Science.gov

Sample records for a-ring ortho-specific monohydroxylation

  1. Catabolism of benzoate and monohydroxylated benzoates by Amycolatopsis and Streptomyces spp

    SciTech Connect

    Grund, E.; Knorr, C.; Eichenlaub, R. )

    1990-05-01

    Eight actinomycetes of the genera Amycolatopsis and Streptomyces were tested for the degradation of aromatic compounds by growth in a liquid medium containing benzoate, monohydroxylated benzoates, or quinate as the principal carbon source. Benzoate was converted to catechol. The key intermediate in the degradation of salicylate was either catechol or gentisate, while m-hydroxybenzoate was metabolized via gentisate or protocatechuate. p-Hydroxybenzoate and quinate were converted to protocatechuate. Catechol, gentisate, and protocatechuate were cleaved catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase, respectively. The requirement for glutathione in the gentisate pathway was dependent on the substrate and the particular strain. The conversion of p-hydroxybenzoate to protocatechuate by p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase was gratuitously induced by all substrates that were metabolized via protocatechuate as an intermediate, while protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase was gratuitously induced by benzoate and salicylate in two Amycolatopsis strains.

  2. A-Ring Structures

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-23

    Several structures in Saturn A ring are exposed near the Encke Gap in this image captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft. A peculiar kink can be seen in one particularly bright ringlet at the bottom right.

  3. Combined effect of urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and impaired lung function on diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jian; Sun, Huizhen; Xiao, Lili; Zhou, Yun; Yin, Wenjun; Xu, Tian; Cheng, Juan; Chen, Weihong; Yuan, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Associations of type 2 diabetes with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and reduced lung function have been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate effect of reduced lung function and exposure to background PAHs on diabetes. A total of 2730 individuals were drawn from the Wuhan-Zhuhai (WHZH) Cohort Study (n=3053). Participants completed physical examination, measurement of lung function and urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs). Risk factors for type 2 diabetes were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis, and the presence of additive interaction between levels of urinary OH-PAHs and lower lung function was evaluated by calculation of the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and attributable proportion due to interaction (AP). Urinary OH-PAHs levels was positively associated with type 2 diabetes among individuals with impaired lung function (p<0.05). Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, odd ratio (OR): 0.664, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.491-0.900) and forced vital capacity (FVC, OR: 0.693, 95% CI: 0.537-0.893) were negatively associated with diabetes among individuals. Additive interaction of higher urinary levels of OH-PAHs and lower FVC (RERI: 0.679, 95% CI: 0.120-1.238); AP: 0.427, 95% CI: 0.072-0.782) was associated with diabetes. Exposure to background PAHs was related to diabetes among individuals with lower lung function. Urinary levels of OH-PAHs and reduced lung function had an additive effect on diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Firefighters' exposure biomonitoring: Impact of firefighting activities on levels of urinary monohydroxyl metabolites.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Alves, Maria José; Fernandes, Adília; Teixeira, João Paulo; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria do Carmo; Morais, Simone

    2016-11-01

    The concentrations of six urinary monohydroxyl metabolites (OH-PAHs) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 1-hydroxyacenaphthene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHPy), and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene, were assessed in the post-shift urine of wildland firefighters involved in fire combat activities at six Portuguese fire corporations, and compared with those of non-exposed subjects. Overall, median levels of urinary individual and total OH-PAHs (ΣOH-PAHs) suggest an increased exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during firefighting activities with ΣOH-PAH levels in exposed firefighters 1.7-35 times higher than in non-exposed ones. Urinary 1-hydroxynaphthalene and/or 1-hydroxyacenapthene were the predominant compounds, representing 63-98% of ΣOH-PAHs, followed by 2-hydroxyfluorene (1-17%), 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-13%), and 1OHPy (0.3-10%). A similar profile was observed when gender discrimination was considered. Participation in fire combat activities promoted an increase of the distribution percentage of 1-hydroxynaphthalene and 1-hydroxyacenaphthene, while contributions of 1-hydroxyphenanthrene and 1OHPy decreased. The detected urinary 1OHPy concentrations (1.73×10(-2) to 0.152μmol/mol creatinine in exposed subjects versus 1.21×10(-2) to 5.44×10(-2)μmol/mol creatinine in non-exposed individuals) were lower than the benchmark level (0.5μmol/mol creatinine) proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. This compound, considered the biomarker of exposure to PAHs, was the less abundant one from the six analyzed biomarkers. Thus the inclusion of other metabolites, in addition to 1OHPy, in future studies is suggested to better estimate firefighters' occupational exposure to PAHs. Moreover, strong to moderate Spearman correlations were observed between individual compounds and ΣOH-PAHs corroborating the prevalence of an emission source.

  5. A-ring Propeller

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-26

    A propeller-shaped structure, created by an unseen moon, can be seen in Saturn A ring and looks like a small, dark line interrupting the bright surrounding ring material in the upper left of this image taken by NASA Cassini spacecraft.

  6. Earth: A Ringed Planet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, L. O.; Povenmire, H.

    2010-12-01

    Among the most beautiful findings of the Space Age have been the discoveries of planetary rings. Not only Saturn but also Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune have rings; Saturn’s ring system has structures newly discovered; even Saturn's moon Rhea itself has a ring. All these are apparently supplied by material from the planetary moons (Rhea's ring by Rhea itself). The question naturally arises, why should the Earth not have a ring, and on the other hand, if it does, why has it not been observed? No rings have yet been observed in the inner solar system, but after all, rings in the inner solar system might simply tend to be fainter and more transient than those of the outer solar system: the inner solar system is more affected by the solar wind, and the Sun’s perturbing gravitational influence is greater. J.A. O’Keefe first suggested (1980) that Earth might have a ring system of its own. An Earth ring could account for some climate events. O’Keefe remarked that formation or thickening of a ring system in Earth’s equatorial plane could drive glaciation by deepening the chill of the winter hemisphere. (It is very well established that volcanic dust is an effective agent for the extinction of sunlight; this factor can be overwhelmingly apparent in eclipse observations.) O’Keefe died in 2000 and the speculation was not pursued, but the idea of an Earth ring has a prima facie reasonableness that calls for its renewed consideration. The program of this note is to hypothesize that, as O’Keefe proposed: (a) an Earth ring system exists; (b) it affects Earth's weather and climate; (c) the tektite strewn fields comprise filaments of the ring fallen to Earth's surface on various occasions of disturbance by comets or asteroids. On this basis, and drawing on the world's weather records, together with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis by NCEP/CIRES covering the period 1870-2010 and the geology of the tektite strewn fields, we herein propose the hypothesized Earth ring

  7. Detection of mono-hydroxylated metabolites of stanozolol by HPLC-ESI (+) MS/MS in Indian sports persons.

    PubMed

    Ahi, S; Beotra, A; Jain, S

    2009-11-01

    The abuse of stanozolol is quite widespread in Indian sport. Its analysis is challenging and this has led to the development of new methods to improve its detection. A method was developed and validated for the detection of the three main monohydroxylated metabolites of stanozolol. The excretion profile of these metabolites was studied in four healthy male volunteers. The excretion study samples, after a single oral dose of drug, showed that 3'-OH-stanozolol was excreted at the highest concentration, followed by 16beta-OH stanozolol, with 4beta-OH stanozolol as the least excreted. Ninety-eight old doping samples with adverse analytical findings for 3'-OH-stanozolol were reanalysed using this method. This showed 3'-OH-stanozolol and 16beta-OH stanozolol in all the 98 samples whereas 4beta-OH-stanozolol was identified in 90 samples. The percentage of positive identifications of stanozolol in Indian sportspeople has increased markedly in the last five years, from 31.9% in 2004 to 81.8% in 2009; however, this may be due to the more effective detection of stanozolol metabolites. It can thus be concluded that the marked increase in percent positive of stanozolol in Indian sportspersons in 2009 may be due to the improved detection by a more effective LCMS/MS method. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Earhart in the A Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-19

    Cassini scientists continue their quest to understand the origin and evolution of the newly discovered features observed in Saturn A ring which have become known as propellers as shown in this image from NASA Cassini spacecraft.

  9. Effect of exposure to soil-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on milk contaminations of parent compounds and their monohydroxylated metabolites.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Sophie; Feidt, Cyril; Monteau, Fabrice; Rychen, Guido; Le Bizec, Bruno; Jurjanz, Stefan

    2006-01-11

    The aim of this study was to determine the transfer kinetics of soil-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to milk in lactating cows. Soil (500 g/day) fortified with fluorene (104 microg/g dry soil), phenanthrene (82 microg/g), pyrene (78 microg/g), and benzo[a]pyrene (33 microg/g) was administered to three dairy cows via a rumen cannulas for 28 consecutive days. Parent compounds and their major metabolites in milk were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Secretion of parent compounds in milk did not increase significantly (P > 0.05) over the control values measured before supply. Target monohydroxylated metabolites were not detected in control samples, but 2-hydroxy fluorene, 3-hydroxy phenanthrene, and 1-hydroxy pyrene were present in milk by the second day of dosing. The highest concentrations of metabolites in milk (31-39 ng/mL) were for 1-hydroxy pyrene at days 7 and 14 of dosing. The observed plateaus for 3-hydroxy phenanthrene and 2-hydroxy fluorene were lower (respectively, 0.69 and 2.79 ng/mL) but significantly increased in comparison to the control samples. Contrarily, 3-hydroxy benzo[a]pyrene was not detected in milk at any sampling time. These results suggested a notable metabolism of the parent compounds after their extraction from soil during the digestive transfer. Thus, the metabolization of fluorene and pyrene can lead to higher concentrations of metabolites than of parent compounds in milk. Despite the absence of a significant transfer of parent PAHs to milk, the appearance of metabolites raises the questions of their impact on human health.

  10. Mass of Saturn's A ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, L. J.; Russell, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    The mass of Saturn's A ring is reestimated using the behavior of spiral density waves embedded in the ring. The Voyager photopolarimeter (PPS) observed the star delta-Scorpii as it was occulted by Saturn's rings during the Voyager 2 flyby of Saturn in 1981 producing a radial profile of the rings. We examined forty spiral density waves in the Voyager PPS data of the A ring including 10 weaker waves that have not been previously analyzed by means of an autoregressive power spectral technique called Burg. The strengths of this new method for ring studies are that weaker, less extended waves are easily detected and characterized. This method is also the first one which does not require precise knowledge of the resonance location and phase of the wave in order to calculate the surface mass density. Uncertainties of up to 3 km are present in the currently available radial scales for Saturn's rings.

  11. Effect of Different Omega-6/Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratios on the Formation of Monohydroxylated Fatty Acids in THP-1 Derived Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Keeren, Kathrin; Huang, Dan; Smyl, Christopher; Fischer, Andreas; Rothe, Michael; Weylandt, Karsten-H

    2015-04-09

    Omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 and n-3 PUFA) can modulate inflammatory processes. In western diets, the content of n-6 PUFA is much higher than that of n-3 PUFA, which has been suggested to promote a pro-inflammatory phenotype. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of modulating the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio on the formation of monohydroxylated fatty acid (HO-FAs) derived from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) and the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in THP-1 macrophages by means of LC-MS. Lipid metabolites were measured in THP-1 macrophage cell pellets. The concentration of AA-derived hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) was not significantly changed when incubated THP-1 macrophages in a high AA/(EPA+DHA) ratio of 19/1 vs. a low ratio AA/(EPA+DHA) of 1/1 (950.6 ± 110 ng/mg vs. 648.2 ± 92.4 ng/mg, p = 0.103). Correspondingly, the concentration of EPA-derived hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (HEPEs) and DHA-derived hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (HDHAs) were significantly increased (63.9 ± 7.8 ng/mg vs. 434.4 ± 84.3 ng/mg, p = 0.012 and 84.9 ± 18.3 ng/mg vs. 439.4 ± 82.7 ng/mg, p = 0.014, respectively). Most notable was the strong increase of 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE) formation in THP-1 macrophages, with levels of 170.9 ± 40.2 ng/mg protein in the high n-3 PUFA treated cells. Thus our data indicate that THP-1 macrophages prominently utilize EPA and DHA for monohydroxylated metabolite formation, in particular 18-HEPE, which has been shown to be released by macrophages to prevent pressure overload-induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling.

  12. Detection and measurement of the agonistic activities of PCBs and mono-hydroxylated PCBs to the constitutive androstane receptor using a recombinant yeast assay.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Ryo; Shiraishi, Fujio; Kageyama, Shiho; Nakajima, Daisuke

    2015-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to exert their toxicities mainly by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and by stimulating transcription of various genes, notably metabolizing enzymes including the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 family. However, PCBs and their metabolites could have potential to activate other nuclear receptors and subsequent events. We focused on the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) inducing CYP2B and measured the agonistic activity of PCBs and mono-hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) to the CAR using yeast cells transduced with the human CAR and its response pathway. Twenty-nine of 34 tested PCBs and 72 of 91 OH-PCBs exhibited CAR agonistic effects. Of 41 OH-PCBs that had the same chlorination patterns as the tested PCBs, 9 had activities more than twice those of their non-hydroxylated analogs. In particular, 2',4',6'-trichlorobiphenyl-4-ol and 2,2',4',6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl-4-ol were 332- and 22-fold more potent than their analogs and were 15 times and 2.8 times, respectively, as active as a reference substance, 4-tert-octylphenol. The activities of 17 of the OH-PCBs were reduced to less than half those of their non-hydroxylated analogs. Four OH-PCBs derived from 3 active PCBs were inactive. However, a consistent relationship between hydroxyl substituent position and activity could not be discerned. Comprehensive evaluation of the toxic potential of PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites and their concentrations in the environment are required.

  13. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving activities of 22-OH-PD1, a monohydroxylated metabolite of protectin D1.

    PubMed

    Tungen, Jørn E; Aursnes, Marius; Vik, Anders; Ramon, Sesquile; Colas, Romain A; Dalli, Jesmond; Serhan, Charles N; Hansen, Trond V

    2014-10-24

    Protectin D1 (PD1 (3)), a C22-dihydroxylated polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesized from all-Z-docosahexaenoic acid, belongs to the new family of endogenous mediators referred to as specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. PD1 (3) is a natural product that displays potent anti-inflammatory properties together with pro-resolving actions including inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration and promotion of macrophage phagocytosis and efferocytosis. Given its potent endogenous actions, this compound has entered several clinical development programs. Little has been reported on the metabolism of PD1 (3). The synthesis and biological evaluations of the ω-22 monohydroxylated metabolite of PD1 (3), named herein 22-OH-PD1 (6), are presented. LC-MS/MS data of the free acid 6, obtained from hydrolysis of the synthetic methyl ester 7, matched data for the endogenously produced 22-OH-PD1 (6). Compound 6 exhibited potent pro-resolving actions by inhibiting PMN chemotaxis in vivo and in vitro comparable to its precursor PD1 (3) and decreased pro-inflammatory mediator levels in inflammatory exudates. The results reported herein provide new knowledge of the metabolism of the protectin class of specialized pro-resolving mediators.

  14. Synthesis and Anti-inflammatory and Pro-resolving Activities of 22-OH-PD1, a Monohydroxylated Metabolite of Protectin D1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protectin D1 (PD1 (3)), a C22-dihydroxylated polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesized from all-Z-docosahexaenoic acid, belongs to the new family of endogenous mediators referred to as specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. PD1 (3) is a natural product that displays potent anti-inflammatory properties together with pro-resolving actions including inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration and promotion of macrophage phagocytosis and efferocytosis. Given its potent endogenous actions, this compound has entered several clinical development programs. Little has been reported on the metabolism of PD1 (3). The synthesis and biological evaluations of the ω-22 monohydroxylated metabolite of PD1 (3), named herein 22-OH-PD1 (6), are presented. LC-MS/MS data of the free acid 6, obtained from hydrolysis of the synthetic methyl ester 7, matched data for the endogenously produced 22-OH-PD1 (6). Compound 6 exhibited potent pro-resolving actions by inhibiting PMN chemotaxis in vivo and in vitro comparable to its precursor PD1 (3) and decreased pro-inflammatory mediator levels in inflammatory exudates. The results reported herein provide new knowledge of the metabolism of the protectin class of specialized pro-resolving mediators. PMID:25247845

  15. Modeling and predicting pKa values of mono-hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (HO-PBDEs) by local molecular descriptors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiying; Wondrousch, Dominik; Yuan, Quan; Lin, Hongjun; Chen, Jianrong; Hong, Huachang; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (HO-PBDEs) are attracting considerable concerns because of their multiple endocrine-disrupting effects and wide existence in environment and organisms. The hydroxyl groups enable these chemicals to be ionizable, and dissociation constant, pKa, becomes an important parameter for investigating their environmental behavior and biological activities. In this study, a new pKa prediction model was developed using local molecular descriptors. The dataset contains 21 experimental pKa values of HO-PCBs and HO-PBDEs. The optimized geometries by ab initio HF/6-31G(∗∗) algorithm were used to calculate the site-specific molecular readiness to accept or donate electron charges. The developed model obtained good statistical performance, which significantly outperformed commercial software ACD and SPARC. Mechanism analysis indicates that pKa values increase with the charge-limited donor energy EQocc on hydroxyl oxygen atom and decrease with the energy-limited acceptor charge QEvac on hydroxyl hydrogen atom. The regression model was also applied to calculate pKa values for all 837 mono-hydroxylated PCBs and PBDEs in each class, aiming to provide basic data for the ecological risk assessment of these chemicals.

  16. Synthesis and gelation properties of PEG-PLA-PEG triblock copolymers obtained by coupling monohydroxylated PEG-PLA with adipoyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Li, Suming; Ghzaoui, Abdelsalm El; Nouailhas, Helene; Zhuo, Renxi

    2007-02-27

    Ring-opening polymerization of D,L-lactide was carried out in the presence of monohydroxylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with Mn of 2000 and 5000, using zinc powder as catalyst. The resulting PEG-b-polylactide (PEG-PLA) diblocks with various ethylene oxide/lactyl (EO/LA) ratios were coupled with adipoyl chloride to yield PEG-PLA-PEG triblock copolymers. N-Dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) was used as catalyst. The obtained PEG-PLA-PEG triblock copolymers were characterized by various analytical techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, size exclusion chromatography, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Data showed that all the copolymers were semicrystalline with the PEG-type crystalline structure, the crystallinity decreasing with increasing PLA block length. Bioresorbable hydrogels were prepared from the water-soluble triblock copolymers. Rheological measurements showed a gel-sol transition with increasing temperature and gelation was found to be thermoreversible. The copolymer solution behaves like a viscoelastic liquid above the gel point and like a viscoelastic solid below the gel point. The critical gelation concentration, the gel-sol transition temperature at a given concentration, and corresponding moduli depend on both the EO/LA ratio and the molecular weight of the copolymers. It is assumed that gelation results from interactions between PEG blocks at low temperatures and that these interactions are disrupted as the temperature is elevated. The shrinking of PEG blocks with increasing temperature seems to be in agreement with the variation of the gel-sol transition temperatures.

  17. Condenser for illuminating a ring field

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.

    1994-01-01

    A series of segments of a parent aspheric mirror having one foci at at a si-point source of radiation and the other foci at the radius of a ring field have all but one or all of their beams translated and rotated by sets of mirrors such that all of the beams pass through the real entrance pupil of a ring field camera about one of the beams and fall onto the ring field radius as a coincident image as an arc of the ring field.

  18. Condenser for illuminating a ring field

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, W.C.

    1994-11-01

    A series of segments of a parent aspheric mirror having one foci at a point source of radiation and the other foci at the radius of a ring field have all but one or all of their beams translated and rotated by sets of mirrors such that all of the beams pass through the real entrance pupil of a ring field camera about one of the beams and fall onto the ring field radius as a coincident image as an arc of the ring field. 5 figs.

  19. Oxygen ions observed near Saturn's A ring.

    PubMed

    Waite, J H; Cravens, T E; Ip, W-H; Kasprzak, W T; Luhmann, J G; McNutt, R L; Niemann, H B; Yelle, R V; Mueller-Wodarg, I; Ledvina, S A; Scherer, S

    2005-02-25

    Ions were detected in the vicinity of Saturn's A ring by the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) instrument onboard the Cassini Orbiter during the spacecraft's passage over the rings. The INMS saw signatures of molecular and atomic oxygen ions and of protons, thus demonstrating the existence of an ionosphere associated with the A ring. A likely explanation for these ions is photoionization by solar ultraviolet radiation of neutral O2 molecules associated with a tenuous ring atmosphere. INMS neutral measurements made during the ring encounter are dominated by a background signal.

  20. A Ring Construction Using Finite Directed Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardzell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an interesting class of noncommutative rings which can be constructed using finite directed graphs. This construction also creates a vector space. These structures provide undergraduate students connections between ring theory and graph theory and, among other things, allow them to see a ring unity element that looks quite…

  1. A Ring Construction Using Finite Directed Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardzell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an interesting class of noncommutative rings which can be constructed using finite directed graphs. This construction also creates a vector space. These structures provide undergraduate students connections between ring theory and graph theory and, among other things, allow them to see a ring unity element that looks quite…

  2. The Propeller Belts in Saturn A Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-30

    This image from NASA's Cassini mission shows a region in Saturn's A ring. The level of detail is twice as high as this part of the rings has ever been seen before. The view contains many small, bright blemishes due to cosmic rays and charged particle radiation near the planet. The view shows a section of the A ring known to researchers for hosting belts of propellers -- bright, narrow, propeller-shaped disturbances in the ring produced by the gravity of unseen embedded moonlets. Several small propellers are visible in this view. These are on the order of 10 times smaller than the large, bright propellers whose orbits scientists have routinely tracked (and which are given nicknames for famous aviators). This image is a lightly processed version, with minimal enhancement, preserving all original details present in the image. he image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Dec. 18, 2016. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 33,000 miles (54,000 kilometers) from the rings and looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings. Image scale is about a quarter-mile (330 meters) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21059

  3. Relative stereochemistry of the A ring of plant bile pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenleber, R.W.; Kim, Y.; Rapoport, H.

    1984-05-02

    The synthesis and characterization, including the stereochemistry, of a series of 3,4-dihydropyrromethenones and 2,3-dihydrodioxobilins are described. High-resolution /sup 1/H NMR spectral analysis allows the determination of the A ring coupling constants for a series of cis and trans model compounds. From these data and correlations, the relative stereochemistry in the A ring of phycocyanin and similar bile pigment structures can be concluded.

  4. Monohydroxylated metabolites of the K2 synthetic cannabinoid JWH-073 retain intermediate to high cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) affinity and exhibit neutral antagonist to partial agonist activity

    PubMed Central

    Brents, Lisa K.; Gallus-Zawada, Anna; Radominska-Pandya, Anna; Vasiljevik, Tamara; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Fantegrossi, William E.; Moran, Jeffery H.; Prather, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    K2 and several similar purported “incense products” spiked with synthetic cannabinoids are abused as cannabis substitutes. We hypothesized that metabolism of JWH-073, a prevalent cannabinoid found in K2, contributes to toxicity associated with K2 use. Competition receptor binding studies and G-protein activation assays, both performed by employing mouse brain homogenates, were used to determine the affinity and intrinsic activity, respectively, of potential monohydroxylated (M1, M3–M5) and monocarboxylated (M6) metabolites at cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs). Surprisingly, M1, M4 and M5 retain nanomolar affinity for CB1Rs, while M3 displays micromolar affinity and M6 does not bind to CB1Rs. JWH-073 displays equivalent efficacy to that of the CB1R full agonist CP-55,940, while M1, M3, and M5 act as CB1R partial agonists, and M4 shows little or no intrinsic activity. Further in vitro investigation by Schild analysis revealed that M4 acts as a competitive neutral CB1R antagonist (Kb~40nM). In agreement with in vitro studies, M4 also demonstrates CB1R antagonism in vivo by blunting cannabinoid-induced hypothermia in mice. Interestingly, M4 does not block agonist-mediated responses of other measures in the cannabinoid tetrad (e.g., locomotor suppression, catalepsy or analgesia). Finally, also as predicted by in vitro results, M1 exhibits agonist activity in vivo by inducing significant hypothermia and suppression of locomotor activity in mice. In conclusion, the present study indicates that further work examining the physiological effects of synthetic cannabinoid metabolism is warranted. Such a complex mix of metabolically produced CB1R ligands may contribute to the adverse effect profile of JWH-073-containing products. PMID:22266354

  5. Monohydroxylated metabolites of the K2 synthetic cannabinoid JWH-073 retain intermediate to high cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) affinity and exhibit neutral antagonist to partial agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Brents, Lisa K; Gallus-Zawada, Anna; Radominska-Pandya, Anna; Vasiljevik, Tamara; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Fantegrossi, William E; Moran, Jeffery H; Prather, Paul L

    2012-04-01

    K2 and several similar purported "incense products" spiked with synthetic cannabinoids are abused as cannabis substitutes. We hypothesized that metabolism of JWH-073, a prevalent cannabinoid found in K2, contributes to toxicity associated with K2 use. Competition receptor binding studies and G-protein activation assays, both performed by employing mouse brain homogenates, were used to determine the affinity and intrinsic activity, respectively, of potential monohydroxylated (M1, M3-M5) and monocarboxylated (M6) metabolites at cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs). Surprisingly, M1, M4 and M5 retain nanomolar affinity for CB1Rs, while M3 displays micromolar affinity and M6 does not bind to CB1Rs. JWH-073 displays equivalent efficacy to that of the CB1R full agonist CP-55,940, while M1, M3, and M5 act as CB1R partial agonists, and M4 shows little or no intrinsic activity. Further in vitro investigation by Schild analysis revealed that M4 acts as a competitive neutral CB1R antagonist (K(b)∼40nM). In agreement with in vitro studies, M4 also demonstrates CB1R antagonism in vivo by blunting cannabinoid-induced hypothermia in mice. Interestingly, M4 does not block agonist-mediated responses of other measures in the cannabinoid tetrad (e.g., locomotor suppression, catalepsy or analgesia). Finally, also as predicted by in vitro results, M1 exhibits agonist activity in vivo by inducing significant hypothermia and suppression of locomotor activity in mice. In conclusion, the present study indicates that further work examining the physiological effects of synthetic cannabinoid metabolism is warranted. Such a complex mix of metabolically produced CB1R ligands may contribute to the adverse effect profile of JWH-073-containing products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Direct Examination of Gaps in Saturn's A Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehnberg, Morgan; Brown, Zarah; Esposito, Larry W.; Albers, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    Theory and indirect evidence suggest that Saturn's A ring hosts density wakes which form on scales of tens of meters through particle self-gravitation. Stellar occultations observed by the High Speed Photometer on Cassini's Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph can resolve meter-scale structure in the rings of Saturn, making them an ideal tool for the detection of these structures. We describe the results of an m-test-based search for gaps within the A ring. The number density of these structures displays substantial radial variation, with particular fluctuation observed at known resonance locations, and their radial widths span more than an order of magnitude. We compare the features of these detections with other A-ring observations.

  7. Derivative chromosomal structures from a ring chromsome 4.

    PubMed

    Niss, R; Passarge, E

    1975-05-26

    This report describes the results from cultured lymphocytes studied at metaphase, anaphase, and interphase from an individual with a ring chromosome 4. A ring was present in 90.1% of metaphases. Special attention was directed towards the occurrence of derivative chromosomal structures, such as partially duplicated and triplicated rings, tricentric rings, chains of 3 interlocked rings, rod-shaped chromosomes, "pulverized" rings, and others. The clinical features of the individual (small stature and impaired mental development, hypoplastic thumbs, ptosis palpebrae hypoplastic external male genitalia, abnormal dermatoglphic pattern) did not conform to a specific phenotype.

  8. Slow light propagation in a ring erbium-doped fiber.

    PubMed

    Bencheikh, K; Baldit, E; Briaudeau, S; Monnier, P; Levenson, J A; Mélin, G

    2010-12-06

    Slow light propagation is demonstrated by implementing Coherent Population Oscillations in a silica fiber doped with erbium ions in a ring surrounding the single mode core. Though only the wings of the mode interact with erbium ions, group velocities around 1360 m/s are obtained without any spatial distortion of the propagating mode.

  9. Neutron interference in the gravitational field of a ring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischetti, Robert D.; Mallett, Ronald L.

    2015-07-01

    The neutron split-beam interferometer has proven to be particularly useful in measuring Newtonian gravitational effects such as those studied by Colella, Overhauser, and Werner (COW). The development of the ring laser has led to numerous applications in many areas of physics including a recent general relativistic prediction of frame dragging in the gravitational field produced by the electromagnetic radiation in a ring laser. This paper introduces a new general technique based on a canonical transformation of the Dirac equation for the gravitational field of a general linearized spacetime. Using this technique it is shown that there is a phase shift in the interference of two neutron beams due to the frame-dragging nature of the gravitational field of a ring laser.

  10. Optimal focusing of a beam in a ring vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrizón, Victor; Ruiz, Ulises; Aguirre-Olivas, Dilia; Mellado-Villaseñor, Gabriel

    2015-12-01

    Conventional light focusing, i.e. concentration of an extended optical field within a small area around a point, is a frequently used process in Optics. An important extension to conventional focusing is the generation of the annular focal field of an optical beam. We discuss a simple optical setup that achieves this kind of focusing employing a phase plate as unique optical component. It is assumed that the annular focal field is modulated by an azimuthal phase of integer order q that converts the field in a ring vortex. We first establish the class of beams that being transmitted through the phase plate can be focused into a ring vortex. Then, for each beam in this class we determine the plate transmittance that generates the vortex with the maximum possible intensity, which is referred to as optimal ring vortex.

  11. Philadelphia chromosome duplication as a ring-shaped chromosome.

    PubMed

    Borjas-Gutierrez, Cesar; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The gain of a second copy of the Philadelphia chromosome is one of the main secondary chromosomal changes related to the clonal evolution of cells with t(9;22) in chronic myelogenous leukemia. This gain causes the acquisition of another copy of the BCR/ABL1 fusion gene. Isochromosomes of the der(22) chromosome or double minute chromosomes are well known to lead an increased copy number of BCR/ABL1 gene. There is no antecedent of Philadelphia chromosome duplication as a ring chromosome. A recent published report contains evidence that strongly suggests that the Philadelphia chromosome was duplicated as a ring chromosome, observation that was overlooked by the authors. The instability inherent to the ring chromosome increases the risk of emergence of clones containing more and more BCR/ABL1 gene copies, which would produce increased fitness for clonal selection, resulting in worsening of the patient's prognosis.

  12. Detection and Behavior of Pan Wakes in Saturn's A Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, L. J.; Showalter, M. R.; Russell, C. T.

    1996-01-01

    Six previously unseen Pan wakes are found interior and exterior to the Encke gap in Saturn's A ring, one in the Voyager 2 photopolarimeter (PPS) stellar occultation data and five in the Voyager 1 radio science (RSS) Earth occultation data. Pan orbits at the center of the Encke gap and maintains it...The detection of Pan wakes at longitudes greater than 360(deg) demonstrates that wakes persist for much longer than originally hypothesized and may interact with one another.

  13. Moonlets In Saturn's A Ring: Fragments Of A Shattered Moon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sremcevic, Miodrag; Schmidt, J.; Salo, H.; Seiss, M.; Spahn, F.; Albers, N.

    2007-10-01

    The question on the origin and evolution of planetary rings is one of the prominent unsolved problems of planetary sciences with direct implications for planet-forming processes in preplanetary disks. The recent detection of four propeller-shaped features in Saturn's A ring (Tiscareno et al., 2006, Nature) proved the presence of large boulder-sized moonlets in the rings. Their very existence favours a ring creation in a catastrophic disruption of an icy satellite rather than a co-genetic origin together with Saturn, since bodies of this size can hardly have accreted inside the rings. Here, we report the detection of eight new propellers in an Cassini ISS NAC image sequence that covers the complete A ring, indicating embedded moonlets with radii between 30m-70m. We show that the moonlets found so far are concentrated in a narrow 3,000km wide annulus at 130,000km distance from Saturn. Compared to the main population of smaller ring particles (s<10m) such embedded moonlets have a short lifetime with respect to meteoroid impacts. Thus, they are likely the remnants of a shattered ring-moon of Pan-size or larger, locally contributing new material to the older ring. This supports the theory of catastrophic ring creation in a collisional cascade.

  14. Symmetric exclusion processes on a ring with moving defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Rakesh; Chatterjee, Sakuntala; Pradhan, Punyabrata

    2016-06-01

    We study symmetric simple exclusion processes (SSEP) on a ring in the presence of uniformly moving multiple defects or disorders—a generalization of the model we proposed earlier [Phys. Rev. E 89, 022138 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.022138]. The defects move with uniform velocity and change the particle hopping rates locally. We explore the collective effects of the defects on the spatial structure and transport properties of the system. We also introduce an SSEP with ordered sequential (sitewise) update and elucidate the close connection with our model.

  15. A belt of moonlets in Saturn's A ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sremčević, Miodrag; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki; Seiß, Martin; Spahn, Frank; Albers, Nicole

    2007-10-01

    The origin and evolution of planetary rings is one of the prominent unsolved problems of planetary sciences, with direct implications for planet-forming processes in pre-planetary disks. The recent detection of four propeller-shaped features in Saturn's A ring proved the presence of large boulder-sized moonlets in the rings. Their existence favours ring creation in a catastrophic disruption of an icy satellite rather than a co-genetic origin with Saturn, because bodies of this size are unlikely to have accreted inside the rings. Here we report the detection of eight new propeller features in an image sequence that covers the complete A ring, indicating embedded moonlets with radii between 30m and 70m. We show that the moonlets found are concentrated in a narrow 3,000-km-wide annulus 130,000km from Saturn. Compared to the main population of ring particles (radius s<10m), such embedded moonlets have a short lifetime with respect to meteoroid impacts. Therefore, they are probably the remnants of a shattered ring-moon of Pan size or larger, locally contributing new material to the older ring. This supports the theory of catastrophic ring creation in a collisional cascade.

  16. A belt of moonlets in Saturn's A ring.

    PubMed

    Sremcević, Miodrag; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki; Seiss, Martin; Spahn, Frank; Albers, Nicole

    2007-10-25

    The origin and evolution of planetary rings is one of the prominent unsolved problems of planetary sciences, with direct implications for planet-forming processes in pre-planetary disks. The recent detection of four propeller-shaped features in Saturn's A ring proved the presence of large boulder-sized moonlets in the rings. Their existence favours ring creation in a catastrophic disruption of an icy satellite rather than a co-genetic origin with Saturn, because bodies of this size are unlikely to have accreted inside the rings. Here we report the detection of eight new propeller features in an image sequence that covers the complete A ring, indicating embedded moonlets with radii between 30 m and 70 m. We show that the moonlets found are concentrated in a narrow 3,000-km-wide annulus 130,000 km from Saturn. Compared to the main population of ring particles (radius s < 10 m), such embedded moonlets have a short lifetime with respect to meteoroid impacts. Therefore, they are probably the remnants of a shattered ring-moon of Pan size or larger, locally contributing new material to the older ring. This supports the theory of catastrophic ring creation in a collisional cascade.

  17. TASEP on a Ring in Sub-relaxation Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Jinho; Liu, Zhipeng

    2016-12-01

    Interacting particle systems in the KPZ universality class on a ring of size L with O( L) number of particles are expected to change from KPZ dynamics to equilibrium dynamics at the so-called relaxation time scale t=O(L^{3/2}). In particular the system size is expected to have little effect to the particle fluctuations in the sub-relaxation time scale 1≪ t≪ L^{3/2}. We prove that this is indeed the case for the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with two types of initial conditions. For flat initial condition, we show that the particle fluctuations are given by the Airy_1 process as in the infinite TASEP with flat initial condition. On the other hand, the TASEP on a ring with step initial condition is equivalent to the periodic TASEP with a certain shock initial condition. We compute the fluctuations explicitly both away from and near the shocks for the infinite TASEP with same initial condition, and then show that the periodic TASEP has same fluctuations in the sub-relaxation time scale.

  18. Particle Identification Using a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwill, Justin; Benmokthar, Fatiha

    2016-09-01

    The installation of a Ring Imaging Cherenkov counter (RICH) on the CLAS12 spectrometer in Hall B of Jefferson Lab will aid in particle identification, specifically with regard to the separation between protons, pions, kaons. The RICH functions by detecting a ring of radiation that is given off by particles moving faster than the speed of light in a medium through the use of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs). Because the size of the ring is dependent on the velocity of the particles, one can separate the incoming charged particles. With 391 MAPMTs being used in the specific design at Jefferson Lab, sophisticated electronic systems are needed to achieve complete data acquisition and ensure the safe operation of RICH. To monitor these electronic systems, the slow control system uses a compilation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) that communicates and, if necessary, changes certain process variables such as the high voltage going to the MAPMTs and the temperature of the system. My actual project focuses on the development of an efficient and reliable slow control system for this detector as well as a java based analyzer for offline data analysis.

  19. Stable generation of quadrature entanglement using a ring interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Yujiro; Nonaka, Akihiro; Hirano, Takuya; Zhang Yun

    2009-05-15

    We propose and demonstrate a scheme to stably generate quadrature-entangled optical pulses using a ring interferometer composed of an optical parametric amplifier and a dispersive media. The entangled light pulses at telecommunication wavelength are generated by combining two squeezed beams. In our scheme, the relative phase between the two beams is kept stable by the ring interferometer and is controllable using dispersive media. The amplitude and phase quadratures of the entangled beams are measured using two time-domain pulsed homodyne detectors. When the relative phase is fixed at {pi}/2, we verify the inseparability of the states by a sufficient criterion <{delta}{sup 2}[X{sub a}({phi}{sub 0})+X{sub b}({pi}-{phi}{sub 0})]>+<{delta}{sup 2}[X{sub a}({phi}{sub 0}{sup '})-X{sub b}(-{phi}{sub 0}{sup '})]>=0.64<1 where {phi}{sub 0}{sup '}-{phi}{sub 0}={pi}/2.

  20. Theory of a ring laser. [electromagnetic field and wave equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menegozzi, L. N.; Lamb, W. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Development of a systematic formulation of the theory of a ring laser which is based on first principles and uses a well-known model for laser operation. A simple physical derivation of the electromagnetic field equations for a noninertial reference frame in uniform rotation is presented, and an attempt is made to clarify the nature of the Fox-Li modes for an open polygonal resonator. The polarization of the active medium is obtained by using a Fourier-series method which permits the formulation of a strong-signal theory, and solutions are given in terms of continued fractions. It is shown that when such a continued fraction is expanded to third order in the fields, the familiar small-signal ring-laser theory is obtained.

  1. Exploring overstabilities in Saturn's a ring using two stellar occultations

    SciTech Connect

    Hedman, M. M.; Nicholson, P. D.; Salo, H.

    2014-07-01

    Certain regions of Saturn's rings exhibit periodic opacity variations with characteristic radial wavelengths of up to a few hundred meters that have been attributed to viscous overstabilities. The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Cassini spacecraft observed two stellar occultations of the star γ Crucis that had sufficient resolution to discern a subset of these periodic patterns in a portion of the A ring between 124,000 and 125,000 km from Saturn's center. These data reveal that the wavelengths and intensities of the patterns vary systematically across this region, but that these parameters are not strictly determined by the ring's average optical depth. Furthermore, our observations indicate that these opacity variations have an azimuthal coherence scale of around 3000 km.

  2. "Perfect" designer chromosome V and behavior of a ring derivative.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ze-Xiong; Li, Bing-Zhi; Mitchell, Leslie A; Wu, Yi; Qi, Xin; Jin, Zhu; Jia, Bin; Wang, Xia; Zeng, Bo-Xuan; Liu, Hui-Min; Wu, Xiao-Le; Feng, Qi; Zhang, Wen-Zheng; Liu, Wei; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Li, Xia; Zhao, Guang-Rong; Qiao, Jian-Jun; Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Zhao, Meng; Kuang, Zheng; Wang, Xuya; Martin, J Andrew; Stracquadanio, Giovanni; Yang, Kun; Bai, Xue; Zhao, Juan; Hu, Meng-Long; Lin, Qiu-Hui; Zhang, Wen-Qian; Shen, Ming-Hua; Chen, Si; Su, Wan; Wang, En-Xu; Guo, Rui; Zhai, Fang; Guo, Xue-Jiao; Du, Hao-Xing; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Song, Tian-Qing; Dai, Jun-Jun; Li, Fei-Fei; Jiang, Guo-Zhen; Han, Shi-Lei; Liu, Shi-Yang; Yu, Zhi-Chao; Yang, Xiao-Na; Chen, Ken; Hu, Cheng; Li, Da-Shuai; Jia, Nan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Lin-Ting; Wang, Su; Wei, Xiao-Tong; Fu, Mei-Qing; Qu, Lan-Meng; Xin, Si-Yu; Liu, Ting; Tian, Kai-Ren; Li, Xue-Nan; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Song, Li-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Gui; Lv, Jia-Fei; Xu, Hang; Tao, Ran; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Deng, Ye-Xuan; Wang, Yi-Ran; Li, Ting; Ye, Guang-Xin; Xu, Xiao-Ran; Xia, Zheng-Bao; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Shi-Lan; Liu, Yi-Lin; Ding, Wen-Qi; Liu, Zhen-Ning; Zhu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Ning-Zhi; Walker, Roy; Luo, Yisha; Wang, Yun; Shen, Yue; Yang, Huanming; Cai, Yizhi; Ma, Ping-Sheng; Zhang, Chun-Ting; Bader, Joel S; Boeke, Jef D; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2017-03-10

    Perfect matching of an assembled physical sequence to a specified designed sequence is crucial to verify design principles in genome synthesis. We designed and de novo synthesized 536,024-base pair chromosome synV in the "Build-A-Genome China" course. We corrected an initial isolate of synV to perfectly match the designed sequence using integrative cotransformation and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated editing in 22 steps; synV strains exhibit high fitness under a variety of culture conditions, compared with that of wild-type V strains. A ring synV derivative was constructed, which is fully functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under all conditions tested and exhibits lower spore viability during meiosis. Ring synV chromosome can extends Sc2.0 design principles and provides a model with which to study genomic rearrangement, ring chromosome evolution, and human ring chromosome disorders.

  3. Theory of a ring laser. [electromagnetic field and wave equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menegozzi, L. N.; Lamb, W. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Development of a systematic formulation of the theory of a ring laser which is based on first principles and uses a well-known model for laser operation. A simple physical derivation of the electromagnetic field equations for a noninertial reference frame in uniform rotation is presented, and an attempt is made to clarify the nature of the Fox-Li modes for an open polygonal resonator. The polarization of the active medium is obtained by using a Fourier-series method which permits the formulation of a strong-signal theory, and solutions are given in terms of continued fractions. It is shown that when such a continued fraction is expanded to third order in the fields, the familiar small-signal ring-laser theory is obtained.

  4. Pure angular momentum generator using a ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y F; Fu, Y H; Zhang, X M; Liu, A Q; Bourouina, T; Mei, T; Shen, Z X; Tsai, D P

    2010-10-11

    This paper reports a pure angular momentum generator using a ring resonator surrounded by a group of nano-rods. The evanescent waves of the circulating light in the ring are scattered by the nano-rods and generate a rotating electromagnetic field, which has only angular momentum but no linear momentum along the axis of rotation. The angular order is determined by the difference between the order of Whispering Gallery mode and the number of the rods, the rotating frequency is equal to the light frequency divided by the angular order. The maximum amplitude of the rotating electromagnetic fields can be 10 times higher than the amplitude of the input field when there are 36 rods (R(rod) = 120 nm, nr = 1.6). The pure angular momentum generator provides a new platform for trapping and rotation of small particles.

  5. Neutron Interference in the Gravitational Field of a Ring Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischetti, Robert

    2013-04-01

    A number of analyses of neutron interference effects due to various metric perturbations have been found in the literature [1,2]. However, the approach of each author depends on a specific metric. I will present a new general technique giving the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformed Hamiltonian for a Dirac particle in the most general linearized space-time metric. I will then apply this new technique to calculate the phase shift on a neutron beam interferometer due to the gravitational field of a ring laser [3].[4pt] [1] D. M Greenberger and A. W. Overhauser, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 43--78 (1979).[0pt] [2] F. W. Hehl and W. T. Ni, Phys. Rev. D, vol 42, no. 6, pp. 2045-2048, 1990.[0pt] [3] R. L. Mallett, Phys. Lett. A 269, 214 (2000).

  6. Nanograin Density Outside Saturn’s A Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robert E.; Tseng, Wei-Ling; Elrod, M. K.; Persoon, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The observed disparity between the radial dependence of the ion and electron densities measured by the Cassini plasma (CAPS) and radio (RPWS) science instruments are used to show that the region between the outer edge of Saturn’s main rings and its tenuous G ring is permeated with small charged grains (nanograins). These grains emanate from the edge of the A ring and from the tenuous F and G rings. This is a region of Saturn’s magnetosphere that is relatively unexplored, but will be a focus of Cassini’s F ring orbits prior to the end of mission in 2017 September. Confirmation of the grain densities predicted here will enhance our ability to describe the formation and destruction of material in this important region of Saturn’s magnetosphere.

  7. A ring theoretic approach to radicals of extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jessica Lynn

    The Jacobson radical of a ring was first formally studied in 1945 by Nathan Jacobson and is an important object in modern abstract algebra. The analogous notion of the Jacobson radical for a module is referred to as the radical of a module. The radical of a module is the intersection of all its maximal submodules. In general, the radical of a module is simpler than the module itself and contains important information about the module. The study of the radical of a module often appears as an incidental to other investigations. This thesis represents work towards understanding the radical of a module extension. Given a ring R and R-modules A,B,X such that X is an extension of B by A as in the short exact sequence 0 → A → X → B → 0; we seek to determine properties of the radical of X, denoted radX. These properties are dependent on the ring R and properties of the modules A and B. In this thesis we examine several different types of extensions and discuss a phenomenon in which a non-zero radical implies a split sequence. We work in the context of rings and their ideals. Extensions of abelian groups provide motivation for the results we prove about injectivity of radicals of extensions involving divisible modules and torsion modules. We are able to prove such properties of the radical for extensions of modules over principal ideal domains and Dedekind domains. Expanding upon these cases, we explore a more general construction of an extension and use it to explain our motivating abelian group results. We use the theorems proven about this construction to remark on possible generalizations to other types of rings and modules. We conclude with plans to generalize our statements by translating into terms of infinite matrices and h-local rings.

  8. Uniform electron gases. I. Electrons on a ring.

    PubMed

    Loos, Pierre-François; Gill, Peter M W

    2013-04-28

    We introduce a new paradigm for one-dimensional uniform electron gases (UEGs). In this model, n electrons are confined to a ring and interact via a bare Coulomb operator. We use Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory to show that, in the high-density regime, the ground-state reduced (i.e., per electron) energy can be expanded as ε(r(s),n)=ε0(n)r(s)(-2)+ε1(n)r(s)(-1)+ε2(n)+ε3(n)r(s+)⋯ , where r(s) is the Seitz radius. We use strong-coupling perturbation theory and show that, in the low-density regime, the reduced energy can be expanded as ε(r(s),n)=η0(n)r(s)(-1)+η1(n)r(s)(-3/2)+η2(n)r(s)(-2)+⋯ . We report explicit expressions for ε0(n), ε1(n), ε2(n), ε3(n), η0(n), and η1(n) and derive the thermodynamic (large-n) limits of each of these. Finally, we perform numerical studies of UEGs with n = 2, 3, [ellipsis (horizontal)], 10, using Hylleraas-type and quantum Monte Carlo methods, and combine these with the perturbative results to obtain a picture of the behavior of the new model over the full range of n and r(s) values.

  9. Electrodynamics of a ring-shaped spiral resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Maleeva, N.; Karpov, A.; Averkin, A.; Fistul, M. V.; Zhuravel, A. P.; Jung, P.; Ustinov, A. V.

    2014-02-14

    We present analytical, numerical, and experimental investigations of electromagnetic resonant modes of a compact monofilar Archimedean spiral resonator shaped in a ring, with no central part. Planar spiral resonators are interesting as components of metamaterials for their compact deep-subwavelength size. Such resonators couple primarily to the magnetic field component of the incident electromagnetic wave, offering properties suitable for magnetic meta-atoms. Surprisingly, the relative frequencies of the resonant modes follow the sequence of the odd numbers as f{sub 1}:f{sub 2}:f{sub 3}:f{sub 4}… = 1:3:5:7…, despite the nearly identical boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields at the extremities of the resonator. In order to explain the observed spectrum of resonant modes, we show that the current distribution inside the spiral satisfies a particular Carleman type singular integral equation. By solving this equation, we obtain a set of resonant frequencies. The analytically calculated resonance frequencies and the current distributions are in good agreement with experimental data and the results of numerical simulations. By using low-temperature laser scanning microscopy of a superconducting spiral resonator, we compare the experimentally visualized ac current distributions over the spiral with the calculated ones. Theory and experiment agree well with each other. Our analytical model allows for calculation of a detailed three-dimensional magnetic field structure of the resonators.

  10. A ring system detected around the Centaur (10199) Chariklo.

    PubMed

    Braga-Ribas, F; Sicardy, B; Ortiz, J L; Snodgrass, C; Roques, F; Vieira-Martins, R; Camargo, J I B; Assafin, M; Duffard, R; Jehin, E; Pollock, J; Leiva, R; Emilio, M; Machado, D I; Colazo, C; Lellouch, E; Skottfelt, J; Gillon, M; Ligier, N; Maquet, L; Benedetti-Rossi, G; Ramos Gomes, A; Kervella, P; Monteiro, H; Sfair, R; El Moutamid, M; Tancredi, G; Spagnotto, J; Maury, A; Morales, N; Gil-Hutton, R; Roland, S; Ceretta, A; Gu, S-h; Wang, X-b; Harpsøe, K; Rabus, M; Manfroid, J; Opitom, C; Vanzi, L; Mehret, L; Lorenzini, L; Schneiter, E M; Melia, R; Lecacheux, J; Colas, F; Vachier, F; Widemann, T; Almenares, L; Sandness, R G; Char, F; Perez, V; Lemos, P; Martinez, N; Jørgensen, U G; Dominik, M; Roig, F; Reichart, D E; LaCluyze, A P; Haislip, J B; Ivarsen, K M; Moore, J P; Frank, N R; Lambas, D G

    2014-04-03

    Hitherto, rings have been found exclusively around the four giant planets in the Solar System. Rings are natural laboratories in which to study dynamical processes analogous to those that take place during the formation of planetary systems and galaxies. Their presence also tells us about the origin and evolution of the body they encircle. Here we report observations of a multichord stellar occultation that revealed the presence of a ring system around (10199) Chariklo, which is a Centaur--that is, one of a class of small objects orbiting primarily between Jupiter and Neptune--with an equivalent radius of 124 ±  9 kilometres (ref. 2). There are two dense rings, with respective widths of about 7 and 3 kilometres, optical depths of 0.4 and 0.06, and orbital radii of 391 and 405 kilometres. The present orientation of the ring is consistent with an edge-on geometry in 2008, which provides a simple explanation for the dimming of the Chariklo system between 1997 and 2008, and for the gradual disappearance of ice and other absorption features in its spectrum over the same period. This implies that the rings are partly composed of water ice. They may be the remnants of a debris disk, possibly confined by embedded, kilometre-sized satellites.

  11. Electrodynamics of a ring-shaped spiral resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleeva, N.; Fistul, M. V.; Karpov, A.; Zhuravel, A. P.; Averkin, A.; Jung, P.; Ustinov, A. V.

    2014-02-01

    We present analytical, numerical, and experimental investigations of electromagnetic resonant modes of a compact monofilar Archimedean spiral resonator shaped in a ring, with no central part. Planar spiral resonators are interesting as components of metamaterials for their compact deep-subwavelength size. Such resonators couple primarily to the magnetic field component of the incident electromagnetic wave, offering properties suitable for magnetic meta-atoms. Surprisingly, the relative frequencies of the resonant modes follow the sequence of the odd numbers as f1:f2:f3:f4… = 1:3:5:7…, despite the nearly identical boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields at the extremities of the resonator. In order to explain the observed spectrum of resonant modes, we show that the current distribution inside the spiral satisfies a particular Carleman type singular integral equation. By solving this equation, we obtain a set of resonant frequencies. The analytically calculated resonance frequencies and the current distributions are in good agreement with experimental data and the results of numerical simulations. By using low-temperature laser scanning microscopy of a superconducting spiral resonator, we compare the experimentally visualized ac current distributions over the spiral with the calculated ones. Theory and experiment agree well with each other. Our analytical model allows for calculation of a detailed three-dimensional magnetic field structure of the resonators.

  12. A ring stabilizer for lean premixed turbulent flames

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.R.; Kostiuk, L.W.; Cheng, R.K.

    1998-08-01

    In previous experiments on conical flame behavior in microgravity, which were conducted in drop-towers and in airplanes, the use of a pilot flame was not an option. To permit combustion of stable lean premixed conical flames without a pilot, a ring stabilizer was developed. Although similar types of bluff-body stabilization have been used in the past, the ring stabilizer is somewhat unique. It is designed to fit inside the burner exit port and has demonstrated to be highly effective in stabilizing flames over a very wide range of conditions (including ultra-lean flames at high flow-rates) without adversely affecting flame emissions. Unlike a simple rod stabilizer or a stagnation flame system, the benefit of having the stabilizer conform to the burner port is that there is very little leakage of the unburned fuel. The purpose of this brief communication is to offer this simple and highly useful device to the combustion research community. Presented are highlights of a parametric study that measured the stabilization limits and pollutant emissions of several different rings, and demonstrated their potential for use in practical systems.

  13. Efficient frequency doubling at 776 nm in a ring cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhen-Hai; Liu, Shi-Long; Liu, Shi-Kai; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan

    2017-08-01

    We report efficient frequency doubling (FD) at 776 nm using periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) in a ring cavity pumped by a commercial erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) operating at 1552 nm. Two sets of input couplers are used that have been optimized to operate in the low pump and high pump regimes. The maximum conversion efficiencies measured for these couplers are 65.8% (transmittance T=4.5%) and 65.9% (T=9.1%). The internal conversion efficiencies are 85.0% and 88.2%, respectively, after the mode-matching efficiency and filtering transmittance have been taken into account. The maximum output powers obtained for the two couplers are 333 mW and 602 mW at pump powers of 535 mW and 999 mW, respectively. Coupling efficiency of more than 80% to single mode fibers indicates the high beam quality of the FD laser. This FD laser will be useful for quantum optics experiments in the telecommunications band and atomic physics experiments.

  14. Librating Propeller Moonlets in Saturn's A-Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, M.; Seiß, M.; Spahn, F.

    2012-09-01

    More than 150 moonlets have been found orbiting in Saturn's A-Ring [1,2] based on their gravitational interaction with the ring material forming s-shaped structures in their vicinity- propellers [3, 4]. An analysis of the orbital motion of the largest propeller moonlet, Bleriot, revealed a sinosodial, long-term deviation from the suspected Keplerian orbit. In order to explain this deviation, we consider a resonant perturbation of the propeller moon, induced by another more massive satellite (such as Pan, Prometheus and Pandora). We model these perturbations with an adapted pendulum model [5, 6]. With our analytical model we can predict the amplitude and period for the libration or circulation for defined resonances. The 14:13 CER of Pandora, the 136:134 OVR of Pan and the 42:40 IVR of Prometheus are the three most promising candidates to explain Bleriot's observed libration period and amplitude of 3.6 years and 0.13°, respectively. Furthermore, we will present predictions for other trans-Encke moonlets (e.g. Earhart, Sikorksy, Santos Dumont and Kingsford Smith).

  15. Density Wave Dispersion Behavior in Saturn's A Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, L. J.

    1999-09-01

    Wave dispersion profiles were generated for approximately 30 spiral density waves observed in the Voyager photopolarimeter stellar occultation data of Saturn's A ring. The majority of these density waves disperse linearly over the bulk of the wave. Some of the strongest density waves, however, do not begin to disperse linearly until well past the resonance location. An algorithm based on an autoregressive power spectral technique, Burg 2, generated the dispersion profiles. The dispersion behavior was then used to calculate local surface mass densities in the vicinity of each wave. Surface mass densities for the strongest density waves, when calculated using the region where the waves begin to disperse linearly, are in good agreement with surface mass densities calculated for nearby, weaker density waves. Some of the Prometheus density waves external to the Encke gap exhibit unusual spectral structure in the first part of the wave as the frequency increases by 60-70 radial interval. The nearby, related second-order resonances may produce density waves that distort the beginning of the first-order density waves. The separation distance between these first- and second-order resonances is only 0.4 to 1.5 km in this region of the rings. When the early part of each wave is systematically omitted in the surface mass density estimates, lower surface mass densities result for all of these density waves. This work was done at JPL/Caltech under contract with NASA.

  16. Detection and Behavior of Pan Wakes in Saturn's A Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Linda J.; Showalter, Mark R.; Russell, Christopher T.

    1996-12-01

    Six previously unseen Pan wakes are found interior and exterior to the Encke gap in Saturn's A ring, one in the Voyager 2 photopolarimeter (PPS) stellar occultation data and five in the Voyager 1 radio science (RSS) earth occultation data. Pan orbits at the center of the Encke gap and maintains it. Originally it was hypothesized that a wake would be completely damped by the time it reached a longitude of 360° relative to Pan. However, five of the six newly detected wakes are at longitudes in excess of 360° and are a result of earlier encounters with Pan. The sixth is the first detection of the RSS outer Pan wake. The new PPS inner wake is at a longitude of 389.8°. The new RSS inner wakes are at longitudes of 519.4° ± 1.6° and 879.4° ± 1.6°. The RSS outer wakes are at longitudes of 200.6° ± 1.6°, 560.6° ± 1.6°, and 920.6° ± 1.6°. Because of the time needed for a wake to develop after encountering Pan, the higher order wakes (longitude >360°) can be more prominent than their lower order counterparts which are superimposed at the same location. The radial dispersion behavior of the Pan wakes are characterized using a Burg autoregressive power spectral algorithm. The wake radial wavelength behavior is compared to a simple model which ignores collisions and self-gravity. The four wakes with longitudes below 360° show an average deviation of 0-3% from the predicted wavelengths, indicative of the strength of collective effects. The detection of Pan wakes at longitudes greater than 360° demonstrates that wakes persist for much longer than originally hypothesized and may interact with one another. The presence and characteristics of these wakes will provide an important test of kinetic theory models.

  17. The Population of Propellers in Saturn's A Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Burns, J. A.; Hedman, M. M.; Porco, C. C.

    2007-10-01

    Saturn's main rings (particularly Ring A) are known to be composed of a distribution of icy particles ranging in size from centimeters to 10 meters (Zebker et al 1985, Icarus). The first evidence of "missing-link'' particles larger than this size range but smaller than the km-size embedded moons (Pan and Daphnis) was announced by Tiscareno et al (2006, Nature). These intermediate-size moonlets are not directly seen, but rather the propeller-shaped disturbances they create in the ring continuum. Their sizes, subject to some ambiguities in interpretation, are probably 100 meters. Subsequent high-resolution Cassini Imaging data have yielded 148 additional localized features within Ring A, of which 47 are seen to move between two images at the keplerian rate, and of which 66 are resolved as propeller-shaped. Some of these objects have also been noted by Sremcevic et al (2007). These objects are concentrated almost entirely within three narrow ( 1000 km) bands in the mid-A Ring; other nearby regions are similarly free of major disturbances but contain no propellers. It is in this same region that self-gravity wakes (Hedman et al 2007, AJ) and the azimuthal brightness asymmetry (Dones et al 1993, Icarus) are at their peaks. It is unclear whether these bands are due to specific events in which a parent body broke up into the current moonlets, or whether a larger initial moonlet population has been sculpted into bands by other ring processes. We will present further analysis of this population, including their various dimensions and inferred moonlet sizes, and discuss it in context of the overall size distribution of particles in the rings.

  18. Targeted flyby images of propellers in Saturn's A ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Baker, Emily J.; the Cassini ISS Team

    2017-06-01

    As part of its two-part end-of-mission maneuvers, the Cassini has targeted three "propeller moons" for close-range flybys, obtaining images that greatly improve on all previous images in terms of resolution and detailed structure. Propeller moons are ~1 km in size and are embedded in the disk of Saturn's A ring (Tiscareno et al. 2010, ApJL). Unlike the moons Pan and Daphnis, propeller moons have insufficient mass to carve out a fully circumferential gap; instead, we see a propeller-shaped disturbance around the moon (which itself is unseen) as the moon's attempted gap is filled back in, due to the dynamical viscosity of the ring particles.The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) has obtained images of the propeller moon "Santos-Dumont" on both the lit and unlit sides of the rings, and of "Earhart" on the lit side. As of this writing, a final targeted flyby of "Bleriot" on the unlit side of the rings has yet to take place. The resolution of these images is at least 3x to 4x better than those of nearly all previous propeller images, and at least 2x better than those of a small handful of the best previous propeller images.We will present maps of of the propeller structures, with enhanced ability to convert brightness to optical depth and surface density due to information from both the lit and unlit sides of the rings. The images contain more complex structure than is predicted by simple models, which we will describe, and for which we will comment on likely explanations. The central moonlet of each propeller (which has never been seen) should be a couple of pixels across, but we cannot confirm whether they are seen in these images or whether they are obscured by stirred-up ring material.

  19. Predator-Prey model for haloes in Saturn's A ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.; Bradley, E. Todd; Colwell, Joshua E.; Madhusudhanan, Prasanna; Sremcevic, Miodrag

    2013-04-01

    UVIS SOI reflectance spectra show bright 'haloes' around the locations of some of the strongest resonances in Saturn's A ring (Esposito etal 2005). UV spectra constrain the size and composition of the icy ring particles (Bradley etal 2010, 2012). The correspondence of IR, UV spectroscopy, HSP wavelet analysis indicate that we detect the same phenomenon. We investigate the Janus 2:1. 4:3, 5:3, 6:5 and Mimas 5:3 inner Lindblad resonances as well as at the Mimas 5:3 vertical resonance (bending wave location). Models of ring particle regolith evolution (Elliott and Esposito 2010) indicate the deeper regolith is made of older and purer ice. The strong resonances can cause streamline crowding (Lewis and Stewart 2005) which damps the interparticle velocity, allowing temporary clumps to grow, which in turn increase the velocity, eroding the clumps and releasing smaller particles and regolith (see the predator-prey model of Esposito etal 2012). This cyclic behavior, driven by the resonant perturbation from the moon, can yield collision velocities at particular azimuths greater than 1m/sec, sufficient to erode the aggregates (Blum 2006), exposing older, purer materials: In the perturbed region, collisions erode the regolith, removing smaller particles. The released regolith material settles in the less perturbed neighboring regions. Diffusion spreads these ring particles with smaller regolith into a 'halo'. Thus, the radial location of the strongest resonances can be where we find both large aggregates and disrupted fragments, in a balance maintained by the periodic moon forcing. If this stirring exposes older, and purer ice, the velocity threshold for eroding the aggregates can explain why only the strongest Lindblad resonances show haloes. Diffusion can explain the morphology of these haloes, although they are not well-resolved spatially by UVIS.

  20. Cassini Targets a Propeller in Saturn A Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-02

    NASA's Cassini spacecraft captured these remarkable views of a propeller feature in Saturn's A ring on Feb. 21, 2017. These are the sharpest images taken of a propeller so far, and show an unprecedented level of detail. The propeller is nicknamed "Santos-Dumont," after the pioneering Brazilian-French aviator. This observation was Cassini's first targeted flyby of a propeller. The views show the object from vantage points on opposite sides of the rings. The top image looks toward the rings' sunlit side, while the bottom image shows the unilluminated side, where sunlight filters through the backlit ring. The two images presented as figure 1 are reprojected at the same scale (0.13 mile or 207 meters per pixel) in order to facilitate comparison. The original images, which have slightly different scales, are also provided here, without reprojection, as figure 2; the sunlit-side image is at left, while the unlit-side image is at right. Cassini scientists have been tracking the orbit of this object for the past decade, tracing the effect that the ring has upon it. Now, as Cassini has moved in close to the ring as part of its ring-grazing orbits, it was able to obtain this extreme close-up view of the propeller, enabling researchers to examine its effects on the ring. These views, and others like them, will inform models and studies in new ways going forward. Like a frosted window, Saturn's rings look different depending on whether they are seen fully sunlit or backlit. On the lit side, the rings look darker where there is less material to reflect sunlight. On the unlit side, some regions look darker because there is less material, but other regions look dark because there is so much material that the ring becomes opaque. Observing the same propeller on both the lit and unlit sides allows scientists to gather richer information about how the moonlet affects the ring. For example, in the unlit-side view, the broad, dark band through the middle of the propeller seems to be a

  1. Propellers in the A ring: What are we seeing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, M.; Stewart, G.

    2008-09-01

    The concept of moonlets embedded in rings that are too small to open gaps has a rich history of numerical exploration [1,2,3]. Their simulations, both using fluid descriptions and N-body codes, show the formation of propeller shaped structures with low density regions near the moon and higher density bands beyond that. The dimensions of these structures, especially in the radial direction, are well determined by the size of the moonlet and vary linearly with the Hill radius of that body. The arrival of Cassini at Saturn has allowed for observations of the disturbances caused by these moonlets [4,5,6]. Several were found in the initial high resolution insertion images. The list of observed features has now expanded to include well over 100 objects. They are seen through narrow bands in the mid-A ring in both lit and dark side images. The features that are seen have radial extents that would imply moonlets with diameters between 40 and 500m. This talk presents the results of numerical studies in which particle size distributions and self-gravity were included in N-body simulations. Early simulations were performed with two different moon sizes varying the properties of the background particles. Fig. 1 shows the structures that form in a few of these simulations. These simulations all used an optical depth of 0.1 and include a moonlet that is 26 m in diameter. The top two frames are from simulations including ~760,000 particles, all 1 m in diameter with the lower of those two including the effects of selfgravity. The lower two frames have a power law size distribution with a differential slope of q=-2.8 and the particles diameters between 0.5-4 m. They include ~490,000 particles. What stands out most in these simulations is that adding particle self-gravity and size distributions reduce the formation of propellers. Borrowing the terminology used by Tiscareno et al. [6], the moonlet wakes disappear in many of the simulations and the propeller shaped gaps disappear in a

  2. How does Saturn's moons influence the velocity dispersion in the A ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiß, M.; Schmidt, J.; Spahn, F.

    2011-10-01

    Saturn's moons perturb the rings due to their gravitational interactions with the ring material. Here, we present a model which accounts for the heating of the ring material due to these perturbations. The results emphasize the importance of the moon Prometheus for the velocity dispersion in the outer A ring of Saturn, which is probably 10 times higher than in the innermost A ring. An enhanced velocity dispersion would in turn lead to an enhanced production of smaller debris particles by knocking them off from larger parent bodies. This could lead to an increasing optical depth and brightness and limit the observability of the selfgravity wakes in the outer A ring. Furthermore, the velocity dispersion can be strongly enhanced in the vicinity of the major resonances (e.g. Janus 5:4) explaining the observed halos around them.

  3. A-ring modification of SCH 900229 and related chromene sulfone γ-secretase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Lian; Sasikumar, Thavalakulamgara K; Domalski, Martin S; Qiang, Li; Burnett, Duane A; Clader, John; Greenlee, William J; Chan, Tze-Ming; Lee, Julie; Zhang, Lili

    2013-02-01

    Attempts to block metabolism by incorporating a 9-fluoro substituent at the A-ring of compound 1 (SCH 900229) using electrophilic Selectfluor™ led to an unexpected oxidation of the A-ring to give difluoroquinone analog 1a. Oxidation of other related chromene γ-secretase inhibitors 2-8 resulted in similar difluoroquinone analogs 2a-8a, respectively. These quinone products exhibited comparable in vitro potency in a γ-scretase membrane assay, but were several fold less potent in a cell-based assay in lowering Aβ40-42, compared to their parent compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SOUND-SPEED TOMOGRAPHY USING FIRST-ARRIVAL TRANSMISSION ULTRASOUND FOR A RING ARRAY

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG, LIANJIE; QUAN, YOULI

    2007-01-31

    Sound-speed tomography images can be used for cancer detection and diagnosis. Tumors have generally higher sound speeds than the surrounding tissue. Quality and resolution of tomography images are primarily determined by the insonification/illumination aperture of ultrasound and the capability of the tomography method for accurately handling heterogeneous nature of the breast. We investigate the capability of an efficient time-of-flight tomography method using transmission ultrasound from a ring array for reconstructing sound-speed images of the breast. The method uses first arrival times of transmitted ultrasonic signals emerging from non-beamforming ultrasound transducers located around a ring. It properly accounts for ray bending within the breast by solving the eikonal equation using a finite-difference scheme. We test and validate the time-of-flight transmission tomography method using synthetic data for numerical breast phantoms containing various objects. In our simulation, the objects are immersed in water within a ring array. Two-dimensional synthetic data are generated using a finite-difference scheme to solve acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media. We study the reconstruction accuracy of the tomography method for objects with different sizes and shapes as well as different perturbations from the surrounding medium. In addition, we also address some specific data processing issues related to the tomography. Our tomography results demonstrate that the first-arrival transmission tomography method can accurately reconstruct objects larger than approximately five wavelengths of the incident ultrasound using a ring array.

  5. Sound-speed tomography using first-arrival transmission ultrasound for a ring array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Youli; Huang, Lianjie

    2007-03-01

    Sound-speed tomography images can be used for cancer detection and diagnosis. Tumors have generally higher sound speeds than the surrounding tissue. Quality and resolution of tomography images are primarily determined by the insonification/illumination aperture of ultrasound and the capability of the tomography method for accurately handling heterogeneous nature of the breast. We investigate the capability of an efficient time-of-flight tomography method using transmission ultrasound from a ring array for reconstructing sound-speed images of the breast. The method uses first-arrival times of transmitted ultrasonic signals emerging from non-beamforming ultrasound transducers located around a ring. It properly accounts for ray bending within the breast by solving the eikonal equation using a finite-difference scheme. We test and validate the time-of-flight transmission tomography method using synthetic data for numerical breast phantoms containing various objects. In our simulation, the objects are immersed in water within a ring array. Two-dimensional synthetic data are generated using a finite-difference scheme to solve acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media. We study the reconstruction accuracy of the tomography method for objects with different sizes and shapes as well as different perturbations from the surrounding medium. In addition, we also address some specific data processing issues related to the tomography. Our tomography results demonstrate that the first-arrival transmission tomography method can accurately reconstruct objects larger than approximately five wavelengths of the incident ultrasound using a ring array.

  6. The Particle inside a Ring: A Two-Dimensional Quantum Problem Visualized by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The one-dimensional particle-in-a-box model used to introduce quantum mechanics to students suffers from a tenuous connection to a real physical system. This article presents a two-dimensional model, the particle confined within a ring, that directly corresponds to observations of surface electrons in a metal trapped inside a circular barrier.…

  7. An analysis of the A ring's outer edge probes Saturn's interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Moutamid, Maryame; Nicholson, Philip; Gierasch, Peter; French, Richard; Burns, Joseph; Tiscareno, Matthew; Hedman, Matthew; Murray, Carl

    2015-11-01

    We present a study of the behavior of the outer edge of Saturn's A ring, using images and occultation data obtained by the Cassini spacecraft over a period of 8 years from 2006 to 2014. More than 5000 images and 150 occultations of the A ring outer edge are analyzed. Our fits confirm the expected response to the Janus 7:6 Inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) between 2006 and 2010, when Janus was on the inner leg of its regular orbit swap with Epimetheus. During this period, the edge exhibits a regular 7-lobed pattern with an amplitude of 12.8 km and one minimum aligned with the orbital longitude of Janus, as has been found by previous investigators. However, between 2010 and 2014, the Janus/Epimetheus orbit swap moves the Janus 7:6 LR away from the A ring's outer edge, and the 7-lobed pattern disappears.In addition to the perturbation forced by Janus, we have identified a variety of normal modes at the edge of the A ring, with values of ''m'' ranging from 3 to 18 and appropriate pattern speeds. These modes may represent waves trapped in resonant cavities at the edge (Spitale and Porco 2010, Nicholson et al 2014).We further identified some other signatures consistent with tesseral resonances that might be associated with inhomogeneities in Saturn's interior. This result is consistent with previous studies (Hedman et al 2009, 2014). These signatures may provide information about differential rotation in Saturn's interior.

  8. Migration of a Moonlet in a Ring of Solid Particles: Theory and Application to Saturn's Propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, Aurélien; Papaloizou, John C. B.; Rein, Hanno; Charnoz, Sébastien; Salmon, Julien

    2010-10-01

    Hundred-meter-sized objects have been identified by the Cassini spacecraft in Saturn's A ring through the so-called propeller features they create in the ring. These moonlets should migrate due to their gravitational interaction with the ring; in fact, some orbital variations have been detected. The standard theory of type I migration of planets in protoplanetary disks cannot be applied to the ring system as it is pressureless. Thus, we compute the differential torque felt by a moonlet embedded in a two-dimensional disk of solid particles, with a flat surface density profile, both analytically and numerically. We find that the corresponding migration rate is too small to explain the observed variations of the propeller's orbit in Saturn's A ring. However, local density fluctuations (due to gravity wakes in the marginally gravitationally stable A ring) may exert a stochastic torque on a moonlet. Our simulations show that this torque can be large enough to account for the observations depending on the parameters of the rings. We find that on timescales of several years the migration of propellers is likely to be dominated by stochastic effects (while the former, non-stochastic migration dominates after ~104-105 years). In that case, the migration rates provided by observations so far suggest that the surface density of the A ring should be on the order of 700 kg m-2. The age of the propellers should not exceed 1-100 million years depending on the dominant migration regime.

  9. The Particle inside a Ring: A Two-Dimensional Quantum Problem Visualized by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The one-dimensional particle-in-a-box model used to introduce quantum mechanics to students suffers from a tenuous connection to a real physical system. This article presents a two-dimensional model, the particle confined within a ring, that directly corresponds to observations of surface electrons in a metal trapped inside a circular barrier.…

  10. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF A RING DOMAIN ANKYRIN REPEAT PROTEIN THAT IS HIGHLY EXPRESSED DURING FLOWER SENESCENCE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A gene encoding a RING zinc finger ankyrin repeat protein (MjXB3), a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, is highly expressed in petals of senescing four o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa) flowers, increasing >40 000-fold during the onset of visible senescence. The gene has homologues in many other species, and t...

  11. How Janus' orbital swap affects the edge of Saturn's A ring?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Moutamid, Maryame; Nicholson, Philip D.; French, Richard G.; Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Murray, Carl D.; Evans, Michael W.; French, Colleen McGhee; Hedman, Matthew M.; Burns, Joseph A.

    2016-11-01

    We present a study of the behavior of Saturn's A ring outer edge, using images and occultation data obtained by the Cassini spacecraft over a period of 8 years from 2006 to 2014. More than 5000 images and 170 occultations of the A ring outer edge are analyzed. Our fits confirm the expected response to the Janus 7:6 Inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) between 2006 and 2010, when Janus was on the inner leg of its regular orbit swap with Epimetheus. During this period, the edge exhibits a regular 7-lobed pattern with an amplitude of 12.8 km and one minimum aligned with the orbital longitude of Janus, as has been found by previous investigators. However, between 2010 and 2014, the Janus/Epimetheus orbit swap moves the Janus 7:6 LR away from the A ring outer edge, and the 7-lobed pattern disappears. In addition to several smaller-amplitudes modes, indeed, we found a variety of pattern speeds with different azimuthal wave numbers, and many of them may arise from resonant cavities between the ILR and the ring edge; also we found some other signatures consistent with tesseral resonances that could be associated with inhomogeneities in Saturn's gravity field. Moreover, these signatures do not have a fixed pattern speed. We present an analysis of these data and suggest a possible dynamical model for the behavior of the A ring's outer edge after 2010.

  12. Self-gravity wake structures in Saturn's a ring revealed by Cassini vims

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedman, M.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Salo, H.; Wallis, B.D.; Buratti, B.J.; Baines, K.H.; Brown, R.H.; Clark, R.N.

    2007-01-01

    During the summer of 2005, the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer onboard the Cassini spacecraft observed a series of occultations of the star o Ceti (Mira) by Saturn's rings. These observations revealed pronounced variations in the optical depth of the A ring with longitude, which can be attributed to oriented structures in the rings known as self-gravity wakes. While the wakes themselves are only tens of meters across and below the resolution of the measurements, we are able to obtain information about the orientation and shapes of these structures by comparing the observed transmission at different longitudes with predictions from a simple model. Our findings include the following: (1) The orientation of the wakes varies systematically with radius, trailing by between 64?? and 72?? relative to the local radial direction. (2) The maximum transmission peaks at roughly 8% for B = 3.45?? in the middle A ring (???129,000 km). (3) Both the wake orientation and maximum transmission vary anomalously in the vicinity of two strong density waves (Janus 5:4 and Mimas 5:3). (4) The ratio of the wake vertical thickness H to the wake pattern wavelength ?? (assuming infinite, straight, regularly-spaced wake structures) varies from 0.12 to 0.09 across the A ring. Gravitational instability theory predicts ?? ??? 60 m, which suggests that the wake structures in the A ring are only ???6 m thick. ?? 2007. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Saturn A ring surface mass densities from spiral density wave dispersion behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda J.; Pilorz, Stuart; Lane, Arthur L.; Nelson, Robert M.; Pollard, Benjamin; Russell, Christopher T.

    2004-10-01

    We have undertaken an analysis of the Voyager photopolarimeter (PPS) stellar occultation data of Saturn's A ring. The Voyager PPS observed the bright star δ Scorpii as it was occulted by Saturn's main rings during the spacecraft flyby of the Saturn system in 1981. The occultation measurement produced a ring profile with radial resolution of approximately 100 m, and radial structure is evident in the profile down to the resolution limit. We have applied an autoregressive technique to the data for estimating the power spectrum as a function of radius, which has allowed us to identify 40 spiral density waves in Saturn's A ring, associated with the strongest torques due to forcing from the moons. The majority of the detected waves are observed to disperse linearly in regions beginning a few kilometers from the resonance location. We have used the dispersion behavior for those waves to calculate local surface mass densities in the vicinity of each wave. We find that the inner three-quarters of the A ring (up to the beginning of the Encke gap) has an average surface mass density of 43.8±7.9 g cm-2, while the outer region has an average surface mass density of 28.3±10.8 g cm-2. The two regions have different mean surface mass densities with a significance of approximately 0.999993, as estimated with a T-statistic, which corresponds to about 4.5 σ. While the mean optical depth of the A ring increases slightly with increasing distance from Saturn, we find that it is not significantly correlated with the surface mass density; the two quantities having a linear Pearson's correlation coefficient of rcorr≈-0.03. The variation of mass density, independent of PPS optical depth, is consistent with previous conjectures that the particle size distribution and composition are not constant across the entire A ring, particularly in the very outer portion. We estimate the mass of Saturn's A ring from our surface mass density estimates as 4.9×10 21 gm, or 8.61×10 -9 of the mass

  14. Development of an Acoustic Levitation Linear Transportation System Based on a Ring-Type Structure.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gilles P L; Andrade, Marco A B; Adamowski, Julio Cezar; Silva, Emilio Carlos Nelli

    2017-05-01

    A linear acoustic levitation transportation system based on a ring-type vibrator is presented. The system is composed by two 21-kHz Langevin transducers connected to a ring-shaped structure formed by two semicircular sections and two flat plates. In this system, a flexural standing wave is generated along the ring structure, producing an acoustic standing wave between the vibrating ring and a plane reflector located at a distance of approximately a half wavelength from the ring. The acoustic standing wave in air has a series of pressure nodes, where small particles can be levitated and transported. The ring-type transportation system was designed and analyzed by using the finite element method. Additionally, a prototype was built and the acoustic levitation and transport of a small polystyrene particle was demonstrated.

  15. A-Ring Oxygenation Modulates the Chemistry and Bioactivity of Caged Garcinia Xanthones

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Kristyna M.; Guizzunti, Gianni; Theodoraki, Maria A.; Xu, Jing; Batova, Ayse; Dakanali, Marianna; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural products of the caged Garcinia xanthones (CGX) family are characterized by a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities and promising pharmacological profiles. We have developed a Claisen/Diels-Alder reaction cascade that, in combination with a Pd(0)-catalyzed reverse prenylation, provide rapid and efficient access to the CGX pharmacophore, represented by the structure of cluvenone. To further explore this pharmacophore, we have synthesized various A-ring oxygenated analogues of cluvenone and have evaluated their bioactivities in terms of growth inhibition, mitochondrial fragmentation, induction of mitochondrial-dependent cell death and Hsp90 client inhibition. We found that installation of an oxygen functionality at various positions of the A-ring influences significantly both the site-selectivity of the Claisen/Diels-Alder reaction and the bioactivity of these compounds, due to remote electronic effects. PMID:23563530

  16. Can a ring pessary have a lasting effect to reverse uterine prolapse even after its removal?

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Shigeki; Ohki, Yoichi

    2010-04-01

    A vaginal ring pessary for uterine prolapse has been considered only to reposition the uterus during fitting and is thus palliative. A ring pessary was fitted in a 71-year-old woman with uterine prolapse to reposition the uterus. When the pessary was removed after 73 months, the prolapse disappeared and did not recur. In another five patients with uterine prolapse who were fitted with a ring pessary, prolapse also disappeared after pessary removal. In these six patients, the median duration of pessary implantation and observation after its removal was 27.5 and 42.0 months, respectively. In some women, a vaginal ring pessary may reposition the uterus not only during implantation but also after its removal.

  17. Control of damping partition numbers in a ring accelerator with rf electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Shimosaki, Yoshito; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2013-04-12

    A novel scheme to reduce transverse beam emittance in a ring accelerator is proposed by using a pair of coupling cavities as a basic unit to control damping partition numbers. As indicated by Robinson in 1958, a simple rf electromagnetic field (e.g., a TM210 mode by a single coupling cavity) cannot control the damping partition of three eigenoscillation modes in a ring accelerator due to the cancellation between the contributions from the magnetic and electric fields. Based on both analytical and numerical studies, we show that a pair of coupling cavities that satisfy phase and optics matching conditions can overcome this cancellation. The results indicate that the horizontal emittance is reducible to the theoretical limit based on the steady state condition and also, the emittance is reducible below the reduction limit under a nonsteady state by driving the coupling cavities with gated signals.

  18. Measurements of complex coupling coefficients in a ring resonator of a laser gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessonov, A. S.; Makeev, A. P.; Petrukhin, E. A.

    2017-07-01

    A method is proposed for measuring complex coupling coefficients in a ring optical resonator in the absence of an active gas mixture. A setup is described on which measurements are performed in ring resonators of ring He-Ne lasers with a wavelength of 632.8 nm. A model of backscattering field interference between conservative and dissipative sources is presented. Within the framework of this model, the unusual behaviour of backscattering fields in ring resonators observed in experiments is explained: a significant difference in the moduli of coupling coefficients of counterpropagating waves and variation of the magnitude of the total phase shift in a wide range. It is proposed to use this method as a metrological method when assembling and aligning a ring resonator of a laser gyroscope.

  19. Experimental study of jittering chimeras in a ring of excitable units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinshov, Vladimir; Shchapin, Dmitry; Lücken, Leonhard; Yanchuk, Serhiy; Nekorkin, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    A new type of chimera-like regime is reported that we call "jittering chimera". The regime is observed in a ring of excitable units in which the excitation is invoked by an oscillator included into the ring. The jittering chimera is characterized by the presence of two domains, one with regular spiking and the other with irregular. A method to set and control desired chimera states in a physically implemented electronic circuit is developed.

  20. Photon antibunching and bunching in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zihao; Zhou, Yao; Shen, Jung-Tsung

    2016-07-15

    We numerically investigate the photonic state generation and its nonclassical correlations in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system. Specifically, we discuss photon antibunching and bunching in various scenarios, including the imperfect resonator with backscattering and dissipations. Our numerical results indicate that an imperfect ring resonator with backscattering can enhance the quality of antibunching. In addition, we also identify the quantum photonic halo phenomenon in the photon scattering dynamics and the shoulder effect in the second-order correlation function.

  1. Time division multiplexing of 106 weak fiber Bragg gratings using a ring cavity configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi; Wen, Hongqiao; Luo, Zhihui; Dai, Yutang

    2016-06-01

    A time division multiplexing of 106 weak fibers Bragg gratings (FBGs) based on a ring resonant-cavity is demonstrated. A semiconductor optical amplifier is connected in the cavity to function as an amplifier as well as a switch. The 106 weak FBGs are written along a SMF-28 fiber in serial with peak reflectivity of about -30 dB and equal separations of 5 m. The crosstalk and spectral distortion are investigated through both theoretical analysis and experiments.

  2. Features of the phase dynamics in a ring solid-state laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kravtsov, Nikolai V; Lariontsev, E G

    2005-07-31

    The peculiarities of the phase dynamics are studied in a ring solid-state laser operating in transient quasi-sinusoidal oscillation regimes of the first and second kinds (QS-1 and QS-2) appearing upon periodic modulation of the pump power. It is shown that recording of a change in the phase difference of counterpropagating waves in the QS-2 regime under certain conditions makes it possible to determine directly the mutual nonreciprocity of the laser resonator. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  3. Assembling a ring-shaped crystal in a microfabricated surface ion trap

    DOE PAGES

    Stick, Daniel Lynn; Tabakov, Boyan; Benito, Francisco; ...

    2015-09-01

    We report on experiments with a microfabricated surface trap designed for confining a chain of ions in a ring. Uniform ion separation over most of the ring is achieved with a rotationally symmetric design and by measuring and suppressing undesired electric fields. After reducing stray fields, the ions are confined primarily by a radio-frequency pseudopotential and their mutual Coulomb repulsion. As a result, approximately 400 40Ca+ ions with an average separation of 9 μm comprise the ion crystal.

  4. MIGRATION OF A MOONLET IN A RING OF SOLID PARTICLES: THEORY AND APPLICATION TO SATURN'S PROPELLERS

    SciTech Connect

    Crida, Aurelien; Papaloizou, John C. B.; Rein, Hanno; Charnoz, Sebastien; Salmon, Julien

    2010-10-15

    Hundred-meter-sized objects have been identified by the Cassini spacecraft in Saturn's A ring through the so-called propeller features they create in the ring. These moonlets should migrate due to their gravitational interaction with the ring; in fact, some orbital variations have been detected. The standard theory of type I migration of planets in protoplanetary disks cannot be applied to the ring system as it is pressureless. Thus, we compute the differential torque felt by a moonlet embedded in a two-dimensional disk of solid particles, with a flat surface density profile, both analytically and numerically. We find that the corresponding migration rate is too small to explain the observed variations of the propeller's orbit in Saturn's A ring. However, local density fluctuations (due to gravity wakes in the marginally gravitationally stable A ring) may exert a stochastic torque on a moonlet. Our simulations show that this torque can be large enough to account for the observations depending on the parameters of the rings. We find that on timescales of several years the migration of propellers is likely to be dominated by stochastic effects (while the former, non-stochastic migration dominates after {approx}10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} years). In that case, the migration rates provided by observations so far suggest that the surface density of the A ring should be on the order of 700 kg m{sup -2}. The age of the propellers should not exceed 1-100 million years depending on the dominant migration regime.

  5. The Caribbean slipper spurge Euphorbia tithymaloides: the first example of a ring species in plants

    PubMed Central

    Cacho, N. Ivalú; Baum, David A.

    2012-01-01

    A ring species arises when a parental population expands around an area of unsuitable habitat in such a way that when the two fronts meet they behave as distinct species while still being connected through a series of intergrading populations. Ring species offer great possibilities for studying the forces causing species divergence (e.g. the nature of pre-zygotic or post-zygotic reproductive isolation) or helping to maintain species integrity (e.g. reinforcement). Yet, ring species are extremely rare, and have only been documented convincingly in animals. Here, we present phylogenetic analyses of two nuclear gene regions from the Caribbean slipper spurge (Euphorbia tithymaloides) species complex that provide evidence that this group forms a ring species. These data show that the species complex originated in the area where Mexico and Guatemala meet, and expanded around the Caribbean basin along two distinct fronts: one eastward through the Yucatan Peninsula and into the Greater Antilles (GA); one southeastward through northern South America and then northward to the Lesser Antilles and eastern GA. The two terminal forms co-occur in the Virgin Islands and appear to be morphologically and ecologically distinct. Thus, our results suggest that Euphorbia tithymaloides is the first compelling example of a ring species in plants. PMID:22696529

  6. Universal cumulants of the current in diffusive systems on a ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appert-Rolland, C.; Derrida, B.; Lecomte, V.; van Wijland, F.

    2008-08-01

    We calculate exactly the first cumulants of the integrated current and of the activity (which is the total number of changes of configurations) of the symmetric simple exclusion process on a ring with periodic boundary conditions. Our results indicate that for large system sizes the large deviation functions of the current and of the activity take a universal scaling form, with the same scaling function for both quantities. This scaling function can be understood either by an analysis of Bethe ansatz equations or in terms of a theory based on fluctuating hydrodynamics or on the macroscopic fluctuation theory of Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona-Lasinio, and Landim.

  7. Universal cumulants of the current in diffusive systems on a ring.

    PubMed

    Appert-Rolland, C; Derrida, B; Lecomte, V; van Wijland, F

    2008-08-01

    We calculate exactly the first cumulants of the integrated current and of the activity (which is the total number of changes of configurations) of the symmetric simple exclusion process on a ring with periodic boundary conditions. Our results indicate that for large system sizes the large deviation functions of the current and of the activity take a universal scaling form, with the same scaling function for both quantities. This scaling function can be understood either by an analysis of Bethe ansatz equations or in terms of a theory based on fluctuating hydrodynamics or on the macroscopic fluctuation theory of Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona-Lasinio, and Landim.

  8. Correlation analysis of the coherence-incoherence transition in a ring of nonlocally coupled logistic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadivasova, Tatiana E.; Strelkova, Galina I.; Bogomolov, Sergey A.; Anishchenko, Vadim S.

    2016-09-01

    We present numerical results for a set of bifurcations occurring at the transition from complete chaotic synchronization to spatio-temporal chaos in a ring of nonlocally coupled chaotic logistic maps. The regularities are established for the evolution of cross-correlations of oscillations in the network elements at the bifurcations related to the coupling strength variation. We reveal the distinctive features of cross-correlations for phase and amplitude chimera states. It is also shown that the effect of time intermittency between the amplitude and phase chimeras can be realized in the considered ensemble.

  9. Confocal acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography using a ring ultrasonic transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Wenjuan; Li, Rui; Ma, Teng; Kirk Shung, K.; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-03-24

    We designed and developed a confocal acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography system. A ring ultrasound transducer was used to achieve reflection mode excitation and generate an oscillating acoustic radiation force in order to generate displacements within the tissue, which were detected using the phase-resolved optical coherence elastography method. Both phantom and human tissue tests indicate that this system is able to sense the stiffness difference of samples and quantitatively map the elastic property of materials. Our confocal setup promises a great potential for point by point elastic imaging in vivo and differentiation of diseased tissues from normal tissue.

  10. Synchronized states in a ring of four mutually coupled oscillators and experimental application to secure communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nana, B.; Woafo, P.

    2011-04-01

    Data encryption has become increasingly important for many applications including phone, internet and satellite communications. Considering the desirable properties of ergodicity and high sensitivity to initial conditions and control parameters, chaotic signals are suitable for encryption systems. Chaotic encryption systems generally have high speed with low cost, which makes them better candidates than many traditional ciphers for multimedia data encryption. In this paper, analytical and numerical methods as well as experimental implementation are used to prove partial and complete synchronized states in a ring of four autonomous oscillators in their chaotic states. Application to secure communication is discussed.

  11. Assembling a ring-shaped crystal in a microfabricated surface ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Stick, Daniel Lynn; Tabakov, Boyan; Benito, Francisco; Blain, Matthew; Clark, Craig R.; Clark, Susan; Haltli, Raymond A.; Maunz, Peter; Sterk, Jonathan D.; Tigges, Chris

    2015-09-01

    We report on experiments with a microfabricated surface trap designed for confining a chain of ions in a ring. Uniform ion separation over most of the ring is achieved with a rotationally symmetric design and by measuring and suppressing undesired electric fields. After reducing stray fields, the ions are confined primarily by a radio-frequency pseudopotential and their mutual Coulomb repulsion. As a result, approximately 400 40Ca+ ions with an average separation of 9 μm comprise the ion crystal.

  12. Exact long-wavelength plasmon dispersion on a ring with soft Coulomb interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasselli, Federico; Bertoni, Andrea; Goldoni, Guido

    2017-09-01

    We obtain the analytical dispersion of 1D plasmonic modes on a ring from the exact solution of the hydrodynamical model with soft Coulomb potential. We compare our results with the exact plasmon dispersion in straight 1D systems and find a set of formal correspondences between the two. In light of our results, we discuss recent experiments (Schmidt et al 2014 Nat. Commun. 5 3604) where ring-confined modes in nanodiscs are found to almost coincide with plasmonic excitations in 1D metallic nanostructures. We trace the similarity to the scaling properties of the plasmonic dispersion.

  13. Acousto-optical combined frequency splitters and shifters as components of a ring optical gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Kotov, V M

    1999-03-31

    An analysis is made of the task of symmetrisation of a Y-type directional coupler and of shifting the frequency of counterpropagating waves in a ring gyroscope by means of the relatively recently discovered new type of acousto-optical diffraction when the incident radiation is diffracted simultaneously into two orders. Anisotropic and isotropic acousto-optical diffraction in a uniaxial crystal is considered and expressions convenient for calculations are derived. Experiments carried out on isotropic diffraction in LiNbO{sub 3} confirm, on the whole, the theoretical predictions. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  14. Routes to complex dynamics in a ring of unidirectionally coupled systems.

    PubMed

    Perlikowski, P; Yanchuk, S; Wolfrum, M; Stefanski, A; Mosiolek, P; Kapitaniak, T

    2010-03-01

    We study the dynamics of a ring of unidirectionally coupled autonomous Duffing oscillators. Starting from a situation where the individual oscillator without coupling has only trivial equilibrium dynamics, the coupling induces complicated transitions to periodic, quasiperiodic, chaotic, and hyperchaotic behavior. We study these transitions in detail for small and large numbers of oscillators. Particular attention is paid to the role of unstable periodic solutions for the appearance of chaotic rotating waves, spatiotemporal structures, and the Eckhaus effect for a large number of oscillators. Our analytical and numerical results are confirmed by a simple experiment based on the electronic implementation of coupled Duffing oscillators.

  15. New edge magnetoplasmon for a two-dimensional electron gas in a ring geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proetto, C. R.

    1992-09-01

    The dynamical response of a classical two-dimensional electron gas confined in a ring geometry under a perpendicular magnetic field is analyzed. Within the hydrodynamical approach and in the strong magnetic field limit, a new set of antidot edge magnetoplasmons is obtained, corresponding to density oscillations circulating along the inner boundary of the ring and whose frequency increases with magnetic field. The associated self-induced distribution of densities and currents are presented, together with an analysis of the size dependence of these perimeter waves.

  16. On the possibility of using the phase characteristic of a ring interferometer in microoptical gyroscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Venediktov, V Yu; Filatov, Yu V; Shalymov, E V

    2014-12-31

    The prototype schemes of a microoptical gyroscope (MOG) developed to date on the basis of passive ring cavities imply the use of the amplitude characteristic only, since they operate using the dip in the transmission coefficient. We have analysed the possibility of creating a MOG, in which the phase characteristic is used as well. The phase characteristic of a ring interferometer has distinctive features in the vicinity of the cavity eigenfrequencies, which may be used to determine the angular velocity. A method for the angular velocity determination using both the phase and the amplitude characteristics of the interferometer is considered. (laser gyroscopes)

  17. A new approach to 19-nor-A-ring phosphine oxide for the convergent synthesis of 19-nor-calcitriol.

    PubMed

    Sigüeiro, Rita; Otero, Rocio; González-Berdullas, Patricia; Loureiro, Julian; Mouriño, Antonio; Maestro, Miguel A

    2017-10-01

    A new approach to 19-nor-A-ring phosphine oxide 5 together with a convergent synthesis of the vitamin D3 analogue 1α,25-dihydroxy-19-norvitamin D3 (3) have been developed. The 19-nor-A-ring is constructed from (S)-carvone. The triene system is assembled by a Wittig-Horner coupling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Propagation of Electrical Excitation in a Ring of Cardiac Cells: A Computer Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogan, B. Y.; Karplus, W. J.; Karpoukhin, M. G.; Roizen, I. M.; Chudin, E.; Qu, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The propagation of electrical excitation in a ring of cells described by the Noble, Beeler-Reuter (BR), Luo-Rudy I (LR I), and third-order simplified (TOS) mathematical models is studied using computer simulation. For each of the models it is shown that after transition from steady-state circulation to quasi-periodicity achieved by shortening the ring length (RL), the action potential duration (APD) restitution curve becomes a double-valued function and is located below the original ( that of an isolated cell) APD restitution curve. The distributions of APD and diastolic interval (DI) along a ring for the entire range of RL corresponding to quasi-periodic oscillations remain periodic with the period slightly different from two RLs. The 'S' shape of the original APD restitution curve determines the appearance of the second steady-state circulation region for short RLs. For all the models and the wide variety of their original APD restitution curves, no transition from quasi-periodicity to chaos was observed.

  19. Images Analysis of the Propeller Bleriot orbiting in Saturn's outer A Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Hoffmann, Holger; Spahn, Frank; seiss, Martin

    2016-01-01

    More than 150 propeller structures have been observed by the cameras of the Cassini-spacecraft in Saturn's A ring (Tiscareno et al. 2006, 2008, 2010, Sremcevic et al. 2007). These S-shaped density structures are caused by moonlets embedded in Saturn's rings which are not massive enough to clear and maintain a complete circumferential gap like the larger ring-moons Pan and Daphnis do (Spahn, Sremcevic, 2000 and Spahn,Sremcevic, Duschl, 2002). More than 150 propeller structures have been observed by the cameras of the Cassini-spacecraft (Tiscareno et al. 2006, 2008, 2010, Sremcevic et al. 2007).We analyze Cassini ISS images of the propeller Bleriot, which orbits in Saturn's outer A ring between the Encke and Keeler gaps. As of today, Bleriot is the only propeller which shows clearly visible propeller-gaps.In order to determine the radial position of the gap-minimum, we fit a Gaussian to the radial brigthness profile of the propeller at different azimuthal location downstream of the propeller-moonlet. We estimate the ring viscosity from the azimuthal brightness evolution at the gap minimum by fitting it to the theoretical azimuthal gap evolution (Sremcevic, Spahn, Duschl, 2002). Further, we measure a separation of the propeller-gaps of 1.1 km for Bleriot which corresponds to a moonlet Hill radius of about 0.28 km.

  20. 100-metre-diameter moonlets in Saturn's A ring from observations of ‘propeller’ structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Burns, Joseph A.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Porco, Carolyn C.; Weiss, John W.; Dones, Luke; Richardson, Derek C.; Murray, Carl D.

    2006-03-01

    Saturn's main rings are composed predominantly of water-ice particles ranging between about 1centimetre and 10metres in radius. Above this size range, the number of particles drops sharply, according to the interpretation of spacecraft and stellar occultations. Other than the gap moons Pan and Daphnis (the provisional name of S/2005 S1), which have sizes of several kilometres, no individual bodies in the rings have been directly observed, and the population of ring particles larger than ten metres has been essentially unknown. Here we report the observation of four longitudinal double-streaks in an otherwise bland part of the mid-A ring. We infer that these `propeller'-shaped perturbations arise from the effects of embedded moonlets approximately 40 to 120m in diameter. Direct observation of this phenomenon validates models of proto-planetary disks in which similar processes are posited. A population of moonlets, as implied by the size distribution that we find, could help explain gaps in the more tenuous regions of the Cassini division and the C ring. The existence of such large embedded moonlets is most naturally compatible with a ring originating in the break-up of a larger body, but accretion from a circumplanetary disk is also plausible if subsequent growth onto large particles occurs after the primary accretion phase has concluded.

  1. The terminal Eocene event - Formation of a ring system around the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that the formation of a ring system about the earth by particles and debris related to the North American strewn tektite field is responsible for the terminal Eocene event of 34 million years ago, in which severe climatic changes accompanied by widespread biological extinctions occurred. Botanical data is cited which implies a 20-C decrease in winter temperature with no change in summer temperature, and evidence of the correlation of the North American tektite fall, which is estimated to have a total mass of 10 to the 9th to 10 to the 10th tons, with the disappearance of five of the most abundant species of radiolaria is presented. The possible connection between the tektites and climatic change is argued to result from the screening of sunlight by an equatorial ring of trapped particles of extraterrestrial origin in geocentric orbit which would cut off sunlight only in the winter months. Such a ring, located at a distance of between 1.5 and 2.5 earth radii (the Roche limit) is estimated to have a lifetime of a few million years.

  2. 100-metre-diameter moonlets in Saturn's A ring from observations of 'propeller' structures.

    PubMed

    Tiscareno, Matthew S; Burns, Joseph A; Hedman, Matthew M; Porco, Carolyn C; Weiss, John W; Dones, Luke; Richardson, Derek C; Murray, Carl D

    2006-03-30

    Saturn's main rings are composed predominantly of water-ice particles ranging between about 1 centimetre and 10 metres in radius. Above this size range, the number of particles drops sharply, according to the interpretation of spacecraft and stellar occultations. Other than the gap moons Pan and Daphnis (the provisional name of S/2005 S1), which have sizes of several kilometres, no individual bodies in the rings have been directly observed, and the population of ring particles larger than ten metres has been essentially unknown. Here we report the observation of four longitudinal double-streaks in an otherwise bland part of the mid-A ring. We infer that these 'propeller'-shaped perturbations arise from the effects of embedded moonlets approximately 40 to 120 m in diameter. Direct observation of this phenomenon validates models of proto-planetary disks in which similar processes are posited. A population of moonlets, as implied by the size distribution that we find, could help explain gaps in the more tenuous regions of the Cassini division and the C ring. The existence of such large embedded moonlets is most naturally compatible with a ring originating in the break-up of a larger body, but accretion from a circumplanetary disk is also plausible if subsequent growth onto large particles occurs after the primary accretion phase has concluded.

  3. Analysis and Dynamics of a Saturnian Satellite at the A Ring Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Christie J.; El Moutamid, Maryame; Nicholson, Philip D.; Burns, Joseph A.; Murray, Carl D.; Cooper, Nicholas J.

    2015-11-01

    An object found (Murray et al. 2014) at the edge of Saturn's A ring presents a unique opportunity to investigate Charnoz et al. (2010)'s suggestion that moonlets form in the rings as well as to conduct dynamical studies near the ring edge. We track this object in Cassini images to learn its connection, if any, to Janus' co-rotation and Lindblad resonances before and after the 2014 orbital shift of Janus and Epimetheus. We find that it may have undergone an abrupt eight-kilometer shift in semi-major axis in 2013, which is unexplained by resonant effects but may be due to a collision with something in or outside of the rings. Furthermore, we propose the potential existence of another object near the ring edge, which would obviate any change in the semi-major axis of Murray's object. Such an object may have been captured in co-rotation resonance with Janus between 2010 and 2014.

  4. Optical time-of-flight measurement based on data transmission in a ring oscillator.

    PubMed

    Noé, Reinhold; Koch, Benjamin; Sandel, David

    2009-12-07

    We introduce a novel optical propagation delay measurement scheme for distance estimation. It is based on a ring oscillator in which the oscillation signal is replaced by the clock information contained in optical data. A clock-and-data recovery can recover the oscillation signal at the receive end. Correlation of the received pattern with the transmitted pattern and a measurement of the bit duration by a frequency counter allow to determine the distance. The scheme has been realized at 1550 nm wavelength, using an externally modulated laser, a commercial 155.52 Mb/s clock-and-data recovery and a field-programmable gate array. Short-term repeatability is <10 microm at an equivalent free-space distance of 72 m. Measurement interval is 0.1 s. At 3 km distance the relative repeatability is 8.10(-8). The readout can be corrected with measured temperature data.

  5. Atomic self-ordering in a ring cavity with counterpropagating pump fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermann, S.; Grießer, T.; Ritsch, H.

    2015-02-01

    The collective dynamics of mobile scatterers and light in optical resonators generates complex behaviour. For strong transverse illumination a phase transition from homogeneous to crystalline particle order appears. In contrast, cold particles inside a single-side pumped ring cavity exhibit an instability towards bunching and collective acceleration called collective atomic recoil lasing (CARL). We demonstrate that by driving two orthogonally polarized counterpropagating modes of a ring resonator one realises both cases within one system. As a function of the two pump intensities the corresponding phase diagram exhibits regions in which either a generalized form of self-ordering towards a travelling density wave with constant centre-of-mass velocity or a CARL instability is formed. Time-dependent control of the cavity driving then allows to accelerate or slow down and trap a sufficiently dense beam of linearly polarizable particles.

  6. Frequency-agile terahertz-wave parametric oscillator in a ring-cavity configuration.

    PubMed

    Minamide, Hiroaki; Ikari, Tomofumi; Ito, Hiromasa

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate a frequency-agile terahertz wave parametric oscillator (TPO) in a ring-cavity configuration (ring-TPO). The TPO consists of three mirrors and a MgO:LiNbO(3) crystal under noncollinear phase-matching conditions. A novel, fast frequency-tuning method was realized by controlling a mirror of the three-mirror ring cavity. The wide tuning range between 0.93 and 2.7 THz was accomplished. For first demonstration using the ring-TPO, terahertz spectroscopy was performed as the verification of the frequency-agile performance, measuring the transmission spectrum of the monosaccharide glucose. The spectrum was obtained within about 8 s in good comparison to those of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.

  7. Lower Current Large Deviations for Zero-Range Processes on a Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chleboun, Paul; Grosskinsky, Stefan; Pizzoferrato, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    We study lower large deviations for the current of totally asymmetric zero-range processes on a ring with concave current-density relation. We use an approach by Jensen and Varadhan which has previously been applied to exclusion processes, to realize current fluctuations by travelling wave density profiles corresponding to non-entropic weak solutions of the hyperbolic scaling limit of the process. We further establish a dynamic transition, where large deviations of the current below a certain value are no longer typically attained by non-entropic weak solutions, but by condensed profiles, where a non-zero fraction of all the particles accumulates on a single fixed lattice site. This leads to a general characterization of the rate function, which is illustrated by providing detailed results for four generic examples of jump rates, including constant rates, decreasing rates, unbounded sublinear rates and asymptotically linear rates. Our results on the dynamic transition are supported by numerical simulations using a cloning algorithm.

  8. Non-destructive splitter of twisted light based on modes splitting in a ring cavity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-02-08

    Efficiently discriminating beams carrying different orbital angular momentum (OAM) is of fundamental importance for various applications including high capacity optical communication and quantum information processing. We design and experimentally verify a distinguished method for effectively splitting different OAM-carried beams by introducing Dove prisms in a ring cavity. Because of rotational symmetry broken of two OAM-carried beams with opposite topological charges, their transmission spectra will split. When mode and impedance matches between the cavity and one OAM-carried beam are achieved, this beam will transmit through the cavity and other beam will be reflected, both beams keep their spatial shapes. In this case, the cavity acts like a polarized beam splitter. Besides, the transmitting beam can be selected at your will, the splitting efficiency can reach unity if the cavity is lossless and it completely matches the beam. Furthermore, beams carry multi-OAMs can also be split by cascading ring cavities.

  9. Chimera regimes in a ring of oscillators with local nonlinear interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepelev, Igor A.; Zakharova, Anna; Vadivasova, Tatiana E.

    2017-03-01

    One of important problems concerning chimera states is the conditions of their existence and stability. Until now, it was assumed that chimeras could arise only in ensembles with nonlocal character of interactions. However, this assumption is not exactly right. In some special cases chimeras can be realized for local type of coupling [1-3]. We propose a simple model of ensemble with local coupling when chimeras are realized. This model is a ring of linear oscillators with the local nonlinear unidirectional interaction. Chimera structures in the ring are found using computer simulations for wide area of values of parameters. Diagram of the regimes on plane of control parameters is plotted and scenario of chimera destruction are studied when the parameters are changed.

  10. Single-particle-excitation spectrum of degenerate Fermi gases in a ring cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chao; Chen, Yu

    2017-09-01

    By considering spin-1/2 degenerate Fermi gases in a ring cavity where strong interaction between atoms and light gives rise to superradiance, we find that the cavity dissipation can cause a severe broadening in some special cases, breaking down the quasiparticle picture which has been constantly assumed in mean-field theory studies. This broadening happens when the band gap is resonant with polariton excitation energy. Interestingly enough, this broadening is highly spin selective, depending on how the fermions are filled, and the spectrum becomes asymmetric due to dissipation. Further, a nonmonotonous dependence of the maximal broadening of the spectrum on the cavity decay rate κ is found and the largest broadening emerges at κ , comparable to the recoil energy.

  11. 142.2km BOTDA based on ultra-long fiber laser with a ring cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xin-Hong; Rao, Yunjiang; Wang, Zi-Nan; Zhang, Wei-Li; Yuan, Cheng-Xu; Yan, Xiao-Dong; Li, Jin; Wu, Han; Zhu, Ye-Yu; Peng, Fei

    2013-09-01

    A novel distributed Raman amplification (DRA) scheme based on ultra-long fiber laser (UL-FL) pumping with a ring cavity rather than a linear cavity is proposed and demonstrated, for the first time. As a typical application of the proposed configuration, ultra-long-distance distributed sensing with Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) over 142.2km fiber with 5m spatial resolution and +/- 1.5° temperature uncertainty is achieved, without any repeater, for the first time. The key point for the significant performance improvement is the system could offer both of uniform gain distribution and considerably suppressed pump-probe relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer, by optimized design of system structure and parameters.

  12. A-ring modified betulinic acid derivatives as potent cancer preventive agents.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hsin-Yi; Nakagawa-Goto, Kyoko; Tokuda, Harukuni; Iida, Akira; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Bori, Ibrahim D; Qian, Keduo; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-02-01

    Ten new 3,4-seco betulinic acid (BA) derivatives were designed and synthesized. Among them, compounds 7-15 exhibited enhanced chemopreventive ability in an in vitro short-term 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation assay in Raji cells. Specifically, analogs with a free C-28 carboxylic acid, including 7, 8, 11, and 13, inhibited EBV-EA activation significantly. The most potent compound 8 displayed 100% inhibition at 1×10(3) mol ratio/TPA and 73.4%, 35.9%, and 8.4% inhibition at 5×10(2), 1×10(2), and 1×10 mol ratio/TPA, respectively, comparable with curcumin at high concentration and better than curcumin at low concentration. The potent chemopreventive activity of novel seco A-ring BAs (8 and 11) was further confirmed in an in vivo mouse skin carcinogenesis assay.

  13. Statistical model and control of a ring-and-roller type grinding mill

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S.

    1992-01-01

    This project explores the use of a ring-and-roller grinding mill for fine grinding or pulverizing. Since the efficiency of this system is low, small improvements in product throughput or energy consumption can result in substantial economic improvements. To better understand this system, experiments were conducted for limestone and cement clinker. From these experiments models were formulated for product throughput, energy consumption and product size distribution. A control loop was implemented to reduce the effect of non-uniform feeding. Steady-state interactions were analyzed using the Relative Gain Array (RGA) method. Next, a multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) control system was designed using the Inverse Nyquist Array (INA) method to remove variable interactions. The robustness of this controller was explored. Finally, a self-tuning PI controller was designed using the pole placement method to improve system performance. The results of this study provide models for implementation on ring-and-roller grinding mills.

  14. Creation and measurement of broadband squeezed vacuum from a ring optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serikawa, Takahiro; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Makino, Kenzo; Frusawa, Akira

    2016-12-01

    We report a 65MHz-bandwidth triangular-shaped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for squeezed vacuum generation at 860nm. The triangle structure of our OPO enables the round-trip length to reach 45mm as a ring cavity, which provides a counter circulating optical path available for introducing a probe beam or generating another squeezed vacuum. Hence our OPO is suitable for the applications in high-speed quantum information processing where two or more squeezed vacua form a complicated interferometer, like continuous-variable quantum teleportation. With a homemade, broadband and low-loss homodyne detector, a direct measurement shows 8.4dB of squeezing at 3MHz and also 2.4dB of squeezing at 100MHz.

  15. Creation and measurement of broadband squeezed vacuum from a ring optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Serikawa, Takahiro; Yoshikawa, Jun-Ichi; Makino, Kenzo; Frusawa, Akira

    2016-12-12

    We report a 65 MHz-bandwidth triangular-shaped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for squeezed vacuum generation at 860 nm. The triangle structure of our OPO enables the round-trip length to reach 45 mm as a ring cavity, which provides a counter circulating optical path available for introducing a probe beam or generating another squeezed vacuum. Hence our OPO is suitable for the applications in high-speed quantum information processing where two or more squeezed vacua form a complicated interferometer, like continuous-variable quantum teleportation. With a homemade, broadband and low-loss homodyne detector, a direct measurement shows 8.4 dB of squeezing at 3 MHz and also 2.4 dB of squeezing at 100 MHz.

  16. Investigation of a Fiberoptic Device Based on a Long Period Grating in a Ring Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Corcione, Cinzia; Troia, Benedetto; De Leonardis, Francesco; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.

    2016-01-01

    A fiberoptic architecture based on a ring resonator (RR) including a typical long period grating (LPG) was investigated. The interactions between the fundamental core mode (LP01 or HE11) coupled to the RR and the cladding mode (LP08), excited into the cavity by means of the LPG, allow a peculiar spectral response characterized by two splitting resonances to be achieved. The new LPGRR architecture is investigated theoretically and a mathematical modelling based on the transfer matrix method (TMM) is proposed. The theoretical results are compared with the experiments measured by an open-loop LPG, while the performance of the relative LPGRR was estimated by a theoretical parametric analysis. Finally, an overview of the possible LPGRR sensing applications is provided by investigating the features of a strain sensor operating in different environmental conditions. PMID:27563910

  17. Studies of Multi-Anode PMTs for a Ring Imaging Cherenkov for CLAS12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendacky, Andrew; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kim, Andrey

    2015-10-01

    At Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), the CLAS12 detector in Hall B is undergoing an upgrade. A Ring Imaging Cherenkov (R.I.C.H) detector is being built to improve particle identification in the 3-8 GeV/c momentum range. Approximately four hundred Hamamatsu H121700 Multi-Anode Photomultiplier Tubes (MA-PMTs) are being used in this detector to measure photons emitted through Cherenkov Radiation. These MA-PMTs' characteristics are being tested and measured, and I will be presenting my work about the crosstalk study. Crosstalk is the occurrence of incident light striking one area of the photocathode, but is additionally measured in nearby areas. By using a Class 3b laser in the 470 nm wavelength, and an optical density resembling the single photon emission spectrum, the crosstalk for the H121700 MA-PMTs are measured and categorized into a database for future reference.

  18. Improved thermometry of low-temperature quantum systems by a ring-structure probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li-Sha; Xu, Bao-Ming; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin

    2015-11-01

    The thermometry precision of a sample is a question of both fundamental and technological importance. In this paper, we consider a ring-structure system as our probe to estimate the temperature of a bath. Based on the Markovian master equation of the probe, we calculate the quantum Fisher information (QFI) of the probe at any time. We find that for the thermal equilibrium thermometry, the ferromagnetic structure can measure a lower temperature of the bath with a higher precision compared with the nonstructure probe, while for the dynamical thermometry, the antiferromagnetic structure can make the QFI of the probe in the dynamical process much larger than that in equilibrium with the bath, which is somewhat counterintuitive. Moreover, the best accuracy for the thermometry achieved in the antiferromagnetic structure case can be much higher than that in the nonstructure case. The physical mechanisms of the above phenomena are given in this paper.

  19. Fiber optical based parametric amplifier in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) by using a ring configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Awang, N. A.; Harun, S. W.

    2011-07-01

    A four-wave mixing (FWM) effect in a fiber-based optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) is reported. The novelty in the setup used is a ring cavity as opposed to the commonly used method of linear cavity. This reduces the required pump power, P p, for the amplification of the signals and also the generation of the idlers. The achieved gain for signal amplification is about 30 dB with a P p of 25 dBm. It has a flat gain response within range of 22 nm from 1570 nm to 1592 nm, with an average value of 28 dB within the 3 dB region. The average conversion efficiency is approximately -5 dB, with a peak value of -4 dB within the 2 dB region, with a range of 24 nm from 1576 nm to 1600 nm.

  20. Lower Current Large Deviations for Zero-Range Processes on a Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chleboun, Paul; Grosskinsky, Stefan; Pizzoferrato, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    We study lower large deviations for the current of totally asymmetric zero-range processes on a ring with concave current-density relation. We use an approach by Jensen and Varadhan which has previously been applied to exclusion processes, to realize current fluctuations by travelling wave density profiles corresponding to non-entropic weak solutions of the hyperbolic scaling limit of the process. We further establish a dynamic transition, where large deviations of the current below a certain value are no longer typically attained by non-entropic weak solutions, but by condensed profiles, where a non-zero fraction of all the particles accumulates on a single fixed lattice site. This leads to a general characterization of the rate function, which is illustrated by providing detailed results for four generic examples of jump rates, including constant rates, decreasing rates, unbounded sublinear rates and asymptotically linear rates. Our results on the dynamic transition are supported by numerical simulations using a cloning algorithm.

  1. Performance evaluation of a valveless micropump driven by a ring-type piezoelectric actuator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2006-02-01

    Presented in this paper is the study of the performance evaluation of a valveless micropump driven by a ring-type piezoelectric actuator. The application of this micropump is to circulate fuel inside a miniaturized direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) power system. A theoretical model based on the theory of plates and shells is established to estimate the deflection and the volume change of this micropump without liquid loading. Both finite-element method (FEM) and experimental method are applied to verify this model. Using this model, the optimal design parameters such as the dimensions and the mechanical properties of the micropump can be obtained. Furthermore, various system parameters that will affect the performance of the micropump system with liquid loading are identified and analyzed experimentally. It is expected that this study will provide some vital information for many micropump applications such as fuel delivery in fuel cells, ink jet printers, and biofluidics.

  2. Codimension 2 and 3 situations in a ring cavity with elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mártin, D. A.; Hoyuelos, M.

    2013-09-01

    We study pattern formation on the plane transverse to propagation direction, in a ring cavity filled with a Kerr-like medium, subject to an elliptically polarized incoming field, by means of two coupled Lugiato-Lefever equations. We consider a wide range of possible values for the coupling parameter between different polarizations, B¯, as may happen in composite materials. Positive and also negative refraction index materials are considered. Examples of marginal instability diagrams are shown. It is shown that, within the model, instabilities cannot be of codimension higher than 3. A method for finding parameters for which codimension 2 or 3 takes place is given. The method allows us to choose parameters for which unstable wavenumbers fulfill different relations. Numerical integration results where different instabilities coexist and compete are shown.

  3. Structure of self-gravity wakes in Saturn's A ring as measured by Cassini CIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, C.; Brooks, S.; Edgington, S.; Leyrat, C.; Pilorz, S.; Spilker, L.

    2009-01-01

    The CIRS infrared spectrometer onboard the Cassini spacecraft has scanned Saturn's A ring azimuthally from several viewing angles since its orbit insertion in 2004. A quadrupolar asymmetry has been detected in this ring at spacecraft elevations ranging between 16° to 37°. Its fractional amplitude decreases from 22% to 8% from 20° to 37° elevations. The patterns observed in two almost complete azimuthal scans at elevations 20° and 36° strongly favor the self-gravity wakes as the origin of the asymmetry. The elliptical, infinite cylinder model of Hedman et al. [Hedman, M.M., Nicholson, P.D., Salo, H., Wallis, B.D., Buratti, B.J., Baines, K.H., Brown, R.H., Clark, R.N., 2007. Astron. J. 133, 2624-2629] can reproduce the CIRS observations well. Such wakes are found to have an average height-to-spacing ratio H/λ=0.1607±0.0002, a width-over-spacing W/λ=0.3833±0.0008. Gaps between wakes, which are filled with particles, have an optical depth τ=0.1231±0.0005. The wakes mean pitch angle Φ is 70.70°±0.07°, relative to the radial direction. The comparison of ground-based visible data with CIRS observations constrains the A ring to be a monolayer. For a surface mass density of 40 g cm -2 [Tiscarino, M.S., Burns, J.A., Nicholson, P.D., Hedman, M.M., Porco, C.C., 2007. Icarus 189, 14-34], the expected spacing of wakes is λ≈60 m. Their height and width would then be H≈10 m and W≈24 m, values that match the maximum size of particles in this ring as determined from ground-based stellar occultations [French, R.G., Nicholson, P.D., 2000. Icarus 145, 502-523].

  4. Getting saturated hydraulic conductivity from surface Ground-Penetrating Radar measurements inside a ring infiltrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, E.; Saintenoy, A.; Coquet, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic properties of soils, described by the soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions, strongly influence water flow in the vadoze zone, as well as the partitioning of precipitation between infiltration into the soil and runoff along the ground surface. Their evaluation has important applications for modelling available water resources and for flood forecasting. It is also crucial to evaluate soil's capacity to retain chemical pollutants and to assess the potential of groundwater pollution. The determination of the parameters involved in soil water retention functions, 5 parameters when using the van Genuchten function, is usually done by laboratory experiments, such as the water hanging column. Hydraulic conductivity, on the other hand can be estimated either in laboratory, or in situ using infiltrometry tests. Among the large panel of existing tests, the single or double ring infiltrometers give the field saturated hydraulic conductivity by applying a positive charge on soils, whereas the disk infiltrometer allows to reconstruct the whole hydraulic conductivity curve, by applying different charges smaller than or equal to zero. In their classical use, volume of infiltrated water versus time are fitted to infer soil's hydraulic conductivity close to water saturation. Those tests are time-consuming and difficult to apply to landscape-scale forecasting of infiltration. Furthermore they involve many assumptions concerning the form of the infiltration bulb and its evolution. Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a geophysical method based on electromagnetic wave propagation. It is highly sensitive to water content variations directly related to the dielectric permittivity. In this study GPR was used to monitor water infiltration inside a ring infiltrometer and retrieve the saturated hydraulic conductivity. We carried out experiments in a quarry of Fontainebleau sand, using a Mala RAMAC system with antennae centered on 1600 MHz. We recorded traces at

  5. Small-Scale Gaps Near Resonance Locations in Saturn's A Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Zarah; Rehnberg, Morgan; Esposito, Larry W.; Albers, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution Cassini stellar occultation data has allowed for the direct investigation of self-gravity wakes and other disturbances in ring-particle density that cause an observed azimuthal brightness asymmetry. Using Cassini UVIS occultation data collected between May 19 2005 and June 2 2013 (Cassini revolutions 8 - 191), we investigate small-scale gaps in Saturn's A ring, which may form between adjacent self-gravity wakes. Factors that affect the radial width and observation frequency of tenuous gap regions are investigated, including a discussion of how various occultation parameters alter gap detection. Here we show that gaps are wider within the wave trains than in surrounding unperturbed regions of the following inner Lindblad resonances (ILR): Janus 4:3, Janus 5:4, Janus 6:5 and Mimas 5:3. These trends are compared to those found at the Mimas 5:3 bending wave. Radial gap width and number density are compared in the peak and trough regions of the ILR wave trains.

  6. Persistent currents in coherently coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in a ring trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, Marta

    2016-03-01

    We study the stability of persistent currents in a coherently coupled quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a ring trap at T =0 . By numerically solving Gross-Pitaevskii equations and by analyzing the excitation spectrum obtained from diagonalization of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes matrix, we describe the mechanisms responsible for the decay of the persistent currents depending on the values of the interaction coupling constants and the Rabi frequency. When the unpolarized system decays due to an energetic instability in the density channel, the spectrum may develop a rotonlike minimum, which gives rise to the finite wavelength excitation necessary for vortex nucleation at the inner surface. When decay in the unpolarized system is driven by spin-density excitations, the finite wavelength naturally arises from the existence of a gap in the excitation spectrum. In the polarized phase of the coherently coupled condensate, there is a hybridization of the excitation modes that leads to complex decay dynamics. In particular, close to the phase transition, a state of broken rotational symmetry is found to be stationary and stable.

  7. Ursane-type nortriterpenes with a five-membered A-ring from Rubus innominatus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenzhong; Tong, Ling; Feng, Yuanli; Wu, Jizhou; Zhao, Xiaoya; Ruan, Hanli; Pi, Huifang; Zhang, Peng

    2015-08-01

    Two nortriterpenes (rubuminatus A and B), which contain a distinctive contracted a five-membered A-ring ursane-type skeleton, and six triterpenes along with 17 known triterpenes were isolated from the roots of Rubus innominatus S. Moore. These structures were determined to be 19α-hydroxy-2-oxo-nor- A(3)-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, 1β,19α-dihydroxy-2-oxo-nor-A(3)-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, 1β,2α,3α,19α-tetrahy droxyurs-12-en-23-formyl-28-oic acid, 1β,2α,3α,19α,23- pentahydroxyurs-11-en-28-oic acid, 1-oxo-siaresinolic acid, 2α,3α-dihydroxyolean-11,13(18)-dien-19β,28-olide, 1β,2α,3α-trihydroxy-19-oxo- 18,19-seco-urs-11,13(18)-dien-28-oic acid, and 2-O-benzoyl alphitolic acid based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. In vitro anti-inflammatory abilities to modulate the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages of the compounds were determined. Rubuminatus A and B, as well as 1-oxo-siaresinolic acid and 2α,3α-dihydroxyolean-11,13(18)-dien-19β,28-olide, exhibited significant inhibitory effects on these cytokines.

  8. Vicariance and dispersal form a ring distribution in nightsnakes around the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Daniel G; Macey, J Robert

    2009-11-01

    Plate tectonics can have profound effects on organismal distribution and is often the driving force in speciation. Through geologic processes, the Baja California Peninsula depicts two faunal patterns: one through southern vicariance with Cape separation, and the other through dispersal onto the northern peninsula, referred to as a 'dual-peninsular effect.' Here we apply a hierarchical sampling strategy that combines population-level sequence data ( approximately 800bp, nad4 region) with complete mt-genome data (aligned 15,549bp) and 5 nuclear protein encoding loci (3315bp), to test whether both patterns have occurred in one group of nightsnakes (Hypsiglena). The geologic formation of the peninsula is thought to have occurred in three stages: (1) Cape separation from mainland Mexico; (2) the northern peninsula separated, forming the northern Gulf of California; and (3) the peninsula was united through volcanic activity, while moving northward causing collision with southern California. However, the timing of events is debated. We explore phylogenetic relationships and estimate dates of divergence for nightsnakes using our hierarchical sampling strategy. Our data support both 'southern-vicariance' and 'northern-dispersal' have occurred in nightsnakes, forming a ring distribution around the Gulf of California. Two divergent forms are sympatric on the southern half of the peninsula with no indication of hybridization. Nightsnakes represent the first group to depict the 'dual-peninsular effect' with extensive overlap on the Baja California Peninsula.

  9. Lossless microwave photonic delay line using a ring resonator with an integrated semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yiwei; Zhuang, Leimeng; Boller, Klaus-Jochen; Lowery, Arthur James

    2017-06-01

    Optical delay lines implemented in photonic integrated circuits (PICs) are essential for creating robust and low-cost optical signal processors on miniaturized chips. In particular, tunable delay lines enable a key feature of programmability for the on-chip processing functions. However, the previously investigated tunable delay lines are plagued by a severe drawback of delay-dependent loss due to the propagation loss in the constituent waveguides. In principle, a serial-connected amplifier can be used to compensate such losses or perform additional amplitude manipulation. However, this solution is generally unpractical as it introduces additional burden on chip area and power consumption, particularly for large-scale integrated PICs. Here, we report an integrated tunable delay line that overcomes the delay-dependent loss, and simultaneously allows for independent manipulation of group delay and amplitude responses. It uses a ring resonator with a tunable coupler and a semiconductor optical amplifier in the feedback path. A proof-of-concept device with a free spectral range of 11.5 GHz and a delay bandwidth in the order of 200 MHz is discussed in the context of microwave photonics and is experimentally demonstrated to be able to provide a lossless delay up to 1.1 to a 5 ns Gaussian pulse. The proposed device can be designed for different frequency scales with potential for applications across many other areas such as telecommunications, LIDAR, and spectroscopy, serving as a novel building block for creating chip-scale programmable optical signal processors.

  10. Monitoring Rotational Components of Seismic Waves with a Ring Laser Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gakundi, Jackson; Dunn, Robert

    2015-04-01

    It has been known for decades that seismic waves can introduce rotation in the surface of the Earth. There are historic records of tombstones in Japan being rotated after large earthquakes. Until fairly recently, the primary way to detect ground rotation from earthquakes was with an array of several seismographs. The development of large ring laser interferometers has provided a way for a single instrument to make extremely sensitive measurements of ground motion. In this poster, a diagram of a large ring laser will be presented. For comparison, seismograms recorded with a ring laser and a collocated standard seismograph will be presented. A major thrust of this research is the detection and analysis of seismic responses from directional drilling sites in Arkansas and Oklahoma. There are suggestions that the injection of pressurized water used to fracture gas bearing shale may cause small earthquakes. The Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission ordered the closing of certain waste water disposal wells in North Central Arkansas. Apparently, these wells injected waste water into a previously unknown fault causing it to slip. An attempt is being made to determine if the seismic wave patterns from earthquakes generated near directional drilling sites differ from those generated miles away.

  11. Magnetic field sensing subject to correlated noise with a ring spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li-Sha; Xu, Bao-Ming; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we focus on the magnetic field sensing subject to a correlated noise. We use a ring spin chain with only the nearest neighbor interactions as our probe to estimate both the intensity B and the direction θ of the magnetic field when the probe reaches its steady state. We numerically calculate the quantum Fisher information (QFI) to characterize the estimation precision. On the one hand, for estimating B, we find that the coupling between spins in the probe plays an important role in the precision, and the largest value of the QFI can be achieved when θ = π/2 together with an optimal coupling. Moreover, for any direction, the precision scaling can be better than the Heisenberg-limit (HL) with a proper coupling. On the other hand, for estimating θ, we find that our probe can perform a high precision detection for θ ~ π/2, with the QFI much larger than that for any other directions, especially when the coupling is tuned to the optimal value. And we find that the precision scaling for θ ~ π/2 can be better than the HL, but for other directions, the precision scaling is only limited to the standard quantum limit (SQL). Due to the computational complexity we restrict the number of spins in the probe to 60.

  12. Magnetic field sensing subject to correlated noise with a ring spin chain

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li-Sha; Xu, Bao-Ming; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the magnetic field sensing subject to a correlated noise. We use a ring spin chain with only the nearest neighbor interactions as our probe to estimate both the intensity B and the direction θ of the magnetic field when the probe reaches its steady state. We numerically calculate the quantum Fisher information (QFI) to characterize the estimation precision. On the one hand, for estimating B, we find that the coupling between spins in the probe plays an important role in the precision, and the largest value of the QFI can be achieved when θ = π/2 together with an optimal coupling. Moreover, for any direction, the precision scaling can be better than the Heisenberg-limit (HL) with a proper coupling. On the other hand, for estimating θ, we find that our probe can perform a high precision detection for θ ~ π/2, with the QFI much larger than that for any other directions, especially when the coupling is tuned to the optimal value. And we find that the precision scaling for θ ~ π/2 can be better than the HL, but for other directions, the precision scaling is only limited to the standard quantum limit (SQL). Due to the computational complexity we restrict the number of spins in the probe to 60. PMID:27623048

  13. Benign Bilateral Adenomyoepithelioma of the Mammary Gland in a Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Suárez-Bonnet, A; Grau-Bassas, E Rodríguez; Herráez, P; Quesada-Canales, O; Priestnall, S L; de Los Monteros, A Espinosa

    Naturally occurring mammary tumours are uncommon in prosimians. A 20-year-old female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) developed bilateral enlargement of the mammary glands. Surgical removal revealed that both masses were comprised of multiple nodules and cystic areas that entirely replaced the normal glands. Histologically, a benign neoplastic biphasic cellular proliferation, composed of luminal-epithelial and basal-myoepithelial components, was identified. Immunohistochemical analysis for expression of cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3, CK7, CK5 + 8, CK14, vimentin, p63 and 14-3-3σ highlighted the biphasic nature of the neoplasm. A low mitotic count, low Ki67 labelling index, expression of oestrogen receptor-α, lack of expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor and a 3-year disease-free period without recurrence supported the benign nature of the tumour. Macroscopically, histologically and immunohistochemically this neoplasm resembled benign adenomyoepithelioma of the breast in women. This is the first complete report of a naturally occurring mammary tumour in a ring-tailed lemur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SUPER-RESOLUTION ULTRASOUND TOMOGRAPHY: A PRELIMINARY STUDY WITH A RING ARRAY

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG, LIANJIE; SIMONETTI, FRANCESCO; DURIC, NEBOJSA; RAMA, OLSI

    2007-01-18

    Ultrasound tomography attempts to retrieve the structure of an objective by exploiting the interaction of acoustic waves with the object. A fundamental limit of ultrasound tomography is that features cannot be resolved if they are spaced less than {lambda}/2 apart, where {lambda} is wavelength of the probing wave, regardless of the degree of accuracy of the measurements. Therefore, since the attenuation of the probing wave with propagation distance increases as {lambda} decreases, resolution has to be traded against imaging depth. Recently, it has been shown that the {lambda}/2 limit is a consequence of the Born approximation (implicit in the imaging algorithms currently employed) which neglects the distortion of the probing wavefield as it travels through the medium to be imaged. On the other hand, such a distortion, which is due to the multiple scattering phenomenon, can encode unlimited resolution in the radiating component of the scattered field. Previously, a resolution better than {lambda}/3 has been reported in these proceedings [F. Simonetti, pp. 126 (2006)] in the case of elastic wave probing. In this paper, they demonstrate experimentally a resolution better than {lambda}/4 for objects immersed in a water bth probed by means of a ring array which excites and detects pressure waves in a full view configuration.

  15. Geometric efficiency for a circular detector and a ring source of arbitrary orientation and position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, John T.

    2011-06-01

    Two distinct axisymmetric radiation vector potentials are derived for a circular ring source, both of which are given in terms of elliptic integrals. In combination with Stokes's theorem these potentials reduce the surface integral for the geometric efficiency of a ring source and a general detector to a line integral, though only a circular detector is analyzed in detail here. One of the potentials is bounded as the axis of symmetry is approached and it can also be expressed as an integral of Bessel functions. It is used to derive the ring source analogue of Ruby's formula and its noncoaxial generalization. A trigonometric integral is given for the general noncoaxial case and closed form solutions are given for the coaxial case and the case where the ring source is in the detector plane. Numerical data is given for these cases. The second potential is singular along the entire ring axis and Stokes's theorem must be modified when using it whenever the ring axis intersects the detector or its boundary. This potential is used to derive a trigonometric integral for the geometric efficiency of the ring source and a circular detector in the general case where the source and the detector have arbitrary relative position and angular orientation. Numerical data is given for selected geometric parameters when the planes of the ring and disk are perpendicular and for the general case. The intersection of some results for point source radiation vector potentials with vector potentials arising in diffraction theory is given in an Appendix.

  16. A ring barrier-based migration assay to assess cell migration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Das, Asha M; Eggermont, Alexander M M; ten Hagen, Timo L M

    2015-06-01

    Cell migration is a key feature of virtually every biological process, and it can be studied in a variety of ways. Here we outline a protocol for the in vitro study of cell migration using a ring barrier-based assay. A 'barrier' is inserted in the culture chamber, which prevents cells from entering a defined area. Cells of interest are seeded around this barrier, and after the formation of a peripheral monolayer the barrier is removed and migration into the cell-free area is monitored. This assay is highly reproducible and convenient to perform, and it allows the deduction of several parameters of migration, including total and effective migration, velocity and cell polarization. An advantage of this assay over the conventional scratch assay is that the cells move over an unaltered and virgin surface, and thus the effect of matrix components on cell migration can be studied. In addition, the cells are not harmed at the onset of the assay. Through computer automation, four individual barrier assays can be monitored at the same time. The procedure can be used in a 12-well standard plate allowing higher throughput, or it can be modified to perform invasion assays. The basic procedure takes 2-3 d to complete.

  17. TIME VARIABILITY IN THE OUTER EDGE OF SATURN'S A-RING REVEALED BY CASSINI IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Spitale, J. N.; Porco, C. C.

    2009-11-15

    We examine the outer edge of Saturn's A-ring, whose shape is strongly influenced by the co-orbital satellites Janus and Epimetheus, during the period from day 2005-121 to day 2009-036. Twenty-four Cassini imaging data sets are used, each one giving a picture of the ring during a short interval, allowing us to explore its time variability in detail for the first time. We find that the ring experienced a period of adjustment within {approx}8 months of the 2006 January co-orbital swap, corresponding to the interval during which the two satellites were within about 60 deg. of one another. Outside that adjustment period, the ring is dominated by an m = 7 pattern, as expected near a 7:6 inner Lindblad resonance, but the alignment is opposite in phase to that predicted for isolated test particles, and the amplitude of the radial distortion varies with time. We find that the amplitude variation corresponds to a beat pattern between the perturbations from the two satellites as would be expected if the responses add linearly. However, we also find deviations of limited azimuthal extent from the simple m = 7 pattern. Some of the additional structure may arise from coupling between the two excited modes in the ring, but the origin of these features is still under investigation.

  18. GINGER (Gyroscopes IN General Relativity), a ring lasers array to measure the Lense-Thirring effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Virgilio, Angela D. V.

    The purpose of the GINGER is to perform the first test of general relativity (not considering the gravitational redshift measurements) in a terrestrial laboratory, using light as a probe. The experiment will complement the ones in space, performed or under way, with an entirely different technique and at a far lower cost. The methodology is based on ring-lasers, which are extremely accurate rotation sensors and can not only sense purely kinematical rotations (Sagnac effect accounting for the Earth rotation, polar motion of the terrestrial axis, local rotational movements of the laboratory due to the Earth crust dynamics...), but also general relativistic contributions such as the de Sitter effect (coupling between the gravito-electric field of the earth and the kinematical rotation) and the Lense-Thirring effect (inertial frame dragging due to the angular momentum of the earth). In order to reveal the latter effects, ring-laser response must be improved to be able to measure the effective rotation vector (kinematic plus GR terms) with an accuracy of 1 part in 109 or better. This is a challenging technological aspect, which however has been accurately taken into account by designing a system of ring lasers that will be implemented in this project. A ring laser have been installed inside the underground laboratory of GranSasso, with the purpose to see if an underground location is the right choice for GINGER. The apparatus and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  19. Measuring the residual stress in dental composites using a ring slitting method.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Won; Ferracane, Jack L

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to employ the ring slitting method for the measurement of the residual stress (RS) produced in dental composite materials after polymerization. This study was designed to determine the effect of slitting and measuring time on the residual stress. Rings were made in a split brass mold from three composites (Z100/3MESPE; Herculite/Kerr; Heliomolar/Ivoclar) and cured in a Triad II (Dentsply). Two points were scribed, and the rings were slit at either 1 h (Early-group) or 24 h (Delayed-group) after curing the composite. The change in the distance between the scribed points was measured using an image analyzer system at both 1 and 24 h after slitting. From the measured change, circumferential RS was calculated and statistically analyzed with ANOVA/Tukey's (P<0.05). The degree of conversion of each composite at 1 and 24 h was measured with FTIR and analyzed using Student's t-test (P<0.05). In general, the residual stress (range=0.42-2.84 MPa) was highest for Z100 and lowest for Heliomolar, but this depended upon the test conditions. The early cut (1 h slitting), 24 h measurement groups showed the highest residual stress values. This study, describes a ring slitting method to measure residual stress generated in dental composites during and after curing. The stress of composite can be affected by the cutting and measurement time.

  20. Design and Fabrication of a Ring-Stiffened Graphite-Epoxy Corrugated Cylindrical Shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Design and fabrication of supplement test panels that represent key portions of the cylinder are described, as are supporting tests of coupons, sample joints, and stiffening ring elements. The cylindrical shell is a ring-stiffened, open corrugation design that uses T300/5208 graphite-epoxy tape as the basic material for the shell wall and stiffening rings. The test cylinder is designed to withstand bending loads producing the relatively low maximum load intensity in the shell wall of 1,576 N/cm. The resulting shell wall weight, including stiffening rings and fasteners, is 0.0156 kg/m. The shell weight achieved in the graphite-epoxy cylinder represents a weight saving of approximately 23 percent, compared to a comparable aluminum shell. A unique fabrication approach was used in which the cylinder wall was built in three flat segments, which were then wrapped to the cylindrical shape. Such an approach, made possible by the flexibility of the thin corrugated wall in a radial direction, proved to be a simple approach to building the test cylinder. Based on tooling and fabrication methods in this program, the projected costs of a production run of 100 units are reported.

  1. The high luminosity interaction region for a ring-ring Large Hadron Electron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, R. B.; Thompson, L.; Holzer, B.; Fitterer, M.; Bernard, N.; Kostka, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC) project is a proposal for high luminosity TeV-scale electron-proton (ep) collisions at the LHC. The LHeC Conceptual Design Report presented an early overview of the machine, including an electron linac solution and a solution involving a 60 GeV electron storage ring. Here we present a new complete solution for the collision insertion of this electron ring, incorporating all constraints including those imposed by the LHC and, for the first time, proving the feasibility of ep collisions at a luminosity of ˜1033 cm-2s-1 in the LHC era. The solution presented offers high luminosity while maintaining the large detector coverage required by the particle physics programme. This negates the earlier need for two separate interaction region designs, one optimized for high luminosity at the cost of detector coverage, and the other for lower luminosity but higher coverage. Synchrotron radiation emission is also a major factor in electron accelerator design, and studies are presented showing the feasibility of the design in this regard. The design is found to be technically viable, solving the problem of TeV-scale, high luminosity and high coverage ep collisions at a ring-ring LHeC.

  2. Functional analysis of a RING domain ankyrin repeat protein that is highly expressed during flower senescence.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinjia; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Donnelly, Linda; Reid, Michael S

    2007-01-01

    A gene encoding a RING zinc finger ankyrin repeat protein (MjXB3), a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, is highly expressed in petals of senescing four o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa) flowers, increasing >40,000-fold during the onset of visible senescence. The gene has homologues in many other species, and the Petunia homologue is strongly up-regulated in senescing Petunia corollas. Silencing the expression of this gene in Petunia, using virus-induced gene silencing, resulted in a 2 d extension in flower life. In Mirabilis, a 2 kb promoter region, 5' upstream of the MjXB3 gene, was isolated. The promoter sequence included putative binding sites for many DNA-binding proteins, including the bZIP, Myb, homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip), MADS-box, and WRKY transcription factors. The construct containing a 1 kb promoter region immediately upstream of the MjXB3 gene drove the strongest expression of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in a transient expression assay. In Petunia, GUS expression under the control of this heterologous promoter fragment was specific to senescing flowers. The Mirabilis promoter GUS construct was tested in other flower species; while GUS activity in carnation petals was high during senescence, no expression was detected in three monocotyledonous flowers--daylily (Hemerocallis 'Stella d'Oro'), daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus 'King Alfred'), and orchid (Dendrobium 'Emma White').

  3. RiPPAS: A Ring-Based Privacy-Preserving Aggregation Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kejia; Han, Qilong; Cai, Zhipeng; Yin, Guisheng

    2017-02-07

    Recently, data privacy in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been paid increased attention. The characteristics of WSNs determine that users' queries are mainly aggregation queries. In this paper, the problem of processing aggregation queries in WSNs with data privacy preservation is investigated. A Ring-based Privacy-Preserving Aggregation Scheme (RiPPAS) is proposed. RiPPAS adopts ring structure to perform aggregation. It uses pseudonym mechanism for anonymous communication and uses homomorphic encryption technique to add noise to the data easily to be disclosed. RiPPAS can handle both s u m ( ) queries and m i n ( ) / m a x ( ) queries, while the existing privacy-preserving aggregation methods can only deal with s u m ( ) queries. For processing s u m ( ) queries, compared with the existing methods, RiPPAS has advantages in the aspects of privacy preservation and communication efficiency, which can be proved by theoretical analysis and simulation results. For processing m i n ( ) / m a x ( ) queries, RiPPAS provides effective privacy preservation and has low communication overhead.

  4. Linear stability analysis of first-order delayed car-following models on a ring.

    PubMed

    Lassarre, Sylvain; Roussignol, Michel; Tordeux, Antoine

    2012-09-01

    The evolution of a line of vehicles on a ring is modeled by means of first-order car-following models. Three generic models describe the speed of a vehicle as a function of the spacing ahead and the speed of the predecessor. The first model is a basic one with no delay. The second is a delayed car-following model with a strictly positive parameter for the driver and vehicle reaction time. The last model includes a reaction time parameter with an anticipation process by which the delayed position of the predecessor is estimated. Explicit conditions for the linear stability of homogeneous configurations are calculated for each model. Two methods of calculus are compared: an exact one via Hopf bifurcations and an approximation by second-order models. The conditions describe stable areas for the parameters of the models that we interpret. The results notably show that the impact of the reaction time on the stability can be palliated by the anticipation process.

  5. RiPPAS: A Ring-Based Privacy-Preserving Aggregation Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kejia; Han, Qilong; Cai, Zhipeng; Yin, Guisheng

    2017-01-01

    Recently, data privacy in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been paid increased attention. The characteristics of WSNs determine that users’ queries are mainly aggregation queries. In this paper, the problem of processing aggregation queries in WSNs with data privacy preservation is investigated. A Ring-based Privacy-Preserving Aggregation Scheme (RiPPAS) is proposed. RiPPAS adopts ring structure to perform aggregation. It uses pseudonym mechanism for anonymous communication and uses homomorphic encryption technique to add noise to the data easily to be disclosed. RiPPAS can handle both sum() queries and min()/max() queries, while the existing privacy-preserving aggregation methods can only deal with sum() queries. For processing sum() queries, compared with the existing methods, RiPPAS has advantages in the aspects of privacy preservation and communication efficiency, which can be proved by theoretical analysis and simulation results. For processing min()/max() queries, RiPPAS provides effective privacy preservation and has low communication overhead. PMID:28178197

  6. Statistics of large currents in the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti model in a ring geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarfaty, Lior; Meerson, Baruch

    2016-03-01

    We use the macroscopic fluctuation theory to determine the statistics of large currents in the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) model in a ring geometry. About 10 years ago this simple setting was instrumental in identifying a breakdown of the additivity principle in a class of lattice gases at currents exceeding a critical value. Building on earlier work, we assume that, for supercritical currents, the optimal density profile, conditioned on the given current, has the form of a traveling wave (TW). For the KMP model we find this TW analytically, in terms of elliptic functions, for any supercritical current I. Using this TW solution, we evaluate, up to a pre-exponential factor, the probability distribution P(I). We obtain simple asymptotics of the TW and of P(I) for currents close to the critical current, and for currents much larger than the critical current. In the latter case we show that -\\ln P(I)˜ I\\ln I , whereas the optimal density profile acquires a soliton-like shape. Our analytic results are in a very good agreement with Monte-Carlo simulations and numerical solutions of Hurtado and Garrido (2011).

  7. Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Nemeth, N M; Blas-Machado, U; Cazzini, P; Oguni, J; Camus, M S; Dockery, K K; Butler, A M

    2013-02-01

    A 16-year-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) was presented with severe cachexia and an abdominal mass. The encapsulated, multilobular mass replaced the right medial lobe of the liver and compressed the adjacent gall bladder. Multiple haemorrhages and necrotic foci were found within the mass. Microscopically, neoplastic cells formed cords of moderately pleomorphic, polygonal cells with mild to moderate anaplasia. Immunohistochemical markers used for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinomas in man were used to characterize the neoplastic cells, which expressed hepatocyte-specific antigen, but not glypican-3 or polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen. Gross, microscopical and immunohistochemical features of the tumour were most consistent with a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. Although this tumour is common among prosimians, to the authors' knowledge this is the first documented case in a ring-tailed lemur. Hepatocellular carcinomas have been associated with hepatitis virus infections and excessive hepatic iron in man; however, no association was established between this tumour and viral infection or hepatic iron storage disease in the present case.

  8. A ring-type multi-DOF ultrasonic motor with four feet driving consistently.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shengjun; Xiong, Huaiyin; Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao

    2017-04-01

    A new type of multiple-degree-of-freedom (multi-DOF) ultrasonic motor was developed aiming at high output torque and compact structure. To reach this purpose, a ring type composite stator was proposed with four driving feet uniformly arranged in the inner circumference of the ring stator. The stator employs two orthogonal axial bending modes and a radial bending mode, by exciting two of them simultaneously, to generate elliptic trajectories on driving feet tips and to push sphere rotor around x, y and z axis respectively. Based on the deduced criteria, a specific combination of the A(0,5) axial bending modes and R(0,2) radial bending mode were chosen to realize that the rotating directions of the elliptical driving trajectories on four feet tips can push the sphere rotor to spin in the same direction consistently, thus the efficiency and output performance will be improved by decreasing the slip between feet and rotor. FEM was used to design the motor including selecting key parameters to tune the resonant frequencies by sensitivity analysis, and a prototype was fabricated and tested. The experiment results showed that the maximum output torque of the motor is 0.118Nm and the maximum speed is 55r/min.

  9. Expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of SAG, a ring finger redox-sensitive protein.

    PubMed

    Swaroop, M; Bian, J; Aviram, M; Duan, H; Bisgaier, C L; Loo, J A; Sun, Y

    1999-07-01

    We recently reported the cloning and characterization of SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene), a novel zinc RING finger protein, that is redox responsive and protects mammalian cells from apoptosis. Here we report the expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of SAG. Bacterially expressed SAG is brown in color and dithiothreitol (DTT)-sensitive. SAG forms large oligomers without DTT that can be reduced into a monomer in the presence of DTT. These features help us to purify SAG using the chromatography with or without DTT. Likewise, purified SAG is redox sensitive. Upon H2O2 exposure, SAG forms oligomers as well as monomer doublets due to the formation of the inter- or intramolecular disulfide bonds, respectively. This process can be reversed by DTT or prevented by pretreatment with the alkylating reagent, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). Although SAG contains two putative heme-binding sites and a RING finger domain, the protein appears not to bind with heme and to lack transcription factor activity as determined in a Gal4-fusion/transactivation assay. Wildtype, but not RING finger domain-disrupted SAG mutants, prevents copper-induced lipid peroxidation. These results, along with our previous observations, suggest that SAG is an intracellular antioxidant molecule that may act as a redox sensor to buffer oxidative-stress induced damage.

  10. Fast Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in a Ring-Shaped Nanowire Driven by a Voltage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia-Mian; Yang, Tiannan; Momeni, Kasra; Cheng, Xiaoxing; Chen, Lei; Lei, Shiming; Zhang, Shujun; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Carman, Gregory P; Nan, Ce-Wen; Chen, Long-Qing

    2016-04-13

    Magnetic domain-wall motion driven by a voltage dissipates much less heat than by a current, but none of the existing reports have achieved speeds exceeding 100 m/s. Here phase-field and finite-element simulations were combined to study the dynamics of strain-mediated voltage-driven magnetic domain-wall motion in curved nanowires. Using a ring-shaped, rough-edged magnetic nanowire on top of a piezoelectric disk, we demonstrate a fast voltage-driven magnetic domain-wall motion with average velocity up to 550 m/s, which is comparable to current-driven wall velocity. An analytical theory is derived to describe the strain dependence of average magnetic domain-wall velocity. Moreover, one 180° domain-wall cycle around the ring dissipates an ultrasmall amount of heat, as small as 0.2 fJ, approximately 3 orders of magnitude smaller than those in current-driven cases. These findings suggest a new route toward developing high-speed, low-power-dissipation domain-wall spintronics.

  11. Structure-activity relationships for vitamin D3-based aromatic a-ring analogues as hedgehog pathway inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Deberardinis, Albert M; Madden, Daniel J; Banerjee, Upasana; Sail, Vibhavari; Raccuia, Daniel S; De Carlo, Daniel; Lemieux, Steven M; Meares, Adam; Hadden, M Kyle

    2014-05-08

    A structure-activity relationship study for a series of vitamin D3-based (VD3) analogues that incorporate aromatic A-ring mimics with varying functionality has provided key insight into scaffold features that result in potent, selective Hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibition. Three analogue subclasses containing (1) a single substitution at the ortho or para position of the aromatic A-ring, (2) a heteroaryl or biaryl moiety, or (3) multiple substituents on the aromatic A-ring were prepared and evaluated. Aromatic A-ring mimics incorporating either single or multiple hydrophilic moieties on a six-membered ring inhibited the Hh pathway in both Hh-dependent mouse embryonic fibroblasts and cultured cancer cells (IC50 values 0.74-10 μM). Preliminary studies were conducted to probe the cellular mechanisms through which VD3 and 5, the most active analogue, inhibit Hh signaling. These studies suggested that the anti-Hh activity of VD3 is primarily attributed to the vitamin D receptor, whereas 5 affects Hh inhibition through a separate mechanism.

  12. Two-time-scale analysis of a ring of coupled vibratory gyroscopes.

    PubMed

    Vu, Huy; Palacios, Antonio; In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Neff, Joseph D

    2010-03-01

    A coupling inertial navigation sensor (INS) system may proven to be beneficial for performance improvement, especially when the manufacturing yield is very low for meeting the specification requirement of various applications. For instance, navigation grade sensors using the current fabrication process would yield one in every few hundreds which would meet the specification requirement after careful selection process and testing. We propose to couple these sensors by putting together the "low grade" sensors in a small array of particular coupling topology to explore their stability properties of known parameter variations produced during the fabrication process. By coupling them in a particular way one may improve the system stability to effect the performance of the INS. Thus in this work we present a coupled inertial navigation sensor (CINS) system consisting of a ring of vibratory gyroscopes coupled through the driving axis of each individual gyroscope. Numerical simulations show that under certain conditions, which depend mainly on the coupling strength, the dynamics of the individual gyroscopes will synchronize with one another. The same simulations also show an optimal network size at which the effects of noise can be minimized, thus yielding a reduction in the phase drift. We quantify the reduction in the phase drift and perform an asymptotic analysis of the motion equations to determine the conditions for the existence of the synchronized state. The analysis yields an analytical expression for a critical coupling strength at which different nonzero mean oscillations merge in a pitchfork bifurcation; passed this critical coupling the synchronized state becomes locally asymptotically stable. The Liapunov-Schmidt (LS) reduction is then applied to determine the stability properties of the synchronized solution and to further show that the pitchfork bifurcation can be subcritical or supercritical, depending on the coefficient of the nonlinear terms in the

  13. Microscopic Processes Involved in the Transition from a Disk to a Ring Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, B.

    2006-10-01

    In a differentially rotating plasma structure, in the prevailing gravity of a central object, it is realistic to consider ɛm=Dm/(HvA)<< 1, where Dm= ηc^2/4 π, η is the plasma resistivity, vA is the Alfvén velocity, and H is the height of the structure. Therefore, the frozen-in- law can be applied when dealing with global scale distances. However, the transition from a disk configuration to a ring sequence configuration in a structure imbedded in an external magnetic field with a ``seed'' vertical component involves the formation of a periodic sequence of new closed magnetic surfaces^1 similar to those characteristic of Field Reverse Configurations. Pairs of counter-streaming (around the axis of rotation) current ``filaments'' form these very large aspect ratio toroidal configurations. The transition occurs when the field produced by the internal currents is equal (and of opposite direction) to that in which the structure is immersed. Then, magnetic reconnection has to be considered. The region in which the poloidal field is null can be viewed as a coalescence of two X-points and two O-points which, after the transition has occurred, tend to separate. The scale distances involved are much smaller than the characteristic global scale distances, such as H, the characteristic values of the collisional mean free paths need to be considered, and relevant microscopic reconnection processes are analyzed. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. DOE. B. Coppi Phys. Plasmas 12, 057301, (2005) B. Coppi and F. Rousseau, Ap. J. 641 (1), 458 (2006). external magnetic field with a ``seed'' vertical component involves the

  14. Probing Periodic Patterns In Saturn's Inner A Ring With Cassini-VIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, Matthew M.; Nicholson, P. D.; Salo, H.

    2012-10-01

    During the spring of 2009, the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft observed two occultations of the star gamma Crucis by Saturn's rings. The occultation tracks reached a minimum radius in the inner A ring, so these observations yielded optical-depth profiles with exceptionally fine radial sampling of the region between 124,200 km and 124,800 km from Saturn's center. These cuts reveal highly periodic structures with wavelengths of order a few hundred meters. Similarly periodic patterns were previously observed in this region by the Cassini radio science experiment (Thomson et al. 2007 GRL), and have been interpreted as evidence for viscous overstabilties (periodic oscillations in surface density that grow from small perturbations driven by over-effective restoring forces, see Schmidt et al. 2009). However, the theory of nonlinear overstabilities in self-gravitating rings is still in its infancy, and it is not yet clear exactly what determines the wavelength, amplitude, or the coherence length of an overstable wave. The combination of high signal-to-noise and radial resolution of the VIMS data permit detailed investigations of the variations in these structure's wavelength and phase that can help test theoretical models of these periodic structures. For example, regions with higher optical depth appear to possess periodic patterns with longer wavelengths, strongly suggesting that these structures are influenced by their local particle number density. At the same time, abrupt shifts in the pattern's wavelength and phase occur at various locations within each profile. and the measurements made at the same location at different times and longitudes exhibit differences in the patterns' wavelengths and phase. Such shifts and variations most likely reflect the finite coherence lengths and propagation speeds of these disturbances.

  15. IS THE DUST CLOUD AROUND LAMBDA ORIONIS A RING OR A SHELL, OR BOTH?

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dukhang; Seon, Kwang-Il; Jo, Young-Soo

    2015-06-20

    The dust cloud around λ Orionis is observed to be circularly symmetric with a large angular extent (≈8°). However, whether the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the cloud is shell- or ring-like has not yet been fully resolved. We study the 3D structure using a new approach that combines a 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer model for ultraviolet (UV) scattered light and an inverse Abel transform, which gives a detailed 3D radial density profile from a two-dimensional column density map of a spherically symmetric cloud. By comparing the radiative transfer models for a spherical shell cloud and that for a ring cloud, we find that only the shell model can reproduce the radial profile of the scattered UV light, observed using the S2/68 UV observation, suggesting a dust shell structure. However, the inverse Abel transform applied to the column density data from the Pan-STARRS1 dust reddening map results in negative values at a certain radius range of the density profile, indicating the existence of additional, non-spherical clouds near the nebular boundary. The additional cloud component is assumed to be of toroidal ring shape; we subtracted from the column density to obtain a positive, radial density profile using the inverse Abel transform. The resulting density structure, composed of a toroidal ring and a spherical shell, is also found to give a good fit to the UV scattered light profile. We therefore conclude that the cloud around λ Ori is composed of both ring and shell structures.

  16. A ring of polarized light: evidence for twisted coronal magnetism in cavities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, J.; Rachmeler, L.; Gibson, S. E.; Judge, P. G.; Tomczyk, S.

    2010-12-01

    Determining coronal magnetic fields is crucial to modeling the processes that power and trigger solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Coronal prominence cavities have been modeled as magnetic flux ropes, and have been observed to erupt bodily as coronal mass ejections. One promising technique for establishing the magnetic morphology of cavities is to use spectropolarimetry of the infrared (IR) forbidden lines of Fe XIII (at 1074.7 nm and 1079.8 nm). The Coronal Multi-Channel Polarimeter is currently situated at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO), and has begun taking daily full-Sun observations of line-of-sight integrated Stokes parameters for these lines. For a variety of analytic coronal magnetohydrodynamic models, we have determined forward-calculations of CoMP observables using the formalism of Judge and Casini (2001). We show that different MHD models and orientations do yield distinguishing observational characteristics. In particular, a common characteristic for spheroidal flux ropes oriented along the observational line of sight is a ring of linear polarization surrounding a region where the linear polarization strength is relatively depleted (the heart of darkness). Such a polarization ring has been found in an observation of a coronal cavity taken by CoMP in April 2005 from Sacramento Peak. Cavities are ubiquitous features, particularly at this time of the solar cycle. The daily observations to be taken by CoMP at MLSO will allow us to further probe these structures, constraining models of coronal magnetism and providing a testbed for future capabilities of the proposed Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO).

  17. The dynamics of the outer edge of Saturn's A ring disturbed by Janus-Epimetheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Stéfan; Santos Araujo, Nilton Carlos; Cooper, Nicholas; El Moutamid, Maryame; Murray, Carl; Sicardy, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    We developed an analytical model to study the dynamics of the outer edge of Saturn's A ring. The latter is influenced by 7:6 mean motion resonances with Janus and Epimetheus. Because of the horseshoe motion of the two co-orbital moons, the location of the resonances shift inwards or outwards every four years, making the ring edge particles alternately trapped in a corotation eccentricity resonance (CER) or a Lindblad eccentricity resonance (LER). However, the oscillation periods of the resonances are longer than the four-year interval between the switches in the orbits of Janus and Epimetheus.Averaged equations of motion are used, and our model is numerically integrated to describe the effects of the periodic sweeping of the 7:6 CER and LER over the ring edge region.We show that four radial zones (ranges 136715-136723, 136738-136749, 136756-136768, 136783-136791 km) are chaotic on decadal timescales, within which particle semimajor axes have periodic changes due to partial libration motions around the CER fixed points. After a few decades, the maximum variation of semimajor axis is about eleven (resp. three) kilometers in the case of the CER with Janus (resp. Epimetheus).Similarly, particle eccentricities have partial oscillations forced by the LERs every four years, and are in good agreement with the observed eccentricities (Spitale and Porco 2009, El Moutamid et al. 2015). For initially circular orbits, the maximum eccentricity reached (~0.001) corresponds to the value obtained from the classical theory of resonance (proportional to the cube root of the satellite-to-planet mass ratio).We notice that the fitted semimajor axes for the object recently discovered at the ring edge (Murray et al. 2014) are just outside the chaotic zone of radial range 136756-136768 km.We compare our results to Cassini observations, and discuss how the periodic LER/CER perturbations by Janus/Epimetheus may help to aggregate ring edge particles into clumps, as seen in high

  18. The NGC 1614 interacting galaxy. Molecular gas feeding a "ring of fire"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, S.; Aalto, S.; Muller, S.; Beswick, R. J.; Gallagher, J. S.

    2013-05-01

    Minor mergers frequently occur between giant and gas-rich low-mass galaxies and can provide significant amounts of interstellar matter to refuel star formation and power active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the giant systems. Major starbursts and/or AGN result when fresh gas is transported and compressed in the central regions of the giant galaxy. This is the situation in the starburst minor merger NGC 1614, whose molecular medium we explore at half-arcsecond angular resolution through our observations of 12CO (2-1) emission using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We compare our 12CO (2-1) maps with optical and Paα, Hubble Space Telescope and high angular resolution radio continuum images to study the relationships between dense molecular gas and the NGC 1614 starburst region. The most intense 12CO emission occurs in a partial ring with ~230 pc radius around the center of NGC 1614, with an extension to the northwest into the dust lane that contains diffuse molecular gas. We resolve ten giant molecular associations (GMAs) in the ring, which has an integrated molecular mass of ~8 × 108 M⊙. Our interferometric observations filter out a large part of the 12CO (1-0) emission mapped at shorter spacings, indicating that most of the molecular gas is diffuse and that GMAs only exist near and within the circumnuclear ring. The molecular ring is uneven with most of the mass on the western side, which also contains GMAs extending into a pronounced tidal dust lane. The spatial and kinematic patterns in our data suggest that the northwest extension of the ring is a cosmic umbilical cord that is feeding molecular gas associated with the dust lane and tidal debris into the nuclear ring, which contains the bulk of the starburst activity. The astrophysical process for producing a ring structure for the final resting place of accreted gas in NGC 1614 is not fully understood, but the presence of numerous GMAs suggests an orbit-crowding or resonance phenomenon. There is some evidence that

  19. Development of an inner profile measurement instrument using a ring beam device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, T.; Wakayama, T.

    2010-11-01

    Inner profile measurement is an important matter in such fields as medicine, dentistry and anthropology as well as mechanical engineering and other industrial applications. Here we describe recent development of our measurement principle for inner diameter of pipes and/or holes. The key device in this technique is a ring beam device which consists of a conical mirror and a laser diode. And the fundamental principle is based on optical sectioning without using any contact type stylus. The optically sectioned profile of an inner wall of a pipe-like object is analyzed to give the inner profile in addition to the inner diameter. This optical instrument with a simple and small configuration is now under development for practical uses. In our hitherto trial experimental works, the availability of this instrument has been evaluated in many cases and availability for practical applications is expected, especially, for measurement and inspection of mechanical components and elements besides pipes. This ring beam device consisting of a conical mirror and a LD is assembled to form a disk-like light sheet. We show measurement result of pipes and holes, and, at the same time, report a compact inner profile measuring instrument at this point. Both the ring beam device and a miniaturized CCD camera are fabricated into a glass tube. Availability of this instrument is shown by measuring the inner profiles of various pipes. In response to this trial, there appeared a strong request that not only the internal but external profiles should be measured simultaneously. Therefore we propose potentially possible method for measurement of external profile at the same time with internal profile. If one pair of concave mirrors are used in our arrangement, external profile is captured. In combination with inner profile measurement technique, simultaneous measurement of inner and outer profiles becomes attainable. A measurement result on a bevel gear shows availability of here proposed

  20. Nonlinear mechanics of a ring structure subjected to multi-pairs of evenly distributed equal radial forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Sun, F.; Li, Z. Y.; Taxis, L.; Pugno, N.

    2017-05-01

    Combining the elastica theory, finite element (FE) analysis, and a geometrical topological experiment, we studied the mechanical behavior of a ring subjected to multi-pairs of evenly distributed equal radial forces by looking at its seven distinct states. The results showed that the theoretical predictions of the ring deformation and strain energy matched the FE results very well, and that the ring deformations were comparable to the topological experiment. Moreover, no matter whether the ring was compressed or tensioned by N-pairs of forces, the ring always tended to be regular polygons with 2N sides as the force increased, and a proper compressive force deformed the ring into exquisite flower-like patterns. The present study solves a basic mechanical problem of a ring subjected to lateral forces, which can be useful for studying the relevant mechanical behavior of ring structures from the nano- to the macro-scale.

  1. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Influence of intracavity stimulated Raman scattering on self-modulation of a ring laser emitting ultrashort pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashkir, Yu N.; Yashkir, O. V.

    1991-11-01

    An investigation is made of the generation of ultrashort pulses in a ring laser in the presence of intracavity nonlinear losses due to stimulated Raman scattering. A numerical analysis of the attractors of the problem is used in a study of typical lasing regimes: stable, unstable regular, and unstable irregular (optical turbulence). A change in the nonlinearity parameter reveals also "intermittence" regions. An analysis is made of the influence of feedback provided by the Stokes radiation on the localization of an instability region.

  2. FE analysis of the sensitivity of friction calibration curves to dimensional changes in a ring compression test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Jeong Hoon; Seo, Jeong Min; Hwang, Beong Bok

    2011-04-01

    This paper is concerned with an analysis of the sensitivity of friction calibration curves to the frictional shear factor in a ring compression test. The main objective of this study is to examine the sensitivity of the FEA calibration curves of a ring compression test to the frictional shear factor. Different calibration curves were investigated by measuring dimensional changes at different positions of a ring specimen, including changes in the internal diameter at the middle and top section of the specimen, the outer diameter at the middle and top section, and the degree of surface expansion at the top surface. The initial ring geometries employed in the analysis maintain a fixed ratio of 6:3:2, i.e., the outer diameter: inner diameter: thickness ratio of the ring specimen, which is generally known as a `standard' specimen, in order only to determine the sensitivity of the calibration curves for the measurement of dimensional changes at different positions to the frictional shear factor. A perfectly plastic material was modeled for the simulations using rigid-plastic finite element code. Analyses were performed within a definite range of friction as well as over the entire range of friction to uncover the different sensitivities of calibration curves to interfacial friction given different ranges of friction. The results of this investigation are summarized in terms of a dimensionless gradient. It was determined from the results that the friction calibration curves according to measurements of the dimensional changes at different positions of a ring specimen show different degrees of linearity and sensitivity to the frictional condition on the contact surface. Among these differences, the friction calibration curve upon changes in the degree of surface expansion at the contact boundary was found to be relatively linear and sensitive to the frictional condition over the entire range of friction.

  3. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Features of the phase dynamics in a ring solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Nikolai V.; Lariontsev, E. G.

    2005-07-01

    The peculiarities of the phase dynamics are studied in a ring solid-state laser operating in transient quasi-sinusoidal oscillation regimes of the first and second kinds (QS-1 and QS-2) appearing upon periodic modulation of the pump power. It is shown that recording of a change in the phase difference of counterpropagating waves in the QS-2 regime under certain conditions makes it possible to determine directly the mutual nonreciprocity of the laser resonator.

  4. New type of chimera structures in a ring of bistable FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators with nonlocal interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepelev, I. A.; Vadivasova, T. E.; Bukh, A. V.; Strelkova, G. I.; Anishchenko, V. S.

    2017-04-01

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a ring of nonlocally coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators in the bistable regime. A new type of chimera patterns has been found in the noise-free network and when isolated elements do not oscillate. The region of existence of these structures has been explored when the coupling range and the coupling strength between the network elements are varied.

  5. Novel microwave photonic fractional Hilbert transformer using a ring resonator-based optical all-pass filter.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Khan, Muhammad Rezaul; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2012-11-19

    We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband microwave photonic fractional Hilbert transformer implemented using a ring resonator-based optical all-pass filter. The full programmability of the ring resonator allows variable and arbitrary fractional order of the Hilbert transformer. The performance analysis in both frequency and time domain validates that the proposed implementation provides a good approximation to an ideal fractional Hilbert transformer. This is also experimentally verified by an electrical S21 response characterization performed on a waveguide realization of a ring resonator. The waveguide-based structure allows the proposed Hilbert transformer to be integrated together with other building blocks on a photonic integrated circuit to create various system-level functionalities for on-chip microwave photonic signal processors. As an example, a circuit consisting of a splitter and a ring resonator has been realized which can perform on-chip phase control of microwave signals generated by means of optical heterodyning, and simultaneous generation of in-phase and quadrature microwave signals for a wide frequency range. For these functionalities, this simple and on-chip solution is considered to be practical, particularly when operating together with a dual-frequency laser. To our best knowledge, this is the first-time on-chip demonstration where ring resonators are employed to perform phase control functionalities for optical generation of microwave signals by means of optical heterodyning.

  6. Role of quantum fluctuations in the optomechanical properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a ring cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Steinke, S. K.; Meystre, P.

    2011-08-15

    We analyze a detailed model of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a ring optical resonator and contrast its classical and quantum properties to those of a Fabry-Perot geometry. The inclusion of two counterpropagating light fields and three matter field modes leads to important differences between the two situations. Specifically, we identify an experimentally realizable region where the system's behavior differs strongly from that of a BEC in a Fabry-Perot cavity, and also where quantum corrections become significant. The classical dynamics are rich, and near bifurcation points in the mean-field classical system, the quantum fluctuations have a major impact on the system's dynamics.

  7. Human claspin is a ring-shaped DNA-binding protein with high affinity to branched DNA structures.

    PubMed

    Sar, Funda; Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A; Subramanian, Deepa; Croteau, Deborah L; Hutsell, Stephanie Q; Griffith, Jack D; Sancar, Aziz

    2004-09-17

    Claspin is an essential protein for the ATR-dependent activation of the DNA replication checkpoint response in Xenopus and human cells. Here we describe the purification and characterization of human Claspin. The protein has a ring-like structure and binds with high affinity to branched DNA molecules. These findings suggest that Claspin may be a component of the replication ensemble and plays a role in the replication checkpoint by directly associating with replication forks and with the various branched DNA structures likely to form at stalled replication forks because of DNA damage.

  8. New synthesis of A-ring aromatic strigolactone analogues and their evaluation as plant hormones in pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Chen, Victor X; Boyer, François-Didier; Rameau, Catherine; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Vors, Jean-Pierre; Beau, Jean-Marie

    2013-04-08

    A new general access to A-ring aromatic strigolactones, a new class of plant hormones, has been developed. The key transformations include in sequence ring-closing metathesis, enzymatic kinetic resolution and a radical cyclization with atom transfer to install the tricyclic ABC-ring system. The activity as plant hormones for the inhibition of shoot branching in pea of various analogues synthesized by this strategy is reported. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Incomplete cooling down of Saturn's A ring at solar equinox: Implication for seasonal thermal inertia and internal structure of ring particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishima, Ryuji; Spilker, Linda; Brooks, Shawn; Deau, Estelle; Pilorz, Stu

    2016-11-01

    At the solar equinox in August 2009, the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) onboard Cassini showed the lowest Saturn's ring temperatures ever observed. Detailed radiative transfer models show that the observed equinox temperatures of Saturn's A ring are much higher than model predictions as long as only the flux from Saturn is taken into account. In addition, the post-equinox temperatures are lower than the pre-equinox temperatures at the same absolute solar elevation angle. These facts indicate that the A ring was not completely cooled down at the equinox and that it is possible to give constraints on the size and seasonal thermal inertia of ring particles using seasonal temperature variations around the equinox. We develop a simple seasonal model for ring temperatures and first assume that the internal density and the thermal inertia of a ring particle are uniform with depth. The particle size is estimated to be 1-2 m. The seasonal thermal inertia is found to be 30-50 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 in the middle A ring whereas it is ∼10 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 or as low as the diurnal thermal inertia in the inner and outermost regions of the A ring. An additional internal structure model, in which a particle has a high density core surrounded by a fluffy regolith mantle, shows that the core radius relative to the particle radius is about 0.9 for the middle A ring and is much less for the inner and outer regions of the A ring. This means that the radial variation of the internal density of ring particles exists across the A ring. Some mechanisms may be confining dense particles in the middle A ring against viscous diffusion. Alternatively, the (middle) A ring might have recently formed (<108 yr) by destruction of an icy satellite, so that dense particles have not yet diffused over the A ring and regolith mantles of particles have not grown thick. Our model results also indicate that the composition of the core is predominantly water ice, not rock.

  10. Investigations of the origins of estrogenic A-ring aromatic steroids in UK sewage treatment works effluents.

    PubMed

    Niven, S J; Snape, J; Hetheridge, M; Evans, M; McEvoy, J; Sutton, P G; Rowland, S J

    2001-03-01

    The present preliminary study describes an investigation of a putative aromatisation pathway in sewage from cholesterol through the corresponding A-ring aromatic steroid, norcholest-1,3,5(10)-trienol (NCT) to estrone. The synthesis and analytical characterisation of NCT and of the trimethyl silyl ether by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, is described. The analytical properties of synthetic NCT were used to direct a search for the compound over several months in 1998 in the effluents of two sewage treatment works (STW; Deephams and Harpenden, north London). The study was prompted by the earlier findings that increased vitellogenin concentrations in the plasma of caged male rainbow trout held in the STW effluents (so-called fish 'feminisation') could be attributed to the presence of A-ring steroids such as estrone. Until now it has been assumed that these steroids originate from the STW influents and it is not clear to what extent, if at all, aromatisation of steroids might occur during STW operation. NCT was only detected in the solid particles associated with the effluents on one occasion in 8 months. This suggests that the hypothesised pathway is not a major one. Confirmation of previous reports of estrone and 17 beta-estradiol was also obtained using a published analytical method and by a simple modification of the method these reports were extended to include a regular occurrence of the weaker estrogen, 16 alpha-estriol in the case of Harpenden STW effluents in 1998.

  11. Efficient production of a ring derivative of chromosome III by the mating-type switching mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Klar, A J; Strathern, J N; Hicks, J B; Prudente, D

    1983-01-01

    The mating-type switches in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae occur by unidirectional transposition of replicas of unexpressed genetic information, residing at HML or HMR, into the mating-type locus (MAT). The source loci, HML and HMR, remain unchanged. Interestingly, when the HM cassettes are expressed, as in marl strains, the HML and HMR cassettes can also efficiently switch, apparently by obtaining genetic information from either of the other two cassettes (Klar et al., Cell 25:517-524, 1981). We have isolated a novel chromosome III rearrangement in heterothallic (marl ho) strains, which is also produced efficiently in marl HO cells, presumably the consequence of a recombination event between HML and HMR. The fusion results in the loss of sequences which are located distal to HML and to HMR and produces a ring derivative of chromosome III. Cells containing such a ring chromosome are viable as haploids; apparently, no essential loci are located distal to the HM loci. The fusion cassette behaves as a standard HM locus with respect to both regulation by the MAR/SIR control and its role in switching MAT. Images PMID:6346056

  12. Study of an injection-seeded supra-atmospheric CO(2) laser operated below emission threshold with a ring cavity.

    PubMed

    Richard, I; Piché, M

    1995-01-20

    The dynamics and tuning range of an injection-seeded supra-atmospheric CO(2) laser operated at a pressure of 10 atm with a ring cavity are studied theoretically and experimentally. When the losses of such a laser are sufficiently high, the short lifetime of the gain does not permit the buildup of intense pulses that start from spontaneous emission noise; the laser is then said to be operated below emission threshold. Under such circumstances, injection seeding with a few milliwatts of a single-mode signal permits nearly full extraction of the available power. The extraction efficiency is shown to depend in a sensitive manner on the frequencies of a cavity mode and of the injected signal. When these two frequencies are mismatched, a lower power is extracted, and two-mode emission takes place. The laser is shown to be tunable over 41 transition lines of the CO(2) spectrum.

  13. Sol-gel zinc oxide humidity sensors integrated with a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2014-10-28

    The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90%RH.

  14. Sol-Gel Zinc Oxide Humidity Sensors Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit On-a-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2014-01-01

    The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90 %RH. PMID:25353984

  15. Minimally destructive, Doppler measurement of a quantized flow in a ring-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Anderson, N.; Phillips, W. D.; Eckel, S.; Campbell, G. K.; Stringari, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Doppler effect, the shift in the frequency of sound due to motion, is present in both classical gases and quantum superfluids. Here, we perform an in situ, minimally destructive measurement, of the persistent current in a ring-shaped, superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate using the Doppler effect. Phonon modes generated in this condensate have their frequencies Doppler shifted by a persistent current. This frequency shift will cause a standing-wave phonon mode to be ‘dragged’ along with the persistent current. By measuring this precession, one can extract the background flow velocity. This technique will find utility in experiments where the winding number is important, such as in emerging ‘atomtronic’ devices.

  16. Distributed Raman amplification using ultra-long fiber laser with a ring cavity: characteristics and sensing application.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xin-Hong; Rao, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Zi-Nan; Zhang, Wei-Li; Yuan, Cheng-Xu; Yan, Xiao-Dong; Li, Jin; Wu, Han; Zhu, Ye-Yu; Peng, Fei

    2013-09-09

    Distributed Raman amplification (DRA) based on ultra-long fiber laser (UL-FL) pumping with a ring cavity is promising for repeaterless transmission and sensing. In this work, the characteristics (including gain, nonlinear impairment and noise figure) for forward and backward pumping of the ring-cavity based DRA scheme are fully investigated. Furthermore, as a typical application of the proposed configuration, ultra-long-distance distributed sensing with Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) over 142.2 km fiber with 5m spatial resolution and ± 1.5 °C temperature uncertainty is achieved, without any repeater. The key point for the significant performance improvement is the system could offer both of uniform gain distribution and considerably suppressed pump-probe relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer, by optimized design of system structure and parameters.

  17. Inhibition of pyridine-nucleotide-dependent enzymes by pyrazoles. Synthesis and enzymology of a novel A-ring pyrazole steroid.

    PubMed

    Holt, D A; Levy, M A; Brandt, M; Metcalf, B W

    1986-01-01

    A novel A-ring pyrazole steroid, 2,3-bisaza-A-nor-1,5(10)-estradien-17 beta-ol (3), was synthesized as a potential inhibitor of steroidal NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases. Compound 3 proved to be a potent inhibitor of 3(17)beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (from P. testosteroni) exhibiting a Ki of 90 +/- 20 nM. The activities of 3 alpha,20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (from S. hydrogenans), steroid-5 alpha-reductase (from rat prostate), and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (from rat liver) were unaffected by pyrazole 3. Dead end inhibition studies indicate an ordered binding of cofactor prior to substrate or pyrazole inhibitor.

  18. An Acetone Microsensor with a Ring Oscillator Circuit Fabricated Using the Commercial 0.18 μm CMOS Process

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Shih, Po-Jen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the fabrication and characterization of an acetone microsensor with a ring oscillator circuit using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The acetone microsensor contains a sensitive material, interdigitated electrodes and a polysilicon heater. The sensitive material is α-Fe2O3 synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer between the interdigitated electrodes and to coat the α-Fe2O3 on the electrodes. When the sensitive material adsorbs acetone vapor, the sensor produces a change in capacitance. The ring oscillator circuit converts the capacitance of the sensor into the oscillation frequency output. The experimental results show that the output frequency of the acetone sensor changes from 128 to 100 MHz as the acetone concentration increases 1 to 70 ppm. PMID:25036331

  19. Optimization of output coupling ratio on the performance of a ring-cavity Brillouin-erbium fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Hambali, Nor Azura Malini A; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Al-Mansoori, Mohammed Hayder; Saripan, M Iqbal; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi

    2009-09-20

    The operation of a single-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) system with a Brillouin pump preamplified technique for different output coupling ratios in a ring cavity is experimentally demonstrated. The characteristics of Brillouin Stokes power and tunability were investigated in this research. The efficiency of the BEFL operation was obtained at an optimum output coupling ratio of 95%. By fixing the Brillouin pump wavelength at 1550 nm while its power was set at 1.6 mW and the 1480 pump power was set to its maximum value of 135 mW, the Brillioun Stokes power was found to be 28.7 mW. The Stokes signal can be tuned within a range of 60 nm from 1520 to 1580 nm without appearances of the self-lasing cavity modes in the laser system.

  20. 18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Derivatives Possessing a Trihydroxylated A Ring Are Potent Gram-Positive Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Rong; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; Li, Qi-Ji; Wang, Dao-Ping; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Luo, Heng; Yang, Xiao-Sheng

    2016-04-22

    The oleanane-type triterpene 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (1) was modified chemically through the introduction of a trihydroxylated A ring and an ester moiety at C-20 to enhance its antibacterial activity. Compounds 22, 23, 25, 28, 29, 31, and 32 showed more potent inhibitory activity against Streptomyces scabies than the positive control, streptomycin. Additionally, the inhibitory activity of the most potent compound, 29, against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was greater than that of the positive controls. The antibacterial mode of action of the active derivatives involved the regulation of the expression of genes associated with peptidoglycans, the respiratory metabolism, and the inherent virulence factors found in bacteria, as determined through a quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay.

  1. An atomtronic flux qubit: a ring lattice of Bose-Einstein condensates interrupted by three weak links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghamalyan, D.; Nguyen, N. T.; Auksztol, F.; Gan, K. S.; Martinez Valado, M.; Condylis, P. C.; Kwek, L.-C.; Dumke, R.; Amico, L.

    2016-07-01

    We study a physical system consisting of a Bose-Einstein condensate confined to a ring shaped lattice potential interrupted by three weak links. The system is assumed to be driven by an effective flux piercing the ring lattice. By employing path integral techniques, we explore the effective quantum dynamics of the system in a pure quantum phase dynamics regime. Moreover, the effects of the density’s quantum fluctuations are studied through exact diagonalization analysis of the spectroscopy of the Bose-Hubbard model. We demonstrate that a clear two-level system emerges by tuning the magnetic flux at degeneracy. The lattice confinement, platform for the condensate, is realized experimentally employing a spatial light modulator.

  2. Effects of Hydroxy Groups in the A-Ring on the Anti-proteasome Activity of Flavone.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kasumi; Yang, Jia-Hua; Sato, Eiji; Miura, Naoyuki; Wu, Yi-Xin

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays an important role in regulating apoptosis and the cell cycle. Recently, proteasome inhibitors have been shown to have antitumor effects and have been used in anticancer therapy for several cancers such as multiple myeloma. Although some flavones, such as apigenin, chrysin and luteolin, have a specific role in the inhibition of proteasome activity and induced apoptosis in some reports, these findings did not address all flavone types. To further investigate the proteasome-inhibitory mechanism of flavonoids, we examined the inhibitory activity of 5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone, baicalein and 5,6,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone, scutellarein on extracted proteasomes from mice and cancer cells. Unlike the other flavones, baicalein and scutellarein did not inhibit proteasome activity or accumulate levels of ubiquitinated proteins. These results indicate that flavones with hydroxy groups at positions 5, 6 and 7 of the A-ring lack the anti-proteasome function.

  3. Phenolic group on A-ring is key for dracoflavan B as a selective noncompetitive inhibitor of α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Toh, Zhi Siang; Wang, Hongyu; Yip, Yew Mun; Lu, Yuyun; Lim, Benedict Jeffrey Ang; Zhang, Daiwei; Huang, Dejian

    2015-12-15

    A high throughput assay was applied to guide the isolation of a new pancreatic α-amylase inhibitor, dracoflavan B, from the dragon's blood resin from Daemonorops draco. Applying C18 column, we successfully isolated both diastereomers and their structures verified by (1)H NMR spectra in comparison with the literature values. Their activity in inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase with comparable IC50 values of 23μM (A type) and 27μM (B type) that are similar to that of acarbose. Dracoflavan B shows much weaker activity in inhibiting bacterial α-amylase and no activity towards fungal α-amylase. Moreover, both isomers show no inhibitory activity towards mammalian α-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis revealed that using starch as the substrate, dracoflavan B was a non-competitive α-amylase inhibitor with a Ki value of 11.7μM. Lack of α-amylase inhibition for proanthocyanidin A2 dimer demonstrated that dracoflavan B hydrophobic nature of the B, A', C' and B' rings are important for its α-amylase inhibition. In addition, selective chemical modification studies revealed that the phenolic group is also vital to dracoflavan B for its pancreatic α-amylase inhibition activity. Without the A ring phenolic hydrogen bond donor, the derivatives of dracoflavan B showed detrimental α-amylase inhibition. On the contrary, galloylation on the A ring phenolic OH group enhanced the activity as shown by the low IC50 (12μM) against α-amylase which is 56% more potent as compared to dracoflavan B. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytical-variational method of analysis about a finite plate with a cracked hole stiffened by a ring with rivet joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dong-Shan; Zhang, Xing

    1995-02-01

    -An analytical-variational method is presented for the solution of a finite plate with both an unloaded cracked large hole and loaded uncracked small holes. This method is also used to solve a problem of a ring with loaded uncracked small holes only. On the foundation of the above analysis, a classical force method is used to solve a problem of a finite plate with a cracked hole stiffened by a ring with rivet joints for determination of rivet forces, stress intensity factor in the stiffened finite plate with a cracked hole and the stress concentration factor in the stiffening ring.

  5. Fatal infection with Taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in an Italian zoological garden.

    PubMed

    De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4 cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection.

  6. High resolution Cassini observations of Saturn’s A ring in the vicinity of object “Peggy”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Carl; Cooper, Nicholas; Renner, Stéfan; Santos Araújo, Nilton Carlos; Noyelles, Benoit; Tiscareno, Matthew S.

    2017-06-01

    Cassini images of the edge of Saturn’s A ring strongly suggest the presence of an embedded object (nicknamed “Peggy”) producing localised, time-varying structure due to its gravitational perturbation of nearby ring material. “Peggy”’s gravitational signature has been tracked since its discovery in 2013 and, although the deduced semi-major axis has varied between 136766 km and 136775 km, the value has always been within 10 km of the edge location as determined by El Moutamid et al. (2016). In early 2016 a second object was detected, trailing “Peggy” at a larger semi-major axis, with both objects having been tracked since then. Here we discuss the current state of our understanding of this unusual object and its orbital evolution, making use of the most recent, high resolution observations obtained both before and during the ring-grazing and grand finale orbits of the Cassini spacecraft. These images will then be compared with numerical simulations of the effect of an embedded satellite on adjacent, orbiting particles with the goal of obtaining the mass and dimensions of the object.

  7. Echinococcus multilocularis infection of a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) and a nutria (Myocastor coypus) in a French zoo.

    PubMed

    Umhang, Gérald; Lahoreau, Jennifer; Nicolier, Alexandra; Boué, Franck

    2013-12-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a tapeworm responsible in its larval stage for alveolar echinococcosis, a disease which is lethal when left untreated. Multivesiculated parasitic lesions in the liver were diagnosed at necropsy in a captive-born nutria (Myocastor coypus) and in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) which had been in a French zoo for 16months. Molecular analyses confirmed the diagnosis of E. multilocularis obtained by histological analyses. These were the first cases of infection by E. multilocularis reported in lemurs in Europe, and the first case in nutria in European enclosures. Lemurs are confirmed to be particularly sensitive to E. multilocularis with a massive infection. In both cases, the infection appears to have been contracted in the zoo indirectly via environmental contamination by feces from roaming foxes. Due to the large endemic area for E. multilocularis, the increasing prevalence in foxes in France, and an increase in awareness of the disease, other cases of infection in captive animals will probably be recorded in France in the coming years.

  8. Evaluation of the collapse pressures of a ring-stiffened cylindrical shell under external hydrostatic pressure using code formulations and FEA

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, M.M.; Miranda, C.A.J.; Silveira, H.C.K. da

    1996-12-01

    In this paper the collapse of a ring-stiffened cylindrical shell under external hydrostatic pressure is evaluated using code formulations (ASME (1992), BSI (1990), and GL (1988)) and nonlinear elastic-plastic finite element analysis. Some conclusions and comments are addressed from the comparison between the results obtained from the used approaches.

  9. Analytical description of a Gaussian beam in a ring resonator with a nonplanar axial contour and an odd number of mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Plachenov, A B; Radin, A M

    2011-01-31

    Stability conditions for a ring resonator with an odd number of mirrors and a nonplanar axial contour are studied analytically. New explicit expressions are derived to describe the transverse field distribution of the Gaussian mode with general astigmatism produced in this resonator. Field characteristics for a resonator with the specified parameters are calculated. (laser beams)

  10. Analytical description of a Gaussian beam in a ring resonator with a nonplanar axial contour and an even number of mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Plachenov, A B; Kudashov, V N; Radin, A M

    2009-03-31

    Stability conditions for a ring resonator with an even number of mirrors and a nonplanar axial contour are studied analytically. New explicit expressions are derived to describe the transverse field distribution of the Gaussian mode with general astigmatism produced in this resonator. Field characteristics for a resonator with the specified parameters are calculated. (resonators)

  11. The oestrogenic effects of gestodene, a potent contraceptive progestin, are mediated by its A-ring reduced metabolites.

    PubMed

    Lemus, A E; Zaga, V; Santillán, R; García, G A; Grillasca, I; Damián-Matsumura, P; Jackson, K J; Cooney, A J; Larrea, F; Pérez-Palacios, G

    2000-06-01

    Gestodene (17 alpha-ethynyl-13 beta-ethyl-17 beta-hydroxy-4, 15-gonadien-3-one) is the most potent synthetic progestin currently available and it is widely used as a fertility regulating agent in a number of contraceptive formulations because of its high effectiveness, safety and acceptability. The observation that contraceptive synthetic progestins exert hormone-like effects other than their progestational activities, prompted us to investigate whether gestodene (GSD) administration may induce oestrogenic effects, even though the GSD molecule does not interact with intracellular oestrogen receptors (ER). To assess whether GSD may exert oestrogenic effects through some of its neutral metabolites, a series of experimental studies were undertaken using GSD and three of its A-ring reduced metabolites. Receptor binding studies by displacement analysis confirmed that indeed GSD does not bind to the ER, whereas its 3 beta,5 alpha-tetrahydro reduced derivative (3 beta GSD) interacts with a relative high affinity with the ER. The 3 alpha,5 alpha GSD isomer (3 alpha GSD) also binds to the ER, though to a lesser extent. The ability of the A-ring reduced GSD derivatives to induce oestrogenic actions was evaluated by the use of two different molecular bioassays: (a) transactivation of a yeast system co-transfected with the human ER alpha (hER alpha) gene and oestrogen responsive elements fused to the beta-galactosidase reporter vector and (b) transactivation of the hER alpha-mediated transcription of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene in a HeLa cells expression system. The oestrogenic potency of 3 beta GSD was also assessed by its capability to induce oestrogen-dependent progestin receptors (PR) in the anterior pituitary of castrated female rats. The results demonstrated that 3 beta GSD and 3 alpha GSD were able to activate, in a dose-dependent manner, the hER alpha-mediated transcription of both the beta-galactosidase and the CAT reporter genes in the

  12. Heme orientational disorder in human adult hemoglobin reconstituted with a ring fluorinated heme and its functional consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, Satoshi; Hirai, Yueki; Kawano, Shin; Imai, Kiyohiro; Suzuki, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko . E-mail: yamamoto@chem.tsukuba.ac.jp

    2007-03-16

    A ring fluorinated heme, 13,17-bis(2-carboxylatoethyl)-3,8-diethyl-2-fluoro-7,12, 18-trimethyl-porphyrin-atoiron(III), has been incorporated into human adult hemoglobin (Hb A). The heme orientational disorder in the individual subunits of the protein has been readily characterized using {sup 19}F NMR and the O{sub 2} binding properties of the protein have been evaluated through the oxygen equilibrium analysis. The equilibrated orientations of hemes in {alpha}- and {beta}- subunits of the reconstituted protein were found to be almost completely opposite to each other, and hence were largely different from those of the native and the previously reported reconstituted proteins [T. Jue, G.N. La Mar, Heme orientational heterogeneity in deuterohemin-reconstituted horse and human hemoglobin characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 119 (1984) 640-645]. Despite the large difference in the degree of the heme orientational disorder in the subunits of the proteins, the O{sub 2} affinity and the cooperativity of the protein reconstituted with 2-MF were similar to those of the proteins reconstituted with a series of hemes chemically modified at the heme 3- and 8-positions [K. Kawabe, K. Imaizumi, Z. Yoshida, K. Imai, I. Tyuma, Studies on reconstituted myoglobins and hemoglobins II. Role of the heme side chains in the oxygenation of hemoglobin, J. Biochem. 92 (1982) 1713-1722], whose O{sub 2} affinity and cooperativity were higher and lower, respectively, relative to those of native protein. These results indicated that the heme orientational disorder could exert little effect, if any, on the O{sub 2} affinity properties of Hb A. This finding provides new insights into structure-function relationship of Hb A.

  13. Rigid Aggregate Formation (and Destruction) as a Mechanism for Emergent Particle Properties in Saturn's Outer A Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrine, Randall P.; Richardson, D. C.

    2010-10-01

    We continue our studies modeling rigid bonding within dense N-body systems in local coordinates, such as may occur in Saturn's A and B rings. Laboratory experiments [1] suggest that such bonding is common if the particles are coated in a layer of frost, and recent work [2, 3] shows that such "sticky” particles may account for unexplained dynamics within the dense rings. Our modified version of pkdgrav [4] includes the unique capability to model the creation and destruction of rigid bonds of arbitrary strength between colliding particles in a non-inertial rotating frame. Particles impacting below a user-defined speed threshold form a rigid bond that may subsequently break (without deformation), given sufficient impact speed or stress. While the strength of these frosty bonds remains uncertain, our work begins with plausible assumptions based on currently available data. We present results from 3D simulations of ring material (approximately a third of a square km in area) that explore the parameter space, including a range of merging and fragmentation thresholds, bond strengths, ring surface densities, and particle sizes. We show that a reasonable range of these parameters is consistent with data for emergent particle properties in the A ring, as seen by Voyager [5]. In matching to these observables, this range provides constraints on the bonding process potentially at work in the dense rings of Saturn. This work is supported primarily by a NASA Earth and Space Sciences Fellowship (NESSF). References: [1] Eg. Hatzes et al. (1991), Icarus 89, 113-121. [2] Tremaine (2003), Astron. J. 125, 894-901. [3] Porco et al. (2008), Astron. J. 136, 2172. [4] Perrine et al. (2010), Icarus, submitted. [5] Zebker et al. (1985), Icarus 64, 531-548.

  14. Design and synthesis of novel 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 analogues having a spiro-oxetane fused at the C2 position in the A-ring.

    PubMed

    Fujishima, Toshie; Nozaki, Takato; Suenaga, Tsutomu

    2013-09-01

    Four structurally novel stereoisomeric analogues of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (3a-d) bearing a spiro-oxetane fused at the C2 position of the A-ring have been designed and synthesised in a convergent manner. The requisite A-ring enyne precursors (13a,b) for the vitamin D analogues (3a,b) and (3c,d), respectively, were synthesised from pentaerythritol according to an eleven-step procedure. Preliminary biological evaluation of the analogues using the bovine thymus vitamin D receptor (VDR) suggested that the incorporation of the spiro-oxetane moiety instead of a gem-dimethyl group at the C2 position had a beneficial effect on the VDR affinity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Substitution on the A-Ring Confers to Bryopyran Analogues the Unique Biological Activity Characteristic of Bryostatins and Distinct From That of the Phorbol Esters

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Gary E.; Poudel, Yam B.; Welch, Dennie S.; Kraft, Matthew B.; Truong, Anh P.; Stephens, Jeffrey C.; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E.; Blumberg, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    A close structural analogue of bryostatin 1, which differs from bryostatin 1 only by the absence of the C30 carbomethoxy group (on the C13 enoate of the B-ring), has been prepared by total synthesis. Biological assays reveal a crucial role for substitution in the bryostatin 1 A-ring in conferring those responses which are characteristic of bryostatin 1 and distinct from those observed with PMA. PMID:19113896

  16. The bryostatin 1 A-ring acetate is not the critical determinant for antagonism of phorbol ester-induced biological responses.

    PubMed

    Keck, Gary E; Li, Wei; Kraft, Matthew B; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E; Blumberg, Peter M

    2009-06-04

    The contribution of the A-ring C(7) acetate to the function of bryostatin 1 has been investigated through synthesis and biological evaluation of an analogue incorporating this feature into the bryopyran core structure. No enhanced binding affinity for protein kinase C (PKC) was observed, relative to previously characterized analogues lacking the C(7) acetate. Functional assays showed biological responses characteristic of those induced by the phorbol ester PMA and distinctly different from those observed with bryostatin 1.

  17. Synthesis and antitumor activity of duocarmycin derivatives: modification at C-8 position of A-ring pyrrole compounds bearing the simplified DNA-binding groups.

    PubMed

    Amishiro, N; Nagamura, S; Murakata, C; Okamoto, A; Kobayashi, E; Asada, M; Gomi, K; Tamaoki, T; Okabe, M; Yamaguchi, N; Yamaguchi, K; Saito, H

    2000-02-01

    A series of the 8-O-substituted A-ring pyrrole derivatives of duocarmycin bearing the simplified DNA-binding moieties such as cinnamoyl or heteroarylacryloyl groups were synthesized, and evaluated for in vitro anticellular activity against HeLa S3 cells and in vivo antitumor activity against murine sarcoma 180 in mice. In addition, the stability of the 8-O-substituted analogues in aqueous solution and the conversion to their active form (cyclopropane compound) from the 8-O-substituted analogues in mice or human serum were examined. The 8-O-substituted A-ring pyrrole derivatives bearing the simplified DNA-binding moieties showed remarkably potent in vivo antitumor activity and low peripheral blood toxicity compared with the 8-O-substituted A-ring pyrrole derivatives having the trimethoxyindole skeleton in segment-B (Seg-B), which were equal to 8-O-[(N-methylpiperazinyl)carbonyl] derivatives of 4'-methoxycinnamates and 4'-methoxy-beta-heteroarylacrylates. Moreover, among 8-O-substituted analogues, several compounds can be chemically or enzymatically converted to their active form in human serum. This result indicated that new 8-O-substituted derivatives were different prodrugs from KW-2189 and 8-O-substituted analogues being the same type of prodrug as KW-2189.

  18. Active vibration control of a ring-stiffened cylindrical shell in contact with unbounded external fluid and subjected to harmonic disturbance by piezoelectric sensor and actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Moon K.; Yang, Dong-Ho

    2013-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the suppression of vibrations and radiated sound of a ring-stiffened circular cylindrical shell in contact with unbounded external fluid by means of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. The dynamic model of a circular cylindrical shell based on the Sanders shell theory was considered together with a ring stiffener model. The mass and stiffness matrices for a ring stiffener were newly derived in this study and added to the mass and stiffness matrices of the cylindrical shell, respectively. The fluid-added mass matrix, which was derived by using the baffled shell theory, was also added to the mass matrix. Finally, the equations representing the piezoelectric sensor measurement and piezoelectric actuation complete the theoretical model for the addressed problem. The natural vibration characteristics of the ring-stiffened cylindrical shell both in air and in water were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. An active vibration controller which can cope with a harmonic disturbance was designed by considering the modified higher harmonic control, which is, in fact, a band rejection filter. An active vibration control experiment on the submerged cylindrical shell was carried out in a water tank and the digital control system was used. The experimental results showed that both vibrations and radiation sound of the submerged cylindrical shell were suppressed by a pair of piezoelectric sensor and actuator.

  19. Changes in Prolapse and Urinary Symptoms After Successful Fitting of a Ring Pessary With Support in Women With Advanced Pelvic Organ Prolapse: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing; Chen, Chun; Song, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Lei; Deng, Mou; Zhu, Lan

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the percentage of improvement in prolapse and urinary symptoms and adverse effects in women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP) after 3 months of use of a ring pessary with support. In this prospective study, 109 consecutive women with advanced POP were fitted with a ring pessary with support; 73 (73/109, 67.0%) of the women had a successful 3-month pessary fitting trial. Prolapse symptoms, urinary symptoms, and urinary flow parameters were assessed at baseline and at 3 months. Adverse effects were assessed within 3 months. McNemar's test and paired-sample t tests were performed. Prolapse and urinary symptoms improved from baseline to 3 months, including bulging (90.4% to 23.3%; P <.001) and pressure (64.4% to 13.7%; P <.001). Voiding difficulty improved in 97.8% of the women (45/46; P <.001), splinting improved in 100% (19/19; P <.001), urge urinary incontinence improved in 76.9% (30/39; P <.001), and stress urinary incontinence improved in 58.1% (18/31; P = .025) after 3 months. After pessary treatment, the differences in maximum flow rate, mean flow rate, void volume, and postvoid residual at baseline and 3 months were statistically significant (P <.05). Vaginal discharge (32/73, 43.8%) was the most common adverse event. Vaginal ulcers developed in 7 (7/73, 9.6%) of the women. The ring pessary with support was successfully fitted in patients with advanced POP with a high success rate and few complications. The pessary could resolve more than half of the prolapse and urinary symptoms. Therefore, initial conservative treatment with a ring pessary with support in advanced POP is worthwhile. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The Structure-Activity Relationships of A-Ring-Substituted Aromathecin Topoisomerase I Inhibitors Strongly Support a Camptothecin-Like Binding Mode

    PubMed Central

    Cinelli, Maris A.; Morrell, Andrew E.; Dexheimer, Thomas S.; Agama, Keli; Agrawal, Surbhi; Pommier, Yves; Cushman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Aromathecins are inhibitors of human topoisomerase I (Top1). These compounds are composites of several heteroaromatic systems, namely the camptothecins and indenoisoquinolines, and they possess notable Top1 inhibition and cytotoxicity when substituted at position 14. The SAR of these compounds overlaps with indenoisoquinolines, suggesting that they may intercalate into the Top1-DNA complex similarly. Nonetheless, the proposed binding mode for aromathecins is purely hypothetical, as an X-ray structure is unavailable. In the present communication, we have synthesized eight novel series of A-ring-substituted (positions 1-3) aromathecins, through a simple, modular route, as part of a comprehensive SAR study. Certain groups (such as 2,3-ethylenedioxy) moderately improve Top1 inhibition, and, often, antiproliferative activity, whereas other groups (2,3-dimethoxy and 3-substituents) attenuate bioactivity. Strikingly, these trends are very similar to those previously observed for the A-ring of camptothecins, and this considerable SAR overlap lends further support (in the absence of crystallographic data) to the hypothesis that aromathecins bind in the Top1 cleavage complex as interfacial inhibitors in a “camptothecin-like” pose. PMID:20630766

  1. The mechanism of tubulin-colchicine recognition--a kinetic study of the binding of a bicyclic colchicine analogue with a minor modification of the A ring.

    PubMed

    Dumortier, C; Potenziano, J L; Bane, S; Engelborghs, Y

    1997-10-01

    2-Methoxy-5-(2',3',4'-trimethoxy)-2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one (MTC) is a colchicine analogue that lacks the B ring. 2-Methoxy-5-(2',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one (MD) is an A-ring analogue of MTC, in which one methoxy group is replaced by a hydrogen atom. This paper describes the kinetic features of MDC binding to tubulin, and compares its behaviour with MTC to analyse the effect of the A-ring modification on the recognition process by tubulin. Binding is accompanied by a strong enhancement of MDC fluorescence and quenching of protein fluorescence. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were obtained from fluorescence stopped-flow measurements. The kinetics are described by a single exponential, indicating that this drug does not discriminate between the different tubulin isotypes. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constant of the fluorescence increase upon binding increases in a non-linear way, indicating that this ligand binds with a similar overall mechanism as colchicine and MTC, consisting of a fast initial binding of low affinity followed by a slower isomerisation step leading to full affinity. The K1 and k2 values for MDC at 25 degrees C were 540 +/- 65 M(-1) and 70 +/- 6 s(-1) respectively. From the temperature dependence, a reaction enthalpy change (deltaH(o)1) of the initial binding of 49 +/- 11 kJ/mol(-1) and an activation energy for the second step of 28 +/- 9 kJ/mol(-1) were calculated. Displacement experiments of bound MDC by MTC allowed the determination of a rate constant of reverse isomerisation of 0.60 +/- 0.07 s(-1) at 25 degrees C and the activation energy of 81 +/- 6 kJ/mol(-1). The overall binding constant was (6.3 +/- 0.2) x 10(4) M(-1) at 25 degrees C. Combination of these results with the kinetic parameters for association gives a full characterisation of the enthalpy pathway for the binding of MDC. The pathway of MDC is shown to differ considerably from that of MTC binding. Since its structural difference is located

  2. Threshold collision-induced dissociation measurements using a ring ion guide as the collision cell in a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Vladimir; Verkerk, Udo H; Siu, Chi-Kit; Hopkinson, Alan C; Siu, K W Michael

    2009-08-15

    A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer has been modified for bond-dissociation energy measurements via threshold collision-induced dissociations (TCIDs) by replacing the conventional collision cell with a ring ion guide. Optimal operating conditions for the ring ion guide were determined or derived, and validated using a set of complexes for which bond dissociation energies are known. A comparison with reference data (within a range of 16-57 kcal/mol) indicates an accuracy approaching that of TCID determined on a guided ion-beam mass spectrometer. Complexes for which bond-dissociation energies were measured include metal ion complexes of simple ligands, amino acids and peptides, as well as of carbonic acid. There is excellent agreement between our experimental data and literature data, as well as theoretical data determined using a high-level computational method.

  3. Spontaneous Breaking of Translational Invariance and Spatial Condensation in Stationary States on a Ring. II. The Charged System and the Two-Component Burgers Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Peter F.; Rittenberg, Vladimir

    2002-06-01

    We further study the stochastic model discussed in ref. 2 in which positive and negative particles diffuse in an asymmetric, CP invariant way on a ring. The positive particles hop clockwise, the negative counter-clockwise and oppositely-charged adjacent particles may swap positions. We extend the analysis of this model to the case when the densities of the charged particles are not the same. The mean-field equations describing the model are coupled nonlinear differential equations that we call the two-component Burgers equations. We find roundabout weak solutions of these equations. These solutions are used to describe the properties of the stationary states of the stochastic model. The values of the currents and of various two-point correlation functions obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations are compared with the mean-field results. Like in the case of equal densities, one finds a pure phase, a mixed phase and a disordered phase.

  4. Regulation of presynaptic terminal organization by C. elegans RPM-1, a putative guanine nucleotide exchanger with a RING-H2 finger domain.

    PubMed

    Zhen, M; Huang, X; Bamber, B; Jin, Y

    2000-05-01

    Presynaptic terminals contain highly organized subcellular structures to facilitate neurotransmitter release. In C. elegans, the typical presynaptic terminal has an electron-dense active zone surrounded by synaptic vesicles. Loss-of-function mutations in the rpm-1 gene result in abnormally structured presynaptic terminals in GABAergic neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), most often manifested as a single presynaptic terminal containing multiple active zones. The RPM-1 protein has an RCC1-like guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domain and a RING-H2 finger. RPM-1 is most similar to the Drosophila presynaptic protein Highwire (HIW) and the mammalian Myc binding protein Pam. RPM-1 is localized to the presynaptic region independent of synaptic vesicles and functions cell autonomously. The temperature-sensitive period of rpm-1 coincides with the time of synaptogenesis. rpm-1 may regulate the spatial arrangement, or restrict the formation, of presynaptic structures.

  5. The gravitational influence of satellite pan on the radial distribution of ring-particles in the region of the Encke-division in Saturn's a ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahn, F.; Petit, J.-M.; Bendjoya, Ph.

    1993-10-01

    Here we summarize the models and their similarities with respect to the gravitational influence of small satellites (moonlets) embedded in planetary rings, which have been developed by Petit and Henon (1987 a, b; 1988) and by Spahn (1987; Spahn et al. 1989; 1992). The results and their applicabilities are shown in the case of the Encke-gap Moon Pan located in the outer A-ring of Saturn's rings. To compare the model-profiles with the experimental ones (optical depth profile measured by Voyager-photopolarimeter), the structures embedded in the latter have been confirmed statistically using the 'wavelet' analysis method. This analysis points to a size of Pan of about 13 km and an eccentricity of 10-4 of its orbit.

  6. Characterizing a 14 × 14 OAM mode transfer matrix of a ring-core fiber based on quadrature phase-shift interference.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guoxuan; Chen, Yujie; Liu, Yuehan; Zhang, Yanfeng; Yu, Siyuan

    2017-04-01

    The transfer matrix of light propagating in fibers can quantitatively elucidate the mechanisms of mode coupling, thus having important implications for the knowledge such as the mode division multiplexing communication link characteristics in fibers. However, most methods for measuring the transfer matrix require a prior knowledge of the launched modes at the input and a complex optical system for the characterization at the output of the fiber. In this Letter, we use an interferometric approach for decomposing orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes of the output beams from a ring-core fiber, thereby processing a 14×14 OAM mode transfer matrix of the fiber with merely a camera imaging the mode field at the output of the fiber. The suitability of such a method is validated by the beam reconstruction. Thus, this method is crucial for characterizing the fiber transfer matrix with promising features of fast response and simple operation.

  7. Potential for Controlling Cholera Using a Ring Vaccination Strategy: Re-analysis of Data from a Cluster-Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad; Luquero, Francisco J.; Kim, Deok Ryun; Park, Je Yeon; Digilio, Laura; Manna, Byomkesh; Kanungo, Suman; Dutta, Shanta; Sur, Dipika; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vaccinating a buffer of individuals around a case (ring vaccination) has the potential to target those who are at highest risk of infection, reducing the number of doses needed to control a disease. We explored the potential vaccine effectiveness (VE) of oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) for such a strategy. Methods and Findings This analysis uses existing data from a cluster-randomized clinical trial in which OCV or placebo was given to 71,900 participants in Kolkata, India, from 27 July to 10 September 2006. Cholera surveillance was then conducted on 144,106 individuals living in the study area, including trial participants, for 5 y following vaccination. First, we explored the risk of cholera among contacts of cholera patients, and, second, we measured VE among individuals living within 25 m of cholera cases between 8 and 28 d after onset of the index case. For the first analysis, individuals living around each index case identified during the 5-y period were assembled using a ring to define cohorts of individuals exposed to cholera index cases. An index control without cholera was randomly selected for each index case from the same population, matched by age group, and individuals living around each index control were assembled using a ring to define cohorts not exposed to cholera cases. Cholera attack rates among the exposed and non-exposed cohorts were compared using different distances from the index case/control to define the rings and different time frames to define the period at risk. For the VE analysis, the exposed cohorts were further stratified according to the level of vaccine coverage into high and low coverage strata. Overall VE was assessed by comparing the attack rates between high and low vaccine coverage strata irrespective of individuals’ vaccination status, and indirect VE was assessed by comparing the attack rates among unvaccinated members between high and low vaccine coverage strata. Cholera risk among the cohort exposed to

  8. Potential for Controlling Cholera Using a Ring Vaccination Strategy: Re-analysis of Data from a Cluster-Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Debes, Amanda K; Luquero, Francisco J; Kim, Deok Ryun; Park, Je Yeon; Digilio, Laura; Manna, Byomkesh; Kanungo, Suman; Dutta, Shanta; Sur, Dipika; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Sack, David A

    2016-09-01

    Vaccinating a buffer of individuals around a case (ring vaccination) has the potential to target those who are at highest risk of infection, reducing the number of doses needed to control a disease. We explored the potential vaccine effectiveness (VE) of oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) for such a strategy. This analysis uses existing data from a cluster-randomized clinical trial in which OCV or placebo was given to 71,900 participants in Kolkata, India, from 27 July to 10 September 2006. Cholera surveillance was then conducted on 144,106 individuals living in the study area, including trial participants, for 5 y following vaccination. First, we explored the risk of cholera among contacts of cholera patients, and, second, we measured VE among individuals living within 25 m of cholera cases between 8 and 28 d after onset of the index case. For the first analysis, individuals living around each index case identified during the 5-y period were assembled using a ring to define cohorts of individuals exposed to cholera index cases. An index control without cholera was randomly selected for each index case from the same population, matched by age group, and individuals living around each index control were assembled using a ring to define cohorts not exposed to cholera cases. Cholera attack rates among the exposed and non-exposed cohorts were compared using different distances from the index case/control to define the rings and different time frames to define the period at risk. For the VE analysis, the exposed cohorts were further stratified according to the level of vaccine coverage into high and low coverage strata. Overall VE was assessed by comparing the attack rates between high and low vaccine coverage strata irrespective of individuals' vaccination status, and indirect VE was assessed by comparing the attack rates among unvaccinated members between high and low vaccine coverage strata. Cholera risk among the cohort exposed to cholera cases was 5-11 times higher than

  9. Fate and distribution of brevetoxin (PbTx) following lysis of Karenia brevis by algicidal bacteria, including analysis of open A-ring derivatives.

    PubMed

    Roth, Patricia B; Twiner, Michael J; Wang, Zhihong; Bottein Dechraoui, Marie-Yasmine; Doucette, Gregory J

    2007-12-15

    Flavobacteriaceae (strain S03) and Cytophaga sp. (strain 41-DBG2) are algicidal bacteria active against the brevetoxin (PbTx)-producing, red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Little is known about the fate of PbTx associated with K. brevis cells following attack by such bacteria. The fate and distribution of PbTx in K. brevis cultures exposed to these algicidal strains were thus examined by receptor binding assay and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) in three size fractions (>5, 0.22-5, <0.22microm) over a 2-week time course. In control cultures, brevetoxin concentrations in the >5microm particulate size fraction correlated with changes in cell density, whereas significant increases in dissolved (i.e., <0.22microm) toxin were observed in the later stages of culture growth. Exposure of K. brevis to either of the two algicidal bacteria tested caused cell lysis, coinciding with a rapid decline in the >5microm PbTX size fraction and a simultaneous release of dissolved toxin into the growth medium. Upon cell lysis, dissolved brevetoxin accounted for ca. 60% of total toxin and consisted of 51-82% open A-ring derivatives. Open A-ring PbTx-2 and PbTx-3 derivatives bound with lower affinity (approximately 22- and 57-fold, respectively) to voltage-gated sodium channels and were considerably less cytotoxic (86- and 142-fold, respectively) to N2A cells than their individual parent toxins (i.e., PbTx-2 and PbTx-3). These novel findings of changes in PbTx size-fractioned distribution and overall reduction in K. brevis toxicity following attack by algicidal bacteria improve our understanding of potential trophic transfer routes and the fate of PbTx during red tide events. Moreover, this information will be important to consider when evaluating the potential role of algicidal bacteria in harmful algal bloom (HAB) management strategies involving control of bloom populations.

  10. Propeller Churns the A Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-08

    This image is part of a set of images obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft showing a propeller-shaped structure created by a hidden, embedded moon moving through one of Saturn rings. An animation is available at the Photojournal.

  11. Suicide Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes by Cyclopropylamines via a Ring-Opening Mechanism: Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Makes a Difference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Li, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Yufang; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    N-benzyl-N-cyclopropylamine (BCA) has been attracting great interests for decades for its partial suicide inactivation role to cytochrome P450 (P450) via a ring-opening mechanism besides acting as a role of normal substrates. Understanding the mechanism of such partial inactivation is vital to the clinical drug design. Thus, density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations were carried out on such P450-catalyzed reactions, not only on the metabolic pathway, but on the ring-opening inactivation one. Our theoretical results demonstrated that, in the metabolic pathway, besides the normal carbinolamine, an unexpected enamine was formed via the dual hydrogen abstraction (DHA) process, in which the competition between rotation of the H-abstracted substrate radical and the rotation of hydroxyl group of the protonated Cpd II moiety plays a significant role in product branch; In the inactivation pathway, the well-noted single electron transfer (SET) mechanism-involved process was invalidated for its high energy barrier, a proton-coupled electron transfer [PCET(ET)] mechanism plays a role. Our results are consistent with other related theoretical works on heteroatom-hydrogen (X-H, X = O, N) activation and revealed new features. The revealed mechanisms will play a positive role in relative drug design. PMID:28197402

  12. RKP, a RING finger E3 ligase induced by BSCTV C4 protein, affects geminivirus infection by regulation of the plant cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jianbin; Chen, Hao; Teng, Kunling; Zhao, Qingzhen; Zhang, Zhonghui; Li, Yin; Liang, Liming; Xia, Ran; Wu, Yaorong; Guo, Huishan; Xie, Qi

    2009-03-01

    The C4 protein from Curtovirus is known as a major symptom determinant, but the mode of action of the C4 protein remains unclear. To understand the mechanism of involvement of C4 protein in virus-plant interactions, we introduced the C4 gene from Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) into Arabidopsis under a conditional expression promoter; the resulting overexpression of BSCTV C4 led to abnormal host cell division. RKP, a RING finger protein, which is a homolog of the human cell cycle regulator KPC1, was discovered to be induced by BSCTV C4 protein. Mutation of RKP reduced the susceptibility to BSCTV in Arabidopsis and impaired BSCTV replication in plant cells. Callus formation is impaired in rkp mutants, indicating a role of RKP in the plant cell cycle. RKP was demonstrated to be a functional ubiquitin E3 ligase and is able to interact with cell-cycle inhibitor ICK/KRP proteins in vitro. Accumulation of the protein ICK2/KRP2 was found increased in the rkp mutant. The above results strengthen the possibility that RKP might regulate the degradation of ICK/KRP proteins. In addition, the protein level of ICK2/KRP2 was decreased upon BSCTV infection. Overexpression of ICK1/KRP1 in Arabidopsis could reduce the susceptibility to BSCTV. In conclusion, we found that RKP is induced by BSCTV C4 and may affect BSCTV infection by regulating the host cell cycle.

  13. Probing a water channel near the A-ring of receptor-bound 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with selected 2 alpha-substituted analogues.

    PubMed

    Hourai, Shinji; Fujishima, Toshie; Kittaka, Atsushi; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Takayama, Hiroaki; Rochel, Natacha; Moras, Dino

    2006-08-24

    The crystal structure of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in complex with 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 revealed the presence of several water molecules near the A-ring linking the ligand C-2 position to the protein surface. Here, we report the crystal structures of the human VDR ligand binding domain bound to selected C-2 alpha substituted analogues, namely, methyl, propyl, propoxy, hydroxypropyl, and hydroxypropoxy. These specific replacements do not modify the structure of the protein or the ligand, but with the exception of the methyl substituent, all analogues affect the presence and/or the location of the above water molecules. The integrity of the channel interactions and specific C-2 alpha analogue directed additional interactions correlate with the binding affinity of the ligands. In contrast, the resulting loss or gain of H-bonds does not reflect the magnitude of HL60 cell differentiation. Our overall findings highlight a rational approach to the design of more potent ligands by building in features revealed in the crystal structures.

  14. Effect of chronic alcohol use on hepatic testosterone 5-alpha-A-ring reductase in the baboon and in the human being.

    PubMed

    Gordon, G G; Vittek, J; Ho, R; Rosenthal, W S; Southren, A L; Lieber, C S

    1979-07-01

    Hepatic testosterone 5-alpha-A-ring reductase (HTAR) activity was measured in open liver biopsies in eight alcohol-fed baboons and eight pair-fed controls. The animals were studied after at least 1 yr of alcohol feeding. In the alcholol-fed animals, a significant fall in enzyme activity was noted. This occurred whether the enzyme levels were related to soluble protein, to DNA, or to wet tissue weight, showing that the change was due to a decrease in the specific activity of the enzyme. In addition, aspiration liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 14 men and women with alcoholic liver disease. Again, there was a significant decrease in HTAH activity in these patients compared with a normal population. No relationship was found between hepatic histology and HTAR levels in either the baboon or human population with alcoholic liver disease, suggesting that the changes in enzyme activity were related to an alcohol effect rather than to liver disease per se. This study demonstrates that chronic alcohol use decreases the function of the enzyme which controls an important rate-limiting step in the metabolism of testosterone in the liver and that this effect may be due primarily to alcohol.

  15. Excited-State Dynamic Planarization of Cyclic Oligothiophenes in the Vicinity of a Ring-to-Linear Excitonic Behavioral Turning Point.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyu Hyung; Kim, Pyosang; Kim, Woojae; Shimizu, Hideyuki; Han, Minwoo; Sim, Eunji; Iyoda, Masahiko; Kim, Dongho

    2015-10-19

    Excited-state dynamic planarization processes play a crucial role in determining exciton size in cyclic systems, as reported for π-conjugated linear oligomers. Herein, we report time-resolved fluorescence spectra and molecular dynamics simulations of π-conjugated cyclic oligothiophenes in which the number of subunits was chosen to show the size-dependent dynamic planarization in the vicinity of a ring-to-linear behavioral turning point. Analyses on the evolution of the total fluorescence intensity and the ratio between 0-1 to 0-0 vibronic bands suggest that excitons formed in a cyclic oligothiophene composed of six subunits fully delocalize over the cyclic carbon backbone, whereas those formed in larger systems fail to achieve complete delocalization. With the aid of molecular dynamics simulations, it is shown that distorted structures unfavorable for efficient exciton delocalization are more easily populated as the size of the cyclic system increases. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Structure of a glomulin-RBX1-CUL1 complex: inhibition of a RING E3 ligase through masking of its E2-binding surface.

    PubMed

    Duda, David M; Olszewski, Jennifer L; Tron, Adriana E; Hammel, Michal; Lambert, Lester J; Waddell, M Brett; Mittag, Tanja; DeCaprio, James A; Schulman, Brenda A

    2012-08-10

    The approximately 300 human cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are multisubunit E3s in which a RING protein, either RBX1 or RBX2, recruits an E2 to catalyze ubiquitination. RBX1-containing CRLs also can bind Glomulin (GLMN), which binds RBX1's RING domain, regulates the RBX1-CUL1-containing SCF(FBW7) complex, and is disrupted in the disease Glomuvenous Malformation. Here we report the crystal structure of a complex between GLMN, RBX1, and a fragment of CUL1. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that GLMN adopts a HEAT-like repeat fold that tightly binds the E2-interacting surface of RBX1, inhibiting CRL-mediated chain formation by the E2 CDC34. The structure explains the basis for GLMN's selectivity toward RBX1 over RBX2, and how disease-associated mutations disrupt GLMN-RBX1 interactions. Our study reveals a mechanism for RING E3 ligase regulation, whereby an inhibitor blocks E2 access, and raises the possibility that other E3s are likewise controlled by cellular proteins that mask E2-binding surfaces to mediate inhibition.

  17. Structure of a Glomulin-RBX1-CUL1 complex: inhibition of a RING E3 ligase through masking of its E2-binding surface

    PubMed Central

    Duda, David M.; Olszewski, Jennifer L.; Tron, Adriana E.; Hammel, Michal; Lambert, Lester J.; Waddell, M. Brett; Mittag, Tanja; DeCaprio, James A.; Schulman, Brenda A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The ~300 human Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are multisubunit E3s in which a RING protein, either RBX1 or RBX2, recruits an E2 to catalyze ubiquitination. RBX1-containing CRLs also can bind Glomulin (GLMN), which binds RBX1’s RING domain, regulates the RBX1-CUL1-containing SCFFBW7 complex, and is disrupted in the disease Glomuvenous Malformation. Here we report the crystal structure of a complex between GLMN, RBX1, and a fragment of CUL1. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that GLMN adopts a HEAT-like repeat fold that tightly binds the E2-interacting surface of RBX1, inhibiting CRL-mediated chain formation by the E2 CDC34. The structure explains the basis for GLMN’s selectivity toward RBX1 over RBX2, and how disease-associated mutations disrupt GLMN-RBX1 interactions. Our study reveals a mechanism for RING E3 ligase regulation whereby an inhibitor blocks E2 access, and raises the possibility that other E3s are likewise controlled by cellular proteins that mask E2-binding surfaces to mediate inhibition. PMID:22748924

  18. Suicide Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes by Cyclopropylamines via a Ring-opening Mechanism: Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Makes a Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Li, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Yufang; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    N-benzyl-N-cyclopropylamine (BCA) has been attracting great interests for decades for its partial suicide inactivation role to cytochrome P450 (P450) via a ring-opening mechanism besides acting as a role of normal substrates. Understanding the mechanism of such partial inactivation is vital to the clinical drug design. Thus, density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations were carried out on such P450-catalyzed reactions, not only on the metabolic pathway, but on the ring-opening inactivation one. Our theoretical results demonstrated that, in the metabolic pathway, besides the normal carbinolamine, an unexpected enamine was formed via the dual hydrogen abstraction (DHA) process, in which the competition between rotation of the H-abstracted substrate radical and the rotation of hydroxyl group of the protonated Cpd II moiety plays a significant role in product branch; In the inactivation pathway, the well-noted single electron transfer (SET) mechanism-involved process was invalidated for its high energy barrier, a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET(ET)) mechanism plays a role. Our results are consistent with other related theoretical works on heteroatom-hydrogen (X-H, X = O, N) activation and revealed new features. The revealed mechanisms will play a positive role in relative drug design.

  19. Electrostatic/magnetic ion acceleration through a slowly diverging magnetic nozzle between a ring anode and an on-axis hollow cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasoh, A.; Mizutani, K.; Iwakawa, A.

    2017-06-01

    Ion acceleration through a slowly diverging magnetic nozzle between a ring anode and a hollow cathode set on the axis of symmetry has been realized. Xenon was supplied as the propellant gas from an annular slit along the inner surface of the ring anode so that it was ionized near the anode, and the applied electric potential was efficiently transformed to an ion kinetic energy. As an electrostatic thruster, within the examined operation conditions, the thrust, F, almost scaled with the propellant mass flow rate; the discharge current, Jd, increased with the discharge voltage, Vd. An important characteristic was that the thrust also exhibited electromagnetic acceleration performance, i.e., the so-called "swirl acceleration," in which F ≅JdB Ra /√{2 }, where B and Ra were a magnetic field and an anode inner radius, respectively. Such a unique thruster performance combining both electrostatic and electromagnetic accelerations is expected to be useful as another option for in-space electric propulsion in its broad functional diversity.

  20. Asymmetric nature of two subunits of RAD18, a RING-type ubiquitin ligase E3, in the human RAD6A-RAD18 ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yuji; Suzuki, Miki; Kawai, Hidehiko; Suzuki, Fumio; Kamiya, Kenji

    2012-02-01

    RAD18, a RING-type ubiquitin ligase (E3) that plays an essential role in post-replication repair, possesses distinct domains named RING, UBZ, SAP and the RAD6-binding domain (R6BD) and forms a dimer. RAD6, an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2), stably associates with R6BD in the C-terminal portion. In this study, we established a method to distinguish between the two subunits of RAD18 by introduction of different tags, and analyzed mutant complexes. Our results, surprisingly, demonstrate that RAD6A and RAD18 form a ternary complex, RAD6A-(RAD18)(2) and the presence of only one R6BD in the two RAD18 subunits is sufficient for ternary complex formation and the ligase activity. Interestingly, ligase activity of a mutant dimer lacking both R6BDs is not restored even with large amounts of RAD6A added in solution, suggesting a requirement for precise juxtaposition via interaction with R6BD. We further show that mutations in both subunits of either RING or SAP, but not UBZ, strongly reduce ligase activity, although inactivation in only one of two subunits is without effect. These results suggest an asymmetric nature of the two RAD18 subunits in the complex.

  1. Suicide Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes by Cyclopropylamines via a Ring-Opening Mechanism: Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Makes a Difference.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Li, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Yufang; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    N-benzyl-N-cyclopropylamine (BCA) has been attracting great interests for decades for its partial suicide inactivation role to cytochrome P450 (P450) via a ring-opening mechanism besides acting as a role of normal substrates. Understanding the mechanism of such partial inactivation is vital to the clinical drug design. Thus, density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations were carried out on such P450-catalyzed reactions, not only on the metabolic pathway, but on the ring-opening inactivation one. Our theoretical results demonstrated that, in the metabolic pathway, besides the normal carbinolamine, an unexpected enamine was formed via the dual hydrogen abstraction (DHA) process, in which the competition between rotation of the H-abstracted substrate radical and the rotation of hydroxyl group of the protonated Cpd II moiety plays a significant role in product branch; In the inactivation pathway, the well-noted single electron transfer (SET) mechanism-involved process was invalidated for its high energy barrier, a proton-coupled electron transfer [PCET(ET)] mechanism plays a role. Our results are consistent with other related theoretical works on heteroatom-hydrogen (X-H, X = O, N) activation and revealed new features. The revealed mechanisms will play a positive role in relative drug design.

  2. A RING domain gene is expressed in different cell types of leaf trace, stem, and juvenile bundles in the stem vascular system of zinnia.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Preeti; Milioni, Dimitra; Wells, Brian; Stacey, Nicola; Roberts, Keith; McCann, Maureen C

    2005-07-01

    The in vitro zinnia (Zinnia elegans) mesophyll cell system, in which leaf mesophyll cells are induced to transdifferentiate into tracheary elements with high synchrony, has become an established model for studying xylogenesis. The architecture of the stem vascular system of zinnia cv Envy contains three anatomically distinct vascular bundles at different stages of development. Juvenile vascular strands of the subapical region develop into mature vascular strands with leaf trace segments and stem segments. Characteristic patterns of gene expression in juvenile, leaf trace, and stem bundles are revealed by a molecular marker, a RING domain-encoding gene, ZeRH2.1, originally isolated from a zinnia cDNA library derived from differentiating in vitro cultures. Using RNA in situ hybridization, we show that ZeRH2.1 is expressed preferentially in two specific cell types in mature zinnia stems. In leaf trace bundles, ZeRH2.1 transcript is abundant in xylem parenchyma cells, while in stem bundles it is abundant in phloem companion cells. Both of these cell types show wall ingrowths characteristic of transfer cells. In addition, ZeRH2.1 transcript is abundant in some phloem cells of juvenile bundles and in leaf palisade parenchyma. The complex and developmentally regulated expression pattern of ZeRH2.1 reveals heterogeneity in the vascular anatomy of the zinnia stem. We discuss a potential function for this gene in intercellular transport processes.

  3. Novel Nitrogen-Enriched Oridonin Analogs with Thiazole-Fused A-Ring: Protecting Group-Free Synthesis, Enhanced Anticancer Profile, and Improved Aqueous Solubility

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Chunyong; Zhang, Yusong; Chen, Haijun; Yang, Zhengduo; Wild, Christopher; Chu, Lili; Liu, Huiling; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Oridonin (1), a complex ent-kaurane diterpenoid isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Isodon rubescens, has demonstrated great potential in the treatment of various human cancers due to its unique and safe anticancer pharmacological profile. Nevertheless, the clinical development of oridonin for cancer therapy has been hampered by its relatively moderate potency, limited aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. Herein, we report the concise synthesis of a series of novel nitrogen-enriched oridonin derivatives with thiazole-fused A-ring through an efficient protecting group-free synthetic strategy. Most of them including compounds 7-11, 13 and 14 exhibited potent antiproliferative effects against breast, pancreatic and prostate cancer cells with low micromolar to submicromolar IC50 values, as well as markedly enhanced aqueous solubility. These new analogs obtained by rationally modifying the natural product have been demonstrated not only to significantly induce the apoptosis and suppress growth of triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo, but also effective against drug-resistant ER-positive MCF-7 clones. PMID:23746196

  4. Addressing Structural Flexibility at the A-Ring on Salvinorin A: Discovery of a Potent Kappa Opioid Agonist with Enhanced Metabolic Stability.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Alexander M; Crowley, Rachel Saylor; Paton, Kelly F; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Day, Victor W; Kivell, Bronwyn M; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2017-04-04

    Previous structure-activity studies on the neoclerodane diterpenoid salvinorin A have demonstrated the importance of the acetoxy functionality on the A-ring in its activity as a kappa opioid receptor agonist. Few studies have focused on understanding the role of conformation in these interactions. Herein we describe the synthesis and evaluation of both flexible and conformationally restricted compounds derived from salvinorin A. One such compound, spirobutyrolactone (14), was synthesized in a single step from salvinorin B and had similar potency and selectivity to salvinorin A (EC50 = 0.6 ± 0.2 nM at κ >10,000 nM at μ and δ). Microsomal stability studies demonstrated that 14 was more metabolically resistant than salvinorin A. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties revealed similar in vivo effects between 14 and salvinorin A. To our knowledge, this study represents the first example of bioisosteric replacement of an acetate group by a spirobutyrolactone to produce a metabolically resistant derivative.

  5. Dynamic characteristics of a multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser assisted by multiple four-wave mixing processes in a ring cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi, M. R.; Mohamed Taib, J.; De La Rue, R. M.; Harun, S. W.; Ahmad, H.

    2015-03-01

    Dynamic characteristics of a multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser (MBRFL) assisted by four-wave mixing have been investigated through the development of Stokes and anti-Stokes lines under different combinations of Brillouin and Raman pump power levels and different Raman pumping schemes in a ring cavity. For a Stokes line of order higher than three, the threshold power was less than the saturation power of its last-order Stokes line. By increasing the Brillouin pump power, the nth order anti-Stokes and the (n+4)th order Stokes power levels were unexpectedly increased almost the same before the Stokes line threshold power. It was also found out that the SBS threshold reduction (SBSTR) depended linearly on the gain factor for the 1st and 2nd Stokes lines, as the first set. This relation for the 3rd and 4th Stokes lines as the second set, however, was almost linear with the same slope before SBSTR -6 dB, then, it approached to the linear relation in the first set when the gain factor was increased to 50 dB. Therefore, the threshold power levels of Stokes lines for a given Raman gain can be readily estimated only by knowing the threshold power levels in which there is no Raman amplification.

  6. A forward genetic approach in Arabidopsis thaliana identifies a RING-type ubiquitin ligase as a novel determinant of seed longevity.

    PubMed

    Bueso, Eduardo; Ibañez, Carla; Sayas, Enric; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Gonzalez-Guzmán, Miguel; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Serrano, Ramón

    2014-02-01

    Seed longevity is important to preserve crops and wild plants and it is limited by progressive cellular damage (aging) during storage. The induction of cellular stress defenses and the formation of the seed coat are crucial protecting events during seed development, a process mediated in Arabidopsis thaliana by the transcription factors LEC1, LEC2, FUS3 and the abscisic acid-activated ABI3. In order to identify novel determinants of seed longevity we have screened an activation-tagging mutant collection of Arabidopsis and isolated a dominant mutant with increased seed longevity under both natural and accelerated aging conditions. Molecular characterization indicates that the mutant phenotype is caused by over-expression of the At2g26130 gene encoding a RING-type zinc finger putative ubiquitin ligase. Loss of function of this gene in a T-DNA insertion mutant resulted in decreased seed longevity. We named this important gene for seed longevity RSL1 (from Ring finger of Seed Longevity1) and we could demonstrate ubiquitin ligase activity with the recombinant protein. Morphological alterations in shoot tissues of the RSL1 over-expressing plants and analysis of gibberellins levels suggest that RSL1 may increase gibberellins responses by some unknown mechanism. These results validate the forward genetic approach to seed longevity and anticipate the identification of many novel determinants of this important trait.

  7. Upf1 potentially serves as a RING-related E3 ubiquitin ligase via its association with Upf3 in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shinya; Araki, Yasuhiro; Ohya, Yuriko; Sakuno, Takeshi; Hoshino, Shin-Ichi; Kontani, Kenji; Nishina, Hiroshi; Katada, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Three Upf proteins are essential to the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway. Although these proteins assemble on polysomes for recognition of aberrant mRNAs containing premature termination codons, the significance of this assembly remains to be elucidated. The Cys- and His-rich repeated N terminus (CH domain) of Upf1 has been implicated in its binding to Upf2. Here, we show that CH domain also plays a RING-related role for Upf1 to exhibit E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in yeast. Despite the sequence divergence from typical E3-RING fingers, the CH domain of yeast Upf1 specifically and directly interacted with the yeast E2 Ubc3. Interestingly, Upf1 served as a substrate for the in vitro self-ubiquitination, and the modification required its association with Upf3 rather than Upf2. Substitution of the coordinated Cys and His residues in the CH domain impaired not only self-ubiquitination of Upf1 but also rapid decay of aberrant mRNAs. These results suggest that Upf1 may serve as an E3 ubiquitin ligase upon its association with Upf3 and play an important role in signaling to the NMD pathway. PMID:18676617

  8. Loading an Equidistant Ion Chain in a Ring Shaped Surface Trap and Anomalous Heating Studies with a High Optical Access Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Tabakov, Boyan

    2015-07-01

    Microfabricated segmented surface ion traps are one viable avenue to scalable quantum information processing. At Sandia National Laboratories we design, fabricate, and characterize such traps. Our unique fabrication capabilities allow us to design traps that facilitate tasks beyond quantum information processing. The design and performance of a trap with a target capability of storing hundreds of equally spaced ions on a ring is described. Such a device could aid experimental studies of phenomena as diverse as Hawking radiation, quantum phase transitions, and the Aharonov - Bohm effect. The fabricated device is demonstrated to hold a ~ 400 ion circular crystal, with 9 μm average spacing between ions. The task is accomplished by first characterizing undesired electric fields in the trapping volume and then designing and applying an electric field that substantially reduces the undesired fields. In addition, experimental efforts are described to reduce the motional heating rates in a surface trap by low energy in situ argon plasma treatment that reduces the amount of surface contaminants. The experiment explores the premise that carbonaceous compounds present on the surface contribute to the anomalous heating of secular motion modes in surface traps. This is a research area of fundamental interest to the ion trapping community, as heating adversely affects coherence and thus gate fidelity. The device used provides high optical laser access, substantially reducing scatter from the surface, and thus charging that may lead to excess micromotion. Heating rates for different axial mode frequencies are compared before and after plasma treatment. The presence of a carbon source near the plasma prevents making a conclusion on the observed absence of change in heating rates.

  9. Scalings of Alfvén-cyclotron and ion Bernstein instabilities on temperature anisotropy of a ring-like velocity distribution in the inner magnetosphere

    DOE PAGES

    Min, Kyungguk; Liu, Kaijun; Gary, S. Peter

    2016-03-18

    Here, a ring-like proton velocity distribution with ∂fp(v⊥)/∂v⊥>0 and which is sufficiently anisotropic can excite two distinct types of growing modes in the inner magnetosphere: ion Bernstein instabilities with multiple ion cyclotron harmonics and quasi-perpendicular propagation and an Alfvén-cyclotron instability at frequencies below the proton cyclotron frequency and quasi-parallel propagation. Recent particle-in-cell simulations have demonstrated that even if the maximum linear growth rate of the latter instability is smaller than the corresponding growth of the former instability, the saturation levels of the fluctuating magnetic fields can be greater for the Alfvén-cyclotron instability than for the ion Bernstein instabilities. In thismore » study, linear dispersion theory and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are used to examine scalings of the linear growth rate and saturation level of the two types of growing modes as functions of the temperature anisotropy T⊥/T|| for a general ring-like proton distribution with a fixed ring speed of 2vA, where vA is the Alfvén speed. For the proton distribution parameters chosen, the maximum linear theory growth rate of the Alfvén-cyclotron waves is smaller than that of the fastest-growing Bernstein mode for the wide range of anisotropies (1≤T⊥/T||≤7) considered here. Yet the corresponding particle-in-cell simulations yield a higher saturation level of the fluctuating magnetic fields for the Alfvén-cyclotron instability than for the Bernstein modes as long as inline image. Since fast magnetosonic waves with ion Bernstein instability properties observed in the magnetosphere are often not accompanied by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, the results of the present study indicate that the ring-like proton distributions responsible for the excitation of these fast magnetosonic waves should not be very anisotropic.« less

  10. Scalings of Alfvén-cyclotron and ion Bernstein instabilities on temperature anisotropy of a ring-like velocity distribution in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kyungguk; Liu, Kaijun; Gary, S. Peter

    2016-03-01

    A ring-like proton velocity distribution with ∂fp(v⊥)/∂v⊥>0 and which is sufficiently anisotropic can excite two distinct types of growing modes in the inner magnetosphere: ion Bernstein instabilities with multiple ion cyclotron harmonics and quasi-perpendicular propagation and an Alfvén-cyclotron instability at frequencies below the proton cyclotron frequency and quasi-parallel propagation. Recent particle-in-cell simulations have demonstrated that even if the maximum linear growth rate of the latter instability is smaller than the corresponding growth of the former instability, the saturation levels of the fluctuating magnetic fields can be greater for the Alfvén-cyclotron instability than for the ion Bernstein instabilities. In this study, linear dispersion theory and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are used to examine scalings of the linear growth rate and saturation level of the two types of growing modes as functions of the temperature anisotropy T⊥/T|| for a general ring-like proton distribution with a fixed ring speed of 2vA, where vA is the Alfvén speed. For the proton distribution parameters chosen, the maximum linear theory growth rate of the Alfvén-cyclotron waves is smaller than that of the fastest-growing Bernstein mode for the wide range of anisotropies (1≤T⊥/T||≤7) considered here. Yet the corresponding particle-in-cell simulations yield a higher saturation level of the fluctuating magnetic fields for the Alfvén-cyclotron instability than for the Bernstein modes as long as T⊥/T|| ≳ 3. Since fast magnetosonic waves with ion Bernstein instability properties observed in the magnetosphere are often not accompanied by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, the results of the present study indicate that the ring-like proton distributions responsible for the excitation of these fast magnetosonic waves should not be very anisotropic.

  11. Quantifying regional cerebral blood flow by N-isopropyl-P-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (IMP) using a ring type single-photon emission computed tomography system

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, N.; Odano, I.; Ohkubo, M.

    1994-05-01

    We developed a more accurate quantitative measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with the microsphere model using N-isopropyl-p-[I-123] iodoamphetamine (IMP) and a ring type single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system. SPECT studies were performed in 17 patients with brain diseases. A dose of 222 MBq (6 mCi) of [I-123]IMP was injected i.v., at the same time a 5 min period of arterial blood withdrawal was begun. SPECT data were acquired from 25 min to 60 min after tracer injection. For obtaining the brain activity concentration at 5 min after IMP injection, total brain counts collections and one minute period short time SPECT studies were performed at 5, 20, and 60 min. Measurement of the values of rCBF was calculated using short time SPECT images at 5 min (rCBF), static SPECT images corrected with total cerebral counts (rCBF{sub Ct}.) and those corrected with reconstructed counts on short time SPECT images (rCBF{sub Cb}). There was a good relationship (r=0.69) between rCBF and rCBF{sub Ct}, however, rCBF{sub Ct} tends to be underestimated in high flow areas and overestimated in low flow areas. There was better relationship between rCBF and rCBF{sub Cb}(r=0.92). The overestimation and underestimation shown in rCBF{sub Ct} was considered to be due to the correction of reconstructed counts using a total cerebral time activity curve, because of the kinetic behavior of [I-123]IMP was different in each region. We concluded that more accurate rCBF values could be obtained using the regional time activity curves.

  12. Efficient generation of cylindrically polarized beams in an Yb:YAG thin-disk laser enabled by a ring-shaped pumping distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Tom; Rumpel, Martin; Graf, Thomas; Abdou Ahmed, Marwan

    2016-04-01

    The efficient generation of a cylindrically (radially or azimuthally) polarized LG01 mode was investigated using a ring-shaped pumping distribution in a high-power Yb:YAG thin-disk laser setup. This was realized by implementing a 300 mm long customized fused silica fiber capillary in the pump beam path of the pumping optics of a thin-disk laser. Furthermore, a grating waveguide mirror based on the leaky-mode coupling mechanism was used as one of the cavity end mirrors to allow sufficient reduction of the reflectivity of the polarization state to be suppressed in the resonator. In order to achieve efficient laser operation, an optimized mode overlap between the ring-shaped pump spot and the excited first order Laguerre-Gaussian doughnut mode is required. This was investigated theoretically by analyzing the intensity distribution generated by different fiber geometries using a commercially raytracing software (Zemax). The output power, polarization state and efficiency of the emitted laser beam were compared to that obtained with a standard flattop pumping distribution. In particular, the thermal behavior of the disk was investigated since the excessive fluorescence caused by the non-saturated excitation in the center of the homogeneously pumped disk leads to a strong heating of the crystal. This considerable heating source is avoided in the case of the ring-shaped pumping and a reduction of the temperature increase on the disk surface of about 21% (at 280 W of pump power) was observed. This should allow higher pump power densities without increasing the risk of damaging the disk or distorting the polarization purity. With a laser efficiency of 41.2% to be as high as in the case of the flattop pumping, a maximum output power of 107 W was measured.

  13. A Ringed Dwarf LINER 1 Galaxy Hosting an Intermediate-mass Black Hole with Large-scale Rotation-like Hα Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Qian, Lei; Dong, Xiao-Bo; Jiang, Ning; Lira, Paulina; Cai, Zheng; Wang, Feige; Yang, Jinyi; Xiao, Ting; Kim, Minjin

    2017-03-01

    We report the discovery of a 20 kpc sized {{H}}α emission in SDSS J083803.68+540642.0, a ringed dwarf galaxy ({M}V=-17.89 mag) hosting an accreting intermediate-mass black hole at z = 0.02957. Analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope images indicates that it is an early-type galaxy with a featureless low-surface brightness disk ({μ }0=20.39 mag arcsec‑2 in the V band) and a prominent, relatively red bulge (V ‑ I = 2.03, {R}{{e}}=0.28 {kpc} or 0.″48) that accounts for ≈81% of the total light in the I band. A circumgalactic ring of a diameter 16 kpc is also detected, with a disperse shape on its south side. The optical emission lines reveal the nucleus to be a broad-line LINER. Our MMT longslit observation indicates that the kinematics of the extended {{H}}α emission is consistent with a rotational gaseous disk, with a mean blueshifted velocity of 162 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and mean redshifted velocity of 86 {km} {{{s}}}-1. According to our photoionization calculations, the large-scale {{H}}α emission is unlikely to be powered by the central nucleus or by hot evolved (post-AGB) stars interspersed in the old stellar populations, but by in situ star formation; this is vindicated by the line-ratio diagnostic of the extended emission. We propose that both the ring and large-scale {{H}}α -emitting gas are created by the tidal accretion in a collision—and then merger—with a gas-rich galaxy of a comparable mass.

  14. Concise synthesis of rare pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones and related nitrogen-rich bicyclic scaffolds with a ring-junction nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Alanine, T A; Galloway, W R J D; Bartlett, S; Ciardiello, J J; McGuire, T M; Spring, D R

    2016-01-21

    Pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones represent a pharmaceutically interesting class of heterocycles. The structurally related pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-ones are associated with a broad range of useful biological properties. Furthermore, quinolizinone-type scaffolds of these sorts with a bridgehead nitrogen are expected to display interesting physico-chemical properties. However, pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones are largely under-represented in current small molecule screening libraries and the physical and biological properties of the pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-one scaffold have been poorly explored (indeed, the same can be said for unsaturated bicyclic compounds with a bridgehead nitrogen in general). Herein, we report the development of a new strategy for the concise synthesis of substituted pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones from readily available starting materials. The synthetic route involved the acylation of the lithium amide bases of 2-aminopyridines with alkynoate esters to form alkynamides, which were then cyclised under thermal conditions. The use of lithium amide anions ensured excellent regioselectivity for the 2-oxo-isomer over the undesired 4-oxo-isomer, which offers a distinct advantage over some existing methods for the synthesis of pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones. Notably, different aminoazines could also be employed in this approach, which enabled access to several very unusual bicyclic systems with higher nitrogen contents. This methodology thus represents an important contribution towards the synthesis of pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones and other rare azabicycles with a ring-junction nitrogen. These heterocycles represent attractive structural templates for drug discovery.

  15. Characterization of human constitutive photomorphogenesis protein 1, a RING finger ubiquitin ligase that interacts with Jun transcription factors and modulates their transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Elisabetta; Denti, Simona; Catena, Raffaella; Rossetti, Grazisa; Polo, Simona; Gasparian, Sona; Putignano, Stella; Rogge, Lars; Pardi, Ruggero

    2003-05-30

    RING finger proteins have been implicated in many fundamental cellular processes, including the control of gene expression. A key regulator of light-dependent development in Arabidopsis thaliana is the constitutive photomorphogenesis protein 1 (atCOP1), a RING finger protein that plays an essential role in translating light/dark signals into specific changes in gene transcription. atCOP1 binds the basic leucine zipper factor HY5 and suppresses its transcriptional activity through a yet undefined mechanism that results in HY5 degradation in response to darkness. Furthermore, the pleiotropic phenotype of atCOP1 mutants indicates that atCOP1 may be a central regulator of several transcriptional pathways. Here we report the cloning and characterization of the human orthologue of atCOP1. Human COP1 (huCOP1) distributes both to the cytoplasm and the nucleus of cells and shows a striking degree of sequence conservation with atCOP1, suggesting the possibility of a functional conservation as well. In co-immunoprecipitation assays huCOP1 specifically binds basic leucine zipper factors of the Jun family. As a functional consequence of this interaction, expression of huCOP1 in mammalian cells down-regulates c-Jun-dependent transcription and the expression of the AP-1 target genes, urokinase and matrix metalloproteinase 1. The RING domain of huCOP1 displays ubiquitin ligase activity in an autoubiquitination assay in vitro; however, suppression of AP-1-dependent transcription by huCOP1 occurs in the absence of changes in c-Jun protein levels, suggesting that this inhibitory effect is independent of c-Jun degradation. Our findings indicate that huCOP1 is a novel regulator of AP-1-dependent transcription sharing the important properties of Arabidopsis COP1 in the control of gene expression.

  16. ATL9, a RING Zinc Finger Protein with E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity Implicated in Chitin- and NADPH Oxidase-Mediated Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Stone, Sophia; Yang, Xin; Antico, Jay; Callis, Judy; Ramonell, Katrina M.; Somerville, Shauna

    2010-01-01

    Pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are signals detected by plants that activate basal defenses. One of these PAMPs is chitin, a carbohydrate present in the cell walls of fungi and in insect exoskeletons. Previous work has shown that chitin treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana induced defense-related genes in the absence of a pathogen and that the response was independent of the salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways. One of these genes is ATL9 ( = ATL2G), which encodes a RING zinc-finger like protein. In the current work we demonstrate that ATL9 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The expression pattern of ATL9 is positively correlated with basal defense responses against Golovinomyces cichoracearum, a biotrophic fungal pathogen. The basal levels of expression and the induction of ATL9 by chitin, in wild type plants, depends on the activity of NADPH oxidases suggesting that chitin-mediated defense response is NADPH oxidase dependent. Although ATL9 expression is not induced by treatment with known defense hormones (SA, JA or ET), full expression in response to chitin is compromised slightly in mutants where ET- or SA-dependent signaling is suppressed. Microarray analysis of the atl9 mutant revealed candidate genes that appear to act downstream of ATL9 in chitin-mediated defenses. These results hint at the complexity of chitin-mediated signaling and the potential interplay between elicitor-mediated signaling, signaling via known defense pathways and the oxidative burst. PMID:21203445

  17. Scalings of Alfvén-cyclotron and ion Bernstein instabilities on temperature anisotropy of a ring-like velocity distribution in the inner magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Kyungguk; Liu, Kaijun; Gary, S. Peter

    2016-03-18

    Here, a ring-like proton velocity distribution with ∂fp(v)/∂v>0 and which is sufficiently anisotropic can excite two distinct types of growing modes in the inner magnetosphere: ion Bernstein instabilities with multiple ion cyclotron harmonics and quasi-perpendicular propagation and an Alfvén-cyclotron instability at frequencies below the proton cyclotron frequency and quasi-parallel propagation. Recent particle-in-cell simulations have demonstrated that even if the maximum linear growth rate of the latter instability is smaller than the corresponding growth of the former instability, the saturation levels of the fluctuating magnetic fields can be greater for the Alfvén-cyclotron instability than for the ion Bernstein instabilities. In this study, linear dispersion theory and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are used to examine scalings of the linear growth rate and saturation level of the two types of growing modes as functions of the temperature anisotropy T/T|| for a general ring-like proton distribution with a fixed ring speed of 2vA, where vA is the Alfvén speed. For the proton distribution parameters chosen, the maximum linear theory growth rate of the Alfvén-cyclotron waves is smaller than that of the fastest-growing Bernstein mode for the wide range of anisotropies (1≤T/T||≤7) considered here. Yet the corresponding particle-in-cell simulations yield a higher saturation level of the fluctuating magnetic fields for the Alfvén-cyclotron instability than for the Bernstein modes as long as inline image. Since fast magnetosonic waves with ion Bernstein instability properties observed in the magnetosphere are often not accompanied by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, the results of the present study indicate that the ring-like proton distributions responsible for the excitation of these fast magnetosonic waves should not be very

  18. A Ring-‘Rain’ influence for Saturn’s Cloud Albedo and Temperatures? Evidence Pro or Con from Voyager, HST, and Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Robert A.; Li, Liming

    2015-11-01

    J. E. P. Connerney [Geophys. Res. Lett, 13, 773-776, 1986] pointed out that ‘latitudinal variations in images of Saturn’s disk, upper atmospheric temperatures, and ionospheric electron densities are found in magnetic conjugacy with features in Saturn’s ring plane’, and proposed ‘that these latitudinal variations are the result of a variable influx of water, transported along magnetic field lines from sources in Saturn’s ring plane’. Observations of H3+ support a ring-ionosphere connection [O'Donoghue et al., Nature 496, 7444, 2013]. What about cloud albedo and temperature? Connerney attributed a hemispheric asymmetry in haze and temperature to an asymmetry in water flux and predicted that ‘the presently-observed north-south asymmetry (upper tropospheric temperatures, aerosols) will persist throughout the Saturn year’. We can now test these ideas with data from the Cassini mission, from the Hubble Space Telescope, and from ground-based observations. Analyses of ground-based images and especially Hubble data established that the hemispheric asymmetry of the aerosol population does change, and seasonal effects are dominant, although non-seasonal variations are also observed [Karkoschka and Tomasko, Icarus 179, 195-221, 2005]. Upper tropospheric temperatures also vary as expected in response to seasonal forcing [Fletcher et al., Icarus 208, 337-352, 2009]. Connerney also identified dark bands in Voyager Green-filter images on magnetic conjugacy with the E ring and edges of the A and B rings. In Cassini Green-filter images there is some correspondence between dark bands and ring features in magnetic conjugacy, but collectively the correlation is not strong. Cassini 727-nm methane band images do not suggest depletion of aerosols in the upper troposphere at ring edge magnetic conjugacy latitudes as proposed by Connerney. We conclude that ring rain does not have a significant influence on upper tropospheric aerosols and temperatures on Saturn. Part of

  19. Molecular phylogeny of a RING E3 ubiquitin ligase, conserved in eukaryotic cells and dominated by homologous components, the muskelin/RanBPM/CTLH complex.

    PubMed

    Francis, Ore; Han, Fujun; Adams, Josephine C

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitination is an essential post-translational modification that regulates signalling and protein turnover in eukaryotic cells. Specificity of ubiquitination is driven by ubiquitin E3 ligases, many of which remain poorly understood. One such is the mammalian muskelin/RanBP9/CTLH complex that includes eight proteins, five of which (RanBP9/RanBPM, TWA1, MAEA, Rmnd5 and muskelin), share striking similarities of domain architecture and have been implicated in regulation of cell organisation. In budding yeast, the homologous GID complex acts to down-regulate gluconeogenesis. In both complexes, Rmnd5/GID2 corresponds to a RING ubiquitin ligase. To better understand this E3 ligase system, we conducted molecular phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the related components. TWA1, Rmnd5, MAEA and WDR26 are conserved throughout all eukaryotic supergroups, albeit WDR26 was not identified in Rhizaria. RanBPM is absent from Excavates and from some sub-lineages. Armc8 and c17orf39 were represented across unikonts but in bikonts were identified only in Viridiplantae and in O. trifallax within alveolates. Muskelin is present only in Opisthokonts. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the shared LisH and CTLH domains of RanBPM, TWA1, MAEA and Rmnd5 revealed closer relationships and profiles of conserved residues between, respectively, Rmnd5 and MAEA, and RanBPM and TWA1. Rmnd5 and MAEA are also related by the presence of conserved, variant RING domains. Examination of how N- or C-terminal domain deletions alter the sub-cellular localisation of each protein in mammalian cells identified distinct contributions of the LisH domains to protein localisation or folding/stability. In conclusion, all components except muskelin are inferred to have been present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. Diversification of this ligase complex in different eukaryotic lineages may result from the apparently fast evolution of RanBPM, differing requirements for WDR26, Armc8 or c17orf39, and the

  20. Dimethandrolone (7alpha,11beta-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone) and 11beta-methyl-19-nortestosterone are not converted to aromatic A-ring products in the presence of recombinant human aromatase.

    PubMed

    Attardi, Barbara J; Pham, Trung C; Radler, Lisa C; Burgenson, Janet; Hild, Sheri A; Reel, Jerry R

    2008-06-01

    Dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU: 7alpha,11beta-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone 17beta-undecanoate) is a potent orally active androgen in development for hormonal therapy in men. Cleavage of the 17beta-ester bond by esterases in vivo leads to liberation of the biologically active androgen, dimethandrolone (DMA), a 19-norandrogen. For hormone replacement in men, administration of C19 androgens such as testosterone (T) may lead to elevations in circulating levels of estrogens due to aromatization. As several reports have suggested that certain 19-norandrogens may serve as substrates for the aromatase enzyme and are converted to the corresponding aromatic A-ring products, it was important to investigate whether DMA, the related compound, 11beta-methyl-19-nortestosterone (11beta-MNT), also being tested for hormonal therapy in men, and other 19-norandrogens can be converted to aromatic A-ring products by human aromatase. The hypothetical aromatic A-ring product corresponding to each substrate was obtained by chemical synthesis. These estrogens bound with high affinity to purified recombinant human estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta in competitive binding assays (IC50's: 5-12 x 10(-9) M) and stimulated transcription of 3XERE-luciferase in T47Dco human breast cancer cells with a potency equal to or greater than that of estradiol (E2) (EC50's: 10(-12) to 10(-11) M). C19 androgens (T, 17alpha-methyltestosterone (17alpha-MT), androstenedione (AD), and 16alpha-hydroxyandrostenedione (16alpha-OHAD)), 19-norandrogens (DMA, 11beta-MNT, 19-nortestosterone (19-NT), and 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT)) or the structurally similar 19-norprogestin, norethindrone (NET) were incubated at 50 microM with recombinant human aromatase for 10-180 min at 37 degrees C. The reactions were terminated by extraction with acetonitrile and centrifugation, and substrate and potential product were separated by HPLC. Retention times were monitored by UV absorption, and UV peaks were quantified

  1. The alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 is closely related to aromatic monooxygenases and catalyzes aromatic monohydroxylation of benzene, toluene, and phenol

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, N.Y.; Jenkins, A.; Chan Kwo Chion, C.K.N.; Leak, D.J.

    1999-04-01

    The genes encoding the six polypeptide components of the alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 (Xamo) have been located on a 4.9-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA previously cloned in cosmid pNY2. Sequencing and analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences indicate that the components of Xamo are homologous to those of the aromatic monooxygenases, toluene 2-, 3-, and 4-monooxygenase and benzene monooxygenase, and that the gene order is identical. The genes and predicted polypeptides are aamA, encoding the 497-residue oxygenase {alpha}-subunit (XamoA); aamB, encoding the 88-residue oxygenase {gamma}-subunit (XamoB); aamC, encoding the 122-residue ferredoxin (XamoC); aamD, encoding the 101-residue coupling or effector protein (XamoD); aamE, encoding the 341-residue oxygenase {beta}-subunit (XamoE); and aamF, encoding the 327-residue reductase (XamoF). A sequence with > 60% concurrence with the consensus sequence of {sigma}{sup 5.4} (RpoN)-dependent promoters was identified upstream of the aamA gene. Detailed comparison of XamoA with the oxygenase {alpha}-subunits from aromatic monooxygenases, phenol hydroxylases, methane monooxygenase, and the alkene monooxygenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276 showed that, despite the overall similarity to the aromatic monooxygenases, XamoA has some distinctive characteristics of the oxygenases which oxidize aliphatic, and particularly alkene, substrates. On the basis of the similarity between Xamo and the aromatic monooxygenases, Xanthobacter strain Py2 was tested and shown to oxidize benzene, toluene, and phenol, while the alkene monooxygenase-negative mutants NZ1 and NZ2 did not.

  2. In Vitro Cytochrome P450 Formation of a Mono-Hydroxylated Metabolite of Zearalenone Exhibiting Estrogenic Activities: Possible Occurrence of This Metabolite in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bravin, Frederique; Duca, Radu C.; Balaguer, Patrick; Delaforge, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    The mycoestrogen zearalenone (ZEN), as well as its reduced metabolites, which belong to the endocrine disruptor bio-molecule family, are substrates for various enzymes involved in steroid metabolism. In addition to its reduction by the steroid dehydrogenase pathway, ZEN also interacts with hepatic detoxification enzymes, which convert it into hydroxylated metabolites (OH-ZEN). Due to their structures to that of estradiol, ZEN and its derived metabolites bind to the estrogen receptors and are involved in endocrinal perturbations and are possibly associated with estrogen-dependent cancers. The primary aim of this present study was to identify the enzymatic cytochrome P450 isoforms responsible for the formation of the most abundant OH-ZEN. We thus studied its in vitro formation using hepatic microsomes in a range of animal model systems including man. OH-ZEN was also recovered in liver and urine of rats treated orally with ZEN. Finally we compared the activity of ZEN and its active metabolites (α-ZAL and OH-ZEN) on estrogen receptors using HeLa ER-α and ER-β reporter cell lines as reporters. OH-ZEN estrogenic activities were revealed to be limited and not as significant as those of ZEN or α-ZAL. PMID:19468341

  3. Monohydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (OH-PBDEs) and Dihydroxylated Polybrominated Biphenyls (di-OH-PBBs): Novel Photoproducts of 2,6-Dibromophenol

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongxia; Jiang, Jingqiu; Wang, Yanli; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Buettner, Garry R.; Quan, Xie; Chen, Jingwen

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxylated polybromodiphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) are emerging aquatic pollutants, but their origins in the environment are not fully understood. There is evidence that OH-PBDEs are formed from bromophenols, but the underlying transformation processes remain unknown. Here we investigate if the photoformation of OH-PBDEs from 2,6-dibromophenol in aqueous solution involves 2,6-bromophenoxyl radicals. After UV irradiation of an aqueous 2,6-dibromophenol solution, HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS and GC/MS analysis revealed the formation of a OH-PBDE and a dihydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl (di-OH-PBB). Both dimeric photoproducts were tentatively identified as 4′-OH-BDE73 and 4,4′-di-OH-PBB80. In addition, three debromination products (4-OH-BDE34, 4′-OH-BDE27, and 4,4′-di-OH-PBBs) were observed. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the presence of a 2,6-dibromophenoxyl radical with a six-line spectrum (aH (2 meta) = 3.45 G, aH (1 para) = 1.04 G, g = 2.0046) during irradiation of a 2,6-dibromophenol solution in water. The 2,6-dibromophenoxyl radical had a relatively long half-life (122 ± 5 μs) according to laser flash photolysis experiments. The para-para C-C and O-para-C couplings of these 2,6-dibromophenoxyl radicals are consistent with the observed formation of both dimeric OH-PBDE and di-OH-PBB photoproducts. These findings show that bromophenoxyl radical-mediated phototransformation of bromophenols is a source of OH-PBDEs and di-OH-PBBs in aqueous environments that requires further attention. PMID:26545041

  4. Characteristics of a Ring Laser for Geodesy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, U.; Schneider, M.; Stedman, G. E.; Schlüter, W.

    1999-03-01

    Large Ring lasers are not yet used for geophysical applications. C-II is a prototype for such a device and has a square optical path with side 1 m. One difference with the earlier C-I laser testbed - and similarity to an aircraft gyro - is its monolithic construction. It is housed 30 m underground in a New Zealand military bunker. The measured ringdown time of 0.20 ms corresponds to a quality factor 6e+11 and a finesse 9.4e+4. For the observed exit beam power of 10 pW, this gives an angular rotation sensitivity 4 × 10-9 rad/s/sqrt(Hz). C-II performance limits therefore rival those of Sagnac matter-wave gyroscopes (2 × 10-8 rad/s/sqrt(Hz)). This also corresponds to a quantum noise line width of 220 microhertz, consistent with that observed (172 microhertz) in the direct spectrum and with the coefficient of inverse time in the Allan variance plot.

  5. A ring model of the lasertron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallerico, P. J.; Coulon, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    A large-signal, 2-1/2 dimensional relativistic particle dynamics code has been written to simulate the electrical behavior of the lasertron. The theory and the approximations involved in this code are discussed in detail. Numerical results are presented to show the comparison with previous work and to show the general variation in lasertron performance with frequency, beam voltage, and beam current. The code has also been used to design a prototype 6 GHz lasertron for construction at the Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire in Orsay, France. The calculations show that this prototype can produce 4.7 MW peak-power output with a conversion efficiency of 65 percent. At 3 GHz, the power would be increased by a factor approaching 10, and the conversion efficiency would be over 70 percent.

  6. Bichromatic emission in a ring dye laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.; Sohrab Afzal, R.; Rabinovich, W. S.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental study of a high-Q Rhodamine 6G ring dye laser has been performed, and bichromatic emission (BE) with wavelength spacings as large as 110 A when the laser operated bidirectionally has been measured. The BE vanished at all excitations when the laser was forced into unidirectional operation using a Faraday isolator. However, when a weak reflected beam was allowed to make a single pass in the direction opposite to that allowed by the Faraday device, BE is recovered at the higher pump powers.

  7. [Strangulation of the penis by a ring].

    PubMed

    Kato, Y; Kaneko, S; Iguchi, M; Kurita, T

    1987-10-01

    A 42-year-old man was hospitalized with urinary retention due to strangulation of the penis in December, 1981. He placed a stainless steel ring on the base of the penis to prolong erection one month earlier, but subsequent penile edema made it impossible to remove the ring. On admission the penis was extremely swollen (15 cm in length and 7 cm in diameter). Gangrenous patches covered the surface of the penis almost completely and the ring had cut through all the tissues superficial to Buck's fascia. Even slight tension would have probably divided the penis at the site of obstruction and we thought that amputation would be necessary. However, we decided to try conservative therapy since pulsation was felt in the glans. A high-speed airdriven drill with a diamond tip was used to sever the ring. This took ninety minutes. The ring was 2 cm in diameter. The wound was sutured in one layer after through debridement. The skin ulceration healed slowly and a urethral fistula was present in the penoscrotal region until the 66th postoperative day when it closed spontaneously. At discharge the patient had no problems with urination or erection.

  8. Pure phase decoherence in a ring geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z.; Aharony, A.; Entin-Wohlman, O.; Stamp, P. C. E.

    2010-06-15

    We study the dynamics of pure phase decoherence for a particle hopping around an N-site ring, coupled both to a spin bath and to an Aharonov-Bohm flux which threads the ring. Analytic results are found for the dynamics of the influence functional and of the reduced density matrix of the particle, both for initial single wave-packet states, and for states split initially into two separate wave packets moving at different velocities. We also give results for the dynamics of the current as a function of time.

  9. A ring lasers array for fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Virgilio, Angela; Allegrini, Maria; Beghi, Alessandro; Belfi, Jacopo; Beverini, Nicolò; Bosi, Filippo; Bouhadef, Bachir; Calamai, Massimo; Carelli, Giorgio; Cuccato, Davide; Maccioni, Enrico; Ortolan, Antonello; Passeggio, Giuseppe; Porzio, Alberto; Ruggiero, Matteo Luca; Santagata, Rosa; Tartaglia, Angelo

    2014-12-01

    After reviewing the importance of light as a probe for testing the structure of space-time, we describe the GINGER project. GINGER will be a three-dimensional array of large-size ring-lasers able to measure the de Sitter and Lense-Thirring effects. The instrument will be located at the underground laboratory of Gran Sasso, in Italy. We describe the preliminary actions and measurements already under way and present the full road map to GINGER. The intermediate apparatuses GP2 and GINGERino are described. GINGER is expected to be fully operating in few years. xml:lang="fr"

  10. All fiber laser using a ring cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Alberto Varguez; Pérez, Georgina Beltrán; Aguirre, Severino Muñoz; Mixcóatl, Juan Castillo

    2008-04-01

    Mode-locked laser have a number of potential applications, depending on the wavelength and pulse width. They could be used as sources in communications systems for time division multiplexing (TDM) or wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) as spectroscopic tools in the laboratory for time-resolved studies of fast nonlinear phenomena in semiconductors, or as seeds for solid-state amplifers such as Nd:Glass, color center alexandrite, or Ti:Sapphire. Short pulses also have potential use in electro-optic sampling systems, as a source for pulsed sensors, or as tunable seed pulses for lasers in medical applications. Applications such as optical coherent tomography could take advantage of the broad bandwidth of a mode-locked fiber laser rather that the temporal ultra-short pulse width. This work shows the characterization of active mode-locking all-fiber laser by using an acousto-optic frequency shifter to the ring cavity, an erbium doped fiber (EDF) and polarization controllers (PC). The results shows a highly stable mode-locked, low noise of pulse generation with repetition rate of 10 MHz and width of 1.6 ns

  11. Geophysical Measurements Using a Ring Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Angela

    2016-03-01

    Low frequency infrasound from weather related events has been studied for a number of years. In this poster, the results from using a large active ring laser as an infrasound detector are presented. A slightly modified cavity design enhances the interferometer's sensitivity to infrasound. Our results qualitatively agree with several findings from a long term study of weather generated infrasound by NOAA. On April 27, 2014, the 66 km track of an EF-4 tornado passed within 21 km of the ring laser interferometer. An FFT of the ring laser interferometer output revealed a steady tornado generated frequency of 0.94 Hz. The track also passed close to the US Array Transportable Station W41B. This provided the opportunity to examine both the infrasound and ground motion generated by the tornado. Infrasound from three other tornadoes is also included. In all cases the infrasound was detected approximately 30 minutes before the tornado funnel was observed. This work is generously supported by the National Science Foundation and NASA/Arkansas Space Grant.

  12. A ring burn--electric or contact?

    PubMed

    Attalla, M F; el-Ekiabi, S; Al-Baker, A

    1990-02-01

    A circumferential band of deep burn affecting the ring finger sustained by a car electrician is presented. Although it was caused by short circuiting the car battery by a metal spanner and the ring he was wearing, the injury was purely a contact burn.

  13. The Arctic Circle: A Ring of Influence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    37 Chairman, U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Operations. ―JP 3-0‖. Washington DC: CJCS, 2008. Pg. xiii . 38 ―U.S. Military Wants...www.proquest.com/ (accessed February 22, 2010). EUROPA – The Official website of the European Union. http://www.europa.eu/ (accessed February 24...of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Operations. ―JP 3-0‖. Washington DC: CJCS, 2008. Pg. xiii . U.S. President. Unified Command Plan

  14. Software development for a Ring Imaging Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torisky, Benjamin; Benmokhtar, Fatiha

    2015-04-01

    Jefferson Lab (Jlab) is performing a large-scale upgrade to their Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) up to 12 GeV beam. The Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS12) in Hall B is being upgraded and a new Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector is being developed to provide better kaon - pion separation throughout the 3 to 12 GeV range. With this addition, when the electron beam hits the target, the resulting pions, kaons, and other particles will pass through a wall of translucent aerogel tiles and create Cherenkov radiation. This light can then be accurately detected by a large array of Multi-Anode PhotoMultiplier Tubes (MA-PMT). I am presenting my work on the implementation of Java based reconstruction programs for the RICH in the CLAS12 main analysis package.

  15. Earhart Propeller in Saturn A Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-30

    The propeller informally named "Earhart" is seen in this view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft at much higher resolution than ever before. This view, obtained on March 22, 2017, is the second time Cassini has deliberately targeted an individual propeller for close-up viewing during its ring-grazing orbits, after its images of Santos-Dumont (PIA21433) a month earlier. The biggest known propeller, informally named "Bleriot," is slated for the third and final propeller close-up in April 2017. Propellers are disturbances in the ring caused by a central moonlet. The moonlet itself would be a few pixels wide in this view, but it is difficult to distinguish from (and may be obscured by) the disturbed ring material that surrounds it. (See PIA20525 for more info on propellers.) The detailed structure of the Earhart propeller, as seen here, differs from that of Santos-Dumont. It is not clear whether these differences have to do with intrinsic differences between Earhart and Santos-Dumont, or whether they have to do with different viewing angles or differences in where the propellers were imaged in their orbits around Saturn. Earhart is situated very close to the 200-mile-wide (320-kilometer-wide) Encke Gap, which is held open by the much larger moon Pan. In this view, half of the Encke Gap is visible as the dark region at right. The gap and the propeller are a study in contrasts. The propeller is nothing more than Earhart's attempt to open a gap like Encke using its gravity. However, Earhart's attempt is thwarted by the mass of the ring, which fills in the nascent gap before it can extend very far. Pan is a few thousand times more massive than Earhart, which enables it to maintain a gap that extends all the way around the ring. To the left of the propeller are wave features in the rings caused by the moons Pandora, Prometheus and Pan. The visible-light image was acquired by the Cassini narrow-angle camera at a distance of 69,183 miles (111,340 kilometers) from the propeller feature. Image scale is 0.4 mile (670 meters) per pixel in the radial, or outward-from-Saturn, direction. The view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21437

  16. Evidence of P-element-induced sister-chromatid exchange in a ring-X chromosome in Drosophila, with implication for a high rate of formation of hybrid elements.

    PubMed

    Sved, John A; Liang, Xiumei

    2006-02-01

    Activation of a single incomplete P element induces recombination at a rate of approximately 0.5-1% in the male germline of Drosophila. Male recombination rises by an order of magnitude to approximately 20% if homologous P elements are involved. The high rate of recombination suggests the possibility that sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) might be elevated to a similar extent, since homologous P elements must always be present in sister chromatids. This possibility was tested by recombining a single P element onto a ring-X chromosome and using sex-ratio distortion to measure the loss of the ring-X due to SCE in the male germline. The results confirmed a rate of loss comparable to that expected with homologous elements, although the rate of loss was variable. Both SCE and recombination results are consistent with the "hybrid element insertion" model, in which the left and right ends from different elements associate, providing that insertion occurs preferentially in the vicinity of a P-element end. For autosomes, hybrid element formation may thus occur at a much higher rate than the 0.5-1% implied by single element recombination, with only a small minority of hybrid element excision events being resolved by recombination.

  17. Application of a ring cavity surface emitting quantum cascade laser (RCSE-QCL) on the measurement of H2S in a CH4 matrix for process analytics.

    PubMed

    Moser, Harald; Genner, Andreas; Ofner, Johannes; Schwarzer, C; Strasser, Gottfried; Lendl, Bernhard

    2016-03-21

    The present work reports on the first application of a ring-cavity-surface-emitting quantum-cascade laser (RCSE-QCL) for sensitive gas measurements. RCSE-QCLs are promising candidates for optical gas-sensing due to their single-mode, mode-hop-free and narrow-band emission characteristics along with their broad spectral coverage. The time resolved down-chirp of the RCSE-QCL in the 1227-1236 cm-1 (8.15-8.09 µm) spectral range was investigated using a step-scan FT-IR spectrometer (Bruker Vertex 80v) with 2 ns time and 0.1 cm-1 spectral resolution. The pulse repetition rate was set between 20 and 200 kHz and the laser device was cooled to 15-17°C. Employing 300 ns pulses a spectrum of ~1.5 cm-1 could be recorded. Under these laser operation conditions and a gas pressure of 1000 mbar a limit of detection (3σ) of 1.5 ppmv for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in nitrogen was achieved using a 100 m Herriott cell and a thermoelectric cooled MCT detector for absorption measurements. Using 3 µs long pulses enabled to further extend the spectral bandwidth to 8.5 cm-1. Based on this increased spectral coverage and employing reduced pressure conditions (50 mbar) multiple peaks of the target analyte H2S as well as methane (CH4) could be examined within one single pulse.

  18. (1) H NMR Spectra. Part 28: Proton chemical shifts and couplings in three-membered rings. A ring current model for cyclopropane and a novel dihedral angle dependence for (3) J(HH) couplings involving the epoxy proton.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Raymond J; Leonard, Paul; Tormena, Cláudio F

    2012-04-01

    The (1) H chemical shifts of selected three-membered ring compounds in CDCl(3) solvent were obtained. This allowed the determination of the substituent chemical shifts of the substituents in the three-membered rings and the long-range effect of these rings on the distant protons. The substituent chemical shifts of common substituents in the cyclopropane ring differ considerably from the same substituents in acyclic fragments and in cyclohexane and were modelled in terms of a three-bond (γ)-effect. For long-range protons (more than three bonds removed), the substituent effects of the cyclopropane ring were analysed in terms of the cyclopropane magnetic anisotropy and steric effect. The cyclopropane magnetic anisotropy (ring current) shift was modelled by (a) a single equivalent dipole perpendicular to and at the centre of the cyclopropane ring and (b) by three identical equivalent dipoles perpendicular to the ring placed at each carbon atom. Model (b) gave a more accurate description of the (1) H chemical shifts and was the selected model. After parameterization, the overall root mean square error for the dataset of 289 entries was 0.068 ppm. The anisotropic effects are significant for the cyclopropane protons (ca 1 ppm) but decrease rapidly with distance. The heterocyclic rings of oxirane, thiirane and aziridine do not possess a ring current. (3) J(HH) couplings of the epoxy ring proton with side-chain protons were obtained and shown to be dependent on both the H-C-C-H and H-C-C-O orientations. Both density functional theory calculations and a simple Karplus-type equation gave general agreement with the observed couplings (root mean square error 0.5 Hz over a 10-Hz range).

  19. EVOLUTION OF A RING AROUND THE PLUTO–CHARON BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J. E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu

    2015-08-10

    We consider the formation of satellites around the Pluto–Charon binary. An early collision between the two partners likely produced the binary and a narrow ring of debris, out of which arose the moons Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. How the satellites emerged from the compact ring is uncertain. Here we show that a particle ring spreads from physical collisions and collective gravitational scattering, similar to migration. Around a binary, these processes take place in the reference frames of “most circular” orbits, akin to circular ones in a Keplerian potential. Ring particles damp to these orbits and avoid destructive collisions. Damping and diffusion also help particles survive dynamical instabilities driven by resonances with the binary. In some situations, particles become trapped near resonances that sweep outward with the tidal evolution of the Pluto–Charon binary. With simple models and numerical experiments, we show how the Pluto–Charon impact ring may have expanded into a broad disk, out of which grew the circumbinary moons. In some scenarios, the ring can spread well beyond the orbit of Hydra, the most distant moon, to form a handful of smaller satellites. If these small moons exist, New Horizons will find them.

  20. Acceleration and localization of matter in a ring trap

    SciTech Connect

    Bludov, Yu. V.; Konotop, V. V.

    2007-05-15

    A toroidal trap combined with external time-dependent electric field can be used for implementing different dynamical regimes of matter waves. In particular, we show that dynamical and stochastic acceleration, localization, and implementation of the Kapitza pendulum can be originated by means of proper choice of the external force.

  1. Buckling analysis of a ring stiffened hybrid composite cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potluri, Rakesh; Eswara Kumar, A.; Navuri, Karteek; Nagaraju, M.; Mojeswara Rao, Duduku

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to understand the response of the ring stiffened cylinders made up of hybrid composites subjected to buckling loads by using the concepts of Design of Experiments (DOE) and optimization by using Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation software Ansys workbench V15. Carbon epoxy and E-glass epoxy composites were used in the hybrid composite. This hybrid composite was analyzed by using different layup angles. Central composite design (CCD) was used to perform design of experiments (D.O.E) and kriging method was used to generate a response surface. The response surface optimization (RSO) was performed by using the method of the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). After optimization, the best candidate was chosen and applied to the ring stiffened cylinder and eigenvalue buckling analysis was performed to understand the buckling behavior. Best laminate candidates with high buckling strength have been identified. A generalized procedure of the laminate optimization and analysis have been shown.

  2. Model-based control of cardiac alternans on a ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzón, Alejandro; Grigoriev, Roman O.; Fenton, Flavio H.

    2009-08-01

    Cardiac alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation of cardiac electrical dynamics, and ventricular tachycardia, generally associated with a spiral wave of electrical activity, have been identified as frequent precursors of the life-threatening spatiotemporally chaotic electrical state of ventricular fibrillation (VF). Schemes for the elimination of alternans and the stabilization of spiral waves through the injection of weak external currents have been proposed as methods to prevent VF but have not performed at the level required for clinical implementation. In this paper we propose a control method based on linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) control. Unlike most previously proposed approaches, our method incorporates information from the underlying model to increase efficiency. We use a one-dimensional ringlike geometry, with a single control electrode, to compare the performance of our method with that of two other approaches, quasi-instantaneous suppression of unstable modes (QISUM) and time-delay autosynchronization (TDAS). We find that QISUM fails to suppress alternans due to conduction block. Although both TDAS and LQR succeed in suppressing alternans, LQR is able to suppress the alternans faster and using a much weaker control current. Our results highlight the benefits of a model-based control approach despite its inherent complexity compared with nonmodel-based control such as TDAS.

  3. Resistance between two nodes of a ring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhuozhuo; Yan, Weigen

    2017-10-01

    The resistance between two nodes in some resistor networks has been studied extensively by mathematicians and physicists. Given m positive integers m1 ,m2 , ⋯ ,mn, let G[mi]1n be the resistor network with node set V =V1 ∪V2 ∪ ⋯ ∪Vn and with a unit resistor between arbitrary two nodes u ∈Vi , v ∈Vi+1 for i = 1 , 2 , ⋯ , n, where Vi ∩Vj = 0̸ if i ≠ j, and ∣Vi ∣ =mi ,Vn+1 =V1. Gervacio (2016) introduces a modified method to compute the resistance between two nodes. Based on this method, in this paper, we use the elimination and substitution principles in electrical circuit to obtain the resistance between arbitrary two nodes of G[mi]1n.

  4. Exact yrast spectra of cold atoms on a ring

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminishi, Eriko; Kanamoto, Rina; Sato, Jun; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2011-03-15

    We propose a methodology to construct excited states with a fixed angular momentum, namely, ''yrast excited states'' of finite-size one-dimensional bosonic systems with periodic boundary conditions. The excitation energies such as the first yrast excited energy are calculated through the system-size asymptotic expansion and expressed analytically by dressed energy. Interestingly, they are grouped into sets of almost degenerate energy levels. The low-lying excitation spectrum near the yrast state is consistent with the U(1) conformal field theories if the total angular momentum is given by an integral multiple of particle number; i.e., if the system is supercurrent.

  5. Modelling and calibration of a ring-shaped electrostatic meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianyong; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Chuanlong; Wang, Shimin

    2009-02-01

    Ring-shaped electrostatic flow meters can provide very useful information on pneumatically transported air-solids mixture. This type of meters are popular in measuring and controlling the pulverized coal flow distribution among conveyors leading to burners in coal-fired power stations, and they have also been used for research purposes, e.g. for the investigation of electrification mechanism of air-solids two-phase flow. In this paper, finite element method (FEM) is employed to analyze the characteristics of ring-shaped electrostatic meters, and a mathematic model has been developed to express the relationship between the meter's voltage output and the motion of charged particles in the sensing volume. The theoretical analysis and the test results using a belt rig demonstrate that the output of the meter depends upon many parameters including the characteristics of conditioning circuitry, the particle velocity vector, the amount and the rate of change of the charge carried by particles, the locations of particles and etc. This paper also introduces a method to optimize the theoretical model via calibration.

  6. Improving production in steamed wells with a ring seal packer

    SciTech Connect

    Speirs, A.B.; Webster, K.D.

    1995-12-31

    In thermally enhanced cyclic and steam flood wells, production declines as the fluid level in the reservoir drops and the remaining depleted zones connect with wellbore perforations. The depleted intervals act as steam thief zones for cyclic (huff and puff) wells or steam override (break through) zones for steam drive applications. Most cyclic steam and steam drive secondary recovery processes are found in unconsolidated sand reservoirs that generally require slotted liner type completion for sand retention. Slotted liner type completions make zonal isolation a significant challenge. Several methods have been used to completely isolate these zones from the wellbore (i.e., matrix cements, resins, sidetracking liners, etc.) but most require complex workovers and are relatively expensive. The ring seal packer was developed as a far less expensive alternative to these methods while achieving only slightly less than complete isolation. This paper presents the design of the RSP, deployment methods, and successful field production results.

  7. Mechanical chirality: A chiral catalyst with a ring to it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldup, Stephen M.

    2016-05-01

    A chiral [2]rotaxane in which the asymmetry is derived from the way in which the two components are mechanically interlocked -- rather than being encoded in the covalent connectivity of the components themselves -- has been shown to act as an enantioselective organocatalyst.

  8. Shipboard Application of a Ring Structured Distributed Computing System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Considerable research is currently going on into the application of distributed computing systems. They appear particularly suitable for the...structured distributed computing system might be adapted to function in this environment. Included in this consideration are the feasibility of

  9. Regulation of Plexin: A Ring of Structural Twists and Turns.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Chun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2016-08-03

    The regulation of the guidance receptor plexin is incompletely understood. In this issue, Kong et al. (2016) present crystal structures of the full-length extracellular region of class A plexins, revealing its dual role in both autoinhibition and activation.

  10. Enhanced Discharge Performance in a Ring Cusp Plasma Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    There is a need for a lightweight, low power ion thruster for space science missions. Such an ion thruster is under development at NASA Glenn Research Center. In an effort to better understand the discharge performance of this thruster, a thruster discharge chamber with an anode containing electrically isolated electrodes at the cusps was fabricated and tested. Characteristics of this ring cusp ion discharge were measured without ion beam extraction. Discharge current was measured at collection electrodes located at the magnetic cusps and at the anode body itself. Discharge performance and plasma properties were measured as a function of power, which was varied between 20 and 50 W. It was found that ion production costs decreased by as much as 20 percent when the two most downstream cusp electrodes were allowed to float. Floating the electrodes did not give rise to a significant increase in discharge power even though the plasma density increased markedly. The improved performance is attributed to enhanced electron containment.

  11. Amplitude and polarization asymmetries in a ring laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, L. L.; Buholz, N. E.

    1971-01-01

    Asymmetric amplitude effects between the oppositely directed traveling waves in a He-Ne ring laser are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. These effects make it possible to detect angular orientations of an inner-cavity bar with respect to the plane of the ring cavity. The amplitude asymmetries occur when a birefringent bar is placed in the three-mirror ring cavity, and an axial magnetic field is applied to the active medium. A simplified theoretical analysis is performed by using a first order perturbation theory to derive an expression for the polarization of the active medium, and a set of self-consistent equations are derived to predict threshold conditions. Polarization asymmetries between the oppositely directed waves are also predicted. Amplitude asymmetries similar in nature to those predicted at threshold occur when the laser is operating in 12-15 free-running modes, and polarization asymmetry occurs simultaneously.

  12. Feasibility of a ring FEL at low emittance storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapov, I.

    2015-09-01

    A scheme for generating coherent radiation at latest generation low emittance storage rings such as PETRA III at DESY (Balewski et al., 2004 [1]) is proposed. The scheme is based on focusing and subsequent defocusing of the electron beam in the longitudinal phase space at the undulator location. The expected performance characteristics are estimated for radiation in the wavelength range of 500-1500 eV. It is shown that the average brightness is increased by several orders of magnitude compared to spontaneous undulator radiation, which can open new perspectives for photon-hungry soft X-ray spectroscopy techniques.

  13. VERTICAL RELAXATION OF A MOONLET PROPELLER IN SATURN'S A RING

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, H.; Seiss, M.; Spahn, F.

    2013-03-01

    Two images, taken by the Cassini spacecraft near Saturn's equinox in 2009 August, show the Earhart propeller casting a 350 km long shadow, offering the opportunity to watch how the ring height, excited by the propeller moonlet, relaxes to an equilibrium state. From the shape of the shadow cast and a model of the azimuthal propeller height relaxation, we determine the exponential cooling constant of this process to be {lambda} = 0.07 {+-} 0.02 km{sup -1}, and thereby determine the collision frequency of the ring particles in the vertically excited region of the propeller to be {omega}{sub c}/{Omega} = 0.9 {+-} 0.2.

  14. Dynamics of neutral molecules stored in a ring

    SciTech Connect

    Crompvoets, Floris M.H.; Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Kuepper, Jochen; Roij, Andre J.A. van; Meijer, Gerard

    2004-06-01

    A decelerated beam of neutral ammonia molecules is injected into an electrostatic storage ring. Electrostatic lenses are used to map the emittance of the decelerator onto the acceptance of the ring. The tangential velocity spread of the package of molecules in the ring is set to less than 1 m/s. The package of molecules can be observed for more than 50 distinct round trips, corresponding to 40 m in circular orbit and almost 0.5 s storage time, sufficiently long for a first investigation of its transversal motion in the ring.

  15. Detection of volcanic infrasound with a ring laser interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Robert W.; Hosman, Ashley R.

    2014-11-01

    Over the last 15 years, large horizontally mounted ring lasers have been used to study numerous geophysical phenomena. This paper provides examples of the sensitivity of large active ring laser interferometers to far field infrasound emissions from explosive volcanic eruptions. Volcanic infrasound is reported from representative eruptions of volcanoes Kelut (Kelud), Klyuchevskaya (Kliuchevskoi), Puyehua, Santa Maria, Sakurajima, and Tungurahua. The detected infrasound frequencies are in basic agreement with the far field air wave frequencies from the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens and the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo. Cavities of large horizontally mounted active ring lasers contain two counter-propagating waves that in the presence Earth's rotation become traveling waves of slightly different frequencies. The Sagnac or beat frequency due to the difference in the traveling wave frequencies is modulated by geophysical phenomena, in this case volcanic infrasound. Signatures of the infrasound are found in the frequency modulated side bands.

  16. Model-based control of cardiac alternans on a ring.

    PubMed

    Garzón, Alejandro; Grigoriev, Roman O; Fenton, Flavio H

    2009-08-01

    Cardiac alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation of cardiac electrical dynamics, and ventricular tachycardia, generally associated with a spiral wave of electrical activity, have been identified as frequent precursors of the life-threatening spatiotemporally chaotic electrical state of ventricular fibrillation (VF). Schemes for the elimination of alternans and the stabilization of spiral waves through the injection of weak external currents have been proposed as methods to prevent VF but have not performed at the level required for clinical implementation. In this paper we propose a control method based on linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) control. Unlike most previously proposed approaches, our method incorporates information from the underlying model to increase efficiency. We use a one-dimensional ringlike geometry, with a single control electrode, to compare the performance of our method with that of two other approaches, quasi-instantaneous suppression of unstable modes (QISUM) and time-delay autosynchronization (TDAS). We find that QISUM fails to suppress alternans due to conduction block. Although both TDAS and LQR succeed in suppressing alternans, LQR is able to suppress the alternans faster and using a much weaker control current. Our results highlight the benefits of a model-based control approach despite its inherent complexity compared with nonmodel-based control such as TDAS.

  17. A ring-source model for jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, L.

    1978-01-01

    A model consisting of two ring sources was developed to study the direct radiation of jet noise in terms of correlation, coherence, and phase and also to aid in solving the inverse radiation problem of determining the noise source in terms of far-field measurements. The rings consist of discrete sources which are either monopoles or quadrupoles with Gaussian profiles. Only adjacent sources, both within the rings and between rings, are correlated. Results show that from the far-field information can be used to determine when the sources are compact or noncompact with respect to the acoustic wavelength and to distinguish between the types of sources. In addition, from the inverse radiation approach, the center of mass, the location and separation distance of the ring, and the diameters can be recovered.

  18. The herring gull complex is not a ring species.

    PubMed Central

    Liebers, Dorit; de Knijff, Peter; Helbig, Andreas J.

    2004-01-01

    Under what circumstances speciation in sexually reproducing animals can occur without geographical disjunction is still controversial. According to the ring-species model, a reproductive barrier may arise through 'isolation by distance' when peripheral populations of a species meet after expanding around some uninhabitable barrier. The classical example of this kind of speciation is the herring gull (Larus argentatus) complex, with a circumpolar distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Based on mitochondrial DNA variation among 21 gull taxa, we show that members of this complex differentiated largely in allopatry following multiple vicariance and long-distance-colonization events, not primarily through isolation by distance. Reproductive isolation evolved more rapidly between some lineages than between others, irrespective of their genetic distance. Extant taxa are the result of divergent as well as reticulate evolution between two ancestral lineages originally separated in a North Atlantic refugium and a continental Eurasian refugium, respectively. Continental birds expanded along the entire north Eurasian coast and via Beringia into North America. Contrary to the ring-species model, we find no genetic evidence for a closure of the circumpolar ring through colonization of Europe by North American herring gulls. However, closure of the ring in the opposite direction may be imminent, with lesser black-backed gulls about to colonize North America. PMID:15255043

  19. Evolution of a Ring around the Pluto-Charon Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2015-08-01

    We consider the formation of satellites around the Pluto-Charon binary. An early collision between the two partners likely produced the binary and a narrow ring of debris, out of which arose the moons Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. How the satellites emerged from the compact ring is uncertain. Here we show that a particle ring spreads from physical collisions and collective gravitational scattering, similar to migration. Around a binary, these processes take place in the reference frames of “most circular” orbits, akin to circular ones in a Keplerian potential. Ring particles damp to these orbits and avoid destructive collisions. Damping and diffusion also help particles survive dynamical instabilities driven by resonances with the binary. In some situations, particles become trapped near resonances that sweep outward with the tidal evolution of the Pluto-Charon binary. With simple models and numerical experiments, we show how the Pluto-Charon impact ring may have expanded into a broad disk, out of which grew the circumbinary moons. In some scenarios, the ring can spread well beyond the orbit of Hydra, the most distant moon, to form a handful of smaller satellites. If these small moons exist, New Horizons will find them.

  20. CIRCE: A Ring-based Source of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.M.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.; Munson, D.V.; Nishimura, H.; Robin, D.S.; Sannibale, F.; Schlueter, R.D.; Thur, W.G.; Jung, J.Y.; Wan, W.

    2004-05-12

    We present the concepts for an electron storage ring dedicated to and optimized for the production of stable coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) over the far-infrared terahertz wavelength range from 200 {mu}m to about one cm. CIRCE (Coherent InfraRed CEnter) will be a 66 m circumference ring located on top of the ALS booster synchrotron shielding tunnel and using the existing ALS injector. This location provides enough floor space for both the CIRCE ring, its required shielding, and numerous beamlines. We present the calculated CIRCE photon flux where a gain of 6 - 9 orders of magnitude is shown compared to existing far-IR sources. Additionally, the particular design of the dipole vacuum chamber has been optimized to allow an excellent transmission of these far-infrared wavelengths. We believe that the CIRCE source can be constructed for a modest cost.

  1. Solitary Osteochondroma in a Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta)

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Katharine L; Boedeker, Nancy C; Gordon, Sebastian S; Walsh, Timothy F

    2015-01-01

    A 20-y-old, male, ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) presented with a large, firm mass on the proximal caudolateral left femur. The animal displayed no clinical signs associated with the mass. Radiographs revealed a mineralized mass protruding from the femur, with an intact femoral cortex. Histopathology diagnosed osteochondroma in view of the presence of a peripheral layer of cartilage with progressive endochondral ossification and typical remodeling of bony trabeculae. The mass grew quickly after the initial biopsy, and a second surgery to debulk 95% of the tumor was performed. Histopathologic features of the larger samples were similar to those of the initial biopsies, with the cartilage layer being discontinuous and development of bone from some borders progressing directly from a periost-like layer. Nineteen months after the second surgery, the mass had regrown and extended further proximally on the femur toward the epiphysis, but the animal remained asymptomatic, and additional debulking was not attempted. This report is the first description of an osteochondroma in a prosimian and describes unique behavior of the tumor compared with osteochondromas found in humans, dogs, and cats. PMID:26310465

  2. Detection of atmospheric infrasound with a ring laser interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Robert W.; Meredith, John A.; Lamb, Angela B.; Kessler, Elijah G.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the results from using a large active ring laser interferometer as an infrasound detector are presented. On April 27, 2014, an EF4 tornado struck Central Arkansas and passed within 21 km of the ring laser interferometer. The tornado resulted in 16 fatalities and millions of dollars in damage. Using the ring laser to study the tornado infrasound produced results that qualitatively agree with several findings from a long-term study of weather generated infrasound by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. A Fast Fourier Transform of the ring laser output revealed a coherent frequency of approximately 0.94 Hz that lasted during the life of the storm. The 0.94 Hz frequency was initially observed 30 min before the funnel was reported on the ground. Infrasound signatures from four separate tornadoes are presented. In each case, coherent infrasound was detected at least 30 min before the tornado was reported on the ground. Examples of the detection of distant coherent acoustic-gravity waves from volcanoes and typhoons are also presented. In addition, buoyancy waves were recorded.

  3. Solitary Osteochondroma in a Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Hope, Katharine L; Boedeker, Nancy C; Gordon, Sebastian S; Walsh, Timothy F

    2015-08-01

    A 20-y-old, male, ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) presented with a large, firm mass on the proximal caudolateral left femur. The animal displayed no clinical signs associated with the mass. Radiographs revealed a mineralized mass protruding from the femur, with an intact femoral cortex. Histopathology diagnosed osteochondroma in view of the presence of a peripheral layer of cartilage with progressive endochondral ossification and typical remodeling of bony trabeculae. The mass grew quickly after the initial biopsy, and a second surgery to debulk 95% of the tumor was performed. Histopathologic features of the larger samples were similar to those of the initial biopsies, with the cartilage layer being discontinuous and development of bone from some borders progressing directly from a periost-like layer. Nineteen months after the second surgery, the mass had regrown and extended further proximally on the femur toward the epiphysis, but the animal remained asymptomatic, and additional debulking was not attempted. This report is the first description of an osteochondroma in a prosimian and describes unique behavior of the tumor compared with osteochondromas found in humans, dogs, and cats.

  4. From Foreign Students, Hardly a Ringing Endorsement for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Susan

    2012-01-01

    While government surveys report that international students are content, a burgeoning foreign-student movement and a growing body of academic research suggest that the truth is more complicated. In these forums, many students from China, India, and elsewhere report a range of experiences from feelings of loneliness to incidents of outright…

  5. Identification of selected in vitro generated phase-I metabolites of the steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator MK-0773 for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Lagojda, Andreas; Kuehne, Dirk; Krug, Oliver; Thomas, Andreas; Wigger, Tina; Karst, Uwe; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Research into developing anabolic agents for various therapeutic purposes has been pursued for decades. As the clinical utility of anabolic-androgenic steroids has been found to be limited because of their lack of tissue selectivity and associated off-target effects, alternative drug entities have been designed and are commonly referred to as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). While most of these SARMs are of nonsteroidal structure, the drug candidate MK-0773 comprises a 4-aza-steroidal nucleus. Besides the intended therapeutic use, SARMs have been found to be illicitly distributed and misused as doping agents in sport, necessitating frequently updated doping control analytical assays. As steroidal compounds reportedly undergo considerable metabolic transformations, the phase-I metabolism of MK-0773 was simulated using human liver microsomal (HLM) preparations and electrochemical conversion. Subsequently, major metabolic products were identified and characterized employing liquid chromatography-high-resolution/high- accuracy tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. MK-0773 produced numerous phase-I metabolites under the chosen in vitro incubation reactions, mostly resulting from mono- and bisoxygenation of the steroid. HLM yielded at least 10 monooxygenated species, while electrochemistry-based experiments resulted predominantly in three monohydroxylated metabolites. Elemental composition data and product ion mass spectra were generated for these analytes, ESI/APCI measurements corroborated the formation of at least two N-oxygenated metabolites, and NMR data obtained from electrochemistry-derived products supported structures suggested for three monohydroxylated compounds. Hereby, the hydroxylation of the A-ring located N- bound methyl group was found to be of particular intensity. In the absence of controlled elimination studies, the

  6. A ring test of in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility: analytical variability and sample ranking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD) is an empirical measurement used to describe fermentability of NDF by rumen microbes. Variability is inherent in assays and affects the precision that can be expected for replicated samples. The study objective was to evaluate variability w...

  7. A ring test of in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility: Analytical variability and sample ranking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD) is an empirical measurement used to describe fermentability of NDF by rumen microbes. Variability is inherent in assays and affects the precision that can be expected for replicated samples. The study objective was to evaluate variability w...

  8. A ring polymer molecular dynamics study of the Cl + O3 reaction.

    PubMed

    de Tudela, R Pérez; Suleimanov, Y V; Menéndez, M; Castillo, J F; Aoiz, F J

    2014-02-21

    We have performed ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) calculations on the Cl + O3 → ClO + O2 reaction at temperatures ranging from 200 K to 400 K, and compared the results with previous theoretical studies and also with the available experimental data. This reaction presents a couple of features which makes it a particularly interesting and challenging case to be studied using RPMD. First, classically, this is essentially a barrierless reaction, with a saddle point located below the reactants. However, the free energy profiles along the reaction coordinate display small barriers due to the fact that the decrease in enthalpy from reactants to the TS is somewhat compensated by a decrease in entropy. To our knowledge this is the first time such a process is studied using this technique. Second, the transition state is located early in the reactant valley, therefore the inclusion of the recrossing correction in the RPMD calculations is crucial to determine rate coefficients. Regarding quantum effects, our calculations show that RPMD results are within the error bars of the purely classical ones. This implies that tunnelling is negligible in this reaction at the temperatures studied, not surprisingly for a system including oxygen and chlorine atoms, and that the zero point energies of reactants, transition state and products are practically the same. Finally, the rate coefficients presented in this work are in a fairly good agreement with the recommended experimental values, somewhat better than those obtained using other approaches.

  9. Prediction of enhanced solvent-induced enantioselectivity for a ring opening with a bifurcating reaction path

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Barry K.; Harvey, Jeremy N.; Glowacki, David R.

    2014-12-11

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations are reported for the deazetisation and ring opening of meso-2,3-difluoro-2,3-dimethyldiazocyclopropane in three solvents: CHCl3, CHFClBr and CH3CH(OH)CF3 (TFIPA). In this study, the achiral reactant leads to enantiomeric allene products, and the question addressed in the study is whether either of the chiral, enantiomerically pure solvents can induce significant enantiomeric excess in the products. The direct dynamics calculations use an empirical valence bond potential for the solute, with empirical parameters optimised against M06-2X/cc-pVTZ density functional results. The results reveal that the exothermic N2 loss and ring opening promote transient strong solvent–solute interactions within the first ~100 fs of the reaction. Because of the bifurcating reaction path, these interactions occur at time when the “decision” about which enantiomer of the product to form has yet to be made (at least for many of the trajectories). Hence, it is possible in principle that the solvent could exert a larger-than-normal influence on the course of the reaction. In fact, the results reveal no such effect for CHFClBr but do predict that TFIPA should induce 15.2 ± 2.1% enantiomeric excess. This is roughly an order of magnitude larger than solvent-induced enantiomeric excesses found experimentally in reactions where the conversion of reactant(s) to enantiomeric products occur over separate transition states.

  10. Structure of a RING E3 ligase and ubiquitin-loaded E2 primed for catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Plechanovová, Anna; Jaffray, Ellis; Tatham, Michael H.; Naismith, James H.; Hay, Ronald T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Ubiquitin modification is mediated by a large family of specificity determining ubiquitin E3 ligases. To facilitate ubiquitin transfer, RING E3 ligases bind both substrate and a ubiquitin E2 conjugating enzyme linked to ubiquitin via a thioester bond, but the mechanism of transfer has remained elusive. Here we report the crystal structure of the dimeric RING of RNF4 in complex with E2 (UbcH5a) linked by an isopeptide bond to ubiquitin. While the E2 contacts a single protomer of the RING, ubiquitin is folded back onto the E2 by contacts from both RING protomers. The C-terminal tail of ubiquitin is locked into an active site groove on the E2 by an intricate network of interactions, resulting in changes at the E2 active site. This arrangement is primed for catalysis as it can deprotonate the incoming substrate lysine residue and stabilise the consequent tetrahedral transition state intermediate. PMID:22842904

  11. Aharonov-Casher effect for plasmons in a ring of Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süsstrunk, Roman; Garate, Ion; Glazman, Leonid I.

    2013-08-01

    Phase slips in a one-dimensional closed array of Josephson junctions hybridize the persistent current states and plasmon branches of excitations. The interference between phase slips passing through different junctions of the array makes the hybridization sensitive to the charges of the superconducting islands comprising the array. This in turn results in the Aharonov-Casher effect for plasmons, which in the absence of phase slips are insensitive to island charges.

  12. Frequency domain ultrasound waveform tomography: breast imaging using a ring transducer.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, G Y; Li, C; Roy, O; Schmidt, S; Duric, N

    2015-07-21

    Application of the frequency domain acoustic wave equation on data acquired from ultrasound tomography scans is shown to yield high resolution sound speed images on the order of the wavelength of the highest reconstructed frequency. Using a signal bandwidth of 0.4-1 MHz and an average sound speed of 1500 m s(-1), the resolution is approximately 1.5 mm. The quantitative sound speed values and morphology provided by these images have the potential to inform diagnosis and classification of breast disease. In this study, we present the formalism, practical application, and in vivo results of waveform tomography applied to breast data gathered by two different ultrasound tomography scanners that utilize ring transducers. The formalism includes a review of frequency domain modeling of the wave equation using finite difference operators as well as a review of the gradient descent method for the iterative reconstruction scheme. It is shown that the practical application of waveform tomography requires an accurate starting model, careful data processing, and a method to gradually incorporate higher frequency information into the sound speed reconstruction. Following these steps resulted in high resolution quantitative sound speed images of the breast. These images show marked improvement relative to commonly used ray tomography reconstruction methods. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by obtaining similar results from two different ultrasound tomography devices. We also compare our method to MRI to demonstrate concordant findings. The clinical data used in this work was obtained from a HIPAA compliant clinical study (IRB 040912M1F).

  13. Predictors for reproductive isolation in a ring species complex following genetic and ecological divergence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reproductive isolation (RI) is widely accepted as an important "check point" in the diversification process, since it defines irreversible evolutionary trajectories. Much less consensus exists about the processes that might drive RI. Here, we employ a formal quantitative analysis of genetic interactions at several stages of divergence within the ring species complex Ensatina eschscholtzii in order to assess the relative contribution of genetic and ecological divergence for the development of RI. Results By augmenting previous genetic datasets and adding new ecological data, we quantify levels of genetic and ecological divergence between populations and test how they correlate with a restriction of genetic admixture upon secondary contact. Our results indicate that the isolated effect of ecological divergence between parental populations does not result in reproductively isolated taxa, even when genetic transitions between parental taxa are narrow. Instead, processes associated with overall genetic divergence are the best predictors of reproductive isolation, and when parental taxa diverge in nuclear markers we observe a complete cessation of hybridization, even to sympatric occurrence of distinct evolutionary lineages. Although every parental population has diverged in mitochondrial DNA, its degree of divergence does not predict the extent of RI. Conclusions These results show that in Ensatina, the evolutionary outcomes of ecological divergence differ from those of genetic divergence. While evident properties of taxa may emerge via ecological divergence, such as adaptation to local environment, RI is likely to be a byproduct of processes that contribute to overall genetic divergence, such as time in geographic isolation, rather than being a direct outcome of local adaptation. PMID:21733173

  14. Osteosarcoma of the tibiotarsus with possible pulmonary metastasis in a ring-necked dove (Streptopelia risoria).

    PubMed

    Lamb, Stephanie; Reavill, Drury; Wojcieszyn, John; Sitinas, Nicholas

    2014-03-01

    An unknown-age, adult female ring-necked dove (Streptopelia risoria) was presented with an ulcerated mass on the medial side of the right tibiotarsus. Radiographs revealed severe boney lysis with proliferative periosteal reaction. Surgical amputation was performed at the level of the mid femur and histopathologic examination of the mass identified an osteosarcoma. At the 6-month recheck, the bird was in good condition with no evidence of tumor regrowth or metastasis; however, at 8 months, the dove was found dead. On necropsy, a large mass was present in the coelomic cavity invading the left pulmonary parenchyma. Histopathologic examination indicated a spindle cell sarcoma. Immunohistochemical staining for osteocalcin and osteonectin was performed on the confirmed osteosarcoma in the tibiotarsus and the spindle cell sarcoma mass. Results indicated positive intracytoplasmic immunoreactivity for osteocalcin and osteonectin in the confirmed osteosarcoma neoplasm. Very rare positive cytoplasmic immunoreactivity occurred in the spindle cell sarcoma.

  15. Search for long-lived heavy charged particles using a ring imaging Cherenkov technique at LHCb.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casanova Mohr, R; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Dean, C T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fol, P; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Geraci, A; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Mapelli, A; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M N; Mitzel, D S; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Osorio Rodrigues, B; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skillicorn, I; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Sterpka, F; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tekampe, T; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Todd, J; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L

    A search is performed for heavy long-lived charged particles using 3.0 [Formula: see text] of proton-proton collisions collected at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 7 and 8  TeV with the LHCb detector. The search is mainly based on the response of the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors to distinguish the heavy, slow-moving particles from muons. No evidence is found for the production of such long-lived states. The results are expressed as limits on the Drell-Yan production of pairs of long-lived particles, with both particles in the LHCb pseudorapidity acceptance, [Formula: see text]. The mass-dependent cross-section upper limits are in the range 2-4 fb (at 95 % CL) for masses between 14 and 309 [Formula: see text].

  16. Screening methods for assessment of biodegradability of chemicals in seawater--results from a ring test.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, N; Kristensen, P

    1992-04-01

    An international ring test involving 14 laboratories was organized on behalf of the Commission of the European Economic Communities (EEC) with the purpose of evaluating two proposed screening methods for assessment of biodegradability in seawater: (a) a shake flask die-away test based primarily on analysis of dissolved organic carbon and (b) a closed bottle test based on determination of dissolved oxygen. Both tests are performed with nutrient-enriched natural seawater as the test medium and with no inoculum added other than the natural seawater microflora. The test methods are seawater versions of the modified OECD screening test and the closed bottle test, respectively, adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and by the EEC as tests for "ready biodegradability." The following five chemicals were examined: sodium benzoate, aniline, diethylene glycol, pentaerythritol, and 4-nitrophenol. Sodium benzoate and aniline, which are known to be generally readily biodegradable consistently degraded in practically all tests, thus demonstrating the technical feasibility of the methods. Like in previous ring tests with freshwater screening methods variable results were obtained with the other three compounds, which is believed primarily to be due to site-specific differences between the microflora of the different seawater samples used and to some extent also to differences in the applied concentrations of test material. A positive result with the screening methods indicates that the test substance will most likely degrade relatively rapidly in seawater from the site of collection, while a negative test result does not preclude biodegradability under environmental conditions where the concentrations of chemicals are much lower than the concentrations applied for analytical reasons in screening tests. Nevertheless, the screening tests are considered useful and cost-effective tools for an initial assessment of biodegradability in marine environments.

  17. Prediction of enhanced solvent-induced enantioselectivity for a ring opening with a bifurcating reaction path

    DOE PAGES

    Carpenter, Barry K.; Harvey, Jeremy N.; Glowacki, David R.

    2014-12-11

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations are reported for the deazetisation and ring opening of meso-2,3-difluoro-2,3-dimethyldiazocyclopropane in three solvents: CHCl3, CHFClBr and CH3CH(OH)CF3 (TFIPA). In this study, the achiral reactant leads to enantiomeric allene products, and the question addressed in the study is whether either of the chiral, enantiomerically pure solvents can induce significant enantiomeric excess in the products. The direct dynamics calculations use an empirical valence bond potential for the solute, with empirical parameters optimised against M06-2X/cc-pVTZ density functional results. The results reveal that the exothermic N2 loss and ring opening promote transient strong solvent–solute interactions within the first ~100 fsmore » of the reaction. Because of the bifurcating reaction path, these interactions occur at time when the “decision” about which enantiomer of the product to form has yet to be made (at least for many of the trajectories). Hence, it is possible in principle that the solvent could exert a larger-than-normal influence on the course of the reaction. In fact, the results reveal no such effect for CHFClBr but do predict that TFIPA should induce 15.2 ± 2.1% enantiomeric excess. This is roughly an order of magnitude larger than solvent-induced enantiomeric excesses found experimentally in reactions where the conversion of reactant(s) to enantiomeric products occur over separate transition states.« less

  18. A ring for all: γ-tubulin-containing nucleation complexes in acentrosomal plant microtubule arrays.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The construction of dynamic polar microtubules from 13 protofilaments consisting of α-tubulin and β-tubulin heterodimers requires a preformed nucleation seed that specifies subcellular localization and timing of microtubule polymerization in vivo. An evolutionarily conserved γ-tubulin-containing ring complex is recruited to the lateral wall of preexisting microtubules or outer nuclear membranes in plant cells, and is then activated as a template for new microtubules of defined geometry. Specific regulators are thought to target/activate the ring complex to nucleate nascent microtubules in distinct polymerization patterns, as seen in interphase and mitotic arrays. The augmin complex, which was initially identified in metazoan cells, recruits the ring complex to plant mitotic microtubules, where new polymers are abundantly generated at shallow angles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural transitions in a ring stain created at the contact line of evaporating nanosuspension sessile drops.

    PubMed

    Askounis, Alexandros; Sefiane, Khellil; Koutsos, Vasileios; Shanahan, Martin E R

    2013-01-01

    Monodisperse nanosuspension droplets, placed on a flat surface, evaporated following the stick-slip motion of the three-phase contact line. Unexpectedly, a disordered region formed at the exterior edge of a closely packed nanocolloidal crystalline structure during the "stick" period. In order to assess the role of particle velocity on particle structuring, we did experiments in a reduced pressure environment which allowed the enhancement of particle velocity. These experiments revealed the promotion of hexagonal packing at the very edge of the crystallite with increasing velocity. Quantification of particle velocity and comparison with measured deposit shape for each case allowed us to provide a tentative description of the underlying mechanisms that govern particle deposition of nanoparticles at the triple line of an evaporating droplet. Behavior is governed by an interplay between the fluid, and hence particle, flow velocity (main ordering parameter) and wedge constraints, and consequently disjoining pressure (main disordering parameter). Furthermore, the formation of a second disordered particle region at the interior edge of the deposit (towards bulk fluid) was found and attributed to the rapid motion of the triple line during the "slip" regime. Additionally, the magnitude of the pinning forces acting on the triple line of the same drops was calculated. These findings provide further insight into the mechanisms of the phenomenon and could facilitate its exploitation in various nanotechnological applications.

  20. Effect of zeta potential on the performance of a ring-type electroosmotic mixer.

    PubMed

    Kim, T A; Koo, K H; Kim, Y J

    2009-12-01

    In order to achieve faster mixing, a new type of electrokinetic mixer with a T-type channel is introduced. The proposed mixer takes two fluids from different inlets and combines them into a single channel. The fluids then enter a mixing chamber with different inner and outer radii. Four microelectrodes are positioned on the outer wall of the mixing chamber. The electric potentials on the four microelectrodes are sinusoidal with respect to time and have various maximum voltages, zeta potentials and frequency values. The working fluid is water and each inlet has a different initial concentration values. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is solved in the channel, with a slip boundary condition on the inner and outer walls of the mixing chamber. The convection-diffusion equation is used to describe the concentration of the dissolved substances in the fluid. The pressure, concentration and flow fields in the channel are calculated and the results are graphically depicted for various flow and electric conditions.

  1. Acoustic Levitation Transportation of Small Objects Using a Ring-type Vibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gilles P. L.; Andrade, Marco A. B.; Adamowski, Julio C.; Silva, Eḿílio C. N.

    A new device for noncontact transportation of small solid objects is presented here. Ultrasonic flexural vibrations are generated along the ring shaped vibrator using two Langevin transducers and by using a reflector parallel to the vibrator, small particles are trapped at the nodal points of the resulting acoustic standing wave. The particles are then moved by generating a traveling wave along the vibrator, which can be done by modulating the vibration amplitude of the transducers. The working principle of the traveling wave along the vibrator has been modeled by the superposition of two orthogonal standing waves, and the position of the particles can be predicted by using finite element analysis of the vibrator and the resulting acoustic field. A prototype consisting of a 3 mm thick, 220 mm long, 50 mm wide and 52 mm radius aluminum ring-type vibrator and a reflector of the same length and width was built and small polystyrene spheres have been successfully transported along the straight parts of the vibrator.

  2. A wideband textile antenna with a ring-slotted AMC plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussin, Ezzaty Faridah Nor Mohd; Soh, Ping Jack; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Lago, Herwansyah; Al-Hadi, Azremi Abdullah; Rahiman, Mohd Hafiz Fazalul

    2017-01-01

    A wideband microstrip-based textile planar antenna with artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) plane is presented. The antenna is initially designed using the combination of two rectangular microstrip antennas operating at 1.5 and 2.5 GHz before being further optimized for wideband operation using various broadbanding techniques. This optimized radiator is then placed over an array of unit elements forming an AMC plane. Each unit element is formed using a square patch slotted using a circular ring and is designed to resonate at 2 GHz. To validate the contribution of the AMC plane in reducing backward radiation toward the human user, the performance of the proposed antenna is compared to a similar antenna without the AMC plane. This investigation indicated that the proposed antenna is capable of reducing backlobe while simultaneously increasing gain to 3.38 dB and improving bandwidth up to 52%.

  3. A novel system for commissioning brachytherapy applicators: example of a ring applicator.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; van den Bosch, Michiel R; Voncken, Robert; Podesta, Mark; Verhaegen, Frank

    2017-09-15

    A novel system was developed to improve commissioning and quality assurance of brachytherapy applicators used in High Dose Rate (HDR). It employs an imaging panel to create reference images and to measure dwell times and dwell positions. As an example: two ring applicators of the same model were evaluated. An applicator was placed on the surface of an imaging panel and a HDR 192Ir source was positioned in an imaging channel above the panel to generate an image of the applicator, using the gamma photons of the brachytherapy source. The applicator projection image was overlaid with the images acquired by capturing the gamma photons emitted by the source dwelling inside the applicator. We verified 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 cm interdwell distances for different offsets, applicator inclinations and transfer tube curvatures. The data analysis was performed using in-house developed software, capable of processing the data in real time, define catheters and create movies recording the irradiation procedure. One applicator showed up to 0.4 cm difference from the expected position for a specific dwell position. The problem appeared intermittently. The standard deviations of the remaining dwell positions (40 measurements) were less than 0.05 cm. The second ring applicator had a similar reproducibility with absolute coordinate differences from expected values ranging from -0.10 up to 0.18 cm. The curvature of the transfer tube can lead to differences larger than 0.1 cm whilst the inclination of the applicator showed a negligible effect. The proposed method allows the verification of all steps of the irradiation, providing accurate information about dwell positions and dwell times. It allows the verification of small interdwell positions (≤ 0.1 cm) and reduces measurement time. In addition, no additional radiation source is necessary since the HDR 192Ir source is used to generate an image of the applicator. © 2017 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  4. A ring-distortion strategy to construct stereochemically complex and structurally diverse compounds from natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huigens, Robert W., III; Morrison, Karen C.; Hicklin, Robert W.; Flood, Timothy A., Jr.; Richter, Michelle F.; Hergenrother, Paul J.

    2013-03-01

    High-throughput screening is the dominant method used to identify lead compounds in drug discovery. As such, the makeup of screening libraries largely dictates the biological targets that can be modulated and the therapeutics that can be developed. Unfortunately, most compound-screening collections consist principally of planar molecules with little structural or stereochemical complexity, compounds that do not offer the arrangement of chemical functionality necessary for the modulation of many drug targets. Here we describe a novel, general and facile strategy for the creation of diverse compounds with high structural and stereochemical complexity using readily available natural products as synthetic starting points. We show through the evaluation of chemical properties (which include fraction of sp3 carbons, ClogP and the number of stereogenic centres) that these compounds are significantly more complex and diverse than those in standard screening collections, and we give guidelines for the application of this strategy to any suitable natural product.

  5. Artificial Faraday rotation using a ring metamaterial structure without static magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodera, Toshiro; Sounas, Dimitrios L.; Caloz, Christophe

    2011-07-01

    A metamaterial structure composed of a periodic array of conductive rings including each a semiconductor-based isolator is experimentally shown to produce Faraday rotation. Due to the presence of the isolators, a unidirectional traveling-wave regime is established along the rings, generating rotating magnetic moments and hence emulating the phenomenon of electron spin precession. The metamaterial exhibits the same response as a magnetically biased ferrite or plasma, but without the need of any static magnetic field bias, and therefore, it is easily integrated in printed circuit technology.

  6. Normal Mode Splitting and Mechanical Effects of an Optical Lattice in a Ring Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinner, Julian; Lindholdt, Malik; Nagorny, Boris; Hemmerich, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    A novel regime of atom-cavity physics is explored, arising when large atom samples dispersively interact with high-finesse optical cavities. A stable far-detuned optical lattice of several million rubidium atoms is formed inside an optical ring resonator by coupling equal amounts of laser light to each propagation direction of a longitudinal cavity mode. An adjacent longitudinal mode, detuned by about 3 GHz, is used to perform probe transmission spectroscopy of the system. The atom-cavity coupling for the lattice beams and the probe is dispersive and dissipation results only from the finite photon-storage time. The observation of two well-resolved normal modes demonstrates the regime of strong cooperative coupling. The details of the normal mode spectrum reveal mechanical effects associated with the retroaction of the probe upon the optical lattice.

  7. Normal mode splitting and mechanical effects of an optical lattice in a ring cavity.

    PubMed

    Klinner, Julian; Lindholdt, Malik; Nagorny, Boris; Hemmerich, Andreas

    2006-01-20

    A novel regime of atom-cavity physics is explored, arising when large atom samples dispersively interact with high-finesse optical cavities. A stable far-detuned optical lattice of several million rubidium atoms is formed inside an optical ring resonator by coupling equal amounts of laser light to each propagation direction of a longitudinal cavity mode. An adjacent longitudinal mode, detuned by about 3 GHz, is used to perform probe transmission spectroscopy of the system. The atom-cavity coupling for the lattice beams and the probe is dispersive and dissipation results only from the finite photon-storage time. The observation of two well-resolved normal modes demonstrates the regime of strong cooperative coupling. The details of the normal mode spectrum reveal mechanical effects associated with the retroaction of the probe upon the optical lattice.

  8. Generating skeletal diversity from the C19 -diterpenoid alkaloid deltaline: a ring-distortion approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi-Feng; Wang, Feng-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-06-08

    The development of new drugs calls for large collections of diverse molecules with considerable complexity. Ring distortion of natural products provides an efficient and facile approach to access new architectures with intriguing biological activities, by harnessing their inherent complexity. In this study, such a strategy has been explored on an abundant C19 -diterpenoid alkaloid, deltaline, enabling the synthesis of 32 new derivatives bearing a broad spectrum of unique scaffolds. Extensive spectroscopic studies including X-ray crystallographic analyses strongly supported the structures of the obtained novel skeletons, which present comparable opportunities with the great contributions made by nature for discovery of new lead compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Quantum fluctuations of radiation in a ring Nd : YAG chip laser

    SciTech Connect

    Lariontsev, E G; Firsov, V V

    2015-07-31

    We report theoretical and experimental investigation of intensity fluctuations in a travelling-wave ring Nd : YAG chip laser, caused by the noise of spontaneous emission. In accordance with theory and experiment, quantum intensity fluctuations in the laser under study decrease dramatically with increasing pump over the threshold. As a result of the research performed, the factor β is found, which determines the ratio of the rate of spontaneous emission into the generated mode to the total rate of spontaneous emission into all modes. The effect of the relaxation rate from the lower laser level on quantum fluctuations of the radiation intensity is found. (control of radiation parameters)

  10. A ring polymer molecular dynamics study of the isotopologues of the H + H2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Suleimanov, Yury V; de Tudela, Ricardo Pérez; Jambrina, Pablo G; Castillo, Jesús F; Sáez-Rábanos, Vicente; Manolopoulos, David E; Aoiz, F Javier

    2013-03-14

    The inclusion of Quantum Mechanical (QM) effects such as zero point energy (ZPE) and tunneling in simulations of chemical reactions, especially in the case of light atom transfer, is an important problem in computational chemistry. In this respect, the hydrogen exchange reaction and its isotopic variants constitute an excellent benchmark for the assessment of approximate QM methods. In particular, the recently developed ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) technique has been demonstrated to give very good results for bimolecular chemical reactions in the gas phase. In this work, we have performed a detailed RPMD study of the H + H(2) reaction and its isotopologues Mu + H(2), D + H(2) and Heμ + H(2), at temperatures ranging from 200 to 1000 K. Thermal rate coefficients and kinetic isotope effects have been computed and compared with exact QM calculations as well as with quasiclassical trajectories and experiment. The agreement with the QM results is good for the heaviest isotopologues, with errors ranging from 15% to 45%, and excellent for Mu + H(2), with errors below 15%. We have seen that RPMD is able to capture the ZPE effect very accurately, a desirable feature of any method based on molecular dynamics. We have also verified Richardson and Althorpe's prediction [J. O. Richardson and S. C. Althorpe, J. Chem. Phys., 2009, 131, 214106] that RPMD will overestimate thermal rates for asymmetric reactions and underestimate them for symmetric reactions in the deep tunneling regime. The ZPE effect along the reaction coordinate must be taken into account when assigning the reaction symmetry in the multidimensional case.

  11. Cyclic Polyynes as Examples of the Quantum Mechanical Particle on a Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Many quantum mechanical models are discussed as part of the undergraduate physical chemistry course to help students understand the connection between eigenvalue expressions and spectroscopy. Typical examples covered include the particle in a box, the harmonic oscillator, the rigid rotor, and the hydrogen atom. This article demonstrates that…

  12. EXTREMAL ENERGY SHIFTS OF RADIATION FROM A RING NEAR A ROTATING BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, VladimIr; Sochora, Vjaceslav

    2010-12-20

    Radiation from a narrow circular ring shows a characteristic double-horn profile dominated by photons having energy around the maximum or minimum of the allowed range, i.e., near the extremal values of the energy shift. The energy span of a spectral line is a function of the ring radius, black hole spin, and observer's viewing angle. We describe a useful approach to calculate the extremal energy shifts in the regime of strong gravity. Then we consider an accretion disk consisting of a number of separate nested annuli in the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole, above the innermost stable circular orbit. We suggest that the radial structure of the disk emission could be reconstructed using the extremal energy shifts of the individual rings deduced from the broad wings of a relativistic spectral line.

  13. A Ring with a Spin: Superfluidity in a toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Anand Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    Superfluidity is a remarkable phenomenon. Superfluidity was initially characterized by flow without friction, first seen in liquid helium in 1938, and has been studied extensively since. Superfluidity is believed to be related to, but not identical to Bose-Einstein condensation, a statistical mechanical phenomena predicted by Albert Einstein in 1924 based on the statistics of Satyendra Nath Bose, where bosonic atoms make a phase transition to form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a gas which has macroscopic occupation of a single quantum state. Developments in laser cooling of neutral atoms and the subsequent realization of Bose-Einstein condensates in ultracold gases have opened a new window into the study of superfluidity and its relation to Bose-Einstein condensation. In our atomic sodium BEC experiment, we studied superfluidity and dissipationless flow in an all-optical toroidal trap, constructed using the combination of a horizontal "sheet"-like beam and vertical "ring"-like beam, which, like a circuit loop, allows flow around the ring. On inducing a single quantum of circulation in the condensate, the smoothness and uniformity of the toroidal BEC enabled the sustaining of a persistent current lasting 40 seconds, limited by the lifetime of the BEC due to background gas pressure. This success set the stage for further experiments studying superfluidity. In a first set of experiments, we studied the stability of the persistent current by inserting a barrier in the flow path of the ring. The superflow stopped abruptly at a barrier strength such that the local flow velocity at the barrier exceeded a critical velocity, which supported decay via the creation of a vortex-antivortex pair. Our precise control in inducing and arresting superflow in the BEC is a first step toward studying other aspects of superfluidity, such as the effect of temperature and dimensionality. This thesis discusses these experiments and also details partial-transfer absorption imaging, an imaging technique developed in the course of this work.

  14. Electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements in a ring-shaped inductively coupled air plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaolong, Wei; Haojun, Xu; Min, Lin; Chen, Su; Jianhai, Li

    2015-05-28

    An aerocraft with the surface, inlet and radome covered large-area inductive coupled plasma (ICP) can attenuate its radar echo effectively. The shape, thickness, and electron density (N{sub e}) distribution of ICP are critical to electromagnetic wave attenuation. In the paper, an air all-quartz ICP generator in size of 20 × 20 × 7 cm{sup 3} without magnetic confinement is designed. The discharge results show that the ICP is amorphous in E-mode and ring-shaped in H-mode. The structure of ICP stratifies into core region and edge halo in H-mode, and its width and thickness changes from power and pressure. Such phenomena are explained by the distribution of RF magnetic field, the diffusion of negative ions plasma and the variation of skin depth. In addition, the theoretical analysis shows that the N{sub e} achieves nearly uniform within the electronegative core and sharply steepens in the edge. The N{sub e} of core region is diagnosed by microwave interferometer under varied conditions (pressure in range of 10–50 Pa, power in 300–700 W). Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements were carried out with the air ICP in the frequencies of 4–5 GHz. The results show that the interspaced ICP is still effective to wave attenuation, and the wave attenuation increases with the power and pressure. The measured attenuation is approximately in accordance with the calculation data of finite-different time-domain simulations.

  15. Transient radiation from a ring resonant medium excited by an ultrashort superluminal pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Arkhipov, R M; Arkhipov, M V; Tolmachev, Yu A; Babushkin, I V

    2015-06-30

    We report some specific features of transient radiation from a periodic spatially modulated one-dimensional medium with a resonant response upon excitation by an ultrashort pulse. The case of ring geometry (with particle density distributed along the ring according to the harmonic law) is considered. It is shown that the spectrum of scattered radiation contains (under both linear and nonlinear interaction), along with the frequency of intrinsic resonance of the medium, a new frequency, which depends on the pulse velocity and the spatial modulation period. The case of superluminal motion of excitation, when the Cherenkov effect manifests itself, is also analysed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. Field studies and some results of numerical modeling of a ring structure on Baikal ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granin, N. G.; Kozlov, V. V.; Tsvetova, E. A.; Gnatovsky, R. Yu.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents the results of complex analysis of the field data and of mathematical modeling of the ice ring structure more than 4 km across, which was identified by the space images of South Baikal in April 2009. The measurements revealed that the ice thickness was 74 cm in the center of the structure, decreased to 43 cm at a distance of 2 km, and increased up to 70 cm and more beyond the ring. The ice water in the central part was warmer by 0.5°C and less saline (for 2 mg/kg) relative to the periphery of the structure. According to the tracer movements, the maximum velocities of the ice currents (3-4 cm/s) were observed at a distance of 2-3 km from the center of the structure with minimum ice thickness. The event was modeled using several mathematical models of various scales. The 3-D nonhydrostatic modeling of the large-scale processes on the basis of the temperature measured in the area of the structure showed the presence of local anticyclonic circulation, where the velocities of the currents increased up to the maximum (5-7 cm/s) at the distance of 2-3 km from the center and then decreased. The variations in the ice thickness in the area of the ring structure were modeled on the basis of these calculation results. The ice thicknesses determined in the context of the Stefan problem for the 2-D axis-symmetrical temperature distribution model are close to the measured ones. According to the model, the formation of the ring structure spans a period of 25-35 days. The origination of the dark ring on the satellite images is related to the lower ice thickness relative to the ambient areas and to the water level in microfractures closer to the ice surface.

  17. Anti-phase wave patterns in a ring of electrically coupled oscillatory neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrichev, A. S.; Nekorkin, V. I.; Behdad, R.; Binczak, S.; Bilbault, J.-M.

    2013-10-01

    Space-time dynamics of the network system modeling collective behavior of electrically coupled nonlinear cells is investigated. The dynamics of a local cell is described by the dimensionless Morris-Lecar system. It is shown that such a system yields a special class of traveling localized collective activity so called "anti-phase wave patterns". The mechanisms of formation of the patterns are discussed and the region of their existence is obtained by using the weakly coupled oscillators theory.

  18. Bifurcation analysis of delay-induced patterns in a ring of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons.

    PubMed

    Kantner, Markus; Yanchuk, Serhiy

    2013-09-28

    Rings of delay-coupled neurons possess a striking capability to produce various stable spiking patterns. In order to reveal the mechanisms of their appearance, we present a bifurcation analysis of the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) system with delayed feedback as well as a closed loop of HH neurons. We consider mainly the effects of external currents and communication delays. It is shown that typically periodic patterns of different spatial form (wavenumber) appear via Hopf bifurcations as the external current or time delay changes. The Hopf bifurcations are shown to occur in relatively narrow regions of the external current values, which are independent of the delays. Additional patterns, which have the same wavenumbers as the existing ones, appear via saddle-node bifurcations of limit cycles. The obtained bifurcation diagrams are evidence for the important role of communication delays for the emergence of multiple coexistent spiking patterns. The effects of a short-cut, which destroys the rotational symmetry of the ring, are also briefly discussed.

  19. Ultra-sensitive silicon photonic current sensor using a ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Bing; Zhao, Changyun; Wang, Gencheng; Dai, Tingge; Wang, Yuehai; Yang, Jianyi; Li, Yubo

    2016-08-01

    We proposed and experimentally investigated a compact and ultra-sensitive integrated photonic current sensor based on a silicon ring resonator in this paper. The current flowing through the integrated resistive TiN heater produces the Joule’s heat and changes the temperature, which results in the change of refractive index and physical dimensions of the ring. An optical spectrum analyzer is used to monitor the resonant wavelength shift of the ring. The experiment results show that the sensor achieves an ultra-high sensitivity of 6.8 × 104 nm A-2 and good linearity between real-time current and wavelength shift in the test range of 0-10 mA.

  20. Integrability of particle system around a ring source as the Newtonian limit of a black ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Yoshino, Hirotaka

    2015-04-01

    The geodesic equation in the five-dimensional singly rotating black ring is nonintegrable, unlike the case of the Myers-Perry black hole. In the Newtonian limit of the black ring, its geodesic equation agrees with the equation of motion of a particle in the Newtonian potential due to a homogeneous ring gravitational source. In this paper, we show that the Newtonian equation of motion allows the separation of variables in the spheroidal coordinates, providing a nontrivial constant of motion quadratic in momenta. This shows that the Newtonian limit of a black ring recovers the symmetry of its geodesic system, and the geodesic chaos is caused by relativistic effects.

  1. Fish in a ring: spatio-temporal pattern formation in one-dimensional animal groups

    PubMed Central

    Abaid, Nicole; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we study the collective behaviour of fish shoals in annular domains. Shoal mates are modelled as self-propelled particles moving on a discrete lattice. Collective decision-making is determined by information exchange among neighbours. Neighbourhoods are specified using the perceptual limit and numerosity of fish. Fish self-propulsion and obedience to group decisions are described through random variables. Spatio-temporal schooling patterns are measured using coarse observables adapted from the literature on coupled oscillator networks and features of the time-varying network describing the fish-to-fish information exchange. Experiments on zebrafish schooling in an annular tank are used to validate the model. Effects of group size and obedience parameter on coarse observables and network features are explored to understand the implications of perceptual numerosity and spatial density on fish schooling. The proposed model is also compared with a more traditional metric model, in which the numerosity constraint is released and fish interactions depend only on physical configurations. Comparison shows that the topological regime on which the proposed model is constructed allows for interpreting characteristic behaviours observed in the experimental study that are not captured by the metric model. PMID:20413559

  2. Star formation on the leading edge of a ring-like density wave in Arp 143

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleton, P. N.

    1990-01-01

    NGC 2445 is a member of the pair of interacting galaxies Arp 143 (=VV117) and has been classified as an irregular ring galaxy by deVaucouleurs et al. (1976). Although not obviously a classical ring galaxy from its optical appearance, it nevertheless shows many of the symptoms of a collisional off-center ring galaxy in the early stages of development. Optically the galaxy shows a rough ring of super-giant HII regions distributed asymmetrically with respect to the nucleus with most of the emission concentrated on the western side of the galaxy. Researchers mapped the HI emission in this system (with F. Ghigo and J. van Gorkom; NRAO) and the observations show that the disk of NGC 2445 is characterized by a large-scale banana-shaped HI wave with its peak to the west of the nucleus. Nearing-IR imaging (with E. I. Robson and A. J. Adamson; Lancs. Polytechnic, U.K.) demonstrates that, like the HI, the underlying population of old stars is very asymmetrically distributed with the bulk of the stars concentrated to the western side of the galaxy.

  3. On the possibility of using metamaterials in a ring laser gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselago, V. G.; Dianov, E. M.; Kuryatov, V. N.; Malykin, G. B.; Volpian, O. D.

    2016-06-01

    An approach is proposed that ensures a theoretically unlimited improvement in the sensitivity of ring laser gyroscopes (RLGs) to rotation. Basic to this approach is the filling of the optical path in an RLG (outside its gain element) with two different optical media: a conventional optical medium with a refractive index n > 1 and a so-called metamaterial with n < 0. We consider effects that limit the real sensitivity of the proposed approach.

  4. EVALUATION OF A RING TEST FOR DETERMINING THE TENSILE STRENGTH OF MORTARS AND CONCRETE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an evaluation of a specific type of test procedure, the ring tensile test , which results in a...strength’ and the techniques used to obtain them by other investigators over the years with the exception of the work involving the ring tensile test . Some

  5. Search for long-lived heavy charged particles using a ring imaging Cherenkov technique at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-12-01

    A search is performed for heavy long-lived charged particles using 3.0 fb^{-1} of proton-proton collisions collected at √{s} = 7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector. The search is mainly based on the response of the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors to distinguish the heavy, slow-moving particles from muons. No evidence is found for the production of such long-lived states. The results are expressed as limits on the Drell-Yan production of pairs of long-lived particles, with both particles in the LHCb pseudorapidity acceptance, 1.8 < η < 4.9. The mass-dependent cross-section upper limits are in the range 2-4 fb (at 95 % CL) for masses between 14 and 309 { GeV/c^2}.

  6. MDM2 promotes cell motility and invasiveness through a RING-finger independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Polański, Radosław; Warburton, Hazel E; Ray-Sinha, Arpita; Devling, Timothy; Pakula, Hubert; Rubbi, Carlos P; Vlatković, Nikolina; Boyd, Mark T

    2010-11-19

    Recent studies connect MDM2 with increased cell motility, invasion and/or metastasis proposing an MDM2-mediated ubiquitylation-dependent mechanism. Interestingly, in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) p53/MDM2 co-expression is associated with reduced survival which is independently linked with metastasis. We therefore investigated whether expression of p53 and/or MDM2 promotes aggressive cell phenotypes. Our data demonstrate that MDM2 promotes increased motility and invasiveness in RCC cells (N.B. similar results are obtained in non-RCC cells). This study shows for the first time both that endogenous MDM2 significantly contributes to cell motility and that this does not depend upon the MDM2 RING-finger, i.e. is independent of ubiquitylation (and NEDDylation). Our data suggest that protein-protein interactions provide a likely mechanistic basis for MDM2-promoted motility which may constitute future therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural transitions in a ring stain created at the contact line of evaporating nanosuspension sessile drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askounis, Alexandros; Sefiane, Khellil; Koutsos, Vasileios; Shanahan, Martin E. R.

    2013-01-01

    Monodisperse nanosuspension droplets, placed on a flat surface, evaporated following the stick-slip motion of the three-phase contact line. Unexpectedly, a disordered region formed at the exterior edge of a closely packed nanocolloidal crystalline structure during the “stick” period. In order to assess the role of particle velocity on particle structuring, we did experiments in a reduced pressure environment which allowed the enhancement of particle velocity. These experiments revealed the promotion of hexagonal packing at the very edge of the crystallite with increasing velocity. Quantification of particle velocity and comparison with measured deposit shape for each case allowed us to provide a tentative description of the underlying mechanisms that govern particle deposition of nanoparticles at the triple line of an evaporating droplet. Behavior is governed by an interplay between the fluid, and hence particle, flow velocity (main ordering parameter) and wedge constraints, and consequently disjoining pressure (main disordering parameter). Furthermore, the formation of a second disordered particle region at the interior edge of the deposit (towards bulk fluid) was found and attributed to the rapid motion of the triple line during the “slip” regime. Additionally, the magnitude of the pinning forces acting on the triple line of the same drops was calculated. These findings provide further insight into the mechanisms of the phenomenon and could facilitate its exploitation in various nanotechnological applications.

  8. Characteristic analysis and shape optimal design of a ring-type traveling wave ultrasonic motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Jong-Suk; Yi, Kyung-Pyo; Chung, Tae-Kyung; Jung, Hyun-Kyo

    2013-07-01

    The contact mechanism should be analyzed for an estimation of the performance of a traveling wave ultra-sonic motor (TWUSM), because the operation of this type of motor depends on the frictional force between the rotor and the stator. However, the nonlinearity of the contact mechanism of the TWUSM makes it difficult to proposed a proper contact model, a characteristic analysis method and an optimal design method. To address these problems, a characteristic analysis and optimal design method using a cylindrical dynamic contact model (CDCM), an analytical method, a numerical method and an evolutionary strategy algorithm (ESA) is proposed in this research. The feasibility and usefulness of the proposed characteristic analysis and optimal design method are verified through experimental data. Furthermore, the importance of the shape of the teeth and the reason for the improvement of motor performances by the chamfering at the teeth are proposed and verified in this paper.

  9. Iron deficiency anemia in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) with concurrent chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kadie M; Wolf, Karen N

    2014-02-15

    A 16-year-old vasectomized male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) with a history of suspected chronic renal failure was evaluated because of extreme lethargy, hyperpnea, and abscess of the right pectoral scent gland. Examination of the anesthetized patient revealed an impacted right pectoral scent gland with serosanguineous exudate. A CBC and serum biochemical analysis revealed severe anemia, marked azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia. Supportive care (including fluid therapy and phosphorus binder administration) was initiated for renal failure; the affected gland was cleaned, and antimicrobials were administered. The patient received 1 blood transfusion, and darbepoetin alfa was administered weekly to stimulate RBC production. Anemia and azotemia persisted. Three months after treatment started, serum iron analysis revealed that iron deficiency was the probable cause for the lack of a consistent regenerative response to darbepoetin injections. Iron dextran injections resulted in a marked regenerative response; however, serum biochemical analysis results after the second injection were consistent with hepatic injury. Hepatic enzyme activities normalized following discontinuation of iron dextran treatment, but the lemur's Hct declined rapidly despite supplementary iron administration PO. The patient developed severe mandibular osteomyelitis and was euthanized because of poor prognosis. Postmortem evaluation of hepatic iron concentration confirmed iron deficiency. The family Lemuridae is considered prone to hemosiderosis and hemochromatosis, which delayed rapid diagnosis and treatment of the lemur's disease. Apparent hepatic injury following iron dextran injections further complicated treatment. Findings for this lemur support the use of species-specific total iron binding capacity and total serum iron and ferritin concentrations in evaluation of an animal with suspected iron deficiency.

  10. Surgical Correction of an Arteriovenous Fistula in a Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta)

    PubMed Central

    Boedeker, Nancy C; Guzzetta, Philip; Rosenthal, Steven L; Padilla, Luis R; Murray, Suzan; Newman, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    A 10-y-old ovariohysterectomized ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) was presented for exacerbation of respiratory signs. The lemur had a history of multiple examinations for various problems, including traumatic lacerations and recurrent perivulvar dermatitis. Examination revealed abnormal lung sounds and a femoral arteriovenous fistula with a palpable thrill and auscultable bruit in the right inguinal area. A diagnosis of congestive heart failure was made on the basis of exam findings, radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and echocardiography. The lemur was maintained on furosemide until surgical ligation of the fistula was performed. Postoperative examination confirmed successful closure of the fistula and resolution of the signs of heart failure. Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between an artery and a vein that bypass the capillary bed. Large arteriovenous fistulas may result in decreased peripheral resistance and an increase in cardiac output with consequent cardiomegaly and high output heart failure. This lemur's high-flow arteriovenous fistula with secondary heart failure may have been iatrogenically induced during blood collection by prior femoral venipuncture. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of an arteriovenous fistula in a prosimian. Successful surgical correction of suspected iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistulas in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) have been reported previously. Arteriovenous fistula formation should be considered as a rare potential complication of venipuncture and as a treatable cause of congestive heart failure in lemurs. PMID:24672831

  11. Rare pits, large vessels and extreme vulnerability to cavitation in a ring-porous tree species.

    PubMed

    Christman, Mairgareth A; Sperry, John S; Smith, Duncan D

    2012-02-01

    • The rare pit hypothesis predicts that the extensive inter-vessel pitting in large early-wood vessels of ring-porous trees should render many of these vessels extremely vulnerable to cavitation by air-seeding. This prediction was tested in Quercus gambelii. • Cavitation was assessed from native hydraulic conductivity at field sap tension and in dehydrated branches. Single-vessel air injections gave air-seeding pressures through vessel files; these data were used to estimate air-seeding pressures for inter-vessel walls and pits. • Extensive cavitation occurred at xylem sap tensions below 1 MPa. Refilling occurred below 0.5 MPa and was inhibited by phloem girdling. Remaining vessels cavitated over a wide range to above 4 MPa. Similarly, 40% of injected vessel files air-seeded below 1.0 MPa, whereas the remainder seeded over a wide range exceeding 5 MPa. Inter-vessel walls averaged 1.02 MPa air-seeding pressure, similar and opposite to the mean cavitation tension of 1.22 MPa. Consistent with the rare pit hypothesis, only 7% of inter-vessel pits were estimated to air-seed by 1.22 MPa. • The results confirm the rare pit prediction that a significant fraction of large vessels in Q. gambelii experience high probability of failure by air-seeding. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Cyclic Polyynes as Examples of the Quantum Mechanical Particle on a Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Many quantum mechanical models are discussed as part of the undergraduate physical chemistry course to help students understand the connection between eigenvalue expressions and spectroscopy. Typical examples covered include the particle in a box, the harmonic oscillator, the rigid rotor, and the hydrogen atom. This article demonstrates that…

  13. VPS18 recruits VPS41 to the human HOPS complex via a RING-RING interaction.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Morag; Scourfield, Edward J; Emmott, Edward; Graham, Stephen C

    2017-09-20

    Eukaryotic cells use conserved multisubunit membrane tethering complexes, including CORVET and HOPS, to control the fusion of endomembranes. These complexes have been extensively studied in yeast, but to date there have been far fewer studies of metazoan CORVET and HOPS. Both of these complexes comprise six subunits: a common four-subunit core and two unique subunits. Once assembled, these complexes function to recognise specific endosomal membrane markers and facilitate SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. CORVET promotes the homotypic fusion of early endosomes, while HOPS promotes the fusion of lysosomes to late endosomes and autophagosomes. Many of the subunits of both CORVET and HOPS contain putative C-terminal zinc-finger domains. Here, the contribution of these domains to the assembly of the human CORVET and HOPS complexes has been examined. Using biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that the zinc-containing RING domains of human VPS18 and VPS41 interact directly to form a stable heterodimer. In cells, these RING domains are able to integrate into endogenous HOPS, showing that the VPS18 RING domain is required to recruit VPS41 to the core complex subunits. Importantly, this mechanism is not conserved throughout eukaryotes, as yeast Vps41 does not contain a C‑terminal zinc-finger motif. The subunit analogous to VPS41 in human CORVET is VPS8, in which the RING domain has an additional C-terminal segment that is predicted to be disordered. Both the RING and disordered C-terminal domains are required for integration of VPS8 into endogenous CORVET complexes, suggesting that HOPS and CORVET recruit VPS41 and VPS8 via distinct molecular interactions. ©2017 The Author(s).

  14. Identification of TRIM22 as a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Duan Zhijian; Gao Bo; Xu Wei; Xiong Sidong

    2008-09-26

    TRIM22, a member of the TRIM family proteins which contain RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, has been reported as a transcriptional regulator and involved in various cellular processes. In this study, the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, a novel property of TRIM22, was demonstrated. It was found that TRIM22 underwent self-ubiquitylation in vitro in combination with the E2 enzyme UbcH5B and the ubiquitylation was dependent on its RING finger domain. Further evidences showed that TRIM22 could also be self-ubiquitylated in vivo. Importantly, TRIM22 was conjugated with poly-ubiquitin chains and stabilized by the proteasome inhibitor in 293T cells, suggesting that TRIM22 targeted itself for proteasomal degradation through the poly-ubiquitylation. We also found that TRIM22 was located in the nucleus, indicating that TRIM22 might function as a nuclear E3 ubiquitin ligase.

  15. SGR9, a RING type E3 ligase, modulates amyloplast dynamics important for gravity sensing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Miyo T.; Nakamura, Moritaka; Tasaka, Masao

    Gravitropism is triggered when the directional change of gravity is sensed in the specific cells, called statocytes. In higher plants, statocytes contain sinking heavier amyloplasts which are particular plastids accumulating starch granules. The displacement of amyloplasts within the statocytes is thought to be the initial event of gravity perception. We have demonstrated that endodermal cells are most likely to be the statocytes in Arabidop-sis shoots. Live cell imaging of the endodermal cell of stem has shown that most amyloplasts are sediment to the direction of gravity but they are not static. Several amyloplasts move dynamically in an actin filament (F-actin) dependent manner. In the presence of actin poly-merization inhibitor, all amyloplasts become static and sediment to the direction of gravity. In addition, stems treated with the inhibitor can exhibit gravitropism. These results suggest that F-actin-dependent dynamic movement of amyloplasts is not essential for gravity sensing. sgr (shoot gravitropism) 9 mutant exhibits greatly reduced shoot gravitropism. In endodermal cells of sgr9, dynamic amyloplast movement was predominantly observed and amyloplasts did not sediment to the direction of gravity. Interestingly, inhibition of actin polymerization re-stored both gravitropism and amyloplast sedimentation in sgr9. The SGR9 encodes a novel RING finger protein, which is localized to amyloplasts in endodermal cells. SGR9 showed ubiq-uitin E3 ligase activity in vitro. Together with live cell imaging of amyloplasts and F-actin, our data suggest that SGR9 modulate interaction between amyloplasts and F-actin on amylo-plasts. SGR9 positively act on amyloplasts sedimentation, probably by releasing amyloplasts from F-actin. SGR9 that is localized to amyloplast, possibly degrades unknown substrates by its E3 ligase activity, and this might promote release of amyloplasts from F-actin.

  16. A Ring Model for Local/Mobile Radio Communications with Variable Packet Length

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    also do not require bit stuffing and de -stuffing logic which may increase the cost of hardware. The channel traffic rate is assumed to obey a Poisson... Gmx = 0.25, the average KI is 29.37 and K2 is 8.70. 27 TABLE IV. VALUES OF K. G K1 K2____K __ 0.05 27.9389 8.6379 8 0.10 28.6474 8.6694 8 0.15 29.3634

  17. OAM states generation/detection based on the multimode interference effect in a ring core fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junhe

    2015-04-20

    In this paper, we propose to generate/detect orbital angular momentum (OAM) states based on the multimode interference (MMI) effect in a piece of ring core fiber. A comprehensive theory for the MMI process inside ring core fibers is presented. The MMI process inside ring core fibers will convert one input image into multiple equally spaced duplicated output images. After phase adjustment by a fixed phase shifter array, these output images will stimulate OAM states in the ring core fiber or in free space. Henceforth, a novel OAM multiplexer/de-multiplexer (MUX/DEMUX) can be realized by a piece of ring core fiber and a fixed phase shifters array.

  18. Experimental observation of three-frequency quasiperiodic solution in a ring of unidirectionally coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, L; Perlikowski, P; Kapitaniak, T; Stefanski, A

    2015-06-01

    The subject of the experimental research supported with numerical simulations presented in this paper is an analog electrical circuit representing the ring of unidirectionally coupled single-well Duffing oscillators. The research is concentrated on the existence of the stable three-frequency quasiperiodic attractor in this system. It is shown that such solution can be robustly stable in a wide range of parameters of the system under consideration in spite of a parameter mismatch which is unavoidable during experiment.

  19. Electromagnetic analysis of optimal pumping of a microdisk laser with a ring electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotukhina, Anna S.; Spiridonov, Alexander O.; Karchevskii, Evgenii M.; Nosich, Alexander I.

    2017-01-01

    We study the lasing modes of microdisk lasers with ring-like electrodes or active regions, in two-dimensional (2-D) formulation. The considered eigenvalue problem is adapted to the extraction of both modal spectra and thresholds from the Maxwell equations with exact boundary conditions. We reduce it to a transcendental equation and solve it numerically. The obtained lasing frequencies and the associated values of threshold material gain of the ring-pumped laser are compared with similar quantities of the fully active microdisk. This comparison shows that the optimal position of the active ring is shifted inward from the disk rim. Its location and width can be used as an engineering instrument to manipulate the thresholds. This effect is explained using the optical theorem and overlap coefficients.

  20. Frequency Domain Ultrasound Waveform Tomography: Breast Imaging Using a Ring Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, G Y; Li, C; Roy, O; Schmidt, S; Duric, N

    2016-01-01

    Application of the frequency domain acoustic wave equation on data acquired from ultrasound tomography scans is shown to yield high resolution sound speed images on the order of the wavelength of the highest reconstructed frequency. Using a signal bandwidth of 0.4–1 MHz and an average sound speed of 1500 m/s, the resolution is approximately 1.5 mm. The quantitative sound speed values and morphology provided by these images have the potential to inform diagnosis and classification of breast disease. In this study, we present the formalism, practical application, and in vivo results of waveform tomography applied to breast data gathered by two different ultrasound tomography scanners that utilize ring transducers. The formalism includes a review of frequency domain modeling of the wave equation using finite difference operators as well as a review of the gradient descent method for the iterative reconstruction scheme. It is shown that the practical application of waveform tomography requires an accurate starting model, careful data processing, and a method to gradually incorporate higher frequency information into the sound speed reconstruction. Following these steps resulted in high resolution quantitative sound speed images of the breast. These images show marked improvement relative to commonly used ray tomography reconstruction methods. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by obtaining similar results from two different ultrasound tomography devices. We also compare our method to MRI to demonstrate concordant findings. The clinical data used in this work was obtained from a HIPAA compliant clinical study (IRB 040912M1F). PMID:26110909

  1. Experimental study of incomplete oxidation of methane in a ring channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, V. V.; Vitovsky, O. V.; Gasenko, O. A.

    2007-09-01

    Chemical transformations at incomplete methane oxidation in the air medium were studied experimentally at reaction activation on the wall of an annular microchannel. Methane was oxidized incompletely on a rhodium catalyst deposited on an inner wall of the channel. Concentrations of the products of chemical transformations were measured in the outlet gas mixture for different reactor temperatures and stay times. We have determined the range of channel wall temperatures and stay times of the mixture corresponding to an increase in the portion of hydrogen and carbon dioxide indicating transition from predominant methane combustion to cascade chemical reactions with activation of steam and carbon dioxide methane conversions. It is shown that the kinetic model of chemical transformations of methane in the air medium depends significantly on the temperature of channel walls and stay time of the mixture. The effect of outer diffusion deceleration on the rate of chemical transformations at incomplete methane oxidation under the strained conditions is determined.

  2. High-throughput sorting and analysis of human sperm with a ring-shaped laser trap.

    PubMed

    Shao, Bing; Shi, Linda Z; Nascimento, Jaclyn M; Botvinick, Elliot L; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Berns, Michael W; Esener, Sadik C

    2007-06-01

    Sperm motility is an important concept in fertility research. To this end, single spot laser tweezers have been used to quantitatively analyze the motility of individual sperm. However, this method is limited with throughput (single sperm per spot), lacks the ability of in-situ sorting based on motility and chemotaxis, requires high laser power (hundreds of milliWatts) and can not be used to dynamically monitor changes in sperm swimming behavior under the influence of a laser beam. Here, we report a continuous 3-D ring-shaped laser trap which could be used for multi-level and high-throughput (tens to hundred sperm per ring) sperm sorting based on their motility and chemotaxis. Under a laser power of only tens of milliWatts, human sperm with low to medium velocity are slowed down, stopped, or forced to change their trajectories to swim along the ring due to the optical gradient force in the radial direction. This is the first demonstration of parallel sperm sorting based on motility with optical trapping technology. In addition, by making the sperm swimming along the circumference of the ring, the effect of laser radiation, optical force and external obstacles on sperm energetics are investigated in a more gentle and quantitative way. The application of this method could be extended to motility and bio-tropism studies of other self-propelled cells, such as algae and bacteria.

  3. Nonadiabatic creation of macroscopic superpositions with strongly correlated one-dimensional bosons in a ring trap

    SciTech Connect

    Schenke, C.; Minguzzi, A.; Hekking, F. W. J.

    2011-11-15

    We consider a strongly interacting quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas on a tight ring trap subjected to a localized barrier potential. We explore the possibility of forming a macroscopic superposition of a rotating and a nonrotating state under nonequilibrium conditions, achieved by a sudden quench of the barrier velocity. Using an exact solution for the dynamical evolution in the impenetrable-boson (Tonks-Girardeau) limit, we find an expression for the many-body wave function corresponding to a superposition state. The superposition is formed when the barrier velocity is tuned close to multiples of an integer or half-integer number of Coriolis flux quanta. As a consequence of the strong interactions, we find that (i) the state of the system can be mapped onto a macroscopic superposition of two Fermi spheres rather than two macroscopically occupied single-particle states as in a weakly interacting gas, and (ii) the barrier velocity should be larger than the sound velocity to better discriminate the two components of the superposition.

  4. Experimental observation of three-frequency quasiperiodic solution in a ring of unidirectionally coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, L.; Perlikowski, P.; Kapitaniak, T.; Stefanski, A.

    2015-06-01

    The subject of the experimental research supported with numerical simulations presented in this paper is an analog electrical circuit representing the ring of unidirectionally coupled single-well Duffing oscillators. The research is concentrated on the existence of the stable three-frequency quasiperiodic attractor in this system. It is shown that such solution can be robustly stable in a wide range of parameters of the system under consideration in spite of a parameter mismatch which is unavoidable during experiment.

  5. Detection of low frequency hurricane emissions using a ring laser interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Robert W.; Slaton, William V.; Kendall, Lauren M.

    2012-10-01

    Over the last decade, large horizontally mounted ring laser interferometers have demonstrated the capacity to measure numerous geophysical effects. In this paper, responses from large ring laser interferometers to low frequency hurricane emissions are presented. Hurricanes create a broad spectrum of noise that extends into the millihertz range. In addition to microseisms, hurricanes with established eyewalls were found to create distinct frequency peaks close to 7 mHz as they came ashore or moved over shallow water. Selected emissions from Hurricanes Katrina, Wilma, and Dean are presented. The exact coupling mechanism between the ˜7 mHz hurricane emissions and the ring lasers remains under active investigation.

  6. Collective strong coupling of cold potassium atoms in a ring cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, R.; Lampis, A.; Megyeri, B.; Pahwa, K.; Mudarikwa, L.; Holynski, M.; Courteille, Ph W.; Goldwin, J.

    2016-11-01

    We present experiments on ensemble cavity quantum electrodynamics with cold potassium atoms in a high-finesse ring cavity. Potassium-39 atoms are cooled in a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap and transferred to a three-dimensional trap which intersects the cavity mode. The apparatus is described in detail and the first observations of strong coupling with potassium atoms are presented. Collective strong coupling of atoms and light is demonstrated via the splitting of the cavity transmission spectrum and the avoided crossing of the normal modes.

  7. Polypyrrole Porous Micro Humidity Sensor Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit on Chip

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Lu, De-Hao

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the design and fabrication of a capacitive micro humidity sensor integrated with a five-stage ring oscillator circuit on chip using the complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The area of the humidity sensor chip is about 1 mm2. The humidity sensor consists of a sensing capacitor and a sensing film. The sensing capacitor is constructed from spiral interdigital electrodes that can enhance the sensitivity of the sensor. The sensing film of the sensor is polypyrrole, which is prepared by the chemical polymerization method, and the film has a porous structure. The sensor needs a post-CMOS process to coat the sensing film. The post-CMOS process uses a wet etching to etch the sacrificial layers, and then the polypyrrole is coated on the sensing capacitor. The sensor generates a change in capacitance when the sensing film absorbs or desorbs vapor. The ring oscillator circuit converts the capacitance variation of the sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the humidity sensor is about 99 kHz/%RH at 25 °C. PMID:22163459

  8. Improved Treatment of Wave-Particle Interaction in a Ring-Current Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, C. A.; Delzanno, G. L.; Jordanova, V.; Yu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Simulation of radiation belt electron dynamics during geomagnetic storms requires detailed temporal knowledge of global wave distributions. However, in-situ observations of waves are confined to a limited range of L-shell and magnetic local times, while global climatologies of wave amplitudes, constructed from the statistics of many years of observations, may not well represent any given event. In principle, ring current simulations that predict anisotropic electron distributions via a kinetic model contain knowledge of the unstable wave-particle interactions that generate Chorus waves. The details of these instabilities is, however, unresolved at the spatial (tenths of L-shells) and temporal (tenths of minutes) scales of a typical large-scale ring current code. We present a preliminary attempt to couple in a more self-consistent way inner magnetospheric micro- and macro-scale interactions via the selective spatial coupling of a kinetic ring current model (RAM) with a very high resolution Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. In our approach, anisotropic electron distributions predicted by RAM at a few select locations are used to seed the PIC code which, in turn, predicts the resulting Chorus wave distributions that are fed back into RAM.

  9. From quantum to thermal topological-sector fluctuations of strongly interacting Bosons in a ring lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscilde, Tommaso; Faulkner, Michael F.; Bramwell, Steven T.; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.

    2016-07-01

    Inspired by recent experiments on Bose-Einstein condensates in ring traps, we investigate the topological properties of the phase of a one-dimensional Bose field in the presence of both thermal and quantum fluctuations—the latter ones being tuned by the depth of an optical lattice applied along the ring. In the regime of large filling of the lattice, quantum Monte Carlo simulations give direct access to the full statistics of fluctuations of the Bose-field phase, and of its winding number W along the ring. At zero temperature the winding-number (or topological-sector) fluctuations are driven by quantum phase slips localized around a Josephson link between two lattice wells, and their susceptibility is found to jump at the superfluid-Mott insulator transition. At finite (but low) temperature, on the other hand, the winding number fluctuations are driven by thermal activation of nearly uniform phase twists, whose activation rate is governed by the superfluid fraction. A quantum-to-thermal crossover in winding-number fluctuations is therefore exhibited by the system, and it is characterized by a conformational change in the topologically non-trivial configurations, from localized to uniform phase twists, which can be experimentally observed in ultracold Bose gases via matter-wave interference.

  10. A ring-shaped structure with a crown formed by streptolysin O on the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Sekiya, K; Satoh, R; Danbara, H; Futaesaku, Y

    1993-01-01

    Streptolysin O (SLO) is a membrane-damaging toxin produced by most strains of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. We performed ultrastructural analysis of SLO-derived lesions on erythrocyte membranes by examining electron micrographs of negatively stained preparations. SLO formed numerous arc- and ring-shaped structures with or without holes on membranes. Rings formed on intact cell membranes had an inner diameter of ca. 24 nm and had distinct borders of ca. 4.9 nm in width, but the diameter of rings varied from 24 to 30 nm on membranes of erythrocyte ghosts. Image analysis of electron micrographs demonstrated that each ring was composed of an inner and an outer layer. Each layer contained an array of 22 to 24 SLO molecules. On the top of the ring, we found a characteristic crown that projected from the cell membrane. The crown was separated by an electron-dense layer from the basal part of the ring that was embedded in the lipid bilayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Heights of the three parts, namely, the crown (head), the space (neck), and the basal portion (base), were ca. 3.2, 1.6, and 5.0 nm, respectively, and we postulated that these parts are the constituents of a single SLO molecule. The volumes of SLO molecules in the inner and outer layers were calculated to be 77 and 88 nm3. On the basis of a model of the structure of SLO, we propose some new details of the mechanisms of hemolysis by SLO toxin. Images PMID:8376341

  11. A RING OF POLARIZED LIGHT: EVIDENCE FOR TWISTED CORONAL MAGNETISM IN CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dove, J. B.; Gibson, S. E.; Rachmeler, L. A.; Tomczyk, S.; Judge, P.

    2011-04-10

    Coronal prominence cavities may be manifestations of twisted or sheared magnetic fields capable of storing the energy required to drive solar eruptions. The Coronal Multi-Channel Polarimeter (CoMP), recently installed at Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, can measure polarimetric signatures of current-carrying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems. For the first time, this instrument offers the capability of daily full-Sun observations of the forbidden lines of Fe XIII with high enough spatial resolution and throughput to measure polarimetric signatures of current-carrying MHD systems. By forward-calculating CoMP observables from analytic MHD models of spheromak-type magnetic flux ropes, we show that a predicted observable for such flux ropes oriented along the line of sight is a bright ring of linear polarization surrounding a region where the linear polarization strength is relatively depleted. We present CoMP observations of a coronal cavity possessing such a polarization ring.

  12. Optimal multiple-information integration inherent in a ring neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiyama, Ken

    2017-02-01

    Although several behavioral experiments have suggested that our neural system integrates multiple sources of information based on the certainty of each type of information in the manner of maximum-likelihood estimation, it is unclear how the maximum-likelihood estimation is implemented in our neural system. Here, I investigate the relationship between maximum-likelihood estimation and a widely used ring-type neural network model that is used as a model of visual, motor, or prefrontal cortices. Without any approximation or ansatz, I analytically demonstrate that the equilibrium of an order parameter in the neural network model exactly corresponds to the maximum-likelihood estimation when the strength of the symmetrical recurrent synaptic connectivity within a neural population is appropriately stronger than that of asymmetrical connectivity, that of local and external inputs, and that of symmetrical or asymmetrical connectivity between different neural populations. In this case, strengths of local and external inputs or those of symmetrical connectivity between different neural populations exactly correspond to the input certainty in maximum-likelihood estimation. Thus, my analysis suggests appropriately strong symmetrical recurrent connectivity as a possible candidate for implementing the maximum-likelihood estimation within our neural system.

  13. The free energy of locking a ring: Changing a deoxyribonucleoside to a locked nucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Xu, You; Villa, Alessandra; Nilsson, Lennart

    2017-01-19

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA), a modified nucleoside which contains a bridging group across the ribose ring, improves the stability of DNA/RNA duplexes significantly, and therefore is of interest in biotechnology and gene therapy applications. In this study, we investigate the free energy change between LNA and DNA nucleosides. The transformation requires the breaking of the bridging group across the ribose ring, a problematic transformation in free energy calculations. To address this, we have developed a 3-step (easy to implement) and a 1-step protocol (more efficient, but more complicated to setup), for single and dual topologies in classical molecular dynamics simulations, using the Bennett Acceptance Ratio method to calculate the free energy. We validate the approach on the solvation free energy difference for the nucleosides thymidine, cytosine, and 5-methyl-cytosine. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Soliton Dynamics of an Atomic Spinor Condensate on a Ring Lattice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-22

    USA 2IFUAP, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla , Apdo, Postal J-48, Puebla 72570, Mexico and 3Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and...ρ+1n +ρ−1n ) and γn = φ−1n +φ1n−2φ0n . (5) as well as globally-averaged coordinates Z = ∑ n Zn/L and γ = ∑ n γn/L. Throughout this article we call

  15. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Luzón, Mónica; de la Fuente-López, Concepción; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Fernández-Morán, Jesús; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to Taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in the Madrid Zoo-Aquarium (Madrid, Spain). Under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. Most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. The loss of body weight of the animal after surgical extirpation (566 g) represented 22% of the total weight (body weight before mass removal, 2582 g). The vesicles were identified under light microscopic examination as cysticerci and by molecular diagnosis as Cysticercus longicollis, the larval form of T. crassiceps. The present report represents the first detection of T. crassiceps in the prosimian genus Lemur.

  16. Surgical correction of an arteriovenous fistula in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Boedeker, Nancy C; Guzzetta, Philip; Rosenthal, Steven L; Padilla, Luis R; Murray, Suzan; Newman, Kurt

    2014-02-01

    A 10-y-old ovariohysterectomized ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) was presented for exacerbation of respiratory signs. The lemur had a history of multiple examinations for various problems, including traumatic lacerations and recurrent perivulvar dermatitis. Examination revealed abnormal lung sounds and a femoral arteriovenous fistula with a palpable thrill and auscultable bruit in the right inguinal area. A diagnosis of congestive heart failure was made on the basis of exam findings, radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and echocardiography. The lemur was maintained on furosemide until surgical ligation of the fistula was performed. Postoperative examination confirmed successful closure of the fistula and resolution of the signs of heart failure. Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between an artery and a vein that bypass the capillary bed. Large arteriovenous fistulas may result in decreased peripheral resistance and an increase in cardiac output with consequent cardiomegaly and high output heart failure. This lemur's high-flow arteriovenous fistula with secondary heart failure may have been iatrogenically induced during blood collection by prior femoral venipuncture. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of an arteriovenous fistula in a prosimian. Successful surgical correction of suspected iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistulas in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) have been reported previously. Arteriovenous fistula formation should be considered as a rare potential complication of venipuncture and as a treatable cause of congestive heart failure in lemurs.

  17. Coexistence of up- and downstream traffic waves on a ring road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Weele, K.; Kanellopoulos, G.

    2016-09-01

    It is an observational fact that density waves in vehicle traffic can move in either direction: small-amplitude waves travel in the same direction as the cars (downstream) whereas high-amplitude waves or "jams" travel in the opposite direction (upstream). We construct a model of ring road traffic to demonstrate how this comes about. Our model shows the spontaneous generation of these density waves, explains their stability properties, and pinpoints the precise density level at which the wave speed changes direction.

  18. Atrioventricular Dissociation and Congestive Heart Failure in a Ring-Necked Pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus ).

    PubMed

    Kaya, Mehmet; Gacar, Ayhan; Demirci, Beste; Soylu, Sadettin Mehmet; Gulbahar, Mustafa Yavuz

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this clinical report was to describe a case of complete atrioventricular dissociation in a 9-month-old, male ring-necked pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus ). The case was incidentally determined during the evaluation of electrocardiograms recorded from pheasants. There were no observed clinical symptoms in the bird before or after the electrocardiogram. The PR interval varied, and there was no association of the P waves and QRS complexes in the electrocardiogram. Although the ventricular rhythm was regular (130 beats/min), atrial rhythm was irregular (approximately 91 beats/min). Pathological examination showed there was left ventricular hypertrophy with degeneration of the mitral valve of the heart and well-marked congestion in the liver and lung.

  19. In vitro eye irritation testing using the open source reconstructed hemicornea - a ring trial.

    PubMed

    Mewes, Karsten R; Engelke, Maria; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Bartok, Melinda; Tandon, Rashmi; Brandner, Johanna M; Petersohn, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present ring trial was to test whether two new methodological approaches for the in vitro classification of eye irritating chemicals can be reliably transferred from the developers' laboratories to other sites. Both test methods are based on the well-established open source reconstructed 3D hemicornea models. In the first approach, the initial depth of injury after chemical treatment in the hemicornea model is derived from the quantitative analysis of histological sections. In the second approach, tissue viability, as a measure for corneal damage after chemical treatment, is analyzed separately for epithelium and stroma of the hemicornea model. The three independent laboratories that participated in the ring trial produced their own hemicornea models according to the test producer's instructions, thus supporting the open source concept. A total of 9 chemicals with different physicochemical and eye-irritating properties were tested to assess the between-laboratory reproducibility (BLR), the predictive performance, as well as possible limitations of the test systems. The BLR was 62.5% for the first and 100% for the second method. Both methods enabled to discriminate Cat. 1 chemicals from all non-Cat. 1 substances, which qualifies them to be used in a top-down approach. However, the selectivity between No Cat. and Cat. 2 chemicals still needs optimization.

  20. Praja1, a novel gene encoding a RING-H2 motif in mouse development.

    PubMed

    Mishra, L; Tully, R E; Monga, S P; Yu, P; Cai, T; Makalowski, W; Mezey, E; Pavan, W J; Mishra, B

    1997-11-06

    As part of a cloning strategy to identify genes involved in early mouse liver development we have isolated Praja1, a gene with similar sequences to the Drosophila melanogaster gene goliath (gl) which is involved in the fate of mesodermal cells ultimately forming gut musculatures, fat body, and the heart. Praja1 is a 2.1 kb gene encoding a putative 396 amino acid ORF and includes a COOH-terminal RING-H2 domain. Using the Jackson Laboratory BSS panel, we have localized Praja1 on chromosome X at 36 cM, which may be a candidate gene for mouse sla (sex linked sideroblastic anemia), near the X inactivation center gene, Xist. Northern blot analysis demonstrated three transcripts (3.1, 2.6 and 2.1 kb) in mRNA from adult mouse tissues brain, liver, and kidney as well as in mRNA from developing mouse embryos (days 7, 11, 15 and 17 post coitus, p.c.). In vitro transcription/translation yielded a product with an Mr of 59 kD. Immunohistochemical staining of in vitro liver explant cultures using a heterologous antibody against praja1 demonstrated cytoplasmic staining of cuboidal cells that have hepatocyte morphology and organization. The presence of the RING-H2 domain, a proline-rich region at the COOH-end, and regions rich in acidic amino acids, leads to the hypothesis that the Praja1 product is possibly involved in mediating protein-protein interactions, possibly as part of a protein sorting or transport pathway. This is strengthened by the similarity of Praja1 to rat Neurodap1, whose product has been shown to localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi in brain.

  1. Coherence-incoherence patterns in a ring of non-locally coupled phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omel'chenko, O. E.

    2013-09-01

    We consider a paradigmatic spatially extended model of non-locally coupled phase oscillators which are uniformly distributed within a one-dimensional interval and interact depending on the distance between their sites' modulo periodic boundary conditions. This model can display peculiar spatio-temporal patterns consisting of alternating patches with synchronized (coherent) or irregular (incoherent) oscillator dynamics, hence the name coherence-incoherence pattern, or chimera state. For such patterns we formulate a general bifurcation analysis scheme based on a hierarchy of continuum limit equations. This provides the possibility of classifying known coherence-incoherence patterns and of suggesting directions for the search for new ones.

  2. C5-hydroxylation of liquiritigenin is catalyzed selectively by CYP1A2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ao-Xue; Hu, Ying; Liu, Hui-Xin; Qi, Xiao-Yi; Liu, Yong; Tu, Cai-Xia; Yang, Ling

    2011-05-01

    Liquiritigenin (7,4'-dihydroxyflavone), the primary active component of a traditional Chinese medicine Glycyrrhizae radix, has a wide range of pharmacological activities. Six oxidative metabolites of liquiritigenin (7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone, a hydroxyl quinine metabolite, two A-ring dihydroxymetabolites, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone, and 7-hydroxychromone) have been detected in rat liver microsomes (RLMs), and one CYP3A4-catalyzed metabolite (7,4'-dihydroxyflavone) has been identified in human liver microsomes (HLMs) recently. In this study, a novel mono-hydroxylated metabolite was detected in reaction catalyzed by HLMs, and was identified as 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone by comparing the tandem mass spectra and the chromatographic retention time with that of the standard compound. Significant difference in CL(int) (9-fold) was found between these two oxidative pathways of liquiritigenin, and C5-hydroxylation pathway was identified as the major oxidative metabolism of liquiritigenin. The study with chemical selective inhibitor, cDNA-expressed human CYPs, correlation assay, and kinetic study demonstrated that CYP1A2 was the specific isozyme responsible for the C5-hydroxylation metabolism of liquiritigenin in HLMs.

  3. Permanganate oxidation of diclofenac: The pH-dependent reaction kinetics and a ring-opening mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hanyang; Song, Dean; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the fate of diclofenac (DCF) during permanganate (Mn(VII)) oxidation was investigated at environmentally relevant pH conditions (from 5 to 9). The batch experiments showed that the kinetics of the Mn(VII)/DCF reaction follows a second-order rate law with an apparent rate constant of 1.57±0.02 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7 and 20 °C. The half-value of DCF was calculated to be 37.5 min, when the concentration of Mn(VII) (0.4 mM) was 20-fold excess of DCF. The pH-dependence of the reaction kinetics was investigated, and the DCF reactivity with Mn(VII) was found to decrease with increasing pH. The second-order rate constants were then quantitatively described by incorporating the species distribution of DCF. A lower reactivity of the anionic DCF (DCF(-)) in comparison with its neutral counterpart (DCF(0)) was most likely attributable to the interaction between the ionized carboxylate group and amine nitrogen position, which can reduce the nucleophilicity of amine nitrogen by inductive and resonance effects. Moreover, a range of degradation products and the corresponding structures were proposed on the basis of the LC-Q-TOF-MS analysis. A detailed ring-opening reaction mechanism was proposed as follows: Mn(VII) acts as an electrophile to attack the amine moiety, leading to the formation of the primary intermediate products 2,6-dichloroaniline and 5-hydroxy-diclofenac, which can be further transformed. The further degradation proceeded through a multistep process including ring-opening, decarboxylation, hydroxylation, and cyclation reactions.

  4. Structure of BIRC7–E2 ubiquitin conjugate reveals the mechanism of ubiquitin transfer by a RING dimer

    PubMed Central

    Sibbet, Gary J.; Cameron, Kenneth; Huang, Danny T.

    2013-01-01

    RING ubiquitin ligases (E3s) recruit E2 thioesterified with Ub to facilitate Ub transfer to a target. Certain RING E3s dimerize to form active ligases but structural evidence on how this process promotes Ub transfer is lacking. Several members of the baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing (BIRC) family of proteins function as dimeric RING E3s in the regulation of cell death. Here we report the structure of the human dimeric RING domain from BIRC7 in complex with the E2 UbcH5B covalently linked to Ub at its active site (UbcH5B~Ub). In addition to the known E2–RING contacts, the structure reveals extensive non-covalent donor Ub interactions with UbcH5B and both subunits of the RING domain dimer. Mutations that disrupt these non-covalent interactions or RING dimerization reduce UbcH5B~Ub binding affinity and ubiquitination activity. Moreover, NMR analyses demonstrate that BIRC7 binding to UbcH5B~Ub induces peak shift perturbations in the donor Ub consistent with the crystallographically-observed BIRC7–Ub interactions. Our results provide structural insights into how dimeric RING E3s recruit E2~Ub and optimize the donor Ub configuration for transfer. PMID:22902369

  5. Phenotypic spectrum of 45,X/46,XY males with a ring Y chromosome and bilaterally descended testes

    PubMed Central

    Layman, Lawrence C.; Tho, Sandra P.T.; Clark, Andrew D.; Kulharya, Anita; McDonough, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the phenotypic spectrum of males with bilaterally descended testes and a 45,X/46,X,(r)Y karyotype DESIGN Retrospective review of patient records; cytogenetic and molecular analysis SETTING Tertiary medical center setting PARTICIPANTS Five males, two prepubertal and three postpubertal, with a 45,X/46,X(r)Y karyotype and bilaterally descended testes INTERVENTIONS Linear growth evaluation, testicular endocrine and exocrine studies, cytogenetic and molecular analysis on each patient. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Clinical phenotype vs. genotype RESULTS Both prepubertal males had short stature and low testosterone. All three adults had normal puberty and normal testosterone levels. Two of the adults (one with short stature and one with normal stature) had elevated gonadotropins and azoospermia. The third adult had normal stature, severe oligospermia, normal gonadotropins, and normal serum testosterone. CONCLUSIONS The phenotypic spectrum of males with a 45,X/46,X(r)Y karyotype and bilaterally descended testes varies greatly from males with short stature and spermatogenic failure to males without short stature and less severely affected spermatogenesis. This broad spectrum of phenotypic findings needs to be taken into account when the clinical geneticist encounters a prenatal diagnosis of a 45,X/46,X(r)Y karyotype. This information will also be helpful for pediatric and reproductive endocrinologists in counseling males with bilaterally descended testes and a 45,X/46,X(r)Y karyotype. PMID:18555994

  6. A Ring-D-Seco-Tetranortriterpenoid from Seeds of Carapa procera Active against Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Dioum, Mbaye Diaw; Seck, Matar; Silvestre, Virginie; Planchat, Aurélien; Loquet, Denis; Lohard, Steven; Barille-Nion, Sophie; Remaud, Gerald S; Robins, Richard J; Tea, Illa

    2016-07-01

    The seeds of Carapa procera are exploited extensively in West African ethnopharmacy for the treatment of several pathologies, including inflammation. They also are effective as insect antifeedants and as a mosquito repellent. With the aim of identifying bioactive principles, an ethyl acetate extract of the defatted seeds was made and fractionated. Two principle compounds were isolated. One of these, 5,6-dehydro-7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin (1), while known from another genus of the Meliaceae, is newly identified from the genus Carapa and its X-ray structure is described for the first time. In addition, 1 displayed strong anti-clonogenic activity at 10 µM. The other compound, mexicanolide (2), is known from this species and showed neither cytotoxicity nor anti-clonogenicity. These differences in efficacy are discussed in relation to known structure-activity relationships of limonoids.

  7. Numerical analysis of the zeta potential regarding the characteristics of a ring-type electro-osmotic mixer.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyeon-Seok; Kim, Tae-An; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2011-07-01

    The micromixer that is applied for the electro-osmotic effect in this study, which is a passive type, takes two fluids from different inlets and combines them into a single channel. The fluids then enter the mixing chamber with different inner and outer radii. Four microelectrodes are positioned on the outer wall of the mixing chamber. The electric potentials on the four microelectrodes are sinusoidal for certain values of the time, voltage, zeta potential, and frequency. In order to check the validity of the two-dimensional numerical analysis that already has been performed, we performed a three-dimensional numerical analysis using a commercial code, COMSOL. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is solved in this model, with a slip boundary condition on the inner and outer walls of the mixing chamber. The results of two- and three-dimensional models are graphically depicted and compared from the viewpoint of streamlines and concentration.

  8. Simulation Studies of Beam-Beam Effects of a Ring-Ring Electron-Ion Collider Based on CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhong Zhang,Ji Qiang

    2009-05-01

    The collective beam-beam effect can potentially cause a rapid growth of beam sizes and reduce the luminosity of a collider to an unacceptably low level. The ELIC, a proposed ultra high luminosity electron-ion collider based on CEBAF, employs high repetition rate crab crossing colliding beams with very small bunch transverse sizes and very short bunch lengths, and collides them at up to 4 interaction points with strong final focusing. All of these features can make the beam-beam effect challenging. In this paper, we present simulation studies of the beam-beam effect in ELIC using a self-consistent strong-strong beam-beam simulation code developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This simulation study is used for validating the ELIC design and for searching for an optimal parameter set.

  9. A step forward in molecular diagnostics of lyssaviruses--results of a ring trial among European laboratories.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Melina; Wernike, Kerstin; Freuling, Conrad M; Müller, Thomas; Aylan, Orhan; Brochier, Bernard; Cliquet, Florence; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Hostnik, Peter; Huovilainen, Anita; Isaksson, Mats; Kooi, Engbert A; Mooney, Jean; Turcitu, Mihai; Rasmussen, Thomas B; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Smreczak, Marcin; Fooks, Anthony R; Marston, Denise A; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is a lethal and notifiable zoonotic disease for which diagnostics have to meet the highest standards. In recent years, an evolution was especially seen in molecular diagnostics with a wide variety of different detection methods published. Therefore, a first international ring trial specifically designed on the use of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of lyssavirus genomic RNA was organized. The trial focussed on assessment and comparison of the performance of conventional and real-time assays. In total, 16 European laboratories participated. All participants were asked to investigate a panel of defined lyssavirus RNAs, consisting of Rabies virus (RABV) and European bat lyssavirus 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and -2) RNA samples, with systems available in their laboratory. The ring trial allowed the important conclusion that conventional RT-PCR assays were really robust assays tested with a high concordance between different laboratories and assays. The real-time RT-PCR system by Wakeley et al. (2005) in combination with an intercalating dye, and the combined version by Hoffmann and co-workers (2010) showed good sensitivity for the detection of all RABV samples included in this test panel. Furthermore, all used EBLV-specific assays, real-time RT-PCRs as well as conventional RT-PCR systems, were shown to be suitable for a reliable detection of EBLVs. It has to be mentioned that differences were seen in the performance between both the individual RT-PCR systems and the laboratories. Laboratories which used more than one molecular assay for testing the sample panel always concluded a correct sample result. Due to the markedly high genetic diversity of lyssaviruses, the application of different assays in diagnostics is needed to achieve a maximum of diagnostic accuracy. To improve the knowledge about the diagnostic performance proficiency testing at an international level is recommended before using lyssavirus molecular diagnostics e.g. for confirmatory testing.

  10. Inhibition of 3(17)beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas testosteroni by steroidal A ring fused pyrazoles.

    PubMed

    Levy, M A; Holt, D A; Brandt, M; Metcalf, B W

    1987-04-21

    Several 2,3- and 3,4-steroidal fused pyrazoles have been investigated as potential inhibitors of NAD(P)H-dependent steroid oxidoreductases. These compounds are proven to be potent, specific inhibitors for 3(17) beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas testosteroni with Ki values of 6-100 nM. In contrast, the activities of 3 alpha,20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Streptomyces hydrogenans, steroid 5 alpha-reductase from rat prostate, and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from rat liver were unaffected by micromolar concentrations of these compounds. Product and dead-end inhibition studies indicate an ordered association to the beta-dehydrogenase with the cofactor binding prior to substrate or inhibitor. From the results of double inhibition experiments, it is proposed that inhibition occurs through formation of an enzyme-NAD+-inhibitor ternate. On the basis of pH profiles of Vm/Km, Vm, and 1/Ki and of absorbance difference spectra, a hypothetical mechanism of inhibition by the steroidal pyrazoles, drawn by analogy from the inhibition of liver alcohol dehydrogenase by alkylpyrazoles [Theorell, H., & Yonetani, T. (1963) Biochem. Z. 338, 537-553; Andersson, P., Kvassman, J. K., Lindström, A., Oldén, B., & Pettersson, G. (1981) Eur. J. Biochem. 113, 549-554], is reconsidered. The pH studies and enzyme modification experiments by diethyl pyrocarbonate suggest the involvement of histidine in binding of the inhibitor. A modified proposal for the structure of the enzyme-NAD+-steroidal pyrazole complex is proposed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Cytogenetic and molecular analysis of a ring (21) in a patient with partial trisomy 21 and megakaryocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Palmer, C G; Blouin, J L; Bull, M J; Breitfeld, P; Vance, G H; Van Meter, T; Weaver, D D; Heerema, N A; Colbern, S G; Korenberg, J R

    1995-07-17

    We describe a patient with an asymmetric double ring 21 in mosaic form, 45,XX, -21/46, XX, -21, +r(21), who has limited manifestations of Down syndrome and who developed acute myelofibrosis and megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL), FAB M7, a hematologic disorder particularly common in Down syndrome patients. In situ hybridization studies, gene dosage, and DNA polymorphism analysis showed that the ring chromosome carries a duplicated region which extends from D21S406 on the centromeric side and includes marker D21S3 on the telomeric side. FISH studies indicate two sizes of ring 21 in the patient. The origin of the supernumerary chromosome 21 in the proband was paternal; furthermore, the r(21) probably was formed postzygotically. Included in the duplicated segment are the candidate genes for leukemia AML-1, ETS, and ERG. The potential significance of disomic homozygosity of loci on 21q in M7 megakaryocytic leukemia is discussed.

  12. Cytogenetic and molecular analysis of a ring (21) in a patient with partial trisomy 21 and megakaryocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, C.G.; Blouin, J.L.; Bull, M.J. |

    1995-07-17

    We describe a patient with an asymmetric double ring 21 in mosaic form, 45,XX,-21/46,X,-21,+r(21), who has limited manifestations of Down syndrome and who developed acute myelofibrosis and megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL), FAB M7, a hematologic disorder particularly common in Down syndrome patients. In situ hybridization studies, gene dosage, and DNA polymorphism analysis showed that the ring chromosome carries a duplicated region which extends from D21S406 on the centromeric side and includes marker D21S3 on the telomeric side. FISH studies indicate two sizes of ring 21 in the patient. The origin of the supernumerary chromosome 21 in the proband was paternal; furthermore, the r(21) probably was formed postzygotically. Included in the duplicated segment are the candidate genes for leukemia AML-1, ETS, and ERG. The potential significance of disomic homozygosity of loci on 21q in M7 megakaryocytic leukemia is discussed. 35 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Cytogenetic and molecular analysis of a ring (21) in a patient with partial trisomy 21 and megakaryocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, C.G.; Bull, M.; Breitfeld, P.

    1994-09-01

    We describe a patient with an asymmetrical double ring 21 in mosaic form, 45,XX, -21/46,XX, -21, +r(21) (q22.11{yields}p11.2::q11.1{yields}q22.3), who has limited manifestations of Down`s syndrome and who developed acute myelofibrosis and megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL), M7, a hematologic disorder particularly common in Down`s syndrome patients. In situ hybridization studies (gene dosage and DNA polymorphism analysis) show that the ring chromosome carries a duplicated region which extends from D21S258 on the centromeric side and includes marker D21S1245 on the telomeric side, but does not include the region from PFKL and ITGB2 through the telomere. FISH studies indicate two sizes of ring 21 in the patient. The origin of the supernumerary chromosome 21 in the proband was paternal; furthermore, the r(21) was probably formed post-zygotically. Included in the duplicated segment are the candidate genes for leukemia AML-1, ETS2 and ERG. If disomic homozygosity is important in the development of AMKL in the proband, the gene responsible maps either between the centromere and D21S11 or between D21S1239 and D21S1245.

  14. An Experimental Investigation of the Whistler Nozzle and an Analytical Investigation of a Ring Wing in Supersonic Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    velocity and sound, within a range of Reynolds numbers. In the range of Reynolds number from 200 to 3000 , under the effect of increasing jet velocity...Cascades with Subsonic Leading - Edqe L acus, Naval Post Graduate School Thesis, June, 1975. 13. Brix , C.W., Jr., A• Study of Supersonic Flow Past

  15. An algebraic approach to the study of weakly excited states for a condensate in a ring geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonsante, P.; Franco, R.; Penna, V.

    2005-09-01

    We determine the low-energy spectrum and the eigenstates for a two-bosonic mode nonlinear model by applying the Inönü-Wigner contraction method to the Hamiltonian algebra. This model is known to well represent a Bose-Einstein condensate rotating in a thin torus endowed with two angular-momentum modes as well as a condensate in a double-well potential characterized by two space modes. We consider such a model in the presence of both an attractive and a repulsive boson interaction and investigate regimes corresponding to different values of the inter-mode tunnelling parameter. We show that the results ensuing from our approach are in many cases extremely satisfactory. To this end, we compare our results with the ground state obtained both numerically and within a standard semiclassical approximation based on su(2) coherent states.

  16. Characterization of Downstream Ion Energy Distributions From a High Current Hollow Cathode in a Ring Cusp Discharge Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of energetic ions produced by a hollow cathodes operating at high emission currents (greater than 10 Angstroms) has been documented in the literature. As part of an ongoing effort to uncover the underlying physics of the formation of these ions, ion efflux from a high current hollow cathode operating in an ion thruster discharge chamber was investigated. Using a spherical sector electrostatic energy analyzer located downstream of the discharge cathode, the ion energy distribution over a 0 to 60 eV energy range was measured. The sensitivity of the ion energy distribution function to zenith angle was also assessed at 3 different positions: 0, 15, and 25 degrees. The measurements suggest that the majority of the ion current at the measuring point falls into the analyzer with an energy approximately equal to the discharge voltage. The ion distribution, however, was found to be quite broad. The high energy tail of the distribution function tended to grow with increasing discharge current. Sensitivity of the profiles to flow rate at fixed discharge current was also investigated. A simple model is presented that provides a potential mechanism for the production of ions with energies above the discharge voltage.

  17. Designing a ring-VCO for RFID transponders in 0.18 μm CMOS process.

    PubMed

    Jalil, Jubayer; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Arif Sobhan; Rahman, Labonnah Farzana; Chang, Tae Gyu

    2014-01-01

    In radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, performance degradation of phase locked loops (PLLs) mainly occurs due to high phase noise of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs). This paper proposes a low power, low phase noise ring-VCO developed for 2.42 GHz operated active RFID transponders compatible with IEEE 802.11 b/g, Bluetooth, and Zigbee protocols. For ease of integration and implementation of the module in tiny die area, a novel pseudodifferential delay cell based 3-stage ring oscillator has been introduced to fabricate the ring-VCO. In CMOS technology, 0.18 μm process is adopted for designing the circuit with 1.5 V power supply. The postlayout simulated results show that the proposed oscillator works in the tuning range of 0.5-2.54 GHz and dissipates 2.47 mW of power. It exhibits a phase noise of -126.62 dBc/Hz at 25 MHz offset from 2.42 GHz carrier frequency.

  18. Designing a Ring-VCO for RFID Transponders in 0.18 μm CMOS Process

    PubMed Central

    Jalil, Jubayer; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Arif Sobhan; Rahman, Labonnah Farzana; Chang, Tae Gyu

    2014-01-01

    In radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, performance degradation of phase locked loops (PLLs) mainly occurs due to high phase noise of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs). This paper proposes a low power, low phase noise ring-VCO developed for 2.42 GHz operated active RFID transponders compatible with IEEE 802.11 b/g, Bluetooth, and Zigbee protocols. For ease of integration and implementation of the module in tiny die area, a novel pseudodifferential delay cell based 3-stage ring oscillator has been introduced to fabricate the ring-VCO. In CMOS technology, 0.18 μm process is adopted for designing the circuit with 1.5 V power supply. The postlayout simulated results show that the proposed oscillator works in the tuning range of 0.5–2.54 GHz and dissipates 2.47 mW of power. It exhibits a phase noise of −126.62 dBc/Hz at 25 MHz offset from 2.42 GHz carrier frequency. PMID:24587731

  19. Optical noninvasive calculation of hemoglobin components concentrations and fractional oxygen saturation using a ring-scattering pulse oximeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Omar; Stork, Wilhelm; Muller-Glaser, Klaus

    2004-06-01

    The deficiencies of the currently used pulse oximeter are discussed in diverse literature. A hazardous pitfalls of this method is that the pulse oximeter will not detect carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and methemoglobin (metHb) concentrations. This leads to incorrect measurement of oxygen saturation by carbon monoxide poisoning and methemoglobinemia. Also the total hemoglobin concentration will not be considered and can only be measured in-vitro up to now. A second pitfall of the standard pulse oximetry is that it will not be able to show a result by low perfusion of tissues. This case is available inter alia when the patient is under shock or has a low blood pressure. The new non-invasive system we designed measures the actual (fractional) oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration. It will enable us also to measure COHb and metHb. The measurement can be applied at better perfused body central parts. Four or more light emitting diodes (LEDs) or laser diodes (LDs) and five photodiodes (PDs) are used. The reflected light signal detected by photodiodes is processed using a modified Lambert-Beer law (I=I0×e-α.d ). According to this law, when a non scattering probe is irradiated with light having the incident intensity I0, the intensity of transmitted light I decays exponentially with the absorption coefficient a of that probe and its thickness d. Modifications of this law have been performed following the theoretical developed models in literature, Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurement.

  20. Launching a particle on a ring: b2u→ke2g ionization of C6F6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Aloke; Poliakoff, E. D.; Lucchese, R. R.; Bozek, John D.

    2006-10-01

    Evidence is presented demonstrating that an electron launched into the continuum is trapped in an unprecedented quasibound state, namely, one that extends through the backbone of the six-member carbon ring of C6F6. The mode specificity of the vibrational sensitivity to the electron trapping provides an experimental signature for this phenomenon, while adiabatic static model-exchange scattering calculations are used to map the wave function, which corroborate the interpretation.

  1. How Many Muons Do We Need to Store in a Ring For Neutrino Cross-Section Measurements?

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2011-07-14

    Analytical estimate of the number of muons that must decay in the straight section of a storage ring to produce a neutrino & anti-neutrino beam of sufficient intensity to facilitate cross-section measurements with a statistical precision of 1%. As we move into the era of precision long-baseline {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub e} measurements there is a growing need to precisely determine the {nu}{sub e} and {bar {nu}}{sub e} cross-sections in the relevant energy range, from a fraction of 1 GeV to a few GeV. This will require {nu}{sub e} and {bar {nu}}{sub e} beams with precisely known fluxes and spectra. One way to produce these beams is to use a storage ring with long straight sections in which muon decays ({mu}{sup -} {yields} e{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}}{bar {nu}}{sub e} if negative muons are stored, and {nu}{sup +} {yields} e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}{bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} if positive muons are stored) produce the desired beam. The challenge is to capture enough muons in the ring to obtain useful neutrino and anti-neutrino fluxes. Early proposals to use a muon storage ring for neutrino oscillation experiments were based upon injecting 'high energy' charged pions into the ring which then decayed to create stored muons. These proposals were hampered by lack of sufficient intensity to pursue the physics. The Neutrino Factory proposal in 1997 was designed to fix this problem by using a Muon Collider class 'low energy' muon source to capture many more pions at low energy, allow them to decay in an external decay channel, manipulate their phase space to capture as many muons as possible within the acceptance of an accelerator, and then accelerate to the energy of choice before injecting into a specially designed ring with long straight sections. All this technology would do a wonderful job in fixing the intensity problem, but at a price that excludes this solution from being realized in the short term. The question that we are now faced with is whether the older, lower intensity 'parasitic' muon storage ring based on 'high energy' pion decays can, with suitable modification, produce sufficient intensity to measure the desired cross-sections. Fortunately, the intensity requirements for cross-section measurements are less demanding than the corresponding requirements for oscillation measurements, so there is hope. To fuel the discussion, in this note we consider the design goal: how many muons do we need to store?

  2. Goliath, a ring-H2 mitochondrial protein, regulated by luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin in rat leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Guais, A; Solhonne, B; Melaine, N; Guellaen, G; Bulle, F

    2004-01-01

    We have cloned the rat homologue of the ring-H2 protein Goliath involved in Drosophila development. The rat Goliath mRNA (1.85 kb) was translated as a major ubiquitous protein species of 28-kDa and three larger isoforms (50, 46, and 36 kDa) expressed mainly in liver, lung, stomach, heart, and thymus and barely detectable in other tissues (kidney, skeletal muscle, brain, testis, intestine, and spleen). By immunohistochemistry on rat testis sections, we localized the protein in interstitial tissue and seminiferous tubules. In tubules, Goliath was expressed mainly in postmeiotic germ cells and to a much lesser extent in Sertoli cells. In the interstitium, Goliath was exclusively present in Leydig cells. Using a series of immunolabeling, cellular fractionation, and electron microscopy experiments, we established that Goliath is present in mitochondria of the R2C Leydig cell line. Using short-term hypophysectomized animals, we showed that Goliath is regulated by LH/hCG in Leydig cells but not in germ cells. This regulation in Leydig cells concerned only the 50-kDa isoform. This report is the first description of a differential regulation of the Goliath protein between germ cells and Leydig cells.

  3. In vitro metabolism of gestodene in target organs: formation of A-ring reduced derivatives with oestrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Lemus, A E; Santillán, R; Damián-Matsumura, P; García, G A; Grillasca, I; Pérez-Palacios, G

    2001-04-13

    Gestodene (13beta-ethyl-17alpha-ethynyl-17beta-hydroxy-4,5-gonadien-3-one), the most potent progestin ever synthesized, stimulates breast cancer cell growth through an oestrogen receptor-mediated mechanism, and its use in hormonal contraception has been associated with side effects attributable to oestrogenic actions. These observations have remained controversial, since gestodene does not bind to the oestrogen receptor or exert oestrogen-like activities. Recently, we have demonstrated that non-phenolic gestodene derivatives interact with oestrogen receptors and induce oestrogenic effects in cell expression systems. To assess whether gestodene is biotransformed to metabolites with intrinsic oestrogenic potency, [3H]- and [14C]-labelled gestodene were incubated in vitro with rat anterior pituitary, hypothalamus and ventral prostate homogenates under different experimental conditions. The most remarkable finding was the isolation and identification of 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydrogestodene and 3alpha,5alpha-tetrahydrogestodene as metabolic conversion products of gestodene, presumably with 5alpha-dihydrogestodene as intermediate. The overall results seem to indicate that the weak oestrogenic effects attributable to gestodene could be mediated by its tetrahydro metabolites.

  4. Stationary States and Modulational Instability of Coupled Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Ring Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hai-Ming; Zhong, Hong-Hua; Huang, Jia-Hao; Dai, Hui; Yao, Min; Huang, Xiao-Yi

    2015-08-01

    We investigate modulational instability (MI) of a coupled two-component Bose-Einstein condensates in a rotating ring trap. The excitation spectrum and the MI condition of the system are presented analytically. We find that the coupling between the two components strongly modifies the MI condition, and the MI condition is phase-dependent. Furthermore, we discuss the effect of MI on both density excitation and spin excitation. If the inter- and intra-component interaction strengths are all equal, the MI causes density excitation but not spin excitation, and if the inter- and intra-component interaction strengths are different, the MI causes both density excitation and spin excitation. Our results provide a promising approach for controlling the stability and excitation of a rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates by modulating its coupling strength and interaction strength. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11465008, the Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation under Grant No. 2015JJ2114, the Scientific Research Fund of Hunan Provincial Education Department under Grant Nos. 14A118, 13C881, Science and Technology Innovative Research Team in Higher Educational Instituions of Hunan Province, and Science Research Foundation of Xiangnan University under Grant No. 2012-126(41)

  5. Loading a ring: structure of the Bacillus subtilis DnaB protein, a co-loader of the replicative helicase.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Ramírez, Rafael; Velten, Marion; Rivas, Germán; Polard, Patrice; Carazo, José María; Donate, Luis Enrique

    2007-03-30

    Loading of the ring-shaped replicative helicase is a critical step in the initiation of DNA replication. Bacillus subtilis has adopted a two-protein strategy to load its hexameric replicative helicase: DnaB and DnaI interact with the helicase and mediate its delivery onto DNA. We present here the 3D electron microscopy structure of the DnaB protein, along with a detailed analysis of both its oligomeric state and its domain organization. DnaB is organized as an asymmetric tetramer that is comprised of two stacked components, one arranged as a closed collar and the other as an open sigma shape. Intriguingly, the 3D map of DnaB exhibits an overall architecture similar to the structure of the Escherichia coli gamma-complex, the loader of the ring-shaped processivity factor. We propose a model whereby each DnaB monomer participates in both stacked components of the tetramer and displays a different overall shape. This asymmetric quaternary organization could be a general feature of ring loaders.

  6. High Interlaboratory Reproducibility and Accuracy of Next-Generation-Sequencing-Based Bacterial Genotyping in a Ring Trial.

    PubMed

    Mellmann, Alexander; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Bletz, Stefan; Friedrich, Alexander W; Kohl, Thomas A; Lilje, Berit; Niemann, Stefan; Prior, Karola; Rossen, John W; Harmsen, Dag

    2017-03-01

    Today, next-generation whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly used to determine the genetic relationships of bacteria on a nearly whole-genome level for infection control purposes and molecular surveillance. Here, we conducted a multicenter ring trial comprising five laboratories to determine the reproducibility and accuracy of WGS-based typing. The participating laboratories sequenced 20 blind-coded Staphylococcus aureus DNA samples using 250-bp paired-end chemistry for library preparation in a single sequencing run on an Illumina MiSeq sequencer. The run acceptance criteria were sequencing outputs >5.6 Gb and Q30 read quality scores of >75%. Subsequently, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), ribosomal MLST, and core genome MLST (cgMLST) were performed by the participants. Moreover, discrepancies in cgMLST target sequences in comparisons with the included and also published sequence of the quality control strain ATCC 25923 were resolved using Sanger sequencing. All five laboratories fulfilled the run acceptance criteria in a single sequencing run without any repetition. Of the 400 total possible typing results, 394 of the reported spa types, sequence types (STs), ribosomal STs (rSTs), and cgMLST cluster types were correct and identical among all laboratories; only six typing results were missing. An analysis of cgMLST allelic profiles corroborated this high reproducibility; only 3 of 183,927 (0.0016%) cgMLST allele calls were wrong. Sanger sequencing confirmed all 12 discrepancies of the ring trial results in comparison with the published sequence of ATCC 25923. In summary, this ring trial demonstrated the high reproducibility and accuracy of current next-generation sequencing-based bacterial typing for molecular surveillance when done with nearly completely locked-down methods.

  7. Direct detection of pyridine formation by the reaction of CH (CD) with pyrrole: a ring expansion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Soorkia, Satchin; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Selby, Talitha M.; Trevitt, Adam J.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2010-03-16

    The reaction of the ground state methylidyne radical CH (X2Pi) with pyrrole (C4H5N) has been studied in a slow flow tube reactor using Multiplexed Photoionization Mass Spectrometry coupled to quasi-continuous tunable VUV synchrotron radiation at room temperature (295 K) and 90 oC (363 K), at 4 Torr (533 Pa). Laser photolysis of bromoform (CHBr3) at 248 nm (KrF excimer laser) is used to produce CH radicals that are free to react with pyrrole molecules in the gaseous mixture. A signal at m/z = 79 (C5H5N) is identified as the product of the reaction and resolved from 79Br atoms, and the result is consistent with CH addition to pyrrole followed by Helimination. The Photoionization Efficiency curve unambiguously identifies m/z = 79 as pyridine. With deuterated methylidyne radicals (CD), the product mass peak is shifted by +1 mass unit, consistent with the formation of C5H4DN and identified as deuterated pyridine (dpyridine). Within detection limits, there is no evidence that the addition intermediate complex undergoes hydrogen scrambling. The results are consistent with a reaction mechanism that proceeds via the direct CH (CD) cycloaddition or insertion into the five-member pyrrole ring, giving rise to ring expansion, followed by H atom elimination from the nitrogen atom in the intermediate to form the resonance stabilized pyridine (d-pyridine) molecule. Implications to interstellar chemistry and planetary atmospheres, in particular Titan, as well as in gas-phase combustion processes, are discussed.

  8. Evidence of the excitation of a ring-like gravity wave in the mesosphere over the Andes Lidar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Fabio; Swenson, Gary; Liu, Alan; Pautet, Dominique

    2016-08-01

    On 23 March 2012, our all-sky imager recorded a concentric, ring-like gravity wave pattern. The wave arose within the area covered by images of both OH and O(1S) nightglow emissions taken at the Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO), Chile (30.3°S, 70.7°W). We have estimated the observed and intrinsic parameters of the event and located the wave source within the lower mesosphere altitude range using a reverse ray tracing method. By the analysis of GOES and LIS satellite images, we have not found evidence of neither convective nor lightning activity nearby ALO, indicating that the source of the ring-like wave was not directly in the troposphere. The absence of tropospheric activity and the height of the source of the event suggest that a secondary wave generation mechanism might be the cause of the ring-like wave. The secondary wave mechanism was likely triggered by a breaking, larger-scale primary wave excited by deep convection ˜1400 km northeast of ALO over Bolivia, as determined by a forward ray tracing scheme.

  9. High Interlaboratory Reproducibility and Accuracy of Next-Generation-Sequencing-Based Bacterial Genotyping in a Ring Trial

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Paal Skytt; Bletz, Stefan; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Kohl, Thomas A.; Lilje, Berit; Niemann, Stefan; Prior, Karola; Rossen, John W.; Harmsen, Dag

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Today, next-generation whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly used to determine the genetic relationships of bacteria on a nearly whole-genome level for infection control purposes and molecular surveillance. Here, we conducted a multicenter ring trial comprising five laboratories to determine the reproducibility and accuracy of WGS-based typing. The participating laboratories sequenced 20 blind-coded Staphylococcus aureus DNA samples using 250-bp paired-end chemistry for library preparation in a single sequencing run on an Illumina MiSeq sequencer. The run acceptance criteria were sequencing outputs >5.6 Gb and Q30 read quality scores of >75%. Subsequently, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), ribosomal MLST, and core genome MLST (cgMLST) were performed by the participants. Moreover, discrepancies in cgMLST target sequences in comparisons with the included and also published sequence of the quality control strain ATCC 25923 were resolved using Sanger sequencing. All five laboratories fulfilled the run acceptance criteria in a single sequencing run without any repetition. Of the 400 total possible typing results, 394 of the reported spa types, sequence types (STs), ribosomal STs (rSTs), and cgMLST cluster types were correct and identical among all laboratories; only six typing results were missing. An analysis of cgMLST allelic profiles corroborated this high reproducibility; only 3 of 183,927 (0.0016%) cgMLST allele calls were wrong. Sanger sequencing confirmed all 12 discrepancies of the ring trial results in comparison with the published sequence of ATCC 25923. In summary, this ring trial demonstrated the high reproducibility and accuracy of current next-generation sequencing-based bacterial typing for molecular surveillance when done with nearly completely locked-down methods. PMID:28053217

  10. Localized toxoplasmosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) causing placentitis, stillbirths, and disseminated fetal infection.

    PubMed

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Mainez, Mireia; Marco, Alberto; Sanchís, Ana M Malabia

    2011-09-01

    Localized, myocardial toxoplasmosis contributed to the death of a female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) 1 week after the delivery of 4 stillborn offspring with disseminated toxoplasmosis; the diagnosis was obtained by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in all 5 lemurs. Varying degrees of placentitis and placental edema with intralesional Toxoplasma gondii immunolabeling were observed in the 3 available placentas. The dam had severe myocarditis, and T. gondii antigen was only detected in the myocardial lesions. Disseminated toxoplasmosis with mild encephalitis was noted in all 4 fetuses, and 2 of the fetuses had mild acute multifocal hepatic necrosis. Fetal death was attributed to placental insufficiency with subsequent hypoxia and amniotic fluid aspiration.

  11. A new form of Ca{sub 3}P{sub 2} with a ring of Dirac nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Lilia S.; Schoop, Leslie M.; Seibel, Elizabeth M.; Gibson, Quinn D.; Xie, Weiwei; Cava, Robert J.

    2015-08-01

    We report the synthesis and crystal structure of a new high-temperature form of Ca{sub 3}P{sub 2}. The crystal structure was determined through Rietveld refinements of synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction data. This form of Ca{sub 3}P{sub 2} has a crystal structure of the hexagonal Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} type, with a Ca ion deficiency compared to the ideal 5:3 stoichiometry. This yields a stable, charge-balanced compound of Ca{sup 2+} and P{sup 3−}. We also report the observation of a secondary hydride phase, Ca{sub 5}P{sub 3}H, which again is a charge-balanced compound. The calculated band structure of Ca{sub 3}P{sub 2} indicates that it is a three-dimensional Dirac semimetal with a highly unusual ring of Dirac nodes at the Fermi level. The Dirac states are protected against gap opening by a mirror plane in a manner analogous to what is seen for graphene.

  12. Launching a particle on a ring: b2u -->ke2g ionization ofC6F6

    SciTech Connect

    Das, A.; Poliakoff, E.D.; Lucchese, R.R.; Bozek, J.D.

    2006-08-20

    Evidence is presented demonstrating that an electron launched into the continuum is trapped in an unprecedented quasibound state, namely, one that extends through the backbone of the six-member carbon ring of C{sub 6}F{sub 6}. The mode specificity of the vibrational sensitivity to the electron trapping provides an experimental signature for this phenomenon, while adiabatic static model-exchange scattering calculations are used to map the wave function, which corroborate the interpretation.

  13. Profiling the metabolic difference of seven tanshinones using high-performance liquid chromatography/multi-stage mass spectrometry with data-dependent acquisition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Yang, Min; Han, Jian; Wang, Baorong; Ma, Xiaochi; Xu, Man; Liu, Peng; Guo, Dean

    2007-01-01

    Tanshinones are a class of bioactive constituents in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza named Dan-Shen in Chinese, which possess diverse pharmacological activities. In this study, we employed a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography/multi-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS(n)) method with data-dependent acquisition and a dynamic exclusion program for the identification of phase I metabolites of seven tanshinones in rat bile after intravenous administration. These seven tanshinones are tanshinone IIA, sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (abbreviated as STS, a water-soluble derivate of tanshinone IIA), cryptotanshinone, 15,16-dihydrotanshinone I, tanshinone IIB, przewaquinone A and tanshinone I. Altogether 33 metabolites underwent monohydroxylation, dihydroxylation, dehydrogenation, D-ring hydrolysis or oxidation reactions in the C-4 or C-15 side chain which were characterized by analyzing the LC/MS(n) data. Different metabolic reactions for tanshinones were dependent on the degree of saturation and the substituent group in the skeleton. Dehydrogenation was the major metabolic modification for cryptotanshinone with saturated A and D rings. 15,16-Dihydrotanshinone I containing a saturated D ring was mainly metabolized through D-ring hydrolysis. For tanshinone IIA, possessing a saturated A ring, hydroxylation was the major metabolic pathway. When there was hydroxyl group substitution in the C-17 or C-18 position, such as przewaquinone A and tanshinone IIB, or sulfonic group substitution in the C-16 position, such as STS, higher metabolic stability than that of tanshinone IIA was shown and only trace metabolites were generated. Oxidation in the C-4 or C-15 side chain was a characteristic reaction for tanshinone IIA and hydroxylated tanshinone IIA. For tanshinone I, bearing unsaturated A and D rings simultaneously, no metabolites were detected.

  14. Ubiquitylation and degradation of serum-inducible kinase by hVPS18, a RING-H2 type ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Yogosawa, Satomi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; Nakayama, Keiichi I; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Akazawa, Chihiro

    2005-12-16

    Serum-inducible kinase (SNK) is a member of polo-like kinases that serve as regulators of multiple events during cell division. Rapid changes in the activity and abundance of SNK were reported after the serum stimulation and after the activation of synaptic transmission in the brain. Yet the detailed mechanisms that control the level of SNK protein have not been fully elucidated. In this report, we show that the RING-H2 domain of hVPS18 (human vacuolar protein sorting 18) has a genuine ubiquitin ligase (E3) activity. Using the yeast two-hybrid screening, we identify SNK as a candidate substrate of hVPS18. The half-life of SNK is increased in HeLa cells that down-regulated hVPS18 by lentivirus-mediated small hairpin RNA interference. Furthermore, the delayed entry into S phase is observed in HeLa cells overexpressing hVPS18. These results suggest that hVPS18 may play an important role in regulation of SNK activity through its ubiquitin ligase.

  15. Metastable spin textures and Nambu-Goldstone modes of a ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a ring trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunimi, Masaya

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the metastability of a ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a quasi-one-dimensional rotating ring trap by solving the spin-1 Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We find analytical solutions that exhibit spin textures. By performing linear stability analysis, it is shown that the solutions can become metastable states. We also find that the number of Nambu-Goldstone modes changes at a certain rotation velocity without changing the continuous symmetry of the order parameter.

  16. Weil Representation of a Generalized Linear Group over a Ring of Truncated Polynomials over a Finite Field Endowed with a Second Class Involution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez Frez, Luis; Pantoja, José

    2015-09-01

    We construct a complex linear Weil representation ρ of the generalized special linear group G={SL}_*^{1}(2,A_n) (A_n=K[x]/< x^nrangle , K the quadratic extension of the finite field k of q elements, q odd), where A_n is endowed with a second class involution. After the construction of a specific data, the representation is defined on the generators of a Bruhat presentation of G, via linear operators satisfying the relations of the presentation. The structure of a unitary group U associated to G is described. Using this group we obtain a first decomposition of ρ.

  17. 3,4-Bis(1-adamantyl)-1,2-dithiete: the first structurally characterized dithiete unsupported by a ring or benzenoid frame.

    PubMed

    Donahue, J P; Holm, R H

    1998-08-15

    The structure determination of 3,4-bis(1-adamantyl)-1,2-dithiete, (C10H15)2C2S2 or C22H30S2, reported herein is the first crystallographic characterization of a 1,2-dithiete molecule unsupported by a benzenoid frame. Two independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit separated by a pseudo-inversion center. The S2C2 four-membered dithiete ring is planar, with a trapezoidal shape enforced by the longer disulfide bond [average 2.086 (2) A] compared with the olefinic bond [average 1.363 (6) A]. The adamantyl substituents differ from one another by adopting slightly different rotational conformations with respect to the dithiete ring. The quaternary C atoms of the adamantyl groups deviate only slightly from the plane of the dithiete ring (average displacement of 0.023 A).

  18. The far-infrared morphology of the double-ringed galaxy NGC 4736 (M94) - A ring surrounding an extended nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Beverly J.; Lester, D. F.; Harvey, P. M.; Pogge, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    High spatial resolution 100-micron observations of the central region of the double-ringed spiral galaxy NGC 4736 (M94) were obtained using the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The data show a strong central peak with secondary peaks at the radius of the inner ring (50 arcsec = 1.6 kpc). The nuclear emission is extended at 100 microns, with a radius of 15 arcsec (500 pc). The far-infrared morphology is similar to that of the molecular gas, while the H I distribution shows a pronounced central depression. Since most of the hydrogen gas in the inner regions of NGC 4736 is in molecular form, it is concluded that the far-infrared emission from NGC 4736 arises mainly from dust associated with molecular gas. The H-alpha distribution differs dramatically from the far-infrared and molecular gas distributions. The ring dominates the H-alpha emission, while the total 100-micron ring emission is only slightly larger than that of the nucleus, yielding an L(FIR)/L(H-alpha) for the nucleus about 100 times that of the ring. The bolometric luminosity of the stars in the inner 1 kpc of NGC 4736 is sufficient to power the far-infrared from this region, which suggests that a significant fraction of the far-infrared emission in the nuclear region of NGC 4736 is powered by non-OB stars rather than by star formation.

  19. A Ring Artifact Correction Method: Validation by Micro-CT Imaging with Flat-Panel Detectors and a 2D Photon-Counting Detector

    PubMed Central

    Eldib, Mohamed Elsayed; Hegazy, Mohamed; Mun, Yang Ji; Cho, Myung Hye; Cho, Min Hyoung; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an efficient ring artifact correction method for a cone-beam computed tomography (CT). In the first step, we correct the defective pixels whose values are close to zero or saturated in the projection domain. In the second step, we compute the mean value at each detector element along the view angle in the sinogram to obtain the one-dimensional (1D) mean vector, and we then compute the 1D correction vector by taking inverse of the mean vector. We multiply the correction vector with the sinogram row by row over all view angles. In the third step, we apply a Gaussian filter on the difference image between the original CT image and the corrected CT image obtained in the previous step. The filtered difference image is added to the corrected CT image to compensate the possible contrast anomaly that may appear due to the contrast change in the sinogram after removing stripe artifacts. We applied the proposed method to the projection data acquired by two flat-panel detectors (FPDs) and a silicon-based photon-counting X-ray detector (PCXD). Micro-CT imaging experiments of phantoms and a small animal have shown that the proposed method can greatly reduce ring artifacts regardless of detector types. Despite the great reduction of ring artifacts, the proposed method does not compromise the original spatial resolution and contrast. PMID:28146088

  20. Pleiotropic and Epistatic Behavior of a Ring-Hydroxylating Oxygenase System in the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolic Network from Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1

    PubMed Central

    Kweon, Ohgew; Kim, Seong-Jae; Kim, Dae-Wi; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Kim, Hyun-lee; Ahn, Youngbeom; Sutherland, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the considerable knowledge of bacterial high-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism, the key enzyme(s) and its pleiotropic and epistatic behavior(s) responsible for low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs in HMW PAH-metabolic networks remain poorly understood. In this study, a phenotype-based strategy, coupled with a spray plate method, selected a Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 mutant (6G11) that degrades HMW PAHs but not LMW PAHs. Sequence analysis determined that the mutant was defective in pdoA2, encoding an aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO). A series of metabolic comparisons using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the mutant had a lower rate of degradation of fluorene, anthracene, and pyrene. Unlike the wild type, the mutant did not produce a color change in culture media containing fluorene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene. An Escherichia coli expression experiment confirmed the ability of the Pdo system to oxidize biphenyl, the LMW PAHs naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluorene, and the HMW PAHs pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene, with the highest enzymatic activity directed toward three-ring PAHs. Structure analysis and PAH substrate docking simulations of the Pdo substrate-binding pocket rationalized the experimentally observed metabolic versatility on a molecular scale. Using information obtained in this study and from previous work, we constructed an RHO-centric functional map, allowing pleiotropic and epistatic enzymatic explanation of PAH metabolism. Taking the findings together, the Pdo system is an RHO system with the pleiotropic responsibility of LMW PAH-centric hydroxylation, and its epistatic functional contribution is also crucial for the metabolic quality and quantity of the PAH-MN. PMID:25070740

  1. Vibration analysis of a wheel composed of a ring and a wheel-plate modelled as a three-parameter elastic foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noga, Stanisław; Bogacz, Roman; Markowski, Tadeusz

    2014-12-01

    The free in-plane vibrations of circular rings with wheel-plates as generalised elastic foundations are studied using analytical methods and numerical simulations. The three-parameter Winkler elastic layer is proposed as a mathematical model of the foundation. The effects of rotary inertia and shear deformation are included in the analytical model of the system. The motion equations of systems are derived on the basis of the thin ring theory and Timoshenko's theory. The separation of variables method is used to find general solutions to the free vibrations. Elaborated analytical models are used to determine the natural frequencies and the natural mode shapes of vibrations of an arbitrarily chosen set of simplified models of aviation gears and railway wheels. The eigenvalue problem is formulated and solved by using a finite element representation for each simplified model. The results for these models are discussed and compared. The proposed solutions are verified by experimental investigation. It is important to note that the solutions proposed here could be useful to engineers dealing with the dynamics of aviation gears, railway wheels and other circular ring systems.

  2. Use of a ring chromosome and pulsed-field gels to study interhomolog recombination, double-strand DNA breaks and sister-chromatid exchange in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Game, J.C. ); Sitney, K.C.; Cook, V.E.; Mortimer, R.K. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors describe a system that uses pulsed-field gels for the physical detection of recombinant DNA molecules, double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) and sister-chromatid exchange in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The system makes use of a circular variant of chromosome II (Chr. III). Meiotic recombination between this ring chromosome and a linear homolog produces new molecules of sizes distinguishable on gels from either parental molecule. They demonstrate that these recombinant molecules are not present either in strains with two linear Chr. III molecules or in rad50 mutants, which are defective in meiotic recombination. In conjunction with the molecular endpoints. They present data on the timing of commitment to meiotic recombination scored genetically. They have used x-rays to linearize circular Chr. III, both to develop a sensitive method for measuring frequency of DSB and as a means of detecting double-size circles originating in part from sister-chromatid exchange, which they find to be frequent during meiosis.

  3. Synchronisation and desynchronisation of self-modulation oscillations in a ring chip laser under the action of a periodic signal and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Dudetskiy, V Yu; Lariontsev, E G; Chekina, S N

    2014-09-30

    The effect of pump noise on the synchronisation of selfmodulation oscillations in a solid-state ring laser with periodic pump modulation is studied numerically and experimentally. It is found that, in contrast to desynchronisation that usually occurs under action of noise in the case of 1/1 synchronisation of self-oscillations by a periodic signal, the effect of noise on 1/2 synchronisation may be positive, namely, at a sufficiently low intensity, pump noise is favourable for synchronisation of self-oscillations, for narrowing of their spectrum, and for increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. (lasers)

  4. A ring of threonines in the inner vestibule of the pore of CNGA1 channels constitutes a binding site for permeating ions

    PubMed Central

    Marchesi, Arin; Mazzolini, Monica; Torre, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels and K+ channels have a significant sequence identity and are thought to share a similar 3D structure. K+ channels can accommodate simultaneously two or three permeating ions inside their pore and therefore are referred to as multi-ion channels. Also CNGA1 channels are multi-ion channels, as they exhibit an anomalous mole fraction effect (AMFE) in the presence of mixtures of 110 mm Li+ and Cs+ on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. Several observations have identified the ring of Glu363 in the outer vestibule of the pore as one of the binding sites within the pore of CNGA1 channels. In the present work we identify a second binding site in the selectivity filter of CNGA1 channels controlling AMFE. Here, we show also that Cs+ ions at the intracellular side of the membrane block the entry of Na+ ions. This blockage is almost completely removed at high hyperpolarized voltages as expected if the Cs+ blocking site is located within the transmembrane electric field. Indeed, mutagenesis experiments show that the block is relieved when Thr359 and Thr360 at the intracellular entrance of the selectivity filter are replaced with an alanine. In T359A mutant channels AMFE in the presence of intracellular mixtures of Li+ and Cs+ is still present but is abolished in T360A mutant channels. These results suggest that the ring of Thr360 at the intracellular entrance of the selectivity filter forms another ion binding site in the CNGA1 channel. The two binding sites composed of the rings of Glu363 and Thr360 are not independent; in fact they mediate a powerful coupling between permeation and gating, a specific aspect of CNG channels. PMID:22869010

  5. The mei-P26 Gene Encodes a RING Finger B-box Coiled-Coil-NHL Protein That Regulates Seizure Susceptibility in Drosophilia

    PubMed Central

    Glasscock, Edward; Singhania, Ayush; Tanouye, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    Seizure-suppressor mutations provide unique insight into the genes and mechanisms involved in regulating nervous system excitability. Drosophila bang-sensitive (BS) mutants present a useful tool for identifying seizure suppressors since they are a well-characterized epilepsy model. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a new Drosophila seizure-suppressor mutant that results from disruption of the meiotic gene mei-P26, which belongs to the RBCC-NHL family of proteins. The mei-P26 mutation reduces seizures in easily shocked (eas) and slamdance (sda) epileptic flies following mechanical stimulation and electroconvulsive shock. In addition, mutant mei-P26 flies exhibit seizure thresholds at least threefold greater than those of wild type. The mei-P26 phenotypes appear to result from missense mutation of a critical residue in the NHL protein-protein interaction domain of the protein. These results reveal a surprising role for mei-P26 outside of the germline as a regulator of seizure susceptibility, possibly by affecting synaptic development as a ubiquitin ligase. PMID:15937125

  6. Oscillation regimes of a solid-state ring laser with active beat-note stabilization: From a chaotic device to a ring-laser gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Sylvain; Feugnet, Gilles; Pocholle, Jean-Paul; Lariontsev, Evguenii

    2007-08-15

    We report an experimental and theoretical study of a rotating diode-pumped Nd-YAG ring laser with active beat-note stabilization. Our experimental setup is described in the usual Maxwell-Bloch formalism. We analytically derive a stability condition and some frequency response characteristics for the solid-state ring-laser gyroscope, illustrating the important role of mode coupling effects on the dynamics of such a device. Experimental data are presented and compared with the theory on the basis of realistic laser parameters, showing very good agreement. Our results illustrate the duality between the very rich nonlinear dynamics of the diode-pumped solid-state ring laser (including chaotic behavior) and the possibility to obtain a very stable beat note, resulting in a potentially new kind of rotation sensor.

  7. Crystal structure of a ring-cleaving cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase, a novel member of the thiamine diphosphate enzyme family.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Alma; Fraas, Sonja; Harder, Jens; Warkentin, Eberhard; Kroneck, Peter M H; Ermler, Ulrich

    2012-04-01

    The thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) dependent flavoenzyme cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase (CDH) (EC 3.7.1.11) catalyses a key step of a novel anaerobic degradation pathway for alicyclic alcohols by converting cyclohexane-1,2-dione (CDO) to 6-oxohexanoate and further to adipate using NAD(+) as electron acceptor. To gain insights into the molecular basis of these reactions CDH from denitrifying anaerobe Azoarcus sp. strain 22Lin was structurally characterized at 1.26 Å resolution. Notably, the active site funnel is rearranged in an unprecedented manner providing the structural basis for the specific binding and cleavage of an alicyclic compound. Crucial features include a decreased and displaced funnel entrance, a semi-circularly shaped loop segment preceding the C-terminal arm and the attachment of the C-terminal arm to other subunits of the CDH tetramer. Its structural scaffold and the ThDP activation is related to that observed for other members of the ThDP enzyme family. The selective binding of the competitive inhibitor 2-methyl-2,4-pentane-diol (MPD) to the open funnel of CDH reveals an asymmetry of the two active sites found also in the dimer of several other ThDP dependent enzymes. The substrate binding site is characterized by polar and non-polar moieties reflected in the structures of MPD and CDO and by three prominent histidine residues (His28, His31 and His76) that most probably play a crucial role in substrate activation. The NAD(+) dependent oxidation of 6-oxohexanoate remains enigmatic as the redox-active cofactor FAD seems not to participate in catalysis, and no obvious NAD(+) binding site is found. Based on the structural data both reactions are discussed.

  8. Targeted Disruption of a Ring-infected Erythrocyte Surface Antigen (RESA)-like Export Protein Gene in Plasmodium falciparum Confers Stable Chondroitin 4-Sulfate Cytoadherence Capacity*

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Suchi; Muthusamy, Arivalagan; Miao, Jun; Cui, Liwang; Salanti, Ali; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Gowda, D. Channe

    2014-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family proteins mediate the adherence of infected erythrocytes to microvascular endothelia of various organs, including the placenta, thereby contributing to cerebral, placental, and other severe malaria pathogenesis. Several parasite proteins, including KAHRP and PfEMP3, play important roles in the cytoadherence by mediating the clustering of PfEMP1 in rigid knoblike structures on the infected erythrocyte surface. The lack of a subtelomeric region of chromosome 2 that contains kahrp and pfemp3 causes reduced cytoadherence. In this study, microarray transcriptome analysis showed that the absence of a gene cluster, comprising kahrp, pfemp3, and four other genes, results in the loss of parasitized erythrocytes adhering to chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S). The role of one of these genes, PF3D7_0201600/PFB0080c, which encodes PHISTb (Plasmodium helical interspersed subtelomeric b) domain-containing RESA-like protein 1 expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface, was investigated. Disruption of PFB0080c resulted in increased var2csa transcription and VAR2CSA surface expression, leading to higher C4S-binding capacity of infected erythrocytes. Further, PFB0080c-knock-out parasites stably maintained the C4S adherence through many generations of growth. Although the majority of PFB0080c-knock-out parasites bound to C4S even after culturing for 6 months, a minor population bound to both C4S and CD36. These results strongly suggest that the loss of PFB0080c markedly compromises the var gene switching process, leading to a marked reduction in the switching rate and additional PfEMP1 expression by a minor population of parasites. PFB0080c interacts with VAR2CSA and modulates knob-associated Hsp40 expression. Thus, PFB0080c may regulate VAR2CSA expression through these processes. Overall, we conclude that PFB0080c regulates PfEMP1 expression and the parasite's cytoadherence. PMID:25342752

  9. The negative regulator of plant cold responses, HOS1, is a RING E3 ligase that mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of ICE1

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chun-Hai; Agarwal, Manu; Zhang, Yiyue; Xie, Qi; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2006-01-01

    Plant responses to cold stress are mediated by a transcriptional cascade, in which the transcription factor ICE1 and possibly related proteins activate the expression of C-repeat (CRT)-binding factors (CBFs), leading to the transcription of downstream effector genes. The variant RING finger protein high expression of osmotically responsive gene (HOS)1 was identified genetically as a negative regulator of cold responses. We present evidence here that HOS1 is an E3 ligase required for the ubiquitination of ICE1. HOS1 physically interacts with ICE1 and mediates the ubiquitination of ICE1 both in vitro and in vivo. We found that cold induces the degradation of ICE1 in plants, and this degradation requires HOS1. Consistent with enhanced cold-responsive gene expression in loss-of-function hos1 mutant plants, overexpression of HOS1 represses the expression of CBFs and their downstream genes and confers increased sensitivity to freezing stress. Our results indicate that cold stress responses in Arabidopsis are attenuated by a ubiquitination/proteasome pathway in which HOS1 mediates the degradation of the ICE1 protein. PMID:16702557

  10. IRT1 DEGRADATION FACTOR1, a RING E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Regulates the Degradation of IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1 in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Lung-Jiun; Lo, Jing-Chi; Chen, Guan-Hong; Callis, Judy; Fu, Hongyong; Yeh, Kuo-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Fe is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development; plants have developed sophisticated strategies to acquire ferric Fe from the soil. Nongraminaceous plants acquire Fe by a reduction-based mechanism, and graminaceous plants use a chelation-based mechanism. In Arabidopsis thaliana, which uses the reduction-based method, IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1 (IRT1) functions as the most important transporter for ferrous Fe uptake. Rapid and constitutive degradation of IRT1 allows plants to quickly respond to changing conditions to maintain Fe homeostasis. IRT1 degradation involves ubiquitination. To identify the specific E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in IRT1 degradation, we screened a set of insertional mutants in RING-type E3 ligases and identified a mutant that showed delayed degradation of IRT1 and loss of IRT1-ubiquitin complexes. The corresponding gene was designated IRT1 DEGRADATION FACTOR1 (IDF1). Evidence of direct interaction between IDF1 and IRT1 in the plasma membrane supported the role of IDF1 in IRT1 degradation. IRT1 accumulation was reduced when coexpressed with IDF1 in yeast or Xenopus laevis oocytes. IDF1 function was RING domain dependent. The idf1 mutants showed increased tolerance to Fe deficiency, resulting from increased IRT1 levels. This evidence indicates that IDF1 directly regulates IRT1 degradation through its RING-type E3 ligase activity. PMID:23995086

  11. Synthesis, cytotoxicity, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity of chalcones and influence of A-ring modifications on the pharmacological effect.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Susanne; Barbic, Matej; Jürgenliemk, Guido; Heilmann, Jörg

    2010-06-01

    Besides 2',4'-dihydroxy-4,6'-dimethoxy-3'-prenylchalcone (1) and 4-acetoxy-2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3'-prenylchalkon (2), both phase II metabolites of xanthohumol in rats, also a principally new chalcone 3'-coumaroyl-2',4,4'-trihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone (3), structurally derived from helichrysetin (4) by introducing a second coumaroyl substructure at C-3' was synthesized. Furthermore new chalcones were synthesized by combination of the B-Ring fragments of helichrysetin, xanthohumol, xanthohumol C and xanthohumol H with ferulic or caffeic acid moieties in Ring A. Compound 3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells with an IC50 value of 7.3+/-0.4 microM. Anti-oxidative effects were determined in the ORAC assay and revealed very strong activity for 3 and 3-methoxyhelichrysetin (6) exhibiting 7.7+/-0.3 and 6.0+/-1.3 Trolox equivalents, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity of all compounds was measured in an in vitro ICAM-1 assay with human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and compared with the activity of other structurally related chalcones. The results showed increasing anti-inflammatory activity for the new synthetic chalcones exhibiting a caffeoyl substructure with 3-hydroxyhelichrysetin (5) and 3-hydroxyxanthohumol H (14) being the most active. At 10 microM the TNFalpha induced expression of ICAM-1 was significantly reduced to 65.8 and 69.6% of control, respectively.

  12. Pleiotropic and epistatic behavior of a ring-hydroxylating oxygenase system in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolic network from Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Ohgew; Kim, Seong-Jae; Kim, Dae-Wi; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Kim, Hyun-lee; Ahn, Youngbeom; Sutherland, John B; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2014-10-01

    Despite the considerable knowledge of bacterial high-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism, the key enzyme(s) and its pleiotropic and epistatic behavior(s) responsible for low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs in HMW PAH-metabolic networks remain poorly understood. In this study, a phenotype-based strategy, coupled with a spray plate method, selected a Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 mutant (6G11) that degrades HMW PAHs but not LMW PAHs. Sequence analysis determined that the mutant was defective in pdoA2, encoding an aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO). A series of metabolic comparisons using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the mutant had a lower rate of degradation of fluorene, anthracene, and pyrene. Unlike the wild type, the mutant did not produce a color change in culture media containing fluorene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene. An Escherichia coli expression experiment confirmed the ability of the Pdo system to oxidize biphenyl, the LMW PAHs naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluorene, and the HMW PAHs pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene, with the highest enzymatic activity directed toward three-ring PAHs. Structure analysis and PAH substrate docking simulations of the Pdo substrate-binding pocket rationalized the experimentally observed metabolic versatility on a molecular scale. Using information obtained in this study and from previous work, we constructed an RHO-centric functional map, allowing pleiotropic and epistatic enzymatic explanation of PAH metabolism. Taking the findings together, the Pdo system is an RHO system with the pleiotropic responsibility of LMW PAH-centric hydroxylation, and its epistatic functional contribution is also crucial for the metabolic quality and quantity of the PAH-MN.

  13. IRT1 degradation factor1, a ring E3 ubiquitin ligase, regulates the degradation of iron-regulated transporter1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Lung-Jiun; Lo, Jing-Chi; Chen, Guan-Hong; Callis, Judy; Fu, Hongyong; Yeh, Kuo-Chen

    2013-08-01

    Fe is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development; plants have developed sophisticated strategies to acquire ferric Fe from the soil. Nongraminaceous plants acquire Fe by a reduction-based mechanism, and graminaceous plants use a chelation-based mechanism. In Arabidopsis thaliana, which uses the reduction-based method, iron-regulated transporter1 (IRT1) functions as the most important transporter for ferrous Fe uptake. Rapid and constitutive degradation of IRT1 allows plants to quickly respond to changing conditions to maintain Fe homeostasis. IRT1 degradation involves ubiquitination. To identify the specific E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in IRT1 degradation, we screened a set of insertional mutants in RING-type E3 ligases and identified a mutant that showed delayed degradation of IRT1 and loss of IRT1-ubiquitin complexes. The corresponding gene was designated IRT1 degradation factor1 (IDF1). Evidence of direct interaction between IDF1 and IRT1 in the plasma membrane supported the role of IDF1 in IRT1 degradation. IRT1 accumulation was reduced when coexpressed with IDF1 in yeast or Xenopus laevis oocytes. IDF1 function was RING domain dependent. The idf1 mutants showed increased tolerance to Fe deficiency, resulting from increased IRT1 levels. This evidence indicates that IDF1 directly regulates IRT1 degradation through its RING-type E3 ligase activity.

  14. Structural and Biophysical Insights into the Ligand-Free Pitx2 Homeodomain and a Ring Dermoid of the Cornea Inducing Homeodomain Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Doerdelmann, Thomas; Kojetin, Douglas J.; Baird-Titus, Jamie M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.; Rance, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The homeodomain-containing transcription factor Pitx2 (pituitary homeobox protein 2) is present in many developing embryonic tissues, including the heart. Its homeodomain is responsible for the recognition and binding to target DNA sequences and thus constitutes a major functional unit in the Pitx2 protein. NMR techniques were employed to determine the solution structure of the native Pitx2 homeodomain and a R24H mutant that causes the autosomal dominantly inherited ring dermoid of the cornea syndrome. The structures reveal that both isoforms possess the canonical homeodomain fold. However, the R24H mutation results in a 2-fold increase in DNA-binding affinity and a 5°C decrease in the thermal stability, while changing the dynamic environment of the homeodomain only locally. When introduced into full-length Pitx2c, the mutation results in only a 25% loss of transactivation activity. Our data correlate well with clinical observations suggesting a milder deficiency for the R24H mutation compared to other Pitx2 homeodomain mutations. PMID:22224469

  15. The mei-P26 gene encodes a RING finger B-box coiled-coil-NHL protein that regulates seizure susceptibility in Drosophilia.

    PubMed

    Glasscock, Edward; Singhania, Ayush; Tanouye, Mark A

    2005-08-01

    Seizure-suppressor mutations provide unique insight into the genes and mechanisms involved in regulating nervous system excitability. Drosophila bang-sensitive (BS) mutants present a useful tool for identifying seizure suppressors since they are a well-characterized epilepsy model. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a new Drosophila seizure-suppressor mutant that results from disruption of the meiotic gene mei-P26, which belongs to the RBCC-NHL family of proteins. The mei-P26 mutation reduces seizures in easily shocked (eas) and slamdance (sda) epileptic flies following mechanical stimulation and electroconvulsive shock. In addition, mutant mei-P26 flies exhibit seizure thresholds at least threefold greater than those of wild type. The mei-P26 phenotypes appear to result from missense mutation of a critical residue in the NHL protein-protein interaction domain of the protein. These results reveal a surprising role for mei-P26 outside of the germline as a regulator of seizure susceptibility, possibly by affecting synaptic development as a ubiquitin ligase.

  16. NERF encodes a RING E3 ligase important for drought resistance and enhances the expression of its antisense gene NFYA5 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Liu, Wenwen; Zhao, Meng; Li, Wen-Xue

    2015-01-01

    NFYA5 is an important drought-stress inducible transcription factor gene that is targeted by miR169 in Arabidopsis. We show here that the cis-natural antisense transcript gene of NFYA5, NFYA5 Enhancing RING FINGER (NERF), can produce siRNAs from their overlapping region (OR) and affect NFYA5 transcripts by functioning together with miR169. The NERF protein functions as an E3 ligase for ubiquitination. Overexpression of NERF or OR cDNA leads to siRNANERF accumulation, miR169 repression, and NFYA5 transcript enhancement; knock-down of NERF transcripts by an artificial miRNA enhances miR169 abundance and reduces NFYA5 transcripts. Overexpression of NFYA5 does not affect the NERF mRNA level. Deep sequencing of the small RNA library from 35S::OR plants identifies 960 sequences representing 323 unique siRNAs that originate from OR; the sequences of some siRNANERF are similar/complementary to those of miR169. Overexpression of the 195- to 280-bp OR cDNA-containing siRNAs similar/complementary to miR169 also leads to the accumulation of NFYA5 transcripts. Analysis of NERF knock-down plants and NERF overexpression lines showed that, like NFYA5, NERF is important for controlling stomatal aperture and drought resistance. This regulatory model might apply to other natural antisense transcripts with positively correlated expression patterns. PMID:25514924

  17. Rotating Bose-Einstein condensates with a finite number of atoms confined in a ring potential: Spontaneous symmetry breaking beyond the mean-field approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussou, A.; Smyrnakis, J.; Magiropoulos, M.; Efremidis, Nikolaos K.; Kavoulakis, G. M.

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on Bose-Einstein condensed atoms which rotate in annular and/or toroidal traps, we study the effect of the finiteness of the atom number N on the states of lowest energy for a fixed expectation value of the angular momentum, under periodic boundary conditions. To attack this problem, we develop a general strategy, considering a linear superposition of the eigenstates of the many-body Hamiltonian, with amplitudes that we extract from the mean-field approximation. This many-body state breaks the symmetry of the Hamiltonian; it has the same energy to leading order in N as the mean-field state and the corresponding eigenstate of the Hamiltonian, however, it has a lower energy to subleading order in N and thus it is energetically favorable.

  18. Microcephaly in a 14-month male with minimal developmental delay (speech) and mild dysmorphology with unusual mosaicism involving a ring chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, V.; Lieber, E.; Yu, M.T.

    1994-09-01

    This male at birth weighed 5 lbs, 14 oz and was full term. His mother was G3 P2012. His height and weight follow the 3rd percentile; however, his head circumference is below the 3rd percentile. His hearing is age-appropriate; however, his speech is poor to absent. His hearing is intact. He had 2-5 cafe-au-lait spots (0.5 to 1.0 cm) on his trunk and extremities. His face showed mild dysmorphology (non-specific). His tone and central nervous system are intact. Because of the microcephaly, a chromosome study was performed. A skin fibroblast culture was performed because of his appropriate milestones. One cell in the peripheral blood and one cell in the skin biopsy demonstrated two normal chromosome 5s. FISH studies using chromosome 5 painting probe confirmed the observations of routine cytogenetic studies. The marker chromosome was identified as part of chromosome 5. At 14 months, the patient does not have the appearance associated with the Cri-du-chat syndrome. Additional studies with probes for the specific region associated with this syndrome are planned.

  19. A Ring Artifact Correction Method: Validation by Micro-CT Imaging with Flat-Panel Detectors and a 2D Photon-Counting Detector.

    PubMed

    Eldib, Mohamed Elsayed; Hegazy, Mohamed; Mun, Yang Ji; Cho, Myung Hye; Cho, Min Hyoung; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2017-01-30

    We introduce an efficient ring artifact correction method for a cone-beam computed tomography (CT). In the first step, we correct the defective pixels whose values are close to zero or saturated in the projection domain. In the second step, we compute the mean value at each detector element along the view angle in the sinogram to obtain the one-dimensional (1D) mean vector, and we then compute the 1D correction vector by taking inverse of the mean vector. We multiply the correction vector with the sinogram row by row over all view angles. In the third step, we apply a Gaussian filter on the difference image between the original CT image and the corrected CT image obtained in the previous step. The filtered difference image is added to the corrected CT image to compensate the possible contrast anomaly that may appear due to the contrast change in the sinogram after removing stripe artifacts. We applied the proposed method to the projection data acquired by two flat-panel detectors (FPDs) and a silicon-based photon-counting X-ray detector (PCXD). Micro-CT imaging experiments of phantoms and a small animal have shown that the proposed method can greatly reduce ring artifacts regardless of detector types. Despite the great reduction of ring artifacts, the proposed method does not compromise the original spatial resolution and contrast.

  20. SDSS J163459.82+204936.0: A Ringed Infrared-luminous Quasar with Outflows in Both Absorption and Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Ning; Wu, Xufen; Lyu, Jianwei; Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo; Wang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Shu-Fen; Sun, Luming

    2016-05-01

    SDSS J163459.82+204936.0 is a local (z = 0.1293) infrared-luminous quasar with L IR = 1011.91 {L}⊙ . We present a detailed multiwavelength study of both the host galaxy and the nucleus. The host galaxy, appearing as an early-type galaxy in the optical images and spectra, demonstrates violent, obscured star formation activities with SFR ≈ 140 {M}⊙ yr-1, estimated from either the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission or IR luminosity. The optical to NIR spectra exhibit a blueshifted narrow cuspy component in Hβ, He i λλ5876, 10830, and other emission lines consistently with an offset velocity of ≈900 {km} {{{s}}}-1, as well as additional blueshifting phenomena in high-ionization lines (e.g., a blueshifted broad component of He i λ10830 and the bulk blueshifting of [O iii]λ5007), while there exist blueshifted broad absorption lines (BALs) in Na i D and He i λλ3889, 10830, indicative of the active galactic nucleus outflows producing BALs and emission lines. Constrained mutually by the several BALs in the photoionization simulations with Cloudy, the physical properties of the absorption line outflow are derived as follows: density 104 < n H ≲ 105 cm-3, ionization parameter 10-1.3 ≲ U ≲ 10-0.7 , and column density 1022.5 ≲ N H ≲ 1022.9 cm-2, which are similar to those derived for the emission line outflows. This similarity suggests a common origin. Taking advantages of both the absorption lines and outflowing emission lines, we find that the outflow gas is located at a distance of ˜48-65 pc from the nucleus and that the kinetic luminosity of the outflow is 1044-1046 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. J1634+2049 has a off-centered galactic ring on the scale of ˜30 kpc that is proved to be formed by a recent head-on collision by a nearby galaxy for which we spectroscopically measure the redshift. Thus, this quasar is a valuable object in the transitional phase emerging out of dust enshrouding as depicted by the co-evolution scenario invoking galaxy merger (or violent interaction) and quasar feedback. Its proximity enables our further observational investigations in detail (or tests) of the co-evolution paradigm.

  1. A ring to rule them all: a cyclic ketene acetal comonomer controls the nitroxide-mediated polymerization of methacrylates and confers tunable degradability.

    PubMed

    Delplace, Vianney; Guégain, Elise; Harrisson, Simon; Gigmes, Didier; Guillaneuf, Yohann; Nicolas, Julien

    2015-08-18

    2-Methylene-4-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane (MPDL) was successfully used as a controlling comonomer in NMP with oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (MeOEGMA) to prepare well-defined and degradable PEG-based P(MeOEGMA-co-MPDL) copolymers. The level of ester group incorporation is controlled, leading to reductions in molecular weight of up to 95% on hydrolysis. Neither the polymer nor its degradation products displayed cytoxicity. The method was also successfully applied to methyl methacrylate.

  2. Gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detection of the urinary metabolites of UR-144 and its major pyrolysis product.

    PubMed

    Grigoryev, Andrej; Kavanagh, Pierce; Melnik, Alexandra; Savchuk, Sergey; Simonov, Anton

    2013-06-01

    Studies on the pyrolysis of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist UR-144 ((1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone) have shown that its major pyrolysis product is a tetramethylcyclopropane ring-opened alkene. Considering that smoking is a common way of ingesting synthetic cannabimimetics, the presence of the metabolites of this pyrolysis product would be expected in biological fluids. Using GC-MS and LC-MS-MS methods, a series of phase I metabolites of UR-144 and its pyrolysis product were detected in the urine samples from patients admitted to hospital with suspected drug intoxication. The metabolites were tentatively identified as the products of mono-hydroxylation, di-hydroxylation, mono-hydroxylation with formation of the carbonyl group on the N-alkyl chain, carboxylation and N-dealkylation with mono-hydroxylation. In the case of the UR-144 pyrolysis product, metabolites with hydration of the aliphatic double bond were also identified. The parent compounds were detected as trace amounts in some urine samples, and the hydrated derivative of the UR-144 pyrolysis product was detected in the majority of samples. The detection of mono-hydroxylated metabolites of UR-144 (LC-MS-MS) and mono-hydroxylated/with hydration metabolites of the UR-144 pyrolysis product (GC-MS) was found to be the most useful method of establishing UR-144 ingestion.

  3. ZmRFP1, the putative ortholog of SDIR1, encodes a RING-H2 E3 ubiquitin ligase and responds to drought stress in an ABA-dependent manner in maize.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zongliang; Liu, Quanjun; Wu, Jianyu; Ding, Junqiang

    2012-03-10

    Drought is one of the most important limiting factors in crop production. To identify genes required for the drought stress response in the cereal crop maize, a gene coding for RING-finger protein (ZmRFP1), which is highly responsive to PEG-induced drought stress, was isolated by mRNA differential display and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The ZmRFP1 encodes a protein of 280 amino acids and contains a single C(3)H(2)C(3)-type RING motif in its C-terminal region. ZmRFP1 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis SDIR1 (salt- and drought-induced RING finger 1) (66% identity to AtSDIR1).The recombinant ZmRFP1 protein purified from Escherichia coli exhibited an in vitro E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Real-time PCR analysis indicates that the transcript levels of ZmRFP1 were higher in aerial tissues including stems, leaves, tassels and immature ears, and were markedly up-regulated by drought stress, and exogenous ABA, but not by salt, heat and cold stresses. Transient expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-ZmRFP1 fusion protein in onion cells revealed a plasma membrane localization of the protein. Further analysis of ZmRFP1 transcripts between an ABA-deficient transposon mutant viviparous14 (vp14) and its isogenic wild-type line W22 showed that ZmRFP1 transcript levels were induced significantly in the wild-type line under drought stress, but not in the mutant line VP14. These results indicate that ZmRFP1 responds to drought stress in an ABA-dependent way and is likely to function in the ubiquitin conjunction pathway. The ZmRFP1 might serve as a candidate gene in genetic improvement for drought tolerance engineering in cereal crop plants.

  4. A RING finger protein 114 (RNF114) homolog from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) possesses immune-regulation properties via modulating RIG-I signaling pathway-mediated interferon expression.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhiyong; Chen, Xiaojun; Nie, Dongsong; Wang, Jiajia; Wu, Mingjiang

    2014-12-01

    Ubiquitin ligases play important roles in immune regulation. The human RNF114 (RING finger protein 114), an ubiquitin ligase, was recently reported to be involved in immune response to double-stranded RNA in disease pathogenesis. Here, we identified a RNF114 homolog in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) and investigated its potential role in immune response. The full-length cDNA of Chinese sturgeon RNF114 (csRNF114) contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 681 nucleotides coding a protein of 227 amino acids. csRNF114 shares the highest identity of 76% at amino acid level to other RNF114 homologs, clustering with bony fish RNF114s based on phylogenetic analysis. The main structural features of csRNF114, including a C3HC4 (Cys3-His-Cys4) RING domain, a C2HC (Cys2-His-Cys)-type zinc finger motif, a C2H2 (Cys2-His2)-type zinc finger motif, and a UIM (ubiquitin-interacting motif), take csRNF114 as an ubiquitin ligase. csRNF114 mRNA was widely expressed in various tissues and significantly up-regulated in poly(I:C)-treated Chinese sturgeon. Over-expression of csRNF114 in HEK293T cells significantly promoted both basal and poly(I:C)-induced activation of interferon regulatory transcription factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) downstream retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling pathway and expression of target genes type I interferon (IFN), which was nearly abolished by knockdown of RIG-I with specific human siRNA and by mutation of the C3HC4 RING domain (C28A/C31A) in csRNF114 as well. Furthermore, csRNF114 associated with ubiquitinated proteins in HEK293T cells, for which the C3HC4 RING domain was essential. These data suggested that an ubiquitin ligase RNF114 homolog with a potential role in antiviral response possibly through modulating RIG-I signaling pathway was cloned from Chinese sturgeon, which might contribute to our understanding of the immune biology of Chinese sturgeon.

  5. Discovery of a ring-opened derivative of 3-n-butylphthalide bearing NO/H2S-donating moieties as a potential anti-ischemic stroke agent.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Lan, Li; Huang, Zhangjian; Ji, Jing; Fang, Jiangen; Wang, Xiaoli; Ji, Hui; Peng, Sixun; Xu, Jinyi; Zhang, Yihua

    2016-06-10

    To search for novel anti-ischemic stroke agents with higher potency than a known drug 3-n-butylphthalide (NBP), a series of ring-opened derivatives of NBP bearing both nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-donating moieties (NO/H2S-NBP) (8a-8o) were designed, synthesized, and biologically evaluated. The most active compound 8d was more potent than NBP and the corresponding H2S-NBP 10 or NO-NBP 13 in inhibition of the ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. In addition, 8d produced moderate levels of NO and H2S, which could be beneficial for improving cardiovascular and cerebral circulation. More importantly, in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia, oral treatment with 8d improved neurobehavioral function, reduced the infarct brain size and brain-water content, and enhanced the levels of brain antioxidant SOD, GSH and GSH-Px but diminished the level of oxidant MDA. These protective effects of 8d against the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-related brain damage were greater than that of NBP, suggesting that 8d may be a promising agent for further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of the Green's function method to some nonlinear problems of an electron storage ring. Part III. Beam-size enhancement due to the presence of nonlinear magnets in a ring

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, S.

    1983-01-01

    A perturbation method which allows one to find the distribution function and the beam size for a broad class of storage ring nonlinear problems is described in Part I of this work. In present note I apply this method to a particular problem. Namely, I want to evaluate an enhancement of the vertical beam size of a bunch due to the presence of the ring of nonlinear magnetic fields. The main part of the work deals with sextupole magnets. Formula for the beam size in the presence of octupole fields are also developed to the first order in the octupole strength, although octupole magnets are not widely used in present storage ring designs. This calculation is done mainly because the octupole field has the same symmetry as the beam-beam force for the head-on collision. This will give us the opportunity to compare the conduct of the bunch due to this two types of nonlinear kicks. The general terms of the applicability of the Green's function method is discussed in the first part of this work.

  7. A RING to rule them all? Insights into the Map3k1 PHD motif provide a new mechanistic understanding into the diverse roles of Map3k1.

    PubMed

    Suddason, T; Gallagher, E

    2015-04-01

    Despite the sizable number of components that comprise Mapk cascades, Map3k1 is the only element that contains both a kinase domain and a plant homeodomain (PHD) motif, allowing Map3k1 to regulate the protein phosphorylation and ubiquitin proteasome systems. As such, Map3k1 has complex roles in the regulation of cell death, survival, migration and differentiation. Numerous mouse and human genetic analyses have demonstrated that Map3k1 is of critical importance for the immune system, cardiac tissue, testis, wound healing, tumorigenesis and cancer. Recent gene knockin of Map3k1 to mutate the E2 binding site within the Map3k1 PHD motif and high throughput ubiquitin protein array screening for Map3k1 PHD motif substrates provide critical novel insights into Map3k1 PHD motif signal transduction and bring a brand-new understanding to Map3k1 signaling in mammalian biology.

  8. CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 catalyze the primary oxidative metabolism of perhexiline enantiomers by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Davies, Benjamin J; Coller, Janet K; Somogyi, Andrew A; Milne, Robert W; Sallustio, Benedetta C

    2007-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated 4-monohydroxylations of the individual enantiomers of the racemic antianginal agent perhexiline (PHX) were investigated in human liver microsomes (HLMs) to identify stereoselective differences in metabolism and to determine the contribution of the polymorphic enzyme CYP2D6 and other P450s to the intrinsic clearance of each enantiomer. The cis-, trans1-, and trans2-4-monohydroxylation rates of (+)- and (-)-PHX by human liver microsomes from three extensive metabolizers (EMs), two intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and two poor metabolizers (PMs) of CYP2D6 were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography assay. P450 isoform-specific inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies directed against P450 isoforms, and recombinantly expressed human P450 enzymes were used to define the P450 isoform profile of PHX 4-monohydroxylations. The total in vitro intrinsic clearance values (mean +/- S.D.) of (+)- and (-)-PHX were 1376 +/- 330 and 2475 +/- 321, 230 +/- 225 and 482 +/- 437, and 63.4 +/- 1.6 and 54.6 +/- 1.2 microl/min/mg for the EM, IM, and PM HLMs, respectively. CYP2D6 catalyzes the formation of cis-OH-(+)-PHX and trans1-OH-(+)-PHX from (+)-PHX and cis-OH-(-)-PHX from (-)-PHX with high affinity. CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 each catalyze the trans1- and trans2-4-monohydroxylation of both (+)- and (-)-PHX with low affinity. Both enantiomers of PHX are subject to significant polymorphic metabolism by CYP2D6, although this enzyme exhibits distinct stereoselectivity with respect to the conformation of metabolites and the rate at which they are formed. CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 are minor contributors to the intrinsic P450-mediated hepatic clearance of both enantiomers of PHX, except in CYP2D6 PMs.

  9. Identification of in vivo and in vitro metabolites of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiaolei; Wang, Junjun; Chen, Liang; Peng, Zhihong; Chen, Yong

    2016-05-01

    4,5-Dimthexycanthin-6-one and 5-hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one are the main active ingredients of Picrasma quassioides, which is a widely used herbal medicine for the treatment of gastroenteritis, snakebite, infection and hypertension in China. In the present study, the in vitro metabolites of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one in rat, mouse, dog and human liver microsomes, as well as the in vivo metabolites in rat plasma and urine following a single oral dose of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one, were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with triple TOF mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF/MS/MS). The metabolites were elucidated based on an accurate mass measurement, the MS/MS fragmentation patterns, the retention times of the parent drug and its metabolites, and the relevant drug biotransformation rules. After incubation in liver mcrosomes for 50 min, 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one produced 8 phase I metabolites including 2 mono-demethylated metabolites (M1, M2), 3 mono-hydroxylated metabolites (M3-M5), and 3 mono-demethylated and mono-hydroxylated metabolites (M6-M8) in rat and mouse liver microsomes, 7 phase I metabolites (without M7) in dog and human liver microsomes. After a single oral administration of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one to rats, there were 3 phase I metabolites (M1, M2 and M5) detected in rat plasma and 5 phase I metabolites (M1-M5) in rat urine. Phase II metabolites were not detected in rat plasma and urine. Among these metabolites, mono-demethylated metabolites (M1 and M2) were the major metabolites of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one, mono-hydroxylated metabolites (M3-M5) were the minor metabolites of 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one.

  10. Bioactivation of dibrominated biphenyls by cytochrome P450 activity to metabolites with estrogenic activity and estrogen sulfotransferase inhibition capacity.

    PubMed

    van Lipzig, Marola M H; Commandeur, Jan N; de Kanter, Frans J J; Damsten, Micaela C; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Maat, Evelina; Groot, Ed J; Brouwer, Abraham; Kester, Monique H A; Visser, Theo J; Meerman, John H N

    2005-11-01

    Exposure of humans and wildlife to xenobiotics, such as halogenated biphenyls, that interfere with the endogenous estrogen balance may lead to endocrine disruption. Such compounds may either mimic or block estradiol's action by agonistic or antagonistic action, respectively. They may also affect endogenous estradiol concentrations by induction or inhibition of enzymes that metabolize estradiol. In the present study, we demonstrate that estrogenic metabolites of two brominated biphenyls, 2,2'-dibromobiphenyl (2,2'-DBB) and 4,4'-dibromobiphenyl (4,4'-DBB), are formed by rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. Bioactivation of 2,2'-DBB and 4,4'-DBB yielded various mono- and dihydroxylated bromobiphenyl metabolites, which were collected by preparative HPLC and analyzed by LC/MS. Several of the metabolites bound to the estrogen receptor (ER) activated the ER and inhibited human estrogen sulfotransferase (hEST). Seven monohydroxylated metabolites were positively identified using synthetic monohydroxylated reference compounds. These synthetic monohydroxylated bromobiphenyls also bound to and activated the ER and inhibited hEST. The highest ER affinity was observed for 4-OH-2,2'-DBB, with an EC50 of 6.6 nM. The highest ER activation was observed for 4-OH-3,4'-DBB (EC50 of 74 nM) while 4-OH-4'-MBB and 4-OH-2,2'-DBB induced a supramaximal (as compared to estradiol) ER activation. The strongest hEST inhibition was found with 4-OH-3,4'-DBB (EC50 = 40 nM). In conclusion, we show that two dibrominated biphenyls are bioactivated by CYP activity into very potent estrogenic metabolites and inhibitors of hEST. These findings are of vital importance for accurate risk assessment of exposure to environmental contaminants, such as halogenated biphenyls. Neglecting bioactivation through biotransformation will lead to underestimation of health risks of this class of xenobiotics.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of novel biotinylated biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(carbonate-lactic acid) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhigang; Guan, Huili; Lü, Changhai; Chen, Xuesi; Jing, Xiabin

    2005-11-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(5-benzyloxy-trimethylene carbonate-lactic acid) copolymers (PEG-b-P(BTMC-LA)) were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of lactide and 5-benzyloxy trimethylene carbonate in the presence of mono-hydroxyl poly(ethylene glycol) with diethyl zinc as catalyst. They were further converted into deprotected copolymers with the pendant hydroxyl groups by hydrogenolysis in the presence of Pd(OH)2/C, and finally conjugated with biotin through the free hydroxyl groups. Gel permeation chromatography, Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies confirmed the copolymer structures and successful attachment of biotin to the copolymer.

  12. Degradation of homovanillate by a strain of Variovorax paradoxus via ring hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Allison, N; Turner, J E; Wait, R

    1995-12-15

    A newly isolated strain of Variovorax paradoxus could grow on homovanillate and several monohydroxylated phenylacetic acids. During growth on homovanillate, the organism formed separate NAD(P)H-dependent hydroxylases with activity towards 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillate. Homovanillate hydroxylase catalysed a typical monooxygenase reaction and had little activity towards 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid GC-MS and TLC analysis suggested that homovanillate was 1-hydroxylated to yield a dihydroxymonomethoxyphenylacetic acid which served as a substrate for homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. Methanol, but not formaldehyde, was released either during ring-cleavage or subsequent metabolism of the ring-cleavage product.

  13. Synthesis of tri- or tetrasubstituted pyrimidine derivatives through the [5+1] annulation of enamidines with either N,N-dimethylformamide dialkyl acetals or orthoesters and their application in a ring transformation of pyrimidines to pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-one derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sasada, Toshiaki; Aoki, Youichi; Ikeda, Reiko; Sakai, Norio; Konakahara, Takeo

    2011-08-16

    The [5+1] annulation of enamidines, which were prepared from functionalized silanes, organolithium compounds and two nitriles, with N,N-dimethylformamide dialkyl acetals as the C1 unit is described, leading to the synthesis of tri- and tetrasubstituted pyrimidine derivatives under catalyst- and solvent-free reaction conditions. Furthermore, the [5+1] annulation of enamidines by using orthoesters as the C1 unit is described, in which catalytic amounts of ZnBr(2) catalyze the annulation to produce polysubstituted pyrimidines under toluene or xylene reflux conditions. Moreover, the combination of a reductive ring-opening reaction with [Mo(CO)(6)] and a subsequent intramolecular cyclization with tBuOK effectively causes a skeletal transformation from the pyrimidines containing an isoxazolyl and an ethoxy substituent to form pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-one frameworks in excellent yield. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Synthesis of trans- and cis-4'-hydroxylomustine and development of validated analytical method for lomustine and trans- and cis-4'-hydroxylomustine in canine plasma.

    PubMed

    Dirikolu, L; Chakkath, T; Fan, T; Mente, Nolan R

    2009-01-01

    In veterinary medicine, lomustine has been successfull used primarily for the treatment of resistant lymphoma and also for the treatment of mast cell tumors, intracranial meningioma, epitheliotropic lymphoma, and histiocytic sarcoma in dogs either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Even though lomustine is commonly used in dogs primarily for the treatment of resistant lymphoma, there is no pharmacokinetics information available regarding this compound in dogs. In the present study, we developed and validated a simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a one-step liquid-liquid extraction procedure to detect and quantify lomustine and its two monohydroxylated metabolites (trans- and cis-4'-hydroxylomustine) in canine plasma for future pharmacokinetic studies. The HPLC-diode-array detection method reported here readily detects lomustine, cis-4'-hydroxylomustine, and trans-4'-hydroxylomustine in canine plasma with a limit of detection of lomustine, cis-4'-hydroxylomustine, and trans-4'-hydroxylomustine in plasma of about 10 ng/120 microL, 5 ng/120 microL, and 5 ng/120 microL, respectively. The mean extraction efficiency values for lomustine, cis-4'-hydroxylomustine, and trans-4'-hydroxylomustine were 73%, 90%, and 89%, respectively, from canine plasma samples on HPLC. The present study also provides stability information about lomustine and its two monohydroxylated metabolites in canine plasma and methanol solution stored at various conditions.

  15. Structure-toxicity assessment of metabolites of the aerobic bacterial transformation of substituted naphthalenes

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlond, J.D.; Applegate, B.M.; Menn, F.M.; Schultz, T.W.; Sayler, G.S.

    2000-05-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 5R, a naphthalene-degrading bacterium isolated from manufactured gas plant soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, was examined for its degradative capacity of a number of substituted naphthalenes. In general, those compounds substituted on only one ring with an electrically neutral substituent were found to be transformed primarily to substituted salicylic acids according to the classical (NAH7) naphthalene dioxygenase-initiated upper pathway reactions of the naphthalene degradative pathway (i.e., the NAH system). Dimethylnaphthalenes with a substituent on each ring, and certain halogenated naphthalenes, were transformed via a monohydroxylation reaction to form hydroxylated dead-end products. Of the substituted salicylic acids examined, only 3- and 4-methylsalicylic acid, the respective products of the degradation of 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene, were further degraded by salicylate hydroxylase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, the first two enzymes of the NAH lower pathway. Using the Tetrahymena pyriformis acute toxicity assay, many of the monohydroxylated products of incomplete biodegradation were found to be polar narcotics. Substituted salicylic acids that are not further degraded by the NAH lower pathway were found to be toxic via carboxylic acid narcosis.

  16. Regioselective and stereospecific hydroxylation of GR24 by Sorghum bicolor and evaluation of germination inducing activities of hydroxylated GR24 stereoisomers toward seeds of Striga species.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kotomi; Ishiwa, Shunsuke; Nakashima, Hitomi; Mizutani, Masaharu; Takikawa, Hirosato; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2015-09-15

    Bioconversion of GR24, the most widely used synthetic strigolactone (SL), by hydroponically grown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and biological activities of hydroxylated GR24 stereoisomers were studied. Analysis of extracts and exudates of sorghum roots previously fed with a racemic and diastereomeric mixture of GR24, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), confirmed uptake of GR24 and suggested its conversion to mono-hydroxylated products. Two major GR24 metabolites, 7-hydroxy-GR24 and 8-hydroxy-GR24, were identified in the root extracts and exudates by direct comparison of chromatographic behavior with a series of synthetic mono-hydroxylated GR24 analogues. Separate feeding experiments with each of the GR24 stereoisomers revealed that the hydroxylated products were derived from 2'-epi-GR24, an evidence of sterical recognition of the GR24 molecule by sorghum. Trans-4-hydroxy-GR24 isomers derived from all GR24 stereoisomers were detected in the exudates as minor metabolites. The synthetic hydroxy-GR24 isomers induced germination of Striga hermonthica in decreasing order of C-8>C-7>C-6>C-5>C-4. In contrast the stereoisomers having the same configuration of orobanchol, irrespective of position of hydroxylation, induced germination of Striga gesnerioides. The results confirm previous reports on structural requirements of SLs and ascribe a critical role to hydroxylation, but not to the position of the hydroxyl group in the AB part of the molecule, in induction of S. gesnerioides seed germination.

  17. Mass spectrometric characterization of urinary metabolites of the selective androgen receptor modulator andarine (S-4) for routine doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Thomas, Andreas; Fusshöller, Gregor; Beuck, Simon; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2010-08-15

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are potent anabolic agents with tissue-selective properties. Due to their potential misuse in elite sport, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has prohibited SARMs since 2008, and although no representative drug candidate has yet received full clinical approval, recent findings of SARMs illegally sold via the internet have further supported the need to efficiently test for these compounds in doping controls. In the present communication, the mass spectrometric characterization of urinary metabolites of the SARM Andarine (also referred to as S-4) compared with earlier in vitro and animal studies is reported. Liquid chromatography interfaced to high-resolution/high-accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry was used to identify phase I and II metabolites, confirming the predicted target analytes for sports drug testing purposes including the glucuronic acid conjugates of the active drug, its monohydroxylated and/or deacetylated product, the hydrolysis product resulting from the removal of the compound's B-ring, as well as the sulfate of the monohydroxylated and the deacetylated phase I metabolite. The obtained data will support future efforts to effectively screen for and confirm the misuse of the non-approved drug candidate Andarine. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Polyhydroxycurcuminoids but not curcumin upregulate neprilysin and can be applied to the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Ting; Chen, Zih-ten; Hou, Wen-Chi; Yu, Lung-Chih; Chen, Rita P.-Y.

    2016-01-01

    Neprilysin (NEP) is the most important Aβ-degrading enzyme. Its expression level decreases with age and inversely correlated with amyloid accumulation, suggesting its correlation with the late-onset of Alzheimer’s disease. Recently, many reports showed that upregulating NEP level is a promising strategy in the prevention and therapy of Alzheimer’s disease. Here, we used a sensitive fluorescence-based Aβ digestion assay to screen 25 curcumin analogs for their ability to upregulate NEP activity. To our surprise, four compounds, dihydroxylated curcumin, monohydroxylated demethoxycurcumin, and mono- and di-hydroxylated bisdemethoxycurcumin, increased NEP activity, while curcumin did not. The ability of these polyhydroxycurcuminoids to upregulate NEP was further confirmed by mRNA and protein expression levels in the cell and mouse models. Finally, feeding monohydroxylated demethoxycurcumin (also named demethylcurcumin) or dihydroxylated bisdemethoxycurcumin (also named bisdemethylcurcumin) to APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice upregulated NEP levels in the brain and reduced Aβ accumulation in the hippocampus and cortex. These polyhydroxycurcuminoids offer hope in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:27407064

  19. Interference by metabolites and the corresponding troubleshooting during the LC-MS/MS bioanalysis of G004, a bromine-containing hypoglycemic agent.

    PubMed

    Hu, Linlin; Ding, Li; Li, Xiaobing; Zhou, Na; Zhong, Shuisheng; Wu, Guanzhong; Zhang, Huibin

    2012-06-15

    The quantitative determination of drugs in bio-samples may be interfered by the drug-related metabolites during the high-throughput LC-MS/MS analysis. When quantifying bromine or chlorine containing compounds, the ⁸¹Br/³⁷Cl isotopic forms of their mono-hydroxylated metabolites after in-source dehydration could produce ions which are isobaric with the precursor ions of the parent compounds at the ⁷⁹Br/³⁵Cl isotopic form. In this report, we described the identification of an interfering hydroxylated metabolite of G004, a novel bromine-containing hypoglycemic agent, during LC-MS/MS analysis of plasma samples. Several different MRM transitions were tested and evaluated to minimize the metabolite influence on the quantification of G004. Furthermore, the standard addition method using incurred samples was used to evaluate the matrix effect caused by the interfering metabolite. The lower limit of quantitation of the established method was 0.2 ng/ml, which was 10 times lower than the existing one. The method was successfully applied to investigate the single-dosing pharmacokinetic profile of G004 in beagle dogs. The above results indicated that when quantifying chlorine or bromine containing compounds, evaluation of the interference from mono-hydroxylation or dehydrogenation metabolites should be undertaken, and if such metabolites existed, their impact on quantification of the parent compounds could be eliminated by the proper selection of the MRM transitions.

  20. Investigation of the metabolites of the HIF stabilizer FG-4592 (roxadustat) in five different in vitro models and in a human doping control sample using high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Annelie; Thevis, Mario; Cox, Holly; Miller, Geoff; Eichner, Daniel; Bondesson, Ulf; Hedeland, Mikael

    2017-02-05

    FG-4592 is a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizer, which can increase the number of red blood cells in the body. It has not been approved by regulatory authorities, but is available for purchase on the Internet. Due to its ability to improve the oxygen transportation mechanism in the body, FG-4592 is of interest for doping control laboratories, but prior to this study, little information about its metabolism was available. In this study, the metabolism of FG-4592 was investigated in a human doping control sample and in five in vitro models: human hepatocytes and liver microsomes, equine liver microsomes and S9 fraction and the fungus Cunninghamella elegans. By using liquid chromatography coupled to a Q-TOF mass spectrometer operated in MS(E) and MSMS modes, twelve different metabolites were observed for FG-4592. One monohydroxylated metabolite was detected in both the human and equine liver microsome incubations. For the fungus Cunninghamella elegans eleven different metabolites were observed of which the identical monohydroxylated metabolite had the highest response. This rich metabolic profile and the higher levels of metabolites produced by Cunninghamella elegans demonstrates its usefulness as a metabolite producing medium. In the doping control urine sample, one metabolite, which was the result of a direct glucuronidation, was observed. No metabolites were detected in neither the human hepatocyte nor in the equine liver S9 fraction incubates.

  1. Identification of polybrominated diphenyl ether metabolites based on calculated boiling points from COSMO-RS, experimental retention times, and mass spectral fragmentation patterns.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Scott; Gross, Michael S; Olson, James R; Zurek, Eva; Aga, Diana S

    2015-02-17

    The COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvents (COSMO-RS) was used to predict the boiling points of several polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methylated derivatives (MeO-BDEs) of monohydroxylated BDE (OH-BDE) metabolites. The linear correlation obtained by plotting theoretical boiling points calculated by COSMO-RS against experimentally determined retention times from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry facilitated the identification of PBDEs and OH-BDEs. This paper demonstrates the applicability of COSMO-RS in identifying unknown PBDE metabolites of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100). Metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-100 were formed through individual incubations of each PBDE with recombinant cytochrome P450 2B6. Using calculated boiling points and characteristic mass spectral fragmentation patterns of the MeO-BDE positional isomers, the identities of the unknown monohydroxylated metabolites were proposed to be 2'-hydroxy-2,3',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (2'-OH-BDE-66) from BDE-47, and 2'-hydroxy-2,3',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (2'-OH-BDE-119) and 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-91) from BDE-100. The collective use of boiling points predicted with COSMO-RS, and characteristic mass spectral fragmentation patterns provided a valuable tool toward the identification of isobaric compounds.

  2. Golf Injuries to the Hand, Wrist, or Elbow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  3. Wrist Arthroscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  4. Hand Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  5. Hands in Systemic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  6. Amputation and Prosthetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  7. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  8. Nail Bed Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  9. Replantation (Finger, Hand, or Arm)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  10. Wrist Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  11. Extensor Tendon Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  12. About Hand Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  13. Flexor Tendon Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  14. Elbow Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  15. Ganglion Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  16. Fingertip Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  17. Hand Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  18. Stiffness in the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  19. Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  20. Wrist Sprains

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  1. Hand Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  2. Gout and Pseudogout

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  3. Shoulder Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  4. Find a Hand Surgeon

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  5. Hand and Wrist Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  6. Thumb Sprains

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  7. Hand Surgery: Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  8. Osteoarthritis of the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  9. Tendon Transfer Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  10. Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  11. How to Remove a Stuck Ring Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  12. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  13. Kienböck's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  14. In vitro, in vivo and in silico metabolic profiling of α-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone, a novel thiophene stimulant.

    PubMed

    Swortwood, Madeleine J; Carlier, Jeremy; Ellefsen, Kayla N; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Diao, Xingxing; Concheiro-Guisan, Marta; Kronstrand, Robert; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-01-01

    Little or no pharmacological or toxicological data are available for novel psychoactive substances when they first emerge, making their identification and interpretation in biological matrices challenging. A new synthetic cathinone, α-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (α-PVT), was incubated with hepatocytes and samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to a Q Exactive™ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Authentic urine specimens from suspected α-PVT cases were also analyzed. Scans were data mined with Compound Discoverer™ for identification and structural elucidation of metabolites. Seven α-PVT metabolites were identified in hepatocyte incubations, and in the authentic urine samples, also with an additional monohydroxylated product and a glucuronide of low intensity. α-PVT dihydroxypyrrolidinyl, α-PVT 2-ketopyrrolidinyl, α-PVT hydroxythiophenyl and α-PVT thiophenol had the most intense in vivo signals.

  15. Tearing down to build up: Metalloenzymes in the biosynthesis lincomycin, hormaomycin and the pyrrolo [1,4]benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Colabroy, Keri L

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic pathways for the production of lincomycin, hormaomycin and the antitumor pyrrolo [1,4] benzodiazepines share a vinyl substituted pyrroline carboxylic acid (3-vinyl-2,3-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid, VPCA) as a common intermediate. Biosynthesis of this vinyl substituted pyrroline carboxylic acid intermediate requires a short, three-enzyme pathway containing two metalloenzymes: a heme-dependent l-tyrosine hydroxylase and a non-heme Fe(2+) dependent l-DOPA dioxygenase. The l-tyrosine hydroxylase is an unprecedented type of peroxidase that specifically monohydroxylates tyrosine, while the l-DOPA extradiol cleaving enzyme is a single-domain vicinal-oxygen-chelate (VOC) dioxygenase. The dioxygenase product subsequently undergoes an, as yet uncharacterized, C-C bond cleavage reaction. This mini-pathway demonstrates the use of metal-dependent chemistry typically associated with natural product degradation in order to build a compact, functionalized building block for larger, bioactive molecules.

  16. In vitro, in vivo and in silico metabolic profiling of α-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone, a novel thiophene stimulant

    PubMed Central

    Swortwood, Madeleine J; Carlier, Jeremy; Ellefsen, Kayla N; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Diao, Xingxing; Concheiro-Guisan, Marta; Kronstrand, Robert; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little or no pharmacological or toxicological data are available for novel psychoactive substances when they first emerge, making their identification and interpretation in biological matrices challenging. Materials & methods: A new synthetic cathinone, α-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (α-PVT), was incubated with hepatocytes and samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to a Q ExactiveTM Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Authentic urine specimens from suspected α-PVT cases were also analyzed. Scans were data mined with Compound Discoverer™ for identification and structural elucidation of metabolites. Results/conclusion: Seven α-PVT metabolites were identified in hepatocyte incubations, and in the authentic urine samples, also with an additional monohydroxylated product and a glucuronide of low intensity. α-PVT dihydroxypyrrolidinyl, α-PVT 2-ketopyrrolidinyl, α-PVT hydroxythiophenyl and α-PVT thiophenol had the most intense in vivo signals. PMID:26648097

  17. Biotransformation of naphthalene and diaryl ethers by green microalgae.

    PubMed

    Todd, Sarah J; Cain, Ronald B; Schmidt, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    The role of green microalgae in the biotransformation of naphthalene (a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) and diaryl ethers was investigated using axenic cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and two environmental isolates, Scenedesmus SI1 and Ankistrodesmus SI2. Biotransformation experiments with dense cell cultures showed that these three green algae transformed toxic xenobiotics to more polar metabolites. Chlorella vulgaris metabolized naphthalene to 1-naphthol (0.36-0.65%). Ankistrodesmus SI2 biotransformed dibenzofuran to six metabolites (total over 7%), three of which (possibly four) were identified as monohydroxylated dibenzofurans, the remaining two may be dihydroxylated derivatives. Scenedesmus SI1 biotransformed dibenzo-p-dioxin to three metabolites, one of which was tentatively identified as 2-hydroxydibenzo-p-dioxin (approximately 3.8%), the remainder may be dihydroxylated derivatives. This is the first time that the biotransformation of diaryl ethers by green microalgae has been investigated.

  18. Biotransformation of flavone by CYP105P2 from Streptomyces peucetius.

    PubMed

    Niraula, Narayan Prasad; Bhattarai, Saurabh; Lee, Na-Rae; Sohng, Jae Kyung; Oh, Tae-Jin

    2012-08-01

    Biocatalytic transfer of oxygen in isolated cytochrome P450 or whole microbial cells is an elegant and efficient way to achieve selective hydroxylation. Cytochrome P450 CYP105P2 was isolated from Streptomyces peucetius that showed a high degree of amino acid identity with hydroxylases. Previously performed homology modeling, and subsequent docking of the model with flavone, displayed a reasonable docked structure. Therefore, in this study, in a pursuit to hydroxylate the flavone ring, CYP105P2 was co-expressed in a two-vector system with putidaredoxin reductase (camA) and putidaredoxin (camB) from Pseudomonas putida for efficient electron transport. HPLC analysis of the isolated product, together with LCMS analysis, showed a monohydroxylated flavone, which was further established by subsequent ESI/MS-MS. A successful 10.35% yield was achieved with the whole-cell bioconversion reaction in Escherichia coli. We verified that CYP105P2 is a potential bacterial hydroxylase.

  19. Haloarene derivatives of carbamazepine with reduced bioactivation liabilities: 2-monohalo and 2,8-dihalo derivatives.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Emma-Claire; Regan, Sophie L; Maggs, James L; Bowkett, Elizabeth R; Parry, Laura J; Williams, Dominic P; Park, B Kevin; Stachulski, Andrew V

    2012-11-26

    The anticonvulsant carbamazepine 1 is associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs), including hepatotoxicity; oxidative metabolism of 1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the ADRs. We report the synthesis and evaluation of 2-monohalo and 2,8-dihalo analogues of 1 that were intended to minimize reactive metabolite formation via arene oxidation and 10,11-epoxidation. Halo analogues were obtained either by rearrangement of halogenated N-arylindoles or from specifically halogenated iminodibenzyl derivatives. In rat hepatocytes, none of the analogues underwent oxidative dehalogenation or glutathione adduction. Some formation of the 10,11-epoxide still occurred, but aromatic hydroxylation was not seen with the exception of 2-fluoro, which allowed minor monohydroxylation. Complete inhibition of aromatic hydroxylation required at least monochlorination or difluorination of 1. In human liver microsomes, difluoro analogue 5b underwent 10,11-epoxidation but gave no arene oxidation.

  20. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Bouquié, Régis; Dailly, Eric; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle

    2010-01-01

    Oxcarbazepine is an analogue of carbamazepine, used for the treatment of partial seizure with or without secondary generalization. The two forms R and S of the mono-hydroxylated derivatives (MHD) are responsible for most of the anti-convulsant activity and it is the concentrations of MHD that are relevant in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Analysis of currently literature provides no well-established relationship between plasma concentration of MHD and efficiency or toxicity. Although there is not a validated therapeutic range, the residual concentrations of usually observed therapeutic MHD are situated between 12 and 30 mg/L. In certain pathological or physiological circumstances, the pharmacokinetic variability of the oxcarbazepine can be considerable, but this strong unpredictability does not nevertheless justify the TDM of the MHD. Based on the available evidence, TDM of MHD is not routinely warranted but may be possibly useful in specific situations such as pregnancy or renal insufficiency.

  1. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of oxcarbazepine].

    PubMed

    Bouquié, Régis; Dailly, Eric; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle

    2010-01-01

    Oxcarbazepine is an analogue of carbamazepine, used for the treatment of partial seizure with or without secondary generalization. The two forms R and S of the mono-hydroxylated derivatives (MHD) are responsible for most of the anti-convulsant activity and it is the concentrations of MHD that are relevant in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Analysis of currently literature provides no well-established relationship between plasma concentration of MHD and efficiency or toxicity. Although there is not a validated therapeutic range, the residual concentrations of usually observed therapeutic MHD are situated between 12 and 30 mg/L. In certain pathological or physiological circumstances, the pharmacokinetic variability of the oxcarbazepine can be considerable, but this strong unpredictability does not nevertheless justify the TDM of the MHD. Based on the available evidence, TDM of MHD is not routinely warranted but may be possibly useful in specific situations such as pregnancy or renal insufficiency.

  2. A systematic study of the isothermal crystallization of the mono-alcohol n-butanol monitored by dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, M. H.; Alba-Simionesco, C.; Niss, K.; Hecksher, T.

    2015-10-01

    Isothermal crystallization of the mono-hydroxyl alcohol n-butanol was studied with dielectric spectroscopy in real time. The crystallization was carried out using two different sample cells at 15 temperatures between 120 K and 134 K. Crystallization is characterized by a decrease of the dielectric intensity. In addition, a shift in relaxation times to shorter times was observed during the crystallization process for all studied temperatures. The two different sample environments induced quite different crystallization behaviors, consistent and reproducible over all studied temperatures. An explanation for the difference was proposed on the background of an Avrami analysis and a Maxwell-Wagner analysis. Both types of analysis suggest that the morphology of the crystal growth changes from a higher dimension to a lower at a point during the crystallization. More generally, we conclude that a microscopic interpretation of crystallization measurements requires multiple probes, sample cells, and protocols.

  3. Metabolism of ebracteolata compound B studied in vitro with human liver microsomes, HepG2 cells, and recombinant human enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Yao, Yan; Lou, Yan; Jiang, Huidi; Wang, Xiaowen; Chai, Xiaojuan; Zeng, Su

    2010-12-01

    Ebracteolata compound B (ECB) is one major active component of both Euphorbia ebracteolata and Euphorbia fischeriana, which have been extensively used as a tuberculocide in the Asian countries. The aim of our present study was to characterize ECB metabolism in human liver microsomes, HepG2 cells, and recombinant human enzymes. One monohydroxylation metabolite, determined by mass spectrometry to be 1-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)-2-hydroxyethanone, and one monoglucuronide, isolated and determined by hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase, mass spectrometry, and (1)H NMR to be 2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-acetophenone-4-O-β-glucuronide, were observed in human liver microsomal incubates in the presence of NADPH or UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA), respectively. However, the mixed incubation of ECB with human liver microsomes in the presence of both NADPH and UDPGA showed the monoglucuronide to be the most major metabolite, indicating that glucuronidation was probably the major clearance pathway of ECB in humans. No glucuronide and only trace monohydroxylation metabolite were observed in HepG2 cells. The cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoenzymes were identified by using selective chemical inhibition and recombinant human enzymes. The results indicated that CYP3A4 was probably involved in ECB oxidative metabolism and UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 were important catalytic enzymes in ECB glucuronidation. The results from enzymatic kinetic analysis showed the oxidative metabolism in human liver microsomes; the glucuronidation in human liver microsomes and recombinant UGT1A6 exhibited a typical Michaelis-Menten pattern, but the glucuronidation in UGT1A9 exhibited a substrate inhibition pattern. UGT1A6 had the highest affinity compared with human liver microsomes and UGT1A9, indicating its important role in ECB glucuronidation.

  4. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  5. Characterization of a non-approved selective androgen receptor modulator drug candidate sold via the Internet and identification of in vitro generated phase-I metabolites for human sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Lagojda, Andreas; Kuehne, Dirk; Thomas, Andreas; Dib, Josef; Hansson, Annelie; Hedeland, Mikael; Bondesson, Ulf; Wigger, Tina; Karst, Uwe; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2015-06-15

    Potentially performance-enhancing agents, particularly anabolic agents, are advertised and distributed by Internet-based suppliers to a substantial extent. Among these anabolic agents, a substance referred to as LGD-4033 has been made available, comprising the core structure of a class of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). In order to provide comprehensive analytical data for doping controls, the substance was obtained and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high resolution/high accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-HRMS). Following the identification of 4-(2-(2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile, the substance was subjected to in vitro metabolism studies employing human liver microsomes and Cunninghamella elegans (C. elegans) preparations as well as electrochemical metabolism simulations. By means of LC/ESI-HRMS, five main phase-I metabolites were identified as products of liver microsomal preparations including three monohydroxylated and two bishydroxylated species. The two most abundant metabolites (one mono- and one bishydroxylated product) were structurally confirmed by LC/ESI-HRMS and NMR. Comparing the metabolic conversion of 4-(2-(2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile observed in human liver microsomes with C. elegans and electrochemically derived metabolites, one monohydroxylated product was found to be predominantly formed in all three methodologies. The implementation of the intact SARM-like compound and its presumed urinary phase-I metabolites into routine doping controls is suggested to expand and complement existing sports drug testing methods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Liquid chromatography-high resolution/ high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry-based identification of in vivo generated metabolites of the selective androgen receptor modulator ACP-105 for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Thomas, Andreas; Piper, Thomas; Krug, Oliver; Delahaut, Philippe; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) represent an emerging class of therapeutics which have been prohibited in sport as anabolic agents according to the regulations of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) since 2008. Within the past three years, numerous adverse analytical findings with SARMs in routine doping control samples have been reported despite missing clinical approval of these substances. Hence, preventive doping research concerning the metabolism and elimination of new therapeutic entities of the class of SARMs are vital for efficient and timely sports drug testing programs as banned compounds are most efficiently screened when viable targets (for example, characteristic metabolites) are identified. In the present study, the metabolism of ACP-105, a novel SARM drug candidate, was studied in vivo in rats. Following oral administration, urine samples were collected over a period of seven days and analyzed for metabolic products by Liquid chromatography-high resolution/high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry. Samples were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis prior to liquid-liquid extraction and a total of seven major phase-I metabolites were detected, three of which were attributed to monohydroxylated and four to bishydroxylated ACP-105. The hydroxylation sites were assigned by means of diagnostic product ions and respective dissociation pathways of the analytes following positive or negative ionization and collisional activation as well as selective chemical derivatization. The identified metabolites were used as target compounds to investigate their traceability in a rat elimination urine samples study and monohydroxylated and bishydroxylated species were detectable for up to four and six days post-administration, respectively.

  7. Deoxyschizandrin, a naturally occurring lignan, is a specific probe substrate of human cytochrome P450 3A.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingjing; Cao, Yunfeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Yong; Hong, James Y; Zhu, Liangliang; Ge, Guangbo; Yang, Ling

    2014-01-01

    To accurately predict the modifications done during metabolic processes by cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A enzyme, selecting substrates that best represent a broad range of substrate substitutions and that follow the Michaelis-Menten kinetic properties is highly necessary. In the present study, the oxidative pathways of deoxyschizandrin (DS), the most abundant lignan in Fructus Schisandrae fruit extract, were characterized with liver microsomes from human (HLM) and rat (RLM). Only one monohydroxylated metabolite 7(S)-hydroxylated metabolite (isoschizandrin, ISZ), was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were found to be the major isoforms involved in the monohydroxylation of DS. Also, the kinetic studies showed that DS hydroxylation obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics both in HLM and in RLM. However, the subsequent metabolism of ISZ was nearly nonexistent when DS was present. More importantly, the interactions between DS and three well characterized CYP3A probe substrates, testosterone (TST), midazolam (MDZ), and nifedipine (NIF), were studied. TST and MDZ were shown to compete with DS for the mutual binding site, causing Km to be increased. The presence of DS also lowered the binding affinities for MDZ and TST. However, DS showed only slight inhibitory effects on nifedipine (NIF) oxidation even though NIF was able to inhibit DS hydroxylation in a noncompetitive fashion. These results show that DS is a good representative substrate of MDZ and TST primarily due to their shared, large binding regions on CYP3A. Therefore, DS is an attractive candidate as a novel CYP3A probe substrate for predicting the metabolic modifications in CYP3A activity.

  8. In vitro and in vivo human metabolism of the synthetic cannabinoid AB-CHMINACA.

    PubMed

    Erratico, Claudio; Negreira, Noelia; Norouzizadeh, Helia; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo; Maudens, Kristof; van Nuijs, Alexander L N

    2015-10-01

    N-[(1S)-1-(aminocarbonyl)-2-methylpropyl]-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-CHMINACA) is a recently introduced synthetic cannabinoid. At present, no information is available about in vitro or in vivo human metabolism of AB-CHMINACA. Therefore, biomonitoring studies to screen AB-CHMINACA consumption lack any information about the potential biomarkers (e.g. metabolites) to target. To bridge this gap, we investigated the in vitro metabolism of AB-CHMINACA using human liver microsomes (HLMs). Formation of AB-CHMINACA metabolites was monitored using liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Twenty-six metabolites of AB-CHMINACA were detected including seven mono-hydroxylated and six di-hydroxylated metabolites and a metabolite resulting from N-dealkylation of AB-CHMINACA, all produced by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Two carboxylated metabolites, likely produced by amidase enzymes, and five glucuronidated metabolites were also formed. Five mono-hydroxylated and one carboxylated metabolite were likely the major metabolites detected. The involvement of individual CYPs in the formation of AB-CHMINACA metabolites was tested using a panel of seven human recombinant CYPs (rCYPs). All the hydroxylated AB-CHMINACA metabolites produced by HLMs were also produced by the rCYPs tested, among which rCYP3A4 was the most active enzyme. Most of the in vitro metabolites of AB-CHMINACA were also present in urine obtained from an AB-CHMINACA user, therefore showing the reliability of the results obtained using the in vitro metabolism experiments conducted to predict AB-CHMINACA in vivo metabolism. The AB-CHMINACA metabolites to target in biomonitoring studies using urine samples are now reliably identified and can be used for routine analysis.

  9. Comparison of the circulating metabolite profile of PF-04991532, a hepatoselective glucokinase activator, across preclinical species and humans: potential implications in metabolites in safety testing assessment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Raman; Litchfield, John; Bergman, Arthur; Atkinson, Karen; Kazierad, David; Gustavson, Stephanie M; Di, Li; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Kalgutkar, Amit S

    2015-02-01

    A previous report from our laboratory disclosed the identification of PF-04991532 [(S)-6-(3-cyclopentyl-2-(4-trifluoromethyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propanamido)nicotinic acid] as a hepatoselective glucokinase activator for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lack of in vitro metabolic turnover in microsomes and hepatocytes from preclinical species and humans suggested that metabolism would be inconsequential as a clearance mechanism of PF-04991532 in vivo. Qualitative examination of human circulating metabolites using plasma samples from a 14-day multiple ascending dose clinical study, however, revealed a glucuronide (M1) and monohydroxylation products (M2a and M2b/M2c) whose abundances (based on UV integration) were greater than 10% of the total drug-related material. Based on this preliminary observation, mass balance/excretion studies were triggered in animals, which revealed that the majority of circulating radioactivity following the oral administration of [¹⁴C]PF-04991532 was attributed to an unchanged parent (>70% in rats and dogs). In contrast with the human circulatory metabolite profile, the monohydroxylated metabolites were not detected in circulation in either rats or dogs. Available mass spectral evidence suggested that M2a and M2b/M2c were diastereomers derived from cyclopentyl ring oxidation in PF-04991532. Because cyclopentyl ring hydroxylation on the C-2 and C-3 positions can generate eight possible diastereomers, it was possible that additional diastereomers may have also formed and would need to be resolved from the M2a and M2b/M2c peaks observed in the current chromatography conditions. In conclusion, the human metabolite scouting study in tandem with the animal mass balance study allowed early identification of PF-04991532 oxidative metabolites, which were not predicted by in vitro methods and may require additional scrutiny in the development phase of PF-04991532.

  10. Relative bioavailability of soil-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in goats.

    PubMed

    Ounnas, Fayçal; Jurjanz, Stefan; Dziurla, Marie Antoinette; Guiavarc'h, Yann; Feidt, Cyril; Rychen, Guido

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed at determining the relative bioavailability (RB) of three soil-bound PAH model compounds (phenanthrene [PHE], pyrene [PYR] and benzo[a]pyrene [BaP]) in four lactating goats. RB was estimated by comparing the urinary or milk excretion of the major mono-hydroxylated metabolites of PAHs after ingestion of PAH spiked-soil and -oil feeds. A series of three increasing doses were orally administered in order to estimate the dose response of the two different matrices. The results of this study reveal that urinary excretion prevailed compared to milk excretion (30-fold higher). The recovery rate of mono-hydroxylated metabolites of PAHs in urine and milk indicate that PYR was absorbed at a minimum level of 36%. 3-OH PHE excreted in urine suggests a minimal absorption of at least 5% for PHE. 3-OH BaP remained under the limits of detection and quantification and no RB could be calculated for this compound. RB of soil-bound PYR compared to PYR in oil was 61% and 50% in milk and urine, respectively. Thus, a significantly reduced RB of PYR in soil has been shown. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed between oil and soil for urinary 3-OH PHE (RB=100%). These results show that the soil matrix significantly reduces the bioavailability of certain PAHs. The decrease of bioavailability seems to be dependent on the compounds, i.e. higher for PYR than for PHE. This study also suggests that soil ingestion should be taken into account in risk assessment studies.

  11. Characterization and in vitro phase I microsomal metabolism of designer benzodiazepines - an update comprising adinazolam, cloniprazepam, fonazepam, 3-hydroxyphenazepam, metizolam and nitrazolam.

    PubMed

    Moosmann, Bjoern; Bisel, Philippe; Franz, Florian; Huppertz, Laura M; Auwärter, Volker

    2016-11-01

    Designer benzodiazepines represent an emerging class of new psychoactive substances. While other classes of new psychoactive substances such as cannabinoid receptor agonists and designer stimulants are mainly consumed for hedonistic reasons, designer benzodiazepines may also be consumed as 'self-medication' by persons suffering from anxiety or other psychiatric disorders or as stand-by 'antidote' by users of stimulant and hallucinogenic drugs. In the present study, five benzodiazepines (adinazolam, cloniprazepam, fonazepam, 3-hydroxyphenazepam and nitrazolam) and one thienodiazepine (metizolam) offered as 'research chemicals' on the Internet were characterized and their main in vitro phase I metabolites tentatively identified after incubation with pooled human liver microsomes. For all compounds, the structural formula declared by the vendor was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS), liquid chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight MS analysis. The detected in vitro phase I metabolites of adinazolam were N-desmethyladinazolam and N-didesmethyladinazolam. Metizolam showed a similar metabolism to other thienodiazepines comprising monohydroxylations and dihydroxylation. Cloniprazepam was metabolized to numerous metabolites with the main metabolic steps being N-dealkylation, hydroxylation and reduction of the nitro function. It has to be noted that clonazepam is a metabolite of cloniprazepam, which may lead to difficulties when interpreting analytical findings. Nitrazolam and fonazepam both underwent monohydroxylation and reduction of the nitro function. In the case of 3-OH-phenazepam, no in vitro phase I metabolites were detected. Formation of licensed benzodiazepines (clonazepam after uptake of cloniprazepam) and the sale of metabolites of prescribed benzodiazepines (fonazepam, identical to norflunitrazepam, and 3-hydroxyphenazepam) present the risk of incorrect interpretation of

  12. Simultaneous determination of five naphthoylindole-based synthetic cannabinoids and metabolites and their deposition in human and rat hair.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihyun; Park, Yuran; Park, Meejung; Kim, Eunmi; Yang, Wonkyung; Baeck, Seungkyung; Lee, Sooyeun; Han, Sangbeom

    2015-01-01

    The continuing appearance of new synthetic cannabinoids has been a major issue in the field of forensic and clinical toxicology. In response to that, analytical methods for synthetic cannabinoids have been increasingly established in a variety of biological matrices. Since most of synthetic cannabinoids with structure similarity share some enzymatic metabolites, making the interpretation of analytical results and the discovery of the parent drug actually ingested very complicated, the investigation on metabolites of the first generation of synthetic cannabinoids with their relatively short side chains in chemical structure could be more important. Therefore, in the present study, we developed the analytical method for AM-2201, JWH-122 and MAM-2201 with JWH-018 as a precursor and their monohydroxylated metabolites in hair matrix. Also, using a rat model, AM-2201 and its monohydroxylated metabolites were identified and then the ratios of metabolite-to-parent drug were estimated to be used as criteria on external contamination. All analytes were extracted with methanol from washed and cut hair samples and the extracts were injected into LC-MS/MS with electrospray ion source in the positive ionization mode. Matrix effect and recovery were evaluated in hair matrices and no significant variations were observed. The validation results for precision and accuracy were satisfactory in both human and rat hair. The LOD and LOQ were 0.5 pg/10mg and 1.0 pg/10mg in human hair and 0.5 pg/20mg and 1.0 pg/20mg in pigmented and non-pigmented rat hair, respectively. Additionally, as a result of the animal study, there were not significant differences in the effect of pigmentation on the distribution of AM-2201 and its monohydroxylated metabolites in hair. Wide variations were observed for the concentrations of the naphthoylindole-based synthetic cannabinoids and metabolites in authentic hair samples from nine cases; those were 0.4-59.2 pg/mg for JWH-018, 0.1-0.8 pg/mg for JWH-073, 1

  13. Metabolism and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dione (B[a]P-7,8-dione) in human lung cells by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: detection of an adenine B[a]P-7,8-dione adduct.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng; Liu, Xiaojing; Basu, Sankha S; Zhang, Li; Kushman, Mary E; Harvey, Ronald G; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2012-05-21

    Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dione (B[a]P-7,8-dione) is produced in human lung cells by the oxidation of (±)-B[a]P-7,8-trans-dihydrodiol, which is catalyzed by aldo-keto reductases (AKRs). However, information relevant to the cell-based metabolism of B[a]P-7,8-dione is lacking. We studied the metabolic fate of 2 μM 1,3-[(3)H(2)]-B[a]P-7,8-dione in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, human bronchoalveolar H358 cells, and immortalized human bronchial epithelial HBEC-KT cells. In these three cell lines, 1,3-[(3)H(2)]-B[a]P-7,8-dione was rapidly consumed, and radioactivity was distributed between the organic and aqueous phase of ethyl acetate-extracted media, as well as in the cell lysate pellets. After acidification of the media, several metabolites of 1,3-[(3)H(2)]-B[a]P-7,8-dione were detected in the organic phase of the media by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-radioactivity monitoring (HPLC-UV-RAM). The structures of B[a]P-7,8-dione metabolites varied in the cell lines and were identified as B[a]P-7,8-dione conjugates with glutathione (GSH) and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), 8-O-monomethylated-catechol, catechol monosulfate, and monoglucuronide, and monohydroxylated-B[a]P-7,8-dione by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We also obtained evidence for the first time for the formation of an adenine adduct of B[a]P-7,8-dione. Among these metabolites, the identity of the GSH-B[a]P-7,8-dione and the NAC-B[a]P-7,8-dione was further validated by comparison to authentic synthesized standards. The pathways of B[a]P-7,8-dione metabolism in the three human lung cell lines are formation of GSH and NAC conjugates, reduction to the catechol followed by phase II conjugation reactions leading to its detoxification, monohydroxylation, as well as formation of the adenine adduct.

  14. Human metabolites of synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-073 bind with high affinity and act as potent agonists at cannabinoid type-2 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Rajasekaran, Maheswari; Brents, Lisa K.; Franks, Lirit N.; Moran, Jeffery H.; Prather, Paul L.

    2013-06-01

    K2 or Spice is an emerging drug of abuse that contains synthetic cannabinoids, including JWH-018 and JWH-073. Recent reports indicate that monohydroxylated metabolites of JWH-018 and JWH-073 retain high affinity and activity at cannabinoid type-1 receptors (CB{sub 1}Rs), potentially contributing to the enhanced toxicity of K2 compared to marijuana. Since the parent compounds also bind to cannabinoid type-2 receptors (CB{sub 2}Rs), this study investigated the affinity and intrinsic activity of JWH-018, JWH-073 and several monohydroxylated metabolites at human CB{sub 2}Rs (hCB{sub 2}Rs). The affinity of cannabinoids for hCB{sub 2}Rs was determined by competition binding studies employing CHO-hCB{sub 2} membranes. Intrinsic activity of compounds was assessed by G-protein activation and adenylyl cyclase (AC)-inhibition in CHO-hCB{sub 2} cells. JWH-073, JWH-018 and several of their human metabolites exhibit nanomolar affinity and act as potent agonists at hCB{sub 2}Rs. Furthermore, a major omega hydroxyl metabolite of JWH-073 (JWH-073-M5) binds to CB{sub 2}Rs with 10-fold less affinity than the parent molecule, but unexpectedly, is equipotent in regulating AC-activity when compared to the parent molecule. Finally, when compared to CP-55,940 and Δ{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ{sup 9}-THC), JWH-018, JWH-018-M5 and JWH-073-M5 require significantly less CB{sub 2}R occupancy to produce similar levels of AC-inhibition, indicating that these compounds may more efficiently couple CB{sub 2}Rs to AC than the well characterized cannabinoid agonists examined. These results indicate that JWH-018, JWH-073 and several major human metabolites of these compounds exhibit high affinity and demonstrate distinctive signaling properties at CB{sub 2}Rs. Therefore, future studies examining pharmacological and toxicological properties of synthetic cannabinoids present in K2 products should consider potential actions of these drugs at both CB{sub 1} and CB{sub 2}Rs. - Highlights: • JWH-018

  15. Indirect electrochemical treatment of bisphenol A in water via electrochemically generated Fenton's reagent.

    PubMed

    Gözmen, Belgin; Oturan, Mehmet A; Oturan, Nihal; Erbatur, Oktay

    2003-08-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been treated with electrochemically generated Fenton's reagent in aqueous medium. Hydroxyl radicals that were formed in Fenton's reagent reacted with the organic substrate producing two different isomers of monohydroxylated product and, upon successive hydroxylation, mainly one dihydroxylated product. Further hydroxylation first degraded one of the aromatic rings, and the side chain thus formed was then cleaved off the other aromatic ring. The second aromatic ring was also degraded upon successive hydroxylations. Small saturated and unsaturated aliphatic acids were the last products prior to mineralization. It was found that use of cuprous/cupric ion pair resulted a faster conversion of BPA and faster mineralization when compared using ferrous/ferric ions, but this happened at the expence of excess electrical charge utilized for an equivalent conversion or mineralization. Degradation by using ferrous/ferric ions was more efficient than cuprous/cupric ions case in terms of total mineralization versus charge utilized, and a mineralization of 82% had been achieved by applying 107.8 mF of charge to a 0.7 mM BPA solution of 0.200 dm3. The rate constant of the monohydroxylation of BPA in the presence of ferrous/ferric ions had been determined as 1.0 x 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) where BPA and salicylic acid competitively reacted with hydroxyl radicals in aqueous medium with the initial concentrations of Fe2+, BPA, and SA of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.5 mM, respectively. In a similar experiment where the initial concentrations of Cu2+, BPA, and SA were 1.0, 0.5, and 0.5 mM, respectively, the corresponding rate constant was determined to be the same as the rate constant obtained for Fe2+ (i.e., 1.0 x 10(10) M(-1) s(-1)). While the use of Cu2+ cannot be advised for processing BPA and similar substrates by using the electro-Fenton technique for both technical and economical reasons, the use of [Fe2+]/[BPA]0 values in the range 3-4 will be sufficient to achieve an efficient

  16. Behavioral toxicity and physiological changes from repeated exposure to fluorene administered orally or intraperitoneally to adult male Wistar rats: A dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Julie; Grova, Nathalie; Hidalgo, Sophie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Rychen, Guido; Bisson, Jean-François; Appenzeller, Brice M R; Schroeder, Henri

    2016-03-01

    Fluorene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment by reason of its high volatility. Demonstrated to be a neurotoxicant through inhalation, it was also identified as a contributive PAH to food contamination. Since no data are available on its oral neurotoxicity, the purpose of the present study was to assess the behavioral and physiological toxicity of repeated oral administration of fluorene to adult Wistar male rats. Animals were daily treated with fluorene at 1, 10 or 100mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. Administration was intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral (p.o.) to evaluate the influence of the route of exposure on fluorene toxicity. Following this period of treatment, animals in both groups were subjected to similar cognitive evaluations, namely anxiety (elevated-plus maze), locomotor activity (open-field) and learning and memory abilities (eight-arm maze and avoidance test of an aversive light stimulus), as well as physiological measurements. The behavioral testing occurred from the 28th to the 60th day of the experiment during which fluorene treatment continued uninterrupted. At the end of this period, the concentration levels of fluorene and of three of its monohydroxylated metabolites in blood and brain were determined using a GC-MS/MS method. The results demonstrated a reduction in rat anxiety level at the lowest doses administered (1 and 10mg/kg/day) regardless of the treatment route, whereas locomotor activity and learning abilities remained unchanged. Moreover, a less significant weight gain was noticed in animals i.p.- and p.o.-treated with 100mg/kg/day during the 28-day period of treatment, which, upon comparison with the three other groups, induced a body weight gap that was maintained throughout the experiment. Significant increases in relative liver weight were also observed in a dose-dependent manner in orally treated rats and only in animal treated i.p. with 100mg/kg/day. According to the dose, higher

  17. Flower colour and cytochromes P450†

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3′H and F3′5′H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3′5′Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3′5′H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3′5′H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3′5′H and F3′H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones. PMID:23297355

  18. Human metabolites of synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-073 bind with high affinity and act as potent agonists at cannabinoid type-2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Maheswari; Brents, Lisa K; Franks, Lirit N; Moran, Jeffery H; Prather, Paul L

    2013-06-01

    K2 or Spice is an emerging drug of abuse that contains synthetic cannabinoids, including JWH-018 and JWH-073. Recent reports indicate that monohydroxylated metabolites of JWH-018 and JWH-073 retain high affinity and activity at cannabinoid type-1 receptors (CB1Rs), potentially contributing to the enhanced toxicity of K2 compared to marijuana. Since the parent compounds also bind to cannabinoid type-2 receptors (CB2Rs), this study investigated the affinity and intrinsic activity of JWH-018, JWH-073 and several monohydroxylated metabolites at human CB2Rs (hCB2Rs). The affinity of cannabinoids for hCB2Rs was determined by competition binding studies employing CHO-hCB2 membranes. Intrinsic activity of compounds was assessed by G-protein activation and adenylyl cyclase (AC)-inhibition in CHO-hCB2 cells. JWH-073, JWH-018 and several of their human metabolites exhibit nanomolar affinity and act as potent agonists at hCB2Rs. Furthermore, a major omega hydroxyl metabolite of JWH-073 (JWH-073-M5) binds to CB2Rs with 10-fold less affinity than the parent molecule, but unexpectedly, is equipotent in regulating AC-activity when compared to the parent molecule. Finally, when compared to CP-55,940 and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), JWH-018, JWH-018-M5 and JWH-073-M5 require significantly less CB2R occupancy to produce similar levels of AC-inhibition, indicating that these compounds may more efficiently couple CB2Rs to AC than the well characterized cannabinoid agonists examined. These results indicate that JWH-018, JWH-073 and several major human metabolites of these compounds exhibit high affinity and demonstrate distinctive signaling properties at CB2Rs. Therefore, future studies examining pharmacological and toxicological properties of synthetic cannabinoids present in K2 products should consider potential actions of these drugs at both CB1 and CB2Rs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro metabolism of BDE-47, BDE-99, and α-, β-, γ-HBCD isomers by chicken liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Erratico, Claudio; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Negreira, Noelia; Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-11-01

    The in vitro oxidative metabolism of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), and the individual α-, β- and γ-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes was studied using chicken liver microsomes (CLMs). Metabolites were identified using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method and authentic standards for the oxidative metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99. Six hydroxylated tetra-BDEs, namely 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-42), 3-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (3-OH-BDE-47), 5-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (5-OH-BDE-47), 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE-47), 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5'- tetrabromodiphenyl ether (4'-OH-BDE-49), and 2'-hydroxy-2,3',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (2'-OH-BDE-66), were identified and quantified after incubation of BDE-47 with CLMs. 4'-OH-BDE-49 was the major metabolite formed. Three hydroxylated penta-BDEs (5'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (5'-OH-BDE-99), 6'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',5- pentabromodiphenyl ether (6'-OH-BDE-99), and 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5,5'-pentabromodiphenyl ether, 4'-OH-BDE-101, were formed incubating BDE-99 with CLMs. Concentrations of BDE-99 metabolites were lower than those of BDE-47. More than four mono-hydroxylated HBCD (OH-HBCD), more than four di-hydroxylated HBCD (di-OH-HBCD), more than five mono-hydroxylated pentabromocyclododecenes (OH-PBCD), and more than five di-hydroxylated pentabromocyclododecenes (di-OH-PBCD) were detected when α-, β-, or γ-HBCD were individually incubated with CLMs. Response values (the ratio between the peak areas of the target compound and its internal standard) for OH-HBCD were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than those for OH-PBCD, di-OH-HBCD, and di-OH-PBCD, suggesting that OH-HBCD might be the major metabolites of α-, β- and γ-HBCD produced by CLMs. No diastereoisomeric or enantiomeric bioisomerisation was

  20. Equinoctial Clumps

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-16

    Clumps of ring material are revealed along the edge of Saturn A ring in this image taken during the planet August 2009 equinox. The granular appearance of the outer edge of the A ring is likely created by gravitational clumping of particles there.