. Large-subunit rRNA domains 1 and 2 (D1/D2) gene sequence analysis was also performed and served as the reference for correct strain identification. A panel of 88 clinical isolates was tested that included representatives of nine commonly encountered species and six infrequently encountered species. The PA included germ tube production, fermentation of seven carbohydrates, morphology on corn meal agar, urease and phenoloxidase activities, and carbohydrate assimilation tests when needed. The FC method (Luminex) employed species-specific oligonucleotides attached to polystyrene beads, which were hybridized with D1/D2 amplicons from the unidentified isolates. The PA identified 81 of 88 strains correctly but misidentified 4 of Candida dubliniensis, 1 of C. bovina, 1 of C. palmioleophila, and 1 of C. bracarensis. The FC method correctly identified 79 of 88 strains and did not misidentify any isolate but did not identify nine isolates because oligonucleotide probes were not available in the current library. The FC assay takes approximately 5 h, whereas the PA takes from 2 h to 5 days for identification. In conclusion, PA did well with the commonly encountered species, was not accurate for uncommon species, and takes significantly longer than the FC method. These data strongly support the potential of FC technology for rapid and accurate identification of medically important yeasts. With the introduction of new antifungals, rapid, accurate identification of pathogenic yeasts is more important than ever for guiding antifungal chemotherapy.

  7. Directed Evolution of a Filamentous Fungus for Thermotolerance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Filamentous fungi represent the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad-host-range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. One of the most p...

  8. Using copper sulfate to control fungus on fish eggs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is widely used by the catfish industry as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on catfish eggs. This is an overview of our effectiveness and safety studies. Channel catfish spawns were 24 - 48 hrs old. Comparable portions of a single spawn were place...

  9. Asterogynins: Secondary Metabolites from a Costa Rican Endophytic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An endophytic fungus isolated from the small palm Asterogyne martiana produced two unusual steroid-like metabolites, asterogynin A (1) and asterogynin B (2), along with the known compounds viridiol (3) and viridin (4). Asterogynins A and B were characterized by NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. PMID:20839869

  10. Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

  11. A Brazilian social bee must cultivate fungus to survive.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne; Zampieri, Davila; Fontoura, Isabela Cardoso; Luchessi, Augusto Ducati; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-11-02

    The nests of social insects provide suitable microenvironments for many microorganisms as they offer stable environmental conditions and a rich source of food [1-4]. Microorganisms in turn may provide several benefits to their hosts, such as nutrients and protection against pathogens [1, 4-6]. Several examples of symbiosis between social insects and microorganisms have been found in ants and termites. These symbioses have driven the evolution of complex behaviors and nest structures associated with the culturing of the symbiotic microorganisms [5, 7, 8]. However, while much is known about these relationships in many species of ants and termites, symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and social bees have been poorly explored [3, 4, 9, 10]. Here, we report the first case of an obligatory relationship between the Brazilian stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis and a fungus of the genus Monascus (Ascomycotina). Fungal mycelia growing on the provisioned food inside the brood cell are eaten by the larva. Larvae reared in vitro on sterilized larval food supplemented with fungal mycelia had a much higher survival rate (76%) compared to larvae reared under identical conditions but without fungal mycelia (8% survival). The fungus was found to originate from the material from which the brood cells are made. Since the bees recycle and transport this material between nests, fungus would be transferred to newly built cells and also to newly founded nests. This is the first report of a fungus cultivation mutualism in a social bee. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of a Functional Lactate Permease in the Fungus Rhizopus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  13. Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite

    Treesearch

    Hongjie Li; Daniel J. Yelle; Chang Li; Mengyi Yang; Jing Ke; Ruijuan Zhang; Yu Liu; Na Zhu; Shiyou Liang; Xiaochang Mo; John Ralph; Cameron R. Currie; Jianchu Mo

    2017-01-01

    Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether– and carbon–carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating...

  14. Microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. Primer pairs for 46 loci were developed and of these 13 were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 44 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in MS. All optimized loci were poly...

  15. Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

  16. Genetic variability in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic variation in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata, was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the rDNA region. Southern hybridization of EcoRI, HindIII, and Xbal digested fungal DNA with a RNA probe derived from Alt1, an rDNA clone isolated from ...

  17. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  18. The development and endophytic nature of the fungus Heteroconium chaetospira.

    PubMed

    Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2005-11-15

    The root endophytic fungus Heteroconium chaetospira was isolated from roots of Chinese cabbage grown in field soil in Japan. This fungus penetrates through the outer epidermal cells of its host, passes into the inner cortex, and grows throughout the cortical cells, including those of the root tip region, without causing apparent pathogenic symptoms. There are no ultrastructural signs of host resistance responses. H. chaetospira has been recovered from 19 plant species in which there was no disruption of host growth. H. chaetospira has a symbiotic association with Chinese cabbage. The fungus provides nitrogen in exchange for carbon. These associations are beneficial for the inoculated plants, as demonstrated by increased growth rate. When used as a preinoculum, H. chaetospira suppresses the incidence of clubroot and Verticillium yellows when the test plant is post-inoculated with the causal agents of these diseases. H. chaetospira is an effective biocontrol agent against clubroot in Chinese cabbage at a low to moderate soil moisture range and a pathogen resting spore density of 10(5) resting spores per gram of soil in situ. Disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. macricola and Alternaria brassicae on leaves can be suppressed by treatment with H. chaetospira. The fungus persists in the roots and induces systemic resistance to the foliar disease.

  19. Inferring dispersal patterns of the generalist root fungus Armillaria mellea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Investigating the dispersal of the root-pathogenic fungus Armillaria mellea is necessary to understand its population biology. Such an investigation is complicated by both its subterranean habit and the persistence of genotypes over successive host generations. As such, host colonization by resident...

  20. Genomic sequence of the aflatoxigenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus nomius

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus nomius is an opportunistic pathogen and one of the three most important producers of aflatoxins in section Flavi. This fungus has been reported to contaminate agricultural commodities, but it has also been sampled in non-agricultural soils so the host range is not well known. Having a si...

  1. Diseases of pines caused by the pitch canker fungus

    Treesearch

    L. David Dwinell; Stephen W. Fraedrich; D. Adams

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, the pitch canker fungus, causes a number of serious diseases of Pinus species. The pathogen infects a variety of vegetative and reproductive pine structures at different stages of maturity and produces a diversity of symptoms. When the pathogen infects the woody vegetative...

  2. [Modification of wood lignin by the fungus Panus tigrinus].

    PubMed

    Revin, V V; Kadimaliev, D A; Shutova, V V; Samuilov, V D

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of sawdust with the fungus Panus tigrinus VKM F-3616 D changed the contents of functional groups in lignin from wood raw material. These changes are accompanied by the release of carboxyl and phenyl hydroxyl groups involved in chemical bond formation between wood particles in pressed materials manufactured from wood wastes.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Fungus Trametes hirsuta 072.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Andrey R; Tyazhelova, Tatiana V; Moiseenko, Konstantin V; Vasina, Daria V; Mosunova, Olga V; Fedorova, Tatiana V; Maloshenok, Lilya G; Landesman, Elena O; Bruskin, Sergei A; Psurtseva, Nadezhda V; Slesarev, Alexei I; Kozyavkin, Sergei A; Koroleva, Olga V

    2015-11-19

    A standard draft genome sequence of the white rot saprotrophic fungus Trametes hirsuta 072 (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) is presented. The genome sequence contains about 33.6 Mb assembled in 141 scaffolds with a G+C content of ~57.6%. The draft genome annotation predicts 14,598 putative protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs). Copyright © 2015 Pavlov et al.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Fungus Trametes hirsuta 072

    PubMed Central

    Tyazhelova, Tatiana V.; Moiseenko, Konstantin V.; Vasina, Daria V.; Mosunova, Olga V.; Fedorova, Tatiana V.; Maloshenok, Lilya G.; Landesman, Elena O.; Bruskin, Sergei A.; Psurtseva, Nadezhda V.; Slesarev, Alexei I.; Kozyavkin, Sergei A.; Koroleva, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    A standard draft genome sequence of the white rot saprotrophic fungus Trametes hirsuta 072 (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) is presented. The genome sequence contains about 33.6 Mb assembled in 141 scaffolds with a G+C content of ~57.6%. The draft genome annotation predicts 14,598 putative protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs). PMID:26586872

  5. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  6. Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Angela M; Strobel, Gary A; Moore, Emily; Robison, Richard; Sears, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Muscodor crispans is a recently described novel endophytic fungus of Ananas ananassoides (wild pineapple) growing in the Bolivian Amazon Basin. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); some of the major components of this mixture, as determined by GC/MS, are propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-; 1-butanol, 3-methyl-;1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester; and ethanol. The fungus does not, however, produce naphthalene or azulene derivatives as has been observed with many other members of the genus Muscodor. The mixture of VOCs produced by M. crispans cultures possesses antibiotic properties, as does an artificial mixture of a majority of the components. The VOCs of the fungus are effective against a wide range of plant pathogens, including the fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis (the black sigatoka pathogen of bananas), and the serious bacterial pathogen of citrus, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In addition, the VOCs of M. crispans killed several human pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial mixtures of the fungal VOCs were both inhibitory and lethal to a number of human and plant pathogens, including three drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gaseous products of Muscodor crispans potentially could prove to be beneficial in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry.

  7. Controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs with peracetic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is much interest in the use of peracetic acid (PAA) to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is a relatively new compound and is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg...

  8. The origin of Ceratocystis fagacearum, the oak wilt fungus

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Juzwik; Thomas C. Harrington; William L. MacDonald; David N. Appel

    2008-01-01

    The oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, may be another example of a damaging, exotic species in forest ecosystems in the United States. Though C. fagacearum has received much research attention, the origin of the fungus is unknown. The pathogen may have been endemic at a low incidence until increased disturbances, changes...

  9. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycete), Cypermethrin, and D-Limonene, Alone and Combined, on Larval Mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Prado-Rebolledo, Omar Francisco; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Lezama-Gutiérrez, Roberto; García-Márquez, Luis Jorge; Minchaca-Llerenas, Yureida B; Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Tellez, Guillermo; Hargis, Billy; Skoda, Steven R; Foster, John E

    2017-09-01

    The effect of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Ma14 strain, D-limonene, and cypermethrin, alone and combined, on the mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille larvae was evaluated. Eight separate groups with 25 tick larvae were inoculated with the fungus, cypermethrin, and D-limonene, and four groups were used as untreated controls. The groups were inoculated with serial dilutions of each treatment material: for example, conidial concentrations were 1 × 101, 1 × 102, 1 × 103, 1 × 104, 1 × 105, 1 × 106, 1 × 107, and 1 × 108. A complete randomized experimental design was used. Significant differences were obtained between fungal concentrations, with larval mortalities ranging from 29 to 100%; the D-limonene concentrations showed significant differences, with mortalities that ranged from 47.9 to 82.6%, and cypermethrin mortalities ranged from 69.9 to 89.9% when each was applied alone. In the combined application, the serial dilution of the Ma14 fungus plus cypermethrin at 0.1% concentration caused mortalities ranging from 92.9 to 100%; the mix of serially diluted Ma14 plus D-limonene at 0.1% caused mortalities from 10.3 to 100%; and the mix consisting of serially diluted D-limonene plus cypermethrin at 0.1% caused mortalities from 7.4 to 35.9%. Further laboratory and field research could show that these materials, alone and in combinations, are useful in future tick management and control programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Using human sera to identify a 52-kDa exoantigen of Penicillium chrysogenum and implications of polyphasic taxonomy of anamorphic ascomycetes in the study of antigenic proteins.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Aaron M; Luo, Wen; Miller, J David

    2009-11-01

    We are interested in isolating and identifying antigenic fungal proteins from species that grow on damp building materials. The indoor clade of Penicillium chrysogenum, the so-called Fleming clade, is the most common species of Penicillium on moldy building materials. We have identified a 52-kDa marker protein for the indoor clade of P. chrysogenum not present in a taxonomically diverse selection of fungi. It is found in high concentrations in protein extracted from the fungus grown on paper-faced gypsum wallboard. During this process, we illuminated the variability in response to patient sera and of strains of the fungus collected over a wide geographic area. From a collection of sera from all over the USA, 25 of the 48 patients reacted to the 52-kDa protein from this prescreened collection of sera. Most strain/antibody combinations had proportionate ELISA response associated with the presence of the target. However, approximately 25% of the strain/patient serum combinations included people who responded to many common allergens from the Penicillia. All the P. chrysogenum strains tested produced the target protein. However, there was considerable variability in patient IgG response to 32-, 30-, and 18-kDa antigens and in their production by the various clade 4 strains. The target protein was not found in spores or culture extracts of a wide selection of relevant fungi. It appears that the previous studies have been conducted on strains of the fungus from the three clades not those associated with the built environment.

  11. Endophytic fungus-vascular plant-insect interactions.

    PubMed

    Raman, A; Wheatley, W; Popay, A

    2012-06-01

    Insect association with fungi has a long history. Theories dealing with the evolution of insect herbivory indicate that insects used microbes including fungi as their principal food materials before flowering plants evolved. Subtlety and the level of intricacy in the interactions between insects and fungi indicate symbiosis as the predominant ecological pattern. The nature of the symbiotic interaction that occurs between two organisms (the insect and the fungus), may be either mutualistic or parasitic, or between these two extremes. However, the triangular relationship involving three organisms, viz., an insect, a fungus, and a vascular plant is a relationship that is more complicated than what can be described as either mutualism or parasitism, and may represent facets of both. Recent research has revealed such a complex relationship in the vertically transmitted type-I endophytes living within agriculturally important grasses and the pestiferous insects that attack them. The intricacy of the association depends on the endophytic fungus-grass association and the insect present. Secondary compounds produced in the endophytic fungus-grass association can provide grasses with resistance to herbivores resulting in mutualistic relationship between the fungus and the plant that has negative consequences for herbivorous insects. The horizontally transmitted nongrass type-II endophytes are far less well studied and as such their ecological roles are not fully understood. This forum article explores the intricacy of dependence in such complex triangular relationships drawing from well-established examples from the fungi that live as endophytes in vascular plants and how they impact on the biology and evolution of free-living as well as concealed (e.g., gall-inducing, gall-inhabiting) insects. Recent developments with the inoculation of strains of type-I fungal endophytes into grasses and their commercialization are discussed, along with the possible roles the endophytic

  12. Morphophysiological Differences between the Metapleural Glands of Fungus-Growing and Non–Fungus-Growing Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-01-01

    The metapleural gland is an organ exclusive to ants. Its main role is to produce secretions that inhibit the proliferation of different types of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphophysiological differences between the metapleural gland of 3 non–fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini, Myrmicini, and Blepharidattini and that of 5 fungus-growing ants from 2 basal and 3 derived attine genera. The metapleural gland of the non–fungus-growing ants and the basal attine ants has fewer secretory cells than that of the derived attine ants (leaf-cutting ants). In addition, the metapleural gland of the latter had more clusters of secretory cells and sieve plates, indicating a greater storage capacity and demand for secretion in these more advanced farming ants. The glands of the derived attine ants also produced higher levels of polysaccharides and acidic lipids than those of Myrmicini, Blepharidattini, and basal attines. Our results confirm morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of the derived attines and those of the basal attines and non–fungus-growing ants, suggesting that the metapleural glands of the derived attines (leaf-cutting ants) are more developed in morphology and physiology, with enhanced secretion production (acidic lipids and protein) to protect against the proliferation of unwanted fungi and bacteria in the fungal garden, it is possible that leaf-cutting ants may have evolved more developed metapleural glands in response to stronger pressure from parasites. PMID:22927993

  13. Morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-01-01

    The metapleural gland is an organ exclusive to ants. Its main role is to produce secretions that inhibit the proliferation of different types of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphophysiological differences between the metapleural gland of 3 non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini, Myrmicini, and Blepharidattini and that of 5 fungus-growing ants from 2 basal and 3 derived attine genera. The metapleural gland of the non-fungus-growing ants and the basal attine ants has fewer secretory cells than that of the derived attine ants (leaf-cutting ants). In addition, the metapleural gland of the latter had more clusters of secretory cells and sieve plates, indicating a greater storage capacity and demand for secretion in these more advanced farming ants. The glands of the derived attine ants also produced higher levels of polysaccharides and acidic lipids than those of Myrmicini, Blepharidattini, and basal attines. Our results confirm morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of the derived attines and those of the basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, suggesting that the metapleural glands of the derived attines (leaf-cutting ants) are more developed in morphology and physiology, with enhanced secretion production (acidic lipids and protein) to protect against the proliferation of unwanted fungi and bacteria in the fungal garden, it is possible that leaf-cutting ants may have evolved more developed metapleural glands in response to stronger pressure from parasites.

  14. Draft genome of the fungus-growing termite pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps bispora (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Conlon, Benjamin H; Mitchell, Jannette; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Carøe, Christian; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Poulsen, Michael; de Fine Licht, Henrik H

    2017-04-01

    This article documents the public availability of genome sequence data and assembled contigs representing the partial draft genome of Ophiocordyceps bispora. As one of the few known pathogens of fungus-farming termites, a draft genome of O. bispora represents the opportunity to further the understanding of disease and resistance in these complex termite societies. With the ongoing attempts to resolve the taxonomy of the Hypocralaean family, more genetic data will also help to shed light on the phylogenetic relationship between sexual and asexual life stages. Next generation sequence data is available from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) under accession PRJEB13655; run numbers: ERR1368522, ERR1368523, and ERR1368524. Genome assembly available from ENA under accession numbers: FKNF01000001-FKNF01000302. Gene prediction available as protein fasta, nucleotide fasta and GFF file from Mendeley Data with accession doi:10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2 (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2).

  15. [Determination of LC 90 and LT 90 of IBCB66 Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae) isolate for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) control].

    PubMed

    Barci, Leila A G; de Almeida, José Eduardo M; de Campos Nogueira, Adriana H; do Prado, Angelo P

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the pathogenicity and the virulence of the IBCB66 isolate of Beauveria bassiana on infected larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The IBCB66 fungus strain was used as standard isolates of B. bassiana against R. (B.) microplus larvae. The larval bioassay tests using the IBCB66 isolate were carried out to determine the (Lethal Concentration) LC50, LC90, (Lethal Time) LT50 and LT90. The IBCB66 fungus strain was tested at six different concentrations (5x10(6), 10(7), 5x10(7), 10(8), 5x10(8) and 10(9) conidia.mL(-1)) to determine the percentage of larval mortality. In addition, a Probit analysis was also performed. Total larval mortality was observed eighteen days after the beginning of the test in the group treated with 5x10(9) conidia.mL(1). The LC50 and LC90 were 3x10(7) and 5x10(8) respectively and the LT50 and LT90 were 10 and 16 days.

  16. Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis.

    PubMed

    Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

    2009-03-24

    Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Escovopsis by producing antifungal compounds [Currie CR, Scott JA, Summerbell RC, Malloch D (1999) Fungus-growing ants use antibiotic-producing bacteria to control garden parasites. Nature 398:701-704.]. To date, however, the chemical nature of these compounds has remained elusive. We characterized 19 leaf-cutting ant-associated microorganisms (5 Pseudonocardia, 1 Dermacoccus, and 13 Streptomyces) from 3 Acromyrmex species, A. octospinosus, A. echinatior, and A. volcanus, using 16S-rDNA analysis. Because the strain Streptomyces sp. Ao10 proved highly active against the pathogen Escovopsis, we identified the molecular basis of its antifungal activity. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), and UV spectroscopy, and comparing the results with an authentic standard, we were able identify candicidin macrolides. Candicidin macrolides are highly active against Escovopsis but do not significantly affect the growth of the symbiotic fungus. At least one of the microbial isolates from each of the 3 leaf-cutting ant species analyzed produced candicidin macrolides. This suggests that candicidins play an important role in protecting the fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants against pathogenic fungi.

  17. Identification of the sex genes in an early diverged fungus.

    PubMed

    Idnurm, Alexander; Walton, Felicia J; Floyd, Anna; Heitman, Joseph

    2008-01-10

    Sex determination in fungi is controlled by a small, specialized region of the genome in contrast to the large sex-specific chromosomes of animals and some plants. Different gene combinations reside at these mating-type (MAT) loci and confer sexual identity; invariably they encode homeodomain, alpha-box, or high mobility group (HMG)-domain transcription factors. So far, MAT loci have been characterized from a single monophyletic clade of fungi, the Dikarya (the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes), and the ancestral state and evolutionary history of these loci have remained a mystery. Mating in the basal members of the kingdom has been less well studied, and even their precise taxonomic inter-relationships are still obscure. Here we apply bioinformatic and genetic mapping to identify the sex-determining (sex) region in Phycomyces blakesleeanus (Zygomycota), which represents an early branch within the fungi. Each sex allele contains a single gene that encodes an HMG-domain protein, implicating the HMG-domain proteins as an earlier form of fungal MAT loci. Additionally, one allele also contains a copy of a unique, chromosome-specific repetitive element, suggesting a generalized mechanism for the earliest steps in the evolution of sex determination and sex chromosome structure in eukaryotes.

  18. Autofluorescence of the fungus Morchella conica var. rigida.

    PubMed

    Zižka, Z; Gabriel, J

    2011-03-01

    Autofluorescence (primary fluorescence (AF)) of fruiting bodies and stems of the fungus Morchella conica var. rigida was studied by fluorescence microscopy including sporangia and ascospores. The ascospores were characterized by a weak green-yellow AF at blue excitation. Using a green excitation, no AF was observed. The hyphae located under the layer of asci with ascospores exhibited a higher primary fluorescence, namely their walls that had green-yellow color at blue excitation. Also, their red AF observed when a green excitation was used was significant. Similarly, the hyphae located in the fungal stem exhibited a significant AF, especially their walls when the blue light was used for excitation. In addition, large, yellow-to-yellow/green, oval-to-round bodies with strong fluorescence were detected whose morphological equivalents were not clearly visible in the white halogen light. The AF of the fungus M. conica var. rigida was lower compared with the other higher fungi studied so far.

  19. Gaeumannomyces graminis, the take-all fungus and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jacqueline; Ward, Elaine

    2004-07-01

    SUMMARY Take-all, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is the most important root disease of wheat worldwide. Many years of intensive research, reflected by the large volume of literature on take-all, has led to a considerable degree of understanding of many aspects of the disease. However, effective and economic control of the disease remains difficult. The application of molecular techniques to study G. graminis and related fungi has resulted in some significant advances, particularly in the development of improved methods for identification and in elucidating the role of the enzyme avenacinase as a pathogenicity determinant in the closely related oat take-all fungus (G. graminis var. avenae). Some progress in identifying other factors that may be involved in determining host range and pathogenicity has been made, despite the difficulties of performing genetic analyses and the lack of a reliable transformation system.

  20. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum

    SciTech Connect

    Basavaraja, S.; Balaji, S.D.; Lagashetty, Arunkumar; Rajasab, A.H.; Venkataraman, A.

    2008-05-06

    Development of environmental friendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological processes is evolving into an important branch of nanobiotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of fungus 'Fusarium semitectum' for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution (i.e. through the reduction of Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0}). Highly stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles are produced in solution by treating the filtrate of the fungus F. semitectum with the aqueous silver nitrate solution. The formations of nanoparticles are understood from the UV-vis and X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm and are mostly spherical in shape. Interestingly the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles are stable for many weeks. Possible medicinal applications of these silver nanoparticles are envisaged.

  1. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe.

    PubMed

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans Peter; Seidl, Hans Peter; Blehert, David S

    2010-08-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  2. Hormonemate Derivatives from Dothiora sp., an Endophytic Fungus.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; González-Menéndez, Víctor; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; de Pedro, Nuria; Martín, Jesús; Molero-Mesa, Joaquín; Casares-Porcel, Manuel; González-Tejero, María Reyes; Vicente, Francisca; Genilloud, Olga; Tormo, José R; Reyes, Fernando

    2017-03-09

    A search for cytotoxic agents from cultures of the endophytic fungus Dothiora sp., isolated from the endemic plant Launaea arborescens, led to the isolation of six new compounds structurally related to hormonemate, with moderate cytotoxic activity against different cancer cell lines. By using a bioassay-guided fractionation approach, hormonemates A-D (1-4), hormonemate (5), and hormonemates E (6) and F (7) were obtained from the acetone extract of this fungus. Their structures were determined using a combination of HRMS, ESI-qTOF-MS/MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and chemical degradation. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated by microdilution colorimetric assays against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human liver cancer cells (HepG2), and pancreatic cancer cells (MiaPaca_2). Most of the compounds displayed cytotoxic activity against this panel.

  3. Functional genome of the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Felipe, Maria Sueli S; Torres, Fernando A G; Maranhão, Andrea Q; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete; Poças-Fonseca, Marcio J; Campos, Elida G; Moraes, Lídia M P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Carvalho, Maria José A; Andrade, Rosângela V; Nicola, André M; Teixeira, Marcus M; Jesuíno, Rosália S A; Pereira, Maristela; Soares, Célia M A; Brígido, Marcelo M

    2005-09-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic and thermo-regulated fungus which is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, an endemic disease widespread in Latin America. Pathogenicity is assumed to be a consequence of the cellular differentiation process that this fungus undergoes from mycelium to yeast cells during human infection. In an effort to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process a network of Brazilian laboratories carried out a transcriptome project for both cell types. This review focuses on the data analysis yielding a comprehensive view of the fungal metabolism and the molecular adaptations during dimorphism in P. brasiliensis from analysis of 6022 groups, related to expressed genes, which were generated from both mycelium and yeast phases.

  4. Engineering a filamentous fungus for L-rhamnose extraction.

    PubMed

    Kuivanen, Joosu; Richard, Peter

    2016-03-01

    L-Rhamnose is a high value rare sugar that is used as such or after chemical conversions. It is enriched in several biomass fractions such as the pectic polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonan I and II and in naringin, hesperidin, rutin, quercitrin and ulvan. We engineered the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger to not consume L-rhamnose, while it is still able to produce the enzymes for the hydrolysis of L-rhamnose rich biomass. As a result we present a strain that can be used for the extraction of L-rhamnose in a consolidated process. In the process the biomass is hydrolysed to the monomeric sugars which are consumed by the fungus leaving the L-rhamnose.

  5. Fungus-associated asthma: overcoming challenges in diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Satoh, Kazuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-05-01

    With regard to fungal colonization and fungal sensitization, the goals of fungus-associated asthma management are as follows: 1) to survey fungi colonizing the airways of patients repeatedly; 2) to evaluate the tendency of the colonizing fungi to sensitize patients and the influence on clinical manifestations of asthma; 3) to follow disease development to allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis or sinobronchial allergic mycosis; and 4) to determine whether fungal eradication from the airway of patients is beneficial from the viewpoints of future risk factors. Recent developments in molecular biological analyses have facilitated the identification of basidiomycetous fungi that were not previously thought to be of concern in fungal allergy. The total control of fungus-associated asthma will be accomplished by environmental management established from the viewpoint of both the ecology and life cycle of the responsible fungi.

  6. Mycocrystallization of gold ions by the fungus Cylindrocladium floridanum.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Sakthivel, Natarajan

    2013-11-01

    The size and morphology determines the thermodynamic, physical and electronic properties of metal nanoparticles. The extracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles by fungus, Cylindrocladium floridanum, which acts as a source of reducing and stabilizing agent has been described. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Based on the evidence of HR-TEM, the synthesized particles were found to be spherical with an average size of 19.05 nm. Powder XRD pattern proved the formation of (111)-oriented face-centered cubic crystals of metallic gold. This microbial approach by fungus for the green synthesis of spherical gold nanoparticles has many advantages such as economic viability, scaling up and environment friendliness.

  7. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  8. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus. PMID:20678317

  9. Functional Characterization of MAT1-1-Specific Mating-Type Genes in the Homothallic Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora Provides New Insights into Essential and Nonessential Sexual Regulators▿†

    PubMed Central

    Klix, V.; Nowrousian, M.; Ringelberg, C.; Loros, J. J.; Dunlap, J. C.; Pöggeler, S.

    2010-01-01

    Mating-type genes in fungi encode regulators of mating and sexual development. Heterothallic ascomycete species require different sets of mating-type genes to control nonself-recognition and mating of compatible partners of different mating types. Homothallic (self-fertile) species also carry mating-type genes in their genome that are essential for sexual development. To analyze the molecular basis of homothallism and the role of mating-type genes during fruiting-body development, we deleted each of the three genes, SmtA-1 (MAT1-1-1), SmtA-2 (MAT1-1-2), and SmtA-3 (MAT1-1-3), contained in the MAT1-1 part of the mating-type locus of the homothallic ascomycete species Sordaria macrospora. Phenotypic analysis of deletion mutants revealed that the PPF domain protein-encoding gene SmtA-2 is essential for sexual reproduction, whereas the α domain protein-encoding genes SmtA-1 and SmtA-3 play no role in fruiting-body development. By means of cross-species microarray analysis using Neurospora crassa oligonucleotide microarrays hybridized with S. macrospora targets and quantitative real-time PCR, we identified genes expressed under the control of SmtA-1 and SmtA-2. Both genes are involved in the regulation of gene expression, including that of pheromone genes. PMID:20435701

  10. Cytochalasin derivatives from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun La; Wang, Haibo; Park, Ju Hee; Hong, Jongki; Choi, Jae Sue; Im, Dong Soon; Chung, Hae Young; Jung, Jee H

    2015-01-01

    Four new cytochalasin derivatives (1-4), together with proxiphomin (5), were isolated from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp. The planar structures and relative stereochemistry were established by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configuration was defined by the modified Mosher's method. The compounds showed moderate cytotoxicity against a small panel of human solid tumor cell lines (A549, KB, and HCT116).

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Fungus Diaporthe (Phomopsis) ampelina

    PubMed Central

    Bhargavi, S. D.; Praveen, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    Diaporthe ampelina was isolated as an endophytic fungus from the root of Commiphora wightii, a medicinal plant collected from Dhanvantri Vana, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India. The whole genome is 59 Mb, contains a total of 905 scaffolds, and has a G+C content of 51.74%. The genome sequence of D. ampelina shows a complete absence of lovastatin (an anticholesterol drug) gene cluster. PMID:27257198

  12. The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.

    PubMed

    Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

    1995-01-01

    The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably

  13. Oxygenated lanostane-type triterpenoids from the fungus ganodermalucidum.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Tagata, Masaaki; Ukiya, Motohiko; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Takashi; Kimura, Yumiko

    2005-04-01

    Two new triterpenoids, 20(21)-dehydrolucidenic acid A (1) and methyl 20(21)-dehydrolucidenate A (2), and five new 20-hydroxylucidenic acids, 20-hydroxylucidenic acid D(2) (3), 20-hydroxylucidenic acid F (4), 20-hydroxylucidenic acid E(2) (5), 20-hydroxylucidenic acid N (6), and 20-hydroxylucidenic acid P (7), were isolated from the fruiting body of the fungus Ganoderma ludicum, and their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods.

  14. The Kinome of Edible and Medicinal Fungus Wolfiporia cocos.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Shu, Shaohua; Zhu, Wenjun; Xiong, Ying; Peng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium, known as Fuling in China, has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Nearly 10% of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain W. cocos. Currently, the commercial production of Fuling is limited because of the lack of pine-based substrate and paucity of knowledge about the sclerotial development of the fungus. Since protein kinase (PKs) play significant roles in the regulation of growth, development, reproduction, and environmental responses in filamentous fungi, the kinome of W. cocos was analyzed by identifying the PKs genes, studying transcript profiles and assigning PKs to orthologous groups. Of the 10 putative PKs, 11 encode atypical PKs, and 13, 10, 2, 22, and 11 could encoded PKs from the AGC, CAMK, CK, CMGC, STE, and TLK Groups, respectively. The level of transcripts from PK genes associated with sclerotia formation in the mycelium and sclerotium stages were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Based on the functions of the orthologs in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (a sclerotia-formation fungus) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the potential roles of these W. cocos PKs were assigned. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first identification and functional discussion of the kinome in the edible and medicinal fungus W. cocos. Our study systematically suggests potential roles of W. cocos PKs and provide comprehensive and novel insights into W. cocos sclerotial development and other economically important traits. Additionally, based on our result, genetic engineering can be employed for over expression or interference of some significant PKs genes to promote sclerotial growth and the accumulation of active compounds.

  15. Pseudocopulatory Pollination in Lepanthes (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) by Fungus Gnats

    PubMed Central

    BLANCO, MARIO A.; BARBOZA, GABRIEL

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Lepanthes is one of the largest angiosperm genera (>800 species). Their non-rewarding, tiny and colourful flowers are structurally complex. Their pollination mechanism has hitherto remained unknown, but has been subject of ample speculation; the function of the minuscule labellum appendix is especially puzzling. Here, the pollination of L. glicensteinii by sexually deceived male fungus gnats is described and illustrated. • Methods Visitors to flowers of L. glicensteinii were photographed and their behaviour documented; some were captured for identification. Occasional visits to flowers of L. helleri, L. stenorhyncha and L. turialvae were also observed. Structural features of flowers and pollinators were studied with SEM. • Key Results Sexually aroused males of the fungus gnat Bradysia floribunda (Diptera: Sciaridae) were the only visitors and pollinators of L. glicensteinii. The initial long-distance attractant seems to be olfactory. Upon finding a flower, the fly curls his abdomen under the labellum and grabs the appendix with his genitalic claspers, then dismounts the flower and turns around to face away from it. The pollinarium attaches to his abdomen during this pivoting manoeuvre. Pollinia are deposited on the stigma during a subsequent flower visit. The flies appear to ejaculate during pseudocopulation. The visitors of L. helleri, L. stenorhyncha and L. turialvae are different species of fungus gnats that display a similar behaviour. • Conclusions Lepanthes glicensteinii has genitalic pseudocopulatory pollination, the first case reported outside of the Australian orchid genus Cryptostylis. Since most species of Lepanthes have the same unusual flower structure, it is predicted that pollination by sexual deception is prevalent in the genus. Several morphological and phenological traits in Lepanthes seem well suited for exploiting male fungus gnats as pollinators. Correspondingly, some demographic trends common in Lepanthes are

  16. Biotransformation of Malachite Green by the Fungus Cunninghamella elegans

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Chang-Jun; Doerge, Daniel R.; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2001-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green with a first-order rate constant of 0.029 μmol h−1 (mg of cells)−1. Malachite green was enzymatically reduced to leucomalachite green and also converted to N-demethylated and N-oxidized metabolites, including primary and secondary arylamines. Inhibition studies suggested that the cytochrome P450 system mediated both the reduction and the N-demethylation reactions. PMID:11526047

  17. The Kinome of Edible and Medicinal Fungus Wolfiporia cocos

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Shu, Shaohua; Zhu, Wenjun; Xiong, Ying; Peng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium, known as Fuling in China, has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Nearly 10% of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain W. cocos. Currently, the commercial production of Fuling is limited because of the lack of pine-based substrate and paucity of knowledge about the sclerotial development of the fungus. Since protein kinase (PKs) play significant roles in the regulation of growth, development, reproduction, and environmental responses in filamentous fungi, the kinome of W. cocos was analyzed by identifying the PKs genes, studying transcript profiles and assigning PKs to orthologous groups. Of the 10 putative PKs, 11 encode atypical PKs, and 13, 10, 2, 22, and 11 could encoded PKs from the AGC, CAMK, CK, CMGC, STE, and TLK Groups, respectively. The level of transcripts from PK genes associated with sclerotia formation in the mycelium and sclerotium stages were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Based on the functions of the orthologs in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (a sclerotia-formation fungus) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the potential roles of these W. cocos PKs were assigned. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first identification and functional discussion of the kinome in the edible and medicinal fungus W. cocos. Our study systematically suggests potential roles of W. cocos PKs and provide comprehensive and novel insights into W. cocos sclerotial development and other economically important traits. Additionally, based on our result, genetic engineering can be employed for over expression or interference of some significant PKs genes to promote sclerotial growth and the accumulation of active compounds. PMID:27708635

  18. Fungus mediated synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Shadab Ali; Ahmad, Absar

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First time biological synthesis of cerium oxide oxide nanoparticles using fungus Humicola sp. • Complete characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles. • Biosynthesis of naturally protein capped, luminescent and water dispersible CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • Biosynthesized CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles can be used for many biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanomaterials can be synthesized by chemical, physical and the more recently discovered biological routes. The biological routes are advantageous over the chemical and physical ones as unlike these, the biological synthesis protocols occur at ambient conditions, are cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. Although purely biological and bioinspired methods for the synthesis of nanomaterials are environmentally benign and energy conserving processes, their true potential has not been explored yet and attempts are being made to extend the formation of technologically important nanoparticles using microorganisms like fungi. Though there have been reports on the biosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles by our group in the past, no attempts have been made to employ fungi for the synthesis of nanoparticles of rare earth metals or lanthanides. Here we report for the first time, the bio-inspired synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles using the thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The fungus Humicola sp. when exposed to aqueous solutions of oxide precursor cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (CeN{sub 3}O{sub 9}·6H{sub 2}O) results in the extracellular formation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles containing Ce (III) and Ce (IV) mixed oxidation states, confirmed by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The formed nanoparticles are naturally capped by proteins secreted by the fungus and thus do not agglomerate, are highly stable, water dispersible and are highly fluorescent as well. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy

  19. Decomposition of Plant Debris by the Nematophagous Fungus ARF

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kening; Riggs, R. D.; Crippen, Devany

    2004-01-01

    In the study of the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes, knowledge of the saprophytic ability of a nematophagous fungus is necessary to understand its establishment and survival in the soil. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if the nematophagous fungus ARF (Arkansas Fungus) shows differential use of plant residues; and (ii) to determine if ARF still existed in the soil of a field in which ARF was found originally and in which the population level of Heterodera glycines had remained very low, despite 15 years of continuous, susceptible soybean. Laboratory studies of the decomposition of wheat straw or soybean root by ARF were conducted in two separate experiments, using a CO₂ collection apparatus, where CO₂-free air was passed through sterilized cotton to remove the microorganisms in the air and then was passed over the samples, and evolved CO₂ was trapped by KOH. Milligrams of C as CO₂ was used to calculate the percentage decomposition of the plant debris by ARF. Data indicated ARF decomposed 11.7% of total organic carbon of the wheat straw and 20.1% of the soybean roots in 6 weeks. In the field soil study, 21 soil samples were taken randomly from the field. Only 3 months after the infestation of the soil with H. glycines, the percentage of parasitized eggs of H. glycines reached 64 ± 19%, and ARF was isolated from most parasitized eggs of H. glycines. Research results indicated ARF could use plant residues to survive. PMID:19262814

  20. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  1. Biodegradation of polyethylene microplastics by the marine fungus Zalerion maritimum.

    PubMed

    Paço, Ana; Duarte, Kátia; da Costa, João P; Santos, Patrícia S M; Pereira, R; Pereira, M E; Freitas, Ana C; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P

    2017-05-15

    Plastic yearly production has surpassed the 300milliontons mark and recycling has all but failed in constituting a viable solution for the disposal of plastic waste. As these materials continue to accumulate in the environment, namely, in rivers and oceans, in the form of macro-, meso-, micro- and nanoplastics, it becomes of the utmost urgency to find new ways to curtail this environmental threat. Multiple efforts have been made to identify and isolate microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers and recent results point towards the viability of a solution for this problem based on the biodegradation of plastics resorting to selected microbial strains. Herein, the response of the fungus Zalerion maritimum to different times of exposition to polyethylene (PE) pellets, in a minimum growth medium, was evaluated, based on the quantified mass differences in both the fungus and the microplastic pellets used. Additionally, molecular changes were assessed through attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Results showed that, under the tested conditions, Z. maritimum is capable of utilizing PE, resulting in the decrease, in both mass and size, of the pellets. These results indicate that this naturally occurring fungus may actively contribute to the biodegradation of microplastics, requiring minimum nutrients.

  2. Efficient xylose fermentation by the brown rot fungus Neolentinus lepideus.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenji; Kanawaku, Ryuichi; Masumoto, Masaru; Yanase, Hideshi

    2012-02-10

    The efficient production of bioethanol on an industrial scale requires the use of renewable lignocellulosic biomass as a starting material. A limiting factor in developing efficient processes is identifying microorganisms that are able to effectively ferment xylose, the major pentose sugar found in hemicellulose, and break down carbohydrate polymers without pre-treatment steps. Here, a basidiomycete brown rot fungus was isolated as a new biocatalyst with unprecedented fermentability, as it was capable of converting not only the 6-carbon sugars constituting cellulose, but also the major 5-carbon sugar xylose in hemicelluloses, to ethanol. The fungus was identified as Neolentinus lepideus and was capable of assimilating and fermenting xylose to ethanol in yields of 0.30, 0.33, and 0.34 g of ethanol per g of xylose consumed under aerobic, oxygen-limited, and anaerobic conditions, respectively. A small amount of xylitol was detected as the major by-product of xylose metabolism. N. lepideus produced ethanol from glucose, mannose, galactose, cellobiose, maltose, and lactose with yields ranging from 0.34 to 0.38 g ethanol per g sugar consumed, and also exhibited relatively favorable conversion of non-pretreated starch, xylan, and wheat bran. These results suggest that N. lepideus is a promising candidate for cost-effective and environmentally friendly ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report on efficient ethanol fermentation from various carbohydrates, including xylose, by a naturally occurring brown rot fungus.

  3. New and poorly known Palaearctic fungus gnats (Diptera, Sciaroidea)

    PubMed Central

    Kolcsár, Levente-Péter

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Fungus gnats (Sciaroidea) are a globally species rich group of lower Diptera. In Europe, Fennoscandian peninsula in particular holds a notable diversity, ca. 1000 species, of which 10 % are still unnamed. Fungus gnats are predominantly terrestrial insects, but some species dwell in wetland habitats. New information Eight new fungus gnat species, belonging to the families Keroplatidae (Orfelia boreoalpina Salmela sp.n.) and Mycetophilidae (Sciophila holopaineni Salmela sp.n., S. curvata Salmela sp.n., Boletina sasakawai Salmela & Kolcsár sp.n., B. norokorpii Salmela & Kolcsár sp.n., Phronia sompio Salmela sp.n., P. reducta Salmela sp.n., P. prolongata Salmela sp.n.), are described. Four of the species are known from Fennoscandia only whilst two are supposed to have boreo-alpine disjunct ranges, i.e. having populations in Fennoscandia and the Central European Alps. One of the species probably has a boreal range (Finnish Lapland and Central Siberia). Type material of Boletina curta Sasakawa & Kimura from Japan was found to consist of two species, and a further species close to these taxa is described from Finland. Phronia elegantula Hackman is redescribed and reported for the first time from Norway. DNA barcodes are provided for the first time for five species. PMID:28325987

  4. Evolutionary transitions in enzyme activity of ant fungus gardens.

    PubMed

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-07-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens are targeted primarily toward partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of nondomesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major breakdown of cell walls. The adaptive significance of the lower-attine symbiont shifts remains unclear. One of these shifts was obligate, but digestive advantages remained ambiguous, whereas the other remained facultative despite providing greater digestive efficiency.

  5. Fungus dose-dependent primary pulmonary aspergillosis in immunosuppressed mice.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, D M; Polak, A; Walsh, T J

    1989-01-01

    We report on a model of primary pulmonary aspergillosis occurring after intranasal instillation of concentrated suspensions of conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus in immunocompromised mice. Unconcentrated suspensions of inoculum contained ca. 2 x 10(7) conidia per ml (1x). These suspensions were concentrated by centrifugation, adjusted to give ca. 2 x 10(8) (10x) or 2 x 10(9) (100x) conidia per ml, and delivered in 30-microliters droplets to the nares of anesthetized mice. Mice were untreated or injected with cortisone acetate (CA) or cyclophosphamide (CY) in various dosage regimens. It was not possible to obtain mortality of more than 50% with sublethal immunosuppressive treatment and 1x fungus. In contrast, mortality followed a fungus dose response in mice receiving sublethal immunosuppression with either CA or CY. Mortality rates of up to 100% were obtained with 100x fungus and a single dose of CY (200 mg/kg) or CA (250 mg/kg) or three alternate doses (125 mg/kg per day) of CA prior to infection. This model is applicable to the study of acute, fatal primary pulmonary aspergillosis and chemotherapy trials. PMID:2651308

  6. Datasheet: Pseudogymnoascus destructans (white-nose syndrome fungus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, David; Lankau, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is a psychrophilic (cold-loving) fungus that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging disease of North American bats that has caused unprecedented population declines. The fungus is believed to have been introduced to North America from Europe or Asia (where it is present but does not cause significant mortality), but the full extent of its native range is unknown. The route of introduction is also unknown. In North America, hibernating bats become infected with P. destructans when body temperature decreases during winter torpor into the range permissive for growth of this fungus. Infected bats may develop visible fungal growth on the nose or wings, awaken more frequently from torpor, and experience a cascade of physiologic changes that result in weight loss, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and death. P. destructans persists in the environments of underground bat hibernation sites (hibernacula) and is believed to spread primarily by natural movements of infected bats. The first evidence of WNS in North America is from a photograph of a hibernating bat taken during winter of 2005-2006 in a hibernaculum near Albany, New York. P. destructans subsequently spread rapidly from the northeastern United States throughout much of the eastern portions of the United States and Canada, and most recently (as of May 2017) was detected in Washington State. It has killed millions of bats, threatening some species with regional extirpation and putting at risk the valuable environmental services that bats provide by eating harmful insects.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Chloroperoxidase-Producing Fungus Caldariomyces fumago Woronichin DSM1256

    PubMed Central

    Pecyna, Marek Jan; Buchhaupt, Markus; Ullrich, René; Hofrichter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the chloroperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.10)-producing ascomycete Caldariomyces fumago. Its genome was assembled into 511 contigs with a total size of 25 Mb. The G+C content is 51.4%, and 9,806 putative protein-coding genes were predicted. Eight heme-thiolate peroxidase genes, including two chloroperoxidase genes, were found. PMID:27491999

  8. Structural and functional characterization of the GalNAc/Gal-specific lectin from the phytopathogenic ascomycete Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary.

    PubMed

    Candy, Laure; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Menu-Bouaouiche, Laurence; Erard, Monique; Rougé, Pierre

    2003-08-22

    The lectin found in mycelium and sclerotes of the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a homodimer consisting of two identical non-covalently bound subunits of 16,000 Da. CD spectra analysis revealed that the S. sclerotiorum agglutinin (SSA) contains predominantly beta-sheet structures. SSA exhibits specificity towards GalNAc whereby the hydroxyls at positions 4 and 6 of the pyranose ring play a key role in the interaction with simple sugars. The carbohydrate-binding site of SSA can also accommodate disaccharides. The N-terminal sequence of SSA shares no significant similarity with any other protein except a lectin from the Sclerotiniaceae species Ciborinia camelliae. A comparison of SSA and the lectins from C. camelliae and some previously characterized lectins indicates that the Sclerotiniaceae lectins form a homogeneous family of fungal lectins. This newly identified lectin family, which is structurally unrelated to any other family of fungal lectins, is most probably confined to the Ascomycota.

  9. Removal of phenanthrene in contaminated soil by combination of alfalfa, white-rot fungus, and earthworms.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shuguang; Zeng, Defang

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of phenanthrene by combination of alfalfa, white-rot fungus, and earthworms in soil. A 60-day experiment was conducted. Inoculation with earthworms and/or white-rot fungus increased alfalfa biomass and phenanthrene accumulation in alfalfa. However, inoculations of alfalfa and white-rot fungus can significantly decrease the accumulation of phenanthrene in earthworms. The removal rates for phenanthrene in soil were 33, 48, 66, 74, 85, and 93% under treatments control, only earthworms, only alfalfa, earthworms + alfalfa, alfalfa + white-rot fungus, and alfalfa + earthworms + white-rot fungus, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the combination of alfalfa, earthworms, and white-rot fungus is an effective way to remove phenanthrene in the soil. The removal is mainly via stimulating both microbial development and soil enzyme activity.

  10. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  11. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  12. Isolated Fungal Promoters and Gene Transcription Terminators and Methods of Protein and Chemical Production in a Fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  13. Carbon dioxide sensing in an obligate insect-fungus symbiosis: CO2 preferences of leaf-cutting ants to rear their mutualistic fungus

    PubMed Central

    Bollazzi, Martin; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Defense against biotic or abiotic stresses is one of the benefits of living in symbiosis. Leaf-cutting ants, which live in an obligate mutualism with a fungus, attenuate thermal and desiccation stress of their partner through behavioral responses, by choosing suitable places for fungus-rearing across the soil profile. The underground environment also presents hypoxic (low oxygen) and hypercapnic (high carbon dioxide) conditions, which can negatively influence the symbiont. Here, we investigated whether workers of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundii use the CO2 concentration as an orientation cue when selecting a place to locate their fungus garden, and whether they show preferences for specific CO2 concentrations. We also evaluated whether levels preferred by workers for fungus-rearing differ from those selected for themselves. In the laboratory, CO2 preferences were assessed in binary choices between chambers with different CO2 concentrations, by quantifying number of workers in each chamber and amount of relocated fungus. Leaf-cutting ants used the CO2 concentration as a spatial cue when selecting places for fungus-rearing. A. lundii preferred intermediate CO2 levels, between 1 and 3%, as they would encounter at soil depths where their nest chambers are located. In addition, workers avoided both atmospheric and high CO2 levels as they would occur outside the nest and at deeper soil layers, respectively. In order to prevent fungus desiccation, however, workers relocated fungus to high CO2 levels, which were otherwise avoided. Workers’ CO2 preferences for themselves showed no clear-cut pattern. We suggest that workers avoid both atmospheric and high CO2 concentrations not because they are detrimental for themselves, but because of their consequences for the symbiotic partner. Whether the preferred CO2 concentrations are beneficial for symbiont growth remains to be investigated, as well as whether the observed preferences for fungus-rearing influences the ants

  14. Carbon dioxide sensing in an obligate insect-fungus symbiosis: CO2 preferences of leaf-cutting ants to rear their mutualistic fungus.

    PubMed

    Römer, Daniela; Bollazzi, Martin; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Defense against biotic or abiotic stresses is one of the benefits of living in symbiosis. Leaf-cutting ants, which live in an obligate mutualism with a fungus, attenuate thermal and desiccation stress of their partner through behavioral responses, by choosing suitable places for fungus-rearing across the soil profile. The underground environment also presents hypoxic (low oxygen) and hypercapnic (high carbon dioxide) conditions, which can negatively influence the symbiont. Here, we investigated whether workers of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundii use the CO2 concentration as an orientation cue when selecting a place to locate their fungus garden, and whether they show preferences for specific CO2 concentrations. We also evaluated whether levels preferred by workers for fungus-rearing differ from those selected for themselves. In the laboratory, CO2 preferences were assessed in binary choices between chambers with different CO2 concentrations, by quantifying number of workers in each chamber and amount of relocated fungus. Leaf-cutting ants used the CO2 concentration as a spatial cue when selecting places for fungus-rearing. A. lundii preferred intermediate CO2 levels, between 1 and 3%, as they would encounter at soil depths where their nest chambers are located. In addition, workers avoided both atmospheric and high CO2 levels as they would occur outside the nest and at deeper soil layers, respectively. In order to prevent fungus desiccation, however, workers relocated fungus to high CO2 levels, which were otherwise avoided. Workers' CO2 preferences for themselves showed no clear-cut pattern. We suggest that workers avoid both atmospheric and high CO2 concentrations not because they are detrimental for themselves, but because of their consequences for the symbiotic partner. Whether the preferred CO2 concentrations are beneficial for symbiont growth remains to be investigated, as well as whether the observed preferences for fungus-rearing influences the ants

  15. The Fungus Candida albicans Tolerates Ambiguity at Multiple Codons.

    PubMed

    Simões, João; Bezerra, Ana R; Moura, Gabriela R; Araújo, Hugo; Gut, Ivo; Bayes, Mónica; Santos, Manuel A S

    2016-01-01

    The ascomycete Candida albicans is a normal resident of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals. It occurs in a broad range of body sites and has high capacity to survive and proliferate in adverse environments with drastic changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, osmolarity, nutrients, and temperature. Its biology is unique due to flexible reassignment of the leucine CUG codon to serine and synthesis of statistical proteins. Under standard growth conditions, CUG sites incorporate leucine (3% of the times) and serine (97% of the times) on a proteome wide scale, but leucine incorporation fluctuates in response to environmental stressors and can be artificially increased up to 98%. In order to determine whether such flexibility also exists at other codons, we have constructed several serine tRNAs that decode various non-cognate codons. Expression of these tRNAs had minor effects on fitness, but growth of the mistranslating strains at different temperatures, in medium with different pH and nutrients composition was often enhanced relatively to the wild type (WT) strain, supporting our previous data on adaptive roles of CUG ambiguity in variable growth conditions. Parallel evolution of the recombinant strains (100 generations) followed by full genome resequencing identified various strain specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and one SNP in the deneddylase (JAB1) gene in all strains. Since JAB1 is a subunit of the COP9 signalosome complex, which interacts with cullin (Cdc53p) to mediate degradation of a variety of cellular proteins, our data suggest that neddylation plays a key role in tolerance and adaptation to codon ambiguity in C. albicans.

  16. The Fungus Candida albicans Tolerates Ambiguity at Multiple Codons

    PubMed Central

    Simões, João; Bezerra, Ana R.; Moura, Gabriela R.; Araújo, Hugo; Gut, Ivo; Bayes, Mónica; Santos, Manuel A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The ascomycete Candida albicans is a normal resident of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals. It occurs in a broad range of body sites and has high capacity to survive and proliferate in adverse environments with drastic changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, osmolarity, nutrients, and temperature. Its biology is unique due to flexible reassignment of the leucine CUG codon to serine and synthesis of statistical proteins. Under standard growth conditions, CUG sites incorporate leucine (3% of the times) and serine (97% of the times) on a proteome wide scale, but leucine incorporation fluctuates in response to environmental stressors and can be artificially increased up to 98%. In order to determine whether such flexibility also exists at other codons, we have constructed several serine tRNAs that decode various non-cognate codons. Expression of these tRNAs had minor effects on fitness, but growth of the mistranslating strains at different temperatures, in medium with different pH and nutrients composition was often enhanced relatively to the wild type (WT) strain, supporting our previous data on adaptive roles of CUG ambiguity in variable growth conditions. Parallel evolution of the recombinant strains (100 generations) followed by full genome resequencing identified various strain specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and one SNP in the deneddylase (JAB1) gene in all strains. Since JAB1 is a subunit of the COP9 signalosome complex, which interacts with cullin (Cdc53p) to mediate degradation of a variety of cellular proteins, our data suggest that neddylation plays a key role in tolerance and adaptation to codon ambiguity in C. albicans. PMID:27065968

  17. The acid phosphatases of Thermoascus crustaceus, a thermophilic fungus.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W N; Garrison, R G; Mann, L C; Wallace, D P

    1988-01-01

    Thermoascus crustaceus, a filamentous, thermophilic ascomycete with pathogenic potential was cultured on Sabouraud's liquid medium at temperatures from 27 to 47 degrees C for periods up to 7 days. Growth rate and yield were optimal at 37 degrees C. Morphological changes were confined to the cell walls, the thickness being greatest at 47 degrees C, which were also more resistant to mechanical disruption. Significant amounts of acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) activity occurred in the spent media of all cultures but were greatest at 37 degrees C. The proportions of acid phosphatase activity which were operationally defined as soluble or bound were also documented; the optimum pH for acid phosphatase activity in all fractions was 5.0. Extracts were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions and the gels were stained for acid phosphatase activity. This revealed four electrophoretically distinct acid phosphatases which had different susceptibilities to inhibition by fluoride, phosphate, or tartrate. Effects of growth temperature, or phosphate supplement in the culture medium, on the acid phosphatase isoenzyme pattern were judged to be minor. Cytochemistry at the electron microscope level indicated acid phosphatase activity on the surface, in the periplasmic space, and in the cytoplasm, but no trends with regard to growth conditions. A substantial temperature range can be tolerated by this species but it is concluded that neither the general shape of the cells nor the acid phosphatase isoenzyme pattern changes substantially; this contrasts with previously documented differences for this class of enzyme in dimorphic Sporotrix schenckii.

  18. Secretome analysis of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum grown on cellulose.

    PubMed

    Do Vale, Luis H F; Gómez-Mendoza, Diana P; Kim, Min-Sik; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ricart, Carlos A O; Ximenes F Filho, Edivaldo; Sousa, Marcelo V

    2012-08-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a mycoparasitic filamentous fungus that produces and secretes a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes used in cell wall degradation. Due to its potential in biomass conversion, T. harzianum draws great attention from biofuel and biocontrol industries and research. Here, we report an extensive secretome analysis of T. harzianum. The fungus was grown on cellulose medium, and its secretome was analyzed by a combination of enzymology, 2DE, MALDI-MS and -MS/MS (Autoflex II), and LC-MS/MS (LTQ-Orbitrap XL). A total of 56 proteins were identified using high-resolution MS. Interestingly, although cellulases were found, the major hydrolytic enzymes secreted in the cellulose medium were chitinases and endochitinases, which may reflect the biocontrol feature of T. harzianum. The glycoside hydrolase family, including chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14), endo-N-acetylglucosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.96), hexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23), xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8), exo-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.58), endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4), xylosidases (EC 3.2.1.37), α-L-arabinofuranosidase (EC 3.2.1.55), N-acetylhexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), and other enzymes represented 51.36% of the total secretome. Few representatives were classified in the protease family (8.90%). Others (17.60%) are mostly intracellular proteins. A considerable part of the secretome was composed of hypothetical proteins (22.14%), probably because of the absence of an annotated T. harzianum genome. The T. harzianum secretome composition highlights the importance of this fungus as a rich source of hydrolytic enzymes for bioconversion and biocontrol applications.

  19. Novel 11-norbetaenone isolated from an entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium antillanum.

    PubMed

    Li, Chi-Ying; Lo, I-Wen; Wang, Shih-Wei; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chung, Yu-Ming; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Liu, Yi-Hung; Hsu, Yu-Ming; Chen, Shu-Rong; Hu, Hao-Chun; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2017-05-01

    A novel nor-betaenone compound, 11-norbetaenone (1), was isolated from the culture broth of an entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium antillanum. The structure was determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute stereochemistry of 1 was further confirmed by X-ray single crystallography analysis. It is the first secondary metabolite reported from the species Lecanicillium antillanum. And it is also the first time that a betaenone-type compound was isolated from the genus Lecanicillium. Furthermore, 11-norbetaenone (1) displayed significant anti-angiogenic effect by suppressing tube formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pimarane diterpenes from the Arctic fungus Eutypella sp. D-1.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jing-Tang; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Jianpeng; Jiao, Bing-Hua; Zheng, Heng

    2014-02-01

    Two new diterpenes, libertellenone G(1) and libertellenone H(2) were isolated from the fungus Eutypella sp. D-1 isolated from the soil of high latitude of Arctic, together with two known pimarane diterpenes (3-4). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated from spectroscopic data (nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and infrared). These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against seven human tumor cell lines. Compound 2 showed a range of cytotoxicity between 3.31 and 44.1 μM. Compound 1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. Microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina).

    PubMed

    Baird, Richard E; Wadl, Phillip A; Wang, Xinwang; Johnson, Denita H; Rinehart, Timothy A; Abbas, Hamed K; Shier, Thomas; Trigiano, Robert N

    2009-05-01

    Microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina). Primer pairs for 46 loci were developed, and of these, 13 were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 55 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in Mississippi. Twelve of the optimized loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 22. These microsatellites will be useful in population and pathogenicity studies to correspond with development of potential disease-resistant soybean and other susceptible crops. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  2. Two new terpenoids from endophytic fungus Periconia sp. F-31.

    PubMed

    Ge, Han-Lin; Zhang, De-Wu; Li, Li; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jian-Hua; Si, Yi-Kang; Dai, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    Two new terpenoids, (+)-(3S,6S,7R,8S)-periconone A (1) and (-)-(1R,4R,6S,7S)-2-caren-4,8-olide (2), have been isolated from an endophytic fungus Periconia sp., which was collected from the plant Annona muricata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. In the in vitro assays, the two compounds showed low cytotoxic activities against six human tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7) with IC(50)>10(-5) M.

  3. Extracellular oxidases of the lignin-degrading fungus Panus tigrinus.

    PubMed

    Cadimaliev, D A; Revin, V V; Atykyan, N A; Samuilov, V D

    2005-06-01

    Two extracellular oxidases (laccases) were isolated from the extracellular fluid of the fungus Panus (Lentinus) tigrinus cultivated in low-nitrogen medium supplemented with birch sawdust. The enzymes were purified by successive chromatography on columns with TEAE-cellulose and DEAE-Toyopearl 650M. Both oxidases catalyze oxidation of pyrocatechol and ABTS. Moreover, oxidase 1 also catalyzes oxidation of guaiacol, o-phenylenediamine, and syringaldazine. The enzymes have identical pH (7.0) and temperature (60-65 degrees C) optimums. Absorption spectra of the oxidases differ from the spectra of typical "blue" laccases and are similar to the spectrum of yellow oxidase.

  4. Bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Dame, Zerihun T; Silima, Beauty; Gryzenhout, Marieka; van Ree, Teunis

    2016-06-01

    The crude extract of an endophytic fungus isolated from Syzygium cordatum and identified as Fusarium proliferatum showed 100% cytotoxicity against the brine shrimp Artemia salina at 100 μg/mL. Seven coloured, biologically active metabolites - including ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol, nectriafurone-8-methyl ether, 9-O-methyl fusarubin, bostrycoidin, bostrycoidin-9-methyl ether and 8-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3-(2-oxo-propyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone- were isolated from the extract.

  5. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

    PubMed Central

    de Prince, Karina Andrade; Sordi, Renata; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Barreto Santos, Adolfo Carlos; Araujo, Angela R.; Leite, Sergio R.A.; Leite, Clarice Q. F.

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib.) B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae), cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA) and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties. PMID:24031821

  6. Cepstrum based feature extraction method for fungus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorulmaz, Onur; Pearson, Tom C.; Çetin, A. Enis

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a method for detection of popcorn kernels infected by a fungus is developed using image processing. The method is based on two dimensional (2D) mel and Mellin-cepstrum computation from popcorn kernel images. Cepstral features that were extracted from popcorn images are classified using Support Vector Machines (SVM). Experimental results show that high recognition rates of up to 93.93% can be achieved for both damaged and healthy popcorn kernels using 2D mel-cepstrum. The success rate for healthy popcorn kernels was found to be 97.41% and the recognition rate for damaged kernels was found to be 89.43%.

  7. Dihydroisocoumarins from the Mangrove-Derived Fungus Penicillium citrinum

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guo-Lei; Zhou, Xue-Ming; Bai, Meng; Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhao, Yan-Lei; Luo, You-Ping; Niu, Yan-Yan; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Chen, Guang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Three new dihydroisocoumarin penicimarins G–I (1–3), together with one known dihydroisocoumarin (4) and three known meroterpenoids (5–7), were obtained from a fungus Penicillium citrinum isolated from the mangrove Bruguiera sexangula var. rhynchopetala collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by the detailed analysis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the X-ray diffraction analysis using Cu Kα radiation. The absolute configurations of 2 and 3 were determined by comparison of their circular dichroism (CD) spectra with the literature. All compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities and cytotoxic activities. PMID:27735855

  8. Draft genome sequence of Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL 30616, a lignocellulolytic fungus for bioabatement of inhibitors in plant biomass hydrolysates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here, we report the first draft genome sequence (42.38 Mb that contains 13,657 genes) of Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616, an ascomycete with high biotechnological relevance in the bioenergy field given its high potential for bioabatement of toxic furanic compounds in plant biomass hydrolysates and i...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL 30616, a Lignocellulolytic Fungus for Bioabatement of Inhibitors in Plant Biomass Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Hector, Ronald E.; Riley, Robert; Lipzen, Anna; Kuo, Rita C.; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Barry, Kerrie W.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the first draft genome sequence (42.38 Mb containing 13,657 genes) of Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL 30616, an ascomycete with biotechnological relevance in the bioenergy field given its high potential for bioabatement of toxic furanic compounds in plant biomass hydrolysates and its capacity to degrade lignocellulosic material. PMID:28126934

  10. The control of fruiting body formation in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora Auersw. by arginine and biotin: a two-factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Molowitz, R; Bahn, M; Hock, B

    1976-01-01

    Fruiting body formation of Sordaria macrospora Auersw. is controlled by L-arginine and biotin when the fungus is grown on a synthetic nutrient medium containing optimal concentrations of fructose, KNO3, KH2PO4, MgSO4, and ZnSO4. Arginine and biotin operate in very low concentrations which exclude unspecific nutrient effects. In spite of the complicated interactions of arginine and biotin which are shown qualitatively (Figs. 3 and 4a) and quantitatively (Figs. 2 and 4b), the following conclusions are reached: 1. In the absence of biotin, the development of Sordaria macrospora is blocked at the stage of small protoperithecia. The external addition of biotin (optimal concentration: 3-12 μg/l) allows the formation of fertile fruiting bodies. This effect cannot be imitated by arginine. The biotin effect is discussed in connection with stimulated RNA synthesis.-2. The developmental velocity is influenced by the external addition of arginine. Without arginine but at permissible biotin concentrations, the total life cycle takes about 10 days, in the presence of arginine (1 mM), however, about 6 days.-3. The hyphal density, as well as the total number of fruiting bodies being produced, is controlled in a similar manner by biotin and arginine. The induction of fruiting body formation obviously takes place after the transgression of a critical hyphal density.

  11. DNA sequence characterization and molecular evolution of MAT1 and MAT2 mating-type loci of the self-compatible ascomycete mold Neosartorya fischeri.

    PubMed

    Rydholm, C; Dyer, P S; Lutzoni, F

    2007-05-01

    Degenerate PCR and chromosome-walking approaches were used to identify mating-type (MAT) genes and flanking regions from the homothallic (sexually self-fertile) euascomycete fungus Neosartorya fischeri, a close relative of the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Both putative alpha- and high-mobility-group-domain MAT genes were found within the same genome, providing a functional explanation for self-fertility. However, unlike those in many homothallic euascomycetes (Pezizomycotina), the genes were not found adjacent to each other and were termed MAT1 and MAT2 to recognize the presence of distinct loci. Complete copies of putative APN1 (DNA lyase) and SLA2 (cytoskeleton assembly control) genes were found bordering the MAT1 locus. Partial copies of APN1 and SLA2 were also found bordering the MAT2 locus, but these copies bore the genetic hallmarks of pseudogenes. Genome comparisons revealed synteny over at least 23,300 bp between the N. fischeri MAT1 region and the A. fumigatus MAT locus region, but no such long-range conservation in the N. fischeri MAT2 region was evident. The sequence upstream of MAT2 contained numerous candidate transposase genes. These results demonstrate a novel means involving the segmental translocation of a chromosomal region by which the ability to undergo self-fertilization may be acquired. The results are also discussed in relation to their significance in indicating that heterothallism may be ancestral within the Aspergillus section Fumigati.

  12. DNA Sequence Characterization and Molecular Evolution of MAT1 and MAT2 Mating-Type Loci of the Self-Compatible Ascomycete Mold Neosartorya fischeri▿

    PubMed Central

    Rydholm, C.; Dyer, P. S.; Lutzoni, F.

    2007-01-01

    Degenerate PCR and chromosome-walking approaches were used to identify mating-type (MAT) genes and flanking regions from the homothallic (sexually self-fertile) euascomycete fungus Neosartorya fischeri, a close relative of the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Both putative alpha- and high-mobility-group-domain MAT genes were found within the same genome, providing a functional explanation for self-fertility. However, unlike those in many homothallic euascomycetes (Pezizomycotina), the genes were not found adjacent to each other and were termed MAT1 and MAT2 to recognize the presence of distinct loci. Complete copies of putative APN1 (DNA lyase) and SLA2 (cytoskeleton assembly control) genes were found bordering the MAT1 locus. Partial copies of APN1 and SLA2 were also found bordering the MAT2 locus, but these copies bore the genetic hallmarks of pseudogenes. Genome comparisons revealed synteny over at least 23,300 bp between the N. fischeri MAT1 region and the A. fumigatus MAT locus region, but no such long-range conservation in the N. fischeri MAT2 region was evident. The sequence upstream of MAT2 contained numerous candidate transposase genes. These results demonstrate a novel means involving the segmental translocation of a chromosomal region by which the ability to undergo self-fertilization may be acquired. The results are also discussed in relation to their significance in indicating that heterothallism may be ancestral within the Aspergillus section Fumigati. PMID:17384199

  13. Trapping toxins within lipid droplets is a resistance mechanism in fungi.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wenqiang; Zhang, Ming; Zheng, Sha; Li, Ying; Li, Xiaobin; Li, Wei; Li, Gang; Lin, Zhaomin; Xie, Zhiyu; Zhao, Zuntian; Lou, Hongxiang

    2015-10-14

    Lipid droplets (LDs) act as intracellular storage organelles in most types of cells and are principally involved in energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. However, the role of LDs in resistance to toxins in fungi remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the trapping of endogenous toxins by LDs is a self-resistance mechanism in the toxin producer, while absorbing external lipophilic toxins is a resistance mechanism in the toxin recipient that acts to quench the production of reactive oxygen species. We found that an endolichenic fungus that generates phototoxic perylenequinones (PQs) trapped the PQs inside LDs. Using a model that incorporates the fungicidal action of hypocrellin A (HA), a PQ derivative, we showed that yeast cells escaped killing by trapping toxins inside LDs. Furthermore, LD-deficient mutants were hypersusceptible to HA-mediated phototoxins and other fungicides. Our study identified a previously unrecognised function of LDs in fungi that has implications for our understanding of environmental adaptation strategies for fungi and antifungal drug discovery.

  14. Trapping toxins within lipid droplets is a resistance mechanism in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wenqiang; Zhang, Ming; Zheng, Sha; Li, Ying; Li, Xiaobin; Li, Wei; Li, Gang; Lin, Zhaomin; Xie, Zhiyu; Zhao, Zuntian; Lou, Hongxiang

    2015-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) act as intracellular storage organelles in most types of cells and are principally involved in energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. However, the role of LDs in resistance to toxins in fungi remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the trapping of endogenous toxins by LDs is a self-resistance mechanism in the toxin producer, while absorbing external lipophilic toxins is a resistance mechanism in the toxin recipient that acts to quench the production of reactive oxygen species. We found that an endolichenic fungus that generates phototoxic perylenequinones (PQs) trapped the PQs inside LDs. Using a model that incorporates the fungicidal action of hypocrellin A (HA), a PQ derivative, we showed that yeast cells escaped killing by trapping toxins inside LDs. Furthermore, LD-deficient mutants were hypersusceptible to HA-mediated phototoxins and other fungicides. Our study identified a previously unrecognised function of LDs in fungi that has implications for our understanding of environmental adaptation strategies for fungi and antifungal drug discovery. PMID:26463663

  15. Biological activities of ophiobolin K and 6-epi-ophiobolin K produced by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus calidoustus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The endophytic fungus, Aspergillus calidoustus, was isolated from the plant species Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae). A dichloromethane extract of the fungus displayed antifungal, antiprotozoal, and cytotoxic activities. Aspergillus calidoustus was identified using molecular, physiological and m...

  16. Specificity in the symbiotic association between fungus-growing ants and protective Pseudonocardia bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cafaro, Matías J.; Poulsen, Michael; Little, Ainslie E. F.; Price, Shauna L.; Gerardo, Nicole M.; Wong, Bess; Stuart, Alison E.; Larget, Bret; Abbot, Patrick; Currie, Cameron R.

    2011-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini) engage in a mutualism with a fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source, but successful fungus cultivation is threatened by microfungal parasites (genus Escovopsis). Actinobacteria (genus Pseudonocardia) associate with most of the phylogenetic diversity of fungus-growing ants; are typically maintained on the cuticle of workers; and infection experiments, bioassay challenges and chemical analyses support a role of Pseudonocardia in defence against Escovopsis through antibiotic production. Here we generate a two-gene phylogeny for Pseudonocardia associated with 124 fungus-growing ant colonies, evaluate patterns of ant–Pseudonocardia specificity and test Pseudonocardia antibiotic activity towards Escovopsis. We show that Pseudonocardia associated with fungus-growing ants are not monophyletic: the ants have acquired free-living strains over the evolutionary history of the association. Nevertheless, our analysis reveals a significant pattern of specificity between clades of Pseudonocardia and groups of related fungus-growing ants. Furthermore, antibiotic assays suggest that despite Escovopsis being generally susceptible to inhibition by diverse Actinobacteria, the ant-derived Pseudonocardia inhibit Escovopsis more strongly than they inhibit other fungi, and are better at inhibiting this pathogen than most environmental Pseudonocardia strains tested. Our findings support a model that many fungus-growing ants maintain specialized Pseudonocardia symbionts that help with garden defence. PMID:21106596

  17. Detection of fungus-infected corn kernels using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy and color imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of grain products by fungus can lead to economic losses and is deleterious to human and livestock health. Detection and quantification of fungus-infected corn kernels would be adventitious for producers and breeders in evaluating quality and in selecting hybrids with resistance to inf...

  18. Using copper sulfate to control egg fungus at Keo Fish Farm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Keo Fish Farm is the biggest producer of hybrid striped bass fry in the world. The hatchery manager asked about treatments to control fungus on eggs which occurred fairly often. Our lab has been working on gaining FDA-approval to use copper sulfate to control fungus on catfish eggs, so we were con...

  19. Naphthalene, an insect repellent, is produced by Muscodor vitigenus, a novel endophytic fungus

    Treesearch

    Bryn H. Daisy; Gary A. Strobel; Uvidelio Castillo; David Ezra; Joe Sears; David K. Weaver; Justin B. Runyon

    2002-01-01

    Muscodor vitigenus is a recently described endophytic fungus of Paullinia paullinioides, a liana growing in the understorey of the rainforests of the Peruvian Amazon. This fungus produces naphthalene under certain cultural conditions. Naphthalene produced by M. vitigenus was identified by gas chromatography/mass...

  20. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France.

    PubMed

    Campana, Michael G; Kurata, Naoko P; Foster, Jeffrey T; Helgen, Lauren E; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Fleischer, Robert C; Helgen, Kristofer M

    2017-09-01

    White-nose syndrome, first diagnosed in North America in 2006, causes mass deaths among bats in North America. We found the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in a 1918 sample collected in Europe, where bats have now adapted to the fungus. These results are consistent with a Eurasian origin of the pathogen.

  1. Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus and tolerance towards copper-based wood preservatives

    Treesearch

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a...

  2. Association of the Pitch Canker Fungus with Cones and Seeds of Pines

    Treesearch

    L. David Dwinell

    1998-01-01

    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp.pini, causes the mortality of female flowers and mature cones, and can infect and destroy gametophyte tissues of seeds of several pine species in the southeastern U.S. The fungus can also be associated with the seed coats of apparently healthy, viable pine seeds. The pitch canker...

  3. Bioproducts and morphological features of diverse isolates of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aureobasidium pullulans is a fungus included among the “black yeasts.” Although many strains are predominantly yeast-like, the species is actually polymorphic, exhibiting a variety of complex forms. The fungus is ubiquitous, routinely found on the surface of leaves, wood, painted walls, etc. We rece...

  4. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Michael G.; Kurata, Naoko P.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Helgen, Lauren E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, first diagnosed in North America in 2006, causes mass deaths among bats in North America. We found the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in a 1918 sample collected in Europe, where bats have now adapted to the fungus. These results are consistent with a Eurasian origin of the pathogen. PMID:28820367

  5. Fun Microbiology: Using a Plant Pathogenic Fungus To Demonstrate Koch's Postulates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James K.; Orsted, Kathy M.; Warnes, Carl E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment using a plant pathogenic fungus in which students learn to follow aseptic techniques, grow and produce spores of a fungus, use a hemacytometer for enumerating spores, prepare serial dilutions, grow and inoculate plants, isolate a pure culture using agar streak plates, and demonstrate the four steps of Koch's postulates.…

  6. Mating and Progeny Isolation in The Corn Smut Fungus Ustilago maydis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The corn smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis (U. maydis) (DC.) Corda, is a semi-obligate plant pathogenic fungus in the phylum Basidiomycota (Alexopoulos, Mims and Blackwell, 1996). The fungus can be easily cultured in its haploid yeast phase on common laboratory media. However, to complete its sexual cy...

  7. Fungus gnats and Pythium in the attack on greenhouse plants: conspirators or just cohabitants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research conducted by collaborating Cornell University and USDA-ARS scientists investigated the potential for fungus gnats to vector Pythium root-rot pathogens. Fungus gnat larvae readily consumed Pythium oospores; the spores survived passage through the larval gut and, upon defecation, were able to...

  8. Fun Microbiology: Using a Plant Pathogenic Fungus To Demonstrate Koch's Postulates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James K.; Orsted, Kathy M.; Warnes, Carl E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment using a plant pathogenic fungus in which students learn to follow aseptic techniques, grow and produce spores of a fungus, use a hemacytometer for enumerating spores, prepare serial dilutions, grow and inoculate plants, isolate a pure culture using agar streak plates, and demonstrate the four steps of Koch's postulates.…

  9. Reproduction of a woodwasp, Urocerus japonicus (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) using no maternal symbiotic fungus

    Treesearch

    Hideshi Fukuda

    2003-01-01

    Most woodwasps (Siricidae) are symbiotically associated with the specific fungus, Amylostereum spp. Female adults inoculate the fungus during their oviposition in sapwood of the host trees (Morgan 1968). Woodwasp larvae can digest sapwood with low nutritional quality with the aid of symbiosis (Kukor and Martin 1983). In the earlier study, we...

  10. Genome Sequence of the Mucoromycotina Fungus Umbelopsis isabellina, an Effective Producer of Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Itaru; Tamano, Koichi; Yamane, Noriko; Ishii, Tomoko; Miura, Ai; Umemura, Myco; Terai, Goro; Baker, Scott E.; Koike, Hideaki; Machida, Masayuki

    2014-02-27

    Umbelopsis isabellina is a fungus in the subdivision Mucoromycotina, many members of which have been shown to be oleaginous and have become important organisms for producing oil because of their high level of intracellular lipid accumulation from various feedstocks. The genome sequence of U. isabellina NBRC 7884 was determined and annotated, and this information might provide insights into the oleaginous properties of this fungus.

  11. Specificity in the symbiotic association between fungus-growing ants and protective Pseudonocardia bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cafaro, Matías J; Poulsen, Michael; Little, Ainslie E F; Price, Shauna L; Gerardo, Nicole M; Wong, Bess; Stuart, Alison E; Larget, Bret; Abbot, Patrick; Currie, Cameron R

    2011-06-22

    Fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini) engage in a mutualism with a fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source, but successful fungus cultivation is threatened by microfungal parasites (genus Escovopsis). Actinobacteria (genus Pseudonocardia) associate with most of the phylogenetic diversity of fungus-growing ants; are typically maintained on the cuticle of workers; and infection experiments, bioassay challenges and chemical analyses support a role of Pseudonocardia in defence against Escovopsis through antibiotic production. Here we generate a two-gene phylogeny for Pseudonocardia associated with 124 fungus-growing ant colonies, evaluate patterns of ant-Pseudonocardia specificity and test Pseudonocardia antibiotic activity towards Escovopsis. We show that Pseudonocardia associated with fungus-growing ants are not monophyletic: the ants have acquired free-living strains over the evolutionary history of the association. Nevertheless, our analysis reveals a significant pattern of specificity between clades of Pseudonocardia and groups of related fungus-growing ants. Furthermore, antibiotic assays suggest that despite Escovopsis being generally susceptible to inhibition by diverse Actinobacteria, the ant-derived Pseudonocardia inhibit Escovopsis more strongly than they inhibit other fungi, and are better at inhibiting this pathogen than most environmental Pseudonocardia strains tested. Our findings support a model that many fungus-growing ants maintain specialized Pseudonocardia symbionts that help with garden defence.

  12. Differential response by Melaleuca quinquenervia trees to attack by the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca, paperbark tree) is an exotic invasive tree in Florida, Hawaii, and some Caribbean islands. Puccinia psidii (guava rust-fungus) is a Neotropical rust fungus, reported to attack many species in the Myrtaceae and one genus in the Heteropyxidaceae, both members of the...

  13. [Fungus, Metarrhizium anisopliae, as a possible regulator of the number of horseflies].

    PubMed

    Saubenova, O G

    1976-01-01

    In water bodies of the flood-plains of the Ili and Turgen rivers (Alma-Ata district) there were found larvae of Tabanus autumnalis infected with the fungus Metarrhizium anisopliae. Experiments on the infection of T. autumnalis with this fungus yielded 100% mortality of larvae and adult insects. The possibility of creation of an artificial infection nidus under natural conditions was established.

  14. Nigrosphaerin A., a new isachromene derivative from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sphaerica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nigrosphaerin A, a new isochromene derivative (1) was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sphaerica and chemically identified as 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4,6,8-trihydroxy-1H-isochromen-1-one-6-O-ß-D- glucopyranoside. In addition nineteen known compounds (2-20) isolated from the same fungus...

  15. Osa-miR169 Negatively Regulates Rice Immunity against the Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Sheng-Li; Li, Jin-Lu; Hu, Xiao-Hong; Wang, He; Cao, Xiao-Long; Xu, Yong-Ju; Zhao, Zhi-Xue; Xiao, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Nan; Fan, Jing; Huang, Fu; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2017-01-01

    miR169 is a conserved microRNA (miRNA) family involved in plant development and stress-induced responses. However, how miR169 functions in rice immunity remains unclear. Here, we show that miR169 acts as a negative regulator in rice immunity against the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae by repressing the expression of nuclear factor Y-A (NF-YA) genes. The accumulation of miR169 was significantly increased in a susceptible accession but slightly fluctuated in a resistant accession upon M. oryzae infection. Consistently, the transgenic lines overexpressing miR169a became hyper-susceptible to different M. oryzae strains associated with reduced expression of defense-related genes and lack of hydrogen peroxide accumulation at the infection site. Consequently, the expression of its target genes, the NF-YA family members, was down-regulated by the overexpression of miR169a at either transcriptional or translational level. On the contrary, overexpression of a target mimicry that acts as a sponge to trap miR169a led to enhanced resistance to M. oryzae. In addition, three of miR169’s target genes were also differentially up-regulated in the resistant accession upon M. oryzae infection. Taken together, our data indicate that miR169 negatively regulates rice immunity against M. oryzae by differentially repressing its target genes and provide the potential to engineer rice blast resistance via a miRNA. PMID:28144248

  16. Biotransformation of an africanane sesquiterpene by the fungus Mucor plumbeus.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Braulio M; Díaz, Carmen E; Amador, Leonardo J; Reina, Matías; López-Rodriguez, Matías; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2017-03-01

    Biotransformation of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one angelate by the fungus Mucor plumbeus afforded as main products 6α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate and 1α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate, which had been obtained, together with the substrate, from transformed root cultures of Bethencourtia hermosae. This fact shows that the enzyme system involved in these hydroxylations in both organisms, the fungus and the plant, acts with the same regio- and stereospecificity. In addition another twelve derivatives were isolated in the incubation of the substrate, which were identified as the (2'R,3'R)- and (2'S,3'S)-epoxy derivatives of the substrate and of the 6α- and 1α-hydroxy alcohols, the 8β-(2'R,3'R)- and 8β-(2'S,3'S)-epoxyangelate of 8β,15-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one, the hydrolysis product of the substrate, and three isomers of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 2ξ,3ξ-dihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate. The insect antifeedant effects of the pure compounds were tested against chewing and sucking insect species along with their selective cytotoxicity against insect (Sf9) and mammalian (CHO) cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transformation of Metalaxyl by the Fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum†

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Shu-Yen; Freyer, Alan J.; Bollag, Jean-Marc

    1989-01-01

    The fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum (Cohn) Schroeter was found to transform the fungicide metalaxyl [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester] in pure culture. After 21 days of incubation in a basal medium amended with 5 μg of metalaxyl per ml, more than 80% of the compound was transformed by the fungus. The transformation rates decreased as the concentrations of metalaxyl increased from 5 to 100 μg/ml. No transformation was observed when the concentration of metalaxyl was higher than 200 μg/ml. Two isomeric metabolites and a mixture of two other isomeric metabolites were isolated from the organic extract of the growth medium and identified as N-(2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylphenyl)-N- and N-(2-hydroxymethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester and N-(3-hydroxy- and N-(5-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester according to their mass-spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance-spectral characteristics. Benzylic hydroxylation of the methyl side chains and/or aromatic hydroxylation appeared to be the major reactions involved in the metabolism of metalaxyl. PMID:16347836

  18. The carbon starvation response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus

    SciTech Connect

    Ellstrom, Magnus; Shah, Firoz; Johansson, Tomas; Ahren, Dag; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders

    2015-03-16

    The amounts of carbon allocated to the fungal partner in ectomycorrhizal associations can vary substantially depending on the plant growth and the soil nutrient conditions, and the fungus may frequently be confronted with limitations in carbon. We used chemical analysis and transcriptome profiling to examine the physiological response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus to carbon starvation during axenic cultivation. Carbon starvation induced a decrease in the biomass. Concomitantly, ammonium, cell wall material (chitin) and proteolytic enzymes were released into the medium, which suggest autolysis. Compared with the transcriptome of actively growing hyphae, about 45% of the transcripts analyzed were differentially regulated during C-starvation. Induced during starvation were transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes such as peptidases, chitinases and laccases. In parallel, transcripts of N-transporters were upregulated, which suggest that some of the released nitrogen compounds were re-assimilated by the mycelium. The observed changes suggest that the carbon starvation response in P. involutus is associated with complex cellular changes that involves autolysis, recycling of intracellular compounds by autophagy and reabsorption of the extracellular released material. The study provides molecular markers that can be used to examine the role of autolysis for the turnover and survival of the ectomycorrhizal mycelium in soils.

  19. The carbon starvation response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus

    DOE PAGES

    Ellstrom, Magnus; Shah, Firoz; Johansson, Tomas; ...

    2015-03-16

    The amounts of carbon allocated to the fungal partner in ectomycorrhizal associations can vary substantially depending on the plant growth and the soil nutrient conditions, and the fungus may frequently be confronted with limitations in carbon. We used chemical analysis and transcriptome profiling to examine the physiological response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus to carbon starvation during axenic cultivation. Carbon starvation induced a decrease in the biomass. Concomitantly, ammonium, cell wall material (chitin) and proteolytic enzymes were released into the medium, which suggest autolysis. Compared with the transcriptome of actively growing hyphae, about 45% of the transcripts analyzed weremore » differentially regulated during C-starvation. Induced during starvation were transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes such as peptidases, chitinases and laccases. In parallel, transcripts of N-transporters were upregulated, which suggest that some of the released nitrogen compounds were re-assimilated by the mycelium. The observed changes suggest that the carbon starvation response in P. involutus is associated with complex cellular changes that involves autolysis, recycling of intracellular compounds by autophagy and reabsorption of the extracellular released material. The study provides molecular markers that can be used to examine the role of autolysis for the turnover and survival of the ectomycorrhizal mycelium in soils.« less

  20. [Chemical constituents of an endophytic fungus from Annona muricata].

    PubMed

    Ge, Hanlin; Dai, Jungui

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of an endophytic fungus, F-31, from Annona muricata and search antitumor natural products. After scaling up, the fermentation broth and mycelia were extracted by macroporous resin and chromatographied by silica gel column, Sephadex LH-20 gel column and semi-preparative HPLC. The structures of compounds were determined by the means of extensive spectroscopic data The activity of the compounds were evaluated through MTT assay. Six compounds were isolated from the fermentation broth and mycelia of this fungus, their structures were identified as 5-(3-hydroxybutyl)furan-2(5H)-one(1), chloranthalactone E(2), 5, 7-dimethyl-6-hydroxycoumarin(3), 1, 2, 4-triazole-(1'R, 2'R, 3'R, 4'R)-nucleosides(4), L-tryptophan(5), L-phenylalanine(6). The in vitro pharmalogical evaluation results displayed that the above compounds exhibited no inhibitory effects on the proliferation of six tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7). Among these obtained compounds, compound 1 was a new compound.

  1. Biosolubilization of coal by a genetically characterized fungus

    SciTech Connect

    Odom, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    Biosolubilization of lignite at ambient temperatures and pressure by the genetically well characterized fungus Neurospora crassa is reported. The fungus also demonstrates the ability to survive on media containing solubilized coal compounds as the sole carbon source. An extracellular protein with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 84,000 daltons that functions in the biosolubilizations process has been isolated and purified to apparent homogeneity. Enhanced secretions of this protein can be induced by the treatment of the growing culture with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Characterization of the heat stability of the solubilizing agent led to the discovery of another, more heat stable, putative solubilization factor having a molecular weight of less than 10,000 daltons. This factor is remarkably similar to a factor that has been previously discovered in another microbial system. Several sources of non-biological solubilization activity were discovered and examined, as well as finding that a common extracellular enzyme, laccase, has the apparent ability to heighten the degree of biosolubilization brought about by the purified solubilizing factor. The amino acid composition of the biologically active protein was determined and found to be distinct from that of laccase. Finally, electrophoretic separation of the products of solubilized lignite indicate a possible difference in breakdown products between coal treated with different chemical and biological agents.

  2. Homoharringtonine production by endophytic fungus isolated from Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoping; Li, Wu; Yuan, Mu; Li, Congfa; Liu, Sixin; Jiang, Chunjie; Wu, Yanchun; Cai, Kun; Liu, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Homoharringtonine (HHT), a natural plant alkaloid derived from Cephalotaxus, has demonstrated to have a broad antitumor activity and efficacy in treating human chronic myeloid leukemia. An alternative source is required to substitute for the slow-growing and scarce Cephalotaxus to meet the increasing demand of the drug market. The objective of this study was to screen HHT-producing endophytic fungi from Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li. By screening 213 fungal isolates obtained from the bark parts of Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li, one isolate was found to be capable of biosynthesizing HHT. The fungus was identified as Alternaria tenuissima by morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis and was named as CH1307. HHT obtained from CH1307 was analyzed through the HPLC and LC-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The extract of the fermentation broth of CH1307 showed antiproliferative activities against K562 (chronic myelocytic leukemia), NB4 (acute promyelocytic leukemia), and HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia) human cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 67.25 ± 4.26, 65.02 ± 4.75, and 99.23 ± 4.26 μg/mL, respectively. The findings suggest that HHT-producing endophytic fungus, Alternaria tenuissima CH1307 might provide a promising source for the research and application of HHT.

  3. Secondary metabolite arsenal of an opportunistic pathogenic fungus.

    PubMed

    Bignell, Elaine; Cairns, Timothy C; Throckmorton, Kurt; Nierman, William C; Keller, Nancy P

    2016-12-05

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a versatile fungus able to successfully exploit diverse environments from mammalian lungs to agricultural waste products. Among its many fitness attributes are dozens of genetic loci containing biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) producing bioactive small molecules (often referred to as secondary metabolites or natural products) that provide growth advantages to the fungus dependent on environment. Here we summarize the current knowledge of these BGCs-18 of which can be named to product-their expression profiles in vivo, and which BGCs may enhance virulence of this opportunistic human pathogen. Furthermore, we find extensive evidence for the presence of many of these BGCs, or similar BGCs, in distantly related genera including the emerging pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome in bats, and suggest such BGCs may be predictive of pathogenic potential in other fungi.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. The response of filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans to flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Slana, Marko; Zigon, Dušan; Makovec, Tomaž; Lenasi, Helena

    2011-08-01

    The saprophytic fungus Rhizopus nigricans constitutes a serious problem when thriving on gathered crops. The identification of any compounds, especially natural ones, that inhibit fungal growth, may therefore be important. During its life cycle, Rhizopus nigricans encounters many compounds, among them the flavonoids, plant secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Although not being a plant pathogen, Rhizopus nigricans may interact with these compounds in the same way as plant pathogens--in response to the fungitoxic effect of flavonoids the fungi transform them into less toxic metabolites. We have studied the interaction of R. nigricans with some flavonoids. Inhibition of hyphal spreading (from 3% to 100%) was observed by 300 μM flavones, flavanones and isoflavones, irrespective of their basic structure, oxidized or reduced C-ring, and orientation of the B-ring. However, a hydrophobic A-ring was important for the toxicity. R. nigricans transformed some of the flavonoids into glucosylated products. Recognition of substrates for glucosylating enzyme(s) did not correlate with their fungitoxic effect but depended exclusively on the presence of a free -OH group in the flavonoid A-ring and of a hydrophobic B-ring. Although the fungus produced glucosyltransferase constitutively, an additional amount of the enzyme was induced by the substrate flavonoid. Moreover, effective detoxification was shown to require the presence of glucose.

  5. Oxidative degradation of phenanthrene by the ligininolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, K.E.; Moen, M.A. ); Wen Zhigai; Green, B. )

    1992-06-01

    The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium oxidized phenanthrene and phenanthrene-9,10-quinone (PQ) at their C-9 and C-10 positions to give a ring-fission product, 2,2[prime]-diphenic acid (DPA), which was identified in chromatographic and isotope dilution experiments. DPA formation from phenanthrene was somewhat greater in low-nitrogen cultures than in high-nitrogen cultures and did not occur in uninoculated cultures. The oxidation of PQ to DPA involved both fungal and abiotic mechanisms, was unaffected by the level of nitrogen added, and was significantly faster than the cleavage of phenanthrene to DPA. Phenanthrene-trans-9,10-dihydrodiol, which was previously shown to be the principal phenathrene metabolite in nonligninolytic P. chrysosporium cultures, was not formed in the ligninolytic cultures employed here. These results suggest that phenanthrene degradation by ligninolytic P. chrysosporium proceeds in order from phenanthrene [yields] PQ [yields] DPA, involves both ligninolytic and nonligninolytic enzymes, and is not initiated by a classical microsomal cytochrome P-450. The extracellular lignin peroxidases of P. chrysosporium were not able to oxidize phenanthrene in vitro and therefore are also unlikely to catalyze the first step of phenanthrene degradation in vivo. Both phenanthrene and PQ were mineralized to similar extents by the fungus, which supports the intermediacy of PQ in phenanthrene degradation, but both compounds were mineralized significantly less than the structurally related lignin peroxidase substrate pyrene was.

  6. Oxidative degradation of phenanthrene by the ligninolytic fungus phanerochaete chrysosposium

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, K.E.; Gai, W.Z.; Green, B.; Moen, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium oxidized phenanthrene and phenanthrene-9,10-quinone (PQ) at their C-9 and C-10 positions to give a ring-fission product, 2,2'-diphenic acid (DPA), which was identified in chromatographic and isotope dilution experiments. DPA formation from phenanthrene was somewhat greater in low-nitrogen (ligninolytic) cultures than in high-nitrogen (nonligninolytic) cultures and did not occur in uninoculated cultures. The oxidation of PQ to DPA involved both fungal and abiotic mechanisms, was unaffected by the level of nitrogen added, and was significantly faster than the cleavage of phenanthrene to DPA. Phenanthrene-trans-9,10-dihydrodiol, which was previously shown to be the principal phenanthrene metabolite in nonligninolytic P. chrysosporium cultures, was not formed in the ligninolytic cultures employed here. These results suggest that phenanthrene degradation by ligninolytic P. chrysosporium proceeds in order from phenanthrene -> PQ -> DPA, involves both ligninolytic and nonligninolytic enzymes, and is not initiated by a classical microsomal cytochrome P-450. The extracellular lignin peroxidases of P. chrysosporium were not able to oxidize phenanthrene in vitro and therefore are also unlikely to catalyze the first step of phenanthrene degradation in vivo. Both phenanthrene and PQ were mineralized to similar extents by the fungus, which supports the intermediacy of PQ in phenanthrene degradation, but both compounds were mineralized significantly less than the structurally related lignin peroxidase substrate pyrene was.

  7. The carbon starvation response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus.

    PubMed

    Ellström, Magnus; Shah, Firoz; Johansson, Tomas; Ahrén, Dag; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders

    2015-04-01

    The amounts of carbon allocated to the fungal partner in ectomycorrhizal associations can vary substantially depending on the plant growth and the soil nutrient conditions, and the fungus may frequently be confronted with limitations in carbon. We used chemical analysis and transcriptome profiling to examine the physiological response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus to carbon starvation during axenic cultivation. Carbon starvation induced a decrease in the biomass. Concomitantly, ammonium, cell wall material (chitin) and proteolytic enzymes were released into the medium, which suggest autolysis. Compared with the transcriptome of actively growing hyphae, about 45% of the transcripts analyzed were differentially regulated during C-starvation. Induced during starvation were transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes such as peptidases, chitinases and laccases. In parallel, transcripts of N-transporters were upregulated, which suggest that some of the released nitrogen compounds were re-assimilated by the mycelium. The observed changes suggest that the carbon starvation response in P. involutus is associated with complex cellular changes that involves autolysis, recycling of intracellular compounds by autophagy and reabsorption of the extracellular released material. The study provides molecular markers that can be used to examine the role of autolysis for the turnover and survival of the ectomycorrhizal mycelium in soils.

  8. No sex in fungus-farming ants or their crops

    PubMed Central

    Himler, Anna G.; Caldera, Eric J.; Baer, Boris C.; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Mueller, Ulrich G.

    2009-01-01

    Asexual reproduction imposes evolutionary handicaps on asexual species, rendering them prone to extinction, because asexual reproduction generates novel genotypes and purges deleterious mutations at lower rates than sexual reproduction. Here, we report the first case of complete asexuality in ants, the fungus-growing ant Mycocepurus smithii, where queens reproduce asexually but workers are sterile, which is doubly enigmatic because the clonal colonies of M. smithii also depend on clonal fungi for food. Degenerate female mating anatomy, extensive field and laboratory surveys, and DNA fingerprinting implicate complete asexuality in this widespread ant species. Maternally inherited bacteria (e.g. Wolbachia, Cardinium) and the fungal cultivars can be ruled out as agents inducing asexuality. M. smithii societies of clonal females provide a unique system to test theories of parent–offspring conflict and reproductive policing in social insects. Asexuality of both ant farmer and fungal crop challenges traditional views proposing that sexual farmer ants outpace coevolving sexual crop pathogens, and thus compensate for vulnerabilities of their asexual crops. Either the double asexuality of both farmer and crop may permit the host to fully exploit advantages of asexuality for unknown reasons or frequent switching between crops (symbiont reassociation) generates novel ant–fungus combinations, which may compensate for any evolutionary handicaps of asexuality in M. smithii. PMID:19369264

  9. The carbon starvation response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus

    PubMed Central

    Ellström, Magnus; Shah, Firoz; Johansson, Tomas; Ahrén, Dag; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The amounts of carbon allocated to the fungal partner in ectomycorrhizal associations can vary substantially depending on the plant growth and the soil nutrient conditions, and the fungus may frequently be confronted with limitations in carbon. We used chemical analysis and transcriptome profiling to examine the physiological response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus to carbon starvation during axenic cultivation. Carbon starvation induced a decrease in the biomass. Concomitantly, ammonium, cell wall material (chitin) and proteolytic enzymes were released into the medium, which suggest autolysis. Compared with the transcriptome of actively growing hyphae, about 45% of the transcripts analyzed were differentially regulated during C-starvation. Induced during starvation were transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes such as peptidases, chitinases and laccases. In parallel, transcripts of N-transporters were upregulated, which suggest that some of the released nitrogen compounds were re-assimilated by the mycelium. The observed changes suggest that the carbon starvation response in P. involutus is associated with complex cellular changes that involves autolysis, recycling of intracellular compounds by autophagy and reabsorption of the extracellular released material. The study provides molecular markers that can be used to examine the role of autolysis for the turnover and survival of the ectomycorrhizal mycelium in soils. PMID:25778509

  10. Expression of organophosphate hydrolase in the filamentous fungus Gliocladium virens.

    PubMed

    Dave, K I; Lauriano, C; Xu, B; Wild, J R; Kenerley, C M

    1994-05-01

    The broad-spectrum organophosphate hydrolase (OPH; EC 3.1.8.1) encoded by the organophosphate-degrading gene (opd) from Pseudomonas diminuta MG and Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551 possesses capabilities of both P-O bond hydrolysis (e.g. paraoxon) and P-F bond hydrolysis [e.g. sarin and diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)]. In the present study a 9.4-kb plasmid, pCL1, was used to transform the saprophytic fungus Gliocladium virens. pCL1 was derived from pJS294 by placing the fungal promoter (prom1) from Cochliobolus heterostrophus upstream and the trpC terminator from Aspergillus nidulans down-stream of the opd gene. Southern analysis of restricted genomic DNA from various transformants indicated that integration occurred non-specifically at multiple sites. Western blot analysis of mycelial extracts from transformants confirmed the production of a processed form of the enzyme in the fungus. Maximal levels of OPH activity (rate of p-nitrophenol production from paraoxon) were observed after 168 h of culture and activity levels correlated with biomass production in mature vegetative growth.

  11. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Michael J; De Beer, Z Wilhelm; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Brenda D; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Lombard, Lorenzo; Crous, Pedro W

    2012-08-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms, for which the taxonomy and, in particular, a dual nomenclature system have frustrated and confused practitioners of plant pathology. The emergence of DNA sequencing has revealed cryptic taxa and revolutionized our understanding of relationships in the fungi. The impacts on plant pathology at every level are already immense and will continue to grow rapidly as new DNA sequencing technologies continue to emerge. DNA sequence comparisons, used to resolve a dual nomenclature problem for the first time only 19 years ago, have made it possible to approach a natural classification for the fungi and to abandon the confusing dual nomenclature system. The journey to a one fungus, one name taxonomic reality has been long and arduous, but its time has come. This will inevitably have a positive impact on plant pathology, plant pathologists and future students of this hugely important discipline on which the world depends for food security and plant health in general. This contemporary review highlights the problems of a dual nomenclature, especially its impact on plant pathogenic fungi, and charts the road to a one fungus, one name system that is rapidly drawing near. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Bracarense, Adriana A.P.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.

    2014-01-01

    Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration) in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 22 full factorial planning (ANOVA) and on a 23 factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC. PMID:24948950

  13. The Phosphatome of Medicinal and Edible Fungus Wolfiporia cocos.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenjun; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Shaopeng; Zheng, Yonglian; Chen, Ping; Xu, Xiaowen

    2017-09-12

    Wolfiporia cocos is an important medicinal and edible fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium has been used as a traditional medicine in China for centuries. However, the commercial production of W. cocos sclerotia is currently limited by shortages in pine wood resources. Since protein phosphatases (PPs) play significant roles in growth, signal transduction, development, metabolism, sexual reproduction, cell cycle, and environmental stress responses in fungi, the phosphatome of W. cocos was analyzed in this study by identifying PP genes, studying transcript profiles and assigning PPs to orthologous groups. Fifty-four putative PP genes were putatively identified in W. cocos genome based on homologous sequences searching using BLASTx program against the Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fusarium graminearum, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum databases. Based on known and presumed functions of orthologues of these PP genes found in other fungi, the putative roles of these W. cocos PPs in colonization, hyphal growth, sclerotial formation, secondary metabolism, and stress tolerance to environment were discussed in this study. And the level of transcripts from PP genes in the mycelium and sclerotium stages was also analyzed by qRT-PCR. Our study firstly identified and functional discussed the phosphatome in the medicinal and edible fungus W. cocos. The data from our study contribute to a better understanding of PPs potential roles in various cellar processes of W. cocos, and systematically provide comprehensive and novel insights into W. cocos economically important traits that could be extended to other fungi.

  14. Cytotoxic acyl amides from the soil fungus Gymnascella dankaliensis.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Lena; Aly, Amal H; Abdel-Aziz, Mohammed; Müller, Werner E G; Lin, Wenhan; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter

    2015-02-15

    The soil fungus Gymnascella dankaliensis was collected in the vicinity of the Giza pyramids, Egypt. When grown on solid rice medium the fungus yielded four new compounds including 11'-carboxygymnastatin N (1), gymnastatin S (2), dankamide (3), and aranorosin-2-methylether (4), the latter having been reported previously only as a semisynthetic compound. In addition, six known metabolites (5-10) were isolated. Addition of NaCl or KBr to the rice medium resulted in the accumulation of chlorinated or brominated compounds as indicated by LC-MS analysis due to the characteristic isotope patterns observed. From the rice medium spiked with 3.5% NaCl the known chlorinated compounds gymnastatin A (11) and gymnastatin B (12) were obtained. All isolated compounds were unambiguously structurally elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectral analysis (1D and 2D NMR, and mass spectrometry), as well as by comparison with the literature. Compounds 4, 7 and 11 showed potent cytotoxicity against the murine lymphoma cell line L5178Y (IC50 values 0.44, 0.58 and 0.64μM, respectively), whereas 12 exhibited moderate activity with an IC50 value of 5.80μM.

  15. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant–fungus agricultural symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai; Schiøtt, Morten; Chen, Zhensheng; Yang, Zhikai; Xie, Qiaolin; Ma, Chunyu; Deng, Yuan; Dikow, Rebecca B.; Rabeling, Christian; Nash, David R.; Wcislo, William T.; Brady, Seán G.; Schultz, Ted R.; Zhang, Guojie; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant–fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal cultivars. We show that ant subsistence farming probably originated in the early Tertiary (55–60 MYA), followed by further transitions to the farming of fully domesticated cultivars and leaf-cutting, both arising earlier than previously estimated. Evolutionary modifications in the ants include unprecedented rates of genome-wide structural rearrangement, early loss of arginine biosynthesis and positive selection on chitinase pathways. Modifications of fungal cultivars include loss of a key ligninase domain, changes in chitin synthesis and a reduction in carbohydrate-degrading enzymes as the ants gradually transitioned to functional herbivory. In contrast to human farming, increasing dependence on a single cultivar lineage appears to have been essential to the origin of industrial-scale ant agriculture. PMID:27436133

  16. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  17. Host deception: Predaceous fungus, esteya vermicola, entices pine wood nematode by mimicking the scent of its host pine for nutrient

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A nematophagous fungus, Esteya vermicola, is recorded as the first endoparasitic fungus of pine wood nematode (PWN), Burasphelenchus xylophilus, in the last century. E. vermicola exhibited high infectivity toward PWN in the laboratory conditions and conidia spraying of this fungus on Japanese red pi...

  18. Evidence refuting the contribution of the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides to the allergenicity of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    PubMed

    Hay, D B; Hart, B J; Douglas, A E

    1992-01-01

    This communication demonstrates unequivocally that the fungi associated with house dust mites do not contribute to mite allergenicity. The evidence is twofold: first, larval mites which lack fungi have allergen profiles indistinguishable from fungus-bearing adult mites. Second, the allergen profile of experimentally-derived fungus-free adult mites and mites re-fed the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides are identical.

  19. Towards an integrated understanding of the consequences of fungus domestication on the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some of the functional implications of this shift have recently been established. I review reports on the composition of the Macrotermitinae gut microbiota, evidence for a subfamily core gut microbiota, and the first insight into functional complementarity between fungal and gut symbionts. In addition, I argue that we need to explore the capacities of all members of the symbiotic communities, including better solidifying Termitomyces role(s) in order to understand putative complementary gut bacterial contributions. Approaches that integrate natural history and sequencing data to elucidate symbiont functions will be powerful, particularly if executed in comparative analyses across the well-established congruent termite-fungus phylogenies. This will allow for testing if gut communities have evolved in parallel with their hosts, with implications for our general understanding of the evolution of gut symbiont communities with hosts. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the response of the wood-rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune, to the biocontrol fungus, Trichoderma viride.

    PubMed

    Ujor, V C; Peiris, D G; Monti, M; Kang, A S; Clements, M O; Hedger, J N

    2012-04-01

    Investigation of changes in the protein profile of the wood-rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune, when paired against the biocontrol fungus, Trichoderma viride, for 48 h. Variations in protein profile resulting from contact with T. viride were assessed by spot separation using 2 dimensional protein gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS/MS protein identification. Contact with T. viride elicited a systematic response in S. commune, characterized by marked increases in proteins involved for transcription and translation (61%) and cell wall/hyphal biogenesis and stabilization (17%), whereas metabolism-associated proteins decreased in amounts (64%). Trichoderma viride, however, exhibited typical mycoparasitic behaviour with increases in the amounts of proteins involved in proteolysis and carbohydrate metabolism. The protein profile of S. commune confronted by T. viride indicates the up-regulation of mechanisms specifically targeted at the mycoparasitic machinery of T. viride, particularly cell wall lysis and antibiosis. The proteomic responses observed in S. commune may occur in natural environments, providing an insight to the mechanism involved in conferring resistance to mycoparasitic attack. This study, therefore, warrants further investigation for the targeted design of more robust biocontrol agents. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Julie M; Treece, Erin R; Trenary, Heather R; Brenneman, Jessica L; Flickner, Tressa J; Frommelt, Jonathan L; Oo, Zaw M; Patterson, Megan M; Rundle, William T; Valle, Olga V; Kim, Thomas D; Walker, Gary R; Cooper, Chester R

    2008-01-01

    Background Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus that afflicts immunocompromised individuals having lived or traveled in Southeast Asia. This species is unique in that it is the only dimorphic member of the genus. Dimorphism results from a process, termed phase transition, which is regulated by temperature of incubation. At room temperature, the fungus grows filamentously (mould phase), but at body temperature (37°C), a uninucleate yeast form develops that reproduces by fission. Formation of the yeast phase appears to be a requisite for pathogenicity. To date, no genes have been identified in P. marneffei that strictly induce mould-to-yeast phase conversion. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with morphogenesis, protein profiles were generated from the yeast and mould phases of P. marneffei. Results Whole cell proteins from the early stages of mould and yeast development in P. marneffei were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Selected proteins were recovered and sequenced by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Putative identifications were derived by searching available databases for homologous fungal sequences. Proteins found common to both mould and yeast phases included the signal transduction proteins cyclophilin and a RACK1-like ortholog, as well as those related to general metabolism, energy production, and protection from oxygen radicals. Many of the mould-specific proteins identified possessed similar functions. By comparison, proteins exhibiting increased expression during development of the parasitic yeast phase comprised those involved in heat-shock responses, general metabolism, and cell-wall biosynthesis, as well as a small GTPase that regulates nuclear membrane transport and mitotic processes in fungi. The cognate gene encoding the latter protein, designated RanA, was subsequently cloned and characterized. The P. marneffei RanA protein sequence, which contained the

  2. Directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance

    PubMed Central

    de Crecy, Eudes; Jaronski, Stefan; Lyons, Benjamin; Lyons, Thomas J; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2009-01-01

    Background Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Consequently, there is tremendous interest in methodology that can use the power of genetics to develop strains with improved performance. For example, Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad host range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. However, it use is limited by the relatively low tolerance of this species to abiotic stresses such as heat, with most strains displaying little to no growth between 35–37°C. In this study, we used a newly developed automated continuous culture method called the Evolugator™, which takes advantage of a natural selection-adaptation strategy, to select for thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae strain 2575 displaying robust growth at 37°C. Results Over a 4 month time course, 22 cycles of growth and dilution were used to select 2 thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae. Both variants displayed robust growth at 36.5°C, whereas only one was able to grow at 37°C. Insect bioassays using Melanoplus sanguinipes (grasshoppers) were also performed to determine if thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae retained entomopathogenicity. Assays confirmed that thermotolerant variants were, indeed, entomopathogenic, albeit with complex alterations in virulence parameters such as lethal dose responses (LD50) and median survival times (ST50). Conclusion We report the experimental evolution of a filamentous fungus via the novel application of a powerful new continuous culture device. This is the first example of using continuous culture to select for complex phenotypes such as thermotolerance. Temperature adapted variants of the insect-pathogenic, filamentous fungus M. anisopliae were isolated and demonstrated to show vigorous growth at a temperature that is inhibitory for the parent strain. Insect virulence assays confirmed that pathogenicity

  3. Maxillary fungus ball: zinc-oxide endodontic materials as a risk factor.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, P; Mensi, M; Marsili, F; Piccioni, M; Salgarello, S; Gilberti, E; Apostoli, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the correlation between endodontic treatment on maxillary teeth and fungus ball with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement of zinc and other metals (barium, lead and copper) in fungus ball samples. Samples of normal maxillary mucosa were used as comparison. Metal concentration was also measured in several endodontic materials. A significant difference was found between the concentration of zinc and copper in fungus ball compared to normal mucosa. Metal distribution was more similar in fungus ball and in the endodontic materials tested than normal mucosa. The similar metal concentration in the endodontic materials and fungus ball suggests that endodontic materials play a role in the pathogenesis of fungus ball. Endodontic materials accidentally pushed into the maxillary sinus during endodontic treatments may play a crucial role. Dentists should be as careful as possible when treating maxillary teeth to avoid perforating the maxillary sinus floor; the use of zinc-free endodontic materials, as zinc is a metal that plays a pivotal role in fungus growth, should be encouraged.

  4. Molecular characterization of a seed transmitted clavicipitaceous fungus occurring on dicotyledoneous plants (Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ulrike; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A; Markert, Anne; Kucht, Sabine; Gross, Julia; Kauf, Nicole; Kuzma, Monika; Zych, Monika; Lamshöft, Marc; Furmanowa, Miroslawa; Knoop, Volker; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2006-08-01

    Ergoline alkaloids (syn. ergot alkaloids) are constituents of clavicipitaceous fungi (Ascomycota) and of one particular dicotyledonous plant family, the Convolvulaceae. While the biology of fungal ergoline alkaloids is rather well understood, the evolutionary and biosynthetic origin of ergoline alkaloids within the family Convolvulaceae is unknown. To investigate the possible origin of ergoline alkaloids from a plant-associated fungus, 12 endophytic fungi and one epibiotic fungus were isolated from an ergoline alkaloid-containing Convolvulaceae plant, Ipomoea asarifolia Roem. & Schult. Phylogenetic trees constructed from 18S rDNA genes as well as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealed that the epibiotic fungus belongs to the family Clavicipitaceae (Ascomycota) whereas none of the endophytic fungi does. In vitro and in vivo cultivation on intact plants gave no evidence that the endophytic fungi are responsible for the accumulation of ergoline alkaloids in I. asarifolia whereas the epibiotic clavicipitaceous fungus very likely is equipped with the genetic material to synthesize these compounds. This fungus resisted in vitro and in vivo cultivation and is seed transmitted. Several observations strongly indicate that this plant-associated fungus and its hitherto unidentified relatives occurring on different Convolvulaceae plants are responsible for the isolated occurrence of ergoline alkaloids in Convolvulaceae. This is the first report of an ergot alkaloid producing clavicipitaceous fungus associated with a dicotyledonous plant.

  5. Two new triterpenoids from fruiting bodies of fungus Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen-Zhu; Yin, Rong-Hua; Chen, He-Ping; Feng, Tao; Li, Zheng-Hui; Dong, Ze-Jun; Cui, Bao-Kai; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Two new triterpenoids, (24E)-9α,11α-epoxy-3β-hydroxylanosta-7,24-dien-26-al (1) and (22Z,24Z)-13-hydroxy-3-oxo-14(13 → 12)abeo-lanosta-8,22,24-trien-26,23-olide (2) were isolated from dried fruiting bodies of fungus Ganoderma lucidum. The structures of these two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 possessed a lanostane skeleton, while compound 2 was based on a rare 14 (13 → 12)abeo-lanostane skeleton with a 26,23-olide moiety. Both of them were evaluated for their antifungal and cytotoxic activities. Neither of them displayed obvious inhibition on Candida albicans and five human cancer cell lines.

  6. Cadmium-Responsive Thiols in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Paxillus involutus

    PubMed Central

    Courbot, Mikael; Diez, Laurent; Ruotolo, Roberta; Chalot, Michel; Leroy, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the sustained metal tolerance of ectomycorrhizal fungi are largely unknown. Some of the main mechanisms involved in metal detoxification appear to involve the chelation of metal ions in the cytosol with thiol-containing compounds, such as glutathione, phytochelatins, or metallothioneins. We used an improved high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous measurement of thiol-containing compounds from cysteine and its derivatives (γ-glutamylcysteine, glutathione) to higher-molecular-mass compounds (phytochelatins). We found that glutathione and γ-glutamylcysteine contents increased when the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus was exposed to cadmium. An additional compound with a 3-kDa molecular mass, most probably related to a metallothionein, increased drastically in mycelia exposed to cadmium. The relative lack of phytochelatins and the presence of a putative metallothionein suggest that ectomycorrhizal fungi may use a different means to tolerate heavy metals, such as Cd, than do their plant hosts. PMID:15574943

  7. Molecular Karyotype of the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gumer; Peñas, María M.; Baars, Johan J. P.; Mikosch, Thomas S. P.; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    1999-01-01

    The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible basidiomycete with increasing agricultural and biotechnological importance. Genetic manipulation and breeding of this organism are restricted because of the lack of knowledge about its genomic structure. In this study, we analyzed the genomic constitution of P. ostreatus by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis optimized for the separation of its chromosomes. We have determined that it contains 11 pairs of chromosomes with sizes ranging from 1.4 to 4.7 Mbp. In addition to chromosome separation, the use of single-copy DNA probes allowed us to resolve the ambiguities caused by chromosome comigration. When the two nuclei present in the dikaryon were separated by protoplasting, analysis of their karyotypes revealed length polymorphisms affecting various chromosomes. This is, to our knowledge, the clearest chromosome separation available for this species. PMID:10427028

  8. The invasive chytrid fungus of amphibians paralyzes lymphocyte responses.

    PubMed

    Fites, J Scott; Ramsey, Jeremy P; Holden, Whitney M; Collier, Sarah P; Sutherland, Danica M; Reinert, Laura K; Gayek, A Sophia; Dermody, Terence S; Aune, Thomas M; Oswald-Richter, Kyra; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

    2013-10-18

    The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, causes chytridiomycosis and is a major contributor to global amphibian declines. Although amphibians have robust immune defenses, clearance of this pathogen is impaired. Because inhibition of host immunity is a common survival strategy of pathogenic fungi, we hypothesized that B. dendrobatidis evades clearance by inhibiting immune functions. We found that B. dendrobatidis cells and supernatants impaired lymphocyte proliferation and induced apoptosis; however, fungal recognition and phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils was not impaired. Fungal inhibitory factors were resistant to heat, acid, and protease. Their production was absent in zoospores and reduced by nikkomycin Z, suggesting that they may be components of the cell wall. Evasion of host immunity may explain why this pathogen has devastated amphibian populations worldwide.

  9. Garden sharing and garden stealing in fungus-growing ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Rachelle M. M.; Mueller, U. G.; Holloway, Alisha K.; Green, Abigail M.; Narozniak, Joanie

    Fungi cultivated by fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) are passed on between generations by transfer from maternal to offspring nest (vertical transmission within ant species). However, recent phylogenetic analyses revealed that cultivars are occasionally also transferred between attine species. The reasons for such lateral cultivar transfers are unknown. To investigate whether garden loss may induce ants to obtain a replacement cultivar from a neighboring colony (lateral cultivar transfer), pairs of queenright colonies of two Cyphomyrmex species were set up in two conjoined chambers; the garden of one colony was then removed to simulate the total crop loss that occurs naturally when pathogens devastate gardens. Garden-deprived colonies regained cultivars through one of three mechanisms: joining of a neighboring colony and cooperation in a common garden; stealing of a neighbor's garden; or aggressive usurpation of a neighbor's garden. Because pathogens frequently devastate attine gardens under natural conditions, garden joining, stealing and usurpation emerge as critical behavioral adaptations to survive garden catastrophes.

  10. A new cytotoxic cytochalasin from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiqin; Daletos, Georgios; Okoye, Festus; Lai, Daowan; Dai, Haofu; Proksch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The new natural product 4]-hydroxy-deacetyl-18-deoxycytochalasin H (1), together with the known deacetyl-18-deoxycytochalasin H (2) and 18-deoxycytochalasin H (3) were obtained from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum isolated from leaves of Cola nitida. The structure of the new compound was unambiguously determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and by HRESIMS measurements, as well as by comparison with the literature. Compounds 1-3 showed potent cytotoxic activity against the murine lymphoma (L5178Y) cell line and against human ovarian cancer (A2780 sens and A2780 CisR) cell lines (IC50 0.19-6.97 µM). The A2780 cell lines included cisplatin-sensitive (sens) and -resistant (R) cells.

  11. Developmental modulation of DNA methylation in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus.

    PubMed Central

    Antequera, F; Tamame, M; Vilanueva, J R; Santos, T

    1985-01-01

    DNA methylation is a rather sparse event among fungi. Phycomyces blakesleeanus seems to be one of the few exceptions in this context. 5-Methylcytosine represents 2.9% of the total cytosine in spore DNA and is located in approximately the same amount at any of the four CA, CT, CC or CG dinucleotides. A progressive and gradual drop in total 5-methylcytosine parallels the development of the fungus. This demethylation is non random but sequence specific and is not accounted for equally by the four different methylated dinucleotides, CG being much less affected (20% demethylated) than CA, CT and CC (more than 90% demethylated at the same time). "De novo" methylation to restore the initial pattern probably takes place during spore maturation. By using specific hybridization probes we have been able to show that the rRNA genes are not significantly methylated at any stage of development, regardless of their transcription status. Images PMID:2997714

  12. New secondary metabolites from the marine endophytic fungus Apiospora montagnei.

    PubMed

    Klemke, Christine; Kehraus, Stefan; Wright, Anthony D; König, Gabriele M

    2004-06-01

    The marine fungus Apiospora montagnei was isolated from the inner tissue of the North Sea alga Polysiphonia violacea. Cultivation of this fungal strain led to the isolation of several new secondary metabolites, including the diterpene myrocin A (1) and the polyketide apiosporic acid (2). Furthermore the new monomethyl ester of 9-hydroxyhexylitaconic acid (3) and the (-)-enantiomer (4) of the known (+)-hexylitaconic acid were found together with the known (+)-epiepoxydon (5), (+)-epoxydon monoacetate, R-mellein, R-8-methoxymellein, 5-hydroxymethylfuran-2-carboxylic acid, and the xanthone derivative anomalin A. The structures were elucidated mainly by 1D and 2D NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectral data. Compound 5 exhibited significant cytoxicity against human cancer cell lines.

  13. Fungal keratitis due to Schizophyllum commune: an emerging pathogenic fungus.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ashok Kumar; Ashok, Rangaiahgari; Majety, Madhavi; Chitta, Megharaj; Narayen, Nitesh

    2016-07-12

    Fungal keratitis due to Schizophyllum commune is very rare. In this study, we report the clinical and microbiological profile of five patients with fungal keratitis due to S. commune. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings from all five patients showed septate branching hyaline fungal filaments. Similarly, in all five patients Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) plates inoculated with corneal scrapings showed white, cottony colonies on the second day of incubation. Lactophenol cotton blue stained wet preparation of 7-day-old colonies on SDA revealed clamp connections and no spores. The fungus was identified by its characteristic clamp connections, fan-shaped bracket fruiting body with pinkish-grey longitudinally split-radiating gills. The phenotypic identification of one of the five isolates further conformed by ITS sequencing. Treatment outcome was available for two of the five patients; in these two patients, the keratitis resolved with topical natamycin. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Cusuco National Park, Honduras.

    PubMed

    Kolby, Jonathan E; Padgett-Flohr, Gretchen E; Field, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Amphibian population declines in Honduras have long been attributed to habitat degradation and pollution, but an increasing number of declines are now being observed from within the boundaries of national parks in pristine montane environments. The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in these declines and was recently documented in Honduras from samples collected in Pico Bonito National Park in 2003. This report now confirms Cusuco National Park, a protected cloud forest reserve with reported amphibian declines, to be the second known site of infection for Honduras. B. dendrobatidis infection was detected in 5 amphibian species: Craugastor rostralis, Duellmanohyla soralia, Lithobates maculata, Plectrohyla dasypus, and Ptychohyla hypomykter. D. soralia, P. dasypus, and P. hypomykter are listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and have severely fragmented or restricted distributions. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether observed infection levels indicate an active B. dendrobatidis epizootic with the potential to cause further population declines and extinction.

  15. Waterfowl: potential environmental reservoirs of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Garmyn, An; Van Rooij, Pascale; Pasmans, Frank; Hellebuyck, Tom; Van Den Broeck, Wim; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2012-01-01

    Infections with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (B. dendrobatidis), the causal agent of chytridiomycosis, have been shown to play an important role in the decline of amphibians worldwide. Spread of the fungus is poorly understood. Bird movement might possibly contribute to the spread of B. dendrobatidis in the environment. Therefore, 397 wild geese in Belgium were screened for presence of B. dendrobatidis on their toes using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). In addition, chemotaxis towards, adhesion, survival after desiccation and proliferation of B. dendrobatidis on keratinous toe scales from waterfowl were examined in vitro. qPCR revealed that 76 geese (15%) were positive for B. dendrobatidis. Results of the in vitro tests showed that B. dendrobatidis is attracted to the keratinous toes of aquatic birds on which they can adhere and even proliferate. However, desiccation is poorly tolerated. This suggests waterfowl are potential environmental reservoirs for B. dendrobatidis.

  16. Waterfowl: Potential Environmental Reservoirs of the Chytrid Fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    PubMed Central

    Pasmans, Frank; Hellebuyck, Tom; Van Den Broeck, Wim; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2012-01-01

    Infections with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (B. dendrobatidis), the causal agent of chytridiomycosis, have been shown to play an important role in the decline of amphibians worldwide. Spread of the fungus is poorly understood. Bird movement might possibly contribute to the spread of B. dendrobatidis in the environment. Therefore, 397 wild geese in Belgium were screened for presence of B. dendrobatidis on their toes using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). In addition, chemotaxis towards, adhesion, survival after desiccation and proliferation of B. dendrobatidis on keratinous toe scales from waterfowl were examined in vitro. qPCR revealed that 76 geese (15%) were positive for B. dendrobatidis. Results of the in vitro tests showed that B. dendrobatidis is attracted to the keratinous toes of aquatic birds on which they can adhere and even proliferate. However, desiccation is poorly tolerated. This suggests waterfowl are potential environmental reservoirs for B. dendrobatidis. PMID:22514705

  17. Population genetics of the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jess A. T.; Vredenburg, Vance T.; Rachowicz, Lara J.; Knapp, Roland A.; Stice, Mary J.; Tunstall, Tate; Bingham, Rob E.; Parker, John M.; Longcore, Joyce E.; Moritz, Craig; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Taylor, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Global amphibian decline by chytridiomycosis is a major environmental disaster that has been attributed to either recent fungal spread or environmental change that promotes disease. Here, we present a population genetic comparison of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis isolates from an intensively studied region of frog decline, the Sierra Nevada of California. In support of a novel pathogen, we find low diversity, no amphibian-host specificity, little correlation between fungal genotype and geography, local frog extirpation by a single fungal genotype, and evidence of human-assisted fungus migration. In support of endemism, at a local scale, we find some diverse, recombining populations. Therefore neither epidemic spread nor endemism alone explains this particular amphibian decline. Recombination raises the possibility of resistant sporangia and a mechanism for rapid spread as well as persistence that could greatly complicate global control of the pathogen. PMID:17693553

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus responses to disturbance are context-dependent.

    PubMed

    van der Heyde, Mieke; Ohsowski, Brian; Abbott, Lynette K; Hart, Miranda

    2017-01-24

    Anthropogenic disturbance is one of the most important forces shaping soil ecosystems. While organisms that live in the soil, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, are sensitive to disturbance, their response is not always predictable. Given the range of disturbance types and differences among AM fungi in their growth strategies, the unpredictability of the responses of AM fungi to disturbance is not surprising. We investigated the role of disturbance type (i.e., soil disruption, agriculture, host perturbation, and chemical disturbance) and fungus identity on disturbance response in the AM symbiosis. Using meta-analysis, we found evidence for differential disturbance response among AM fungal species, as well as evidence that particular fungal species are especially susceptible to certain disturbance types, perhaps because of their life history strategies.

  19. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rachelle M. M.; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A.; Jones, Tappey H.; Nash, David R.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies. PMID:24019482

  20. Disposable diapers biodegradation by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Valdemar, Rosa María; Turpin-Marion, Sylvie; Delfín-Alcalá, Irma; Vázquez-Morillas, Alethia

    2011-08-01

    This research assesses the feasibility of degrading used disposable diapers, an important component (5-15% in weight) of urban solid waste in Mexico, by the activity of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, also known as oyster mushroom. Disposable diapers contain polyethylene, polypropylene and a super absorbent polymer. Nevertheless, its main component is cellulose, which degrades slowly. P. ostreatus has been utilized extensively to degrade cellulosic materials of agroindustrial sources, using in situ techniques. The practice has been extended to the commercial farming of the mushroom. This degradation capacity was assayed to reduce mass and volume of used disposable diapers. Pilot laboratory assays were performed to estimate the usefulness of the following variables on conditioning of used diapers before they act as substrate for P. ostreatus: (1) permanence vs removal of plastic cover; (2) shredding vs grinding; (3) addition of grape wastes to improve structure, nitrogen and trace elements content. Wheat straw was used as a positive control. After 68 days, decrease of the mass of diapers and productivity of fungus was measured. Weight and volume of degradable materials was reduced up to 90%. Cellulose content was diminished in 50% and lignine content in 47%. The highest efficiency for degradation of cellulosic materials corresponded to the substrates that showed highest biological efficiency, which varied from 0% to 34%. Harvested mushrooms had good appearance and protein content and were free of human disease pathogens. This research indicates that growing P. ostreatus on disposable diapers could be a good alternative for two current problems: reduction of urban solid waste and availability of high protein food sources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An extracellular glucoamylase produced by endophytic fungus EF6.

    PubMed

    Tangngamsakul, P; Karnchanatat, A; Sihanonth, P; Sangvanich, P

    2011-01-01

    A strain of endophytic fungus EF6 isolated from Thai medicinal plants was found to produce higher levels of extracellular glucoamylase. This strain produced glucoamylase of culture filtrate when grown on 1% soluble starch. The enzyme was purified and characterized. Purification steps involved (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, anion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography. Final purification fold was 14.49 and the yield obtained was 9.15%. The enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 62.2 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE, and with a molecular mass of 62.031 kDa estimated by MALDI-TOF spectrometry. The temperature for maximum activity was 60 degrees C. After 30 min for incubation, glucoamylase was found to be stable lower than 50 degrees C. The activity decrease rapidly when residual activity was retained about 45% at 55 degrees C. The pH optimum of the enzyme activity was 6.0, and it was stable over a pH range of 4.0-7.0 at 50 degrees C. The activity of glucoamylase was stimulated by Ca2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, glycerol, DMSO, DTT and EDTA, and strongly inhibited by Hg2+. Various types of starch were test, soluble starch proved to be the best substrate for digestion process. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of soluble starch and maltose as the substrate, the enzyme had Km values of 2.63, and 1.88 mg/ml and Vmax, values of 1.25, and 2.54 U/min/mg protein, and Vmax/Km values of 0.48 and 1.35, respectively. The internal amino acid sequences of endophytic fungus EF6 glucoamylase; RALAN HKQVV DSFRS have similarity to the sequence of the glucoamylase purified form Thermomyces lanuginosus. From all results indicated that this enzyme is a glucoamylase (1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase).

  2. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachelle M M; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A; Jones, Tappey H; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2013-09-24

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

  3. Cladosporium sp. , a potential fungus for bioremediation of wood-treating wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Borazjani, H.; Ferguson, B.; Hendrix, F.; McFarland, L.; McGinnis, G.; Pope, D.; Strobel, D.; Wagner, J. )

    1989-01-01

    A fungus, Cladosporium sp., was isolated from a very old wood-treating plant sludge pond in Weed, California. A preliminary study showed no inhibition of mycelial growth at 5,500 {mu}g polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) per ml of potato dextrose agar (PDA). Pentachlorophenol (PCP) inhibited mycelial growth at 10 {mu}g/ml of PDA. Rates of breakdown of both PAHs and PCP in the soil and water system were studied using this fungus. The results of this study and the application of this fungus for cleaning up contaminated sites will be discussed.

  4. Bioremediation with white rot fungus. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of white rot fungus to degrade a variety of hazardous materials. The citations examine the application of the fungus to the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentachlorophenol, herbicides, insecticides, and other environmentally persistent organic compounds. The results of laboratory and field studies are presented. The use of white rot fungus in biological pulping and delignification is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 50 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Maxillary reconstruction and placement of dental implants after treatment of a maxillary sinus fungus ball.

    PubMed

    Colletti, Giacomo; Felisati, Giovanni; Biglioli, Federico; Tintinelli, Roberto; Valassina, Davide

    2010-01-01

    A fungus ball is one of the fungal diseases that can affect the paranasal sinuses. It requires surgical treatment. Because there is only one previously reported case of dental implant placement after treatment of a maxillary sinus fungus ball, the authors here report on a case of a maxillary sinus fungus ball with bone erosion that was treated surgically with a combined endoscopic endonasal and endoral (Caldwell-Luc) approach. One year later, a graft from the ilium was obtained and a sinus elevation was performed to allow the placement of dental implants. Three months later, the dental implants were placed, and they were all osseointegrated at the 9-month follow-up.

  6. The response of the grape berry moth (Lobesia botrana) to a dietary phytopathogenic fungus (Botrytis cinerea): the significance of fungus sterols.

    PubMed

    Mondy; Corio-Costet

    2000-12-01

    A Tortricidae (Lobesia botrana) has a mutualistic relationship with the fungus (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, we investigated the growth, survival, fecundity and amount of sterols and steroids in larvae of this vineyard pest reared on artificial diets containing mycelium (3%) or purified sterols (0.01%) of the phytopathogenic fungus. Two principal questions related to the physiological and biochemical basis of this mutualistic relationship were addressed: (1) how the fungus influences growth, survival, fecundity, sterol and steroid contents of the insect and (2) are fungal sterols involved in the biochemical basis of mutualism? The presence of fungus in the diet led to a decrease of total duration of larval development (mean gain 5.1-9.4 days compared to the total duration in control of 42.9 days), an increase in survival (mean gain 50-76.3%) and fecundity (gain of 94-102%). These positive effects of the fungus on the biology and physiology of the insect were directly correlated to the presence of fungal sterols in the diet. Fungal sterols are one of the biochemical basis of the mutualistic relationship between L. botrana and B. cinerea.

  7. The histone chaperone ASF1 is essential for sexual development in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Gesing, Stefan; Schindler, Daniel; Fränzel, Benjamin; Wolters, Dirk; Nowrousian, Minou

    2012-05-01

    Ascomycetes develop four major types of fruiting bodies that share a common ancestor, and a set of common core genes most likely controls this process. One way to identify such genes is to search for conserved expression patterns. We analysed microarray data of Fusarium graminearum and Sordaria macrospora, identifying 78 genes with similar expression patterns during fruiting body development. One of these genes was asf1 (anti-silencing function 1), encoding a predicted histone chaperone. asf1 expression is also upregulated during development in the distantly related ascomycete Pyronema confluens. To test whether asf1 plays a role in fungal development, we generated an S. macrospora asf1 deletion mutant. The mutant is sterile and can be complemented to fertility by transformation with the wild-type asf1 and its P. confluens homologue. An ASF1-EGFP fusion protein localizes to the nucleus. By tandem-affinity purification/mass spectrometry as well as yeast two-hybrid analysis, we identified histones H3 and H4 as ASF1 interaction partners. Several developmental genes are dependent on asf1 for correct transcriptional expression. Deletion of the histone chaperone genes rtt106 and cac2 did not cause any developmental phenotypes. These data indicate that asf1 of S. macrospora encodes a conserved histone chaperone that is required for fruiting body development. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Hyperdiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Walker, John F; Miller, Orson K; Horton, Jonathan L

    2005-03-01

    Diversity of ectotrophic mycobionts on outplanted seedlings of two oak species (Quercus rubra and Quercus prinus) was estimated at two sites in mature mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains by sequencing nuclear 5.8S rRNA genes and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS). The seedlings captured a high diversity of mycorrhizal ITS-types and late-stage fungi were well represented. Total richness was 75 types, with 42 types having a frequency of only one. The first and second order jackknife estimates were 116 and 143 types, respectively. Among Basidiomycetes, tomentelloid/thelephoroid, russuloid, and cortinarioid groups were the richest. The ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum was ubiquitously present. Dominant fungi included a putative Tuber sp. (Ascomycetes), and Basidiomycetes including a putative Craterellus sp., and Laccaria cf. laccata. Diversity was lower at a drier high elevation oak forest site compared to a low elevation mesic cove--hardwood forest site. Fungal specificity for red oak vs. white oak seedlings was unresolved. The high degree of rarity in this system imposes limitations on the power of community analyses at finer scales. The high mycobiont diversity highlights the potential for seedlings to acquire carbon from mycelial networks and confirms the utility of using outplanted seedlings to estimate ectomycorrhizal diversity.

  9. Development of 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the blackberry rust fungus Phragmidium violaceum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Uredinales fungus Phragmidium violaceum, which causes leaf rust on European blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. aggregate). Allele frequency ranged between two and seventeen alleles per locus with no evidence of linkage disequilibrium amon...

  10. Inferring outcrossing in the homothallic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using linkage disequilibrium decay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The occurrence and frequency of outcrossing in homothallic fungal species in nature is an unresolved question. Here we report detection of frequent outcrossing in the homothallic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In using multilocus linkage disequilibrium (LD) to infer recombination among microsatell...

  11. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms behind cellulase production in Trichoderma reesei, the hyper-cellulolytic filamentous fungus.

    PubMed

    Shida, Yosuke; Furukawa, Takanori; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a potent cellulase producer and the best-studied cellulolytic fungus. A lot of investigations not only on glycoside hydrolases produced by T. reesei, but also on the machinery controlling gene expression of these enzyme have made this fungus a model organism for cellulolytic fungi. We have investigated the T. reesei strain including mutants developed in Japan in detail to understand the molecular mechanisms that control the cellulase gene expression, the biochemical and morphological aspects that could favor this phenotype, and have attempted to generate novel strains that may be appropriate for industrial use. Subsequently, we developed recombinant strains by combination of these insights and the heterologous-efficient saccharifing enzymes. Resulting enzyme preparations were highly effective for saccharification of various biomass. In this review, we present some of the salient findings from the recent biochemical, morphological, and molecular analyses of this remarkable cellulase hyper-producing fungus.

  12. Limited transmission of the ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens between lady beetles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) commonly infects the invasive lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and several other aphidophagous lady beetles in North America and Europe. We tested the hypothesis that bodily contact between adults of differen...

  13. Lovastatin-producing endophytic fungus isolated from a medicinal plant Solanum xanthocarpum.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Ramalingam; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Lovastatin is a potent drug for lowering blood cholesterol. An endophytic fungus Phomopsis vexans was isolated from the healthy leaf tissues of Solanum xanthocarpum, a medicinal plant, and screened for lovastatin production. The fungus was identified by their characteristic cultural morphology and molecular analysis. The strain had a component with the same TLC Rf value and HPLC retention time as authentic lovastatin. The presence of lovastatin was further confirmed by FT-IR, UV, (1)H, (13)C NMR and LC-MS analyses. The amount of lovastatin produced by this endophytic fungus was quantified to be 550 mg/L, and thus the fungus can serve as a potential material to improve the production of lovastatin.

  14. An endophytic fungus, Gibberella moniliformis from Lawsonia inermis L. produces lawsone, an orange-red pigment.

    PubMed

    Sarang, Hatnagar; Rajani, Pijakala; Vasanthakumari, Madhugiri Mallaiah; Kumara, Patel Mohana; Siva, Ramamoorthy; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani; Uma Shaanker, R

    2017-07-01

    Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1, 4-napthoquinone), also known as hennotannic acid, is an orange red dye used as a popular skin and hair colorant. The dye is produced in the leaves of Lawsonia inermis L, often referred to as the "henna" tree. In this study, we report the production of lawsone by an endophytic fungus, Gibberella moniliformis isolated from the leaf tissues of Lawsonia inermis. The fungus produced the orange-red dye in potato dextrose agar and broth, independent of the host tissue. Presence of lawsone was confirmed spectrometrically using HPLC and ESI-MS/MS analysis. The fragmentation pattern of lawsone was identical to both standard lawsone and that extracted from plant tissue. This is a first report of lawsone being produced by an endophytic fungus, independent of the host tissue. The study opens up interesting questions on the possible biosynthetic pathway through which lawsone is produced by the fungus.

  15. Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1990-11-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites.

    PubMed

    Visser, Anna A; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R; Aanen, Duur K; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity specificity, further work is necessary for a better understanding of the putative role of antibiotic-producing bacteria in the fungus

  17. New Filamentous Fungus Sagenomella chlamydospora Responsible for a Disseminated Infection in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Gené, Josepa; Blanco, José L.; Cano, Josep; García, Marta E.; Guarro, Josep

    2003-01-01

    A filamentous fungus that caused a fatal systemic infection in a dog has been identified as the new species Sagenomella chlamydospora. When the case was initially reported, the fungus was identified as Paecilomyces sp. This study emphasizes how difficult can be the identification of the causative agent of an infection when an uncommon microorganism is involved. This is the first time that this genus has been involved in animal infections, including humans. PMID:12682169

  18. Rapid dereplication and identification of the bioactive constituents from the fungus, Leucocoprinus birnbaumii.

    PubMed

    Brkljača, Robert; Urban, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    A series of fatty acids were rapidly dereplicated and partially identified from the flowerpot fungus, Leucocoprinus birnbaumii using HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS. Subsequent off-line isolation unequivocally established the structures, and anti-microbial testing concluded that the fatty acids displayed moderate but selective anti-microbial activity. This represents the first report of these compounds occurring in this particular terrestrial fungus.

  19. Microalgae harvesting via co-culture with filamentous fungus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultom, Sarman Oktovianus

    Microalgae harvesting is a labor- and energy-intensive process. For instance, classical harvesting technologies such as chemical addition and mechanical separation are economically prohibiting for biofuel production. Newer approaches to harvest microalgae have been developed in order to decrease costs. Among these new methods, fungal co-pelletization seems to be a promising technology. By co-culturing filamentous fungi with microalgae, it is possible to form pellets, which can easily be separated. In this study, different parameters for the cultivation of filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) to efficiently form cell pellets were evaluated under heterotrophic and phototrophic conditions, including organic carbon source (glucose, glycerol and sodium acetate) concentration, pH, initial concentration of fungal spores, initial concentration of microalgal cells, concentration of ionic strength (Calcium and Magnesium) and concentration of salinity (NaCl). In addition, zeta-potential measurements were carried out in order to get a better understanding of the mechanism of attraction. It was found that 2 g/L of glucose, a fungus to microalgae ratio of 1:300, and uncontrolled pH (around 7) are the best culturing conditions for co-pelletization. Under these conditions, it was possible to achieve a high harvesting performance (>90%). In addition, it was observed that most pellets formed in the co-culture were spherical with an average diameter of 3.5 mm and in concentrations of about 5 pellets per mL of culture media. Under phototrophic conditions, co-pelletization required the addition of glucose as organic carbon source to sustain the growth of fungi and to allow the harvesting of microalgae. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that (i) both microalgae and fungi have low zeta-potential values regardless of the pH on the bulk (i.e. <-10 mV) (ii) fungi can have a positive electric charge at low pH (ie. pH=3). These values suggest that it

  20. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens.

    PubMed

    Moller, Isabel E; De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Harholt, Jesper; Willats, William G T; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2011-03-10

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants.

  1. Fungal Garden Making inside Bamboos by a Non-Social Fungus-Growing Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Toki, Wataru; Takahashi, Yukiko; Togashi, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae) transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism. PMID:24223958

  2. The Dynamics of Plant Cell-Wall Polysaccharide Decomposition in Leaf-Cutting Ant Fungus Gardens

    PubMed Central

    Harholt, Jesper; Willats, William G. T.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants. PMID:21423735

  3. Identification and evaluation of SERI-NF1 fungus for ethanol production from xylose fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    This work aimed at identifying the SERI-NF1 fungus isolated by Solar Energy Research Institute investigators, as well as evaluating the fungus as an ethanol producer from xylose fermentations. Microscopic and physiological observations led to the conclusion that the fungus is Paecilomyces varioti Bainier 1907. The fungus grows relatively fast in PDA plates, and its cultures release a light sweet aromatic odor. In liquid cultures the fungus forms round mycelial balls (1--12 mm in diameter). It showed to be thermophilic (grown well at 26--36/degree/C) and thermotolerant (exposed for two hours to 60/degree/C resumed its growth), and to prefer pH levels close to neutrality. Cultures of the fungus were tested (in 125 ml flasks) for fermenting xylose to ethanol. Its growth in the liquid cultures was slow and formed mycelial balls. The yield of ethanol production was low. The amount of fungal mass has to be more than a few mycelial balls per flask to get a reasonable yield of ethanol. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  4. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  5. Deciphering the salinity adaptation mechanism in Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus from mangrove.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Rai, Anuradha; Singh, Ruchi; Chakdar, Hillol; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus reported for the first time from India was identified through polyphasic taxonomy. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fungus has unique features such as biverticillate penicilli bearing masses of oval to ellipsoidal conidia. The fungus has been characterized for salt tolerance and to understand the relevance of central carbon metabolism in salt stress adaptation. It showed optimal growth at 24 °C and able to tolerate up to 10% (w/v) NaCl. To understand the mechanism of adaptation to high salinity, activities of the key enzymes regulating glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were investigated under normal (0% NaCl) and saline stress environment (10% NaCl). The results revealed a re-routing of carbon metabolism away from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), served as a cellular stress-resistance mechanism in fungi under saline environment. The detection and significant expression of fungus genes (Hsp98, Hsp60, HTB, and RHO) under saline stress suggest that these halotolerance conferring genes from the fungus could have a role in fungus protection and adaptation under saline environment. Overall, the present findings indicate that the rearrangement of the metabolic fluxes distribution and stress related genes play an important role in cell survival and adaptation under saline environment.

  6. Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research.

    PubMed

    Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael; Suen, Garret; Currie, Cameron R

    2009-02-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) engage in an obligate mutualism with fungi they cultivate for food. Although biologists have been fascinated with fungus-growing ants since the resurgence of natural history in the modern era, the early stages of research focused mainly on the foraging behavior of the leaf-cutters (the most derived attine lineage). Indeed, the discovery that the ants actually use leaf fragments to manure a fungus did not come until the 1800s. More recently, three additional microbial symbionts have been described, including specialized microfungal parasites of the ant's fungus garden, antibiotic-producing actinobacteria that help protect the fungus garden from the parasite, and a black yeast that parasitizes the ant-actinobacteria mutualism. The fungus-growing ant symbiosis serves as a particularly useful model system for studying insect-microbe symbioses, because, to date, it contains four well-characterized microbial symbionts, including mutualists and parasites that encompass micro-fungi, macro-fungi, yeasts, and bacteria. Here, we discuss approaches for studying insect-microbe symbioses, using the attine ant-microbial symbiosis as our framework. We draw attention to particular challenges in the field of symbiosis, including the establishment of symbiotic associations and symbiont function. Finally, we discuss future directions in insect-microbe research, with particular focus on applying recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies.

  7. Starch metabolism in Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Silva, A; Bacci, M; Pagnocca, F C; Bueno, O C; Hebling, M J A

    2006-01-01

    Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of the leaf-cutting ants, degrades starch, this degradation being supposed to occur in the plant material which leafcutters forage to the nests, generating most of the glucose which the ants utilize for food. In the present investigation, we show that laboratory cultures of L. gongylophorus produce extracellular alpha-amylase and maltase which degrade starch to glucose, reinforcing that the ants can obtain glucose from starch through the symbiotic fungus. Glucose was found to repress alpha-amylase and, more severely, maltase activity, thus repressing starch degradation by L. gongylophorus, so that we hypothesize that: (1) glucose down-regulation of starch degradation also occurs in the Atta sexdens fungus garden; (2) glucose consumption from the fungus garden by A. sexdens stimulates degradation of starch from plant material by L. gongylophorus, which may represent a mechanism by which leafcutters can control enzyme production by the symbiotic fungus. Since glucose is found in the fungus garden inside the nests, down-regulation of starch degradation by glucose is supposed to occur in the nest and play a part in the control of fungal enzyme production by leafcutters.

  8. Nature of the interactions between hypocrealean fungi and the mutualistic fungus of leaf-cutter ants.

    PubMed

    Varanda-Haifig, Sadala Schmidt; Albarici, Tatiane Regina; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Haifig, Ives; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Rodrigues, Andre

    2017-04-01

    Leaf-cutter ants cultivate and feed on the mutualistic fungus, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, which is threatened by parasitic fungi of the genus Escovopsis. The mechanism of Escovopsis parasitism is poorly understood. Here, we assessed the nature of the antagonism of different Escovopsis species against its host. We also evaluated the potential antagonism of Escovopsioides, a recently described fungal genus from the attine ant environment whose role in the colonies of these insects is unknown. We performed dual-culture assays to assess the interactions between L. gongylophorus and both fungi. We also evaluated the antifungal activity of compounds secreted by the latter on L. gongylophorus growth using crude extracts of Escovopsis spp. and Escovopsioides nivea obtained either in (1) absence or (2) presence of the mutualistic fungus. The physical interaction between these fungi and the mutualistic fungus was examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Escovopsis spp. and E. nivea negatively affected the growth of L. gongylophorus, which was also significantly inhibited by both types of crude extract. These results indicate that Escovopsis spp. and E. nivea produce antifungal metabolites against the mutualistic fungus. SEM showed that Escovopsis spp. and E. nivea maintained physical contact with the mutualistic fungus, though no specialised structures related to mycoparasitism were observed. These results showed that Escovopsis is a destructive mycoparasite that needs physical contact for the death of the mutualistic fungus to occur. Also, our findings suggest that E. nivea is an antagonist of the ant fungal cultivar.

  9. Genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata from four continents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The generalist ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata causes Eutypa dieback of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. To decipher the cosmopolitan distribution of this fungus, the population genetic structure of 17 geographic samples was investigated from four continental regions (Australia, California, Europ...

  10. Mutualistic fungus promotes plant invasion into diverse communities.

    PubMed

    Rudgers, Jennifer A; Mattingly, W Brett; Koslow, Jennifer M

    2005-07-01

    Reducing the biological diversity of a community may decrease its resistance to invasion by exotic species. Manipulative experiments typically support this hypothesis but have focused mainly on one trophic level (i.e., primary producers). To date, we know little about how positive interactions among species may influence the relationship between diversity and invasibility, which suggests a need for research that addresses the question: under what conditions does diversity affect resistance to invasion? We used experimental manipulations of both plant diversity and the presence of an endophytic fungus to test whether a fungal mutualist of an invasive grass species (Lolium arundinaceum) switches the relationship between plant community diversity and resistance to invasion. Association with the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) increased the ability of L. arundinaceum to invade communities with greater species diversity. In the absence of the endophyte, the initial diversity of the community significantly reduced the establishment of L. arundinaceum. However, establishment was independent of initial diversity in the presence of the endophyte. Fungal symbionts, like other key species, are often overlooked in studies of plant diversity, yet their presence may explain variation among studies in the effect of diversity on resistance to invasion.

  11. Purification of an Inducible DNase from a Thermophilic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Kyle S.; Vu, Andrea; Levin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to induce an extracellular DNase from a novel thermophilic fungus was studied and the DNAse purified using both traditional and innovative purification techniques. The isolate produced sterile hyphae under all attempted growing conditions, with an average diameter of 2 μm and was found to have an optimal temperature of 45 °C and a maximum of 65 °C. Sequencing of the internal transcribed region resulted in a 91% match with Chaetomium sp., suggesting a new species, but further clarification on this point is needed. The optimal temperature for DNase production was found to be 55 °C and was induced by the presence of DNA and/or deoxyribose. Static growth of the organism resulted in significantly higher DNase production than agitated growth. The DNase was purified 145-fold using a novel affinity membrane purification system with 25% of the initial enzyme activity remaining. Electrophoresis of the purified enzyme resulted in a single protein band, indicating DNase homogeneity. PMID:24447923

  12. Bioturbation by the Fungus-Gardening Ant, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis.

    PubMed

    Tschinkel, Walter R; Seal, Jon N

    2016-01-01

    Soil invertebrates such as ants are thought to be important manipulators of soils in temperate and tropical ecosystems. The fungus gardening ant, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis, is an important agent of biomantling, that is, of depositing soil excavated from below onto the surface, and has been suggested as an agent of bioturbation (moving soil below ground) as well. The amount of bioturbation by this ant was quantified by planting queenright colonies in sand columns consisting of 5 layers of different colored sand. The amount of each color of sand deposited on the surface was determined from April to November 2015. In November, colonies were excavated and the color and amount of sand deposited below ground (mostly as backfill in chambers) was determined. Extrapolated to one ha, T. septentrionalis deposited 800 kg of sand per annum on the surface, and an additional 200 kg (17% of the total excavated) below ground. On average, this mixes 1.3% of the sand from other layers within the top meter of soil per millennium, but this mixing is unlikely to be homogeneous, and probably occurs as "hotspots" in both horizontal and vertical space. Such mixing is discussed as a challenge to sediment dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL).

  13. Fungus mediated biosynthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Thirumal, V.; Ilangovan, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recently nanomaterials have been synthesized through biological approach due to its biocompatibility, inexpensive, eco friendly and it offers easiest experimental protocol and so on. ZnO can be potentially used in various applications. This present study reports the fungus mediated extra-cellular bio synthesis of ZnO nanorods using Fusarium Solani. The dried powder was calcined at 350°C for 1 hour in air. The thermal property of the as synthesized ZnO nanopowder was analyzed through Thermo gravimetric /Differential Thermo gravimetric (TGA / DTG) analysis. The structural and morphological properties of the calcined ZnO nanopowder were studied by XRD and SEM analysis respectively. X ray diffraction result revealed that a peak located at 2θ = 36.2° with (101) plane confirms the presence of Zinc oxide with Hexagonal crystal system. The morphology of the calcined ZnO powder was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and it clearly indicates the presence of ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods is in the range of 60 to 95 nm.

  14. Pulmonary echinococcal cyst with a filamentous fungus co-infection.

    PubMed

    Pandey, P; Dixit, A K; Tanwar, A; Mahajan, N C

    2013-09-01

    Fungal infections are known to colonize the pre-existing lung cavities formed as a result of diseases like tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, bronchiectasis and cavitatary neoplasia, mostly encountered in immunocompromised patients. Pulmonary echinococcal cysts have been reported coexistent with cryptococcosis and other saprophytic mycosis, but the coexistence of aspergillosis and echinococcal cyst is extremely rare and occasionally been reported in English literature. Active invasion and proliferation of the fungi in the laminated ectocyst of the echinococcal cyst is very unusual. We report a case of 60 years old immunocompetent female, presented with cough, chest pain and shortness of breath. The chest X-ray showed a large thick walled cavity in the lower and mid zone of right lung with positive water lily sign. Surgical enucleation of the echinococcal cyst revealed aspergilloma involving the cavity with massive invasion of laminated ectocyst by filamentous fungus, morphologically resembling an Aspergillus species and was further treated with Itraconazole for 3 months. This unique coexistence of active pulmonary echinococcosis and aspergillosis is being reported because of its rarity and clinical importance for its management.

  15. Acrophialophora, a Poorly Known Fungus with Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Sutton, Deanna A.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Guarro, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Acrophialophora fusispora is an emerging opportunistic fungus capable of causing human infections. The taxonomy of the genus is not yet resolved and, in order to facilitate identification of clinical specimens, we have studied a set of clinical and environmental Acrophialophora isolates by morphological and molecular analyses. This set included the available type strains of Acrophialophora species and similar fungi, some of which were considered by various authors to be synonyms of A. fusispora. Sequence analysis of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and a fragment of the β-tubulin (Tub) gene revealed that Acrophialophora belongs in the family Chaetomiaceae and comprises three different species, i.e., A. fusispora, Acrophialophora levis, and Acrophialophora seudatica; the latter was previously included in the genus Ampullifera. The most prevalent species among clinical isolates was A. levis (72.7%), followed by A. fusispora (27.3%), both of which were isolated mostly from respiratory specimens (72.7%), as well as subcutaneous and corneal tissue samples. In general, of the eight antifungal drugs tested, voriconazole had the greatest in vitro activity, while all other agents showed poor in vitro activity against these fungi. PMID:25716450

  16. Biodegradation of ciprofloxacin by white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sushil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka; Kaur, Loveleen

    2017-05-01

    Unrestricted and reckless use of antibiotics has resulted in their accumulation in environment. This, in turn, has led to the emergence of multiple drug-resistant microbes. The present study focuses on degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) by an edible white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Effect of CIP was determined on radial growth and biomass of P. ostreatus. Titrimetric and spectrophotometric assays were carried out to assess the degrading potential of P. ostreatus towards CIP. It was found that CIP has a stimulatory effect on growth and enzyme activity of P. ostreatus. Maximum enzyme (glucanase, ligninases, laccase) production was observed at the highest concentration of CIP (500 ppm). Antibiotic degradation of about 68.8, 94.25 and 91.34% was estimated after 14 days of incubation at 500 ppm CIP using Titrimetric, Indigo carmine and Methyl orange assay, respectively. Degradation of CIP was further validated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microbiological analysis. HPLC analysis revealed 95.07% degradation while microbiological test also exhibited a decreased antimicrobial activity of degraded products against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study wherein P. ostreatus was used for the degradation of ciprofloxacin.

  17. Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, Jessy L; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Tuskan, Gerald A; Le Tacon, F; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TEspecific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis 1) represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2) contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3) provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

  18. Eosinophils in Fungus-Associated Allergic Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sumit; Hoselton, Scott A.; Dorsam, Glenn P.; Schuh, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to fungal allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma with fungal sensitization is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen that is worsened by environmental exposure to airborne fungi and which leads to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of complex interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to fungal allergens may experience a greater degree of airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. From their development in the bone marrow to their recruitment to the lung via chemokine and cytokine networks, eosinophils form an important component of the inflammatory milieu that is associated with this syndrome. Eosinophils are recognized as complex multi-factorial leukocytes with diverse functions in the context of allergic fungal asthma. In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with eosinophil development and migration to the allergic lung in response to fungal inhalation, along with the eosinophil’s function in the immune response to and the immunopathology attributed to fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease. PMID:23378838

  19. Structural analysis of fungus-derived FAD glucose dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Sakai, Genki; Mori, Kazushige; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Sode, Koji

    2015-01-01

    We report the first three-dimensional structure of fungus-derived glucose dehydrogenase using flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as the cofactor. This is currently the most advanced and popular enzyme used in glucose sensor strips manufactured for glycemic control by diabetic patients. We prepared recombinant nonglycosylated FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) derived from Aspergillus flavus (AfGDH) and obtained the X-ray structures of the binary complex of enzyme and reduced FAD at a resolution of 1.78 Å and the ternary complex with reduced FAD and D-glucono-1,5-lactone (LGC) at a resolution of 1.57 Å. The overall structure is similar to that of fungal glucose oxidases (GOxs) reported till date. The ternary complex with reduced FAD and LGC revealed the residues recognizing the substrate. His505 and His548 were subjected for site-directed mutagenesis studies, and these two residues were revealed to form the catalytic pair, as those conserved in GOxs. The absence of residues that recognize the sixth hydroxyl group of the glucose of AfGDH, and the presence of significant cavity around the active site may account for this enzyme activity toward xylose. The structural information will contribute to the further engineering of FADGDH for use in more reliable and economical biosensing technology for diabetes management. PMID:26311535

  20. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Tabaković-Tosić, Mara

    2015-01-01

    During the latest outbreak of the gypsy moth in Serbia (2009-2014), some areas of Central Serbia were particularly endangered, and one of them was Krusevac region, where the forests give way to orchards in the pattern resembling the tiger's skin. Since the number of the laid egg masses in the autumn 2013 guaranteed the defoliation of both forest tree species and agricultural crops, and the presence of E. maimaigo, in Central Serbia had already been determined, at 30 selected plots the assisted spread of it was performed, through the introduction of the infectious inoculum in the beech and oak forests which border the orchards. Since there was dealt with the living organism--fungus, which is particularly susceptible to the weather conditions (temperature and air humidity, as well as the precipitation), and under the conditions of the global warming and great drought, the special recipe for the preparation of inoculum was made. In the following year the mass epizootic of the gypsy moth caterpillars, of the younger instars (L2 and L3), occurred, which implies that E. maimaiga caused the crash of the outbreak of this most harmful species of the defoliating insects of the forests and orchards.

  1. Bioturbation by the Fungus-Gardening Ant, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.; Seal, Jon N.

    2016-01-01

    Soil invertebrates such as ants are thought to be important manipulators of soils in temperate and tropical ecosystems. The fungus gardening ant, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis, is an important agent of biomantling, that is, of depositing soil excavated from below onto the surface, and has been suggested as an agent of bioturbation (moving soil below ground) as well. The amount of bioturbation by this ant was quantified by planting queenright colonies in sand columns consisting of 5 layers of different colored sand. The amount of each color of sand deposited on the surface was determined from April to November 2015. In November, colonies were excavated and the color and amount of sand deposited below ground (mostly as backfill in chambers) was determined. Extrapolated to one ha, T. septentrionalis deposited 800 kg of sand per annum on the surface, and an additional 200 kg (17% of the total excavated) below ground. On average, this mixes 1.3% of the sand from other layers within the top meter of soil per millennium, but this mixing is unlikely to be homogeneous, and probably occurs as "hotspots" in both horizontal and vertical space. Such mixing is discussed as a challenge to sediment dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). PMID:27391485

  2. Genetic dissection of PARylation in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Kothe, Gregory O

    2011-01-01

    PARylation is a posttranslational protein modification carried out by PAR polymerases (PARPs). These enzymes function as ADP-ribose transferases that add polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR) to target proteins. PARP proteins have critical functions impacting the aspects of normal human health, such as aging, as well as disease development, particularly cancer. Recently, the powerful antitumor PARP inhibitor Olaparib was shown to be effective in blocking the progression of BRCA1/2-associated tumors, prompting Bruce Alberts to call for an expansion of cancer research beyond utilization of cancer cell lines to include model organisms, such as bacteria, yeast, worms, flies, and mice. Although Dr. Alberts did not specifically mention the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, it is now known that Neurospora is the only genetically tractable model eukaryote with completely dispensable PARylation. PARylation in Neurospora can be entirely eliminated by disruption of a single predicted ORF, encoding a nuclear localized PARP protein termed Neurospora PARP ortholog (NPO). We, thus, present this initial genetic characterization of PARylation in N. crassa as evidence of the supreme advantage of using Neurospora as a tool for the genetic dissection of PARP and PARylation and emphasize the power of this system to advance unparalleled contributions to knowledge in this field.

  3. Acrophialophora, a poorly known fungus with clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Gené, Josepa; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Guarro, Josep

    2015-05-01

    Acrophialophora fusispora is an emerging opportunistic fungus capable of causing human infections. The taxonomy of the genus is not yet resolved and, in order to facilitate identification of clinical specimens, we have studied a set of clinical and environmental Acrophialophora isolates by morphological and molecular analyses. This set included the available type strains of Acrophialophora species and similar fungi, some of which were considered by various authors to be synonyms of A. fusispora. Sequence analysis of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and a fragment of the β-tubulin (Tub) gene revealed that Acrophialophora belongs in the family Chaetomiaceae and comprises three different species, i.e., A. fusispora, Acrophialophora levis, and Acrophialophora seudatica; the latter was previously included in the genus Ampullifera. The most prevalent species among clinical isolates was A. levis (72.7%), followed by A. fusispora (27.3%), both of which were isolated mostly from respiratory specimens (72.7%), as well as subcutaneous and corneal tissue samples. In general, of the eight antifungal drugs tested, voriconazole had the greatest in vitro activity, while all other agents showed poor in vitro activity against these fungi.

  4. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop.

  5. Bioactive Chaetoglobosins from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Song; Chen, Haiyan; Li, Wensheng; Zhu, Xinwei; Ding, Weijia; Li, Chunyuan

    2016-01-01

    A novel chaetoglobosin named penochalasin I (1) with a unprecedented six-cyclic 6/5/6/5/6/13 fused ring system, and another new chaetoglobosin named penochalasin J (2), along with chaetoglobosins G, F, C, A, E, armochaetoglobosin I, and cytoglobosin C (3–9) were isolated from the culture of Penicillium chrysogenum V11. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing the theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation with the experimental CD. Compound 1 was the first example, with a six-cyclic fused ring system formed by the connection of C-5 and C-2′ of the chaetoglobosin class. Compounds 5–8 remarkably inhibited the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) = 11.79–23.66 μM), and compounds 2, 6, and 7 greatly inhibited C. gloeosporioides (MICs = 23.58–47.35 μM), showing an antifungal activity higher than that of carbendazim. Compound 1 exhibited marked cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-435 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 < 10 μM), and compounds 6 and 9 showed potent cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and A549 cells (IC50 < 10 μM). PMID:27690061

  6. Transcriptional response to hypoxia in the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii.

    PubMed

    Camilo, César M; Gomes, Suely L

    2010-06-01

    Global gene expression analysis was carried out with Blastocladiella emersonii cells subjected to oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) using cDNA microarrays. In experiments of gradual hypoxia (gradual decrease in dissolved oxygen) and direct hypoxia (direct decrease in dissolved oxygen), about 650 differentially expressed genes were observed. A total of 534 genes were affected directly or indirectly by oxygen availability, as they showed recovery to normal expression levels or a tendency to recover when cells were reoxygenated. In addition to modulating many genes with no putative assigned function, B. emersonii cells respond to hypoxia by readjusting the expression levels of genes responsible for energy production and consumption. At least transcriptionally, this fungus seems to favor anaerobic metabolism through the upregulation of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase and the downregulation of most genes coding for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes. Furthermore, genes involved in energy-costly processes, like protein synthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, protein folding, and transport, had their expression profiles predominantly downregulated during oxygen deprivation, indicating an energy-saving effort. Data also revealed similarities between the transcriptional profiles of cells under hypoxia and under iron(II) deprivation, suggesting that Fe(2+) ion could have a role in oxygen sensing and/or response to hypoxia in B. emersonii. Additionally, treatment of fungal cells prior to hypoxia with the antibiotic geldanamycin, which negatively affects the stability of mammalian hypoxia transcription factor HIF-1alpha, caused a significant decrease in the levels of certain upregulated hypoxic genes.

  7. Adhesion of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria (Cordyceps) bassiana to substrata.

    PubMed

    Holder, Diane J; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2005-09-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana produces at least three distinct single-cell propagules, aerial conidia, vegetative cells termed blastospores, and submerged conidia, which can be isolated from agar plates, from rich broth liquid cultures, and under nutrient limitation conditions in submerged cultures, respectively. Fluorescently labeled fungal cells were used to quantify the kinetics of adhesion of these cell types to surfaces having various hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties. Aerial conidia adhered poorly to weakly polar surfaces and rapidly to both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces but could be readily washed off the latter surfaces. In contrast, blastospores bound poorly to hydrophobic surfaces, forming small aggregates, bound rapidly to hydrophilic surfaces, and required a longer incubation time to bind to weakly polar surfaces than to hydrophilic surfaces. Submerged conidia displayed the broadest binding specificity, adhering to hydrophobic, weakly polar, and hydrophilic surfaces. The adhesion of the B. bassiana cell types also differed in sensitivity to glycosidase and protease treatments, pH, and addition of various carbohydrate competitors and detergents. The outer cell wall layer of aerial conidia contained sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble, trifluoroacetic acid-soluble proteins (presumably hydrophobins) that were not present on either blastospores or submerged conidia. The variations in the cell surface properties leading to the different adhesion qualities of B. bassiana aerial conidia, blastospores, and submerged conidia could lead to rational design decisions for improving the efficacy and possibly the specificity of entomopathogenic fungi for host targets.

  8. Zosteropenillines: Polyketides from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium thomii

    PubMed Central

    Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh.; Leshchenko, Elena V.; Berdyshev, Dmitrii V.; Sobolevskaya, Maria P.; Antonov, Alexandr S.; Denisenko, Vladimir A.; Popov, Roman S.; Pivkin, Mikhail V.; Udovenko, Anatoly A.; Pislyagin, Evgeny A.; von Amsberg, Gunhild; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A.

    2017-01-01

    Twelve new polyketides, zosteropenillines A–L (1–12), together with known polyketide pallidopenilline A (13), were isolated from the ethylacetate extract of the fungus Penicillium thomii associated with the seagrass Zostera marina. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of zosteropenilline A (1) as 4R, 5S, 8S, 9R, 10R, and 13S was determined by a combination of the modified Mosher’s method, X-ray analysis, and NOESY data. Absolute configurations of zosteropenillines B–D (2–4) were determined by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of ECD spectra. The effect of compounds 1–3, 7, 8, 10, and 11 on the viability of human drug-resistant prostate cancer cells PC3 as well as on autophagy in these cancer cells and inhibitory effects of compounds 1, 2, and 8–10 on NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were examined. PMID:28218691

  9. Devonian landscape heterogeneity recorded by a giant fungus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, C. Kevin; Hotton, Carol L.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Cody, George D.; Hazen, Robert M.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Hueber, Francis M.

    2007-05-01

    The enigmatic Paleozoic fossil Prototaxites Dawson 1859 consists of tree-like trunks as long as 8 m constructed of interwoven tubes <50 mm in diameter. Prototaxites specimens from five localities differ from contemporaneous vascular plants by exhibiting a carbon isotopic range, within and between localities, of as much as 13‰ δ13C. Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry highlights compositional differences between Prototaxites and co-occurring plant fossils and supports interpretation of isotopic distinctions as biological rather than diagenetic in origin. Such a large isotopic range is difficult to reconcile with an autotrophic metabolism, suggesting instead that, consistent with anatomy-based interpretation as a fungus, Prototaxites was a heterotroph that lived on isotopically heterogeneous substrates. Light isotopic values of Prototaxites approximate those of vascular plants from the same localities; in contrast, heavy extremes seen in the Lower Devonian appear to reflect consumption of primary producers with carbon-concentrating mechanisms, such as cryptobiotic soil crusts, or possibly bryophytes. Prototaxites biogeochemistry thus suggests that a biologically heterogeneous mosaic of primary producers characterized land surfaces well into the vascular plant era.

  10. Adhesion of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria (Cordyceps) bassiana to Substrata†

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Diane J.; Keyhani, Nemat O.

    2005-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana produces at least three distinct single-cell propagules, aerial conidia, vegetative cells termed blastospores, and submerged conidia, which can be isolated from agar plates, from rich broth liquid cultures, and under nutrient limitation conditions in submerged cultures, respectively. Fluorescently labeled fungal cells were used to quantify the kinetics of adhesion of these cell types to surfaces having various hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties. Aerial conidia adhered poorly to weakly polar surfaces and rapidly to both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces but could be readily washed off the latter surfaces. In contrast, blastospores bound poorly to hydrophobic surfaces, forming small aggregates, bound rapidly to hydrophilic surfaces, and required a longer incubation time to bind to weakly polar surfaces than to hydrophilic surfaces. Submerged conidia displayed the broadest binding specificity, adhering to hydrophobic, weakly polar, and hydrophilic surfaces. The adhesion of the B. bassiana cell types also differed in sensitivity to glycosidase and protease treatments, pH, and addition of various carbohydrate competitors and detergents. The outer cell wall layer of aerial conidia contained sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble, trifluoroacetic acid-soluble proteins (presumably hydrophobins) that were not present on either blastospores or submerged conidia. The variations in the cell surface properties leading to the different adhesion qualities of B. bassiana aerial conidia, blastospores, and submerged conidia could lead to rational design decisions for improving the efficacy and possibly the specificity of entomopathogenic fungi for host targets. PMID:16151112

  11. [Furfural degradation by filamentous fungus Amorphotheca resinae ZN1].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jian; Xin, Xiujuan; Bao, Jie

    2012-09-01

    Some degradation products from lignocellulose pretreatment strongly inhibit the activities of cellulolytic enzymes and ethanol fermentation strains, thus the efficient removal of the inhibitor substances ("detoxification") is the inevitable step for the biotransformation processes. In this study, the biological detoxification of furfural by a newly isolated fungus, Amorphotheca resinae ZN1, was studied and the metabolic pathways of furfural degradation was analyzed. The metabolic pathway of furfural degradation in A. resinae ZN1 was described as follows: first, furfural was quickly converted into the low toxic furfuryl alcohol; then the furfuryl alcohol was gradually converted into furfural again but under the low concentration under aerobic condition, which was not lethal to the growth of the fungi; furfural continued to be oxidized to furoic acid by A. resinae ZN1. It is likely that furoic acid was further degraded in the TCA cycle to complete the biological degradation of furfural. The present study provided the important experimental basis for speeding up the biodetoxification of furfural by A. resinae ZN1 and the rate-limiting step in the lignocellulose biotransformation to ethanol.

  12. Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Teh, Zee Chuang; Rubiyatno; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Khudhair, Ameer Badr; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Salim, Mohd Razman; Hidayat, Topik

    2013-10-01

    The use of biomaterials or microorganisms in PAHs degradation had presented an eye-catching performance. Pleurotus eryngii is a white rot fungus, which is easily isolated from the decayed woods in the tropical rain forest, used to determine the capability to utilize naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as source of carbon and energy. In the meantime, biotransformation of naphthalene to intermediates and other by-products during degradation was investigated in this study. Pleurotus eryngii had been incubated in liquid medium formulated with naphthalene for 14 days. The presence of metabolites of naphthalene suggests that Pleurotus eryngii begin the ring cleavage by dioxygenation on C1 and C4 position to give 1,4-naphthaquinone. 1,4-Naphthaquinone was further degraded to benzoic acid, where the proposed terepthalic acid is absent in the cultured extract. Further degradation of benzoic acid by Pleurotus eryngii shows the existence of catechol as a result of the combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation process. Unfortunately, phthalic acid was not detected in this study. Several enzymes, including manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase are enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. Reduction of naphthalene and the presence of metabolites in liquid medium showed the ability of Pleurotus eryngii to utilize naphthalene as carbon source instead of a limited glucose amount.

  13. The mitochondrial genome from the thermal dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Maria Angélica G; Tambor, José Humberto M; Nobrega, Francisco G

    2007-07-01

    We present here the sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the pathogenic thermodimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, agent of an endemic disease in most South American countries. The sequenced genome has 71 334 bp and is organized as a circular molecule with two gaps of unknown size flanking the middle exon of the nad5 gene. We located genes coding for the three subunits of the ATP synthase (atp6, atp8 and atp9), the apocytochrome b (cob), three subunits of the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme complex (cox1, cox2 and cox3), seven subunits of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ubiquinone oxidoreductase (nad1, nad2, nad3, nad4, nad5, nad6 and nad4L) and the large (rnl) and small (rns) subunits of ribosomal RNA. Two maturases and a ribosomal protein (rms5) are located inside introns. Twenty-five tRNAs were identified with acceptors for all 20 amino acids. Seven polypurine/polypyrimidine tracts (140-240 bp) have been found in this genome. All genes are in the same orientation over the genome, while their order is closest to the mitochondrial genomes from Penicillium marneffei and Aspergillus nidulans.

  14. Biological control of cyathostomin (Nematoda: Cyathostominae) with nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium in tropical southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Silva, André Ricardo; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2011-01-10

    Horses are hosts to a wide variety of helminthes; the most important are the cyathostomin, or small strongyles. The viability of a fungal formulation (pellets) using the nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium was assessed in biological control of horse cyathostomin. Two groups (fungus-treated and control) consisted of six mares in each group, crossbred (ages of 2.5 and 3.5 years), were placed in pastures of Cynodon sp. naturally infected with horse cyathostomin larvae. In the treated group, each animal received 1g/10 kg body weight (0.2g/10 kg live weight of fungus) of pellets of sodium alginate matrix containing the fungus M. thaumasium orally, twice a week for 6 months. In the control group, animals received (1g/10 kg body weight) of pellets without fungus. The egg count per gram of feces showed difference (p<0.01) in the animals treated with the fungus in relation to the control animals during all months of the experiment. The EPG percentage decrease were 87.5%, 89.7%, 68.3%, 58.7%, 52.5% and 35.2% during June, July, August, September, October and November, respectively. In faecal cultures, there was difference (p<0.05) among animals treated with fungus was found in relation to the control animals during all the experiment month, with percentage reduction of 67.5%, 61.4% and 31.8% in September, October and November, respectively. Difference (p<0.01) was observed in the recovery of infective larvae from pastures that were collected up to 20 cm from the dung pats in pastures in the group treated with the fungus in relation to the control group with a reduction of 60.9% and between 0-20 and 0-40 cm from the faecal pat reduction (p<0.01) was about 56% in the group treated with the fungus M. thaumasium in relation to the control group pasture. There was no difference (p>0.05) between the average weight gains in both animal groups. The treatment of horses with pellets containing the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium can be effective in controlling

  15. Characterization of fungus-specific microsatellite markers in the lichen-forming fungus Parmelina carporrhizans (Parmeliaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Alors, David; Dal Grande, Francesco; Schmitt, Imke; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Crespo, Ana; Divakar, Pradeep K.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed to study the lichen-forming fungus Parmelina (Parmeliaceae) in different habitats of western Europe and the Mediterranean for baseline studies to understand the effects of climate change on its distribution. • Methods and Results: We cultured P. carporrhizans from ascospores for genomic sequencing with Illumina HiSeq. We successfully developed 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers and associated primer sets and assessed them with 30 individuals from two of the Canary Islands. The average number of alleles per locus was 8.8. Nei’s unbiased gene diversity of these loci ranged from 0.53 to 0.91 in the tested populations. Amplification in two closely related species (P. tiliacea, P. cryptotiliacea) yielded only limited success. • Conclusions: The new microsatellite markers will allow the study of genetic diversity and population structure in P. carporrhizans. We propose eight markers to combine in two multiplex reactions for further studies on a larger set of populations. PMID:25506522

  16. Slope aspect influences arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities in arid ecosystems of the Daqingshan Mountains, Inner Mongolia, North China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Zheng, Rong; Bai, Shulan; Bai, Yv E; Wang, Jugang

    2017-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis plays an important role in ecosystem functioning, particularly in fragile environments. Little is known, however, about how AM fungus community composition responds to slope aspect. Our objective was to compare the AM fungus communities between sunny and shady slopes and to detect factors that influenced the distributions of AM fungi in arid ecosystems of the Daqingshan Mountains, Inner Mongolia, North China. AM fungus communities were evaluated based on small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSUs) using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. AM fungus community composition differed significantly between slope aspects, and sunny slopes had significantly higher AM fungus diversity and richness as well as spore density, total root colonization, arbuscule abundance, vesicle abundance, and hyphal colonization than shady slopes. Structural equation modeling (SEM) illustrated that the effects of slope aspect on AM fungus richness likely were mediated by available phosphorus, soil organic carbon, plant cover, and plant diversity. Available phosphorus was the principal factor that influenced AM fungus species richness, and soil organic carbon was the principal factor influencing spore density and total root colonization, suggesting that these factors especially might be responsible for differences between the AM fungus communities of different slope aspects. These findings elucidate the influence of slope aspect on AM fungus communities and may inform use of AM fungi in protection and restoration of vegetation with different slope aspects in arid ecosystems.

  17. Peroxisome dynamics during development of the fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Takano-Rojas, Harumi; Zickler, Denise; Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are versatile and dynamic organelles that are required for the development of diverse eukaryotic organisms. We demonstrated previously that in the fungus Podospora anserina different peroxisomal functions are required at distinct stages of sexual development, including the initiation and progression of meiocyte (ascus) development and the differentiation and germination of sexual spores (ascospores). Peroxisome assembly during these processes relies on the differential activity of the protein machinery that drives the import of proteins into the organelle, indicating a complex developmental regulation of peroxisome formation and activity. Here we demonstrate that peroxisome dynamics is also highly regulated during development. We show that peroxisomes in P. anserina are highly dynamic and respond to metabolic and environmental cues by undergoing changes in size, morphology and number. In addition, peroxisomes of vegetative and sexual cell types are structurally different. During sexual development peroxisome number increases at two stages: at early ascus differentiation and during ascospore formation. These processes are accompanied by changes in peroxisome structure and distribution, which include a cell-polarized concentration of peroxisomes at the beginning of ascus development, as well as a morphological transition from predominantly spherical to elongated shapes at the end of the first meiotic division. Further, the mostly tubular peroxisomes present from second meiotic division to early ascospore formation again become rounded during ascospore differentiation. Ultimately the number of peroxisomes dramatically decreases upon ascospore maturation. Our results reveal a precise regulation of peroxisome dynamics during sexual development and suggest that peroxisome constitution and function during development is defined by the coordinated regulation of the proteins that control peroxisome assembly and dynamics.

  18. Trade-offs in an ant-plant-fungus mutualism.

    PubMed

    Orivel, Jérôme; Malé, Pierre-Jean; Lauth, Jérémie; Roux, Olivier; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2017-03-15

    Species engaged in multiple, simultaneous mutualisms are subject to trade-offs in their mutualistic investment if the traits involved in each interaction are overlapping, which can lead to conflicts and affect the longevity of these associations. We investigate this issue via a tripartite mutualism involving an ant plant, two competing ant species and a fungus the ants cultivate to build galleries under the stems of their host plant to capture insect prey. The use of the galleries represents an innovative prey capture strategy compared with the more typical strategy of foraging on leaves. However, because of a limited worker force in their colonies, the prey capture behaviour of the ants results in a trade-off between plant protection (i.e. the ants patrol the foliage and attack intruders including herbivores) and ambushing prey in the galleries, which has a cascading effect on the fitness of all of the partners. The quantification of partners' traits and effects showed that the two ant species differed in their mutualistic investment. Less investment in the galleries (i.e. in fungal cultivation) translated into more benefits for the plant in terms of less herbivory and higher growth rates and vice versa. However, the greater vegetative growth of the plants did not produce a positive fitness effect for the better mutualistic ant species in terms of colony size and production of sexuals nor was the mutualist compensated by the wider dispersal of its queens. As a consequence, although the better ant mutualist is the one that provides more benefits to its host plant, its lower host-plant exploitation does not give this ant species a competitive advantage. The local coexistence of the ant species is thus fleeting and should eventually lead to the exclusion of the less competitive species.

  19. Genomic insight into pathogenicity of dematiaceous fungus Corynespora cassiicola.

    PubMed

    Looi, Hong Keat; Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Na, Shiang Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Chong, Pei-Sin; Khoo, Jia-Shiun; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng; Kuan, Chee Sian

    2017-01-01

    Corynespora cassiicola is a common plant pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in a broad range of crop, and it heavily affect rubber trees in Malaysia (Hsueh, 2011; Nghia et al., 2008). The isolation of UM 591 from a patient's contact lens indicates the pathogenic potential of this dematiaceous fungus in human. However, the underlying factors that contribute to the opportunistic cross-infection have not been fully studied. We employed genome sequencing and gene homology annotations in attempt to identify these factors in UM 591 using data obtained from publicly available bioinformatics databases. The assembly size of UM 591 genome is 41.8 Mbp, and a total of 13,531 (≥99 bp) genes have been predicted. UM 591 is enriched with genes that encode for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, auxiliary activity enzymes and cell wall degrading enzymes. Virulent genes comprising of CAZymes, peptidases, and hypervirulence-associated cutinases were found to be present in the fungal genome. Comparative analysis result shows that UM 591 possesses higher number of carbohydrate esterases family 10 (CE10) CAZymes compared to other species of fungi in this study, and these enzymes hydrolyses wide range of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate substrates. Putative melanin, siderophore, ent-kaurene, and lycopene biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted, and these gene clusters denote that UM 591 are capable of protecting itself from the UV and chemical stresses, allowing it to adapt to different environment. Putative sterigmatocystin, HC-toxin, cercosporin, and gliotoxin biosynthesis gene cluster are predicted. This finding have highlighted the necrotrophic and invasive nature of UM 591.

  20. Host Specialization in the Charcoal Rot Fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina.

    PubMed

    Su, G; Suh, S O; Schneider, R W; Russin, J S

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT To investigate host specialization in Macrophomina phaseolina, the fungus was isolated from soybean, corn, sorghum, and cotton root tissue and soil from fields cropped continuously to these species for 15 years in St. Joseph, LA. Chlorate phenotype of each isolate was determined after growing on a minimal medium containing 120 mM potassium chlorate. Consistent differences in chlorate sensitivity were detected among isolates from different hosts and from soil versus root. To further explore genetic differentiation among fungal isolates from each host, these isolates were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. No variations were observed among isolates in restriction patterns of DNA fragments amplified by polymerase chain reaction covering the internal transcribed spacer region, 5.8S rRNA and part of 25S rRNA, suggesting that M. phaseolina constitutes a single species. Ten random primers were used to amplify the total DNA of 45 isolates, and banding patterns resulting from RAPD analysis were compared with the neighbor-joining method. Isolates from a given host were genetically similar to each other but distinctly different from those from other hosts. Chlorate-sensitive isolates were distinct from chlorate-resistant isolates within a given host. In greenhouse tests, soybean, sorghum, corn, and cotton were grown separately in soil infested with individual isolates of M. phaseolina that were chosen based on their host of origin and chlorate phenotype. Root colonization and plant weight were measured after harvesting. More colonization of corn roots occurred when corn was grown in soil containing corn isolates compared with isolates from other hosts. However, there was no host specialization in isolates from soybean, sorghum, or cotton. More root colonization in soybean occurred with chlorate-sensitive than with chlorate-resistant isolates.

  1. Pathogenic Fungus Microsporum canis Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo

    2014-01-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1β from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K+ efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1β transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1β was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

  2. Lactic acid production from xylose by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Maas, Ronald H W; Bakker, Robert R; Eggink, Gerrit; Weusthuis, Ruud A

    2006-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is considered nowadays to be an economically attractive carbohydrate feedstock for large-scale fermentation of bulk chemicals such as lactic acid. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae is able to grow in mineral medium with glucose as sole carbon source and to produce optically pure L(+)-lactic acid. Less is known about the conversion by R. oryzae of pentose sugars such as xylose, which is abundantly present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. This paper describes the conversion of xylose in synthetic media into lactic acid by ten R. oryzae strains resulting in yields between 0.41 and 0.71 g g(-1). By-products were fungal biomass, xylitol, glycerol, ethanol and carbon dioxide. The growth of R. oryzae CBS 112.07 in media with initial xylose concentrations above 40 g l(-1) showed inhibition of substrate consumption and lactic acid production rates. In case of mixed substrates, diauxic growth was observed where consumption of glucose and xylose occurred subsequently. Sugar consumption rate and lactic acid production rate were significantly higher during glucose consumption phase compared to xylose consumption phase. Available xylose (10.3 g l(-1)) and glucose (19.2 g l(-1)) present in a mild-temperature alkaline treated wheat straw hydrolysate was converted subsequently by R. oryzae with rates of 2.2 g glucose l(-1) h(-1) and 0.5 g xylose l(-1) h(-1). This resulted mainly into the product lactic acid (6.8 g l(-1)) and ethanol (5.7 g l(-1)).

  3. Genomic insight into pathogenicity of dematiaceous fungus Corynespora cassiicola

    PubMed Central

    Looi, Hong Keat; Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Na, Shiang Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Chong, Pei-Sin; Khoo, Jia-Shiun; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2017-01-01

    Corynespora cassiicola is a common plant pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in a broad range of crop, and it heavily affect rubber trees in Malaysia (Hsueh, 2011; Nghia et al., 2008). The isolation of UM 591 from a patient’s contact lens indicates the pathogenic potential of this dematiaceous fungus in human. However, the underlying factors that contribute to the opportunistic cross-infection have not been fully studied. We employed genome sequencing and gene homology annotations in attempt to identify these factors in UM 591 using data obtained from publicly available bioinformatics databases. The assembly size of UM 591 genome is 41.8 Mbp, and a total of 13,531 (≥99 bp) genes have been predicted. UM 591 is enriched with genes that encode for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, auxiliary activity enzymes and cell wall degrading enzymes. Virulent genes comprising of CAZymes, peptidases, and hypervirulence-associated cutinases were found to be present in the fungal genome. Comparative analysis result shows that UM 591 possesses higher number of carbohydrate esterases family 10 (CE10) CAZymes compared to other species of fungi in this study, and these enzymes hydrolyses wide range of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate substrates. Putative melanin, siderophore, ent-kaurene, and lycopene biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted, and these gene clusters denote that UM 591 are capable of protecting itself from the UV and chemical stresses, allowing it to adapt to different environment. Putative sterigmatocystin, HC-toxin, cercosporin, and gliotoxin biosynthesis gene cluster are predicted. This finding have highlighted the necrotrophic and invasive nature of UM 591. PMID:28149676

  4. Ethanol physiology in the warehouse-staining fungus, Baudoinia compniacensis.

    PubMed

    Ewaze, Juliet O; Summerbell, Richard C; Scott, James A

    2008-11-01

    The fungus Baudoinia compniacensis colonizes the exterior surfaces of a range of materials, such as buildings, outdoor furnishings, fences, signs, and vegetation, in regions subject to periodic exposure to low levels of ethanol vapour, such as those in the vicinity of distillery aging warehouses and commercial bakeries. Here we investigated the basis of ethanol metabolism in Baudoinia and investigate the role of ethanol in cell germination and growth. Germination of mycelia of Baudoinia was enhanced by up to roughly 1d exposure to low ethanol concentrations, optimally 10ppm when delivered in vapour form and 5mm in liquid form. However, growth was strongly inhibited following exposure to higher ethanol concentrations for shorter durations (e.g., 1.7m for 6h). We found that ethanol was catabolized into central metabolism via alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ACDH). Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) were active in cells grown on glucose, but these enzymes were not expressed when ethanol was provided as a sole or companion carbon source. The glyoxylate cycle enzymes isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS) activities observed in cells grown on acetate were comparable to those reported for other microorganisms. By replenishing tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, it is likely that the functionality of the glyoxylate cycle is important in the establishment of luxuriant growth of Baudoinia compniacensis on ethanol-exposed, nutrient-deprived, exposed surfaces. In other fungi, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ADH II catalyses the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde, which then can be metabolized via the TCA cycle. ADH II is known to be strongly repressed in the presence of glucose.

  5. Five New Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Wen-Jian; Fu, Sheng-Jiao; Xu, Meng-Yang; Liang, Wan-Ling; Lam, Chi-Keung; Zhong, Guo-Hua; Xu, Jun; Yang, De-Po; Li, Hou-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri was isolated from Acanthaster planci from the South China Sea. In a preliminary bioactivity screening, the crude methanol extract of the fungal mycelia showed significant inhibitory activity against the Sf9 cell line from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Five novel compounds, including 5-olefin phenylpyropene A (1), 13-dehydroxylpyripyropene A (4), deacetylsesquiterpene (7), 5-formyl-6-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-2- naphthoic acid (9) and 6,8-dihydroxy-3-((1E,3E)-penta-1,3-dien-1-yl)isochroman-1-one (10), together with eleven known compounds, phenylpyropene A (2) and C (3), pyripyropene A (5), 7-deacetylpyripyropene A (6), (1S,2R,4aR,5R,8R,8aR)-1,8a-dihydroxy-2-acetoxy-3,8-dimethyl-5- (prop-1-en-2-yl)-1,2,4a, 5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene (8), isochaetominine C (11), trichodermamide A (12), indolyl-3-acetic acid methyl ester (13), 1-acetyl-β-carboline (14), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxyl-2-methyl-l,3,4-trioxopyrazino[l,2-a]-indole (15) and fumiquinazoline F (16), were obtained. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by MS and NMR data. The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 1–11 and 15 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Sf9 cells from S. frugiperda. PMID:26771621

  6. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (species and concentration) and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability) influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR) <1) compared to Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR < 1). The effect of increase in fungus concentration on larval mortality was influenced by spore clumping. One day exposure to fungal spores was found to be equally effective as seven days exposure. In different exposure time treatments 0 - 4.9% of the total larvae, exposed to fungus, showed infection at either the pupal or adult stage. Mortality rate increased with increasing larval density and amount of available food. Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional

  7. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    SciTech Connect

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  8. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  9. The nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium and its nematicidal activity on Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    PubMed

    Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Lima, Walter dos Santos; de Queiroz, José Humberto

    2015-01-01

    The dog acts as a reservoir and environmental disseminator of potentially zoonotic parasites. The objective of this work was to study the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium regarding its nematicidal potential in laboratory trials and its proteolytic profile. The in vitro test was carried out through two assays (A and B). In assay A, conidia of the fungus N34a were added in positive coprocultures for Angiostrongylus vasorum. In assay B, crude extract (treated group) and distilled water (control group) were added to coprocultures. Next, the proteolytic profile of crude extract of the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium (NF34a) was revealed by performing a zymogram. There was a reduction (p<0.01) in the averages of larvae recovered from the treated groups (conidia and crude extract) in relation to control groups. The zymogram suggested that the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium produces a protease of approximately 40 kDa. The results of this work confirm that the conidia as well as the crude extract of the fungus M. thaumasium may be used to control A. vasorum L1. The proteolytic profile suggested the presence of one protease (Mt1) of approximately 40 kDa that in the future may be used in biological control of L1 of this nematode. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Fungus ball and emphysematous cystitis secondary to Candida tropicalis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Ji, Xiang; Sun, Guo-feng; Qin, Ying-chao; Gong, Miao-zi; Zhang, Jin-xia; Li, Ning-chen; Na, Yan-qun

    2015-01-01

    Fungus ball and fungal emphysematous cystitis are two rare complications of fungal urinary tract infection. A 53-year-old male patient presented with these complications caused by Candida tropicalis simultaneously. The predisposing factors were diabetes mellitus and usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The fungus ball, measuring 3.5 × 2.0 cm on the left wall of the urinary bladder, shrank significantly to 1.6 × 0.8 cm after 5 days of intermittent irrigation with saline before surgery. With transurethral removal of the fungus ball and antifungal treatment with fluconazole, the patient fully recovered. We conclude that a bladder fungus ball and fungal emphysematous cystitis should always be suspected in patients with diabetes mellitus with uncontrolled funguria and abnormal imaging. Treatment should include a systemic antifungal therapy and thorough surgical removal of the fungus ball. A systemic antifungal therapy combined with a local irrigation with saline or antifungal drugs might help decrease the dissemination of fungemia during an invasive manipulation. PMID:26425243

  11. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens.

    PubMed

    Aylward, Frank O; Burnum, Kristin E; Scott, Jarrod J; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G; Adams, Sandra M; Barry, Kerrie W; Nicora, Carrie D; Piehowski, Paul D; Purvine, Samuel O; Starrett, Gabriel J; Goodwin, Lynne A; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S; Currie, Cameron R

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on large quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques, we characterize the bacterial diversity and physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes associated with lignocellulose degradation and diverse biosynthetic pathways, suggesting that they play a role in nutrient cycling by converting the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants into B-vitamins, amino acids and other cellular components. Our metaproteomic analysis confirms that bacterial glycosyl hydrolases and proteins with putative biosynthetic functions are produced in both field-collected and laboratory-reared colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are specialized fungus-bacteria communities that convert plant material into energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities in the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  12. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Eric L; Aylward, Frank O; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Nicora, Carrie D; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O; Lipton, Mary S; Smith, Richard D; Currie, Cameron R; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics that feed on fungus gardens cultivated on fresh foliar biomass. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metabolomic and metaproteomic techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous characterization of lignocellulases produced by the fungal cultivar of the ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metabolomic experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in fungus gardens. These results provide new insights into microbial community-level processes that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  13. Characterisation of α-chitin extracted from a lichenised fungus species Xanthoria parietina.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Halıcı, Mehmet Gökhan; Duman, Fatih; Erdoğan, Sevil; Baran, Talat

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are symbiotic associations formed mainly by ascomycete fungi and green algae or cyanobacteria. The presence of chitin in the fungal cell wall has been revealed by previous studies. Considering the presence of fungi in the lichens, this work determines the presence of chitin in a cosmopolitan lichen species Xanthoria parietina. In this study, chitin was derived from a lichen species for the first time and its physicochemical properties were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The dry weight chitin content of X. parietina was 4.23%, and this chitin was in the α-form. The crystalline index value of the lichen chitin was calculated as 70.1%. The chitin from X. parietina had a smooth surface.

  14. Regulatory Genes Controlling Fatty Acid Catabolism and Peroxisomal Functions in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus nidulans†

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Michael J.; Murray, Sandra L.; Duncan, Anna; Khew, Gillian S.; Davis, Meryl A.

    2006-01-01

    The catabolism of fatty acids is important in the lifestyle of many fungi, including plant and animal pathogens. This has been investigated in Aspergillus nidulans, which can grow on acetate and fatty acids as sources of carbon, resulting in the production of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA). Acetyl-CoA is metabolized via the glyoxalate bypass, located in peroxisomes, enabling gluconeogenesis. Acetate induction of enzymes specific for acetate utilization as well as glyoxalate bypass enzymes is via the Zn2-Cys6 binuclear cluster activator FacB. However, enzymes of the glyoxalate bypass as well as fatty acid beta-oxidation and peroxisomal proteins are also inducible by fatty acids. We have isolated mutants that cannot grow on fatty acids. Two of the corresponding genes, farA and farB, encode two highly conserved families of related Zn2-Cys6 binuclear proteins present in filamentous ascomycetes, including plant pathogens. A single ortholog is found in the yeasts Candida albicans, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Yarrowia lipolytica, but not in the Ashbya, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces lineage. Northern blot analysis has shown that deletion of the farA gene eliminates induction of a number of genes by both short- and long-chain fatty acids, while deletion of the farB gene eliminates short-chain induction. An identical core 6-bp in vitro binding site for each protein has been identified in genes encoding glyoxalate bypass, beta-oxidation, and peroxisomal functions. This sequence is overrepresented in the 5′ region of genes predicted to be fatty acid induced in other filamentous ascomycetes, C. albicans, D. hansenii, and Y. lipolytica, but not in the corresponding genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:16682457

  15. Potential for Nitrogen Fixation in the Fungus-Growing Termite Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; de Verges, Jane; Rousk, Kathrin; Cilliers, Magdeleen; Vorster, Barend J.; Poulsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N), some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2). Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces) that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here, we challenge this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes) of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues of research that may lead to a better understanding of N2 fixation in fungus-growing and other termites. PMID:28018322

  16. Effect of the oyster fungus on glycaemia and cholesterolaemia in rats with insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chorváthová, V; Bobek, P; Ginter, E; Klvanová, J

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of a diet containing of 4% oyster fungus (Pleurotus ostreatus) and 0.1% cholesterol on glycaemia and hyperlipoproteinaemia in rats with insulin-dependent diabetes (streptozotocin 45 mg/kg). After two months, the rats with diabetes kept on the oyster fungus diet, had a significantly lower basal and postprandial glycaemia, the insulinaemia remained unchanged. The cholesterol concentration was decreased by more than 40%, the lipoprotein profile was upgraded by the decrease of the cholesterol in both the low density and very low density lipoproteins. The oyster fungus decreased the cholesterol accumulation in the liver and had no significant effects on the levels of serum and liver triacylglycerols.

  17. Transgenic assessment of CFP-mediated cercosporin export and resistance in a cercosporin-sensitive fungus.

    PubMed

    Upchurch, Robert G; Rose, Mark S; Eweida, Mohamed; Callahan, Terrence M

    2002-04-01

    Cercosporin is a toxic polyketide produced by many phytopathogenic members of the fungal genus Cercospora. Cercospora species, themselves, exhibit the highest level of self-resistance to this almost universally toxic photosensitizer. Although the mechanism of cercosporin self-resistance is multi-faceted, partial resistance does appear to be provided by the encoded product of CFP ( cercosporin facilitator protein), a gene recently isolated from the pathogen of soybean, C. kikuchii. CFP has significant similarity to the major facilitator superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. We expressed CFP in the cercosporin non-producing, cercosporin-sensitive fungus, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, in order to assess the transport activity of CFP and the contribution of CFP to cercosporin resistance in a fungal species free of endogenous toxin production. Expression of the CFP transgene in this fungus results in increased resistance to cercosporin due, apparently, to its export out of the fungus.

  18. Comparative mitochondrial genomics toward exploring molecular markers in the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Hao, Ai-Jing; Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Yong-Jie

    2017-01-10

    Cordyceps militaris is a fungus used for developing health food, but knowledge about its intraspecific differentiation is limited due to lack of efficient markers. Herein, we assembled the mitochondrial genomes of eight C. militaris strains and performed a comparative mitochondrial genomic analysis together with three previously reported mitochondrial genomes of the fungus. Sizes of the 11 mitochondrial genomes varied from 26.5 to 33.9 kb mainly due to variable intron contents (from two to eight introns per strain). Nucleotide variability varied according to different regions with non-coding regions showing higher variation frequency than coding regions. Recombination events were identified between some locus pairs but seemed not to contribute greatly to genetic variations of the fungus. Based on nucleotide diversity fluctuations across the alignment of all mitochondrial genomes, molecular markers with the potential to be used for future typing studies were determined.

  19. Antifungal Depsidone Metabolites from Cordyceps dipterigena, an Endophytic Fungus Antagonistic to the Phytopathogen Gibberella fujikuroi

    PubMed Central

    Varughese, Titto; Riosa, Nivia; Higginbotham, Sarah; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Gerwick, William H.; Cubilla Rios, L.

    2012-01-01

    Among thirty four endophytic fungal strains screened for in vitro antagonism, the endophytic fungus Cordyceps dipterigena was found to strongly inhibit mycelial growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. Two new depsidone metabolites, cordycepsidone A (1) and cordycepsidone B (2), were isolated from the PDA culture extract of C. dipterigena and identified as being responsible for the antifungal activity. Elucidation of their chemical structures was carried out using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy in combination with IR and MS spectroscopic data. Cordycepsidone A displayed strong and dose-dependent antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. The isolates were inactive in bioassays for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum), leishmaniasis (Leishmania donovani), Chagas’s disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), and cytotoxicity at 10 μg/mL. The compounds were also found to be inactive against several bacterial strains at 50 μg/mL. PMID:22707798

  20. Potential for Nitrogen Fixation in the Fungus-Growing Termite Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; de Verges, Jane; Rousk, Kathrin; Cilliers, Magdeleen; Vorster, Barend J; Poulsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N), some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2). Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces) that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here, we challenge this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes) of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues of research that may lead to a better understanding of N2 fixation in fungus-growing and other termites.

  1. The role of glycerol in the pathogenic lifestyle of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Foster, Andrew J; Ryder, Lauren S; Kershaw, Michael J; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2017-03-01

    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae elaborates a specialized cell called an appressorium, which is used to breach the tough outer cuticle of a rice leaf, enabling the fungus entry to host plant cells. The appressorium generates enormous turgor by accumulating glycerol to very high concentrations within the cell. Glycerol accumulation and melanization of the appressorium cell wall collectively drive turgor-mediated penetration of the rice leaf. In this review, we discuss the potential metabolic sources of glycerol in the rice blast fungus and how appressorium turgor is focused as physical force at the base of the infection cell, leading to the formation of a rigid penetration peg. We review recent studies of M. oryzae and other relevant appressorium-forming fungi which shed light on how glycerol is synthesized and how appressorium turgor is regulated. Finally, we provide some questions to guide avenues of future research that will be important in fully understanding the role of glycerol in rice blast disease.

  2. Sorption of cadmium, copper, and zinc onto soft coal and the fungus Rhizopus javanicus

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, H.D.; Chapman, S.K.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments involved testing the sorption properties of soft coal and the fungus Rhizopus javanicus to evaluate the feasibility of using these materials for acid mine reclamation. The metals cadmium, copper, and zinc were chosen since they are generally present in sulfide mine waste and are toxic. Their toxicity warrants their removal. To appropriate sulfide mine conditions, solutions of individual metals were prepared with concentrations between five and fifty milligrams/Liter and pH levels between three and seven. Results show forty to seventy percent metal removal for the fungus, and seventy-five to one-hundred percent removal by the coal. The pH of all the metal solutions equilibrated to between four and six when the fungus was used, and between five and seven for the coal. Sorption kinetics studies are currently underway and will be reported.

  3. Comparative mitochondrial genomics toward exploring molecular markers in the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Hao, Ai-Jing; Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Yong-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a fungus used for developing health food, but knowledge about its intraspecific differentiation is limited due to lack of efficient markers. Herein, we assembled the mitochondrial genomes of eight C. militaris strains and performed a comparative mitochondrial genomic analysis together with three previously reported mitochondrial genomes of the fungus. Sizes of the 11 mitochondrial genomes varied from 26.5 to 33.9 kb mainly due to variable intron contents (from two to eight introns per strain). Nucleotide variability varied according to different regions with non-coding regions showing higher variation frequency than coding regions. Recombination events were identified between some locus pairs but seemed not to contribute greatly to genetic variations of the fungus. Based on nucleotide diversity fluctuations across the alignment of all mitochondrial genomes, molecular markers with the potential to be used for future typing studies were determined. PMID:28071691

  4. Advanced digital image analysis method dedicated to the characterization of the morphology of filamentous fungus.

    PubMed

    Hardy, N; Moreaud, M; Guillaume, D; Augier, F; Nienow, A; Béal, C; Ben Chaabane, F

    2017-02-06

    Filamentous fungi have a complex morphology that induces fermentation process development issues, as a consequence of viscosity increase and diffusion limitations. In order to better understand the relationship between viscosity changes and fungus morphology during fermentations of Trichoderma reesei, an accurate image analysis method has been developed to provide quantitative and representative data for morphological analysis. This method consisted of a new algorithm called FACE that allowed sharp images to be created at all positions, segmentation of fungus, and morphological analysis using skeleton and topological approaches. It was applied and validated by characterizing samples of an industrial strain of Trichoderma reesei that had or had not been exposed to an extreme shear stress. This method allowed many morphological characteristics to be identified, among which nine relevant criteria were extracted, regarding the impact of shear stress on the fungus and on the viscosity of the fermentation medium.

  5. A case of fungus ball type pansinusitis caused by Schizophillum commune.

    PubMed

    Nazeri, Mehdi; Mohammadi Ardehali, Mojtaba; Moazeni, Maryam; Jamal Hashemi, Seyed; Fallahi, Ali Akbar; Ehteram, Hassan; Rezaie, Sassan

    2012-01-01

    Schizophillum commune has been increasingly reported from allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) as well as fungus ball, brain abscess and several cases of maxillary or allergic fungal sinusitis. In the present study, we reported a case of fungus ball type pansinusitis from a 32-year-old woman in Iran. According to computed tomography (CT) scan, fungus ball type pan-sinusitis was likely to be the first diagnosis. Mycological examination revealed hyaline hyphae with small projection and also clamp connection structures on PDA medium. To identify the obtained isolate properly, molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region was performed and indicated that the causing agent of the infection is surely Schizophillum commune. The patient completely recovered after surgical endoscopic operation and consequent post-operation MRI revealed clearance of sinuses.

  6. A case of fungus ball type pansinusitis caused by Schizophillum commune

    PubMed Central

    Nazeri, Mehdi; Mohammadi Ardehali, Mojtaba; Moazeni, Maryam; Jamal Hashemi, Seyed; Fallahi, Ali akbar; Ehteram, Hassan; Rezaie, Sassan

    2012-01-01

    Schizophillum commune has been increasingly reported from allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) as well as fungus ball, brain abscess and several cases of maxillary or allergic fungal sinusitis. In the present study, we reported a case of fungus ball type pansinusitis from a 32-year-old woman in Iran. According to computed tomography (CT) scan, fungus ball type pan-sinusitis was likely to be the first diagnosis. Mycological examination revealed hyaline hyphae with small projection and also clamp connection structures on PDA medium. To identify the obtained isolate properly, molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region was performed and indicated that the causing agent of the infection is surely Schizophillum commune. The patient completely recovered after surgical endoscopic operation and consequent post-operation MRI revealed clearance of sinuses. PMID:24371755

  7. Fungus symbionts colonizing the galleries of the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus.

    PubMed

    Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Okada, Gen; Takeuchi, Yuko; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2011-07-01

    Isolations were made to determine the fungal symbionts colonizing Platypus quercivorus beetle galleries of dead or dying Quercus laurifolia, Castanopsis cuspidata, Quercus serrata, Quercus crispula, and Quercus robur. For these studies, logs from oak wilt-killed trees were collected from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Fungi were isolated from the: (1) entrances of beetle galleries, (2) vertical galleries, (3) lateral galleries, and (4) the larval cradle of P. quercivorus in each host tree. Among the fungus colonies which appeared on YM agar plates, 1,219 were isolated as the representative isolates for fungus species inhabiting in the galleries based on their cultural characteristics. The validity of the visual classification of the fungus colonies was checked and if necessary properly corrected using microsatellite-primed PCR fingerprints. The nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit nuclear rRNA gene detected 38 fungus species (104 strains) of which three species, i.e., Candida sp. 3, Candida kashinagacola (both yeasts), and the filamentous fungus Raffaelea quercivora were isolated from all the tree species. The two yeasts were most prevalent in the interior of galleries, regardless of host tree species, suggesting their close association with the beetle. A culture-independent method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was also used to characterize the fungus flora of beetle galleries. T-RFLP patterns showed that yeast species belonging to the genus Ambrosiozyma frequently occurred on the gallery walls along with the two Candida species. Ours is the first report showing the specific fungi inhabiting the galleries of a platypodid ambrosia beetle.

  8. Effects of different ratios of pig manure to fungus residue on physicochemical parameters during composting.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiangming; Wang, Litong; Wang, Houming; Jiang, Long; Jiang, Xinyou

    2016-05-01

    This study examined physicochemical parameters to assess their effectiveness as stability and maturity indicators during the process of composting pig manure and fungus residue at different ratios. The results showed that composting mixtures with all ratios of pig manure to fungus residue maintained a temperature exceeding 50 °C for more than 10 days during composting and met the requirement for pathogen destruction. The treatment containing mainly pig manure showed higher nitrogen loss and a shorter thermophilic phase and maturity time than the treatment containing mainly fungus residue. The germination index (GI) values indicated that compost maturity was achieved in the final compost with initial ratios of pig manure to fungus residue of 9:1-7:3 (GIs of 101.4%, 91.2%, and 81.3%); the ratio of 6:4 did not reach compost maturity (GI of 63.8%) and had an inhibitory effect on seed germination. The results of this study suggest that a ratio of pig manure to fungus residue of approximately 8:2 can be considered suitable for the efficient and quality composting of pig manure and fungus residue. Co-composting of pig manure and edible fungi residue with appropriate proportion can effectively reduce the risk of environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes, as well as achieve a safer and high-quality organic fertilizer, which can be used to improve physical and chemical properties of the soil, increase crop yields, and promote agricultural sustainable development. Therefore, technique of co-composting of pig manure and edible fungi residue has a wide prospect of application in practical production all over the world.

  9. Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf = 16,000×g), two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf = 5,000 and 3,000 ×g), and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf = 120×g). Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt this method for genomic

  10. Temperature Modulates the Secretome of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Carina; Duarte, Ana S.; Vitorino, Rui; Guerreiro, Ana C. L.; Domingues, Pedro; Correia, António C. M.; Alves, Artur; Esteves, Ana C.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental alterations modulate host–microorganism interactions. Little is known about how climate changes can trigger pathogenic features on symbiont or mutualistic microorganisms. Current climate models predict increased environmental temperatures. The exposing of phytopathogens to these changing conditions can have particularly relevant consequences for economically important species and for humans. The impact on pathogen/host interaction and the shift on their biogeographical range can induce different levels of virulence in new hosts, allowing massive losses in agricultural and health fields. Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for a number of diseases in various plants. It has also been described as an opportunist pathogen in humans, causing infections with different levels of severity. L. theobromae has a high capacity of adaptation to different environments, such as woody plants, moist argillaceous soils, or even humans, being able to grow and infect hosts in a wide range of temperatures (9–39°C). Nonetheless, the effect of an increase of temperature, as predicted in climate change models, on L. theobromae is unknown. Here we explore the effect of temperature on two strains of L. theobromae – an environmental strain, CAA019, and a clinical strain, CBS339.90. We show that both strains are cytotoxic to mammalian cells but while the environmental strain is cytotoxic mainly at 25°C, the clinical strain is cytotoxic mainly at 30 and 37°C. Extracellular gelatinolytic, xylanolytic, amylolytic, and cellulolytic activities at 25 and 37°C were characterized by zymography and the secretome of both strains grown at 25, 30, and 37°C were characterized by electrophoresis and by Orbitrap LC-MS/MS. More than 75% of the proteins were identified, mostly enzymes (glycosyl hydrolases and proteases). The strains showed different protein profiles, which were affected by growth temperature. Also, strain specific proteins were identified

  11. Temperature Modulates the Secretome of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    PubMed

    Félix, Carina; Duarte, Ana S; Vitorino, Rui; Guerreiro, Ana C L; Domingues, Pedro; Correia, António C M; Alves, Artur; Esteves, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Environmental alterations modulate host-microorganism interactions. Little is known about how climate changes can trigger pathogenic features on symbiont or mutualistic microorganisms. Current climate models predict increased environmental temperatures. The exposing of phytopathogens to these changing conditions can have particularly relevant consequences for economically important species and for humans. The impact on pathogen/host interaction and the shift on their biogeographical range can induce different levels of virulence in new hosts, allowing massive losses in agricultural and health fields. Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for a number of diseases in various plants. It has also been described as an opportunist pathogen in humans, causing infections with different levels of severity. L. theobromae has a high capacity of adaptation to different environments, such as woody plants, moist argillaceous soils, or even humans, being able to grow and infect hosts in a wide range of temperatures (9-39°C). Nonetheless, the effect of an increase of temperature, as predicted in climate change models, on L. theobromae is unknown. Here we explore the effect of temperature on two strains of L. theobromae - an environmental strain, CAA019, and a clinical strain, CBS339.90. We show that both strains are cytotoxic to mammalian cells but while the environmental strain is cytotoxic mainly at 25°C, the clinical strain is cytotoxic mainly at 30 and 37°C. Extracellular gelatinolytic, xylanolytic, amylolytic, and cellulolytic activities at 25 and 37°C were characterized by zymography and the secretome of both strains grown at 25, 30, and 37°C were characterized by electrophoresis and by Orbitrap LC-MS/MS. More than 75% of the proteins were identified, mostly enzymes (glycosyl hydrolases and proteases). The strains showed different protein profiles, which were affected by growth temperature. Also, strain specific proteins were identified, such

  12. Cytotoxic effects of oosporein isolated from endophytic fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi

    PubMed Central

    Ramesha, Alurappa; Venkataramana, M.; Nirmaladevi, Dhamodaran; Gupta, Vijai K.; Chandranayaka, S.; Srinivas, Chowdappa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, oosporein, a fungal toxic secondary metabolite known to be a toxic agent causing chronic disorders in animals, was isolated from fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi of Nerium oleander L. Toxic effects of oosporein and the possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity as well as the role of oxidative stress in cytotoxicity to Madin-Darby canine kidney kidney cells and RAW 264.7 splene cells were evaluated in vitro. Also to know the possible in vivo toxic effects of oosporein on kidney and spleen, Balb/C mouse were treated with different concentrations of oosporein ranging from 20 to 200 μM). After 24 h of exposure histopathological observations were made to know the effects of oosporein on target organs. Oosporein induced elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and high levels of malondialdehyde, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, induced glutathione hydroxylase (GSH) production was observed in a dose depended manner. Effects oosporein on chromosomal DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay, and increase in DNA damage were observed in both the studied cell lines by increasing the oosporein concentration. Further, oosporein treatment to studied cell lines indicated significant suppression of oxidative stress related gene (Superoxide dismutase1 and Catalase ) expression, and increased levels of mRNA expression in apoptosis or oxidative stress inducing genes HSP70, Caspase3, Caspase6, and Caspase9 as measured by quantitative real time-PCR assay. Histopathological examination of oosporein treated mouse kidney and splenocytes further revealed that, oosporein treated target mouse tissues were significantly damaged with that of untreated sam control mice and these effects were in directly proportional to the the toxin dose. Results of the present study reveals that, ROS is the principle event prompting increased oosporein toxicity in studied in vivio and in vitro animal models. The high previlance of these fungi in temperate climates further

  13. Transcriptional responses in Honey Bee larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diseases and other stress factors working synergistically weaken honey bee health and may play a major role in the losses of bee populations in recent years. Among a large number of bee diseases, chalkbrood has been on the rise. We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that are differentially expressed in response to infection of honey bee larvae with the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis. Results We used cDNA-AFLP ®Technology to profile transcripts in infected and uninfected bee larvae. From 64 primer combinations, over 7,400 transcriptionally-derived fragments were obtained A total of 98 reproducible polymorphic cDNA-AFLP fragments were excised and sequenced, followed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of these and additional samples. We have identified a number of differentially-regulated transcripts that are implicated in general mechanisms of stress adaptation, including energy metabolism and protein transport. One of the most interesting differentially-regulated transcripts is for a chitinase-like enzyme that may be linked to anti-fungal activities in the honey bee larvae, similarly to gut and fat-body specific chitinases found in mosquitoes and the red flour beetle. Surprisingly, we did not find many components of the well-characterized NF-κB intracellular signaling pathways to be differentially-regulated using the cDNA-AFLP approach. Therefore, utilizing qRT-PCR, we probed some of the immune related genes to determine whether the lack of up-regulation of their transcripts in our analysis can be attributed to lack of immune activation or to limitations of the cDNA-AFLP approach. Conclusions Using a combination of cDNA-AFLP and qRT-PCR analyses, we were able to determine several key transcriptional events that constitute the overall effort in the honey bee larvae to fight natural fungal infection. Honey bee transcripts identified in this study are involved in critical functions related to

  14. Do novel genotypes drive the success of an invasive bark beetle–fungus complex? Implications for potential reinvasion

    Treesearch

    Min Lu; Michael J. Wingfield; Nancy Gillette; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2011-01-01

    Novel genotypes often arise during biological invasions, but their role in invasion success has rarely been elucidated. Here we examined the population genetics and behavior of the fungus, Leptographium procerum, vectored by a highly invasive bark beetle, Dendroctonus valens, to determine whether genetic changes in the fungus...

  15. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

  16. Symbiosis-regulated expression of an acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase gene in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor

    Treesearch

    Shiv T. Hiremath; Sujata Balasubramanian; Jun Zheng; Gopi K. Podila

    2006-01-01

    The ectomycorrhiza is a symbiotic organ generated from the intricate association of fungal hyphae and plant root. The establishment of the ectomycorrhiza is a coordinated process of cross-talk between plant and fungus, followed by metabolic, developmental, and structural changes in the fungus, resulting in its growth toward the root. The initial stages of the symbiotic...

  17. Seasonal prevalence of the insect pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum nymphaeae in Brazilian citrus groves under different chemical pesticide regimes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a field study, we identified an endemic fungal entomopathogen, known as the 'salmão' fungus infecting populations of citrus scale, Praelongorthezia praelonga Douglas. The identification of this fungus is close to Colletotrichum nymphaeae (Sordariomycetes: Glomerellales) based on morphological sim...

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, a fungus associated with oak mortality in South Korea

    Treesearch

    M. -S. Kim; P. A. Hohenlohe; K. -H. Kim; S. -T. Seo; Ned Klopfenstein

    2016-01-01

    Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae is a fungus associated with oak wilt and deemed to cause extensive oak mortality in South Korea. Since the discovery of this fungus on a dead Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) in 2004, the mortality continued to spread southwards in South Korea. Despite continued expansion of the disease and associated significant impacts on forest...

  19. Fingerprints of a forest fungus: Swiss needle cast, carbon isotopes, carbohydrates, and growth in Douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    Andrea Watts; Frederick Meinzer; Brandy J. Saffell

    2014-01-01

    Swiss needle cast is caused by a fungus native to the Pacific Northwest. Its host is Douglas-fir, an iconic evergreen tree in the region. The fungus does not kill its host, but it adversely affects the tree's growth. The fungal fruiting bodies block the stomata, small openings on the underside of the needle where carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases are...

  20. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...