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Sample records for a-si alloy cells

  1. a-Si:H solar cells: SiH(2)Cl(2) as a source gas and a-SiGe:H alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Adam More

    This thesis gives an overview of the reasons why solar cells are a necessity in this world of carbon constrained energy use. The most important factors upon which to work to improve the competitiveness of photovoltaic generated electricity with conventional, fossil fuel based generation are the cost of the solar cell and the cell conversion efficiency. The two main technical thrusts of this thesis--DCS as a source gas and a-SiGe:H alloys--attacked two aspects of these problems. a-SiGe:H is used in multijunction cells to achieve higher efficiencies and DCS can be used to increase the deposition rate of a-Si:H thus decreasing the time it takes to make a solar cell. We review the various experimental methods used to investigate the optical and electronic properties of a-Si:H thin films as well as the methods used to measure solar cell efficiency and determine the effectiveness of the various portions of a solar cell. Using DCS as a source gas helped us increase the deposition rate by factor of 5 while maintaining the film quality; however chlorinated intrinsic films had higher defect densities and lower photoconductivity than standard a-Si:H films. Use of DCS to deposit i-layers of a solar cell led us to the discovery that Cl enhances the doping efficiency of B in a-Si:H. The enhanced doping of a-SiC:H as the p-layer of a solar cell increased the cell's efficiency from 7.1% to 7.8%. A-SiGe:H alloys were investigated over a range of Tauc gaps from 1.7 eV down to 1.0 eV. The optical and electronic properties of these films were investigated as well as their incorporation in solar cells. Different bandgap graded structures were used in the i-layer of a solar cell with the conclusion that the bathtub shaped i-layer yields the highest stabilized efficiency. An attempt was made to fabricate solar cells using cathode-deposited a-SiGe:H alloys as the i-layer in collaboration with Harvard University. The cells fabricated could neither prove nor disprove the effectiveness of

  2. Investigation of the radiation resistance of triple-junction a-Si:H alloy solar cells irradiated with 1.00 MeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Kenneth R., II; Walters, Michael R.; Woodyard, James R.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of 1.00 MeV proton irradiation on hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloy triple-junction solar cells is reported for the first time. The cells were designed for radiation resistance studies and included 0.35 cm(sup 2) active areas on 1.0 by 2.0 cm(sup 2) glass superstrates. Three cells were irradiated through the bottom contact at each of six fluences between 5.10E12 and 1.46E15 cm(sup -2). The effect of the irradiations was determined with light current-voltage measurements. Proton irradiation degraded the cell power densities from 8.0 to 98 percent for the fluences investigated. Annealing irradiated cells at 200 C for two hours restored the power densities to better than 90 percent. The cells exhibited radiation resistances which are superior to cells reported in the literature for fluences less than 1E14 cm(sup -2).

  3. Luminescence of solar cells with a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhigunov, D. M.; Il'in, A. S.; Forsh, P. A.; Bobyl', A. V.; Verbitskii, V. N.; Terukov, E. I.; Kashkarov, P. K.

    2017-05-01

    We have studied the electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) of solar cells containing a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunctions. It is established that both the EL and PL properties of these cells are determined by the radiative recombination of nonequilibrium carriers in crystalline silicon (c-Si). The external EL energy yield (efficiency) of solar cells with a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunctions at room temperature amounts to 2.1% and exceeds the value reached in silicon diode structures. This large EL efficiency can be explained by good passivation of the surface of crystalline silicon and the corresponding increase in lifetime of minority carrier s in these solar cells.

  4. Thermal decomposition of a Si3N4-22 wt% Al2O3 alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ditchek, B. M.; Breen, K. R.; Venables, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that materials near the Si3N4 corner of the Si3N4-AlN-Al2O3-SiO2 quaternary, termed sialons are candidate materials for high performance applications. Hot pressed alloys in this system are useful because they possess high flexure strengths and good oxidation and creep resistance. The results of the thermal decomposition studies conducted indicate that dissociation and resulting weight loss lead to inhomogeneous specimens. Material loss comes primarily from near the surface (at least initially) thus causing differences between the composition of the surface material and the bulk. In these specimens, the O-prime phase was found to be the least stable to dissociation and the beta-prime phase the most stable. This result is in accord with the conclusions of Mitomo et al. (1979) that Si2N2O has a larger equilibrium SiO partial pressure than either the X phase or the beta-prime phase.

  5. A 2kW photovoltaic power generating system using a-Si solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, S.; Fukatsu, T.; Nishiwaki, H.; Shibuya, H.; Tsukamoto, K.; Kuwano, Y.

    Integrated amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar panels have been developed and applied to an electric power generating system. The integrated a-Si solar panel consists of 20 integrated type a-Si solar cell modules, each with a size of 10 cm x 10 cm, which were developed for use in an electric power generating system. The power generating system is set in an experimental model house which was completed in the summer of 1981. The output performance of the solar panels has been measured, and a peak amount of 2kW was obtained. The conversion efficiency decreased about 10 percent within one month and then became stable. This stability has continued until the present time.

  6. Evolution of a Native Oxide Layer at the a-Si:H/c-Si Interface and Its Influence on a Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenzhu; Meng, Fanying; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Zhengxin

    2015-12-09

    The interface microstructure of a silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cell was investigated. We found an ultrathin native oxide layer (NOL) with a thickness of several angstroms was formed on the crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface in a very short time (∼30 s) after being etched by HF solution. Although the NOL had a loose structure with defects that are detrimental for surface passivation, it acted as a barrier to restrain the epitaxial growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) during the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The microstructure change of the NOL during the PECVD deposition of a-Si:H layers with different conditions and under different H2 plasma treatments were systemically investigated in detail. When a brief H2 plasma was applied to treat the a-Si:H layer after the PECVD deposition, interstitial oxygen and small-size SiO2 precipitates were transformed to hydrogenated amorphous silicon suboxide alloy (a-SiO(x):H, x ∼ 1.5). In the meantime, the interface defect density was reduced by about 50%, and the parameters of the SHJ solar cell were improved due to the post H2 plasma treatment.

  7. Microstructure and lateral conductivity control of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon oxide and its application in a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H tandem solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian-Tian, Li; Tie, Yang; Jia, Fang; De-Kun, Zhang; Jian, Sun; Chang-Chun, Wei; Sheng-Zhi, Xu; Guang-Cai, Wang; Cai-Chi, Liu; Ying, Zhao; Xiao-Dan, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorous-doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon oxide (n-nc-SiO x :H) films are prepared via radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD). Increasing deposition power during n-nc-SiO x :H film growth process can enhance the formation of nanocrystalline and obtain a uniform microstructure of n-nc-SiO x :H film. In addition, in 20s interval before increasing the deposition power, high density small grains are formed in amorphous SiO x matrix with higher crystalline volume fraction (I c) and have a lower lateral conductivity. This uniform microstructure indicates that the higher I c can leads to better vertical conductivity, lower refractive index, wider optical band-gap. It improves the back reflection in a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H tandem solar cells acting as an n-nc-SiO x :H back reflector prepared by the gradient power during deposition. Compared with the sample with SiO x back reflector, with a constant power used in deposition process, the sample with gradient power SiO x back reflector can enhance the total short-circuit current density (J sc) and the initial efficiency of a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H tandem solar cells by 8.3% and 15.5%, respectively. Project supported by the Hi-Tech Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA050302), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61474065), Tianjin Municipal Research Key Program of Application Foundation and Advanced Technology, China (Grant No. 15JCZDJC31300), the Key Project in the Science & Technology Pillar Program of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BE2014147-3), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Ph. D. Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20120031110039).

  8. Influence of Deposition Pressure on the Properties of Round Pyramid Textured a-Si:H Solar Cells for Maglev.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Choi, Wonseok; Lee, Kyuil; Lee, Daedong; Kang, Hyunil

    2016-05-01

    HIT (Heterojunction with Intrinsic Thin-layer) photovoltaic cells is one of the highest efficiencies in the commercial solar cells. The pyramid texturization for reducing surface reflectance of HIT solar cells silicon wafers is widely used. For the low leakage current and high shunt of solar cells, the intrinsic amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) on substrate must be uniformly thick of pyramid structure. However, it is difficult to control the thickness in the traditional pyramid texturing process. Thus, we textured the intrinsic a-Si:H thin films with the round pyramidal structure by using HNO3, HF, and CH3COOH solution. The characteristics of round pyramid a-Si:H solar cells deposited at pressure of 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 mTorr by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition) was investigated. The lifetime, open circuit voltage, fill factor and efficiency of a-Si:H solar cells were investigated with respect to various deposition pressure.

  9. Optimization of intrinsic layer thickness, dopant layer thickness and concentration for a-SiC/a-SiGe multilayer solar cell efficiency performance using Silvaco software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wong Wei; Natashah Norizan, Mohd; Salwani Mohamad, Ili; Jamalullail, Nurnaeimah; Hidayah Saad, Nor

    2017-11-01

    Solar cell is expanding as green renewable alternative to conventional fossil fuel electricity generation, but compared to other land-used electrical generators, it is a comparative beginner. Many applications covered by solar cells starting from low power mobile devices, terrestrial, satellites and many more. To date, the highest efficiency solar cell is given by GaAs based multilayer solar cell. However, this material is very expensive in fabrication and material costs compared to silicon which is cheaper due to the abundance of supply. Thus, this research is devoted to develop multilayer solar cell by combining two different layers of P-I-N structures with silicon carbide and silicon germanium. This research focused on optimising the intrinsic layer thickness, p-doped layer thickness and concentration, n-doped layer thickness and concentration in achieving the highest efficiency. As a result, both single layer a-SiC and a-SiGe showed positive efficiency improvement with the record of 27.19% and 9.07% respectively via parametric optimization. The optimized parameters is then applied on both SiC and SiGe P-I-N layers and resulted the convincing efficiency of 33.80%.

  10. Microscopic origins of metastable effects in a-Si:H and deep defect characterization in a-Si,Ge:H alloys. Annual subcontract report, 1 February 1991--31 January 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.D.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes works to use transient photocapacitance and photocurrent measurements to determine the deep defect distribution and processes in low-band-gap a-Si,Ge:H alloys. Samples for these studies were produced by the photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) growth method and were obtained through a collaboration with researchers at the University of Delaware. This report discusses how a detailed comparison between the photocapacitance and photocurrent spectra can be used to separately examine the majority and minority carrier processes. The results are as follows: (1) The midgap defect densities in the alloy regime near 1.3 eV can be as low as 5 {times} 10{supmore » 16} cm{sup {minus}3} in such photo-CVD samples. (2) There exists a second defect band roughly 0.4 eV below E{sub c} of a similar magnitude to the midgap defect density that exhibits significant lattice relaxation behavior in its electron trapping dynamics. (3) The hole {mu}{tau} products determined for the lowest defect sample are roughly 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2}/V, comparable with the highest hole {mu}{tau} products reported in sandwich geometry measurements for alloys in this composition range. (4) The hole {mu}{tau} is found to be roughly inversely proportional to the midgap defect density for the samples studied. This is consistent with the fact that the effective minority carrier lifetime for such measurements is limited by the deep state trapping time.« less

  11. Multi-scale texturing for a-Si/mc-Si thin-film tandem solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Song; Li, Meixiang

    2018-03-01

    Glass texturing by sandblasting or cream etching methods was introduced for the light trapping purpose for a-Si/mc-Si thin-film tandem solar cells. The nm-scale features of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) front electrode and μm-scale features of textured glass form a multi-scale texturing scheme, which is potentially beneficial to the longer wavelength absorption in mc-Si cell and hence increase the total current of the tandem solar cell. Conformal growth model was applied successfully to analyze thin film growth on textured glass in this work. Power conversion efficiency improvements of ˜1.0% and ˜0.8% have been achieved with solar cells on sandblasting and cream-etching textured glass, respectively.

  12. Role of a disperse carbon interlayer on the performances of tandem a-Si solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Andreia; Barros, Raquel; Mateus, Tiago; Gaspar, Diana; Neves, Nuno; Vicente, António; Filonovich, Sergej A; Barquinha, Pedro; Fortunato, Elvira; Ferraria, Ana M; Botelho do Rego, Ana M; Bicho, Ana; Águas, Hugo; Martins, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    We report the effect of a disperse carbon interlayer between the n-a-Si:H layer and an aluminium zinc oxide (AZO) back contact on the performance of amorphous silicon solar cells. Carbon was incorporated to the AZO film as revealed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Solar cells fabricated on glass substrates using AZO in the back contact performed better when a disperse carbon interlayer was present in their structure. They exhibited an initial efficiency of 11%, open-circuit voltage Voc = 1.6 V, short-circuit current JSC = 11 mA cm−2 and a filling factor of 63%, that is, a 10% increase in the JSC and 20% increase in the efficiency compared to a standard solar cell. PMID:27877602

  13. Amplitude and timing properties of a Geiger discharge in a SiPM cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E.; Buzhan, P.; Pleshko, A.; Vinogradov, S.; Stifutkin, A.; Ilyin, A.; Besson, D.; Mirzoyan, R.

    2015-07-01

    The amplitude and timing properties of a Geiger discharge in a stand-alone SiPM cell have been investigated in detail. Use of a single stand-alone SiPM cell allows us to perform measurements with better accuracy than the multicell structure of conventional SiPMs. We have studied the dependence of the output charge and amplitude from an SiPM cell illuminated by focused light vs the number of primary photoelectrons. We propose a SPICE model which explains the amplitude over saturation (when the SiPM's amplitude is greater than the sum over all cells) characteristics of SiPM signals for more than one initial photoelectrons. The time resolutions of a SiPM cell have been measured for the case of single (SPTR) and multiphoton light pulses. The Full Width Half Max (FWHM) for SPTR has been found to be at the level of 30 ps for focused and 40 ps for unfocused light (100 μm cell size).

  14. Study of Staebler-Wronsky degradation effect in a Si:H based P-I-N solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naseem, Hameed; Herman, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the stability and efficiency of thin solar cells with emphasis on a-Si:H devices. The research project was broken down into three main phases. The first involves designing and building a UHV glow discharge system; the second involves making good quality films and eventually efficient cells; the final phase will be analytical.

  15. Origin of Photovoltage Enhancement via Interfacial Modification with Silver Nanoparticles Embedded in an a-SiC:H p-Type Layer in a-Si:H Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiantian; Zhang, Qixing; Ni, Jian; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Dekun; Li, Baozhang; Wei, Changchun; Yan, Baojie; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2017-03-29

    We used silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) embedded in the p-type semiconductor layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells in the Schottky barrier contact design to modify the interface between aluminum-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al, AZO) and p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (p-a-SiC:H) without plasmonic absorption. The high work function of the Ag-NPs provided a good channel for the transport of photogenerated holes. A p-type nanocrystalline SiC:H layer was used to compensate for the real surface defects and voids on the surface of Ag-NPs to reduce recombination at the AZO/p-type layer interface, which then enhanced the photovoltage of single-junction a-Si:H solar cells to values as high as 1.01 V. The Ag-NPs were around 10 nm in diameter and thermally stable in the p-type a-SiC:H film at the solar-cell process temperature. We will also show that a wide range of photovoltages between 1.01 and 2.89 V could be obtained with single-, double-, and triple-junction solar cells based on the single-junction a-Si:H solar cells with tunable high photovoltage. These solar cells are suitable photocathodes for solar water-splitting applications.

  16. Repeated Aurora-A siRNA Transfection Results in Effective Apoptosis of A549 Cells Compared to Single Transfection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhonghua; Sun, Wenwu; Cao, Jianping; Cui, Haiyang; Ma, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Suppression of Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A, AURKA) by Aurora-A siRNA has been proposed for lung tumor treatment. However, protocols using single administration have shown little benefit in some types of lung tumor. Given that transfection efficiency of Aurora-A siRNA is low due to tightly packed cells in the tumor, we hypothesized that repeated administration would result in efficient cell apoptosis. We compared single vs. repeated transfection (thrice) in A549 cells by transfecting Aurora-A siRNA (siA) on the 1st or 1st, 2nd and 3rd day after cell seeding. A random sequence was used as the negative siRNA control (siC). Cells in the single transfection group received only transfection reagent without siRNAs on the 2nd and 3rd day. Two days after the third transfection, both single and repeated siA administration decreased mRNA expression of Aurora-A and cell viability compared to no administration and siC single administration. However, the decrease in these two indices with repeated transfection was more obvious than that following single administration: cell viability decreased to 72.8 ± 3.05% (p < 0.05) following siA single transfection and to 64.2 ± 1.99% (p < 0.05) following siA repeated transfection, compared with normal control cells, respectively. Gene expression decreased to 17 ± 16.6% (p < 0.05 vs. normal control) following siA repeated transfection and to 43.2 ± 13.0% (p < 0.05 vs. normal control) following siA single transfection. Compared to single transfection, repeated Aurora-A siRNA transfection decreased Aurora-A, which, in turn, resulted in effective apoptosis of A549 cells.

  17. Characterization of intrinsic a-Si:H films prepared by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition for solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chaehwan; Boo, Seongjae; Jeon, Minsung; Kamisako, Koichi

    2007-11-01

    The hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films, which can be used as the passivation or absorption layer of solar cells, were prepared by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) and their characteristics were studied. Deposition process of a-Si:H films was performed by varying the parameters, gas ratio (H2/SiH4), radio frequency (RF) power and substrate temperature, while a working pressure was fixed at 70 m Torr. Their characteristics were studied by measuring thickness, optical bandgap (eV), photosensitivity, bond structure and surface roughness. When the RF power and substrate temperature were 300 watt and 200 degrees C, respectively, optical bandgap and photosensitivity, similar to the intrinsic a-Si:H film, were obtained. The Si-H stretching mode at 2000 cm(-1), which means a good quality of films, was found at all conditions. Although the RF power increased up to 400 watt, average of surface roughness got better, compared to a-Si:H films deposited by the conventional PECVD method. These results show the potential for developing the solar cells using ICP-CVD, which have the relatively less damage of plasma.

  18. Calcium alloy as active material in secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Roche, Michael F.; Preto, Sandra K.; Martin, Allan E.

    1976-01-01

    Calcium alloys such as calcium-aluminum and calcium-silicon, are employed as active material within a rechargeable negative electrode of an electrochemical cell. Such cells can use a molten salt electrolyte including calcium ions and a positive electrode having sulfur, sulfides, or oxides as active material. The calcium alloy is selected to prevent formation of molten calcium alloys resulting from reaction with the selected molten electrolytic salt at the cell operating temperatures.

  19. A Laser Welding and Scribing (LWS) Method for a High-Yield Integrated-Type a-Si Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishi, Yasuo; Murata, Kenji; Inoue, Hiroshi; Kiyama, Seiichi; Ohnishi, Michitoshi; Nakano, Shoichi; Kuwano, Yukinori

    1991-08-01

    A new fabrication method for integrated-type amorphous-silicon (a-Si) solar cell submodules, called the laser welding and scribing (LWS) method, was investigated. The conditions for laser scribing and laser welding were calculated from a three-dimensional thermal analysis of a multilayer structure. Calculated results were confirmed by experiment, and the optimum laser power density range for scribing was found to be much wider than that for conventional laser patterning methods. Subsequent connection of adjacent cells in a series by laser welding was also easily performed. This fabrication method has led to a total area conversion efficiency of 10.3% for a 100 cm2 integrated-type a-Si solar cell.

  20. Efficiency improvement of flexible a-SiGe:H solar cells decorated by SiNx composite nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanyan; Ye, Xiaojun; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Junkun; Wu, Xuemei; Qiu, Bocang; Zhang, Ruiying

    2015-05-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of the efficiency improvement of flexible a-SiGe:H solar cells decorated by SiNx composite nanostructures. The structures, which are composed of SiNx nanodome structures and a thin SiNx film that is underneath the nanodome structures, were implemented via sequential processes using inductance-coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD), nanosphere lithography (NSL), and reactive ion etching (RIE). Compared with the a-SiGe:H solar cells without the SiNx composite nanostructures, solar cells with SiNx composite nanostructures exhibit that the surface reflectivity reduces down to less than 5% over the spectrum range of 200-700 nm, and the open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) increase up to 0.76 V from 0.70 V and 52.4% from 38.4% respectively, although the short circuit current density (Jsc) reduces down to 11.6 mA/cm2 from 14.7 mA/cm2. The improvement for Voc and FF indicates that a-SiGe:H solar cells were well passivated by using such SiNx composite structures, which results in the overall enhancement of the conversion efficiency from 4.38% to 5.13% finally. If the absorption of the dielectric composite nanostructures decreases, the higher conversion efficiency should be promisingly achieved in these Si-based thin film solar cells decorated by dielectric composite nanostructures.

  1. Li-alloy electrode for Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Lithium, silicon and nickel is alloyed in a prescribed proportion forming an electroactive material, to provide an improved electrode and cell.

  2. a-SiCxNy:H thin films for applications in solar cells as passivation and antireflective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swatowska, Barbara; Kluska, Stanisława; Lewińska, Gabriela; Golańska, Julia; Stapiński, Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Amorphous a-SiCxNy:H thin films may be an alternative to a-Si:N:H coatings which are commonly used in silicon solar cells. This material was obtained by PECVD (13.56 MHz) method. The reaction gases used: silane, methane, nitrogen and ammonia. The structure of the layers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). IR absorption spectra of a-SiCxNy:H layers confirmed the presence of various hydrogen bonds - it is important for passivation of Si structural defects. The ellipsometric measurements were implemented to determine the thickness of layers d, refractive index n, extinction coefficient k and energy gap Eg. The values of the energy gap of a-SiCxNy:H layers are in the range from 1.89 to 4.34 eV. The correlation between energy gap of materials and refractive index was found. Generally the introduction of N and/or C into the amorphous silicon network rapidly increases the Eg values.

  3. Mechanical Properties of ZTO, ITO, and a-Si:H Multilayer Films for Flexible Thin Film Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hengst, Claudia; Menzel, Siegfried B; Rane, Gayatri K; Smirnov, Vladimir; Wilken, Karen; Leszczynska, Barbara; Fischer, Dustin; Prager, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The behavior of bi- and trilayer coating systems for flexible a-Si:H based solar cells consisting of a barrier, an electrode, and an absorption layer is studied under mechanical load. First, the film morphology, stress, Young’s modulus, and crack onset strain (COS) were analyzed for single film coatings of various thickness on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. In order to demonstrate the role of the microstructure of a single film on the mechanical behavior of the whole multilayer coating, two sets of InSnOx (indium tin oxide, ITO) conductive coatings were prepared. Whereas a characteristic grain–subgrain structure was observed in ITO-1 films, grain growth was suppressed in ITO-2 films. ITO-1 bilayer coatings showed two-step failure under tensile load with cracks propagating along the ITO-1/a-Si:H-interface, whereas channeling cracks in comparable bi- and trilayers based on amorphous ITO-2 run through all constituent layers. A two-step failure is preferable from an application point of view, as it may lead to only a degradation of the performance instead of the ultimate failure of the device. Hence, the results demonstrate the importance of a fine-tuning of film microstructure not only for excellent electrical properties, but also for a high mechanical performance of flexible devices (e.g., a-Si:H based solar cells) during fabrication in a roll-to-roll process or under service. PMID:28772609

  4. Mechanical Properties of ZTO, ITO, and a-Si:H Multilayer Films for Flexible Thin Film Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hengst, Claudia; Menzel, Siegfried B; Rane, Gayatri K; Smirnov, Vladimir; Wilken, Karen; Leszczynska, Barbara; Fischer, Dustin; Prager, Nicole

    2017-03-01

    The behavior of bi- and trilayer coating systems for flexible a-Si:H based solar cells consisting of a barrier, an electrode, and an absorption layer is studied under mechanical load. First, the film morphology, stress, Young's modulus, and crack onset strain (COS) were analyzed for single film coatings of various thickness on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. In order to demonstrate the role of the microstructure of a single film on the mechanical behavior of the whole multilayer coating, two sets of InSnOx (indium tin oxide, ITO) conductive coatings were prepared. Whereas a characteristic grain-subgrain structure was observed in ITO-1 films, grain growth was suppressed in ITO-2 films. ITO-1 bilayer coatings showed two-step failure under tensile load with cracks propagating along the ITO-1/a-Si:H-interface, whereas channeling cracks in comparable bi- and trilayers based on amorphous ITO-2 run through all constituent layers. A two-step failure is preferable from an application point of view, as it may lead to only a degradation of the performance instead of the ultimate failure of the device. Hence, the results demonstrate the importance of a fine-tuning of film microstructure not only for excellent electrical properties, but also for a high mechanical performance of flexible devices (e.g., a-Si:H based solar cells) during fabrication in a roll-to-roll process or under service.

  5. The valence band tail density of states and bond angle distortion in a-SiN{sub x}:H alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Budaguan, B.G.; Aivazov, A.A.; Stryahilev, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Films of a-SiN{sub x}:H with x = 0.0--0.62 were deposited by glow discharge decomposition of (10%SiH{sub 4}+90%H{sub 2}) + NH{sub 3} mixture. The chemical bonding and composition of films were investigated with using of infrared spectroscopy. The deformation energy per Si atom connected to bond bending, V{sub K{theta}}, was calculated from data of Raman scattering. Characteristic energy of valence band tail (VBT) states distribution, E{sub 0V}, were determined from subgap absorption spectra. The dependencies of E{sub 0V} and V{sub K{theta}} on film composition, x, were considered in order to estimate the influence of the bond angle disorder on the distributionmore » of VBT states. The essential difference in behavior of E{sub 0V} and V{sub K{theta}} dependencies on x was found for Si-rich (x<0.15) alloys. When V{sub K{theta}} value increase with x, the E{sub OV} parameter stays almost constant, while at x>0.15 the E{sub 0V} increase with x as well as the V{sub K{theta}}. It means that bond angle disorder in the bulk of the material contributes to VBT characteristic energy, but it is not the only source. Another factors as it was shown may be connected with valence states of Si atoms, localized near inner boundaries.« less

  6. Further insight on recombination losses in the intrinsic layer of a-Si:H solar cells using computer modeling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinelli, Francisco A.; Ramirez, Helena; Ruiz, Carlos M.; Schmidt, Javier A.

    2017-05-01

    Recombination losses of a-Si:H based p-i-n solar cells in the annealed state are analyzed with device computer modeling. Under AM1.5 illumination, the recombination rate in the intrinsic layer is shown to be controlled by a combination of losses through defect and tail states. The influence of the defect concentration on the characteristic parameters of a solar cell is analyzed. The impact on the light current-voltage characteristic curve of adopting very low free carrier mobilities and a high density of states at the band edge is explored under red and AM1.5 illumination. The distribution of trapped charge, electric field, and recombination loses inside the intrinsic layer is examined, and their influence on the solar cell performance is discussed. Solar cells with intrinsic layers deposited with and without hydrogen dilution are examined. It is found that the photocurrent at -2 V is not always a good approximation of the saturated reverse-bias photocurrent in a-Si:H p-i-n solar cells at room temperature. The importance of using realistic electrical parameters in solar cell simulations is emphasized.

  7. a-SiC:H films used as photoelectrodes in a hybrid, thin-film silicon photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell for progress toward 10% solar-to hydrogen efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feng; Hu, Jian; Kunrath, Augusto; Matulionis, Ilvydas; Marsen, Bjorn; Cole, Brian; Miller, Eric; Madan, Arun

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we describe the fabrication of amorphous SiC:H materials and using them as photoelectrodes in photoelectrochemical cells (PEC). With the increase of CH 4 flow (in SiH4 gas mixture) during growth, the bandgap, Eg, increases from ~ 1.8eV to ~2.0eV, while the photoconductivity decreases from ~10 -5 S/cm to ~10 -8 S/cm. These high-quality a-SiC:H materials with Eg of 2.0eV included into a solar cell configuration led to a conversion efficiency,η~7% on textured Asahi U type SnO II coated substrates, with the i-layer thickness of ~300nm. For a reduced i-layer thickness of ~100 nm, a current density, J sc ~8.45mA/cm2 has been achieved, Immersing the a-SiC:H(p)/a-SiC:H(i) structure in 0.33M H 3PO 4 electrolytes, produced a photocurrent of ~7mA/cm2. With a further optimization we expect that the photocurrent could exceed 9mA/cm2. With the use of this configuration substrate/silicon tandem device (a-Si/a-Si or a- Si/nc-Si)/a-SiC:H(p)/a-SiC:H(i), it may therefore be possible to increase the solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiencies to beyond 10%.

  8. Iron aluminide alloy container for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, Roddie Reagan; Singh, Prabhakar; Sikka, Vinod Kumar

    2000-01-01

    A container for fuel cells is made from an iron aluminide alloy. The container alloy preferably includes from about 13 to about 22 weight percent Al, from about 2 to about 8 weight percent Cr, from about 0.1 to about 4 weight percent M selected from Zr and Hf, from about 0.005 to about 0.5 weight percent B or from about 0.001 to about 1 weight percent C, and the balance Fe and incidental impurities. The iron aluminide container alloy is extremely resistant to corrosion and metal loss when exposed to dual reducing and oxidizing atmospheres at elevated temperatures. The alloy is particularly useful for containment vessels for solid oxide fuel cells, as a replacement for stainless steel alloys which are currently used.

  9. Hybrid solar cell based on a-Si/polymer flat heterojunction on flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares Vargas, A. J.; Mansurova, S.; Cosme, I.; Kosarev, A.; Ospina Ocampo, C. A.; Martinez Mateo, H. E.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we present the results of investigation of thin film hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic structures based on flat heterojunction hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) and poly(3,4 ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) fabricated on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN). Different thicknesses of transparent AL doped Zn:O (AZO) electrodes have been tested on PEN substrate and studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AZO films on PEN substrate were statistically processed to obtain surface morphological characteristics, such as root mean square roughness RQ, skewness SK and kurtosis KU. Performance characteristics of fabricated photovoltaic structures have been measured and analyzed for different thicknesses of the transparent electrodes under standard illumination (AM 1.5 I0= 100mW/cm2). Structures on flexible substrates show reproducible performance characteristic as their glass substrate counterpart with values of JSC= 6 mA/cm2, VOC= 0.535 V, FF= 43 % and PCE= 1.41%.

  10. Performance comparison of triple and tandem multi-junction a-Si:H solar cells - A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlikiewicz, Adam H.; Guha, Subhendu

    1990-07-01

    The numerically simulated performances of two-subcell tandem and three-subcell triple a-Si-based multijunction solar cells are compared. The current-voltage characteristics are calculated using a simulation program which allows for accurate determination of single-junction or multijunction cell response under a monochromatic or global AM1.5 spectrum. The validity of the solar cell model is confirmed by the excellent agreement between the simulated and measured characteristics of in-house fabricated 13.0 percent tandem and 13.7 percent triple cells with a minimum optical bandgap of 1.4 eV. It is shown that, if an even narrower bandgap material of 1.3 eV were used, the triple junction device would exceed the tandem by over 1 percent under global AM1.5 (14.2 percent versus 13.2 percent). Assuming that both cells absorb the same amount of light, this difference is mainly due to the weaker electric fields in the double-junction cell, in which the individual cell thicknesses are larger.

  11. Numerical Optimization of a Bifacial Bi-Glass Thin-Film a-Si:H Solar Cell for Higher Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrian, Djaber; Fathi, Mohamed; Kechouane, Mohamed

    2018-02-01

    Bifacial solar cells that maximize the energy output per a square meter have become a new fashion in the field of photovoltaic cells. However, the application of thin-film material on bifacial solar cells, viz., thin-film amorphous hydrogenated silicon ( a- Si:H), is extremely rare. Therefore, this paper presents the optimization and influence of the band gap, thickness and doping on the performance of a glass/glass thin-film a- Si:H ( n- i- p) bifacial solar cell, using a computer-aided simulation tool, Automat for simulation of hetero-structures (AFORS-HET). It is worth mentioning that the thickness and the band gap of the i-layer are the key parameters in achieving higher efficiency and hence it has to be handled carefully during the fabrication process. Furthermore, an efficient thin-film a- Si:H bifacial solar cell requires thinner and heavily doped n and p emitter layers. On the other hand, the band gap of the p-layer showed a dramatic reduction of the efficiency at 2.3 eV. Moreover, a high bifaciality factor of more than 92% is attained, and top efficiency of 10.9% is revealed under p side illumination. These optimizations demonstrate significant enhancements of the recent experimental work on thin-film a- Si:H bifacial solar cells and would also be useful for future experimental investigations on an efficient a- Si:H thin-film bifacial solar cell.

  12. Li-alloy electrode for Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-16

    A method of making a negative electrode is described, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Lithium, silicon and nickel is alloyed in a prescribed proportion forming an electroactive material, to provide an improved electrode and cell. 7 figs.

  13. Influence of Magnesium Alloy Degradation on Undifferentiated Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Sanchez, Adela Helvia; Luthringer, Berengere Julie Christine; Feyerabend, Frank; Jimbo, Ryo; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Wennerberg, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnesium alloys are of particular interest in medical science since they provide compatible mechanical properties with those of the cortical bone and, depending on the alloying elements, they have the capability to tailor the degradation rate in physiological conditions, providing alternative bioresorbable materials for bone applications. The present study investigates the in vitro short-term response of human undifferentiated cells on three magnesium alloys and high-purity magnesium (Mg). Materials and Methods The degradation parameters of magnesium-silver (Mg2Ag), magnesium-gadolinium (Mg10Gd) and magnesium-rare-earth (Mg4Y3RE) alloys were analysed after 1, 2, and 3 days of incubation in cell culture medium under cell culture condition. Changes in cell viability and cell adhesion were evaluated by culturing human umbilical cord perivascular cells on corroded Mg materials to examine how the degradation influences the cellular development. Results and Conclusions The pH and osmolality of the medium increased with increasing degradation rate and it was found to be most pronounced for Mg4Y3RE alloy. The biological observations showed that HUCPV exhibited a more homogeneous cell growth on Mg alloys compared to high-purity Mg, where they showed a clustered morphology. Moreover, cells exhibited a slightly higher density on Mg2Ag and Mg10Gd in comparison to Mg4Y3RE, due to the lower alkalinisation and osmolality of the incubation medium. However, cells grown on Mg10Gd and Mg4Y3RE generated more developed and healthy cellular structures that allowed them to better adhere to the surface. This can be attributable to a more stable and homogeneous degradation of the outer surface with respect to the incubation time. PMID:26600388

  14. Nanophase Nickel-Zirconium Alloys for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Whitacre, jay; Valdez, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Nanophase nickel-zirconium alloys have been investigated for use as electrically conductive coatings and catalyst supports in fuel cells. Heretofore, noble metals have been used because they resist corrosion in the harsh, acidic fuel cell interior environments. However, the high cost of noble metals has prompted a search for less-costly substitutes. Nickel-zirconium alloys belong to a class of base metal alloys formed from transition elements of widely different d-electron configurations. These alloys generally exhibit unique physical, chemical, and metallurgical properties that can include corrosion resistance. Inasmuch as corrosion is accelerated by free-energy differences between bulk material and grain boundaries, it was conjectured that amorphous (glassy) and nanophase forms of these alloys could offer the desired corrosion resistance. For experiments to test the conjecture, thin alloy films containing various proportions of nickel and zirconium were deposited by magnetron and radiofrequency co-sputtering of nickel and zirconium. The results of x-ray diffraction studies of the deposited films suggested that the films had a nanophase and nearly amorphous character.

  15. Process for manufacturing a lithium alloy electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, William R.

    1992-10-13

    A process for manufacturing a lithium alloy, metal sulfide cell tape casts slurried alloy powders in an organic solvent containing a dissolved thermoplastic organic binder onto casting surfaces. The organic solvent is then evaporated to produce a flexible tape removable adhering to the casting surface. The tape is densified to increase its green strength and then peeled from the casting surface. The tape is laminated with a separator containing a lithium salt electrolyte and a metal sulfide electrode to form a green cell. The binder is evaporated from the green cell at a temperature lower than the melting temperature of the lithium salt electrolyte. Lithium alloy, metal sulfide and separator powders may be tape cast.

  16. Opto-electronic properties of P-doped nc-Si–QD/a-SiC:H thin films as foundation layer for all-Si solar cells in superstrate configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Debjit; Das, Debajyoti, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in

    2016-07-14

    With the advent of nc-Si solar cells having improved stability, the efficient growth of nc-Si i-layer of the top cell of an efficient all-Si solar cell in the superstrate configuration prefers nc-Si n-layer as its substrate. Accordingly, a wide band gap and high conducting nc-Si alloy material is a basic requirement at the n-layer. Present investigation deals with the development of phosphorous doped n-type nanocrystalline silicon quantum dots embedded in hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (nc-Si–QD/a-SiC:H) hetero-structure films, wherein the optical band gap can be widened by the presence of Si–C bonds in the amorphous matrix and the embedded high densitymore » tiny nc-Si–QDs could provide high electrical conductivity, particularly in P-doped condition. The nc-Si–QDs simultaneously facilitate further widening of the optical band gap by virtue of the associated quantum confinement effect. A complete investigation has been made on the electrical transport phenomena involving charge transfer by tunneling and thermionic emission prevailing in n-type nc-Si–QD/a-SiC:H thin films. Their correlation with different phases of the specific heterostructure has been carried out for detailed understanding of the material, in order to improve its device applicability. The n-type nc-Si–QD/a-SiC:H films exhibit a thermally activated electrical transport above room temperature and multi-phonon hopping (MPH) below room temperature, involving defects in the amorphous phase and the grain-boundary region. The n-type nc-Si–QD/a-SiC:H films grown at ∼300 °C, demonstrating wide optical gap ∼1.86–1.96 eV and corresponding high electrical conductivity ∼4.5 × 10{sup −1}–1.4 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1}, deserve to be an effective foundation layer for the top nc-Si sub-cell of all-Si solar cells in n-i-p structure with superstrate configuration.« less

  17. Designing of a Si-MEMS device with an integrated skeletal muscle cell-based bio-actuator.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hideaki; Van Dau, Thanh; Shimizu, Kazunori; Hatsuda, Ranko; Sugiyama, Susumu; Nagamori, Eiji

    2011-02-01

    With the aim of designing a mechanical drug delivery system involving a bio-actuator, we fabricated a Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) device that can be driven through contraction of skeletal muscle cells. The device is composed of a Si-MEMS with springs and ratchets, UV-crosslinked collagen film for cell attachment, and C2C12 muscle cells. The Si-MEMS device is 600 μm x 1000 μm in size and the width of the collagen film is 250 ~ 350 μm, which may allow the device to go through small blood vessels. To position the collagen film on the MEMS device, a thermo-sensitive polymer was used as the sacrifice-layer which was selectively removed with O₂ plasma at the positions where the collagen film was glued. The C2C12 myoblasts were seeded on the collagen film, where they proliferated and formed myotubes after induction of differentiation. When C2C12 myotubes were stimulated with electric pulses, contraction of the collagen film-C2C12 myotube complex was observed. When the edge of the Si-MEMS device was observed, displacement of ~8 μm was observed, demonstrating the possibility of locomotive movement when the device is placed on a track of adequate width. Here, we propose that the C2C12-collagen film complex is a new generation actuator for MEMS devices that utilize glucose as fuel, which will be useful in environments in which glucose is abundant such as inside a blood vessel.

  18. Identification of the Chemical Bonding Prompting Adhesion of a-C:H Thin Films on Ferrous Alloy Intermediated by a SiCx:H Buffer Layer.

    PubMed

    Cemin, F; Bim, L T; Leidens, L M; Morales, M; Baumvol, I J R; Alvarez, F; Figueroa, C A

    2015-07-29

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) and several related materials (DLCs) may have ultralow friction coefficients that can be used for saving-energy applications. However, poor chemical bonding of a-C/DLC films on metallic alloys is expected, due to the stability of carbon-carbon bonds. Silicon-based intermediate layers are employed to enhance the adherence of a-C:H films on ferrous alloys, although the role of such buffer layers is not yet fully understood in chemical terms. The chemical bonding of a-C:H thin films on ferrous alloy intermediated by a nanometric SiCx:H buffer layer was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The chemical profile was inspected by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), and the chemical structure was evaluated by Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The nature of adhesion is discussed by analyzing the chemical bonding at the interfaces of the a-C:H/SiCx:H/ferrous alloy sandwich structure. The adhesion phenomenon is ascribed to specifically chemical bonding character at the buffer layer. Whereas carbon-carbon (C-C) and carbon-silicon (C-Si) bonds are formed at the outermost interface, the innermost interface is constituted mainly by silicon-iron (Si-Fe) bonds. The oxygen presence degrades the adhesion up to totally delaminate the a-C:H thin films. The SiCx:H deposition temperature determines the type of chemical bonding and the amount of oxygen contained in the buffer layer.

  19. Explicit analytical modeling of the low frequency a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction capacitance: Analysis and application to silicon heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maslova, O.; GeePs; Brézard-Oudot, A.

    2015-09-21

    We develop a fully analytical model in order to describe the temperature dependence of the low frequency capacitance of heterojunctions between hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and crystalline silicon (c-Si). We demonstrate that the slope of the capacitance-temperature (C-T) curve is strongly enhanced if the c-Si surface is under strong inversion conditions compared to the usually assumed depletion layer capacitance. We have extended our analytical model to integrate a very thin undoped (i) a-Si:H layer at the interface and the finite thickness of the doped a-Si:H layer that are used in high efficiency solar cells for the passivation of interface defectsmore » and to limit short circuit current losses. Finally, using our calculations, we analyze experimental data on high efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells. The transition from the strong inversion limited behavior to the depletion layer behavior is discussed in terms of band offsets, density of states in a-Si:H, and work function of the indium tin oxide (ITO) front electrode. In particular, it is evidenced that strong inversion conditions prevail at the c-Si surface at high temperatures down to 250 K, which can only be reproduced if the ITO work function is larger than 4.7 eV.« less

  20. Investigation on the surface passivation of intrinsic a-Si:H thin films prepared by inductively coupled plasma-chemical vapor deposition for heterojunction solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chaehwan; Jeon, Minsung; Kim, Tae-Won; Boo, Seongjae; Kamisako, Koichi

    2008-09-01

    Intrinsic a-Si:H thin films, which can have passivation functions on the surface of crystalline Si, were deposited by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD). The properties of the films were investigated at deposition temperatures ranging from 50 to 400 degrees C. The Si--H stretching mode at 2000 cm(-1), which indicates good film quality, was found in the range of 150-400 degrees C, but the film quality was not good at deposition temperatures below 150 degrees C. The passviation quality was determined by measuring the effective carrier lifetime using the quasi-steady state photoconductance (QSS-PC) technique. Two, 5, 7.5 and 10 nm thick films were deposited at 150 degrees C and annealed at 200 degrees C for 1 hour. The carrier lifetime of these films was approximately 3 times higher than that observed before annealing. A p a-SiC:H/i a-Si:H/n c-Si hetero-structure solar cell with a 7.8% efficiency and approximately 85% quantum efficiency (QE) was obtained by inserting an intrinsic a-Si:H thin film (5 nm) between the interfaces. These results highlight the potential applications of a passivation layer to heterojunction solar cells.

  1. Preparation of born-doped a-SiC:H thin films by ICP-CVD method and to the application of large-area heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chaehwan; Kim, Young-Back; Lee, Suk-Ho; Kim, Jin Hyeok

    2010-05-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) film has been widely used as an emitter p layer in solar cells. For the better p layer, wide optical bandgap, and high electrical conductivity should be obtained from the effective method. We prepared the boron-doped a-SiC:H thin films using inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) method and characteristics on the small-area (2 cm x 2 cm) as well as the large-area films (diameter of 100 mm) were shown on it. As a substrate, the n-type (100) oriented CZ c-Si (5.5 approximately 6.5 omega x cm, 650 microm) wafers were used and cleaned by using the reduced RCA method. A silane (SiH4) of 99.999% purity, H2 and 60% hydrogen diluted ethylene (C2H4) was used as source gas for the deposition of intrinsic a-SiC:H films, and then diborane (B2H6), as the doping gas, is added to C2H4 and SiH4/H2 during the deposition of films. The uniformity of thickness and optical bandgap from large-area as-dep. films was at 1.8% and 0.3%, respectively. Heterojunction solar cell with 2 wt%-AZO/p-a-SiC:H/i-a-Si:H/c-Si/Ag structure was fabricated and characterized with diameter of 152.3 mm in this large-area ICP-CVD system. Conversion efficiency of 9.123% was achieved with a practical area of 100 mm x 100 mm, which can show the potentials to the fabrication of the large-area solar cell using ICP-CVD method.

  2. Stable a-Si:H Based Multijunction Solar Cells with Guidance from Real Time Optics: Annual Report, Phase I: 17 July 1998-16 October 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Wronski, C.R.; Collins, R.W.; Jiao, L.

    2000-08-29

    This summary describes tasks of novel improved intrinsic materials for multijunction solar cells, insights into improved stability in materials and solar cells, optimization of solar cell performance with improved intrinsic layers, and optimization of multijunction solar cells. The report characterizes a protocrystalline a-Si:H film growth regime where thin samples retain their amorphous state when their growth time or thickness is limited to small values, even when films are deposited with high hydrogen dilution that results in microcrystalline thick films. The Staebler-Wronski degradation kinetics of films and devices are systematically studied as a function of hydrogen dilution.

  3. The effects of a SiO2 coating on the corrosion parameters cpTi and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy

    PubMed Central

    Basiaga, Marcin; Walke, Witold; Paszenda, Zbigniew; Karasiński, Paweł; Szewczenko, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the usefulness of the sol-gel method application, to modificate the surface of the Ti6Al7Nb alloy and the cpTi titanium (Grade 4) with SiO2 oxide, applied on the vascular implants to improve their hemocompatibility. Mechanical treatment was followed by film deposition on surface of the titanium samples. An appropriate selection of the process parameters was verified in the studies of corrosion, using potentiodynamic and impedance method. A test was conducted in the solution simulating blood vessels environment, in simulated body fluid at t = 37.0 ± 1 °C and pH = 7.0 ± 0.2. Results showed varied electrochemical properties of the SiO2 film, depending on its deposition parameters. Correlations between corrosion resistance and layer adhesion to the substrate were observed, depending on annealing temperature. PMID:25482412

  4. Simulation of light-induced degradation of μc-Si in a-Si/μc-Si tandem solar cells by the diode equivalent circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weicht, J. A.; Hamelmann, F. U.; Behrens, G.

    2016-02-01

    Silicon-based thin film tandem solar cells consist of one amorphous (a-Si) and one microcrystalline (μc-Si) silicon solar cell. The Staebler - Wronski effect describes the light- induced degradation and temperature-dependent healing of defects of silicon-based solar thin film cells. The solar cell degradation depends strongly on operation temperature. Until now, only the light-induced degradation (LID) of the amorphous layer was examined in a-Si/μc-Si solar cells. The LID is also observed in pc-Si single function solar cells. In our work we show the influence of the light-induced degradation of the μc-Si layer on the diode equivalent circuit. The current-voltage-curves (I-V-curves) for the initial state of a-Si/pc-Si modules are measured. Afterwards the cells are degraded under controlled conditions at constant temperature and constant irradiation. At fixed times the modules are measured at standard test conditions (STC) (AM1.5, 25°C cell temperature, 1000 W/m2) for controlling the status of LID. After the degradation the modules are annealed at dark conditions for several hours at 120°C. After the annealing the dangling bonds in the amorphous layer are healed, while the degradation of the pc-Si is still present, because the healing of defects in pc-Si solar cells needs longer time or higher temperatures. The solar cells are measured again at STC. With this laboratory measured I-V-curves we are able to separate the values of the diode model: series Rs and parallel resistance Rp, saturation current Is and diode factor n.

  5. Optoelectrical modeling of solar cells based on c-Si/a-Si:H nanowire arrays: focus on the electrical transport in between the nanowires.

    PubMed

    Levtchenko, Alexandra; LE Gall, Sylvain; Lachaume, Raphael; Michallon, Jerome; Collin, Stephane; Alvarez, Jose; Djebbour, Zakaria; Kleider, Jean Paul

    2018-03-19

    By coupling optical and electrical modeling, we have investigated the photovoltaic performances of p-i-n radial nanowires array based on crystalline p-type silicon (c-Si) core/hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) shell. By varying either the doping concentration of the c-Si core, or back contact work function we can separate and highlight the contribution to the cell's performance of the nanowires themselves (the radial cell) from the interspace between the nanowires (the planar cell). We show that the build-in potential (Vbi) in the radial and planar cells strongly depends on the doping of c-Si core and the work function of the back contact respectively. Consequently, the solar cell's performance is degraded if either the doping concentration of the c-Si core, or/and the work function of the back contact is too low. By inserting a thin (p) a-Si:H layer between both core/absorber and back contact/absorber, the performance of the solar cell can be improved by partly fixing the Vbi at both interfaces due to strong electrostatic screening effect. Depositing such a buffer layer playing the role of an electrostatic screen for charge carriers is a suggested way of enhancing the performance of solar cells based on radial p-i-n or n-i-p nanowire array. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Highly conducting and wide band gap phosphorous doped nc-Si–QD/a-SiC films as n-type window layers for solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Debjit; Das, Debajyoti, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in

    2016-05-23

    Nano-crystalline silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) embedded in the phosphorous doped amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) matrix has been successfully prepared at a low temperature (300 °C) by inductively coupled plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) system from (SiH{sub 4} + CH{sub 4})-plasma with PH{sub 3} as the doping gas. The effect of PH{sub 3} flow rate on structural, optical and electrical properties of the films has been studied. Phosphorous doped nc-Si–QD/a-SiC films with high optical band gap (>1.9 eV) and superior conductivity (~10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1}) are obtained, which could be appropriately used as n-type window layers for nc-Si solarmore » cells in n-i-p configuration.« less

  7. Highly conducting and wide band gap phosphorous doped nc-Si-QD/a-SiC films as n-type window layers for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Debjit; Das, Debajyoti

    2016-05-01

    Nano-crystalline silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) embedded in the phosphorous doped amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) matrix has been successfully prepared at a low temperature (300 °C) by inductively coupled plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) system from (SiH4 + CH4)-plasma with PH3 as the doping gas. The effect of PH3 flow rate on structural, optical and electrical properties of the films has been studied. Phosphorous doped nc-Si-QD/a-SiC films with high optical band gap (>1.9 eV) and superior conductivity (~10-2 S cm-1) are obtained, which could be appropriately used as n-type window layers for nc-Si solar cells in n-i-p configuration.

  8. In vitro biocorrosion of Co-Cr-Mo implant alloy by macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Yi; Bumgardner, Joel D

    2004-11-01

    We hypothesized that macrophage cells and their released reactive chemical species (RCS) affect Co-Cr-Mo alloy's corrosion properties and that alloy corrosion products change macrophage cell behavior. A custom cell culture corrosion cell was used to evaluate how culture medium, cells, and RCS altered alloy corrosion in 3-day tests. Corrosion was evaluated by measuring total charge transfer at a constant potential using a potentiostat and metal ion release by atomic emission spectroscopy. Viability, proliferation, and NO (nitric oxide) and IL-1beta (interlukin-1beta) release were used to assess cellular response to alloy corrosion products. In the presence of activated cells, total charge transfers and Co ion release were the lowest (p < 0.05). This was attributed to an enhancement of the surface oxide by RCS. Cr and Mo release were not different between cells and activated cells. Low levels of metal ions did not affect cell viability, proliferation, or NO release, though IL-1beta released from the activated cells was higher on the alloy compared to the controls. These data support the hypothesis that macrophage cells and their RCS affect alloy corrosion. Changes in alloy corrosion by cells may be important to the development of host responses to the alloy and its corrosion products.

  9. Enhancement of a-Si:H solar cell efficiency by Y2O3 : Yb3+, Er3+ near infrared spectral upconverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markose, Kurias K.; Anjana, R.; Subha, P. P.; Antony, Aldrin; Jayaraj, M. K.

    2016-09-01

    The optical properties of Yb3+/Er3+ doped Y2O3 upconversion phosphor and the enhancement of efficiency of a-Si:H solar cell on incorporation of upconverter are investigated. The Y2O3 host material has high corrosion resistance, thermal stability, chemical stability, low toxicity and relatively low phonon energy (≈ 500 cm-1). Y2O3:Yb3+ (x %): Er3+ (y %) upconversion nanophosphors with different dopant concentrations were synthesized via simple hydrothermal method followed by a heat treatment at 1200°C for 12 hrs. Highly crystalline, quasi-spherical, body centered cubic Y2O3 structure was obtained. The structure, phase and morphology of the nanocrystals were determined using x-ray diffraction and SEM. Following pumping at 980 nm two dominant emission bands were observed at about 550 nm(green) and 660 nm(red), corresponding to 2H11/2, 4S3/2 -> 4I15/2 and 4F9/2 -> 4I15/2 transitions respectively. The dependence of emission intensity on pump power shows that the mechanism involved is two photon absorption. The upconversion phosphor along with a binder is coupled behind the a-Si:H solar cell which absorbs transmitted sub-band-gap photons and emits back the upconverted visible light which can be absorbed by the solar cell. Under suitable intensity of illumination the solar cell short circuit current is found to be increased on adding the upconversion layer.

  10. Analysis of poly-Si thin film p^+-n-n+ homojunction solar cell and heterojunction solar cell with and without a thin μc-Si layer at the interface of a-Si and poly-Si layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letha, A. J.; Hwang, H. L.

    2009-05-01

    In this study, new possibilities for higher efficiency poly-Si thin film solar cells are investigated using MEDICI^TM device simulator. The poly-Si p^+-n-n+ thin film solar cell with a thin a-Si p+ layer is found to have higher efficiency than the homojunction p^+-n-n+ cell. Further improvement in efficiency of the heterojunction p^+-n-n+ cell is achieved by introducing a thin μc-Si layer at the interface of a-Si emitter and poly-Si absorber layers. The μc-Si layer at the interface is found to reduce the recombination losses at the interface and improved the fill factor and efficiency of the cell. The photovoltaic parameters of the cell and the absorber layer thickness for optimum efficiency are highly influenced by grain size and passivation at the grain boundary.

  11. Effect of a wide band gap emitter layer and its patterning on the performance of a-Si:H based heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, P.

    1994-12-31

    Simulation of carrier transport in heterojunction p-i-n structure solar cells has been used to study the effect of a wide band gap p-layer and its contact barrier height (CBH) on cell performance. The authors find that the recombination loss at the front contact is small when the emitter layer has a wider band gap. Thus the short circuit current in these structures is high and practically independent of CBH. However, if CHB is held constant, the effect of increasing the p-layer band gap is actually to depress the open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}). The performance of heterojunction cells deposited onmore » ITO can then only be explained by assuming a larger CHB. A novel patterning of the p-a-Si-C:H layer has been explored and found to increase V{sub oc} by 0.1 volts and the efficiency by over 10%.« less

  12. The Release of Elements from Dental Casting Alloy into Cell-Culture Medium and Artificial Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Can, Gülşen; Akpınar, Gül; Aydın, Ahmet

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The biocompatibility of dental casting alloys is a critical issue because these alloys are in long-term intimate contact with oral tissues. Since the biocompatibility of alloys is not completely known; the release of elements from the alloys has been studied. The aim of this study was to compare the elemental release from dental casting alloy during exposure to artificial saliva and cell-culture medium. Materials and Methods Twenty specimens made from Ni-Cr alloy were provided in the form of 5 mm diameter discs, 2 mm in thickness with a 7 mm stem attached to one face to facilitate handling. Ten of twenty samples were polished separately using a conventional technique. The remaining ten samples were left sandblasted with 50 μm Al203. Ten samples (5 polished, 5 sandblasted) were separately placed into cell-culture wells with Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium. The other ten samples were placed separately into cell-culture wells with artificial saliva. The samples were subjected in contact with these medium for 30 days. These medium were collected every 7 days. The cell-culture medium and artificial saliva without alloy samples were subjected to elemental analyses as a control. At the end of the exposure time, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) was used to determine the release of elements from the alloys into all collected medium. Statistical analyses were assessed with two-way ANOVA. Results In general, the elemental release occurred with in all medium. The elemental releases of sandblasted alloys were higher than polished alloys. Artificial saliva was found to cause more release from the samples. In both media, Ni released from polished and sandblasted alloys were higher than Cr and Mo. Conlusions The results suggest that the release of elements from the alloys might have correlated with the environments and the surface of dental alloy. PMID:19212482

  13. Improved cell design for lithium alloy/metal sulfide battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1984-03-30

    The disclosed lithium alloy/iron sulfide cell design provides loop-like positive and negative sheet metal current collectors electrically insulated from one another by separator means, the positive collector being located outwardly of the negative collector. The collectors are initially secured within an open-ended cell housing, which allows for collector pretesting for electrical shorts prior to adding any electrode materials and/or electrolyte to the cell. Separate chambers are defined outwardly of the positive collector and inwardly of the negative collector open respectively in opposite directions toward the open ends of the cell housing; and positive and negative electrode materials can be extruded into these respective chambers via the opposite open housing ends. The chambers and cell housing ends can then be sealed closed. A cross wall structurally reinforces the cell housing and also thereby defines two cavities, and paired positive and negative collectors are disposed in each cavity and electrically connected in parallel. The cell design provides for a high specific energy output and improved operating life in that any charge-discharge cycle swelling of the positive electrode material will be inwardly against only the positive collector to minimize shorts caused by the collectors shifting relative to one another.

  14. Cell design for lithium alloy/metal sulfide battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosed lithium alloy/iron sulfide cell design provides loop-like positive and negative sheet metal current collectors electrically insulated from one another by separator means, the positive collector being located outwardly of the negative collector. The collectors are initially secured within an open-ended cell housing, which allows for collector pretesting for electrical shorts prior to adding any electrode materials and/or electrolyte to the cell. Separate chambers are defined outwardly of the positive collector and inwardly of the negative collector open respectively in opposite directions toward the open ends of the cell housing; and positive and negative electrode materials can be extruded into these respective chambers via the opposite open housing ends. The chambers and cell housing ends can then be sealed closed. A cross wall structurally reinforces the cell housing and also thereby defines two cavities, and paired positive and negative collectors are disposed in each cavity and electrically connected in parallel. The cell design provides for a high specific energy output and improved operating life in that any charge-discharge cycle swelling of the positive electrode material will be inwardly against only the positive collector to minimize shorts caused by the collectors shifting relative to one another.

  15. Development of aluminum-doped ZnO films for a-Si:H/μc-Si:H solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhifang, Lei; Guangyu, Chen; Shibin, Gu; Lingling, Dai; Rong, Yang; Yuan, Meng; Ted, Guo; Liwei, Li

    2013-06-01

    This study deals with the optimization of direct current (DC) sputtered aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films and their incorporation into a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem junction thin film solar cells aiming for high conversion efficiency. Electrical and optical properties of AZO films, i.e. mobility, carrier density, resistivity, and transmittance, were comprehensively characterized and analyzed by varying sputtering deposition conditions, including chamber pressure, substrate temperature, and sputtering power. The correlations between sputtering processes and AZO thin film properties were first investigated. Then, the AZO films were textured by diluted hydrochloric acid wet etching. Through optimization of deposition and texturing processes, AZO films yield excellent electrical and optical properties with a high transmittance above 81% over the 380-1100 nm wavelength range, low sheet resistance of 11 Ω/□ and high haze ratio of 41.3%. In preliminary experiments, the AZO films were applied to a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem thin film solar cells as front contact electrodes, resulting in an initial conversion efficiency of 12.5% with good current matching between subcells.

  16. Light trapping in a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cells by embedded ITO nanoparticles at rear surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Sukanta; Mandal, Sourav; Mitra, Suchismita; Ghosh, Hemanta; Mukherjee, Sampad; Banerjee, Chandan; Saha, Hiranmoy; Barua, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    The advantages of the amorphous silicon (a-Si)/crystalline silicon (c-Si) hetero junction technology are low temperature (<200 °C) processing and fewer process steps to fabricate the device. In this work, we used indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles embedded in amorphous silicon material at the rear side of the crystalline wafer. The nanoparticles were embedded in silicon to have higher scattering efficiency, as has been established by simulation studies. It has been shown that significant photocurrent enhancements (32.8 mA cm‑2 to 35.1 mA cm‑2) are achieved because of high scattering and coupling efficiency of the embedded nanoparticles into the silicon device, leading to an increase in efficiency from 13.74% to 15.22%. In addition, we have observed a small increase in open circuit voltage. This may be due to the surface passivation during the ITO nanoparticle formation with hydrogen plasma treatment. We also support our experimental results by simulation, with the help of a commercial finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) software solution.

  17. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Studies of Thin Film a-Si:H/nc-Si:H Micromorph Solar Cell Fabrication in the p-i-n Superstrate Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiquan

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is a non-invasive optical probe that is capable of accurately and precisely measuring the structure of thin films, such as their thicknesses and void volume fractions, and in addition their optical properties, typically defined by the index of refraction and extinction coefficient spectra. Because multichannel detection systems integrated into SE instrumentation have been available for some time now, the data acquisition time possible for complete SE spectra has been reduced significantly. As a result, real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) has become feasible for monitoring thin film nucleation and growth during the deposition of thin films as well as during their removal in processes of thin film etching. Also because of the reduced acquisition time, mapping SE is possible by mounting an SE instrument with a multichannel detector onto a mechanical translation stage. Such an SE system is capable of mapping the thin film structure and its optical properties over the substrate area, and thereby evaluating the spatial uniformity of the component layers. In thin film photovoltaics, such structural and optical property measurements mapped over the substrate area can be applied to guide device optimization by correlating small area device performance with the associated local properties. In this thesis, a detailed ex-situ SE study of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films and solar cells prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) has been presented. An SE analysis procedure with step-by-step error minimization has been applied to obtain accurate measures of the structural and optical properties of the component layers of the solar cells. Growth evolution diagrams were developed as functions of the deposition parameters in PECVD for both p-type and n-type layers to characterize the regimes of accumulated thickness over which a-Si:H, hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) and mixed phase (a

  18. Lithium alloy-thionyl chloride cells - Performance and safety aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peled, E.; Lombardi, A.; Schlaikjer, C. R.

    1983-06-01

    It is pointed out that the lithium-thionyl chloride cell has the highest energy density among all the commercially available batteries. The low rate, AA-bobbin cathode cell has been in the marketplace for several years, while the wound or spiral electrode cell is still in the stage of development. The main reason for this are safety problems. These problems are related to the very high reactivity of lithium toward thionyl chloride and the rather low melting point of lithium (180.5 C). The practical stability of the system depends on an LiCl-passivating layer which forms spontaneously on the immersion of the lithium in the electrolyte. This layer serves as a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). Under certain extreme conditions, however, the SEI can be damaged in such a way that an explosion of the cell occurs. The present investigation is concerned with the reduction of the short-circuit current and the improvement of the safety performance of the cell by the use of special, treated lithium alloys.

  19. Imaging lysosomal highly reactive oxygen species and lighting up cancer cells and tumors enabled by a Si-rhodamine-based near-infrared fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxing; Liu, Jing; Liu, Chenlu; Yu, Pengcheng; Sun, Minjia; Yan, Xiaohan; Guo, Jian-Ping; Guo, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Lysosomes have recently been regarded as the attractive pharmacological targets for selectively killing of cancer cells via lysosomal cell death (LCD) pathway that is closely associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the details on the ROS-induced LCD of cancer cells are still poorly understood, partially due to the absence of a lysosome-targetable, robust, and biocompatible imaging tool for ROS. In this work, we brought forward a Si-rhodamine-based fluorescent probe, named PSiR, which could selectively and sensitively image the pathologically more relavent highly reactive oxygen species (hROS: HClO, HO, and ONOO - ) in lysosomes of cancer cells. Compared with many of the existing hROS fluorescent probes, its superiorities are mainly embodied in the high stability against autoxidation and photoxidation, near-infrared exitation and emission, fast fluorescence off-on response, and specific lysosomal localization. Its practicality has been demonstrated by the real-time imaging of hROS generation in lysosomes of human non-small-cell lung cancer cells stimulated by anticancer drug β-lapachone. Moreover, the probe was sensitive enough for basal hROS in cancer cells, allowing its further imaging applications to discriminate not only cancer cells from normal cells, but also tumors from healthy tissues. Overall, our results strongly indicated that PSiR is a very promising imaging tool for the studies of ROS-related LCD of cancer cells, screening of new anticancer drugs, and early diagnosis of cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of the Staebler-Wronski degradation effect in a-Si:H based p-i-n solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naseem, H. A.; Brown, W. D.; Ang, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    Conversion of solar energy into electricity using environmentally safe and clean photovoltaic methods to supplement the ever increasing energy needs has been a cherished goal of many scientists and engineers around the world. Photovoltaic solar cells on the other hand, have been the power source for satellites ever since their introduction in the early sixties. For widespread terrestrial applications, however, the cost of photovoltaic systems must be reduced considerably. Much progress has been made in the recent past towards developing economically viable terrestrial systems, and the future looks highly promising. Thin film solar cells offer cost reductions mainly from their low processing cost, low material cost, and choice of low cost substrates. These are also very attractive for space applications because of their high power densities (power produced per kilogram of solar cell pay load) and high radiation resistance. Amorphous silicon based solar cells are amongst the top candidates for economically viable terrestrial and space based power generation. Despite very low federal funding during the eighties, amorphous silicon solar cell efficiencies have continually been improved - from a low 3 percent to over 13 percent now. Further improvements have been made by the use of multi-junction tandem solar cells. Efficiencies close to 15 percent have been achieved in several labs. In order to be competitive with fossil fuel generated electricity, it is believed that module efficiency of 15 percent or cell efficiency of 20 percent is required. Thus, further improvements in cell performance is imperative. One major problem that was discovered almost 15 years ago in amorphous silicon devices is the well known Staebler-Wronski Effect. Efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells was found to degrade upon exposure to sunlight. Until now their is no consensus among the scientists on the mechanism for this degradation. Efficiency may degrade anywhere from 10 percent to almost

  1. Textured, doped, ZnO thin films produced by a new process for a-Si and CIGS solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S. Y.; Sahoo, L.; Sosale, G.; Delahoy, A. E.

    2007-09-01

    The properties of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) used as a front electrode for thin-film solar cells and modules play a major role in determining the maximum attainable conversion efficiency. Doped ZnO is an important TCO that is widely used in amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon (a-Si/nc-Si) and CIGS thin-film solar cells. In the case of a-Si/nc-Si cells, the ZnO thin film should be textured to promote light trapping to increase the short-circuit current density J sc. In this work, textured, aluminum-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) thin films have been directly deposited by a sputtering-based method and without the need for post-deposition etching. The morphology, optical properties and electrical properties of the films have been studied. SEM micrographs show that feature sizes around 0.2 - 0.4μm have been achieved at a film thickness of 1μm, and that the morphology can be controlled by the deposition conditions. AFM images were analyzed to extract a set of topographic parameters (amplitude, spatial, and hybrid). The optical transmission, haze, and angle-resolved light scattering of the textured ZnO:Al films were measured and compared to properties of commercially-available textured SnO II:F thin films on glass. Higher haze and reduced absorption could be obtained with the textured ZnO:Al films. Hall effect measurements on these films yielded a carrier concentration and mobility of 2.75 x 10 20cm -3 and 24.1cm2/Vs, respectively. We also report that the use of these textured ZnO:Al films as the top TCO for CIGS solar cells results in reduced cell reflectance and increased J sc. The novel deposition method provides a potential pathway to large area and cost effective production of a textured ZnO TCO for thin-film PV manufacturing operations.

  2. Solar Water Splitting Utilizing a SiC Photocathode, a BiVO4 Photoanode, and a Perovskite Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Akihide; Kudo, Akihiko; Numata, Youhei; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu; Ichikawa, Naoto; Kato, Masashi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Inoue, Haruo; Ishitani, Osamu; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2017-11-23

    We have successfully demonstrated solar water splitting using a newly fabricated photoelectrochemical system with a Pt-loaded SiC photocathode, a CoO x -loaded BiVO 4 photoanode, and a perovskite solar cell. Detection of the evolved H 2 and O 2 with a 100 % Faradaic efficiency indicates that the observed photocurrent was used for water splitting. The solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiency was 0.55 % under no additional bias conditions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Growth of KOH etched AZO nanorods and investigation of its back scattering effect in thin film a-Si solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Jayasree Roy; Mitra, Suchismita; Ghosh, Hemanta; Das, Gourab; Bose, Sukanta; Mandal, Sourav; Mukhopadhyay, Sumita; Saha, Hiranmay; Barua, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    In order to increase the stabilized efficiencies of thin film silicon (TFS) solar cells it is necessary to use better light management techniques. Texturization by etching of sputtered aluminum doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO or AZO) films has opened up a variety of promises to optimize light trapping schemes. RF sputtered AZO film has been etched by potassium hydroxide (KOH). A systematic study of etching conditions such as etchant concentration, etching time, temperature management etc. have been performed in search of improved electrical and optical performances of the films. The change in etching conditions has exhibited a noticeable effect on the structure of AZO films for which the light trapping effect differs. After optimizing the etching conditions, nanorods have been found on the substrate. Hence, nanorods have been developed only by chemical etching, rather than the conventional development method (hydrothermal method, sol-gel method, electrolysis method etc.). The optimized etched substrate has 82% transmittance, moderate haze in the visible range and sheet resistance ∼13 (Ω/□). The developed nanorods (optimized etched substrate) provide better light trapping within the cell as the optical path length has been increased by using the nanorods. This provides an effect on carrier collection as well as the efficiency in a-Si solar cells. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations have been performed to observe the light trapping by AZO nanorods formed on sputtered AZO films. For a p-i-n solar cell developed on AZO nanorods coated with sputtered AZO films, it has been found through simulations that, the incident light is back scattered into the absorbing layer, leading to an increase in photogenerated current and hence higher efficiency. It has been found that, the light that passes through the nanorods is not getting absorbed and maximum amount of light is back scattered towards the solar cell.

  4. Alloy catalysts for fuel cell-based alcohol sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghavidel, Mohammadreza Zamanzad

    Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are attractive from both economic and environmental standpoints for generating renewable energy and powering vehicles and portable electronic devices. There is a great interest recently in developing DEFC systems. The cost and performance of the DEFCs are mainly controlled by the Pt-base catalysts used at each electrode. In addition to energy conversion, DEFC technology is commonly employed in the fuel-cell based breath alcohol sensors (BrAS). BrAS is a device commonly used to measure blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and enforce drinking and driving laws. The BrAS is non-invasive and has a fast respond time. However, one of the most important drawback of the commercially available BrAS is the very high loading of Pt employed. One well-known and cost effective method to reduce the Pt loading is developing Pt-alloy catalysts. Recent studies have shown that Pt-transition metal alloy catalysts enhanced the electroactivity while decreasing the required loadings of the Pt catalysts. In this thesis, carbon supported Pt-Mn and Pt-Cu electrocatalysts were synthesized by different methods and the effects of heat treatment and structural modification on the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and durability of these samples were thoroughly studied. Finally, the selected Pt-Mn and Pt-Cu samples with the highest EOR activity were examined in a prototype BrAS system and compared to the Pt/C and Pt 3Sn/C commercial electrocatalysts. Studies on the Pt-Mn catalysts produced with and without additives indicate that adding trisodium citrate (SC) to the impregnation solution improved the particle dispersion, decreased particle sizes and reduced the time required for heat treatment. Further studies show that the optimum weight ratio of SC to the metal loading in the impregnation solution was 2:1 and optimum results achieved at pH lower than 4. In addition, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate

  5. Protective nitride formation on stainless steel alloys for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B.; Brady, M. P.; Wang, H.

    2007-09-07

    Gas nitridation has shown excellent promise to form dense, electrically conductive and corrosion-resistant Cr-nitride surface layers on Ni–Cr base alloys for use as proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) bipolar plates. Due to the high cost of nickel, Fe-base bipolar plate alloys are needed to meet the cost targets for many PEMFC applications. Unfortunately, nitridation of Fe-base stainless steel alloys typically leads to internal Cr-nitride precipitation rather than the desired protective surface nitride layer formation, due to the high permeability of nitrogen in these alloys. This paper reports the finding that it is possible to form a continuous, protective Cr-nitridemore » (CrN and Cr2N) surface layer through nitridation of Fe-base stainless steel alloys. The key to form a protective Cr-nitride surface layer was found to be the initial formation of oxide during nitridation, which prevented the internal nitridation typically observed for these alloys, and resulted in external Cr-nitride layer formation. The addition of V to the alloy, which resulted in the initial formation of V2O3–Cr2O3, was found to enhance this effect, by making the initially formed oxide more amenable to subsequent nitridation. The Cr-nitride surface layer formed on model V-modified Fe–27Cr alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and low interfacial contact resistance under simulated PEMFC bipolar plate conditions.« less

  6. Cytotoxicity assessment of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on synthesized biodegradable Mg-Zn-Ca alloys.

    PubMed

    Fazel Anvari-Yazdi, Abbas; Tahermanesh, Kobra; Hadavi, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Razmkhah, Mahboobeh; Abed, Seyedeh Mehr; Mohtasebi, Maryam Sadat

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-based alloys have been extensively considered as biodegradable implant materials for orthopedic surgery. Mg and its alloys are metallic biomaterials that can degrade in the body and promote new bone formation. In this study, the corrosion behavior and cytotoxicity of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys are evaluated with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). Mg-2Zn and Mg-2Zn-xCa (x=1, 2 and 3wt.%) alloys were designated. Mg alloys were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and potentiodynamic polarization. To understand the in-vitro biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of Mg-2Zn and Mg-2Zn-xCa alloys, ASCs were cultured for 24 and 72h in contact with 10%, 50% and 100% extraction of all alloys prepared in DMEM. Cell cytotoxicity and viability of ASCs were examined by MTT assay. Alloying elements including Zn and Ca improved the corrosion resistance of alloys were compared with pure Mg. The cytotoxicity results showed that all alloys had no significant adverse effects on cell viability in 24h. After 72h, cell viability and proliferation increased in the cells exposed to pure Mg and Mg-2Zn-1Ca extracts. The release of Mg, Zn and Ca ions in culture media had no toxic impacts on ASCs viability and proliferation. Mg-2Zn-1Ca alloy can be suggested as a good candidate to be used in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Osteoblast Cell Response on the Ti6Al4V Alloy Heat-Treated.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Díaz, Mercedes Paulina; Escudero-Rincón, María Lorenza; Arce-Estrada, Elsa Miriam; Cabrera-Sierra, Román

    2017-04-23

    In an effort to examine the effect of the microstructural changes of the Ti6Al4V alloy, two heat treatments were carried out below (Ti6Al4V 800 ) and above (Ti6Al4V 1050 ) its β-phase transformation temperature. After each treatment, globular and lamellar microstructures were obtained. Saos-2 pre-osteoblast human osteosarcoma cells were seeded onto Ti6Al4V alloy disks and immersed in cell culture for 7 days. Electrochemical assays in situ were performed using OCP and EIS measurements. Impedance data show a passive behavior for the three Ti6Al4V alloys; additionally, enhanced impedance values were recorded for Ti6Al4V 800 and Ti6Al4V 1050 alloys. This passive behavior in culture medium is mostly due to the formation of TiO₂ during their sterilization. Biocompatibility and cell adhesion were characterized using the SEM technique; Ti6Al4V as received and Ti6Al4V 800 alloys exhibited polygonal and elongated morphology, whereas Ti6Al4V 1050 alloy displayed a spherical morphology. Ti and O elements were identified by EDX analysis due to the TiO₂ and signals of C, N and O, related to the formation of organic compounds from extracellular matrix. These results suggest that cell adhesion is more likely to occur on TiO₂ formed in discrete α-phase regions (hcp) depending on its microstructure (grains).

  8. Osteoblast Cell Response on the Ti6Al4V Alloy Heat-Treated

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Díaz, Mercedes Paulina; Escudero-Rincón, María Lorenza; Arce-Estrada, Elsa Miriam; Cabrera-Sierra, Román

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to examine the effect of the microstructural changes of the Ti6Al4V alloy, two heat treatments were carried out below (Ti6Al4V800) and above (Ti6Al4V1050) its β-phase transformation temperature. After each treatment, globular and lamellar microstructures were obtained. Saos-2 pre-osteoblast human osteosarcoma cells were seeded onto Ti6Al4V alloy disks and immersed in cell culture for 7 days. Electrochemical assays in situ were performed using OCP and EIS measurements. Impedance data show a passive behavior for the three Ti6Al4V alloys; additionally, enhanced impedance values were recorded for Ti6Al4V800 and Ti6Al4V1050 alloys. This passive behavior in culture medium is mostly due to the formation of TiO2 during their sterilization. Biocompatibility and cell adhesion were characterized using the SEM technique; Ti6Al4V as received and Ti6Al4V800 alloys exhibited polygonal and elongated morphology, whereas Ti6Al4V1050 alloy displayed a spherical morphology. Ti and O elements were identified by EDX analysis due to the TiO2 and signals of C, N and O, related to the formation of organic compounds from extracellular matrix. These results suggest that cell adhesion is more likely to occur on TiO2 formed in discrete α-phase regions (hcp) depending on its microstructure (grains). PMID:28772804

  9. In vitro adhesion of fibroblastic cells to titanium alloy discs treated with sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Al Mustafa, Maisa; Agis, Hermann; Müller, Heinz-Dieter; Watzek, Georg; Gruber, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion of osteogenic cells on titanium surfaces is a prerequisite for osseointegration. Alkali treatment can increase the hydrophilicity of titanium implant surfaces, thereby supporting the adhesion of blood components. However, it is unclear if alkali treatment also supports the adhesion of cells with a fibroblastic morphology to titanium. Here, we have used a titanium alloy (Ti-6AL-4V) processed by alkali treatment to demonstrate the impact of hydrophilicity on the adhesion of primary human gingival fibroblast and bone cells. Also included were the osteosarcoma and fibroblastoma cell lines, MG63 and L929, respectively. Cell adhesion was determined by scanning electron microscopy. We also measured viability, proliferation, and protein synthesis of the adherent cells. Alkali treatment increased the adhesion of gingival fibroblasts, bone cells, and the two cell lines when seeded onto the titanium alloy surface for 1 h. At 3 h, no significant changes in cell adhesion were observed. Cells grown for 1 day on the titanium alloy surfaces processed by alkali treatment behave similarly to untreated controls with regard to viability, proliferation, and protein synthesis. Based on these preliminary In vitro findings, we conclude that alkali treatment can support the early adhesion of cells with fibroblastic characteristics to a titanium alloy surface. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Measured and Simulated Dark J-V Characteristics of a-Si:H Single Junction p-i-n Solar Cells Irradiated with 40 keV Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Kenneth; Woodyard, James R.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of 40 keV electron irradiation on a-Si:H p-i-n single-junction solar cells was investigated using measured and simulated dark J-V characteristics. EPRI-AMPS and PC-1D simulators were explored for use in the studies. The EPRI-AMPS simulator was employed and simulator parameters selected to produce agreement with measured J-V characteristics. Three current mechanisms were evident in the measured dark J-V characteristics after electron irradiation, namely, injection, shunting and a term of the form CV(sup m). Using a single discrete defect state level at the center of the band gap, good agreement was achieved between measured and simulated J-V characteristics in the forward-bias voltage region where the dark current density was dominated by injection. The current mechanism of the form CV(sup m) was removed by annealing for two hours at 140 C. Subsequent irradiation restored the CV(sup m) current mechanism and it was removed by a second anneal. Some evidence of the CV(sup m) term is present in device simulations with a higher level of discrete density of states located at the center of the bandgap.

  11. Cytokine release by osteoblast-like cells cultured on implant discs of varying alloy compositions.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, Pericles; Papaioannou, Stelios; Hampson, Geeta; Brady, Ken; Palmer, Richard M; McDonald, Fraser

    2002-12-01

    The aims of this study were (i). to assess the morphological features of osteo-blast-like, osteosarcoma cells (cell line SaOS-2) cultured on implant surfaces of varying alloys and (ii). to evaluate the biological activity of these cells, following their adhesion onto these surfaces. SaOS-2 cells (6 x 104) were grown on titanium discs (diameter 30 mm), each with a surface of differing composition and roughness (commercially pure titanium, titanium-aluminium-vanadium alloy, oxide-blasted titanium and Astra-Tech special treatment titanium; the alloys are directly comparable with those used to construct implants). The cells were grown for time periods of 1, 3, 5 and 7 days, the media were collected and the cells were fixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. The media were then assayed (using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay) for the levels of interleukin (IL)-1, interleukin-6, interleukin-18 and osteoprotegerin (OPG) produced by the cells. The discs, with the cells fixed on them, were viewed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM, x 2.0 k) to evaluate cell morphology. Following attachment, the cells changed their morphology and released local factors known to activate osteoclasts. Commercially pure titanium stimulated the cells the most and titanium-aluminium-vanadium alloy the least. All implant materials stimulated production of IL-1, IL-6, IL-18 above that produced by cells grown on Petri dishes (polystyrene). The titanium-aluminium-vanadium alloy allowed cell attachment but levels of IL-1 in this medium were significantly lower (31.5 +/- 5.2 pg/ml on same day) than cultures with pure titanium (201.8 +/- 11.5 pg/ml at day 5). The same pattern was observed with the IL-6, IL-18, and OPG with polystyrene appearing to stimulate most production of OPG. Titanium-aluminium-vanadium produced the least biological response.

  12. CDTE alloys and their application for increasing solar cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Drew E.

    -ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were performed to characterize these cells. Voltage improvements on the order of 50 mV are presented at a thin (1 ?m) CdTe absorber condition. However an overall reduction in fill factor (FF) is seen, with a strong reduction in FF as the magnesium incorporation is increased. Detailed material characterization shows the formation of oxides at the back of CdMgTe during the passivation process. A CdTe capping layer is added to reduce oxidation and help maintain the uniformity of the CdMgTe layer. A tellurium back contact is also added in place of a carbon paint back contact, reducing the impact of the valance band offset (VBO) from the CMT. With the addition of the capping layer and tellurium back contact a consistent 50 mV increase is seen with improved FF. However this voltage increase is well below modeled Voc increases of 150 mV. CMT double hetero-structures are manufactured and analyzed to estimate the interface recombination at the CdTe/CMT interface. The CdTe/CMT interface is approximated at 2*105 cm s-1 and modeling is referenced predicting significant reduction in performance based on this interface quality. To improve interface quality by removing the need for a vacuum break, the deposition hardware is incorporated into the primary deposition system. Second, CdTe has a somewhat higher band gap than optimal for single-junction terrestrial solar-cell power generation. A reduction in the band gap could therefore result in an overall improvement in performance. To reduce the band gap, selenium was alloyed with CdTe using a novel co-sublimation extension of the close-space-sublimation process. Co-sublimated layers of CdSeTe with various selenium concentrations were characterized for optical absorption and atomic concentrations, as well as to track changes in their morphology and crystallinity. The lower band-gap CdSeTe films were then incorporated into the front of CdTe cells. This two-layer band

  13. Iron-based alloy and nitridation treatment for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Yang, Bing [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-09

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive component that can be used as a bipolar plate in a PEM fuel cell application is composed of an alloy substrate which has 10-30 wt. % Cr, 0.5 to 7 wt. % V, and base metal being Fe, and a continuous surface layer of chromium nitride and vanadium nitride essentially free of base metal. A oxide layer of chromium vanadium oxide can be disposed between the alloy substrate and the continuous surface nitride layer. A method to prepare the corrosion resistant electrically conductive component involves a two-step nitridization sequence by exposing the alloy to a oxygen containing gas at an elevated temperature, and subsequently exposing the alloy to an oxygen free nitrogen containing gas at an elevated temperature to yield a component where a continuous chromium nitride layer free of iron has formed at the surface.

  14. Biomineralisation with Saos-2 bone cells on TiSiN sputtered Ti alloys.

    PubMed

    V V, Anusha Thampi; Bendavid, Avi; Martin, P J; Vaithilingam, Vijay; Bean, Penelope A; Evans, Margaret D M; Subramanian, B

    2017-07-01

    Surface modifications of metallic implants are important in order to protect the underlying metals from the harsh corrosive environment inside the human body and to minimize the losses caused by wear. Recently, researches are carried out in developing bioactive surfaces on metallic implants, which supports the growth and proliferation of cells on to these surfaces. Titanium silicon nitride (TiSiN) hard nanocomposites thin films were fabricated on Ti alloys (Ti-6Al-4V) by pulsed direct current (DC) reactive magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized for its microstructural and electrochemical behavior. The higher charge transfer resistance (Rct) and positive shift in Ecorr value of TiSiN/Ti alloys than the bare Ti-alloys indicates a better corrosion resistance offered by the TiSiN thin films to the underlying substrates. The biological response to TiSiN/Ti alloys and control bare Ti-alloys was measured in vitro using cell-based assays with two main outcomes. Firstly, neither the Ti alloy nor the TiSiN thin film was cytotoxic to cells. Secondly, the TiSiN thin film promoted differentiation of human bone cells above the bare control Ti alloy as measured by alkaline phosphatase and calcium production. TiSiN thin films provide better corrosion resistance and protect the underlying metal from the corrosive environment. The thin film surface is both biocompatible and bioactive as indicated from the cytotoxicity and biomineralization studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Large-Grain Tin-Rich Perovskite Films for Efficient Solar Cells via Metal Alloying Technique.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Grätzel, Michael; Fan, Zhiyong

    2018-03-01

    Fast research progress on lead halide perovskite solar cells has been achieved in the past a few years. However, the presence of lead (Pb) in perovskite composition as a toxic element still remains a major issue for large-scale deployment. In this work, a novel and facile technique is presented to fabricate tin (Sn)-rich perovskite film using metal precursors and an alloying technique. Herein, the perovskite films are formed as a result of the reaction between Sn/Pb binary alloy metal precursors and methylammonium iodide (MAI) vapor in a chemical vapor deposition process carried out at 185 °C. It is found that in this approach the Pb/Sn precursors are first converted to (Pb/Sn)I 2 and further reaction with MAI vapor leads to the formation of perovskite films. By using Pb-Sn eutectic alloy, perovskite films with large grain sizes up to 5 µm can be grown directly from liquid phase metal. Consequently, using an alloying technique and this unique growth mechanism, a less-toxic and efficient perovskite solar cell with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.04% is demonstrated, while pure Sn and Pb perovskite solar cells prepared in this manner yield PCEs of 4.62% and 14.21%, respectively. It is found that this alloying technique can open up a new direction to further explore different alloy systems (binary or ternary alloys) with even lower melting point. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Sonocatalytic injury of cancer cells attached on the surface of a nickel-titanium dioxide alloy plate.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Maruyama, Hirotaka; Ogino, Chiaki; Takahashi, Kenji; Shimizu, Nobuaki

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates ultrasound-induced cell injury using a nickel-titanium dioxide (Ni-TiO2) alloy plate as a sonocatalyst and a cell culture surface. Ultrasound irradiation of cell-free Ni-TiO2 alloy plates with 1 MHz ultrasound at 0.5 W/cm(2) for 30s led to an increased generation of hydroxyl (OH) radicals compared to nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) control alloy plates with and without ultrasound irradiation. When human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells) cultured on the Ni-TiO2 alloy plates were irradiated with 1 MHz ultrasound at 0.5 W/cm(2) for 30s and then incubated for 48 h, cell density on the alloy plate was reduced to approximately 50% of the controls on the Ni-Ti alloy plates with and without ultrasound irradiation. These results indicate the injury of MCF-7 cells following sonocatalytic OH radical generation by Ni-TiO2. Further experiments demonstrated cell shrinkage and chromatin condensation after ultrasound irradiation of MCF-7 cells attached on the Ni-TiO2 alloy plates, indicating induction of apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biocompatibility of nanoactuators: stem cell growth on laser-generated nickel-titanium shape memory alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcikowski, Stephan; Hahn, Anne; Guggenheim, Merlin; Reimers, Kerstin; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2010-06-01

    Nanoactuators made from nanoparticulate NiTi shape memory alloy show potential in the mechanical stimulation of bone tissue formation from stem cells. We demonstrate the fabrication of Ni, Ti, and NiTi shape memory alloy nanoparticles and their biocompatibility to human adipose-derived stem cells. The stoichiometry and phase transformation property of the bulk alloy is preserved during attrition by femtosecond laser ablation in liquid, giving access to colloidal nanoactuators. No adverse effect on cell growth and attachment is observed in proliferation assay and environmental electron scanning microscopy, making this material attractive for mechanical stimulation of stem cells.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and optimization of platinum-alloy nanoparticle catalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ratndeep

    Renewable hydrogen-fuelled proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) fuel cells have consistently demonstrated great promise as a future source of energy due to their high conversion efficiency, lower temperature of operation and lack of greenhouse emissions. One of the major impediments in the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is the insufficient catalytic reactivity and higher cost of Pt electrocatalysts which are utilized for the electroreduction of oxygen from air. This dissertation focuses primarily on a family of Pt alloy fuel cell electrocatalysts referred to as de-alloyed core-shell electrocatalysts. These materials are bimetallic or multimetallic nanoparticles, mostly supported on conductive supports which were first described in a dissertation by Dr. S. Koh earlier in 2009.1 De-alloyed Pt nanoparticle electrocatalysts are formed from base metal rich binary Pt-M and ternary Pt-M1-M 2 (M, M1, M2 = Cu, Co, Ni, Fe and Cr) alloy nanoparticle precursors. The precursors are transformed and activated by electrochemical selective dissolution of the less noble metal component of the precursors (de-alloying). They have shown exceptional activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in idealized electrochemical half cell measurements, in particular rotating disk electrode experiments. However, these materials were never tested or implemented in realistic Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA) and single PEM fuel cells. The objective of this work was to implement de-alloyed Pt particle catalysts in realistic fuel cell electrode layers as well as a detailed characterization of their behavior and stability. The major challenges of MEA implementation consists of the behavior of the new nanostructured electrocatalysts inside the complex three-phase interface of polymer membrane ionomer, liquid water, metal catalyst, support, and reactant gas. Activity measurements were followed by medium and long-term durability analysis by potential cycling of the membrane

  19. Cytotoxicity of Metal Ions Released from Nitinol Alloys on Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, W.; Munroe, N.; Tek, V.; Gill, P. K. S.; Tang, Y.; McGoron, A. J.

    2011-07-01

    Most implantable medical devices are expected to function in the body over an extended period of time. Therefore, immersion tests under simulated conditions can be useful for assessing the amount of metal ions released in situ. In this investigation, dissolved ions from as-received binary and ternary Nitinol alloys in cell culture media were periodically measured under static and dynamic conditions. Endothelial cells were grown in aliquots of culture media obtained and the effect of dissolved ions on cell proliferation and viability of endothelial cells (HUVEC) was studied by cytotoxicity assays. The concentration of metal ions in the media was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

  20. In vitro biocorrosion of Ti-6Al-4V implant alloy by a mouse macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Yi; Bumgardner, Joel D

    2004-03-15

    Corrosion of implant alloys releasing metal ions has the potential to cause adverse tissue reactions and implant failure. We hypothesized that macrophage cells and their released reactive chemical species (RCS) affect the alloy's corrosion properties. A custom cell culture corrosion box was used to evaluate how cell culture medium, macrophage cells and RCS altered the Ti-6Al-4V corrosion behaviors in 72 h and how corrosion products affected the cells. There was no difference in the charge transfer in the presence (75.2 +/- 17.7 mC) and absence (62.3 +/- 18.8 mC) of cells. The alloy had the lowest charge transfer (28.2 +/- 4.1 mC) and metal ion release (Ti < 10 ppb, V < 2 ppb) with activated cells (releasing RCS) compared with the other two conditions. This was attributed to an enhancement of the surface oxides by RCS. Metal ion release was very low (Ti < 20 ppb, V < 10 ppb) with nonactivated cells and did not change cell morphology, viability, and NO and ATP release compared with controls. However, IL-1beta released from the activated cells and the proliferation of nonactivated cells were greater on the alloy than the controls. In summary, macrophage cells and RCS reduced the corrosion of Ti-6Al-4V alloys as hypothesized. These data are important in understanding host tissue-material interactions. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 68A: 717-724, 2004

  1. Degradation of bioabsorbable Mg-based alloys: Assessment of the effects of insoluble corrosion products and joint effects of alloying components on mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Claudia A; Alvarez, Florencia; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica A

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the processes occurring at the bioabsorbable metallic biomaterial/cell interfaces that may lead to toxicity. A critical analysis of the results obtained when degradable metal disks (pure Mg and rare earth-containing alloys (ZEK100 alloys)) are in direct contact with cell culture and those obtained with indirect methods such as the use of metal salts and extracts was made. Viability was assessed by Acridine Orange dye, neutral red and clonogenic assays. The effects of concentration of corrosion products and possible joint effects of the binary and ternary combinations of La, Zn and Mg ions, as constituents of ZEK alloys, were evaluated on a mammalian cell culture. In all cases more detrimental effects were found for pure Mg than for the alloys. Experiments with disks showed that gradual alterations in pH and in the amount of corrosion products were better tolerated by cells and resulted in higher viability than abrupt changes. In addition, viability was dependent on the distance from the source of ions. Experiments with extracts showed that the effect of insoluble degradation products was highly detrimental. Indirect tests with Zn ions revealed that harmful effects may be found at concentrations ≥ 150 μM and at ≥ 100 μM in mixtures with Mg. These mixtures lead to more deleterious effects than single ions. Results highlight the need to develop a battery of tests to evaluate the biocompatibility of bioabsorbable biomaterials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy loss process analysis for radiation degradation and immediate recovery of amorphous silicon alloy solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shin-ichiro; Beernink, Kevin; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2015-06-01

    Performance degradation of a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe triple-junction solar cells due to irradiation of silicon ions, electrons, and protons are investigated using an in-situ current-voltage measurement system. The performance recovery immediately after irradiation is also investigated. Significant recovery is always observed independent of radiation species and temperature. It is shown that the characteristic time, which is obtained by analyzing the short-circuit current annealing behavior, is an important parameter for practical applications in space. In addition, the radiation degradation mechanism is discussed by analyzing the energy loss process of incident particles (ionizing energy loss: IEL, and non-ionizing energy loss: NIEL) and their relative damage factors. It is determined that ionizing dose is the primarily parameter for electron degradation whereas displacement damage dose is the primarily parameter for proton degradation. This is because the ratio of NIEL to IEL in the case of electrons is small enough to be ignored the damage due to NIEL although the defect creation ratio of NIEL is much larger than that of IEL in the cases of both protons and electrons. The impact of “radiation quality effect” has to be considered to understand the degradation due to Si ion irradiation.

  3. Lithium based alloy-thionyl chloride cells for applications at temperatures to 200 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, P.; Marincic, N.; Epstein, J.; Lindsey, A.

    A long-life lithium battery for industrial applications at temperatures up to 200 C was developed by combining Li-based alloy anodes with oxyhalide electrolytes. Cathodes were fabricated by rolling the blend of polycarbonomonofluoride, a conductive carbon additive, and a binder, while anodes were fabricated as those used in oxyhalide cells, incorporating a modified anode current collector designed to prevent the formation of 'lithium islands' at the end of discharge; nonwoven glass fiber separators were pretreated to remove excessive binders and lubricants. Various active electrode surface areas were combined with a corresponding thickness of electrodes and separators, matched in capacity. Tests of the high-rate electrode structure, using Li-Mg alloy anode in conjunction with thionyl chloride electrolyte, have demonstrated that the battery with this anode can be used under abusive conditions such as short circuit and external heating (at 175 C). Raising the operating temperature to 200 C did require some modifications of regular cell hardware.

  4. Biocorrosion behavior and cell viability of adhesive polymer coated magnesium based alloys for medical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Dewidar, Montasser; Lim, Jae Kyoo

    2012-11-01

    The present study was ultimately aimed to design novel adhesive biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), coatings onto Mg based alloys by the dip-coating technique in order to control the degradation rate and enhance the biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. The influence of various solvents on PVAc surface topography and their protection of Mg alloys were dramatically studied in vitro. Electrochemical polarization, degradation, and PVAc film cytocompatibility were also tested. Our results showed that the solvent had a significant effect on coating quality. PVAc/dichloromethane solution showed a porous structure and solution concentration could control the porous size. The coatings prepared using tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide solvents are exceptional in their ability to generate porous morphology even at low polymer concentration. In general, the corrosion performance appears to be different on different PVAc-solvent system. Immersion tests illustrated that the porous morphology on PVAc stabilized corrosion rates. A uniform corrosion attack in artificial simulation body fluid was also exhibited. The cytocompatibility of osteoblast cells (MC3T3) revealed high adherence, proliferation, and survival on the porous structure of PVAc coated Mg alloy, which was not observed for the uncoated samples. This novel PVAc coating is a promising candidate for biodegradable implant materials, which might widen the use of Mg based implants.

  5. Conjugated Polymer-Small Molecule Alloy Leads to High Efficient Ternary Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqi; Zhang, Yajie; Fang, Jin; Lu, Kun; Wang, Zaiyu; Ma, Wei; Wei, Zhixiang

    2015-07-01

    Ternary organic solar cells are promising candidates for bulk heterojunction solar cells; however, improving the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is quite challenging because the ternary system is complicated on phase separation behavior. In this study, a ternary organic solar cell (OSC) with two donors, including one polymer (PTB7-Th), one small molecule (p-DTS(FBTTH2)2), and one acceptor (PC71BM), is fabricated. We propose the two donors in the ternary blend forms an alloy. A notable averaged PCE of 10.5% for ternary OSC is obtained due to the improvement of the fill factor (FF) and the short-circuit current density (J(sc)), and the open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) does not pin to the smaller V(oc) of the corresponding binary blends. A highly ordered face-on orientation of polymer molecules is obtained due to the formation of an alloy structure, which facilitates the enhancement of charge separation and transport and the reduction of charge recombination. This work indicates that a high crystallinity and the face-on orientation of polymers could be obtained by forming alloy with two miscible donors, thus paving a way to largely enhance the PCE of OSCs by using the ternary blend strategy.

  6. Reduction of initial corrosion rate and improvement of cell adhesion through surface modification of biodegradable Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hyung-Seop; Lee, Sun Hee; Kim, Won-Joo; Jeon, Hojeong; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Ahn, Jae-Pyung; Kim, Yu-Chan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the surface modification of biodegradable pure Magnesium and Mg-5wt%Ca-1wt%Zn alloy was performed through immersion in HBSS, inorganic salt solution and cell media to reduce initial hydrogen evolution and improve cell adhesion. The formation of different CaP-like coatings from immersion of pure Mg and Mg alloy were observed using Cryo FIB analysis and their performances were measured through cell adhesion, quantification of released Mg ions, and cell cytotoxicity assays. The coating layers displayed significant reduction of initial corrosion rate, and cell adhesion for both pure Mg and Mg alloy appeared to be influenced by the amino acids and proteins in the cell media. In general, Mg alloy showed a denser coating layer with higher Ca contents, resulting in greater reduction of initial corrosion rate and improved cell adhesion, when compared to pure Mg. This is due to saturation of Ca around the corrosion site that provided much favorable environmental condition to produce denser calcium phosphate coating mixture. The result from this study suggests that the surface modification of biodegradable Mg alloy by immersion in alkaline solutions can be utilized to obtain ideal biodegradable orthopedic implant material with reduced initial hydrogen evolution rate and improved cell adhesion.

  7. Sealing Li-alloys/FeS(x) cells for a bipolar battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaun, T. D.; Gillie, K. R.; Duoba, M. J.; Smaga, J. A.

    Progress in cell design and materials development has led to the initial tests of sealed Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells for a bipolar battery configuration. Earlier efforts attempted to contain the molten electrolyte by a compressed peripheral gasket. The innovative design approach is to build the cell around a hermetic peripheral seal. This seal consists of metal components bonded to an insulating ceramic ring (e.g., MgO). Prototypic seals maintained secure bonds and showed little apparent reactivity in compatibility tests conducted for more than 1000 h at 450 C in melts with high lithium or sulfur activity. Single sealed FeS bipolar cells were operated for 1000 h and 100 cycles. Efforts are now being concentrated on the Li-alloy/FeS2 bipolar cell with molybdenum positive electrode current collector. Seal compositions that have a good matching of thermal expansion coefficient with molybdenum were developed. Over a dozen seals consisting of steel/ceramic/molybdenum were fabricated based on a 3 cm diameter, bipolar cell design. The bipolar battery is expected to double specific power and increase specific energy by 30 percent over the monopolar battery configuration for (gt)500 W/kg and 200 Wh/kg in an electric-vehicle application.

  8. Sealing Li-alloy/FeS sub x cells for a bipolar battery

    SciTech Connect

    Kaun, T.D.; Gillie, K.R.; Duoba, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in cell design and materials development has led to the initial tests of sealed Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells for a bipolar battery configuration. Earlier efforts attempted to contain the molten electrolyte by a compressed peripheral gasket. Our innovative design approach is to build the cell around a hermetic peripheral seal. This seal consists of metal components bonded to an insulating ceramic ring (e.g., MgO). Prototypic seals maintained secure bonds and showed little apparent reactivity in compatibility tests conducted for more than 1000 h at 450{degree}C in melts with high lithium or sulfur activity. Single sealed FeS bipolar cells were operatedmore » for 1000 h and 100 cycles. Efforts are now being concentrated on the Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} bipolar cell with molybdenum positive electrode current collector. Seal compositions that have a good matching of thermal expansion coefficient with molybdenum were developed. Over a dozen seals consisting of steel/ceramic/molybdenum have been fabricated based on a 3-cm-dia, bipolar cell design. The bipolar battery is expected to double specific power and increase specific energy by 30% over the monopolar battery configuration for {gt}500 W/kg and 200 Wh/kg in an electric-vehicle application. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  9. Sealing L-alloys/FeS(x) cells for a bipolar battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaun, T. D.; Gillie, K. R.; Duoba, M. J.; Smaga, J. A.

    1989-10-01

    Progress in cell design and materials development has led to the initial tests of sealed Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells for a bipolar battery configuration. Earlier efforts attempted to contain the molten electrolyte by a compressed peripheral gasket. The innovative design approach is to build the cell around a hermetic peripheral seal. This seal consists of metal components bonded to an insulating ceramic ring (e.g., MgO). Prototypic seals maintained secure bonds and showed little apparent reactivity in compatibility tests conducted for more than 1000 h at 450 C in melts with high lithium or sulfur activity. Single sealed FeS bipolar cells were operated for 1000 h and 100 cycles. Efforts are now being concentrated on the Li-alloy/FeS2 bipolar cell with molybdenum positive electrode current collector. Seal compositions that have a good matching of thermal expansion coefficient with molybdenum were developed. Over a dozen seals consisting of steel/ceramic/molybdenum were fabricated based on a 3 cm diameter, bipolar cell design. The bipolar battery is expected to double specific power and increase specific energy by 30 percent over the monopolar battery configuration for (gt)500 W/kg and 200 Wh/kg in an electric-vehicle application.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of multiband solar cells based on highly mismatched alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, N.; Braña, A. F.; García Núñez, C.; Hernández, M. J.; Cervera, M.; Martínez, M.; Yu, K. M.; Walukiewicz, W.; García, B. J.

    2015-10-01

    Multiband solar cells are one type of third generation photovoltaic devices in which an increase of the power conversion efficiency is achieved through the absorption of low energy photons while preserving a large band gap that determines the open circuit voltage. The ability to absorb photons from different parts of the solar spectrum originates from the presence of an intermediate energy band located within the band gap of the material. This intermediate band, acting as a stepping stone allows the absorption of low energy photons to transfer electrons from the valence band to the conduction band by a sequential two photons absorption process. It has been demonstrated that highly mismatched alloys offer a potential to be used as a model material system for practical realization of multiband solar cells. Dilute nitride GaAs1-xNx highly mismatched alloy with low mole fraction of N is a prototypical multiband semiconductor with a well-defined intermediate band. Currently, we are using chemical beam epitaxy to synthesize dilute nitride highly mismatched alloys. The materials are characterized by a variety of structural and optical methods to optimize their properties for multiband photovoltaic devices.

  11. Multiple Knudsen Cell Configuration Improved for Alloy Activity Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan H.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2003-01-01

    Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) allows the simultaneous determination of the identity and pressure of vapor species in equilibrium with a condensed phase as a function of temperature. This information can be used to determine the thermodynamic properties of materials. The partial pressure of species j in the cell is related to the measured intensity of the ion k formed from j, I(sup +) less than SABjk, and the absolute temperature T, where S(sub jk) is the sensitivity factor.

  12. Properties of open-cell porous metals and alloys for orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gladius

    2013-10-01

    One shortcoming of metals and alloys used to fabricate various components of orthopaedic systems, such as the femoral stem of a total hip joint replacement and the tibial plate of a total knee joint replacement, is well-recognized. This is that the material modulus of elasticity (E') is substantially larger than that of the contiguous cancellous bone, a consequence of which is stress shielding which, in turn, has been postulated to be implicated in a cascade of events that culminates in the principal life-limiting phenomenon of these systems, namely, aseptic loosening. Thus, over the years, a host of research programs have focused on the synthesis of metallic biomaterials whose E' can be tailored to match that of cancellous bone. The present work is a review of the extant large volume of literature on these materials, which are called open-cell porous metals/alloys (or, sometimes, metal foams or cellular materials). As such, its range is wide, covering myriad aspects such as production methods, characterization studies, in vitro evaluations, and in vivo performance. The review also includes discussion of seven areas for future research, such as parametric studies of the influence of an assortment of process variables (such as the space holder material and the laser power in the space holder method and the laser-engineered net-shaping process, respectively) on various properties (notably, permeability, fatigue strength, and corrosion resistance) of a given porous metal/alloy, innovative methods of determining fatigue strength, and modeling of corrosion behavior.

  13. Application of Fe-Cr alloys to solid oxide fuel cells for cost-reduction. Oxidation behavior of alloys in methane fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horita, Teruhisa; Xiong, Yueping; Kishimoto, Haruo; Yamaji, Katsuhiko; Sakai, Natsuko; Yokokawa, Harumi

    Oxide scale formations in anode gas atmospheres were investigated for three different Fe-Cr alloys as interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (ZMG232, SUS430, and Fe-Cr-W). Oxidation with anode gases (CH 4, H 2O, CO, and CO 2) caused a relatively thick oxide scale formation on the alloy surfaces even in low oxygen partial pressures at 1073 K. The distribution of elements in the oxide scale and the growth rates of oxide scales were compared among the examined alloys by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES). Mn-Fe-Cr spinels and Cr 2O 3 were formed on ZMG232 and SUS430 surfaces, whereas only Cr 2O 3 formation was observed on Fe-Cr-W surface. Oxide scale thickness grew with annealing time by a parabolic relationship, and the growth rates were in the orders of 10 -6 to 10 -5 μm 2 s -1 at 1073 K. The electrical conductivity after forming oxide scales was different depending on the oxide scale phases and thickness. The conductivity was in the order of 10 S cm -2 at 973 K for ZMG232 alloy.

  14. Evaluation of magnesium alloys with alternative surface finishing for the proliferation and chondro-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinidad, J.; Arruebarrena, G.; Sáenz De Argandoña, E.; Ruiz De Eguino, G.; Infante, A.; Rodríguez, C. I.

    2010-11-01

    Articular cartilage has little capacity for self-repair. As a result, continuous mechanical stress can lead to the degradation of articular cartilage, culminating in progressive damage and joint degeneration. Tissue engineering has arisen as a promising therapeutic approach to cartilage repair. Magnesium alloys are one of the most important metallic biomaterials emerging in this area due to their biocompatibility, bio-absorbability and especially to their mechanical properties. These properties make magnesium alloys a promising biomaterial in the regeneration of cartilage tissue. Objective. This study was undertaken to analyze the influence of surface characteristics of magnesium alloys in the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods. Two commercial magnesium alloys (AZ31B and ZM21) were subjected to different treatments in order to obtain four different surfaces in each alloy. Human MSCs were seeded into the magnesium alloys and analyzed for their proliferation and chondrogenesis differentiation ability. Results. Human MSCs showed a greater proliferation and chondro-differentiation when cultured in the ZM21 magnesium alloy with a surface finishing of fine sanding, polishing, and etching.

  15. Effect of Magnesium Addition on the Cell Structure of Foams Produced From Re-melted Aluminum Alloy Scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinod-Kumar, G. S.; Heim, K.; Jerry, J.; Garcia-Moreno, F.; Kennedy, A. R.; Banhart, J.

    2017-10-01

    Closed-cell foams were produced from re-melted aluminum alloy scrap that contained 0.13 wt pct Mg magnesium in the as-received state and higher levels after adding 1, 2, or 5 wt pct Mg. The excess Mg gave rise to the fragmentation of long oxide filaments present in the scrap alloy into smaller filaments and improved its distribution and wetting by the Al matrix. Foaming the re-melted scrap alloy containing 1, 2, and 5 wt pct Mg excess showed stability and good expansion in comparison to the scrap alloy containing 0.13 wt pct Mg only, but the cells became non-equiaxed when the Mg concentration was high (≥2 wt pct excess) due to cell wall rupture during solidification. Compressibility and energy absorption behavior were studied for scrap alloy foams containing 1 wt pct Mg excess, which is the optimum level to obtain good expansion, stability, and uniform cell size. Foams with densities in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 g cm-1 produced by holding at the foaming temperature for different times were used for the investigation. A uniform cell structure led to flatter stress plateaus, higher energy absorption efficiencies, and reduced "knockdown" in strength compared with commercial foams made by gas bubbling. The mechanical performance found is comparable to that of commercial foams made by a similar method but the expected costs are lower.

  16. Effect of the Heat-Treated Ti6Al4V Alloy on the Fibroblastic Cell Response.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Díaz, Mercedes Paulina; Escudero-Rincón, María Lorenza; Arce-Estrada, Elsa Miriam; Cabrera-Sierra, Román

    2017-12-30

    Two heat treatments were carried out below (Ti6Al4V 800 ) and above (Ti6Al4V 1050 ) Ti6Al4V beta-phase transformation temperature (980 °C), with the purpose of studying the effect of microstructure on the adhesion and proliferation of fibroblast cells, as well as their electrochemical behavior. These alloys were seeded with 10,000 L929 fibroblast cells and immersed for 7 days in the cell culture at 37 °C, pH 7.40, 5% CO₂ and 100% relative humidity. Cell adhesion was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Polygonal and elongated cell morphology was observed independent of Ti6Al4V microstructure. Besides, C, O, P, S, Na and Cl signals were detected by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX), associated with the synthesis of organic compounds excreted by the cells, including protein adsorption from the medium. In certain areas on Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al4V 800 alloys, cells were agglomerated (island type), likely related to the globular microstructure; meanwhile, larger cellular coverage is shown for Ti6Al4V 1050 alloy, forming more than one layer on the surface, where only Ca was recorded. Impedance diagrams showed a similar passive behavior for the different Ti6Al4V alloys, mainly due to TiO₂ overlaying the contribution of the organic compounds excreted by fibroblast cells.

  17. Effect of the Heat-Treated Ti6Al4V Alloy on the Fibroblastic Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Díaz, Mercedes Paulina; Escudero-Rincón, María Lorenza; Arce-Estrada, Elsa Miriam; Cabrera-Sierra, Román

    2017-01-01

    Two heat treatments were carried out below (Ti6Al4V800) and above (Ti6Al4V1050) Ti6Al4V beta-phase transformation temperature (980 °C), with the purpose of studying the effect of microstructure on the adhesion and proliferation of fibroblast cells, as well as their electrochemical behavior. These alloys were seeded with 10,000 L929 fibroblast cells and immersed for 7 days in the cell culture at 37 °C, pH 7.40, 5% CO2 and 100% relative humidity. Cell adhesion was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Polygonal and elongated cell morphology was observed independent of Ti6Al4V microstructure. Besides, C, O, P, S, Na and Cl signals were detected by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX), associated with the synthesis of organic compounds excreted by the cells, including protein adsorption from the medium. In certain areas on Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al4V800 alloys, cells were agglomerated (island type), likely related to the globular microstructure; meanwhile, larger cellular coverage is shown for Ti6Al4V1050 alloy, forming more than one layer on the surface, where only Ca was recorded. Impedance diagrams showed a similar passive behavior for the different Ti6Al4V alloys, mainly due to TiO2 overlaying the contribution of the organic compounds excreted by fibroblast cells. PMID:29301205

  18. Cell interaction with modified nanotubes formed on titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Hynek; Vandrovcova, Marta; Chotova, Katerina; Fojt, Jaroslav; Pruchova, Eva; Joska, Ludek; Bacakova, Lucie

    2016-08-01

    Nanotubes with diameters ranging from 40 to 60nm were prepared by electrochemical oxidation of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy in electrolyte containing ammonium sulphate and ammonium fluoride. The nanotubes were further modified with calcium and phosphate ions or were heat treated. Polished Ti-6Al-4V alloy served as a reference sample. The spreading of human osteoblast-like cells was similar on all nanotube samples but lower than on polished samples. The number of initially adhered cells was higher on non-modified nanotubes, but the final cell number was the highest on Ca-enriched nanotubes and the lowest on heat-treated nanotubes. However, these differences were relatively small and less pronounced than the differences in the concentration of specific molecular markers of cell adhesion and differentiation, estimated by their intensity of immunofluorescence staining. The concentration of vinculin, i.e. a protein of focal adhesion plaques, was the lowest on nanotubes modified with calcium. Collagen I, an early marker of osteogenic cell differentiation, was also the lowest on samples modified with calcium and was highest on polished samples. Alkaline phosphatase, a middle marker of osteogenic differentiation, was observed in lowest concentration on nanotubes modified with phosphorus and the highest on heat-treated samples. Osteocalcin concentrations, a late marker of osteogenic cell differentiation, were similar on all tested samples, although they tended to be the highest on heat-treated samples. Thus, osteogenic differentiation can be modulated by various additional treatments of nanotube coatings on Ti-6Al-4V implants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Transparent metal selenide alloy counter electrodes for high-efficiency bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yanyan; Tang, Qunwei; Liu, Juan; He, Benlin; Yu, Liangmin

    2014-12-22

    The exploration of cost-effective and transparent counter electrodes (CEs) is a persistent objective in the development of bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Transparent counter electrodes based on binary-alloy metal selenides (M-Se; M=Co, Ni, Cu, Fe, Ru) are now obtained by a mild, solution-based method and employed in efficient bifacial DSSCs. Owing to superior charge-transfer ability for the I(-) /I3 (-) redox couple, electrocatalytic activity toward I3 (-) reduction, and optical transparency, the bifacial DSSCs with CEs consisting of a metal selenide alloy yield front and rear efficiencies of 8.30 % and 4.63 % for Co0.85 Se, 7.85 % and 4.37 % for Ni0.85 Se, 6.43 % and 4.24 % for Cu0.50 Se, 7.64 % and 5.05 % for FeSe, and 9.22 % and 5.90 % for Ru0.33 Se in comparison with 6.18 % and 3.56 % for a cell with an electrode based on pristine platinum, respectively. Moreover, fast activity onset, high multiple start/stop capability, and relatively good stability demonstrate that these new electrodes should find applications in solar panels. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Influence of boron addition to Ti-13Zr-13Nb alloy on MG63 osteoblast cell viability and protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, P; Singh, S B; Dhara, S; Chakraborty, M

    2015-01-01

    Cell proliferation, cell morphology and protein adsorption on near β-type Ti-13Zr-13Nb (TZN) alloy and Ti-13Zr-13Nb-0.5B (TZNB) composite have been investigated and compared to evaluate the effect of boron addition which has been added to the Ti alloy to improve their poor tribological properties by forming in situ TiB precipitates. MG63 cell proliferation on substrates with different chemistry but the same topography was compared. The MTT assay test showed that the cell viability on the TZN alloy was higher than the boron containing TZNB composite after 36 h of incubation and the difference was pronounced after 7 days. However, both the materials showed substantially higher cell attachment than the control (polystyrene). For the same period of incubation in fetal bovine serum (FBS), the amount of protein adsorbed on the surface of boron free TZN samples was higher than that in the case of boron containing TZNB composite. The presence of boron in the TZN alloy influenced protein adsorption and cell response and they are lower in TZNB than in TZN as a result of the associated difference in chemical characteristics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Optoperforation of Intact Plant Cells, Spectral Characterization of Alloy Disorder in InAsP Alloys, and Bimetallic Concentric Surfaces for Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence in Upconverting Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Travis R.

    The techniques of optoperforation, spectral characterization of alloy disorder, and metal-enhanced uorescence were applied to previously unconsidered or disregarded systems in order to demonstrate that such applications are both feasible and consequential. These applications were the subject of three disparate works and, as such, are independently discussed. Despite being ostensibly restricted to mammalian cells, optoperforation was demonstrated in intact plant cells by means of successful femtosecond-laser-mediated infiltration of a membrane impermeable dextran-conjugated dye into cells of vital Arabidopsis seedling stems. By monitoring the rate of dye uptake, and the reaction of both CFP-expressing vacuoles and nanocellulose substrates, the intensity and exposure time of the perforating laser were adjusted to values that both preserved cell vitality and permitted the laser-assisted uptake of the uorophore. By using these calibrated laser parameters, dye was injected and later observed in targeted cells after 72 hours, all without deleteriously affecting the vital functions of those cells. In the context of alloy disorder, photoluminescence of excitonic transitions in two InAsxP1--x alloys were studied through temperature and magnetic field strength dependencies, as well as compositionally-dependent time-resolved behavior. The spectral shape, behavior of the linewidths at high magnetic fields, and the divergence of the peak positions from band gap behavior at low temperatures indicated that alloy disorder exists in the x=0.40 composition while showing no considerable presence in the x=0.13 composition. The time-resolved photoluminescence spectrum for both compositions feature a fast and slow decay, with the slow decay lifetime in x=0.40 being longer than that of x=0.13, which may be due to carrier migration between localized exciton states in x=0.40. In order to achieve broadband metal-enhanced uorescence in upconverting NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals, two nanocomposite

  2. Silk-fibronectin protein alloy fibres support cell adhesion and viability as a high strength, matrix fibre analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Matthew M.; Li, David; Gyune Rim, Nae; Backman, Daniel; Smith, Michael L.; Wong, Joyce Y.

    2017-04-01

    Silk is a natural polymer with broad utility in biomedical applications because it exhibits general biocompatibility and high tensile material properties. While mechanical integrity is important for most biomaterial applications, proper function and integration also requires biomaterial incorporation into complex surrounding tissues for many physiologically relevant processes such as wound healing. In this study, we spin silk fibroin into a protein alloy fibre with whole fibronectin using wet spinning approaches in order to synergize their respective strength and cell interaction capabilities. Results demonstrate that silk fibroin alone is a poor adhesive surface for fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in the absence of serum. However, significantly improved cell attachment is observed to silk-fibronectin alloy fibres without serum present while not compromising the fibres’ mechanical integrity. Additionally, cell viability is improved up to six fold on alloy fibres when serum is present while migration and spreading generally increase as well. These findings demonstrate the utility of composite protein alloys as inexpensive and effective means to create durable, biologically active biomaterials.

  3. Evaluation of short-term effects of rare earth and other elements used in magnesium alloys on primary cells and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Feyerabend, Frank; Fischer, Janine; Holtz, Jakob; Witte, Frank; Willumeit, Regine; Drücker, Heiko; Vogt, Carla; Hort, Norbert

    2010-05-01

    Degradable magnesium alloys for biomedical application are on the verge of being used clinically. Rare earth elements (REEs) are used to improve the mechanical properties of the alloys, but in more or less undefined mixtures. For some elements of this group, data on toxicity and influence on cells are sparse. Therefore in this study the in vitro cytotoxicity of the elements yttrium (Y), neodymium (Nd), dysprosium (Dy), praseodymium (Pr), gadolinium (Gd), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), europium (Eu), lithium (Li) and zirconium (Zr) was evaluated by incubation with the chlorides (10-2000 microM); magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) were tested at higher concentrations (200 and 50mM, respectively). The influence on viability of human osteosarcoma cell line MG63, human umbilical cord perivascular (HUCPV) cells and mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) was determined, as well as the induction of apoptosis and the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha). Significant differences between the applied cells could be observed. RAW exhibited the highest and HUCPV the lowest sensitivity. La and Ce showed the highest cytotoxicity of the analysed elements. Of the elements with high solubility in magnesium alloys, Gd and Dy seem to be more suitable than Y. The focus of magnesium alloy development for biomedical applications should include most defined alloy compositions with well-known tissue-specific and systemic effects. Copyright (c) 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tuning Mesenchymal Stem Cell Response onto Titanium-Niobium-Hafnium Alloy by Recombinant Fibronectin Fragments.

    PubMed

    Herranz-Diez, C; Mas-Moruno, C; Neubauer, S; Kessler, H; Gil, F J; Pegueroles, M; Manero, J M; Guillem-Marti, J

    2016-02-03

    Since metallic biomaterials used for bone replacement possess low bioactivity, the use of cell adhesive moieties is a common strategy to improve cellular response onto these surfaces. In recent years, the use of recombinant proteins has emerged as an alternative to native proteins and short peptides owing to the fact that they retain the biological potency of native proteins, while improving their stability. In the present study, we investigated the biological effect of two different recombinant fragments of fibronectin, spanning the 8-10th and 12-14th type III repeats, covalently attached to a new TiNbHf alloy using APTES silanization. The fragments were studied separately and mixed at different concentrations and compared to a linear RGD, a cyclic RGD and the full-length fibronectin protein. Cell culture studies using rat mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated that low to medium concentrations (30% and 50%) of type III 8-10th fragment mixed with type III 12-14th fragment stimulated cell spreading and proliferation compared to RGD peptides and the fragments separately. On the other hand, type III 12-14th fragment alone or mixed at low volume percentages ≤50% with type III 8-10th fragment increased alkaline phosphatase levels compared to the other molecules. These results are significant for the understanding of the role of fibronectin recombinant fragments in cell responses and thus to design bioactive coatings for biomedical applications.

  5. Corrosion behavior of HPT-deformed TiNi alloys in cell culture medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shri, D. N. Awang; Tsuchiya, K.; Yamamoto, A.

    2017-09-01

    In recent years there are growing interest in fabrication of bulk nanostructured metals and alloys by using severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques as new alternative in producing bulk nanocrystalline materials. These techniques allows for processing of bulk, fully dense workpiece with ultrafine grains. Metal undergoes SPD processing in certain techniques such as high pressure torsion (HPT), equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) or multi-directional forging (MDF) are subjected to extensive hydrostatic pressure that may be used to impart a very high strain to the bulk solid without the introduction of any significant change in overall dimension of the sample. The change in the structure (small grain size and high-volume fraction of grain boundaries) of the material may result in the corrosion behavior different from that of the coarse-grained material. Electrochemical measurements were done to understand the corrosion behavior of TiNi alloys before and after HPT deformation. The experiment was carried out using standard three electrode setup (a sample as working electrode; a platinum wire as a counter electrode and a saturated calomel electrode in saturated KCl as a reference electrode) with the surface area of 26.42 mm2 exposed to the EMEM+10% FBS cell culture medium. The measurements were performed in an incubator with controlled environment at 37 °C and 5% CO2, simulating the cell culture condition. The potential of the specimen was monitored over 1 hour, and the stabilized potential was used as the open-circuit potential (EOCP). Potentiodynamic curves were scanned in the potential range from -0.5 V to 1.5 V relative to the EOCP, at a rate of 0.5 mV/s. The result of OCP-time measurement done in the cell culture medium shows that the OCP of HPT-deformed samples shifts towards to the more positive rather than that of BHPT samples. The OCP of deformed samples were ennobled to more than +70 mV for Ti-50mol%. The shift of OCP towards the nobler direction

  6. Platinum Alloy Tailored All-Weather Solar Cells for Energy Harvesting from Sun and Rain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qunwei; Duan, Yanyan; He, Benlin; Chen, Haiyan

    2016-11-07

    Solar cells that can harvest energy in all weathers are promising in solving the energy crisis and environmental problems. The power outputs are nearly zero under dark conditions for state-of-the-art solar cells. To address this issue, we present herein a class of platinum alloy (PtM x , M=Ni, Fe, Co, Cu, Mo) tailored all-weather solar cells that can harvest energy from rain and realize photoelectric conversion under sun illumination. By tuning the stoichiometric Pt/M ratio and M species, the optimized solar cell yields a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 10.38 % under simulated sunlight irradiation (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm -2 ) as well as current of 3.90 μA and voltage of 115.52 μV under simulated raindrops. Moreover, the electric signals are highly dependent on the dripping velocity and the concentration of simulated raindrops along with concentrations of cation and anion. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Nanostructured calcium phosphate coatings on magnesium alloys: characterization and cytocompatibility with mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Maria Emil; Aslani, Arash; Tian, Qiaomu

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the deposition and characterization of nanostructured calcium phosphate (nCaP) on magnesium–yttrium alloy substrates and their cytocompatibility with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The nCaP coatings were deposited on magnesium and magnesium–yttrium alloy substrates using proprietary transonic particle acceleration process for the dual purposes of modulating substrate degradation and BMSC adhesion. Surface morphology and feature size were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and quantitative image analysis tools. Surface elemental compositions and phases were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The deposited nCaP coatings showed a homogeneous particulate surface with the dominant feature size of 200–500 nm in the long axis and 100–300 nm in the short axis, and a Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.5–1.6. Hydroxyapatite was the major phase identified in the nCaP coatings. The modulatory effects of nCaP coatings on the sample degradation and BMSC behaviors were dependent on the substrate composition and surface conditions. The direct culture of BMSCs in vitro indicated that multiple factors, including surface composition and topography, and the degradation-induced changes in media composition, influenced cell adhesion directly on the sample surface, and indirect adhesion surrounding the sample in the same culture. The alkaline pH, the indicator of Mg degradation, played a role in BMSC adhesion and morphology, but not the sole factor. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate BMSC responses to each contributing factor. PMID:25917827

  8. Antimicrobial copper alloy surfaces are effective against vegetative but not sporulated cells of gram-positive Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    San, Kaungmyat; Long, Janet; Michels, Corinne A; Gadura, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the role of membrane phospholipid peroxidation in the copper alloy mediated contact killing of Bacillus subtilis, a spore-forming gram-positive bacterial species. We found that B. subtilis endospores exhibited significant resistance to copper alloy surface killing but vegetative cells were highly sensitive to copper surface exposure. Cell death and lipid peroxidation occurred in B. subtilis upon copper alloy surface exposure. In a sporulation-defective strain carrying a deletion of almost the entire SpoIIA operon, lipid peroxidation directly correlated with cell death. Moreover, killing and lipid peroxidation initiated immediately and at a constant rate upon exposure to the copper surface without the delay observed previously in E. coli. These findings support the hypothesis that membrane lipid peroxidation is the initiating event causing copper surface induced cell death of B. subtilis vegetative cells. The findings suggest that the observed differences in the kinetics of copper-induced killing compared to E. coli result from differences in cell envelop structure. As demonstrated in E. coli, DNA degradation was shown to be a secondary effect of copper exposure in a B. subtilis sporulation-defective strain. PMID:26185055

  9. Cytocompatibility and early inflammatory response of human endothelial cells in direct culture with Mg-Zn-Sr alloys

    PubMed Central

    Cipriano, Aaron F.; Sallee, Amy; Tayoba, Myla; Cortez Alcaraz, Mayra C.; Lin, Alan; Guan, Ren-Guo; Zhao, Zhan-Yong; Liu, Huinan

    2018-01-01

    Crystalline Mg-Zinc (Zn)-Strontium (Sr) ternary alloys consist of elements naturally present in the human body and provide attractive mechanical and biodegradable properties for a variety of biomedical applications. The first objective of this study was to investigate the degradation and cytocompatibility of four Mg-4Zn-xSr alloys (x = 0.15, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 wt%; designated as ZSr41A, B, C, and D respectively) in the direct culture with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. The second objective was to investigate, for the first time, the early-stage inflammatory response in cultured HUVECs as indicated by the induction of vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). The results showed that the 24-h in vitro degradation of the ZSr41 alloys containing a β-phase with a Zn/Sr at% ratio ~1.5 was significantly faster than the ZSr41 alloys with Zn/Sr at% ~1. Additionally, the adhesion density of HUVECs in the direct culture but not in direct contact with the ZSr41 alloys for up to 24 h was not adversely affected by the degradation of the alloys. Importantly, neither culture media supplemented with up to 27.6 mM Mg2+ ions nor media intentionally adjusted up to alkaline pH 9 induced any detectable adverse effects on HUVEC responses. In contrast, the significantly higher, yet non-cytotoxic, Zn2+ ion concentration from the degradation of ZSr41D alloy was likely the cause for the initially higher VCAM-1 expression on cultured HUVECs. Lastly, analysis of the HUVEC-ZSr41 interface showed near-complete absence of cell adhesion directly on the sample surface, most likely caused by either a high local alkalinity, change in surface topography, and/or surface composition. The direct culture method used in this study was proposed as a valuable tool for studying the design aspects of Zn-containing Mg-based biomaterials in vitro, in order to engineer solutions to address current shortcomings of Mg alloys for vascular device applications. PMID:27746360

  10. Surface modification of a-SiC photoelectrodes for photocurrent enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulionis, Ilvydas; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Feng; Gallon, Josh; Gaillard, Nicolas; Deutsch, Todd; Miller, Eric; Madan, Arun

    2010-08-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water dissociation into hydrogen and oxygen at a semiconductor-liquid interface offers an environmentally benign approach to hydrogen production. We have developed an integrated PEC device using hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC or a-SiC:H) material as photoelectrode in conjunction with an amorphous silicon (a-Si) tandem photovoltaic device. Such a "hybrid PV/a-SiC" PEC cell produces photocurrent of about 1.3 mA/cm2 in a short-circuit configuration and is durable in a pH2 electrolyte. On the other hand, the aforementioned structure finished with ITO contacts and measured as a solid-state device features a current density of 5 mA/cm2, indicating a potential solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency of about 6% in the hybrid PV/a-SiC PEC cell. The much lower photocurrent measured in the hybrid PEC cell suggests that there exists an interfacial barrier between the a-SiC and electrolyte, which hinders the photocurrent extraction. In order to mitigate against the interfacial barrier and hence improve the photo-generated charge carrier transport through the a-SiC/electrolyte interface, we have explored several surface modification techniques, namely the use of metallic nano-particles (such as platinum or palladium) and the growth of an additional thin layer (a-SiNx, carbon-rich a-SiC, a-SiF, etc.) on the top of a-SiC by PECVD. In the latter case, it is observed that the addition of a thin PECVD-fabricated layer does not significantly improve the photocurrent, presumably due to a poor band alignment at the a-SiC/electrolyte interface. The use of lower work function nanoparticles like titanium has led to promising results in terms of photocurrent enhancement and an a nodic shift in the onset potential.

  11. Pt-Ni/WC Alloy Nanorods Arrays as ORR Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Begum, Mahbuba; Yurukcu, Mesut; Yurtsever, Fatma

    2017-08-24

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) among the other types of fuel cell technology are attractive power sources, especially for electric vehicle applications. While significant progress and plausible prospects of PEMFCs have been achieved, there are still some challenges related to the performance, durability, and cost that need to be overcome to make them economically viable for widespread commercialization. Our strategy is to develop thin films of high-active and stable catalyst coated on vertically aligned nanorod arrays of conductive and stable support. In this work, we fabricated tungsten carbide (WC) nanorods as support and coated them with a platinum-nickel (Pt-Ni)more » alloy shell denoted as Pt-Ni/WC catalysts. The Pt- Ni/WC nanorods were deposited on glassy carbon disks as well as on silicon substrates for evaluation of their electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and physical properties. Cyclic voltammetry experiments using rotating disk electrode were performed in perchloric acid (0.1 M HClO4) electrolyte at room temperature to characterize the ORR activity and stability of Pt-Ni/WC nanorods catalysts. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were utilized to study the morphology and crystallographic properties, respectively.« less

  12. Biological response of endothelial cells to diamond-like carbon-coated NiTi alloy.

    PubMed

    Hang, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Ming; Ma, Shengli; Chu, Paul K

    2012-02-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited on nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy by arc-enhanced magnetron sputtering. The microstructure, surface morphology, chemical composition, surface free energy, protein adsorbance, and leach amount of Ni ions were assessed by Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurements, micro BCA™ protein assay kit, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The biological response of the endothelial cells (ECs) was evaluated by cell adhesion, morphology, viability, and expression levels of thrombogenicity-related genes. Our results show that the DLC coatings inhibit the release of Ni ions from the NiTi substrate effectively thus enhancing its biosafety. The easy adhesion, elongated morphology, and high viability of ECs on the DLC coatings suggest fast endothelialization after implantation and so application of DLC coatings improves the surface properties of NiTi in cardiovascular applications. The relationship between the surface characteristics, Ni leaching, and concomitant biological response are discussed in details. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Phenolic Modified Ceramic Coating on Biodegradable Mg Alloy: The Improved Corrosion Resistance and Osteoblast-Like Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hung-Pang; Lin, Da-Jun; Yeh, Ming-Long

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have great potential for developing orthopedic implants due to their biodegradability and mechanical properties, but the rapid corrosion rate of the currently-available alloys limits their clinical applications. To increase the corrosion resistance of the substrate, a protective ceramic coating is constructed by a micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process on ZK60 magnesium alloy. The porous ceramic coating is mainly composed of magnesium oxide and magnesium silicate, and the results from cell cultures show it can stimulate osteoblastic cell growth and proliferation. Moreover, gallic acid, a phenolic compound, was successfully introduced onto the MAO coating by grafting on hydrated oxide and chelating with magnesium ions. The gallic acid and rough surface of MAO altered the cell attachment behavior, making it difficult for fibroblasts to adhere to the MAO coating. The viability tests showed that gallic acid could suppress fibroblast growth and stimulate osteoblastic cell proliferation. Overall, the porous MAO coating combined with gallic acid offered a novel strategy for increasing osteocompatibility. PMID:28773055

  14. Method of preparing a negative electrode including lithium alloy for use within a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Olszanski, Theodore W.; Battles, James E.

    1977-03-08

    A negative electrode that includes a lithium alloy as active material is prepared by briefly submerging a porous, electrically conductive substrate within a melt of the alloy. Prior to solidification, excess melt can be removed by vibrating or otherwise manipulating the filled substrate to expose interstitial surfaces. Electrodes of such as solid lithium-aluminum filled within a substrate of metal foam are provided.

  15. Binary synaptic connections based on memory switching in a-Si:H for artificial neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Lamb, J. L.; Moopenn, A.; Khanna, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    A scheme for nonvolatile associative electronic memory storage with high information storage density is proposed which is based on neural network models and which uses a matrix of two-terminal passive interconnections (synapses). It is noted that the massive parallelism in the architecture would require the ON state of a synaptic connection to be unusually weak (highly resistive). Memory switching using a-Si:H along with ballast resistors patterned from amorphous Ge-metal alloys is investigated for a binary programmable read only memory matrix. The fabrication of a 1600 synapse test array of uniform connection strengths and a-Si:H switching elements is discussed.

  16. Amorphous oxide alloys as interfacial layers with broadly tunable electronic structures for organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nanjia; Kim, Myung-Gil; Loser, Stephen; Smith, Jeremy; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Guo, Xugang; Song, Charles; Jin, Hosub; Chen, Zhihua; Yoon, Seok Min; Freeman, Arthur J; Chang, Robert P H; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2015-06-30

    In diverse classes of organic optoelectronic devices, controlling charge injection, extraction, and blocking across organic semiconductor-inorganic electrode interfaces is crucial for enhancing quantum efficiency and output voltage. To this end, the strategy of inserting engineered interfacial layers (IFLs) between electrical contacts and organic semiconductors has significantly advanced organic light-emitting diode and organic thin film transistor performance. For organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, an electronically flexible IFL design strategy to incrementally tune energy level matching between the inorganic electrode system and the organic photoactive components without varying the surface chemistry would permit OPV cells to adapt to ever-changing generations of photoactive materials. Here we report the implementation of chemically/environmentally robust, low-temperature solution-processed amorphous transparent semiconducting oxide alloys, In-Ga-O and Ga-Zn-Sn-O, as IFLs for inverted OPVs. Continuous variation of the IFL compositions tunes the conduction band minima over a broad range, affording optimized OPV power conversion efficiencies for multiple classes of organic active layer materials and establishing clear correlations between IFL/photoactive layer energetics and device performance.

  17. Amorphous oxide alloys as interfacial layers with broadly tunable electronic structures for organic photovoltaic cells

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Nanjia; Kim, Myung -Gil; Loser, Stephen; ...

    2015-06-15

    In diverse classes of organic optoelectronic devices, controlling charge injection, extraction, and blocking across organic semiconductor– inorganic electrode interfaces is crucial for enhancing quantum efficiency and output voltage. To this end, the strategy of inserting engineered interfacial layers (IFLs) between electrical contacts and organic semiconductors has significantly advanced organic light-emitting diode and organic thin film transistor performance. For organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, an electronically flexible IFL design strategy to incrementally tune energy level matching between the inorganic electrode system and the organic photoactive components without varying the surface chemistry would permit OPV cells to adapt to ever-changing generations of photoactivemore » materials. Here we report the implementation of chemically/environmentally robust, low-temperature solution-processed amorphous transparent semiconducting oxide alloys, In-Ga-O and Ga-Zn-Sn-O, as IFLs for inverted OPVs. Lastly, continuous variation of the IFL compositions tunes the conduction band minima over a broad range, affording optimized OPV power conversion efficiencies for multiple classes of organic active layer materials and establishing clear correlations between IFL/photoactive layer energetics and device performance.« less

  18. Cell characteristics of a multiple alloy nano-dots memory structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bea, Ji Chel; Song, Yun Heub; Lee, Kang-Wook; Lee, Gae-Hun; Tanaka, Tetsu; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa

    2009-08-01

    A multiple alloy metal nano-dots memory using FN tunneling was investigated in order to confirm its structural possibility for future flash memory. In this work, a multiple FePt nano-dots device with a high work function (~5.2 eV) and extremely high dot density (~1.2 × 1013 cm-2) was fabricated. Its structural effect for multiple layers was evaluated and compared to the one with a single layer in terms of the cell characteristics and reliability. We confirm that MOS capacitor structures with two to four multiple FePt nano-dot layers provide a larger threshold voltage window and better retention characteristics. Furthermore, it was also revealed that several process parameters for block oxide and inter-tunnel oxide between the nano-dot layers are very important to improve the efficiency of electron injection into multiple nano-dots. From these results, it is expected that a multiple FePt nano-dots memory using Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling could be a candidate structure for future flash memory.

  19. Amorphous oxide alloys as interfacial layers with broadly tunable electronic structures for organic photovoltaic cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nanjia; Kim, Myung-Gil; Loser, Stephen; Smith, Jeremy; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Guo, Xugang; Song, Charles; Jin, Hosub; Chen, Zhihua; Yoon, Seok Min; Freeman, Arthur J.; Chang, Robert P. H.; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J.

    2015-01-01

    In diverse classes of organic optoelectronic devices, controlling charge injection, extraction, and blocking across organic semiconductor–inorganic electrode interfaces is crucial for enhancing quantum efficiency and output voltage. To this end, the strategy of inserting engineered interfacial layers (IFLs) between electrical contacts and organic semiconductors has significantly advanced organic light-emitting diode and organic thin film transistor performance. For organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, an electronically flexible IFL design strategy to incrementally tune energy level matching between the inorganic electrode system and the organic photoactive components without varying the surface chemistry would permit OPV cells to adapt to ever-changing generations of photoactive materials. Here we report the implementation of chemically/environmentally robust, low-temperature solution-processed amorphous transparent semiconducting oxide alloys, In-Ga-O and Ga-Zn-Sn-O, as IFLs for inverted OPVs. Continuous variation of the IFL compositions tunes the conduction band minima over a broad range, affording optimized OPV power conversion efficiencies for multiple classes of organic active layer materials and establishing clear correlations between IFL/photoactive layer energetics and device performance. PMID:26080437

  20. In vitro evaluation of MgSr and MgCaSr alloys via direct culture with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wensen; Cipriano, Aaron F; Tian, Qiaomu; Zhang, Chaoxing; Lopez, Marisa; Sallee, Amy; Lin, Alan; Cortez Alcaraz, Mayra Celene; Wu, Yuanhao; Zheng, Yufeng; Liu, Huinan

    2018-04-05

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been widely investigated as the most promising biodegradable metals to replace conventional non-degradable metals for temporary medical implant applications. New Mg alloys have been developed for medical applications in recent years; and the concept of alloying Mg with less-toxic elements have aroused tremendous interests due to the promise to address the problems associated with rapid degradation of Mg without compromising its cytocompatibility and biocompatibility. Of particular interests for orthopedic/spinal implant applications are the additions of calcium (Ca) and strontium (Sr) into Mg matrix because of their beneficial properties for bone regeneration. In this study, degradation and cytocompatibility of four binary MgSr alloys (Mg-xSr, x = 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 wt%) and four ternary MgCaSr alloys (Mg-1Ca-xSr, x = 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 wt%) were investigated and compared via direct culture with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The influence of the alloy composition on the degradation rates were studied and compared. Moreover, the cellular responses to the binary MgSr alloys and the ternary MgCaSr alloys were comparatively evaluated; and the critical factors influencing BMSC behaviors were discussed. This study screened the degradability and in vitro cytocompatibility of the binary MgSr alloys and the ternary MgCaSr alloys. Mg-1Sr, Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr and Mg-1Ca-1Sr alloys are recommended for further in vivo studies toward clinical translation due to their best overall performances in terms of degradation and cytocompatibility among all the alloys studied in the present work. Traditional Mg alloys with slower degradation often contain aluminum or rare earth elements as alloying components, which raised safety and regulatory concerns. To circumvent unsafe elements, nutrient elements such as calcium (Ca) and strontium (Sr) were selected to create Mg-Sr binary alloys and Mg-Ca-Sr ternary alloys to improve the

  1. Increasing the optical absorption in a-Si thin films by embedding gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraone, Gabriele; Modi, Ritika; Marom, Sarita; Podestà, Alessandro; Di Vece, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    The light conversion efficiency of traditional a-Si thin-film solar cells is limited by their low optical thicknesses, especially in the NIR. A possible approach to increase the light-trapping efficiency over the entire solar spectral range is to design solar-cell architectures which rely on the optical properties of plasmonic nanocomposite materials. We demonstrate that it is possible to have a controlled Gold nanoparticle optical absorption by varying the thickness of a covering a-Si thin-film. For thick a-Si films the Gold nanoparticle plasmon resonance vanishes likely due to the formation of a silicide. Optical absorption measurements as well as finite difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations were employed to determine the a-Si thickness-dependent optical absorption properties, which demonstrated a significantly increased optical absorption in a-Si.

  2. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells on surface-modified titanium alloys for orthopedic and dental implants.

    PubMed

    Giannoni, Paolo; Muraglia, Anita; Giordano, Carmen; Narcisi, Roberto; Cancedda, Ranieri; Quarto, R; Chiesa, Roberto

    2009-11-01

    Surface properties of titanium alloys, used for orthopedic and dental applications, are known to affect implant interactions with host tissues. Osteointegration, bone growth and remodeling in the area surrounding the implants can be implemented by specific biomimetic treatments; these allow the preparation of micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces with a thickened oxide layer, doped with calcium and phosphorus ions. We have challenged these experimental titanium alloys with primary human bone marrow stromal cells to compare the osteogenic differentiation outcomes of the cells once they are seeded onto the modified surfaces, thus simulating a prosthetic device-biological interface of clinical relevance. A specific anodic spark discharge was the biomimetic treatment of choice, providing experimental titanium disks treated with different alkali etching approaches. The disks, checked by electron microscopy and spectroscopy, were subsequently used as substrates for the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human cells. Expression of markers of the osteogenic lineage was assessed by means of qualitative and quantitative PCR, by cytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, Western blot and matrix metalloprotease activity analyses. Metal surfaces were initially less permissive for cell growth. Untreated control substrates were less efficient in sustaining mineralized matrix deposition upon osteogenic induction of the cells. Interestingly, bone sialo protein and matrix metalloprotease 2 levels were enhanced on experimental metals compared to control surfaces, particularly for titanium oxide coatings etched with KOH. As a whole, the KOH-modification of titanium surfaces seems to allow the best osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells, representing a possible plus for future clinical prosthetic applications.

  3. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver-gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Jörg; Ristig, Simon; Greulich, Christina; Li, Zi-An; Farle, Michael; Köller, Manfred; Epple, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Silver, gold, and silver-gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly( N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15-25 nm), gold (5-6 nm), and silver-gold (50:50; 10-12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver-gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver-gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver-gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5-20 μg mL-1 induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  4. Bi-Sn alloy catalyst for simultaneous morphology and doping control of silicon nanowires in radial junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhongwei; School of Science, Nantong University, Nantong 226000; Lu, Jiawen

    2015-10-19

    Low-melting point metals such as bismuth (Bi) and tin (Sn) are ideal choices for mediating a low temperature growth of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) for radial junction thin film solar cells. The incorporation of Bi catalyst atoms leads to sufficient n-type doping in the SiNWs core that exempts the use of hazardous dopant gases, while an easy morphology control with pure Bi catalyst has never been demonstrated so far. We here propose a Bi-Sn alloy catalyst strategy to achieve both a beneficial catalyst-doping and an ideal SiNW morphology control. In addition to a potential of further growth temperature reduction, we showmore » that the alloy catalyst can remain quite stable during a vapor-liquid-solid growth, while providing still sufficient n-type catalyst-doping to the SiNWs. Radial junction solar cells constructed over the alloy-catalyzed SiNWs have demonstrated a strongly enhanced photocurrent generation, thanks to optimized nanowire morphology, and largely improved performance compared to the reference samples based on the pure Bi or Sn-catalyzed SiNWs.« less

  5. Method of preparing a negative electrode including lithium alloy for use within a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Tomczuk, Z.; Olszanski, W.; Battles, J.E.

    1975-12-09

    A negative electrode that includes a lithium alloy as active material is prepared by briefly submerging a porous, electrically conductive substrate within a melt of the alloy. Prior to solidification, excess melt can be removed by vibrating or otherwise manipulating the filled substrate to expose interstitial surfaces. Electrodes of such a solid lithium--aluminum filled within a substrate of metal foam are provided. 1 figure, 1 table.

  6. Study on the Mg-Li-Zn ternary alloy system with improved mechanical properties, good degradation performance and different responses to cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Yuanhao; Bian, Dong; Gao, Shuang; Leeflang, Sander; Guo, Hui; Zheng, Yufeng; Zhou, Jie

    2017-10-15

    Novel Mg-(3.5, 6.5wt%)Li-(0.5, 2, 4wt%)Zn ternary alloys were developed as new kinds of biodegradable metallic materials with potential for stent application. Their mechanical properties, degradation behavior, cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility were studied. These potential biomaterials showed higher ultimate tensile strength than previously reported binary Mg-Li alloys and ternary Mg-Li-X (X=Al, Y, Ce, Sc, Mn and Ag) alloys. Among the alloys studied, the Mg-3.5Li-2Zn and Mg-6.5Li-2Zn alloys exhibited comparable corrosion resistance in Hank's solution to pure magnesium and better corrosion resistance in a cell culture medium than pure magnesium. Corrosion products observed on the corroded surface were composed of Mg(OH) 2 , MgCO 3 and Ca-free Mg/P inorganics and Ca/P inorganics. In vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed different behaviors of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) and Human Aorta Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs) to material extracts. HUVECs showed increasing nitric oxide (NO) release and tolerable toxicity, whereas VSMCs exhibited limited decreasing viability with time. Platelet adhesion, hemolysis and coagulation tests of these Mg-Li-Zn alloys showed different degrees of activation behavior, in which the hemolysis of the Mg-3.5Li-2Zn alloy was lower than 5%. These results indicated the potential of the Mg-Li-Zn alloys as good candidate materials for cardiovascular stent applications. Mg-Li alloys are promising as absorbable metallic biomaterials, which however have not received significant attention since the low strength, controversial corrosion performance and the doubts in Li toxicity. The Mg-Li-Zn alloy in the present study revealed much improved mechanical properties higher than most reported binary Mg-Li and ternary Mg-Li-X alloys, with superior corrosion resistance in cell culture media. Surprisingly, the addition of Li and Zn showed increased nitric oxide release. The present study indicates good potential of Mg-Li-Zn alloy as

  7. In vitro study of biodegradation of a Co-Cr alloy using a human cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Harmand, M F

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of a potential biomaterial is based on two approaches: firstly, the study of the local and systemic effects of the biomaterial implanted in the host; and secondly the study of the behaviour of the biomaterial itself with increasing time. The progress achieved in human cell culturing allows in vitro evaluation of a new biomaterial using the human cell(s) system(s) characteristic of the tissue which it will be exposed to in vivo. This kind of approach permits the assessment of the biodegradation of a biomaterial whatever it is: metal; alloy; ceramic; glass; polymer; with or without specialized coating.... The experimental approach is as follows: discs representative of the biomaterial (surface state, cleaning, sterilization process) are manufactured in order to cover the bottom of the culture wells. Thereafter, they are either brought in the presence of complete culture medium alone, or in the presence of a subconfluent cell layer. A kinetic analysis is performed using various incubation periods at 37 degrees C. Released biodegradation products are identified and quantified, in both the medium and cell compartment, and on the other hand cytotoxicity is assessed. A Co-Cr alloy was studied over a 9-day period according to the experimental schedule, and showed a higher corrosion rate in the presence of osteoblasts in the range of 25-30%. Moreover, an intracellular uptake of both Cr and Co was detected, which will have physiological importance.

  8. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, D.S.; Scott, D.H.

    1984-09-28

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cells are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  9. Measurements of sound velocity in iron-nickel alloys by femtosecond laser pulses in a diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamatsu, Tatsuya; Ohta, Kenji; Yagi, Takashi; Hirose, Kei; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2018-01-01

    By comparing the seismic wave velocity profile in the Earth with laboratory data of the sound velocity of iron alloys, we can infer the chemical composition of materials in the Earth's core. The sound velocity of pure iron (Fe) has been sufficiently measured using various techniques, while experimental study on the sound velocity of iron-nickel (Fe-Ni) alloys is limited. Here, we measured longitudinal wave velocities of hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) structured Fe up to 29 GPa, Fe-5 wt% Ni, and Fe-15 wt% Ni up to 64 GPa via a combination of the femtosecond pulse laser pump-probe technique and a diamond anvil cell at room temperature condition. We found that the effect of Ni on the sound velocity of an Fe-based alloy is weaker than that determined by previous experimental study. In addition, we obtained the parameters of Birch's law to be V P = 1146(57)ρ - 3638(567) for Fe-5 wt% Ni and V P = 1141(45)ρ- 3808(446) for Fe-15 wt% Ni, respectively, where V P is longitudinal wave velocity (m/s) and ρ is density (g/cm3).

  10. The characteristics and performance of electroless nickel and immersion Au plated aluminum alloy bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Sung-Ying; Bai, Ching-Yuan; Lin, Chien-Hung; Shi, Gia-Nan; Hou, Kung-Hsu; Liu, Yih-Ming; Ger, Ming-Der

    2012-09-01

    Cheap, lightweight, and malleable Al-alloy 5052 is suggested as alternative materials of graphite bipolar plates (BPPs) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). This work presents the first research in producing Au/Ni-P multilayer coatings on Al-alloy BPPs using an electroless Ni-P along with immersion gold techniques. The modified Al-alloy BPPs are investigated to evaluate the coating structure, corrosion resistance, interfacial contact resistance, electrochemical impedance of single cells, and single cell performance. The results indicate that the Al-alloy BPPs with Au/Ni-P coatings, in which Ni-P is prepared at pH 4.5, reveal the lowest contact resistance and the best corrosion resistance (Icorr = 8.43 × 10-6 A cm-2) in a 0.5 M H2SO4 + 2 ppm HF solution among all of the modified specimens. The electrochemical impedance of the Au/Ni-P coating after long-term operation is 9.1 mΩ. In addition, the power density of the single cells assembled with the Au/Ni-P/Al-alloy BPPs is 0.84 W cm-2 measured at a cell voltage of 0.7 V, comparable to that with graphite BPPs (0.80 W cm-2), in the test conditions of this study. We find that the Au/Ni-P multilayer coating is very appropriate for modifying Al-ally BPPs in PEMFC systems.

  11. Genotoxic effects of particles of surgical cobalt chrome alloy on human cells of different age in vitro.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Iraklis; Yin, Zhirong; Ladon, Dariusz; Baird, Duncan; Lewis, Andrew C; Sood, Aman; Newson, Roger; Learmonth, Ian D; Case, Charles Patrick

    2007-06-01

    Humans are exposed to metals from industry, the environment and from wear debris from worn orthopaedic joint replacements. Patients exposed to worn cobalt chrome hip replacements show an increase of chromosome aberrations in the bone marrow adjacent to the implant and an increase of chromosome translocations and aneuploidy in the peripheral blood. This study has tested whether particles of surgical cobalt chrome alloy are able to induce similar DNA damage and chromosome aberrations in human cells in vitro. Because increasingly young patients are receiving hip replacements it has also tested whether the response is altered at different cellular age in vitro. Primary human fibroblasts, were tested at different pre senescent population doublings (PD10 (young) and PD35 (older)) to particles of cobalt chrome alloy for up to 15 days. As in patients there was an increase of aneuploidy, chromosome translocations and DNA damage after exposure to the cobalt chrome particles in vitro. The overall level of DNA damage and numerical and structural aberrations was approximately the same in young and older cells. However, the cellular reaction to the DNA damage was different. Older cells showed a greater loss of viability and induction of senescence and a lesser rate of mitosis and cell growth than young cells. They showed less change in transcription, particularly of p38 and caspase 10 mRNA levels, than young cells. They showed more complex aneuploidy in association with unseparated or prematurely separated chromatids. This study suggests that at least part of the chromosome changes in patients with worn implants may be due to direct effects of the metal wear particles from the implant. It would be of interest to test whether the altered reaction of the human cells at different in vitro age might correspond with a different incidence of chromosome aberrations in patients at different ages.

  12. Manufacturing of Open-Cell Zn-22Al-2Cu Alloy Foams by a Centrifugal-Replication Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, A.; Cruz, A.; Rivera, J. E.; Romero, J. A.; Suárez, M. A.; Gutiérrez, V. H.

    2018-01-01

    Centrifugal force was used to produce open-cell Zn-22Al-2Cu alloy foams by the replication method. Three different sizes (0.50, 0.69, and 0.95 mm) of NaCl spherical particles were used as space holders. A relatively low infiltration pressure was required to infiltrate completely the liquid metal into the three pore sizes, and it was determined based on the centrifugation system parameters. The infiltration pressure required was decreased when the diameter of the particle was increased. The porosity of the foam was increased from 58 to 63 pct, when the pore size was increased from 0.50 to 0.95 mm, while the relative density was decreased from 0.42 to 0.36. The NaCl preform was preheated to avoid the freezing and to keep the rheological properties of the melt. The centrifugal-replication method is a suitable technique for the fabrication of open-cell Zn-Al-Cu alloy foams with small pore size. The compressive mechanical properties of the open-cell Zn-22Al-2Cu foams increased when the pore size decreased.

  13. Investigation of nano Pt and Pt-based alloys electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells and their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suo, Chunguang; Zhang, Wenbin; Shi, Xinghua; Ma, Chuxia

    2014-03-01

    The electrocatalysts used in micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC), such as Pt/C and Pt alloy/C, prepared by liquid-phase NaBH4 reduction method have been investigated. XC-72 (Cobalt corp. Company, U.S.A) is chosen as the activated carrier for the electrocatalysts to keep the catalysts powder in the range of several nanometers. The XRD, SEM, EDX analyses indicated that the catalysts had small particle size in several nanometers, in excellent dispersed phase and the molar ratio of the precious metals was found to be optimal. The performances of the DMFCs using cathodic catalyst with Pt percentage of 30wt% and different anodic catalysts (Pt-Ru, Pt-Ru-Mo) were tested. The polarization curves and power density curves of the cells were measured to determine the optimal alloy composition and condition for the electrocatalysts. The results showed that the micro direct methanol fuel cell with 30wt% Pt/C as the cathodic catalyst and n(Pt):n(Ru):n(Mo) = 3:2:2 PtRuMo/C as the anodic catalyst at room temperature using 2.0mol/L methanol solution has the best performances.

  14. Pentacle gold-copper alloy nanocrystals: a new system for entering male germ cells in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu; He, Rong; Sun, Liping; Yang, Yushan; Li, Wenqing; Sun, Fei

    2016-12-01

    Gold-based nanocrystals have attracted considerable attention for drug delivery and biological applications due to their distinct shapes. However, overcoming biological barriers is a hard and inevitable problem, which restricts medical applications of nanomaterials in vivo. Seeking for an efficient transportation to penetrate biological barriers is a common need. There are three barriers: blood-testis barrier, blood-placenta barrier, and blood-brain barrier. Here, we pay close attention to the blood-testis barrier. We found that the pentacle gold-copper alloy nanocrystals not only could enter GC-2 cells in vitro in a short time, but also could overcome the blood-testis barrier and enter male germ cells in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the entrance efficiency would become much higher in the development stages. The results also suggested that the pentacle gold-copper alloy nanocrystals could easier enter to germ cells in the pathological condition. This system could be a new method for theranostics in the reproductive system.

  15. Effects of cell size and macrosegregation on the corrosion behavior of a dilute Pb-Sb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Daniel M.; Spinelli, José E.; Osório, Wislei R.; Garcia, Amauri

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cooling rate on the cellular growth of a Pb-0.85 wt%Sb alloy and to evaluate the influences of cell size and of the corresponding macrosegregation profile on the resultant corrosion behavior. In order to obtain the as-cast samples a water-cooled unidirectional solidification system was used. Such experimental set-up has permitted the development of a clear cellular structural array even for relative high cooling rates and has allowed a wide range of solidification conditions to be analyzed. Macrostructural and microstructural aspects along the casting were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique and potentiodynamic curves (Tafel extrapolation) were used to analyze the corrosion resistance of samples collected along the casting length and immersed in a 0.5 M H 2SO 4 solution at 25 °C. It was found that the corrosion rate decreases with increasing cell spacing and that the pre-programming of microstructure cell size can be used as an alternative way to produce as-cast components of Pb-Sb alloys, such as battery grids, with better corrosion resistance.

  16. Upregulation of cell proliferation via Shc and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling in SaOS-2 osteoblasts grown on magnesium alloy surface coating with tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianlong; Guo, Lei; Ni, Shenghui; Zhao, Yuyan

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been demonstrated to be viable orthopedic implants because of mechanical and biocompatible properties similar to natural bone. In order to improve its osteogenic properties, a porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was coated on the Mg-3AI-1Zn alloy by alkali-heat treatment technique. The human bone-derived cells (SaOS-2) were cultured on (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn in vitro, and the osteoblast response, the morphology and the elements on this alloy surface were investigated. Also, the regulation of key intracellular signalling proteins was investigated in the SaOS-2 cells cultured on alloy surface. The results from scanning electron microscope and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn induced significant osteogenesis. SaOS-2 cell proliferation was improved by β-TCP coating. Moreover, the (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn surface induced activation of key intracellular signalling proteins in SaOS-2 cells. We observed an enhanced activation of Src homology and collagen (Shc), a common point of integration between bone morphogenetic protein 2, and the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. ERK1/2 MAP kinase activation was also upregulated, suggesting a role in mediating osteoblastic cell interactions with biomaterials. The signalling pathway involving c-fos (member of the activated protein-1) was also shown to be upregulated in osteoblasts cultured on the (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn. These results suggest that β-TCP coating may contribute to successful osteoblast function on Mg alloy surface. (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn may upregulate cell proliferation via Shc and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling in SaOS-2 osteoblasts grown on Mg alloy surface.

  17. Alloy materials

    DOEpatents

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  18. RECOMBINATION PROCESSES AND NATURE OF THE TAIL AND GAP STATES IN a-Si:H and a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H MULTILAYERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morigaki, K.

    We discuss recombination processes and nature of the tail and gap states in a-Si:H and a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H multilayers on the basis of our ODMR, luminescence, photoinduced absorption and ENDOR measurements. We present other results relevant to this subject and attempt to interpret them in terms of our model.

  19. Beyond 11% efficient sulfide kesterite Cu 2Zn xCd 1–xSnS 4 solar cell: Effects of cadmium alloying

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Chang; Sun, Kaiwen; Huang, Jialiang; ...

    2017-04-03

    Here, kesterite Cu 2ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin-film solar cells have drawn worldwide attention because of outstanding performance and earth-abundant constituents. However, problems such as coexistence of complex secondary phases, the band tailing issue, short minority lifetime, bulk defects, and undesirable band alignment at p-n interfaces need to be addressed for further efficiency improvement. In this regard, Cd alloying shows promise for dealing with some of these problems. In this work, a beyond 11% efficient Cd-alloyed CZTS solar cell is achieved, and the effects of Cd-alloying and mechanism underpinning the performance improvement have been investigated. The introduction of Cd can significantlymore » reduce the band tailing issue, which is confirmed by the reduction in the difference between the photoluminescence peak and optical band gap (E g) as well as decreased Urbach energy. The microstructure, minority lifetime, and electrical properties of CZTS absorber are greatly improved by Cd alloying. Further XPS analyses show that the partial Cd alloying slightly reduces the band gap of CZTS via elevating the valence band maximum of CZTS. This suggests that there are opportunities for further efficiency improvement by engineering the absorber and the associated interface with the buffer.« less

  20. Annealing characteristics of irradiated hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payson, J. S.; Abdulaziz, S.; Li, Y.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    It was shown that 1 MeV proton irradiation with fluences of 1.25E14 and 1.25E15/sq cm reduces the normalized I(sub SC) of a-Si:H solar cell. Solar cells recently fabricated showed superior radiation tolerance compared with cells fabricated four years ago; the improvement is probably due to the fact that the new cells are thinner and fabricated from improved materials. Room temperature annealing was observed for the first time in both new and old cells. New cells anneal at a faster rate than old cells for the same fluence. From the annealing work it is apparent that there are at least two types of defects and/or annealing mechanisms. One cell had improved I-V characteristics following irradiation as compared to the virgin cell. The work shows that the photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) and annealing measurements may be used to predict the qualitative behavior of a-Si:H solar cells. It was anticipated that the modeling work will quantitatively link thin film measurements with solar cell properties. Quantitative predictions of the operation of a-Si:H solar cells in a space environment will require a knowledge of the defect creation mechanisms, defect structures, role of defects on degradation, and defect passivation and annealing mechanisms. The engineering data and knowledge base for justifying space flight testing of a-Si:H alloy based solar cells is being developed.

  1. The corrosion and biological behaviour of titanium alloys in the presence of human lymphoid cells and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Mei; Chai, Feng; Hornez, Jean-Christophe; Li, Chang Liang; Zhao, Yi Min; Traisnel, Michel; Hildebrand, Hartmut F

    2009-02-01

    Corrosion behaviour of biomedical alloys is generally determined in mineral electrolytes: unbuffered NaCl 0.9% (pH 7.4) or artificial saliva (pH 6.8). The assays with exclusive utilization of these electrolytes are of low relevance for the biological condition, to which the alloys will be exposed once implanted in the human organism. As an approach to the biological situation regarding the interaction of proteins, electrolytes and metals, we added the RPMI cell culture medium containing foetal calf serum as a biological electrolyte (pH 7.0). The analysis of corrosion behaviour was also performed in the presence of human lymphoid cells (CEM). The rest potential (Er) and the global polarization were determined on cp-Ti, micro-arc oxidized cp-Ti (MAO-Ti), four different Ti-alloys (Ti6Al4V, Ti12Zr, Ti(AlMoZr), Ti(NbTaZr)) and 316L stainless steel. The 316L exhibited an appropriate Er and a good passive current density (Ip), but a high corrosion potential (Ec) and a very low breakdown potential (Eb) in all electrolytes. All Ti-alloys exhibited a much better electrochemical behaviour: better Er and Ec and very high Eb. No significant differences of the above parameters existed between the Ti-alloys, except for Zr-containing alloys that showed better corrosion behaviour. A remarkable difference, however, was stated with respect to the electrolytes. NaCl 0.9% induced strong variations between the Ti-alloys. More homogeneous results were obtained with artificial saliva and RPMI medium, which induced a favourable Ec and an increased Ip. The presence of cells further decreased these values. The unbuffered NaCl solution seems to be less appropriate for the analysis of corrosion of metals. Additional in vitro biological assessments with CEM cell suspensions and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts confirmed the advantages of the Ti(AlMoZr) and Ti(NbTaZr) alloys with an improved cell proliferation and vitality rate.

  2. Alloying Strategy in Cu-In-Ga-Se Quantum Dots for High Efficiency Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wenxiang; Du, Jun; Pan, Zhenxiao; Nakazawa, Naoki; Sun, Jiankun; Du, Zhonglin; Shen, Gencai; Yu, Juan; Hu, Jin-Song; Shen, Qing; Zhong, Xinhua

    2017-02-15

    I-III-VI 2 group "green" quantum dots (QDs) are attracting increasing attention in photoelectronic conversion applications. Herein, on the basis of the "simultaneous nucleation and growth" approach, Cu-In-Ga-Se (CIGSe) QDs with light harvesting range of about 1000 nm were synthesized and used as sensitizer to construct quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), wild-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses demonstrate that the Ga element was alloyed in the Cu-In-Se (CISe) host. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and femtosecond (fs) resolution transient absorption (TA) measurement results indicate that the alloying strategy could optimize the electronic structure in the obtained CIGSe QD material, thus matching well with TiO 2 substrate and favoring the photogenerated electron extraction. Open circuit voltage decay (OCVD) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) tests indicate that the intrinsic recombination in CIGSe QDSCs was well suppressed relative to that in CISe QDSCs. As a result, CIGSe based QDSCs with use of titanium mesh supported mesoporous carbon counter electrode exhibited a champion efficiency of 11.49% (J sc = 25.01 mA/cm 2 , V oc = 0.740 V, FF = 0.621) under the irradiation of full one sun in comparison with 9.46% for CISe QDSCs.

  3. Bone mesenchymal stem cell functions on the hierarchical micro/nanotopographies of the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Nan; Zhang, Shuyin; Li, Yongfeng; Shen, Shuning; Niu, Qiang; Zhao, Yimin; Kong, Liang

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the response of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) placed on the titanium-6aluminium-7niobiuim (Ti-6Al-7Nb) alloy modified by hydrofluoric acid etch combined with subsequent anodic oxidation. Pure titanium (Ti) discs and Ti-6Al-7Nb discs were treated by hydrofluoric acid etch and anodic oxidation, and polished pure Ti discs and Ti-6Al-7Nb discs without surface modification served as controls (n=35 in each group). Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and radiographic photoelectron spectroscopy assays were used to detect the properties of the samples' surface. The morphology, adhesion, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity of BMSC were examined using various techniques of microscopic and biological characterisation. The results showed that both Ti-6Al-7Nb samples and the pure Ti samples showed hierarchical micro/nanotopographies, and fluorine emerged on the surfaces of the samples after modification. The hierarchical micro/nanotopographies significantly increased the spreading, adhesion, and proliferation of BMSC and activity of alkaline phosphatase. In addition, modified samples of Ti-6Al-7Nb showed significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity than modified pure Ti samples (p<0.05). The experiment successfully confirmed that Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy with hierarchical micro/nanotopographies treated by hydrofluoric acid etch and anodic oxidation possessed good biocompatibility, and may be a promising candidate for dental implants. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology.

    PubMed

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-03

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm(2), and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p(+-)n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  5. Fabrication of Highly Stable and Efficient PtCu Alloy Nanoparticles on Highly Porous Carbon for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Inayat Ali; Qian, Yuhong; Badshah, Amin; Zhao, Dan; Nadeem, Muhammad Arif

    2016-08-17

    Boosting the durability of Pt nanoparticles by controlling the composition and morphology is extremely important for fuel cells commercialization. We deposit the Pt-Cu alloy nanoparticles over high surface area carbon in different metallic molar ratios and optimize the conditions to achieve desired material. The novel bimetallic electro-catalyst {Pt-Cu/PC-950 (15:15%)} offers exceptional electrocatalytic activity when tested for both oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reactions. A high mass activity of 0.043 mA/μgPt (based on Pt mass) is recorded for ORR. An outstanding longevity of this electro-catalyst is noticed when compared to 20 wt % Pt loaded either on PC-950 or commercial carbon. The high surface area carbon support offers enhanced activity and prevents the nanoparticles from agglomeration, migration, and dissolution as evident by TEM analysis.

  6. Differential Responses of Osteoblast Lineage Cells to Nanotopographically-Modified, Microroughened Titanium-Aluminum-Vanadium Alloy Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gittens, Rolando A.; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; McLachlan, Taylor; Cai, Ye; Hyzy, Sharon L.; Schneider, Jennifer M.; Schwartz, Zvi; Sandhage, Kenneth H.; Boyan, Barbara D.

    2013-01-01

    Surface structural modifications at the micrometer and nanometer scales have driven improved success rates of dental and orthopaedic implants by mimicking the hierarchical structure of bone. However, how initial osteoblast-lineage cells populating an implant surface respond to different hierarchical surface topographical cues remains to be elucidated, with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or immature osteoblasts as possible initial colonizers. Here we show that in the absence of any exogenous soluble factors, osteoblastic maturation of primary human osteoblasts (HOBs) but not osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs is strongly influenced by nanostructures superimposed onto a microrough Ti6Al4V (TiAlV) alloy. The sensitivity of osteoblasts to both surface microroughness and nanostructures led to a synergistic effect on maturation and local factor production. Osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs was sensitive to TiAlV surface microroughness with respect to production of differentiation markers, but no further enhancement was found when cultured on micro/nanostructured surfaces. Superposition of nanostructures to microroughened surfaces affected final MSC numbers and enhanced production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) but the magnitude of the response was lower than for HOB cultures. Our results suggest that the differentiation state of osteoblast-lineage cells determines the recognition of surface nanostructures and subsequent cell response, which has implications for clinical evaluation of new implant surface nanomodifications. PMID:22989383

  7. Direct in vivo inflammatory cell-induced corrosion of CoCrMo alloy orthopedic implant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jeremy L; Sivan, Shiril; Liu, Yangping; Kocagöz, Sevi B; Arnholt, Christina M; Kurtz, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloy, used for over five decades in orthopedic implants, may corrode and release wear debris into the body during use. These degradation products may stimulate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo. We report here on evidence of direct inflammatory cell-induced corrosion of human implanted and retrieved CoCrMo implant surfaces. Corrosion morphology on CoCrMo implant surfaces, in unique and characteristic patterns, and the presence of cellular remnants and biological materials intimately entwined with the corrosion indicates direct cellular attack under the cell membrane region of adhered and/or migrating inflammatory cells. Evidence supports a Fenton-like reaction mechanism driving corrosion in which reactive oxygen species are the major driver of corrosion. Using in vitro tests, large increases in corrosion susceptibility of CoCrMo were seen (40-100 fold) when immersed in phosphate buffered saline solutions modified with hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid to represent the chemistry under inflammatory cells. This discovery raises significant new questions about the clinical consequences of such corrosion interactions, the role of patient inflammatory reactions, and the detailed mechanisms at play. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Direct In Vivo Inflammatory Cell-Induced Corrosion of CoCrMo Alloy Orthopedic Implant Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jeremy L.; Sivan, Shiril; Liu, Yangping; Kocagöz, Sevi; Arnholt, Christina; Kurtz, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, used for over four decades in orthopedic implants, may corrode and release wear debris into the body during use. These degradation products may stimulate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo. We report here on evidence of direct inflammatory cell-induced corrosion of human implanted and retrieved CoCrMo implant surfaces. Corrosion morphology on CoCrMo implant surfaces, in unique and characteristic patterns, and the presence of cellular remnants and biological materials intimately entwined with the corrosion indicates direct cellular attack under the cell membrane region of adhered and/or migrating inflammatory cells. Evidence supports a Fenton-like reaction mechanism driving corrosion in which reactive oxygen species are the major driver of corrosion. Using in vitro tests, large increases in corrosion susceptibility of CoCrMo were seen (40 to 100 fold) when immersed in phosphate buffered saline solutions modified with hydrogen peroxide and HCl to represent the chemistry under inflammatory cells. This discovery raises significant new questions about the clinical consequences of such corrosion interactions, the role of patient inflammatory reactions, and the detailed mechanisms at play. PMID:24619511

  9. Response of MG63 osteoblast-like cells to titanium and titanium alloy is dependent on surface roughness and composition.

    PubMed

    Lincks, J; Boyan, B D; Blanchard, C R; Lohmann, C H; Liu, Y; Cochran, D L; Dean, D D; Schwartz, Z

    1998-12-01

    The success of an implant is determined by its integration into the tissue surrounding the biomaterial. Surface roughness and composition are considered to influence the properties of adherent cells. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chemical composition and surface roughness of commercially pure titanium (Ti) and Ti-6A1-4V alloy (Ti-A) on MG63 osteoblast-like cells. Unalloyed and alloyed Ti disks were machined and either fine-polished or wet-ground, resulting in smooth (S) and rough (R) finishes, respectively. Standard tissue culture plastic was used as a control. Surface topography and profile were evaluated by cold field emission scanning electron microscopy and profilometry, while chemical composition was determined using Auger electron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effect on the cells was evaluated 24 h postconfluence by measuring cell number, [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA, cell and cell layer alkaline phosphatase specific activity (ALPase), osteocalcin and collagen production, [35S]-sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) production. When compared to plastic, the number of cells was reduced on the pure Ti surfaces, while it was equivalent on the Ti-A surfaces; [3H]-thymidine incorporation was reduced on all surfaces. The stimulatory effect of surface roughness on ALPase in isolated cells and the cell layer was more pronounced on the rougher surfaces, with enzyme activity on Ti-R being greater than on Ti-A-R. Osteocalcin production was increased only on the Ti-R surface. Collagen production was decreased on Ti surfaces except Ti-R; [35S]-sulfate incorporation was reduced on all surfaces. Surface roughness affected local factor production (TGF-beta, PGE2). The stimulatory effect of the rougher surfaces on PGE2 and TGF-beta was greater on Ti than Ti-A. In summary, cell proliferation, differentiation, protein synthesis and local

  10. Surface modification by carbon ion implantation for the application of ni-based amorphous alloys as bipolar plate in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Uk; Kim, Do-Hyang; Han, Seung-hee; Fleury, Eric; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Kim, Yu-Chan

    2011-04-01

    Ni-based amorphous alloys with surface modification by carbon ion implantation are proposed as an alternative bipolar plate material for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Both Ni60Nb20Ti10Zr10 alloys with and without carbon ion implantation have corrosion resistance as good as graphite as well as much lower contact resistance than 316L stainless steel in the PEMFC environment. The formation of conductive surface carbide due to carbon ion implantation results in a decrease in the contact resistance to a level comparable to that of graphite. This combination of excellent properties indicates that carbon ion implanted Ni-based amorphous alloys can be potential candidate materials for bipolar plates in PEMFCs.

  11. Structural and compositional dependence of the CdTexSe1−x alloy layer photoactivity in CdTe-based solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Guo, Wei; Paudel, Naba; Ng, Amy; More, Karren; Leonard, Donovan; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-01-01

    The published external quantum efficiency data of the world-record CdTe solar cell suggests that the device uses bandgap engineering, most likely with a CdTexSe1−x alloy layer to increase the short-circuit current and overall device efficiency. Here atom probe tomography, transmission electron microscopy and electron beam-induced current are used to clarify the dependence of Se content on the photoactive properties of CdTexSe1−x alloy layers in bandgap-graded CdTe solar cells. Four solar cells were prepared with 50, 100, 200 and 400 nm-thick CdSe layers to reveal the formation, growth, composition, structure and photoactivity of the CdTexSe1−x alloy with respect to the degree of Se diffusion. The results show that the CdTexSe1−x layer photoactivity is highly dependent on the crystalline structure of the alloy (zincblende versus wurtzite), which is also dependent on the Se and Te concentrations. PMID:27460872

  12. Structural and compositional dependence of the CdTexSe 1-x alloy layer photoactivity in CdTe-based solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Guo, Wei; Paudel, Naba; ...

    2016-07-27

    The published external quantum efficiency data of the world-record CdTe solar cell suggests that the device uses bandgap engineering, most likely with a CdTe xSe 1₋x alloy layer to increase the short-circuit current and overall device efficiency. Here atom probe tomography, transmission electron microscopy and electron beam-induced current are used to clarify the dependence of Se content on the photoactive properties of CdTe xSe 1₋x alloy layers in bandgap-graded CdTe solar cells. Four solar cells were prepared with 50, 100, 200 and 400 nm-thick CdSe layers to reveal the formation, growth, composition, structure and photoactivity of the CdTe xSe 1₋xmore » alloy with respect to the degree of Se diffusion. Finally, the results show that the CdTe xSe 1₋x layer photoactivity is highly dependent on the crystalline structure of the alloy (zincblende versus wurtzite), which is also dependent on the Se and Te concentrations.« less

  13. Iridium−Ruthenium Alloyed Nanoparticles for the Ethanol Oxidation Fuel Cell Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Su D.; Du, W.; Deskins, N.A.

    2012-06-01

    In this study, carbon supported Ir-Ru nanoparticles with average sizes ranging from 2.9 to 3.7 nm were prepared using a polyol method. The combined characterization techniques, that is, scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with electron energy loss spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, were used to determine an Ir-Ru alloy nanostructure. Both cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry (CA) results demonstrate that Ir{sub 77}Ru{sub 23}/C bears superior catalytic activities for the ethanol oxidation reaction compared to Ir/C and commercial Pt/C catalysts. In particular, the Ir{sub 77}Ru{sub 23}/C catalyst shows more than 21 times higher massmore » current density than that of Pt/C after 2 h reaction at a potential of 0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl in CA measurement. Density functional theory simulations also demonstrate the superiority of Ir-Ru alloys compared to Ir for the ethanol oxidation reaction.« less

  14. Functional Performances of CuZnAl Shape Memory Alloy Open-Cell Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, C. A.; Casati, R.; Bassani, P.; Tuissi, A.

    2018-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) with cellular structure offer a unique mixture of thermo-physical-mechanical properties. These characteristics can be tuned by changing the pore size and make the shape memory metallic foams very attractive for developing new devices for structural and functional applications. In this work, CuZnAl SMA foams were produced through the liquid infiltration of space holder method. In comparison, a conventional CuZn brass alloy was foamed trough the same method. Functional performances were studied on both bulk and foamed SMA specimens. Calorimetric response shows similar martensitic transformation (MT) below 0 °C. Compressive response of CuZnAl revealed that mechanical behavior is strongly affected by sample morphology and that damping capacity of metallic foam is increased above the MT temperatures. The shape memory effect was detected in the CuZnAl foams. The conventional brass shows a compressive response similar to that of the martensitic CuZnAl, in which plastic deformation accumulation occurs up to the cellular structure densification after few thermal cycles.

  15. Bio-functionalization of grade V titanium alloy with type I human collagen for enhancing and promoting human periodontal fibroblast cell adhesion - an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Jitendra; Koul, Veena; Dinda, Amit K; Kharbanda, Om P; Lale, Shantanu V; Duggal, Ritu; Mishra, Monu; Gupta, Govind; Singh, Manoj P

    2018-01-01

    Surface modification of medical grade V titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) with biomolecules is an important and vital step for tailoring it for various biomedical applications. Present study investigates theinfluence of type I human collagen (T1HC) bio-conjugation through a three stage process. Polished grade V titanium alloy discs were functionalizedwith free OH group by means of controlled heat and alkali treatment followed by coating of 3-aminopropyltriethoxy (APTES) silane couplingagent. T1HC were bio-conjugated through 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDCNHS)coupling reaction. At each stage, grade V titanium alloy surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Xrayphotoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR and XPS studies confirms thecovalent attachment of APTES with titanium alloy surface while terminalamine groups of APTES remained free for further attachment of T1HCthrough covalent bond. Aqueous stability of bio-conjugated titanium discsat various pH and time intervals (i.e. at pH of 5.5, 6.8 and 8.0 at timeinterval of 27 and 48h) confirmed the stability of T1HC bioconjugated collagen on titanium surface. Further human periodontalfibroblast cell line (HPdlF) culture revealed enhanced adhesion on theT1HC bio-conjugated surface compared to the polystyrene and polishedgrade V titanium alloy surfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Lightweight, Flexible Solar Cells on Stainless Steel Foil and Polymer for Space and Stratospheric Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beernink, Kevin; Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Jeff; Banerjee, Arindam; Lord, Ken; DeMaggio, Greg; Liu, Frank; Pietka, Ginger; Johnson, Todd; Reinhout, Melanie; hide

    2007-01-01

    The availability of low-cost, lightweight and reliable photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important component in reducing the cost of satellites and spacecraft. In addition, future high-power spacecraft will require lightweight PV arrays with reduced stowage volume. In terms of the requirements for low mass, reduced stowage volume, and the harsh space environment, thin film amorphous silicon (a-Si) alloy cells have several advantages over other material technologies (1). The deposition process is relatively simple, inexpensive, and applicable to large area, lightweight, flexible substrates. The temperature coefficient has been found to be between -0.2 and -0.3 %/degC for high-efficiency triple-junction a-Si alloy cells, which is superior for high temperature operation compared to crystalline Si and triple-junction GaAs/InGaP/Ge devices at 0.53 %/degC and 0.45 %/degC, respectively (2). As a result, the reduction in efficiency at high temperature typical in space conditions is less for a-Si alloy cells than for their crystalline counterparts. Additionally, the a-Si alloy cells are relatively insensitive to electron and proton bombardment. We have shown that defects that are created by electrons with energies between 0.2 to 2 MeV with fluence up to 1x10(exp 15) e/sq cm and by protons with energy in the range 0.3 MeV to 5 MeV with fluence up to 1x10(exp 13) p/sq cm can be annealed out at 70 C in less than 50 hours (1). Further, modules incorporating United Solar s a-Si alloy cells have been tested on the MIR space station for 19 months with only minimal degradation (3). For stratospheric applications, such as the high altitude airship, the required PV arrays are typically of considerably higher power than current space arrays. Airships typically have a large area available for the PV, but weight is of critical importance. As a result, low cost and high specific power (W/kg) are key factors for airship PV arrays. Again, thin-film a-Si alloy solar cell technology is well

  17. Metastability of a-SiOx:H thin films for c-Si surface passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serenelli, L.; Martini, L.; Imbimbo, L.; Asquini, R.; Menchini, F.; Izzi, M.; Tucci, M.

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of a-SiOx:H films obtained by PECVD in heterojunction solar cells is a key to further increase their efficiency, because of its transparency in the UV with respect to the commonly used a-Si:H. At the same time this layer must guarantee high surface passivation of the c-Si to be suitable in high efficiency solar cell manufacturing. On the other hand the application of amorphous materials like a-Si:H and SiNx on the cell frontside expose them to the mostly energetic part of the sun spectrum, leading to a metastability of their passivation properties. Moreover as for amorphous silicon, thermal annealing procedures are considered as valuable steps to enhance and stabilize thin film properties, when performed at opportune temperature. In this work we explored the reliability of a-SiOx:H thin film layers surface passivation on c-Si substrates under UV exposition, in combination with thermal annealing steps. Both p- and n-type doped c-Si substrates were considered. To understand the effect of UV light soaking we monitored the minority carriers lifetime and Sisbnd H and Sisbnd O bonding, by FTIR spectra, after different exposure times to light coming from a deuterium lamp, filtered to UV-A region, and focused on the sample to obtain a power density of 50 μW/cm2. We found a certain lifetime decrease after UV light soaking in both p- and n-type c-Si passivated wafers according to a a-SiOx:H/c-Si/a-SiOx:H structure. The role of a thermal annealing, which usually enhances the as-deposited SiOx passivation properties, was furthermore considered. In particular we monitored the UV light soaking effect on c-Si wafers after a-SiOx:H coating by PECVD and after a thermal annealing treatment at 300 °C for 30 min, having selected these conditions on the basis of the study of the effect due to different temperatures and durations. We correlated the lifetime evolution and the metastability effect of thermal annealing to the a-SiOx:H/c-Si interface considering the evolution

  18. Influence of gold, silver and gold–silver alloy nanoparticles on germ cell function and embryo development

    PubMed Central

    Rehbock, Christoph; Kues, Wilfried A

    2015-01-01

    Summary The use of engineered nanoparticles has risen exponentially over the last decade. Applications are manifold and include utilisation in industrial goods as well as medical and consumer products. Gold and silver nanoparticles play an important role in the current increase of nanoparticle usage. However, our understanding concerning possible side effects of this increased exposure to particles, which are frequently in the same size regime as medium sized biomolecules and accessorily possess highly active surfaces, is still incomplete. That particularly applies to reproductive aspects, were defects can be passed onto following generations. This review gives a brief overview of the most recent findings concerning reprotoxicological effects. The here presented data elucidate how composition, size and surface modification of nanoparticles influence viablility and functionality of reproduction relevant cells derived from various animal models. While in vitro cultured embryos displayed no toxic effects after the microinjection of gold and silver nanoparticles, sperm fertility parameters deteriorated after co-incubation with ligand free gold nanoparticles. However, the effect could be alleviated by bio-coating the nanoparticles, which even applies to silver and silver-rich alloy nanoparticles. The most sensitive test system appeared to be in vitro oocyte maturation showing a dose-dependent response towards protein (BSA) coated gold–silver alloy and silver nanoparticles leading up to complete arrest of maturation. Recent biodistribution studies confirmed that nanoparticles gain access to the ovaries and also penetrate the blood–testis and placental barrier. Thus, the design of nanoparticles with increased biosafety is highly relevant for biomedical applications. PMID:25821705

  19. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm2, and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p+−n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5–10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method. PMID:26632759

  20. Influence of Surface Energy on Organic Alloy Formation in Ternary Blend Solar Cells Based on Two Donor Polymers.

    PubMed

    Gobalasingham, Nemal S; Noh, Sangtaik; Howard, Jenna B; Thompson, Barry C

    2016-10-05

    The compositional dependence of the open-circuit voltage (V oc ) in ternary blend bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is correlated with the miscibility of polymers, which may be influenced by a number of attributes, including crystallinity, the random copolymer effect, or surface energy. Four ternary blend systems featuring poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene) (P3HT 75 -co-EHT 25 ), poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-(hexyl-3-carboxylate)), herein referred to as poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-hexylesterthiophene) (P3HT 50 -co-3HET 50 ), poly(3-hexylthiophene-thiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole) (P3HTT-DPP-10%), and an analog of P3HTT-DPP-10% with 40% of 3-hexylthiophene exchanged for 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethylthiophen-2-yl (3MEO-T) (featuring an electronically decoupled oligoether side-chain), referred to as P3HTTDPP-MEO40%, are explored in this work. All four polymers are semicrystalline and rich in rr-P3HT content and perform well in binary devices with PC 61 BM. Except for P3HTTDPP-MEO40%, all polymers exhibit similar surface energies (∼21-22 mN/m). P3HTTDPP-MEO40% exhibits an elevated surface energy of around 26 mN/m. As a result, despite the similar optoelectronic properties and binary solar cell performance of P3HTTDPP-MEO40% compared to P3HTT-DPP-10%, the former exhibits a pinned V oc in two different sets of ternary blend devices. This is a stark contrast to previous rr-P3HT-based systems and demonstrates that surface energy, and its influence on miscibility, plays a critical role in the formation of organic alloys and can supersede the influence of crystallinity, the random copolymer effect, similar backbone structures, and HOMO/LUMO considerations. Therefore, we confirm surface energy compatibility as a figure-of-merit for predicting the compositional dependence of the V oc in ternary blend solar cells and highlight the importance of polymer miscibility in organic alloy formation.

  1. Direct Laser Interference Patterning of CoCr Alloy Surfaces to Control Endothelial Cell and Platelet Response for Cardiovascular Applications.

    PubMed

    Schieber, Romain; Lasserre, Federico; Hans, Michael; Fernández-Yagüe, Marc; Díaz-Ricart, Maribel; Escolar, Ginés; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Mücklich, Frank; Pegueroles, Marta

    2017-10-01

    The main drawbacks of cardiovascular bare-metal stents (BMS) are in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis as a result of an incomplete endothelialization after stent implantation. Nano- and microscale modification of implant surfaces is a strategy to recover the functionality of the artery by stimulating and guiding molecular and biological processes at the implant/tissue interface. In this study, cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy surfaces are modified via direct laser interference patterning (DLIP) in order to create linear patterning onto CoCr surfaces with different periodicities (≈3, 10, 20, and 32 µm) and depths (≈20 and 800 nm). Changes in surface topography, chemistry, and wettability are thoroughly characterized before and after modification. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells' adhesion and spreading are similar for all patterned and plain CoCr surfaces. Moreover, high-depth series induce cell elongation, alignment, and migration along the patterned lines. Platelet adhesion and aggregation decrease in all patterned surfaces compared to CoCr control, which is associated with changes in wettability and oxide layer characteristics. Cellular studies provide evidence of the potential of DLIP topographies to foster endothelialization without enhancement of platelet adhesion, which will be of high importance when designing new BMS in the future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A novel Nickel-Aluminum alloy with Titanium for improved anode performance and properties in Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattini, Domenico; Accardo, Grazia; Moreno, Angelo; Yoon, Sung Pil; Han, Jong Hee; Nam, Suk Woo

    2017-06-01

    The anode materials of MCFC require more investigations in order to boost performances at long term. In literature, many NiAl modified alloys have been proposed but not always enhanced cell performance and improved mechanical properties are achieved together. In this work, differently from previous literature, the use of Ti in a NiAl/Ti system is proposed as an effective strategy to enhance both mechanical and electrochemical properties. Results show that bending strength and stiffness increase whereas creep deformation under high pressure-temperature is lower, i.e. around 5-6%, compared to 7.5% of the standard benchmark. The preliminary cell tests carried out show also how the performance, in terms of current and voltage output, is better for anodes with Ti addition with a maximum power density of 165 mW cm-2 at 300 mA cm-2 for Ti 5% compared to 149 mW cm-2 of Ni5Al at the same current density. Finally, the best electrochemical behavior is found for the Ti 5% sample as it achieved the lowest internal and charge transfer resistance at the end of tests. These results suggest that NiAl/Ti systems can be eligible anode materials and are worthy to be investigated more in order to attract a renewed interest for development of MCFCs.

  3. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    A brazing alloy which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability, said alloy being capable of forming a corrosion resistant brazed joint wherein at least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion resistant refractory metal, said alloy consisting essentially of 20 to 50 per cent by weight of gold, 20 to 50 per cent by weight of nickel, and 15 to 45 per cent by weight of molybdenum. (AEC)

  4. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  5. Nature of paramagnetic centers in a-Si and a-Si:H

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Stesmans, A.

    1988-08-01

    A comparative ESR study has been undertaken of various kinds of a-Si and a-Si:H. Experiments on sputtered samples reveal that the local configuration of the usual dangling-bond (DB) centers (gapprox. =2.0055) depends on the details of deposition. The g value may gradually be reduced to values as low as 2.0041 as a result of local-structure change. Regarding the g = 2.004 signal originated from conduction-band-tail (CBT) states, it is shown that the effective correlation energy (U/sub eff/) is large and the temperature dependence of its spin density is due to the presence of donor levels: not due to a small-U/submore » eff/ effect as has previously been concluded. Related to this, ample evidence is provided, indicating that the g = 2.004 signal in P-doped a-Si:H and the g = 2.005 DB line are in fact variants of the same kind of defect. Systematic analysis identifies the g = 2.004 CBT states signal with T/sub 3//sup -/-T/sub 3//sup +/+e/sup -/ defect centers thus showing that a great deal of the CBT states are defect states rather than disorder-induced localized states. Regarding the g = 2.013 signal in a-Si:H, evidence is provided showing that this cannot be associated with valence-band-tail states. Rather it concerns defects positioned at approx. =0.6 eV above the valence-band mobility edge, whose nature is as yet to be determined. Their presence relates directly or indirectly to H incorporation.« less

  6. Colloidal Synthesis of Air-Stable Alloyed CsSn1-xPbxI3 Perovskite Nanocrystals for Use in Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Ding, Chao; Zhang, Yaohong; Ripolles, Teresa S; Kamisaka, Taichi; Toyoda, Taro; Hayase, Shuzi; Minemoto, Takashi; Yoshino, Kenji; Dai, Songyuan; Yanagida, Masatoshi; Noguchi, Hidenori; Shen, Qing

    2017-11-22

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells have demonstrated unprecedented high power conversion efficiencies in the past few years. Now, the universal instability of the perovskites has become the main barrier for this kind of solar cells to realize commercialization. This situation can be even worse for those tin-based perovskites, especially for CsSnI 3 , because upon exposure to ambient atmosphere the desired black orthorhombic phase CsSnI 3 would promptly lose single crystallinity and degrade to the inactive yellow phase, followed by irreversible oxidation into metallic Cs 2 SnI 6 . By alloying CsSnI 3 with CsPbI 3 , we herein report the synthesis of alloyed perovskite quantum dot (QD), CsSn 1-x Pb x I 3 , which not only can be phase-stable for months in purified colloidal solution but also remains intact even directly exposed to ambient air, far superior to both of its parent CsSnI 3 and CsPbI 3 QDs. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy studies reveal that the photoexcited electrons in the alloyed QDs can be injected into TiO 2 nanocrystals at a fast rate of 1.12 × 10 11 s -1 , which enables a high photocurrent generation in solar cells.

  7. Compressive Deformation Behavior of Open-Cell Cu-Zn-Al Alloy Foam Made Through P/M Route Using Mechanically Alloyed Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnwal, Ajay Kumar; Mondal, D. P.; Kumar, Rajeev; Prasanth, N.; Dasgupta, R.

    2018-03-01

    Cu-Zn-Al foams of varying porosity fractions using mechanical alloyed powder have been made through powder metallurgy route. Here, NH4 (HCO3) was used as a space holder. Mechanically alloyed Cu-Zn-Al is made using a planetary ball mill taking the ratio of Cu/Zn/Al = 70:25:5 (by weight ratio). The ball/powder ratios were varied in the four ranges 10:1, 15:1, 20:1, and 25:1. Green compacts of milled powder and space holder samples were sintered at three stages at three different temperatures 350, 550, and 850 °C for 1 h at each stage. The crystalline size and particle size as a function of ball/powder ratios were examined. The compressive deformation responses of foams are varied with relative density and the ball/powder ratio. The plateau stress and energy absorption of these foams increase with an increase in relative density but decreases with increase in ball/powder ratio, even though crystalline size decreases. This has further been explained on the basis of particle morphology as a function of ball/powder ratio.

  8. Mechanism of cell repellence on quasi-aligned nanowire arrays on Ti alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingzhou; Hu, Liangsheng; Huo, Kaifu; Zhang, Yumei; Wu, Zhifen; Chu, Paul K

    2010-11-01

    Cell-repelling structures are often required in biosensors, bioelectronics, and drug delivery systems, but the search for satisfactory cell-repelling structures with good biocompatibility and long-term stability is challenging. In this work, two types of quasi-aligned nanowire arrays (QANWA) with different surface chemistry but similar surface topography, namely titanium carbide-carbon core-shell (TiC/C) and titania (TiO(2)), are fabricated on Ti6Al4V. Both QANWAs inhibit cell adhesion consequently leading to cell apoptosis possibly due to disruption in the adhesion assembly. Other cell functions such as proliferation and differentiation as monitored by extracellular matrix secretion and mineralization are also substantially depressed. The cell-repelling property is related to the nanostructure but independent of the surface chemistry and surface wettability. It is also not related to protein adsorption which is in fact slightly enhanced on the nanowire arrays. The QANWAs can be modified to have a larger loading capacity thereby enhancing the controlled release kinetics in drug delivery applications and to resist protein adsorption resulting in better biosensor performance. This concept which can be readily extended to other types of QANWAs and biomaterials has broad clinical potential. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-assembled monolayers of alendronate on Ti6Al4V alloy surfaces enhance osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Luis; Gharibi, Borzo; McLister, Robert; Meenan, Brian J.; Deb, Sanjukta

    2016-07-01

    Phosphonates have emerged as an alternative for functionalization of titanium surfaces by the formation of homogeneous self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via Ti-O-P linkages. This study presents results from an investigation of the modification of Ti6Al4V alloy by chemisorption of osseoinductive alendronate using a simple, effective and clean methodology. The modified surfaces showed a tailored topography and surface chemistry as determined by SEM microscopy and RAMAN spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that an effective mode of bonding is created between the metal oxide surface and the phosphate residue of alendronate, leading to formation of homogenous drug distribution along the surface. In-vitro studies showed that alendronate SAMs induce differentiation of hMSC to a bone cell phenotype and promote bone formation on modified surfaces. Here we show that this novel method for the preparation of functional coatings on titanium-based medical devices provides osseoinductive bioactive molecules to promote enhanced integration at the site of implantation.

  10. Cell/dendrite transition and electrochemical corrosion of Pb-Sb alloys for lead-acid battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osório, Wislei R.; Rosa, Daniel M.; Peixoto, Leandro C.; Garcia, Amauri

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this article is focused on a comparative experimental study of the electrochemical feature of as-cast Pb-2.2 wt.% Sb alloy with cellular/dendritic transition for applications in the manufacturing of lead-acid battery parts. A water-cooled unidirectional solidification system is used to obtain the alloy samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) plots, potentiodynamic polarization curves and equivalent circuit analysis are used to evaluate corrosion resistance in a 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at 25 °C. The cellular Pb-2.2 wt.% Sb alloy is found to have a current density which is of about 3 times lower than that of the dendritic Pb-2.2 wt.% Sb alloy. The Pb-2.2 wt.% Sb alloy has lower current density than both the Pb-1 wt.% Sb and the Pb-6.6 wt.% Sb alloys evidencing its potential for application as positive grid material in lead-acid batteries. It is also verified that a conventional casting with low cooling rate of about 0.6 °C s-1 produces coarser cellular spacings which is more appropriate for the manufacturing of the Pb-2.2 wt.% Sb alloys grids due to its corresponding electrochemical behavior.

  11. Optical absorptions in ZnO/a-Si distributed Bragg reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Aqing; Chen, Zhian; Zhu, Kaigui; Ji, Zhenguo

    2017-01-01

    The distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) consisting of alternating layers of ZnO and heavy doped amorphous silicon (a-Si) have been fabricated by magnetron sputtering. It is novel to find that the optical absorptions exist in the stopband of the DBRs, and that many discrete strong optical absorption peaks exist in the wavelength range of visible to near-infrared. The calculated results by FDTD show that the absorptions in the stopband mainly exist in the first a-Si layer, and that the light absorbed by other a-Si layers inside contributes to the two absorption peaks in near-infrared range. The strong absorptions ranged from visible to infrared open new possibilities to the enhancement of the performance of amorphous silicon solar cells.

  12. Si6H12/Polymer Inks for Electrospinning a-Si Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas L.; Hoey, Justin; Smith, Jeremiah

    2010-08-04

    Amorphous silicon nanowires 'a-SiNWs' have been prepared by electrospinning a liquid silane-based precursor. Cyclohexasilane 'Si6H12' was admixed with poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) in toluene giving an ink that was electrospun into the Si6H12/PPMA wires with diameters of 50-2000 nm. Raman spectroscopy revealed that thermal treatment at 350 C transforms this deposit into a-SiNWs. These materials were coated with a thin carbon layer and then tested as half-cells where a reasonable plateau in electrochemical cycling was observed after an initial capacity fade. Additionally, porous a-SiNWs were realized when the thermally decomposable binder polypropylene carbonate/polycyclohexene carbonate was used as the polymer carrier.

  13. ZIRCONIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Ames, D.P.

    1959-02-01

    A binary zirconiuin--antimony alloy is presented which is corrosion resistant and hard containing from 0.07% to 1.6% by weight of Sb. The alloys have good corrosion resistance and are useful in building equipment for the chemical industry.

  14. Nonswelling alloy

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-12-23

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses.

  15. URANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1958-04-15

    Uranium alloys containing from 0.1 to 10% by weight, but preferably at least 5%, of either zirconium, niobium, or molybdenum exhibit highly desirable nuclear and structural properties which may be improved by heating the alloy to about 900 d C for an extended period of time and then rapidly quenching it.

  16. Synthesization and characterization of FeS2 by mechanical alloying for Na/FeS2 cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojing; Kang, Sang-Dae; Kim, Jong-Seon; Ahn, In-Shup; Ahn, Hyo-Jun

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the FeS2 fine compound powders were synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) for 15 hrs and stearic acid was added as PCA (Process Control Agent) to prevent the excessive cold welding and agglomeration. For the purpose of ulteriorly reducing the particle size to improve the contact areas between the active materials and conducting agents, the wet ball milling process was applied by employing normal hexane (C6H14) as the milling solvent. The mean particle size of FeS2 powders about 1.14 microm were obtained after 24 hrs wet ball milling. The powders were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, TEM and EDS. To compare the influence of particle size on the properties of charge/discharge, the same electrolyte was employed for both tests by dissolving 1M NaCF3SO3 (sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate) in a liquid of TEGDME (tetraethylene glycol dimethylether). The first discharge capacity of Na/FeS2 cell made by dry ball milled powders was 440 mAh/g with a plateau potential at approximately 1.25 V versus Na/Na+ and 260 mAh/g at the 25th cycle at room temperature. Meanwhile, the initial discharge capacity of Na/FeS2 cell made by wet ball milled powders was 614 mAh/g with the same discharge plateau potential and retained 385 mAh/g at the 25th cycle. And the discharge capacity for wet milled system decreased continuously by repeated charge/discharge cycling in the first 20 cycles and has little change after 60 cycles, which means the good cycling properties, remaining half of its initial discharge capacity of 320 mAh/g even after 100 cycles.

  17. Research on silicon-carbon alloys and interfaces. Final subcontract report, 15 February 1991--31 July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes work performed to develop improved p-type wide-band-gap hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbon alloy (a-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x:}H) thin films and interfaces for the ``top junction`` in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)-based p-i-n solar cells. We used direct current reactive magnetron sputtering to deposit undoped a-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x}H films with a Tauc band gap E{sub g} of 1.90 eV, a sub-band-gap absorption of 0.4 (at 1.2 eV), an Urbach energy of 55 MeV, an ambipolar diffusion length of 100 nm, an air-mass-one photoconductivity of 10{sup {minus}6}/{Omega}-cm, and a dark conductivity of 8{times} 1O{sup {minus}11}/{Omega}-cm. p{sup +}a-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x}:H films with a Taucmore » band gap of 1.85 eV have a dark conductivity of 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}/{Omega}-cm and thermal activation energy of 0.28 eV. We used in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and post-growth X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the relative roles of H and Si in the chemical reduction of SnO{sub 2} in the early stages of film growth. We used in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry to show that a-Si:H can be transformed into {mu}c-Si:H in a subsurface region under appropriate growth conditions. We also determined substrate cleaning and ion bombardment conditions which improve the adhesion of a-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x}:H films.« less

  18. Effect of nano/micro-Ag compound particles on the bio-corrosion, antibacterial properties and cell biocompatibility of Ti-Ag alloys.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mian; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Qin, Gaowu; Zhang, Erlin

    2017-06-01

    In this research, Ti-Ag alloys were prepared by powder metallurgy, casting and heat treatment method in order to investigate the effect of Ag compound particles on the bio-corrosion, the antibacterial property and the cell biocompatibility. Ti-Ag alloys with different sizes of Ag or Ag-compounds particles were successfully prepared: small amount of submicro-scale (100nm) Ti 2 Ag precipitates with solid solution state of Ag, large amount of nano-scale (20-30nm) Ti 2 Ag precipitates with small amount of solid solution state of Ag and micro-scale lamellar Ti 2 Ag phases, and complete solid solution state of Ag. The mechanical tests indicated that both nano/micro-scale Ti 2 Ag phases had a strong dispersion strengthening ability and Ag had a high solid solution strengthening ability. Electrochemical results shown the Ag content and the size of Ag particles had a limited influence on the bio-corrosion resistance although nano-scale Ti 2 Ag precipitates slightly improved corrosion resistance. It was demonstrated that the nano Ag compounds precipitates have a significant influence on the antibacterial properties of Ti-Ag alloys but no effect on the cell biocompatibility. It was thought that both Ag ions release and Ti 2 Ag precipitates contributed to the antibacterial ability, in which nano-scale and homogeneously distributed Ti 2 Ag phases would play a key role in antibacterial process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cell adhesive peptides functionalized on CoCr alloy stimulate endothelialization and prevent thrombogenesis and restenosis.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Maria Isabel; Guillem-Marti, Jordi; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Díaz-Ricart, Maribel; Escolar, Ginés; Ginebra, Maria Pau; Gil, Francisco Javier; Pegueroles, Marta; Manero, Jose María

    2017-04-01

    Immobilization of bioactive peptide sequences on CoCr surfaces is an effective route to improve endothelialization, which is of great interest for cardiovascular stents. In this work, we explored the effect of physical and covalent immoblization of RGDS, YIGSR and their equimolar combination peptides on endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) adhesion and on thrombogenicity. We extensively investigated using RT-qPCR, the expression by ECs cultured on functionalised CoCr surfaces of different genes. Genes relevant for adhesion (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1), vascularization (VEGFA, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) and anti-thrombogenicity (tPA and eNOS) were over-expressed in the ECs grown to covalently functionalized CoCr surfaces compared to physisorbed and control surfaces. Pro-thrombogenic genes expression (PAI-1 and vWF) decreased over time. Cell co-cultures of ECs/SMCs found that functionalization increased the amount of adhered ECs onto modified surfaces compared to plain CoCr, independently of the used peptide and the strategy of immobilization. SMCs adhered less compared to ECs in all surfaces. All studied peptides showed a lower platelet cell adhesion compared to TCPS. Covalent functionalization of CoCr surfaces with an equimolar combination of RGDS and YIGSR represented prevailing strategy to enhance the early stages of ECs adhesion and proliferation, while preventing SMCs and platelet adhesion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 973-983, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Oxide Scale Morphology and Chromium Evaporation Characteristics of Alloys for Balance of Plant Applications in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Le; Verma, Atul; Goettler, Richard; Lovett, David; Raman, R. K. Singh; Singh, Prabhakar

    2013-01-01

    This article compares chromium evaporation characteristics of chromia- and alumina-forming alloys at high temperatures [1123 K and 1223 K (800 °C to 950 °C)] in humid air (3 and 12 pct H2O) and presents a mechanistic understanding of variation in chromium evaporation on the basis of their oxide scale morphologies. For this study, an alloy from each of the distinct chromia-forming, alumina-forming, and chromia-alumina transition characteristics was selected ( i.e., an alumina-forming alloy (Aluchrom YHf), a chromia-forming alloy (AISI 310S-austentic stainless steel), and an alloy that undergoes transition from chromia to alumina formation (Nicrofer6025 HT)). For generating baseline chromium evaporation data, pure chromium oxide was also tested. The chromium evaporation rate decreased in the order pure chromium oxide > AISI 310S > Nicrofer6025 HT > Aluchrom YHf. Surface morphologies, cross sections, and chemical characteristics of oxide scales were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and focused ion beam. The variation in chromium evaporation of different alloys is explained on the basis of physical and chemical characteristics of the oxide scales.

  1. Design and Fabrication of Monolithically-Integrated Laterally-Arrayed Multiple Band Gap Solar Cells using Composition-Graded Alloy Nanowires for Spectrum-Splitting Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselli, Derek

    This dissertation aims to demonstrate a new approach to fabricating solar cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems with the potential to reduce their cost and complexity of manufacturing, called Monolithically Integrated Laterally Arrayed Multiple Band gap (MILAMB) solar cells. Single crystal semiconductor alloy nanowire (NW) ensembles are grown with the alloy composition and band gap changing continuously across a broad range over the surface of a single substrate in a single, inexpensive growth step by the Dual-Gradient Method. The nanowire ensembles then serve as the absorbing materials in a set of solar cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems. Preliminary design and simulation studies based on Anderson's model band line-ups were undertaken for CdPbS and InGaN alloys. Systems of six subcells obtained efficiencies in the 32-38% range for CdPbS and 34-40% for InGaN at 1-240 suns, though both materials systems require significant development before these results could be achieved experimentally. For an experimental demonstration, CdSSe was selected due to its availability. Proof-of-concept CdSSe nanowire ensemble solar cells with two subcells were fabricated simultaneously on one substrate. I-V characterization under 1 sun AM1.5G conditions yielded open-circuit voltages (Voc) up to 307 and 173 mV and short-circuit current densities (Jsc) up to 0.091 and 0.974 mA/cm2 for the CdS- and CdSe-rich cells, respectively. Similar thin film cells were also fabricated for comparison. The nanowire cells showed substantially higher Voc than the film cells, which was attributed to higher material quality in the CdSSe absorber. I-V measurements were also conducted with optical filters to simulate a simple form of spectrum-splitting. The CdS-rich cells showed uniformly higher Voc and fill factor (FF) than the CdSe-rich cells, as expected due to their larger band gaps. This suggested higher power density was produced by the CdS-rich cells on the single

  2. Biological Behavior of Osteoblast Cell and Apatite Forming Ability of the Surface Modified Ti Alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingming; Hwang, K H; Choi, W S; Shin, S J; Lee, J K

    2016-02-01

    Titanium as one kind of biomaterials comes in direct contact with the body, making evaluation of biocompatibility an important aspect to biomaterials development. Surface chemistry of titanium plays an important role in osseointegration. Different surface modification alters the surface chemistry and result in different biological response. In this study, three kinds of mixed acid solutions were used to treat Ti specimens to induce Ca-P formation. Following a strong mixed acid activation process, Ca-P coating successfully formed on the Ti surfaces in simulated body fluid. Strong mixed acid increased the roughness of the metal surface, because the porous and rough surface allows better adhesion between Ca-P coatings and substrates. After modification of titanium surface by mixed acidic solution and subsequently H2O2/HCL treatment evaluation of biocompatibility was conducted from hydroxyapatite formation by biomimetic process and cell viability on modified titanium surface. Nano-scale modification of titanium surfaces can alter cellular and tissue responses, which may benefit osseointegration and dental implant therapy. Results from this study indicated that surface treatment methods affect the surface morphology, type of TiO2 layer formed and subsequent apatite deposition and biological responses. The thermo scientific alamarblue cell viability assay reagent is used to quantitatively measure the viability of mammalian cell lines, bacteria and fungi by incorporating a rapid, sensitive and reliable fluorometric/colorimetric growth indicator, without any toxic and side effect to cell line. In addition, mixed acid treatment uses a lower temperature and shorter time period than widely used alkali treatment.

  3. Development of gold alloy catalyst cathode for alkaline electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, M. S.; Lawrance, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    A program for the development of improved catalyst and Teflon-bonded electrode structures using this improved catalyst is described, for use in fuel cell cathodes. It was found that Au-Pt was superior to the traditional platinum black as a catalyst. The impetus to the program was provided by the discovery that a life-limiting mechanism on the old catalyst was the gradual dissolution of platinum from the cathode and subsequent redeposition in the electrolyte-containing matrix.

  4. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chynoweth, W.

    1959-06-16

    The preparation of low-melting-point plutonium alloys is described. In a MgO crucible Pu is placed on top of the lighter alloying metal (Fe, Co, or Ni) and the temperature raised to 1000 or 1200 deg C. Upon cooling, the alloy slug is broke out of the crucible. With 14 at. % Ni the m.p. is 465 deg C; with 9.5 at. % Fe the m.p. is 410 deg C; and with 12.0 at. % Co the m.p. is 405 deg C. (T.R.H.) l6262 l6263 ((((((((Abstract unscannable))))))))

  5. On the stability of boron nitride with lithium alloy electrodes in molten salt cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R. A.; Bradley, T. G.

    1981-09-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the stability of boron nitride separator material in molten salt cells using lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic electrolyte and two stainless steel screen electrodes. The potentials of these electrodes were set by two separate electrical circuits and a lithium-silicon (Li-Si) reservoir electrode. The boron nitride separator was found stable at potentials above -136 mV with respect to a lithium-aluminum reference electrode at 700 K. The separator reacted with lithium and became conductive at potentials more reducing than about -200 mV. Formation of a boride and Li3N led to the conductivity.

  6. Effects of Coating a Titanium Alloy with Fibronectin on the Expression of Osteoblast Gene Markers in the MC3T3 Osteoprogenitor Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Rapuano, Bruce E.; Hackshaw, Kyle M.; Schniepp, Hannes C.; MacDonald, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A number of environmental and patient-related factors contribute to implant failure. A significant fraction of these failures can be attributed to limited osseointegration resulting from poor bone healing responses. The overall goal of this study was to determine whether surface treatment of a titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) implant material with a biomimetic protein coating could promote the differentiation of attached osteoblastic cells. The specific aims of the study were to investigate whether osteoprogenitor cells cultured on a rigorously cleaned implant specimen showed a normal pattern of differentiation and whether preadsorbed fibronectin accelerated or enhanced osteoblast differentiation. Materials and Methods Ti-6Al-4V disks were rigorously cleaned, passivated in nitric acid, and dry heat–sterilized; some of the disks were then coated with 1 nmol/L fibronectin. MC3T3 osteoprogenitor cells were then cultured on the pretreated disks for several weeks. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure changes over time in the mRNA levels of osteoblast genes. Results Fibronectin increased the peak expression of all analyzed osteoblast gene markers. “Early” genes that normally mark the proliferative phase (0 to 10 days) of osteoblastic development showed peak expression within the first 10 days after cell attachment to the titanium alloy. In contrast, “late” genes that normally mark the differentiation (10 to 20 days) and mineralization (20 to 36 days) phases of osteoblastogenesis achieved peak expression only after approximately 3 to 4 weeks of culture. Conclusions Osteoprogenitors cultured on a rigorously cleaned Ti-6Al-4V alloy were found to demonstrate a normal pattern of osteoblast differentiation. Preadsorbed fibronectin was observed to stimulate osteoblast differentiation during the mineralization phase of osteoblastogenesis. PMID:23057020

  7. Effects of coating a titanium alloy with fibronectin on the expression of osteoblast gene markers in the MC3T3 osteoprogenitor cell line.

    PubMed

    Rapuano, Bruce E; Hackshaw, Kyle M; Schniepp, Hannes C; MacDonald, Daniel E

    2012-01-01

    A number of environmental and patient-related factors contribute to implant failure. A significant fraction of these failures can be attributed to limited osseointegration resulting from poor bone healing responses. The overall goal of this study was to determine whether surface treatment of a titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) implant material in combination with a biomimetic protein coating could promote the differentiation of attached osteoblastic cells. The specific aims of the study were to investigate whether osteoprogenitor cells cultured on a rigorously cleaned implant specimen showed a normal pattern of differentiation and whether preadsorbed fibronectin accelerated or enhanced osteoblast differentiation. Ti-6Al-4V disks were rigorously cleaned, passivated in nitric acid, and dry heat- sterilized; some of the disks were then coated with 1 nmol/L fibronectin. MC3T3 osteoprogenitor cells were then cultured on the pretreated disks for several weeks. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure changes over time in the mRNA levels of osteoblast genes. Fibronectin increased the peak expression of all analyzed osteoblast gene markers. "Early" genes that normally mark the proliferative phase (0 to 10 days) of osteoblastic development showed peak expression within the first 10 days after cell attachment to the titanium alloy. In contrast, "late" genes that normally mark the differentiation (10 to 20 days) and mineralization (20 to 36 days) phases of osteoblastogenesis achieved peak expression only after approximately 3 to 4 weeks of culture. Osteoprogenitors cultured on a rigorously cleaned Ti-6Al-4V alloy were found to demonstrate a normal pattern of osteoblast differentiation. Preadsorbed fibronectin was observed to stimulate osteoblast differentiation during the mineralization phase of osteoblastogenesis.

  8. Carbon-Supported Pd and PdFe Alloy Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Rivera Gavidia, Luis M; Sebastián, David; Pastor, Elena; Aricò, Antonino S; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2017-05-25

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are electrochemical devices that efficiently produce electricity and are characterized by a large flexibility for portable applications and high energy density. Methanol crossover is one of the main obstacles for DMFC commercialization, forcing the search for highly electro-active and methanol tolerant cathodes. In the present work, carbon-supported Pd and PdFe catalysts were synthesized using a sodium borohydride reduction method and physico-chemically characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray techniques such as photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The catalysts were investigated as DMFC cathodes operating at different methanol concentrations (up to 10 M) and temperatures (60 °C and 90 °C). The cell based on PdFe/C cathode presented the best performance, achieving a maximum power density of 37.5 mW·cm -2 at 90 °C with 10 M methanol, higher than supported Pd and Pt commercial catalysts, demonstrating that Fe addition yields structural changes to Pd crystal lattice that reduce the crossover effects in DMFC operation.

  9. Carbon-Supported Pd and PdFe Alloy Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Rivera Gavidia, Luis M.; Sebastián, David; Pastor, Elena; Aricò, Antonino S.; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are electrochemical devices that efficiently produce electricity and are characterized by a large flexibility for portable applications and high energy density. Methanol crossover is one of the main obstacles for DMFC commercialization, forcing the search for highly electro-active and methanol tolerant cathodes. In the present work, carbon-supported Pd and PdFe catalysts were synthesized using a sodium borohydride reduction method and physico-chemically characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray techniques such as photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The catalysts were investigated as DMFC cathodes operating at different methanol concentrations (up to 10 M) and temperatures (60 °C and 90 °C). The cell based on PdFe/C cathode presented the best performance, achieving a maximum power density of 37.5 mW·cm−2 at 90 °C with 10 M methanol, higher than supported Pd and Pt commercial catalysts, demonstrating that Fe addition yields structural changes to Pd crystal lattice that reduce the crossover effects in DMFC operation. PMID:28772937

  10. A thermodynamic evaluation of the potential for cryptic formation of incidental Au-Fe alloy catalysts during flexible cell experimental studies of abiotic alkanogenesis during serpentinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, C.

    2017-12-01

    The formation of abiotic alkanes via CO2 reduction during serpentinization is an important process in astrobiology and geochemistry. Aqueous alkane concentrations in natural settings are often non-equilibrated, thus motivating many experimental studies of CO2 reduction kinetics. A well-established result of such studies is the strong catalytic effect of metallic Feo on the conversion rate of CO2 to alkanes. Because alkanogenetic serpentinization experiments often feature Fe-bearing minerals contained in gold vessels, incidental metallic Feo may precipitate during an experiment as Au-Fe alloy. Such alloy may be catalytic, potentially leading to artificially rapid alkanogenesis and an overestimation of the catalytic strength of nominally nonmetallic Fe-bearing minerals, even if isotopically labeled 13C is used. To evaluate this potential for Au-Fe alloying, a thermodynamic analysis of the effect of oxygen fugacity on Au-Fe mixing has been performed at metamorphic grades relevant to experimental alkanogenesis. The results show that even relatively oxidized metal-free mineral assemblages such as the quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer (QFM) can stably coexist with an Au-Fe alloy containing a few hundred ppm Fe. Given the strong catalytic effect of metallic Fe, any hydrocarbons generated during a hypothetical experiment containing, for example, the QFM assemblage might be catalyzed by trace Fe in an Au-Fe alloy, not by a QFM mineral. The effect is stronger for assemblages more reducing than QFM, which are notably common in serpentinites. This is a source of experimental uncertainty in reusable flexible gold cell apparatus that cannot be assessed by traditional blank experiments, which only demonstrate the effectiveness of post-run acid-cleaning procedures. A more effective approach would be the chemical analysis of a small, recoverable gold chip embedded into the experimental materials. By assuming that the experimental materials interact identically with the Au chip and

  11. Investigation of the stability and 1.0 MeV proton radiation resistance of commercially produced hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloy solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Kenneth R., II; Walters, Michael R.; Woodyard, James R.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation resistance of commercial solar cells fabricated from hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloys is reported. A number of different device structures were irradiated with 1.0 MeV protons. The cells were annealing at 200 C. The annealing time was dependent on proton fluence. Annealing devices for one hour restores cell parameters or fluences below 1(exp 14) cm(exp -2); fluences above 1(exp 14) cm(exp -2) require longer annealing times. A parametric fitting model was used to characterize current mechanisms observed in dark I-V measurements. The current mechanisms were explored with irradiation fluence, and voltage and light soaking times. The thermal generation current density and quality factor increased with proton fluence. Device simulation shows the degradation in cell characteristics may be explained by the reduction of the electric field in the intrinsic layer.

  12. Effects of Corroded and Non-Corroded Biodegradable Mg and Mg Alloys on Viability, Morphology and Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells Elicited by Direct Cell/Material Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Mostofi, Sepideh; Bonyadi Rad, Ehsan; Wiltsche, Helmar; Fasching, Ulrike; Szakacs, Gabor; Ramskogler, Claudia; Srinivasaiah, Sriveena; Ueçal, Muammer; Willumeit, Regine; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina; Schaefer, Ute

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of biodegradable Mg and Mg alloys on selected properties of MC3T3-E1 cells elicited by direct cell/material interaction. The chemical composition and morphology of the surface of Mg and Mg based alloys (Mg2Ag and Mg10Gd) were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX, following corrosion in cell culture medium for 1, 2, 3 and 8 days. The most pronounced difference in surface morphology, namely crystal formation, was observed when Pure Mg and Mg2Ag were immersed in cell medium for 8 days, and was associated with an increase in atomic % of oxygen and a decrease of surface calcium and phosphorous. Crystal formation on the surface of Mg10Gd was, in contrast, negligible at all time points. Time-dependent changes in oxygen, calcium and phosphorous surface content were furthermore not observed for Mg10Gd. MC3T3-E1 cell viability was reduced by culture on the surfaces of corroded Mg, Mg2Ag and Mg10Gd in a corrosion time-independent manner. Cells did not survive when cultured on 3 day pre-corroded Pure Mg and Mg2Ag, indicating crystal formation to be particular detrimental in this regard. Cell viability was not affected when cells were cultured on non-corroded Mg and Mg alloys for up to 12 days. These results suggest that corrosion associated changes in surface morphology and chemical composition significantly hamper cell viability and, thus, that non-corroded surfaces are more conducive to cell survival. An analysis of the differentiation potential of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on non-corroded samples based on measurement of Collagen I and Runx2 expression, revealed a down-regulation of these markers within the first 6 days following cell seeding on all samples, despite persistent survival and proliferation. Cells cultured on Mg10Gd, however, exhibited a pronounced upregulation of collagen I and Runx2 between days 8 and 12, indicating an enhancement of osteointegration by this alloy that could be valuable for in vivo orthopedic

  13. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1962-02-20

    A brazing alloy is described which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability and is capable of forming a corrosion-resistant brazed joint. At least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion-resistant refractory metal. The brazing alloy consists essentially of 40 to 90 wt % of gold, 5 to 35 wt% of nickel, and 1 to 45 wt% of tantalum. (AEC)

  14. COATED ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Harman, C.G.; O'Bannon, L.S.

    1958-07-15

    A coating is described for iron group metals and alloys, that is particularly suitable for use with nickel containing alloys. The coating is glassy in nature and consists of a mixture containing an alkali metal oxide, strontium oxide, and silicon oxide. When the glass coated nickel base metal is"fired'' at less than the melting point of the coating, it appears the nlckel diffuses into the vitreous coating, thus providing a closely adherent and protective cladding.

  15. Indium effect on structural, optical and electrical properties of Cu2InxZn1-xSnS4 alloy thin films for solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Yingrui; Wu, Yanjie; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zhanwu; Wei, Maobin; Yao, Bin

    2017-11-01

    The Cu2InxZn1-xSnS4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) alloy thin films were synthesized on soda lime glass (SLG) substrate by a simple low-cost sol-gel method. The influence of In content on the structural, morphology, optical and electrical properties of Cu2InxZn1-xSnS4 thin films was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical absorbance and room-temperature Hall measurements. The results indicated that the crystal structure changed from tetragonal to the mixture of tetragonal and cubic, as x varied from 0 to 0.8. The tetragonal type structure of Cu2InxZn1-xSnS4 could be stabilized at x = 0.5 without cubic CuInSnS4 phase separation. Morphological analysis showed the grain size and crystallinity have been enhanced as the x value increased from 0 to 0.4. The Cu2InxZn1-xSnS4 alloy thin film at x = 0.4 showed the best p-type conduction characteristics with a hole concentration of 1.06 × 1015 cm-3 and a hall mobility of 6.65 cm2 V-1s-1. As the x increased to 0.5, the conductivity of films changed dramatically from p-to n-type. In addition, the optical band gap of Cu2InxZn1-xSnS4 alloy thin films with tetragonal kesterite could be continuously changed in range of 1.45-1.29 eV as the x value varied from 0 to 0.5. The Cu2InxZn1-xSnS4 alloy thin films should be ideal light-absorber material for achieving higher efficiency kesterite solar cells.

  16. Editors' Choice—Electrochemically Active Surface Area Measurement of Aged Pt Alloy Catalysts in PEM Fuel Cells by CO Stripping

    DOE PAGES

    Garrick, Taylor R.; Moylan, Thomas E.; Carpenter, Michael K.; ...

    2016-12-13

    The use of hydrogen adsorption/desorption (HAD) is a convenient method to measure the Pt surface area of a catalyst. However, it was shown that electrochemical charges measured by this technique can underestimate the Pt surface area by up to a factor of two for small Pt nanoparticles or Pt alloy nanoparticles. Electrooxidation of CO, so-called CO stripping, has been shown to be more accurate. Yet measurements of CO stripping in MEAs are scarce, especially on high activity alloy catalysts. In this study we investigated CO stripping and the ratio between Pt surface areas measured by CO and by HAD onmore » several Pt and Pt alloy catalysts. The effects on these measurements of temperature and catalyst aging by voltage cycling are discussed.« less

  17. Development of Ultra-Low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalysts for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Branko N.; Weidner, John

    2016-01-07

    The goal of this project is to synthesize a low cost PEM fuel cell cathode catalyst and support with optimized average mass activity, stability of mass activity, initial high current density performance under H 2/air (power density), and catalyst and support stability able to meet 2017 DOE targets for electrocatalysts for transportation applications. Pt*/ACCS-2 catalyst was synthesized according to a novel methodology developed at USC through: (i) surface modification, (ii) metal catalyzed pyrolysis and (iii) chemical leaching to remove excess meal used to dope the support. Pt* stands for suppressed platinum catalyst synthesized with Co doped platinum. The procedure resultsmore » in increasing carbon graphitization, inclusion of cobalt in the bulk and formation of non-metallic active sites on the carbon surface. Catalytic activity of the support shows an onset potential of 0.86 V for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with well-defined kinetic and mass transfer regions and 2.5% H 2O 2 production. Pt*/ACCS-2 catalyst durability under 0.6-1.0 V potential cycling and support stability under 1.0-1.5 V potential cycling was evaluated. The results indicated excellent catalyst and support performance under simulated start-up/shut down operating conditions (1.0 – 1.5 V, 5000 cycles) which satisfy DOE 2017 catalyst and support durability and activity. The 30% Pt*/ACCS-2 catalyst showed high initial mass activity of 0.34 A/mg PGM at 0.9 ViR-free and loss of mass activity of 45% after 30,000 cycles (0.6-1.0 V). The catalyst performance under H 2-air fuel cell operating conditions showed only 24 mV (iR-free) loss at 0.8 A/cm 2 with an ECSA loss of 42% after 30,000 cycles (0.6-1.0 V). The support stability under 1.0-1.5 V potential cycling showed mass activity loss of 50% and potential loss of 8 mV (iR-free) at 1.5 A/cm 2. The ECSA loss was 22% after 5,000 cycles. Furthermore, the Pt*/ACCS-2 catalyst showed an initial power density (rated) of 0.174 g PGM/kW. Excellent

  18. Preparation of TiMn alloy by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Weidmann, A.; Nebe, B. J.; Burkel, E.

    2009-01-01

    TiMn alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying and subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique for exploration of biomedical applications. The microstructures, mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the TiMn alloys were investigated in comparison with the pure Ti and Mn metals. Ti8Mn and Ti12Mn alloys with high relative density (99%) were prepared by mechanical alloying for 60 h and SPS at 700 °C for 5 min. The doping of Mn in Ti has decreased the transformation temperature from α to β phase, increased the relative density and enhanced the hardness of the Ti metal significantly. The Ti8Mn alloys showed 86% cell viability which was comparable to that of the pure Ti (93%). The Mn can be used as a good alloying element for biomedical Ti metal, and the Ti8Mn alloy could have a potential use as bone substitutes and dental implants.

  19. Effect of surface roughness on the initial response of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on polished titanium alloy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunya; Chen, Mingjun; Zheng, Ting; Yang, Xiaonan

    2015-01-01

    Surface roughness has been considered as an important influencing factor for cell response. The aim of this study was to find out whether MC3T3-E1 cells, a mouse osteoblast-like cell line, can sense the amplitudes of surface topography of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), and if surface-dependent cell morphology would be presented on the substrata with varied roughness. A series of polished samples (Ra: 0.30~1.80 μm) were prepared to produce macroscopically parallel grooves using different grades of silicon carbide sandpaper (#100, #320, #600, #1000 and #2000). The experimental results indicated that the behavior and morphology of cells largely depended on the substrata where they were cultured. More efficient proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was shown on the surfaces with Ra of 0.50~1.00 μm, with respect to either the rougher or the smoother specimens. Furthermore, MC3T3-E1 cells seeded on the Ti6Al4V surfaces within this narrow range responded to the increasing surface roughness with increased proliferation. Contact guidance of cells could be observed on the rougher specimens (Ra: 0.80~1.00 μm), whereas more random orientations were exhibited for the adsorbed cells on the smoother surfaces (Ra: 0.50~0.60 μm).

  20. Machinability of cast commercial titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Kiyosue, S; Ohkubo, C; Aoki, T; Okabe, T

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the machinability of cast orthopedic titanium (metastable beta) alloys for possible application to dentistry and compared the results with those of cast CP Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, and Ti-6Al-7Nb, which are currently used in dentistry. Machinability was determined as the amount of metal removed with the use of an electric handpiece and a SiC abrasive wheel turning at four different rotational wheel speeds. The ratios of the amount of metal removed and the wheel volume loss (machining ratio) were also evaluated. Based on these two criteria, the two alpha + beta alloys tested generally exhibited better results for most of the wheel speeds compared to all the other metals tested. The machinability of the three beta alloys employed was similar or worse, depending on the speed of the wheel, compared to CP Ti. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Electrocatalysts having platium monolayers on palladium, palladium alloy, and gold alloy core-shell nanoparticles, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav; Mo, Yibo; Vukmirovic, Miomir; Zhang, Junliang

    2010-12-21

    The invention relates to platinum-coated particles useful as fuel cell electrocatalysts. The particles are composed of a noble metal or metal alloy core at least partially encapsulated by an atomically thin surface layer of platinum atoms. The invention particularly relates to such particles having a palladium, palladium alloy, gold alloy, or rhenium alloy core encapsulated by an atomic monolayer of platinum. In other embodiments, the invention relates to fuel cells containing these electrocatalysts and methods for generating electrical energy therefrom.

  2. Effect of Silicon in U-10Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, Elizabeth J.; Devaraj, Arun; Kovarik, Libor

    2017-08-31

    This document details a method for evaluating the effect of silicon impurity content on U-10Mo alloys. Silicon concentration in U-10Mo alloys has been shown to impact the following: volume fraction of precipitate phases, effective density of the final alloy, and 235-U enrichment in the gamma-UMo matrix. This report presents a model for calculating these quantities as a function of Silicon concentration, which along with fuel foil characterization data, will serve as a reference for quality control of the U-10Mo final alloy Si content. Additionally, detailed characterization using scanning electron microscope imaging, transmission electron microscope diffraction, and atom probe tomography showedmore » that Silicon impurities present in U-10Mo alloys form a Si-rich precipitate phase.« less

  3. Macrophages detoxify the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of surgical cobalt chrome alloy particles but not quartz particles on human cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, I; Shadrick, V; Davis, S; Hails, L; Schins, R; Newson, R; Fisher, J; Ingham, E; Case, C P

    2008-08-25

    Particles of surgical cobalt chrome alloy are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human fibroblasts in vitro. In vivo orthopaedic patients are exposed to cobalt chrome particles as a result of wear of a joint replacement. Many of the wear debris particles that are produced are phagocytosed by macrophages that accumulate at the site of the worn implant and are disseminated to local and distant lymph nodes the liver and the spleen. In this study we have tested whether this process of phagocytosis could have altered the cytotoxic and genotoxic properties of the cobalt chrome particles. Quartz particles have been investigated as a control. Micron-sized particles of cobalt chrome alloy were internalised by either white cells of peripheral blood or by THP-1 monocytes for 1 week and 1 day, respectively. The particles were then extracted and presented at different doses to fibroblasts for 1 day. There was a reduction of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the cobalt chrome particles after phagocytosis by white cells or THP-1 cells. Cobalt chrome particles that were internalised by fibroblasts also showed a reduction of their cytotoxicity but not their genotoxicity. In contrast the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of quartz particles was increased after internalisation by THP-1 cells. The surface morphology of the cobalt chrome particles but not the quartz particles was changed after phagocytosis by THP-1 cells. This study suggests that the genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of particles that fall within the size range for phagocytosis may be highly complex in vivo and depend on the combination of material type and previous phagocytosis. These results may have relevance for particle exposure from orthopaedic implants and from environmental or industrial pollution.

  4. Tuning of platinum nano-particles by Au usage in their binary alloy for direct ethanol fuel cell: Controlled synthesis, electrode kinetics and mechanistic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Abhijit; Mondal, Achintya; Datta, Jayati

    2015-06-01

    Understanding of the electrode-kinetics and mechanism of ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) is of considerable interest for optimizing electro-catalysis in direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). This work attempts to design Pt based electro-catalyst on carbon support, tuned with gold nano-particles (NPs), for their use in DEFC operating in alkaline medium. The platinum-gold alloyed NPs are synthesized at desired compositions and size (2-10 nm) by controlled borohydride reduction method and successfully characterized by XRD, TEM, EDS and XPS techniques. The kinetic parameters along with the activation energies for the EOR are evaluated over the temperature range 20-80 °C and the oxidation reaction products estimated through ion chromatographic analysis. Compared to single Pt/C catalyst, the over potential of EOR is reduced by ca. 500 mV, at the onset during the reaction, for PtAu/C alloy with only 23% Pt content demonstrating the ability of Au and/or its surface oxides providing oxygen species at much lower potentials compared to Pt. Furthermore, a considerable increase in the peak power density (>191%) is observed in an in-house fabricated direct ethanol anion exchange membrane fuel cell, DE(AEM)FC using the best performing Au covered Pt electrode (23% Pt) compared to the monometallic Pt catalyst.

  5. Alkyne-DNA-Functionalized Alloyed Au/Ag Nanospheres for Ratiometric Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Imaging Assay of Endonuclease Activity in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Si, Yanmei; Bai, Yaocai; Qin, Xiaojie; Li, Jun; Zhong, Wenwan; Xiao, Zhijun; Li, Jishan; Yin, Yadong

    2018-03-20

    A novel ratiometric surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanosensor has been developed to probe the activity of endonuclease under in vitro and in living cells conditions. The optimized alloyed Au/Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized as the SERS substrate, which combined the superior properties of both pure Au and pure Ag nanoparticles: they exhibit excellent plasmonic property with high chemical stability and low cytotoxicity. They were then employed for quantitative detection of endonuclease through functionalization with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) carrying 3-[4-(phenylethynyl)benzylthio]propanoic acid (PEB) as endonuclease-responsive SERS signaling molecule and 4-thiophenylacetylene (TPA) as the internal standard SERS signaling molecule. In the presence of endonuclease, the ssDNA was cleaved, releasing PEB molecules from the particle surface and decreasing the SERS signal at 2215 cm -1 from PEB. Since the SERS signal at 1983 cm -1 from alkynyl TPA remained the same, quantitative detection of endonuclease was achieved, based on the ratiometric peak intensity of I 1983 / I 2215 , with a detection limit as low as 0.056 unit/mL. A highly biocompatible and antijamming ratiometric SERS sensor was established by combining the alloyed Au/AgNPs with two unique alkynes molecules with Raman signals in the cellular silent region. The ratiometric sensor was successfully employed to detect intracellular endonuclease activity as well as endonuclease in living cells for the first time.

  6. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    DOEpatents

    Howard, Stanley R [Windsor, SC; Korinko, Paul S [Aiken, SC

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  7. Nitrogen-doped graphene/CoNi alloy encased within bamboo-like carbon nanotube hybrids as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yang; Yuan, Heyang; Wen, Zhenhai; Cui, Shumao; Guo, Xiaoru; He, Zhen; Chen, Junhong

    2016-03-01

    Cost-effective catalysts are of key importance to the successful deployment of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electricity generation from organic wastes. Herein, a novel catalyst prepared by one-step synthesis strategy is reported. The catalyst features N-doped bamboo-like carbon nanotube (BCNT) in which CoNi-alloy is encapsulated at the end and/or the middle section of the tube with many graphene layers inside inner cavities of BCNT (N-G@CoNi/BCNT). The prepared N-G@CoNi/BCNT exhibits a high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity with an early onset potential of 0.06 V vs. Ag/AgCl and a comparable exchange current density to that of commercial Pt/C. The excellent catalytic activity is further evidenced by a high electron transfer number of 3.63. When being applied in MFCs, the N-G@CoNi/BCNT yields an average current density of 6.7 A m-2, slightly lower than that of Pt/C but with a less mass transfer potential loss. The cost of the N-G@CoNi/BCNT for constructing a 1-m2 cathode electrode is 200 times lower than that of Pt/C. With such a competitive price and excellent electrocatalytic-activity resulting from its unique morphology, CoNi-alloy/nitrogen dopants, considerable specific surface area, and carbon-coated alloy/graphene hybridization, the present catalyst is a promising candidate for ORR catalysts in MFCs for energy recovery from wastes.

  8. Xerographic dark discharge of a-Si:H(p)/a-Si:H(i)/a-Si1-x Cx:H photoreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxendale, M.; Biswas, S.; Juhasz, C.

    1990-07-01

    There has been much interest recently in hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based photoreceptors. The conventional configuration has become a diode-like semiconductor structure with an insulator overcoat layer operated in reverse bias. We have investigated the electric field and temperature dependence of the xerographic dark discharge of a corona or capacitively charged a-Si :H photoreceptor of configuration Al/a-Si:H(p)/a-Si:H(i)/a-5i1 _xCx:H . The band gap mismatch at the semicondutor/insulator interface appears as an energy barrier in the conduction band only. The role of this energy barrier in the dark discharge mechanism has been investigated by us. With a high initial field charging regime thermal generation within the intrinsic region was identified as the rate-limiting process. The zero-field energy barrier for thermal emission is measured to be 0.94 eV. These observations are in agreement with other workers, but previously reported anomalous temperature-dependent high-field behaviour was not observed. An apparent bulk controlled negative differential resistance (NDR) was found by us to control the discharge in the low-initial field regime. A NDR has been observed previously in the d.c characteristic of these devices where an increasing bias was applied step-wise. The observation of a similar NDR in the xerographic discharge mode is somewhat surprising.

  9. Alloy softening in binary molybdenum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt on the hardness of Mo. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary Mo alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to Mo, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons than Mo failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and Mo.

  10. Wettability of magnesium based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornelas, Victor Manuel

    The premise of this project was to determine the wettability behavior of Mg-based alloys using three different liquids. Contact angle measurements were carried out along with utilizing the Zisman method for obtaining values for the critical surface tension. Adhesion energy values were also found through the use of the Young-Dupre equation. This project utilized the Mg-based alloy Mg-2Zn-2Gd with supplemented alpha-Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), Phosphate Buffer Saline solution (PBS), and distilled water. These three liquids are commonly used in cell cultivation and protein adsorption studies. Supplemented alpha-MEM consisted of alpha-MEM, fetal bovine serum, and penicillin-streptomycin. Mg-2Zn-2Gd was used because of observed superior mechanical properties and better corrosion resistance as compared to conventional Mg-alloys. These attractive properties have made it possible for this alloy to be used in biomedical devices within the human body. However, the successful use of this alloy system in the human body requires knowledge in the response of protein adsorption on the alloy surface. Protein adsorption depends on many parameters, but one of the most important factors is the wettability behavior at the surface.

  11. Rationally Controlled Synthesis of CdSexTe1-x Alloy Nanocrystals and Their Application in Efficient Graded Bandgap Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shiya; Li, Miaozi; Yang, Junyu; Mei, Xianglin; Wu, Bin; Liu, Xiaolin; Heng, Jingxuan; Qin, Donghuan; Hou, Lintao; Xu, Wei; Wang, Dan

    2017-11-08

    CdSe x Te 1-x semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), being rod-shaped/irregular dot-shaped in morphology, have been fabricated via a simple hot-injection method. The NCs composition is well controlled through varying molar ratios of Se to Te precursors. Through changing the composition of the CdSe x Te 1-x NCs, the spectral absorption of the NC thin film between 570-800 nm is proved to be tunable. It is shown that the bandgap of homogeneously alloyed CdSe x Te 1-x active thin film is nonlinearly correlated with the different compositions, which is perceived as optical bowing. The solar cell devices based on CdSe x Te 1-x NCs with the structure of ITO/ZnO/CdSe/CdSe x Te 1-x /MoO x /Au and the graded bandgap ITO/ZnO/CdSe( w / o )/CdSe x Te 1-x /CdTe/MoO x /Au are systematically evaluated. It was found that the performance of solar cells degrades almost linearly with the increase of alloy NC film thickness with respect to ITO/ZnO/CdSe/CdSe 0.2 Te 0.8 /MoO x /Au. From another perspective, in terms of the graded bandgap structure of ITO/ZnO/CdSe/CdSe x Te 1-x /CdTe/MoO x /Au, the performance is improved in contrast with its single-junction analogues. The graded bandgap structure is proved to be efficient when absorbing spectrum and the solar cells fabricated under the structure of ITO/ZnO/CdSe 0.8 Te 0.2 /CdSe 0.2 Te 0.8 /CdTe/MoO x /Au indicate power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.37%, a value among the highest for solution-processed inversely-structured CdSe x Te 1-x NC solar cells. As the NC solar cells are solution-processed under environmental conditions, they are promising for fabricating solar cells at low cost, roll by roll and in large area.

  12. Alloy-Controlled Work Function for Enhanced Charge Extraction in All-Inorganic CsPbBr3 Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Jialong; He, Benlin; Tang, Qunwei

    2018-03-25

    All-inorganic CsPbX 3 (X=I, Br) perovskite solar cells are regarded as cost-effective and stable alternatives for next-generation photovoltaics. However, sluggish charge extraction at CsPbX 3 /charge-transporting material interfaces, which arises from large interfacial energy differences, have markedly limited the further enhancement of solar cell performance. In this work, the work function (WF) of the back electrode is tuned by doping alloyed PtNi nanowires in carbon ink to promote hole extraction from CsPbBr 3 halides, while an intermediate energy by setting carbon quantum dots (CQDs) at TiO 2 /CsPbBr 3 interface bridges electron transportation. The preliminary results demonstrate that the matching WFs and intermediate energy level markedly reduce charge recombination. A power conversion efficiency of 7.17 % is achieved for the WF-tuned all-inorganic perovskite solar cell, in comparison with 6.10 % for the pristine device, and this is further increased to 7.86 % by simultaneously modifying with CQDs. The high efficiency and improved stability make WF-controlled all-inorganic perovskite solar cells promising to develop advanced photovoltaic platforms. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Identification of volatile biomarkers of gastric cancer cells and ultrasensitive electrochemical detection based on sensing interface of Au-Ag alloy coated MWCNTs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixia; Gao, Guo; Liu, Huijuan; Fu, Hualin; Fan, Jun; Wang, Kan; Chen, Yunsheng; Li, Baojie; Zhang, Chunlei; Zhi, Xiao; He, Lin; Cui, Daxiang

    2014-01-01

    Successful development of novel electrochemical biosensing interface for ultrasensitive detection of volatile biomarkers of gastric cancer cells is a challenging task. Herein we reported to screen out novel volatile biomarkers associated with gastric cancer cells and develop a novel Au-Ag alloy composites-coated MWCNTs as sensing interface for ultrasensitive detection of volatile biomarkers. MGC-803 gastric cancer cells and GES-1 gastric mucous cells were cultured in serum-free media. The sample preparation approaches and HS-SPME conditions were optimized for screening volatile biomarkers. Volatiles emitted from the headspace of the cells/medium culture were identified using GC-MS. The Au-Ag nanoparticles-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes were prepared as a sensing interface for detection of volatile biomarkers. Results showed that eight different volatile metabolites were screened out between MGC-803 cells and GES-1 cells. Two compounds such as 3-octanone and butanone were specifically present in the headspace of the MGC-803 cells. Three volatiles such as 4-isopropoxybutanol, nonanol and 4-butoxy 1-butanol coexisted in the headspace of both the MGC-803 cells and the GES-1 cells, their concentrations in the headspace of the GES-1cells were markedly higher than those in the MGC-803 cells, three volatiles such as formic acid propyl ester, 1.4-butanediol and 2, 6, 11-trimethyl dodecane solely existed in the headspace of the GES-1 cells. The nanocomposites of MWNTs loaded with Au-Ag nanoparticles were prepared as a electrochemical sensing interface for detection of two volatile biomarkers, cyclic voltammetry studies showed that the fabricated sensor could detect 3-octanone in the range of 0~0.0025% (v/v) and with a detection limitation of 0.3 ppb, could detect butanone in the range of 0 ~ 0.055% (v/v), and with a detection limitation of 0.5 ppb, and exhibited good selectivity. The novel electrochemical biosensor combined with volatile biomarkers of gastric cancer

  14. Identification of Volatile Biomarkers of Gastric Cancer Cells and Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Detection based on Sensing Interface of Au-Ag Alloy coated MWCNTs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yixia; Gao, Guo; Liu, Huijuan; Fu, Hualin; Fan, Jun; Wang, Kan; Chen, Yunsheng; Li, Baojie; Zhang, Chunlei; Zhi, Xiao; He, Lin; Cui, Daxiang

    2014-01-01

    Successful development of novel electrochemical biosensing interface for ultrasensitive detection of volatile biomarkers of gastric cancer cells is a challenging task. Herein we reported to screen out novel volatile biomarkers associated with gastric cancer cells and develop a novel Au-Ag alloy composites-coated MWCNTs as sensing interface for ultrasensitive detection of volatile biomarkers. MGC-803 gastric cancer cells and GES-1 gastric mucous cells were cultured in serum-free media. The sample preparation approaches and HS-SPME conditions were optimized for screening volatile biomarkers. Volatiles emitted from the headspace of the cells/medium culture were identified using GC-MS. The Au-Ag nanoparticles-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes were prepared as a sensing interface for detection of volatile biomarkers. Results showed that eight different volatile metabolites were screened out between MGC-803 cells and GES-1 cells. Two compounds such as 3-octanone and butanone were specifically present in the headspace of the MGC-803 cells. Three volatiles such as 4-isopropoxybutanol, nonanol and 4-butoxy 1-butanol coexisted in the headspace of both the MGC-803 cells and the GES-1 cells, their concentrations in the headspace of the GES-1cells were markedly higher than those in the MGC-803 cells, three volatiles such as formic acid propyl ester, 1.4-butanediol and 2, 6, 11-trimethyl dodecane solely existed in the headspace of the GES-1 cells. The nanocomposites of MWNTs loaded with Au-Ag nanoparticles were prepared as a electrochemical sensing interface for detection of two volatile biomarkers, cyclic voltammetry studies showed that the fabricated sensor could detect 3-octanone in the range of 0~0.0025% (v/v) and with a detection limitation of 0.3 ppb, could detect butanone in the range of 0 ~ 0.055% (v/v), and with a detection limitation of 0.5 ppb, and exhibited good selectivity. The novel electrochemical biosensor combined with volatile biomarkers of gastric cancer

  15. Magnesium-titanium alloys for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Ilona

    Magnesium has been identified as a promising biodegradable implant material because it does not cause systemic toxicity and can reduce stress shielding. However, it corrodes too quickly in the body. Titanium, which is already used ubiquitously for implants, was chosen as the alloying element because of its proven biocompatibility and corrosion resistance in physiological environments. Thus, alloying magnesium with titanium is expected to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium. Mg-Ti alloys with a titanium content ranging from 5 to 35 at.-% were successfully synthesized by mechanical alloying. Spark plasma sintering was identified as a processing route to consolidate the alloy powders made by ball-milling into bulk material without destroying the alloy structure. This is an important finding as this metastable Mg-Ti alloy can only be heated up to max. 200C° for a limited time without reaching the stable state of separated magnesium and titanium. The superior corrosion behavior of Mg 80-Ti20 alloy in a simulated physiological environment was shown through hydrogen evolution tests, where the corrosion rate was drastically reduced compared to pure magnesium and electrochemical measurements revealed an increased potential and resistance compared to pure magnesium. Cytotoxicity tests on murine pre-osteoblastic cells in vitro confirmed that supernatants made from Mg-Ti alloy were no more cytotoxic than supernatants prepared with pure magnesium. Mg and Mg-Ti alloys can also be used to make novel polymer-metal composites, e.g., with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to avoid the polymer's detrimental pH drop during degradation and alter its degradation pattern. Thus, Mg-Ti alloys can be fabricated and consolidated while achieving improved corrosion resistance and maintaining cytocompatibility. This work opens up the possibility of using Mg-Ti alloys for fracture fixation implants and other biomedical applications. KEYWORDS: Magnesium, titanium, corrosion

  16. a-SiGe:H Materials and Devices Deposited by Hot Wire CVD Using a Tantalum Filament Operated at Low Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, A. H.; Xu, Y.; Gedvilas, L. M.

    2005-02-01

    We report the deposition of improved hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium (a-SiGe:H) films by the hot wire CVD (HWCVD) technique using a tantalum filament operating at a low temperature. We gauge the material quality of the a-SiGe:H films by comparing infrared, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), photocapacitance, and conductivity measurements to earlier results, and fabricate single-junction n-i-p solar cell devices using these i-layers.

  17. Metal alloy identifier

    DOEpatents

    Riley, William D.; Brown, Jr., Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  18. A wide-gap a-SiC:H PV-powered electrochromic window coating

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, W.; Lee, S.H.; Xu, Y.

    1998-09-01

    The authors report on the first monolithic, amorphous-silicon-based, photovoltaic-powered electrochromic window coating. The coating employs a wide bandgap a-Si{sub 1{minus}x}C{sub x}:H n-i-p photovoltaic (PV) cell as a semitransparent power supply, and a Li{sub y}WO{sub 3}/LiAlF{sub 4}/V{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrochromic (EC) device as an optical-transmittance modulator. The EC device is deposited directly on top of a PV cell that coats a glass substrate. The a-Si{sub 1{minus}x}C{sub x}:H PV cell has a Tauc gap of 2.2 eV and a transmittance of 60--80% over a large portion of the visible light spectrum. The authors reduced the thickness of the device to about 600more » {angstrom} while maintaining a 1-sun open-circuit voltage of 0.9 V and short-circuit current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. The prototype 16 cm{sup 2} PV/EC device modulates the transmittance by more than 60% over a large portion of the visible spectrum. The coloring and bleaching times of the EC device are approximately 1 minute under normal operating conditions ({+-} 1 volt). A brief description of photoelectrochromic windows study is also given.« less

  19. Group IVA Element (Si, Ge, Sn)-Based Alloying/Dealloying Anodes as Negative Electrodes for Full-Cell Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dequan; Liu, Zheng Jiao; Li, Xiuwan; Xie, Wenhe; Wang, Qi; Liu, Qiming; Fu, Yujun; He, Deyan

    2017-12-01

    To satisfy the increasing energy demands of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and miniaturized energy storage devices, improvements to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are required to provide higher energy/power densities and longer cycle lives. Group IVA element (Si, Ge, Sn)-based alloying/dealloying anodes are promising candidates for use as electrodes in next-generation LIBs owing to their extremely high gravimetric and volumetric capacities, low working voltages, and natural abundances. However, due to the violent volume changes that occur during lithium-ion insertion/extraction and the formation of an unstable solid electrolyte interface, the use of Group IVA element-based anodes in commercial LIBs is still a great challenge. Evaluating the electrochemical performance of an anode in a full-cell configuration is a key step in investigating the possible application of the active material in LIBs. In this regard, the recent progress and important approaches to overcoming and alleviating the drawbacks of Group IVA element-based anode materials are reviewed, such as the severe volume variations during cycling and the relatively brittle electrode/electrolyte interface in full-cell LIBs. Finally, perspectives and future challenges in achieving the practical application of Group IVA element-based anodes in high-energy and high-power-density LIB systems are proposed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effects of the surface characteristics of nanoporous titanium oxide films on Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn alloy on the initial adhesion of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells

    PubMed Central

    HAO, YUQUAN; LI, SHUJUN; HAN, XUESONG; HAO, YULIN; AI, HONGJUN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the surface characteristics of nanoporous titanium oxide films, formed by anodization on Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (Ti2448) alloy, on the early adhesion of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. Nanoporous titanium oxide films with two different pore sizes (30 and 90 nm) were formed by anodization in NH4F solution on Ti2448 alloy. The surface roughness of the nanoporous titanium oxide films was determined using a Surftest Formtracer and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cell viability was evaluated at different time points using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. To investigate the regulatory mechanisms involved in the focal adhesion of osteoblasts to Ti2448 alloy, we quantified the expression levels of integrin β1 and paxillin mRNAs on the nanoporous titanium oxide films during early osteoblast adhesion using real-time RT-PCR. Samples with a 30-nm nanoporous film exhibited a greater number of overlapping microporous structures with microprojections compared with the 90-nm nanoporous film samples. The MTT assay indicated that cell viability on the 30-nm nanoporous surface following 24 and 48 h of cell culture was higher than those observed on the unanodized control and 90-nm nanoporous surfaces. Integrin β1 mRNA expression levels on the 30-nm nanoporous surface following cell culture for 48 h were also significantly higher compared with those on the unanodized control and 90-nm nanoporous surfaces. The results demonstrated that a 30-nm nanoporous titanium oxide film on Ti2448 alloy may provide the optimum bioactive implant surface for the initial adhesion of osteoblasts. PMID:23935754

  1. Use of VLC for indoors navigation with RGB LEDs and a-SiC:H photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louro, P.; Costa, J.; Vieira, M.; Vieira, M. A.; Vygranenko, Y.

    2017-05-01

    In this research we present a Visible Light Communication (VLC) system for indoor positioning and navigation. The viability of this methodology was demonstrated in previous work for indoor positioning within the unit navigation cell. In this paper it is proposed to extend this concept for navigation in wider spaces that demand more than one navigation unit. The proposed system uses white RGB LEDs of wide divergence angle and a specific photodetector dedicated to the selective wavelengths detection of red, green and blue light. The photodetector is a multilayered pin-pin heterostructure based on a-SiC:H/a-Si:H, such that the spectral sensitivity can be controlled externally by steady state background light. The RGB emitters of the white LED were modulated with specific bit sequences and frequency to assign different optical excitations to each spatial region. The measurement of the induced photocurrent signal by the detector allows the identification of the position. For this purpose the decoding algorithm for the photocurrent signal processing uses the filtering properties of the photodetector for the recognition of the navigation cell word code, and detection of the wavelength and Fourier analysis for recognition of the signal frequency.

  2. Cytotoxicity of alloying elements and experimental titanium alloys by WST-1 and agar overlay tests.

    PubMed

    Song, Yo-Han; Kim, Min-Kang; Park, Eun-Jin; Song, Ho-Jun; Anusavice, Kenneth J; Park, Yeong-Joon

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the biocompatibility of nine types of pure metals using 36 experimental prosthetic titanium-based alloys containing 5, 10, 15, and 20wt% of each substituted metal. The cell viabilities for pure metals on Ti alloys that contain these elements were compared with that of commercially pure (CP) Ti using the WST-1 test and agar overlay test. The ranking of pure metal cytotoxicity from most potent to least potent was: Co>Cu>In>Ag>Cr>Sn>Au>Pd>Pt>CP Ti. The cell viability ratios for pure Co, Cu, In, and Ag were 13.9±4.6%, 21.7±10.4%, 24.1±5.7%, and 24.8±6.0%, respectively, which were significantly lower than that for the control group (p<0.05). Pure Pd and Pt demonstrated good biocompatibility with cell viabilities of 93.8±9.6% and 97.2±7.1%, respectively. The Ti-5Pd alloy exhibited the highest cell viability (128.4±21.4%), which was greater than that of CP Ti. By alloying pure Co or Cu with Ti, the cell viabilities for the Ti-xCo and Ti-xCu alloys increased significantly up to 10wt% of the alloying element followed by a gradual decrease with a further increase in the concentration of the alloying element. Based on the agar overlay test, pure Ag, Co, Cr, Cu, and In were ranked as 'moderately cytotoxic', whereas all Ti alloys were ranked as 'noncytotoxic'. The cytotoxicity of pure Ag, Co, Cr, Cu, and In suggests a need for attention in alloy design. The cytotoxicity of alloying elements became more biocompatible when they were alloyed with titanium. However, the cytotoxicity of titanium alloys was observed when the concentration of the alloying element exceeded its respective allowable limit. The results obtained in this study can serve as a guide for the development of new Ti-based alloy systems. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of Ge precursor on the heteroepitaxy of Ge1-x Sn x epilayers on a Si (001) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahandar, Pedram; Weisshaupt, David; Colston, Gerard; Allred, Phil; Schulze, Jorg; Myronov, Maksym

    2018-03-01

    The heteroepitaxial growth of Ge1-x Sn x on a Si (001) substrate, via a relaxed Ge buffer, has been studied using two commonly available commercial Ge precursors, Germane (GeH4) and Digermane (Ge2H6), by means of chemical vapour deposition at reduced pressures (RP-CVD). Both precursors demonstrate growth of strained and relaxed Ge1-x Sn x epilayers, however Sn incorporation is significantly higher when using the more reactive Ge2H6 precursor. As Ge2H6 is significantly more expensive, difficult to handle or store than GeH4, developing high Sn content epilayers using the latter precursor is of great interest. This study demonstrates the key differences between the two precursors and offers routes to process optimisation which will enable high Sn content alloys at relatively low cost.

  4. In vitro corrosion of dental Au-based casting alloys in polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine solution.

    PubMed

    Takasusuki, Norio; Ida, Yusuke; Hirose, Yukito; Ochi, Morio; Endo, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion and tarnish behaviors of two Au-based casting alloys (ISO type 1 and type 4 Au alloys) and their constituent pure metals, Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, and Pd in a polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine solution were examined. The two Au alloys actively corroded, and the main anodic reaction for both was dissolution of Au as AuI₂(-). The amount of Au released from the ISO type 1 Au alloy was significantly larger than that from the ISO type 4 Au alloy (P<0.05). Visible light spectrophotometry revealed that the type 1 alloy exhibited higher susceptibility to tarnishing than the type 4 alloy. The corrosion forms of the two Au alloys were found to be completely different, i.e., the type 1 alloy exhibited the corrosion attack over the entire exposed surface with a little irregularity whereas the type 4 alloy exhibited typical intergranular corrosion, which was caused by local cells produced by segregation of Pd and Pt.

  5. Measuring the Thermodynamics of the Alloy/Scale Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2004-01-01

    A method is proposed for the direct measurement of the thermodynamic properties of the alloy and oxide compound at the alloy/scale interface observed during steady-state oxidation. The thermodynamic properties of the alloy/scale interface define the driving force for solid-state transport in the alloy and oxide compound. Accurate knowledge of thermodynamic properties of the interface will advance our understanding of oxidation behavior. The method is based on the concept of local equilibrium and assumes that an alloy+scale equilibrium very closely approximates the alloy/scale interface observed during steady-state oxidation. The thermodynamics activities of this alloy+scale equilibrium are measured directly by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometer (KEMS) using the vapor pressure technique. The theory and some practical considerations of this method are discussed in terms of beta-NiAl oxidation.

  6. The oxidation resistance optimization of titanium carbide/hastelloy (Ni-based alloy) composites applied for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Qian; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lujie; Huang, Jian; Xin, Xianshuang; Gai, Linlin; Huang, Zhengren

    2017-08-01

    Titanium carbide/hastelloy (TiC/hastelloy) composites are potential candidates for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. In this work, TiC/hastelloy composites with suitable coefficient of thermal expansion are fabricated by in-situ reactive infiltration method, and their properties are optimized by adjusting TiC particle size (dTiC). The oxidation process of TiC/hastelloy composites is comprehensive performance of TiC and Ni-Cr alloy and determined by outward diffusion of Ti and Ni atoms and internal diffusion of O2. The oxidation resistance of composites could be improved by the decrease of dTiC through accelerating the formation of continuous and dense TiO2/Cr2O3 oxide scale. Moreover, the electrical conductivity of composites at 800 °C for 100 h is 5600-7500 S cm-1 and changes little with the prolongation of oxidation time. The decrease of dTiC is favorable for the properties optimization, and composites with 2.16 μm TiC exhibits good integrated properties.

  7. Cold worked ferritic alloys and components

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to liquid metal fast breeder reactor and steam generator precipitation hardening fully ferritic alloy components which have a microstructure substantially free of the primary precipitation hardening phase while having cells or arrays of dislocations of varying population densities. It also relates to the process by which these components are produced, which entails solution treating the alloy followed by a final cold working step. In this condition, the first significant precipitation hardening of the component occurs during high temperature use.

  8. Electronic structure of alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenreich, H.; Schwartz, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    The description of electronic properties of binary substitutional alloys within the single particle approximation is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on a didactic exposition of the equilibrium properties of the transport and magnetic properties of such alloys. Topics covered include: multiple scattering theory; the single band alloy; formal extensions of the theory; the alloy potential; realistic model state densities; the s-d model; and the muffin tin model. 43 figures, 3 tables, 151 references. (GHT)

  9. Capacity retention in hydrogen storage alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anani, A.; Visintin, A.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A. J.; Reilly, J. J.; Johnson, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of our examination of the properties of several candidate materials for hydrogen storage electrodes and their relation to the decrease in H-storage capacity upon open-circuit storage over time are reported. In some of the alloy samples examined to date, only about 10 percent of the hydrogen capacity was lost upon storage for 20 days, while in others, this number was as high as 30 percent for the same period of time. This loss in capacity is attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) hydrogen desorbed from the electrode due to pressure differences between the cell and the electrode sample; and (2) chemical and/or electrochemical degradation of the alloy electrode upon exposure to the cell environment. The former process is a direct consequence of the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the hydride alloy phase and the partial pressure of hydrogen in the hydride phase in equilibrium with that in the electrolyte environment, while the latter is related to the stability of the alloy phase in the cell environment. Comparison of the equilibrium gas-phase dissociation pressures of these alloys indicate that reversible loss of hydrogen capacity is higher in alloys with P(eqm) greater than 1 atm than in those with P(eqm) less than 1 atm.

  10. DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

    1960-03-22

    Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

  11. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  12. SUPERCONDUCTING VANADIUM BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, H.J.

    1958-10-21

    A new vanadium-base alloy which possesses remarkable superconducting properties is presented. The alloy consists of approximately one atomic percent of palladium, the balance being vanadium. The alloy is stated to be useful in a cryotron in digital computer circuits.

  13. Silicon purification using a Cu-Si alloy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. C.; Tejedor, P.; Olson, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Production of 99.9999% pure silicon from 98% pure metallurgical grade (MG) silicon by a vapor transport filtration process (VTP) is described. The VTF process is a cold wall version of an HCl chemical vapor transport technique using a Si:Cu3Si alloy as the silicon source. The concentration, origin, and behavior of the various impurities involved in the process were determined by chemically analyzing alloys of different purity, the slag formed during the alloying process, and the purified silicon. Atomic absorption, emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma, spark source mass spectrometry, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy were used for these analyses. The influence of the Cl/H ratio and the deposition temperature on the transport rate was also investigated.

  14. Visible light communication and indoor positioning using a-SiCH device as receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, M. A.; Vieira, M.; Louro, P.; Vieira, P.; Fantoni, A.

    2017-08-01

    An indoor positioning system were trichromatic white LEDs are used both for illumination proposes and as transmitters and an optical processor, based on a-SiC:H technology, as mobile receiver is presented. OOK modulation scheme is used, and it provides a good trade-off between system performance and implementation complexity. The relationship between the transmitted data and the received digital output levels is decoded. The system topology for positioning is a self-positioning system in which the measuring unit is mobile. This unit receives the signals of several transmitters in known locations, and has the capability to compute its location based on the measured signals. LED bulbs work as transmitters, sending information together with different IDs related to their physical locations. A triangular topology for the unit cell is analysed. A 2D localization design, demonstrated by a prototype implementation is presented. Fine-grained indoor localization is tested. The received signal is used in coded multiplexing techniques for supporting communications and navigation concomitantly on the same channel. The position is estimated through the visible multilateration metodh using several non-collinear transmitters. The location and motion information is found by mapping position and estimates the location areas. Data analysis showed that by using a pinpin double photodiode based on a a-SiC:H heterostucture as receiver, and RBGLEDs as transmitters it is possible not only to determine the mobile target's position but also to infer the motion direction over time, along with the received information in each position.

  15. Cu₂O template synthesis of high-performance PtCu alloy yolk-shell cube catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Sheng-Hua; He, Xu-Jun; Ding, Liang-Xin; Pan, Zheng-Wei; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Wu, Mingmei; Li, Gao-Ren

    2014-10-21

    Novel PtCu alloy yolk-shell cubes were fabricated via the disproportionation and displacement reactions in Cu2O yolk-shell cubes, and they exhibit significantly improved catalytic activity and durability for methanol electrooxidation.

  16. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  17. Castability of Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, A. L.; Han, Q.; Horton, J. A.

    There is intense research effort into the development of high pressure die cast-able creep resistant magnesium alloys. One of the difficulties encountered in magnesium alloy development for creep resistance is that many additions made to improve the creep properties have reportedly resulted in alloys that are difficult to cast. It is therefore important to have an understanding of the effect of alloying elements on the castability. This paper gives a review of the state of the knowledge of the castability of magnesium alloys.

  18. Thermodynamic Measurements of Alloys and Compounds by Double Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry and Their Application to Materials Processing

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Kobashi, Yoshifumi; Nagai, Takashi; Maeda, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    For the development and optimization of materials processing a collection of thermodynamic information concerning substances that participate in the reactions is important. One fundamental way to obtain such information is to measure the vapor pressure of gas species under conditions where they are in equilibrium with the condensed phases. Over the past 60 years Knudsen cell mass spectrometry has been used to identify and quantitatively determine gas species at high temperatures. This article describes thermodynamic foundation and examples of measurements in order to demonstrate the use of mass spectrometry focusing on the field of process metallurgy and recycling processes. PMID:26819884

  19. Pitting corrosion of 5052 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, F.; Lee, S.; Faunce, J.; Green, J. A. S.; Ptashnick, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    The relative degree of pitting of 5052 aluminum alloy in a prepaint cleaning process is correlated with the proportion of MgO in the surface oxide of the alloy. Magnesium oxide, formed on the surface during process heat treatments of the alloy, is soluble in the acidic environment of the particular cleaning solutions, thus allowing easier access of corrosive ion to the aluminum metal. The pitting mechanism involves the: (1) formation of microscopic, localized galvanic cells between aluminum (anode) and iron-containing constituents (cathodic sites) normally found in the matrix of 5052 (and other 5xxx aluminum alloys), (2) aggravation of pit formation by chloride, and (3) enhancement of cathodic reactions and hence the overall corrosion process due to penetration of the oxide layer by cupric and ferric ions, and dissolved O 2 present in the cleaning solutions. Pitting was eliminated by adding 0.1% NaNO 3 to the cleaning bath.

  20. Electrodeposited gels prepared from protein alloys

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yinan; Wang, Siran; Chen, Ying; Wang, Qianrui; Burke, Kelly A; Spedden, Elise M; Staii, Cristian; Weiss, Anthony S; Kaplan, David L

    2015-01-01

    Aim Silk-tropoelastin alloys, composed of recombinant human tropoelastin and regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin, are an emerging, versatile class of biomaterials endowed with tunable combinations of physical and biological properties. Electrodeposition of these alloys provides a programmable means to assemble functional gels with both spatial and temporal controllability. Materials & methods Tropoelastin-modified silk was prepared by enzymatic coupling between tyrosine residues. Hydrogel coatings were electrodeposited using two wire electrodes. Results & discussion Mechanical characterization and in vitro cell culture revealed enhanced adhesive capability and cellular response of these alloy gels as compared with electrogelled silk alone. Conclusion These electro-depositable silk-tropoelastin alloys constitute a suitable coating material for nanoparticle-based drug carriers and offer a novel opportunity for on-demand encapsulation/release of nanomedicine. PMID:25816881

  1. Annealing characteristics of amorphous silicon alloy solar cells irradiated with 1.00 MeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdulaziz, Salman S.; Woodyard, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Amorphous Si:H and amorphous Si sub x, Ge sub (1-x):H solar cells were irradiated with 1.00 MeV proton fluences in the range of 1.00E14 to 1.25E15 cm (exp -2). Annealing of the short circuit current density was studied at 0, 22, 50, 100, and 150 C. Annealing times ranged from an hour to several days. The measurements confirmed that annealing occurs at 0 C and the initial characteristics of the cells are restored by annealing at 200 C. The rate of annealing does not appear to follow a simple nth order reaction rate model. Calculations of the short-circuit current density using quantum efficiency measurements and the standard AM1.5 global spectrum compare favorably with measured values. It is proposed that the degradation in J sub sc with irradiation is due to carrier recombination through the fraction of D (o) states bounded by the quasi-Fermi energies. The time dependence of the rate of annealing of J sub sc does appear to be consistent with the interpretation that there is a thermally activated dispersive transport mechanism which leads to the passivation of the irradiation induced defects.

  2. In situ XAFS studies of the oxygen reduction reaction on carbon supported platinum and platinum nickel nano-scale alloys as cathode catalysts in fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Qingying

    Platinum based bimetallic alloys have been investigated by conducting Pt L3 and Ni K edge in situ XAFS measurements on carbon supported Pt and PtNi(1:1) nanoscale catalysts under a wide range of operating potentials. We observed that (1) the Pt-Pt bond distance in PtNi alloys is shorter than that of Pt, and the bond distance between Pt and oxygen adsorbate is longer for PtNi. (2) Pt has a tendency to stay on the surface while Ni is mostly underneath the surface. (3) While a change in oxidation of pure Pt was clearly observed at different potentials, the Pt in the PtNi alloy remained nearly oxygen-free at all potentials, but an accompanying oxidation change of Ni was observed instead. (4) PtNi has higher open circuit voltage than Pt/C. These results indicate that the chemisorption energy between Pt and oxygen adsorbate is reduced in PtNi alloys, which prevents the poison of oxygen adsorbate and hence improves the reactivity. In addition, the strain and ligand effects in PtNi nanoparticle alloys were studied by FEW calculations using experimental data as a guide to understand the factors causing the reduction of chemisorptions energy of Pt. Our calculation indicates that Pt d-band is broader and lower in energy when the bond distance between Pt is shorter, resulting in weaker chemisorption energy between Pt and absorbed oxygen atom on top, and vice verse. Meanwhile, the investigation of ligand effect shows two trends in modifying Pt's properties within alloyed transition metals. The strain effect dominates in PtNi bimetallic system, corresponding to weaker chemisorptions energy and lower white intensity of Pt L3 edge, which is in consistent with our experimental results. The implications of these results afford a good guideline in understanding the reactivity enhancement mechanism and in the context of alloy catalysts design.

  3. Misoriented dislocation substructures and the fracture of polycrystalline Cu-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koneva, N. A.; Trishkina, L. I.; Cherkasova, T. V.; Kozlov, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of the dislocation substructure in polycrystalline Cu-Al alloys with various grain sizes is studied during deformation to failure. A relation between the fracture of the alloys and the forming misorientation dislocation substructures is revealed. Microcracks in the alloy are found to form along grain boundaries and the boundaries of misoriented dislocation cells and microtwins.

  4. Fatigue behaviour of NiTi shape memory alloy scaffolds produced by SLM, a unit cell design comparison.

    PubMed

    Speirs, M; Van Hooreweder, B; Van Humbeeck, J; Kruth, J-P

    2017-06-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique able to produce complex functional parts via successively melting layers of metal powder. This process grants the freedom to design highly complex scaffold components to allow bone ingrowth and aid mechanical anchorage. This paper investigates the compression fatigue behaviour of three different unit cells (octahedron, cellular gyroid and sheet gyroid) of SLM nitinol scaffolds. It was found that triply periodic minimal surfaces display superior static mechanical properties in comparison to conventional octahedron beam lattice structures at identical volume fractions. Fatigue resistance was also found to be highly geometry dependent due to the effects of AM processing techniques on the surface topography and notch sensitivity. Geometries minimising nodal points and the staircase effect displayed the greatest fatigue resistance when normalized to yield strength. Furthermore oxygen analysis showed a large oxygen uptake during SLM processing which must be altered to meet ASTM medical grade standards and may significantly reduce fatigue life. These achieved fatigue properties indicate that NiTi scaffolds produced via SLM can provide sufficient mechanical support over an implants lifetime within stress range values experienced in real life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phase Boundary Propagation in Li-Alloying Battery Electrodes Revealed by Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Leenheer, Andrew J.; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; ...

    2016-05-31

    Battery cycle life is directly influenced by the microstructural changes occurring in the electrodes during charge and discharge cycles. In this study, we image in situ the nanoscale phase evolution in negative electrode materials for Li-ion batteries using a fully enclosed liquid cell in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to reveal early degradation that is not evident in the charge–discharge curves. To compare the electrochemical phase transformation behavior between three model materials, thin films of amorphous Si, crystalline Al, and crystalline Au were lithiated and delithiated at controlled rates while immersed in a commercial liquid electrolyte. This method allowed formore » the direct observation of lithiation mechanisms in nanoscale negative electrodes, revealing that a simplistic model of a surface-to-interior lithiation front is insufficient. For the crystalline films, a lithiation front spread laterally from a few initial nucleation points, with continued grain nucleation along the growing interface. The intermediate lithiated phases were identified using electron diffraction, and high-resolution postmortem imaging revealed the details of the final microstructure. Lastly, our results show that electrochemically induced solid–solid phase transformations can lead to highly concentrated stresses at the laterally propagating phase boundary which should be considered for future designs of nanostructured electrodes for Li-ion batteries.« less

  6. Long term high temperature oxidation characteristics of La and Cu alloyed ferritic stainless steels for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Srinivasan; Lee, Young-Su; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2016-09-01

    To ensure the best performance of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects, the Fe-22 wt.% Cr ferritic stainless steels with various La contents (0.006-0.6 wt.%) and Cu addition (1.57 wt.%), are developed. Long-term isothermal oxidation behavior of these steels is investigated in air at 800 °C, for 2700 h. Chemistry, morphology, and microstructure of the thermally grown oxide scale are examined using XPS, SEM-EDX, and XRD techniques. Broadly, all the steels show a double layer consisting of an inner Cr2O3 and outer (Mn, Cr)3O4. Distinctly, in the La-added steels, binary oxides of Cr, Mn and Ti are found at the oxide scale surface together with (Mn, Cr)3O4. Furthermore, all La-varied steels possess the metallic Fe protrusions along with discontinuous (Mn, Cr)3O4 spinel zones at the oxide scale/metal interface and isolated precipitates of Ti-oxides in the underlying matrix. Increase of La content to 0.6 wt.% is detrimental to the oxidation resistance. For the Cu-added steel, Cu is found to segregate strongly at the oxide scale/metal interface which inhibits the ingress of oxygen thereby suppressing the subscale formation of (Mn, Cr)3O4. Thus, Cu addition to the Fe-22Cr ferritic stainless steels benefits the oxidation resistance.

  7. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  8. Surface alloying of Mg alloys after surface nanocrystallization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Xing; Shi, Yi-Nong; Sun, Haiqing; Kelly, Patrick M

    2008-05-01

    Surface nanocrystallization using a surface mechanical attrition treatment effectively activates the surface of magnesium alloys due to the increase in grain boundary diffusion channels. As a result, the temperature of subsequent surface alloying treatment of pure Mg and AZ91 alloy can be reduced from 430 degrees C to 380 degrees C. Thus, it is possible to combine the surface alloying process with the solution treatment for this type of alloy. After surface alloying, the hardness of the alloyed layer is 3 to 4 times higher than that of the substrate and this may significantly improve the wear resistance of magnesium alloys.

  9. Aluminum matrix composites with a SiC filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, N. B.; Vichuzhanin, D. I.; Michurov, N. S.; Bykova, T. M.; Senaeva, E. I.

    2017-12-01

    The paper studies the structure of composites with a granulated D16 aluminum matrix and a SiC filler amounting to 5 and 10 vol % and the changes in their hardness, density, temperature coefficient of linear expansion and tensile strength. It is shown that after sintering, the composites have a cellular structure. Increasing the filler content has almost no effect on the hardness (84 HV 5) and density (2.7 g/cm3); the coefficient of linear expansion decreases from 20 to 18×10-6°C-1 and the ultimate strength decreases from 220 to 136 MPa. The composite containing 5 vol % SiC fails plastically with the formation of a characteristic dimple rupture for which σ0.2 = 205 MPa and δ = 0.3%. The composite with 10 vol % SiC, in addition to dimple rupture of its matrix, features brittle fracture regions at the boundaries of SiC particle clusters, and therefore, its strength is lower, measuring σ0.2 = 136 MPa.

  10. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  11. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  12. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  13. Amorphous metal alloy

    DOEpatents

    Wang, R.; Merz, M.D.

    1980-04-09

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  14. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  15. Oxidation behavior and area specific resistance of La, Cu and B alloyed Fe-22Cr ferritic steels for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Srinivasan; Ko, Yoon Seok; Lee, Young-Su; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2017-11-01

    Two Fe-22 wt% Cr ferritic stainless steels containing varying concentrations of La (0.14 or 0.52 wt%), Cu (0.17 or 1.74 wt%) and B (48 or 109 ppm) are investigated with respect to oxidation behavior and high temperature area specific resistance (ASR) of the surface oxide scales. To determine the oxidation resistance of developed steels, continuous isothermal oxidation is carried out at 800 °C in air, for 2000 h, and their thermally grown oxide scale is characterized using dynamic SIMS, SEM/EDX, XRD and GI-XRD techniques. To assess their electrical performance, the ASR measurement by four-point probe method is conducted at 800 °C in air, for 400 h. In higher La content steel, the La-oxides at the scale/alloy interface promotes the oxygen transport which resulted in sub-surface oxidation of Mn, Cr, Ti and Al. Moreover, the inward growth of oxides contributes to increase of Fe-Cr alloy protrusions within the scale, which reduced the ASR. In contrast, sub-surface oxidation is reduced in high Cu-alloyed steel by segregated Cu at the scale/alloy interface. Thus, addition of Cu is effective to oxidation resistance and also to better electrical performance. However, no obvious impact of B on the scale sequence and/or ASR is observed.

  16. Effects of resist strip processing damage on the electrical characteristics of 0.8-um a-Si antifuse circuit elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, Felix; Vines, Landon B.; Ravindhran, K. S.; Han, Yu-Pin; Echtle, Danny; Garcia, Annette; Richardson, Brian; Weling, Milind; Hickey, James; Loh, Ying-Tsong

    1994-09-01

    Field-programmable ASICs have been implemented using a variety of programmable circuit elements, including SRAM, EPROM, E2PROM, and antifuse cells. Amorphous silicon (a-Si) antifuse cells offer greater packing densities and superior performance compared to cells based on memory elements, and they can be integrated into conventional multi-layer integrated circuits with the addition of several process modules. Despite their advantages, a potential yield issue with a-Si antifuses is that their electrical characteristics can be affected by damage from manufacturing processes. In this study, it is found that the programming voltage is reduced when a solvent-based post-resist strip solution is applied to the bottom electrode layer of TiW. Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) shows that the resist strip solution increases the micro-roughness of TiW films. It is also found that the `off-'state leakage current increases when the solution is applied to the a-Si antifuse layer. The amount of the leakage current increase is related to the amount of a-Si loss due to the strip solution.

  17. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  18. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  19. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Conner, W.V.

    1981-10-09

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as souces of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  20. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David S.; Scott, Darwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  1. Nickel base coating alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A. (Inventor); Lowell, C. E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Zirconium is added to a Ni-30 Al (beta) intermetallic alloy in the range of 0.05 w/o to 0.25 w/o. This addition is made during melting or by using metal powders. The addition of zirconium improves the cyclic oxidation resistance of the alloys at temperatures above 1100 C.

  2. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-01-01

    An alloy is presented for use as a reactor fuel. The binary alloy consists essentially of from about 5 to 90 atomic per cent cerium and the balance being plutonium. A complete phase diagram for the cerium--plutonium system is given.

  3. Copper-tantalum alloy

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1986-07-15

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  4. Hollow platinum alloy tailored counter electrodes for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pinjiang; Zhang, Yange; Fa, Wenjun; Yang, Xiaogang; Wang, Liang

    2017-08-01

    Without sacrifice of photovoltaic performances, low-platinum alloy counter electrodes (CEs) are promising in bringing down the fabrication cost of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We present here the realization of ZnO nanostructure assisted hollow platinum-nickel (PtNi) alloy microstructure CEs with a simple hydrothermal methods and maximization of electrocatalytic behaviors by tuning Zn precursors. The maximal power conversion efficiency is up to 8.74% for the liquid-junction dye-sensitized solar cells with alloyed PtNi0.41 electrode, yielding a 37.6% cell efficiency enhancement in comparison with pristine solar cell from planar Pt electrode. Moreover, the dissolution-resistant and charge-transfer abilities toward I-/I3- redox electrolyte have also been markedly enhanced due to competitive dissolution reactions and alloying effects.

  5. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.

    1997-12-01

    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys with fabricability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance superior to previously developed Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys has been identified. The new alloys can be arc-melted/cast without cracking, and exhibit excellent room temperature and high-temperature tensile strengths. Preliminary evaluation of oxidation behavior at 1100 C in air indicates that the new Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys form an adherent chromia-based scale. Under similar conditions, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys suffer from extensive scale spallation.

  6. Dual alloy interface stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1982-01-01

    Powder metallurgy dual alloy fabrication is applied to combinations of superalloys having a high iron, and low strategic metal content, with standard nickel base superalloys, containing the strategic metals chromium, cobalt, and columbium. The possibility of combining Alloy 901 (12 percent Cr, 36 percent Fe, 0 percent Co, and 0 percent Cb) with turbine disk alloys Rene 95 (13 percent Cr, 8 percent Co, and 4 percent Cb) or low carbon astroloy (L.C.A.; 15 percent Cr, 17 percent Co, and 0 percent Cb) is investigated. Preliminary results for combinations show that a strong interface with rapid diffusion is obtained between alloys and that the standard heat treatments for either alloy may be satisfactory.

  7. Alloys for aerospace

    SciTech Connect

    Tuominen, S.; Wojcik, C.

    1995-04-01

    Aerospace industries require special allows with many properties tailored to meet specific needs. Prerequisites include clean melting techniques to maintain low impurity levels, tight control of alloy chemistry, and the analytical capability to characterize the product. Teledyne Wah Chang (TWC) produces specially refractory metals, including zirconium, hafnium, titanium, niobium and vanadium, which are essential components of many aerospace alloys. Alloys are prepared by vacuum-arc-remelting (VAR) or electron beam (EB) melting, and ingots are processed to products ranging from bar and tube stock to wire and foil. Chemical, mechanical, and microstructural tests are all conducted at TWC`s in-house laboratory facilities. Ofmore » the alloys described here, Ti-3Al-2.5V, Tiadyne 3515 (Alloy C), NiTiFe, and C-103 are produced commercially, while orthorhombic titanium aluminides are promising candidates for future light-weight composite matrices.« less

  8. Nanocatalytic growth of Si nanowires from Ni silicate coated SiC nanoparticles on Si solar cell.

    PubMed

    Parida, Bhaskar; Choi, Jaeho; Ji, Hyung Yong; Park, Seungil; Lim, Gyoungho; Kim, Keunjoo

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the nanocatalytic growth of Si nanowires on the microtextured surface of crystalline Si solar cell. 3C-SiC nanoparticles have been used as the base for formation of Ni silicate layer in a catalytic reaction with the Si melt under H2 atmosphere at an annealing temperature of 1100 degrees C. The 10-nm thick Ni film was deposited after the SiC nanoparticles were coated on the microtextured surface of the Si solar cell by electron-beam evaporation. SiC nanoparticles form a eutectic alloy surface of Ni silicate and provide the base for Si supersaturation as well as the Ni-Si alloy layer on Si substrate surface. This bottom reaction mode for the solid-liquid-solid growth mechanism using a SiC nanoparticle base provides more stable growth of nanowires than the top reaction mode growth mechanism in the absence of SiC nanoparticles. Thermally excited Ni nanoparticle forms the eutectic alloy and provides collectively excited electrons at the alloy surface, which reduces the activation energy of the nanocatalytic reaction for formation of nanowires.

  9. Stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells with low hydrogen content

    SciTech Connect

    Fortmann, C.M.; Hegedus, S.S.

    1992-12-01

    Results and conclusions obtained during a research program of the investigation of amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon based alloy materials and solar cells fabricated by photo-chemical vapor and glow discharge depositions are reported. Investigation of the effects of the hydrogen content in a-si:H i-layers in amorphous silicon solar cells show that cells with lowered hydrogen content i-layers are more stable. A classical thermodynamic formulation of the Staebler-Wronski effect has been developed for standard solar cell operating temperatures and illuminations. Methods have been developed to extract a lumped equivalent circuit from the current voltage characteristic of a single junction solar cellmore » in order to predict its behavior in a multijunction device.« less

  10. On the corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of palladium-based dental alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Desheng

    Palladium-based alloys have been used as dental restorative materials for about two decades with good clinical history. But there have been clinical case reports showing possible allergy effects from these alloys. The aim of this study was to characterize the corrosion behavior and mechanisms of several palladium-based dental alloys by potentiodynamic polarization methods, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy/atomic force microscopy (SKPFM/AFM), and to evaluate their biocompatibility by a cell culture technique and an animal model. Using SKPFM/AFM and scanning electron microscopy, the Ru-enriched phase from the use of ruthenium as a grain-refining element was identified as being slightly more noble than the palladium solid solution matrix in a high-palladium alloy. Other secondary precipitates that exist in the microstructures of these high-palladium alloys have minimal differences in Volta potential compared to the matrix. For high-palladium alloys, corrosion is generally uniform due to the predominant palladium content in the different phases. Potentiodynamic polarization and EIS have shown that representative palladium-silver alloys have low corrosion tendency and high corrosion resistance, which are equivalent to a well-known high-noble gold-palladium alloy in simulated body fluid and oral environments. The palladium-silver alloys tested are resistant to chloride ion corrosion. Passivation and dealloying have been identified for all of the tested palladium-silver alloys. The great similarity in corrosion behavior among the palladium-silver alloys is attributed to their similar chemical compositions. The variation in microstructures of palladium-silver alloys tested does not cause significant difference in corrosion behavior. The corrosion resistance of these palladium-silver alloys at elevated potentials relevant to oral environment is still satisfactory. The release of elements from representative dental

  11. THORIUM-SILICON-BERYLLIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.G.

    1959-02-10

    Th, Si, anol Bt alloys where Be and Si are each present in anmounts between 0.1 and 3.5% by weight and the total weight per cent of the minor alloying elements is between 1.5 and 4.5% are discussed. These ternary alloys show increased hardness and greater resistant to aqueous corrosion than is found in pure Th, Th-Si alloys, or Th-Be alloys.

  12. TUNGSTEN BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schell, D.H.; Sheinberg, H.

    1959-12-15

    A high-density quaternary tungsten-base alloy having high mechanical strength and good machinability composed of about 2 wt.% Ni, 3 wt.% Cu, 5 wt.% Pb, and 90wt.% W is described. This alloy can be formed by the powder metallurgy technique of hot pressing in a graphite die without causing a reaction between charge and the die and without formation of a carbide case on the final compact, thereby enabling re-use of the graphite die. The alloy is formable at hot- pressing temperatures of from about 1200 to about 1350 deg C. In addition, there is little component shrinkage, thereby eliminating the necessity of subsequent extensive surface machining.

  13. Multi-range force sensors utilizing shape memory alloys

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2003-04-15

    The present invention provides a multi-range force sensor comprising a load cell made of a shape memory alloy, a strain sensing system, a temperature modulating system, and a temperature monitoring system. The ability of the force sensor to measure contact forces in multiple ranges is effected by the change in temperature of the shape memory alloy. The heating and cooling system functions to place the shape memory alloy of the load cell in either a low temperature, low strength phase for measuring small contact forces, or a high temperature, high strength phase for measuring large contact forces. Once the load cell is in the desired phase, the strain sensing system is utilized to obtain the applied contact force. The temperature monitoring system is utilized to ensure that the shape memory alloy is in one phase or the other.

  14. Atomistic study of the structural and electronic properties of a-Si:H/c-Si interfaces.

    PubMed

    Santos, Iván; Cazzaniga, Marco; Onida, Giovanni; Colombo, Luciano

    2014-03-05

    We investigate the structural and electronic properties of the interface between hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and crystalline silicon (c-Si) by combining tight-binding molecular dynamics and DFT ab initio electronic structure calculations. We focus on the c-Si(100)(1×1)/a-Si:H, c-Si(100)(2×1)/a-Si:H and c-Si(111)/a-Si:H interfaces, due to their technological relevance. The analysis of atomic rearrangements induced at the interface by the interaction between H and Si allowed us to identify the relevant steps that lead to the transformation from c-Si(100)(1×1)/a-Si:H to c-Si(100)(2×1)/a-Si:H. The interface electronic structure is found to be characterized by spatially localized mid-gap states. Through them we have identified the relevant atomic structures responsible for the interface defect states, namely: dangling-bonds, H bridges, and strained bonds. Our analysis contributes to a better understanding of the role of such defects in c-Si/a-Si:H interfaces.

  15. Si wafer bonded of a-Si /a-SiNx distributed Bragg reflectors for 1.55-μm-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levallois, C.; Le Corre, A.; Loualiche, S.; Dehaese, O.; Folliot, H.; Paranthoen, C.; Thoumyre, F.; Labbé, C.

    2005-08-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) and amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx) layers deposited by magnetron sputtering have been analyzed in order to determine their optical and surface properties. A large value of ˜1.9 of index difference is found between these materials. Distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) based on these dielectric material quarter wave layers have been studied by optical measurements and confronted to theoretical calculations based on the transfer matrix method. A good agreement has been obtained between the experimental and expected reflectivities. A maximum reflectivity of 99.5% at 1.55μm and a large spectral bandwidth of 800nm are reached with only four and a half periods of a-Si /a-SiNx. No variation of the DBR reflectivity has been observed with the time nor when annealed above 240°C and stored during few months. This result allows us to use this DBR in a metallic bonding process to realize a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with two dielectric a-Si /a-SiNx DBRs. This bonding method using AuIn2 as the bonding medium and Si substrate can be performed at a low temperature of 240°C without damaging the optical properties of the microcavity. The active region used for this VCSEL is based on lattice-matched InGaAs /InGaAsP quantum wells and a laser emission has been obtained at room temperature on an optically pumped device.

  16. Ti-Ga binary alloys developed as potential dental materials.

    PubMed

    Qiu, K J; Lin, W J; Zhou, F Y; Nan, H Q; Wang, B L; Li, L; Lin, J P; Zheng, Y F; Liu, Y H

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the microstructure, mechanical properties, castability, electrochemical behaviors and cytotoxicity of as-cast Ti-Ga alloys with pure Ti as control were systematically investigated to assess their potential application in dental field. The results of OM and XRD showed that the microstructure of all experimental as-cast Ti-Ga alloys exhibited single α-Ti phase at room temperature. Mechanical tests indicated that the tensile strength, Young's modulus, microhardness and wear resistance were improved monotonically with the increase of Ga content. The castability test showed that Ti-2Ga alloy increased the castability value of pure Ti by 14.2(±3.8)% (p<0.05). The electrochemical behaviors in both artificial saliva solutions indicated that the studied Ti-Ga alloys showed better corrosion resistance than pure Ti. The cytotoxicity test suggested that the studied Ti-Ga alloys produced no significant deleterious effect to L929 fibroblast cells and MG63 osteosarcoma cells, similar to pure Ti, indicating an excellent in vitro biocompatibility. The cell morphology test showed that both L929 and MG63 cells process excellent cell adhesion ability on all experimental materials. Considering all these results, Ti-2Ga alloy exhibits the optimal comprehensive performance and has potential for dental applications. © 2013.

  17. Design and development of novel MRI compatible zirconium- ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Li, H.F.; Zhou, F.Y.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, novel MRI compatible zirconium-ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility were developed for biomedical and therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. The results demonstrated that alloying with ruthenium into pure zirconium would significantly increase the strength and hardness properties. The corrosion resistance of zirconium-ruthenium alloys increased significantly. High cell viability could be found and healthy cell morphology observed when culturing MG 63 osteoblast-like cells and L-929 fibroblast cells with zirconium-ruthenium alloys, whereas the hemolysis rates of zirconium-ruthenium alloys are <1%, much lower than 5%, the safe value for biomaterials according to ISO 10993-4 standard. Compared with conventional biomedical 316L stainless steel, Co–Cr alloys and Ti-based alloys, the magnetic susceptibilities of the zirconium-ruthenium alloys (1.25 × 10−6 cm3·g−1–1.29 × 10−6 cm3·g−1 for zirconium-ruthenium alloys) are ultralow, about one-third that of Ti-based alloys (Ti–6Al–4V, ~3.5 × 10−6 cm3·g−1, CP Ti and Ti–6Al–7Nb, ~3.0 × 10−6 cm3·g−1), and one-sixth that of Co–Cr alloys (Co–Cr–Mo, ~7.7 × 10−6 cm3·g−1). Among the Zr–Ru alloy series, Zr–1Ru demonstrates enhanced mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and cell viability with lowest magnetic susceptibility, and thus is the optimal Zr–Ru alloy system as therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. PMID:27090955

  18. Powder metallurgical low-modulus Ti-Mg alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Li, Kaiyang; Luo, Tao; Song, Min; Wu, Hong; Xiao, Jian; Tan, Yanni; Cheng, Ming; Chen, Bing; Niu, Xinrui; Hu, Rong; Li, Xiaohui; Tang, Huiping

    2015-11-01

    In this work, powder metallurgical (PM) Ti-Mg alloys were prepared using combined techniques of mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The alloys mainly consist of super saturations of Mg in Ti matrix, and some laminar structured Ti- and Mg-rich phases. The PM Ti-Mg alloys contain a homogeneous mixtures of nanocrystalline Mg and Ti phases. The novel microstructures result in unconventional mechanical and biological properties. It has been shown that the PM Ti-Mg alloys have a much lower compression modulus (36-50GPa) compared to other Ti alloys, but still remain a very high compressive strength (1500-1800MPa). In addition, the PM Ti-Mg alloys show good biocompatibility and bioactivity. Mg can dissolve in the simulated body fluids, and induce the formation of the calcium phosphate layer. The compression modulus of PM Ti-Mg alloys decreases with the amount of Mg, while the bioactivity increases. Although the corrosion resistance of Ti-Mg alloys decreases with the content of Mg, the alloys still show good stability in simulated body fluid under electrochemical conditions. The indirect and direct cytotoxicity results show that PM Ti-Mg alloys have a good biocompatibility to NIH-3T3 cells. Therefore, the PM Ti-Mg alloys are promising candidates in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-01

    Pu-U-Fe and Pu-U-Co alloys suitable for use as fuel elements tn fast breeder reactors are described. The advantages of these alloys are ease of fabrication without microcracks, good corrosion restatance, and good resistance to radiation damage. These advantages are secured by limitation of the zeta phase of plutonium in favor of a tetragonal crystal structure of the U/sub 6/Mn type.

  20. Influence of alloy microstructure on the microshear bond strength of basic alloys to a resin luting cement.

    PubMed

    Bauer, José; Costa, José Ferreira; Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Souza, Douglas Nesadal de; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of microstructure and composition of basic alloys on their microshear bond strength (µSBS) to resin luting cement. The alloys used were: Supreme Cast-V (SC), Tilite Star (TS), Wiron 99 (W9), VeraBond II (VBII), VeraBond (VB), Remanium (RM) and IPS d.SIGN 30 (IPS). Five wax patterns (13 mm in diameter and 4mm height) were invested, and cast in a centrifugal casting machine for each basic alloy. The specimens were embedded in resin, polished with a SiC paper and sandblasted. After cleaning the metal surfaces, six tygon tubes (0.5 mm height and 0.75 mm in diameter) were placed on each alloy surface, the resin cement (Panavia F) was inserted, and the excess was removed before light-curing. After storage (24 h/37°C), the specimens were subjected to µSBS testing (0.5 mm/min). The data were subjected to a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Turkey's test (α=0.05). After polishing, their microstructures were revealed with specific conditioners. The highest µSBS (mean/standard deviation in MPa) were observed in the alloys with dendritic structure, eutectic formation or precipitation: VB (30.6/1.7), TS (29.8/0.9), SC (30.6/1.7), with the exception of IPS (31.1/0.9) which showed high µSBS but no eutectic formation. The W9 (28.1/1.5), VBII (25.9/2.0) and RM (25.9/0.9) showed the lowest µSBS and no eutectic formation. It seems that alloys with eutectic formation provide the highest µSBS values when bonded to a light-cured resin luting cement.

  1. In Vitro Biocompatibility and Endothelialization of Novel Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloys for Improved Stent Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Watson, Nevija; Xu, Zhigang; Chen, Yongjun; Waterman, Jenora; Sankar, Jagannathan; Zhu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) based alloys are the most advanced cardiovascular stent materials. This new generation of stent scaffold is currently under clinical evaluation with encouraging outcomes. All these Mg alloys contain a certain amount of rare earth (RE) elements though the exact composition is not yet disclosed. RE alloying can usually enhance the mechanical strength of different metal alloys but their toxicity might be an issue for medical applications. It is still unclear how RE elements will affect the magnesium (Mg) alloys intended for stent materials as a whole. In this study, we evaluated MgZnCaY-1RE, MgZnCaY-2RE, MgYZr-1RE, and MgZnYZr-1RE alloys for cardiovascular stents applications regarding their mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, hemolysis, platelet adhesion/activation, and endothelial biocompatibility. The mechanical properties of all alloys were significantly improved. Potentiodynamic polarization showed that the corrosion resistance of four alloys was at least 3–10 times higher than that of pure Mg control. Hemolysis test revealed that all the materials were non-hemolytic while little to moderate platelet adhesion was found on all materials surface. No significant cytotoxicity was observed in human aorta endothelial cells cultured with magnesium alloy extract solution for up to seven days. Direct endothelialization test showed that all the alloys possess significantly better capability to sustain endothelial cell attachment and growth. The results demonstrated the promising potential of these alloys for stent material applications in the future. PMID:24921251

  2. Charactrization of a Li-ion battery based stand-alone a-Si photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid Vishkasougheh, Mehdi; Tunaboylu, Bahadir

    2014-11-01

    The number of photovoltaic (PV) system installations is increasing rapidly. As more people learn about this versatile and often cost-effective power option, this trend will accelerate. This document presents a recommended design for a battery based stand-alone photovoltaic system (BSPV). BSPV system has the ability to be applied in different areas, including warning signals, lighting, refrigeration, communication, residential water pumping, remote sensing, and cathodic protection. The presented calculation method gives a proper idea for a system sizing technique. Based on application load, different scenarios are possible for designing a BSPV system. In this study, a battery based stand-alone system was designed. The electricity generation part is three a-Si panels, which are connected in parallel, and for the storage part LFP (lithium iron phosphate) battery was used. The high power LFP battery packs are 40 cells each 8S5P (configured 8 series 5 parallel). Each individual pack weighs 0.5 kg and is 25.6 V. In order to evaluate the efficiency of a-Si panels with respect to the temperature and the solar irradiation, cities of Istanbul, Ankara and Adana in Turkey were selected. Temperature and solar irradiation were gathered from reliable sources and by using translation equations, current and voltage output of panels were calculated. As a result of these calculations, current and energy outputs were computed by considering an average efficient solar irradiation time value per day in Turkey. The calculated power values were inserted to a battery cycler system, and the behavior of high power LFP batteries in a time sequence of 7.2 h was evaluated. The charging and discharging cycles were obtained and their behavior was discussed. According to the results, Istanbul has the lowest number of peak month's energy, it followed by Ankara, and ultimately Adana has the highest number of peak months and energy storage. It was observed during the tests that values up to 4 A was

  3. Different failure modes for V-containing and V-free AB2 metal hydride alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K.; Wong, D. F.; Yasuoka, S.; Ishida, J.; Nei, J.; Koch, J.

    2014-04-01

    Failure modes of a V-containing and a V-free AB2 Laves phase-based metal hydride alloy were studied by the combination of X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma, Soxhlet extraction, and magnetic susceptibility measurement. Cells with the V-containing alloy exhibited less capacity degradation up until venting occurred in the cells, after which the capacity rapidly degraded. Cells with the V-free alloy remained linear in capacity degradation throughout the cycle life test. The failure mechanism for the V-containing alloy is related to the formation of an oxide layer that penetrates deeper into the alloy particles due to high V leaching and impedes gas recombination, while the failure mechanism for the V-free alloy is related to the continuous pulverization of the main AB2 phase.

  4. Transport des charges dans le silicium amorphe hydrogene (a-Si:H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen Chao

    Le transport par piegeage multiple (MT) des porteurs de charge dans une queue de bande exponentielle est etudie analytiquement et par simulation Monte Carlo (MC) dans le silicium amorphe hydrogene (a-Si:H). Cette etude traite surtout des mecanismes fondamentaux du transport par piegeage multiple et de la modelisation de differents types d'experiences. Nous etudions d'abord la formation du signal dans un detecteur de particules ionisantes, constitue d'une diode p-i-n au a-Si:H, en simulant la derive des porteurs crees par une particule chargee. Le probleme est similaire a l'etude de la mobilite de derive par mesure de temps de vol (TOF) sauf qu'ici, la tension appliquee est continue, menant a un champ electrique non uniforme, et que les porteurs sont generes sur toute la trajectoire de la particule, plutot qu'en surface. Une solution analytique est donnee pour la densite de porteurs libres n(x, t) pour un parametre de dispersion 0 < alpha < 1. Dans le cas alpha = 1/2, le courant transitoire I( t) et la charge induite Q(t) ont une solution analytique. Ces resultats sont compares aux simulations Monte Carlo. Nous avons egalement montre que les calculs Monte Carlo reproduisent les signaux generes par le passage d'une particule chargee dans un detecteur p-i-n au a-Si:H. Nous modelisons surtout l'experience du temps de vol par simulation Monte Carlo. Nous analysons le transport par piegeage multiple standard incluant differents effets physiques en variant la tension appliquee et la temperature. Nous calculons principalement le courant induit, la charge induite, la distribution de porteurs libres n(x, t) et pieges ni(x, t, E). Nous avons aussi propose un modele de transport qui inclut le depiegeage assiste par le champ afin d'expliquer les experiences TOF recentes en presence de haut champ. Nous trouvons que les parametres de dispersion alpha1 et alpha 2, qui dependent de la temperature et du champ, et la mobilite de derive, augmentent d'au moins un ordre de grandeur

  5. Valence band offset in heterojunctions between crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon (sub)oxides (a-SiO{sub x}:H, 0 < x < 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Liebhaber, M.; Mews, M.; Schulze, T. F.

    2015-01-19

    The heterojunction between amorphous silicon (sub)oxides (a-SiO{sub x}:H, 0 < x < 2) and crystalline silicon (c-Si) is investigated. We combine chemical vapor deposition with in-system photoelectron spectroscopy in order to determine the valence band offset ΔE{sub V} and the interface defect density, being technologically important junction parameters. ΔE{sub V} increases from ≈0.3 eV for the a-Si:H/c-Si interface to >4 eV for the a-SiO{sub 2}/c-Si interface, while the electronic quality of the heterointerface deteriorates. High-bandgap a-SiO{sub x}:H is therefore unsuitable for the hole contact in heterojunction solar cells, due to electronic transport hindrance resulting from the large ΔE{sub V}. Our method is readily applicable to othermore » heterojunctions.« less

  6. Switching characteristic and capacitance analysis of a-Si:H pinpin photodiodes for visible range telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantoni, A.; Fernandes, M.; Louro, P.; Vieira, M.

    2016-05-01

    The device under study is an a-SiC:H/a-Si:H pinpin photodiodes produced by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition) and has a structure that consists of a p-i'(a-SiC:H)-n/p-i(a-Si:H)-n heterostructure with low conductivity doped layers. This device structure has been demonstrated useful in optical communications that use the WDM technique to encode multiple signals in the visible light range. We present in this work experimental results about C-V measurements of the device under complex conditions of illumination. Also it is presented an analysis based on the transient response of the device when illuminated by a pulsed light, with and without optical bias superposition. Rising and decaying times of the collected photocurrent will be outlined under the different conditions. A simulation study outlines the role played by each pin substructure on the response speed and gives some hint on the possible optimization of this device.

  7. Multiple parameter cytotoxicity index on dental alloys and pure metals.

    PubMed

    Hornez, J C; Lefèvre, A; Joly, D; Hildebrand, H F

    2002-08-01

    Palladium (Pd) is a metal frequently used for dental alloys. In order to elucidate controversial options about Pd concerning its biological performances, our study consists in the evaluation of commercial and experimental PFM and C&B precious and semi-precious dental alloys. This investigation was also designated to the establishment of a cytotoxicity index (CI) such as it was described for hemocompatibility testing. The following materials were tested: 36 commercial alloys (Au-, Pd- and Ag-base), 14 experimental alloys (Pd-base established by an experience plan) and pure metals (Ag, Au, Cu, Ni, Cr, In, Sn, Pt, Ti, Zn). The cells culture experiments were carried out with epithelial L132 cells and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. In vitro cell viability tests show that Pt, Sn, In, Ti, Au and Pd have no cytotoxic effect; Cr, Cu and Ag are toxic, Ni, Zn, and Co are highly toxic. An identical ranking was found with the inflammatory and proliferation tests. Toxic and highly toxic metals induced slight or strong prosthetic dental restoration morphological alterations after 3-days cultures and mostly cell death after 6-days cultures. These effects are dependent on the leakage of the element into the culture medium as revealed by ICP. The addition of Au gives benefit to Pd-Ag alloys, but does not produce any major effect on Pd-Cu alloys. This qualitative ranking can quantitatively be confirmed by cytocompatibility testing after application of a CI.

  8. Bio-Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys for Orthopaedic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Emily K.; Ehrensberger, Mark T.

    2017-01-01

    Three Mg alloys, Mg–1.34% Ca–3% Zn (MCZ), Mg–1.34% Ca–3% Zn–0.2% Sr (MCZS), and Mg–2% Sr (MS), were examined to understand their bio-corrosion behavior. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization scans were performed after 6 days of immersion in cell culture medium, and ion release and changes in media pH were tracked over a 28 day time period. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of alloy microstructure was performed to help interpret the results of the electrochemical testing. Results indicate that corrosion resistance of the alloys is as follows: MCZ > MCZS > MS. PMID:28862647

  9. Al-TiH2 Composite Foams Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasada Rao, A. K.; Oh, Y. S.; Ain, W. Q.; A, Azhari; Basri, S. N.; Kim, N. J.

    2016-02-01

    The work presented here in describes the synthesis of aluminum based titanium-hydride particulate composite by casting method and its foaming behavior of magnesium alloy. Results obtained indicate that the Al-10TiH2 composite can be synthesized successfully by casting method. Further, results also reveal that closed-cell magnesium alloy foam can be synthesized by using Al-10TiH2 composite as a foaming agent.

  10. Palladium alloys for biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Wataha, John C; Shor, Kavita

    2010-07-01

    In the biomedical field, palladium has primarily been used as a component of alloys for dental prostheses. However, recent research has shown the utility of palladium alloys for devices such as vascular stents that do not distort magnetic resonance images. Dental palladium alloys may contain minor or major percentages of palladium. As a minor constituent, palladium hardens, strengthens and increases the melting range of alloys. Alloys that contain palladium as the major component also contain copper, gallium and sometimes tin to produce strong alloys with high stiffness and relatively low corrosion rates. All current evidence suggests that palladium alloys are safe, despite fears about harmful effects of low-level corrosion products during biomedical use. Recent evidence suggests that palladium poses fewer biological risks than other elements, such as nickel or silver. Hypersensitivity to palladium alone is rare, but accompanies nickel hypersensitivity 90-100% of the time. The unstable price of palladium continues to influence the use of palladium alloys in biomedicine.

  11. Effects of the c-Si/a-SiO2 interfacial atomic structure on its band alignment: an ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fan; Pham, Hieu H; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2017-12-13

    The crystalline-Si/amorphous-SiO 2 (c-Si/a-SiO 2 ) interface is an important system used in many applications, ranging from transistors to solar cells. The transition region of the c-Si/a-SiO 2 interface plays a critical role in determining the band alignment between the two regions. However, the question of how this interface band offset is affected by the transition region thickness and its local atomic arrangement is yet to be fully investigated. Here, by controlling the parameters of the classical Monte Carlo bond switching algorithm, we have generated the atomic structures of the interfaces with various thicknesses, as well as containing Si at different oxidation states. A hybrid functional method, as shown by our calculations to reproduce the GW and experimental results for bulk Si and SiO 2 , was used to calculate the electronic structure of the heterojunction. This allowed us to study the correlation between the interface band characterization and its atomic structures. We found that although the systems with different thicknesses showed quite different atomic structures near the transition region, the calculated band offset tended to be the same, unaffected by the details of the interfacial structure. Our band offset calculation agrees well with the experimental measurements. This robustness of the interfacial electronic structure to its interfacial atomic details could be another reason for the success of the c-Si/a-SiO 2 interface in Si-based electronic applications. Nevertheless, when a reactive force field is used to generate the a-SiO 2 and c-Si/a-SiO 2 interfaces, the band offset significantly deviates from the experimental values by about 1 eV.

  12. Effects of the c-Si/a-SiO 2 interfacial atomic structure on its band alignment: an ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Fan; Pham, Hieu H.; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2017-11-13

    The crystalline-Si/amorphous-SiO 2 (c-Si/a-SiO 2) interface is an important system used in many applications, ranging from transistors to solar cells. The transition region of the c-Si/a-SiO 2 interface plays a critical role in determining the band alignment between the two regions. However, the question of how this interface band offset is affected by the transition region thickness and its local atomic arrangement is yet to be fully investigated. Here in this study, by controlling the parameters of the classical Monte Carlo bond switching algorithm, we have generated the atomic structures of the interfaces with various thicknesses, as well as containingmore » Si at different oxidation states. A hybrid functional method, as shown by our calculations to reproduce the GW and experimental results for bulk Si and SiO 2, was used to calculate the electronic structure of the heterojunction. This allowed us to study the correlation between the interface band characterization and its atomic structures. We found that although the systems with different thicknesses showed quite different atomic structures near the transition region, the calculated band offset tended to be the same, unaffected by the details of the interfacial structure. Our band offset calculation agrees well with the experimental measurements. This robustness of the interfacial electronic structure to its interfacial atomic details could be another reason for the success of the c-Si/a-SiO 2 interface in Si-based electronic applications. Nevertheless, when a reactive force field is used to generate the a-SiO 2 and c-Si/a-SiO 2 interfaces, the band offset significantly deviates from the experimental values by about 1 eV« less

  13. Effect of surface reaction layer on grindability of cast titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Hosoi, Toshio; Ford, J Phillip; Watanabe, Ikuya

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the cast surface reaction layer on the grindability of titanium alloys, including free-machining titanium alloy (DT2F), and to compare the results with the grindability of two dental casting alloys (gold and Co-Cr). All titanium specimens (pure Ti, Ti-6Al-4V and DT2F) were cast using a centrifugal casting machine in magnesia-based investment molds. Two specimen sizes were used to cast the titanium metals so that the larger castings would be the same size as the smaller gold and Co-Cr alloy specimens after removal of the surface reaction layer (alpha-case). Grindability was measured as volume loss ground from a specimen for 1 min using a handpiece engine with a SiC abrasive wheel at 0.1 kgf and four circumferential wheel speeds. For the titanium and gold alloys, grindability increased as the rotational speed increased. There was no statistical difference (p>0.05) in grindability for all titanium specimens either with or without the alpha-case. Of the titanium metals tested, Ti-6 Al-4V had the greatest grindability at higher speeds, followed by DT2F and CP Ti. The grindability of the gold alloy was similar to that of Ti-6 Al-4V, whereas the Co-Cr alloy had the lowest grindability. The results of this study indicated that the alpha-case did not significantly affect the grindability of the titanium alloys. The free-machining titanium alloy had improved grindability compared to CP Ti.

  14. Si/a-Si core/shell nanowires as nonvolatile crossbar switches.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yajie; Yu, Guihua; McAlpine, Michael C; Lu, Wei; Lieber, Charles M

    2008-02-01

    Radial core/shell nanowires (NWs) represent an important class of nanoscale building blocks with substantial potential for exploring fundamental electronic properties and realizing novel device applications at the nanoscale. Here, we report the synthesis of crystalline silicon/amorphous silicon (Si/a-Si) core/shell NWs and studies of crossed Si/a-Si NW metal NW (Si/a-Si x M) devices and arrays. Room-temperature electrical measurements on single Si/a-Si x Ag NW devices exhibit bistable switching between high (off) and low (on) resistance states with well-defined switching threshold voltages, on/off ratios greater than 10(4), and current rectification in the on state. Temperature-dependent switching experiments suggest that rectification can be attributed to barriers to electric field-driven metal diffusion. Systematic studies of Si/a-Si x Ag NW devices show that (i) the bit size can be at least as small as 20 nm x 20 nm, (ii) the writing time is <100 ns, (iii) the retention time is >2 weeks, and (iv) devices can be switched >10(4) times without degradation in performance. In addition, studies of dense one-dimensional and two-dimensional Si/a-Si x Ag NW devices arrays fabricated on crystalline and plastic substrates show that elements within the arrays can be independently switched and read, and moreover that bends with radii of curvature as small as 0.3 cm cause little change in device characteristics. The Si/a-Si x Ag NW devices represent a highly scalable and promising nanodevice element for assembly and fabrication of dense nonvolatile memory and programmable nanoprocessors.

  15. Application of a-Si:H radiation detectors in medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyoung-Koo

    1995-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of a proposed a-Si:H-based current-integrating gamma camera were performed. The analysis showed that the intrinsic resolution of such a camera was 1 to approximately 2.5 mm, which is somewhat better than that of a conventional gamma camera, and that the greater blurring, due to the detection of scattered gamma-rays, could be reduced considerably by image restoration techniques. This proposed gamma camera would be useful for imaging shallow organs such as the thyroid. Prototype charge-storage a-Si:H pixel detectors for such a camera were designed, constructed and tested. The detectors could store signal charge as long as 5 min at (minus)26C. The thermal generation current in reverse biased a-Si:H p-i-n photodetectors was investigated, and the Poole-Frenkel effect was found to be the most significant source of the thermal generation current. Based on the Poole-Frenkel effect, voltage- and time-dependent thermal generation current was modeled. Using the model, the operating conditions of the proposed a-Si:H gamma camera, such as the operating temperature, the operating bias and the (gamma)-scan period, could be predicted. The transient photoconductive gain mechanism in various a-Si:H devices was investigated for applications in digital radiography. Using the a-Si:H photoconductors in n-i-n configuration in pixel arrays, enhancement in signal collection (more than 200 times higher signal level) can be achieved in digital radiography, compared to the ordinary p-i-n type a-Si:H x-ray imaging arrays.

  16. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM-TITANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-07-28

    A plutonium-uranium alloy suitable for use as the fuel element in a fast breeder reactor is described. The alloy contains from 15 to 60 at.% titanium with the remainder uranium and plutonium in a specific ratio, thereby limiting the undesirable zeta phase and rendering the alloy relatively resistant to corrosion and giving it the essential characteristic of good mechanical workability.

  17. Semiconductor alloys - Structural property engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Van Schilfgaarde, M.; Berding, M.; Chen, A.-B.

    1987-01-01

    Semiconductor alloys have been used for years to tune band gaps and average bond lengths to specific applications. Other selection criteria for alloy composition, and a growth technique designed to modify their structural properties, are presently considered. The alloys Zn(1-y)Cd(y)Te and CdSe(y)Te(1-y) are treated as examples.

  18. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Strasser, Peter [Houston, TX; Koh, Shirlaine [Houston, TX; Mani, Prasanna [Houston, TX; Ratndeep, Srivastava [Houston, TX

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  19. Influence of carbon content on the copper-telluride phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior of carbon alloyed Cu-Te conductive bridge random access memory cells

    SciTech Connect

    Devulder, Wouter, E-mail: Wouter.Devulder@UGent.be; De Schutter, Bob; Detavernier, Christophe

    2014-02-07

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the carbon content on the Cu-Te phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior in carbon alloyed Cu{sub 0.6}Te{sub 0.4} based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) cells. Carbon alloying of copper-tellurium inhibits the crystallization, while attractive switching behavior is preserved when using the material as Cu-supply layer in CBRAM cells. The phase formation is first investigated in a combinatorial way. With increasing carbon content, an enlargement of the temperature window in which the material stays amorphous was observed. Moreover, if crystalline phases are formed, subsequent phase transformations are inhibited. The electricalmore » switching behavior of memory cells with different carbon contents is then investigated by implementing them in 580 μm diameter dot TiN/Cu{sub 0.6}Te{sub 0.4}-C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si memory cells. Reliable switching behavior is observed for carbon contents up to 40 at. %, with a resistive window of more than 2 orders of magnitude, whereas for 50 at. % carbon, a higher current in the off state and only a small resistive window are present after repeated cycling. This degradation can be ascribed to the higher thermal and lower drift contribution to the reset operation due to a lower Cu affinity towards the supply layer, leading cycle-after-cycle to an increasing amount of Cu in the switching layer, which contributes to the current. The thermal diffusion of Cu into Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under annealing also gives an indication of the Cu affinity of the source layer. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to investigate this migration depth in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} before and after annealing, showing a higher Cu, Te, and C migration for high carbon contents.« less

  20. Microstructure, mechanical property, corrosion behavior, and in vitro biocompatibility of Zr-Mo alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhou, F Y; Wang, B L; Qiu, K J; Li, L; Lin, J P; Li, H F; Zheng, Y F

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, and in vitro biocompatibility of Zr-Mo alloys as a function of Mo content after solution treatment were systemically investigated to assess their potential use in biomedical application. The experimental results indicated that Zr-1Mo alloy mainly consisted of an acicular structure of α' phase, while ω phase formed in Zr-3Mo alloy. In Zr-5Mo alloy, retained β phase and a small amount of precipitated α phase were observed. Only the retained β phase was obtained in Zr-10Mo alloy. Zr-1Mo alloy exhibited the greatest hardness, bending strength, and modulus among all experimental Zr-Mo alloys, while β phase Zr-10Mo alloy had a low modulus. The results of electrochemical corrosion indicated that adding Mo into Zr improved its corrosion resistance which resulted in increasing the thermodynamic stability and passivity of zirconium. The cytotoxicity test suggested that the extracts of the studied Zr-Mo alloys produced no significant deleterious effect to fibroblast cells (L-929) and osteoblast cells (MG 63), indicating an excellent in vitro biocompatibility. Based on these facts, certain Zr-Mo alloys potentially suitable for different biomedical applications were proposed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Electrochemical comparison and biological performance of a new CoCrNbMoZr alloy with commercial CoCrMo alloy.

    PubMed

    Andrei, M; Galateanu, B; Hudita, A; Costache, M; Osiceanu, P; Calderon Moreno, J M; Drob, S I; Demetrescu, I

    2016-02-01

    A new CoCrNbMoZr alloy, with Nb and Zr content is characterized from the point of view of surface features, corrosion resistance and biological performance in order to be proposed as dental restorative material. Its properties are discussed in comparison with commercial Heraenium CE alloy based on Co, Cr and Mo as well. The microstructure of both alloys was revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition and thickness of the alloy native passive films were identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface characteristics were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle techniques. The quantity of ions released from alloys in artificial saliva was evaluated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) measurements. The electrochemical stability was studied in artificial Carter-Brugirard saliva, performing open circuit potentials, polarization resistances and corrosion currents and rates. The biological performance of the new alloy was tested in vitro in terms of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) morphology, viability and proliferation status. The new alloy is very resistant to the attack of the aggressive ions from the artificial saliva. The surface properties, the roughness and wettabiliy sustain the cell behavior. The comparison of the new alloy behavior with that of existing commercial CoCrMo alloy showed the superior properties of the new metallic biomaterial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transparent Alloys Operation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-26

    iss055e005543 (March 26, 2018) --- Expedition 55 Flight Engineer and astronaut Scott Tingle is pictured conducting the Transparent Alloys experiment inside the Destiny lab module's Microgravity Science Glovebox. The Transparent Alloys study is a set of five experiments that seeks to improve the understanding of melting-solidification processes in plastics without the interference of Earth's gravity environment. Results may impact the development of new light-weight, high-performance structural materials for space applications. Observations may also impact fuel efficiency, consumption and recycling of materials on Earth potentially reducing costs and increasing industrial competitiveness.

  3. Optical signal processing for a smart vehicle lighting system using a-SiCH technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, M. A.; Vieira, M.; Vieira, P.; Louro, P.

    2017-05-01

    We propose the use of Visible Light Communication (VLC) for vehicle safety applications, creating a smart vehicle lighting system that combines the functions of illumination and signaling, communications, and positioning. The feasibility of VLC is demonstrated by employing trichromatic Red-Green-Blue (RGB) LEDs as transmitters, since they offer the possibility of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM), which can greatly increase the transmission data rate, when using SiC double p-i-n receivers to encode/decode the information. Trichromatic RGB Light Emitting Diodes (LED)s (RGB-LED) are used together for illumination proposes (headlamps) and individually, each chip, to transmit the driving range distance and data information. An on-off code is used to transmit the data. Free space is the transmission medium. The receivers consist of two stacked amorphous a-H:SiC cells. They combine the simultaneous demultiplexing operation with the photodetection and self-amplification. The proposed coding is based on SiC technology. Multiple Input Multi Output (MIMO) architecture is used. For data transmission, we propose the use of two headlights based on commercially available modulated white RGB-LEDs. For data receiving and decoding we use three a-SiC:H double pin/pin optical processors symmetrically distributed at the vehicle tail Moreover, we present a way to achieve vehicular communication using the parity bits. A representation with a 4 bit original string color message and the transmitted 7 bit string, the encoding and decoding accurate positional information processes and the design of SiC navigation system are discussed and tested. A visible multilateration method estimates the drive distance range by using the decoded information received from several non-collinear transmitters.

  4. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy are disclosed. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700--1200 C to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy. 13 figs.

  5. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong-Hee

    1995-01-01

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700.degree. C.-1200.degree. C. to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy.

  6. Half-Corbino short-channel amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors with a-SiOx or a-SiOx/a-SiNx passivation layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chumin; Fung, Tze-Ching; Kanicki, Jerzy

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the electrical properties and stability of short-channel half-Corbino amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). In the linear region, the fabricated half-Corbino a-IGZO TFT with a channel length of 4.5 μm achieves a geometrical factor (fg) of ∼2.7, a threshold voltage (VT) of ∼2.4 V, a field-effect mobility (μeff) of ∼15 cm2/Vs, a subthreshold swing (SS) of ∼320 mV/dec and an off-current (IOFF) < 10-13 A. In the saturation region, asymmetric electrical characteristics such as drain current were observed under different drain bias conditions. The electrical properties asymmetry of half-Corbino a-IGZO TFTs was explained by various geometrical factors owing to the short-channel effect. The reduced VT and increased SS at VDS = 15 V is explained by the drain-induced Schottky barrier lowering. In addition, the bias-temperature stress (BTS) was performed for half-Corbino a-IGZO TFTs with both amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiOx) single layer and a-SiOx/amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx) bilayer passivation (PV) structures. The device with bilayer PV shows a threshold voltage shift (ΔVT) of +2.07 and -0.5 V under positive (PBTS = +15 V) and negative BTS (NBTS = -15 V) at 70 °C for 10 ks, respectively. The origins of ΔVT during PBTS and NBTS for half-Corbino a-IGZO TFTs with single and bilayer PV structures were studied. To improve the device electrical stability, the bilayer PV structure should be used.

  7. Alloyed coatings for dispersion strengthened alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wermuth, F. R.; Stetson, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    Processing techniques were developed for applying several diffusion barriers to TD-Ni and TD-NiCr. Barrier coated specimens of both substrates were clad with Ni-Cr-Al and Fe-Cr-Al alloys and diffusion annealed in argon. Measurement of the aluminum distribution after annealing showed that, of the readily applicable diffusion barriers, a slurry applied tungsten barrier most effectively inhibited the diffusion of aluminum from the Ni-Cr-Al clad into the TD-alloy substrates. No barrier effectively limited interdiffusion of the Fe-Cr-Al clad with the substrates. A duplex process was then developed for applying Ni-Cr-Al coating compositions to the tungsten barrier coated substrates. A Ni-(16 to 32)Cr-3Si modifier was applied by slurry spraying and firing in vacuum, and was then aluminized by a fusion slurry process. Cyclic oxidation tests at 2300 F resulted in early coating failure due to inadequate edge coverage and areas of coating porosity. EMP analysis showed that oxidation had consumed 70 to 80 percent of the aluminum in the coating in less than 50 hours.

  8. Microstructural studies on Alloy 693

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, R.; Dutta, R. S.; Sengupta, P.; Samajdar, I.; Dey, G. K.

    2014-10-01

    Superalloy 693, is a newly identified 'high-temperature corrosion resistant alloy'. Present study focuses on microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy prepared by double 'vacuum melting' route. In general, the alloy contains ordered Ni3Al precipitates distributed within austenitic matrix. M6C primary carbide, M23C6 type secondary carbide and NbC particles are also found to be present. Heat treatment of the alloy at 1373 K for 30 min followed by water quenching (WQ) brings about a microstructure that is free from secondary carbides and Ni3Al type precipitates but contains primary carbides. Tensile property of Alloy 693 materials was measured with as received and solution annealed (1323 K, 60 min, WQ) and (1373 K, 30 min, WQ) conditions. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness of the alloy are found to drop with annealing. It is noted that in annealed condition, considerable cold working of the alloy can be performed.

  9. Manufacturing of size controlled a-Si:H nanoparticles in plasma using pulsed hydrogen gas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangsu; Park, Jinhwan; Doo, Seokgwang; Nam, Jaedo; Kim, Taesung

    2009-12-01

    We synthesized size controlled a-Si:H nanoparticles in plasma using a hydrogen gas pulse. An inductively-coupled plasma chamber with RF power (13.56 MHz) was designed for this study. Experiments were performed with various hydrogen pulse ON-times ranging between 0.1 to 0.9 seconds for 1 second periods. The size of the synthesized nanoparticles was measured and analyzed using electron microscopy, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Image J software. We observed that the size of a-Si:H nanoparticles decreased when the hydrogen pulse ON-time was increased. The a-Si:H nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape and uniform. For hydrogen pulse ON-time greater than 0.3 second, we observed agglomerated particles due to an increase in their concentration. We hope that these particles can be used as an alternative anode material for lithium ion secondary batteries.

  10. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  11. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Johnson, William L.

    1998-01-01

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  12. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  13. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  14. Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A.; Hayden, H. Wayne

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode.

  15. Electrode for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Zarnoch, Kenneth P.

    1983-01-01

    A sintered porous electrode useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell is produced which is composed of a plurality of 5 wt. % to 95 wt. % nickel balance copper alloy encapsulated ceramic particles sintered together by the alloy.

  16. COP, a new alloy for surgical implants.

    PubMed

    Sunami, Y; Ishikawa, E

    1977-02-01

    Today Vitallium is used for surgical implants. It is a casting alloy which, with advances in casting technology, is also used commercially for making instruments of fairly complex shape. Because of its expense, however, it is not widely used in Japan. Instead, a series of 18-8 Mo alloys are used in Japan even though of insufficient strength. Used over a long period of time in the body, especially for the purpose of preserving structual functions as part of the human skeleton, it often corrodes, resulting in either abnormalities in tissue cells or, because of its insufficient strength, danger of bending and breaking with aging. In spite of a marked advance in fracture treatment, we have hardly any suitable materials for making instruments appropriate to the internal fixation of fractures in Japan. We, therefore, conducted various experiments to develop an alloy with sufficient corrosive resistance and strength that could be formed into a complex shape to take the place of Vitallium alloy, finally succeeding in developing an alloy we call "COP". The characteristic properties of COP may be summarized as follows: 1. The main components are 20% Cr, 20% Ni, 20% Co and 4% Mo aside from 0.2% P. 2. As it contains "P", it shows a marked age-hardening. In its molten state its machinability is excellent, and later it can readily be hardened by heat-treatment. 3. It has not only a marked yield point and tensile strength but also has toughness in elongation and reduction of area, showing a strength which surpasses Vitallium. 4. Its corrosive resistance is great. 5. Its cost is far cheaper than Vitallium.

  17. Mechanical alloying of brittle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. M.; McDermott, B.; Koch, C. C.

    1988-12-01

    Mechanical alloying by high energy ball milling has been observed in systems with nominally brittle components. The phases formed by mechanical alloying of brittle components include solid solutions (Si + Ge → SiGe solid solution), intermetallic compounds (Mn + Bi → MnBi), and amorphous alloys (NiZr2 + Ni11Zr9 → amorphous Ni50Zr50). A key feature of possible mechanisms for mechanical alloying of brittle components is the temperature of the powders during milling. Experiments and a computer model of the kinetics of mechanical alloying were carried out in order to esti-mate the temperature effect. Temperature rises in typical powder alloys during milling in a SPEX mill were estimated to be ≤350 K using the kinetic parameters determined from the computer model. The tempering response of fresh martensite in an Fe-1.2 wt pct C alloy during milling was consistent with the maximum results of the computer model, yielding temperatures in the pow-ders of ≤575 K i.e., ΔT ≤ 300 K). Thermal activation was required for mechanical alloying of Si and Ge powder. No alloying occurred when the milling vial was cooled by liquid nitrogen. The pos-sible mechanisms responsible for material transfer during mechanical alloying of brittle components are considered.

  18. Grindability of dental magnetic alloys.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Eisei; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Okuno, Osamu; Kimura, Kohei

    2005-06-01

    In this study, the grindability of cast magnetic alloys (Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy and magnetic stainless steel) was evaluated and compared with that of conventional dental casting alloys (Ag-Pd-Au alloy, Type 4 gold alloy, and cobalt-chromium alloy). Grindability was evaluated in terms of grinding rate (i.e., volume of metal removed per minute) and grinding ratio (i.e., volume ratio of metal removed compared to wheel material lost). Solution treated Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy had a significantly higher grinding rate than the aged one at a grinding speed of 750-1500 m x min(-1). At 500 m x min(-1), there were no significant differences in grinding rate between solution treated and aged Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloys. At a lower speed of 500 m x min(-1) or 750 m x min(-1), it was found that the grinding rates of aged Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy and stainless steel were higher than those of conventional casting alloys.

  19. Role of valence electrons in phase transformation kinetics of thallium and its dilute alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, R.; Ahmed, S.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of the phase transformation of thallium and its dilute alloys were investigated using XRD and calorimetry. Pure thallium exhibits a beta(bcc) to alpha(hcp) phase transformation on cooling at 508 K. With alloying additions, the crystal structure for each phase does not change, although the size of the unit cell increases. The enthalpy and the temperature of phase transformation of each alloy have been determined. The chemical free energy change associated with the phase transformation of each alloy was calculated. The valence electrons make an outstanding contribution to the chemical free energy change required for the phase change.

  20. Influence of S. mutans on base-metal dental casting alloy toxicity.

    PubMed

    McGinley, E L; Dowling, A H; Moran, G P; Fleming, G J P

    2013-01-01

    We have highlighted that exposure of base-metal dental casting alloys to the acidogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans significantly increases cellular toxicity following exposure to immortalized human TR146 oral keratinocytes. With Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), S. mutans-treated nickel-based (Ni-based) and cobalt-chromium-based (Co-Cr-based) dental casting alloys were shown to leach elevated levels of metal ions compared with untreated dental casting alloys. We targeted several biological parameters: cell morphology, viable cell counts, cell metabolic activity, cell toxicity, and inflammatory cytokine expression. S. mutans-treated dental casting alloys disrupted cell morphology, elicited significantly decreased viable cell counts (p < 0.0001) and cell metabolic activity (p < 0.0001), and significantly increased cell toxicity (p < 0.0001) and inflammatory cytokine expression (p < 0.0001). S. mutans-treated Ni-based dental casting alloys induced elevated levels of cellular toxicity compared with S. mutans-treated Co-Cr-based dental casting alloys. While our findings indicated that the exacerbated release of metal ions from S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys was the likely result of the pH reduction during S. mutans growth, the exact nature of mechanisms leading to accelerated dissolution of alloy-discs is not yet fully understood. Given the predominance of S. mutans oral carriage and the exacerbated cytotoxicity observed in TR146 cells following exposure to S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys, the implications for the long-term stability of base-metal dental restorations in the oral cavity are a cause for concern.

  1. a-SiGe:H Deposited by Hot-Wire CVD Using a Tantalum Filament Operated at Low Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, A. H.; Xu, Y.; Gedvilas, L. M.

    2005-01-01

    We report the deposition of optimum-quality a-SiGe:H and a-Si:H by the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique using a tantalum filament operating at a low temperature. We gauge the material quality of the a-SiGe:H films by comparing infrared, small-angle x-ray scattering, photocapacitance, and conductivity results to those presented elsewhere.

  2. Doping-Induced Defects in P-Doped Photo-CVD a-Si:H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Kominato, Toshimi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Kuroiwa, Koichi; Tarui, Yasuo

    1987-06-01

    Doping-induced defect creation of photo-CVD amorphous silicon is investigated by photoluminescence and the isothermal capacitance transient spectroscopy technique. The defects induced by phosphorus doping increase as the square root of the gas phase doping ratio, indicating Street’s doping mechanism is basically valid for the Hg-sensitized photo-CVD a-Si:H.

  3. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Santella, Michael L.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1998-01-01

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  4. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  5. Local network structure of a-SiC:H and its correlation with dielectric function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Shota; Matsuki, Nobuyuki; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    The microscopic disordered structures of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-Si1-xCx:H) layers with different carbon contents have been determined based on the correlations between the dielectric function in the ultraviolet/visible region and the local bonding states studied by high-sensitivity infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy. We find that the microscopic structure of the a-Si1-xCx:H layers fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition shows a sharp structural transition at a boundary of x = 6.3 at. %. In the regime of x ≤ 6.3 at. %, (i) the amplitude of the a-SiC:H dielectric function reduces and (ii) the SiH2 content increases drastically with x, even though most of the C atoms are introduced into the tetrahedral sites without bonding with H. In the regime of x > 6.3 at. %, on the other hand, (i) the amplitude of the dielectric function reduces further and (ii) the concentration of the sp3 CHn (n = 2,3) groups increases. Moreover, we obtained the direct evidence that the sp2 C bonding state in the a-SiC matrix exists in the configuration of C = CH2 and the generation of the graphite-like C = CH2 unit suppresses the band gap widening significantly. At high C contents of x > 6.3 at. %, the a-SiC:H layers show quite porous structures due to the formation of microvoids terminated with the SiH2/CHn groups. By taking the SiH2/CHn microvoid generation in the network and the high-energy shift of the dielectric function by the local bonding states into account, the a-SiC:H dielectric function model has been established. From the analysis using this model, we have confirmed that the a-SiC:H optical properties in the ultraviolet/visible region are determined almost completely by the local network structures.

  6. TERNARY ALLOY-CONTAINING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Waber, J.T.

    1960-02-23

    Ternary alloys of uranium and plutonium containing as the third element either molybdenum or zirconium are reported. Such alloys are particularly useful as reactor fuels in fast breeder reactors. The alloy contains from 2 to 25 at.% of molybdenum or zirconium, the balance being a combination of uranium and plutonium in the ratio of from 1 to 9 atoms of uranlum for each atom of plutonium. These alloys are prepared by melting the constituent elements, treating them at an elevated temperature for homogenization, and cooling them to room temperature, the rate of cooling varying with the oomposition and the desired phase structure. The preferred embodiment contains 12 to 25 at.% of molybdenum and is treated by quenching to obtain a body centered cubic crystal structure. The most important advantage of these alloys over prior binary alloys of both plutonium and uranium is the lack of cracking during casting and their ready machinability.

  7. Two phase titanium aluminide alloy

    DOEpatents

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Liu, C. T.

    2001-01-01

    A two-phase titanic aluminide alloy having a lamellar microstructure with little intercolony structures. The alloy can include fine particles such as boride particles at colony boundaries and/or grain boundary equiaxed structures. The alloy can include alloying additions such as .ltoreq.10 at % W, Nb and/or Mo. The alloy can be free of Cr, V, Mn, Cu and/or Ni and can include, in atomic %, 45 to 55% Ti, 40 to 50% Al, 1 to 5% Nb, 0.3 to 2% W, up to 1% Mo and 0.1 to 0.3% B. In weight %, the alloy can include 57 to 60% Ti, 30 to 32% Al, 4 to 9% Nb, up to 2% Mo, 2 to 8% W and 0.02 to 0.08% B.

  8. Alloy Interface Interdiffusion Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Garces, Jorge E.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    With renewed interest in developing nuclear-powered deep space probes, attention will return to improving the metallurgical processing of potential nuclear fuels so that they remain dimensionally stable over the years required for a successful mission. Previous work on fuel alloys at the NASA Glenn Research Center was primarily empirical, with virtually no continuing research. Even when empirical studies are exacting, they often fail to provide enough insight to guide future research efforts. In addition, from a fundamental theoretical standpoint, the actinide metals (which include materials used for nuclear fuels) pose a severe challenge to modern electronic-structure theory. Recent advances in quantum approximate atomistic modeling, coupled with first-principles derivation of needed input parameters, can help researchers develop new alloys for nuclear propulsion.

  9. Amorphous metal alloy and composite

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Rong; Merz, Martin D.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  10. Surface Segregation in Ternary Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2000-01-01

    Surface segregation profiles of binary (Cu-Ni, Au-Ni, Cu-Au) and ternary (Cu-Au-Ni) alloys are determined via Monte Carlo-Metropolis computer simulations using the BFS method for alloys for the calculation of the energetics. The behavior of Cu or Au in Ni is contrasted with their behavior when both are present. The interaction between Cu and Au and its effect on the segregation profiles for Cu-Au-Ni alloys is discussed.

  11. Informatics Aided Design for Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-28

    alloying discoveries/ predictions of new ternary cobalt based alloys that can have improved properties from conventional nickel based superalloys ...Using this approach we have proposed new ternary alloy additions for binary cobalt based intermetallics. Through comparison with some recent...that are even better than nickel base superalloys . This strategy has also been extended to the development of new type of design maps that identify

  12. Duct and cladding alloy

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1983-01-01

    An austenitic alloy having good thermal stability and resistance to sodium corrosion at 700.degree. C. consists essentially of 35-45% nickel 7.5-14% chromium 0.8-3.2% molybdenum 0.3-1.0% silicon 0.2-1.0% manganese 0-0.1% zirconium 2.0-3.5% titanium 1.0-2.0% aluminum 0.02-0.1% carbon 0-0.01% boron and the balance iron.

  13. Aluminum Alloy 7050 Extrusions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    tooling used in the 25-inch diameter casting trials at the laboratory was transferred to Lafayette Works and installed at a ladle casting station. The...for the laboratory casting trials was transferred to Alcoa’s Lafayette Works and installed on a ladle pour casting unit. After some minor adjustments...Fatigue Alloy Compressive Modulus of Elasticity Crack Propagation Ingot Fabricating Stress-Strain Stress-Corrosion Casting Heat

  14. Shape memory alloy actuator

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  15. Nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perepezko, John H. (Inventor); Allen, Donald R. (Inventor); Foley, James C. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Compositions and methods for obtaining nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys are described. A composition includes an amorphous matrix forming element (e.g., Al or Fe); at least one transition metal element; and at least one crystallizing agent that is insoluble in the resulting amorphous matrix. During devitrification, the crystallizing agent causes the formation of a high density nanocrystal dispersion. The compositions and methods provide advantages in that materials with superior properties are provided.

  16. Semiconductor Alloy Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-27

    research interests because of its potential application for high-mobility devices in the strained superlattice configuration. We have applied our...contributions to this formation energy. The first is the enegy fewer dislocations in as-grown crystals. ’ needed to generate each dislocation as an isolated...Philos. St ag. 5, 4311960).duced in such alloys relative to those found in the longer "S. Slyazawa, 1983 European Patent Application 833021652, filing

  17. Ancient Metal Mirror Alloy Revisited: Quasicrystalline Nanoparticles Observed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, J. A.; Mantri, A. S.; Yamjala, S.; Saha, Sabyasachi; Balamuralikrishnan, R.; Rao, P. Rama

    2015-12-01

    This article presents, for the first time, evidence of nanocrystalline structure, through direct transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, in a Cu-32 wt.% Sn alloy that has been made by an age-old, uniquely crafted casting process. This alloy has been used as a metal mirror for centuries. The TEM images also reveal five-sided projections of nano-particles. The convergent beam nano-diffraction patterns obtained from the nano-particles point to the nano-phase being quasicrystalline, a feature that has never before been reported for a copper alloy, although there have been reports of the presence of icosahedral `clusters' within large unit cell intermetallic phases. This observation has been substantiated by x-ray diffraction, wherein the observed peaks could be indexed to an icosahedral quasi-crystalline phase. The mirror alloy casting has been valued for its high hardness and high reflectance properties, both of which result from its unique internal microstructure that include nano-grains as well as quasi-crystallinity. We further postulate that this microstructure is a consequence of the raw materials used and the manufacturing process, including the choice of mold material. While the alloy consists primarily of copper and tin, impurity elements such as zinc, iron, sulfur, aluminum and nickel are also present, in individual amounts not exceeding one wt.%. It is believed that these trace impurities could have influenced the microstructure and, consequently, the properties of the metal mirror alloy.

  18. Molecular basis of carcinogenicity of tungsten alloy particles

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Robert M.; Williams, Tim D.; Waring, Rosemary H.

    2015-03-15

    The tungsten alloy of 91% tungsten, 6% nickel and 3% cobalt (WNC 91–6–3) induces rhabdomyosarcoma when implanted into a rat thigh muscle. To investigate whether this effect is species-specific human HSkMc primary muscle cells were exposed to WNC 91–6–3 particles and responses were compared with those from a rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6-C11). Toxicity was assessed by the adenylate kinase assay and microscopy, DNA damage by the Comet assay. Caspase 3 enzyme activity was measured and oligonucleotide microarrays were used for transcriptional profiling. WNC 91–6–3 particles caused toxicity in cells adjacent to the particles and also increased DNA strandmore » breaks. Inhibition of caspase 3 by WNC 91–6–3 occurred in rat but not in human cells. In both rat and human cells, the transcriptional response to WNC 91–6–3 showed repression of transcripts encoding muscle-specific proteins with induction of glycolysis, hypoxia, stress responses and transcripts associated with DNA damage and cell death. In human cells, genes encoding metallothioneins were also induced, together with genes related to angiogenesis, dysregulation of apoptosis and proliferation consistent with pre-neoplastic changes. An alloy containing iron, WNF 97–2–1, which is non-carcinogenic in vivo in rats, did not show these transcriptional changes in vitro in either species while the corresponding cobalt-containing alloy, WNC 97–2–1 elicited similar responses to WNC 91–6–3. Tungsten alloys containing both nickel and cobalt therefore have the potential to be carcinogenic in man and in vitro assays coupled with transcriptomics can be used to identify alloys, which may lead to tumour formation, by dysregulation of biochemical processes. - Highlights: • Use of transcriptomics to identify likely carcinogenic tungsten alloys in vitro • Cobalt containing alloys cause oxidative stress, DNA-damage and perturb apoptosis. • Presence of cobalt causes changes in gene expression

  19. Concentration Waves in High-Entropy Alloys - a new alloy design approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prashant; Johnson, Duane D.

    2015-03-01

    Chemical short-range order (SRO) in solid solutions can be interpreted as a ``concentration wave'' - a Fourier decomposition of nascent order - identified experimentally via Warren-Cowley SRO parameters. We present a rigorous thermodynamic theory to predict and uniquely interpret the SRO in N -component alloys. Based on KKR-CPA electronic structure, we implemented this method using thermodynamic linear-response to include all alloying effects, e.g., band-filling, hybridization, Fermi -surface nesting and van Hove instabilities. We apply this first-principles method to high-entropy alloys (HEAs), i.e., solid solutions with N >4 that inhibit small-cell order due to large entropy competing against ordering enthalpy, as their properties are sensitive to SRO. We validated theory with comparison to experiments in A2 Nb-Al-Ti and A1 Cu-Ni-Zn . We then predict and analyze SRO and mechanical trends in Ni-Ti-Zr-Cu-Al and Co-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni systems - showcasing this new first-principles-based alloy design method. Work was supported by the USDoE, Office of Sci., Basic Energy Sci., Materials Sci. and Eng. Division for `Materials Discovery.' Research was performed at Ames Lab, operated by Iowa State University under Contract #DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  20. FSW between Al alloy and Mg Alloy: the comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesha, C. B.

    2017-04-01

    It is difficult to fusion weld Al alloy to Mg alloy, so by experimental optimization procedure (EOP) optimum parameters for FSW between Al alloy and Mg alloy were determined and experiment conducted using these parameters resulted in not only sound weld but also highest strength weld for 5 mm thickness of the alloys plates. One can arrive to optimum parameters by following the EOP in case of similar and dissimilar materials FSW, such as Al alloy and Mg alloy FSW. It has observed that tensile sample having least thickness intermetallics (IMs) layer has highest strength compared to sample with larger thickness of intermetallics layer and also it has observed that weld of lesser thickness plates have strength higher than welds of larger thickness plates. It has observed that, Vickers hardness in WN i.e. on the region containing layers of IMs is considerably higher, which leads to emerge of new type of laminated composite materials. It has observed that, it is the least thickness IMs layers in the weld are responsible for higher strength of weld not the ductility of the IMs formed owing to the insertion of intermediate material in the weld. It has found that coefficient of friction is =0.25, in case of bead on plate welding of Mg alloy.

  1. Facile Synthesis of Nanoporous Pt-Y alloy with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity and Durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Rongjing; Mei, Ling; Han, Guangjie; Chen, Jiyun; Zhang, Genhua; Quan, Ying; Gu, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Fang, Yong; Qian, Bin; Jiang, Xuefan; Han, Zhida

    2017-02-01

    Recently, Pt-Y alloy has displayed an excellent electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and is regarded as a promising cathode catalyst for fuel cells. However, the bulk production of nanoscaled Pt-Y alloy with outstanding catalytic performance remains a great challenge. Here, we address the challenge through a simple dealloying method to synthesize nanoporous Pt-Y alloy (NP-PtY) with a typical ligament size of ~5 nm. By combining the intrinsic superior electrocatalytic activity of Pt-Y alloy with the special nanoporous structure, the NP-PtY bimetallic catalyst presents higher activity for ORR and ethanol oxidation reaction, and better electrocatalytic stability than the commercial Pt/C catalyst and nanoporous Pt alloy. The as-made NP-PtY holds great application potential as a promising electrocatalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells due to the advantages of facile preparation and excellent catalytic performance.

  2. Facile Synthesis of Nanoporous Pt-Y alloy with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity and Durability

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Rongjing; Mei, Ling; Han, Guangjie; Chen, Jiyun; Zhang, Genhua; Quan, Ying; Gu, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Fang, Yong; Qian, Bin; Jiang, Xuefan; Han, Zhida

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Pt-Y alloy has displayed an excellent electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and is regarded as a promising cathode catalyst for fuel cells. However, the bulk production of nanoscaled Pt-Y alloy with outstanding catalytic performance remains a great challenge. Here, we address the challenge through a simple dealloying method to synthesize nanoporous Pt-Y alloy (NP-PtY) with a typical ligament size of ~5 nm. By combining the intrinsic superior electrocatalytic activity of Pt-Y alloy with the special nanoporous structure, the NP-PtY bimetallic catalyst presents higher activity for ORR and ethanol oxidation reaction, and better electrocatalytic stability than the commercial Pt/C catalyst and nanoporous Pt alloy. The as-made NP-PtY holds great application potential as a promising electrocatalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells due to the advantages of facile preparation and excellent catalytic performance. PMID:28150732

  3. In vitro element release and biological aspects of base–metal alloys for metal-ceramic applications

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Charlotta; Morisbak, Else; Kalfoss, Torill; Dahl, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate the release of element from, and the biological response in vitro to, cobalt–chromium alloys and other base–metal alloys used for the fabrication of metal-ceramic restorations. Material and methods: Eighteen different alloys were investigated. Nine cobalt–chromium alloys, three nickel–chromium alloys, two cobalt–chromium–iron alloys, one palladium–silver alloy, one high-noble gold alloy, titanium grade II and one type III copper–aluminium alloy. Pure copper served as positive control. The specimens were prepared according to the ISO standards for biological and corrosion testing. Passive leaching of elements was measured by using Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) after incubation in cell culture media, MEM, for 3 days. Corrosion testing was carried out in 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) and 1% lactic acid for 7 days, and the element release was measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The biological response from the extract solutions was measured though MTT cytotoxicity testing and the Hen's egg test-chorio-allantoic membrane (HET-CAM) technique for irritationt. Results: The corrosion test showed similar element release from base-metal alloys compared to noble alloys such as gold. Apart from the high-copper alloy, all alloys expressed low element release in the immersion test, no cytotoxic effect in the MTT test, and were rated non-irritant in the HET-CAM test. Conclusions: Minimal biological response was observed for all the alloys tested, with the exception of the high-copper alloy. PMID:28642904

  4. Are new TiNbZr alloys potential substitutes of the Ti6Al4V alloy for dental applications? An electrochemical corrosion study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Roselino; Hammer, Peter; Vaz, Luís Geraldo; Rocha, Luís Augusto

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of this work was to assess the electrochemical behavior of new Ti35Nb5Zr and Ti35Nb10Zr alloys in artificial saliva at 37 °C to verify if they are indicated to be used as biomaterials in dentistry as alternatives to Ti6Al4V alloys in terms of corrosion protection efficiency of the material. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments were carried out for different periods of time (0.5-216 h) in a three-electrode cell, where the working electrode (Ti alloys) was exposed to artificial saliva at 37 °C. The near-surface region of the alloys was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). All alloys exhibited an increase in corrosion potential with the immersion time, indicating the growth and stabilization of the passive film. Ti35Nb5Zr and Ti6Al4V alloys had their EIS results interpreted by a double-layer circuit, while the Ti35Nb10Zr alloy was modeled by a one-layer circuit. In general, the new TiNbZr alloys showed similar behavior to that observed for the Ti6Al4V. XPS results suggest, in the case of the TiNbZr alloys, the presence of a thicker passive layer containing a lower fraction of TiO2 phase than that of Ti6Al4V. After long-term immersion, all alloys develop a calcium phosphate phase on the surface. The new TiNbZr alloys appear as potential candidates to be used as a substitute to Ti6Al4V in the manufacturing of dental implant-abutment sets.

  5. Cytocompatibility of a free machining titanium alloy containing lanthanum.

    PubMed

    Feyerabend, Frank; Siemers, Carsten; Willumeit, Regine; Rösler, Joachim

    2009-09-01

    Titanium alloys like Ti6Al4V are widely used in medical engineering. However, the mechanical and chemical properties of titanium alloys lead to poor machinability, resulting in high production costs of medical products. To improve the machinability of Ti6Al4V, 0.9% of the rare earth element lanthanum (La) was added. The microstructure, the mechanical, and the corrosion properties were determined. Lanthanum containing alloys exhibited discrete particles of cubic lanthanum. The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance were slightly decreased but are still sufficient for many applications in the field of medical engineering. In vitro experiments with mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) and human bone-derived cells (MG-63, HBDC) were performed and revealed that macrophages showed a dose response below and above a LaCl3 concentration of 200 microM, while MG-63 and HBDC tolerated three times higher concentrations without reduction of viability. The viability of cells cultured on disks of the materials showed no differences between the reference and the lanthanum containing alloy. We therefore propose that lanthanum containing alloy appears to be a good alternative for biomedical applications, where machining of parts is necessary.

  6. Novel production method and in-vitro cell compatibility of porous Ti-6Al-4V alloy disk for hard tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Shanta Raj; Khalil, Khalil Abdel-Razek; Dewidar, Montasser; Hwang, Pyoung Han; Yi, Ho Keun; Kim, Hak Yong

    2008-08-01

    Porous metals are attractive due to its unique physical, mechanical, and new bone tissue ingrowth properties. In the present study, the production of highly porous Ti-6Al-4V parts by powder metallurgical technology and subsequently it's uses in in vitro bone tissue engineering is described. A space-holder method using carbamide with different particle size to produce parts with porosities between 35 and 70% were applied. The compressive strength and Young's modulus of porous Ti-6Al-4V were determined. Results indicated that stress and Young's modulus decrease with increasing porosity and pore size. The porous parts are characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, study was to investigate the effects of three different porosities of porous Ti-6Al-4V (35, 50, and 70%) on proliferation, differentiation, and cell-matrix interaction of mouse osteoblast-like cells, MC-3T3. Results showed that the cell proliferation was significantly (p < 0.05) higher on 70% porous Ti-6Al-4V. However, synthesis of different types of extra cellular matrix proteins was also more abundant on 70% porous Ti-6Al-4V than 35 and 50% porous Ti-6Al-4V disk except some specific proteins. An increase in alkaline phosphate activity was significantly (p < 0.05) higher on 70 and 50% porous Ti-6Al-4V disk after 12 days of MC-3T3 cells incubation. Above all, results indicated that porosity (nearly 70%) of porous Ti-6Al-4V topography affects proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like MC-3T3 cells. The results showed that this novel process is a promise to fabricate porous biomaterials for bone implants.

  7. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  8. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COPPER ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-05-12

    A low melting point plutonium alloy useful as fuel is a homogeneous liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor is described. Vessels of tungsten or tantalum are useful to contain the alloy which consists essentially of from 10 to 30 atomic per cent copper and the balance plutonium and cerium. with the plutontum not in excess of 50 atomic per cent.

  9. Directional Solidification Of Monotectic Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhindaw, B. K.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Singh, A. K.; Curreri, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Conditions promoting formation of aligned fibers sought. Report describes experiments in directional solidification of Cu/Pb and Bi/Ga monotectic alloys. Study motivated by need to understand physical mechanism governing formation of rodlike or fiberlike aligned structures in solidifying alloy and to determine process conditions favoring such structures.

  10. Magnetic properties of Co2Fe(Ga1-xSix) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Bhargab; Chakraborty, Dibyashree; Srinivasan, Ananthakrishnan

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic and crystallographic properties of bulk Co2Fe(Ga1-xSix) alloys with 0≤x≤1 are reported in this work. The alloys with x=0.75 and 1.00 exhibit L21 structure whereas the alloys with x=0, 0.25 and 0.50 crystallized in the disordered A2 phase. Unit cell volume of this series of alloys decreased from 189.1 to 178.5 Å3 as x was increased from 0 to 1.00. All alloy compositions exhibit ferromagnetic behavior with a high Curie temperature (TC) which showed a systematic variation with x (1089 K, 1075 K, 1059 K, 1019 K and 1015 K for x=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00, respectively). The saturation magnetization moment Ms for the alloys with x=0, 0.25 and 0.50 are 5.05μB, 5.23μB, 5.49μB, respectively, in accordance with the Slater-Pauling rule, but alloys with x=0.75 and 1.00 deviated from this rule. The effective moment per magnetic atom (pc) of the alloys was estimated from the inverse DC magnetic susceptibility data above TC. A comparison of Ms with pc reveals the half-metallic character of the alloys.

  11. CdTe, CIGS and a-Si thin film PV technologies: factors impacting LCOE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay

    2011-09-01

    We describe thin film photovoltaic (PV) technologies that have been scaled in manufacturing, and contrast their attributes and how they impact the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The thin film PV technologies reviewed include cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS), amorphous silicon (a-Si), and microcrystalline/amorphous silicon (μ/a-Si) produced by a variety of methods. The factors studied include conversion efficiency, energy yield under different lighting and environmental conditions, location dependence, tracked/fixed tilt differential performance, uptime, output degradation rate, failure rate, lifetime, module cost, balance of system (BOS) and inverter cost, installation cost, land cost, operation cost, maintenance cost and finance cost. These thin film PV technologies are compared with crystalline silicon, the most widely deployed PV technology.

  12. Properties of a-SiGe Thin Films on Glass by Co-Sputtering for Photovoltaic Absorber Application.

    PubMed

    Shahahmadi, S A; Yeganeh, B; Huda, N; Asim, N; Hafidz, M; Alam, M M; Alothman, Z A; Sopian, K; Amin, N

    2015-11-01

    Non-hydrogenated amorphous Silicon-Germanium (a-SiGe) thin films were deposited at two different base pressures by RF magnetron co-sputtering. Moreover, an ex-situ thermal annealing was carried out to investigate the material properties to be suitable as the bottom cell of multi-junction solar cells. Compositional study of the films using EDX showed Ge-rich thin films with 75 atomic% of Ge. XRD reflection study implied that all samples were entirely amorphous in nature. However, a significant improvement of morphology possibly due to low base pressure was observed while thermal annealing caused peening and reduction of surface inhomogeneity in both as-sputtered films. UV-VIS-IR analysis confirmed the FESEM results. The highest transmittance was observed in the as-deposited sample grown at 4 x 10(-5) Torr, which however reduced after thermal annealing. Tauc's model was implied for band gap determination and band gap energy as low as 1.07 eV was found in the annealed sample grown at lower base pressure (4 x 10(-6) Torr). Electrical properties of films were investigated by Hall effect measurement system and results found the reduction of resistivity with the same trend of optical band gap energy.

  13. Fictive-temperature-dependence of photoinduced self-trapped holes in a-SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Saito, K.; Ikushima, A. J.

    2003-10-01

    Self-trapped hole (STH) induced by ArF laser irradiation in silica glass (a-SiO2) was investigated by the electron-spin resonance method. In order to observe the relation between the yield of STH and structural disorder of the glass, samples with different fictive temperatures Tf, were used. It has been found that the yield of STH increases with increasing Tf, implying that structural disorder enhances the formation of STH.

  14. Reversible Cycling of Silicon and Silicon Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrovac, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Lithium ion batteries typically use a graphite negative electrode. Silicon can store more lithium than any other element and has long been considered as an attractive replacement for graphite. The theoretical lithium storage capacity of silicon is nearly ten times higher than graphite volumetrically and three times higher gravimetrically. The equilibrium Si-Li binary system is well known. Completely new phase behaviors are observed at room temperature. This includes the formation of a new phase, Li15Si4, which is the highest lithium containing phase at room temperature [1]. The formation of Li15Si4 is accompanied by a 280 percent volume expansion of silicon. During de-alloying this phase contracts, forming amorphous silicon. The volume expansion of alloys can cause intra-particle fracture and inter-particle disconnection; leading to loss of cycle life. To overcome issues with volume expansion requires a detailed knowledge of Li-Si phase behavior, careful design of the composition and nanostructure of the alloy and the microstructure of the negative electrode [2]. In this presentation the phase behavior of the Li-Si system will be described. Using this knowledge alone, strategies can be developed so that silicon can be reversibly cycled in a battery hundreds of times. Further increases in energy density and efficiency can be gained by alloying silicon with other elements, while controlling microstructure [2]. Coupled with negative electrode design strategies, practical negative electrodes for lithium ion cells can be developed based on bulk materials, with significant energy density improvement over conventional electrodes. [4pt] [1] M.N. Obrovac and L.J. Krause, J. Electrochem. Soc., 154 (2007) A103. [0pt] [2] M.N. Obrovac, Leif Christensen, Dinh Ba Le, and J.R. Dahn, J. Electrochem. Soc., 154 (2007) A849

  15. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.; Gueceri, S. I.; Farkas, D.; Labdon, M. B.; Nagaswami, N.; Pregger, B.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was determined. The following major elements were studied: (1) identification of congruently transforming alloys and thermochemical property measurements; (2) development of a precise and convenient method for measuring volume change during phase transformation and thermal expansion coefficients; (3) development of a numerical modeling routine for calculating heat flow in cylindrical heat exchangers containing phase change materials; and (4) identification of materials that could be used to contain the metal alloys. Several eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation from data obtained during one continuous experimental test. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented. The development of the numerical modeling method is presented and results are discussed for both salt and metal alloy phase change media.

  16. Equivalent crystal theory of alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1991-01-01

    Equivalent Crystal Theory (ECT) is a new, semi-empirical approach to calculating the energetics of a solid with defects. The theory has successfully reproduced surface energies in metals and semiconductors. The theory of binary alloys to date, both with first-principles and semi-empirical models, has not been very successful in predicting the energetics of alloys. This procedure is used to predict the heats of formation, cohesive energy, and lattice parameter of binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt as functions of composition. The procedure accurately reproduces the heats of formation versus composition curves for a variety of binary alloys. The results are then compared with other approaches such as the embedded atom and lattice parameters of alloys from pure metal properties more accurately than Vegard's law is presented.

  17. Thermomechanical treatment of alloys

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John F.; Brager, Howard R.; Paxton, Michael M.

    1983-01-01

    An article of an alloy of AISI 316 stainless steel is reduced in size to predetermined dimensions by cold working in repeated steps. Before the last reduction step the article is annealed by heating within a temperature range, specifically between 1010.degree. C. and 1038.degree. C. for a time interval between 90 and 60 seconds depending on the actual temperature. By this treatment the swelling under neutron bombardment by epithermal neutrons is reduced while substantial recrystallization does not occur in actual use for a time interval of at least of the order of 5000 hours.

  18. Wedlable nickel aluminide alloy

    DOEpatents

    Santella, Michael L.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2002-11-19

    A Ni.sub.3 Al alloy with improved weldability is described. It contains about 6-12 wt % Al, about 6-12 wt % Cr, about 0-3 wt % Mo, about 1.5-6 wt % Zr, about 0-0.02 wt % B and at least one of about 0-0.15 wt % C, about 0-0.20 wt % Si, about 0-0.01 wt % S and about 0-0.30 wt % Fe with the balance being Ni.

  19. On the formation of blisters in annealed hydrogenated a-Si layers.

    PubMed

    Serényi, Miklós; Frigeri, Cesare; Szekrényes, Zsolt; Kamarás, Katalin; Nasi, Lucia; Csik, Attila; Khánh, Nguyen Quoc

    2013-02-15

    Differently hydrogenated radio frequency-sputtered a-Si layers have been studied by infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a function of the annealing time at 350°C with the aim to get a deeper understanding of the origin of blisters previously observed by us in a-Si/a-Ge multilayers prepared under the same conditions as the ones applied to the present a-Si layers. The H content varied between 10.8 and 17.6 at.% as measured by elastic recoil detection analysis. IR spectroscopy showed that the concentration of the clustered (Si-H)n groups and of the (Si-H2)n (n ≥ 1) polymers increased at the expense of the Si-H mono-hydrides with increasing annealing time, suggesting that there is a corresponding increase of the volume of micro-voids whose walls are assumed from literature to be decorated by the clustered mono-hydride groups and polymers. At the same time, an increase in the size of surface blisters was observed. Also, with increasing annealing time, the total concentration of bonded H of any type decreases, indicating that H is partially released from its bonds to Si. It is argued that the H released from the (Si-H)n complexes and polymers at the microvoid surfaces form molecular H2 inside the voids, whose size increases upon annealing because of the thermal expansion of the H2 gas, eventually producing plastic surface deformation in the shape of blisters.

  20. Detection of FRET signals with a wavelength sensitive device based on a-SiC:H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louro, P.; Vieira, M.; Costa, J.; Silva, V.; Patriarca, J.; Karmali, A.

    2013-06-01

    Glucose sensing is an issue with great interest in medical and biological applications. One possible approach to glucose detection takes advantage of measuring changes in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a fluorescent donor and an acceptor within a protein which undergoes glucose-induced changes in conformation. This demands the detection of fluorescent signals in the visible spectrum. In this paper we analyzed the emission spectrum obtained from fluorescent labels attached to a protein which changes its conformation in the presence of glucose using a commercial spectrofluorometer. Different glucose nanosensors were used to measure the output spectra with fluorescent signals located at the cyan and yellow bands of the spectrum. A new device is presented based on multilayered a-SiC:H heterostructures to detect identical transient visible signals. The transducer consists of a p-i'(a-SiC:H)-n/p-i(a-Si:H)-n heterostructure optimized for the detection of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between fluorophores with excitation in the violet (400 nm) and emissions in the cyan (470 nm) and yellow (588 nm) range of the spectrum. Results show that the device photocurrent signal measured under reverse bias and using appropriate steady state optical bias, allows the separate detection of the cyan and yellow fluorescence signals.

  1. The effect of KCN passivation on IR spectra of a-Si based structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopani, Martin; Mikula, Milan; Fujiwara, Naozumi; Takahashi, Masao; Pinčík, Emil

    2012-08-01

    From the analysis of IR spectra of double layer structures after KCN passivation the presence of four absorption bands at 720-810 cm-1 (assigned as Sisbnd C bond), 870-1060 cm-1 (assigned as Sisbnd Hn and Sisbnd O bonds), 1930-2200 cm-1 (assigned as Sisbnd Hn bonds) and absorption band around 2360 cm-1 (assigned as Sisbnd NCO bond) was found. As IR spectra between 1400 and 1600 cm-1 (assigned as Csbnd H, NH2) and 3200-3300 cm-1 (assigned as Csbnd H and Nsbnd H) under influence of KCN passivation did not change we suggest that formation of HCN, CH and NH was eliminated (polymeric HCN). From analysis of absorption bands assigned as Sisbnd Hn, CN and SiNC (1950-2200 cm-1) and absorption bands assigned as Sisbnd O bond (1000-1200 cm-1) it is evident the different influence of passivation on samples a-Si/n high doped c-Si> and a-Si/p-a-SiC/n doped c-Si>. In the spectra typical features of OH group, hydrogen bridge bonding and Sisbnd Sisbnd OCN formation were observed. From these results can be drawn the binding of CN to Si through oxygen atoms.

  2. In vivo degradation behavior and biological activity of some new Mg-Ca alloys with concentration's gradient of Si for bone grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Fântânariu, Mircea; Solcan, Carmen; Trofin, Alina Elena; Burtan, Liviu; Acatrinei, Dumitru Mihai; Stanciu, Sergiu; Istrate, Bogdan; Munteanu, Corneliu

    2015-10-01

    Magnesium based alloys, especially Mg-Ca alloys, are biocompatible substrates with mechanical properties similar to those of bones. The biodegradable alloys of Mg-Ca provide sufficient mechanical strength in load carrying applications as opposed to biopolymers and also they avoid stress shielding and secondary surgery inherent with permanent metallic implant materials. The main issue facing a biodegradable Mg-Ca alloy is the fast degradation in the aggressive physiological environment of the body. The alloy's corrosion is proportional with the dissolution of the Mg in the body: the reaction with the water generates magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen. The accelerated corrosion will lead to early loss of the alloy's mechanical integrity. The degradation rate of an alloy can be improved mainly through tailoring the composition and by carrying out surface treatments. This research focuses on the ability to adjust degradation rate of Mg-Ca alloys by an original method and studies the biological activity of the resulted specimens. A new Mg-Ca alloy, with a Si gradient concentration from the surface to the interior of the material, was obtained. The surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (VegaTescan LMH II, SE detector, 30 kV), X-ray diffraction (X'Pert equipment) and energy dispersive X-ray (Bruker EDS equipment). In vivo degradation behavior, biological compatibility and activity of Mg-Ca alloys with/without Si gradient concentration were studied with an implant model (subcutaneous and bony) in rats. The organism response to implants was characterized by using radiological (plain X-rays and computed tomography), biochemical and histological methods of investigation. The results sustained that Si gradient concentration can be used to control the rate of degradation of the Mg-Ca alloys for enhancing their biologic activity in order to facilitate bone tissue repair.

  3. Microstructure, mechanical properties, castability and in vitro biocompatibility of Ti-Bi alloys developed for dental applications.

    PubMed

    Qiu, K J; Liu, Y; Zhou, F Y; Wang, B L; Li, L; Zheng, Y F; Liu, Y H

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the microstructure, mechanical properties, castability, electrochemical behaviors, cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility of Ti-Bi alloys with pure Ti as control were systematically investigated to assess their potential applications in the dental field. The experimental results showed that, except for the Ti-20Bi alloy, the microstructure of all other Ti-Bi alloys exhibit single α-Ti phase, while Ti-20Bi alloy is consisted of mainly α-Ti phase and a small amount of BiTi2 and BiTi3 phases. The tensile strength, hardness and wear resistance of Ti-Bi alloys were demonstrated to be improved monotonically with the increase of Bi content. The castability test showed that Ti-2Bi alloy increased the castability of pure Ti by 11.7%. The studied Ti-Bi alloys showed better corrosion resistance than pure Ti in both AS (artificial saliva) and ASFL (AS containing 0.2% NaF and 0.3% lactic acid) solutions. The concentrations of both Ti ion and Bi ion released from Ti-Bi alloys are extremely low in AS, ASF (AS containing 0.2% NaF) and ASL (AS containing 0.3% lactic acid) solutions. However, in ASFL solution, a large number of Ti and Bi ions are released. In addition, Ti-Bi alloys produced no significant deleterious effect to L929 cells and MG63 cells, similar to pure Ti, indicating a good in vitro biocompatibility. Besides, both L929 and MG63 cells perform excellent cell adhesion ability on Ti-Bi alloys. The hemolysis test exhibited that Ti-Bi alloys have an ultra-low hemolysis percentage below 1% and are considered nonhemolytic. To sum up, the Ti-2Bi alloy exhibits the optimal comprehensive performance and has great potential for dental applications. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro investigation of NiTiW shape memory alloy as potential biomaterial with enhanced radiopacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Huafang; Cong, Ying; Zheng, Yufeng; Cui, Lishan

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, a novel kind of NiTiW shape memory alloy with chemical composition of Ni43.5Ti45.5W11 (at.%) has been successfully developed with excellent X-ray radiopacity by the introduction of pure W precipitates into the NiTi matrix phase. Its microstructure, X-ray radiopacity, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid, hemocompatibility and in vitro cytocompatibility were systematically investigated. The typical microstructural feature of NiTiW alloy at room temperature was tiny pure W particles randomly distributing in the NiTi matrix phase. The presence of W precipitates was found to result in enhanced radiopacity and microhardness of NiTiW alloy in comparison to that of NiTi binary alloy. NiTiW alloy exhibits excellent shape memory effect, and a maximum shape recovery ratio of about 30% was obtained with a total prestrain of 8% for the NiTiW alloy sample. In the electrochemical test, NiTiW alloy presented an excellent corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid, comparable to that of NiTi alloy. Hemocompatibility tests indicated that the NiTiW alloy has quite low hemolysis (lower than 0.5%) and the adherent platelet showed round shape without pseudopod. Besides, in vitro cell viability tests demonstrated that the cell viability is all above 90%, and the cells spread well on the NiTiW alloy, having polygon or spindle healthy morphology. The hemocompatibility tests, in vitro cell viability tests and morphology observation indicated that the NiTiW shape memory alloys have excellent biocompatibility. The excellent X-ray radiopacity makes the NiTiW alloys show obvious advantages in orthopedic, stomatological, neurological and cardiovascular domains where radiopacity is quite important factor in order to guarantee successful implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Binder-jetting 3D printing and alloy development of new biodegradable Fe-Mn-Ca/Mg alloys.

    PubMed

    Hong, Daeho; Chou, Da-Tren; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I; Roy, Abhijit; Lee, Boeun; Swink, Isaac; Issaev, Ilona; Kuhn, Howard A; Kumta, Prashant N

    2016-11-01

    3D printing of various biomaterials including titanium and stainless steel has been studied for treating patients with cranio-maxillofacial bone defect. The potential long term complications with use of inert biometals have opened the opportunities for use of biodegradable metals in the clinical arena. The authors previously reported that binder-jet 3D printing technique enhanced the degradation rates of biodegradable Fe-Mn alloy by creating engineered micropores rendering the system attractive as biodegradable implantable devices. In the present study, the authors employed CALPHAD modeling to systematically study and modify the Fe-Mn alloy composition to achieve enhanced degradation rates. Accordingly, Ca and Mg addition to Fe-35wt% Mn solid solution predicted increase in degradation rates. In order to validate the CALPHAD results, Fe - (35-y)wt% Mn - ywt% X (X=Ca, Mg, and y=0, 1, 2) were synthesized by using high energy mechanical alloying (HEMA). Sintered pellets of Fe-Mn-Ca and Fe-Mn-Mg were then subjected to potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and live/dead cell viability tests. Sintered pellets of Fe-Mn, Fe-Mn-Ca, and Fe-Mn-Mg also exhibited MC3T3 murine pre-osteoblast cells viability in the live/dead assay results. Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-1Ca were thus accordingly selected for 3D printing and the results further confirmed enhanced degradation of Ca addition to 3D printed constructs validating the theoretical and alloy development studies. Live/dead and MTT cell viability results also confirmed good cytocompatibility of the 3D-printed Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-1Ca constructs. Bone grafting is widely used for the treatment of cranio-maxillofacial bone injuries. 3D printing of biodegradable Fe alloy is anticipated to be advantageous over current bone grafting techniques. 3D printing offers the fabrication of precise and tailored bone grafts to fit the patient specific bone defect needs. Biodegradable Fe alloy is a good candidate for 3D printing synthetic grafts to regenerate bone

  6. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Certain Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasse, K. R.; Dorward, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    SC resistance of new high-strength alloys tested. Research report describes progress in continuing investigation of stress corrosion (SC) cracking of some aluminum alloys. Objective of program is comparing SC behavior of newer high-strength alloys with established SC-resistant alloy.

  7. High performance alloy electroforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Winkelman, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Electroformed copper and nickel are used in structural applications for advanced propellant combustion chambers. An improved process has been developed by Bell Aerospace Textron, Inc. wherein electroformed nickel-manganese alloy has demonstrated superior mechanical and thermal stability when compared to previously reported deposits from known nickel plating processes. Solution chemistry and parametric operating procedures are now established and material property data is established for deposition of thick, large complex shapes such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The critical operating variables are those governing the ratio of codeposited nickel and manganese. The deposition uniformity which in turn affects the manganese concentration distribution is affected by solution resistance and geometric effects as well as solution agitation. The manganese concentration in the deposit must be between 2000 and 3000 ppm for optimum physical properties to be realized. The study also includes data regarding deposition procedures for achieving excellent bond strength at an interface with copper, nickel-manganese or INCONEL 718. Applications for this electroformed material include fabrication of complex or re-entry shapes which would be difficult or impossible to form from high strength alloys such as INCONEL 718.

  8. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

    2002-11-05

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

  9. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

    2002-11-05

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800.degree. C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800.degree. C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700.degree. C. at a low cost

  10. Unique antitumor property of the Mg-Ca-Sr alloys with addition of Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuanhao; He, Guanping; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yang; Li, Mei; Wang, Xiaolan; Li, Nan; Li, Kang; Zheng, Guan; Zheng, Yufeng; Yin, Qingshui

    2016-02-01

    In clinical practice, tumor recurrence and metastasis after orthopedic prosthesis implantation is an intensely troublesome matter. Therefore, to develop implant materials with antitumor property is extremely necessary and meaningful. Magnesium (Mg) alloys possess superb biocompatibility, mechanical property and biodegradability in orthopedic applications. However, whether they possess antitumor property had seldom been reported. In recent years, it showed that zinc (Zn) not only promote the osteogenic activity but also exhibit good antitumor property. In our present study, Zn was selected as an alloying element for the Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr alloy to develop a multifunctional material with antitumor property. We investigated the influence of the Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr-xZn (x = 0, 2, 4, 6 wt%) alloys extracts on the proliferation rate, cell apoptosis, migration and invasion of the U2OS cell line. Our results show that Zn containing Mg alloys extracts inhibit the cell proliferation by alteration the cell cycle and inducing cell apoptosis via the activation of the mitochondria pathway. The cell migration and invasion property were also suppressed by the activation of MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. Our work suggests that the Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr-6Zn alloy is expected to be a promising orthopedic implant in osteosarcoma limb-salvage surgery for avoiding tumor recurrence and metastasis.

  11. Unique antitumor property of the Mg-Ca-Sr alloys with addition of Zn

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanhao; He, Guanping; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yang; Li, Mei; Wang, Xiaolan; Li, Nan; Li, Kang; Zheng, Guan; Zheng, Yufeng; Yin, Qingshui

    2016-01-01

    In clinical practice, tumor recurrence and metastasis after orthopedic prosthesis implantation is an intensely troublesome matter. Therefore, to develop implant materials with antitumor property is extremely necessary and meaningful. Magnesium (Mg) alloys possess superb biocompatibility, mechanical property and biodegradability in orthopedic applications. However, whether they possess antitumor property had seldom been reported. In recent years, it showed that zinc (Zn) not only promote the osteogenic activity but also exhibit good antitumor property. In our present study, Zn was selected as an alloying element for the Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr alloy to develop a multifunctional material with antitumor property. We investigated the influence of the Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr-xZn (x = 0, 2, 4, 6 wt%) alloys extracts on the proliferation rate, cell apoptosis, migration and invasion of the U2OS cell line. Our results show that Zn containing Mg alloys extracts inhibit the cell proliferation by alteration the cell cycle and inducing cell apoptosis via the activation of the mitochondria pathway. The cell migration and invasion property were also suppressed by the activation of MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. Our work suggests that the Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr-6Zn alloy is expected to be a promising orthopedic implant in osteosarcoma limb-salvage surgery for avoiding tumor recurrence and metastasis. PMID:26907515

  12. Atomically Visualizing Elemental Segregation-Induced Surface Alloying and Restructuring.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lianfeng; Li, Jonathan; Zakharov, Dmitri; Saidi, Wissam A; Stach, Eric A; Zhou, Guangwen

    2017-12-21

    Using in situ transmission electron microscopy that spatially and temporally resolves the evolution of the atomic structure in the surface and subsurface regions, we find that the surface segregation of Au atoms in a Cu(Au) solid solution results in the nucleation and growth of a (2 × 1) missing-row reconstructed, half-unit-cell thick L1 2 Cu 3 Au(110) surface alloy. Our in situ electron microscopy observations and atomistic simulations demonstrate that the (2 × 1) reconstruction of the Cu 3 Au(110) surface alloy remains as a stable surface structure as a result of the favored Cu-Au diatom configuration.

  13. Characterization of the Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta Alloy for Biomedical Applications. Part 2: Wettability, Tribological Performance and Biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braic, V.; Balaceanu, M.; Braic, M.; Vitelaru, C.; Titorencu, I.; Pruna, V.; Parau, A. C.; Fanara, C.; Vladescu, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy, prepared in a levitation melting furnace, was investigated as a possible candidate for replacing Ti6Al4V alloy in medical applications. The sessile drop method, pin-on-disc and in vitro tests were used to analyze wettability, wear resistance, and biocompatibility of the new alloy. The characteristics of the Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy were assessed in comparison to those of the Ti6Al4V alloy. The Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta system was found to have hydrophilic characteristics with similar contact angle as the Ti6Al4V alloy. In all environments (deionized water, simulated body fluid and Fusayama Meyer artificial saliva), the friction coefficient showed a stable evolution versus sliding distance, being similar for both alloys. On overall, the wear resistance of Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy was lower than that of Ti6Al4V for all testing environments. The Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy exhibited good biocompatibility characteristics at in vitro test compared to Ti6Al4V alloy. The cell viability on Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta surfaces was higher than the one observed on Ti6Al4V samples, regardless the number of days spent in osteoblast-like cells culture. A high degree of cell attachment and spreading was observed on both alloys.

  14. In vitro metal ion release and biocompatibility of amorphous Mg67Zn28Ca5 alloy with/without gelatin coating.

    PubMed

    Chan, W Y; Chian, K S; Tan, M J

    2013-12-01

    Amorphous zinc-rich Mg-Zn-Ca alloys have exhibited good tissue compatibility and low hydrogen evolution in vivo. However, suboptimal cell-surface interaction on magnesium alloy surface observed in vitro could lead to reduced integration with host tissue for regenerative purpose. This study aims to improve cell-surface interaction of amorphous Mg67Zn28Ca5 alloy by coating a gelatin layer by electrospinning. Coated/uncoated alloys were immersed and extracted for 3 days under different CO2. The immersion results showed that pH and metal ion release in the alloy extracts were affected by gelatin coating and CO2, suggesting their roles in alloy biocorrosion and a mechanism has been proposed for the alloy-CO2 system with/without coating. Cytotoxicity results are evident that gelatin-coated alloy with 2-day crosslinking not only exhibited no indirect cytotoxicity, but also supported attachment of L929 and MG63 cell lines around/on the alloy with high viability. Therefore, amorphous Mg67Zn28Ca5 alloy coated with gelatin by electrospinning technique provides a useful method to improve alloy biocompatibility. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tribological Properties of Aluminum Alloy treated by Fine Particle Peening/DLC Hybrid Surface Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Y.; Nanbu, H.; Kameyama, Y.; Komotori, J.

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the adhesiveness of the DLC coating, Fine Particle Peening (FPP) treatment was employed as pre-treatment of the DLC coating process. FPP treatment was performed using SiC shot particles, and then AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy was DLC-coated. A SiC-rich layer was formed around the surface of the aluminum alloy by the FPP treatment because small chips of shot particles were embedded into the substrate surface. Reciprocating sliding tests were conducted to measure the friction coefficients. While the DLC coated specimen without FPP treatment showed a sudden increase in friction coefficient at the early stage of the wear cycles, the FPP/DLC hybrid treated specimen maintained a low friction coefficient value during the test period. Further investigation revealed that the tribological properties of the substrate after the DLC coating were improved with an increase in the amount of Si at the surface.

  16. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was investigated. The elements selected as candidate media were limited to aluminum, copper, magnesium, silicon, zinc, calcium, and phosphorus on the basis of low cost and latent heat of transformation. Several new eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A new method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented for aluminum and two aluminum-eutectic alloys. Candidate materials were evaluated to determine suitable materials for containment of the metal alloys. Graphite was used to contain the alloys during the volume change measurements. Silicon carbide was identified as a promising containment material and surface-coated iron alloys were also evaluated. System considerations that are pertinent if alloy eutectics are used as thermal energy storage media are discussed. Potential applications to solar receivers and industrial furnaces are illustrated schematically.

  17. Fatigue of Bet Titanium Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    amount of the ß-stabilizing alloying ele - ments, such as Mo, V, Nb, Fe, Ta, and W. Typically, a ß-titanium alloy is either processed (forged, extruded...relatively lower degree of supersaturation of ß- matrix with respect to «-stabilizing ele - ments at the aging temperature as well as the reduction in the...and Properties of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3AI (Ti-15-3)," Brio Tifo - mum Alloys m the ill’s, ed. R.R. Bover and H.W. Rosenberg (Warrcndalc. PA: TMS. 1983

  18. In vitro degradation behavior and cytocompatibility of Mg–Zn–Zr alloys

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Z. G.; Leeflang, M. A.; Fratila-Apachitei, L. E.; Duszczyk, J.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc and zirconium were selected as the alloying elements in biodegradable magnesium alloys, considering their strengthening effect and good biocompatibility. The degradation rate, hydrogen evolution, ion release, surface layer and in vitro cytotoxicity of two Mg–Zn–Zr alloys, i.e. ZK30 and ZK60, and a WE-type alloy (Mg–Y–RE–Zr) were investigated by means of long-term static immersion testing in Hank’s solution, non-static immersion testing in Hank’s solution and cell-material interaction analysis. It was found that, among these three magnesium alloys, ZK30 had the lowest degradation rate and the least hydrogen evolution. A magnesium calcium phosphate layer was formed on the surface of ZK30 sample during non-static immersion and its degradation caused minute changes in the ion concentrations and pH value of Hank’s solution. In addition, the ZK30 alloy showed insignificant cytotoxicity against bone marrow stromal cells as compared with biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA) and the WE-type alloy. After prolonged incubation for 7 days, a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation was observed. The results of the present study suggested that ZK30 could be a promising material for biodegradable orthopedic implants and worth further investigation to evaluate its in vitro and in vivo degradation behavior. PMID:20532960

  19. Fast Slip Velocity in a High-Entropy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzardi, Q.; Sparks, G.; Maaß, R.

    2018-04-01

    Due to fluctuations in nearest-neighbor distances and chemistry within the unit cell, high-entropy alloys are believed to have a much higher resistance to dislocation motion than pure crystals. Here, we investigate the coarse-grained dynamics of a number of dislocations being active during a slip event. We found that the time-resolved dynamics of slip is practically identical in Au<001> and an Al0.3CoCrFeNi<001> high-entropy alloy, but much faster than in Nb<001>. Differences between the FCC-crystals are seen in the spatiotemporal velocity profile, with faster acceleration and slower velocity relaxation in the high-entropy alloy. Assessing distributions that characterize the intermittently evolving plastic flow reveals material-dependent scaling exponents for size, duration, and velocity-size distributions. The results are discussed in view of the underlying dislocation mobility.

  20. Laser surface alloying on aluminum and its alloys: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Yiming; Gu, Guochao; Yu, Huijun; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum and its alloys have been widely used in aerospace, automotive and transportation industries owing to their excellent properties such as high specific strength, good ductility and light weight. Surface modification is of crucial importance to the surface properties of aluminum and its alloys since high coefficient of friction, wear characteristics and low hardness have limited their long term performance. Laser surface alloying is one of the most effective methods of producing proper microstructure by means of non-equilibrium solidification which results from rapid heating and cooling. In this paper, the influence of different processing parameters, such as laser power and scanning velocity is discussed. The developments of various material systems including ceramics, metals or alloys, and metal matrix composites (MMCs) are reviewed. The microstructure, hardness, wear properties and other behaviors of laser treated layer are analyzed. Besides, the existing problems during laser surface treatment and the corresponding solutions are elucidated and the future developments are predicted.

  1. Microstructure, mechanical behavior and biocompatibility of powder metallurgy Nb-Ti-Ta alloys as biomedical material.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jue; Chang, Lin; Liu, Hairong; Li, Yongsheng; Yang, Hailin; Ruan, Jianming

    2017-02-01

    Microstructures, mechanical properties, apatite-forming ability and in vitro experiments were studied for Nb-25Ti-xTa (x=10, 15, 20, 25, 35at.%) alloys fabricated by powder metallurgy. It is confirmed that the alloys could achieve a relative density over 80%. Meanwhile, the increase in Ta content enhances the tensile strength, elastic modulus and hardness of the as-sintered alloys. When increasing the sintering temperatures, the microstructure became more homogeneous for β phase, resulting in a decrease in the modulus and strength. Moreover, the alloys showed a good biocompatibility due to the absence of cytotoxic elements, and were suitable for apatite formation and cell adhesion. In conclusion, Nb-25Ti-xTa alloys are potentially useful in biomedical applications with their mechanical and biological properties being evaluated in this work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Durable pd-based alloy and hydrogen generation membrane thereof

    DOEpatents

    Benn, Raymond C.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Vanderspurt, Thomas Henry

    2010-02-02

    A durable Pd-based alloy is used for a H.sub.2-selective membrane in a hydrogen generator, as in the fuel processor of a fuel cell plant. The Pd-based alloy includes Cu as a binary element, and further includes "X", where "X" comprises at least one metal from group "M" that is BCC and acts to stabilize the .beta. BCC phase for stability during operating temperatures. The metal from group "M" is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Cr, Nb, Ta, V, Mo, and W, with Nb and Ta being most preferred. "X" may further comprise at least one metal from a group "N" that is non-BCC, preferably FCC, that enhances other properties of the membrane, such as ductility. The metal from group "N" is selected from the group consisting of Ag, Au, Re, Ru, Rh, Y, Ce, Ni, Ir, Pt, Co, La and In. The at. % of Pd in the binary Pd--Cu alloy ranges from about 35 at. % to about 55 at. %, and the at. % of "X" in the higher order alloy, based on said binary alloy, is in the range of about 1 at. % to about 15 at. %. The metals are selected according to a novel process.

  3. Mechanical alloying of biocompatible Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-De Jesús, F; Bolarín-Miró, A M; Torres-Villaseñor, G; Cortés-Escobedo, C A; Betancourt-Cantera, J A

    2010-07-01

    We report on an alternative route for the synthesis of crystalline Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy, which could be used for surgical implants. Co, Cr and Mo elemental powders, mixed in an adequate weight relation according to ISO Standard 58342-4 (ISO, 1996), were used for the mechanical alloying (MA) of nano-structured Co-alloy. The process was carried out at room temperature in a shaker mixer mill using hardened steel balls and vials as milling media, with a 1:8 ball:powder weight ratio. Crystalline structure characterization of milled powders was carried out by X-ray diffraction in order to analyze the phase transformations as a function of milling time. The aim of this work was to evaluate the alloying mechanism involved in the mechanical alloying of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The evolution of the phase transformations with milling time is reported for each mixture. Results showed that the resultant alloy is a Co-alpha solid solution, successfully obtained by mechanical alloying after a total of 10 h of milling time: first Cr and Mo are mechanically prealloyed for 7 h, and then Co is mixed in for 3 h. In addition, different methods of premixing were studied. The particle size of the powders is reduced with increasing milling time, reaching about 5 mum at 10 h; a longer time promotes the formation of aggregates. The morphology and crystal structure of milled powders as a function of milling time were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and XR diffraction.

  4. Macrophage proinflammatory response to the titanium alloy equipment in dental implantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Li, H S; Yin, Y; Feng, Y; Tan, X W

    2015-08-07

    Titanium alloy and stainless steel (SS) had been widely used as dental implant materials because of their affinity with epithelial tissue and connective tissue, and good physical, chemical, biological, mechanical properties and processability. We compared the effects of titanium alloy and SS on macrophage cytokine expression as well as their biocompatibility. Mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells were cultured on titanium alloy and SS surfaces. Cells were counted by scanning electron microscopy. A nitride oxide kit was used to detect released nitric oxide by macrophages on the different materials. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels. Scanning electron microscopy revealed fewer macrophages on the surface of titanium alloy (48.2 ± 6.4 x 10(3) cells/cm(2)) than on SS (135 ± 7.3 x 10(3) cells/cm(2)). The nitric oxide content stimulated by titanium alloy was 22.5 mM, which was lower than that stimulated by SS (26.8 mM), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.07). The level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 released was significantly higher in the SS group (OD value = 0.128) than in the titanium alloy group (OD value = 0.081) (P = 0.024). The transforming growth factor-b1 mRNA expression levels in macrophages after stimulation by titanium alloy for 12 and 36 h were significantly higher than that after stimulation by SS (P = 0.31 and 0.25, respectively). Macrophages participate in the inflammatory response by regulating cytokines such as nitric oxide, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and transforming growth factor-b1. There were fewer macrophages and lower inflammation on the titanium alloy surface than on the SS surface. Titanium alloy materials exhibited better biological compatibility than did SS.

  5. Blood compatibility of magnesium and its alloys.

    PubMed

    Feyerabend, Frank; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2015-10-01

    Blood compatibility analysis in the field of biomaterials is a highly controversial topic. Especially for degradable materials like magnesium and its alloys no established test methods are available. The purpose of this study was to apply advanced test methodology for the analysis of degrading materials to get a mechanistic insight into the corrosion process in contact with human blood and plasma. Pure magnesium and two magnesium alloys were analysed in a modified Chandler-Loop setup. Standard clinical parameters were determined, and a thorough analysis of the resulting implant surface chemistry was performed. The contact of the materials to blood evoked an accelerated inflammatory and cell-induced osteoconductive reaction. Corrosion products formed indicate a more realistic, in vivo like situation. The active regulation of corrosion mechanisms of magnesium alloys by different cell types should be more in the focus of research to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo observations and to understand the mechanism of action. This in turn could lead to a better acceptance of these materials for implant applications. The presented study deals with the first mechanistic insights during whole human blood contact and its influence on a degrading magnesium-based biomaterial. The combination of clinical parameters and corrosion layer analysis has been performed for the first time. It could be of interest due to the intended use of magnesium-based stents and for orthopaedic applications for clinical applications. An interest for the readers of Acta Biomaterialia may be given, as one of the first clinically approved magnesium-based devices is a wound-closure device, which is in direct contact with blood. Moreover, for orthopaedic applications also blood contact is of high interest. Although this is not the focus of the manuscript, it could help to rise awareness for potential future applications. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Electrical and structural properties of In-implanted Si 1–xGe x alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Ruixing; Kremer, F.; Sprouster, D. J.; ...

    2016-01-14

    Here, we report on the effects of dopant concentration and substrate stoichiometry on the electrical and structural properties of In-implanted Si 1–xGe x alloys. Correlating the fraction of electrically active In atoms from Hall Effect measurements with the In atomic environment determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we observed the transition from electrically active, substitutional In at low In concentration to electrically inactive metallic In at high In concentration. The In solid-solubility limit has been quantified and was dependent on the Si 1–xGe x alloy stoichiometry; the solid-solubility limit increased as the Ge fraction increased. This result was consistent with densitymore » functional theory calculations of two In atoms in a Si 1–xGe x supercell that demonstrated that In–In pairing was energetically favorable for x ≲ 0.7 and energetically unfavorable for x ≳ 0.7. Transmission electron microscopy imaging further complemented the results described earlier with the In concentration and Si 1–xGe x alloy stoichiometry dependencies readily visible. We have demonstrated that low resistivity values can be achieved with In implantation in Si 1–xGe x alloys, and this combination of dopant and substrate represents an effective doping protocol.« less

  7. The diameter of nanotubes formed on Ti-6Al-4V alloy controls the adhesion and differentiation of Saos-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Filova, Elena; Fojt, Jaroslav; Kryslova, Marketa; Moravec, Hynek; Joska, Ludek; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V-based nanotubes were prepared on a Ti-6Al-4V surface by anodic oxidation on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples. The 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples and a control smooth Ti-6Al-4V sample were evaluated in terms of their chemical composition, diameter distribution, and cellular response. The surfaces of the 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples consisted of nanotubes of a relatively wide range of diameters that increased with the voltage. Saos-2 cells had a similar initial adhesion on all nanotube samples to the control Ti-6Al-4V sample, but it was lower than on glass. On day 3, the highest concentrations of both vinculin and talin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and intensity of immunofluorescence staining were on 30 V nanotubes. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of ALP, type I collagen, and osteopontin were found on 10 V and 20 V samples. The final cellular densities on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples were higher than on glass. Therefore, the controlled anodization of Ti-6Al-4V seems to be a useful tool for preparing nanostructured materials with desirable biological properties. PMID:26648719

  8. Nonergodicity in binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Leonid; Sidorov, Valery; Popel, Pjotr; Shulgin, Dmitry

    2015-09-01

    For binary liquids with limited miscibility of the components, we provide the corrections to the equation of state which arise from the nonergogic diffusivity. It is shown that these corrections result in lowering of critical miscibility point. In some cases, it may result in a bifurcation of miscibility curve: the mixtures near 50% concentration which are homogeneous at the microscopic level, occur to be too stable to provide a quasi - eutectic triple point. These features provide a new look on the phase diagrams of some binary systems. In present work, we discuss Ga-Pb, Fe-Cu, and Cu-Zr alloys. Our investigation corresponds their complex behavior in liquid state to the shapes of their phase diagrams.

  9. High strength ferritic alloy

    DOEpatents

    Hagel, William C.; Smidt, Frederick A.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1977-01-01

    A high-strength ferritic alloy useful for fast reactor duct and cladding applications where an iron base contains from about 9% to about 13% by weight chromium, from about 4% to about 8% by weight molybdenum, from about 0.2% to about 0.8% by weight niobium, from about 0.1% to about 0.3% by weight vanadium, from about 0.2% to about 0.8% by weight silicon, from about 0.2% to about 0.8% by weight manganese, a maximum of about 0.05% by weight nitrogen, a maximum of about 0.02% by weight sulfur, a maximum of about 0.02% by weight phosphorous, and from about 0.04% to about 0.12% by weight carbon.

  10. Metallic alloy stability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firth, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    The dimensional stability of candidate cryogenic wind tunnel model materials was investigated. Flat specimens of candidate materials were fabricated and cryo-cycled to assess relative dimensional stability. Existing 2-dimensional airfoil models as well as models in various stages of manufacture were also cryo-cycled. The tests indicate that 18 Ni maraging steel offers the greatest dimensional stability and that PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel is the most stable of the stainless steels. Dimensional stability is influenced primarily by metallurgical transformations (austenitic to martensitic) and manufacturing-induced stresses. These factors can be minimized by utilization of stable alloys, refinement of existing manufacturing techniques, and incorporation of new manufacturing technologies.

  11. Large Electric Field–Enhanced–Hardness Effect in a SiO2 Film

    PubMed Central

    Revilla, Reynier I.; Li, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Yan-Lian; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Silicon dioxide films are extensively used in nano and micro–electromechanical systems. Here we studied the influence of an external electric field on the mechanical properties of a SiO2 film by using nanoindentation technique of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and friction force microscopy (FFM). A giant augmentation of the relative elastic modulus was observed by increasing the localized electric field. A slight decrease in friction coefficients was also clearly observed by using FFM with the increase of applied tip voltage. The reduction of the friction coefficients is consistent with the great enhancement of sample hardness by considering the indentation–induced deformation during the friction measurements. PMID:24681517

  12. Electrochemical characteristics of a-Si thin film anode for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Lyoung; Jung, Ju-Young; Lee, Seung-Won; Moon, Hee-Soo; Park, Jong-Wan

    Deposition of an amorphous Si (a-Si) thin film anode was carried out by a radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. In order to avoid mechanical disintegration of the Si electrodes, the Si was deposited on two types of Cu foil: normal Cu foil and Cu foil with a rough surface. The surface of the Cu foil was roughened with sandpaper. The properties of Si film were observed by FESEM, Raman, XRD, AFM, CLSM and electrochemical performance was evaluated. It was believed that the rough foil helped the active Si material to maintain the electronic contact with the current collector during charging and discharging.

  13. Energy and Density of Gap States in a-Si:H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KočKa, J.; VaněčEk, M.; TříSka, A.

    The density of states (DOS) in the mobility gap is briefly reviewed. Constant photocurrent method (CPM), experimental details and deconvolution of the optical absorption coefficient are presented and discussed in details. On the basis of CPM results on doped and undoped a-Si:H, supporting experiments and from the results of other authors (photo-deflection spectroscopy, photoyield spectroscopy, DLTS, photocapacitance, photoluminiscence) two models of DOS are emerging : the original street's model but with greatly reduced effective correlation energy Ueff(≤ 0.1 eV) or the model based on Coulombic interaction of dangling bonds with dopant atoms. Supporting arguments and internal consistency of both of them are discussed.

  14. Magnetoimpedance effect in Nanoperm alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernando, B.; Alvarez, P.; Santos, J. D.; Gorría, P.; Sánchez, M. L.; Olivera, J.; Pérez, M. J.; Prida, V. M.

    2006-05-01

    The influence of isothermal annealing (1 h at 600 °C in Ar atmosphere) on the soft magnetic properties and magnetoimpedance (MI) effect has been studied in ribbons of the following Nanoperm alloys: Fe 91Zr 7B 2, Fe 88Zr 8B 4, Fe 87Zr 6B 6Cu 1 and Fe 80Zr 10B 10. A maximum MI ratio of about 27% was measured for the nanocrystalline alloy Fe 87Zr 6B 6Cu 1 at a driving frequency of 0.2 MHz. The thermal annealing led to magnetic softening for this alloy, while a hardening is observed for the Fe 80Zr 10B 10 alloy.

  15. Manufacturing of High Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Licavoli, Joseph J.; Gao, Michael C.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2015-07-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) have generated interest in recent years due to their unique positioning within the alloy world. By incorporating a number of elements in high proportion they have high configurational entropy, and thus they hold the promise of interesting and useful properties such as enhanced strength and phase stability. The present study investigates the microstructure of two single-phase face-centered cubic (FCC) HEAs, CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeNiMn, with special attention given to melting, homogenization and thermo-mechanical processing. Large-scale ingots were made by vacuum induction melting to avoid the extrinsic factors inherent in small-scale laboratory button samples. A computationally based homogenization heat treatment was applied to both alloys in order to eliminate segregation due to normal ingot solidification. The alloys fabricated well, with typical thermo-mechanical processing parameters being employed.

  16. Magnesium Alloys and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kainer, Karl U.

    1999-04-01

    In the recent years there has been a dramatic increase in research activity and also applications of magnesium alloys. The driving force is the growing demand by the automobile industry resulting from the pressure to reduce weight and hence to reduce the fuel consumption. The U.S. car industry incorporates the largest amount of magnesium at the present time. In Europe, Volkswagen had a history of using magnesium in the VW Beetle. Volkswagen, in common with other major car producers has initiated a major research and development programme for advanced magnesium materials. The main emphasis of this book is in the field of general physical metallurgy and alloy development refelcting the need to provide a wider range of alloys both casting and wrought alloys to meet the increasing demands of industry. Other topics are nevertheless well represented such as casting, recycling, joining, corrosion, and surface treatment.

  17. Simple fabrication of back contact heterojunction solar cells by plasma ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Noboru; Hironiwa, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hideo; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2017-08-01

    A back-contact amorphous-silicon (a-Si)/crystalline silicon (c-Si) heterojunction is one of the most promising structures for high-efficiency solar cells. However, the patterning of back-contact electrodes causes the increase in fabrication cost. Thus, to simplify the fabrication of back-contact cells, we attempted to form p-a-Si/i-a-Si/c-Si and n-a-Si/i-a-Si/c-Si regions by the conversion of a patterned area of p-a-Si/i-a-Si/c-Si to n-a-Si/i-a-Si/c-Si by plasma ion implantation. It is revealed that the conversion of the conduction type can be realized by the plasma ion implantation of phosphorus (P) atoms into p-a-Si/i-a-Si/c-Si regions, and also that the quality of passivation can be kept sufficiently high, the same as that before ion implantation, when the samples are annealed at around 250 °C and also when the energy and dose of ion implantation are appropriately chosen for fitting to a-Si layer thickness and bulk c-Si carrier density.

  18. Potential Use of Porous Titanium–Niobium Alloy in Orthopedic Implants: Preparation and Experimental Study of Its Biocompatibility In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Huang, Jia-Zhang; Zhang, Chao; Muhammad, Hassan; Ma, Xin; Liao, Qian-De

    2013-01-01

    Background The improvement of bone ingrowth into prosthesis and enhancement of the combination of the range between the bone and prosthesis are important for long-term stability of artificial joints. They are the focus of research on uncemented artificial joints. Porous materials can be of potential use to solve these problems. Objectives/Purposes This research aims to observe the characteristics of the new porous Ti-25Nb alloy and its biocompatibility in vitro, and to provide basic experimental evidence for the development of new porous prostheses or bone implants for bone tissue regeneration. Methods The Ti-25Nb alloys with different porosities were fabricated using powder metallurgy. The alloys were then evaluated based on several characteristics, such as mechanical properties, purity, pore size, and porosity. To evaluate biocompatibility, the specimens were subjected to methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay, cell adhesion and proliferation assay using acridine staining, scanning electron microscopy, and detection of inflammation factor interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results The porous Ti-25Nb alloy with interconnected pores had a pore size of 200 µm to 500 µm, which was favorable for bone ingrowth. The compressive strength of the alloy was similar to that of cortical bone, while with the elastic modulus closer to cancellous bone. MTT assay showed that the alloy had no adverse reaction to rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, with a toxicity level of 0 to 1. Cell adhesion and proliferation experiments showed excellent cell growth on the surface and inside the pores of the alloy. According to the IL-6 levels, the alloy did not cause any obvious inflammatory response. Conclusion All porous Ti-25Nb alloys showed good biocompatibility regardless of the percentage of porosity. The basic requirement of clinical orthopedic implants was satisfied, which made the alloy a good prospect for biomedical application. The alloy with 70% porosity had the optimum

  19. In vitro corrosion properties and cytocompatibility of Fe-Ga alloys as potential biodegradable metallic materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Henan; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chengbao; Li, Yan

    2017-02-01

    The in vitro biodegradable properties and cytocompatibility of Fe-Ga alloys including Fe 81 Ga 19 , (Fe 81 Ga 19 ) 98 B 2 and (Fe 81 Ga 19 ) 99.5 (TaC) 0.5 , and pure Fe were investigated for biomedical applications. The microstructure of the alloys was characterized using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The results showed that A2 and D0 3 phases were detected for the three types of Fe-Ga alloys, and additional Fe 2 B and TaC phases were found in the (Fe 81 Ga 19 ) 98 B 2 and (Fe 81 Ga 19 ) 99.5 (TaC) 0.5 alloys, respectively. The corrosion rates of the Fe-Ga alloys were higher than that of pure Fe, as demonstrated by both potentiodynamic polarization measurements and immersion tests in simulated body fluid. The alloying element Ga lowered the corrosion potential of the Fe matrix and made it more susceptible to corrosion. Severe pitting corrosion developed on the surface of the Fe 81 Ga 19 alloy after the addition of ternary B or TaC due to the multi-phase microstructures. The MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited good adhesion and proliferation behavior on the surfaces of the Fe-Ga alloys after culture for 4h and 24h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic mechanical deformation of a SiC[sub p]/Al-Li (8090) composite

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, R.U.; Zurek, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    The deformation behavior in compression of a silicon carbide particle-reinforced aluminum-lithium (8090) matrix composite, at strain rates in the range of 10[sup [minus]3] to 6500 s[sup [minus]1], was investigated, and compared with that of unreinforced alloy samples. Dynamics strengthening in these composites was found to change depending on the direction of testing. These differences were attributed to differences in the orientation of the reinforcing particles. 4 refs, 5 figs.

  1. Dynamic mechanical deformation of a SiC{sub p}/Al-Li (8090) composite

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, R.U.; Zurek, A.K.

    1993-06-01

    The deformation behavior in compression of a silicon carbide particle-reinforced aluminum-lithium (8090) matrix composite, at strain rates in the range of 10{sup {minus}3} to 6500 s{sup {minus}1}, was investigated, and compared with that of unreinforced alloy samples. Dynamics strengthening in these composites was found to change depending on the direction of testing. These differences were attributed to differences in the orientation of the reinforcing particles. 4 refs, 5 figs.

  2. Dynamic mechanical deformation of a SiCp/Al-Li (8090) composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Rajendra U.; Zurek, Anna K.

    1994-07-01

    The deformation behavior in compression of a silicon carbide particle reinforced aluminum-lithium (8090) matrix composite, at strain rates in the range of 10-3 to 6500 s-1, was investigated, and compared with that of unreinforced alloy samples. Dynamic strenghening in these composites was found to change depending on the direction of testing. These differences were attributed to differences in the orientation of the reinforcing particles.

  3. Dynamic mechanical deformation of a SiC[sub p]/Al-Li (8090) composite

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, R.U.; Zurek, A.K.

    1994-07-10

    The deformation behavior in compression of a silicon carbide particle reinforced aluminum-lithium (8090) matrix composite, at strain rates in the range of 10[sup [minus]3] to 6500 s[sup [minus]1], was investigated, and compared with that of unreinforced alloy samples. Dynamic strenghening in these composites was found to change depending on the direction of testing. These differences were attributed to differences in the orientation of the reinforcing particles. [copyright] 1994 American Institute of Physics

  4. From chemistry to mechanics: bulk modulus evolution of Li-Si and Li-Sn alloys via the metallic electronegativity scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Keyan; Xie, Hui; Liu, Jun; Ma, Zengsheng; Zhou, Yichun; Xue, Dongfeng

    2013-10-28

    Toward engineering high performance anode alloys for Li-ion batteries, we proposed a useful method to quantitatively estimate the bulk modulus of binary alloys in terms of metallic electronegativity (EN), alloy composition and formula volume. On the basis of our proposed potential viewpoint, EN as a fundamental chemistry concept can be extended to be an important physical parameter to characterize the mechanical performance of Li-Si and Li-Sn alloys as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. The bulk modulus of binary alloys is linearly proportional to the combination of average metallic EN and atomic density of alloys. We calculated the bulk moduli of Li-Si and Li-Sn alloys with different Li concentrations, which can agree well with the reported data. The bulk modulus of Li-Si and Li-Sn alloys decreases with increasing Li concentration, leading to the elastic softening of the alloys, which is essentially caused by the decreased strength of constituent chemical bonds in alloys from the viewpoint of EN. This work provides a deep understanding of mechanical failure of Si and Sn anodes for Li-ion batteries, and permits the prediction of the composition dependent bulk modulus of various lithiated alloys on the basis of chemical formula, metallic EN and cell volume (or alloy density), with no structural details required.

  5. Castable hot corrosion resistant alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Charles A. (Inventor); Holt, William H. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Some 10 wt percent nickel is added to an Fe-base alloy which has a ferrite microstructure to improve the high temperature castability and crack resistance while about 0.2 wt percent zirconium is added for improved high temperatur cyclic oxidation and corrosion resistance. The basic material is a high temperature FeCrAl heater alloy, and the addition provides a material suitable for burner rig nozzles.

  6. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, M.; Martinez, D.R.

    1998-04-07

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states. 16 figs.

  7. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-05-01

    Cobalt dendrites and an interdendritic cobalt -MC carbide eutec- tic make up the bulk of the microstructure with the final liquid to freeze being an... Superalloys --Processing, Battelle Report MCIC 72-10 (1972). (4) C.P.Sullivan, M.J.Donachie, F.R.Morral, " Cobalt Base Super- alloys-1970," Centre...nickel, and cobalt base alloys have been per- manent mold cast under varling conditions to evaluate techniques for improving the integrity of die castings

  8. Improved power efficiency in phosphorus doped n-a-SiNxOy/p-Si heterojunction light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zewen; Chen, Kunji; Zhang, Pengzhan; Xu, Jun; Li, Wei; Yang, Huafeng; Huang, Xinfan

    2017-02-01

    The higher up to 60% internal quantum efficiency of photoluminescence (PL) from amorphous silicon oxynitride (a-SiNxOy) films has been reported in our previous work. In present work, the improved power efficiency visible light emitting diode (LED) has been realized based on phosphorus doped n-a-SiNxOy/p-Si heterojunction structure, which is at least three times higher than that of ITO/a-SiNxOy/p-Si (called MIS) LED. The n-a-SiNxOy films were doped by using phosphine (PH3) gas during the deposition by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique and the electron concentration is about 2.4 × 1015 cm-3 at room temperature obtained from Hall-effect measurements. The light emitting (electroluminescence (EL)) peak energy is coincided with that of PL of a-SiNxOy, which suggests that the EL emission is also originated from the radiative recombination via N-Si-O bonding defect states in n-a-SiNxOy layers. The transport mechanism and optical performance of the device have been investigated with the characteristics of current-voltage (I-V) and light output-voltage (L-V), in terms of the energy band diagram of n-a-SiNxOy/p-Si heterojunction structure. The power law like L ˜ Im of light output-current (L ˜ I) characteristic in n-a-SiNxOy/p-Si heterojunction has also been observed, which exhibits a superlinear behaviour with a slope of 1.35 in the low current range and becomes almost linear with a slope of 1.05 in the high current range, due to the saturation of nonradiative recombination centers.

  9. Alloy dissolution in argon stirred steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Darryl Scott

    Alloying is required for the production of all steel products from small castings to large beams. Addition of large quantities of bulk alloys can result in alloy segregation and inconsistent alloy recovery. The objective of this research was to better understand alloy dissolution in liquid steel especially as it relates to Missouri S&Ts' patented continuous steelmaking process. A 45-kilogram capacity ladle with a single porous plug was used to evaluate the effect of four experimental factors on alloy dissolution: alloy species, alloy size or form, argon flow rate, and furnace tap temperature. Four alloys were tested experimentally including Class I low carbon ferromanganese, nickel and tin (as a surrogate for low melting alloys) and Class II ferroniobium. The alloys ranged in size and form from granular to 30 mm diameter lumps. Experimental results were evaluated using a theoretically based numerical model for the steel shell period, alloy mixing (Class I) and alloy dissolution (Class II). A CFD model of the experimental ladle was used to understand steel motion in the ladle and to provide steel velocity magnitudes for the numerical steel shell model. Experiments and modeling confirmed that smaller sized alloys have shorter steel shell periods and homogenize faster than larger particles. Increasing the argon flow rate shortened mixing times and reduced the delay between alloy addition and the first appearance of alloy in the melt. In addition, for every five degree increase in steel bath temperature the steel shell period was shortened by approximately four percent. Class II ferroniobium alloy dissolution was an order of magnitude slower than Class I alloy mixing.

  10. The realization of optical switching generated from the combination of Ag/a-Si/p-Si memristor and silicon waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongyang; Guo, Anran; Song, Qinjian; Guo, Guohui; Jiang, Yadong; Li, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Much attention has been attracted by applications of memristor in data storage, unconventional computing and logic circuit since 2008, but very few have been focused on applications in optical switches and optical modulators. Here, by combining a silicon waveguide with a memristor of Ag/a-Si/p-Si structure, a novel optical switch (OS) for use at 1.55μm has been set up. The device consists of a bottom p-Si waveguide, an upper a-Si layer and a top Ag electrode, i.e. a sandwich structure named as Ag/a-Si/p-Si. The light transmitting through the silicon waveguide can be modulated by changing optical parameters of a-Si dielectric layer in which the formation and annihilation of Ag filament can be adjusted by an alternately electrical field between Ag and p-Si electrodes. The distribution of optical power dependence on the thicknesses of a-Si layer and Ag layer as well as the geometric size of waveguide have been studied by numerical analysis. Finally, based on Ag/a-Si/p-Si sandwich structure and the simulated results, we have proposed a new and improved OS.

  11. Influence of oxygen doping on resistive-switching characteristic of a-Si/c-Si device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiahua; Chen, Da; Huang, Shihua

    2017-12-01

    The influence of oxygen doping on resistive-switching characteristics of Ag/a-Si/p+-c-Si device was investigated. By oxygen doping in the growth process of amorphous silicon, the device resistive-switching performances, such as the ON/OFF resistance ratios, yield and stability were improved, which may be ascribed to the significant reduction of defect density because of oxygen incorporation. The device I-V characteristics are strongly dependent on the oxygen doping concentration. As the oxygen doping concentration increases, the Si-rich device gradually transforms to an oxygen-rich device, and the device yield, switching characteristics, and stability may be improved for silver/oxygen-doped a-Si/p+-c-Si device. Finally, the device resistive-switching mechanism was analyzed. Project supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. LY17F040001), the Open Project Program of Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) of Fudan University (No. KF2015_02), the Open Project Program of National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. M201503), the Zhejiang Provincial Science and Technology Key Innovation Team (No. 2011R50012), and the Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory (No. 2013E10022).

  12. aSi EPIDs for the in-vivo dosimetry of static and dynamic beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piermattei, A.; Cilla, S.; Azario, L.; Greco, F.; Russo, M.; Grusio, M.; Orlandini, L.; Fidanzio, A.

    2015-10-01

    Portal imaging by amorphous silicon (aSi) photodiode is currently the most applied technology for in-vivo dosimetry (IVD) of static and dynamic radiotherapy beams. The strategy, adopted in this work to perform the IVD procedure by aSi EPID, is based on: in patient reconstruction of the isocenter dose and day to day comparison between 2D-portal images to verify the reproducibility of treatment delivery. About 20.000 tests have been carried out in this last 3 years in 8 radiotherapy centers using the SOFTDISO program. The IVD results show that: (i) the procedure can be implemented for linacs of different manufacturer, (ii) the IVD analysis can be obtained on a computer screen, in quasi real time (about 2 min after the treatment delivery) and (iii) once the causes of the discrepancies were eliminated, all the global IVD tests for single patient were within the acceptance criteria defined by: ±5% for the isocenter dose, and Pγ<1≥90% of the checked points for the 2D portal image γ-analysis. This work is the result of a project supported by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) and Università Cattolica del S.Cuore (UCSC).

  13. Choosing An Alloy For Automotive Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Joseph R.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes study of chemical compositions and microstructures of alloys for automotive Stirling engines. Engines offer advantages of high efficiency, low pollution, low noise, and ability to use variety of fuels. Twenty alloys evaluated for resistance to corrosion permeation by hydrogen, and high temperature. Iron-based alloys considered primary candidates because of low cost. Nickel-based alloys second choice in case suitable iron-based alloy could not be found. Cobalt-based alloy included for comparison but not candidate, because it is expensive strategic material.

  14. Screening on binary Ti alloy with excellent mechanical property and castability for dental prosthesis application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. F.; Qiu, K. J.; Yuan, W.; Zhou, F. Y.; Wang, B. L.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y. F.; Liu, Y. H.

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the microstructure, mechanical property, castability, corrosion behavior and in vitro cytocompatibility of binary Ti-2X alloys with various alloying elements, including Ag, Bi, Ga, Ge, Hf, In, Mo, Nb, Sn and Zr, were systematically investigated, in order to assess their potential applications in dental field. The experimental results showed that all binary Ti‒2X alloys consisted entirely α-Ti phase. The tensile strength and microhardness of Ti were improved by adding alloying elements. The castability of Ti was significantly improved by separately adding 2 wt.% Bi, Ga, Hf, Mo, Nb, Sn and Zr. The corrosion resistance of Ti in both normal artificial saliva solution (AS) and extreme artificial saliva solution (ASFL, AS with 0.2 wt.% NaF and 0.3 wt.% lactic acid) has been improved by separately adding alloying elements. In addition, the extracts of studied Ti‒2X alloys produced no significant deleterious effect to both fibroblasts L929 cells and osteoblast-like MG63 cells, indicating a good in vitro cytocompatibility, at the same level as pure Ti. The combination of enhanced mechanical properties, castability, corrosion behavior, and in vitro cytocompatibility make the developed Ti‒2X alloys have great potential for future stomatological applications.

  15. Screening on binary Ti alloy with excellent mechanical property and castability for dental prosthesis application

    PubMed Central

    Li, H. F.; Qiu, K. J.; Yuan, W.; Zhou, F. Y.; Wang, B. L.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y. F.; Liu, Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the microstructure, mechanical property, castability, corrosion behavior and in vitro cytocompatibility of binary Ti–2X alloys with various alloying elements, including Ag, Bi, Ga, Ge, Hf, In, Mo, Nb, Sn and Zr, were systematically investigated, in order to assess their potential applications in dental field. The experimental results showed that all binary Ti‒2X alloys consisted entirely α–Ti phase. The tensile strength and microhardness of Ti were improved by adding alloying elements. The castability of Ti was significantly improved by separately adding 2 wt.% Bi, Ga, Hf, Mo, Nb, Sn and Zr. The corrosion resistance of Ti in both normal artificial saliva solution (AS) and extreme artificial saliva solution (ASFL, AS with 0.2 wt.% NaF and 0.3 wt.% lactic acid) has been improved by separately adding alloying elements. In addition, the extracts of studied Ti‒2X alloys produced no significant deleterious effect to both fibroblasts L929 cells and osteoblast-like MG63 cells, indicating a good in vitro cytocompatibility, at the same level as pure Ti. The combination of enhanced mechanical properties, castability, corrosion behavior, and in vitro cytocompatibility make the developed Ti‒2X alloys have great potential for future stomatological applications. PMID:27874034

  16. Screening on binary Ti alloy with excellent mechanical property and castability for dental prosthesis application.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Qiu, K J; Yuan, W; Zhou, F Y; Wang, B L; Li, L; Zheng, Y F; Liu, Y H

    2016-11-22

    In the present study, the microstructure, mechanical property, castability, corrosion behavior and in vitro cytocompatibility of binary Ti-2X alloys with various alloying elements, including Ag, Bi, Ga, Ge, Hf, In, Mo, Nb, Sn and Zr, were systematically investigated, in order to assess their potential applications in dental field. The experimental results showed that all binary Ti‒2X alloys consisted entirely α-Ti phase. The tensile strength and microhardness of Ti were improved by adding alloying elements. The castability of Ti was significantly improved by separately adding 2 wt.% Bi, Ga, Hf, Mo, Nb, Sn and Zr. The corrosion resistance of Ti in both normal artificial saliva solution (AS) and extreme artificial saliva solution (ASFL, AS with 0.2 wt.% NaF and 0.3 wt.% lactic acid) has been improved by separately adding alloying elements. In addition, the extracts of studied Ti‒2X alloys produced no significant deleterious effect to both fibroblasts L929 cells and osteoblast-like MG63 cells, indicating a good in vitro cytocompatibility, at the same level as pure Ti. The combination of enhanced mechanical properties, castability, corrosion behavior, and in vitro cytocompatibility make the developed Ti‒2X alloys have great potential for future stomatological applications.

  17. Radiation damage buildup and dislocation evolution in Ni and equiatomic multicomponent Ni-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levo, E.; Granberg, F.; Fridlund, C.; Nordlund, K.; Djurabekova, F.

    2017-07-01

    Single-phase multicomponent alloys of equal atomic concentrations ("equiatomic") have proven to exhibit promising mechanical and corrosion resistance properties, that are sought after in materials intended for use in hazardous environments like next-generation nuclear reactors. In this article, we investigate the damage production and dislocation mobility by simulating irradiation of elemental Ni and the alloys NiCo, NiCoCr, NiCoFe and NiFe, to assess the effect of elemental composition. We compare the defect production and the evolution of dislocation networks in the simulation cells of two different sizes, for all five studied materials. We find that the trends in defect evolution are in good agreement between the different cell sizes. The damage is generally reduced with increased alloy complexity, and the dislocation evolution is specific to each material, depending on its complexity. We show that increasing complexity of the alloys does not always lead to decreased susceptibility to damage accumulation under irradiation. We show that, for instance, the NiCo alloy behaves very similarly to Ni, while presence of Fe or Cr in the alloy even as a third component reduces the saturated level of damage substantially. Moreover, we linked the defect evolution with the dislocation transformations in the alloys. Sudden drops in defect number and large defect fluctuations from the continuous irradiation can be explained from the dislocation activity.

  18. Enhancement of antibiotic effect via gold:silver-alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Margarida Moreira; Queiroz, Margarida João; Baptista, Pedro V.

    2012-05-01

    A strategy for the development of novel antimicrobials is to combine the stability and pleiotropic effects of inorganic compounds with the specificity and efficiency of organic compounds, such as antibiotics. Here we report on the use of gold:silver-alloy (Au:Ag-alloy) nanoparticles, obtained via a single-step citrate co-reduction method, combined to conventional antibiotics to enhance their antimicrobial effect on bacteria. Addition of the alloy nanoparticles considerably decreased the dose of antibiotic necessary to show antimicrobial effect, both for bacterial cells growing in rich medium in suspension and for bacterial cells resting in a physiological buffer on a humid cellulose surface. The observed effect was more pronounced than the sum of the individual effects of the nanoparticles and antibiotic. We demonstrate the enhancement effect of Au:Ag-alloy nanoparticles with a size distribution of 32.5 ± 7.5 nm mean diameter on the antimicrobial effect of (i) kanamycin on Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacterium), and (ii) a β-lactam antibiotic on both a sensitive and resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium). Together, these results may pave the way for the combined use of nanoparticle-antibiotic conjugates towards decreasing antibiotic resistance currently observed for certain bacteria and conventional antibiotics.

  19. In vitro cytotoxicity of metallic ions released from dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Milheiro, Ana; Nozaki, Kosuke; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Muris, Joris; Miura, Hiroyuki; Feilzer, Albert J

    2016-05-01

    The cytotoxicity of a dental alloy depends on, but is not limited to, the extent of its corrosion behavior. Individual ions may have effects on cell viability that are different from metals interacting within the alloy structure. We aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of individual metal ions in concentrations similar to those reported to be released from Pd-based dental alloys on mouse fibroblast cells. Metal salts were used to prepare seven solutions (concentration range 100 ppm-1 ppb) of the transition metals, such as Ni(II), Pd(II), Cu(II), and Ag(I), and the metals, such as Ga(III), In(III), and Sn(II). Cytotoxicity on mouse fibroblasts L929 was evaluated using the MTT assay. Ni, Cu, and Ag are cytotoxic at 10 ppm, Pd and Ga at 100 ppm. Sn and In were not able to induce cytotoxicity at the tested concentrations. Transition metals were able to induce cytotoxic effects in concentrations similar to those reported to be released from Pd-based dental alloys. Ni, Cu, and Ag were the most cytotoxic followed by Pd and Ga; Sn and In were not cytotoxic. Cytotoxic reactions might be considered in the etiopathogenesis of clinically observed local adverse reactions.

  20. The Current Status of Hydrogen Storage Alloy Development for Electrochemical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kwo-hsiung; Nei, Jean

    2013-01-01

    In this review article, the fundamentals of electrochemical reactions involving metal hydrides are explained, followed by a report of recent progress in hydrogen storage alloys for electrochemical applications. The status of various alloy systems, including AB5, AB2, A2B7-type, Ti-Ni-based, Mg-Ni-based, BCC, and Zr-Ni-based metal hydride alloys, for their most important electrochemical application, the nickel metal hydride battery, is summarized. Other electrochemical applications, such as Ni-hydrogen, fuel cell, Li-ion battery, air-metal hydride, and hybrid battery systems, also have been mentioned. PMID:28788349

  1. Magnesium-based biodegradable alloys: Degradation, application, and alloying elements

    PubMed Central

    Pogorielov, Maksym; Husak, Eugenia; Solodivnik, Alexandr; Zhdanov, Sergii

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the paradigm about the metal with improved corrosion resistance for application in surgery and orthopedy was broken. The new class of biodegradable metal emerges as an alternative for biomedical implants. These metals corrode gradually with an appropriate host response and release of corrosion products. And it is absolutely necessary to use essential metals metabolized by hosting organism with local and general nontoxic effect. Magnesium serves this aim best; it plays the essential role in body metabolism and should be completely excreted within a few days after degradation. This review summarizes data from Mg discovery and its first experimental and clinical application of modern concept of Mg alloy development. We focused on biodegradable metal application in general surgery and orthopedic practice and showed the advantages and disadvantages Mg alloys offer. We focused on methods of in vitro and in vivo investigation of degradable Mg alloys and correlation between these methods. Based on the observed data, a better way for new alloy pre-clinical investigation is suggested. This review analyzes possible alloying elements that improve corrosion rate, mechanical properties, and gives the appropriate host response. PMID:28932493

  2. Magnesium-based biodegradable alloys: Degradation, application, and alloying elements.

    PubMed

    Pogorielov, Maksym; Husak, Eugenia; Solodivnik, Alexandr; Zhdanov, Sergii

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, the paradigm about the metal with improved corrosion resistance for application in surgery and orthopedy was broken. The new class of biodegradable metal emerges as an alternative for biomedical implants. These metals corrode gradually with an appropriate host response and release of corrosion products. And it is absolutely necessary to use essential metals metabolized by hosting organism with local and general nontoxic effect. Magnesium serves this aim best; it plays the essential role in body metabolism and should be completely excreted within a few days after degradation. This review summarizes data from Mg discovery and its first experimental and clinical application of modern concept of Mg alloy development. We focused on biodegradable metal application in general surgery and orthopedic practice and showed the advantages and disadvantages Mg alloys offer. We focused on methods of in vitro and in vivo investigation of degradable Mg alloys and correlation between these methods. Based on the observed data, a better way for new alloy pre-clinical investigation is suggested. This review analyzes possible alloying elements that improve corrosion rate, mechanical properties, and gives the appropriate host response.

  3. Potential biodegradable Zn-Cu binary alloys developed for cardiovascular implant applications.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zibo; Niu, Jialin; Huang, Hua; Zhang, Hua; Pei, Jia; Ou, Jingmin; Yuan, Guangyin

    2017-08-01

    Binary Zn-Cu alloy system is developed as potential biodegradable materials for cardiovascular implant application. The microstructure, tensile properties, in vitro corrosion behavior, cytotoxicity and antibacterial property of as-extruded Zn-xCu (x=1, 2, 3, and 4wt%) alloys are investigated systematically. It shows that as Cu content increases more CuZn 5 phase precipitates. After extrusion, the CuZn 5 phases are broken and the grains of Zn-xCu alloys are refined. Tensile test shows that Cu addition could significantly improve the mechanical properties of Zn-xCu alloys. Particularly, the elongation of the Zn-4Cu reaches 50.6±2.8%, which could facilitate the micro-tubes processing for stent fabrication. The micro-tubes of 3mm in outer diameter and 0.2mm in thickness as well as vascular stents have been fabricated successfully using the Zn-Cu binary alloy. The degradation rates of Zn-xCu alloys in c-SBF solution are quite low, which vary from 22.1±4.7 to 33.0±1.0μmyear -1 . With increasing Cu concentration, the corrosion rates of the Zn-xCu alloys generally exhibit a little increase compared with pure Zn, which show no significant difference among Zn-xCu alloys. In vitro test shows that Zn-xCu alloys exhibit acceptable cytotoxicity to human endothelial cells and the antibacterial property (S. aureus) is perfect when Cu concentration is higher than 2wt%. Therefore, the newly developed Zn-xCu binary alloys could be promising candidates for biodegradable cardiovascular implant application due to their excellent combination of strength and ductility, low degradation rates, acceptable cytotoxicity and good antibacterial property. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Superelasticity, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the Ti-19Zr-10Nb-1Fe alloy.

    PubMed

    Xue, Pengfei; Li, Yan; Li, Kangming; Zhang, Deyuan; Zhou, Chungen

    2015-05-01

    Microstructure, mechanical properties, superelasticity and biocompatibility of a Ti-19Zr-10Nb-1Fe alloy are investigated. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations show that the as-cast Ti-19Zr-10Nb-1Fe alloy is composed of α' and β phases, but only the β phase exists in the as-rolled and as-quenched alloys. The tensile stress-strain tests indicate that the as-quenched alloy exhibits a good combination of mechanical properties with a large elongation of 25%, a low Young's modulus of 59 GPa and a high ultimate tensile stress of 723 MPa. Superelastic recovery behavior is found in the as-quenched alloy during tensile tests, and the corresponding maximum of superelastic strain is 4.7% at the pre-strain of 6%. A superelastic recovery of 4% with high stability is achieved after 10 cyclic loading-unloading training processes. Potentiodynamic polarization and ion release measurements indicate that the as-quenched alloy shows a lower corrosion rate in Hank's solution and a much less ion release rate in 0.9% NaCl solution than those of the NiTi alloys. Cell culture results indicate that the osteoblasts' adhesion and proliferation are similar on both the Ti-19Zr-10Nb-1Fe and NiTi alloys. A better hemocompatibility is confirmed for the as-quenched Ti-19Zr-10Nb-1Fe alloy, attributed to more stable platelet adhesion and small activation degree, and a much lower hemolysis rate compared with the NiTi alloy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Properties of experimental copper-aluminium-nickel alloys for dental post-and-core applications

    PubMed Central

    Rittapai, Apiwat; Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep; Harniratisai, Choltacha

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to develop a copper-aluminium-nickel alloy which has properties comparable to that of dental alloys used for dental post and core applications with the reasonable cost. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixteen groups of experimental copper alloys with variants of 3, 6, 9, 12 wt% Al and 0, 2, 4, 6 wt% Ni were prepared and casted. Their properties were tested and evaluated. The data of thermal, physical, and mechanical properties were analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The alloy toxicity was evaluated according to the ISO standard. RESULTS The solidus and liquidus points of experimental alloys ranged from 1023℃ to 1113℃ and increased as the nickel content increased. The highest ultimate tensile strength (595.9 ± 14.2 MPa) was shown in the Cu-12Al-4Ni alloy. The tensile strength was increased as the both elements increased. Alloys with 3-6 wt% Al exhibited a small amount of 0.2% proof strength. Accordingly, the Cu-9Al-2Ni and Cu-9Al-4Ni alloys not only demonstrated an appropriate modulus of elasticity (113.9 ± 8.0 and 122.8 ± 11.3 GPa, respectively), but also had a value of 0.2% proof strength (190.8 ± 4.8 and 198.2 ± 3.4 MPa, respectively), which complied with the ISO standard requirement (>180 MPa). Alloys with the highest contents of nickel (6 wt% Ni) revealed a widespread decolourisation zone (5.0-5.9 mm), which correspondingly produced the largest cell response, equating positive control. CONCLUSION The copper alloys fused with 9 wt% Al and 2-4 wt% Ni can be considered for a potential use as dental post and core applications. PMID:25006386

  6. Properties of experimental copper-aluminium-nickel alloys for dental post-and-core applications.

    PubMed

    Rittapai, Apiwat; Urapepon, Somchai; Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep; Harniratisai, Choltacha

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to develop a copper-aluminium-nickel alloy which has properties comparable to that of dental alloys used for dental post and core applications with the reasonable cost. Sixteen groups of experimental copper alloys with variants of 3, 6, 9, 12 wt% Al and 0, 2, 4, 6 wt% Ni were prepared and casted. Their properties were tested and evaluated. The data of thermal, physical, and mechanical properties were analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The alloy toxicity was evaluated according to the ISO standard. The solidus and liquidus points of experimental alloys ranged from 1023℃ to 1113℃ and increased as the nickel content increased. The highest ultimate tensile strength (595.9 ± 14.2 MPa) was shown in the Cu-12Al-4Ni alloy. The tensile strength was increased as the both elements increased. Alloys with 3-6 wt% Al exhibited a small amount of 0.2% proof strength. Accordingly, the Cu-9Al-2Ni and Cu-9Al-4Ni alloys not only demonstrated an appropriate modulus of elasticity (113.9 ± 8.0 and 122.8 ± 11.3 GPa, respectively), but also had a value of 0.2% proof strength (190.8 ± 4.8 and 198.2 ± 3.4 MPa, respectively), which complied with the ISO standard requirement (>180 MPa). Alloys with the highest contents of nickel (6 wt% Ni) revealed a widespread decolourisation zone (5.0-5.9 mm), which correspondingly produced the largest cell response, equating positive control. The copper alloys fused with 9 wt% Al and 2-4 wt% Ni can be considered for a potential use as dental post and core applications.

  7. Platinum- and platinum alloy-coated palladium and palladium alloy particles and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Mo, Yibo; Vukmirovic, Miomir Branko

    2010-04-06

    The present invention relates to particle and nanoparticle composites useful as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts. The particle composites are composed of a palladium or palladium-alloy particle or nanoparticle substrate coated with an atomic submonolayer, monolayer, bilayer, or trilayer of zerovalent platinum atoms. The invention also relates to a catalyst and a fuel cell containing the particle or nanoparticle composites of the invention. The invention additionally includes methods for oxygen reduction and production of electrical energy by using the particle and nanoparticle composites of the invention.

  8. Alloys developed for high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basuki, Eddy Agus; Prajitno, Djoko Hadi; Muhammad, Fadhli

    2017-01-01

    Alloys used for high temperatures applications require combinations of mechanical strength, microstructural stability and corrosion/oxidation resistance. Nickel base superalloys have been traditionally the prime materials utilized for hot section components of aircraft turbine engines. Nevertheless, due to their limited melting temperatures, alloys based on intermetallic compounds, such as TiAl base alloys, have emerged as high temperature materials and intensively developed with the main aim to replace nickel based superalloys. For applications in steam power plants operated at lower temperatures, ferritic high temperature alloys still attract high attention, and therefore, development of these alloys is in progress. This paper highlights the important metallurgical parameters of high temperature alloys and describes few efforts in the development of Fe-Ni-Al based alloys containing B2-(Fe,Ni)Al precipitates, oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) ferritic steels and titanium aluminide based alloys include important protection system of aluminide coatings.

  9. Hydrogen transport in nickel base stainless alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzanotte, David A.; Kargol, James A.; Fiore, Nicholas F.

    1982-07-01

    Hydrogen transport parameters have been measured in two nickel base stainless alloys, HASTELLOY Alloys C-276 and G. Hydrogen diffusivity and permeability were determined by means of the electrolytic permeability technique over the temperature range of 17 to 90 °C. Although the two alloys are similar in composition and structure, they exhibited dramatically different hydrogen behavior. For Alloy C-276, the diffusivity in both the cold worked and annealed conditions decreased by a factor of two following low temperature (500 °C) aging. That behavior was related to ordering in the alloy. Unexpectedly, hydrogen trapping was not observed in Alloy C-276. An analysis of hydrogen transport in Alloy G indicated reversible and irreversible trapping of hydrogen by niobium substitutional atoms and second phase carbides, respectively. The hydrogen transport results were related to the hydrogen embrittlement tendencies of the two nickel base alloys.

  10. Lightweight magnesium-lithium alloys show promise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. T.; Cataldo, C. E.

    1964-01-01

    Evaluation tests show that magnesium-lithium alloys are lighter and more ductile than other magnesium alloys. They are being used for packaging, housings, containers, where light weight is more important than strength.

  11. High strength forgeable tantalum base alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckman, R. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Increasing tungsten content of tantalum base alloy to 12-15% level will improve high temperature creep properties of existing tantalum base alloys while retaining their excellent fabrication and welding characteristics.

  12. Shape memory alloys. Ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy films.

    PubMed

    Chluba, Christoph; Ge, Wenwei; Lima de Miranda, Rodrigo; Strobel, Julian; Kienle, Lorenz; Quandt, Eckhard; Wuttig, Manfred

    2015-05-29

    Functional shape memory alloys need to operate reversibly and repeatedly. Quantitative measures of reversibility include the relative volume change of the participating phases and compatibility matrices for twinning. But no similar argument is known for repeatability. This is especially crucial for many future applications, such as artificial heart valves or elastocaloric cooling, in which more than 10 million transformation cycles will be required. We report on the discovery of an ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy film system based on TiNiCu that allows at least 10 million transformation cycles. We found that these films contain Ti2Cu precipitates embedded in the base alloy that serve as sentinels to ensure complete and reproducible transformation in the course of each memory cycle. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Alloy hardening and softening in binary molybdenum alloys as related to electron concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, rhenium, osmium, iridium, and platinum on hardness of molybdenum. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary molybdenum alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to molybdenum, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons that molybdenum failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and alloy hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and molybdenum.

  14. Superconducting compounds and alloys research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, G.

    1975-01-01

    Resistivity measurements as a function of temperature were performed on alloys of the binary material system In sub(1-x) Bi sub x for x varying between 0 and 1. It was found that for all single-phase alloys (the pure elements, alpha-In, and the three intermetallic compounds) at temperatures sufficiently above the Debye-temperature, the resistivity p can be expressed as p = a sub o T(n), where a sub o and n are composition-dependent constants. The same exponential relationship can also be applied for the sub-system In-In2Bi, when the two phases are in compositional equilibrium. Superconductivity measurements on single and two-phase alloys can be explained with respect to the phase diagram. There occur three superconducting phases (alpha-In, In2Bi, and In5Bi3) with different transition temperatures in the alloying system. The magnitude of the transition temperatures for the various intermetallic phases of In-Bi is such that the disappearance or occurrence of a phase in two component alloys can be demonstrated easily by means of superconductivity measurements.

  15. Self-disintegrating Raney metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Oden, Laurance L.; Russell, James H.

    1979-01-01

    A method of preparing a Raney metal alloy which is capable of self-disintegrating when contacted with water vapor. The self-disintegrating property is imparted to the alloy by incorporating into the alloy from 0.4 to 0.8 weight percent carbon. The alloy is useful in forming powder which can be converted to a Raney metal catalyst with increased surface area and catalytic activity.

  16. Nickel aluminide alloys with improved weldability

    DOEpatents

    Santella, Michael L.; Goodwin, Gene M.

    1995-05-09

    Weldable nickel aluminide alloys which are essentially free, if not entirely free, of weld hot cracking are provided by employing zirconium concentrations in these alloys of greater than 2.6 wt. % or sufficient to provide a substantial presence of Ni--Zr eutectic phase in the weld so as to prevent weld hot cracking. Weld filler metals formed from these so modified nickel aluminide alloys provide for crack-free welds in previously known nickel aluminide alloys.

  17. Nickel aluminide alloys with improved weldability

    DOEpatents

    Santella, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1995-05-09

    Weldable nickel aluminide alloys which are essentially free, if not entirely free, of weld hot cracking are provided by employing zirconium concentrations in these alloys of greater than 2.6 wt. % or sufficient to provide a substantial presence of Ni--Zr eutectic phase in the weld so as to prevent weld hot cracking. Weld filler metals formed from these so modified nickel aluminide alloys provide for crack-free welds in previously known nickel aluminide alloys. 5 figs.

  18. New Theoretical Technique for Alloy Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John

    2005-01-01

    During the last 2 years, there has been a breakthrough in alloy design at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A new semi-empirical theoretical technique for alloys, the BFS Theory (Bozzolo, Ferrante, and Smith), has been used to design alloys on a computer. BFS was used, along with Monte Carlo techniques, to predict the phases of ternary alloys of NiAl with Ti or Cr additions. High concentrations of each additive were used to demonstrate the resulting structures.

  19. HEAT TREATED U-Nb ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    McGeary, R.K.; Justusson, W.M.

    1959-11-24

    A fuel element for a nuclear reactor is described comprising an alloy containing uranium and from 7 to 20 wt.% niobium, the alloy being substantially in the gamma phase and having been produced by working an ingot of the alloy into the desired shape, homogenizing it by annealing it at a temperature in the gamma phase field, and quenching it to retain the gamma phase structure of the alloy.

  20. Process-Structure-Property Relationship in Magnesium-Based Biodegradable Alloy for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Pramanshu

    Magnesium alloys are considered to be the next generation of biomaterials because of their ability to degrade in the physiological environment. We elucidate here the impact of multiaxial forging of Mg-2Zn-2Gd alloy on grain refinement to sub-micron regime and relate the structure to mechanical properties and biological functionality. As-cast and annealed samples were multiaxial forged (MAF) for a total number of two passes with a true strain of 2/pass. Considering that the microstructure governs the biological response of materials, we studied the constituents of the microstructure in conjunction with the mechanical behavior. The antimicrobial behavior in a Mg-2Zn-2Gd alloy with different grain size in the range of 44 microm to 710 nm was studied by seeding. Surface energy and contact angle measurements using goniometer and wettability were assessed with water, SBF, n-Hexane, and DMEM. The structure-property relationship in Mg-2Zn-2Gd alloy to maintaining mechanical integrity during degradation was studied by seeding Escherichia coli ( E. coli). Furthermore, we studied the effect of degradation behavior in the presence and absence of cells. This was followed by the study of bioactivity in terms of phases present on the surface and degradation products in simulated body fluid (SBF). Magnesium coated with apatite using a biomimetic approach were placed in a 24-well culture plate with alpha-MEM media and the degradation behavior was studied in the absence and presence of cells (seeding density: 10,000 cells/cm2). The change in pH was monitored at regular intervals. Cell attachment was studied by seeding the cells for 4h and cell viability was studied by seeding the cells for up to 1, 3, and 7 days. The study underscores that the fine-grained alloys exhibited superior mechanical properties, antimicrobial resistance, and cell attachment. The degradation rate was also least for fine-grained alloy. The higher surface energy of ultrafine-grained Mg-2Zn-2Gd alloy led to the

  1. High Temperature Capacitive Pressure Sensor Employing a SiC Based Ring Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Roger D.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Ponchak, George E.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Scardelletti, Maximilian; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Spry, David J.; Krawowski, Michael J.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to develop harsh environment electronic and sensor technologies for aircraft engine safety and monitoring, we have used capacitive-based pressure sensors to shift the frequency of a SiC-electronics-based oscillator to produce a pressure-indicating signal that can be readily transmitted, e.g. wirelessly, to a receiver located in a more benign environment. Our efforts target 500 C, a temperature well above normal operating conditions of commercial circuits but within areas of interest in aerospace engines, deep mining applications and for future missions to the Venus atmosphere. This paper reports for the first time a ring oscillator circuit integrated with a capacitive pressure sensor, both operating at 500 C. This demonstration represents a significant step towards a wireless pressure sensor that can operate at 500 C and confirms the viability of 500 C electronic sensor systems.

  2. White light emission and optical gains from a Si nanocrystal thin film.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Chen; Hao, Hong-Chen; Chen, Jia-Rong; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Jing; Sun, Jian; Lu, Ming

    2015-11-27

    We report a Si nanocrystal thin film consisting of free-standing Si nanocrystals, which can emit white light and show positive optical gains for its red, green and blue (RGB) components under ultraviolet excitation. Si nanocrystals with ϕ = 2.31 ± 0.35 nm were prepared by chemical etching of Si powder, followed by filtering. After being mixed with SiO2 sol-gel and thermally annealed, a broadband photoluminescence (PL) from the thin film was observed. The RGB ratio of the PL can be tuned by changing the annealing temperature or atmosphere, which is 1.00/3.26/4.59 for the pure white light emission. The origins of the PL components could be due to differences in oxygen-passivation degree for Si nanocrystals. The results may find applications in white-light Si lasing and Si lighting.

  3. An Insidious Mode of Oxidative Degradation in a SiC-SiC Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogbuji, Linus U. J. T.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidative durability of a SiC-SiC composite with Hi-Nicalon fiber and BN interphase was investigated at 800 C (where pesting is known to occur in SiC-SiC composites) for exposure durations of up to 500 hours and in a variety of oxidant mixes and flow rates, ranging from quasi-stagnant room air, through slow flowing O2 containing 30-90% H2O, to the high-velocity flame of a burner rig. Degradation of the composite was determined from residual strength and fracture strain in post-exposure mechanical tests and correlated with microstructural evidence of damage to fiber and interphase. The severest degradation of composite behavior was found to occur in the bumer rig, and is shown to be connected with the high oxidant velocity and substantial moisture content, as well as a thin sublayer of carbon indicated to form between fiber and interphase during composite processing.

  4. Photo-induced structure metastability and the Staebler and Wronski Effect in a-Si:H

    SciTech Connect

    Han, D.; Gotoh, T.; Sakamoto, T.

    1999-03-01

    By measuring both the mechanical stress and the optoelectronic properties of a-Si:H films before and after light-soaking, we have examined the film structural stability in relation to its electronic stability. A photoinduced increase of the compression, in the order of 10{sup {minus}4} of the initial value, was found in both the glow discharge and hot-wire films. A factor of 4-6 photodegradation of the photoconductivity was obtained in the HW films deposited at T{sub S}{lt}360&hthinsp;{degree}C, but there was no photodegradation for the films deposited at 360{lt}T{sub S}{lt}440&hthinsp;{degree}C. Hence, there is no obvious relation between the changes in film structure (observed bymore » IR and stress) and the Staebler{emdash}Wronski Effect (SWE). {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  5. Molecular dynamics study about the effect of substrate temperature on a-Si:H structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yaorong; Gong, Hongyong; Zhou, Naigen; Huang, Haibin; Zhou, Lang

    2018-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation of the microstructure of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film with different substrate temperatures has been performed based on the Tersoff potential. The results showed that: the silicon thin film maintained amorphous structure in the substrate temperature range from 200 to 1000 K; high substrate temperature could smooth the surface. The first neighbour Voronoi polyhedron was dominated by the tetrahedron. When the substrate temperature increased, the content of tetrahedrons increased due to the transition from pentahedrons and hexahedrons to tetrahedrons. The change of the second neighbour Voronoi polyhedron could be classified into two cases: one case with low medium coordination number decreased as temperature increased, while the other one with high medium coordination number showed an opposite change tendency. It indicated that the local paracrystalline structure arrangement of the second neighbour atoms had been enhanced as substrate temperature rose.

  6. Electrochemical photovoltaic cell having ternary alloy film

    DOEpatents

    Russak, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A thin film compound semiconductor electrode comprising CdSe.sub.1-x Te.sub.x (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1) is deposited on a transparent conductive substrate. An electrolyte contacts the film to form a photoactive site. The semiconductor material has a narrow energy bandgap permitting high efficiency for light conversion. The film may be fabricated by: (1) co-evaporation of two II-VI group compounds with a common cation, or (2) evaporation of three elements, concurrenty.

  7. Implementation of a Si/SiC hybrid optically controlled high-power switching device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadri, Prashant; Ye, Kuntao; Guliants, E.; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

    2002-03-01

    The ever-increasing performance and economy of operation requirements placed on commercial and military transport aircraft are resulting in very complex systems. As a result, the use of fiber optic component technology has lead to high data throughput, immunity to EMI, reduced certification and maintenance costs and reduced weight features. In particular, in avionic systems, data integrity and high data rates are necessary for stable flight control. Fly-by-Light systems that use optical signals to actuate the flight control surfaces of an aircraft have been suggested as a solution to the EMI problem in avionic systems. Current fly-by-light systems are limited by the lack of optically activated high-power switching devices. The challenge has been the development of an optoelectronic switching technology that can withstand the high power and harsh environmental conditions common in a flight surface actuation system. Wide bandgap semiconductors such as Silicon Carbide offer the potential to overcome both the temperature and voltage blocking limitations that inhibit the use of Silicon. Unfortunately, SiC is not optically active at the near IR wavelengths where communications grade light sources are readily available. Thus, we have proposed a hybrid device that combines a silicon based photoreceiver model with a SiC power transistor. When illuminated with the 5mW optical control signal the silicon chip produces a 15mA drive current for a SiC Darlington pair. The SiC Darlington pair then produces a 150 A current that is suitable for driving an electric motor with sufficient horsepower to actuate the control surfaces on an aircraft. Further, when the optical signal is turned off, the SiC is capable of holding off a 270 V potential to insure that the motor drive current is completely off. We present in this paper the design and initial tests from a prototype device that has recently been fabricated.

  8. Consequences of the spectral response of an a-Si EPID and implications for dosimetric calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkby, C.; Sloboda, R.; Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton Alberta, T6G 1Z2

    2005-08-15

    One of the attractive features of amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (a-Si EPIDs) as dosimetric tools is that for open fields they are known to exhibit a generally linear relation between pixel value and incident energy fluence as measured by an ion chamber. It has also been established that a-Si EPIDs incorporating high atomic number phosphors such as Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb exhibit a disproportionately large response to low-energy (<1 MeV) photons. The present work examines the consequences of this hypersensitivity in a commercially available EPID, the Varian aS500, with respect to energy fluence calibration in a 6 MV radiotherapymore » beam. EPIDs may be deployed in situations where the spectrum of the incident beam is modified by passing through a compensator or through a patient or phantom. By examining the specific case of a beam hardened by passage through compensator material, we show that the discrepancy between open and attenuated beam calibration curves can be as high as 8%. A Monte Carlo study using a comprehensive model of the aS500 shows that this difference can be explained by spectral changes, and further suggests that it can be reduced by the addition of an external copper plate. We consider configurations with the plate placed directly on top of the EPID cassette and 15 cm above the cassette, supported by Styrofoam. In order to reduce the maximum discrepancy to <4%, it was found that a copper thickness of {approx}0.7 cm was required in the elevated configuration. Improvement was minimal with the copper in the contact configuration. Adding 0.7 cm of copper in the elevated configuration reduced the contrast-to-noise ratio by 19% and the modulation transfer for a given spatial frequency by 30%.« less

  9. High strength uranium-tungsten alloy process

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Paul S.; Sheinberg, Haskell; Hogan, Billy M.; Lewis, Homer D.; Dickinson, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Alloys of uranium and tungsten and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 4 wt % to about 35 wt %. Tungsten particles are dispersed throughout the uranium and a small amount of tungsten is dissolved in the uranium.

  10. High strength uranium-tungsten alloys

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Paul S.; Sheinberg, Haskell; Hogan, Billy M.; Lewis, Homer D.; Dickinson, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys of uranium and tungsten and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 4 wt % to about 35 wt %. Tungsten particles are dispersed throughout the uranium and a small amount of tungsten is dissolved in the uranium.

  11. PREPARATION OF URANIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    A process is given for preparing uranium--aluminum alloys from a solution of uranium halide in an about equimolar molten alkali metal halide-- aluminum halide mixture and excess aluminum. The uranium halide is reduced and the uranium is alloyed with the excess aluminum. The alloy and salt are separated from each other. (AEC)

  12. Microstructure, Phase Occurrence, and Corrosion Behavior of As-Solidified and As-Annealed Al-Pd Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ďuriška, Libor; Palcut, Marián; Špoták, Martin; Černičková, Ivona; Gondek, Ján; Priputen, Pavol; Čička, Roman; Janičkovič, Dušan; Janovec, Jozef

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, we studied the microstructure, phase constitution, and corrosion performance of Al88Pd12, Al77Pd23, Al72Pd28, and Al67Pd33 alloys (metal concentrations are given in at.%). The alloys were prepared by repeated arc melting of Al and Pd granules in argon atmosphere. The as-solidified samples were further annealed at 700 °C for 500 h. The microstructure and phase constitution of the as-solidified and as-annealed alloys were studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The alloys were found to consist of (Al), ɛ n ( Al3Pd), and δ (Al3Pd2) in various fractions. The corrosion testing of the alloys was performed in aqueous NaCl (0.6 M) using a standard 3-electrode cell monitored by potentiostat. The corrosion current densities and corrosion potentials were determined by Tafel extrapolation. The corrosion potentials of the alloys were found between - 763 and - 841 mV versus Ag/AgCl. An active alloy dissolution has been observed, and it has been found that (Al) was excavated, whereas Al in ɛ n was de-alloyed. The effects of bulk chemical composition, phase occurrence and microstructure on the corrosion behavior are evaluated. The local nobilities of ɛ n and δ are discussed. Finally, the conclusions about the alloy's corrosion resistance in saline solutions are provided.

  13. Engineering Platinum Alloy Electrocatalysts in Nanoscale for PEMFC Application

    SciTech Connect

    He, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Fuel cells are expected to be a key next-generation energy source used for vehicles and homes, offering high energy conversion efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. However, due to large overpotentials on anode and cathode, the efficiency is still much lower than theoretically predicted. During the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate synergy effect of platinum alloyed with base metals. But, engineering the alloy particles in nanoscale has been a challenge. Most important challenges in developing nanostructured materials are the abilities to control size, monodispersity, microcomposition, and even morphology or self-assembly capability, so called Nanomaterials-by-Design, which requires interdisciplinarymore » collaborations among computational modeling, chemical synthesis, nanoscale characterization as well as manufacturing processing. Electrocatalysts, particularly fuel cell catalysts, are dramatically different from heterogeneous catalysts because the surface area in micropores cannot be electrochemically controlled on the same time scale as more transport accessible surfaces. Therefore, electrocatalytic architectures need minimal microporous surface area while maximizing surfaces accessible through mesopores or macropores, and to "pin" the most active, highest performance physicochemical state of the materials even when exposed to thermodynamic forces, which would otherwise drive restructuring, crystallization, or densification of the nanoscale materials. In this presentation, results of engineering nanoscale platinum alloy particles down to 2 ~ 4 nm will be discussed. Based on nature of alloyed base metals, various synthesis technologies have been studied and developed to achieve capabilities of controlling particle size and particle microcomposition, namely, core-shell synthesis, microemulsion technique, thermal decomposition process, surface organometallic chemical method, etc. The results show that by careful engineering

  14. METHOD OF DISSOLVING REFRACTORY ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Helton, D.M.; Savolainen, J.K.

    1963-04-23

    This patent relates to the dissolution of alloys of uranium with zirconium, thorium, molybdenum, or niobium. The alloy is contacted with an anhydrous solution of mercuric chloride in a low-molecular-weight monohydric alcohol to produce a mercury-containing alcohol slurry. The slurry is then converted to an aqueous system by adding water and driving off the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry is electrolyzed in the presence of a mercury cathode to remove the mercury and produce a uranium-bearing aqueous solution. This process is useful for dissolving irradiated nuclear reactor fuels for radiochemical reprocessing by solvent extraction. In addition, zirconium-alloy cladding is selectively removed from uranium dioxide fuel compacts by this means. (AEC)

  15. Deformation and fatigue resistance of Al/a-Si core-shell nanostructures subjected to cyclic nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steck, Jason G.; Fleming, Robert A.; Goss, Josue A.; Zou, Min

    2018-03-01

    Nanostructure-textured surfaces can reduce friction and adhesion of micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). For MEMS/NEMS incorporating moving parts, the fatigue properties of nanostructures pose a challenge to their reliability in long-term applications. In this study, the fatigue behavior of hemispherical Al/a-Si core-shell nanostructures (CSNs), bare hemispherical Al nanodots, and a flat Al/a-Si layered thin film have been studied using nanoindentation and nano-scale dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) techniques. Fatigue testing with nano-scale DMA shows that the deformation resistance of CSNs persists through 5.0 × 104 loading cycles at estimated contact pressures greater than 20 GPa. For bare Al nanodots which lack the hard a-Si shell, significant nanostructure deformation results due to repeated cyclic loading. In addition, for the Al/a-Si layered thin film which lacks the geometric and dislocation confinement properties of CSNs, cyclic loading results in fatigue failure of the a-Si layer. Even at elevated contact pressures, CSNs demonstrate none of the failure mechanisms exhibited by the other two control structures. The unique properties displayed by CSNs when subjected to fatigue testing establish their prolonged reliability and durability when implemented in micro- and nano-scale applications.

  16. Method for producing electricity using a platinum-ruthenium-palladium catalyst in a fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Gorer, Alexander

    2004-01-27

    A method for producing electricity using a fuel cell that utilizes a ternary alloy composition as a fuel cell catalyst, the ternary alloy composition containing platinum, ruthenium and palladium. The alloy shows increased activity as compared to well-known catalysts.

  17. Effect of heat treatments on machinability of gold alloy with age-hardenability at intraoral temperature.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Baba, N; Watanabe, E; Atsuta, M; Okabe, T

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of heat treatment on the machinability of heat-treated cast gold alloy with age-hardenability at intraoral temperature using a handpiece engine with SiC wheels and an air-turbine handpiece with carbide burs and diamond points. Cast gold alloy specimens underwent various heat treatments [As-cast (AC); Solution treatment (ST); High-temperature aging (HA), Intraoral aging (IA)] before machinability testing. The machinability test was conducted at a constant machining force of 0.784N. The three circumferential speeds used for the handpiece engine were 500, 1,000 and 1,500 m/min. The machinability index (M-index) was determined as the amount of metal removed by machining (volume loss, mm(3)). The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffé's test. When an air-turbine handpiece was used, there was no difference in the M-index of the gold alloy among the heat treatments. The air-turbine carbide burs showed significantly (p<0.05) higher M-indexes than the diamond points after any heat treatments. With the SiC wheels, increasing the circumferential speed increased the M-index values for each heat treatment. The specimens heat-treated with AC, HA and IA had similar M-indexes at the lower speeds (500 and 1,000 m/min). The ST specimens exhibited the lowest M-index at the lower speeds. However, at the highest speed (1,500 m/min), there were no significant differences in the M-indexes among the heat treatments except for HA, which showed the highest M-index. There was no effect of heat treatment on the machinability of the gold alloy using the air-turbine handpiece. The heat treatments had a small effect on the M-index of the gold alloy machined with a SiC wheel for a handpiece engine.

  18. Microstructure, biocorrosion and cytotoxicity evaluations of rapid solidified Mg-3Ca alloy ribbons as a biodegradable material.

    PubMed

    Gu, X N; Li, X L; Zhou, W R; Cheng, Y; Zheng, Y F

    2010-06-01

    Rapidly solidified (RS) Mg–3Ca alloy ribbons were prepared by the melt-spinning technique at different wheel rotating speeds (15 m s(-1), 30 m s(-1) and 45 m s(-1) with the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy ingot as a raw material. The RS45 Mg–3Ca alloy ribbon showed a much more fine grain size feature (approximately 200–500 nm) in comparison to the coarse grain size (50–100 μm)of the original as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy ingot. The corrosion electrochemical tests in simulated body fluid indicated that the corrosion rate of the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy was strongly reduced by the RS procedure and tended to be further decreased with increasing wheel rotating speeds(1.43 mm yr(-1) for RS15, 0.94 mm yr(-1) for RS30 and 0.36 mm yr(-1) for RS45). The RS Mg–3Ca alloy ribbons showed more uniform corrosion morphology compared with the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy after polarization. The cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that the three experimental as-spun Mg–3Ca alloy ribbon extracts did not induce toxicity to the L-929 cells,whereas the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy ingot extract did. The L-929 cells showed more improved adhesion on the surfaces of the three as-spun Mg–3Ca alloy ribbons than that of the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy ingot.

  19. Surface Characterization, Corrosion Resistance and in Vitro Biocompatibility of a New Ti-Hf-Mo-Sn Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Ion, Raluca; Drob, Silviu Iulian; Ijaz, Muhammad Farzik; Vasilescu, Cora; Osiceanu, Petre; Gordin, Doina-Margareta; Cimpean, Anisoara; Gloriant, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    A new superelastic Ti-23Hf-3Mo-4Sn biomedical alloy displaying a particularly large recovery strain was synthesized and characterized in this study. Its native passive film is very thick (18 nm) and contains very protective TiO2, Ti2O3, HfO2, MoO2, and SnO2 oxides (XPS analysis). This alloy revealed nobler electrochemical behavior, more favorable values of the corrosion parameters and open circuit potentials in simulated body fluid in comparison with commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V alloy taken as reference biomaterials in this study. This is due to the favorable influence of the alloying elements Hf, Sn, Mo, which enhance the protective properties of the native passive film on alloy surface. Impedance spectra showed a passive film with two layers, an inner, capacitive, barrier, dense layer and an outer, less insulating, porous layer that confer both high corrosion resistance and bioactivity to the alloy. In vitro tests were carried out in order to evaluate the response of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) to Ti-23Hf-3Mo-4Sn alloy in terms of cell viability, cell proliferation, phenotypic marker expression and nitric oxide release. The results indicate a similar level of cytocompatibility with HUVEC cells cultured on Ti-23Hf-3Mo-4Sn substrate and those cultured on the conventional CP-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V metallic materials. PMID:28773939

  20. The stability of alloying additions in Zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumley, S. C.; Murphy, S. T.; Burr, P. A.; Grimes, R. W.; Chard-Tuckey, P. R.; Wenman, M. R.

    2013-06-01

    -points were arranged in a standard gamma centred Monkhorst-Pack grid [17]. In these simulations, and in all subsequent simulations, the energy of the electron wavefunctions was considered converged to a minimum value when the difference between successive iterations was below 10-6 eV/atom. Integration of the Brillouin zone was achieved using a cold smearing scheme (Methfessel-Paxton) [18], with a smearing parameter of 1 eV, in order to account for partial occupancies in the band structure. Simulations that varied this value by up to 0.9 eV found negligible difference in the final state of the system, so a higher value was chosen to speed convergence.The simulations are static calculations, that is, they identify the minimum energy positions for atoms in a given structure and as such relate to zero temperature. When modelling cells, in order to find useful enthalpies and structural properties the starting structure was selected from literature values and the geometry of the system was allowed to relax, via a Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm [19]. The positions of the ions, and the size and the shape of the cell boundaries are all allowed to relax. This is an appropriate scheme of relaxation, as the goal is to approximate a system with a limited concentration of alloying additions, after it has been allowed to reach equilibrium. The criteria for a successful iteration were selected as a balance between computational cost and numerical accuracy and are shown below: Energy derivative <0.001 eV. Force on ions <0.05 eV nm-1. Displacement of ions derivative <0.001 nm. Total stress derivative <0.1 GPa. When modelling defects, a 3 × 3 × 3 supercell was used. In the case of α-phase Zr, this was created from the primitive hexagonal cell and in the case of β-phase Zr, the conventional unit cell. Both supercells contained 54 atoms. Although this choice introduces some anisotropy into the dimensions of the hexagonal system, it means that α and β-phase cells have an

  1. High strength, tough alloy steel

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  2. Enhanced antimicrobial properties, cytocompatibility, and corrosion resistance of plasma-modified biodegradable magnesium alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Jamesh, Mohammed Ibrahim; Li, Wing Kan; Wu, Guosong; Wang, Chenxi; Zheng, Yufeng; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Chu, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are potential biodegradable materials and have received increasing attention due to their outstanding biological performance and mechanical properties. However, rapid degradation in the physiological environment and potential toxicity limit clinical applications. Recently, special magnesium-calcium (Mg-Ca) and magnesium-strontium (Mg-Sr) alloys with biocompatible chemical compositions have been reported, but the rapid degradation still does not meet clinical requirements. In order to improve the corrosion resistance, a rough, hydrophobic and ZrO(2)-containing surface film is fabricated on Mg-Ca and Mg-Sr alloys by dual zirconium and oxygen ion implantation. Weight loss measurements and electrochemical corrosion tests show that the corrosion rate of the Mg-Ca and Mg-Sr alloys is reduced appreciably after surface treatment. A systematic investigation of the in vitro cellular response and antibacterial capability of the modified binary magnesium alloys is performed. The amounts of adherent bacteria on the Zr-O-implanted and Zr-implanted samples diminish remarkably compared to the unimplanted control. In addition, significantly enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation are observed from the Zr-O-implanted sample. The results suggest that dual zirconium and oxygen ion implantation, which effectively enhances the corrosion resistance, in vitro biocompatibility and antimicrobial properties of Mg-Ca and Mg-Sr alloys, provides a simple and practical means to expedite clinical acceptance of biodegradable magnesium alloys. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface modification of Ni–Ti alloys for stent application after magnetoelectropolishing

    PubMed Central

    Musaramthota, Vishal; Munroe, Norman; Datye, Amit; Dua, Rupak; Haider, Waseem; McGoron, Anthony; Rokicki, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The constant demand for new implant materials and the multidisciplinary design approaches for stent applications have expanded vastly over the past decade. The biocompatibility of these implant materials is a function of their surface characteristics such as morphology, surface chemistry, roughness, surface charge and wettability. These surface characteristics can directly influence the material's corrosion resistance and biological processes such as endothelialization. Surface morphology affects the thermodynamic stability of passivating oxides, which renders corrosion resistance to passivating alloys. Magnetoelectropolishing (MEP) is known to alter the morphology and composition of surface films, which assist in improving corrosion resistance of Nitinol alloys. This work aims at analyzing the surface characteristics of MEP Nitinol alloys by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wettability of the alloys was determined by contact angle measurements and the mechanical properties were assessed by Nanoindentation. Improved mechanical properties were observed with the addition of alloying elements. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to determine the corrosion susceptibility. Further, the alloys were tested for their cytotoxicity and cellular growth with endothelial cells. Improved corrosion resistance and cellular viability were observed with MEP surface treated alloys. PMID:25746243

  4. Opportunities and challenges for the biodegradable magnesium alloys as next-generation biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wenjiang

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, biodegradable magnesium alloys emerge as a new class of biomaterials for tissue engineering and medical devices. Deploying biodegradable magnesium-based materials not only avoids a second surgical intervention for implant removal but also circumvents the long-term foreign body effect of permanent implants. However, these materials are often subjected to an uncontrolled and fast degradation, acute toxic responses and rapid structural failure presumably due to a localized, too rapid corrosion process. The patented Mg-Nd-Zn-based alloys (JiaoDa BioMg [JDBM]) have been developed in Shanghai Jiao Tong University in recent years. The alloy series exhibit lower biodegradation rate and homogeneous nanophasic degradation patterns as compared with other biodegradable Mg alloys. The in vitro cytotoxicity tests using various types of cells indicate excellent biocompatibility of JDBM. Finally, bone implants using JDBM-1 alloy and cardiovascular stents using JDBM-2 alloy have been successfully fabricated and in vivo long-term assessment via implantation in animal model have been performed. The results confirmed the reduced degradation rate in vivo, excellent tissue compatibility and long-term structural and mechanical durability. Thus, this novel Mg-alloy series with highly uniform nanophasic biodegradation represent a major breakthrough in the field and a promising candidate for manufacturing the next generation biodegradable implants.

  5. Evaluation of Laves-phase forming Fe-Cr alloy for SOFC interconnects in reducing atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horita, Teruhisa; Kishimoto, Haruo; Yamaji, Katsuhiko; Xiong, Yueping; Sakai, Natsuko; Brito, Manuel E.; Yokokawa, Harumi

    A Laves-phase forming Fe-Cr alloy was evaluated as interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in reducing atmosphere (in H 2-H 2O). The oxide scale growth was compared between Laves-phase forming alloy and typical stainless steel (SUS430). The oxide scale growth rates were decreased in the Laves-phase forming alloy, and the area-specific resistance (ASR) of oxidized Laves-phase forming alloy showed the lower values than that of SUS430. The temperature dependence of 1/ASR for the oxidized alloy was different between Laves-phase forming alloy and SUS430. The oxygen diffusivity in the oxide scale was also evaluated by the stable isotope oxygen (18O 2) diffusion in the scale. The chemical diffusion coefficients of isotope oxygen in the oxide scale showed the smaller value for the Laves-phase forming alloy (D = 7.0 × 10 -13 cm 2 s -1) than that for SUS430 (D = 4.6 × 10 -12 cm 2 s -1) at 1073 K. A relatively high diffusivity of oxygen was estimated in the Mn-Cr spinel oxide on the top surface of oxide scales. Inward diffusion of oxygen and outward diffusion of cation in the oxide scale were discussed to consider the oxide scale growth mechanism.

  6. Effect of Manufacturing Process on the Biocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Ti-30Ta Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, P.; Munroe, N.; Pulletikurthi, C.; Pandya, S.; Haider, W.

    2011-07-01

    Ti alloys have been widely used in the aerospace, chemical, and biomedical industries for their high strength/weight ratio and corrosion resistance. However, Nitinol's usage in the latter industry has been fraught with concerns of allergic and toxic effects of Ni released from implants. Recently, much attention has been placed on the development of Ni-free Ti-Ta alloys, which are considered prime candidates for applications such as metal-on-metal spinal disk replacements, orthopedic implants, cardiovascular stents, dental posts, and guide wires. In this research, the biocompatibility of Ti-30Ta alloys manufactured by powder metallurgy (PM) and arc melting (ARC) were investigated. The corrosion resistance of each alloy was determined in accordance with ASTM F 2129-08 in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and PBS with amino acids at 37 °C. The concentration of metal ions released during corrosion was measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to assess the morphology of the alloys before and after corrosion. Vicker's hardness tests were performed to compare the hardness and tensile strength of the alloys. Human osteoblast cells were successfully grown on the surface of both alloys.

  7. Ni-Cr based dental alloys; Ni release, corrosion and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Reclaru, L; Unger, R E; Kirkpatrick, C J; Susz, C; Eschler, P-Y; Zuercher, M-H; Antoniac, I; Lüthy, H

    2012-08-01

    In the last years the dental alloy market has undergone dramatic changes for reasons of economy and biocompatibility. Nickel based alloys have become widely used substitute for the much more expensive precious metal alloys. In Europe the prevalence of nickel allergy is 10-15% for female adults and 1-3% for male adults. Despite the restrictions imposed by the EU for the protection of the general population in contact dermatitis, the use of Ni-Cr dental alloys is on the increase. Some questions have to be faced regarding the safety risk of nickel contained in dental alloys. We have collected based on many EU markets, 8 Ni-Cr dental alloys. Microstructure characterization, corrosion resistance (generalized, crevice and pitting) in saliva and the quantities of cations released in particular nickel and CrVI have been evaluated. We have applied non parametric classification tests (Kendall rank correlation) for all chemical results. Also cytotoxicity tests and an evaluation specific to TNF-alpha have been conducted. According to the obtained results, it was found that their behavior to corrosion was weak but that nickel release was high. The quantities of nickel released are higher than the limits imposed in the EU concerning contact with the skin or piercing. Surprisingly the biological tests did not show any cytotoxic effect on Hela and L929 cells or any change in TNF-alpha expression in monocytic cells. The alloys did not show any proinflammatory response in endothelial cells as demonstrated by the absence of ICAM-1 induction. We note therefore that there is really no direct relationship between the in vitro biological evaluation tests and the physico-chemical characterization of these dental alloys. Clinical and epidemiological studies are required to clarify these aspects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biocompatibility enhancement of rare earth magnesium alloy by laser surface processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Shilin; Wang, Yuqing; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Yingchun

    2018-01-01

    Although magnesium and magnesium alloys are considered biocompatible and biodegradable, insufficient biocompatibility in body fluid environment is still the major drawback of magnesium alloys for their successful applications as biodegradable orthopaedic implants. In this work, magnesium alloy surface with both enhanced corrosion resistance and better cell adhesion property was directly fabricated by laser surface processing. Laser surface melting was used to improve corrosion resistance of Mg-6Gd-0.6Ca alloy. After laser surface melting, laser surface texturing was utilized on melted surface for better cell adhesion property. The corrosion resistance of laser-treated and as-received samples were evaluated using electrochemical technique. The effect of laser surface treatment on phase and microstructure evolution was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. This work investigated the effect of laser treatment on cell distribution across the surface of magnesium alloy substrates. Osteoblast was cultured on the laser-treated surface and as-received surface. Cell morphology was observed with a scanning electron microscopy, and cell viability was evaluated by optical density measurement.

  9. Bandgap engineering in semiconductor alloy nanomaterials with widely tunable compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng; Dou, Letian; Yang, Peidong

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decade, tremendous progress has been achieved in the development of nanoscale semiconductor materials with a wide range of bandgaps by alloying different individual semiconductors. These materials include traditional II-VI and III-V semiconductors and their alloys, inorganic and hybrid perovskites, and the newly emerging 2D materials. One important common feature of these materials is that their nanoscale dimensions result in a large tolerance to lattice mismatches within a monolithic structure of varying composition or between the substrate and target material, which enables us to achieve almost arbitrary control of the variation of the alloy composition. As a result, the bandgaps of these alloys can be widely tuned without the detrimental defects that are often unavoidable in bulk materials, which have a much more limited tolerance to lattice mismatches. This class of nanomaterials could have a far-reaching impact on a wide range of photonic applications, including tunable lasers, solid-state lighting, artificial photosynthesis and new solar cells.

  10. Properties of titanium-alloyed DLC layers for medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Joska, Ludek; Fojt, Jaroslav; Cvrcek, Ladislav; Brezina, Vitezslav

    2014-01-01

    DLC-type layers offer a good potential for application in medicine, due to their excellent tribological properties, chemical resistance, and bio-inert character. The presented study has verified the possibility of alloying DLC layers with titanium, with coatings containing three levels of titanium concentration prepared. Titanium was present on the surface mainly in the form of oxides. Its increasing concentration led to increased presence of titanium carbide as well. The behavior of the studied systems was stable during exposure in a physiological saline solution. Electrochemical impedance spectra practically did not change with time. Alloying, however, changed the electrochemical behavior of coated systems in a significant way: from inert surface mediating only exchange reactions of the environment in the case of unalloyed DLC layers to a response corresponding rather to a passive surface in the case of alloyed specimens. The effect of DLC layers alloying with titanium was tested by the interaction with a simulated body fluid, during which precipitation of a compound containing calcium and phosphorus - basic components of the bone apatite - occurred on all doped specimens, in contrast to pure DLC. The results of the specimens' surface colonization with cells test proved the positive effect of titanium in the case of specimens with a medium and highest content of this element. PMID:25093457

  11. Enhanced catalytic behavior of Ni alloys in steam methane reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yeongpil; Kim, Hanmi; Lee, Jaichan

    2017-08-01

    The dissociation process of methane on Ni and Ni alloys are investigated by density functional theory (DFT) in terms of catalytic efficiency and carbon deposition. Examining the dissociation to CH3, CH2, CH, C, and H is not sufficient to properly predict the catalytic efficiency and carbon deposition, and further investigation of the CO gas-evolving reaction is required to completely understand methane dissociation in steam. The location of alloying element in Ni alloy needed be addressed from the results of ab-inito molecular dynamics (MD). The reaction pathway of methane dissociation associated with CO gas evolution is traced by performing first-principles calculations of the adsorption and activation energies of each dissociation step. During the dissociation process, two alternative reaction steps producing adsorbed C and H or adsorbed CO are critically important in determining coking inhibition as well as H2 gas evolution (i.e., the catalytic efficiency). The theoretical calculations presented here suggest that alloying Ni with Ru is an effective way to reduce carbon deposition and enhance the catalytic efficiency of H2 fueling in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).

  12. Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W.

    1995-01-10

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode. 2 figures.

  13. In vivo decomposition study of coated magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Desiree; Piersma, Tyler; Lecronier, David; Cheng, Xingguo; Rabago-Smith, Montserrat

    2010-04-01

    In the last decade, magnesium has resurged as an important biomaterial. Its mechanical properties are very similar to natural bone, and it degrades in vivo to non toxic substances. Unfortunately, corrosion of pure magnesium in vivo is rapid, thus coated alloys that decrease its corrosion could be used as implants in orthopedics. This presentation will describe the degradation results in cell cultures and in rats.

  14. Membrane Lipid Peroxidation in Copper Alloy-Mediated Contact Killing of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Robert; Kang, Tae Y.; Michels, Corinne A.

    2012-01-01

    Copper alloy surfaces are passive antimicrobial sanitizing agents that kill bacteria, fungi, and some viruses. Studies of the mechanism of contact killing in Escherichia coli implicate the membrane as the target, yet the specific component and underlying biochemistry remain unknown. This study explores the hypothesis that nonenzymatic peroxidation of membrane phospholipids is responsible for copper alloy-mediated surface killing. Lipid peroxidation was monitored with the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Survival, TBARS levels, and DNA degradation were followed in cells exposed to copper alloy surfaces containing 60 to 99.90% copper or in medium containing CuSO4. In all cases, TBARS levels increased with copper exposure levels. Cells exposed to the highest copper content alloys, C11000 and C24000, exhibited novel characteristics. TBARS increased immediately at a very rapid rate but peaked at about 30 min. This peak was associated with the period of most rapid killing, loss in membrane integrity, and DNA degradation. DNA degradation is not the primary cause of copper-mediated surface killing. Cells exposed to the 60% copper alloy for 60 min had fully intact genomic DNA but no viable cells. In a fabR mutant strain with increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids, sensitivity to copper alloy surface-mediated killing increased, TBARS levels peaked earlier, and genomic DNA degradation occurred sooner than in the isogenic parental strain. Taken together, these results suggest that copper alloy surface-mediated killing of E. coli is triggered by nonenzymatic oxidative damage of membrane phospholipids that ultimately results in the loss of membrane integrity and cell death. PMID:22247141

  15. Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of a-SiOx: Ag Films Used for Ag/SiOx/p-Si Memristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Yanhao; Hou, Wei; Li, Dongyang; Meng, Wenlin; Chen, Yicheng; Li, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Silicon basedmemristorhas attracted much attention due to its potential applications not onlyinelectrical storagebut also in electro-optical modulator. No matterwhat applicationsare mentioned, the device performance is closely related to the characters of the materials used. In this paper, a-SiOx:Agthin films aredepositedon quarzsubtratesby co-sputtering, and theirmicrostructural andoptoelectronic properties are investigated by using XRD, Ramanand ellipsometry, respectively. Finally, amemristor with Ag/a-SiOx/p-Si structure is fabricated successfully, and the“ON/OFF”performanceofresistivities aremeasuredby voltammetry. The results show that a-SiOx is a potential alternate of insulator layer in the system of “Ag/insulator or semiconductor/p-Si”memristors which could be usedin optical modulators in the near future.

  16. Rapid and controllable a-Si:H-to-nc-Si:H transition induced by a high-density plasma route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H. P.; Xu, M.; Xu, S.; Xu, L. X.; Ji, H.; Xiao, S. Q.; Feng, Y. Y.

    2017-09-01

    The low-temperature rapid solid phase crystallization route of amorphous silicon is fundamentally and technologically significant. Micrometer thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films were exposed to a low-frequency inductively coupled hydrogen plasma under a low substrate temperature of 300 °C. The plasma treated a-Si:H was completely crystallized within half an hour. The evolution of microstructures, optical and electric properties with respect to plasma exposure duration deterministically demonstrates that the present low-temperature rapid crystallization process enables the controllable phase transition from amorphous to nanocrystalline (nc) silicon. The crystallization mechanism is discussed in terms of the unique characteristics of low-frequency inductively coupled plasma (LFICP) and the LFICP-grown precursor a-Si:H film itself. The crucial role of hydrogen atoms in the phase transition is also discussed.

  17. Device and Circuit Level Optimization for High Performance a-Si:H TFT-Based AMOLED Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambandan, Sanjiv; Striakhilev, Denis; Nathan, Arokia

    2006-03-01

    Active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays with amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) backplanes are becoming the state of art in display technology. Though a-Si:H TFTs suffer from an intrinsic device instability, which inturn leads to an instability in pixel brightness, there have been many pixel driving methods that have been introduced to counter this. However, there are issues with these circuits which limit their applicability in terms of speed and resolution. This paper highlights these issues and provides detailed design considerations for the choice of pixel driver circuits in general. In particular, we discuss the circuit and device level optimization of the pixel driver circuit in a-Si:H TFT AMOLED, displays for high gray scale accuracy, subject to constraints of power consumption, and temporal and spatial resolution.

  18. ZIRCONIUM-TITANIUM-BERYLLIUM BRAZING ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Gilliland, R.G.; Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.; Williams, L.C.

    1962-06-12

    A new and improved ternary alloy is described which is of particular utility in braze-bonding parts made of a refractory metal selected from Group IV, V, and VI of the periodic table and alloys containing said metal as a predominating alloying ingredient. The brazing alloy contains, by weight, 40 to 50 per cent zirconium, 40 to 50 per cent titanium, and the balance beryllium in amounts ranging from 1 to 20 per cent, said alloy having a melting point in the range 950 to 1400 deg C. (AEC)

  19. Liquid metal ion source and alloy

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Jr., William M.; Utlaut, Mark W.; Behrens, Robert G.; Szklarz, Eugene G.; Storms, Edmund K.; Santandrea, Robert P.; Swanson, Lynwood W.

    1988-10-04

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from about 24 to about 33 atomic percent arsenic. Such an alloy may be readily prepared by a combustion synthesis technique. Liquid metal ion sources thus prepared produce arsenic ions for implantation, have long lifetimes, and are highly stable in operation.

  20. Semiempirical Analysis of Surface Alloy Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John; Ibanez-Meier, Rodrigo

    1995-01-01

    The BFS method for alloys is applied to the study of surface alloy formation. This method was previously used to examine the experimental STM observation of surface alloying of Au on Ni(110) for low Au coverages by means of a numerical simulation. In this work, we extend the study to include other cases of surface alloying for immiscible as well as miscible metals. All binary combinations of Ni, Au, Cu, and Al are considered and the simulation results are compared to experiment when data is available. The driving mechanisms of surface alloy formation are then discussed in terms of the BFS method and the available results.

  1. Alloy softening in binary iron solid solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine softening and hardening behavior in 19 binary iron-alloy systems. Microhardness tests were conducted at four temperatures in the range 77 to 411 K. Alloy softening was exhibited by 17 of the 19 alloy systems. Alloy softening observed in 15 of the alloy systems was attributed to an intrinsic mechanism, believed to be lowering of the Peierls (lattice friction) stress. Softening and hardening rates could be correlated with the atomic radius ratio of solute to iron. Softening observed in two other systems was attributed to an extrinsic mechanism, believed to be associated with scavenging of interstitial impurities.

  2. Protective claddings for high strength chromium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. F.

    1971-01-01

    The application of a Cr-Y-Hf-Th alloy as a protective cladding for a high strength chromium alloy was investigated for its effectiveness in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of a core alloy. Cladding was accomplished by a combination of hot gas pressure bonding and roll cladding techniques. Based on bend DBTT, the cladding alloy was effective in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of the chromium core alloy for up to 720 ks (200hours) in air at 1422 K (2100 F). A significant increase in the bend DBTT occurred with longer time exposures at 1422 K or short time exposures at 1589 K (2400 F).

  3. Structure, mechanical characteristics and in vitro degradation, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity of novel biodegradable Zn-Mg alloys.

    PubMed

    Kubásek, J; Vojtěch, D; Jablonská, E; Pospíšilová, I; Lipov, J; Ruml, T

    2016-01-01

    Zn-(0-1.6)Mg (in wt.%) alloys were prepared by hot extrusion at 300 °C. The structure, mechanical properties and in vitro biocompatibility of the alloys were investigated. The hot-extruded magnesium-based WE43 alloy was used as a control. Mechanical properties were evaluated by hardness, compressive and tensile testing. The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (Ames test) of the alloy extracts and ZnCl2 solutions were evaluated with the use of murine fibroblasts L929 and human osteosarcoma cell line U-2 OS. The microstructure of the Zn alloys consisted of recrystallized Zn grains of 12 μm in size and fine Mg2Zn11 particles arranged parallel to the hot extrusion direction. Mechanical tests revealed that the hardness and strength increased with increasing Mg concentration. The Zn-0.8 Mg alloys showed the best combination of tensile mechanical properties (tensile yield strength of 203 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of 301 MPa and elongation of 15%). At higher Mg concentrations the plasticity of Zn-Mg alloys was deteriorated. Cytotoxicity tests with alloy extracts and ZnCl2 solutions proved the maximum safe Zn(2+) concentrations of 120 μM and 80 μM for the U-2 OS and L929 cell lines, respectively. Ames test with extracts of alloys indicated that the extracts were not mutagenic. The comet assay demonstrated that 1-day extracts of alloys were not genotoxic for U-2 OS and L929 cell lines after 1-day incubation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Solidification of binary hypoeutectic alloy matrix composite castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, Andreas; Flemings, Merton C.

    1996-03-01

    We consider a binary hypoeutectic alloy casting which solidifies in dendritic form in an unreinforced engineering casting and seek to predict its microstructure in a metal matrix composite. We focus on the case where the reinforcement is fixed in space and fairly homogeneously distributed. We assume that the reinforcement does not catalyze heterogeneous nucleation of the solid. We show that the reinforcement can cause several microstructural transitions in the matrix alloy, depending on the matrix cooling rate, the width, A, of interstices left between reinforcing elements, and the initial velocity V of the solidification front. These transitions comprise the following: (1) coalescence of dendrite arms before solidification is complete, causing solidification to proceed in the later stages of solidification with a nondendritic primary phase mapping the geometry of interstices delineated by reinforcement elements; (2) sharp reduction or elimination of microsegregation in the matrix by diffusion in the primary solid matrix phase; and (3) a transition from dendrite to cell formation, these cells featuring significant undercoolings or a nearly plane front configuration when reinforcing elements are sufficiently fine. Quantitative criteria are derived for these transitions, based on previous work on composite solidification, observations from directional solidification experiments, and current solidification theory. Theory is compared with experimental data for aluminum-copper alloys reinforced with alumina fibers and for the dendrite to cell transition using data from directional succinonitrile-acetone solidification experiments. Theory and experiment show good agreement in both systems.

  5. Prediction of solid solubility in alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, J. A.; Simozar, S.

    1980-12-01

    A new empirical method for the analysis of solid solubility in alloys is proposed. The method is an extension of previous work by Darken and Gurry and by Chelikowsky. Each chemical element is characterized by three parameters: the atomic volume V, the electronegativity φ*, and the electron density at the boundary of bulk atomic cells nb.Δφ* and Δnb (Δ indicates the difference between solvent and solute) are combined into a unique parameter, ΔHc, the heat of formation of an equiatomic compound. This is done by using the semiempirical theory of Miedema and co-workers. Then, the two parameters ΔHc and ΔV are used to construct a two-dimensional map. In this map, the chemical elements insoluble in a given host are neatly separated from the soluble ones. Even more, it seems that contours of increasing degree of solubility can be drawn with a fair degree of success.

  6. Improved mechanical performance and delayed corrosion phenomena in biodegradable Mg-Zn-Ca alloys through Pd-alloying.

    PubMed

    González, S; Pellicer, E; Fornell, J; Blanquer, A; Barrios, L; Ibáñez, E; Solsona, P; Suriñach, S; Baró, M D; Nogués, C; Sort, J

    2012-02-01

    The influence of partial substitution of Mg by Pd on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of Mg(72-x)Zn(23)Ca(5)Pd(x) (x=0, 2 and 6 at.%) alloys, synthesized by copper mould casting, is investigated. While the Mg(72)Zn(23)Ca(5) alloy is mainly amorphous, the addition of Pd decreases the glass-forming ability, thus favouring the formation of crystalline phases. From a mechanical viewpoint, the hardness increases with the addition of Pd, from 2.71 GPa for x=0 to 3.9 GPa for x=6, mainly due to the formation of high-strength phases. In turn, the wear resistance is maximized for an intermediate Pd content (i.e., Mg(70)Zn(23)Ca(5)Pd(2)). Corrosion tests in a simulated body fluid (Hank's solution) indicate that Pd causes a shift in the corrosion potential towards more positive values, thus delaying the biodegradability of this alloy. Moreover, since the cytotoxic studies with mouse preosteoblasts do not show dead cells after culturing for 27 h, these alloys are potential candidates to be used as biomaterials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental fatigue in aluminum-lithium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Piascik, R.S.

    1992-07-01

    Aluminum-lithium alloys exhibit similar environmental fatigue crack growth characteristics compared to conventional 2000 series alloys and are more resistant to environmental fatigue compared to 7000 series alloys. The superior fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloys 2090, 2091, 8090, and 8091 is due to crack closure caused by tortuous crack path morphology and crack surface corrosion products. At high R and reduced closure, chemical environment effects are pronounced resulting in accelerated near threshold da/dN. The beneficial effects of crack closure are minimized for small cracks resulting in rapid growth rates. Limited data suggest that the 'chemically small crack' effect, observedmore » in other alloy system, is not pronounced in Al-Li alloys. Modeling of environmental fatigue in Al-Li-Cu alloys related accelerated fatigue crack growth in moist air and salt water to hydrogen embrittlement.« less

  8. Environmental fatigue in aluminum-lithium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    1992-07-01

    Aluminum-lithium alloys exhibit similar environmental fatigue crack growth characteristics compared to conventional 2000 series alloys and are more resistant to environmental fatigue compared to 7000 series alloys. The superior fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloys 2090, 2091, 8090, and 8091 is due to crack closure caused by tortuous crack path morphology and crack surface corrosion products. At high R and reduced closure, chemical environment effects are pronounced resulting in accelerated near threshold da/dN. The beneficial effects of crack closure are minimized for small cracks resulting in rapid growth rates. Limited data suggest that the 'chemically small crack' effect, observed in other alloy system, is not pronounced in Al-Li alloys. Modeling of environmental fatigue in Al-Li-Cu alloys related accelerated fatigue crack growth in moist air and salt water to hydrogen embrittlement.

  9. Environmental fatigue in aluminum-lithium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    Aluminum-lithium alloys exhibit similar environmental fatigue crack growth characteristics compared to conventional 2000 series alloys and are more resistant to environmental fatigue compared to 7000 series alloys. The superior fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloys 2090, 2091, 8090, and 8091 is due to crack closure caused by tortuous crack path morphology and crack surface corrosion products. At high R and reduced closure, chemical environment effects are pronounced resulting in accelerated near threshold da/dN. The beneficial effects of crack closure are minimized for small cracks resulting in rapid growth rates. Limited data suggest that the 'chemically small crack' effect, observed in other alloy system, is not pronounced in Al-Li alloys. Modeling of environmental fatigue in Al-Li-Cu alloys related accelerated fatigue crack growth in moist air and salt water to hydrogen embrittlement.

  10. Requirements of titanium alloys for aeronautical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiban, Brânduşa; Bran, Dragoş-Teodor; Elefterie, Cornelia Florina

    2018-02-01

    The project presents the requirements imposed for aeronatical components made from Titanium based alloys. Asignificant portion of the aircraft pylons are manufactured from Titanium alloys. Strength, weight, and reliability are the primary factors to consider in aircraft structures. These factors determine the requirements to be met by any material used to construct or repair the aircraft. Many forces and structural stresses act on an aircraft when it is flying and when it is static and this thesis describes environmental factors, conditions of external aggression, mechanical characteristics and loadings that must be satisfied simultaneously by a Ti-based alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Inconel super alloys, Aluminum alloys). For this alloy class, the requirements are regarding strength to weight ratio, reliability, corrosion resistance, thermal expansion and so on. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  11. Aeronautical Industry Requirements for Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bran, D. T.; Elefterie, C. F.; Ghiban, B.

    2017-06-01

    The project presents the requirements imposed for aviation components made from Titanium based alloys. A significant portion of the aircraft pylons are manufactured from Titanium alloys. Strength, weight, and reliability are the primary factors to consider in aircraft structures. These factors determine the requirements to be met by any material used to construct or repair the aircraft. Many forces and structural stresses act on an aircraft when it is flying and when it is static and this thesis describes environmental factors, conditions of external aggression, mechanical characteristics and loadings that must be satisfied simultaneously by a Ti-based alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Inconel super alloys, Aluminum alloys).For this alloy class, the requirements are regarding strength to weight ratio, reliability, corrosion resistance, thermal expansion and so on. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  12. Solidification of eutectic system alloys in space (M-19)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohno, Atsumi

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that in the liquid state eutectic alloys are theoretically homogeneous under 1 g conditions. However, the homogeneous solidified structure of this alloy is not obtained because thermal convection and non-equilibrium solidification occur. The present investigators have clarified the solidification mechanisms of the eutectic system alloys under 1 g conditions by using the in situ observation method; in particular, the primary crystals of the eutectic system alloys never nucleated in the liquid, but instead did so on the mold wall, and the crystals separated from the mold wall by fluid motion caused by thermal convection. They also found that the equiaxed eutectic grains (eutectic cells) are formed on the primary crystals. In this case, the leading phase of the eutectic must agree with the phase of the primary crystals. In space, no thermal convection occurs so that primary crystals should not move from the mold wall and should not appear inside the solidified structure. Therefore no equiaxed eutectic grains will be formed under microgravity conditions. Past space experiments concerning eutectic alloys were classified into two types of experiments: one with respect to the solidification mechanisms of the eutectic alloys and the other to the unidirectional solidification of this alloy. The former type of experiment has the problem that the solidified structures between microgravity and 1 g conditions show little difference. This is why the flight samples were prepared by the ordinary cast techniques on Earth. Therefore it is impossible to ascertain whether or not the nucleation and growth of primary crystals in the melt occur and if primary crystals influence the formation of the equiaxed eutectic grains. In this experiment, hypo- and hyper-eutectic aluminum copper alloys which are near eutectic point are used. The chemical compositions of the samples are Al-32.4mass%Cu (Hypo-eutectic) and Al-33.5mass%Cu (hyper-eutectic). Long rods for the samples are

  13. Biocorrosion properties of antibacterial Ti-10Cu sintered alloy in several simulated biological solutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Zhang, Erlin

    2015-03-01

    Ti-10Cu sintered alloy has shown strong antibacterial properties against S. aureus and E. coli and good cell biocompatibility, which displays potential application in dental application. The corrosion behaviors of the alloy in five different simulated biological solutions have been investigated by electrochemical technology, surface observation, roughness measurement and immersion test. Five different simulated solutions were chosen to simulate oral condition, oral condition with F(-) ion, human body fluids with different pH values and blood system. It has been shown that Ti-10Cu alloy exhibits high corrosion rate in Saliva pH 3.5 solution and Saliva pH 6.8 + 0.2F solution but low corrosion rate in Hank's, Tyrode's and Saliva pH 6.8 solutions. The corrosion rate of Ti-10Cu alloy was in a order of Hank's, Tyrode's, Saliva pH 6.8, Saliva-pH 3.5 and Saliva pH 6.8 + 0.2F from slow to fast. All results indicated acid and F(-) containing conditions prompt the corrosion reaction of Ti-Cu alloy. It was suggested that the Cu ion release in the biological environments, especially in the acid and F(-) containing condition would lead to high antibacterial properties without any cell toxicity, displaying wide potential application of this alloy.

  14. Fabrication of biodegradable Zn-Al-Mg alloy: Mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Bakhsheshi-Rad, H R; Hamzah, E; Low, H T; Kasiri-Asgarani, M; Farahany, S; Akbari, E; Cho, M H

    2017-04-01

    In this work, binary Zn-0.5Al and ternary Zn-0.5Al-xMg alloys with various Mg contents were investigated as biodegradable materials for implant applications. Compared with Zn-0.5Al (single phase), Zn-0.5Al-xMg alloys consisted of the α-Zn and Mg 2 (Zn, Al) 11 with a fine lamellar structure. The results also revealed that ternary Zn-Al-Mg alloys presented higher micro-hardness value, tensile strength and corrosion resistance compared to the binary Zn-Al alloy. In addition, the tensile strength and corrosion resistance increased with increasing the Mg content in ternary alloys. The immersion tests also indicated that the corrosion rates in the following order Zn-0.5Al-0.5Mgalloy presents higher viability of MC3T3-E1 cell compared to the Zn-0.5Al alloy, which suggested good biocompatibility. The antibacterial activity result of both Zn-0.5Al and Zn-0.5Al-Mg alloys against Escherichia coli presented some antibacterial activity, while the Zn-0.5Al-0.5Mg significantly prohibited the growth of Escherichia coli. Thus, Zn-0.5Al-0.5Mg alloy with appropriate mechanical properties, low corrosion rate, good biocompatibility and antibacterial activities was believed to be a good candidate as a biodegradable implant material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanical properties, corrosion, and biocompatibility of Mg-Zr-Sr-Dy alloys for biodegradable implant applications.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yunfei; Lin, Jixing; Wen, Cuie; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Yuncang

    2017-11-28

    This study investigates the microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, and biocompatibility of magnesium (Mg)-based Mg1Zr2SrxDy (x = 0, 1, 1.63, 2.08 wt %) alloys for biodegradable implant applications. The corrosion behavior of the Mg-based alloys has been evaluated in simulated body fluid using an electrochemical technique and hydrogen evolution. The biocompatibility of the Mg-based alloys has been assessed using SaSO2 cells. Results indicate that the addition of Dy to Mg-Zr-Sr alloy showed a positive impact on the corrosion behavior and significantly decreased the degradation rates of the alloys. The degradation rate of Mg1Zr2Sr1.0Dy decreased from 17.61 to 12.50 mm year -1 of Mg1Zr2Sr2.08Dy based on the hydrogen evolution. The ultimate compressive strength decreased from 270.90 MPa for Mg1Zr2Sr1Dy to 236.71 MPa for Mg1Zr2Sr2.08Dy. An increase in the addition of Dy to the Mg-based alloys resulted in an increase in the volume fraction of the Mg 2 Dy phase, which mitigated the galvanic effect between the Mg 17 Sr 2 phase and the Mg matrix, and led to an increase in the corrosion resistance of the base alloy. The biocompatibility of the Mg-based alloys was enhanced with decreasing corrosion rates. Mg1Zr2Sr2.08Dy exhibited the lowest corrosion rate and the highest biocompatibility compared with the other Mg-based alloys. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cellular microstructure of chill block melt spun Ni-Mo alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1987-01-01

    Chill block melt spun ribbons of Ni-Mo binary alloys containing 8.0 to 41.8 wt pct Mo have been prepared under carefully controlled processing conditions. The growth velocity has been determined as a function of distance from the quench surface from the observed ribbon thickness dependence on the melt puddle residence time. Primary arm spacings measured at the midribbon thickness locations show a dependence on growth velocity and alloy composition which is expected from dendritic growth models for binary alloys directionally solidified in a positive temperature gradient. Microsegregation across cells and its variation with distance from the quench surface and alloy composition have been examined and compared with theoretical predictions.

  17. Dynamic compressive behavior of a SiC{sub w}/Al composite

    SciTech Connect

    Kalambur, A.; Hall, I.W.

    1997-07-15

    The primary emphases of the present study were threefold: to obtain high strain-rate compressive mechanical properties of the SiC{sub w}/2124 Al MMC, to determine whether there were any fundamental differences in strain-rate sensitivity of the composite as compared to the unreinforced matrix alloy and, finally, to relate its mechanical response to a metallurgical study of the deformation and fracture behavior in an attempt to identify the fundamental failure mechanisms. The experiments were performed using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), also called the Kolsky Bar. Important parameters such as flow stress and ultimate strain are presented at strain-rates varying frommore » quasi-static to 1,200s{sup {minus}1}. Specimens were also subjected to standard metallographic analysis using optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). In this experimental investigation on the mechanical properties of a 25%V{sub f} SiC{sub w}/2024 Al MMC, the following conclusions may be drawn: (1) There was no effect of whisker addition on the strain rate sensitivity of the matrix alloy. (2) Within the range of aspect ratios investigated, there was no effect of specimen geometry on the measured properties or strain-rate sensitivity of the MMC. (3) The main failure mechanism in the composite was whisker/matrix debonding along the planes of maximum shear stress. (4) Results obtained from the SHPB at strains below {approximately}4% must be treated with extreme caution.« less

  18. Enhancement of the electrochemical behaviour and biological performance of Ti-25Ta-5Zr alloy by thermo-mechanical processing.

    PubMed

    Cimpean, Anisoara; Vasilescu, Ecaterina; Drob, Paula; Cinca, Ion; Vasilescu, Cora; Anastasescu, Mihai; Mitran, Valentina; Drob, Silviu Iulian

    2014-05-01

    A new Ti-25Ta-5Zr alloy based only on non-toxic and non-allergic elements was elaborated in as-cast and thermo-mechanical processed, recrystallized states (XRD and SEM) in order to be used as candidate material for implant applications. Its long-term interactions with Ringer-Brown and Ringer solutions of different pH values and its cytocompatibility were determined. The thermo-mechanically processed alloy has nobler electrochemical behaviour than as-cast alloy due to finer microstructure obtained after the applied treatment. Corrosion and ion release rates presented the lowest values for the treated alloy. Nyquist and Bode plots displayed higher impedance values and phase angles for the processed alloy, denoting a more protective passive film. SEM micrographs revealed depositions from solutions that contain calcium, phosphorous and oxygen ions (EDX analysis), namely calcium phosphate. An electric equivalent circuit with two time constants was modelled. Cell culture experiments with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts demonstrated that thermo-mechanically processed Ti-25Ta-5Zr alloy supports a better cell adhesion and spreading, and enhanced cell proliferation. Altogether, these data indicate that thermo-mechanical treatment endows the alloy with improved anticorrosion and biological performances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization, corrosion behavior, cellular response and in vivo bone tissue compatibility of titanium-niobium alloy with low Young's modulus.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yanjie; Deng, Yi; Zheng, Yunfei; Li, Yongliang; Zhang, Ranran; Lv, Yalin; Zhao, Qiang; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-02-01

    β-Type titanium alloys with a low elastic modulus are a potential strategy to enhance bone remodeling and to mitigate the concern over the risks of osteanabrosis and bone resorption caused by stress shielding, when used to substitute irreversibly impaired hard tissue. Hence, in this study, a Ti-45Nb alloy with low Young's modulus and high strength was developed, and microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, cytocompatibility and in vivo osteo-compatibility of the alloy were systematically investigated for the first time. The results of mechanical tests showed that Young's modulus of the Ti-Nb alloy was reduced to about 64.3GPa (close to human cortical bone) accompanied with higher tensile strength and hardness compared with those of pure Ti. Importantly, the Ti-Nb alloy exhibited superior corrosion resistance to Ti in different solutions including SBF, MAS and FAAS (MAS containing NaF) media. In addition, the Ti-Nb alloy produced no deleterious effect to L929 and MG-63 cells, and cells performed excellent cell attachment onto Ti-Nb surface, indicating a good in vitro cytocompatibility. In vivo evaluations indicated that Ti-Nb had comparable bone tissue compatibility to Ti determined from micro-CT and histological evaluations. The Ti-Nb alloy with an elasticity close to human bone, thus, could be suitable for orthopedic/dental applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. New developments in hardfacing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, R.

    1996-02-01

    The hardfacing industry has matured substantially since its inception in the early 1920s. Numerous welding alloys have been developed and field proven. By developing a strong working knowledge of available alloys, wear conditions and the specific wear situation, the goal of selecting the proper alloy to prolong service life and fight wear is now more attainable than ever. Hardfacing is the process in which a coating or cladding is applied to a substrate for the main purpose of reducing wear or loss of material by abrasion, impact, erosion, galling and cavitation. Most service environments involve a combination of these factors.more » The choice of an alloy system depends to a great degree on the nature of the wear process encountered. This can range from a simple low-stress condition to a very complex situation that involves abrasion combined with a corrodant and high temperature. The list of possible wear conditions is outlined below: (1) low-stress abrasion, (2) high-stress abrasion, (3) impact, (4) metal-to-metal wear, (5) erosion, and (6) cavitation erosion. In general, service conditions involve a combination of several of the conditions listed above. In addition to the type of wear, three other factors are also important as far as the severity of the wear condition is concerned. These are: (1) type of abradant, (2) service temperature, and (3) service environment. It is clear that in terms of the nature of the wear process as well as the environmental conditions, service conditions are extremely complex. They are, therefore, difficult to simulate in the laboratory. The selection of hardfacing alloys for an application is based primarily on actual field experiences and these are refined with data gathered with time.« less