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Sample records for a-site cation size

  1. High stability of electro-transport and magnetism against the A-site cation disorder in SrRuO3

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y. L.; Liu, M. F.; Liu, R.; Xie, Y. L.; Li, X.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the electro-transport and magnetism of perovskite alkaline-earth ruthenate oxides are sensitive to the lattice distortion associated with the A-site cation size. Orthorhombic CaRuO3 and cubic BaRuO3 exhibit distinctly different electro-transport and magnetic properties from orthorhombic SrRuO3. It has been suggested that SrRuO3 can be robust against some intrinsic/external perturbations but fragile against some others in terms of electro-transport and magnetism, and it is our motivation to explore such stability against the local site cation disorder. In this work, we prepare a set of SrRuO3-based samples with identical averaged A-site size but different A-site cation disorder (size mismatch) by Ca and Ba co-substitution of Sr. It is revealed that the electro-transport and magnetism of SrRuO3 demonstrate relatively high stability against this A-site cation disorder, characterized by the relatively invariable electrical and magnetic properties in comparison with those of SrRuO3 itself. A simple electro-transport network model is proposed to explain quantitatively the measured behaviors. The present work suggests that SrRuO3 as an itinerant electron ferromagnetic metal possesses relatively high robustness against local lattice distortion and cation occupation disorder. PMID:27297396

  2. Size Dependent Cation Channel in Nanoporous Prussian Blue Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritomo, Yutaka; Igarashi, Kazuhiro; Kim, Jungeun; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    Cation and/or molecule transfer within nanoporous materials can be utilized in, for example, electrochromic devices, hydrogen storage, molecular sensors, and molecular filters. Here, we investigated the mobilities of cations, Na+, K+, and Rb+, in vacancy-controlled Prussian blue film, NaxCo[Fe(CN)6]1-vzH2O (v is vacancy concentration) with a jungle gym structure. We found that only the smallest Na+ ions pass through the cubic planes of the lattice, while the larger cations, i.e., K+ and Rb+, take a detour channel along the [Fe(CN)6] vacancy. The size-dependent cation channel is well understood in terms of the potential curve derived by an ab initio total energy calculation.

  3. High-pressure synthesis, crystal chemistry and physics of perovskites with small cations at the A site.

    PubMed

    Belik, Alexei A; Yi, Wei

    2014-04-23

    ABO3 perovskites with small cations at the A site (A = Sc(3+), In(3+) and Mn(2+) and B = Al(3+) and transition metals) are reviewed. They extend the corresponding families of perovskites with A(3+) = Y, La-Lu, and Bi and A(2+) = Cd, Ca, Sr and Ba and exhibit the largest structural distortions. As a result of these large distortions, they show, in many cases, distinct structural and magnetic properties. These are manifested in: B-site-ordered monoclinic structures of ScMnO3 and 'InMnO3'; an unusual superstructure of ScRhO3 and InRhO3; antiferromagnetic ground states and multiferroic properties of Sc2NiMnO6 and In2NiMnO6; two magnetic transitions in ScCrO3 and InCrO3 with very close transition temperatures; a Pnma-to-P-1 structural transition and k = (½, 0, ½) magnetic ordering in ScVO3; and incommensurate magnetic ordering of Mn(2+) spins in metallic MnVO3. A large number of simple ScBO3, InBO3 and MnBO3 perovskites has not been synthesized yet, and the number of experimental and theoretical works on each known ScBO3, InBO3 and MnBO3 perovskites counts to only one or two (except for ScAlO3). The synthesis, crystal chemistry and physics of perovskites with small cations at the A site is an emerging field in perovskite science.

  4. Does Cation Size Affect Occupancy and Electrostatic Screening of the Nucleic Acid Ion Atmosphere?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Electrostatics are central to all aspects of nucleic acid behavior, including their folding, condensation, and binding to other molecules, and the energetics of these processes are profoundly influenced by the ion atmosphere that surrounds nucleic acids. Given the highly complex and dynamic nature of the ion atmosphere, understanding its properties and effects will require synergy between computational modeling and experiment. Prior computational models and experiments suggest that cation occupancy in the ion atmosphere depends on the size of the cation. However, the computational models have not been independently tested, and the experimentally observed effects were small. Here, we evaluate a computational model of ion size effects by experimentally testing a blind prediction made from that model, and we present additional experimental results that extend our understanding of the ion atmosphere. Giambasu et al. developed and implemented a three-dimensional reference interaction site (3D-RISM) model for monovalent cations surrounding DNA and RNA helices, and this model predicts that Na+ would outcompete Cs+ by 1.8–2.1-fold; i.e., with Cs+ in 2-fold excess of Na+ the ion atmosphere would contain an equal number of each cation (Nucleic Acids Res.2015, 43, 8405). However, our ion counting experiments indicate that there is no significant preference for Na+ over Cs+. There is an ∼25% preferential occupancy of Li+ over larger cations in the ion atmosphere but, counter to general expectations from existing models, no size dependence for the other alkali metal ions. Further, we followed the folding of the P4–P6 RNA and showed that differences in folding with different alkali metal ions observed at high concentration arise from cation–anion interactions and not cation size effects. Overall, our results provide a critical test of a computational prediction, fundamental information about ion atmosphere properties, and parameters that will aid in the development of

  5. Anion-Cation Permeability Correlates with Hydrated Counterion Size in Glycine Receptor Channels

    PubMed Central

    Sugiharto, Silas; Lewis, Trevor M.; Moorhouse, Andrew J.; Schofield, Peter R.; Barry, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    The functional role of ligand-gated ion channels depends critically on whether they are predominantly permeable to cations or anions. However, these, and other ion channels, are not perfectly selective, allowing some counterions to also permeate. To address the mechanisms by which such counterion permeation occurs, we measured the anion-cation permeabilities of different alkali cations, Li+ Na+, and Cs+, relative to either Cl− or \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} anions in both a wild-type glycine receptor channel (GlyR) and a mutant GlyR with a wider pore diameter. We hypothesized and showed that counterion permeation in anionic channels correlated inversely with an equivalent or effective hydrated size of the cation relative to the channel pore radius, with larger counterion permeabilities being observed in the wider pore channel. We also showed that the anion component of conductance was independent of the nature of the cation. We suggest that anions and counterion cations can permeate through the pore as neutral ion pairs, to allow the cations to overcome the large energy barriers resulting from the positively charged selectivity filter in small GlyR channels, with the permeability of such ion pairs being dependent on the effective hydrated diameter of the ion pair relative to the pore diameter. PMID:18708455

  6. Effect of A-Site Cation Ordering on Chemical Stability, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Electrical Conductivity in Layered LaBaCo2O5+δ Double Perovskite

    PubMed Central

    Bernuy-Lopez, Carlos; Høydalsvik, Kristin; Einarsrud, Mari-Ann; Grande, Tor

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the A-site cation ordering on the chemical stability, oxygen stoichiometry and electrical conductivity in layered LaBaCo2O5+δ double perovskite was studied as a function of temperature and partial pressure of oxygen. Tetragonal A-site cation ordered layered LaBaCo2O5+δ double perovskite was obtained by annealing cubic A-site cation disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3-δ perovskite at 1100 °C in N2. High temperature X-ray diffraction between room temperature (RT) and 800 °C revealed that LaBaCo2O5+δ remains tetragonal during heating in oxidizing atmosphere, but goes through two phase transitions in N2 and between 450 °C and 675 °C from tetragonal P4/mmm to orthorhombic Pmmm and back to P4/mmm due to oxygen vacancy ordering followed by disordering of the oxygen vacancies. An anisotropic chemical and thermal expansion of LaBaCo2O5+δ was demonstrated. La0.5Ba0.5CoO3-δ remained cubic at the studied temperature irrespective of partial pressure of oxygen. LaBaCo2O5+δ is metastable with respect to La0.5Ba0.5CoO3-δ at oxidizing conditions inferred from the thermal evolution of the oxygen deficiency and oxidation state of Co in the two materials. The oxidation state of Co is higher in La0.5Ba0.5CoO3-δ resulting in a higher electrical conductivity relative to LaBaCo2O5+δ. The conductivity in both materials was reduced with decreasing partial pressure of oxygen pointing to a p-type semiconducting behavior. PMID:28773279

  7. Characterization of Screen-Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors to Detect Cations of Different Sizes.

    PubMed

    Contat-Rodrigo, Laura; Pérez-Fuster, Clara; Lidón-Roger, José Vicente; Bonfiglio, Annalisa; García-Breijo, Eduardo

    2016-09-28

    A novel screen-printing fabrication method was used to prepare organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polysterene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). Initially, three types of these screen-printed OECTs with a different channel and gate areas ratio were compared in terms of output characteristics, transfer characteristics, and current modulation in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. Results confirm that transistors with a gate electrode larger than the channel exhibit higher modulation. OECTs with this geometry were therefore chosen to investigate their ion-sensitive properties in aqueous solutions of cations of different sizes (sodium and rhodamine B). The effect of the gate electrode was additionally studied by comparing these all-PEDOT:PSS transistors with OECTs with the same geometry but with a non-polarizable metal gate (Ag). The operation of the all-PEDOT:PSS OECTs yields a response that is not dependent on a Na⁺ or rhodamine concentration. The weak modulation of these transistors can be explained assuming that PEDOT:PSS behaves like a supercapacitor. In contrast, the operation of Ag-Gate OECTs yields a response that is dependent on ion concentration due to the redox reaction taking place at the gate electrode with Cl - counter-ions. This indicates that, for cation detection, the response is maximized in OECTs with non-polarizable gate electrodes.

  8. Combination of Cation Exchange and Quantized Ostwald Ripening for Controlling Size Distribution of Lead Chalcogenide Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Changwang; Xia, Yong; Zhang, Zhiming

    A new strategy for narrowing the size distribution of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) was developed by combining cation exchange and quantized Ostwald ripening. Medium-sized reactant CdS(e) QDs were subjected to cation exchange to form the target PbS(e) QDs, and then small reactant CdS(e) QDs were added which were converted to small PbS(e) dots via cation exchange. The small-sized ensemble of PbS(e) QDs dissolved completely rapidly and released a large amount of monomers, promoting the growth and size-focusing of the medium-sized ensemble of PbS(e) QDs. The addition of small reactant QDs can be repeated to continuously reduce the size distribution. Themore » new method was applied to synthesize PbSe and PbS QDs with extremely narrow size distributions and as a bonus they have hybrid surface passivation. In conclusion, the size distribution of prepared PbSe and PbS QDs are as low as 3.6% and 4.3%, respectively, leading to hexagonal close packing in monolayer and highly ordered three-dimensional superlattice.« less

  9. Combination of Cation Exchange and Quantized Ostwald Ripening for Controlling Size Distribution of Lead Chalcogenide Quantum Dots

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Changwang; Xia, Yong; Zhang, Zhiming; ...

    2017-03-22

    A new strategy for narrowing the size distribution of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) was developed by combining cation exchange and quantized Ostwald ripening. Medium-sized reactant CdS(e) QDs were subjected to cation exchange to form the target PbS(e) QDs, and then small reactant CdS(e) QDs were added which were converted to small PbS(e) dots via cation exchange. The small-sized ensemble of PbS(e) QDs dissolved completely rapidly and released a large amount of monomers, promoting the growth and size-focusing of the medium-sized ensemble of PbS(e) QDs. The addition of small reactant QDs can be repeated to continuously reduce the size distribution. Themore » new method was applied to synthesize PbSe and PbS QDs with extremely narrow size distributions and as a bonus they have hybrid surface passivation. In conclusion, the size distribution of prepared PbSe and PbS QDs are as low as 3.6% and 4.3%, respectively, leading to hexagonal close packing in monolayer and highly ordered three-dimensional superlattice.« less

  10. Influence of pine bark particle size and pH on cation exchange capacity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cation exchange capacity (CEC) describes the maximum quantity of cations a soil or substrate can hold while being exchangeable with the soil solution. While CEC has been studied for peat-based substrates, relatively little work has documented factors that affect CEC of pine bark substrates. The ob...

  11. On the Structural Basis for Size-selective Permeation of Organic Cations through the Voltage-gated Sodium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ye-Ming; Favre, Isabelle; Schild, Laurent; Moczydlowski, Edward

    1997-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that ionic selectivity in voltage-gated Na+ channels is mediated by a small number of residues in P-region segments that link transmembrane elements S5 and S6 in each of four homologous domains denoted I, II, III, and IV. Important determinants for this function appear to be a set of conserved charged residues in the first three homologous domains, Asp(I), Glu(II), and Lys(III), located in a region of the pore called the DEKA locus. In this study, we examined several Ala-substitution mutations of these residues for alterations in ionic selectivity, inhibition of macroscopic current by external Ca2+ and H+, and molecular sieving behavior using a series of organic cations ranging in size from ammonium to tetraethylammonium. Whole-cell recording of wild-type and mutant channels of the rat muscle μ1 Na+ channel stably expressed in HEK293 cells was used to compare macroscopic current–voltage behavior in the presence of various external cations and an intracellular reference solution containing Cs+ and very low Ca2+. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that the Lys residue in domain III of the DEKA locus is responsible for restricting the permeation of large organic cations. Mutation of Lys(III) to Ala largely eliminated selectivity among the group IA monovalent alkali cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+) and permitted inward current of group IIA divalent cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+). This same mutation also resulted in the acquisition of permeability to many large organic cations such as methylammonium, tetramethylammonium, and tetraethylammonium, all of which are impermeant in the native channel. The results lead to the conclusion that charged residues of the DEKA locus play an important role in molecular sieving behavior of the Na+ channel pore, a function that has been previously attributed to a hypothetical region of the channel called the “selectivity filter.” A detailed examination of individual contributions of the Asp(I), Glu

  12. A Family of A-Site Cation-Deficient Double-Perovskite-Related Iridates: Ln9Sr2Ir4O24 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Timothy; Smith, Mark D; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2018-06-21

    The compositions of the general formula Ln 11- x Sr x Ir 4 O 24 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm; 1.37 ≥ x ≥ 2) belonging to a family of A-site cation-deficient double-perovskite-related oxide iridates were grown as highly faceted single crystals from a molten strontium chloride flux. Their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. On the basis of the single-crystal results, additional compositions, Ln 9 Sr 2 Ir 4 O 24 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm), were prepared as polycrystalline powders via solid-state reactions and structurally characterized by Rietveld refinement. The compositions Ln 9 Sr 2 Ir 4 O 24 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm) contain Ir(V) and Ir(IV) in a 1:3 ratio with an average iridium oxidation state of 4.25. The single-crystal compositions La 9.15 Sr 1.85 Ir 4 O 24 and Pr 9.63 Sr 1.37 Ir 4 O 24 contain relatively less Ir(V), with the average iridium oxidation states being 4.21 and 4.09, respectively. The magnetic properties of Ln 9 Sr 2 Ir 4 O 24 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm) were measured, and complex magnetic behavior was observed in all cases at temperatures below 30 K.

  13. A-Site Cation Substitutions in Strained Y-Doped BaZrO 3 Multilayer Films Leading to Fast Proton Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Aruta, Carmela; Han, Chu; Zhou, Si

    Proton-conducting perovskite oxides form a class of solid electrolytes for novel electrochemical devices operating at moderate temperatures. Here, we use hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and density functional theory calculations to investigate the structure and elucidate the origin of the fast proton transport properties of strained ultrathin films of Y-doped BaZrO 3 grown by pulsed lased deposition on NdGaO 3. Our study shows that our BaZr 0.8Y 0.2O 3 films incorporate a significant amount of Y dopants, and to a lesser extent also Zr ions, substituting for Ba 2+, and that these substitutional defects agglomerate forming columnarmore » regions crossing vertically from the surface to the interface the entire film. In conclusion, our calculations also show that, in regions rich in Y substitutions for both Zr and Ba, the proton transfer process involves nearly zero-energy barriers, indicating that A-site cation substitutions by Y lead to fast transport pathways and hence are responsible for the previously observed enhanced values of the proton conductivity of these perovskite oxide films.« less

  14. Role of cationic size in the optical properties of the LiCl crystal surface: theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Abdel Halim, Wael Salah; Abdullah, Noha; Abdel-Aal, Safaa; Shalabi, A S

    2012-06-01

    The size of the cations (either Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ga(+), or Au(+)) at the F(A1)-type color centers on the (100) surface of LiCl crystal plays an important role in the optical properties of this surface. In this work, double-well potentials at this surface were investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Quantum clusters were embedded in simulated Coulomb fields that closely approximate the Madelung fields of the host surface, and the ions that were the nearest neighbors to the F(A1) site were allowed to relax to equilibrium. The calculated Stokes-shifted optical transition bands, optical-optical conversion efficiency, and relaxed excited states of the defect-containing surface, as well as the orientational destruction of the color centers, recording sensitivity, exciton (energy) transfer, and the Glasner-Tompkins empirical relation were all found to be sensitive to the size of the dopant cation.

  15. Chitosan based atorvastatin nanocrystals: effect of cationic charge on particle size, formulation stability, and in-vivo efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Kurakula, Mallesh; El-Helw, AM; Sobahi, Tariq R; Abdelaal, Magdy Y

    2015-01-01

    Cationic charged chitosan as stabilizer was evaluated in preparation of nanocrystals using probe sonication method. The influence of cationic charge densities of chitosan (low CSL, medium CSM, high CSH molecular weights) and Labrasol® in solubility enhancement and modifying the release was investigated, using atorvastatin (ATR) as poorly soluble model drug. Compared to CSM and CSH; low cationic charge of CSL acted as both electrostatic and steric stabilizer by significant size reduction to 394 nm with charge of 21.5 meV. Solubility of ATR-CSL increased to 60-fold relative to pure ATR and ATR-L. Nanocrystals were characterized for physiochemical properties. Scanning electron microscopy revealed scaffold-like structures with high surface area. X-ray powder diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry revealed crystalline to slight amorphous state changes after cationic charge size reduction. Fourier transform-infrared spectra indicated no potent drug-excipient interactions. The enhanced dissolution profile of ATR-CSL indicates that sustained release was achieved compared with ATR-L and Lipitor®. Anti-hyperlipidemic performance was pH dependent where ATR-CSL exhibited 2.5-fold higher efficacy at pH 5 compared to pH 6 and Lipitor®. Stability studies indicated marked changes in size and charge for ATR-L compared to ATR-CSL exemplifying importance of the stabilizer. Therefore, nanocrystals developed with CSL as a stabilizer is a promising choice to enhance dissolution, stability, and in-vivo efficacy of major Biopharmaceutical Classification System II/IV drugs. PMID:25609947

  16. Effect of cation size and charge on the interaction between silica surfaces in 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 aqueous electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Dishon, Matan; Zohar, Ohad; Sivan, Uri

    2011-11-01

    Application of two complementary AFM measurements, force vs separation and adhesion force, reveals the combined effects of cation size and charge (valency) on the interaction between silica surfaces in three 1:1, three 2:1, and three 3:1 metal chloride aqueous solutions of different concentrations. The interaction between the silica surfaces in 1:1 and 2:1 salt solutions is fully accounted for by ion-independent van der Waals (vdW) attraction and electric double-layer repulsion modified by cation specific adsorption to the silica surfaces. The deduced ranking of mono- and divalent cation adsorption capacity (adsorbability) to silica, Mg(2+) < Ca(2+) < Na(+) < Sr(2+) < K(+) < Cs(+), follows cation bare size as well as cation solvation energy but does not correlate with hydrated ionic radius or with volume or surface ionic charge density. In the presence of 3:1 salts, the coarse phenomenology of the force between the silica surfaces as a function of salt concentration resembles that in 1:1 and 2:1 electrolytes. Nevertheless, two fundamental differences should be noticed. First, the attraction between the silica surfaces is too large to be attributed solely to vdW force, hence implying an additional attraction mechanism or gross modification of the conventional vdW attraction. Second, neutralization of the silica surfaces occurs at trivalent cation concentrations that are 3 orders of magnitude smaller than those characterizing surface neutralization by mono- and divalent cations. Consequently, when trivalent cations are added to our cation adsorbability series the correlation with bare ion size breaks down abruptly. The strong adsorbability of trivalent cations to silica contrasts straightforward expectations based on ranking of the cationic solvation energies, thus suggesting a different adsorption mechanism which is inoperative or weak for mono- and divalent cations.

  17. A-site cationic disorder induced significantly large magnetoresistance in polycrystalline La0.2Gd0.5Ba0.3MnO3 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Suvayan; Das, Kalipada; Bandyopadhyay, Sudipta; Das, I.

    2017-11-01

    The observation of significantly large magnetoresistance at the liquid nitrogen temperature range in the polycrystalline La0.2Gd0.5Ba0.3MnO3 (LGBMO) compound has been addressed in the present manuscript. The motivation of considering LGBMO sample is the average 'A' site ionic radius 〈rA 〉 and tolerance factor (t), almost same as that of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO), which is a well studied colossal magnetoresistive material. Magnetoresistance of the LGBMO compound has been compared with the LSMO as well as parent compound La0.7Ba0.3MnO3(LBMO) to show the enhancement of magnetoresistance in LGBMO compound. This observed nature has been elucidated considering the disorder induced short range magnetic interaction due to the enhance size disorder parameter (σ2). Our study revels that, size disorder parameter plays the crucial role for enhancing the colossal magnetoresistance.

  18. 2D nanoporous membrane for cation removal from water: Effects of ionic valence, membrane hydrophobicity, and pore size.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Mateus Henrique; Bordin, José Rafael; Barbosa, Marcia C

    2018-06-14

    Using molecular dynamic simulations, we show that single-layers of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) and graphene can effectively reject ions and allow high water permeability. Solutions of water and three cations with different valencies (Na + , Zn 2+ , and Fe 3+ ) were investigated in the presence of the two types of membranes, and the results indicate a high dependence of the ion rejection on the cation charge. The associative characteristic of ferric chloride leads to a high rate of ion rejection by both nanopores, while the monovalent sodium chloride induces lower rejection rates. Particularly, MoS 2 shows 100% of Fe 3+ rejection for all pore sizes and applied pressures. On the other hand, the water permeation does not vary with the cation valence, having dependence only with the nanopore geometric and chemical characteristics. This study helps us to understand the fluid transport through a nanoporous membrane, essential for the development of new technologies for the removal of pollutants from water.

  19. 2D nanoporous membrane for cation removal from water: Effects of ionic valence, membrane hydrophobicity, and pore size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Mateus Henrique; Bordin, José Rafael; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2018-06-01

    Using molecular dynamic simulations, we show that single-layers of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and graphene can effectively reject ions and allow high water permeability. Solutions of water and three cations with different valencies (Na+, Zn2+, and Fe3+) were investigated in the presence of the two types of membranes, and the results indicate a high dependence of the ion rejection on the cation charge. The associative characteristic of ferric chloride leads to a high rate of ion rejection by both nanopores, while the monovalent sodium chloride induces lower rejection rates. Particularly, MoS2 shows 100% of Fe3+ rejection for all pore sizes and applied pressures. On the other hand, the water permeation does not vary with the cation valence, having dependence only with the nanopore geometric and chemical characteristics. This study helps us to understand the fluid transport through a nanoporous membrane, essential for the development of new technologies for the removal of pollutants from water.

  20. Compositional and Ionic-Size Controls on the Diffusion of Divalent Cations in Garnet: Insights from Atomistic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, W. D.

    2012-12-01

    Divalent cations in garnet (Mg, Fe, Mn, Ca) diffuse at rates that depend strongly on the host-crystal composition and on the ionic radius of the diffusant. Understanding of the nanoscale basis for these behaviors comes from atomistic simulations that calculate energies in the static limit for the defects and transition-state configurations associated with each diffusive step. Diffusion of divalent cations requires (a) creation of a cation-vacancy defect in a dodecahedral site and of a charge-compensating oxygen-vacancy defect that may or may not be in close spatial association; (b) except in the case of self-diffusion, creation of an impurity defect in which a foreign atom replaces the normal atom in a dodecahedral site adjacent to the vacancy; and (c) during the diffusive process, motion of the diffusing atom to a 'saddlepoint' position that represents the transition-state configuration. Comparisons of the system's energy in these various states, in structures of different composition and for ions of different ionic size, allows assessment of the nanoscale controls on diffusion kinetics. Molecular-statics calculations quantify defect energies and identify the transition-state configuration: the maximum energy along the diffusion path between two adjacent dodecahedral sites results when the diffusing ion is surrounded symmetrically by the six oxygen atoms that lie between the two sites. Across the range of end-member compositions, self-diffusion coefficients measured at identical conditions, and the tracer diffusivity of a single ion measured at identical conditions, can each vary by five orders of magnitude or more. Measured activation energies for these motions, however, are all equivalent to within ±6%. Calculated activation energies are in agreement with observations, in that they vary by only ±10%. Calculated vacancy-formation energies, on the other hand, are significantly larger in expanded structures; for example, that energy is greater for Prp than for

  1. Influence of gold nanoparticles of varying size in improving the lipase activity within cationic reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Subhabrata; Das, Dibyendu; Shome, Anshupriya; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2010-02-08

    Herein, we report the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in enhancing lipase activity in reverse micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/water/isooctane/n-hexanol. The size and concentration of the nanoparticles were varied and their specific roles were assessed in detail. An overall enhancement of activity was observed in the GNP-doped CTAB reverse micelles. The improvement in activity becomes more prominent with increasing concentration and size of the GNPs (0-52 microM and ca. 3-30 nm, respectively). The observed highest lipase activity (k(2)=1070+/-12 cm(3) g(-1) s(-1)) in GNP-doped CTAB reverse micelles ([GNP]: 52 microm, ca. 20 nm) is 2.5-fold higher than in CTAB reverse micelles without GNPs. Improvement in the lipase activity is only specific to the GNP-doped reverse micellar media, whereas GNP deactivates and structurally deforms the enzyme in aqueous media. The reason for this activation is probably due to the formation of larger-sized reverse micelles in which the GNP acts as a polar core and the surfactants aggregate around the nanoparticle ('GNP pool') instead of only water. Lipase at the augmented interface of the GNP-doped reverse micelle showed improved activity because of enhancement in both the substrate and enzyme concentrations and increased flexibility in the lipase conformation. The extent of the activation is greater in the case of the larger-sized GNPs. A correlation has been established between the activity of lipase and its secondary structure by using circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The generalized influence of GNP is verified in the reverse micelles of another surfactant, namely, cetyltripropylammonium bromide (CTPAB). TEM, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and UV/Vis spectroscopic analysis were utilized to characterize the GNPs and the organized aggregates. For the first time, CTAB-based reverse micelles have been found to be an excellent host for lipase simply by doping with appropriately sized GNPs.

  2. Cation-Size-Dependent Conformational Locking of Glutamic Acid by Alkali Ions: Infrared Photodissociation Spectroscopy of Cryogenic Ions.

    PubMed

    Klyne, Johanna; Bouchet, Aude; Ishiuchi, Shun-Ichi; Fujii, Masaaki; Dopfer, Otto

    2018-03-01

    Consolidated knowledge of conformation and stability of amino acids and their clusters is required to understand their biochemical recognition. Often, alkali ions interact with amino acids and proteins. Herein, infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectra of cryogenic metalated glutamic acid ions (GluM + , M = Li-Cs) are systematically analyzed in the isomer-specific fingerprint and XH stretch ranges (1100-1900, 2600-3600 cm -1 ) to provide a direct measure for cation-size-dependent conformational locking. GluM + ions are generated by electrospray ionization and cooled down to 15 K in a cryogenic quadrupole ion trap. The assignment of the IRPD spectra is supported by density functional theory calculations at the dispersion-corrected B3LYP-D3/aug-cc-pVTZ level. In the global minimum of GluM + , the flexibility of Glu is strongly reduced by the formation of rigid ionic CO···M + ···OC metal bridges, corresponding to charge solvation. The M + binding energy decreases monotonically with increasing cation size from D 0 = 314 to 119 kJ/mol for Li-Cs. Whereas for Li and Na only the global minimum of GluM + is observed, for K-Cs at least three isomers exist at cryogenic temperature. The IRPD spectra of cold GluM + ions are compared to IR multiple-photon dissociation spectra measured at room temperature. Furthermore, we elucidate the differences of the impact of protonation and metalation on the structure and conformational locking of Glu.

  3. Pore size dependent molecular adsorption of cationic dye in biomass derived hierarchically porous carbon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Ji, Tuo; Mu, Liwen; Shi, Yijun; Wang, Huaiyuan; Zhu, Jiahua

    2017-07-01

    Hierarchically porous carbon adsorbents were successfully fabricated from different biomass resources (softwood, hardwood, bamboo and cotton) by a facile two-step process, i.e. carbonization in nitrogen and thermal oxidation in air. Without involving any toxic/corrosive chemicals, large surface area of up to 890 m 2 /g was achieved, which is comparable to commercial activated carbon. The porous carbons with various surface area and pore size were used as adsorbents to investigate the pore size dependent adsorption phenomenon. Based on the density functional theory, effective (E-SSA) and ineffective surface area (InE-SSA) was calculated considering the geometry of used probing adsorbate. It was demonstrated that the adsorption capacity strongly depends on E-SSA instead of total surface area. Moreover, a regression model was developed to quantify the adsorption capacities contributed from E-SSA and InE-SSA, respectively. The applicability of this model has been verified by satisfactory prediction results on porous carbons prepared in this work as well as commercial activated carbon. Revealing the pore size dependent adsorption behavior in these biomass derived porous carbon adsorbents will help to design more effective materials (either from biomass or other carbon resources) targeting to specific adsorption applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rostral cranial fossa as a site for cerebrospinal fluid drainage - volumetric studies in dog breeds of different size and morphotype.

    PubMed

    Sokołowski, Wojciech; Czubaj, Norbert; Skibniewski, Michał; Barszcz, Karolina; Kupczyńska, Marta; Kinda, Wojciech; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław

    2018-05-18

    Hydrocephalus is a multifactorial condition, whose aetiology is not fully understood. Congenital hydrocephalus frequently occurs in small and brachycephalic dog breeds. Although it is widely accepted that the cribriform plate located in the rostral cranial fossa (RCF) is a site of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, the RCF has not been studied extensively. Literature reports indicate that a decreased caudal cranial fossa (CCF) volume in the course of the Chiari-like malformation may obstruct CSF circulation. We hypothesised that morphological diversity among different breeds in the volume of the RCF may affect CSF circulation. The aim of the study was to carry out a volumetric analysis of the RCF and the cranial cavity and to determine the ratio between them in dog breeds of different size and morphotype. We performed computed tomography (CT) morphometric analysis of the RCF compartment by obtaining volume measurements from the transverse and reformatted sagittal and dorsal planes. The rostral cranial fossa percentage - volume of the rostral cranial fossa/volume of cranial cavity × 100 (volRCF/volCC × 100) was lower in small and brachycephalic dog breeds than in the other dogs. A reduced RCF volume was detected in small and brachycephalic dog breeds, some of which are predisposed to congenital hydrocephalus. This may lead to overcrowding of brain parenchyma in the RCF and may impede CSF circulation. Our observations may be useful for future studies focusing on the causes and new therapies to treat conditions such as hydrocephalus and syringomyelia.

  5. Large Size Color-tunable Electroluminescence from Cationic Iridium Complexes-based Light-emitting Electrochemical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qunying; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang; Shan, Guogang; Su, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processable light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) with simple device architecture have become an attractive candidate for application in next generation lighting and flat-panel displays. Herein, single layer LECs employing two cationic Ir(III) complexes showing highly efficient blue-green and yellow electroluminescence with peak current efficiency of 31.6 cd A−1 and 40.6 cd A−1, respectively, have been reported. By using both complexes in the device, color-tunable LECs with a single spectral peak in the wavelength range from 499 to 570 nm were obtained by varying their rations. In addition, the fabrication of efficient LECs was demonstrated based on low cost doctor-blade coating technique, which was compatible with the roll to roll fabrication process for the large size production. In this work, for the first time, 4 inch LEC devices by doctor-blade coating were fabricated, which exhibit the efficiencies of 23.4 cd A−1 and 25.4 cd A−1 for the blue-green and yellow emission, respectively. The exciting results indicated that highly efficient LECs with controllable color could be realized and find practical application in large size lighting and displays. PMID:27278527

  6. Analyte-Size-Dependent Ionization and Quantification of Monosaccharides in Human Plasma Using Cation-Exchanged Smectite Layers.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuqi; Kawakita, Kento; Xu, Jiawei; Akiyama, Kazuhiko; Fujino, Tatsuya

    2015-08-04

    Smectite, a synthetic inorganic polymer with a saponite structure, was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). Typical organic matrix molecules 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) were intercalated into the layer spacing of cation-exchanged smectite, and the complex was used as a new matrix for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Because of layer spacing limitations, only a small analyte that could enter the layer and bind to THAP or DHBA could be ionized. This was confirmed by examining different analyte/matrix preparation methods and by measuring saccharides with different molecular sizes. Because of the homogeneous distribution of THAP molecules in the smectite layer spacing, high reproducibility of the analyte peak intensity was achieved. By using isotope-labeled (13)C6-d-glucose as the internal standard, quantitative analysis of monosaccharides in pretreated human plasma sample was performed, and the value of 8.6 ± 0.3 μg/mg was estimated.

  7. The electronic structure of RbTiOPO4 and the effects of the A-site cation substitution in KTiOPO4-family crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atuchin, V. V.; Kesler, V. G.; Meng, Guangsi; Lin, Z. S.

    2012-10-01

    The electronic structure of RbTiOPO4 has been investigated with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Detailed photoemission spectra of the element core levels have been recorded under excitation by nonmonochromatic Al Kα radiation (1486.6 eV). The chemical bonding parameters are compared to those reported for complex titanates and phosphates. The band structures of KTiOPO4, RbTiOPO4, K0.535R0.465TiOPO4 and TlTiOPO4 have been calculated by ab initio methods and compared to available experimental results. It is found that the band structure of KTP-type phosphate crystals is weakly dependent on the nature of the A-site (A=K, Rb, Tl) element.

  8. Development of high-productivity, strong cation-exchange adsorbers for protein capture by graft polymerization from membranes with different pore sizes

    PubMed Central

    Chenette, Heather C.S.; Robinson, Julie R.; Hobley, Eboni; Husson, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the surface modification of macroporous membranes using ATRP (atom transfer radical polymerization) to create cation-exchange adsorbers with high protein binding capacity at high product throughput. The work is motivated by the need for a more economical and rapid capture step in downstream processing of protein therapeutics. Membranes with three reported nominal pore sizes (0.2, 0.45, 1.0 μm) were modified with poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate, potassium salt) tentacles, to create a high density of protein binding sites. A special formulation was used in which the monomer was protected by a crown ether to enable surface-initiated ATRP of this cationic polyelectrolyte. Success with modification was supported by chemical analysis using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and indirectly by measurement of pure water flux as a function of polymerization time. Uniformity of modification within the membranes was visualized with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Static and dynamic binding capacities were measured using lysozyme protein to allow comparisons with reported performance data for commercial cation-exchange materials. Dynamic binding capacities were measured for flow rates ranging from 13 to 109 column volumes (CV)/min. Results show that this unique ATRP formulation can be used to fabricate cation-exchange membrane adsorbers with dynamic binding capacities as high as 70 mg/mL at a throughput of 100 CV/min and unprecedented productivity of 300 mg/mL/min. PMID:23175597

  9. Time-Dependent Mechanical Response of APbX 3 (A = Cs, CH 3NH 3; X = I, Br) Single Crystals [The Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Lead-Halide Perovskite Single Crystals are Independent of A-site Cation Chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Reyes-Martinez, Marcos A.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; ...

    2017-05-02

    The ease of processing hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite (HOIPs) films, belonging to a material class with composition ABX 3, from solution and at mild temperatures promises their use in deformable technologies, including flexible photovoltaic devices, sensors, and displays. To successfully apply these materials in deformable devices, knowledge of their mechanical response to dynamic strain is necessary. The authors elucidate the time- and rate-dependent mechanical properties of HOIPs and an inorganic perovskite (IP) single crystal by measuring nanoindentation creep and stress relaxation. The observation of pop-in events and slip bands on the surface of the indented crystals demonstrate dislocation-mediated plastic deformation. Themore » magnitudes of creep and relaxation of both HOIPs and IPs are similar, negating prior hypothesis that the presence of organic A-site cations alters the mechanical response of these materials. Moreover, these samples exhibit a pronounced increase in creep, and stress relaxation as a function of indentation rate whose magnitudes reflect differences in the rates of nucleation and propagation of dislocations within the crystal structures of HOIPs and IP. In conclusion, this contribution provides understanding that is critical for designing perovskite devices capable of withstanding mechanical deformations.« less

  10. Boson peak of alkali and alkaline earth silicate glasses: influence of the nature and size of the network-modifying cation.

    PubMed

    Richet, Nicolas F

    2012-01-21

    The influence of the size of the alkaline earth cation on the boson peak of binary metasilicate glasses, MSiO(3) (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), has been investigated from vibrational densities of states determined by inversion of low-temperature heat capacities. As given both by C(p)/T(3) and g(ω)/ω(2), the intensity of the boson peak undergoes a 7-fold increase from Mg to Ba, whereas its temperature and frequency correlatively decrease from 18 to 10 K and from 100 to 20 cm(-1), respectively. The boson peak results from a combination of librations of SiO(4) tetrahedra and localized vibrations of network-modifying cations with non-bridging oxygens whose contribution increases markedly with the ionic radius of the alkaline earth. As a function of ionic radii, the intensity for Sr and Ba varies in the same way as previously found for alkali metasilicate glasses. The localized vibrations involving alkali and heavy alkaline earth cations appear to be insensitive to the overall glass structure. Although the new data are coherent with an almost linear relationship between the temperature of the boson peak and transverse sound velocity, pure SiO(2) and SiO(2)-rich glasses make marked exceptions to this trend because of the weak transverse character of SiO(4) librations. Finally, the universality of the calorimetric boson peak is again borne out because all data for silicate glasses collapse on the same master curve when plotted in a reduced form (C(P)∕/T(3))/(C(P)/T(3))(b) vs. T/T(b). © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  11. Cation solvation with quantum chemical effects modeled by a size-consistent multi-partitioning quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroshi C; Kubillus, Maximilian; Kubař, Tomáš; Stach, Robert; Mizaikoff, Boris; Ishikita, Hiroshi

    2017-07-21

    In the condensed phase, quantum chemical properties such as many-body effects and intermolecular charge fluctuations are critical determinants of the solvation structure and dynamics. Thus, a quantum mechanical (QM) molecular description is required for both solute and solvent to incorporate these properties. However, it is challenging to conduct molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for condensed systems of sufficient scale when adapting QM potentials. To overcome this problem, we recently developed the size-consistent multi-partitioning (SCMP) quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method and realized stable and accurate MD simulations, using the QM potential to a benchmark system. In the present study, as the first application of the SCMP method, we have investigated the structures and dynamics of Na + , K + , and Ca 2+ solutions based on nanosecond-scale sampling, a sampling 100-times longer than that of conventional QM-based samplings. Furthermore, we have evaluated two dynamic properties, the diffusion coefficient and difference spectra, with high statistical certainty. Furthermore the calculation of these properties has not previously been possible within the conventional QM/MM framework. Based on our analysis, we have quantitatively evaluated the quantum chemical solvation effects, which show distinct differences between the cations.

  12. Structural diversities induced by cation sizes in a series of fluorogermanophosphates: A2[GeF2(HPO4)2] (A = Na, K, Rb, NH4, and Cs).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang-Gai; Huang, Xia; Zhuang, Rong-Chuan; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xin; Shi, Tao; Wang, Shuai-Hua; Wu, Shao-Fan; Mi, Jin-Xiao; Huang, Ya-Xi

    2017-09-12

    Germanophosphates, in comparison with other metal phosphates, have been less studied but potentially exhibit more diverse structural chemistry with wide applications. Herein we applied a hydro-/solvo-fluorothermal route to make use of both the "tailor effect" of fluoride for the formation of low dimensional anionic clusters and the presence of alkali cations of different sizes to align the anionic clusters to control the overall crystal symmetries of germanophosphates. The synergetic effects of fluoride and alkali cations led to structural changes from chain-like structures to layered structures in a series of five novel fluorogermanophosphates: A 2 [GeF 2 (HPO 4 ) 2 ] (A = Na, K, Rb, NH 4 , and Cs, denoted as Na, K, Rb, NH4, and Cs). Although these fluorogermanophosphates have stoichiometrically equivalent formulas, they feature different anionic clusters, diverse structural dimensionalities, and contrasting crystal symmetries. Chain-like structures were observed for the compounds with the smaller sized alkali ions (Na + , K + , and Rb + ), whereas layered structures were found for those containing the larger sized cations ((NH 4 ) + and Cs + ). Specifically, monoclinic space groups were observed for the Na, K, Rb, and NH4 compounds, whereas a tetragonal space group P4/mbm was found for the Cs compound. These compounds provide new insights into the effects of cation sizes on the anionic clusters built from GeO 4 F 2 octahedra and HPO 4 tetrahedra as well as their influences on the overall structural symmetries in germanophosphates. Further characterization including IR spectroscopy and thermal analyses for all five compounds is also presented.

  13. Synthesis, structure, and bonding of BaTl4. Size effects on encapsulation of cations in electron-poor metal networks.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jing-Cao; Gupta, Shalabh; Corbett, John D

    2011-01-03

    The synthesis, structure, and bonding of BaTl(4) are described [C2/m, Z = 4, a = 12.408(3), b = 5.351(1), c = 10.383(2) Å, β = 116.00(3)°]. Pairs of edge-sharing Tl pentagons are condensed to generate a network of pentagonal biprisms along b that encapsulate Ba atoms. Alternating levels of prisms along c afford six more bifunctional Tl atoms about the waists of the biprisms, giving Ba a coordination number of 16. Each Tl atom is bonded to five to seven other Tl atoms and to three to five Ba atoms. There is also strong evidence that Hg substitutes preferentially in the shared edges of the Tl biprisms in BaHg(0.80)Tl(3.20) to generate more strongly bound Hg(2) dimers. Cations that are too small relative to the dimensions of the surrounding polyanionic network make this BaTl(4) structure (and for SrIn(4) and perhaps EuIn(4) as well) one stable alternative to tetragonal BaAl(4)-type structures in which cations are bound in larger hexagon-faced nets, as for BaIn(4) and SrGa(4). Characteristic condensation and augmentation of cation-centered prismatic units is common among many relatively cation- and electron-poor, polar derivatives of Zintl phases gain stability. At the other extreme, the large family of Frank-Kasper phases in which the elements exhibit larger numbers of bonded neighbors are sometimes referred to as orbitally rich.

  14. Cation disorder in Ga1212.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, K B; Ko, D; Vander Griend, D A; Sarjeant, G M; Milgram, J W; Garrity, E S; DeLoach, D I; Poeppelmeier, K R; Salvador, P A; Mason, T O

    2000-07-24

    Substitution of calcium for strontium in LnSr2-xCaxCu2GaO7 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Gd, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb) materials at ambient pressure and 975 degrees C results in complete substitution of calcium for strontium in the lanthanum and praseodymium systems and partial substitution in the other lanthanide systems. The calcium saturation level depends on the size of the Ln cation, and in all cases, a decrease in the lattice parameters with calcium concentration was observed until a common, lower bound, average A-cation size is reached. Site occupancies from X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments for LnSr2-xCaxCu2GaO7 (x = 0 and x = 2) confirm that the A-cations distribute between the two blocking-layer sites and the active-layer site based on size. A quantitative link between cation distribution and relative site-specific cation enthalpy for calcium, strontium, and lanthanum within the gallate structure is derived. The cation distribution in other similar materials can potentially be modeled.

  15. Large effects of A-site average cation size on the properties of the double perovskites Ba2-xSrxMnReO6:  A d5-d1 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Guerman; Greenblatt, Martha; Croft, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Ba2-xSrxMnReO6 (x=0, 0.5, 1, 2) phases with a double-perovskite structure were prepared by solid-state techniques in evacuated sealed silica tubes. Mn2+ and Re6+ are virtually completely ordered on the B sites. The compounds are ferrimagnetic below 120 K. The maximum saturation moment was obtained for a compound with x=0.5 whose tolerance factor is closest to 1. The whole series of compounds, 0.0⩽x⩽2.0, exhibits semiconducting behavior with variable-range hopping type of conduction. Sr2MnReO6 has an unusually high coercive field (2.6 T at 5 K) and two transitions in the M-H loop. Ba2MnReO6 shows large positive magnetoresistance (14% at 80 K, 5 T) below 140 K, while the other compositions studied exhibit negative magnetoresistance in the temperature range measured.

  16. Effect of the cation size on the framework structures of magnesium tungstate, A4Mg(WO4)3 (A = Na, K), R2Mg2(WO4)3 (R = Rb, Cs).

    PubMed

    Han, Shujuan; Wang, Ying; Jing, Qun; Wu, Hongping; Pan, Shilie; Yang, Zhihua

    2015-03-28

    A series of alkali metal magnesium tungstates, A4Mg(WO4)3 (A = Na, K), R2Mg2(WO4)3 (R = Rb, Cs), were synthesized from a high temperature solution, and their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Interestingly, Na4Mg(WO4)3 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, while K4Mg(WO4)3 having an identical stoichiometry with Na4Mg(WO4)3, exhibits a different framework structure belonging to triclinic symmetry with the space group P1[combining macron]. Isostructural Rb2Mg2(WO4)3 and Cs2Mg2(WO4)3 crystallize in the space group P213 of cubic symmetry and reveal a three dimensional framework composed of isolated WO4 tetrahedra, MgO6 octahedra and RO12 (R = Rb, Cs) polyhedra. The effect of the alkali metal cation size on the framework structures of magnesium tungstate has been discussed in detail. In addition, the infrared spectra, as well as the UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy data, are reported. The first-principles theoretical studies are also carried out to aid the understanding of electronic structures and linear optical properties.

  17. Cation Exchange Water Softeners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  18. Cationic niosomes an effective gene carrier composed of novel spermine-derivative cationic lipids: effect of central core structures.

    PubMed

    Opanasopit, Praneet; Leksantikul, Lalita; Niyomtham, Nattisa; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek

    2017-05-01

    Cationic niosomes formulated from Span 20, cholesterol (Chol) and novel spermine-based cationic lipids of multiple central core structures (di(oxyethyl)amino, di(oxyethyl)amino carboxy, 3-amino-1,2-dioxypropyl and 2-amino-1,3-dioxypropyl) were successfully prepared for improving transfection efficiency in vitro. The niosomes composed of spermine cationic lipid with central core structure of di(oxyethyl)amino revealed the highest gene transfection efficiency. To investigate the factors affecting gene transfection and cell viability including differences in the central core structures of cationic lipids, the composition of vesicles, molar ratio of cationic lipids in formulations and the weight ratio of niosomes to DNA. Cationic niosomes composed of nonionic surfactants (Span20), cholesterol and spermine-based cationic lipids of multiple central core structures were formulated. Gene transfection and cell viability were evaluated on a human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa cells) using pDNA encoding green fluorescent protein (pEGFP-C2). The morphology, size and charge were also characterized. High transfection efficiency was obtained from cationic niosomes composed of Span20:Chol:cationic lipid at the molar ratio of 2.5:2.5:0.5 mM. Cationic lipids with di(oxyethyl)amino as a central core structure exhibited highest transfection efficiency. In addition, there was also no serum effect on transfection efficiency. These novel cationic niosomes may constitute a good alternative carrier for gene transfection.

  19. Antimicrobial particles from cationic lipid and polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Melo, Letícia D; Mamizuka, Elsa M; Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana M

    2010-07-20

    Hybrid nanoparticles from cationic lipid and polymers were prepared and characterized regarding physical properties and antimicrobial activity. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) were sequentially added to cationic bilayer fragments (BF) prepared from ultrasonic dispersion in water of the synthetic and cationic lipid dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB). Particles thus obtained were characterized by dynamic light-scattering for determination of z-average diameter (Dz) and zeta-potential (zeta). Antimicrobial activity of the DODAB BF/CMC/PDDA particles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus was determined by plating and CFU counting over a range of particle compositions. DODAB BF/CMC/PDDA particles exhibited sizes and zeta-potentials strictly dependent on DODAB, CMC, and PDDA concentrations. At 0.1 mM DODAB, 0.1 mg/mL CMC, and 0.1 mg/mL PDDA, small cationic particles with Dz = 100 nm and zeta = 30 mV were obtained. At 0.5 mM DODAB, 0.5 mg/mL CMC and 0.5 mg/mL PDDA, large cationic particles with Dz = 470 nm and zeta = 50 mV were obtained. Both particulates were highly reproducible regarding physical properties and yielded 0% of P. aeruginosa viability (10(7) CFU/mL) at 1 or 2 microg/mL PDDA dissolved in solution or in form of particles, respectively. 99% of S. aureus cells died at 10 microg/mL PDDA alone or in small or large DODAB BF/CMC/PDDA particles. The antimicrobial effect was dependent on the amount of positive charge on particles and independent of particle size. A high microbicide potency for PDDA over a range of nanomolar concentrations was disclosed. P. aeruginosa was more sensitive to all cationic assemblies than S. aureus.

  20. Restructuring of a Peat in Interaction with Multivalent Cations: Effect of Cation Type and Aging Time

    PubMed Central

    Kunhi Mouvenchery, Yamuna; Jaeger, Alexander; Aquino, Adelia J. A.; Tunega, Daniel; Diehl, Dörte; Bertmer, Marko; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2013-01-01

    It is assumed to be common knowledge that multivalent cations cross-link soil organic matter (SOM) molecules via cation bridges (CaB). The concept has not been explicitly demonstrated in solid SOM by targeted experiments, yet. Therefore, the requirements for and characteristics of CaB remain unidentified. In this study, a combined experimental and molecular modeling approach was adopted to investigate the interaction of cations on a peat OM from physicochemical perspective. Before treatment with salt solutions of Al3+, Ca2+ or Na+, respectively, the original exchangeable cations were removed using cation exchange resin. Cation treatment was conducted at two different values of pH prior to adjusting pH to 4.1. Cation sorption is slower (>>2 h) than deprotonation of functional groups (<2 h) and was described by a Langmuir model. The maximum uptake increased with pH of cation addition and decreased with increasing cation valency. Sorption coefficients were similar for all cations and at both pH. This contradicts the general expectations for electrostatic interactions, suggesting that not only the interaction chemistry but also spatial distribution of functional groups in OM determines binding of cations in this peat. The reaction of contact angle, matrix rigidity due to water molecule bridges (WaMB) and molecular mobility of water (NMR analysis) suggested that cross-linking via CaB has low relevance in this peat. This unexpected finding is probably due to the low cation exchange capacity, resulting in low abundance of charged functionalities. Molecular modeling demonstrates that large average distances between functionalities (∼3 nm in this peat) cannot be bridged by CaB-WaMB associations. However, aging strongly increased matrix rigidity, suggesting successive increase of WaMB size to connect functionalities and thus increasing degree of cross-linking by CaB-WaMB associations. Results thus demonstrated that the physicochemical structure of OM is decisive for Ca

  1. Restructuring of a peat in interaction with multivalent cations: effect of cation type and aging time.

    PubMed

    Kunhi Mouvenchery, Yamuna; Jaeger, Alexander; Aquino, Adelia J A; Tunega, Daniel; Diehl, Dörte; Bertmer, Marko; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2013-01-01

    It is assumed to be common knowledge that multivalent cations cross-link soil organic matter (SOM) molecules via cation bridges (CaB). The concept has not been explicitly demonstrated in solid SOM by targeted experiments, yet. Therefore, the requirements for and characteristics of CaB remain unidentified. In this study, a combined experimental and molecular modeling approach was adopted to investigate the interaction of cations on a peat OM from physicochemical perspective. Before treatment with salt solutions of Al(3+), Ca(2+) or Na(+), respectively, the original exchangeable cations were removed using cation exchange resin. Cation treatment was conducted at two different values of pH prior to adjusting pH to 4.1. Cation sorption is slower (>2 h) than deprotonation of functional groups (<2 h) and was described by a Langmuir model. The maximum uptake increased with pH of cation addition and decreased with increasing cation valency. Sorption coefficients were similar for all cations and at both pH. This contradicts the general expectations for electrostatic interactions, suggesting that not only the interaction chemistry but also spatial distribution of functional groups in OM determines binding of cations in this peat. The reaction of contact angle, matrix rigidity due to water molecule bridges (WaMB) and molecular mobility of water (NMR analysis) suggested that cross-linking via CaB has low relevance in this peat. This unexpected finding is probably due to the low cation exchange capacity, resulting in low abundance of charged functionalities. Molecular modeling demonstrates that large average distances between functionalities (∼3 nm in this peat) cannot be bridged by CaB-WaMB associations. However, aging strongly increased matrix rigidity, suggesting successive increase of WaMB size to connect functionalities and thus increasing degree of cross-linking by CaB-WaMB associations. Results thus demonstrated that the physicochemical structure of OM is decisive for

  2. Structure relationship of cationic lipids on gene transfection mediated by cationic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Paecharoenchai, Orapan; Niyomtham, Nattisa; Apirakaramwong, Auayporn; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-ek; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the transfection efficiency of cationic liposomes formulated with phosphatidylcholine (PC) and novel synthesized diethanolamine-based cationic lipids at a molar ratio of 5:1 in comparison with Lipofectamine™ 2000. Factors affecting transfection efficiency and cell viability, including the chemical structure of the cationic lipids, such as different amine head group (diamine and polyamine; and non-spermine and spermine) and acyl chain lengths (C14, C16, and C18) and the weight ratio of liposomes to DNA were evaluated on a human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa cells) using the pDNA encoding green fluorescent protein (pEGFP-C2). Characterizations of these lipoplexes in terms of size and charge measurement and agarose gel electrophoresis were performed. The results from this study revealed that almost no transfection was observed in the liposome formulations composed of cationic lipids with a non-spermine head group. In addition, the transfection efficiency of these cationic liposomes was in the following order: spermine-C14 > spermine-C16 > spermine-C18. The highest transfection efficiency was observed in the formulation of spermine-C14 liposomes at a weight ratio of 25; furthermore, this formulation was safe for use in vitro. In conclusion, cationic liposomes containing spermine head groups demonstrated promising potential as gene carriers.

  3. Cation radius effects on the helix-coil transition of DNA. Cryptates and other large cations.

    PubMed Central

    Trend, B L; Knoll, D A; Ueno, M; Evans, D F; Bloomfield, V A

    1990-01-01

    Most polyelectrolyte theories of the effect of ions on the thermal melting of DNA assume that the predominant influence of the cations comes through their charge. Ion size and structure are treated, for analytic convenience, as negligible variables. We have examined the validity of this assumption by measuring the melting temperature of calf thymus DNA as a function of salt concentration with four univalent cations of different hydrated radii. These are K+ (3.3 A), (n-Pr)4N+ (4.5 A), (EtOH)4N+ (4.5 A), and C222-K+ (5 A). C222-K+ is a complex of cryptand C222 with K+. With K+ as the sole cation, Tm varies linearly with the log of ionic strength over the range 0.001-0.1 M. With all the K+ sequestered by an equimolar amount of C222, Tm is depressed by 10-20 degrees C and the slope of Tm vs. ionic strength is lower. At low ionic strength, an even greater reduction in Tm is achieved with (n-Pr)4N+; but the similar-sized (EtOH)4N+ gives a curve more similar to K+. Theoretical modeling, taking into account cation size through the Poisson-Boltzmann equation for cylindrical polyelectrolytes, predicts that larger cations should be less effective in stabilizing the double helix; but the calculated effect is less than observed experimentally. These results show that valence, cation size, and specific solvation effects are all important in determining the stability of the double-helical form of DNA. PMID:2344467

  4. A theoretical study of complexes formed between cations and curved aromatic systems: electrostatics does not always control cation-π interaction.

    PubMed

    Carrazana-García, Jorge A; Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús

    2017-04-19

    The present work studies the interaction of two extended curved π-systems (corannulene and sumanene) with various cations (sodium, potassium, ammonium, tetramethylammonium, guanidinium and imidazolium). Polyatomic cations are models of groups found in important biomolecules in which cation-π interaction plays a fundamental role. The results indicate an important size effect: with extended π systems and cations of the size of potassium and larger, dispersion is much more important than has been generally recognized for cation-π interactions. In most of the systems studied here, the stability of the cation-π complexes is the result of a balanced combination of electrostatic, induction and dispersion contributions. None of the systems studied here owes its stability to the electrostatic interaction more than 42%. Induction dominates stabilization in complexes with sodium, and in some of the potassium and ammonium complexes. In complexes with large cations and with flat cations dispersion is the major stabilizing contribution and can provide more than 50% of the stabilization energy. This implies that theoretical studies of the cation-π interaction involving large or even medium-size fragments require a level of calculation capable of properly modelling dispersion. The separation between the cation and the π system is another important factor to take into account, especially when the fragments of the cation-π complex are bound (for example, to a protein backbone) and cannot interact at the most favourable distance.

  5. Small Water Cluster Cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakovskaya, Yu. V.; Stepanov, N. F.

    Structures of water cluster cations (H_{2}O)^{+}_{n} with n ≤ 5 are optimized at the unrestricted Hartree-Fock level with the 4 - 31 + +G** basis set. Energetic characteristics of the cations are then estimated taking into account the second order perturbation corrections (MP2). After the electron detachment from a neutral cluster, the structure of the latter substantially changes, so that OH and H3O+ fragments can be distinguished in it. In some cations H3O+ is so strongly bonded to water molecules that it is reasonable to speak of the [H2n-1On-1]+ fragments. According to the position of OH, the structures form two groups. In one group, OH acts exclusively as the proton acceptor in H-bonds with water molecules, thus being terminal in the chain-like structures; in the other group it is directly bonded to H3O and, as a proton donor, forms an H-bond with water molecule. Cluster cations do not tend to dissociate into the fragments. However, an external influence of ≤ 0.4 eV is sufficient for the cations of the first group to dissociate into a free OH radical and a protonated cluster H+(H2O)n-1. Extrapolation of the calculated adiabatic ionization potentials of the water clusters to n → ∞ provides a value of 8.6 eV, which can be considered as an estimation of the electron work function of water. This value is close to the experimental photoelectric thresholds of amorphous ice (8.7 ± 0.1 eV) and water (9.39 ± 0.3 eV). Solvation of the electron lowers the value, and an energy of 7 eV can be sufficient for initiating conductivity. This prediction is in accord with the experiment: irradiating ice with ultraviolet light of the photon energy 6.5-6.8 eV initiates photoconductivity, and hydrogen peroxide and H3O+ ions are observed.

  6. Sn Cation Valency Dependence in Cation Exchange Reactions Involving Cu2-xSe Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We studied cation exchange reactions in colloidal Cu2-xSe nanocrystals (NCs) involving the replacement of Cu+ cations with either Sn2+ or Sn4+ cations. This is a model system in several aspects: first, the +2 and +4 oxidation states for tin are relatively stable; in addition, the phase of the Cu2-xSe NCs remains cubic regardless of the degree of copper deficiency (that is, “x”) in the NC lattice. Also, Sn4+ ions are comparable in size to the Cu+ ions, while Sn2+ ones are much larger. We show here that the valency of the entering Sn ions dictates the structure and composition not only of the final products but also of the intermediate steps of the exchange. When Sn4+ cations are used, alloyed Cu2–4ySnySe NCs (with y ≤ 0.33) are formed as intermediates, with almost no distortion of the anion framework, apart from a small contraction. In this exchange reaction the final stoichiometry of the NCs cannot go beyond Cu0.66Sn0.33Se (that is Cu2SnSe3), as any further replacement of Cu+ cations with Sn4+ cations would require a drastic reorganization of the anion framework, which is not possible at the reaction conditions of the experiments. When instead Sn2+ cations are employed, SnSe NCs are formed, mostly in the orthorhombic phase, with significant, albeit not drastic, distortion of the anion framework. Intermediate steps in this exchange reaction are represented by Janus-type Cu2-xSe/SnSe heterostructures, with no Cu–Sn–Se alloys. PMID:25340627

  7. Ionophores and receptors using cation-pi interactions: collarenes.

    PubMed

    Choi, H S; Suh, S B; Cho, S J; Kim, K S

    1998-10-13

    Cation-pi interactions are important forces in molecular recognition by biological receptors, enzyme catalysis, and crystal engineering. We have harnessed these interactions in designing molecular systems with circular arrangement of benzene units that are capable of acting as ionophores and models for biological receptors. [n]Collarenes are promising candidates with high selectivity for a specific cation, depending on n, because of their structural rigidity and well-defined cavity size. The interaction energies of [n]collarenes with cations have been evaluated by using ab initio calculations. The selectivity of these [n]collarenes in aqueous solution was revealed by using statistical perturbation theory in conjunction with Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. It has been observed that in [n]collarenes the ratio of the interaction energies of a cation with it and the cation with the basic building unit (benzene) can be correlated to its ion selectivity. We find that collarenes are excellent and efficient ionophores that bind cations through cation-pi interactions. [6]Collarene is found to be a selective host for Li+ and Mg2+, [8]collarene for K+ and Sr2+, and [10]collarene for Cs+ and Ba2+. This finding indicates that [10]collarene and [8]collarene could be used for effective separation of highly radioactive isotopes, 137Cs and 90Sr, which are major constituents of nuclear wastes. More interestingly, collarenes of larger cavity size can be useful in capturing organic cations. [12]Collarene exhibits a pronounced affinity for tetramethylammonium cation and acetylcholine, which implies that it could serve as a model for acetylcholinestrase. Thus, collarenes can prove to be novel and effective ionophores/model-receptors capable of heralding a new direction in molecular recognition and host-guest chemistry.

  8. Cation specific binding with protein surface charges

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Berk; van der Vegt, Nico F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Biological organization depends on a sensitive balance of noncovalent interactions, in particular also those involving interactions between ions. Ion-pairing is qualitatively described by the law of “matching water affinities.” This law predicts that cations and anions (with equal valence) form stable contact ion pairs if their sizes match. We show that this simple physical model fails to describe the interaction of cations with (molecular) anions of weak carboxylic acids, which are present on the surfaces of many intra- and extracellular proteins. We performed molecular simulations with quantitatively accurate models and observed that the order K+ < Na+ < Li+ of increasing binding affinity with carboxylate ions is caused by a stronger preference for forming weak solvent-shared ion pairs. The relative insignificance of contact pair interactions with protein surfaces indicates that thermodynamic stability and interactions between proteins in alkali salt solutions is governed by interactions mediated through hydration water molecules. PMID:19666545

  9. Dynamics of photoexcited Ba+ cations in 4He nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, Antonio; Zhang, Xiaohang; Barranco, Manuel; Cargnoni, Fausto; Hernando, Alberto; Mateo, David; Mella, Massimo; Drabbels, Marcel; Pi, Martí

    2016-03-01

    We present a joint experimental and theoretical study on the desolvation of Ba+ cations in 4He nanodroplets excited via the 6p ← 6s transition. The experiments reveal an efficient desolvation process yielding mainly bare Ba+ cations and Ba+Hen exciplexes with n = 1 and 2. The speed distributions of the ions are well described by Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions with temperatures ranging from 60 to 178 K depending on the excitation frequency and Ba+ Hen exciplex size. These results have been analyzed by calculations based on a time-dependent density functional description for the helium droplet combined with classical dynamics for the Ba+. In agreement with experiment, the calculations reveal the dynamical formation of exciplexes following excitation of the Ba+ cation. In contrast to experimental observation, the calculations do not reveal desolvation of excited Ba+ cations or exciplexes, even when relaxation pathways to lower lying states are included.

  10. Cation distribution and vacancies in nickel cobaltite.

    PubMed

    Loche, Danilo; Marras, Claudia; Carta, Daniela; Casula, Maria Francesca; Mountjoy, Gavin; Corrias, Anna

    2017-06-28

    Samples of nickel cobaltite, a mixed oxide occurring in the spinel structure which is currently extensively investigated because of its prospective application as ferromagnetic, electrocatalytic, and cost-effective energy storage material were prepared in the form of nanocrystals stabilized in a highly porous silica aerogel and as unsupported nanoparticles. Nickel cobaltite nanocrystals with average size 4 nm are successfully grown for the first time into the silica aerogel provided that a controlled oxidation of the metal precursor phases is carried out, consisting in a reduction under H 2 flow followed by mild oxidation in air. The investigation of the average oxidation state of the cations and of their distribution between the sites within the spinel structure, which is commonly described assuming the Ni cations are only located in the octahedral sites, has been carried out by X-ray absorption spectroscopy providing evidence for the first time that the unsupported nickel cobaltite sample has a Ni : Co molar ratio higher than the nominal ratio of 1 : 2 and a larger than expected average overall oxidation state of the cobalt and nickel cations. This is achieved retaining the spinel structure, which accommodates vacancies to counterbalance the variation in oxidation state.

  11. The Cation-π Interaction

    PubMed Central

    DOUGHERTY, DENNIS A.

    2014-01-01

    CONSPECTUS The chemistry community now recognizes the cation-π interaction as a major force for molecular recognition, joining the hydrophobic effect, the hydrogen bond, and the ion pair in determining macromolecular structure and drug-receptor interactions. This Account provides the author’s perspective on the intellectual origins and fundamental nature of the cation-π interaction. Early studies on cyclophanes established that water-soluble, cationic molecules would forgo aqueous solvation to enter a hydrophobic cavity if that cavity was lined with π systems. Important gas phase studies established the fundamental nature of the cation-π interaction. The strength of the cation-π interaction – Li+ binds to benzene with 38 kcal/mol of binding energy; NH4+ with 19 kcal/mol– distinguishes it from the weaker polar-π interactions observed in the benzene dimer or water-benzene complexes. In addition to the substantial intrinsic strength of the cation-π interaction in gas phase studies, the cation-π interaction remains energetically significant in aqueous media and under biological conditions. Many studies have shown that cation-π interactions can enhance binding energies by 2 – 5 kcal/mol, making them competitive with hydrogen bonds and ion pairs in drug-receptor and protein-protein interactions. As with other noncovalent interactions involving aromatic systems, the cation-π interaction includes a substantial electrostatic component. The six (four) Cδ−–Hδ+ bond dipoles of a molecule like benzene (ethylene) combine to produce a region of negative electrostatic potential on the face of the π system. Simple electrostatics facilitate a natural attraction of cations to the surface. The trend for (gas phase) binding energies is Li+>Na+>K+>Rb+: as the ion gets larger the charge is dispersed over a larger sphere and binding interactions weaken, a classical electrostatic effect. On other hand, polarizability does not define these interactions. Cyclohexane

  12. The cation-π interaction.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Dennis A

    2013-04-16

    The chemistry community now recognizes the cation-π interaction as a major force for molecular recognition, joining the hydrophobic effect, the hydrogen bond, and the ion pair in determining macromolecular structure and drug-receptor interactions. This Account provides the author's perspective on the intellectual origins and fundamental nature of the cation-π interaction. Early studies on cyclophanes established that water-soluble, cationic molecules would forego aqueous solvation to enter a hydrophobic cavity if that cavity was lined with π systems. Important gas phase studies established the fundamental nature of the cation-π interaction. The strength of the cation-π interaction (Li(+) binds to benzene with 38 kcal/mol of binding energy; NH4(+) with 19 kcal/mol) distinguishes it from the weaker polar-π interactions observed in the benzene dimer or water-benzene complexes. In addition to the substantial intrinsic strength of the cation-π interaction in gas phase studies, the cation-π interaction remains energetically significant in aqueous media and under biological conditions. Many studies have shown that cation-π interactions can enhance binding energies by 2-5 kcal/mol, making them competitive with hydrogen bonds and ion pairs in drug-receptor and protein-protein interactions. As with other noncovalent interactions involving aromatic systems, the cation-π interaction includes a substantial electrostatic component. The six (four) C(δ-)-H(δ+) bond dipoles of a molecule like benzene (ethylene) combine to produce a region of negative electrostatic potential on the face of the π system. Simple electrostatics facilitate a natural attraction of cations to the surface. The trend for (gas phase) binding energies is Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+) > Rb(+): as the ion gets larger the charge is dispersed over a larger sphere and binding interactions weaken, a classical electrostatic effect. On other hand, polarizability does not define these interactions. Cyclohexane is

  13. Synthetic cation-selective nanotube: permeant cations chaperoned by anions.

    PubMed

    Hilder, Tamsyn A; Gordon, Dan; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2011-01-28

    The ability to design ion-selective, synthetic nanotubes which mimic biological ion channels may have significant implications for the future treatment of bacteria, diseases, and as ultrasensitive biosensors. We present the design of a synthetic nanotube made from carbon atoms that selectively allows monovalent cations to move across and rejects all anions. The cation-selective nanotube mimics some of the salient properties of biological ion channels. Before practical nanodevices are successfully fabricated it is vital that proof-of-concept computational studies are performed. With this in mind we use molecular and stochastic dynamics simulations to characterize the dynamics of ion permeation across a single-walled (10, 10), 36 Å long, carbon nanotube terminated with carboxylic acid with an effective radius of 5.08 Å. Although cations encounter a high energy barrier of 7 kT, its height is drastically reduced by a chloride ion in the nanotube. The presence of a chloride ion near the pore entrance thus enables a cation to enter the pore and, once in the pore, it is chaperoned by the resident counterion across the narrow pore. The moment the chaperoned cation transits the pore, the counterion moves back to the entrance to ferry another ion. The synthetic nanotube has a high sodium conductance of 124 pS and shows linear current-voltage and current-concentration profiles. The cation-anion selectivity ratio ranges from 8 to 25, depending on the ionic concentrations in the reservoirs.

  14. Simultaneous anionic and cationic redox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Kyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-12-01

    It is challenging to unlock anionic redox activity, accompanied by full utilization of available cationic redox process, to boost capacity of battery cathodes. Now, material design by tuning the metal-oxygen interaction is shown to be a promising solution.

  15. Cationic liposomes as vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Dennis; Korsholm, Karen S; Rosenkrands, Ida; Lindenstrøm, Thomas; Andersen, Peter; Agger, Else Marie

    2007-10-01

    Cationic liposomes are lipid-bilayer vesicles with a positive surface charge that have re-emerged as a promising new adjuvant technology. Although there is some evidence that cationic liposomes themselves can improve the immune response against coadministered vaccine antigens, their main functions are to protect the antigens from clearance in the body and deliver the antigens to professional antigen-presenting cells. In addition, cationic liposomes can be used to introduce immunomodulators to enhance and modulate the immune response in a desirable direction and, thereby, represent an efficient tool when designing tailor-made adjuvants for specific disease targets. In this article we review the recent progress on cationic liposomes as vehicles, enhancing the effect of immunomodulators and the presentation of vaccine antigens.

  16. Structure-activity relationship of carbamate-linked cationic lipids bearing hydroxyethyl headgroup for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Defu; Zhang, Shubiao; Qureshi, Farooq; Zhao, Yinan; Cui, Shaohui; Wang, Bing; Chen, Huiying; Yang, Baoling; Zhao, Defeng

    2013-12-01

    A novel series of carbamate-linked cationic lipids containing hydroxyl headgroup were synthesized and included in formulations for transfection assays. The DNA-lipid complexes were characterized for their ability to bind DNA, their size, ζ-potential and cytotoxicity. Compared with our previously reported cationic transfection lipid DDCDMA lacking the hydroxyl group and the commercially available, these cationic liposomes exhibited relatively higher transfection efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cationic Biomimetic Particles of Polystyrene/Cationic Bilayer/Gramicidin for Optimal Bactericidal Activity.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Gabriel R S; Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana M

    2017-12-02

    Nanostructured particles of polystyrene sulfate (PSS) covered by a cationic lipid bilayer of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) incorporated gramicidin D (Gr) yielding optimal and broadened bactericidal activity against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus . The adsorption of DODAB/Gr bilayer onto PSS nanoparticles (NPs) increased the zeta-average diameter by 8-10 nm, changed the zeta-potential of the NPs from negative to positive, and yielded a narrow size distributions for the PSS/DODAB/Gr NPs, which displayed broad and maximal microbicidal activity at very small concentrations of the antimicrobials, namely, 0.057 and 0.0057 mM DODAB and Gr, respectively. The results emphasized the advantages of highly-organized, nanostructured, and cationic particles to achieve hybrid combinations of antimicrobials with broad spectrum activity at considerably reduced DODAB and Gr concentrations.

  18. Ceramic Spheres From Cation Exchange Beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, F. W.

    2003-01-01

    Porous ZrO2 and hollow TiO2 spheres were synthesized from a strong acid cation exchange resin. Spherical cation exchange beads, polystyrene based polymer, were used as a morphological-directing template. Aqueous ion exchange reaction was used to chemically bind (ZrO)(2+) ions to the polystyrene structure. The pyrolysis of the polystyrene at 600 C produces porous ZrO2 spheres with a surface area of 24 sq m/g with a mean sphere size of 42 microns. Hollow TiO2 spheres were synthesized by using the beads as a micro-reactor. A direct surface reaction - between titanium isopropoxide and the resin beads forms a hydrous TiO2 shell around the polystyrene core. The pyrolysis of the polystyrene core at 600 C produces hollow anatase spheres with a surface area of 42 sq m/g with a mean sphere size of 38 microns. The formation of ceramic spheres was studied by XRD, SEM and B.E.T. nitrogen adsorption measurements.

  19. Employment of cationic solid-lipid nanoparticles as RNA carriers.

    PubMed

    Montana, Giovanna; Bondì, Maria L; Carrotta, Rita; Picone, Pasquale; Craparo, Emanuela F; San Biagio, Pier L; Giammona, Gaetano; Di Carlo, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Gene transfer represents an important advance in the treatment of both genetic and acquired diseases. In this article, the suitability of cationically modified solid-lipid nanoparticles (SLN) as a nonviral vector for gene delivery was investigated, in order to obtain stable materials able to condense RNA. Cationic SLN were produced by microemulsion using Compritol ATO 888 as matrix lipid, Pluronic F68 as tenside, and dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDAB) as cationic lipid. The resulting particles were approximately 100 nm in size and showed a highly positive surface charge (+41 mV) in water. Size and shape were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. Moreover, we utilized the sea urchin as a model system to test their applicability on a living organism. To evaluate cationic SLN ability to complex the in vitro transcribed Paracentrotus lividus bep3 RNA, we utilized both light scattering and gel mobility experiments, and protection by nuclease degradation was also investigated. By microinjection experiment, we demonstrated that the nanoparticles do not inference with the viability of the P. lividus embryo and the complex nanoparticles-bep3 permits movement of the RNA during its localization in the egg, suggesting that it could be a suitable system for gene delivery. Taken together, all these results indicate that the cationic SNL are a good RNA carrier for gene transfer system and the sea urchin a simple and versatile candidate to test biological properties of nanotechnology devices.

  20. Promoter Effects of Alkali Metal Cations on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Resasco, Joaquin; Chen, Leanne D.; Clark, Ezra

    The electrochemical reduction of CO 2 is known to be influenced by the identity of the alkali metal cation in the electrolyte; however, a satisfactory explanation for this phenomenon has not been developed. Here we present the results of experimental and theoretical studies aimed at elucidating the effects of electrolyte cation size on the intrinsic activity and selectivity of metal catalysts for the reduction of CO 2. Experiments were conducted under conditions where the influence of electrolyte polarization is minimal in order to show that cation size affects the intrinsic rates of formation of certain reaction products, most notably formore » HCOO –, C 2H 4, and C 2H 5OH over Cu(100)- and Cu(111)-oriented thin films, and for CO and HCOO– over polycrystalline Ag and Sn. Interpretation of the findings for CO 2 reduction was informed by studies of the reduction of glyoxal and CO, key intermediates along the reaction pathway to final products. Density functional theory calculations show that the alkali metal cations influence the distribution of products formed as a consequence of electrostatic interactions between solvated cations present at the outer Helmholtz plane and adsorbed species having large dipole moments. As a result, the observed trends in activity with cation size are attributed to an increase in the concentration of cations at the outer Helmholtz plane with increasing cation size.« less

  1. Promoter Effects of Alkali Metal Cations on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide

    DOE PAGES

    Resasco, Joaquin; Chen, Leanne D.; Clark, Ezra; ...

    2017-07-24

    The electrochemical reduction of CO 2 is known to be influenced by the identity of the alkali metal cation in the electrolyte; however, a satisfactory explanation for this phenomenon has not been developed. Here we present the results of experimental and theoretical studies aimed at elucidating the effects of electrolyte cation size on the intrinsic activity and selectivity of metal catalysts for the reduction of CO 2. Experiments were conducted under conditions where the influence of electrolyte polarization is minimal in order to show that cation size affects the intrinsic rates of formation of certain reaction products, most notably formore » HCOO –, C 2H 4, and C 2H 5OH over Cu(100)- and Cu(111)-oriented thin films, and for CO and HCOO– over polycrystalline Ag and Sn. Interpretation of the findings for CO 2 reduction was informed by studies of the reduction of glyoxal and CO, key intermediates along the reaction pathway to final products. Density functional theory calculations show that the alkali metal cations influence the distribution of products formed as a consequence of electrostatic interactions between solvated cations present at the outer Helmholtz plane and adsorbed species having large dipole moments. As a result, the observed trends in activity with cation size are attributed to an increase in the concentration of cations at the outer Helmholtz plane with increasing cation size.« less

  2. Arginine-based cationic liposomes for efficient in vitro plasmid DNA delivery with low cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Satya Ranjan; Aoshima, Yumiko; Hokama, Ryosuke; Inoue, Takafumi; Sou, Keitaro; Takeoka, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    Currently available gene delivery vehicles have many limitations such as low gene delivery efficiency and high cytotoxicity. To overcome these drawbacks, we designed and synthesized two cationic lipids comprised of n-tetradecyl alcohol as the hydrophobic moiety, 3-hydrocarbon chain as the spacer, and different counterions (eg, hydrogen chloride [HCl] salt or trifluoroacetic acid [TFA] salt) in the arginine head group. Cationic lipids were hydrated in 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer to prepare cationic liposomes and characterized in terms of their size, zeta potential, phase transition temperature, and morphology. Lipoplexes were then prepared and characterized in terms of their size and zeta potential in the absence or presence of serum. The morphology of the lipoplexes was determined using transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The gene delivery efficiency was evaluated in neuronal cells and HeLa cells and compared with that of lysine-based cationic assemblies and Lipofectamine™ 2000. The cytotoxicity level of the cationic lipids was investigated and compared with that of Lipofectamine™ 2000. We synthesized arginine-based cationic lipids having different counterions (ie, HCl-salt or TFA-salt) that formed cationic liposomes of around 100 nm in size. In the absence of serum, lipoplexes prepared from the arginine-based cationic liposomes and plasmid (p) DNA formed large aggregates and attained a positive zeta potential. However, in the presence of serum, the lipoplexes were smaller in size and negative in zeta potential. The morphology of the lipoplexes was vesicular. Arginine-based cationic liposomes with HCl-salt showed the highest transfection efficiency in PC-12 cells. However, arginine-based cationic liposomes with TFA salt showed the highest transfection efficiency in HeLa cells, regardless of the presence of serum, with very low associated cytotoxicity. The gene delivery efficiency of amino acid

  3. Conserved Aromatic Residue Confers Cation Selectivity in Claudin-2 and Claudin-10b*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiahua; Zhuo, Min; Pei, Lei; Yu, Alan S. L.

    2013-01-01

    In tight junctions, both claudin-2 and claudin-10b form paracellular cation-selective pores by the interaction of the first ECL 1 with permeating ions. We hypothesized that a highly conserved aromatic residue near the pore selectivity filter of claudins contributes to cation selectivity by cation-π interaction with the permeating cation. To test this, we generated MDCK I Tet-off cells stably transfected with claudin-2 Tyr67 mutants. The Y67L mutant showed reduced cation selectivity compared with wild-type claudin-2 due to a decrease in Na+ permeability, without affecting the Cl− permeability. The Y67A mutant enlarged the pore size and further decreased the charge selectivity due to an increase in Cl− permeability. The Y67F mutant restored the Na+ permeability, Cl− permeability, and pore size back to wild-type. The accessibility of Y67C to methanethiosulfonate modification indicated that its side chain faces the lumen of the pore. In claudin-10b, the F66L mutant reduced cation selectivity, and the F66A mutant lost pore conductance. We conclude that the conserved aromatic residue near the cation pore domain of claudins contributes to cation selectivity by a dual role of cation-π interaction and a luminal steric effect. Our findings provide new insight into how ion selectivity is achieved in the paracellular pore. PMID:23760508

  4. Lipoic acid functionalized amino acids cationic lipids as gene vectors.

    PubMed

    Su, Rong-Chuan; Liu, Qiang; Yi, Wen-Jing; Zheng, Li-Ting; Zhao, Zhi-Gang

    2016-10-01

    A series of reducible cationic lipids 4a-4f with different amino acid polar-head groups were prepared. The novel lipid contains a hydrophobic lipoic acid (LA) moiety, which can be reduced under reductive conditions to release of the encapsulated plasmid DNA. The particle size, zeta potential and cellular uptake of lipoplexes formed with DNA, as well as the transfection efficacy (TE) were characterized. The TE of the cationic lipid based on arginine was especially high, and was 2.5times higher than that of a branched polyethylenimine in the presence of 10% serum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Selective monovalent cation association and exchange around Keplerate polyoxometalate macroanions in dilute aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Pigga, Joseph M; Teprovich, Joseph A; Flowers, Robert A; Antonio, Mark R; Liu, Tianbo

    2010-06-15

    The interaction between water-soluble Keplerate polyoxometalate {Mo(72)Fe(30)} macroions and small countercations is explored by laser light scattering, anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) techniques. The macroions are found to be able to select the type of associated counterions based upon the counterions' valence state and hydrated size, when multiple types of additional cations are present in solution (even among different monovalent cations). The preference goes to the cations with higher valences or smaller hydrated sizes if the valences are identical. This counterion exchange process changes the magnitude of the macroion-counterion interaction and, thus, is reflected in the dimension of the self-assembled {Mo(72)Fe(30)} blackberry supramolecular structures. The hydrophilic macroions exhibit a competitive recognition of various monovalent counterions in dilute solutions. A critical salt concentration (CSC) for each type of cation exists for the blackberry formation of {Mo(72)Fe(30)} macroions, above which the blackberry size increases significantly with the increasing total ionic strength in solution. The CSC values are much smaller for cations with higher valences and also decrease with the cations' hydrated size for various monovalent cations. The change of blackberry size corresponding to the change of ionic strength in solution is reversible.

  6. Inversion of membrane surface charge by trivalent cations probed with a cation-selective channel

    PubMed Central

    Gurnev, Philip A.; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that the cation-selective channel formed by gramicidin A can be used as a reliable sensor for studying the multivalent ion accumulation at the surfaces of charged lipid membranes and the “charge inversion” phenomenon. In asymmetrically charged membranes with the individual leaflets formed from pure negative and positive lipids bathed by 0.1 M CsCl solutions the channel exhibits current rectification which is comparable to that of a typical n/p semiconductor diode. We show that even at these highly asymmetrical conditions the channel conductance can be satisfactorily described by the electrodiffusion equation in the constant field approximation but, due to predictable limitations, only when the applied voltages do not exceed 50 mV. Analysis of the changes in the voltage-dependent channel conductance upon addition of trivalent cations allows us to gauge their interactions with the membrane surface. The inversion of the sign of the effective surface charge takes place at the concentrations which correlate with the cation size. Specifically, these concentrations are close to 0.05 mM for lanthanum, 0.25 mM for hexaamminecobalt, and 4 mM for spermidine. PMID:23088396

  7. Inversion of membrane surface charge by trivalent cations probed with a cation-selective channel.

    PubMed

    Gurnev, Philip A; Bezrukov, Sergey M

    2012-11-13

    We demonstrate that the cation-selective channel formed by gramicidin A can be used as a reliable sensor for studying the multivalent ion accumulation at the surfaces of charged lipid membranes and the "charge inversion" phenomenon. In asymmetrically charged membranes with the individual leaflets formed from pure negative and positive lipids bathed by 0.1 M CsCl solutions the channel exhibits current rectification, which is comparable to that of a typical n/p semiconductor diode. We show that even at these highly asymmetrical conditions the channel conductance can be satisfactorily described by the electrodiffusion equation in the constant field approximation but, due to predictable limitations, only when the applied voltages do not exceed 50 mV. Analysis of the changes in the voltage-dependent channel conductance upon addition of trivalent cations allows us to gauge their interactions with the membrane surface. The inversion of the sign of the effective surface charge takes place at the concentrations, which correlate with the cation size. Specifically, these concentrations are close to 0.05 mM for lanthanum, 0.25 mM for hexaamminecobalt, and 4 mM for spermidine.

  8. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of ammonium cationized polyethers.

    PubMed

    Nasioudis, Andreas; Heeren, Ron M A; van Doormalen, Irene; de Wijs-Rot, Nicolette; van den Brink, Oscar F

    2011-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (Quats) and amines are known to facilitate the MS analysis of high molar mass polyethers by forming low charge state adduct ions. The formation, stability, and behavior upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) of adduct ions of polyethers with a variety of Quats and amines were studied by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight, quadrupole ion trap, and linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear ion trap instrument was part of an Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer that allowed accurate mass MS/MS measurements. The Quats and amines studied were of different degree of substitution, structure, and size. The stability of the adduct ions was related to the structure of the cation, especially the amine's degree of substitution. CID of singly/doubly charged primary and tertiary ammonium cationized polymers resulted in the neutral loss of the amine followed by fragmentation of the protonated product ions. The latter reveals information about the monomer unit, polymer sequence, and endgroup structure. In addition, the detection of product ions retaining the ammonium ion was observed. The predominant process in the CID of singly charged quaternary ammonium cationized polymers was cation detachment, whereas their doubly charged adduct ions provided the same information as the primary and tertiary ammonium cationized adduct ions. This study shows the potential of specific amines as tools for the structural elucidation of high molar mass polyethers. © American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2011

  9. Thermodynamics and Cation Diffusion in the Oxygen Ion Conductor Lsgm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M.; Schulz, O.

    Perovskite type oxides based on LaGaO3 are of large technical interest because of their high oxygen-ion conductivity. Lanthanum gallate doped with Sr on A- and Mg on B-sites, La1-xSrxGa1-yMgyO3-(x+y)/2 (LSGM), reaches higher oxygen-ion conductivities than yttria-doped zirconia (YSZ). Thus LSGM represents a promising alternative for YSZ as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Cells using thin LSGM-layers as electrolyte are expected to operate at intermediate temperatures around 700°C for more than 30000 hours without severe degradation. A potential long term degradation effect of LSGM is kinetic demixing of the electrolyte, caused by different cation diffusion coefficients. In this paper we report on experimental studies concerning the phase diagram of LSGM and the diffusion of cations. Cation self-diffusion of 139La, 84Sr and 25Mg and cation impurity diffusion of 144Nd, 89Y and 56Fe in polycrystalline LSGM samples was investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for temperatures between 900°C and 1400°C. It was found that diffusion occurs by means of bulk and grain boundaries. The bulk diffusion coefficients are similar for all cations with activation energies which are strongly dependent on temperature. At high temperatures, the activation energies are about 5 eV, while at low temperatures values of about 2 eV are found. These results are explained by a frozen in defect structure at low temperatures. This means that the observed activation energy at low temperatures represents only the migration energy of the different cations while the observed activation energy at high temperatures is the sum of the defect formation energy and the migration energy. The migration energies for all cations are nearly identical, although 139La, 84Sr and 144Nd are occupying A-sites while 25Mg and 56Fe are occupying B-sites in the perovskite-structure. To explain these experimental findings we propose a defect cluster containing cation vacancies in both the A

  10. Closed-Shell Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cations: A New Category of Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Density functional theory has been employed to calculate the harmonic frequencies and intensities of a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) cations that explore both size and electronic structure effects of the infrared spectroscopic properties of these species. The sample extends the size range of PAH species considered to more than 50 carbon atoms and includes several representatives from each of two heretofore unexplored categories of PAH cations: (1) fully benzenoid PAH cations whose carbon skeleton is composed of an odd number of carbon atoms (C(sub odd) PAHs); and (2) protonated PAH cations (HPAH+). Unlike the radical electronic structures of the PAH cations that have been the subject of previous theoretical and experimental work, the species in these two classes have a closed-shell electronic configuration. The calculated spectra of circumcoronene, C54H18 in both neutral and (radical) cationic form are also reported and compared with those of the other species. Overall, the C(sub odd) PAHs spectra are dominated by strong CC stretching modes near 1600 cm(exp -1) and display spectra that are remarkably insensitive to molecular size. The HPAH+ species evince a more complex spectrum consistent with the added contributions of aliphatic modes and their generally lower symmetry. Finally, for both classes of closed-shell cations, the intensity of the aromatic CH stretching modes is found to increase with molecular size far out of proportion with the number of CH groups, approaching a value more typical of neutral PAHs for the largest species studied.

  11. Heavy metal cations permeate the TRPV6 epithelial cation channel.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Gergely; Danko, Tamas; Bergeron, Marc J; Balazs, Bernadett; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Zsembery, Akos; Hediger, Matthias A

    2011-01-01

    TRPV6 belongs to the vanilloid family of the transient receptor potential channel (TRP) superfamily. This calcium-selective channel is highly expressed in the duodenum and the placenta, being responsible for calcium absorption in the body and fetus. Previous observations have suggested that TRPV6 is not only permeable to calcium but also to other divalent cations in epithelial tissues. In this study, we tested whether TRPV6 is indeed also permeable to cations such as zinc and cadmium. We found that the basal intracellular calcium concentration was higher in HEK293 cells transfected with hTRPV6 than in non-transfected cells, and that this difference almost disappeared in nominally calcium-free solution. Live cell imaging experiments with Fura-2 and NewPort Green DCF showed that overexpression of human TRPV6 increased the permeability for Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Sr(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and interestingly also for La(3+) and Gd(3+). These results were confirmed using the patch clamp technique. (45)Ca uptake experiments showed that cadmium, lanthanum and gadolinium were also highly efficient inhibitors of TRPV6-mediated calcium influx at higher micromolar concentrations. Our results suggest that TRPV6 is not only involved in calcium transport but also in the transport of other divalent cations, including heavy metal ions, which may have toxicological implications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ammonia-water cation and ammonia dimer cation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hahn; Lee, Han Myoung

    2009-06-25

    We have investigated the structure, interaction energy, electronic properties, and IR spectra of the ammonia-water cation (NH(3)H(2)O)(+) using density functional theory (DFT) and high-level ab initio theory. The ammonia-water cation has three minimum-energy structures of (a) H(2)NH(+)...OH(2), (b) H(3)N(+)...OH(2), and (c) H(3)NH(+)...OH. The lowest-energy structure is (a), followed by (c) and (b). The ammonia dimer cation has two minimum-energy structures [the lowest H(3)NH(+)...NH(2) structure and the second lowest (H(3)N...NH(3))(+) structure]. The minimum transition barrier for the interconversion between (a), (b), and (c) is approximately 6 kcal/mol. Most DFT calculations with various functionals, except a few cases, overstabilize the N...O and N...N binding, predicting different structures from Moller-Plesset second-order perturbation (MP2) theory and the most reliable complete basis set (CBS) limit of coupled cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. Thus, the validity test of the DFT functionals for these ionized molecular systems would be of importance.

  13. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    DOEpatents

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  14. Potential effect of cationic liposomes on interactions with oral bacterial cells and biofilms.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Marika; Morisaki, Hirobumi; Negishi, Yoichi; Endo-Takahashi, Yoko; Kuwata, Hirotaka; Miyazaki, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2016-01-01

    Although oral infectious diseases have been attributed to bacteria, drug treatments remain ineffective because bacteria and their products exist as biofilms. Cationic liposomes have been suggested to electrostatically interact with the negative charge on the bacterial surface, thereby improving the effects of conventional drug therapies. However, the electrostatic interaction between oral bacteria and cationic liposomes has not yet been examined in detail. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavior of cationic liposomes and Streptococcus mutans in planktonic cells and biofilms. Liposomes with or without cationic lipid were prepared using a reverse-phase evaporation method. The zeta potentials of conventional liposomes (without cationic lipid) and cationic liposomes were -13 and 8 mV, respectively, and both had a mean particle size of approximately 180 nm. We first assessed the interaction between liposomes and planktonic bacterial cells with a flow cytometer. We then used a surface plasmon resonance method to examine the binding of liposomes to biofilms. We confirmed the binding behavior of liposomes with biofilms using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The interactions between cationic liposomes and S. mutans cells and biofilms were stronger than those of conventional liposomes. Microscopic observations revealed that many cationic liposomes interacted with the bacterial mass and penetrated the deep layers of biofilms. In this study, we demonstrated that cationic liposomes had higher affinity not only to oral bacterial cells, but also biofilms than conventional liposomes. This electrostatic interaction may be useful as a potential drug delivery system to biofilms.

  15. Atomistic Modeling of Cation Diffusion in Transition Metal Perovskites La1-xSrxMnO3+/-δfor Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Duan, Yuhua; Morgan, Dane; Sorescu, Dan; Abernathy, Harry

    Cation diffusion in La1-xSrxMnO3+/-δ (LSM) and in related perovskite materials play an important role in controlling long term performance and stability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFCs) cathodes. Due to sluggish rates of cation diffusion and complex coupling between defect chemistry and cation diffusion pathways, currently there is still lack of quantitative theoretical model predictions on cation diffusivity vs. T and P(O2) to describe experimental cation tracer diffusivities. In this work, based on ab initio modeling of LSM defect chemistry and migration barriers of the possible cation diffusion pathways, we assess the rates of A-site and B-site cation diffusion in a wide range of T and P(O2) at x =0.0 and 0.2 for SOFC applications. We demonstrate the active cation diffusion pathways in LSM involve cation defect clusters as cation transport carriers, where reduction in the cation migration barriers, which are governed by the steric effect associated with the metal-oxygen cage in the perovskite lattice, is much greater than the penalty of repulsive interaction in the A-site and B-site cation vacancy clusters, leading to higher cation diffusion rates as compared to those of single cation vacancy hopping mechanisms. The predicted Mn and La/Sr cation self-diffusion coefficients of LSM at at x =0.0 and 0.2 along with their 1/T and P(O2) dependences, are in good agreement with the experimental tracer diffusion coefficients.

  16. A Theoretical Investigation of the Infrared Spectroscopic Properties of Closed-Shell Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Density functional theory has been employed to calculate the harmonic frequencies and intensities of a range of PAH cations which explore both size and electronic structure effects on the infrared spectroscopic of these species. The sample extends the size range of PAH species considered to more than 50 carbon atoms and includes several representatives from each of two heretofore unexplored categories of PAH cations: (1) fully benzenoid PAH cations whose carbon skeleton is composed of an odd number of carbon atoms and (2) protonated PAH cations. Unlike the radical electronic structures of the PAH cations that have been the subject of previous theoretical and experimental work, the species in these two classes have a closed-shell electronic configuration. The calculated spectra of circumcoronene, C54H18, in both neutral and (radical) cationic form are also reported and compared to those of the other species. Closed-shell species are inherently less reactive than radical (or open-shell) cations and are known to play a role in combustion chemistry. Since interstellar PAHs are typically exposed to abundant atomic hydrogen and are thought to originate under pseudo-combustion conditions in carbon-rich circumstellar shells, such species may represent an important component of the interstellar PAH population. Furthermore, species larger than 50 carbon atoms are more representative of the size of the typical interstellar PAH. Overall, as has been the case for previous studies of PAH radical cations, the general pattern of band positions and intensities are consistent with that of the interstellar infrared emission spectrum. In addition, the spectra of closed-shell and open-shell cations are found to converge with increasing molecular size and are found to be relatively similar for species containing about 50 carbon atoms.

  17. Infrared frequencies and intensities for astrophysically important polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szczepanski, Jan; Vala, Martin

    1993-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been implicated as the carriers of the 'unidentified infrared' (UIR) emission bands observed from the interstellar medium. It has long been thought that these molecules, if present, probably exist as cations. In this paper we present infrared spectra of the cations of five moderate-sized PAHs. The PAH cations have been produced by low-energy electron impact and then trapped and stabilized in argon matrices at 12 K. To date, results have been obtained on naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene, perylene, and coronene. A common feature of the infrared spectra of all these cations is the very different intensity pattern of the ions compared to the neutral parents. Visible and (partial) infrared spectra of the coronene cation are also presented. It is shown that the out-of-plane CH bending mode shifts to a position very close to the UIR band at 11.3 microns. The astrophysical impact of these observations is discussed.

  18. Effect of Cation Ordering on the Performance and Chemical Stability of Layered Double Perovskite Cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Bernuy-Lopez, Carlos; Rioja-Monllor, Laura; Nakamura, Takashi; Ricote, Sandrine; O’Hayre, Ryan; Amezawa, Koji; Einarsrud, Mari-Ann

    2018-01-01

    The effect of A-site cation ordering on the cathode performance and chemical stability of A-site cation ordered LaBaCo2O5+δ and disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3−δ materials are reported. Symmetric half-cells with a proton-conducting BaZr0.9Y0.1O3−δ electrolyte were prepared by ceramic processing, and good chemical compatibility of the materials was demonstrated. Both A-site ordered LaBaCo2O5+δ and A-site disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3−δ yield excellent cathode performance with Area Specific Resistances as low as 7.4 and 11.5 Ω·cm2 at 400 °C and 0.16 and 0.32 Ω·cm2 at 600 °C in 3% humidified synthetic air respectively. The oxygen vacancy concentration, electrical conductivity, basicity of cations and crystal structure were evaluated to rationalize the electrochemical performance of the two materials. The combination of high-basicity elements and high electrical conductivity as well as sufficient oxygen vacancy concentration explains the excellent performance of both LaBaCo2O5+δ and La0.5Ba0.5CoO3−δ materials at high temperatures. At lower temperatures, oxygen-deficiency in both materials is greatly reduced, leading to decreased performance despite the high basicity and electrical conductivity. A-site cation ordering leads to a higher oxygen vacancy concentration, which explains the better performance of LaBaCo2O5+δ. Finally, the more pronounced oxygen deficiency of the cation ordered polymorph and the lower chemical stability at reducing conditions were confirmed by coulometric titration. PMID:29373541

  19. Cation coordination in oxychloride glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. A.; Holland, D.; Bland, J.; Johnson, C. E.; Thomas, M. F.

    2003-02-01

    Glasses containing mixtures of cations and anions of nominal compositions [Sb2O3]x - [ZnCl2]1-x where x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00, have been studied by means of neutron diffraction and Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy. There is preferential bonding within the system with the absence of Sb-Cl bonds. Antimony is found to be threefold coordinated to oxygen, and zinc fourfold coordinated. The main contributing species are of the form [Sb(OSb)2(OZn)] and [Zn(ClZn)2(OSb)2].

  20. Cation disorder in shocked orthopyroxene.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dundon, R. W.; Hafner, S. S.

    1971-01-01

    The study of cation distributions over nonequivalent lattice sites in minerals may reveal information on the history of temperature and pressure in rocks. Chemically homogeneous orthopyroxene specimens were shocked under well-controlled conditions in the laboratory in order to provide a basis for the interpretation of more complex natural materials. As a result of the investigation it is concluded that the distribution of magnesium and iron over the M1 and M2 positions in Bamle enstatite shocked at 1 megabar is highly disordered. It corresponds to an equilibrium distribution of at least 1000 C.

  1. Mechanism of Enhancement of Virus Plaques by Cationic Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Craig; Melnick, Joseph L.

    1968-01-01

    It has been assumed that plaque enhancement by cationic polymers is due to their binding of sulfated polysaccharides in agar. However, viruses that are enhanced by cationic polymers, diethylaminoethyl-dextran, and protamine were found not to be inhibited by polyanions in agar under the usual overlay conditions. In the case of adenovirus, enhancement by protamine seems to be due to the protamine serving as a source of arginine; enzymes released from the cultured cells digest the protamine and provide a reservoir of arginine for the cells. Other viruses (herpes and echovirus types 3, 4, 5, and 6) known to be susceptible to agar inhibitors were found to be enhanced by cationic polymers even under starch gel and methylcellulose overlays, which are free of polyanions. Since cationic polymers enhance the diffusion of virus through agar or starch gel, plaque enhancement seems to be the result of the gel becoming positively charged so that viruses can move effectively through them. The observation that starch gel and methylcellulose enhance plaque formation with viruses known to be inhibited under agar was also reinvestigated. When the consistency of the agar gel was reduced to the same viscosity of starch gel and methylcellulose overlays, the same plaque counts and sizes were observed under all three overlays. PMID:4986901

  2. Cationic nanoparticles induce nanoscale disruption in living cell plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiumei; Hessler, Jessica A; Putchakayala, Krishna; Panama, Brian K; Khan, Damian P; Hong, Seungpyo; Mullen, Douglas G; Dimaggio, Stassi C; Som, Abhigyan; Tew, Gregory N; Lopatin, Anatoli N; Baker, James R; Holl, Mark M Banaszak; Orr, Bradford G

    2009-08-13

    It has long been recognized that cationic nanoparticles induce cell membrane permeability. Recently, it has been found that cationic nanoparticles induce the formation and/or growth of nanoscale holes in supported lipid bilayers. In this paper, we show that noncytotoxic concentrations of cationic nanoparticles induce 30-2000 pA currents in 293A (human embryonic kidney) and KB (human epidermoid carcinoma) cells, consistent with a nanoscale defect such as a single hole or group of holes in the cell membrane ranging from 1 to 350 nm(2) in total area. Other forms of nanoscale defects, including the nanoparticle porating agents adsorbing onto or intercalating into the lipid bilayer, are also consistent; although the size of the defect must increase to account for any reduction in ion conduction, as compared to a water channel. An individual defect forming event takes 1-100 ms, while membrane resealing may occur over tens of seconds. Patch-clamp data provide direct evidence for the formation of nanoscale defects in living cell membranes. The cationic polymer data are compared and contrasted with patch-clamp data obtained for an amphiphilic phenylene ethynylene antimicrobial oligomer (AMO-3), a small molecule that is proposed to make well-defined 3.4 nm holes in lipid bilayers. Here, we observe data that are consistent with AMO-3 making approximately 3 nm holes in living cell membranes.

  3. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNps) and (3) positively charged branched polyethyleneimine coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs). The AgNPs investigated in this experiment were similar in size (10-15 nm), spherical in shape, but varied in surface charge which ranged from highly negative to highly positive. While, at AgNPs concentrations lower than 5 mg L-1, the anaerobic decomposition process was not influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles, there was an observed impact on the diversity of the microbial community. At elevated concentrations (100 mg L-1 as silver), only the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity similar in magnitude to that of Ag+. Both citrate and PVP-AgNPs did not exhibit toxicity at the 100 mg L-1 as measured by biogas evolution. These findings further indicate the varying modes of action for nanoparticle toxicity and represent one of the few studies that evaluate end-of-life management concerns with regards to the increasing use of nanomaterials in our everyday life. These findings also highlight some of the concerns with a one size fits all approach to the evaluation of environmental health and safety concerns associated with the use of nanoparticles. The current

  4. Electronic spectra of astrophysically interesting cations

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, John P., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch; Rice, Corey A., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch; Mazzotti, Fabio J., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch

    2015-01-22

    The electronic spectra of polyacetylene cations were recorded at 20K in the laboratory in an ion trap instrument. These can then be compared with diffuse interstellar band (DIB) absorptions. Examination of recently published data shows that the attribution of a weak DIB at ∼506.9 nm to diacetylene cation is not justified. Study of the higher excited electronic states of polyacetylene cations shows that their widths can still be sufficiently narrow for consideration as DIB carriers.

  5. ADSORPTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING METAL CATIONS

    DOEpatents

    Khym, J.X.

    1959-03-10

    The chromatographic separation of fission product cations is discussed. By use of this method a mixture of metal cations containing Zr, Cb, Ce, Y, Ba, and Sr may be separated from one another. Mentioned as preferred exchange adsorbents are resins containing free sulfonic acid groups. Various eluants, such as tartaric acid, HCl, and citric acid, used at various acidities, are employed to effect the selective elution and separation of the various fission product cations.

  6. Theoretical Infrared Spectra for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Neutrals, Cations and Anions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1995-01-01

    Calculations are carried out using density functional theory (DFT) to determine the harmonic frequencies and intensities of the neutrals and cations of thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) up to the size of ovalene. Calculations are also carried out for a few PAH anions. The DFT harmonic frequencies, when uniformly scaled by the factor of 0.958 to account primarily for anharmonicity, agree with the matrix isolation fundamentals to within an average error of about 10 per centimeter. Electron correlation is found to significantly reduce the intensities of many of the cation harmonics, bringing them into much better agreement with the available experimental data. While the theoretical infrared spectra agree well with the experimental data for the neutral systems and for many of the cations, there are notable discrepancies with the experimental matrix isolation data for some PAH cations that are difficult to explain in terms of limitations in the calculations. In agreement with previous theoretical work, the present calculations show that the relative intensities for the astronomical unidentified infrared (UIR) bands agree reasonably well with those for a distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) cations, but not with a distribution of PAH neutrals. We also observe that the infrared spectra of highly symmetrical cations such as coronene agree much better with astronomical observations than do those of, for example, the polyacenes such as tetracene and pentacene. The total integrated intensities for the neutral species are found to increase linearly with size, while the total integrated intensities are much larger for the cations and scale more nearly quadratically with size. We conclude that emission from moderate-sized highly symmetric PAH cations such as coronene and larger could account for the UIR bands.

  7. Cationic nanoemulsions as potential carriers for intracellular delivery

    PubMed Central

    Khachane, P.V.; Jain, A.S.; Dhawan, V.V.; Joshi, G.V.; Date, A.A.; Mulherkar, R.; Nagarsenker, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Successful cytosolic delivery enables opportunities for improved treatment of various genetic disorders, infectious diseases and cancer. Cationic nanoemulsions were designed using alternative excipients and evaluated for particle size, charge, effect of sterilization on its stability, DNA condensation potential and cellular uptake efficiency. Various concentrations of non-ionic and ionic stabilizers were evaluated to design formula for colloidally stable cationic nanoemulsion. The nanoemulsion comprised of 5% Capmul MCM, 0.5% didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), 1% phospholipid, 1% Poloxamer 188 and 2.25% glycerol and possessed particle size of 81.6 ± 3.56 nm and 137.1 ± 1.57 nm before and after steam sterilization, respectively. DNA condensation studies were carried out at various nanoemulsion: DNA ratios ranging from 1:1 to 10:1. Cell uptake studies were conducted on human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines which are widely reported for transfection studies. The nanoemulsions showed excellent cellular uptake as evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Overall, a colloidally stable cationic nanoemulsion with good DNA condensation ability was successfully fabricated for efficient cytosolic delivery and potential for in vivo effectiveness. PMID:25972740

  8. Cation distribution of Ni-Zn-Mn ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvatheeswara Rao, B.; Dhanalakshmi, B.; Ramesh, S.; Subba Rao, P. S. V.

    2018-06-01

    Mn substituted Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles, Ni0.4Zn0.6-xMnxFe2O4 (x = 0.00-0.25 in steps of 0.05), using metal nitrates were prepared by sol-gel autocombustion in citric acid matrix. The samples were examined by X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques. Rietveld structural refinements using the XRD data were performed on the samples to consolidate various structural parameters like phase (spinel), crystallite size (24.86-37.43 nm), lattice constant (8.3764-8.4089 Å) etc and also to determine cation distributions based on profile matching and integrated intensity ratios. Saturation magnetization values (37.18-68.40 emu/g) were extracted from the measured M-H loops of these nanoparticles to estimate their magnetic moments. Experimental and calculated magnetic moments and lattice constants were used to confirm the derived cation distributions from Rietveld analysis. The results of these ferrite nanoparticles are discussed in terms of the compositional modifications, particle sizes and the corresponding cation distributions as a result of Mn substitutions.

  9. Divalent cation interactions with oligogalacturonides.

    PubMed

    Cescutti, P; Rizzo, R

    2001-07-01

    The conformational properties of high and low molecular weight galacturonides were investigated in relation to the ability of oligomers with degree of polymerization >10 to act as elicitors of plant defense mechanisms. Oligomers from polygalacturonate were obtained by means of enzymatic hydrolysis. Two fractions exhibiting high and low average degrees of polymerization were isolated by solvent fractionation and characterized by means of electrospray mass spectrometry. The conformational behaviors of the two fractions were investigated in the presence of different divalent cations using circular dichroism. Calcium, copper, and zinc ions were able to induce a conformational transition in both fractions. When in the presence of the high molecular weight fraction, copper and zinc ions were much more effective than calcium ions, whereas the efficiency was much reduced with low molecular weight oligomers.

  10. Cation-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Choi, Inyeong; Lee, Soojung

    2016-01-01

    Cation-coupled HCO3− transport was initially identified in the mid-1970s when pioneering studies showed that acid extrusion from cells is stimulated by CO2/HCO3− and associated with Na+ and Cl− movement. The first Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) was expression-cloned in the late 1990s. There are currently five mammalian NCBTs in the SLC4-family: the electrogenic Na,HCO3-cotransporters NBCe1 and NBCe2 (SLC4A4 and SLC4A5 gene products); the electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7 gene product); the Na+-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger NDCBE (SLC4A8 gene product); and NBCn2/NCBE (SLC4A10 gene product), which has been characterized as an electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter or a Na+-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger. Despite the similarity in amino acid sequence and predicted structure among the NCBTs of the SLC4-family, they exhibit distinct differences in ion dependency, transport function, pharmacological properties, and interactions with other proteins. In epithelia, NCBTs are involved in transcellular movement of acid-base equivalents and intracellular pH control. In nonepithelial tissues, NCBTs contribute to intracellular pH regulation; and hence, they are crucial for diverse tissue functions including neuronal discharge, sensory neuron development, performance of the heart, and vascular tone regulation. The function and expression levels of the NCBTs are generally sensitive to intracellular and systemic pH. Animal models have revealed pathophysiological roles of the transporters in disease states including metabolic acidosis, hypertension, visual defects, and epileptic seizures. Studies are being conducted to understand the physiological consequences of genetic polymorphisms in the SLC4-members, which are associated with cancer, hypertension, and drug addiction. Here, we describe the current knowledge regarding the function, structure, and regulation of the mammalian cation-coupled HCO3− transporters of the SLC4-family. PMID:25428855

  11. Ultrasound enhances in vivo tumor expression of plasmid DNA by PEG-introduced cationized dextran.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhani, Hossein; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2005-11-28

    This study is an investigation to experimentally confirm whether or not ultrasound (US) irradiation is effective in enhancing the in vivo gene expression of plasmid DNA in tumor. Dextran was cationized by introducing spermine to the hydroxyl groups to allow to polyionically complex with a plasmid DNA. The cationized dextran prepared was additionally modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules which have an active ester and methoxy groups at each terminal, to obtain cationized dextran with different percentages of PEG introduced. Various cationized dextrans with or without PEG introduction were mixed with a plasmid DNA of LacZ to form cationized dextran-plasmid DNA complexes. Electrophoretical examination revealed that the plasmid DNA was complexed both with the cationized dextran and PEG-introduced cationized dextran, irrespective of the PEG introduction percentage, although the higher N/P ratio was needed for plasmid DNA complexation with the latter. By complexation with the cationized dextran, the zeta potential of plasmid DNA was changed to be positive. The charge of PEG-introduced cationized dextran-plasmid DNA complexes became close to 0 mV as their percentage of PEG introduced increased, although the molecular size was about 250 nm, irrespective of the PEG introduction. When cationized dextran-plasmid DNA complexes with or without PEG introduction were intravenously injected to mice carrying a subcutaneous Meth-AR-1 fibrosarcoma mass and the subsequent US irradiation to the tumor mass percutaneously, the PEG-introduced cationized dextran-plasmid DNA complex plus US irradiation enhanced the tumor level of gene expression to a significantly high extent compared with the cationized dextran-plasmid DNA complex and free plasmid DNA with or without US irradiation. The enhanced level depended on the time period and timing of US irradiation. Fluorescent microscopic studies revealed that the localization of plasmid DNA and the gene expression were observed in

  12. Arginine-based cationic liposomes for efficient in vitro plasmid DNA delivery with low cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Satya Ranjan; Aoshima, Yumiko; Hokama, Ryosuke; Inoue, Takafumi; Sou, Keitaro; Takeoka, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently available gene delivery vehicles have many limitations such as low gene delivery efficiency and high cytotoxicity. To overcome these drawbacks, we designed and synthesized two cationic lipids comprised of n-tetradecyl alcohol as the hydrophobic moiety, 3-hydrocarbon chain as the spacer, and different counterions (eg, hydrogen chloride [HCl] salt or trifluoroacetic acid [TFA] salt) in the arginine head group. Methods Cationic lipids were hydrated in 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer to prepare cationic liposomes and characterized in terms of their size, zeta potential, phase transition temperature, and morphology. Lipoplexes were then prepared and characterized in terms of their size and zeta potential in the absence or presence of serum. The morphology of the lipoplexes was determined using transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The gene delivery efficiency was evaluated in neuronal cells and HeLa cells and compared with that of lysine-based cationic assemblies and Lipofectamine™ 2000. The cytotoxicity level of the cationic lipids was investigated and compared with that of Lipofectamine™ 2000. Results We synthesized arginine-based cationic lipids having different counterions (ie, HCl-salt or TFA-salt) that formed cationic liposomes of around 100 nm in size. In the absence of serum, lipoplexes prepared from the arginine-based cationic liposomes and plasmid (p) DNA formed large aggregates and attained a positive zeta potential. However, in the presence of serum, the lipoplexes were smaller in size and negative in zeta potential. The morphology of the lipoplexes was vesicular. Arginine-based cationic liposomes with HCl-salt showed the highest transfection efficiency in PC-12 cells. However, arginine-based cationic liposomes with TFA salt showed the highest transfection efficiency in HeLa cells, regardless of the presence of serum, with very low associated cytotoxicity. Conclusion The gene

  13. Structural and energetic study of cation-π-cation interactions in proteins.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Silvana; Soteras, Ignacio; Gelpí, Josep Lluis; Dehez, François; Chipot, Christophe; Luque, F Javier; Curutchet, Carles

    2017-04-12

    Cation-π interactions of aromatic rings and positively charged groups are among the most important interactions in structural biology. The role and energetic characteristics of these interactions are well established. However, the occurrence of cation-π-cation interactions is an unexpected motif, which raises intriguing questions about its functional role in proteins. We present a statistical analysis of the occurrence, composition and geometrical preferences of cation-π-cation interactions identified in a set of non-redundant protein structures taken from the Protein Data Bank. Our results demonstrate that this structural motif is observed at a small, albeit non-negligible frequency in proteins, and suggest a preference to establish cation-π-cation motifs with Trp, followed by Tyr and Phe. Furthermore, we have found that cation-π-cation interactions tend to be highly conserved, which supports their structural or functional role. Finally, we have performed an energetic analysis of a representative subset of cation-π-cation complexes combining quantum-chemical and continuum solvation calculations. Our results point out that the protein environment can strongly screen the cation-cation repulsion, leading to an attractive interaction in 64% of the complexes analyzed. Together with the high degree of conservation observed, these results suggest a potential stabilizing role in the protein fold, as demonstrated recently for a miniature protein (Craven et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 1543). From a computational point of view, the significant contribution of non-additive three-body terms challenges the suitability of standard additive force fields for describing cation-π-cation motifs in molecular simulations.

  14. Cationic PAMAM dendrimers disrupt key platelet functions

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Clinton F.; Campbell, Robert A.; Franks, Zechariah; Gibson, Christopher C.; Thiagarajan, Giridhar; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Sukavaneshvar, Sivaprasad; Mohammad, S. Fazal; Li, Dean Y.; Ghandehari, Hamidreza; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Brooks, Benjamin D.; Grainger, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have been proposed for a variety of biomedical applications and are increasingly studied as model nanomaterials for such use. The dendritic structure features both modular synthetic control of molecular size and shape and presentation of multiple equivalent terminal groups. These properties make PAMAM dendrimers highly functionalizable, versatile single-molecule nanoparticles with a high degree of consistency and low polydispersity. Recent nanotoxicological studies showed that intravenous administration of amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers to mice was lethal, causing a disseminated intravascular coagulation-like condition. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this coagulopathy, in vitro assessments of platelet functions in contact with PAMAM dendrimers were undertaken. This study demonstrates that cationic G7 PAMAM dendrimers activate platelets and dramatically alter their morphology. These changes to platelet morphology and activation state substantially altered platelet function, including increased aggregation and adherence to surfaces. Surprisingly, dendrimer exposure also attenuated platelet-dependent thrombin generation, indicating that not all platelet functions remained intact. These findings provide additional insight into PAMAM dendrimer effects on blood components and underscore the necessity for further research on the effects and mechanisms of PAMAM-specific and general nanoparticle toxicity in blood. PMID:22497592

  15. Prediction of Intrinsic Cesium Desorption from Na-Smectite in Mixed Cation Solutions.

    PubMed

    Fukushi, Keisuke; Fukiage, Tomo

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative understanding of the stability of sorbed radionuclides in smectite is necessary to assess the performance of engineering barriers used for nuclear waste disposal. Our previous study demonstrated that the spatial organization of the smectite platelets triggered by the divalent cations led to the apparent fixation of intrinsic Cs in smectite, because some Cs is retained inside the formed tactoids. Natural water is usually a mixture of Na(+) and divalent cations (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)). This study therefore investigated the desorption behavior of intrinsic Cs in Na-smecite in mixed Na(+)-divalent cation solutions under widely various cation concentrations using batch experiments, grain size measurements, and cation exchange modeling (CEM). Results show that increased Na(+) concentrations facilitate Cs desorption because Na(+) serves as the dispersion agent. A linear relation was obtained between the logarithm of the Na(+) fraction and the accessible Cs fraction in smectite. That relation enables the prediction of accessible Cs fraction as a function of solution cationic compositions. The corrected CEM considering the effects of the spatial organization suggests that the stability of intrinsic Cs in the smectite is governed by the Na(+) concentration, and suggests that it is almost independent of the concentrations of divalent cations in natural water.

  16. Exploring backbone-cation alkyl spacers for multi-cation side chain anion exchange membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang; Yu, Xuedi; Hickner, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    In order to systematically study how the arrangement of cations on the side chain and length of alkyl spacers between cations impact the performance of multi-cation AEMs for alkaline fuel cells, a series of polyphenylene oxide (PPO)-based AEMs with different cationic side chains were synthesized. This work resulted in samples with two or three cations in a side chain pendant to the PPO backbone. More importantly, the length of the spacer between cations varied from 3 methylene (-CH2-) (C3) groups to 8 methylene (C8) groups. The highest conductivity, up to 99 mS/cm in liquid water at room temperature, was observed for the triple-cation side chain AEM with pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) spacers. The multi-cation AEMs were found to have decreased water uptake and ionic conductivity when the spacer chains between cations were lengthened from pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) to octyl (C8) linking groups. The triple-cation membranes with pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) groups between cations showed greatest stability after immersion in 1 M NaOH at 80 °C for 500 h.

  17. PEGylation enhances tumor targeting of plasmid DNA by an artificial cationized protein with repeated RGD sequences, Pronectin.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhani, Hossein; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2004-05-31

    The objective of this study is to investigate feasibility of a non-viral gene carrier with repeated RGD sequences (Pronectin F+) in tumor targeting for gene expression. The Pronectin F+ was cationized by introducing spermine (Sm) to the hydroxyl groups to allow to polyionically complex with plasmid DNA. The cationized Pronectin F+ prepared was additionally modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules which have active ester and methoxy groups at the terminal, to form various PEG-introduced cationized Pronectin F+. The cationized Pronectin F+ with or without PEGylation at different extents was mixed with a plasmid DNA of LacZ to form respective cationized Pronectin F+-plasmid DNA complexes. The plasmid DNA was electrophoretically complexed with cationized Pronectin F+ and PEG-introduced cationized Pronectin F+, irrespective of the PEGylation extent, although the higher N/P ratio of complexes was needed for complexation with the latter Pronectin F+. The molecular size and zeta potential measurements revealed that the plasmid DNA was reduced in size to about 250 nm and the charge was changed to be positive by the complexation with cationized Pronectin F+. For the complexation with PEG-introduced cationized Pronectin F+, the charge of complex became neutral being almost 0 mV with the increasing PEGylation extents, while the molecular size was similar to that of cationized Pronectin F+. When cationized Pronectin F+-plasmid DNA complexes with or without PEGylation were intravenously injected to mice carrying a subcutaneous Meth-AR-1 fibrosarcoma mass, the PEG-introduced cationized Pronectin F+-plasmid DNA complex specifically enhanced the level of gene expression in the tumor, to a significantly high extent compared with the cationized Pronectin F+-plasmid DNA complexes and free plasmid DNA. The enhanced level of gene expression depended on the percentage of PEG introduced, the N/P ratio, and the plasmid DNA dose. A fluorescent microscopic study revealed that the

  18. Stressor states and the cation crossroads.

    PubMed

    Weber, Karl T; Bhattacharya, Syamal K; Newman, Kevin P; Soberman, Judith E; Ramanathan, Kodangudi B; McGee, Jesse E; Malik, Kafait U; Hickerson, William L

    2010-12-01

    Neurohormonal activation involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adrenergic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems is integral to stressor state-mediated homeostatic responses. The levels of effector hormones, depending upon the degree of stress, orchestrate the concordant appearance of hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, hypozincemia, and hyposelenemia. Seemingly contradictory to homeostatic responses wherein the constancy of extracellular fluid would be preserved, upregulation of cognate-binding proteins promotes coordinated translocation of cations to injured tissues, where they participate in wound healing. Associated catecholamine-mediated intracellular cation shifts regulate the equilibrium between pro-oxidants and antioxidant defenses, a critical determinant of cell survival. These acute and chronic stressor-induced iterations in extracellular and intracellular cations are collectively referred to as the cation crossroads. Intracellular cation shifts, particularly excessive accumulation of Ca2+, converge on mitochondria to induce oxidative stress and raise the opening potential of their inner membrane permeability transition pores (mPTPs). The ensuing loss of cationic homeostasis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, together with osmotic swelling, leads to organellar degeneration and cellular necrosis. The overall impact of iterations in extracellular and intracellular cations and their influence on cardiac redox state, cardiomyocyte survival, and myocardial structure and function are addressed herein.

  19. Cation distributions on rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The cation distributions in two rapidly solidified cobalt ferrites have been determined using Moessbauer spectroscopy at 4.2 K in an 8-T magnetic field. The samples were obtained by gas atomization of a Co0-Fe2O3-P2O5 melt. The degree of cation disorder in both cases was greater than is obtainable by cooling unmelted cobalt ferrite. The more rapidly cooled sample exhibited a smaller departure from the equilibrium cation distribution than did the more slowly cooled sample. This result is explained on the basis of two competing effects of rapid solidification: high cooling rate of the solid, and large undercooling.

  20. Influence of cations on noncovalent interactions between 6-propionyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (PRODAN) and dissolved fulvic and humic acids.

    PubMed

    Gadad, Praveen; Nanny, Mark A

    2008-12-01

    The influence of cations (Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) on noncovalent interactions between 6-propionyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (PRODAN) and dissolved fulvic acids (FAs) (Norman landfill leachate fulvic acid (NLFA) and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA)) and dissolved humic acids (HAs) (Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) and Leonardite humic acid (LHA)) was examined using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy at pH 4, 7 and 10 as a function of cation concentration (up to 25-100mM). Regardless of pH and cation concentration, PRODAN quenching by FA was unaffected by cations. However, interactions between PRODAN and HA decreased in the presence of cations at pH 7 and 10. Cation concentrations below the HA charge density resulted in the greatest decrease of PRODAN quenching, while very little additional decrease in PRODAN quenching occurred at cation concentrations above the HA charge density. This suggests that as the HA carboxylic acid functional groups form inner sphere complexes with divalent cations, intramolecular interactions result in a contraction of the HA molecular structure, thereby preventing PRODAN from associating with the condensed aromatic, electron accepting moieties inherent within HA molecules and responsible for PRODAN quenching. However, once the HA carboxylic acid functional groups are fully titrated with divalent cations, PRODAN quenching is no longer significantly influenced by the further addition of cations, even though these additional cations facilitate intermolecular interactions between the HA molecules to form supramolecular HA aggregates that can continue to increase in size. Regardless of FA and HA type, pH, cation type and concentration, the lack of blue-shifted fluorescence emission spectra indicated that micelle-like hydrophobic regions, amenable to PRODAN partitioning, were not formed by intra- and intermolecular interactions of FA and HA.

  1. Specificity in cationic interaction with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide).

    PubMed

    Du, Hongbo; Wickramasinghe, Sumith Ranil; Qian, Xianghong

    2013-05-02

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted for PNIPAM in 1 M monovalent alkali chloride salt solutions as well as in 0.5 M divalent Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) chloride salt solutions. It was found that the strength for the direct alkali ion-amide O binding is strongly correlated with the size of the ionic radius. The smallest Li(+) ion binds strongest to amide O, and the largest Cs(+) ion has the weakest interaction with the amide bond. For the divalent Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) ions, their interactions with the amide bond are weak and appear to be mediated by the water molecules, particularly in the case of Mg(2+), resulting from their strong hydration. The direct binding between the cations and amide O requires partial desovlation of the ions that is energetically unfavorable for Mg(2+) and also to a great extent for Ca(2+). The higher cation charge makes the electrostatic interaction more favorable but the dehydration process less favorable. This competition between electrostatic interaction and the dehydration process largely dictates whether the direct binding between the cation and amide O is energetically preferred or not. For monovalent alkali ions, it is energetically preferred to bind directly with the amide O. Moreover, Li(+) ion is also found to associate strongly with the hydrophobic residues on PNIPAM.

  2. Stable environmentally sensitive cationic hydrogels for controlled delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Deo, Namita; Ruetsch, S; Ramaprasad, K R; Kamath, Y

    2010-01-01

    New thermosensitive, cationic hydrogels were synthesized by the dispersion copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and (3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (AAPTAC). In the polymerization protocol, an amide-based comonomer, (3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride, was reacted as a new alternative monomer for introducing positive charges into the thermosensitive hydrogel. The hydrogels were synthesized without making any pH adjustment in the aqueous medium. These hydrogel particles exhibited colloidal stability in the pH range of 1.5 to 11.0, while similar cationic hydrogels were reported to be unstable at pHs higher than 6. The stronger cationic character of the selected comonomer provided higher colloidal stability to the poly(NIPAM-co-AAPTAC) hydrogels. Furthermore, these hydrogels displayed sensitivity towards temperature, pH, and salt concentration. Interestingly, the particle size of hydrogels was found to be decreased significantly with an increase in temperature and salt concentration. In addition, using pyrene fluorescence spectroscopy, it was established that the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of the hydrogel particles was largely controlled by both pH and temperature. The thermosensitive hydrogels reported in this paper may be suitable for delivering different actives for cosmetic and medical applications. Although direct application of these hydrogel particles in cosmetics has not been shown at this stage, the methodology of making them and controlling their absorption and release properties as a function of temperature and pH has been demonstrated. Furthermore, these hydrogels may also have applications in scavenging organic and inorganic toxics.

  3. Influence of cationic lipid concentration on properties of lipid-polymer hybrid nanospheres for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Bose, Rajendran J C; Arai, Yoshie; Ahn, Jong Chan; Park, Hansoo; Lee, Soo-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been widely used for nonviral gene delivery. Recently, cationic hybrid nanoparticles consisting of two different materials were suggested as a promising delivery vehicle. In this study, nanospheres with a poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core and cationic lipid shell were prepared, and the effect of cationic lipid concentrations on the properties of lipid polymer hybrid nanocarriers investigated. Lipid-polymer hybrid nanospheres (LPHNSs) were fabricated by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method using different concentrations of cationic lipids and characterized for size, surface charge, stability, plasmid DNA-binding capacity, cytotoxicity, and transfection efficiency. All LPHNSs had narrow size distribution with positive surface charges (ζ-potential 52-60 mV), and showed excellent plasmid DNA-binding capacity. In vitro cytotoxicity measurements with HEK293T, HeLa, HaCaT, and HepG2 cells also showed that LPHNSs exhibited less cytotoxicity than conventional transfection agents, such as Lipofectamine and polyethyleneimine-PLGA. As cationic lipid concentrations increased, the particle size of LPHNSs decreased while their ζ-potential increased. In addition, the in vitro transfection efficiency of LPHNSs increased as lipid concentration increased.

  4. Influence of cationic lipid concentration on properties of lipid–polymer hybrid nanospheres for gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Rajendran JC; Arai, Yoshie; Ahn, Jong Chan; Park, Hansoo; Lee, Soo-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been widely used for nonviral gene delivery. Recently, cationic hybrid nanoparticles consisting of two different materials were suggested as a promising delivery vehicle. In this study, nanospheres with a poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core and cationic lipid shell were prepared, and the effect of cationic lipid concentrations on the properties of lipid polymer hybrid nanocarriers investigated. Lipid–polymer hybrid nanospheres (LPHNSs) were fabricated by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method using different concentrations of cationic lipids and characterized for size, surface charge, stability, plasmid DNA-binding capacity, cytotoxicity, and transfection efficiency. All LPHNSs had narrow size distribution with positive surface charges (ζ-potential 52–60 mV), and showed excellent plasmid DNA-binding capacity. In vitro cytotoxicity measurements with HEK293T, HeLa, HaCaT, and HepG2 cells also showed that LPHNSs exhibited less cytotoxicity than conventional transfection agents, such as Lipofectamine and polyethyleneimine–PLGA. As cationic lipid concentrations increased, the particle size of LPHNSs decreased while their ζ-potential increased. In addition, the in vitro transfection efficiency of LPHNSs increased as lipid concentration increased. PMID:26379434

  5. Method for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations, medium for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations

    DOEpatents

    Wasserman, S.R.; Anderson, K.B.; Song, K.; Yuchs, S.E.; Marshall, C.L.

    1998-04-28

    A method for encapsulating hazardous cations is provided comprising supplying a pretreated substrate containing the cations; contacting the substrate with an organo-silane compound to form a coating on the substrate; and allowing the coating to cure. A medium for containing hazardous cations is also provided, comprising a substrate having ion-exchange capacity and a silane-containing coating on the substrate. 3 figs.

  6. Cationized Carbohydrate Gas-Phase Fragmentation Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bythell, Benjamin J.; Abutokaikah, Maha T.; Wagoner, Ashley R.; Guan, Shanshan; Rabus, Jordan M.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the fragmentation chemistry of cationized carbohydrates using a combination of tandem mass spectrometry, regioselective labeling, and computational methods. Our model system is D-lactose. Barriers to the fundamental glyosidic bond cleavage reactions, neutral loss pathways, and structurally informative cross-ring cleavages are investigated. The most energetically favorable conformations of cationized D-lactose were found to be similar. In agreement with the literature, larger group I cations result in structures with increased cation coordination number which require greater collision energy to dissociate. In contrast with earlier proposals, the B n -Y m fragmentation pathways of both protonated and sodium-cationized analytes proceed via protonation of the glycosidic oxygen with concerted glycosidic bond cleavage. Additionally, for the sodiated congeners our calculations support sodiated 1,6-anhydrogalactose B n ion structures, unlike the preceding literature. This affects the subsequent propensity of formation and prediction of B n /Y m branching ratio. The nature of the anomeric center (α/β) affects the relative energies of these processes, but not the overall ranking. Low-energy cross-ring cleavages are observed for the metal-cationized analytes with a retro-aldol mechanism producing the 0,2 A 2 ion from the sodiated forms . Theory and experiment support the importance of consecutive fragmentation processes, particularly for the protonated congeners at higher collision energies.

  7. Divalent cation shrinks DNA but inhibits its compaction with trivalent cation.

    PubMed

    Tongu, Chika; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Zinchenko, Anatoly; Chen, Ning; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2016-05-28

    Our observation reveals the effects of divalent and trivalent cations on the higher-order structure of giant DNA (T4 DNA 166 kbp) by fluorescence microscopy. It was found that divalent cations, Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), inhibit DNA compaction induced by a trivalent cation, spermidine (SPD(3+)). On the other hand, in the absence of SPD(3+), divalent cations cause the shrinkage of DNA. As the control experiment, we have confirmed the minimum effect of monovalent cation, Na(+) on the DNA higher-order structure. We interpret the competition between 2+ and 3+ cations in terms of the change in the translational entropy of the counterions. For the compaction with SPD(3+), we consider the increase in translational entropy due to the ion-exchange of the intrinsic monovalent cations condensing on a highly charged polyelectrolyte, double-stranded DNA, by the 3+ cations. In contrast, the presence of 2+ cation decreases the gain of entropy contribution by the ion-exchange between monovalent and 3+ ions.

  8. Physical properties of ionic liquids consisting of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with various anions and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion with various cations.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hui; O'Hare, Bernie; Dong, Jing; Arzhantsev, Sergei; Baker, Gary A; Wishart, James F; Benesi, Alan J; Maroncelli, Mark

    2008-01-10

    Physical properties of 4 room-temperature ionic liquids consisting of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with various perfluorinated anions and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) anion with 12 pyrrolidinium-, ammonium-, and hydroxyl-containing cations are reported. Electronic structure methods are used to calculate properties related to the size, shape, and dipole moment of individual ions. Experimental measurements of phase-transition temperatures, densities, refractive indices, surface tensions, solvatochromic polarities based on absorption of Nile Red, 19F chemical shifts of the Tf2N- anion, temperature-dependent viscosities, conductivities, and cation diffusion coefficients are reported. Correlations among the measured quantities as well as the use of surface tension and molar volume for estimating Hildebrand solubility parameters of ionic liquids are also discussed.

  9. Cation Diffusion in Plagioclase Feldspar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, S. A.

    1984-08-01

    Steep compositional gradients in igneous plagioclase feldspar from slowly cooled intrusive bodies imply a maximum value of the intracrystalline diffusion coefficient for NaSi leftrightarrows CaAl exchange, Dmax~ 10-20 centimeters squared per second for temperatures in the range 1250 degrees to 1000 degrees C. Millimeter-sized grains cannot be homogenized in all geologic time; hence reactive equilibrium crystallization of plagioclase from the melt does not occur in dry systems.

  10. Self-aggregation of cationically modified poly(ε-caprolactone)2-co-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers: Effect of cationic grafting ligand and poly(ε-caprolactone) chain length.

    PubMed

    Charoongchit, Pimchanok; Suksiriworapong, Jiraphong; Sripha, Kittisak; Mao, Shirui; Sapin-Minet, Anne; Maincent, Philippe; Junyaprasert, Varaporn Buraphacheep

    2017-03-01

    Cationic copolymers have been attractive to investigate due to their potential to complexation with anionic drugs and expected to use in the pharmaceutical application. In this study, the modified poly(ε-caprolactone) 2 -co-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers (P(CL) 2 -PEG) were successfully synthesized by click reaction. The amount of small molecular cationic ligand, propargyltrimethyl ammonium iodide, was varied and grafted onto various mole ratios of P(CL) to PEG. The effects of P(CL) chain length and amount of the grafting cationic ligand on physicochemical properties of polymers and particles were studied. The number-average molecular weights of the copolymers grafted with cationic ligand were found ranging between 10,000 and 23,000g/mol as investigated by NMR. From DSC study, the results showed that the grafting ligand affected thermal behaviors of the copolymers by increasing the glass transition temperature and decreasing the melting temperature of the copolymers. Furthermore, these cationic copolymers could self-aggregate with their critical aggregation concentration depending on mole ratios of hydrophilic to hydrophobic portions. The particles containing higher amounts of the cationic ligand tended to aggregate in both acidic and basic pH environment and at high salt concentration. Additionally, particle size, size distribution (PdI), and morphology of self-assembling particles varied depending on P(CL) chain length and the amount of the grafting cationic ligand. The synthesized cationic copolymer showed a capability to encapsulate a high negatively charged drug, enoxaparin, with an encapsulation efficiency of 87%. After drug incorporation, the particles substantially changed in size, shape, PdI, and zeta potential to become more suitable for drug delivery. These cationic copolymers with flexible properties will be the candidate for further development as carriers for the delivery of negatively charged drugs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Evidence for Cation-Controlled Excited-State Localization in a Ruthenium Polypyridyl Compound.

    PubMed

    Beauvilliers, Evan E; Meyer, Gerald J

    2016-08-01

    The visible absorption and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the four neutral ruthenium diimine compounds [Ru(bpy)2(dcb)] (B2B), [Ru(dtb)2(dcb)] (D2B), [Ru(bpy)2(dcbq)] (B2Q), and [Ru(dtb)2(dcbq)] (D2Q), where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, dcb is 4,4'-(CO2(-))2-bpy, dtb is 4,4'-(tert-butyl)2-bpy, and dcbq is 4,4'-(CO2(-))2-2,2'-biquinoline, are reported in the presence of Lewis acidic cations present in fluid solutions at room temperature. In methanol solutions, the measured spectra were insensitive to the presence of these cations, while in acetonitrile a significant red shift in the PL spectra (≤1400 cm(-1)) was observed consistent with stabilization of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state through Lewis acid-base adduct formation. No significant spectral changes were observed in control experiments with the tetrabutylammonium cation. Titration data with Li(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Al(3+), Y(3+), and La(3+) showed that the extent of stabilization saturated at high cation concentration with magnitudes that scaled roughly with the cation charge-to-size ratio. The visible absorption spectra of D2Q was particularly informative due to the presence of two well-resolved MLCT absorption bands: (1) Ru → bpy, λmax ≈ 450 nm; and (2) Ru → dcbq, λmax ≈ 540 nm. The higher-energy band blue-shifted and the lower-energy band red-shifted upon cation addition. The PL intensity and lifetime of the excited state of B2B first increased with cation addition without significant shifts in the measured spectra, behavior attributed to a cation-induced change in the localization of the emissive excited state from bpy to dcb. The importance of excited-state localization and stabilization for solar energy conversion is discussed.

  12. Phosphonium-Organophosphate Ionic Liquids as Lubricant Additives: Effects of Cation Structure on Physicochemical and Tribological Characteristics

    DOE PAGES

    Barnhill, William C.; Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; ...

    2014-11-17

    In our previous work we suggest great potential for a phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) as an antiwear lubricant additive. In this study, a set of five ILs were carefully designed and synthesized, with identical organophosphate anions but dissimilar phosphonium cations, to allow systematic investigation of the effects of cation alkyl chain length and symmetry on physicochemical and tribological properties. Symmetric cations with shorter alkyl chains seem to increase the density and thermal stability due to closer packing. On the other hand, either higher cation symmetry or longer alkyl moieties induce a higher viscosity, though the viscosity index is dependent moremore » on molecular mass than on symmetry. While a larger cation size generally increases an IL’s solubility in nonpolar hydrocarbon oils, six-carbon seems to be the critical minimum alkyl chain length for high oil miscibility. Both the two ILs, that are mutually oil miscible, have demonstrated promising lubricating performance at 1.04% treat rate, though the symmetric-cation IL moderately outperformed the asymmetric-cation IL. Moreover, characterizations on the tribofilm formed by the best-performing symmetric-cation IL revealed the film thickness, nanostructure, and chemical composition. Our results provide fundamental insights for future molecular design in developing oil-soluble ILs as lubricant additives.« less

  13. Business as a Site of Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra; Bargiela-Chiappini, Francesca

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the field of language for business. Argues for redressing the balance of research into business as a site of language contact in favor of less well-represented languages and cultures through indigenous discourse studies, and notes the increasing frequency and importance of work involving Asian languages. (Author/VWL)

  14. Mesophase stabilization in ionic liquid crystals through pairing equally shaped mesogenic cations and anions

    DOE PAGES

    Stappert, Kathrin; Lipinski, Gregor; Kopiec, Gabriel; ...

    2015-07-23

    The synthesis and properties of a set of novel ionic liquid crystals with congruently shaped cations and anions are reported to check whether pairing mesogenic cations with mesogenic anions leads to a stabilization of a liquid crystalline phase. To that avail 1-alkyl-3-methyl-triazolium cations with an alkyl chain length of 10, 12, and 14 carbon atoms have been combined with p-alkyloxy-benzenesulfonate anions with different alkyl chain lengths (n = 10, 12, and 14). The corresponding triazolium iodides have been synthesized as reference compounds where the cation and anion have strong size and shape mismatch. The mesomorphic behavior of all compounds ismore » studied by differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing optical microscopy. All compounds except 1-methyl-3-decyltriazolium iodide, which qualifies as an ionic liquid, are thermotropic ionic liquid crystals. All other compounds adopt smectic A phases. As a result, a comparison of the thermal phase behavior of the 1-methyl-3-decyltriazolium bromides to the corresponding p-alkoxy-benzensulfonates reveals that definitely the mesophase is stabilized by pairing the rod-shaped 1-alkyl-3-methyltriazolium cation with a rod-like anion of similar size.« less

  15. Gas phase chemistry of N-benzylbenzamides with silver(I) cations: characterization of benzylsilver cation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hezhi; Jin, Zhe; Quan, Hong; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2015-03-07

    The benzylsilver cation which emerges from the collisional dissociation of silver(I)-N-benzylbenzamide complexes was characterized by deuterium-labeling experiments, theoretical calculations, breakdown curves and substituent effects. The nucleophilic attack of the carbonyl oxygen on an α-hydrogen results in the generation of the benzylsilver cation, which is competitive to the AgH loss with the α-hydrogen.

  16. THE ROLE OF SELECTED CATIONS IN THE FORMATION OF PSEUDOMICELLES IN AQUEOUS HUMIC ACID (R822832)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fluorescence intensity enhancement of a pyrene probe in aqueous humic acid solutions was assessed in terms of added lanthanide and thorium cations. Among the trivalent ions it was found that size played a role, with the small Lu3+ ion producing the greatest increase in pyrene...

  17. Infrared Spectroscopy of the Mass 31 Cation: Protonated Formaldehyde VS. The Triplet Methoxy Cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosley, J. D.; Cheng, T. C.; Duncan, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    The m/z=31 cation is produced by ionization and fragmentation of methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, etc. Two structures have been proposed, protonated formaldehyde (^1CH_2OH^+) and the triplet methoxy cation (^3CH_3O^+). The infrared spectrum of the mass 31 cation is obtained using infrared photodissociation spectroscopy with Ar tagging. The spectrum reveals the presence of two stable isomers, protonated formaldehyde (^1CH_2OH^+) and the triplet methoxy cation (^3CH_3O^+). The triplet methoxy cation has been studied extensively and is predicted to interconvert to protonated formaldehyde through an essentially barrierless process on a timescale much faster than our experiment (>100 μs). The presence of two structural isomers is verified by comparison of spectra from different precursors and spectra of different temperature ions from the same precursor.

  18. Effect of Divalent Cations on RED Performance and Cation Exchange Membrane Selection to Enhance Power Densities.

    PubMed

    Rijnaarts, Timon; Huerta, Elisa; van Baak, Willem; Nijmeijer, Kitty

    2017-11-07

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a membrane-based renewable energy technology that can harvest energy from salinity gradients. The anticipated feed streams are natural river and seawater, both of which contain not only monovalent ions but also divalent ions. However, RED using feed streams containing divalent ions experiences lower power densities because of both uphill transport and increased membrane resistance. In this study, we investigate the effects of divalent cations (Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ) on RED and demonstrate the mitigation of those effects using both novel and existing commercial cation exchange membranes (CEMs). Monovalent-selective Neosepta CMS is known to block divalent cations transport and can therefore mitigate reductions in stack voltage. The new multivalent-permeable Fuji T1 is able to transport divalent cations without a major increase in resistance. Both strategies significantly improve power densities compared to standard-grade CEMs when performing RED using streams containing divalent cations.

  19. Magnetization reversal in mixed ferrite-chromite perovskites with non magnetic cation on the A-site.

    PubMed

    Billoni, Orlando V; Pomiro, Fernando; Cannas, Sergio A; Martin, Christine; Maignan, Antoine; Carbonio, Raul E

    2016-11-30

    In this work, we have performed Monte Carlo simulations in a classical model for RFe1-x Cr x O3 with R  =  Y and Lu, comparing the numerical simulations with experiments and mean field calculations. In the analyzed compounds, the antisymmetric exchange or Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction induced a weak ferromagnetism due to a canting of the antiferromagnetically ordered spins. This model is able to reproduce the magnetization reversal (MR) observed experimentally in a field cooling process for intermediate x values and the dependence with x of the critical temperatures. We also analyzed the conditions for the existence of MR in terms of the strength of DM interactions between Fe(3+) and Cr(3+) ions with the x values variations.

  20. Forging Colloidal Nanostructures via Cation Exchange Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Among the various postsynthesis treatments of colloidal nanocrystals that have been developed to date, transformations by cation exchange have recently emerged as an extremely versatile tool that has given access to a wide variety of materials and nanostructures. One notable example in this direction is represented by partial cation exchange, by which preformed nanocrystals can be either transformed to alloy nanocrystals or to various types of nanoheterostructures possessing core/shell, segmented, or striped architectures. In this review, we provide an up to date overview of the complex colloidal nanostructures that could be prepared so far by cation exchange. At the same time, the review gives an account of the fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic parameters governing these types of reactions, as they are currently understood, and outlines the main open issues and possible future developments in the field. PMID:26891471

  1. Electromers of the benzene dimer radical cation.

    PubMed

    Błoch-Mechkour, Anna; Bally, Thomas

    2015-04-28

    The well-studied benzene dimer radical cation, which is prototypical for this class of species, has been reinvestigated computationally. Thereby it turned out that both the σ-hemibonded and the half-shifted sandwich structures of the benzene dimer cation, which had been independently proposed, represent stationary points on the B2PLYP-D potential energy surfaces. However, these structures belong to distinct electronic states, both of which are associated with potential surfaces that are very flat with regard to rotation of the two benzene rings in an opposite sense relative to each other. The surfaces of these two "electromers" of the benzene dimer cation are separated by only 3-4 kcal mol(-1) and do not intersect along the rotation coordinate, which represents a rather unique electronic structure situation. When moving on either of the two surfaces the title complex is an extremely fluxional species, in spite of its being bound by over 20 kcal mol(-1).

  2. Extrinsic Cation Selectivity of 2D Membranes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    From a systematic study of the concentration driven diffusion of positive and negative ions across porous 2D membranes of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), we prove their cation selectivity. Using the current–voltage characteristics of graphene and h-BN monolayers separating reservoirs of different salt concentrations, we calculate the reversal potential as a measure of selectivity. We tune the Debye screening length by exchanging the salt concentrations and demonstrate that negative surface charge gives rise to cation selectivity. Surprisingly, h-BN and graphene membranes show similar characteristics, strongly suggesting a common origin of selectivity in aqueous solvents. For the first time, we demonstrate that the cation flux can be increased by using ozone to create additional pores in graphene while maintaining excellent selectivity. We discuss opportunities to exploit our scalable method to use 2D membranes for applications including osmotic power conversion. PMID:28157333

  3. Forging Colloidal Nanostructures via Cation Exchange Reactions.

    PubMed

    De Trizio, Luca; Manna, Liberato

    2016-09-28

    Among the various postsynthesis treatments of colloidal nanocrystals that have been developed to date, transformations by cation exchange have recently emerged as an extremely versatile tool that has given access to a wide variety of materials and nanostructures. One notable example in this direction is represented by partial cation exchange, by which preformed nanocrystals can be either transformed to alloy nanocrystals or to various types of nanoheterostructures possessing core/shell, segmented, or striped architectures. In this review, we provide an up to date overview of the complex colloidal nanostructures that could be prepared so far by cation exchange. At the same time, the review gives an account of the fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic parameters governing these types of reactions, as they are currently understood, and outlines the main open issues and possible future developments in the field.

  4. Cation Exchange Reactions for Improved Quality and Diversity of Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beberwyck, Brandon James

    Observing the size and shape dependent physical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals requires synthetic methods capable of not only composition and crystalline phase control but also molecular scale uniformity for a particle consisting of tens to hundreds of thousands of atoms. The desire for synthetic methods that produce uniform nanocrystals of complex morphologies continues to increase as nanocrystals find roles in commercial applications, such as biolabeling and display technologies, that are simultaneously restricting material compositions. With these constraints, new synthetic strategies that decouple the nanocrystal's chemical composition from its morphology are necessary. This dissertation explores the cation exchange reaction of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, a template-based chemical transformation that enables the interconversion of nanocrystals between a variety of compositions while maintaining their size dispersity and morphology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the versatility of this replacement reaction as a synthetic method for semiconductor nanocrystals. An overview of the fundamentals of the cation exchange reaction and the diversity of products that are achievable is presented. Chapter 2 examines the optical properties of nanocrystal heterostructures produced through cation exchange reactions. The deleterious impact of exchange on the photoluminescence is correlated to residual impurities and a simple annealing protocol is demonstrated to achieve photoluminescence yields comparable to samples produced by conventional methods. Chapter 3 investigates the extension of the cation exchange reaction beyond ionic nanocrystals. Covalent III-V nanocrystal of high crystallinity and low size dispersity are synthesized by the cation exchange of cadmium pnictide nanocrystals with group 13 ions. Lastly, Chapter 4 highlights future studies to probe cation exchange reactions in colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals and progress that needs to be

  5. ABSORPTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING METAL CATIONS

    DOEpatents

    Tompkins, E.R.; Parker, G.W.

    1959-03-10

    An improved method is presented for the chromatographic separation of fission products wherein a substantial reduction in liquid volume is obtained. The process consists in contacting a solution containing fission products with a body of ion-exchange adsorbent to effect adsorption of fission product cations. The loaded exchange resin is then contacted with a small volume of a carboxylic acid eluant, thereby recovering the fission products. The fission product carrying eluate is acidified without increasing its volume to the volume of the original solution, and the acidified eluate is then used as a feed solution for a smaller body of ion-exchange resin effecting readsorption of the fission product cations.

  6. Effects of exchanged cation on the microporosity of montmorillonite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, David W.; Chiou, Cary T.; Eberl, Dennis D.

    1997-01-01

    The micropore volumes of 2 montmorillonites (SAz-1 and SWy-1), each exchanged with Ca, Na, K, Cs and tetramethylammonium (TMA) ions, were calculated from the measured vapor adsorption data of N2 and neo-hexane by use of t- and αs-plots. The corresponding surface areas of the exchanged clays were determined from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) plots of N2 adsorption data. Micropore volumes and surface areas of the samples increased with the size of exchanged cation: TMA > Cs > K > Ca > Na. The SAz-1 exchanged clays showed generally greater micropore volumes and surface areas than the corresponding SWy-1 clays. The vapor adsorption data and d(001) measurements for dry clay samples were used together to evaluate the likely locations and accessibility of clay micropores, especially the relative accessibility of their interlayer spacing. For both source clays exchanged with Na, Ca and K ions, the interlayer spacing appeared to be too small to admit nonpolar gases and the accessible micropores appeared to have dimensions greater than 5.0 Å, the limiting molecular dimension of neo-hexane. In these systems, there was a good consistency of micropore volumes detected by N2 and neo-hexane. When the clays were intercalated with relatively large cations (TMA and possibly Cs), the large layer expansion created additional microporosity, which was more readily accessible to small N2 than to relatively large neo-hexane. Hence, the micropore volume as detected by N2 was greater than that detected by neo-hexane. The micropore volumes with pore dimensions greater than 5 Å determined for clays exchanged with Na, Ca and K likely resulted from the pores on particle edges and void created by overlap regions of layers. The increase in micropore volumes with pore dimensions less than 5 Å determined for clays exchanged with TMA and possibly Cs could be caused by opening of the interlayer region by the intercalation of these large cations.

  7. Metal cation controls phosphate release in the myosin ATPase.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinghua; Huang, Furong; Nesmelov, Yuri E

    2017-11-01

    Myosin is an enzyme that utilizes ATP to produce a conformational change generating a force. The kinetics of the myosin reverse recovery stroke depends on the metal cation complexed with ATP. The reverse recovery stroke is slow for MgATP and fast for MnATP. The metal ion coordinates the γ phosphate of ATP in the myosin active site. It is accepted that the reverse recovery stroke is correlated with the phosphate release; therefore, magnesium "holds" phosphate tighter than manganese. Magnesium and manganese are similar ions in terms of their chemical properties and the shell complexation; hence, we propose to use these ions to study the mechanism of the phosphate release. Analysis of octahedral complexes of magnesium and manganese show that the partial charge of magnesium is higher than that of manganese and the slightly larger size of manganese ion makes its ionic potential smaller. We hypothesize that electrostatics play a role in keeping and releasing the abstracted γ phosphate in the active site, and the stronger electric charge of magnesium ion holds γ phosphate tighter. We used stable myosin-nucleotide analog complex and Raman spectroscopy to examine the effect of the metal cation on the relative position of γ phosphate analog in the active site. We found that in the manganese complex, the γ phosphate analog is 0.01 nm further away from ADP than in the magnesium complex. We conclude that the ionic potential of the metal cation plays a role in the retention of the abstracted phosphate. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  8. On the real performance of cation exchange resins in wastewater treatment under conditions of cation competition: the case of heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Prelot, Benedicte; Ayed, Imen; Marchandeau, Franck; Zajac, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Sorption performance of cation-exchange resins Amberlite® IRN77 and Amberlite™ IRN9652 toward Cs(I) and Sr(II) has been tested in single-component aqueous solutions and simulated waste effluents containing other monovalent (Effluent 1) or divalent (Effluent 2) metal cations, as well as nitrate, borate, or carbonate anions. The individual sorption isotherms of each main component were measured by the solution depletion method. The differential molar enthalpy changes accompanying the ion-exchange between Cs+ or Sr2+ ions and protons at the resin surface from single-component nitrate solutions were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry and they showed a higher specificity of the two resins toward cesium. Compared to the retention limits of both resins under such idealized conditions, an important depression in the maximum adsorption capacity toward each main component was observed in multication systems. The overall effect of ion exchange process appeared to be an unpredictable outcome of the individual sorption capacities of the two resins toward various cations as a function of the cation charge, size, and concentration. The cesium retention capacity of the resins was diminished to about 25% of the "ideal" value in Effluent 1 and 50% in Effluent 2; a further decrease to about 15% was observed upon concomitant strontium addition. The uptake of strontium by the resins was found to be less sensitive to the addition of other metal components: the greatest decrease in the amount adsorbed was 60% of the ideal value in the two effluents for Amberlite® IRN77 and 75% for Amberlite™ IRN9652. It was therefore demonstrated that any performance tests carried out under idealized conditions should be exploited with much caution to predict the real performance of cation exchange resins under conditions of cation competition.

  9. Structure and ionic diffusion of alkaline-earth ions in mixed cation glasses A 2O–2MO–4SiO 2 with molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinou, Konstantinos; Sushko, Petr; Duffy, Dorothy M.

    2015-05-15

    A series of mixed cation silicate glasses of the composition A2O – 2MO – 4SiO2, with A=Li,Na,K and M=Ca,Sr,Ba has been investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations in order to understand the effect of the nature of the cations on the mobility of the alkaline-earth ions within the glass network. The size of the alkaline-earth cation was found to affect the inter-atomic distances, the coordination number distributions and the bond angle distributions , whereas the medium-range order was almost unaffected by the type of the cation. All the alkaline-earth cations contribute to lower vibrational frequencies but it is observedmore » that that there is a shift to smaller frequencies and the vibrational density of states distribution gets narrower as the size of the alkaline-earth increases. The results from our modeling for the ionic diffusion of the alkaline-earth cations are in a qualitative agreement with the experimental observations in that there is a distinct correlation between the activation energy for diffusion of alkaline earth-ions and the cation radii ratio. An asymmetrical linear behavior in the diffusion activation energy with increasing size difference is observed. The results can be described on the basis of a theoretical model that relates the diffusion activation energy to the electrostatic interactions of the cations with the oxygens and the elastic deformation of the silicate network.« less

  10. Cation Selectivity in Biological Cation Channels Using Experimental Structural Information and Statistical Mechanical Simulation.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Justin John; Peyser, Alexander; Carloni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Cation selective channels constitute the gate for ion currents through the cell membrane. Here we present an improved statistical mechanical model based on atomistic structural information, cation hydration state and without tuned parameters that reproduces the selectivity of biological Na+ and Ca2+ ion channels. The importance of the inclusion of step-wise cation hydration in these results confirms the essential role partial dehydration plays in the bacterial Na+ channels. The model, proven reliable against experimental data, could be straightforwardly used for designing Na+ and Ca2+ selective nanopores.

  11. Cation Selectivity in Biological Cation Channels Using Experimental Structural Information and Statistical Mechanical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Finnerty, Justin John

    2015-01-01

    Cation selective channels constitute the gate for ion currents through the cell membrane. Here we present an improved statistical mechanical model based on atomistic structural information, cation hydration state and without tuned parameters that reproduces the selectivity of biological Na+ and Ca2+ ion channels. The importance of the inclusion of step-wise cation hydration in these results confirms the essential role partial dehydration plays in the bacterial Na+ channels. The model, proven reliable against experimental data, could be straightforwardly used for designing Na+ and Ca2+ selective nanopores. PMID:26460827

  12. Process and apparatus for the production of BI-213 cations

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Hines, John J.; Chiarizia, Renato; Dietz, Mark

    1998-01-01

    A process for producing substantially impurity-free Bi-213 cations is disclosed. An aqueous acid feed solution containing Ac-225 cations is contacted with an ion exchange medium to bind the Ac-225 cations and form an Ac-225-laden ion exchange medium. The bound Ac-225 incubates on the ion exchange medium to form Bi-213 cations by radioactive decay. The Bi-213 cations are then recovered from the Ac-225-laden ion exchange medium to form a substantially impurity-free aqueous Bi-213 cation acid solution. An apparatus for carrying out this process is also disclosed.

  13. Process and apparatus for the production of Bi-213 cations

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Hines, J.J.; Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.

    1998-12-29

    A process for producing substantially impurity-free Bi-213 cations is disclosed. An aqueous acid feed solution containing Ac-225 cations is contacted with an ion exchange medium to bind the Ac-225 cations and form an Ac-225-laden ion exchange medium. The bound Ac-225 incubates on the ion exchange medium to form Bi-213 cations by radioactive decay. The Bi-213 cations are then recovered from the Ac-225-laden ion exchange medium to form a substantially impurity-free aqueous Bi-213 cation acid solution. An apparatus for carrying out this process is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  14. Cytotoxic activity of aminoderivatized cationic chitosan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Kul; Lim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Jung-Hoe

    2002-10-21

    Chitosan derivatives were prepared by dialkylaminoalkylation and reductive amination followed by quaternization. In this study, the cytotoxic activity of the chitosan derivatives was investigated and a relationship between structure and activity is suggested. The cationic chitosan derivatives elicited dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the proliferation of tumor cell lines.

  15. Cationic nanoemulsions as nucleic acids delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Helder Ferreira; Bruxel, Fernanda; Fraga, Michelle; Schuh, Roselena Silvestri; Zorzi, Giovanni Konat; Matte, Ursula; Fattal, Elias

    2017-12-20

    Since the first clinical studies, knowledge in the field of gene therapy has advanced significantly, and these advances led to the development and subsequent approval of the first gene medicines. Although viral vectors-based products offer efficient gene expression, problems related to their safety and immune response have limited their clinical use. Thus, design and optimization of nonviral vectors is presented as a promising strategy in this scenario. Nonviral systems are nanotechnology-based products composed of polymers or lipids, which are usually biodegradable and biocompatible. Cationic liposomes are the most studied nonviral carriers and knowledge about these systems has greatly evolved, especially in understanding the role of phospholipids and cationic lipids. However, the search for efficient delivery systems aiming at gene therapy remains a challenge. In this context, cationic nanoemulsions have proved to be an interesting approach, as their ability to protect and efficiently deliver nucleic acids for diverse therapeutic applications has been demonstrated. This review focused on cationic nanoemulsions designed for gene therapy, providing an overview on their composition, physicochemical properties, and their efficacy on biological response in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Viscoelastic cationic polymers containing the urethane linkage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A method for the synthesis and manufacturing of elastomeric compositions and articles containing quaternary nitrogen centers and condensation residues along the polymeric backbone of the centers is presented. Linear and cross-linked straight chain and block polymers having a wide damping temperature range were synthesized. Formulae for the viscoelastic cationic polymers are presented.

  17. ADSORPTION OF ORGANIC CATIONS TO NATURAL MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors that control the extent of adsorption of amphiphilic organic cations on environmental and pristine surfaces have been studied. The sorbents were kaolinite, montmorillonite, two aquifer materials, and a soil; solutions contained various concentrations of NaCl and CaCl,...

  18. Al cation induces aggregation of serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Chanphai, P; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-07-15

    Al cation is known to induce protein fibrillation and causes several neurodegenerative disorders. We report the spectroscopic, thermodynamic analysis and AFM imaging for the Al cation binding process with human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and milk beta-lactoglobulin (b-LG) in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Hydrophobicity played a major role in Al-protein interactions with more hydrophobic b-LG forming stronger Al-protein complexes. Thermodynamic parameters ΔS, ΔH and ΔG showed Al-protein bindings occur via hydrophobic and H-bonding contacts for b-LG, while van der Waals and H-bonding interactions prevail in HSA and BSA adducts. AFM clearly indicated that aluminum cations are able to force BSA and b-LG into larger or more robust aggregates than HSA, with HSA 4±0.2 (SE, n=801) proteins per aggregate, for BSA 17±2 (SE, n=148), and for b-LG 12±3 (SE, n=151). Thioflavin T test showed no major protein fibrillation in the presence of Al cation. Al complexation induced major alterations of protein conformations with the order of perturbations b-LG>BSA>HSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. NMR studies of cation transport across membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Shochet, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    /sup 23/Na NMR Studies of cation transport across membranes were conducted both on model and biological membranes. Two ionophores, the carrier monensin and the channel-former gramicidin, were chosen to induce cation transport in large unilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles. The distinction between the NMR signals arising from the two sides of the membrane was achieved by the addition of an anionic paramagnetic shift reagent to the outer solution. The kinetics of the cation transport across the membrane was observed simultaneously monitoring the changes in the /sup 23/Na NMR signals of both compartments. Two mathematical models were developed for the estimation of themore » transport parameters of the monensin- and gramicidin-induced cation transport. The models were able to fit the experimental data very well. A new method for the estimation of the volume trapped inside the vesicles was developed. The method uses the relative areas of the intra- and extravesicular NMR signals arising from a suspension of vesicles bathed in the same medium they contain, as a measure for the relative volumes of these compartments. Sodium transport across biological membranes was studied by /sup 23/ NMR, using suspensions of cultured nerve cells. The sodium influx through voltage-gated channels was studied using the channel modifier batrachotoxin in combination with scorpion toxin.« less

  20. Cation exchange concentraion of the Americium product from TRUEX

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.; Cooper, T.D.; Fisher, F.D.

    1991-06-01

    A transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process has been developed to separate and recover plutonium, americium, and other transuranic (TRU) elements from acid wastes. The main objective of the process is to reduce the effluent to below the TRU limit for actinide concentrations (<100 nCi/g of material) so it can be disposed of inexpensively. The process yields a dilute nitric acid stream containing low concentrations of the extracted americium product. This solution also contains residual plutonium and trace amounts of iron. The americium will be absorbed into a cation exchange resin bed to concentrate it for disposal or for future use. Themore » overall objective of these laboratory tests was to determine the performance of the cation exchange process under expected conditions of the TRUEX process. Effects of acid, iron, and americium concentrations on americium absorption on the resin were determined. Distribution coefficients for americium absorption from acide solutions on the resin were measured using batch equilibrations. Batch equilibrations were also used to measure americium absorption in the presence of complexants. This data will be used to identify complexants and solution conditions that can be used to elute the americium from the columns. The rate of absorption was measured by passing solutions containing americium through small columns of resin, varying the flowrates, and measuring the concentrations of americium in the effluent. The rate data will be used to estimate the minimum bed size of the columns required to concentrate the americium product. 11 refs. , 10 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  1. Amphiphilically modified chitosan cationic nanoparticles for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jie; Li, Wenfeng; Yu, Chang; Zhao, Chengguang; Jin, Langping; Zhou, Yili; Xu, Xuzhong; Dong, Siyang; Lu, Xincheng; Wang, Ouchen

    2013-12-01

    A series of amphiphilic N-(2-hydroxy)propyl-3-trimethylammonium-chitosan-cholic acid (HPTA-CHI-CA) polymers were synthesized by grafting cholic acid (CA) and glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride onto chitosan. The self-assembly behavior of HPTA-CHI-CA was studied by fluorescence technique. The polymers were able to self-assemble into NPs in phosphate buffered saline with a critical aggregation concentration (CAC) in the range of 66-26 mg/L and the CAC decreased with the increasing of the degree of substitution (DS) of CA. The size of cationic HPTA-CHI-CA NPs ranges from 170 to 220 nm (PDI < 0.2). It was found that doxorubicin (DOX) could be encapsulated into HPTA-CHI-CA NPs based on self-assembly. The drug loading content and efficiency varies depending on the DS of CA and feeding ratio of DOX to polymer. In vitro release studies suggested that DOX released slowly from HPTA-CHI-CA NPs without any burst initial release. Besides, the confocal microscopic measurements indicated that DOX-HPTA-CHI-CA NPs could easily be uptaken by breast cancer (MCF-7) cells and release DOX in cytoplasm. Anti-tumor efficacy results showed that DOX-HPTA-CHI-CA NPs have a significant activity of inhibition MCF-7 cells growth. These results suggest cationic HPTA-CHI-CA may have great potential for anticancer drug delivery.

  2. [Noncovalent cation-π interactions--their role in nature].

    PubMed

    Fink, Krzysztof; Boratyński, Janusz

    2014-11-07

    Non-covalent interactions play an extremely important role in organisms. The main non-covalent interactions in nature are: ion-ion interactions, dipole-dipole interactions, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals interactions. A new kind of intermolecular interactions--cation-π interactions--is gaining increasing attention. These interactions occur between a cation and a π system. The main contributors to cation-π interactions are electrostatic, polarization and, to a lesser extent, dispersion interactions. At first, cation-π interactions were studied in a gas phase, with metal cation-aromatic system complexes. The characteristics of these complexes are as follows: an increase of cation atomic number leads to a decrease of interaction energy, and an increase of cation charge leads to an increase of interaction energy. Aromatic amino acids bind with metal cations mainly through interactions with their main chain. Nevertheless, cation-π interaction with a hydrophobic side chain significantly enhances binding energy. In water solutions most cations preferentially interact with water molecules rather than aromatic systems. Cation-π interactions occur in environments with lower accessibility to a polar solvent. Cation-π interactions can have a stabilizing role on the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. These interactions play an important role in substrate or ligand binding sites in many proteins, which should be taken into consideration when the screening of effective inhibitors for these proteins is carried out. Cation-π interactions are abundant and play an important role in many biological processes.

  3. Ion sieving in graphene oxide membranes via cationic control of interlayer spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Shi, Guosheng; Shen, Jie; Peng, Bingquan; Zhang, Bowu; Wang, Yuzhu; Bian, Fenggang; Wang, Jiajun; Li, Deyuan; Qian, Zhe; Xu, Gang; Liu, Gongping; Zeng, Jianrong; Zhang, Lijuan; Yang, Yizhou; Zhou, Guoquan; Wu, Minghong; Jin, Wanqin; Li, Jingye; Fang, Haiping

    2017-10-01

    Graphene oxide membranes—partially oxidized, stacked sheets of graphene—can provide ultrathin, high-flux and energy-efficient membranes for precise ionic and molecular sieving in aqueous solution. These materials have shown potential in a variety of applications, including water desalination and purification, gas and ion separation, biosensors, proton conductors, lithium-based batteries and super-capacitors. Unlike the pores of carbon nanotube membranes, which have fixed sizes, the pores of graphene oxide membranes—that is, the interlayer spacing between graphene oxide sheets (a sheet is a single flake inside the membrane)—are of variable size. Furthermore, it is difficult to reduce the interlayer spacing sufficiently to exclude small ions and to maintain this spacing against the tendency of graphene oxide membranes to swell when immersed in aqueous solution. These challenges hinder the potential ion filtration applications of graphene oxide membranes. Here we demonstrate cationic control of the interlayer spacing of graphene oxide membranes with ångström precision using K+, Na+, Ca2+, Li+ or Mg2+ ions. Moreover, membrane spacings controlled by one type of cation can efficiently and selectively exclude other cations that have larger hydrated volumes. First-principles calculations and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy reveal that the location of the most stable cation adsorption is where oxide groups and aromatic rings coexist. Previous density functional theory computations show that other cations (Fe2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Cr2+ and Pb2+) should have a much stronger cation-π interaction with the graphene sheet than Na+ has, suggesting that other ions could be used to produce a wider range of interlayer spacings.

  4. Carbamate-linked cationic lipids with different hydrocarbon chains for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jia; Yu, Shijun; Zhu, Jie; Zhi, Defu; Zhao, Yinan; Cui, Shaohui; Zhang, Shubiao

    2016-05-01

    A series of carbamate-linked cationic lipids containing saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon chains and quaternary ammonium head were designed and synthesized. After recrystallization, carbamate-linked cationic lipids with high purity (over 95%) were obtained. The structures of these lipids were proved by IR spectrum, HR-ESI-MS, HPLC, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The liposomes were prepared by using these cationic lipids and neutral lipid DOPE. Particle size and zeta-potential were studied to show that they were suitable for gene transfection. The DNA-bonding ability of C12:0, C14:0 and C18:1 cationic liposomes was much better than others. The results of transfection showed that hydrophobic chains of these lipids have great effects on their transfection activity. The lipids bearing C12:0, C14:0 saturated chains or C18:1 unsaturated chain showed relatively higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity. So these cationic lipids could be used as non-viral gene carriers for further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Oligomeric cationic polymethacrylates: a comparison of methods for determining molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Locock, Katherine E S; Meagher, Laurence; Haeussler, Matthias

    2014-02-18

    This study compares three common laboratory methods, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF), to determine the molecular weight of oligomeric cationic copolymers. The potential bias for each method was examined across a series of polymers that varied in molecular weight and cationic character (both choice of cation (amine versus guanidine) and relative proportion present). SEC was found to be the least accurate, overestimating Mn by an average of 140%, owing to the lack of appropriate cationic standards available, and the complexity involved in estimating the hydrodynamic volume of copolymers. MALDI-TOF approximated Mn well for the highly monodisperse (Đ < 1.1), low molecular weight (degree of polymerization (DP) <50) species but appeared unsuitable for the largest polymers in the series due to the mass bias associated with the technique. (1)H NMR was found to most accurately estimate Mn in this study, differing to theoretical values by only 5.2%. (1)H NMR end-group analysis is therefore an inexpensive and facile, primary quantitative method to estimate the molecular weight of oliogomeric cationic polymethacrylates if suitably distinct end-groups signals are present in the spectrum.

  6. Quantitative characterization of non-classic polarization of cations on clay aggregate stability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Feinan; Li, Hang; Liu, Xinmin; Li, Song; Ding, Wuquan; Xu, Chenyang; Li, Yue; Zhu, Longhui

    2015-01-01

    Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+) at concentrations from10-5 to 10-1 mol L-1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation-surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability.

  7. Thermal Stability of RNA Structures with Bulky Cations in Mixed Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shu-Ichi; Tanino, Yuichi; Hirayama, Hidenobu; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2016-10-04

    Bulky cations are used to develop nucleic-acid-based technologies for medical and technological applications in which nucleic acids function under nonaqueous conditions. In this study, the thermal stability of RNA structures was measured in the presence of various bulky cations in aqueous mixtures with organic solvents or polymer additives. The stability of oligonucleotide, transfer RNA, and polynucleotide structures was decreased in the presence of salts of tetrabutylammonium and tetrapentylammonium ions, and the stability and salt concentration dependences were dependent on cation sizes. The degree to which stability was dependent on salt concentration was correlated with reciprocals of the dielectric constants of mixed solutions, regardless of interactions between the cosolutes and RNA. Our results show that organic solvents affect the strength of electrostatic interactions between RNA and cations. Analysis of ion binding to RNA indicated greater enhancement of cation binding to RNA single strands than to duplexes in media with low dielectric constants. Furthermore, background bulky ions changed the dependence of RNA duplex stability on the concentration of metal ion salts. These unique properties of large tetraalkylammonium ions are useful for controlling the stability of RNA structures and its sensitivity to metal ion salts. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pressure-induced cation-cation bonding in V 2 O 3

    DOE PAGES

    Bai, Ligang; Li, Quan; Corr, Serena A.; ...

    2015-10-09

    A pressure-induced phase transition, associated with the formation of cation-cation bonding, occurs in V 2O 3 by combining synchroton x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell and ab initio evolutionary calculations. The high-pressure phase has a monoclinic structure with a C2/c space group, and it is both energetically and dynamically stable at pressures above 47 GPa to at least 105 GPa. this phase transition can be viewed as a two-dimensional Peierls-like distortion, where the cation-cation dimer chains are connected along the c axis of the monoclinic cell. In conclusion, this finding provides insights into the interplay of electron correlation andmore » lattice distortion in V 2O 3, and it may also help to understand novel properties of other early transition-metal oxides.« less

  9. Structure-transfection activity relationships in a series of novel cationic lipids with heterocyclic head-groups.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Ekaterina A; Maslov, Mikhail A; Kabilova, Tatyana O; Puchkov, Pavel A; Alekseeva, Anna S; Boldyrev, Ivan A; Vlassov, Valentin V; Serebrennikova, Galina A; Morozova, Nina G; Zenkova, Marina A

    2013-11-07

    Cationic liposomes are promising candidates for the delivery of various therapeutic nucleic acids. Here, we report a convenient synthesis of carbamate-type cationic lipids with various hydrophobic domains (tetradecanol, dialkylglycerol, cholesterol) and positively charged head-groups (pyridinium, N-methylimidazolium, N-methylmorpholinium) and data on the structure-transfection activity relationships. It was found that single-chain lipids possess high surface activity, which correlates with high cytotoxicity due to their ability to disrupt the cellular membrane by combined hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Liposomes containing these lipids also display high cytotoxicity with respect to all cell lines. Irrespective of chemical structures, all cationic lipids form liposomes with similar sizes and surface potentials. The characteristics of complexes composed of cationic liposomes and nucleic acids depend mostly on the type of nucleic acid and P/N ratios. In the case of oligodeoxyribonucleotide delivery, the transfection activity depends on the type of cationic head-group regardless of the type of hydrophobic domain: all types of cationic liposomes mediate efficient oligonucleotide transfer into 80-90% of the eukaryotic cells, and liposomes based on lipids with N-methylmorpholinium cationic head-group display the highest transfection activity. In the case of plasmid DNA and siRNA, the type of hydrophobic domain determines the transfection activity: liposomes composed of cholesterol-based lipids were the most efficient in DNA transfer, while liposomes containing glycerol-based lipids exhibited reasonable activity in siRNA delivery under serum-free conditions.

  10. A simple model for metal cation-phosphate interactions in nucleic acids in the gas phase: alkali metal cations and trimethyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Chunhai; Huang, Hai; Rodgers, M T

    2008-02-01

    Threshold collision-induced dissociation techniques are employed to determine the bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of complexes of alkali metal cations to trimethyl phosphate, TMP. Endothermic loss of the intact TMP ligand is the only dissociation pathway observed for all complexes. Theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory are used to determine the structures, vibrational frequencies, and rotational constants of neutral TMP and the M+(TMP) complexes. Theoretical BDEs are determined from single point energy calculations at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,2p) level using the B3LYP/6-31G* optimized geometries. The agreement between theory and experiment is reasonably good for all complexes except Li+(TMP). The absolute M+-(TMP) BDEs are found to decrease monotonically as the size of the alkali metal cation increases. No activated dissociation was observed for alkali metal cation binding to TMP. The binding of alkali metal cations to TMP is compared with that to acetone and methanol.

  11. Fluconazole affects the alkali-metal-cation homeostasis and susceptibility to cationic toxic compounds of Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Elicharova, Hana; Sychrova, Hana

    2014-08-01

    Candida glabrata is a salt-tolerant and fluconazole (FLC)-resistant yeast species. Here, we analyse the contribution of plasma-membrane alkali-metal-cation exporters, a cation/proton antiporter and a cation ATPase to cation homeostasis and the maintenance of membrane potential (ΔΨ). Using a series of single and double mutants lacking CNH1 and/or ENA1 genes we show that the inability to export potassium and toxic alkali-metal cations leads to a slight hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane of C. glabrata cells; this hyperpolarization drives more cations into the cells and affects cation homeostasis. Surprisingly, a much higher hyperpolarization of C. glabrata plasma membrane was produced by incubating cells with subinhibitory concentrations of FLC. FLC treatment resulted in a substantially increased sensitivity of cells to various cationic drugs and toxic cations that are driven into the cell by negative-inside plasma-membrane potential. The effect of the combination of FLC plus cationic drug treatment was enhanced by the malfunction of alkali-metal-cation transporters that contribute to the regulation of membrane potential and cation homeostasis. In summary, we show that the combination of subinhibitory concentrations of FLC and cationic drugs strongly affects the growth of C. glabrata cells. © 2014 The Authors.

  12. (4 + 3) Cycloadditions of Nitrogen-Stabilized Oxyallyl Cations

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Andrew G.; Hsung, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    The use of heteroatom-substituted oxyallyl cations in (4 + 3) cycloadditions has had a tremendous impact on the development of cycloaddition chemistry. Extensive efforts have been exerted toward investigating the effect of oxygen-, sulfur-, and halogen-substituents on the reactivity of oxyallyl cations. Most recently, the use of nitrogen-stabilized oxyallyl cations has gained prominence in the area of (4 + 3) cycloadditions. The following article will provide an overview of this concept utilizing nitrogen-stabilized oxyallyl cations. PMID:21384451

  13. [Antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate].

    PubMed

    titova, M E; Komolov, S A; Tikhomirova, N A

    2012-01-01

    The process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in biological membranes of cells is carried out by free radical mechanism, a feature of which is the interaction of radicals with other molecules. In this work we investigated the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate, obtained by the cation-exchange chromatography on KM-cellulose from raw cow's milk, in vitro and in vivo. In biological liquids, which are milk, blood serum, fetal fluids, contains a complex of biologically active substances with a unique multifunctional properties, and which are carrying out a protective, antimicrobial, regenerating, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, regulatory and others functions. Contents of the isolate were determined electrophoretically and by its biological activity. Cationic whey protein isolate included lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, pancreatic RNase, lysozyme and angeogenin. The given isolate significantly has an antioxidant effect in model experimental systems in vitro and therefore may be considered as a factor that can adjust the intensity of lipid oxidation. In model solutions products of lipid oxidation were obtained by oxidation of phosphatidylcholine by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a source of iron. The composition of the reaction mixture: 0,4 mM H2O2; 50 mcM of hemin; 2 mg/ml L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine from soybean (Sigma, German). Lipid peroxidation products were formed during the incubation of the reaction mixture for two hours at 37 degrees C. In our studies rats in the adaptation period immediately after isolation from the nest obtained from food given orally native cationic whey protein isolate at the concentration three times higher than in fresh cow's milk. On the manifestation of the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate in vivo evidence decrease of lipid peroxidation products concentration in the blood of rats from the experimental group receipt whey protein isolate in dos 0,6 mg/g for more than 20% (p<0,05) with oral feeding. Thus

  14. Preparation and swelling inhibition of cation glucoside to montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shaofu; Liu, Jurong; Guo, Gang; Huang, Lei; Qu, Chentun; Li, Bianqin; Chen, Gang

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a cation glucoside (CG) was synthesized with glucose and glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (GTA) and used as montmorillonite (MMT) swelling inhibiter. The inhibition of CG was investigated by MMT linear expansion test and mud ball immersing test. The results showed that the CG has a good inhibition to the hydration swelling and dispersion of MMT. Under the same condition, the linear expansion rate of MMT in CG solution is much lower that of methylglucoside and the hydration expansion degree of the mud ball in the CG solution was significantly inhibited. The characterizations of physic-chemical properties of particle, analysized by thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy, revealed that CG play great role to prevent water from absorb and keep MMT in large particle size.

  15. The effect of various electrolyte cations on electrochemical performance of polypyrrole/RGO based supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianbo; Xu, Youlong; Wang, Jie; Lin, Jun; Sun, Xiaofei; Mao, Shengchun

    2015-11-21

    In this work, polypyrrole/graphene doped by p-toluenesulfonic is prepared as an active material for supercapacitors, and its capacitance performance is investigated in various aqueous electrolytes including HCl, LiCl, NaCl, and KCl with a concentration of 3 M, respectively. A rising trend of capacitance is observed according to the cationic mobility (Li(+) < Na(+) < K(+) < H(+)), which is due to its effect on the ionic conductivity, efficient ion/charge diffusion/exchange and relaxation time. On the other hand, long-term cycling stability is in the following order: KCl < NaCl < LiCl < HCl, corresponding to the decreasing tendency of cation size (K(+) > Na(+) > Li(+) > H(+)). The reason can be attributed to the fact that the insertion/de-insertion of large size cation brings a significant doping level decrease and an over-oxidation increase during the charging-discharging cycles. Hence, we not only obtain good capacitance performance (280.3 F g(-1) at 5 mV s(-1)), superior rate capability (225.8 F g(-1) at 500 mV s(-1)) and high cycling stability (92.0% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles at 1 A g(-1)) by employing 3 M HCl as an electrolyte, but also reveal that the electrolyte cations have a significant effect on the supercapacitors' electrochemical performance.

  16. Effects of Surfactants on the Improvement of Sludge Dewaterability Using Cationic Flocculants

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Jun; Teng, Houkai; Zhao, Chun; Zhao, Chuanliang; Liao, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the cationic surfactant (cationic cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, CTAB) on the improvement of the sludge dewaterability using the cationic flocculant (cationic polyacrylamide, CPAM) were analyzed. Residual turbidity of supernatant, dry solid (DS) content, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), zeta potential, floc size, and settling rate were investigated, respectively. The result showed that the CTAB positively affected the sludge conditioning and dewatering. Compared to not using surfactant, the DS and the settling rate increased by 8%–21.2% and 9.2%–15.1%, respectively, at 40 mg·L−1 CPAM, 10×10−3 mg·L−1 CTAB, and pH 3. The residual turbidities of the supernatant and SRF were reduced by 14.6%–31.1% and 6.9%–7.8% compared with turbidities and SRF without surfactant. Furthermore, the release of sludge EPS, the increases in size of the sludge flocs, and the sludge settling rate were found to be the main reasons for the CTAB improvement of sludge dewatering performance. PMID:25347394

  17. Increased localized delivery of piroxicam by cationic nanoparticles after intra-articular injection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Rae; Ho, Myoung Jin; Kim, Sang Hyun; Cho, Ha Ra; Kim, Han Sol; Choi, Yong Seok; Choi, Young Wook; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-01-01

    Piroxicam (PRX), a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is prescribed to relieve postoperative and/or chronic joint pain. However, its oral administration often results in serious gastrointestinal adverse effects including duodenal ulceration. Thus, a novel cationic nanoparticle (NP) was explored to minimize the systemic exposure and increase the retention time of PRX in the joint after intra-articular (IA) injection, by forming micrometer-sized electrostatic clusters with endogenous hyaluronic acid (HA) in the synovial cavity. PRX-loaded NPs consisting of poly(lactic- co -glycolic acid), Eudragit RL, and polyvinyl alcohol were constructed with the following characteristics: particle size of 220 nm, zeta potential of 11.5 mV in phosphate-buffered saline, and loading amount of 4.0% (w/w) of PRX. In optical and hyperspectral observations, the cationic NPs formed more than 50 μm-sized aggregates with HA, which was larger than the intercellular gaps between synoviocytes. In an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC 0-24 h ) and maximum plasma concentration ( C max ) of PRX after IA injection of the cationic NPs were <70% ( P <0.05) and 60% ( P <0.05), respectively, compared to those obtained from drug solution. Moreover, the drug concentration in joint tissue 24 h after dosing with the cationic NPs was 3.2-fold ( P <0.05) and 1.8-fold ( P <0.05) higher than that from drug solution and neutrally charged NPs, respectively. Therefore, we recommend the IA cationic NP therapy as an effective alternative to traditional oral therapy with PRX, as it increases drug retention selectively in the joint.

  18. [PAH Cations as Viable Carriers of DIBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Ted

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to fill in the blanks in NASA's file system for our lab astro study of molecular ions of astrophysical interest. In order to give NASA what it needs for its files, I attach below the text of the section from our recent proposal to continue this work, in which we describe progress to date, including a large number of publications. Our initial studies were focused on PAH cations, which appear to be viable candidates as the carriers of the DIBs, an idea that has been supported by laboratory spectroscopy of PAH cations in inert matrices. Beginning with the simplest aromatic (benzene; C6H6) and moving progressively to larger species (naphthalene, C10OH8; pyrene, C16H10; and most recently chrysene, C18H12), we have been able to derive rate coefficients for reactions with neutral spices that are abundant in the diffuse interstellar medium.

  19. Interactions between cations and peat organic matter monitored with NMR wideline, static and FFC NMR relaxometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Conte, Pellegrino; Jäger, Alexander; Alonzo, Giuseppe; Bertmer, Marko

    2010-05-01

    The molecular size of humic substances is still under debate and is believed to range up to several hundred thousands Dalton, although a number of recent studies suggest much lower molecular weights. Nowadays an increasing number of authors suggest a model of molecular aggregates. One explanation why results on the molecular mass of humic materials are contradictory, may be that individual OM molecules are linked via intermolecular interactions, by bridges of water molecules or by cations bridging cation exchange sites (Schaumann, 2006a, b). Properties of such cross-linked systems can be similar to macromolecular systems revealing covalent cross-links. In this context, multivalent cations play an important ecological role, serving as reversible cross-linking agent. Formation and disruption of such cation bridges may close or open sorption sites in soil organic matter. Although cross-linking by multivalent cations has been proposed in many studies, the cross-linking effect has not yet been demonstrated on the molecular scale. The objective of this study was to investigate the interactions between cations and peat organic matter using NMR wideline techniques as well as static and fast field cycling (FFC) NMR relaxometry. Peat treated with solutions containing either Na+, Ca2+ or Al3+ was investigated in air-dried state for longitudinal relaxation times (T1) and NMR wideline characteristics. T1 distributions were separated into two Gaussian functions which were interpreted to represent two proton populations belonging to two environments of differing mobility. The relaxation rates (R1 = T1-1) in the cation treated samples spread over a range of 87-123 s-1 (R1a: fast component) and 32-42 s-1 (R1b: slow component). The rates in all treatments are significantly different from each other. and decrease in the order conditioned sample > desalinated sample > Na-treated sample. The treatment with multivalent cations affects R1a and R1b in different ways and needs more

  20. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  1. Regulation of Cation Balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cyert, Martha S.; Philpott, Caroline C.

    2013-01-01

    All living organisms require nutrient minerals for growth and have developed mechanisms to acquire, utilize, and store nutrient minerals effectively. In the aqueous cellular environment, these elements exist as charged ions that, together with protons and hydroxide ions, facilitate biochemical reactions and establish the electrochemical gradients across membranes that drive cellular processes such as transport and ATP synthesis. Metal ions serve as essential enzyme cofactors and perform both structural and signaling roles within cells. However, because these ions can also be toxic, cells have developed sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms to regulate their levels and avoid toxicity. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have characterized many of the gene products and processes responsible for acquiring, utilizing, storing, and regulating levels of these ions. Findings in this model organism have often allowed the corresponding machinery in humans to be identified and have provided insights into diseases that result from defects in ion homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of how cation balance is achieved and modulated in baker’s yeast. Control of intracellular pH is discussed, as well as uptake, storage, and efflux mechanisms for the alkali metal cations, Na+ and K+, the divalent cations, Ca2+ and Mg2+, and the trace metal ions, Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+. Signal transduction pathways that are regulated by pH and Ca2+ are reviewed, as well as the mechanisms that allow cells to maintain appropriate intracellular cation concentrations when challenged by extreme conditions, i.e., either limited availability or toxic levels in the environment. PMID:23463800

  2. The C4H7+ cation. A theoretical investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, W.; Liu, B.; DeFrees, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    The potential energy surface of the C4H7+ cation has been investigated with ab initio quantum chemical theory. Extended basis set calculations, including electronic correlation, show that cyclobutyl and cyclopropylcarbinyl cation are equally stable isomers. The saddle point connecting these isomers lies 0.6 kcal/mol above the minima. The global C4H7+ minimum corresponds to the 1-methylallyl cation, which is 9.0 kcal/mol more stable than the cyclobutyl and the cyclopropylcarbinyl cation and 9.5 kcal/mol below the 2-methylallyl cation. These results are in excellent agreement with experimental data.

  3. Comparative analysis of cation/proton antiporter superfamily in plants.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chu-Yu; Yang, Xiaohan; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2013-06-01

    The cation/proton antiporter superfamily is associated with the transport of monovalent cations across membranes. This superfamily was annotated in the Arabidopsis genome and some members were functionally characterized. In the present study, a systematic analysis of the cation/proton antiporter genes in diverse plant species was reported. We identified 240 cation/proton antiporters in alga, moss, and angiosperm. A phylogenetic tree was constructed showing these 240 members are separated into three families, i.e., Na(+)/H(+) exchangers, K(+) efflux antiporters, and cation/H(+) exchangers. Our analysis revealed that tandem and/or segmental duplications contribute to the expansion of cation/H(+) exchangers in the examined angiosperm species. Sliding window analysis of the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios showed some differences in the evolutionary fate of cation/proton antiporter paralogs. Furthermore, we identified over-represented motifs among these 240 proteins and found most motifs are family specific, demonstrating diverse evolution of the cation/proton antiporters among three families. In addition, we investigated the co-expressed genes of the cation/proton antiporters in Arabidopsis thaliana. The results showed some biological processes are enriched in the co-expressed genes, suggesting the cation/proton antiporters may be involved in these biological processes. Taken together, this study furthers our knowledge on cation/proton antiporters in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of cations on the solubilization/deposition of triclosan in sediment-water-rhamnolipid system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanbo; Hu, Yongyou; Guo, Qian; Yan, Jia; Wu, Wenjin

    2016-09-01

    Cations had great influence on the self-assembly of rhamnolipid, which in turn affected the fate of triclosan. The migration of triclosan from sediment to water benefited its biodegradation but it could be transformed into more toxic compounds. To regulate the fate of triclosan and reduce environmental risks extremely, the effect of four common cations in surface water (Na(+)/K(+)/Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)) on the solubilization/deposition of triclosan in sediment-water-rhamnolipid system was investigated. The interaction among cations, triclosan and rhamnolipid was explored based on self-assembly of rhamnolipid and water solubility of triclosan in rhamnolipid solutions. Results showed that cations had little influence on the fate of triclosan in the absence of rhamnolipid. Cations, especially Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), reduced the critical micelle concentration, micellar size and zeta potential of rhamnolipid solutions. The changes in self-assembly of rhamnolipid with different cations led to the difference of residual rhamnolipid concentration in water, which was nearly invariant with 0.01 M Na(+)/K(+) while decreased significantly with 0.01 M Ca(2+)/Mg(2+). Consequently, water solubility of triclosan in rhamnolipid solutions increased with the addition of Na(+)/K(+) whereas decreased with Ca(2+)/Mg(2+). In sediment-water- rhamnolipid system, triclosan was slightly solubilized from sediment to water with Na(+)/K(+) while deposited in sediment with Ca(2+)/Mg(2+). These findings provided an alternative application of rhamnolipid for the remediation of triclosan-polluted sediment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Class Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Thomas I.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief introduction identifying current issues and trends in research on class size, this brochure reviews five recent studies bearing on the relationship of class size to educational effectiveness. Part 1 is a review of two interrelated and highly controversial "meta-analyses" or statistical integrations of research findings on…

  6. Size Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the immense size of Unity Junior High School in Cicero, Illinois and the opinions of various people regarding its size. The school has more than 2,700 students, seventeen acres, eighty-eight faculty lounges, and ninety-six security cameras. Administrators hope the school--"Cicero's crown jewel," as the school…

  7. A-site ordered quadruple perovskite oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youwen, Long

    2016-07-01

    The A-site ordered perovskite oxides with chemical formula display many intriguing physical properties due to the introduction of transition metals at both A‧ and B sites. Here, research on the recently discovered intermetallic charge transfer occurring between A‧-site Cu and B-site Fe ions in LaCu3Fe4O12 and its analogues is reviewed, along with work on the magnetoelectric multiferroicity observed in LaMn3Cr4O12 with cubic perovskite structure. The Cu-Fe intermetallic charge transfer leads to a first-order isostructural phase transition accompanied by drastic variations in magnetism and electrical transport properties. The LaMn3Cr4O12 is a novel spin-driven multiferroic system with strong magnetoelectric coupling effects. The compound is the first example of cubic perovskite multiferroics to be found. It opens up a new arena for studying unexpected multiferroic mechanisms. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB921500), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07030300), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574378).

  8. Cation–cation interactions and cation exchange in a series of isostructural framework uranyl tungstates

    SciTech Connect

    Balboni, Enrica; Burns, Peter C., E-mail: pburns@nd.edu; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556

    2014-05-01

    The isotypical compounds (UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(WO{sub 6})(H{sub 2}O){sub 5} (1), Ag(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(WO{sub 6})(OH)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} (2), K(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(WO{sub 6})OH(H{sub 2}O){sub 4} (3), Rb(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(WO{sub 6})(OH)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3.5} (4), and Cs(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(WO{sub 6})OH(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} (5) were synthesized, characterized, and their structures determined. Each crystallizes in space group Cc. (1): a=12.979 (3), b=10.238 (2), c=11.302 (2), β=102.044 (2); (2): a=13.148 (2), b=9.520 (1), c=11.083 (2), β=101.568 (2); (3): a=13.111 (8), b=9.930 (6), c=11.242 (7), β=101.024 (7); (4): a=12.940 (2), b=10.231 (2), c=11.259(2), β=102.205 (2); (5): a=12.983 (3), b=10.191 (3), c=11.263 (4), β=101.661 (4). Compounds 1–5 are amore » framework of uranyl and tungsten polyhedra containing cation–cation interactions. The framework has three symmetrically distinct U(VI) cations, one tungsten, sixteen to eighteen oxygen atoms, and in 2–5, one monovalent cation. Each atom occupies a general position. Each U(VI) cation is present as a typical (UO{sub 2}){sup 2+} uranyl ion in an overall pentagonal bipyramidal coordination environment. Each pentagonal bipyramid shares two equatorial edges with two other pentagonal bipyramids, forming a trimer. Trimers are connected into chains by edge-sharing with WO{sub 6} octahedra. Chains are linked through cation–cation interactions between two symmetrically independent uranyl ions. This yields a remarkably complex system of intersecting channels that extend along [0 0 1] and [−1 1 0]. The cation exchange properties of 2 and 3 were characterized at room temperature and at 140 °C. - Graphical abstract: Chains of uranium and tungsten polyhedra are connected into a three dimensional framework by cation–cation interactions occurring between two symmetrically independent uranyl pentagonal bipyramids. Monovalent cations present in channels within the structure can be exchanged by room temperature or mild

  9. Superamphiphilic nanocontainers based on the resorcinarene - Cationic surfactant system: Synergetic self-assembling behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaynanova, Gulnara A.; Bekmukhametova, Alina M.; Kashapov, Ruslan R.; Ziganshina, Albina Yu.; Zakharova, Lucia Ya.

    2016-05-01

    Self-organization in the mixed system based on water-soluble aminomethylated calix[4]arene with sulfonatoethyl groups at the lower rim and classical cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide has been studied by the methods of tensiometry, conductometry, spectrophotometry, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering. The values of the critical association concentration, the size and zeta potential values, and the solubilization capacity of mixed aggregates toward the hydrophobic probe (Sudan I) were determined.

  10. Liquid-liquid phase separation in dilute solutions of poly(styrene sulfonate) with multivalent cations: Phase diagrams, chain morphology, and impact of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansch, Markus; Hämisch, Benjamin; Schweins, Ralf; Prévost, Sylvain; Huber, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The dilute solution behavior of sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) is studied in the presence of trivalent Al3+ and bivalent Ba2+ cations at various levels of excess NaCl. The study evaluates the phase behavior and the morphology of the polyelectrolyte chains with increasing extent of decoration with the Al3+ and Ba2+ cations and analyses the effect of temperature on these decorated chains. The phase behavior is presented in the form of the cation concentration versus the respective poly(styrene sulfonate) concentration, recorded at the onset of precipitation. Whereas poly(styrene sulfonate) with Al3+ exhibits a linear phase boundary, denoted as the "threshold line," which increases with increasing poly(styrene sulfonate) concentration, Ba2+ cations show a threshold line which is independent of the poly(styrene sulfonate) concentration. An additional re-entrant phase, at considerably higher cation content than those of the threshold lines, is observed with Al3+ cations but not with Ba2+ cations. The threshold line and the re-entrant phase boundary form parts of the liquid-liquid phase boundary observed at the limit of low polymer concentration. The dimensions of the polyelectrolyte chains shrink considerably while approaching the respective threshold lines on increase of the Al3+ and Ba2+ cation content. However, subtle differences occur between the morphological transformation induced by Al3+ and Ba2+. Most strikingly, coils decorated with Al3+ respond very differently to temperature variations than coils decorated with Ba2+ do. As the temperature increases, the poly(styrene sulfonate) chains decrease their size in the presence of Al3+ cations but increase in size in the presence of Ba2+ cations.

  11. How do silanes affect the lubricating properties of cationic double chain surfactant on silica surfaces?

    PubMed

    Beauvais, Muriel; Serreau, Laurence; Heitz, Caroline; Barthel, Etienne

    2009-03-01

    The effect of an aminosilane on the lubricant properties of a C(18) double-chained cationic surfactant has been investigated in the context of glass fiber forming process. The surfactant adsorption was studied on silica by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflexion (ATR) mode as a function of the aminosilane concentration in an organic water based formulation (sizing) used to coat the glass fibers during the process. A reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer was used to compare friction properties of silica in contact with the aminosilane-surfactant mixture and in presence of each component of the sizing. Surface forces were measured between silica and an atomic force microscope (AFM) silicon nitride tip in the sizing and in the pure cationic surfactant solution. The aminosilane on its own has no lubricant property and reduces or even suppresses the cationic surfactant adsorption on silica. However, the silica-silica contact is lubricated even if the infrared spectroscopy does not detect any surfactant adsorption. The repeated contacts and shear due to the friction experiment itself induce accumulation, organization and compactness of surfactant bilayers.

  12. Tuning light emission of PbS nanocrystals from infrared to visible range by cation exchange

    PubMed Central

    Binetti, Enrico; Striccoli, Marinella; Sibillano, Teresa; Giannini, Cinzia; Brescia, Rosaria; Falqui, Andrea; Comparelli, Roberto; Corricelli, Michela; Tommasi, Raffaele; Agostiano, Angela; Curri, M Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, with intense and sharp-line emission between red and near-infrared spectral regions, are of great interest for optoelectronic and bio-imaging applications. The growth of an inorganic passivation layer on nanocrystal surfaces is a common strategy to improve their chemical and optical stability and their photoluminescence quantum yield. In particular, cation exchange is a suitable approach for shell growth at the expense of the nanocrystal core size. Here, the cation exchange process is used to promote the formation of a CdS passivation layer on the surface of very small PbS nanocrystals (2.3 nm in diameter), blue shifting their optical spectra and yielding luminescent and stable nanostructures emitting in the range of 700–850 nm. Structural, morphological and compositional investigation confirms the nanocrystal size contraction after the cation-exchange process, while the PbS rock-salt crystalline phase is retained. Absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrate the growth of a passivation layer with a decrease of the PbS core size, as inferred by the blue-shift of the excitonic peaks. The surface passivation strongly increases the photoluminescence intensity and the excited state lifetime. In addition, the nanocrystals reveal increased stability against oxidation over time. Thanks to their absorption and emission spectral range and the slow recombination dynamics, such highly luminescent nano-objects can find interesting applications in sensitized photovoltaic cells and light-emitting devices. PMID:27877842

  13. Substituent and Solvent Effects on the Absorption Spectra of Cation-π Complexes of Benzene and Borazine: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Nabajit; Bhattacharyya, Pradip Kr; Bania, Kusum K

    2014-05-29

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has been used to predict the absorption spectra of cation-π complexes of benzene and borazine. Both polarized continuum model (PCM) and discrete solvation model (DSM) and a combined effect of PCM and DSM on the absorption spectra have been elucidated. With decrease in size of the cation, the π → π* transitions of benzene and borazine are found to undergo blue and red shift, respectively. A number of different substituents (both electron-withdrawing and electron-donating) and a range of solvents (nonpolar to polar) have been considered to understand the effect of substituent and solvents on the absorption spectra of the cation-π complexes of benzene and borazine. Red shift in the absorption spectra of benzene cation-π complexes are observed with both electron-donating groups (EDGs) and electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs). The same trend has not been observed in the case of substituted borazine cation-π complexes. The wavelength of the electronic transitions corresponding to cation-π complexes correlates well with the Hammet constants (σ p and σ m ). This correlation indicates that the shifting of spectral lines of the cation-π complexes on substitution is due to both resonance and inductive effect. On incorporation of solvent phases, significant red or blue shifting in the absorption spectra of the complexes has been observed. Kamlet-Taft multiparametric equation has been used to explain the effect of solvent on the absorption spectra of complexes. Polarity and polarizability are observed to play an important role in the solvatochromism of the cation-π complexes.

  14. Photochemical Formation and Transformation of Birnessite: Effects of Cations on Micromorphology and Crystal Structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tengfei; Liu, Lihu; Tan, WenFeng; Suib, Steven L; Qiu, Guohong; Liu, Fan

    2018-05-24

    As important components with excellent oxidation and adsorption activity in soils and sediments, manganese oxides affect the transportation and fate of nutrients and pollutants in natural environments. In this work, birnessite was formed by photocatalytic oxidation of Mn2+aq in the presence of nitrate under solar irradiation. The effects of concentrations and species of interlayer cations (Na+, Mg2+, and K+) on birnessite crystal structure and micromorphology were investigated. The roles of adsorbed Mn2+ and pH in the transformation of the photosynthetic birnessite were further studied. The results indicated that Mn2+aq was oxidized to birnessite by superoxide radicals (O2•-) generated from the photolysis of NO3- under UV irradiation. The particle size and thickness of birnessite decreased with increasing cation concentration. The birnessite showed a plate-like morphology in the presence of K+, while exhibited a rumpled sheet-like morphology when Na+ or Mg2+ was used. The different micromorphologies of birnessites could be ascribed to the position of cations in the interlayer. The adsorbed Mn2+ and high pH facilitated the reduction of birnessite to low-valence manganese oxides including hausmannite, feitknechtite, and manganite. This study suggests that interlayer cations and Mn2+ play essential roles in the photochemical formation and transformation of birnessite in aqueous environments.

  15. Cationic Covalent Organic Frameworks: A Simple Platform of Anionic Exchange for Porosity Tuning and Proton Conduction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Heping; Liu, Bailing; Li, Bin; Zhang, Liming; Li, Yang-Guang; Tan, Hua-Qiao; Zang, Hong-Ying; Zhu, Guangshan

    2016-05-11

    Mimicking proton conduction mechanism of Nafion to construct novel proton-conducting materials with low cost and high proton conductivity is of wide interest. Herein, we have designed and synthesized a cationic covalent organic framework with high thermal and chemical stability by combining a cationic monomer, ethidium bromide (EB) (3,8-diamino-5-ethyl-6-phenylphenanthridinium bromide), with 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol (TFP) in Schiff base reactions. This is the first time that the stable cationic crystalline frameworks allowed for the fabrication of a series of charged COFs (EB-COF:X, X = F, Cl, Br, I) through ion exchange processes. Exchange of the extra framework ions can finely modulate the COFs' porosity and pore sizes at nanoscale. More importantly, by introducing PW12O40(3-) into this porous cationic framework, we can greatly enhance the proton conductivity of ionic COF-based material. To the best of our knowledge, EB-COF:PW12 shows the best proton conductivity at room temperature among ever reported porous organic materials.

  16. Quantitative Characterization of Non-Classic Polarization of Cations on Clay Aggregate Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Feinan; Li, Hang; Liu, Xinmin; Li, Song; Ding, Wuquan; Xu, Chenyang; Li, Yue; Zhu, Longhui

    2015-01-01

    Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+) at concentrations from10−5 to 10−1 mol L−1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation–surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability. PMID:25874864

  17. Identifying the charge generation dynamics in Cs+-based triple cation mixed perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Salado, Manuel; Kokal, Ramesh K; Calio, Laura; Kazim, Samrana; Deepa, Melepurath; Ahmad, Shahzada

    2017-08-30

    Triple cation based perovskite solar cells offer enhanced moisture tolerance and stability compared to mixed perovskites. Slight substitution of methyl ammonium or formamidinium cation by cesium (Cs + ), was also reported to eliminate halide segregation due to its smaller size. To elucidate the device kinetics and understand the role of the Cs, we undertook different modes of scanning probe microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments. Kelvin probe force microscopy revealed that the incorporation of the Cs cation increases the contact potential difference (CPD), this CPD further increases when Spiro-OMeTAD is used as a hole transport material. The current at the nanoscale level shows improvement with Cs inclusion and further enhancement by the Spiro-OMeTAD deposition, studied under light illumination, which supports the high photocurrent density obtained from the cells. EIS demonstrates that in a triple cation environment, reduced carrier recombination at the TiO 2 /perovskite interface was also obtained which in turn allow us to achieve a higher V oc value.

  18. Alkali Metal Cation versus Proton and Methyl Cation Affinities: Structure and Bonding Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Boughlala, Zakaria; Fonseca Guerra, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We have analyzed the structure and bonding of gas‐phase Cl−X and [HCl−X]+ complexes for X+= H+, CH3 +, Li+, and Na+, using relativistic density functional theory (DFT). We wish to establish a quantitative trend in affinities of the anionic and neutral Lewis bases Cl− and HCl for the various cations. The Cl−X bond becomes longer and weaker along X+ = H+, CH3 +, Li+, and Na+. Our main purpose is to understand the heterolytic bonding mechanism behind the intrinsic (i.e., in the absence of solvent) alkali metal cation affinities (AMCA) and how this compares with and differs from those of the proton affinity (PA) and methyl cation affinity (MCA). Our analyses are based on Kohn–Sham molecular orbital (KS‐MO) theory in combination with a quantitative energy decomposition analysis (EDA) that pinpoints the importance of the different features in the bonding mechanism. Orbital overlap appears to play an important role in determining the trend in cation affinities. PMID:27551660

  19. Cation ordering and effect of biaxial strain in double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl 6

    DOE PAGES

    Pilania, G.; Uberuaga, B. P.

    2015-03-19

    Here, we investigate the electronic structure, energetics of cation ordering, and effect of biaxial strain on double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl 6 using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The two constituents (i.e., CsCaCl 3 and RbZnCl 3) forming the double perovskite exhibit a stark contrast. While CsCaCl 3 is known to exist in a cubic perovskite structure and does not show any epitaxial strain induced phase transitions within an experimentally accessible range of compressive strains, RbZnCl 3 is thermodynamically unstable in the perovskite phase and exhibits ultra-sensitive response at small epitaxial strains if constrained in the perovskite phase. We showmore » that combining the two compositions in a double perovskite structure not only improves overall stability but also the strain-polarization coupling of the material. Our calculations predict a ground state with P4/nmm space group for the double perovskite, where A-site cations (i.e., Cs and Rb) are layer-ordered and B-site cations (i.e., Ca and Zn) prefer a rocksalt type ordering. The electronic structure and bandgap in this system are shown to be quite sensitive to the B-site cation ordering and is minimally affected by the ordering of A-site cations. We find that at experimentally accessible compressive strains CsRbCaZnCl 6 can be phase transformed from its paraelectric ground state to an antiferroelectric state, where Zn atoms contribute predominantly to the polarization. Furthermore, both energy difference and activation barrier for a transformation between this antiferroelectric state and the corresponding ferroelectric configuration are predicted to be small. As a result, the computational approach presented here opens a new pathway towards a rational design of novel double perovskites with improved strain response and functionalities.« less

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Geminized Amphiphilic Cationic Homopolymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Xuefeng; Yu, Danfeng; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Guang; Cui, Yingxian; Sun, Keji; Wang, Jinben; Yan, Haike

    2015-12-22

    The current study is aimed at investigating the effect of cationic charge density and hydrophobicity on the antibacterial and hemolytic activities. Two kinds of cationic surfmers, containing single or double hydrophobic tails (octyl chains or benzyl groups), and the corresponding homopolymers were synthesized. The antimicrobial activity of these candidate antibacterials was studied by microbial growth inhibition assays against Escherichia coli, and hemolysis activity was carried out using human red blood cells. It was interestingly found that the homopolymers were much more effective in antibacterial property than their corresponding monomers. Furthermore, the geminized homopolymers had significantly higher antibacterial activity than that of their counterparts but with single amphiphilic side chains in each repeated unit. Geminized homopolymers, with high positive charge density and moderate hydrophobicity (such as benzyl groups), combine both advantages of efficient antibacterial property and prominently high selectivity. To further explain the antibacterial performance of the novel polymer series, the molecular interaction mechanism is proposed according to experimental data which shows that these specimens are likely to kill microbes by disrupting bacterial membranes, leading them unlikely to induce resistance.

  1. Cationic antimicrobial polymers and their assemblies.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; de Melo Carrasco, Letícia Dias

    2013-05-10

    Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing greater insight into their structure-antimicrobial activity relationship. On the other hand, antimicrobial polymers grafted or self-assembled to inert or non inert vehicles can yield hybrid antimicrobial nanostructures or films, which can act as antimicrobials by themselves or deliver bioactive molecules for a variety of applications, such as wound dressing, photodynamic antimicrobial therapy, food packing and preservation and antifouling applications.

  2. Cationic Antimicrobial Polymers and Their Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; de Melo Carrasco, Letícia Dias

    2013-01-01

    Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing greater insight into their structure-antimicrobial activity relationship. On the other hand, antimicrobial polymers grafted or self-assembled to inert or non inert vehicles can yield hybrid antimicrobial nanostructures or films, which can act as antimicrobials by themselves or deliver bioactive molecules for a variety of applications, such as wound dressing, photodynamic antimicrobial therapy, food packing and preservation and antifouling applications. PMID:23665898

  3. Local description of a polyenic radical cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karafiloglou, P.; Kapsomenos, G.

    1995-06-01

    The various local electronic events occurring in a radical cation of a linear polyene with even number of centers are investigated by means of the calculation of the expectation values of second quantized density operators, in the framework of the general poly-electron population analysis. Two series of calculations in two limit geometries (a strong alternant and a polaron-like one) are performed by using as analysers both natural AOs in ab initio correlated wave functions, as well as the model orthogonal AOs in PPP + full CI ones. The probabilities of finding simultaneously the positive charge (+) and the radical center (·) follows, in accord with basic chemical intuition, an oscillating (even-odd) law, even at distant AO positions. The probability of having a transmission of the (+) charge through the π-bonds (when the (·) is located in one extremity of the polyene) is greater than this of the transmission of the (·). Comparing the radical cation with the parent polyene, it is shown that oxidation creates an important trend of single-double bond inversion even in strongly alternant geometry; this effect is more pronounced in bonds of the middle. The examination of various CDW structures shows that some of them can have small or negligible contributions; this counterintuitive and cooperative effect is rationalized by means of Moffitt's theorem. All the above effects are not the consequence of the polaron-like geometry, but are controlled from the topology of n-centers linearly disposed and involving ( n-1) electrons.

  4. Cationic antimicrobial peptides in penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Amparyup, Piti; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Supungul, Premruethai

    2011-08-01

    Penaeid shrimp aquaculture has been consistently affected worldwide by devastating diseases that cause a severe loss in production. To fight a variety of harmful microbes in the surrounding environment, particularly at high densities (of which intensive farming represents an extreme example), shrimps have evolved and use a diverse array of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as part of an important first-line response of the host defense system. Cationic AMPs in penaeid shrimps composed of penaeidins, crustins, and anti-lipopolysaccharide factors are comprised of multiple classes or isoforms and possess antibacterial and antifungal activities against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Shrimp AMPs are primarily expressed in circulating hemocytes, which is the main site of the immune response, and hemocytes expressing AMPs probably migrate to infection sites to fight against pathogen invasion. Indeed, most AMPs are produced as early as the nauplii developmental stage to protect shrimp larvae from infections. In this review, we discuss the sequence diversity, expression, gene structure, and antimicrobial activities of cationic AMPs in penaeid shrimps. The information available on antimicrobial activities indicates that these shrimp AMPs have potential therapeutic applications in the control of disease problems in aquaculture.

  5. Transition-Metal Hydride Radical Cations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue; Shaw, Anthony P; Estes, Deven P; Norton, Jack R

    2016-08-10

    Transition-metal hydride radical cations (TMHRCs) are involved in a variety of chemical and biochemical reactions, making a more thorough understanding of their properties essential for explaining observed reactivity and for the eventual development of new applications. Generally, these species may be treated as the ones formed by one-electron oxidation of diamagnetic analogues that are neutral or cationic. Despite the importance of TMHRCs, the generally sensitive nature of these complexes has hindered their development. However, over the last four decades, many more TMHRCs have been synthesized, characterized, isolated, or hypothesized as reaction intermediates. This comprehensive review focuses on experimental studies of TMHRCs reported through the year 2014, with an emphasis on isolated and observed species. The methods used for the generation or synthesis of TMHRCs are surveyed, followed by a discussion about the stability of these complexes. The fundamental properties of TMHRCs, especially those pertaining to the M-H bond, are described, followed by a detailed treatment of decomposition pathways. Finally, reactions involving TMHRCs as intermediates are described.

  6. Electronic structure of the benzene dimer cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieniazek, Piotr A.; Krylov, Anna I.; Bradforth, Stephen E.

    2007-07-01

    The benzene and benzene dimer cations are studied using the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster model with single and double substitutions for ionized systems. The ten lowest electronic states of the dimer at t-shaped, sandwich, and displaced sandwich configurations are described and cataloged based on the character of the constituent fragment molecular orbitals. The character of the states, bonding patterns, and important features of the electronic spectrum are explained using qualitative dimer molecular orbital linear combination of fragment molecular orbital framework. Relaxed ground state geometries are obtained for all isomers. Calculations reveal that the lowest energy structure of the cation has a displaced sandwich structure and a binding energy of 20kcal/mol, while the t-shaped isomer is 6kcal/mol higher. The calculated electronic spectra agree well with experimental gas phase action spectra and femtosecond transient absorption in liquid benzene. Both sandwich and t-shaped structures feature intense charge resonance bands, whose location is very sensitive to the interfragment distance. Change in the electronic state ordering was observed between σ and πu states, which correlate to the B˜ and C˜ bands of the monomer, suggesting a reassignment of the local excitation peaks in the gas phase experimental spectrum.

  7. Interaction of monovalent cations with acetonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černušák, Ivan; Aranyosiová, Monika; Vollárová, Ol'ga; Velič, Dušan; Kirdajová, Ol'ga; Benko, Ján

    Solvation of monovalent cations (Me+) of alkali metals=Na+, K+, Rb+, and Cs+, coinage metals=Cu+, Ag+, Au+, and p-block elements Ga+, In+, and Tl+ with acetonitrile was studied by means of ab initio calculations and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The intermolecular interactions in the complexes Me+···CH3CN were investigated using the coupled clusters theory including single, double, and noniterative triple substitutions (CCSD(T)) in conjunction with the Pol and Pol-dk basis sets. The binding energies of these donor-acceptor complexes were estimated; taking into account the basis set superposition error, zero-point vibrations, correlation contribution, and scalar relativistic corrections. The theoretical ΔG0298 K values based on CCSD(T)/Pol and/or CCSD(T)/Pol-dk binding energies correlated well with experimental transfer Gibbs energies (from water to acetonitrile) for the series of cations. In the case of Au monocation, relativistic correction turned out to be extremely important. Composition of the complex of Ag+ and Na+ with acetonitrile was determined by using SIMS supporting both theoretical and experimental transfer Gibbs energies.

  8. UV absorption spectrum of allene radical cations in solid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Chih-Hao; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Huang, Tzu-Ping; Wu, Yu-Jong

    2018-05-01

    Electron bombardment during deposition of an Ar matrix containing a small proportion of allene generated allene cations. Further irradiation of the matrix sample at 385 nm destroyed the allene cations and formed propyne cations in solid Ar. Both cations were identified according to previously reported IR absorption bands. Using a similar technique, we recorded the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of allene cations in solid Ar. The vibrationally resolved progression recorded in the range of 266-237 nm with intervals of about 800 cm-1 was assigned to the A2E ← X2E transition of allene cations, and the broad continuum absorption recorded in the region of 229-214 nm was assigned to their B2A1 ← X2E transition. These assignments were made based on the observed photolytic behavior of the progressions and the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths calculated using time-dependent density functional theory.

  9. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOEpatents

    O`Neill, M.A.; Pellerin, P.J.M.; Warrenfeltz, D.; Vidal, S.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations. 15 figs.

  10. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOEpatents

    O'Neill, Malcolm A.; Pellerin, Patrice J. M.; Warrenfeltz, Dennis; Vidal, Stephane; Darvill, Alan G.; Albersheim, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations.

  11. Cation distribution in NiZn-ferrite films determined using x-ray absorption fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, V. G.; Koon, N. C.; Williams, C. M.; Zhang, Q.; Abe, M.

    1996-04-01

    We have applied extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to study the cation distribution in a series of spin-sprayed NiZn-ferrite films, Ni0.15ZnyFe2.85-yO4 (y=0.16, 0.23, 0.40, 0.60). The Ni, Zn, and Fe EXAFS were collected from each sample and analyzed to Fourier transforms. Samples of Ni-ferrite, Zn-ferrite, and magnetite were similarly studied as empirical standards. These standards, together with EXAFS data generated from the theoretical EXAFS FEFF codes, allowed the correlation of features in the Fourier transforms with specific lattice sites in the spinel unit cell. We find that the Ni ions reside mostly on the octahedral (B) sites whereas the Zn ions are predominantly on the tetrahedral (A) sites. The Fe ions reside on both A and B sites in a ratio determined by the ratio of Zn/Fe. The addition of Zn displaces a larger fraction of Fe cations onto the B sites serving to increase the net magnetization. The fraction of A site Ni ions is measured to increase peaking at ≊25% for y=0.6. At higher Zn concentrations (y≥0.5) the lattice experiences local distortions around the Zn sites causing a decrease in the superexchange resulting in a decrease in the net magnetization.

  12. Immune complexes with cationic antibodies deposit in glomeruli more effectively than cationic antibodies alone.

    PubMed

    Mannik, M; Gauthier, V J; Stapleton, S A; Agodoa, L Y

    1987-06-15

    In previously published studies, highly cationized antibodies alone and in immune complexes bound to glomeruli by charge-charge interaction, but only immune complexes persisted in glomeruli. Because normal IgG does not deposit in glomeruli, studies were conducted to determine whether cationized antibodies can be prepared which deposit in glomeruli when bound to antigen but not when free in circulation. A series of cationized rabbit antiHSA was prepared with the number of added amino groups ranging from 13.3 to 60.2 per antibody molecule. Antibodies alone or in preformed soluble immune complexes, prepared at fivefold or 50-fold antigen excess, were administered to mice. With the injection of a fixed dose of 100 micrograms per mouse, antibodies alone did not deposit in glomeruli with less than 29.6 added amino groups by immunofluorescence microscopy. In contrast, 100 micrograms of antibodies with 23.5 added amino groups in immune complexes, made at fivefold antigen excess, formed immune deposits in glomeruli. With selected preparations of cationized, radiolabeled antibodies, deposition in glomeruli was quantified by isolation of mouse glomeruli. These quantitative data were in good agreement with the results of immunofluorescence microscopy. Immune complexes made at 50-fold antigen excess, containing only small-latticed immune complexes with no more than two antibody molecules per complex, deposited in glomeruli similar to antibodies alone. Selected cationized antibodies alone or in immune complexes were administered to mice in varying doses. In these experiments, glomerular deposition of immune complexes, made at fivefold antigen excess, was detected with five- to 10-fold smaller doses than the deposition of the same antibodies alone. These studies demonstrate that antibody molecules in immune complexes are more likely to deposit in glomeruli by charge-charge interactions than antibodies alone.

  13. Stability and recovery of DNA origami structure with cation concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yang; Liu, Ting; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Shanshan; Zhu, Jun; Ye, Kai; Huang, Guang; Dannong, He

    2018-01-01

    We synthesized triangular and rectangular DNA origami nanostructures and investigated the stability and recovery of them under low cation concentration. Our results demonstrated that the origami nanostructures would melt when incubated in low cation concentration, and recover whilst kept in the concentration for less than 10 min. However, extending the incubation time would lead to irreversible melting. Our results show the possibility of application of DNA origami nanostructures for things such as a sensor for cation concentration response, etc.

  14. Cation-containing lipid membranes – experiment and md simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Kučerka, Norbert; Dushanov, Ermuhammas; Kholmurodov, Kholmirzo T.; ...

    2017-11-27

    Here, using small angle neutron diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations we studied the interactions between calcium (Ca 2+) or zinc (Zn 2+) cations, and oriented gel phase dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers. For both cations studied at ~1:7 divalent metal ion to lipid molar ratio (Me2+:DPPC), bilayer thickness increased. Simulation results helped reveal subtle differences in the effects of the two cations on gel phase membranes.

  15. Non-bridging Oxygen and Five-coordinated Aluminum in Aluminosilicate Glasses: A Cation Field Strength Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. M.; Stebbins, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    Linda M. Thompson Jonathan F. Stebbins Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305 Although it is understood in aluminosilicate melts and glasses that non-bridging oxygens (NBO) have significant influence on thermodynamic and transport properties, questions remain about its role and the extent of its influence, particularly in metaluminous and peraluminous compositions. One major question persists regarding whether the formation of NBO is in any way coupled with the formation of VAl (AlO5), which is significantly impacted by cation field strength (defined as the cation charge divided by the square of the distance between the cation and oxygen atoms) (Kelsey et al., 2009). Previous work on calcium and potassium aluminosilicate glasses has shown the presence of NBO on the metaluminous join and persisting into the peraluminous region, with significantly more NBO present in Ca glasses compared to K glasses of similar composition (Thompson and Stebbins, 2011). However, it is unclear if there is any systematic impact on NBO content by cation field strength similar to the impact on VAl. Expanding on the previous study, barium aluminosilicate glasses were synthesized covering a range of compositions crossing the metaluminous (e.g. BaAl2O4-SiO2) join to observe changes in the NBO for comparison against the calcium aluminosilicate glasses, thus looking at the impact of cation size on NBO versus cation charge. In the barium glasses on the 30 mol% SiO2 isopleth, the highest NBO content was 6.9% for the barium rich glass (R = 0.51, where R is Ba2+ / (Ba2+ + 2Al3+)) while the most peraluminous glass (R = 0.45) had an NBO content of 1.9%. Comparison of these results to earlier data shows these numbers are similar to what is observed in the Ca glasses, indicating cation size alone does not have a significant impact on NBO content. However the VAl content does show a decrease (compared to calcium aluminosilicate glasses at similar R values

  16. Sustainable Sizing.

    PubMed

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  17. Improved chemical and electrochemical stability of perovskite oxides with less reducible cations at the surface

    DOE PAGES

    Tsvetkov, Nikolai; Lu, Qiyang; Sun, Lixin; ...

    2016-06-13

    Segregation and phase separation of aliovalent dopants on perovskite oxide (ABO 3 ) surfaces are detrimental to the performance of energy conversion systems such as solid oxide fuel/electrolysis cells and catalysts for thermochemical H 2 O and CO 2 splitting. One key reason behind the instability of perovskite oxide surfaces is the electrostatic attraction of the negatively charged A-site dopants (for example, Sr La ') by the positively charged oxygen vacancies (Vmore » $$••\\atop{o}$$) enriched at the surface. Here we show that reducing the surface V $$••\\atop{o}$$ concentration improves the oxygen surface exchange kinetics and stability significantly, albeit contrary to the well-established understanding that surface oxygen vacancies facilitate reactions with O 2 molecules. We take La 0.8 Sr 0.2 CoO 3 (LSC) as a model perovskite oxide, and modify its surface with additive cations that are more and less reducible than Co on the B-site of LSC. By using ambient-pressure X-ray absorption and photoelectron spectroscopy, we proved that the dominant role of the less reducible cations is to suppress the enrichment and phase separation of Sr while reducing the concentration of V $$••\\atop{o}$$ and making the LSC more oxidized at its surface. Consequently, we found that these less reducible cations significantly improve stability, with up to 30 times faster oxygen exchange kinetics after 54 h in air at 530 °C achieved by Hf addition onto LSC. Finally, the results revealed a 'volcano' relation between the oxygen exchange kinetics and the oxygen vacancy formation enthalpy of the binary oxides of the additive cations. This volcano relation highlights the existence of an optimum surface oxygen vacancy concentration that balances the gain in oxygen exchange kinetics and the chemical stability loss.« less

  18. Improved chemical and electrochemical stability of perovskite oxides with less reducible cations at the surface

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Nikolai; Lu, Qiyang; Sun, Lixin

    Segregation and phase separation of aliovalent dopants on perovskite oxide (ABO 3 ) surfaces are detrimental to the performance of energy conversion systems such as solid oxide fuel/electrolysis cells and catalysts for thermochemical H 2 O and CO 2 splitting. One key reason behind the instability of perovskite oxide surfaces is the electrostatic attraction of the negatively charged A-site dopants (for example, Sr La ') by the positively charged oxygen vacancies (Vmore » $$••\\atop{o}$$) enriched at the surface. Here we show that reducing the surface V $$••\\atop{o}$$ concentration improves the oxygen surface exchange kinetics and stability significantly, albeit contrary to the well-established understanding that surface oxygen vacancies facilitate reactions with O 2 molecules. We take La 0.8 Sr 0.2 CoO 3 (LSC) as a model perovskite oxide, and modify its surface with additive cations that are more and less reducible than Co on the B-site of LSC. By using ambient-pressure X-ray absorption and photoelectron spectroscopy, we proved that the dominant role of the less reducible cations is to suppress the enrichment and phase separation of Sr while reducing the concentration of V $$••\\atop{o}$$ and making the LSC more oxidized at its surface. Consequently, we found that these less reducible cations significantly improve stability, with up to 30 times faster oxygen exchange kinetics after 54 h in air at 530 °C achieved by Hf addition onto LSC. Finally, the results revealed a 'volcano' relation between the oxygen exchange kinetics and the oxygen vacancy formation enthalpy of the binary oxides of the additive cations. This volcano relation highlights the existence of an optimum surface oxygen vacancy concentration that balances the gain in oxygen exchange kinetics and the chemical stability loss.« less

  19. Influence of lithium cations on prolyl peptide bonds.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Claudia; Jahreis, Günther; Günther, Robert; Berger, Stefan; Fischer, Gunter; Hofmann, Hans-Jörg

    2012-06-01

    The influence of lithium cations on the cis/trans isomerization of prolyl peptide bonds was investigated in a quantitative manner in trifluoroethanol (TFE) and acetonitrile, employing NMR techniques. The focus was on various environmental and structural aspects, such as lithium cation and water concentrations, the type of the partner amino acid in the prolyl peptide bond, and the peptide sequence length. Comparison of the thermodynamic parameters of the isomerization in LiCl/TFE and TFE shows a lithium cation concentration dependence of the cis/trans ratio, which saturates at cation concentrations >200 mM. A pronounced increase in the cis isomer content in the presence of lithium cations occurs with the exception of peptides with Gly-Pro and Asp-Pro moieties. The cation effect appears already at the dipeptide level. The salt concentration can considerably be reduced in solvents with a lower number of nucleophilic centers like acetonitrile. The lithium cation effect decreases with small amounts of water and disappears at a water concentration of about 5%. The isomerization kinetics under the influence of lithium cations suggests a weak cation interaction with the carbonyl oxygen of the peptide bond. Copyright © 2012 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Density-Functional-Theory Modeling of Cation Diffusion in Bulk La 1 - x Sr x MnO 3 ± δ ( x = 0.0 – 0.25 ) for Solid-Oxide Fuel-Cell Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Duan, Yuhua; Morgan, Dane

    In this work, the A - and B -site cation migration pathways involving defect complexes in bulk La 1-xSr xMnO 3±δ (LSM) at x = 0.0-0.25 are investigated based on density-functional-theory modeling for solid-oxide fuel-cell (SOFC) cathode applications. We propose a dominant A -site cation migration mechanism which involves an A -site cation (e.g., Lamore » $$x\\atop{A}$$) V A"' of a V A"' -V B"' cluster, where La$$x\\atop{A}$$, V A"' and V B"' are La 3+, A-site vacancy, and B-site vacancy in bulk LSM, respectively, and V A"' -V B"' is the first nearest-neighbor V A"' and V B"' pair. This hop exhibits an approximately 1.6-eV migration barrier as compared to approximately 2.9 eV of the La$$x\\atop{A}$$ hop into a V A"'. This decrease in the cation migration barrier is attributed to the presence of the V B"' relieving the electrostatic repulsion and steric constraints to the migrating A-site cations in the transition-state image configurations.« less

  1. Density-Functional-Theory Modeling of Cation Diffusion in Bulk La 1 - x Sr x MnO 3 ± δ ( x = 0.0 – 0.25 ) for Solid-Oxide Fuel-Cell Cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Duan, Yuhua; Morgan, Dane; ...

    2017-10-04

    In this work, the A - and B -site cation migration pathways involving defect complexes in bulk La 1-xSr xMnO 3±δ (LSM) at x = 0.0-0.25 are investigated based on density-functional-theory modeling for solid-oxide fuel-cell (SOFC) cathode applications. We propose a dominant A -site cation migration mechanism which involves an A -site cation (e.g., Lamore » $$x\\atop{A}$$) V A"' of a V A"' -V B"' cluster, where La$$x\\atop{A}$$, V A"' and V B"' are La 3+, A-site vacancy, and B-site vacancy in bulk LSM, respectively, and V A"' -V B"' is the first nearest-neighbor V A"' and V B"' pair. This hop exhibits an approximately 1.6-eV migration barrier as compared to approximately 2.9 eV of the La$$x\\atop{A}$$ hop into a V A"'. This decrease in the cation migration barrier is attributed to the presence of the V B"' relieving the electrostatic repulsion and steric constraints to the migrating A-site cations in the transition-state image configurations.« less

  2. Whole-cell and single channel monovalent cation currents through the novel rabbit epithelial Ca2+ channel ECaC

    PubMed Central

    Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi; Prenen, Jean; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Bindels, René J M; Droogmans, Guy

    2000-01-01

    This study describes properties of monovalent cation currents through ECaC, a recently cloned epithelial Ca2+-permeable channel from rabbit. The kinetics of currents through ECaC was strongly modulated by divalent cations. Currents were inhibited in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. They showed an initial voltage-dependent decay in the presence of 1 mm Mg2+ at hyperpolarizing steps in Ca2+-free solutions, which represents a voltage-dependent Mg2+ block through binding of Mg2+ to a site localized in the electrical field of the membrane (δ = 0.31) and a voltage-dependent binding constant (at 0 mV 3.1 mm Ca2+, obtained from a Woodhull type analysis). Currents were only stable in the absence of divalent cations and showed under these conditions a small time- and voltage-dependent component of activation. Single channel currents in cell-attached and inside-out patches had a conductance of 77.5 ± 4.9 pS (n = 11) and reversed at +14.8 ± 1.6 mV (n = 9) in the absence of divalent cations. The permeation sequence for monovalent cations through ECaC was Na+ > Li+ > K+ > Cs+ > NMDG+ which is identical to the Eisenmann sequence X for a strong field-strength binding site. It is concluded that the permeation profile of ECaC for monovalent cations suggests a strong field-strength binding site that may be involved in Ca2+ permeation and Mg2+ block. PMID:10970426

  3. Tunnel Structured α-MnO 2 with Different Tunnel Cations (H + , K + , Ag + ) as Cathode Materials in Rechargeable Lithium Batteries: The Role of Tunnel Cation on Electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Poyraz, Altug S.; Huang, Jianping; Cheng, Shaobo

    α-MnO 2 type manganese dioxide is an interesting prospective cathode material for reversible lithium insertion owing to its cation accessible tunnels (0.46nm x 0.46nm), high voltage, and low cost. The tunneled structure is synthetically formed by the assistance of cations acting as structure directing agents where the cations may remain in the tunnel. The electrochemistry of this family of materials is strongly dependent on the morphological and physicochemical (i.e. surface area, crystallite size, and average manganese oxidation state) properties as well as tunnel occupancy. For this work, we prepared a set of materials Mn 8O 16·0.81H 2O, K 0.81Mn 8Omore » 16·0.78H 2O and Ag 1.33Mn 8O 16·0.95H 2O with similar nanorod morphology, crystallite size, surface area, and tunnel water content. This set of samples allowed us to investigate the role of tunnel cations in the electrochemistry of α-MnO 2 type manganese dioxide in a lithium based environment while minimizing the effects of the other parameters. The electrochemistry was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling, rate capability, and galvanostatic intermittent titration type testing. Mn 8O 16·0.81H 2O showed higher loaded voltages, improved capacity retention, and higher specific energy relative to K 0.81Mn 8O 16·0.78H 2O and Ag 1.33Mn 8O 16·0.95H 2O. After 100 cycles, Mn 8O 16·0.81H 2O delivered ~200% more capacity than Ag 1.33Mn 8O 16·0.95H 2O (64 vs. 129 mAh/g) and ~35% more capacity than K 0.81Mn 8O 16·0.78H 2O (85 vs. 129 mAh/g). Mn 8O 16·0.81H 2O also showed higher effective lithium diffusion coefficients (DLi+) and higher rate capability compared to K 0.81Mn 8O 16·0.78H 2O and Ag 1.33Mn 8O 16·0.95H 2O suggesting faster Li+ ion diffusion in the absence of large metal tunnel cations.« less

  4. Tunnel Structured α-MnO 2 with Different Tunnel Cations (H + , K + , Ag + ) as Cathode Materials in Rechargeable Lithium Batteries: The Role of Tunnel Cation on Electrochemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Poyraz, Altug S.; Huang, Jianping; Cheng, Shaobo; ...

    2017-07-12

    α-MnO 2 type manganese dioxide is an interesting prospective cathode material for reversible lithium insertion owing to its cation accessible tunnels (0.46nm x 0.46nm), high voltage, and low cost. The tunneled structure is synthetically formed by the assistance of cations acting as structure directing agents where the cations may remain in the tunnel. The electrochemistry of this family of materials is strongly dependent on the morphological and physicochemical (i.e. surface area, crystallite size, and average manganese oxidation state) properties as well as tunnel occupancy. For this work, we prepared a set of materials Mn 8O 16·0.81H 2O, K 0.81Mn 8Omore » 16·0.78H 2O and Ag 1.33Mn 8O 16·0.95H 2O with similar nanorod morphology, crystallite size, surface area, and tunnel water content. This set of samples allowed us to investigate the role of tunnel cations in the electrochemistry of α-MnO 2 type manganese dioxide in a lithium based environment while minimizing the effects of the other parameters. The electrochemistry was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling, rate capability, and galvanostatic intermittent titration type testing. Mn 8O 16·0.81H 2O showed higher loaded voltages, improved capacity retention, and higher specific energy relative to K 0.81Mn 8O 16·0.78H 2O and Ag 1.33Mn 8O 16·0.95H 2O. After 100 cycles, Mn 8O 16·0.81H 2O delivered ~200% more capacity than Ag 1.33Mn 8O 16·0.95H 2O (64 vs. 129 mAh/g) and ~35% more capacity than K 0.81Mn 8O 16·0.78H 2O (85 vs. 129 mAh/g). Mn 8O 16·0.81H 2O also showed higher effective lithium diffusion coefficients (DLi+) and higher rate capability compared to K 0.81Mn 8O 16·0.78H 2O and Ag 1.33Mn 8O 16·0.95H 2O suggesting faster Li+ ion diffusion in the absence of large metal tunnel cations.« less

  5. Predicting Organic Cation Sorption Coefficients: Accounting for Competition from Sorbed Inorganic Cations Using a Simple Probe Molecule.

    PubMed

    Jolin, William C; Goyetche, Reaha; Carter, Katherine; Medina, John; Vasudevan, Dharni; MacKay, Allison A

    2017-06-06

    With the increasing number of emerging contaminants that are cationic at environmentally relevant pH values, there is a need for robust predictive models of organic cation sorption coefficients (K d ). Current predictive models fail to account for the differences in the identity, abundance, and affinity of surface-associated inorganic exchange ions naturally present at negatively charged receptor sites on environmental solids. To better understand how organic cation sorption is influenced by surface-associated inorganic exchange ions, sorption coefficients of 10 organic cations (including eight pharmaceuticals and two simple probe organic amines) were determined for six homoionic forms of the aluminosilicate mineral, montmorillonite. Organic cation sorption coefficients exhibited consistent trends for all compounds across the various homoionic clays with sorption coefficients (K d ) decreasing as follows: K d Na + > K d NH 4 + ≥ K d K + > K d Ca 2+ ≥ K d Mg 2+ > K d Al 3+ . This trend for competition between organic cations and exchangeable inorganic cations is consistent with the inorganic cation selectivity sequence, determined for exchange between inorganic ions. Such consistent trends in competition between organic and inorganic cations suggested that a simple probe cation, such as phenyltrimethylammonium or benzylamine, could capture soil-to-soil variations in native inorganic cation identity and abundance for the prediction of organic cation sorption to soils and soil minerals. Indeed, sorption of two pharmaceutical compounds to 30 soils was better described by phenyltrimethylammonium sorption than by measures of benzylamine sorption, effective cation exchange capacity alone, or a model from the literature (Droge, S., and Goss, K. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013, 47, 14224). A hybrid approach integrating structural scaling factors derived from this literature model of organic cation sorption, along with phenyltrimethylammonium K d values, allowed for

  6. Electrodialytic matrix isolation for metal cations.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Hiroyama, Yuri; Nakamura, Koretaka; Koda, Takumi; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Toda, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Electrodialytic ion transfer was studied as a matrix isolation tool for heavy metal determinations. An ion transfer device (ITD) was used for the transfer of heavy metal cations. Under optimized flow rates applied voltage and receptor composition, heavy metal ions were quantitatively transferred at concentrations spanning µg L(-1) to mg L(-1). As long as the sample pH was acidic, there was no significant sample pH effect on the transfer efficiencies. Significant salt concentrations (>1 mM NaCl), however, decreased the transfer efficiency. This could be ameliorated (up to 5 mM NaCl) by transient instead of continuous sample introduction. The device was applied to the determination of Fe, Cu and Zn in equine and bovine serum; the reproducibility was better than conventional digestion method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural and cytotoxic studies of cationic thiosemicarbazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinniah, Saravana Kumar; Sim, Kae Shin; Ng, Seik Weng; Tan, Kong Wai

    2017-06-01

    Schiff bases from the thiosemicarbazones family with variable N4 substituents are known to show enhanced growth inhibitory properties. In view of these facts and as a part of our continuous interest in cationic Schiff bases, we have developed several Schiff base ligands from (3-formyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methyltriphenylphosphonium (T) in present study. The compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic methods (infrared spectra, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HRESIMS and X-ray crystallography). Three of the N4 substituents, namely P(tsc)T, FP(tsc)T and EP(tsc)T exerted strong growth inhibitory properties by inhibiting the highly metastasis prostate cancer growth (PC-3). The thiosemicarbazone with ethylphenyl (EP) moiety displayed most potent activity against all cell lines tested. The MTT data obtained from analysis establishes that phenyl substituent enhances the growth inhibitory properties of the compound. The result affirms that EP(tsc)T would serve as a lead scaffold for rational anticancer agent development.

  8. Cell Penetrating Peptides and Cationic Antibacterial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Plaza, Jonathan G.; Morales-Nava, Rosmarbel; Diener, Christian; Schreiber, Gabriele; Gonzalez, Zyanya D.; Lara Ortiz, Maria Teresa; Ortega Blake, Ivan; Pantoja, Omar; Volkmer, Rudolf; Klipp, Edda; Herrmann, Andreas; Del Rio, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPP) and cationic antibacterial peptides (CAP) have similar physicochemical properties and yet it is not understood how such similar peptides display different activities. To address this question, we used Iztli peptide 1 (IP-1) because it has both CPP and CAP activities. Combining experimental and computational modeling of the internalization of IP-1, we show it is not internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis, yet it permeates into many different cell types, including fungi and human cells. We also show that IP-1 makes pores in the presence of high electrical potential at the membrane, such as those found in bacteria and mitochondria. These results provide the basis to understand the functional redundancy of CPPs and CAPs. PMID:24706763

  9. Novel cationic supersaturable nanomicellar systems of raloxifene hydrochloride with enhanced biopharmaceutical attributes.

    PubMed

    Jain, Atul; Kaur, Rajpreet; Beg, Sarwar; Kushwah, Varun; Jain, Sanyog; Singh, Bhupinder

    2018-06-01

    The work describes systematic development of nanomicellar cationic supersaturable self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (CS-SNEDDS) for augmenting oral biopharmaceutical performance of raloxifene hydrochloride. Plain SNEDDS formulation containing Capryol 90, Cremophor RH 40, and Transcutol HP was optimized using D-optimal mixture design. SNEDDS were characterized for emulsification time, globule size, in vitro drug release, and ex vivo permeation. The CS-SNEDDS formulation was prepared from the optimized SNEDDS by adding oleylamine as the cationic charge inducer and HPMC as the polymeric precipitation inhibitor. Evaluation of CS-SNEDDS was carried out through in vitro cell line studies on Caco-2 and MCF-7 cells, in situ perfusion, and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies, which indicated significant improvement in biopharmaceutical attributes of the drug from CS-SNEDDS over plain drug.

  10. Charge-switching amino acids-based cationic lipids for efficient gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li-Ting; Yi, Wen-Jing; Liu, Qiang; Su, Rong-Chuan; Zhao, Zhi-Gang

    2015-12-15

    A series of charge-switching amino acids-based cationic lipids 4a-4e bearing a benzyl ester at the terminus of the acyl chain, but differing in the polar-head group were prepared. The physicochemical properties of these lipids, including size, zeta potential and cellular uptake of the lipoplexes formed from with DNA, as well as the transfection efficiency (TE), were investigated. The results showed that the chemical structure of the cationic head-group clearly affects the physicochemical parameters of the amino acid-based lipids and especially the TE. The selected lipid, 4c gave 2.1 times higher TE than bPEI 25k in the presence of 10% serum in HeLa cells, with little toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ability of a montmorillonitic clay to interact with cationic and anionic dyes in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleşa Chicinaş, R.; Bedelean, H.; Stefan, R.; Măicăneanu, A.

    2018-02-01

    A montmorillonitic clay in raw and treated forms (size-fractionated, organoclay, Al pillared) was evaluated as adsorbent for cationic (toluidine blue - TB and malachite green - MG) and anionic (Congo red - CR) dyes. A thorough characterization using XRD, SEM-EDS, N2 adsorption, and FTIR of the considered samples was realized, all highlighting the structural changes after various treatments. UV-VIS analysis demonstrated the interaction between dyes and the adsorbent surface. The investigation of the effects of various experimental parameters using a batch adsorption technique showed that ON has a high adsorption potential for cationic dyes (33 and 39 mg/g in case of TB and MG, respectively). The kinetic study indicated that the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model, while Freundlich isotherm showed a favorable adsorption. The calculated values of Gibbs free energy suggested also that the adsorption is spontaneous and is more favorable at higher temperatures.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of cationic lipid coated magnetic nanoparticles using multiple emulsions as microreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbaba, Hasan; Karagöz, Uğur; Selamet, Yusuf; Kantarcı, A. Gülten

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis method with in-situ surface coating. For this purpose multiple emulsions were used as microreactors for the first time and magnetic iron oxide particles synthesized in the core of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles. DLS, SEM, TEM, VSM, Raman Spectrometer, XRD, and XPS techniques were performed for characterization of the magnetic nanoparticles. Obtained magnetic nanoparticles are superparamagnetic and no additional process was needed for surface adjustments. They are positively charged as a result of cationic lipid coating and has appropriate particle size (<30 nm) for drug or nucleic acid delivery. Structure analysis showed that magnetic core material is in the form of magnetite. Saturation magnetization value was measured as 15-17 emu g-1 for lipid coated magnetic nanoparticles obtained by multiple emulsion method which is reasonably sufficient for magnetic targeting.

  13. Multicolour synthesis in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals through cation exchange in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sanyang; Qin, Xian; An, Zhongfu; Zhu, Yihan; Liang, Liangliang; Han, Yu; Huang, Wei; Liu, Xiaogang

    2016-10-01

    Meeting the high demand for lanthanide-doped luminescent nanocrystals across a broad range of fields hinges upon the development of a robust synthetic protocol that provides rapid, just-in-time nanocrystal preparation. However, to date, almost all lanthanide-doped luminescent nanomaterials have relied on direct synthesis requiring stringent controls over crystal nucleation and growth at elevated temperatures. Here we demonstrate the use of a cation exchange strategy for expeditiously accessing large classes of such nanocrystals. By combining the process of cation exchange with energy migration, the luminescence properties of the nanocrystals can be easily tuned while preserving the size, morphology and crystal phase of the initial nanocrystal template. This post-synthesis strategy enables us to achieve upconversion luminescence in Ce3+ and Mn2+-activated hexagonal-phased nanocrystals, opening a gateway towards applications ranging from chemical sensing to anti-counterfeiting.

  14. U(VI) uranyl cation-cation interactions in framework germanates.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jessica M; Moore-Shay, Laura J; Burns, Peter C

    2011-03-21

    The isomorphous compounds NH(4)[(UO(6))(2)(UO(2))(9)(GeO(4))(GeO(3)(OH))] (1), K[(UO(6))(2)(UO(2))(9)(GeO(4))(GeO(3)(OH))] (2), Li(3)O[(UO(6))(2)(UO(2))(9)(GeO(4))(GeO(3)(OH))] (3), and Ba[(UO(6))(2)(UO(2))(9)(GeO(4))(2)] (4) were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction at 220 °C. The structures were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction and refined to R(1) = 0.0349 (1), 0.0232 (2), 0.0236 (3), 0.0267 (4). Each are trigonal, P(3)1c. 1: a = 10.2525(5), c = 17.3972(13), V = 1583.69(16) Å(3), Z = 2; 2: a = 10.226(4), c = 17.150(9), V = 1553.1(12) Å(3), Z = 2; 3: a = 10.2668(5), c = 17.0558(11), V = 1556.94(15) Å(3), Z = 2; 4: a = 10.2012(5), c = 17.1570(12), V = 1546.23(15) Å(3), Z = 2. There are three symmetrically independent U sites in each structure, two of which correspond to typical (UO(2))(2+) uranyl ions and the other of which is octahedrally coordinated by six O atoms. One of the uranyl ions donates a cation-cation interaction, and accepts a different cation-cation interaction. The linkages between the U-centered polyhedra result in a relatively dense three-dimensional framework. Ge and low-valence sites are located within cavities in the framework of U-polyhedra. Chemical, thermal, and spectroscopic characterizations are provided.

  15. Organic cation rhodamines for screening organic cation transporters in early stages of drug development.

    PubMed

    Ugwu, Malachy C; Oli, Angus; Esimone, Charles O; Agu, Remigius U

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of rhodamine-123, rhodamine-6G and rhodamine B as non-radioactive probes for characterizing organic cation transporters in respiratory cells. Fluorescent characteristics of the compounds were validated under standard in vitro drug transport conditions (buffers, pH, and light). Uptake/transport kinetics and intracellular accumulation of the compounds were investigated. Uptake/transport mechanisms were investigated by comparing the effect of pH, temperature, concentration, polarity, OCTs/OCTNs inhibitors/substrates, and metabolic inhibitors on the cationic dyes uptake in Calu-3 cells. Fluorescence stability and intensity of the compounds were altered by buffer composition, light, and pH. Uptake of the dyes was concentration-, temperature- and pH-dependent. OCTs/OCTNs inhibitors significantly reduced intracellular accumulation of the compounds. Whereas rhodamine-B uptake was sodium-dependent, pH had no effect on rhodamine-123 and rhodamine-6G uptake. Transport of the dyes across the cells was polarized: (AP→BL>BL→AP transport) and saturable: {V max =14.08±2.074, K m =1821±380.4 (rhodamine-B); V max =6.555±0.4106, K m =1353±130.4 (rhodamine-123) and V max =0.3056±0.01402, K m =702.9±60.97 (rhodamine-6G)}. The dyes were co-localized with MitoTracker®, the mitochondrial marker. Cationic rhodamines, especially rhodamine-B and rhodamine- 6G can be used as organic cation transporter substrates in respiratory cells. During such studies, buffer selection, pH and light exposure should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cationic antimicrobial peptides inactivate Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Cogliano, Manuel E.; Hollmann, Axel; Martinez, Melina; Semorile, Liliana; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D.; Maffía, Paulo C.; Bentancor, Leticia V.

    2017-12-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is the principal virulence factor during Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections. We have previously reported the inactivation of bacteriophage encoding Stx after treatment with chitosan, a linear polysaccharide polymer with cationic properties. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs) are short linear aminoacidic sequences, with a positive net charge, which display bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against a wide range of bacterial species. They are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown bactericidal effects against multiresistant bacteria. To evaluate whether cationic properties are responsible for bacteriophage inactivation, we tested seven cationic peptides with proven antimicrobial activity as anti-bacteriophage agents, and one random sequence cationic peptide with no antimicrobial activity as a control. We observed bacteriophage inactivation after incubation with five cAMPs, but no inactivating activity was observed with the random sequence cationic peptide or with the non alpha helical cAMP Omiganan. Finally, to confirm peptide-bacteriophage interaction, zeta potential was analyzed by following changes on bacteriophage surface charges after peptide incubation. According to our results we could propose that: 1) direct interaction of peptides with phage is a necessary step for bacteriophage inactivation, 2) cationic properties are necessary but not sufficient for bacteriophage inactivation, and 3) inactivation by cationic peptides could be sequence (or structure) specific. Overall our data suggest that these peptides could be considered a new family of molecules potentially useful to decrease bacteriophage replication and Stx expression.

  17. Divalent Cation Removal by Donnan Dialysis for Improved Reverse Electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Rijnaarts, Timon; Shenkute, Nathnael T; Wood, Jeffery A; de Vos, Wiebe M; Nijmeijer, Kitty

    2018-05-07

    Divalent cations in feedwater can cause significant decreases in efficiencies for membrane processes, such as reverse electrodialysis (RED). In RED, power is harvested from the mixing of river and seawater, and the obtainable voltage is reduced and the resistance is increased if divalent cations are present. The power density of the RED process can be improved by removing divalent cations from the fresh water. Here, we study divalent cation removal from fresh water using seawater as draw solution in a Donnan dialysis (DD) process. In this way, a membrane system with neither chemicals nor electrodes but only natural salinity gradients can be used to exchange divalent cations. For DD, the permselectivity of the cation exchange membrane is found to be crucial as it determines the ability to block salt leakage (also referred to as co-ion transport). Operating DD using a membrane stack achieved a 76% reduction in the divalent cation content in natural fresh water with residence times of just a few seconds. DD pretreated fresh water was then used in a RED process, which showed improved gross and net power densities of 9.0 and 6.3%, respectively. This improvement is caused by a lower fresh water resistance (at similar open circuit voltages), due to exchange of divalent for monovalent cations.

  18. CATION EXCHANGE METHOD FOR THE RECOVERY OF PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Studier, M.H.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1959-07-14

    A cation exchange prccess is described for separating protactinium values from thorium values whereby they are initially adsorbed together from an aqueous 0.1 to 2 N hydrochloric acid on a cation exchange resin in a column. Then selectively eluting the thorium by an ammonium sulfate solution and subsequently eluting the protactinium by an oxalate solution.

  19. Cationized milled pine bark as an adsorbent for orthophosphate anions

    Treesearch

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; K.G. Karthikeyan; D. Wang

    2004-01-01

    More efficient adsorption media are needed for removing dissolved phosphorus in surface water runoff. We studied the use of cationized pine bark as a sorbent for dissolved phosphorus in water. Cationized pine bark was prepared by treating extracted milled pine bark with polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAA HCl) and epichlorohydrin (ECH) in aqueous medium. Attachment of...

  20. Cation and anion sequences in dark-adapted Balanus photoreceptor

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Anion and cation permeabilities in dark-adapted Balanus photoreceptors were determined by comparing changes in the membrane potential in response to replacement of the dominant anion (Cl-) or cation (Na+) by test anions or cations in the superfusing solution. The anion permeability sequence obtained was PI greater than PSO4 greater than PBr greater than PCl greater than Pisethionate greater than Pmethanesulfonate. Gluconate, glucuronate, and glutamate generally appeared more permeable and propionate less permeable than Cl-. The alkali-metal cation permeability sequence obtained was PK greater than PRb greater than PCx greater than PNa approximately PLi. This corresponds to Eisenman's IV which is the same sequencethat has been obtained for other classes of nerve cells in the resting state. The values obtained for the permeability ratios of the alkali-metal cations are considered to be minimal. The membrane conductance measured by passing inward current pulses in the different test cations followed the sequence, GK greater than GRb greater than GCs greater than GNa greater than GLi. The conductance ratios obtained for a full substitution of the test cation agreed quite well with permeability ratios for all the alkali-metal cations except K+ which was generally higher. PMID:199688

  1. Effects of cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose on glucose tolerance and obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cholestyramine is a cationic polymer prescribed to lower cholesterol in humans. We investigated the effects of cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose (cHEC) on weight loss and metabolic disorders associated with obesity using both hamster and diet-induced obese mouse models. Golden Syrian hamsters and ob...

  2. High capacity nickel battery material doped with alkali metal cations

    DOEpatents

    Jackovitz, John F.; Pantier, Earl A.

    1982-05-18

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  3. The influence of the structural orientation of amide linkers on the serum compatibility and lung transfection properties of cationic amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Srujan, Marepally; Chandrashekhar, Voshavar; Reddy, Rakesh C; Prabhakar, Rairala; Sreedhar, Bojja; Chaudhuri, Arabinda

    2011-08-01

    Understanding the structural parameters of cationic amphiphiles which can influence gene transfer efficiencies of cationic amphiphiles continues to remain important for designing efficient liposomal gene delivery reagents. Previously we demonstrated the influence of structural orientation of the ester linker (widely used in covalently tethering the polar head and the non-polar tails) in modulating in vitro gene transfer efficiencies of cationic amphiphiles. However, our previously described cationic amphiphiles with ester linkers failed to deliver genes under in vivo conditions. Herein we report on the development of a highly serum compatible cationic amphiphile with circulation stable amide linker which shows remarkable selectivity in transfecting mouse lung. We also demonstrate that reversing structural orientation of the amide linker adversely affects both serum compatibility and the lung selective gene transfer property. Dynamic laser light scattering and atomic force microscopic studies revealed smaller average hydrodynamic sizes of the liposomes of transfection efficient lipid than those for the liposomes of transfection incompetent analog (148 ± 1 nm vs 214 ± 4 nm). Average surface potential of the liposomes of transfection competent amphiphiles were found to be significantly higher than that for the liposomes of transfection incompetent analog (10.7 ± 5.4 mV vs 2.8 ± 1.3 mV, respectively). Findings in fluorescence resonance energy transfer and dye entrapment experiments support lower rigidity and higher biomembrane fusogenicity of the liposomes of the transfection efficient amphiphiles. Importantly, cationic lipoplexes of the novel amide-linker based amphiphile exhibited higher mouse lung selective gene transfer properties than DOTAP, one of the widely used commercially available liposomal lung transfection kits. In summary, the present findings demonstrate for the first time that amide linker structural orientation profoundly influences the serum

  4. TACN-based cationic lipids with amino acid backbone and double tails: materials for non-viral gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Yi, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Qin-Fang; Xun, Miao-Miao; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2014-04-01

    Cationic lipids have become an efficient type of non-viral vectors for gene delivery. In this Letter, four cationic lipids containing 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TACN) headgroup, glutamic/aspartic acid backbone and dioleyl tails were designed and synthesized. The TACN headgroup gives these lipids excellent pH buffering capacities, which were higher than branched 25 kDa PEI. Cationic liposomes prepared from these lipids and DOPE showed good DNA affinity, and full DNA condensation was found at N/P ratio of 3 via agarose gel electrophoresis. The lipoplexes were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) assay, which gave proper particle sizes and zeta-potentials for transfection. In vitro gene transfection results in two cell lines reveal that TAN (with aspartic acid and amide bond in the structure) shows the best transfection efficiency, which is close to commercially available transfection agent Lipofectamine 2000. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Membrane stress increases cation permeability in red cells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R M

    1994-11-01

    The human red cell is known to increase its cation permeability when deformed by mechanical forces. Light-scattering measurements were used to quantitate the cell deformation, as ellipticity under shear. Permeability to sodium and potassium was not proportional to the cell deformation. An ellipticity of 0.75 was required to increase the permeability of the membrane to cations, and flux thereafter increased rapidly as the limits of cell extension were reached. Induction of membrane curvature by chemical agents also did not increase cation permeability. These results indicate that membrane deformation per se does not increase permeability, and that membrane tension is the effector for increased cation permeability. This may be relevant to some cation permeabilities observed by patch clamping.

  6. Effect of alcaline cations in zeolites on their dielectric properties.

    PubMed

    Legras, Benoît; Polaert, Isabelle; Estel, Lionel; Thomas, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The effect on dielectric properties of alkaline cations Li+, Na+ and K+ incorporated in a zeolite Faujasite structure X or Y, has been investigated. Two major phenomena have been proved to occur: ionic conductivity and rotational polarization of the water molecules adsorbed. The polarizability of the cation which is directly linked to its radius, affects ionic conductivity as well as rotational polarization. Li cations are more strongly Linked to the framework than K+ and Na+ and induce a lower ionic conductivity. K+ is weakly fixed and induces a ionic conductivity even at low solvation level. At low water content, the cation nature and number mainly control the free rotation of the water molecules and affect the relaxation frequency. Close to saturation, the water molecules are mainly linked together by H bonds: the cation nature and number do not really affect the global dielectric properties anymore.

  7. Practical cell labeling with magnetite cationic liposomes for cell manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi; Nonogaki, Yurika; Kato, Ryuji; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2010-07-01

    Personalization of the cell culture process for cell therapy is an ideal strategy to obtain maximum treatment effects. In a previous report, we proposed a strategy using a magnetic manipulation device that combined a palm-top size device and a cell-labeling method using magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs) to enable feasible personalized cell processing. In the present study, we focused on optimizing the MCL-labeling technique with respect to cell manipulation in small devices. From detailed analysis with different cell types, 4 pg/cell of MCL-label was found to be obtained immediately after mixing with MCLs, which was sufficient for magnetic cell manipulation. The amount of label increased within 24 h depending on cell type, although in all cases it decreased along with cell doubling, indicating that the labeling potential of MCLs was limited. The role of free MCLs not involved in labeling was also investigated; MCLs' role was found to be a supportive one that maximized the manipulation performance up to 100%. We also determined optimum conditions to manipulate adherent cells by MCL labeling using the MCL dispersed in trypsin solution. Considering labeling feasibility and practical performance with 10(3)-10(5) cells for personalized cell processing, we determined that 10 microg/ml of label without incubation time (0 h incubation) was the universal MCL-labeling condition. We propose the optimum specifications for a device to be combined with this method. 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Nonbonded interactions in membrane active cyclic biopolymers. IV - Cation dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, R.; Srinivasan, S.; Prasad, C. V.; Brinda, S. R.; Macelroy, R. D.; Sundaram, K.

    1980-01-01

    Interactions of valinomycin and form of its analogs in several conformations with the central ions Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+) are investigated as part of a study of the specific preference of valinomycin for potassium and the mechanisms of carrier-mediated ion transport across membranes. Ion binding energies and conformational potential energies are calculated taking into account polarization energy formulas and repulsive energy between the central ion and the ligand atoms for conformations representing various stages in ion capture and release for each of the two ring chiralities of valinomycin and its analogs. Results allow the prediction of the chirality and conformation most likely to be observed for a given analog, and may be used to synthesize analogs with a desired rigidity or flexibility. The binding energies with the alkali metal cations are found to decrease with increasing ion size, and to be smaller than the corresponding ion hydration energies. It is pointed out that the observed potassium preference may be explainable in terms of differences between binding and hydration energies. Binding energies are also noted to depend on ligand conformation.

  9. Increasing Base Cations in Streams: Another Legacy of Deicing Salts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, A. M.; Barclay, J. R.; Bellucci, C.; Rittenhouse, C.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated use of deicing salts directly increases sodium chloride inputs to watersheds. Sodium can accumulate in soils over time and has the potential to leach other cations (e.g., calcium, magnesium, and potassium) from the soil through cation exchange. We hypothesize that increased use of deicing salts results in a legacy of soils depleted in non-sodium base cations with loss of cations to receiving waters. The goal of this project is to quantify temporal trends in base cations and chloride in streams and rivers across the United States. We used Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) to analyze trends in base cations. Our preliminary analysis of 10 rivers in Connecticut with chemical periods of record ranging from 24 - 64 years (median = 55 years), shows that the flux of base cations is increasing in all sites (25 - 366 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), driven largely by increases in sodium (23 - 222 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), the dominant cation in 7 of the sites. Chloride is also increasing at all sites (26 - 261 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), which, in combination with salt use trends, suggests a road salt source for the increased sodium. Non-sodium cations are also increasing in 9 of the sites (8 - 54 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), though they are not directly added with most deicing salts. We will compare these trends to other long-term sites across the United States, and quantify relationships between cation trends and land cover, road density, and snowfall.

  10. Cation depletion by the sodium pump in red cells with pathologic cation leaks. Sickle cells and xerocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Joiner, C H; Platt, O S; Lux, S E

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism by which sickle cells and xerocytic red cells become depleted of cations in vivo has not been identified previously. Both types of cells exhibit elevated permeabilities to sodium and potassium, in the case of sickle cells, when deoxygenated. The ouabain-insensitive fluxes of sodium and potassium were equivalent, however, in both cell types under these conditions. When incubated 18 hours in vitro, sickle cells lost cations but only when deoxygenated. This cation depletion was blocked by ouabain, removal of external potassium, or pretreatment with 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate, which blocks the increase in cation permeability induced by deoxygenation. The loss of cation exhibited by oxygenated xerocytes similarly incubated was also blocked by ouabain. These data support the hypothesis that the elevated "passive" cation fluxes of xerocytes and deoxygenated sickle cells are not directly responsible for cation depletion of these cells; rather, these pathologic leaks interact with the sodium pump to produce a net loss of cellular cation. PMID:2430999

  11. Cation depletion by the sodium pump in red cells with pathologic cation leaks. Sickle cells and xerocytes.

    PubMed

    Joiner, C H; Platt, O S; Lux, S E

    1986-12-01

    The mechanism by which sickle cells and xerocytic red cells become depleted of cations in vivo has not been identified previously. Both types of cells exhibit elevated permeabilities to sodium and potassium, in the case of sickle cells, when deoxygenated. The ouabain-insensitive fluxes of sodium and potassium were equivalent, however, in both cell types under these conditions. When incubated 18 hours in vitro, sickle cells lost cations but only when deoxygenated. This cation depletion was blocked by ouabain, removal of external potassium, or pretreatment with 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate, which blocks the increase in cation permeability induced by deoxygenation. The loss of cation exhibited by oxygenated xerocytes similarly incubated was also blocked by ouabain. These data support the hypothesis that the elevated "passive" cation fluxes of xerocytes and deoxygenated sickle cells are not directly responsible for cation depletion of these cells; rather, these pathologic leaks interact with the sodium pump to produce a net loss of cellular cation.

  12. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Cation and Anion Channelrhodopsins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Adrian S.

    Optogenetics is a technique to control and monitor cell activity with light by expression of specific microbial rhodopsins. Cation channelrhodopsins (CCRs) and anion channelrhodopsins (ACRs) have been demonstrated to activate and silence cell activity, respectively. In this dissertation, the molecular mechanisms of two channelrhodopsins are studied: a CCR from Chlamydomonas augustae (CaChR1) and an ACR from Guillardia theta (GtACR1). The recently discovered GtACR1is especially interesting, as it achieves neural silencing with 1/1000th of the light intensity compared to previous microbial rhodopsin silencing ion pumps. Static and time-resolved resonance Raman, FTIR difference, and UV-visible spectroscopies were utilized in addition to various biochemical and genetic techniques to explore the molecular mechanisms of these channelrhodopsins. In CaChR1, Glu169 and Asp299 residues are located nearby the Schiff base (SB) similar to the homologous residues Asp85 and Asp212, which exist in an ionized state in unphotolyzed bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and play a key role in proton pumping. We observe significant changes in the protonation states of the SB, Glu169, and Asp299 of CaChR1 leading up to the open-channel P2 state, where all three groups exist in a charge neutral state. This unusual charge neutrality along with the position of these groups in the CaChR1 ion channel suggests that charge neutrality plays an important role in cation gating and selectivity in these low efficiency CCRs. Significant differences exist in the photocycle and protonation/hydrogen bonding states of key residues inGtACR1compared to BR and CaChR1. Resonance Raman studies reveal that in the unphotolyzed state of GtACR1, residues Glu68, Ser97 (BR Asp85 homolog), and Asp234 (BR Asp212 homolog) located near the SB exist in charge neutral states. Furthermore, upon K formation, these residues do not change their protonation states. At room temperature, a slow decay of the red-shifted K intermediate is

  13. Cation-π interaction of the univalent sodium cation with [2.2.2]paracyclophane: Experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrlík, Emanuel; Sýkora, David; Böhm, Stanislav; Vaňura, Petr

    2018-02-01

    By employing electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), it was proven experimentally that the univalent sodium cation (Na+) forms with [2.2.2]paracyclophane (C24H24) the cationic complex [Na(C24H24)]+. Further, applying quantum chemical DFT calculations, the most probable structure of the [Na(C24H24)]+ complex was derived. In the resulting complex with a symmetry very close to C3, the "central" cation Na+, fully located in the cavity of the parent [2.2.2]paracyclophane ligand, is bound to all three benzene rings of [2.2.2]paracyclophane via cation-π interaction. Finally, the interaction energy, E(int), of the considered cation-π complex [Na(C24H24)]+ was found to be -267.3 kJ/mol, confirming the formation of this fascinating complex species as well.

  14. Effect of synthesis methods with different annealing temperatures on micro structure, cations distribution and magnetic properties of nano-nickel ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Karimat; Mohamed, Mohamed Bakr; Hamdy, Sh.; Ata-Allah, S. S.

    2017-02-01

    Nano-crystalline NiFe2O4 was synthesized by citrate and sol-gel methods at different annealing temperatures and the results were compared with a bulk sample prepared by ceramic method. The effect of methods of preparation and different annealing temperatures on the crystallize size, strain, bond lengths, bond angles, cations distribution and degree of inversions were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscope, Mössbauer effect spectrometer and vibrating sample magnetometer. The cations distributions were determined at both octahedral and tetrahedral sites using both Mössbauer effect spectroscopy and a modified Bertaut method using Rietveld method. The Mössbauer effect spectra showed a regular decrease in the hyperfine field with decreasing particle size. Saturation magnetization and coercivity are found to be affected by the particle size and the cations distribution.

  15. Rhizosphere size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Razavi, Bahar

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of the soil volume affected by roots - the rhizosphere - is crucial to assess the effects of plants on properties and processes in soils and dynamics of nutrients, water, microorganisms and soil organic matter. The challenges to assess the rhizosphere size are: 1) the continuum of properties between the root surface and root-free soil, 2) differences in the distributions of various properties (carbon, microorganisms and their activities, various nutrients, enzymes, etc.) along and across the roots, 3) temporal changes of properties and processes. Thus, to describe the rhizosphere size and root effects, a holistic approach is necessary. We collected literature and own data on the rhizosphere gradients of a broad range of physico-chemical and biological properties: pH, CO2, oxygen, redox potential, water uptake, various nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Fe), organic compounds (glucose, carboxylic acids, amino acids), activities of enzymes of C, N, P and S cycles. The collected data were obtained based on the destructive approaches (thin layer slicing), rhizotron studies and in situ visualization techniques: optodes, zymography, sensitive gels, 14C and neutron imaging. The root effects were pronounced from less than 0.5 mm (nutrients with slow diffusion) up to more than 50 mm (for gases). However, the most common effects were between 1 - 10 mm. Sharp gradients (e.g. for P, carboxylic acids, enzyme activities) allowed to calculate clear rhizosphere boundaries and so, the soil volume affected by roots. The first analyses were done to assess the effects of soil texture and moisture as well as root system and age on these gradients. The most properties can be described by two curve types: exponential saturation and S curve, each with increasing and decreasing concentration profiles from the root surface. The gradient based distribution functions were calculated and used to extrapolate on the whole soil depending on the root density and rooting intensity. We

  16. Continued Monitoring of Indiana's SPS9-A Site : [Technical Summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-01-01

    The Indianas SPS9-A site was initiated as a part of the : SHRPs LTPP program in 1997 to study the influence : of binder grades on mixture performance. In the earlier : phase of this study entitled Development of Indianas : SPS9-A Site, five ...

  17. Studies on Cation-induced Thylakoid Membrane Stacking, Fluorescence Yield, and Photochemical Efficiency 1

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Robert Charles; Forti, Giorgio; Gerola, Paolo Domenico; Garlaschi, Flavio Massimo

    1978-01-01

    Trypsin digestion of photosynthetic membranes isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves eliminates the cation stimulation of chlorophyll fluorescence. High concentrations of cations protect the fluorescence yield against trypsin digestion, and the cation specificity for this protection closely resembles that required for the stimulation of fluorescence by cations. Trypsin digestion reverses cation-induced thylakoid stacking, and the time course of this effect seems to parallel that of the reversal of cation fluorescence. High concentrations of cations protect thylakoid stacking and cation-stimulated fluorescence alike. The cation stimulation of photosytem II photochemistry remains intact after trypsinization has reversed both cation-induced thylakoid stacking and fluorescence yield. It is concluded that cation-stimulated fluorescence yield, and not the cation stimulation of photosystem II photochemistry, is associated with thylakoid membrane stacking. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:16660630

  18. Cationic nanofibrillar cellulose with high antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Chaker, Achraf; Boufi, Sami

    2015-10-20

    Cationic nanofibrillar cellulose (C-NFC) has been prepared via a high pressure homogenization using quaternized cellulose fibers with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride. It has been shown that the quaternization of dried softwood pulp facilitated the defibrillation processes and prevented clogging of the homogenizer. The effects of the trimethylammonium chloride content on the fibrillation yield, the transparency degree of the gel, the rheological behavior of the NFC suspension and their electrokinetic properties were investigated. AFM observation showed that the NFC suspension consisted of individualized cellulose I nanofibrils 4-5nm in width and length in the micronic scale. In addition to their strong reinforcing potential, the inclusion of C-NFC into a polymer matrix was shown to efficiently enhance the antibacterial activity. The reinforcing potential of C-NFC, studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), was compared to anionic NFC and the difference was explained in terms of the nanofibrils capacities to build up a strong networks held by hydrogen bonding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cyanide ion complexation by a cationic borane.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ching-Wen; Gabbaï, François P

    2008-02-14

    While we have previously reported that [1-(Mes2B)-8-(Me3NCH2)-C10H6]+ ([2]+) complexes fluoride ions to form [1-(Mes2FB)-8-(Me3NCH2)-C10H6] (2-F), we now show that this cationic borane also complexes cyanide to form [1-(Mes2(NC)B)-8-(Me3NCH2)-C10H6] (2-CN). This reaction also occurs under biphasic conditions (H2O-CHCl3) and may serve to transport cyanide in organic phases. The zwitterionic cyanoborate 2-CN has been fully characterized and its crystal structure determined. UV-vis titration experiments carried out in THF indicate that [2]+ has a higher affinity for fluoride (K > 10(8) M(-1)) than cyanide (K = 8.0 (+/-0.5) x 10(5) M(-1)). Steric effects which impede cyanide binding to the sterically congested boron center of [2]+ are most likely at the origin of this selectivity. Finally, electrochemical studies indicate that [2]+ is significantly more electrophilic than its neutral precursor 1-(Mes2B)-8-(Me2NCH2)-(C10H6) (1). These studies also show that reduction of [2]+ is irreversible, possibly because of elimination of the NMe3 moiety under reductive conditions. In fact, [2]OTf reacts with NaBH4 to afford 1-(Mes2B)-8-(CH3)-(C10H6) (4) which has also been fully characterized.

  20. Radical Cations and Acid Protection during Radiolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Zarzana, Christopher A.; Mezyk, Stephen P.

    2016-09-09

    Ligand molecules for used nuclear fuel separation schemes are exposed to high radiation fields and high concentrations of acid. Thus, an understanding of the complex interactions between extraction ligands, diluent, and acid is critical to understanding the performance of a separation process. The diglycolamides are ligands with important structural similarities to CMPO; however, previous work has shown that their radiolytic degradation has important mechanistic differences from CMPO. The DGAs do not enjoy radioprotection by HNO3 and the kinetics of DGA radiolytic degradation are different. CMPO degrades with pseudo-zero-order kinetics in linear fashion with absorbed dose while the DGAs degrade inmore » pseudo-first-order, exponential fashion. This suggests that the DGAs degrade by simple reaction with some product of direct diluent radiolysis, while CMPO degradation is probably multi-step, with a slow step that is not dependent on the CMPO concentration, and mitigated by HNO 3. It is thus believed that radio-protection and the zero-order radiolytic degradation kinetics are related, and that these phenomena are a function of either the formation of strong acid complexes with CMPO and/or to the presence of the CMPO phenyl ring. Experiments to test both these hypotheses have been designed and partially conducted. This report summarizes findings related to these phenomena for FY16, in satisfaction of milestone M3FT-16IN030104053. It also reports continued kinetic measurements for the reactions of the dodecane radical cation with solvent extraction ligands.« less

  1. Cation Exchange Capacity of Biochar: An urgent method modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munera, Jose; Martinsen, Vegard; Mulder, Jan; Tau Strand, Line; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2017-04-01

    A better understanding of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) values of biochar and its acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is crucial when tailoring a single biochar for a particular soil and crop. Literature values for the CEC of biochar are surprisingly variable, commonly ranging from 5 to 50 cmol+/Kg even as high as 69 to 204 cmol+/Kg and often poorly reproducible, suggesting methodological problems. Ashes and very fine pores in biochar may complicate the analysis and thus compromise the results. Here, we modify and critically assess different steps in a common method for CEC determination in biochar and investigate how the measured CEC may be affected by slow cation diffusion from micro-pores. We modified the existing ammonium acetate (NH4-OAc) method (buffered at pH 7), based on displaced ammonium (NH4+) in potassium chloride (KCl) extracts after removing excess NH4-OAc with alcohol in batch mode. We used pigeon pea biochar (produced at 350 ˚C; particle size 0.5mm to 2mm) to develop the method and we tested its reproducibility in biochars with different ANC. The biochar sample (1.00g) was pH-adjusted to 7 after 2 days of equilibration, using hydrochloric acid (HCl), and washed with water until the conductivity of the water was <200µScm-1.Thus, we removed the soluble ash component, while simultaneously allowing the NH4-OAc to buffer at pH 7. To assess the importance of diffusion limitation of replacing cations (NH4+ and K+) in micro-pores, we equilibrated the biochar with NH4-OAc for 1 and 7 days, and after washing with alcohol, for 1, 3 and 7 days with KCl. The effects of the washing volume of alcohol (15, 30 and 45 ml) and of the biochar to NH4OAc solution ratio (1:15, 1:30 and 1:45) were also tested. The CEC values were corrected for dry matter content and mass losses during the process. Results indicate that the measured CEC values of the modified method were highly reproducible and that 1 day shaking with NH4OAc and KCl is enough to saturate the exchange

  2. Cation exchange properties of zeolites in hyper alkaline aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Van Tendeloo, Leen; de Blochouse, Benny; Dom, Dirk; Vancluysen, Jacqueline; Snellings, Ruben; Martens, Johan A; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Maes, André; Breynaert, Eric

    2015-02-03

    Construction of multibarrier concrete based waste disposal sites and management of alkaline mine drainage water requires cation exchangers combining excellent sorption properties with a high stability and predictable performance in hyper alkaline media. Though highly selective organic cation exchange resins have been developed for most pollutants, they can serve as a growth medium for bacterial proliferation, impairing their long-term stability and introducing unpredictable parameters into the evolution of the system. Zeolites represent a family of inorganic cation exchangers, which naturally occur in hyper alkaline conditions and cannot serve as an electron donor or carbon source for microbial proliferation. Despite their successful application as industrial cation exchangers under near neutral conditions, their performance in hyper alkaline, saline water remains highly undocumented. Using Cs(+) as a benchmark element, this study aims to assess the long-term cation exchange performance of zeolites in concrete derived aqueous solutions. Comparison of their exchange properties in alkaline media with data obtained in near neutral solutions demonstrated that the cation exchange selectivity remains unaffected by the increased hydroxyl concentration; the cation exchange capacity did however show an unexpected increase in hyper alkaline media.

  3. Cation-induced band-gap tuning in organohalide perovskites: interplay of spin-orbit coupling and octahedra tilting.

    PubMed

    Amat, Anna; Mosconi, Edoardo; Ronca, Enrico; Quarti, Claudio; Umari, Paolo; Nazeeruddin, Md K; Grätzel, Michael; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-06-11

    Organohalide lead perovskites have revolutionized the scenario of emerging photovoltaic technologies. The prototype MAPbI3 perovskite (MA = CH3NH3(+)) has dominated the field, despite only harvesting photons above 750 nm (∼1.6 eV). Intensive research efforts are being devoted to find new perovskites with red-shifted absorption onset, along with good charge transport properties. Recently, a new perovskite based on the formamidinium cation ((NH2)2CH(+) = FA) has shown potentially superior properties in terms of band gap and charge transport compared to MAPbI3. The results have been interpreted in terms of the cation size, with the larger FA cation expectedly delivering reduced band-gaps in Pb-based perovskites. To provide a full understanding of the interplay among size, structure, and organic/inorganic interactions in determining the properties of APbI3 perovskites, in view of designing new materials and fully exploiting them for solar cells applications, we report a fully first-principles investigation on APbI3 perovskites with A = Cs(+), MA, and FA. Our results evidence that the tetragonal-to-quasi cubic structural evolution observed when moving from MA to FA is due to the interplay of size effects and enhanced hydrogen bonding between the FA cations and the inorganic matrix altering the covalent/ionic character of Pb-I bonds. Most notably, the observed cation-induced structural variability promotes markedly different electronic and optical properties in the MAPbI3 and FAPbI3 perovskites, mediated by the different spin-orbit coupling, leading to improved charge transport and red-shifted absorption in FAPbI3 and in general in pseudocubic structures. Our theoretical model constitutes the basis for the rationale design of new and more efficient organohalide perovskites for solar cells applications.

  4. Monovalent and divalent cation permeability and block of neuronal nicotinic receptor channels in rat parasympathetic ganglia

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Acetylcholine-evoked currents mediated by activation of nicotinic receptors in rat parasympathetic neurons were examined using whole-cell voltage clamp. The relative permeability of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor channel to monovalent and divalent inorganic and organic cations was determined from reversal potential measurements. The channel exhibited weak selectivity among the alkali metals with a selectivity sequence of Cs+ > K+ > Rb+ > Na+ > Li+, and permeability ratios relative to Na+ (Px/PNa) ranging from 1.27 to 0.75. The selectivity of the alkaline earths was also weak, with the sequence of Mg2+ > Sr2+ > Ba2+ > Ca2+, and relative permeabilities of 1.10 to 0.65. The relative Ca2+ permeability (PCa/PNa) of the neuronal nACh receptor channel is approximately fivefold higher than that of the motor endplate channel (Adams, D. J., T. M. Dwyer, and B. Hille. 1980. Journal of General Physiology. 75:493-510). The transition metal cation, Mn2+ was permeant (Px/PNa = 0.67), whereas Ni2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+ blocked ACh-evoked currents with half-maximal inhibition (IC50) occurring at approximately 500 microM, 5 microM and 1 mM, respectively. In contrast to the muscle endplate AChR channel, that at least 56 organic cations which are permeable to (Dwyer et al., 1980), the majority of organic cations tested were found to completely inhibit ACh- evoked currents in rat parasympathetic neurons. Concentration-response curves for guanidinium, ethylammonium, diethanolammonium and arginine inhibition of ACh-evoked currents yielded IC50's of approximately 2.5- 6.0 mM. The organic cations, hydrazinium, methylammonium, ethanolammonium and Tris, were measureably permeant, and permeability ratios varied inversely with the molecular size of the cation. Modeling suggests that the pore has a minimum diameter of 7.6 A. Thus, there are substantial differences in ion permeation and block between the nACh receptor channels of mammalian parasympathetic neurons and amphibian

  5. Cluster-Continuum Calculations of Hydration Free Energies of Anions and Group 12 Divalent Cations.

    PubMed

    Riccardi, Demian; Guo, Hao-Bo; Parks, Jerry M; Gu, Baohua; Liang, Liyuan; Smith, Jeremy C

    2013-01-08

    Understanding aqueous phase processes involving group 12 metal cations is relevant to both environmental and biological sciences. Here, quantum chemical methods and polarizable continuum models are used to compute the hydration free energies of a series of divalent group 12 metal cations (Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Hg(2+)) together with Cu(2+) and the anions OH(-), SH(-), Cl(-), and F(-). A cluster-continuum method is employed, in which gas-phase clusters of the ion and explicit solvent molecules are immersed in a dielectric continuum. Two approaches to define the size of the solute-water cluster are compared, in which the number of explicit waters used is either held constant or determined variationally as that of the most favorable hydration free energy. Results obtained with various polarizable continuum models are also presented. Each leg of the relevant thermodynamic cycle is analyzed in detail to determine how different terms contribute to the observed mean signed error (MSE) and the standard deviation of the error (STDEV) between theory and experiment. The use of a constant number of water molecules for each set of ions is found to lead to predicted relative trends that benefit from error cancellation. Overall, the best results are obtained with MP2 and the Solvent Model D polarizable continuum model (SMD), with eight explicit water molecules for anions and 10 for the metal cations, yielding a STDEV of 2.3 kcal mol(-1) and MSE of 0.9 kcal mol(-1) between theoretical and experimental hydration free energies, which range from -72.4 kcal mol(-1) for SH(-) to -505.9 kcal mol(-1) for Cu(2+). Using B3PW91 with DFT-D3 dispersion corrections (B3PW91-D) and SMD yields a STDEV of 3.3 kcal mol(-1) and MSE of 1.6 kcal mol(-1), to which adding MP2 corrections from smaller divalent metal cation water molecule clusters yields very good agreement with the full MP2 results. Using B3PW91-D and SMD, with two explicit water molecules for anions and six for divalent metal cations, also

  6. Microscopic theory of cation exchange in CdSe nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Ott, Florian D; Spiegel, Leo L; Norris, David J; Erwin, Steven C

    2014-10-10

    Although poorly understood, cation-exchange reactions are increasingly used to dope or transform colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots). We use density-functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to develop a microscopic theory that explains structural, optical, and electronic changes observed experimentally in Ag-cation-exchanged CdSe nanocrystals. We find that Coulomb interactions, both between ionized impurities and with the polarized nanocrystal surface, play a key role in cation exchange. Our theory also resolves several experimental puzzles related to photoluminescence and electrical behavior in CdSe nanocrystals doped with Ag.

  7. Pyridine radical cation and its fluorine substituted derivatives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bondybey, V.E.; English, J.H.; Shiley, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The spectra and relaxation of the pyridine cation and of several of its fluorinated derivatives are studied in low temperature Ne matrices. The ions are generated by direct photoionization of the parent compounds. Of the compounds studied, laser induced → and → fluorescence is observed only for the 2, 6‐difluoropyridine cation. The analysis of the spectrum indicates that the ion is planar both in the and states. The large variety in the spectroscopic and relaxation behavior of fluoropyridine radical cations is explained in terms of their electronic structure and of the differential shifts of the individual electronic states caused by the fluorine substitution.

  8. Topochemical synthesis of cation ordered double perovskite oxynitrides.

    PubMed

    Ceravola, Roberta; Oró-Solé, Judith; Black, Ashley P; Ritter, Clemens; Puente Orench, Inés; Mata, Ignasi; Molins, Elies; Frontera, Carlos; Fuertes, Amparo

    2017-04-19

    Topochemical nitridation in ammonia at moderate temperatures of cation ordered Sr 2 FeWO 6 produces new antiferromagnetic double perovskite oxynitrides Sr 2 FeWO 6-x N x with 0 < x ≤ 1. Nitrogen introduction induces the oxidation of Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ and decreases T N from 38 K (x = 0) to 13 K for Sr 2 FeWO 5 N which represents the first example of a double perovskite oxynitride with both high cationic order and nitrogen content. This synthetic approach can be extended to other cation combinations expanding the possibility of new materials in the large group of double perovskites.

  9. Erionite-Na upon heating: dehydration dynamics and exchangeable cations mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballirano, Paolo; Pacella, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    Erionite is a fibrous zeolite significantly more tumorigenic than crocidolite asbestos upon inhalation. In recent years, several papers have been published aimed at characterizing from the crystal-chemical point of view erionite fibres. As their toxicity has been ascribed to Fe acquired within the human body, studies aimed at characterizing the iron topochemistry have also been published, suggesting a possible important role played by the ionic exchange properties and cations mobility of this zeolite on developing carcinogenicity. Here we report the analysis results of the thermal behaviour of erionite-Na, which has been found to deviate significantly from that of erionite-K. This result is in contrast with the current scientific view that differences in weighted ionic potential, Si/Al ratio and size of exchangeable cations result in significantly different thermal behaviours, all those parameters being nearly identical or very similar in both species. The different mobility of the extraframework cations observed in erionite samples with dissimilar chemistry is of particular interest within the frame of the hypothesis that their biological activity could depend, apart from surface interactions, also on bulk effects.

  10. An optical spectrum of a large isolated gas-phase PAH cation: C78H26+

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Junfeng; Mulas, Giacomo; Bonnamy, Anthony; Joblin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    A gas-phase optical spectrum of a large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) cation - C78H26+- in the 410-610 nm range is presented. This large all-benzenoid PAH should be large enough to be stable with respect to photodissociation in the harsh conditions prevailing in the interstellar medium (ISM). The spectrum is obtained via multi-photon dissociation (MPD) spectroscopy of cationic C78H26 stored in the Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) cell using the radiation from a mid-band optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser. The experimental spectrum shows two main absorption peaks at 431 nm and 516 nm, in good agreement with a theoretical spectrum computed via time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). DFT calculations indicate that the equilibrium geometry, with the absolute minimum energy, is of lowered, nonplanar C2 symmetry instead of the more symmetric planar D2h symmetry that is usually the minimum for similar PAHs of smaller size. This kind of slightly broken symmetry could produce some of the fine structure observed in some diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). It can also favor the folding of C78H26+ fragments and ultimately the formation of fullerenes. This study opens up the possibility to identify the most promising candidates for DIBs amongst large cationic PAHs. PMID:26942230

  11. Dimerization of human immunodeficiency virus (type 1) RNA: stimulation by cations and possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Marquet, R; Baudin, F; Gabus, C; Darlix, J L; Mougel, M; Ehresmann, C; Ehresmann, B

    1991-05-11

    The retroviral genome consists of two identical RNA molecules joined close to their 5' ends by the dimer linkage structure. Recent findings indicated that retroviral RNA dimerization and encapsidation are probably related events during virion assembly. We studied the cation-induced dimerization of HIV-1 RNA and results indicate that all in vitro generated HIV-1 RNAs containing a 100 nucleotide domain downstream from the 5' splice site are able to dimerize. RNA dimerization depends on the concentration of RNA, mono- and multivalent cations, the size of the monovalent cation, temperature, and pH. Up to 75% of HIV-1 RNA is dimeric in the presence of spermidine. HIV-1 RNA dimer is fairly resistant to denaturing agents and unaffected by intercalating drugs. Antisense HIV-1 RNA does not dimerize but heterodimers can be formed between HIV-1 RNA and either MoMuLV or RSV RNA. Therefore retroviral RNA dimerization probably does not simply proceed through mechanisms involving Watson-Crick base-pairing. Neither adenine and cytosine protonation, nor quartets containing only guanines appear to determine the stability of the HIV-1 RNA dimer, while quartets involving both adenine(s) and guanine(s) could account for our results. A consensus sequence PuGGAPuA found in the putative dimerization-encapsidation region of all retroviral genomes examined may participate in the dimerization process.

  12. Dimerization of human immunodeficiency virus (type 1) RNA: stimulation by cations and possible mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Marquet, R; Baudin, F; Gabus, C; Darlix, J L; Mougel, M; Ehresmann, C; Ehresmann, B

    1991-01-01

    The retroviral genome consists of two identical RNA molecules joined close to their 5' ends by the dimer linkage structure. Recent findings indicated that retroviral RNA dimerization and encapsidation are probably related events during virion assembly. We studied the cation-induced dimerization of HIV-1 RNA and results indicate that all in vitro generated HIV-1 RNAs containing a 100 nucleotide domain downstream from the 5' splice site are able to dimerize. RNA dimerization depends on the concentration of RNA, mono- and multivalent cations, the size of the monovalent cation, temperature, and pH. Up to 75% of HIV-1 RNA is dimeric in the presence of spermidine. HIV-1 RNA dimer is fairly resistant to denaturing agents and unaffected by intercalating drugs. Antisense HIV-1 RNA does not dimerize but heterodimers can be formed between HIV-1 RNA and either MoMuLV or RSV RNA. Therefore retroviral RNA dimerization probably does not simply proceed through mechanisms involving Watson-Crick base-pairing. Neither adenine and cytosine protonation, nor quartets containing only guanines appear to determine the stability of the HIV-1 RNA dimer, while quartets involving both adenine(s) and guanine(s) could account for our results. A consensus sequence PuGGAPuA found in the putative dimerization-encapsidation region of all retroviral genomes examined may participate in the dimerization process. Images PMID:1645868

  13. Theoretical and Experimental Photoelectron Spectroscopy Characterization of the Ground State of Thymine Cation.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Youssef; Hochlaf, Majdi; Pan, Yi; Lau, Kai-Chung; Poisson, Lionel; Garcia, Gustavo A; Nahon, Laurent; Al-Mogren, Muneerah Mogren; Schwell, Martin

    2015-06-11

    We report on the vibronic structure of the ground state X̃(2)A″ of the thymine cation, which has been measured using a threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence technique and vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The threshold photoelectron spectrum, recorded over ∼0.7 eV above the ionization potential (i.e., covering the whole ground state of the cation) shows rich vibrational structure that has been assigned with the help of calculated anharmonic modes of the ground electronic cation state at the PBE0/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. The adiabatic ionization energy has been experimentally determined as AIE = 8.913 ± 0.005 eV, in very good agreement with previous high resolution results. The corresponding theoretical value of AIE = 8.917 eV has been calculated in this work with the explicitly correlated method/basis set (R)CCSD(T)-F12/cc-pVTZ-F12, which validates the theoretical approach and benchmarks its accuracy for future studies of medium-sized biological molecules.

  14. Effect of cation on diffusion coefficient of ionic liquids at onion-like carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Van Aken, Katherine L; McDonough, John K; Li, Song; Feng, Guang; Chathoth, Suresh M; Mamontov, Eugene; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Cummings, Peter T; Dai, Sheng; Gogotsi, Yury

    2014-07-16

    While most supercapacitors are limited in their performance by the stability of the electrolyte, using neat ionic liquids (ILs) as the electrolyte can expand the voltage window and temperature range of operation. In this study, ILs with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N) as the anion were investigated as the electrolyte in onion-like carbon-based electrochemical capacitors. To probe the influence of cations on the electrochemical performance of supercapacitors, three different cations were used: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium and 1,6-bis(3-methylimidazolium-1-yl). A series of electrochemical characterization tests was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Diffusion coefficients were measured using EIS and correlated with quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation. These three techniques were used in parallel to confirm a consistent trend between the three ILs. It was found that the IL with the smaller sized cation had a larger diffusion coefficient, leading to a higher capacitance at faster charge-discharge rates. Furthermore, the IL electrolyte performance was correlated with increasing temperature, which limited the voltage stability window and led to the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase on the carbon electrode surface, evident in both the CV and EIS experiments.

  15. Endomembrane Cation Transporters and Membrane Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, Heven

    Multicellular, as well as unicellular, organisms have evolved mechanisms to regulate ion and pH homeostasis in response to developmental cues and to a changing environment. The working hypothesis is that the balance of fluxes mediated by diverse transporters at the plasma membrane and in subcellular organelles determines ionic cellular distribution, which is critical for maintenance of membrane potential, pH control, osmolality, transport of nutrients, and protein activity. An emerging theme in plant cell biology is that cells respond and adapt to diverse cues through changes of the dynamic endomembrane system. Yet we know very little about the transporters that mightmore » influence the operation of the secretory system in plants. Here we focus on transporters that influence alkali cation and pH homeostasis, mainly in the endomembrane/ secretory system. The endomembrane system of eukaryote cells serves several major functions: i) sort cargo (e.g. enzymes, transporters or receptors) to specific destinations, ii) modulate the protein and lipid composition of membrane domains through remodeling, and iii) determine and alter the properties of the cell wall through synthesis and remodeling. We had uncovered a novel family of predicted cation/H + exchangers (CHX) and K + efflux antiporters (KEA) that are prevalent in higher plants, but rare in metazoans. We combined phylogenetic and transcriptomic analyses with molecular genetic, cell biological and biochemical studies, and have published the first reports on functions of plant CHXs and KEAs. CHX studied to date act at the endomembrane system where their actions are distinct from the better-studied NHX (Na/K-H + exchangers). Arabidopsis thaliana CHX20 in guard cells modulate stomatal opening, and thus is significant for vegetative survival. Other CHXs ensure reproductive success on dry land, as they participate in organizing pollen walls, targeting of pollen tubes to the ovule or promoting fertilization. Based on

  16. Hyperforin activates nonselective cation channels (NSCCs).

    PubMed

    Treiber, Kristina; Singer, Andrea; Henke, Bettina; Müller, Walter E

    2005-05-01

    A large body of evidence supports the preclinical antidepressant profile of hyperforin including inhibition of the synaptosomal uptake of several neurotransmitters by hyperforin and studies in behavioural models. In contrast to other antidepressants, hyperforin does not directly inhibit neurotransmitter transporters, but instead uptake inhibition seems to be the consequence of an elevated intracellular sodium concentration ([Na+]i). The mechanism of hyperforin-induced elevation of [Na+]i was investigated using two different cell types: human platelets and rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells). In both cell systems, hyperforin increased both [Na+]i and free intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). One pathway for Na+ and Ca2+ entry is mediated by nonselective cation channels (NSCCs), which can be blocked by SK&F 96365 and LOE 908. LOE 908 is a blocker of both NSCC1 and NSCC2 subclasses, while SK&F 96365 blocks NSCC2 only. Both SK&F 96365 and LOE 908 completely inhibited the hyperforin-induced influx of Na+ and Ca2+ into platelets and PC12 cells. This indicates that hyperforin is mainly active upon NSCC2. The effect of hyperforin is inhibited by La3+ and Gd3+, indicating that there is a potential homology with canonical transient receptor potential protein channels (TRPC channels). Moreover, La3+ and Gd3+ attenuate the effect of hyperforin on serotonin uptake in human platelets. Additionally, hyperforin induces barium influx in PC12 cells and this influx can be inhibited by SK&F 96365, LOE 908, Gd3+ and La3+. In summary, these findings suggest that hyperforin represents a new principle for preclinical antidepressant activity, modulating brain neurotransmission by inhibition of neurotransmitter uptake via activation of NSCCs.British Journal of Pharmacology (2005) 145, 75-83. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706155.

  17. Hyperforin activates nonselective cation channels (NSCCs)

    PubMed Central

    Treiber, Kristina; Singer, Andrea; Henke, Bettina; Müller, Walter E

    2005-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports the preclinical antidepressant profile of hyperforin including inhibition of the synaptosomal uptake of several neurotransmitters by hyperforin and studies in behavioural models. In contrast to other antidepressants, hyperforin does not directly inhibit neurotransmitter transporters, but instead uptake inhibition seems to be the consequence of an elevated intracellular sodium concentration ([Na+]i). The mechanism of hyperforin-induced elevation of [Na+]i was investigated using two different cell types: human platelets and rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells). In both cell systems, hyperforin increased both [Na+]i and free intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). One pathway for Na+ and Ca2+ entry is mediated by nonselective cation channels (NSCCs), which can be blocked by SK&F 96365 and LOE 908. LOE 908 is a blocker of both NSCC1 and NSCC2 subclasses, while SK&F 96365 blocks NSCC2 only. Both SK&F 96365 and LOE 908 completely inhibited the hyperforin-induced influx of Na+ and Ca2+ into platelets and PC12 cells. This indicates that hyperforin is mainly active upon NSCC2. The effect of hyperforin is inhibited by La3+ and Gd3+, indicating that there is a potential homology with canonical transient receptor potential protein channels (TRPC channels). Moreover, La3+ and Gd3+ attenuate the effect of hyperforin on serotonin uptake in human platelets. Additionally, hyperforin induces barium influx in PC12 cells and this influx can be inhibited by SK&F 96365, LOE 908, Gd3+ and La3+. In summary, these findings suggest that hyperforin represents a new principle for preclinical antidepressant activity, modulating brain neurotransmission by inhibition of neurotransmitter uptake via activation of NSCCs. PMID:15723093

  18. An efficient nonviral gene-delivery vector based on hyperbranched cationic glycogen derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xuan; Ren, Xianyue; Liu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Yingliang; Wang, Jue; Wang, Jingnan; Zhang, Li-Ming; Deng, David Yb; Quan, Daping; Yang, Liqun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize and evaluate hyperbranched cationic glycogen derivatives as an efficient nonviral gene-delivery vector. A series of hyperbranched cationic glycogen derivatives conjugated with 3-(dimethylamino)-1-propylamine (DMAPA-Glyp) and 1-(2-aminoethyl) piperazine (AEPZ-Glyp) residues were synthesized and characterized by Fourier-transform infrared and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Their buffer capacity was assessed by acid-base titration in aqueous NaCl solution. Plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (pDNA) condensation ability and protection against DNase I degradation of the glycogen derivatives were assessed using agarose gel electrophoresis. The zeta potentials and particle sizes of the glycogen derivative/pDNA complexes were measured, and the images of the complexes were observed using atomic force microscopy. Blood compatibility and cytotoxicity were evaluated by hemolysis assay and MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, respectively. pDNA transfection efficiency mediated by the cationic glycogen derivatives was evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy in the 293T (human embryonic kidney) and the CNE2 (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma) cell lines. In vivo delivery of pDNA in model animals (Sprague Dawley rats) was evaluated to identify the safety and transfection efficiency. The hyperbranched cationic glycogen derivatives conjugated with DMAPA and AEPZ residues were synthesized. They exhibited better blood compatibility and lower cytotoxicity when compared to branched polyethyleneimine (bPEI). They were able to bind and condense pDNA to form the complexes of 100-250 nm in size. The transfection efficiency of the DMAPA-Glyp/pDNA complexes was higher than those of the AEPZ-Glyp/pDNA complexes in both the 293T and CNE2 cells, and almost equal to those of bPEI. Furthermore, pDNA could be more safely delivered to the blood vessels in brain tissue of Sprague Dawley rats

  19. VUV PHOTO-PROCESSING OF PAH CATIONS: QUANTITATIVE STUDY ON THE IONIZATION VERSUS FRAGMENTATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen, Junfeng; Castillo, Sarah Rodriguez; Joblin, Christine

    2016-05-10

    Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are strongly affected by the absorption of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons in the interstellar medium (ISM), yet the branching ratio between ionization and fragmentation is poorly studied. This is crucial for the stability and charge state of PAHs in the ISM in different environments, affecting in turn the chemistry, the energy balance, and the contribution of PAHs to the extinction and emission curves. We studied the interaction of PAH cations with VUV photons in the 7–20 eV range from the synchrotron SOLEIL beamline, DESIRS. We recorded by action spectroscopy the relative intensities of photo-fragmentation andmore » photo-ionization for a set of eight PAH cations ranging in size from 14 to 24 carbon atoms, with different structures. At photon energies below ∼13.6 eV fragmentation dominates for the smaller species, while for larger species ionization is immediately competitive after the second ionization potential (IP). At higher photon energies all species behave similarly; the ionization yield gradually increases, leveling off between 0.8 and 0.9 at ∼18 eV. Among isomers, PAH structure appears to mainly affect the fragmentation cross section but not the ionization cross section. We also measured the second IP for all species and the third IP for two of them; all are in good agreement with theoretical ones, confirming that PAH cations can be further ionized in the diffuse ISM. Determining actual PAH dication abundances in the ISM will require detailed modeling. Our measured photo-ionization yields for several PAH cations provide a necessary ingredient for such models.« less

  20. Binding of Divalent Cations to Polygalacturonate: A Mechanism Driven by the Hydration Water.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Uyen T D; Lerbret, Adrien; Neiers, Fabrice; Chambin, Odile; Assifaoui, Ali

    2016-02-11

    We have investigated the interactions between polygalacturonate (polyGal) and four divalent cations (M(2+) = Ba(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Zn(2+)) that differ in size and affinity for water. Our results evidence that M(2+)-polyGal interactions are intimately linked to the affinity of M(2+) for water. Mg(2+) interacts so strongly with water that it remains weakly bound to polyGal (polycondensation) by sharing water molecules from its first coordination shell with the carboxylate groups of polyGal. In contrast, the other cations form transient ionic pairs with polyGal by releasing preferentially one water molecule (for Zn(2+)) or two (for Ca(2+) and Ba(2+)), which corresponds to monodentate and bidentate binding modes with carboxylates, respectively. The mechanism for the binding of these three divalent cations to polyGal can be described by two steps: (i) monocomplexation and formation of point-like cross-links between polyGal chains (at low M(2+)/Gal molar ratios, R) and (ii) dimerization (at higher R). The threshold molar ratio, R*, between these two steps depends on the nature of divalent cations and is lower for calcium ions (R* < 0.1) than for zinc and barium ions (R* > 0.3). This difference may be explained by the intermediate affinity of Ca(2+) for water with respect to those of Zn(2+) and Ba(2+), which may induce the formation of cross-links of intermediate flexibility. By comparison, the lower and higher flexibilities of the cross-links formed by Zn(2+) and Ba(2+), respectively, may shift the formation of dimers to higher molar ratios (R*).

  1. VUV photo-processing of PAH cations: quantitative study on the ionization versus fragmentation processes

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Junfeng; Castillo, Sarah Rodriguez; Joblin, Christine; Mulas, Giacomo; Sabbah, Hassan; Giuliani, Alexandre; Nahon, Laurent; Martin, Serge; Champeaux, Jean-Philippe; Mayer, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are strongly affected by the absorption of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons in the interstellar medium (ISM), yet the branching ratio between ionization and fragmentation is poorly studied. This is crucial for the stability and charge state of PAHs in the ISM in different environments, affecting in turn the chemistry, the energy balance, and the contribution of PAHs to the extinction and emission curves. We studied the interaction of PAH cations with VUV photons in the 7 – 20 eV range from the synchrotron SOLEIL beamline, DESIRS. We recorded by action spectroscopy the relative intensities of photo-fragmentation and photo-ionization for a set of eight PAH cations ranging in size from 14 to 24 carbon atoms, with different structures. At photon energies below ~13.6 eV fragmentation dominates for the smaller species, while for larger species ionization is immediately competitive after the second ionization potential (IP). At higher photon energies, all species behave similarly, the ionization yield gradually increases, leveling off between 0.8 and 0.9 at ~18 eV. Among isomers, PAH structure appears to mainly affect the fragmentation cross section, but not the ionization cross section. We also measured the second IP for all species and the third IP for two of them, all are in good agreement with theoretical ones confirming that PAH cations can be further ionized in the diffuse ISM. Determining actual PAH dication abundances in the ISM will require detailed modeling. Our measured photo-ionization yields for several PAH cations provide a necessary ingredient for such models. PMID:27212712

  2. VUV photo-processing of PAH cations: quantitative study on the ionization versus fragmentation processes.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Junfeng; Castillo, Sarah Rodriguez; Joblin, Christine; Mulas, Giacomo; Sabbah, Hassan; Giuliani, Alexandre; Nahon, Laurent; Martin, Serge; Champeaux, Jean-Philippe; Mayer, Paul M

    2016-05-10

    Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are strongly affected by the absorption of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons in the interstellar medium (ISM), yet the branching ratio between ionization and fragmentation is poorly studied. This is crucial for the stability and charge state of PAHs in the ISM in different environments, affecting in turn the chemistry, the energy balance, and the contribution of PAHs to the extinction and emission curves. We studied the interaction of PAH cations with VUV photons in the 7 - 20 eV range from the synchrotron SOLEIL beamline, DESIRS. We recorded by action spectroscopy the relative intensities of photo-fragmentation and photo-ionization for a set of eight PAH cations ranging in size from 14 to 24 carbon atoms, with different structures. At photon energies below ~13.6 eV fragmentation dominates for the smaller species, while for larger species ionization is immediately competitive after the second ionization potential (IP). At higher photon energies, all species behave similarly, the ionization yield gradually increases, leveling off between 0.8 and 0.9 at ~18 eV. Among isomers, PAH structure appears to mainly affect the fragmentation cross section, but not the ionization cross section. We also measured the second IP for all species and the third IP for two of them, all are in good agreement with theoretical ones confirming that PAH cations can be further ionized in the diffuse ISM. Determining actual PAH dication abundances in the ISM will require detailed modeling. Our measured photo-ionization yields for several PAH cations provide a necessary ingredient for such models.

  3. Use of marker ion and cationic surfactant plastic membrane electrode for potentiometric titration of cationic polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Masadome, Takashi; Imato, Toshihiko

    2003-07-04

    A plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane electrode sensitive to stearyltrimethylammonium (STA) ion is applied to the determination of cationic polyelectrolytes such as poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (Cat-floc) by potentiometric titration, using a potassium poly (vinyl sulfate) (PVSK) solution as a titrant. The end-point of the titration is detected as the potential change of the plasticized PVC membrane electrode caused by decrease in the concentration of STA ion added to the sample solution as a marker ion due to the ion association reaction between the STA ion and PVSK. The effects of the concentration of STA ion, coexisting electrolytes in the sample solution and pH of the sample on the degree of the potential change at the end-point were examined. A linear relationship between the concentration of cationic polyelectrolyte and the end-point volume of the titrant exists in the concentration range from 2x10(-5) to 4x10(-4) N for Cat-floc, glycol chitosan, and methylglycol chitosan.

  4. Cation binding to 15-TBA quadruplex DNA is a multiple-pathway cation-dependent process.

    PubMed

    Reshetnikov, Roman V; Sponer, Jiri; Rassokhina, Olga I; Kopylov, Alexei M; Tsvetkov, Philipp O; Makarov, Alexander A; Golovin, Andrey V

    2011-12-01

    A combination of explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation (30 simulations reaching 4 µs in total), hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach and isothermal titration calorimetry was used to investigate the atomistic picture of ion binding to 15-mer thrombin-binding quadruplex DNA (G-DNA) aptamer. Binding of ions to G-DNA is complex multiple pathway process, which is strongly affected by the type of the cation. The individual ion-binding events are substantially modulated by the connecting loops of the aptamer, which play several roles. They stabilize the molecule during time periods when the bound ions are not present, they modulate the route of the ion into the stem and they also stabilize the internal ions by closing the gates through which the ions enter the quadruplex. Using our extensive simulations, we for the first time observed full spontaneous exchange of internal cation between quadruplex molecule and bulk solvent at atomistic resolution. The simulation suggests that expulsion of the internally bound ion is correlated with initial binding of the incoming ion. The incoming ion then readily replaces the bound ion while minimizing any destabilization of the solute molecule during the exchange. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Cation binding to 15-TBA quadruplex DNA is a multiple-pathway cation-dependent process

    PubMed Central

    Reshetnikov, Roman V.; Sponer, Jiri; Rassokhina, Olga I.; Kopylov, Alexei M.; Tsvetkov, Philipp O.; Makarov, Alexander A.; Golovin, Andrey V.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation (30 simulations reaching 4 µs in total), hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach and isothermal titration calorimetry was used to investigate the atomistic picture of ion binding to 15-mer thrombin-binding quadruplex DNA (G-DNA) aptamer. Binding of ions to G-DNA is complex multiple pathway process, which is strongly affected by the type of the cation. The individual ion-binding events are substantially modulated by the connecting loops of the aptamer, which play several roles. They stabilize the molecule during time periods when the bound ions are not present, they modulate the route of the ion into the stem and they also stabilize the internal ions by closing the gates through which the ions enter the quadruplex. Using our extensive simulations, we for the first time observed full spontaneous exchange of internal cation between quadruplex molecule and bulk solvent at atomistic resolution. The simulation suggests that expulsion of the internally bound ion is correlated with initial binding of the incoming ion. The incoming ion then readily replaces the bound ion while minimizing any destabilization of the solute molecule during the exchange. PMID:21893589

  6. Opposing effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides and divalent cations on bacterial lipopolysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Matthew; Rajagopal, Aruna; Liu, Wing-Ki; Ha, Bae-Yeun

    2017-10-01

    The permeability of the bacterial outer membrane, enclosing Gram-negative bacteria, depends on the interactions of the outer, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer, with surrounding ions and molecules. We present a coarse-grained model for describing how cationic amphiphilic molecules (e.g., antimicrobial peptides) interact with and perturb the LPS layer in a biologically relevant medium, containing monovalent and divalent salt ions (e.g., Mg2+). In our approach, peptide binding is driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and is assumed to expand the LPS layer, eventually priming it for disruption. Our results suggest that in parameter ranges of biological relevance (e.g., at micromolar concentrations) the antimicrobial peptide magainin 2 effectively disrupts the LPS layer, even though it has to compete with Mg2+ for the layer. They also show how the integrity of LPS is restored with an increasing concentration of Mg2+. Using the approach, we make a number of predictions relevant for optimizing peptide parameters against Gram-negative bacteria and for understanding bacterial strategies to develop resistance against cationic peptides.

  7. Method for the chromatographic separation of cations from aqueous samples

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L.

    1997-07-29

    An extraction chromatographic material is described for extracting metal cations from a liquid stream. The extraction chromatographic material is prepared by adsorbing a diesterified methanediphosphonic acid on an inert particulate support. 7 figs.

  8. Cations Modulate Actin Bundle Mechanics, Assembly Dynamics, and Structure.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Nicholas; Zheng, Tianyu; Rivera-Jacquez, Hector J; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Hyun, Jaekyung; Balaeff, Alexander; Huo, Qun; Kang, Hyeran

    2018-04-12

    Actin bundles are key factors in the mechanical support and dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton. High concentrations of multivalent counterions promote bundle formation through electrostatic attraction between actin filaments that are negatively charged polyelectrolytes. In this study, we evaluate how physiologically relevant divalent cations affect the mechanical, dynamic, and structural properties of actin bundles. Using a combination of total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering, we demonstrate that divalent cations modulate bundle stiffness, length distribution, and lateral growth. Molecular dynamics simulations of an all-atom model of the actin bundle reveal specific actin residues coordinate cation-binding sites that promote the bundle formation. Our work suggests that specific cation interactions may play a fundamental role in the assembly, structure, and mechanical properties of actin bundles.

  9. Aggregation of trypsin and trypsin inhibitor by Al cation.

    PubMed

    Chanphai, P; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-04-01

    Al cation may trigger protein structural changes such as aggregation and fibrillation, causing neurodegenerative diseases. We report the effect of Al cation on the solution structures of trypsin (try) and trypsin inhibitor (tryi), using thermodynamic analysis, UV-Visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Thermodynamic parameters showed Al-protein bindings occur via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts for trypsin and trypsin inhibitor. AFM showed that Al cations are able to force trypsin into larger or more robust aggregates than trypsin inhibitor, with trypsin 5±1 SE (n=52) proteins per aggregate and for trypsin inhibitor 8.3±0.7 SE (n=118). Thioflavin T test showed no major protein fibrillation in the presence of Al cation. Al complexation induced more alterations of trypsin inhibitor conformation than trypsin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduction by monovalent zinc, cadmium, and nickel cations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerstein, D.; Mulac, W. A.

    1969-01-01

    Understanding of chemical properties of monovalent transition metal cations in aqueous solutions was obtained by a study of kinetics of reduction of different inorganic substrates by zinc, cadmium, and nickel.

  11. Method for the chromatographic separation of cations from aqueous samples

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L.

    1998-12-22

    An extraction chromatographic material is described for extracting metal cations from a liquid stream. The extraction chromatographic material is prepared by adsorbing a diesterified methane-diphosphonic acid on an inert particulate support. 7 figs.

  12. Mercury release from deforested soils triggered by base cation enrichment.

    PubMed

    Farella, N; Lucotte, M; Davidson, R; Daigle, S

    2006-09-01

    The Brazilian Amazon has experienced considerable colonization in the last few decades. Family agriculture based on slash-and-burn enables millions of people to live in that region. However, the poor nutrient content of most Amazonian soils requires cation-rich ashes from the burning of the vegetation biomass for cultivation to be successful, which leads to forest ecosystem degradation, soil erosion and mercury contamination. While recent studies have suggested that mercury present in soils was transferred towards rivers upon deforestation, little is known about the dynamics between agricultural land-use and mercury leaching. In this context, the present study proposes an explanation that illustrates how agricultural land-use triggers mercury loss from soils. This explanation lies in the competition between base cations and mercury in soils which are characterized by a low adsorption capacity. Since these soils are naturally very poor in base cations, the burning of the forest biomass suddenly brings high quantities of base cations to soils, destabilizing the previous equilibrium amongst cations. Base cation enrichment triggers mobility in soil cations, rapidly dislocating mercury atoms. This conclusion comes from principal component analyses illustrating that agricultural land-use was associated with base cation enrichment and mercury depletion. The overall conclusions highlight a pernicious cycle: while soil nutrient enrichment actually occurs through biomass burning, although on a temporary basis, there is a loss in Hg content, which is leached to rivers, entering the aquatic chain, and posing a potential health threat to local populations. Data presented here reflects three decades of deforestation activities, but little is known about the long-term impact of such a disequilibrium. These findings may have repercussions on our understanding of the complex dynamics of deforestation and agriculture worldwide.

  13. Energy landscape in frustrated systems: Cation hopping in pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks Hinojosa, Beverly; Asthagiri, Aravind; Nino, Juan C.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics of the local environment and electronic structure in inherently dipolar frustrated pyrochlore compounds to help identify the fundamental nature of dipolar disorder in pyrochlore systems and determine the necessary and sufficient conditions for dielectric relaxation. We map out the energy landscape associated with cation hopping events in three compounds and correlate the hopping pathway with experimental dielectric response. Comprehensive analysis of the calculations allows us to postulate rules to predict the occurrence of relaxation and cation hopping pathways.

  14. Novel gemini cationic lipids with carbamate groups for gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi-Nan; Qureshi, Farooq; Zhang, Shu-Biao; Cui, Shao-Hui; Wang, Bing; Chen, Hui-Ying; Lv, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Shu-Fen; Huang, Leaf

    2014-01-01

    To obtain efficient non-viral vectors, a series of Gemini cationic lipids with carbamate linkers between headgroups and hydrophobic tails were synthesized. They have the hydrocarbon chains of 12, 14, 16 and 18 carbon atoms as tails, designated as G12, G14, G16 and G18, respectively. These Gemini cationic lipids were prepared into cationic liposomes for the study of the physicochemical properties and gene delivery. The DNA-bonding ability of these Gemini cationic liposomes was much better than their mono-head counterparts (designated as M12, M14, M16 and M18, respectively). In the same series of liposomes, bonding ability declined with an increase in tail length. They were tested for their gene-transferring capabilities in Hep-2 and A549 cells. They showed higher transfection efficiency than their mono-head counterparts and were comparable or superior in transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity to the commercial liposomes, DOTAP and Lipofectamine 2000. Our results convincingly demonstrate that the gene-transferring capabilities of these cationic lipids depended on hydrocarbon chain length. Gene transfection efficiency was maximal at a chain length of 14, as G14 can silence about 80 % of luciferase in A549 cells. Cell uptake results indicate that Gemini lipid delivery systems could be internalised by cells very efficiently. Thus, the Gemini cationic lipids could be used as synthetic non-viral gene delivery carriers for further study. PMID:25045521

  15. Infrared Spectroscopy of Matrix-Isolated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, D. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Gaseous, ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are thought to be responsible for a very common family of interstellar infrared emission bands. Here the near- and mid-infrared spectra of the cations of the five most thermodynamically favored PAHs up to coronene: phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo-(ghi)perylene, and coronene, are presented to test this hypothesis. For those molecules that have been studied previously (pyrene, pyrene-d(sub 10), and coronene), band positions and relative intensities are in agreement. In all of these cases we report additional features. Absolute integrated absorbance values are given for the phenanthrene, perdeuteriophenanthrene, pyrene, benzo(ghi]perylene, and coronene cations. With the exception of coronene, the cation bands corresponding to the CC modes are typically 2-5 times more intense than those of the CH out-of-plane bending vibrations. For the cations, the CC stretching and CH in-plane bending modes give rise to bands that are an order of magnitude stronger than those of the neutral species, and the CH out-of-plane bends produce bands that are 5-20 times weaker than those of the neutral species. This behavior is similar to that found in most other PAH cations studied to date. The astronomical implications of these PAH cation spectra are also discussed.

  16. Hydrated Cations in the General Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.; Baxter, John F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Presents selected information regarding the descriptive chemistry of the common metal ions and their compounds, including the concepts of process of solution, polar molecules, ionic size and charge, complex ions, coordination number, and the Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theory. (CS)

  17. Porous Ceramic Spheres From Cation Exchange Beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    This document is a slide presentation that examines the use of a simple templating process to produce hollow ceramic spheres with a pore size of 1 to 10 microns. Using ion exchange process it was determined that the method produces porous ceramic spheres with a unique structure: (i.e., inner sphere surrounded by an outer sphere.)

  18. Antiferromagnetic interaction between A'-site Mn spins in A-site-ordered perovskite YMn3Al4O12.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Takenori; Saito, Takashi; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Agui, Akane; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2010-03-01

    The A-site-ordered perovskite YMn(3)Al(4)O(12) was prepared by high-pressure synthesis. Structural analysis with synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data and the Mn L-edges X-ray absorption spectrum revealed that the compound has a chemical composition Y(3+)Mn(3+)(3)Al(3+)(4)O(2-)(12) with magnetic Mn(3+) at the A' site and non-magnetic Al(3+) at the B site. An antiferromagnetic interaction between the A'-site Mn(3+) spins is induced by the nearest neighboring Mn-Mn direct exchange interaction and causes an antiferromagnetic transition at 34.3 K.

  19. How the cation-cation π-π stacking occurs: A theoretical investigation into ionic clusters of imidazolium.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Tian, Yong; Xuan, Xiaopeng

    2015-07-01

    The cation-cation π-π stacking is uncommon but it is essential for the understanding of some supramolecular structures. We explore theoretically the nature of non-covalent interaction occurring in the stacked structure within modeled clusters of 1,3-dimethylimidazolium and halide. The evidences of the energy decomposition analysis (EDA) and reduced density gradient (RDG) approach are different from those of common π-π interaction. Isosurfaces with RDG also illustrate the strength of the titled π-π interaction and their region. Additionally, we find that the occurrence of this interaction is attributed to a few C-H···X interactions, as depicted using atom in molecule (AIM) method. This work presents a clear picture of the typical cation-cation π-π interaction and can serve to advance the understanding of this uncommon interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure and size of ions electrochemically doped in conducting polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneto, Keiichi; Hata, Fumito; Uto, Sadahito

    2018-05-01

    Among electroactive polymers (EAPs) for softactuators, conducting polymers have been intensively studied because of the large strain and stress caused by a low voltage operation. A larger deformation is desirable to extend their cycle life by reducing the operation voltage, and this is advantageous for their potential use in wider applications. The deformation is generated by the insertion of ions by electrochemical oxidation; hence, the magnitude of the strain depends on the bulkiness of the ions in the electrolytes. It is important, therefore, to clarify the structure and size of the ions during the electrochemical cycle, in order to achieve better performance of actuation. Anion and cation sizes (radii) in polypyrrole (PPy) film have been estimated using the precise measurement of strain against the amount of charge injected during the electrochemical cycles, assuming isotropic deformation of the film. The anion size was estimated using an anion-drive film, which was electrodeposited in TBABF4/methyl benzoate. The film was electrochemically cycled in sodium electrolytes, and the strain was measured simultaneously using a laser displacement meter. The cation size was obtained using a cation-drive film, being electropolymerized in aqueous dodecylbenzene sulfonic (DBS) acid. The cation-drive film was cycled in chloride electrolytes and measured the strain. The Cl-, Br-, NO3- , BF4- , and ClO4- radii were found to be approximately 235, 245, 250, 270 and 290 pm, respectively. The radii of K+, Na+ and Li+ were approximately 230, 237 and 274 pm, respectively. The results were discussed and took the crystalline ion radius and hydrated ion radius (Stokes radius) into consideration. It was found that the structure and size of the anions were slightly larger than the crystalline ion radius. Contrary to the anions, the cation radii were close to the hydrated ion radius, being larger than the crystalline ion radius.

  1. Does the cation really matter? The effect of modifying an ionic liquid cation on an SN2 process.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Eden E L; Yau, Hon Man; Hawker, Rebecca R; Croft, Anna K; Harper, Jason B

    2013-09-28

    The rate of reaction of a Menschutkin process in a range of ionic liquids with different cations was investigated, with temperature-dependent kinetic data giving access to activation parameters for the process in each solvent. These data, along with molecular dynamics simulations, demonstrate the importance of accessibility of the charged centre on the cation and that the key interactions are of a generalised electrostatic nature.

  2. Sorption of the organic cation metoprolol on silica gel from its aqueous solution considering the competition of inorganic cations.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, Susann; Schaffer, Mario; Börnick, Hilmar; Licha, Tobias; Worch, Eckhard

    2014-05-01

    Systematic batch experiments with the organic monovalent cation metoprolol as sorbate and the synthetic material silica gel as sorbent were conducted with the aim of characterizing the sorption of organic cations onto charged surfaces. Sorption isotherms for metoprolol (>99% protonated in the tested pH of around 6) in competition with mono- and divalent inorganic cations (Na(+), NH4(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+)) were determined in order to assess their influence on cation exchange processes and to identify the role of further sorptive interactions. The obtained sorption isotherms could be described well by an exponential function (Freundlich isotherm model) with consistent exponents (about 0.8). In general, a decreasing sorption of metoprolol with increasing concentrations in inorganic cations was observed. Competing ions of the same valence showed similar effects. A significant sorption affinity of metoprolol with ion type dependent Freundlich coefficients KF,0.77 between 234.42 and 426.58 (L/kg)(0.77) could still be observed even at very high concentrations of competing inorganic cations. Additional column experiments confirm this behavior, which suggests the existence of further relevant interactions beside cation exchange. In subsequent batch experiments, the influence of mixtures with more than one competing ion and the effect of a reduced negative surface charge at a pH below the point of zero charge (pHPZC ≈ 2.5) were also investigated. Finally, the study demonstrates that cation exchange is the most relevant but not the sole mechanism for the sorption of metoprolol on silica gel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adsorption of reovirus to clay minerals: effects of cation-exchange capacity, cation saturation, and surface area.

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, S M; Stotzky, G

    1983-01-01

    The adsorption of reovirus to clay minerals has been reported by several investigators, but the mechanisms defining this association have been studied only minimally. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the mechanisms involved with this interaction. More reovirus type 3 was adsorbed, in both distilled and synthetic estuarine water, by low concentrations of montmorillonite than by comparable concentrations of kaolinite containing a mixed complement of cations on the exchange complex. Adsorption to the clays was essentially immediate and was correlated with the cation-exchange capacity of the clays, indicating that adsorption was primarily to negatively charged sites on the clays. Adsorption was greater with low concentrations of clays in estuarine water than in distilled water, as the higher ionic strength of the estuarine water reduced the electrokinetic potential of both clay and virus particles. The addition of cations (as chloride salts) to distilled water enhanced adsorption, with divalent cations being more effective than monovalent cations and 10(-2) M resulting in more adsorption than 10(-3) M. Potassium ions suppressed reovirus adsorption to montmorillonite, probably by collapsing the clay lattices and preventing the expression of the interlayer-derived cation-exchange capacity. More virus was adsorbed by montmorillonite made homoionic to various mono-, di-, and trivalent cations (except by montmorillonite homoionic to potassium) than by comparable concentrations of kaolinite homoionic to the same cations. The sequence of the amount of adsorption to homoionic montmorillonite was Al greater than Ca greater than Mg greater than Na greater than K; the sequence of adsorption to kaolinite was Na greater than Al greater than Ca greater than Mg greater than K. The constant partition-type adsorption isotherms obtained when the clay concentration was maintained constant and the virus concentration was varied indicated that a fixed proportion of the

  4. Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Calculations of Large Compact PAH Cations: Implications for the Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisman, Jennifer L.; Lee, Timothy J.; Salama, Farid; Gordon-Head, Martin; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the electronic absorption spectra of several maximally pericondensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon radical cations with time dependent density functional theory calculations. We find interesting trends in the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths for this series containing pyrene through circumcoronene, the largest species containing more than 50 carbon atoms. We discuss the implications of these new results for the size and structure distribution of the diffuse interstellar band carriers.

  5. Cation Uptake and Allocation by Red Pine Seedlings under Cation-Nutrient Stress in a Column Growth Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhenqing; Balogh-Brunstad, Zsuzsanna; Grant, Michael R.

    Background and Aims Plant nutrient uptake is affected by environmental stress, but how plants respond to cation-nutrient stress is poorly understood. We assessed the impact of varying degrees of cation-nutrient limitation on cation uptake in an experimental plant-mineral system. Methods Column experiments, with red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) seedlings growing in sand/mineral mixtures, were conducted for up to nine months under a range of Ca- and K-limited conditions. The Ca and K were supplied from both minerals and nutrient solutions with varying Ca and K concentrations. Results Cation nutrient stress had little impact on carbon allocation after nine months ofmore » plant growth and K was the limiting nutrient for biomass production. The Ca/Sr and K/Rb ratio results allowed independent estimation of dissolution incongruency and discrimination against Sr and Rb during cation uptake processes. The fraction of K in biomass from biotite increased with decreasing K supply from nutrient solutions. The mineral anorthite was consistently the major source of Ca, regardless of nutrient treatment. Conclusions Red pine seedlings exploited more mineral K in response to more severe K deficiency. This did not occur for Ca. Plant discrimination factors must be carefully considered to accurately identify nutrient sources using cation tracers.« less

  6. High-capacity cation-exchange column for enhanced resolution of adjacent peaks of cations in ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rey, M A

    2001-06-22

    One of the advantages of ion chromatography [Anal Chem. 47 (1975) 1801] as compared to other analytical techniques is that several ions may be analyzed simultaneously. One of the most important contributions of cation-exchange chromatography is its sensitivity to ammonium ion, which is difficult to analyze by other techniques [J. Weiss, in: E.L. Johnson (Ed.), Handbook of Ion Chromatography, Dionex, Sunnyvale, CA, USA]. The determination of low concentrations of ammonium ion in the presence of high concentrations of sodium poses a challenge in cation-exchange chromatography [J. Weiss, Ion Chromatography, VCH, 2nd Edition, Weinheim, 1995], as both cations have similar selectivities for the common stationary phases containing either sulfonate or carboxylate functional groups. The task was to develop a new cation-exchange stationary phase (for diverse concentration ratios of adjacent peaks) to overcome limitations experienced in previous trails. Various cation-exchange capacities and column body formats were investigated to optimize this application and others. The advantages and disadvantages of two carboxylic acid columns of different cation-exchange capacities and different column formats will be discussed.

  7. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended to...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended to...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended to...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended to...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended to...

  12. High-performance cation-exchange chromatofocusing of proteins.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xuezhen; Frey, Douglas D

    2003-03-28

    Chromatofocusing using high-performance cation-exchange column packings, as opposed to the more commonly used anion-exchange column packings, is investigated with regard to the performance achieved and the range of applications possible. Linear or convex gradients in the range from pH 2.6 to 9 were formed using a variety of commercially available column packings that provide a buffering capacity in different pH ranges, and either polyampholytes or simple mixtures having a small number (three or fewer) of buffering species as the elution buffer. The resolutions achieved using cation-exchange or anion-exchange chromatofocusing were in general comparable, although for certain pairs of proteins better resolution could be achieved using one type of packing as compared to the other, evidently due to the way electrostatic charges are distributed on the protein surface. Several chromatofocusing methods were investigated that take advantage of the acid-base properties of commercially available cation-exchange column packings. These include the use of gradients with a composite shape, the use of very low pH ranges, and the use of elution buffers containing a single buffering species. The advantages of chromatofocusing over ion-exchange chromatography using a salt gradient at constant pH were illustrated by employing the former method and a cation-exchange column packing to separate beta-lactoglobulins A and B, which is a separation reported to be impossible using the latter method and a cation-exchange column packing. Trends in the apparent isoelectric points determined using cation- and anion-exchange chromatofocusing were interpreted using applicable theories. Results of this study indicate that cation-exchange chromatofocusing is a useful technique which is complementary to anion-exchange chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing for separating proteins at both the analytical and preparative scales.

  13. Photo-fragmentation spectroscopy of benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Féraud, Géraldine; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Soorkia, Satchin; Jouvet, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The electronic spectra of cold benzylium (C6H5-CH2+) and 1-phenylethyl (C6H5-CH-CH3+) cations have been recorded via photofragment spectroscopy. Benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations produced from electrosprayed benzylamine and phenylethylamine solutions, respectively, were stored in a cryogenically cooled quadrupole ion trap and photodissociated by an OPO laser, scanned in parts of the UV and visible regions (600-225 nm). The electronic states and active vibrational modes of the benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations as well as those of their tropylium or methyl tropylium isomers have been calculated with ab initio methods for comparison with the spectra observed. Sharp vibrational progressions are observed in the visible region while the absorption features are much broader in the UV. The visible spectrum of the benzylium cation is similar to that obtained in an argon tagging experiment [V. Dryza, N. Chalyavi, J. A. Sanelli, and E. J. Bieske, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 204304 (2012)], with an additional splitting assigned to Fermi resonances. The visible spectrum of the 1-phenylethyl cation also shows vibrational progressions. For both cations, the second electronic transition is observed in the UV, around 33 000 cm-1 (4.1 eV) and shows a broadened vibrational progression. In both cases the S2 optimized geometry is non-planar. The third electronic transition observed around 40 000 cm-1 (5.0 eV) is even broader with no apparent vibrational structures, which is indicative of either a fast non-radiative process or a very large change in geometry between the excited and the ground states. The oscillator strengths calculated for tropylium and methyl tropylium are weak. Therefore, these isomeric structures are most likely not responsible for these absorption features. Finally, the fragmentation pattern changes in the second and third electronic states: C2H2 loss becomes predominant at higher excitation energies, for both cations.

  14. Cation Exchange in the Presence of Oil in Porous Media

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Cation exchange is an interfacial process during which cations on a clay surface are replaced by other cations. This study investigates the effect of oil type and composition on cation exchange on rock surfaces, relevant for a variety of oil-recovery processes. We perform experiments in which brine with a different composition than that of the in situ brine is injected into cores with and without remaining oil saturation. The cation-exchange capacity (CEC) of the rocks was calculated using PHREEQC software (coupled to a multipurpose transport simulator) with the ionic composition of the effluent histories as input parameters. We observe that in the presence of crude oil, ion exchange is a kinetically controlled process and its rate depends on residence time of the oil in the pore, the temperature, and kinetic rate of adsorption of the polar groups on the rock surface. The cation-exchange process occurs in two stages during two phase flow in porous media. Initially, the charged sites of the internal surface of the clays establish a new equilibrium by exchanging cations with the aqueous phase. At later stages, the components of the aqueous and oleic phases compete for the charged sites on the external surface or edges of the clays. When there is sufficient time for crude oil to interact with the rock (i.e., when the core is aged with crude oil), a fraction of the charged sites are neutralized by the charged components stemming from crude oil. Moreover, the positively charged calcite and dolomite surfaces (at the prevailing pH environment of our experiments) are covered with the negatively charged components of the crude oil and therefore less mineral dissolution takes place when oil is present in porous media. PMID:28580442

  15. Purification and characterization of VDE, a site-specific endonuclease from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gimble, F S; Thorner, J

    1993-10-15

    The 119-kDa primary translation product of the VMA1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes a self-catalyzed rearrangement ("protein splicing") that excises an internal 50-kDa segment of the polypeptide and joins the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal segments to generate the 69-kDa subunit of the vacuolar membrane-associated H(+)-ATPase. We have shown previously that the internal segment is a site-specific endonuclease (Gimble, F. S., and Thorner, J. (1992) Nature 357, 301-306). Here we describe methods for the high level expression and purification to near homogeneity of both the authentic VMA1-derived endonuclease (or VDE) from yeast (yield 18%) and a recombinant form of VDE made in bacteria (yield 29%). Detailed characterization of these preparations demonstrated that the yeast-derived and bacterially produced enzymes were indistinguishable, as judged by: (a) behavior during purification; (b) apparent native molecular mass (50 kDa); (c) immunological reactivity; and (d) catalytic properties (specific activity; cleavage site recognition; and optima for pH, temperature, divalent cation and ionic strength). The minimal site required for VDE cleavage was delimited to a 30-base pair sequence within its specific substrate (the VMA1 delta vde allele).

  16. Zhang-Rice physics and anomalous copper states in A-site ordered perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, D.; Mukherjee, Swarnakamal; Cheng, J.-G.; Middey, S.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J. B.; Gray, B. A.; Freeland, J. W.; Saha-Dasgupta, T.; Chakhalian, J.

    2013-01-01

    In low dimensional cuprates several interesting phenomena, including high Tc superconductivity, are deeply connected to electron correlations on Cu and the presence of the Zhang-Rice (ZR) singlet state. Here, we report on direct spectroscopic observation of the ZR state responsible for the low-energy physical properties in two isostructural A-site ordered cuprate perovskites, CaCu3Co4O12 and CaCu3Cr4O12 as revealed by resonant soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy on the Cu L3,2- and O K-edges. These measurements reveal the signature of Cu in the high-energy 3+ (3d8), the typical 2+ (3d9), as well as features of the ZR singlet state (i.e., 3d9L, L denotes an oxygen hole). First principles GGA + U calculations affirm that the B-site cation controls the degree of Cu-O hybridization and, thus, the Cu valency. These findings introduce another avenue for the study and manipulation of cuprates, bypassing the complexities inherent to conventional chemical doping (i.e. disorder) that hinder the relevant physics. PMID:23666066

  17. Delivery of siRNA using ternary complexes containing branched cationic peptides: the role of peptide sequence, branching and targeting.

    PubMed

    Kudsiova, Laila; Welser, Katharina; Campbell, Frederick; Mohammadi, Atefeh; Dawson, Natalie; Cui, Lili; Hailes, Helen C; Lawrence, M Jayne; Tabor, Alethea B

    2016-03-01

    Ternary nanocomplexes, composed of bifunctional cationic peptides, lipids and siRNA, as delivery vehicles for siRNA have been investigated. The study is the first to determine the optimal sequence and architecture of the bifunctional cationic peptide used for siRNA packaging and delivery using lipopolyplexes. Specifically three series of cationic peptides of differing sequence, degrees of branching and cell-targeting sequences were co-formulated with siRNA and vesicles prepared from a 1 : 1 molar ratio of the cationic lipid DOTMA and the helper lipid, DOPE. The level of siRNA knockdown achieved in the human alveolar cell line, A549-luc cells, in both reduced serum and in serum supplemented media was evaluated, and the results correlated to the nanocomplex structure (established using a range of physico-chemical tools, namely small angle neutron scattering, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurement); the conformational properties of each component (circular dichroism); the degree of protection of the siRNA in the lipopolyplex (using gel shift assays) and to the cellular uptake, localisation and toxicity of the nanocomplexes (confocal microscopy). Although the size, charge, structure and stability of the various lipopolyplexes were broadly similar, it was clear that lipopolyplexes formulated from branched peptides containing His-Lys sequences perform best as siRNA delivery agents in serum, with protection of the siRNA in serum balanced against efficient release of the siRNA into the cytoplasm of the cell.

  18. Impact of monovalent cations on soil structure. Part I. Results of an Iranian soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahani, Elham; Emami, Hojat; Keller, Thomas; Fotovat, Amir; Khorassani, Reza

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of monovalent cations on clay dispersion, aggregate stability, soil pore size distribution, and saturated hydraulic conductivity on agricultural soil in Iran. The soil was incubated with treatment solutions containing different concentrations (0-54.4 mmol l-1) of potassium and sodium cations. The treatment solutions included two levels of electrical conductivity (EC=3 or 6 dS m-1) and six K:Na ratios per electrical conductivity level. At both electrical conductivity levels, spontaneously dispersible clay increased with increasing K concentration, and with increasing K:Na ratio. A negative linear relationship between percentage of water-stable aggregates and spontaneously dispersible clay was observed. Clay dispersion generally reduced the mean pore size, presumably due to clogging of pores, resulting in increased water retention. At both electrical conductivity levels, hydraulic conductivity increased with increasing exchangeable potassium percentage at low exchangeable potassium percentage values, but decreased with further increases in exchangeable potassium percentage at higher exchangeable potassium percentage. This is in agreement with earlier studies, but seems in conflict with our data showing increasing spontaneously dispersible clay with increasing exchangeable potassium percentage. Our findings show that clay dispersion increased with increasing K concentration and increasing K:Na ratio, demonstrating that K can have negative impacts on soil structure.

  19. Cationic polymer brush-modified cellulose nanocrystals for high-affinity virus binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosilo, Henna; McKee, Jason R.; Kontturi, Eero; Koho, Tiia; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Ikkala, Olli; Kostiainen, Mauri A.

    2014-09-01

    Surfaces capable of high-affinity binding of biomolecules are required in several biotechnological applications, such as purification, transfection, and sensing. Therein, the rod-shaped, colloidal cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are appealing due to their large surface area available for functionalization. In order to exploit electrostatic binding, their intrinsically anionic surfaces have to be cationized as biological supramolecules are predominantly anionic. Here we present a facile way to prepare cationic CNCs by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization of poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and subsequent quaternization of the polymer pendant amino groups. The cationic polymer brush-modified CNCs maintained excellent dispersibility and colloidal stability in water and showed a ζ-potential of +38 mV. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy showed that the modified CNCs electrostatically bind cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and norovirus-like particles with high affinity. Addition of only a few weight percent of the modified CNCs in water dispersions sufficed to fully bind the virus capsids to form micrometer-sized assemblies. This enabled the concentration and extraction of the virus particles from solution by low-speed centrifugation. These results show the feasibility of the modified CNCs in virus binding and concentrating, and pave the way for their use as transduction enhancers for viral delivery applications.Surfaces capable of high-affinity binding of biomolecules are required in several biotechnological applications, such as purification, transfection, and sensing. Therein, the rod-shaped, colloidal cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are appealing due to their large surface area available for functionalization. In order to exploit electrostatic binding, their intrinsically anionic surfaces have to be cationized as biological supramolecules are predominantly anionic. Here we present a facile way to prepare cationic CNCs by surface

  20. Gas-phase reactions of carbon dioxide with atomic transition-metal and main-group cations: room-temperature kinetics and periodicities in reactivity.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Gregory K; Bohme, Diethard K

    2006-02-02

    The chemistry of carbon dioxide has been surveyed systematically with 46 atomic cations at room temperature using an inductively-coupled plasma/selected-ion flow tube (ICP/SIFT) tandem mass spectrometer. The atomic cations were produced at ca. 5500 K in an ICP source and allowed to cool radiatively and to thermalize by collisions with Ar and He atoms prior to reaction downstream in a flow tube in helium buffer gas at 0.35 +/- 0.01 Torr and 295 +/- 2 K. Rate coefficients and products were measured for the reactions of first-row atomic ions from K(+) to Se(+), of second-row atomic ions from Rb(+) to Te(+) (excluding Tc(+)), and of third-row atomic ions from Cs(+) to Bi(+). CO(2) was found to react in a bimolecular fashion by O atom transfer only with 9 early transition-metal cations: the group 3 cations Sc(+), Y(+), and La(+), the group 4 cations Ti(+), Zr(+), and Hf(+), the group 5 cations Nb(+) and Ta(+), and the group 6 cation W(+). Electron spin conservation was observed to control the kinetics of O atom transfer. Addition of CO(2) was observed for the remaining 37 cations. While the rate of addition was not measurable some insight was obtained into the standard free energy change, DeltaG(o), for CO(2) ligation from equilibrium constant measurements. A periodic variation in DeltaG(o) was observed for first row cations that is consistent with previous calculations of bond energies D(0)(M(+)-CO(2)). The observed trends in D(0) and DeltaG(o) are expected from the variation in electrostatic attraction between M(+) and CO(2) which follows the trend in atomic-ion size and the trend in repulsion between the orbitals of the atomic cations and the occupied orbitals of CO(2). Higher-order CO(2) cluster ions with up to four CO(2) ligands also were observed for 24 of the atomic cations while MO(2)(+) dioxide formation by sequential O atom transfer was seen only with Hf(+), Nb(+), Ta(+), and W(+).

  1. Multicolor fluorescence of a styrylquinoline dye tuned by metal cations.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Yasuhiro; Ichimura, Chizuru; Sumiya, Shigehiro; Hirai, Takayuki

    2011-07-18

    A styrylquinoline dye with a dipicolylamine (DPA) moiety (1) has been synthesized. The dye 1 in acetonitrile demonstrates multicolor fluorescence upon addition of different metal cations. Compound 1 shows a green fluorescence without cations. Coordination of 1 with Cd(2+) shows a blue emission, while with Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) exhibits yellow and orange emissions, respectively. The different fluorescence spectra are due to the change in intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) properties of 1 upon coordination with different cations. The DPA and quinoline moieties of 1 behave as the electron donor and acceptor units, respectively, and both units act as the coordination site for metal cations. Cd(2+) coordinates with the DPA unit. This reduces the donor ability of the unit and decreases the energy level of HOMO. This results in an increase in HOMO-LUMO gap and blue shifts the emission. Hg(2+) or Pb(2+) coordinate with both DPA and quinoline units. The coordination with the quinoline unit decreases the energy level of LUMO. This results in a decrease in HOMO-LUMO gap and red shifts the emission. Addition of two different metal cations successfully creates intermediate colors; in particular, the addition of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) at once creates a bright white fluorescence. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Comparative study of charge division in substituted benzene cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang Taek; Sung, Jiha; Lee, Kwang Jun; Kim, Hyung Min; Han, Kyu Young; Park, Young Dong; Kim, Seong Keun

    2007-06-01

    A recently proposed phenomenon of charge division in a molecular cation [K. T. Lee et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 2588 (2007)] was examined in a number of molecules by experiment and theory. We investigated the spatial distribution of electrostatic charge in the cation of the following benzene derivatives: n-propylbenzene (PB), 3-phenylpropionic acid (PPA), 2-phenylethyl alcohol (PEAL), and 2-phenylethylamine (PEA). A density functional theory calculation indicated that the positive charge was divided into two cationic charge cores in both conformers of PEA+, while it is localized mainly on the phenyl group in PB+, PPA+, and PEAL+. This finding was experimentally verified by the characteristic range of electronic transition of these species reflected in the fragmentation pattern of the mass spectra. The degree of charge division in PEA+ was slightly less than in the cationic conformers of L-phenylalanine in its subgroup II. The charge distribution in a phenyl-containing cation is suggested to depend on whether there exists a functional group that can act as a competing charge core against the phenyl ring.

  3. Cation Binding to Xanthorhodopsin: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Magnetic Studies.

    PubMed

    Smolensky Koganov, Elena; Leitus, Gregory; Rozin, Rinat; Weiner, Lev; Friedman, Noga; Sheves, Mordechai

    2017-05-04

    Xanthorhodopsin (xR) is a member of the retinal protein family and acts as a proton pump in the cell membranes of the extremely halophilic eubacterium Salinibacter ruber. In addition to the retinal chromophore, xR contains a carotenoid, which acts as a light-harvesting antenna as it transfers 40% of the quanta it absorbs to the retinal. Our previous studies have shown that the CD and absorption spectra of xR are dramatically affected due to the protonation of two different residues. It is still unclear whether xR can bind cations. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy used in the present study revealed that xR can bind divalent cations, such as Mn 2+ and Ca 2+ , to deionized xR (DI-xR). We also demonstrate that xR can bind 1 equiv of Mn 2+ to a high-affinity binding site followed by binding of ∼40 equiv in cooperative manner and ∼100 equiv of Mn 2+ that are weakly bound. SQUID magnetic studies suggest that the high cooperative binding of Mn 2+ cations to xR is due to the formation of Mn 2+ clusters. Our data demonstrate that Ca 2+ cations bind to DI-xR with a lower affinity than Mn 2+ , supporting the assumption that binding of Mn 2+ occurs through cluster formation, because Ca 2+ cations cannot form clusters in contrast to Mn 2+ .

  4. Cation-enhanced capillary electrophoresis separation of atropoisomer anions.

    PubMed

    Na, Yun-Cheol; Berthod, Alain; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2015-12-01

    CE was used to study the separation of the atropoisomers of four phosphoric acids and two sulfonic acids and the enantiomers of two phosphoric acids. All solutes are in their anionic forms in aqueous electrolytes. The chiral additives were two hydroxypropyl cyclodextrins (CDs) and cyclofructan 6 (CF6). The CDs were able to separate four solutes and the CF6 additive could separate only one: 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diyl hydrogenphosphate (BHP). Since CF6 is able to bind with cations, nitrate of alkaline metals, Ba(2+) , and Pb(2+) were added, greatly improving the BHP separation at the expense of longer migration times. There seems to be a link between CF6-cation-binding constants and BHP resolution factors. Cation additions were also performed with CD selectors that are less prone to form complexes with cations. Significant improvements of enantiomer or atropoisomer separations were observed also associated with longer migration times. It is speculated that the anionic solutes associate with the added cations forming larger entities better differentiated by CDs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. What Hinders Electron Transfer Dissociation (ETD) of DNA Cations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hari, Yvonne; Leumann, Christian J.; Schürch, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Radical activation methods, such as electron transfer dissociation (ETD), produce structural information complementary to collision-induced dissociation. Herein, electron transfer dissociation of 3-fold protonated DNA hexamers was studied to gain insight into the fragmentation mechanism. The fragmentation patterns of a large set of DNA hexamers confirm cytosine as the primary target of electron transfer. The reported data reveal backbone cleavage by internal electron transfer from the nucleobase to the phosphate linker leading either to a•/ w or d/ z• ion pairs. This reaction pathway contrasts with previous findings on the dissociation processes after electron capture by DNA cations, suggesting multiple, parallel dissociation channels. However, all these channels merely result in partial fragmentation of the precursor ion because the charge-reduced DNA radical cations are quite stable. Two hypotheses are put forward to explain the low dissociation yield of DNA radical cations: it is either attributed to non-covalent interactions between complementary fragments or to the stabilization of the unpaired electron in stacked nucleobases. MS3 experiments suggest that the charge-reduced species is the intact oligonucleotide. Moreover, introducing abasic sites significantly increases the dissociation yield of DNA cations. Consequently, the stabilization of the unpaired electron by π-π-stacking provides an appropriate rationale for the high intensity of DNA radical cations after electron transfer. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Cation Substitution in Earth-Abundant Kesterite Photovoltaic Materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Dongxiao; Li, Xiuling; Zeng, Yu; Zhang, Yi

    2018-04-01

    As a promising candidate for low-cost and environmentally friendly thin-film photovoltaics, the emerging kesterite-based Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 (CZTSSe) solar cells have experienced rapid advances over the past decade. However, the record efficiency of CZTSSe solar cells (12.6%) is still significantly lower than those of its predecessors Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cells. This record has remained for several years. The main obstacle for this stagnation is unanimously attributed to the large open-circuit voltage ( V OC ) deficit. In addition to cation disordering and the associated band tailing, unpassivated interface defects and undesirable energy band alignment are two other culprits that account for the large V OC deficit in kesterite solar cells. To capture the great potential of kesterite solar cells as prospective earth-abundant photovoltaic technology, current research focuses on cation substitution for CZTSSe-based materials. The aim here is to examine recent efforts to overcome the V OC limit of kesterite solar cells by cation substitution and to further illuminate several emerging prospective strategies, including: i) suppressing the cation disordering by distant isoelectronic cation substitution, ii) optimizing the junction band alignment and constructing a graded bandgap in absorber, and iii) engineering the interface defects and enhancing the junction band bending.

  7. Cation Substitution in Earth‐Abundant Kesterite Photovoltaic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Dongxiao; Li, Xiuling; Zeng, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Abstract As a promising candidate for low‐cost and environmentally friendly thin‐film photovoltaics, the emerging kesterite‐based Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells have experienced rapid advances over the past decade. However, the record efficiency of CZTSSe solar cells (12.6%) is still significantly lower than those of its predecessors Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe thin‐film solar cells. This record has remained for several years. The main obstacle for this stagnation is unanimously attributed to the large open‐circuit voltage (V OC) deficit. In addition to cation disordering and the associated band tailing, unpassivated interface defects and undesirable energy band alignment are two other culprits that account for the large V OC deficit in kesterite solar cells. To capture the great potential of kesterite solar cells as prospective earth‐abundant photovoltaic technology, current research focuses on cation substitution for CZTSSe‐based materials. The aim here is to examine recent efforts to overcome the V OC limit of kesterite solar cells by cation substitution and to further illuminate several emerging prospective strategies, including: i) suppressing the cation disordering by distant isoelectronic cation substitution, ii) optimizing the junction band alignment and constructing a graded bandgap in absorber, and iii) engineering the interface defects and enhancing the junction band bending. PMID:29721421

  8. [Monthly dynamics and distribution of major cations in Iris lactea].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Guo, Ji-Xun; Cui, Xi-Yan; Han, De-Fu

    2008-06-01

    The study on the monthly absorption, transportation, and distribution of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in Iris lactea under saline-alkali field conditions showed that the contents of test cations in I. lactea varied with months. After June, the cations contents in plant increased with growth. Root Ca2+ and Na+ contents were the highest in July, being 2.30% and 0.51%, respectively, while root K+ and Mg2+ contents were the highest in September (0.27%) and October (0.28%), respectively. Leaf Na+ content was the highest in July (0.57%), while leaf K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents were the highest in August, being 1.30%, 2.69% and 0.47%, respectively. In July and August, the selective absorption (SA) of K+ was higher than that of Na+, while the selective transport (ST) was in adverse. The cations contents in I. lactea were significantly higher than those in soil, suggesting that I. lactea had high accumulation capacity to these cations. The cations were mainly accumulated in the 0-30 cm aboveground part and 0-40 cm underground part of I. lactea, and the average contents of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in aboveground part were 9.11, 4.07, 0.98 and 2.27 times of those in underground part, respectively.

  9. In situ remediation process using divalent metal cations

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Patrick V.; Khandaker, Nadim R.; Krumhansl, James L.; Teter, David M.

    2004-12-14

    An in situ process for treating ambient solid materials (e.g., soils, aquifer solids, sludges) by adding one or more divalent metal cations to the ambient solid material. The added divalent metal cations, such as Cu.sup.2+ or Zn.sup.2+, combine with metal oxide/hydroxides (e.g., ferric oxide/hydroxide or aluminum oxide/hydroxide) already present in the ambient solid material to form an effective sorbent material having a large number of positively-charged surface complexes that binds and immobilizes anionic contaminant species (e.g., arsenic or chromate). Divalent metal cations can be added, for example, by injecting an aqueous solution of CuSO.sub.4 into an aquifer contaminated with arsenic or chromate. Also, sludges can be stabilized against leaching of anionic contaminants through the addition of divalent metal cations. Also, an inexpensive sorbent material can be easily formed by mixing divalent metal cations with soil that has been removed from the ground.

  10. Cationic uremic toxins affect human renal proximal tubule cell functioning through interaction with the organic cation transporter.

    PubMed

    Schophuizen, Carolien M S; Wilmer, Martijn J; Jansen, Jitske; Gustavsson, Lena; Hilgendorf, Constanze; Hoenderop, Joost G J; van den Heuvel, Lambert P; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2013-12-01

    Several organic cations, such as guanidino compounds and polyamines, have been found to accumulate in plasma of patients with kidney failure due to inadequate renal clearance. Here, we studied the interaction of cationic uremic toxins with renal organic cation transport in a conditionally immortalized human proximal tubule epithelial cell line (ciPTEC). Transporter activity was measured and validated in cell suspensions by studying uptake of the fluorescent substrate 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium-iodide (ASP(+)). Subsequently, the inhibitory potencies of the cationic uremic toxins, cadaverine, putrescine, spermine and spermidine (polyamines), acrolein (polyamine breakdown product), guanidine, and methylguanidine (guanidino compounds) were determined. Concentration-dependent inhibition of ASP(+) uptake by TPA, cimetidine, quinidine, and metformin confirmed functional endogenous organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) expression in ciPTEC. All uremic toxins tested inhibited ASP(+) uptake, of which acrolein required the lowest concentration to provoke a half-maximal inhibition (IC50 = 44 ± 2 μM). A Dixon plot was constructed for acrolein using three independent inhibition curves with 10, 20, or 30 μM ASP(+), which demonstrated competitive or mixed type of interaction (K i = 93 ± 16 μM). Exposing the cells to a mixture of cationic uremic toxins resulted in a more potent and biphasic inhibitory response curve, indicating complex interactions between the toxins and ASP(+) uptake. In conclusion, ciPTEC proves a suitable model to study cationic xenobiotic interactions. Inhibition of cellular uptake transport was demonstrated for several uremic toxins, which might indicate a possible role in kidney disease progression during uremia.

  11. Accurately tuning the charge on giant polyoxometalate type Keplerates through stoichiometric interaction with cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Melissa L; Patel, Komal G; Liu, Tianbo

    2009-07-07

    We report an approach of exploring the interaction between cationic surfactants and a type of structurally well-defined, spherical "Keplerate" polyoxometalate (POM) macroanionic molecular clusters, {Mo72V30}, in aqueous solution. The effectiveness of the interaction can be determined by monitoring the size change of the "blackberry" supramolecular structures formed by the self-assembly of {Mo72V30} macroions, which is determined by the effective charge density on the macroions. Long-chain surfactants (CTAB and CTAT) can interact with {Mo72V30} macroions stoichiometrically and lower their charge density. Consequently, the blackberry size decreases continuously with increasing surfactant concentration in solution. On the other hand, for short-chain surfactants (e.g., OTAB), a larger fraction of surfactants exist as discrete chains in solution and do not strongly interact with the macroions. This approach shows that a controllable amount of suitable surfactants can accurately tune the charge on large molecular clusters.

  12. Selective interactions of trivalent cations Fe³⁺, Al³⁺ and Cr³⁺ turn on fluorescence in a naphthalimide based single molecular probe.

    PubMed

    Janakipriya, Subramaniyan; Chereddy, Narendra Reddy; Korrapati, Purnasai; Thennarasu, Sathiah; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2016-01-15

    Synthesis and fluorescence turn-on behavior of a naphthalimide based probe is described. Selective interactions of trivalent cations Fe(3+), Al(3+) or Cr(3+) with probe 1 inhibit the PET operating in the probe, and thereby, permit the detection of these trivalent cations present in aqueous samples and live cells. Failure of other trivalent cations (Eu(3+), Gd(3+) and Nb(3+)) to inhibit the PET process in 1 demonstrates the role of chelating ring size vis-à-vis ionic radius in the selective recognition of specific metal ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydration of cations: a key to understanding of specific cation effects on aggregation behaviors of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Jacob C; Wu, Tsung-yu; Zhang, Yanjie

    2013-09-05

    This work reports results from the interactions of a series of monovalent and divalent cations with a triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO). Phase transition temperatures of the polymer in the presence of chloride salts with six monovalent and eight divalent cations were measured using an automated melting point apparatus. The polymer undergoes a two-step phase transition, consisting of micellization of the polymer followed by aggregation of the micelles, in the presence of all the salts studied herein. The results suggest that hydration of cations plays a key role in determining the interactions between the cations and the polymer. The modulation of the phase transition temperature of the polymer by cations can be explained as a balance between three interactions: direct binding of cations to the oxygen in the polymer chains, cations sharing one water molecule with the polymer in their hydration layer, and cations interacting with the polymer via two water molecules. Monovalent cations Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) do not bind to the polymer, while Li(+) and NH4(+) and all the divalent cations investigated including Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) bind to the polymer. The effects of the cations correlate well with their hydration thermodynamic properties. Mechanisms for cation-polymer interactions are discussed.

  14. Targeted Antiangiogenesis Gene Therapy Using Targeted Cationic Microbubbles Conjugated with CD105 Antibody Compared with Untargeted Cationic and Neutral Microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Gu, Haitao; Xu, Yan; Li, Fan; Kuang, Shaojing; Wang, Zhigang; Zhou, Xiyuan; Ma, Huafeng; Li, Pan; Zheng, Yuanyi; Ran, Haitao; Jian, Jia; Zhao, Yajing; Song, Weixiang; Wang, Qiushi; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop targeted cationic microbubbles conjugated with a CD105 antibody (CMB105) for use in targeted vascular endothelial cell gene therapy and ultrasound imaging. We compared the results with untargeted cationic microbubbles (CMB) and neutral microbubbles (NMB). Methods CMB105 were prepared and compared with untargeted CMB and NMB. First, the microbubbles were characterized in terms of size, zeta-potential, antibody binding ability and plasmid DNA loading capacity. A tumor model of subcutaneous breast cancer in nude mice was used for our experiments. The ability of different types of microbubbles to target HUVECs in vitro and tumor neovascularization in vivo was measured. The endostatin gene was selected for its outstanding antiangiogenesis effect. For in vitro experiments, the transfection efficiency and cell cycle were analyzed using flow cytometry, and the transcription and expression of endostatin were measured by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Vascular tube cavity formation and tumor cell invasion were used to evaluate the antiangiogenesis gene therapy efficiency in vitro. Tumors were exposed to ultrasound irradiation with different types of microbubbles, and the gene therapy effects were investigated by detecting apoptosis induction and changes in tumor volume. Results CMB105 and CMB differed significantly from NMB in terms of zeta-potential, and the DNA loading capacities were 16.76±1.75 μg, 18.21±1.22 μg, and 0.48±0.04 μg per 5×108 microbubbles, respectively. The charge coupling of plasmid DNA to CMB105 was not affected by the presence of the CD105 antibody. Both CMB105 and CMB could target to HUVECs in vitro, whereas only CMB105 could target to tumor neovascularization in vivo. In in vitro experiments, the transfection efficiency of CMB105 was 24.7-fold higher than the transfection efficiency of NMB and 1.47-fold higher than the transfection efficiency of CMB (P<0.05). With ultrasound-targeted microbubble

  15. Targeted antiangiogenesis gene therapy using targeted cationic microbubbles conjugated with CD105 antibody compared with untargeted cationic and neutral microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Gu, Haitao; Xu, Yan; Li, Fan; Kuang, Shaojing; Wang, Zhigang; Zhou, Xiyuan; Ma, Huafeng; Li, Pan; Zheng, Yuanyi; Ran, Haitao; Jian, Jia; Zhao, Yajing; Song, Weixiang; Wang, Qiushi; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop targeted cationic microbubbles conjugated with a CD105 antibody (CMB105) for use in targeted vascular endothelial cell gene therapy and ultrasound imaging. We compared the results with untargeted cationic microbubbles (CMB) and neutral microbubbles (NMB). CMB105 were prepared and compared with untargeted CMB and NMB. First, the microbubbles were characterized in terms of size, zeta-potential, antibody binding ability and plasmid DNA loading capacity. A tumor model of subcutaneous breast cancer in nude mice was used for our experiments. The ability of different types of microbubbles to target HUVECs in vitro and tumor neovascularization in vivo was measured. The endostatin gene was selected for its outstanding antiangiogenesis effect. For in vitro experiments, the transfection efficiency and cell cycle were analyzed using flow cytometry, and the transcription and expression of endostatin were measured by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Vascular tube cavity formation and tumor cell invasion were used to evaluate the antiangiogenesis gene therapy efficiency in vitro. Tumors were exposed to ultrasound irradiation with different types of microbubbles, and the gene therapy effects were investigated by detecting apoptosis induction and changes in tumor volume. CMB105 and CMB differed significantly from NMB in terms of zeta-potential, and the DNA loading capacities were 16.76±1.75 μg, 18.21±1.22 μg, and 0.48±0.04 μg per 5×10(8) microbubbles, respectively. The charge coupling of plasmid DNA to CMB105 was not affected by the presence of the CD105 antibody. Both CMB105 and CMB could target to HUVECs in vitro, whereas only CMB105 could target to tumor neovascularization in vivo. In in vitro experiments, the transfection efficiency of CMB105 was 24.7-fold higher than the transfection efficiency of NMB and 1.47-fold higher than the transfection efficiency of CMB (P<0.05). With ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD

  16. Complexation as an approach to entrap cationic drugs into cationic nanoparticles administered intranasally for Alzheimer's disease management: preparation and detection in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hanafy, Amira S; Farid, Ragwa M; ElGamal, Safaa S

    2015-01-01

    Complexation was investigated as an approach to enhance the entrapment of the cationic neurotherapeutic drug, galantamine hydrobromide (GH) into cationic chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) for Alzheimer's disease management intranasally. Biodegradable CS-NPs were selected due to their low production cost and simple preparation. The effects of complexation on CS-NPs physicochemical properties and uptake in rat brain were examined. Placebo CS-NPs were prepared by ionic gelation, and the parameters affecting their physicochemical properties were screened. The complex formed between GH and chitosan was detected by the FT-IR study. GH/chitosan complex nanoparticles (GH-CX-NPs) were prepared by ionic gelation, and characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release and stability for 4 and 25 °C for 3 months. Both placebo CS-NPs and GH-CX-NPs were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Rhodamine-labeled GH-CX-NPs were prepared, administered to male Wistar rats intranasally, and their delivery to different brain regions was detected 1 h after administration using fluorescence microscopy and software-aided image processing. Optimized placebo CS-NPs and GH-CX-NPs had a diameter 182 and 190 nm, and a zeta potential of +40.4 and +31.6 mV, respectively. GH encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were 23.34 and 9.86%, respectively. GH/chitosan complexation prolonged GH release (58.07% ± 6.67 after 72 h), improved formulation stability at 4 °C in terms of drug leakage and particle size, and showed insignificant effects on the physicochemical properties of the optimized placebo CS-NPs (p > 0.05). Rhodamine-labeled GH-CX-NPs were detected in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, orbitofrontal and parietal cortices. Complexation is a promising approach to enhance the entrapment of cationic GH into the CS-NPs. It has insignificant effect on the physicochemical properties of CS-NPs. GH-CX-NPs were successfully

  17. All-inorganic Germanium nanocrystal films by cationic ligand exchange

    DOE PAGES

    Wheeler, Lance M.; Nichols, Asa W.; Chernomordik, Boris D.; ...

    2016-01-21

    In this study, we introduce a new paradigm for group IV nanocrystal surface chemistry based on room temperature surface activation that enables ionic ligand exchange. Germanium nanocrystals synthesized in a gas-phase plasma reactor are functionalized with labile, cationic alkylammonium ligands rather than with traditional covalently bound groups. We employ Fourier transform infrared and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies to demonstrate the alkylammonium ligands are freely exchanged on the germanium nanocrystal surface with a variety of cationic ligands, including short inorganic ligands such as ammonium and alkali metal cations. This ionic ligand exchange chemistry is used to demonstrate enhanced transport inmore » germanium nanocrystal films following ligand exchange as well as the first photovoltaic device based on an all-inorganic germanium nanocrystal absorber layer cast from solution. This new ligand chemistry should accelerate progress in utilizing germanium and other group IV nanocrystals for optoelectronic applications.« less

  18. EFFECT OF INORGANIC CATIONS ON BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ANIONIC SURFACTANTS

    PubMed Central

    Voss, J. G.

    1963-01-01

    Voss, J. G. (Procter & Gamble Co., Cincinnati, Ohio). Effect of inorganic cations on bactericidal activity of anionic surfactants. J. Bacteriol. 86:207–211. 1963.—The bactericidal effectiveness of two alkyl benzene sulfonates and of three other types of anionic surfactants against Staphylococcus aureus is increased in the presence of low concentrations of divalent cations, especially alkaline earths and metals of group IIB of the periodic table. The cations may act by decreasing the negative charge at the cell surface and increasing adsorption of the surfactant anions, leading to damage to the cytoplasmic membrane and death of the cell. Increased adsorption of surfactant is also found with Escherichia coli, but does not lead to death of the cell. PMID:14058942

  19. Intracrystalline cation order in a lunar crustal troctolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    Lunar sample 76535 appears to be one of the most slowly cooled bits of silicate material yet studied. It provides, therefore, a unique opportunity for the study of ordering processes in the minerals present. A better understanding of these processes may permit better characterization of the thermal history of this and similar rocks. The cation ordering in the olivine is consistent with terrestrial olivines favoring the interpretation that ordering in olivines increases with increasing temperature. In low bronzite, the deviations from the common orthopyroxene space group appear to be caused by cation order on the basis of four M sites instead of two. The degree of cation order in each of these minerals is consistent with the rock having been excavated from its depth of formation by tectonic or impact processes without being reheated above 300 C.

  20. Comparison contemporary methods of regeneration sodium-cationic filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakov, I. A.; Burakov, A. Y.; Nikitina, I. S.; Verkhovsky, A. E.; Ilyushin, A. S.; Aladushkin, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    Regeneration plays a crucial role in the field of efficient application sodium-cationic filters for softening the water. Traditionally used as regenerant saline NaCl. However, due to the modern development of the energy industry and its close relationship with other industrial and academic sectors the opportunity to use in the regeneration of other solutions. The report estimated data and application possibilities as regenerant solution sodium-cationic filters brine wells a high mineral content, as both primary application and after balneotherapeutic use reverse osmosis and concentrates especially recycled regenerant water repeated. Comparison of the effectiveness of these solutions with the traditional use of NaCl. Developed and tested system for the processing of highly mineralized brines wells after balneological use. Recommendations for use as regeneration solutions for the sodium-cationic unit considered solutions and defined rules of brine for regeneration costs.

  1. Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation on CH Bond Acidity in Cationic Alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Xie, Min; Fujii, Asuka

    2016-06-01

    We have demonstrated large enhancements of CH bond acidities in alcohol, ether, and amine cations through infrared predissociation spectroscopy based on the vacuum ultraviolet photoionization detection. In this study, we investigate for the cationic alkanes (pentane, hexane, and heptane) with different alkyl chain lengths. The σ electrons are ejected in the ionization of alkanes, while nonbonding electrons are ejected in ionization of alcohols, ethers, and amines. Nevertheless, the acidity enhancements of CH in these cationic alkanes have also been demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy. The correlations of their CH bond acidities with the alkyl chain lengths as well as the mechanisms of their acidity enhancements will be discussed by comparison of infrared spectra and theoretical calculations.

  2. Surface hopping investigation of the relaxation dynamics in radical cations

    DOE PAGES

    Assmann, Mariana; Weinacht, Thomas; Matsika, Spiridoula

    2016-01-19

    Ionization processes can lead to the formation of radical cations with population in several ionic states. In this study, we examine the dynamics of three radical cations starting from an excited ionic state using trajectory surface hopping dynamics in combination with multiconfigurational electronic structure methods. The efficiency of relaxation to the ground state is examined in an effort to understand better whether fragmentation of cations is likely to occur directly on excited states or after relaxation to the ground state. The results on cyclohexadiene, hexatriene, and uracil indicate that relaxation to the ground ionic state is very fast in thesemore » systems, while fragmentation before relaxation is rare. Ultrafast relaxation is facilitated by the close proximity of electronic states and the presence of two- and three-state conical intersections. Furthermore, examining the properties of the systems in the Franck-Condon region can give some insight into the subsequent dynamics.« less

  3. Garment sizes in perception of body size.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jintu; Newton, Edward; Lau, Lilian; Liu, Fu

    2003-06-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of the effect of garment size on perceived body size. The perceived body sizes of three Chinese men (thin, medium, and obese build) wearing different sizes of white T-shirts were assessed using Thompson and Gray's 1995 Nine-figural Scale in 1 (thinnest) to 9 (obese) grade and a newly-proposed method. Within the limit of commercially available T-shirt sizes, for thin and medium persons, perceived body sizes are bigger when wearing T-shirts of larger sizes. For an obese person, however, wearing a large size T-shirt tends to make him look thinner. The study also showed that the newly proposed comparative method is more reliable in comparing body size perception but without measuring the magnitude of the change in body-size grade. The figural scale and the comparative method can be complementary.

  4. Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cations. 3; The Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, D. M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Wittebon, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the infrared spectroscopic properties of only a few isolated ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known, gaseous, ionized PAHs are thought to be responsible for a very common family of infrared interstellar emission bands. In order to provide a data base to test this hypothesis and, if borne out, to use this emission band family as a probe of many different interstellar environments, we are carrying out a thorough study of the infrared spectroscopic properties of neutral and ionized PAHs in argon matrices. Here we present the near and mid-infrared spectra of the cations of the five most thermodynamically favored PAHs up to coronene: phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[ghilperylene, and coronene. The properties of naphthalene, the first member of the series, are given elsewhere. The spectra of perdeuterated phenanthrene and pyrene are also reported. For those molecules which have been previously studied (pyrene, d(10)-pyrene, and coronene), band positions and relative intensities are in agreement. In all cases we report additional features. Absolute integrated absorbance values are given for the phenanthrene, perdeutero-phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and coronene cations. With the exception of coronene,the cation bands corresponding to the CC modes are typically 2-5 times more intense than those of the CH out-of-plane bending vibrations. For the cations the CC stretching and CH in-plane bending modes give rise to bands which are an order of magnitude stronger than for the neutral species, and the CH out-of-plane bends produce bands which are 5-20 times weaker than in the neutral species. This behavior is similar to that found in most other PAH cations studied to date. The astronomical implications of these PAH cation spectra are also discussed.

  5. 12. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. AFTER SEGREGATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. AFTER SEGREGATION, PLUTONIUM MATERIALS WERE EITHER RETURNED TO THE BUILDING 776 FOUNDRY WHERE THEY WERE CAST INTO FEED INGOTS, OR UNDERWENT CHEMICAL RECOVERY FOR PURIFICATION. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. 40 CFR 60.2895 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... health or the environment. In considering such alternatives, you may consider costs, energy impacts...) Analyses of your OSWI unit's impacts that are prepared to comply with State, local, or other Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a siting analysis? 60.2895...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2050 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alternatives. (b) Analyses of your CISWI unit's impacts that are prepared to comply with State, local, or other... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a siting analysis? 60.2050 Section 60.2050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4805 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... impacts that are prepared to comply with state, local, or other Federal regulatory requirements may be... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a siting analysis? 60.4805 Section 60.4805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2895 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... health or the environment. In considering such alternatives, you may consider costs, energy impacts...) Analyses of your OSWI unit's impacts that are prepared to comply with State, local, or other Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a siting analysis? 60.2895...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2050 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alternatives. (b) Analyses of your CISWI unit's impacts that are prepared to comply with State, local, or other... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a siting analysis? 60.2050 Section 60.2050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  11. 11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS WERE NUCLEAR WEAPONS SHIPPED TO THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM THE NUCLEAR WEAPON STOCKPILE FOR RETIREMENT, TESTING, OR UPGRADING. FISSILE MATERIALS (PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, ETC.) AND RARE MATERIALS (BERYLLIUM) WERE RECOVERED FOR REUSE, AND THE REMAINDER WAS DISPOSED. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. 40 CFR 60.1115 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a siting analysis? 60.1115 Section 60.1115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... unit affects ambient air quality, visibility, soils, vegetation, and other relevant factors. The...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2050 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Analysis § 60.2050 What is a siting analysis? (a) The siting analysis must consider air pollution control... include the consideration of air pollution control alternatives specified in paragraph (a) of this section... Section 60.2050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4805 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... siting analysis must consider air pollution control alternatives that minimize, on a site-specific basis, to the maximum extent practicable, potential risks to public health or the environment, including... Section 60.4805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2895 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... What is a siting analysis? (a) The siting analysis must consider air pollution control alternatives... consideration of air pollution control alternatives specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) You must... Section 60.2895 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2895 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... What is a siting analysis? (a) The siting analysis must consider air pollution control alternatives... consideration of air pollution control alternatives specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) You must... Section 60.2895 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2895 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... What is a siting analysis? (a) The siting analysis must consider air pollution control alternatives... consideration of air pollution control alternatives specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) You must... Section 60.2895 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4805 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... siting analysis must consider air pollution control alternatives that minimize, on a site-specific basis, to the maximum extent practicable, potential risks to public health or the environment, including... Section 60.4805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4805 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... siting analysis must consider air pollution control alternatives that minimize, on a site-specific basis, to the maximum extent practicable, potential risks to public health or the environment, including... Section 60.4805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2050 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...? (a) The siting analysis must consider air pollution control alternatives that minimize, on a site... air pollution control alternatives specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) You must complete... Section 60.2050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2050 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...? (a) The siting analysis must consider air pollution control alternatives that minimize, on a site... air pollution control alternatives specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) You must complete... Section 60.2050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1115 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999 or for Which... § 60.1115 What is a siting analysis? The siting analysis addresses how your municipal waste combustion... environmental and social costs resulting from its location and construction. The analysis must also consider...

  3. Determinants of cation transport selectivity: Equilibrium binding and transport kinetics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of channels and transporters reveal the chemical nature of ion-binding sites and, thereby, constrain mechanistic models for their transport processes. However, these structures, in and of themselves, do not reveal equilibrium selectivity or transport preferences, which can be discerned only from various functional assays. In this Review, I explore the relationship between cation transport protein structures, equilibrium binding measurements, and ion transport selectivity. The primary focus is on K+-selective channels and nonselective cation channels because they have been extensively studied both functionally and structurally, but the principles discussed are relevant to other transport proteins and molecules. PMID:26078056

  4. Triphenylphosphonium cation: a valuable functional group for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Bresolí-Obach, Roger; Gispert, Ignacio; García Peña, Diego; Boga, Sonia; Gulias, Óscar; Agut, Montserrat; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Nonell, Santi

    2018-06-08

    Light-mediated killing of pathogens by cationic photosensitisers is a promising antimicrobial approach that avoids the development of resistance inherent to the use of antimicrobials. In this study, we demonstrate that modification of different photosensitisers with the triphenylphosphonium cation yields derivatives with excellent photoantimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (i.e., S. aureus and E. faecalis). Thus, the triphenylphosphonium functional group should be considered for the development of photoantimicrobials for the selective killing of Gram-positive bacteria in the presence of Gram-negative species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effect of univalent cations on the glutamate dehydrogenase of chlorella].

    PubMed

    Shatilov, V R; Kasparova, M A; Kretovich, V L

    1976-09-01

    Effect of univalent cations (Li+, K+, Na+ and Cs+) on the activity and some kinetic properties of the constitutive and the inducible glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH) of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Pringsheim 82T has been studied. All the cations used activate the inducible GDH and produced no such effect on the constitutive GDH. From the analysis of the kinetic behaviour in the presence of K+ the conclusion was made that K+ promotes and stabilyzes a catalitically advantagenous conformation of the inducible GDH. This phenomenon appears to have a physiological meaning, because of a higher K+ concentration in Chlorella cells (about 0.1 M) and its important role in metabolism.

  6. Hydrogen-bond rich ionic liquids with hydroxyl cationic tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Li; Shi, Rui; Wang, Yanting; Ou-Yang, Zhong-Can

    2013-02-01

    To investigate if the amphiphilic feature exhibited in ionic liquids (ILs) with nonpolar cationic tails still exists in ILs with polar tails, by performing molecular dynamics simulations for 1-(8-hydroxyoctyl)-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate (COH) and 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate (C8), we found that, in COH, cationic tail groups can no longer aggregate to form separated nonpolar tail domains, instead hydroxyl groups form a rich number of hydrogen bonds with other groups, indicating that the hydroxyl substituent changes the IL system from an amphiphilic liquid to a polar liquid. Due to the large amount of hydrogen bonds, COH has slower dynamics than C8.

  7. Cations in component reactions of `malic' enzyme catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, C. S.; Tsai, Y. H.; Samad, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    The `malic' enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40) has been purified (300-fold) from wheat germ and its abilities to catalyse the decarboxylation and the hydrogenation of oxaloacetic acid and oxaloacetate esters was studied. The free 1-carboxyl group is essential for the interaction of oxaloacetates and substituted oxaloacetates with the enzyme via cations. The free 4-carboxyl group is required for the decarboxylation but is not indispensable for the hydrogenation. At high concentrations, cations inhibit the enzymic hydrogenation of oxaloacetic acid but not that of 4-ethyl oxaloacetate. A plausible inhibitory mechanism is proposed. PMID:4399519

  8. Mutations in M2 alter the selectivity of the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for organic and alkali metal cations

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We measured the permeability ratios (PX/PNa) of 3 wild-type, 1 hybrid, 2 subunit-deficient, and 22 mutant nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes for alkali metal and organic cations using shifts in the bi-ionic reversal potential of the macroscopic current. Mutations at three positions (2', 6', 10') in M2 affected ion selectivity. Mutations at position 2' (alpha Thr244, beta Gly255, gamma Thr253, delta Ser258) near the intracellular end of M2 changed the organic cation permeability ratios as much as twofold and reduced PCs/PNa and PK/PNa by 16-18%. Mutations at positions 6' and 10' increased the glycine ethyl ester/Na+ and glycine methyl ester/Na+ permeability ratios. Two subunit alterations also affected selectivity: omission of the delta subunit reduced PCs/PNa by 16%, and substitution of Xenopus delta for mouse delta increased Pguanidinium/PNa more than twofold and reduced PCs/PNa by 34% and PLi/PNa by 20%. The wild-type mouse receptor displayed a surprising interaction with the primary ammonium cations; relative permeability peaked at a chain length equal to four carbons. Analysis of the organic permeability ratios for the wild-type mouse receptor shows that (a) the diameter of the narrowest part of the pore is 8.4 A; (b) the mouse receptor departs significantly from size selectivity for monovalent organic cations; and (c) lowering the temperature reduces Pguanidinium/PNa by 38% and Pbutylammonium/PNa more than twofold. The results reinforce present views that positions -1' and 2' are the narrowest part of the pore and suggest that positions 6' and 10' align some permeant organic cations in the pore in an interaction similar to that with channel blocker, QX-222. PMID:1431803

  9. Interplay of bonding and geometry of the adsorption complexes of light alkanes within cationic faujasites. Combined spectroscopic and computational study.

    PubMed

    Pidko, Evgeny A; Xu, Jiang; Mojet, Barbara L; Lefferts, Leon; Subbotina, Irina R; Kazansky, Vladimir B; van Santen, Rutger A

    2006-11-16

    A FT-IR spectroscopic study of methane, ethane, and propane adsorption on magnesium and calcium forms of zeolite Y reveals different vibrational properties of the adsorbed molecules depending on the exchanged cation. This is attributed to different adsorption conformations of the hydrocarbons. Two-fold eta(2) coordination of light alkanes is realized for MgY, whereas in case of CaY zeolite quite different adsorption modes are found, involving more C-H bonds in the interaction with the cation. The topological analysis of the electron density distribution function of the adsorption complexes shows that when a hydrocarbon coordinates to the exchanged Mg(2+) ions, van der Waals bonds between H atoms of the alkane and basic zeolitic oxygens significantly contribute to the overall adsorption energy, whereas in case of CaY zeolite such interactions play only an indirect role. It is found that, due to the much smaller ionic radius of the Mg(2+) ion as compared to that of Ca(2+), the former ions are significantly shielded with the surrounding oxygens of the zeolitic cation site. This results in a small electrostatic contribution to the stabilization of the adsorbed molecules. In contrast, for CaY zeolite the stabilization of alkanes in the electrostatic field of the partially shielded Ca(2+) cation significantly contributes to the adsorption energy. This is in agreement with the experimentally observed lower overall absorption of C-H stretching vibrations of alkanes loaded to MgY as compared to those for CaY zeolite. The preferred conformation of the adsorbed alkanes is controlled by the bonding within the adsorption complexes that, in turn, strongly depends on the size and location of the cations in the zeolite cavity.

  10. Sorption of chlorophenols on microporous minerals: mechanism and influence of metal cations, solution pH, and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-10-01

    Sorption of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) on a range of dealuminated zeolites were investigated to understand the mechanism of their sorption on microporous minerals, while the influence of common metal cations, solution pH, and humic acid was also studied. Sorption of chlorophenols was found to increase with the hydrophobicity of the sorbates and that of the microporous minerals, indicating the important role of hydrophobic interactions, while sorption was also stronger in the micropores of narrower sizes because of greater enhancement of the dispersion interactions. The presence of metal cations could enhance chlorophenol sorption due to the additional electrostatic attraction between metal cations exchanged into the mineral micropores and the chlorophenolates, and this effect was apparent on the mineral sorbent with a high density of surface cations (2.62 sites/nm(2)) in its micropores. Under circum-neutral or acidic conditions, neutral chlorophenol molecules adsorbed into the hydrophobic micropores through displacing the "loosely bound" water molecules, while their sorption was negligible under moderately alkaline conditions due to electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged zeolite framework and anionic chlorophenolates. The influence of humic acid on sorption of chlorophenols on dealuminated Y zeolites suggests that its molecules did not block the micropores but created a secondary sorption sites by forming a "coating layer" on the external surface of the zeolites. These mechanistic insights could help better understand the interactions of ionizable chlorophenols and metal cations in mineral micropores and guide the selection and design of reusable microporous mineral sorbents for sorptive removal of chlorophenols from aqueous stream.

  11. Effect of kinetic energy on the doping efficiency of cesium cations into superfluid helium droplets

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the effect of kinetic energy on the ion doping efficiency of superfluid helium droplets using cesium cations from a thermionic emission source. The kinetic energy of Cs+ is controlled by the bias voltage of a collection grid collinearly arranged with the droplet beam. Efficient doping from ions with kinetic energies from 20 eV up to 480 V has been observed in different sized helium droplets. The relative ion doping efficiency is determined by both the kinetic energy of the ions and the average size of the droplet beam. At a fixed source temperature, the number of doped droplets increases with increasing grid voltage, while the relative ion doping efficiency decreases. This result implies that not all ions are captured upon encountering with a sufficiently large droplet, a deviation from the near unity doping efficiency for closed shell neutral molecules. We propose that this drop in ion doping efficiency with kinetic energy is related to the limited deceleration rate inside a helium droplet. When the source temperature changes from 14 K to 17 K, the relative ion doping efficiency decreases rapidly, perhaps due to the lack of viable sized droplets. The size distribution of the Cs+-doped droplet beam can be measured by deflection and by energy filtering. The observed doped droplet size is about 5 × 106 helium atoms when the source temperature is between 14 K and 17 K. PMID:26233132

  12. Effect of kinetic energy on the doping efficiency of cesium cations into superfluid helium droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Freund, William M.

    We present an experimental investigation of the effect of kinetic energy on the ion doping efficiency of superfluid helium droplets using cesium cations from a thermionic emission source. The kinetic energy of Cs{sup +} is controlled by the bias voltage of a collection grid collinearly arranged with the droplet beam. Efficient doping from ions with kinetic energies from 20 eV up to 480 V has been observed in different sized helium droplets. The relative ion doping efficiency is determined by both the kinetic energy of the ions and the average size of the droplet beam. At a fixed source temperature,more » the number of doped droplets increases with increasing grid voltage, while the relative ion doping efficiency decreases. This result implies that not all ions are captured upon encountering with a sufficiently large droplet, a deviation from the near unity doping efficiency for closed shell neutral molecules. We propose that this drop in ion doping efficiency with kinetic energy is related to the limited deceleration rate inside a helium droplet. When the source temperature changes from 14 K to 17 K, the relative ion doping efficiency decreases rapidly, perhaps due to the lack of viable sized droplets. The size distribution of the Cs{sup +}-doped droplet beam can be measured by deflection and by energy filtering. The observed doped droplet size is about 5 × 10{sup 6} helium atoms when the source temperature is between 14 K and 17 K.« less

  13. Effect of kinetic energy on the doping efficiency of cesium cations into superfluid helium droplets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Freund, William M; Kong, Wei

    2015-07-28

    We present an experimental investigation of the effect of kinetic energy on the ion doping efficiency of superfluid helium droplets using cesium cations from a thermionic emission source. The kinetic energy of Cs(+) is controlled by the bias voltage of a collection grid collinearly arranged with the droplet beam. Efficient doping from ions with kinetic energies from 20 eV up to 480 V has been observed in different sized helium droplets. The relative ion doping efficiency is determined by both the kinetic energy of the ions and the average size of the droplet beam. At a fixed source temperature, the number of doped droplets increases with increasing grid voltage, while the relative ion doping efficiency decreases. This result implies that not all ions are captured upon encountering with a sufficiently large droplet, a deviation from the near unity doping efficiency for closed shell neutral molecules. We propose that this drop in ion doping efficiency with kinetic energy is related to the limited deceleration rate inside a helium droplet. When the source temperature changes from 14 K to 17 K, the relative ion doping efficiency decreases rapidly, perhaps due to the lack of viable sized droplets. The size distribution of the Cs(+)-doped droplet beam can be measured by deflection and by energy filtering. The observed doped droplet size is about 5 × 10(6) helium atoms when the source temperature is between 14 K and 17 K.

  14. Effect of alterations in glomerular charge on deposition of cationic and anionic antibodies to fixed glomerular antigens in the rat.

    PubMed

    Adler, S; Baker, P; Pritzl, P; Couser, W G

    1985-07-01

    Reduction of the negative charge of the glomerular capillary wall alters its charge- and size-selective properties. To investigate the effect of alteration in glomerular charge properties on antibody localization, we prepared cationic and anionic fractions of antibodies to subepithelial and glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antigens, and compared their deposition in normal rats and rats treated with protamine sulfate or aminonucleoside of puromycin to reduce capillary wall charge. IgG antibodies were eluted from kidneys of rats with active Heymann's nephritis (AICN), passive Heymann's nephritis (PHN), or anti-GBM nephritis (NTN), separated into cationic and anionic fractions, and radiolabeled with iodine 125 or iodine 131. Relative antibody content of each fraction was determined by incubation with an excess of glomerular antigen. Varying amounts of cationic and anionic IgG eluted from kidneys of rats with AICN or PHN were injected into 24 normal or protamine sulfate-treated rats. Glomerular binding of all antibodies was highly correlated with IgG delivery to the kidney. The ratio of cationic to anionic antibody deposited in the glomeruli of normal rats after 4 hours was 1.08 +/- 0.07 for AICN eluate and 0.37 +/- 0.04 for PHN eluate. The ratios were not significantly different in animals pretreated with protamine sulfate (1.15 +/- 0.06 and 0.44 +/- 0.06, respectively; P greater than 0.05). Varying amounts of cationic and anionic IgG eluted from kidneys of rats with NTN were injected into 10 normal rats and four rats treated with aminonucleoside of puromycin. Glomerular binding of antibody was again highly correlated with IgG delivery to the kidney. The ratio of cationic to anionic antibody deposited in the glomeruli of normal rats after 1 hour was 1.03 +/- 0.06, and was not significantly altered in rats treated with aminonucleoside of puromycin (1.05 +/- 0.03, P greater than 0.5). Proteinuria in PHN rats was also unaffected by treatment with protamine sulfate for

  15. Differential Cationization of Fatty Acids with Monovalent Cations Studied by ESI-MS/MS and Computational Approach.

    PubMed

    Sudarshana Reddy, B; Pavankumar, P; Sridhar, L; Saha, Soumen; Narahari Sastry, G; Prabhakar, S

    2018-04-24

    The intercellular and intracellular transport of charged species (Na + /K + ) entail interaction of the ions with neutral organic molecules and formation of adduct ions. The rate of transport of the ions across the cell membrane(s) may depend on the stability of the adduct ions, which in turn rely on structural aspects of the organic molecules that interact with the ions. Positive ion ESI mass spectra were recorded for the solutions containing fatty acids (FAs) and monovalent cations (X=Li + , Na + , K + , Rb + and Cs + ). Product ion spectra of the [FA+X] + ions were recorded at different collision energies. Theoretical studies were exploited under both gas phase and solvent phase to investigate the structural effects of the fatty acids during cationization. Stability of [FA+X] + adduct ions were further estimated by means of AIM topological analyses and interaction energy (IE) values. Positive ion ESI-MS analyses of the solution of FAs and X + ions showed preferential binding of the K + ions to FAs. The K + ion binding increased with the increase in number of double bonds of FAs, while decreased with increase in the number of carbons of FAs. Dissociation curves of [FA+X] + ions indicated the relative stability order of the [FA+X] + ions and it was in line with the observed trends in ESI-MS. The solvent phase computational studies divulged the mode of binding and the binding efficiencies of different FAs with monovalent cations. Among the studied monovalent cations, the cationization of FAs follow the order K + >Na + >Li + >Rb + >Cs + . The docosahexaenoic acid showed high efficiency in binding with K + ion. The K + ion binding efficiency of FAs depends on the number of double bonds in unsaturated FAs and the carbon chain length in saturated FAs. The cationization trends of FAs obtained from the ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS analyses were in good agreement with solvent phase computational studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Surfactant-free, cationic latices of poly(BMA-co-MMA) using AIBA initiator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Chang

    2013-09-01

    When polymer particles come into use, especially, for photonic crystal applications, their diameter, dispersivity, and refractive indices become very important. Poly(benzyl methacrylate) is known to be a kind of high refracive materials (n = 1.57) compared to poly(methyl methacrylate) (n = 1.49). Not many work was concerned for surfactant-free emulsion polymerization of benzyl methacrylate or its copolymerization using cationic initiators. Narrowly dispersed cationic poly(BMA-co-MMA) and PBMA latices were synthesized successfully by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization with AIBA. The influences of BMA/MMA ratio, BMA/MMA monomer and initiator concentrations, addition of DVB/EGDMA crosslink agent, and polymerization temperature on the kinetics and on the particle size and molecular weight were studied. Monodisperse cationic charged PBMA and poly(BMA-coMMA) latices with particle diameters varying between 160-494 nm and polymer molecular weights of the order 1.25 x 10(4) to 7.55 x 10(4) g/mol were prepared. The rate of polymerization increased with increasing MMA concentration in BMA/MMA ratio, AIBA concentration, DVB crosslink agent, and polymerization temperature. The particle diameter increased with BMA concentration in BMA/MMA ratio, AIBA concentration, and BMA/MMA monomer concentration. The molecular weight increased with BMA concentration in BMA/MMA ratio and BMA/MMA monomer concentration. The glass transition temperature of the latex copolymers decreased with increasing amount of BMA from 375 K for PMMA to 321 K for PBMA. It was, thus, found that the particle diameter and rate of polymerization as well as the polymer molecular weight for surfactant-free emulsion polymerization of BMA and MMA can be controlled easily by controlling the BMA/MMA ratio, BMA/MMA monomer concentration, AIBA concentration, and polymerization temperature.

  17. Mucoadhesive dexamethasone acetate-polymyxin B sulfate cationic ocular nanoemulsion--novel combinatorial formulation concept.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Müller, R H; Keck, C M; Bou-Chacra, N A

    2016-06-01

    Dexamethasone acetate (DEX) and polymyxin B sulfate (polymyxin B) were formulated as a cationic nanoemulsion for the treatment of ophthalmic infections. As novel concept, the positive charge to achieve mucoadhesion was not generated by toxicologically and regulatorily problematic cationic lipids or polymers, but by using a positively charged drug in combination with positively charged preservatives. The preservative also acts as co-surfactant to stabilize the emulsion. Nanoemulsions with the lipid phase Eutanol G-Lipoid S 100 (70%:30%) containing 0.05% (w/w) DEX were produced by high pressure homogenization, followed by dissolving the hydrophilic molecules in the water phase, e.g. polymyxin B (0.1%, w/w), cetylpyridinium chloride (0.01%, w/w) and glycerol (2.6%, w/w) to yield a combination product. The particles were below 200 nm with narrow size distribution. The osmolality (374 mOsm/kg), pH (5.31) and viscosity (2.45 mPa s at 37 degrees C) were compatible to the ocular administration. The zeta potential of the optimized formulation was shifted from approx. +9 mV to -11 mV after mucin incubation. The in vitro test revealed no potential cytotoxicity. The final products were stable after 180 days of storage at 4 degrees C and room temperature. The developed product is a viable alternative to the commercial ophthalmic suspensions. Moreover, this concept of generating the positive charge by cationic drug and/or preservative addition can be transferred to other ophthalmic products.

  18. Flocculation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with Different Phenotypic Traits by Metal Cations and High pH

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianhua; Zheng, Lvhong; Bai, Yunpeng; Saroussi, Shai; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2017-01-01

    Concentrating algal cells by flocculation as a prelude to centrifugation could significantly reduce the energy and cost of harvesting the algae. However, how variation in phenotypic traits such as cell surface features, cell size and motility alter the efficiency of metal cation and pH-induced flocculation is not well understood. Our results demonstrate that both wild-type and cell wall-deficient strains of the green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii efficiently flocculate (>90%) at an elevated pH of the medium (pH 11) upon the addition of divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium (>5 mM). The trivalent ferric cation (at 10 mM) proved to be essential for promoting flocculation under weak alkaline conditions (pH ∼8.5), with a maximum efficiency that exceeded 95 and 85% for wild-type CC1690 and the cell wall-deficient sta6 mutant, respectively. Near complete flocculation could be achieved using a combination of 5 mM calcium and a pH >11, while the medium recovered following cell removal could be re-cycled without affecting algal growth rates. Moreover, the absence of starch in the cell had little overall impact on flocculation efficiency. These findings contribute to our understanding of flocculation in different Chlamydomonas strains and have implications with respect to inexpensive methods for harvesting algae with different phenotypic traits. Additional research on the conditions (e.g., pH and metal ions) used for efficient flocculation of diverse algal groups with diverse characteristics, at both small and large scale, will help establish inexpensive procedures for harvesting cell biomass. PMID:29209355

  19. The contribution of cationic conductances to the potential of rod photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Moriondo, Andrea; Rispoli, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    The contribution of cationic conductances in shaping the rod photovoltage was studied in light adapted cells recorded under whole-cell voltage- or current-clamp conditions. Depolarising current steps (of size comparable to the light-regulated current) produced monotonic responses when the prepulse holding potential (V (h)) was -40 mV (i.e. corresponding to the membrane potential in the dark). At V (h) = -60 mV (simulating the steady-state response to an intense background of light) current injections <35 pA (mimicking a light decrement) produced instead an initial depolarisation that declined to a plateau, and voltage transiently overshot V (h) at the stimulus offset. Current steps >40 pA produced a steady depolarisation to approximately -16 mV at both V (h). The difference between the responses at the two V (h) was primarily generated by the slow delayed-rectifier-like K(+) current (I (Kx)), which therefore strongly affects both the photoresponse rising and falling phase. The steady voltage observed at both V (h) in response to large current injections was instead generated by Ca-activated K(+) channels (I (KCa)), as previously found. Both I (Kx) and I (KCa) oppose the cation influx, occurring at the light stimulus offset through the cGMP-gated channels and the voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels (I (Ca)). This avoids that the cation influx could erratically depolarise the rod past its normal resting value, thus allowing a reliable dim stimuli detection, without slowing down the photovoltage recovery kinetics. The latter kinetics was instead accelerated by the hyperpolarisation-activated, non-selective current (I (h)) and I (Ca). Blockade of all K(+) currents with external TEA unmasked a I (Ca)-dependent regenerative behaviour.

  20. Chemical stability and cytotoxicity of human insulin loaded in cationic DPPC/CTA/DDAB liposomes.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Aranya; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Komno, Chonlada; Manosroi, Worapaka; Werner, Rolf G; Manosoi, Jiradej

    2011-04-01

    Liposomes were prepared from DPPC (dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline) mixed with Chol (cholesterol) and CTA [cholest-5-en-3-ol(3beta)(trimethylammonio) acetate] or DDAB (dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide) at various molar ratios by chloroform film method with sonication. The most physical stable (no sedimentation with an average zeta potential value of 47.7+/-1.44 mV) liposomal formulation (DPPC/CTA/DDAB at 7:2:1 molar ratio) was selected to load with human insulin (0.45 mg/mL) by the freeze dried empty liposomes (FDELs) method with the entrapment efficiency of human insulin of 62.72% (determined by gel filtration). Liposomes were spherical shape with unilamellar structure and an average size of 2.26+/-0.87 microm determined by TEM. The percentages of insulin remaining in liposomes when stored at 4+/-2, 30+/-2 and 45+/-2 degrees C for 4 months were 26.21, 36.86 and 15.75% which were higher than human insulin solution of 6.13, 11.31 and 2.61 times, respectively. The percentages of entrapment of human insulin were 62.72 at initial and at 31.72, 64.10 and 8.10 when kept at 4+/-2, 30+/-2 and 45+/-2 degrees C, respectively, for 4 months. The synthesized cationic lipid, CTA, and the DPPC/Chol/CTA liposomes loaded with human insulin demonstrated no cytotoxicity on normal human skin fibroblast but some cytotoxic effects on mouth epidermal cancer cell line. This study has demonstrated the enhancement of chemical stability of human insulin with no cytotoxicity when loaded this protein in cationic DPPC/CTA/DDAB liposomes. The results indicated the potential application of this cationic liposomal formulation for topical therapeutic use.

  1. Effects of cation contaminants in conductive TiO2 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, M. F.; Rhodes, W. W.

    1982-12-01

    Ten cation contaminants, namely Al, Ga, Co, Fe, Mg, Zn, Zr, Ca, Sr, and Ba were investigated for their effects on the electrical properties, microstructures, and discoloration of conductive TiO2 ceramics. It was found that Al, Ga, Co, Fe, and Mg cause discoloration and increase the electrical resistivity by a factor of 104 to 106 in Nb-doped TiO2 ceramics. The other dopants do not introduce such changes in TiO2. The electrical properties, microstructures, and discoloration were measured in specimens of AlxNb0.007Ti0.993-xO2 with 0≤x≤0.01. When the Al content exceeds a critical value, ranging from 0.48% at 1400 °C to 0.25% at 1200 °C, the electrical resistivities and grain size increase rapidly, and the specimen is discolored from the original black to an ivory white color. Color boundary migration induced by Al diffusion in Nb-doped TiO2 was quantitatively measured. From the kinetics of the boundary migration, the Al diffusivity (D) was calculated to be D=2.67 exp(-53.3 kcal/mole/RT) cm2/s in the temperature range of 1200 to 1400 °C. The rapid diffusion of the small cations, namely Al, Ga, Co, Fe, and Mg, results from an interstitial diffusion mechanism. However, other cations, having a radius larger than the interstitial channel (˜0.77 Å radius), cannot diffuse by this mechanism. Defect reactions are proposed to explain the increase in the electrical resistivity and microstructural changes due to Al diffusion. These defect reactions also show that the problem of acceptor contamination cannot be avoided by adding an excess quantity of donor dopant if the solubility of the donor is much less than that of the acceptor contaminant.

  2. Development of polymeric-cationic peptide composite nanoparticles, a nanoparticle-in-nanoparticle system for controlled gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Jain, Arvind K; Massey, Ashley; Yusuf, Helmy; McDonald, Denise M; McCarthy, Helen O; Kett, Vicky L

    2015-01-01

    We report the formulation of novel composite nanoparticles that combine the high transfection efficiency of cationic peptide-DNA nanoparticles with the biocompatibility and prolonged delivery of polylactic acid-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG). The cationic cell-penetrating peptide RALA was used to condense DNA into nanoparticles that were encapsulated within a range of PLA-PEG copolymers. The composite nanoparticles produced exhibited excellent physicochemical properties including size <200 nm and encapsulation efficiency >80%. Images of the composite nanoparticles obtained with a new transmission electron microscopy staining method revealed the peptide-DNA nanoparticles within the PLA-PEG matrix. Varying the copolymers modulated the DNA release rate >6 weeks in vitro. The best formulation was selected and was able to transfect cells while maintaining viability. The effect of transferrin-appended composite nanoparticles was also studied. Thus, we have demonstrated the manufacture of composite nanoparticles for the controlled delivery of DNA.

  3. Development of polymeric–cationic peptide composite nanoparticles, a nanoparticle-in-nanoparticle system for controlled gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Arvind K; Massey, Ashley; Yusuf, Helmy; McDonald, Denise M; McCarthy, Helen O; Kett, Vicky L

    2015-01-01

    We report the formulation of novel composite nanoparticles that combine the high transfection efficiency of cationic peptide-DNA nanoparticles with the biocompatibility and prolonged delivery of polylactic acid–polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG). The cationic cell-penetrating peptide RALA was used to condense DNA into nanoparticles that were encapsulated within a range of PLA-PEG copolymers. The composite nanoparticles produced exhibited excellent physicochemical properties including size <200 nm and encapsulation efficiency >80%. Images of the composite nanoparticles obtained with a new transmission electron microscopy staining method revealed the peptide-DNA nanoparticles within the PLA-PEG matrix. Varying the copolymers modulated the DNA release rate >6 weeks in vitro. The best formulation was selected and was able to transfect cells while maintaining viability. The effect of transferrin-appended composite nanoparticles was also studied. Thus, we have demonstrated the manufacture of composite nanoparticles for the controlled delivery of DNA. PMID:26648722

  4. Compositional tuning of epoxide-polyetheramine "click" reaction toward cytocompatible, cationic hydrogel particles with antimicrobial and DNA binding activities.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shuangcheng; Huang, Lu; Daniels-Mulholland, Robert J; Dlugosz, Elizabeth; Morin, Emily A; Lenaghan, Scott; He, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The "click" characteristics of nucleophilic opening of epoxide have recently been exploited for the development of a functional hydrogel particle system based on commercially available bisepoxide and triamine polyetheramine monomers. Key features of these particles include high cationic charges and responsiveness to temperature, pH, and oxidation. Despite these advantages, the cytocompatibility of these particles must be considered prior to use in biomedical applications. Here we demonstrate that, by introducing a diamine polyetheramine as a comonomer in the "click" reaction, and tuning its molar ratio with the triamine monomer, cationic nanoparticles with improved cytocompatibility can be prepared. The reduced cytotoxicity is primarily due to the hydrophilic backbone of the diamine comonomer, which has polyethylene glycol as a primary component. The resulting nanoparticles formed from the diamine comonomer exhibited a lower surface charge, while maintaining a comparable size. In addition, the responsiveness of the nanoparticles to temperature, pH, and oxidation was conserved, while achieving greater colloidal stability at basic pH. Results from this study further demonstrated that the nanoparticles were able to encapsulate Nile red, a model for hydrophobic drug molecules, were effective against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, and were capable of binding DNA through ionic complexation. Based on the results from this work, the use of diamine comonomers significantly reduces the cytotoxicity of similarly developed hydrogel nanoparticles, allowing for numerous biomedical applications, including nanocarriers for therapeutic agents with poor water solubility, treatment of bacterial infection, and non-viral vectors for gene therapy. In recent years significant attention has been placed on the development of nanocarriers for numerous biomedical applications. Of particular interest are cationic polymers, which contain high positive surface charges that allow binding of

  5. Understanding cation ordering and oxygen vacancy site preference in Ba3CaNb2O9 from first-principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hepeng; Virkar, Anil; Liu, Feng

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the physical mechanism underlying the formation of the B-site cation ordering and the oxygen vacancy site selection in Ba3CaNb2O9 using density functional theory calculations. We found that either cation site exchange or oxygen vacancy formation induces negligible lattice strain. This implies that the ionic radius plays an insignificant role in governing these two processes. Furthermore, the electrostatic interactions are found dominant in the ordering of mixed valence species on one or more sites, the ionic bond strength is identified as the dominant force in governing both the 1:2 B-site cation ordering along the <111>direction and the oxygen vacancy site preference in Ba3CaNb2O9. Specifically, the cation ordering can be rationalized by the increased mixing bonding energy of the Ca-O-Nb bonds over the Ca-O-Ca and Nb-O-Nb bonds, i.e., 1/2(Ca-O-Ca + Nb-O-Nb) a site to minimize the electrostatic energy and to break the weaker B-O-B bond. Funded by DOE EFRC Grant Number DE-SC0001061 as a flow through from the University of South Carolina.

  6. An Improved Qualitative Analysis Procedure for Aluminum Subgroup Cations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistner, C. R.; Robinson, Patricia J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for the qualitative analysis of aluminum subgroup cations designed to avoid failure to obtain lead or barium chromate precipitates or failure to report aluminum hydroxide when present (due to staining). Provides a flow chart and step-by-step explanation for the new procedure, indicating significantly improved student results.…

  7. Metal Cations in G-Quadruplex Folding and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Debmalya; Mirihana Arachchilage, Gayan; Basu, Soumitra

    2016-09-01

    This review is focused on the structural and physico-chemical aspects of metal cation coordination to G-Quadruplexes (GQ) and their effects on GQ stability and conformation. G-Quadruplex structures are non-canonical secondary structures formed by both DNA and RNA. G-quadruplexes regulate a wide range of important biochemical processes. Besides the sequence requirements, the coordination of monovalent cations in the GQ is essential for its formation and determines the stability and polymorphism of GQ structures. The nature, location and dynamics of the cation coordination and their impact on the overall GQ stability are dependent on several factors such as the ionic radii, hydration energy and the bonding strength to the O6 of guanines. The intracellular monovalent cation concentration and the localized ion concentrations determine the formation of GQs and can potentially dictate their regulatory roles. A wide range of biochemical and biophysical studies on an array of GQ enabling sequences have generated at a minimum the knowledge base that allows us to often predict the stability of GQs in presence of the physiologically relevant metal ions, however, prediction of conformation of such GQs is still out of the realm.

  8. CATION TRANSPORT AND PARTITIONING DURING A FIELD TEST OF ELECTROOSMOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of soil properties, such as the cation exchange capacity and mineral content, on pH, soluble ion concentrations, and electrical conductivity during electroosmosis in a silty clay soil. The soil is composed mainly of quartz ...

  9. Absorption and electroabsorption spectra of carotenoid cation radical and dication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Stanisław

    1998-05-01

    Radical cations and dications of two carotenoids astaxanthin and canthaxanthin were prepared by oxidation with FeCl 3 in fluorinated alcohols at room temperature. Absorption and electroabsorption (Stark effect) spectra were recorded for astaxanthin cations in mixed frozen matrices at temperatures about 160 K. The D 0→D 2 transition in cation radical is at 835 nm. The electroabsorption spectrum for the D 0→D 2 transition exhibits a negative change of molecular polarizability, Δ α=-1.2·10 -38 C·m 2/V (-105 A 3), which seems to originate from the change in bond order alternation in the ground state rather than from the electric field-induced interaction of D 1 and D 2 excited states. Absorption spectrum of astaxanthin dication is located at 715-717 nm, between those of D 0→D 2 in cation radical and S 0→S 2 in neutral carotenoid. Its shape reflects a short vibronic progression and strong inhomogeneous broadening. The polarizability change on electronic excitation, Δ α=2.89·10 -38 C·m 2/V (260 A 3), is five times smaller than in neutral astaxanthin. This value reflects the larger energetic distance from the lowest excited state to the higher excited states than in the neutral molecule.

  10. Improved Photoactivity of Pyroxene Silicates by Cation Substitutions.

    PubMed

    Legesse, Merid; Park, Heesoo; El Mellouhi, Fedwa; Rashkeev, Sergey N; Kais, Sabre; Alharbi, Fahhad H

    2018-04-17

    We investigated the possibility of band structure engineering of pyroxene silicates with chemical formula A +1 B +3 Si 2 O 6 by proper cation substitution. Typically, band gaps of naturally formed pyroxene silicates such as NaAlSi 2 O 6 are quite high (≈5 eV). Therefore, it is important to find a way to reduce band gaps for these materials below 3 eV to make them usable for optoelectronic applications operating at visible light range of the spectrum. Using first-principles calculations, we found that appropriate substitutions of both A + and B 3+ cations can reduce the band gaps of these materials to as low as 1.31 eV. We also discuss how the band gap in this class of materials is affected by cation radii, electronegativity of constituent elements, spin-orbit coupling, and structural modifications. In particular, the replacement of Al 3+ in NaAlSi 2 O 6 by another trivalent cation Tl 3+ results in the largest band-gap reduction and emergence of intermediate bands. We also found that all considered materials are still thermodynamically stable. This work provides a design approach for new environmentally benign and abundant materials for use in photovoltaics and optoelectronic devices. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A Scale Model of Cation Exchange for Classroom Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guertal, E. A.; Hattey, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project that developed a scale model of cation exchange that can be used for a classroom demonstration. The model uses kaolinite clay, nails, plywood, and foam balls to enable students to gain a better understanding of the exchange complex of soil clays. (DDR)

  12. Catalytic Ketone Hydrodeoxygenation Mediated by Highly Electrophilic Phosphonium Cations.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Meera; Holthausen, Michael H; Mallov, Ian; Pérez, Manuel; Qu, Zheng-Wang; Grimme, Stefan; Stephan, Douglas W

    2015-07-06

    Ketones are efficiently deoxygenated in the presence of silane using highly electrophilic phosphonium cation (EPC) salts as catalysts, thus affording the corresponding alkane and siloxane. The influence of distinct substitution patterns on the catalytic effectiveness of several EPCs was evaluated. The deoxygenation mechanism was probed by DFT methods. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Cation Hydration Constants by Proton NMR: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studies the polarization effect on water by cations and anions. Describes an experiment to illustrate the polarization effect of sodium, lithium, calcium, and strontium ions on the water molecule in the hydration spheres of the ions. Analysis is performed by proton NMR. (MVL)

  14. Cationic Cyclizations and Rearrangements Promoted by a Heterogeneous Gold Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A heterogeneous gold catalyst with remarkable activity for promoting the electrophilic reactions of aryl vinyl ketones and aryl dienyl ketones is described. The catalyst is easy to prepare, is robust, and can be recycled. Low loadings are effective for different types of cationic reactions, including Nazarov cyclizations, lactonizations, and [1,2] shifts. PMID:24432741

  15. Effect of cationic contaminants on polymer electrolyte fuel cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Ozdemir, M. Ozan; Uddin, Md. Aman; Bonville, Leonard; Pasaogullari, Ugur; Molter, Trent

    2015-07-01

    The effect of cationic contaminants on polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) performance is investigated via in-situ injection of dilute cationic salt solutions. Four foreign cations (K+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Al3+) are chosen as contaminants in this study due to their prevalence and chemical structure (e.g. valence), however contaminants that have already received extensive coverage in the literature like sodium and iron are excluded. It is found that the cells with Ba(ClO4)2 and Ca(ClO4)2 injection exhibit little cell performance change during the current hold test, and the cells with Al(ClO4)3 and KClO4 injection show larger cell performance changes, i.e. decreasing cell voltage and increasing cell resistance. These cells with in-situ contaminant injection have a tendency to recover a portion of the lost performance after the recovery test when switched back to supersaturated air. The degradation in cell performance with the presence of cationic contaminants is mainly due, in addition to the membrane resistance increase associated with replacing protons on the sulfonate groups, to the increase in mass transport resistance and decrease in electrochemical surface area.

  16. Metal cation dependence of interactions with amino acids: bond dissociation energies of Rb(+) and Cs(+) to the acidic amino acids and their amide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Armentrout, P B; Yang, Bo; Rodgers, M T

    2014-04-24

    Metal cation-amino acid interactions are key components controlling the secondary structure and biological function of proteins, enzymes, and macromolecular complexes comprising these species. Determination of pairwise interactions of alkali metal cations with amino acids provides a thermodynamic vocabulary that begins to quantify these fundamental processes. In the present work, we expand a systematic study of such interactions by examining rubidium and cesium cations binding with the acidic amino acids (AA), aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu), and their amide derivatives, asparagine (Asn) and glutamine (Gln). These eight complexes are formed using electrospray ionization and their bond dissociation energies (BDEs) are determined experimentally using threshold collision-induced dissociation with xenon in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. Analyses of the energy-dependent cross sections include consideration of unimolecular decay rates, internal energy of the reactant ions, and multiple ion-neutral collisions. Quantum chemical calculations are conducted at the B3LYP, MP2(full), and M06 levels of theory using def2-TZVPPD basis sets, with results showing reasonable agreement with experiment. At 0 and 298 K, most levels of theory predict that the ground-state conformers for M(+)(Asp) and M(+)(Asn) involve tridentate binding of the metal cation to the backbone carbonyl, amino, and side-chain carbonyl groups, although tridentate binding to the carboxylic acid group and side-chain carbonyl is competitive for M(+)(Asn). For the two longer side-chain amino acids, Glu and Gln, multiple structures are competitive. A comparison of these results to those for the smaller alkali cations, Na(+) and K(+), provides insight into the trends in binding energies associated with the molecular polarizability and dipole moment of the side chain. For all four metal cations, the BDEs are inversely correlated with the size of the metal cation and follow the order Asp < Glu

  17. Photo-fragmentation spectroscopy of benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations

    SciTech Connect

    Féraud, Géraldine; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.jouvet@univ-amu.fr

    The electronic spectra of cold benzylium (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}-CH{sub 2}{sup +}) and 1-phenylethyl (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}-CH-CH{sub 3}{sup +}) cations have been recorded via photofragment spectroscopy. Benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations produced from electrosprayed benzylamine and phenylethylamine solutions, respectively, were stored in a cryogenically cooled quadrupole ion trap and photodissociated by an OPO laser, scanned in parts of the UV and visible regions (600–225 nm). The electronic states and active vibrational modes of the benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations as well as those of their tropylium or methyl tropylium isomers have been calculated with ab initio methods for comparison with the spectra observed.more » Sharp vibrational progressions are observed in the visible region while the absorption features are much broader in the UV. The visible spectrum of the benzylium cation is similar to that obtained in an argon tagging experiment [V. Dryza, N. Chalyavi, J. A. Sanelli, and E. J. Bieske, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 204304 (2012)], with an additional splitting assigned to Fermi resonances. The visible spectrum of the 1-phenylethyl cation also shows vibrational progressions. For both cations, the second electronic transition is observed in the UV, around 33 000 cm{sup −1} (4.1 eV) and shows a broadened vibrational progression. In both cases the S{sub 2} optimized geometry is non-planar. The third electronic transition observed around 40 000 cm{sup −1} (5.0 eV) is even broader with no apparent vibrational structures, which is indicative of either a fast non-radiative process or a very large change in geometry between the excited and the ground states. The oscillator strengths calculated for tropylium and methyl tropylium are weak. Therefore, these isomeric structures are most likely not responsible for these absorption features. Finally, the fragmentation pattern changes in the second and third electronic states: C{sub 2}H{sub 2} loss becomes predominant at

  18. DOTAP cationic liposomes prefer relaxed over supercoiled plasmids.

    PubMed

    Even-Chen, S; Barenholz, Y

    2000-12-20

    Cationic liposomes and DNA interact electrostatically to form complexes called lipoplexes. The amounts of unbound (free) DNA in a mixture of cationic liposomes and DNA at different cationic lipid:DNA molar ratios can be used to describe DNA binding isotherms; these provide a measure of the binding efficiency of DNA to different cationic lipid formulations at various medium conditions. In order to quantify the ratio between the various forms of naked DNA and supercoiled, relaxed and single-stranded DNA, and the ratio between cationic lipid bound and unbound DNA of various forms we developed a simple, sensitive quantitative assay using agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by staining with the fluorescent cyanine DNA dyes SYBR Green I or SYBR Gold. This assay was compared with that based on the use of ethidium bromide (the most commonly used nucleic acid stain). Unlike ethidium bromide, SYBR Green I DNA sensitivity and concentration-dependent fluorescence intensity were identical for supercoiled and nicked-relaxed forms. DNA detection by SYBR Green I in solution is approximately 40-fold more sensitive than by ethidium bromide for double-stranded DNA and approximately 10-fold for single-stranded DNA, and in agarose gel it is 16-fold more sensitive for double-stranded DNA compared with ethidium bromide. SYBR Gold performs similarly to SYBR Green I. This study shows that: (a) there is no significant difference in DNA binding isotherms to the monocationic DOTAP (DOTAP/DOPE) liposomes and to the polycationic DOSPA (DOSPA/DOPE) liposomes, even when four DOSPA positive charges are involved in the electrostatic interaction with DNA; (b) the helper lipids affect DNA binding, as DOTAP/DOPE liposomes bind more DNA than DOTAP/cholesterol; (c) in the process of lipoplex formation, when the DNA is a mixture of two forms, supercoiled and nicked-relaxed (open circular), there is a preference for the binding to the cationic liposomes of plasmid DNA in the nicked-relaxed over the

  19. Cation reordering in natural titanomagnetites and implications for paleointensity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, J. A.; Jackson, M. J.; Gee, J. S.

    2013-05-01

    Successful paleointensity experiments hinge on the underlying assumption of reciprocity; the remanence acquired over a particular temperature range should be fully removed over the same temperature range, and vice versa. This means that the blocking (TB) and unblocking (TUB) temperature spectra are identical and do not change during the course of the experiment. We will present the results of recent work demonstrating that some natural titanomagnetites undergo cation reordering on laboratory timescales and at temperatures at or below the Curie temperature (TC). The bulk composition of the titanomagnetites (Fe3-xTixO4) varies between approximately 0.2 < x < 0.4, with moderate degrees of Mg and Al substitution. Although there is no attendant structural or chemical alteration, the re-distribution of ferric and ferrous iron cations results in reversible changes in Curie temperature of up to 150°C. This necessarily changes the blocking temperature spectrum as a function of prior thermal history. These changes in TC, TUB and TB clearly pose problems for all paleointensity experiments, but the effects may be most apparent during Thellier-type experiments where the sample is step-wise heated to increasingly higher temperatures. The blocking temperature distribution will be expected to change over the course of the experiment even in the absence of chemical alteration, and one can expect the experiment to fail. We will explore the effects of cation redistribution on paleointensity experiments through numerical models and by comparison with paleointensity data from pumice samples taken from the 1980 pyroclastic flows at Mt. St. Helens (MSH). In the MSH samples, two phases are typically present: a predominantly multi-domain, homogeneous titanomagnetite (associated with the cation reordering) and an oxyexsolved, single-domain to pseudo-single-domain phase with ilmenite lamellae in a magnetite-rich host. Samples that result in technically successful paleointensity experiments

  20. Single DNA molecules on freestanding and supported cationic lipid bilayers: diverse conformational dynamics controlled by the local bilayer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Christoph; Schwille, Petra; Petrov, Eugene P.

    2016-02-01

    We present experimental results on the interaction of DNA macromolecules with cationic lipid membranes with different properties, including freestanding membranes in the fluid and gel state, and supported lipid membranes in the fluid state and under conditions of fluid-gel phase coexistence. We observe diverse conformational dynamics of membrane-bound DNA molecules controlled by the local properties of the lipid bilayer. In case of fluid-state freestanding lipid membranes, the behaviour of DNA on the membrane is controlled by the membrane charge density: whereas DNA bound to weakly charged membranes predominantly behaves as a 2D random coil, an increase in the membrane charge density leads to membrane-driven irreversible DNA collapse and formation of subresolution-sized DNA globules. On the other hand, electrostatic binding of DNA macromolecules to gel-state freestanding membranes leads to completely arrested diffusion and conformational dynamics of membrane-adsorbed DNA. A drastically different picture is observed in case of DNA interaction with supported cationic lipid bilayers: When the supported bilayer is in the fluid state, membrane-bound DNA molecules undergo 2D translational Brownian motion and conformational fluctuations, irrespectively of the charge density of the supported bilayer. At the same time, when the supported cationic membrane shows fluid-gel phase coexistence, membrane-bound DNA molecules are strongly attracted to micrometre-sized gel-phase domains enriched with the cationic lipid, which results in 2D compaction of the membrane-bound macromolecules. This DNA compaction, however, is fully reversible, and disappears as soon as the membrane is heated above the fluid-gel coexistence. We also discuss possible biological implications of our experimental findings.

  1. 'Click' synthesized sterol-based cationic lipids as gene carriers, and the effect of skeletons and headgroups on gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ruilong; Luo, Ting; Li, Hui; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Zhao; Cao, Amin

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we have successfully prepared a series of new sterol-based cationic lipids (1-4) via an efficient 'Click' chemistry approach. The pDNA binding affinity of these lipids was examined by EB displacement and agarose-gel retardant assay. The average particle sizes and surface charges of the sterol-based cationic lipids/pDNA lipoplexes were analyzed by dynamic laser light scattering instrument (DLS), and the morphologies of the lipoplexes were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cytotoxicity of the lipids were examined by MTT and LDH assay, and the gene transfection efficiencies of these lipid carriers were investigated by luciferase gene transfection assay in various cell lines. In addition, the intracellular uptake and trafficking/localization behavior of the Cy3-DNA loaded lipoplexes were preliminarily studied by fluorescence microscopy. The results demonstrated that the pDNA loading capacity, lipoplex particle size, zeta potential and morphology of the sterol lipids/pDNA lipoplexes depended largely on the molecular structure factors including sterol-skeletons and headgroups. Furthermore, the sterol-based lipids showed quite different cytotoxicity and gene transfection efficacy in A549 and HeLa cells. Interestingly, it was found that the cholesterol-bearing lipids 1 and 2 showed 7-10(4) times higher transfection capability than their lithocholate-bearing counterparts 3 and 4 in A549 and HeLa cell lines, suggested that the gene transfection capacity strongly relied on the structure of sterol skeletons. Moreover, the study on the structure-activity relationships of these sterol-based cationic lipid gene carriers provided a possible approach for developing low cytotoxic and high efficient lipid gene carriers by selecting suitable sterol hydrophobes and cationic headgroups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intron size and genome size in plants.

    Treesearch

    J. Wendel; R. Cronn; I. Alvarez; B. Liu; R. Small; D. Senchina

    2002-01-01

    It has long been known that genomes vary over a remarkable range of sizes in both plants (Bennett, Cox, and Leitch 1997) and animals (Gregory 2001). It also has become evident that across the broad phylogenetic sweep, genome size may be correlated with intron size (Deutsch and Long 1999; Vinogradov 1999; McLysaght et al. 2000), suggesting that some component of genome...

  3. Solubility of polyvalent cations in fogwater at an urban site in Strasbourg (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, M.; Wortham, H.; Mirabel, Ph.

    The concentrations in the soluble and total (soluble + insoluble) fractions of Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, Al, Cd and Pb have been analysed by "inductively coupled plasma (ICP)" in 14 fog events collected in 1992 at an urban site in France (Strasbourg). For each fog event, two droplet size categories (2-6 μm and 5-8 μm) have been collected separately. For the analysis of the polyvalent cations in the soluble and total fractions, an analytical procedure using ICP and filtration on cellulose/PVC filters has been developed. The study of the solubility of some polyvalent cations has shown that two of the most important factors controlling the partitioning between the soluble and insoluble fraction are the nature of the particles and the pH of the fogwater. The influence of pH depended on the element. The solubility of Pb, Cd, Al, Fe, Mg, and Ca were pH dependent whereas, Zn and Mn solubility varied but no relationship with pH existed, ranging between 25 and 100% and 10 and 100%, respectively. On the other hand, Mg, Pb and Ca were predominantly present in the soluble phase, whereas Al was prevalent in the insoluble fraction. In the case of Cd and Fe., the presence in the soluble or insoluble phase depended largely on the fogwater pH.

  4. Mode changes associated with oil droplet movement in solutions of gemini cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Banno, Taisuke; Miura, Shingo; Kuroha, Rie; Toyota, Taro

    2013-06-25

    Micrometer-sized self-propelled oil droplets in nonequilibrium systems have attracted much attention, since they form stable emulsions composed of oil, water, and surfactant which represent a primitive type of inanimate chemical machinery. In this work, we examined means of controlling the movement of oil droplets by studying the dynamics of n-heptyloxybenzaldehyde droplets in phosphate buffers containing alkanediyl-α,ω-bis(N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium bromide) (nG12) with either tetramethylene (4G12), octaethylene (8G12), or dodecamethylene (12G12) chains in the linker moiety. Significant differences in droplet dynamics were observed to be induced by changes in the linker structure of these gemini cationic surfactants. In a phosphate buffer containing 30 mM 4G12, self-propelled motion of droplets concurrent with the formation of molecular aggregates on their surfaces was observed, whereas the fusion of oil droplets was evident in both 8G12 and 12G12 solutions. We also determined that the surface activities and the extent of molecular self-assembly of the surfactants in phosphate buffer were strongly influenced by the alkyl chain length in the linker moiety. We therefore conclude that the surface activities of the gemini cationic surfactant have important effects on the oil-water interfacial tension of oil droplets and the formation of molecular aggregates and that both of these factors induce the unique movement of the droplets.

  5. Cholesterol and Morpholine Grafted Cationic Amphiphilic Copolymers for miRNA-34a Delivery.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh; Mazumdar, Samrat; Italiya, Kishan S; Date, Tushar; Mahato, Ram I; Mittal, Anupama; Chitkara, Deepak

    2018-06-04

    miR-34a is a master tumor suppressor playing a key role in the several signaling mechanisms involved in cancer. However, its delivery to the cancer cells is the bottleneck in its clinical translation. Herein we report cationic amphiphilic copolymers grafted with cholesterol (chol), N, N-dimethyldipropylenetriamine (cation chain) and 4-(2-aminoethyl)morpholine (morph) for miR-34a delivery. The copolymer interacts with miR-34a at low N/P ratios (∼2/1) to form nanoplexes of size ∼108 nm and a zeta potential ∼ +39 mV. In vitro studies in 4T1 and MCF-7 cells indicated efficient transfection efficiency. The intracellular colocalization suggested that the copolymer effectively transported the FAM labeled siRNA into the cytoplasm within 2 h and escaped from the endo-/lysosomal environment. The developed miR-34a nanoplexes inhibited the breast cancer cell growth as confirmed by MTT assay wherein 28% and 34% cancer cell viability was observed in 4T1 and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Further, miR-34a nanoplexes possess immense potential to induce apoptosis in both cell lines.

  6. Synthesis of water-based cationic polyurethane for antibacterial and gene delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geng-Hsi; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Cationic polymers are often used as antimicrobial materials and transfection reagents. Water-based process could reduce environmental pollution and prevent the risk of solvent residue in the final product. In this study, waterborne biodegradable cationic polyurethane (WCPU) was synthesized by reacting polycaprolactone (PCL diol), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), and N-methyldiethanolamine (N-MDEA) under 75°C. An aqueous dispersion of WCPU nanoparticles (NPs) could be acquired by vigorous stirring under acidic condition. The particles in the dispersion had an average size of ∼80nm and a zeta potential of ∼60mV. When cast into films, the contact angle of the film was ∼67° and the zeta potential was ∼16mV. WCPU NPs demonstrated excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (100% inhibition with a contact time of 3h). Meanwhile, the antibacterial ratio of WCPU films to E. coli and S. aureus reached 100% after 24h of contact. Moreover, WCPU NPs could be used as a transfection reagent without significant toxicity for concentrations less than 1000μg/mL and showed the ability to condensate plasmid DNA. The transfection efficiency for HEK293T cells and hBMSCs was ∼60% and ∼30% at 48h, respectively, after the transfection. Therefore, the WCPU synthesized in this study has potential antibacterial and gene delivery applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Controlling the actuation properties of MXene paper electrodes upon cation intercalation

    DOE PAGES

    Come, Jeremy E.; Black, Jennifer M.; Naguib, Michael; ...

    2015-08-05

    Atomic force microscopy was used to monitor the macroscopic deformation in a delaminated Ti₃C₂ paper electrode in-situ, during charge/discharge in a variety of aqueous electrolytes to examine the effect of the cation intercalation on the electrochemical behavior and mechanical response. The results show a strong dependence of the electrode deformation on cation size and charge. The electrode undergoes a large contraction during Li⁺, Na⁺ or Mg²⁺ intercalation, differentiating the Ti₃C₂ paper from conventional electrodes where redox intercalation of ions (e.g. Li⁺) into the bulk phase (e.g. graphite, silicon) results in volumetric expansion. This feature may explain the excellent rate performancemore » and cyclability reported for MXenes. We also demonstrated that the variation of the electromechanical contraction can be easily adjusted by electrolyte exchange, and shows interesting characteristics for the design of actuators based on 2D metal carbides.« less

  8. Intracellular delivery of universal proteins using a lysine headgroup containing cationic liposomes: deciphering the uptake mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Satya Ranjan; Hokama, Ryosuke; Takeoka, Shinji

    2014-01-06

    An amino acid-based cationic lipid having a TFA counterion (trifluoroacetic acid counterion) in the lysine headgroup was used to deliver functional proteins into human cervical cancer cells, HeLa, in the presence of serum. Proteins used in the study were fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled bovine serum albumin, mouse anti-F actin antibody [NH3], and goat anti mouse IgG conjugated with FITC. The formation of liposome/protein complexes was confirmed using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the complexes were characterized in terms of their size and zeta potential at different pH values and found to be responsive to changes in pH. The highest delivery efficiency of the liposome/albumin complexes was 99% at 37 °C. The liposomes effectively delivered albumin and antibodies as confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Inhibition studies showed that the cellular uptake mechanism of the complexes was via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and the proteins were subsequently released from either the early endosomes or the caveosomes as suggested by CLSM. Thus, lysine-based cationic liposomes can be a useful tool for intracellular protein delivery.

  9. Quasielastic neutron scattering studies on glass-forming ionic liquids with imidazolium cations

    SciTech Connect

    Kofu, Maiko; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Miyazaki, Kyoko

    2015-12-21

    Relaxation processes for imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated by means of an incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering technique. In order to clarify the cation and anion effects on the relaxation processes, ten samples were measured. For all of the samples, we found three relaxations at around 1 ps, 10 ps, and 100 ps-10 ns, each corresponding to the alkyl reorientation, the relaxation related to the imidazolium ring, and the ionic diffusion. The activation energy (E{sub a}) for the alkyl relaxation is insensitive to both anion and alkyl chain lengths. On the other hand, for the imidazolium relaxation and the ionicmore » diffusion processes, E{sub a} increases as the anion size decreases but is almost independent of the alkyl chain length. This indicates that the ionic diffusion and imidazolium relaxation are governed by the Coulombic interaction between the core parts of the cations (imidazolium ring) and the anions. This is consistent with the fact that the imidazolium-based ILs have nanometer scale structures consisting of ionic and neutral (alkyl chain) domains. It is also found that there is a clear correlation between the ionic diffusion and viscosity, indicating that the ionic diffusion is mainly associated with the glass transition which is one of the characteristics of imidazolium-based ILs.« less

  10. Cation mobility and the sorption of chloroform in zeolite NaY: molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Ramsahye, Naseem A; Bell, Robert G

    2005-03-17

    Molecular dynamics simulations at temperatures of 270, 330, and 390 K have been carried out to address the question of cation migration upon chloroform sorption in sodium zeolite Y. The results show that sodium cations located in different sites exhibit different types of mobility. These may be summarized as follows: (1) SII cations migrate toward the center of the supercage upon sorption, due to interactions with the polar sorbate molecules. (2) SI' cations hop from the sodalite cage into the supercage to fill vacant SII sites. (3) SI' cations migrate to other SI' sites within the same sodalite cage. (4) SI cations hop out of the double six-rings into SI' sites. In some instances, concerted motion of cations is observed. Furthermore, former SI' and SI cations, having crossed to SII sites, may then further migrate within the supercage, as in (1). The cation motion is dependent on the level of sorbate loading, with 10 molecules per unit cell not being enough to induce significant cation displacements, whereas the sorption of 40 molecules per unit cell results in a number of cations being displaced from their original positions. Further rearrangement of the cation positions is observed upon evacuation of the simulation cell, with some cations reverting back to sites normally occupied in bare NaY.

  11. Cellular cation transport studied by 6/7Li and 23Na NMR in a porous Mo132 Keplerate type nano-capsule as model system.

    PubMed

    Rehder, Dieter; Haupt, Erhard T K; Müller, Achim

    2008-01-01

    Li+ ions can interplay with other cations intrinsically present in the intra- and extra-cellular space (i.e. Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) have therapeutic effects (e.g. in the treatment of bipolar disorder) or toxic effects (at higher doses), likely because Li+ interferes with the intra-/extra-cellular concentration gradients of the mentioned physiologically relevant cations. The cellular transmembrane transport can be modelled by molybdenum-oxide-based Keplerates, i.e. nano-sized porous capsules containing 132 Mo centres, monitored through 6/7Li as well as 23Na NMR spectroscopy. The effects on the transport of Li+ cations through the 'ion channels' of these model cells, caused by variations in water amount, temperature, and by the addition of organic cationic 'plugs' and the shift reagent [Dy(PPP)2](7-) are reported. In the investigated solvent systems, water acts as a transport mediator for Li+. Likewise, the counter-transport (Li+/Na+, Li+/K+, Li+/Cs+ and Li+/Ca2+) has been investigated by 7Li NMR and, in the case of Li+/Na+ exchange, by 23Na NMR, and it has been shown that most (in the case of Na+ and K+, all (Ca2+) or almost none (Cs+) of the Li cations is extruded from the internal sites of the artificial cell to the extra-cellular medium, while Na+, K+ and Ca2+ are partially incorporated.

  12. Quantum Effects in Cation Interactions with First and Second Coordination Shell Ligands in Metalloproteins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of investigations, the principal mechanisms responsible for the high affinity and specificity of proteins for key physiological cations K+, Na+, and Ca2+ remain a hotly debated topic. At the core of the debate is an apparent need (or lack thereof) for an accurate description of the electrostatic response of the charge distribution in a protein to the binding of an ion. These effects range from partial electronic polarization of the directly ligating atoms to long-range effects related to partial charge transfer and electronic delocalization effects. While accurate modeling of cation recognition by metalloproteins warrants the use of quantum-mechanics (QM) calculations, the most popular approximations used in major biomolecular simulation packages rely on the implicit modeling of electronic polarization effects. That is, high-level QM computations for ion binding to proteins are desirable, but they are often unfeasible, because of the large size of the reactive-site models and the need to sample conformational space exhaustively at finite temperature. Several solutions to this challenge have been proposed in the field, ranging from the recently developed Drude polarizable force-field for simulations of metalloproteins to approximate tight-binding density functional theory (DFTB). To delineate the usefulness of different approximations, we examined the accuracy of three recent and commonly used theoretical models and numerical algorithms, namely, CHARMM C36, the latest developed Drude polarizable force fields, and DFTB3 with the latest 3OB parameters. We performed MD simulations for 30 cation-selective proteins with high-resolution X-ray structures to create ensembles of structures for analysis with different levels of theory, e.g., additive and polarizable force fields, DFTB3, and DFT. The results from DFT computations were used to benchmark CHARMM C36, Drude, and DFTB3 performance. The explicit modeling of quantum effects unveils the key

  13. Cationic influences upon synaptic transmission at the hair cell-afferent fiber synapse of the frog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    The concentrations of inorganic cations (K+, Na+, and Ca2+) bathing the isolated frog labyrinth were varied in order to assess their role in influencing and mediating synaptic transmission at the hair cell-afferent fiber synapse. Experiments employed intracellular recordings of synaptic activity from VIIIth nerve afferents. Recordings were digitized continuously at 50 kHz, and excitatory postsynaptic potentials were detected and parameters quantified by computer algorithms. Particular attention was focused on cationic effects upon excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency of occurrence and excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude, in order to discriminate between pre- and postsynaptic actions. Because the small size of afferents preclude long term stable recordings, alterations in cationic concentrations were applied transiently and their peak effects on synaptic activity were assessed. Increases in extracellular K+ concentration of a few millimolar produced a large increase in the frequency of occurrence of excitatory postsynaptic potentials with little change in amplitude, indicating that release of transmitter from the hair cell is tightly coupled to its membrane potential. Increasing extracellular Na+ concentration resulted in an increase in excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude with no significant change in excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency of occurrence, suggesting that the transmitter-gated subsynaptic channel conducts Na+ ions. Decreases in extracellular Ca2+ concentration had little effect upon excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency, but increased excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency and amplitude. These findings suggest that at higher concentrations Ca2+ act presynaptically to prevent transmitter release and postsynaptically to prevent Na+ influx during the generation of the excitatory postsynaptic potential. The influences of these ions on synaptic activity at this synapse are remarkably similar to those reported at the

  14. On the different roles of anions and cations in the solvation of enzymes in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Klähn, Marco; Lim, Geraldine S; Seduraman, Abirami; Wu, Ping

    2011-01-28

    The solvation of the enzyme Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL-B) was studied in eight different ionic liquids (ILs). The influence of enzyme-ion interactions on the solvation of CAL-B and the structure of the enzyme-IL interface are analyzed. CAL-B and ILs are described with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in combination with an atomistic empirical force field. The considered cations are based on imidazolium or guanidinium that are paired with nitrate, tetrafluoroborate or hexafluorophosphate anions. The interactions of CAL-B with ILs are dominated by Coulomb interactions with anions, while the second largest contribution stems from van der Waals interactions with cations. The enzyme-ion interaction strength is determined by the ion size and the magnitude of the ion surface charge. The solvation of CAL-B in ILs is unfavorable compared to water because of large formation energies for the CAL-B solute cages in ILs. The internal energy in the IL and of CAL-B increases linearly with the enzyme-ion interaction strength. The average electrostatic potential on the surface of CAL-B is larger in ILs than in water, due to a weaker screening of charged enzyme residues. Ion densities increased moderately in the vicinity of charged residues and decreased close to non-polar residues. An aggregation of long alkyl chains close to non-polar regions and the active site entrance of CAL-B are observed in one IL that involved long non-polar decyl groups. In ILs that contain 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, the diffusion of one or two cations into the active site of CAL-B occurs during MD simulations. This suggests a possible obstruction of the active site in these ILs. Overall, the results indicate that small ions lead to a stronger electrostatic screening within the solvent and stronger interactions with the enzyme. Also a large ion surface charge, when more hydrophilic ions are used, increases enzyme-IL interactions. An increase of these interactions destabilizes the enzyme

  15. Aluminium substitution in iron(II-III)-layered double hydroxides: Formation and cationic order

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby, Christian; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Aissa, Rabha

    The formation and the modifications of the structural properties of an aluminium-substituted iron(II-III)-layered double hydroxide (LDH) of formula Fe{sub 4}{sup II}Fe{sub (2-6y)}{sup III}Al{sub 6y}{sup III} (OH){sub 12} SO{sub 4}, 8H{sub 2}O are followed by pH titration curves, Moessbauer spectroscopy and high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation. Rietveld refinements allow to build a structural model for hydroxysulphate green rust, GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), i.e. y=0, in which a bilayer of sulphate anions points to the Fe{sup 3+} species. A cationic order is proposed to occur in both GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and aluminium-substituted hydroxysulphate green rust when y<0.08. Variation of the cellmore » parameters and a sharp decrease in average crystal size and anisotropy are detected for an aluminium content as low as y=0.01. The formation of Al-GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) is preceded by the successive precipitation of Fe{sup III} and Al{sup III} (oxy)hydroxides. Adsorption of more soluble Al{sup III} species onto the initially formed ferric oxyhydroxide may be responsible for this slowdown of crystal growth. Therefore, the insertion of low aluminium amount (y{approx}0.01) could be an interesting way for increasing the surface reactivity of iron(II-III) LDH that maintains constant the quantity of the reactive Fe{sup II} species of the material. - Graphical abstract: (a) Crystallographical structure of sulphated green rust: SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} point to the Fe{sup 3+} cations (red) that form an ordered array with the Fe{sup 2+} cations (green). (b) Width and asymmetry of the synchrotron XRD peaks increase rapidly when some Al{sup 3+} species substitute the Fe{sup 3+} cations; z is molar ratio Al{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 3+}.« less

  16. Radiochemical study of reactions of alkyl cations with amines. I. Reactions of methyl and sec-butyl cations with diethylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Ignat`ev, I.S.; Kochina, T.A.; Nefedov, V.D.

    1995-08-10

    Ion-molecular gas-phase reactions of free methyl and sec-butyl cations with diethylamine were studied. These reactions proceed via two competing pathways involving formation of a condensation complex or a proton-transfer complex, the latter process predominating. 32 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Protonation switching to the least-basic heteroatom of carbamate through cationic hydrogen bonding promotes the formation of isocyanate cations.

    PubMed

    Kurouchi, Hiroaki; Sumita, Akinari; Otani, Yuko; Ohwada, Tomohiko

    2014-07-07

    We found that phenethylcarbamates that bear ortho-salicylate as an ether group (carbamoyl salicylates) dramatically accelerate OC bond dissociation in strong acid to facilitate generation of isocyanate cation (N-protonated isocyanates), which undergo subsequent intramolecular aromatic electrophilic cyclization to give dihydroisoquinolones. To generate isocyanate cations from carbamates in acidic media as electrophiles for aromatic substitution, protonation at the ether oxygen, the least basic heteroatom, is essential to promote CO bond cleavage. However, the carbonyl oxygen of carbamates, the most basic site, is protonated exclusively in strong acids. We found that the protonation site can be shifted to an alternative basic atom by linking methyl salicylate to the ether oxygen of carbamate. The methyl ester oxygen ortho to the phenolic (ether) oxygen of salicylate is as basic as the carbamate carbonyl oxygen, and we found that monoprotonation at the methyl ester oxygen in strong acid resulted in the formation of an intramolecular cationic hydrogen bond (>CO(+) H⋅⋅⋅O<) with the phenolic ether oxygen. This facilitates OC bond dissociation of phenethylcarbamates, thereby promoting isocyanate cation formation. In contrast, superacid-mediated diprotonation at the methyl ester oxygen of the salicylate and the carbonyl oxygen of the carbamate afforded a rather stable dication, which did not readily undergo CO bond dissociation. This is an unprecedented and unknown case in which the monocation has greater reactivity than the dication. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Effect of cationic surfactants on characteristics and colorimetric behavior of polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposite as time-temperature indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nopwinyuwong, Atchareeya; Kitaoka, Takuya; Boonsupthip, Waraporn; Pechyen, Chiravoot; Suppakul, Panuwat

    2014-09-01

    Polydiacetylene (PDA)/silica nanocomposites were synthesized by self-assembly method using polymerizable amphiphilic diacetylene monomers, 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA). Addition of cationic surfactants (PDADMAC and CTAB) to PDA/SiO2 nanocomposites induced higher intermolecular force which affected their size, shape and color transition. Pure PDA, PDA/SiO2, PDA/SiO2/PDADMAC and PDA/SiO2/CTAB were investigated by particle size analysis, TEM, SEM, UV-vis spectroscopy and FT-IR. It was found that the PDA/SiO2 nanocomposites exhibited slightly larger particle sizes than those of other samples. The PDA/SiO2 nanocomposites with a core-shell structure were almost regarded as spherical-shaped particles. Cationic surfactants, especially CTAB, presumably affected the particle size and shape of PDA/SiO2 nanocomposites due to the disruption of hydrogen bonding between PDA head group and ammonium group. The colorimetric response of both PDA/SiO2/surfactant and surfactant-free PDA/SiO2 aqueous solutions directly changed in relation to time and temperature; thus they were expected to be applied as a new polymer-based time-temperature indicator (TTI).

  19. Variational first hyperpolarizabilities of 2,3-naphtho-15-crown-5 ether derivatives with cation-complexing: a potential and selective cation detector.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-Ling; Wang, Wen-Yong; Hong, Bo; Zong, Ying; Si, Yan-Ling; Hu, Zhong-Qiang

    2016-09-29

    Crown ethers, as a kind of heterocycle, have been the subject of great interest over recent decades due to their selective capability to bind to metal cations. The use of a constant crown ether, such as naphtho-15-crown-5 (N15C5), and varied metal cations (Li + , Na + , K + , Be 2+ , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ ) makes it possible to determine the contributions of the metal cations to nonlinear optical (NLO) responses and to design an appropriate NLO-based cation detector. N15C5 and its metal cation derivatives have been systematically investigated by density functional theory. It is found that the dependency of the first hyperpolarizability relies on the metal cation, especially for transition metals. The decrease of the first hyperpolarizabilities for alkali metal cation derivatives is due to their relatively low oscillator strengths, whereas the significant increase of the first hyperpolarizabilities for transition metal cation derivatives can be further illustrated by their low transition energies, large amplitudes and separate distributions of first hyperpolarizability density. Thus, the alkali metal and transition metal cations are distinguishable and the transition metal cations are easier to detect by utilizing the variations in NLO responses.

  20. Star-like superalkali cations featuring planar pentacoordinate carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jin-Chang; Tian, Wen-Juan; Zhao, Xue-Feng

    Superalkali cations, known to possess low vertical electron affinities (VEAs), high vertical detachment energies, and large highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy gaps, are intriguing chemical species. Thermodynamically, such species need to be the global minima in order to serve as the promising targets for experimental realization. In this work, we propose the strategies of polyhalogenation and polyalkalination for designing the superalkali cations. By applying these strategies, the local-minimum planar pentacoordinate carbon (ppC) cluster CBe{sub 5} can be modified to form a series of star-like superalkali ppC or quasi-ppC CBe{sub 5}X{sub 5}{sup +} (X = F,more » Cl, Br, Li, Na, K) cations containing a CBe{sub 5} moiety. Polyhalogenation and polyalkalination on the CBe{sub 5} unit may help eliminate the high reactivity of bare CBe{sub 5} molecule by covering the reactive Be atoms with noble halogen anions and alkali cations. Computational exploration of the potential energy surfaces reveals that the star-like ppC or quasi-ppC CBe{sub 5}X{sub 5}{sup +} (X = F, Cl, Br, Li, Na, K) clusters are the true global minima of the systems. The predicted VEAs for CBe{sub 5}X{sub 5}{sup +} range from 3.01 to 3.71 eV for X = F, Cl, Br and 2.12–2.51 eV for X = Li, Na, K, being below the lower bound of the atomic ionization potential of 3.89 eV in the periodic table. Large HOMO-LUMO energy gaps are also revealed for the species: 10.76–11.07 eV for X = F, Cl, Br and 4.99–6.91 eV for X = Li, Na, K. These designer clusters represent the first series of superalkali cations with a ppC center. Bonding analyses show five Be–X–Be three-center two-electron (3c-2e) σ bonds for the peripheral bonding, whereas the central C atom is associated with one 6c-2e π bond and three 6c-2e σ bonds, rendering (π and σ) double aromaticity. Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the CBe{sub 5} motif is robust in

  1. Comparison of cation adsorption by isostructural rutile and cassiterite.

    PubMed

    Machesky, Michael; Wesolowski, David; Rosenqvist, Jörgen; Předota, Milan; Vlcek, Lukas; Ridley, Moira; Kohli, Vaibhav; Zhang, Zhan; Fenter, Paul; Cummings, Peter; Lvov, Serguei; Fedkin, Mark; Rodriguez-Santiago, Victor; Kubicki, James; Bandura, Andrei

    2011-04-19

    Macroscopic net proton charging curves for powdered rutile and cassiterite specimens with the (110) crystal face predominant, as a function of pH in RbCl and NaCl solutions, trace SrCl(2) in NaCl, and trace ZnCl(2) in NaCl and Na Triflate solutions, are compared to corresponding molecular-level information obtained from static DFT optimizations and classical MD simulations, as well as synchrotron X-ray methods. The similarities and differences in the macroscopic charging behavior of rutile and cassiterite largely reflect the cation binding modes observed at the molecular level. Cation adsorption is primarily inner-sphere on both isostructural (110) surfaces, despite predictions that outer-sphere binding should predominate on low bulk dielectric constant oxides such as cassiterite (ε(bulk) ≈ 11). Inner-sphere adsorption is also significant for Rb(+) and Na(+) on neutral surfaces, whereas Cl(-) binding is predominately outer-sphere. As negative surface charge increases, relatively more Rb(+), Na(+), and especially Sr(2+) are bound in highly desolvated tetradentate fashion on the rutile (110) surface, largely accounting for enhanced negative charge development relative to cassiterite. Charging curves in the presence of Zn(2+) are very steep but similar for both oxides, reflective of Zn(2+) hydrolysis (and accompanying proton release) during the adsorption process, and the similar binding modes for ZnOH(+) on both surfaces. These results suggest that differences in cation adsorption between high and low bulk dielectric constant oxides are more subtly related to the relative degree of cation desolvation accompanying inner-sphere binding (i.e., more tetradentate binding on rutile), rather than distinct inner- and outer-sphere adsorption modes. Cation desolvation may be favored at the rutile (110) surface in part because inner-sphere water molecules are bound further from and less tightly than on the cassiterite (110) surface. Hence, their removal upon inner

  2. Multi-State Vibronic Interactions in Fluorinated Benzene Radical Cations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, S.; Köppel, H.

    2009-06-01

    Conical intersections of potential energy surfaces have emerged as paradigms for signalling strong nonadiabatic coupling effects. An important class of systems where some of these effects have been analyzed in the literature, are the benzene and benzenoid cations, where the electronic structure, spectroscopy, and dynamics have received great attention in the literature. In the present work a brief overview is given over our theoretical treatments of multi-mode and multi-state vibronic interactions in the benzene radical cation and some of its fluorinated derivatives. The fluorobenzene derivatives are of systematic interest for at least two different reasons. (1) The reduction of symmetry by incomplete fluorination leads to a disappearance of the Jahn-Teller effect present in the parent cation. (2) A specific, more chemical effect of fluorination consists in the energetic increase of the lowest σ-type electronic states of the radical cations. The multi-mode multi-state vibronic interactions between the five lowest electronic states of the fluorobenzene radical cations are investigated theoretically, based on ab initio electronic structure data, and employing the well-established linear vibronic coupling model, augmented by quadratic coupling terms for the totally symmetric vibrational modes. Low-energy conical intersections, and strong vibronic couplings are found to prevail within the set of tilde{X}-tilde{A} and tilde{B}-tilde{C}-tilde{D} cationic states, while the interactions between these two sets of states are found to be weaker and depend on the particular isomer. This is attributed to the different location of the minima of the various conical intersections occurring in these systems. Wave-packet dynamical simulations for these coupled potential energy surfaces, utilizing the powerful multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method are performed. Ultrafast internal conversion processes and the analysis of the MATI and photo-electron spectra shed new light

  3. Molecular Simulations of Carbon Dioxide and Water: Cation Solvation and Wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criscenti, L. J.; Bracco, J.; Cygan, R. T.

    2010-12-01

    Proposed carbon dioxide sequestration scenarios in sedimentary basins require investigation into the interaction between supercritical carbon dioxide, brines, and the mineral phases found in the basin and overlying caprock. Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can be used to investigate some of these interactions such as the partitioning of metal cations between aqueous solutions and supercritical carbon dioxide, and the relative wettability of basin and caprock minerals with different fluid phases including water, carbon dioxide, and oil. Initial research has lead to the development of a new flexible carbon dioxide force field that successfully reproduces the vibrational properties of carbon dioxide, and a methodology for extracting contact angle information from large-scale MD simulations. Molecular simulations were performed to compare the solvation of alkali and alkaline metal cations in water and liquid carbon dioxide at 300K, using a flexible simple point charge (SPC) model for water and the new carbon dioxide force field. Solvation energies for Na+, Cs+, Mg2+, and Ba2+ are larger in water than in carbon dioxide, suggesting that these cations will partition preferentially into water. In both solutions, the solvation energy for the cations decreases with ion size and increases with ion charge. However, changes in solvation energy with increasing ionic radii are smaller in carbon dioxide than in water. Therefore, the overall partitioning of cations into carbon dioxide is predicted to increase with ion size. Molecular dynamics simulations are also useful to examine the relative wettability of minerals with different fluid phases. Large-scale MD simulations involving between 100,000 and 200,000 atoms have been conducted to establish a dynamic equilibrium between a drop of liquid water, water vapor, and kaolinite surfaces. The water drops consisted of at least 1700 molecules. Simulations were performed for five nanoseconds. The contact angle calculated

  4. Contraction of π-Conjugated Rings upon Oxidation from Cyclooctatetraene to Benzene via the Tropylium Cation.

    PubMed

    Tamoto, Akira; Aratani, Naoki; Yamada, Hiroko

    2017-11-16

    We have serendipitously discovered a unique transformation of a cyclooctatetraene derivative 1 into a cycloheptatriene spirolactone 3 upon oxidation, which is the first such transformation reported in 60 years. Product 3 could be reversibly interconverted into the aromatic tropylium cation 3H + by acid/base treatment, which was accompanied by drastic spectroscopic changes. The resultant cycloheptatriene could be further converted into benzene upon oxidation. We characterized all the key structures by X-ray studies. Eventually, the π-conjugated ring size shrinks from 8 to 7, then finally to 6 upon oxidation, in the direction of the stronger aromatization. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Light-dependent cation gradients and electrical potential in Halobacterium halobium cell envelope vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, J. K.; Macdonald, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Vesicles can be prepared from Halobacterium halobium cell envelopes, which contain properly oriented bacteriorhodopsin and which extrude H(+) during illumination. The pH difference that is generated across the membranes is accompanied by an electrical potential of 90 to 100 mV (interior negative) and the movements of other cations. Among these is the efflux of Na(+), which proceeds against its electrochemical potential. The relationship between the size and direction of the light-induced pH gradient and the rate of depletion of Na(+) from the vesicles, as well as other evidence, suggest that the active Na(+) extrusion is facilitated by a membrane component that exchanges H(+) for Na(+) with a stoichiometry greater than 1. The gradients of H(+) and Na(+) are thus coupled to one another. The Na(+) gradient (efflux much larger than influx), which arises during illumination, plays a major role in energizing the active transport of amino acids.

  6. Phenolic cation-exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ebra, M.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1982-05-05

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear wate solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs/sup +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  7. Phenolic cation exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium

    DOEpatents

    Ebra, Martha A.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1983-01-01

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear waste solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs.sup.+ and Sr.sup.2+ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  8. Cation/Anion Substitution in Cu2ZnSnS4 for Improved Photovoltaic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ananthoju, Balakrishna; Mohapatra, Jeotikanta; Jangid, Manoj K.; Bahadur, D.; Medhekar, N. V.; Aslam, M.

    2016-01-01

    Cations and anions are replaced with Fe, Mn, and Se in CZTS in order to control the formations of the secondary phase, the band gap, and the micro structure of Cu2ZnSnS4. We demonstrate a simplified synthesis strategy for a range of quaternary chalcogenide nanoparticles such as Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), Cu2FeSnS4 (CFTS), Cu2MnSnS4 (CMTS), Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe), and Cu2ZnSn(S0.5Se0.5)4 (CZTSSe) by thermolysis of metal chloride precursors using long chain amine molecules. It is observed that the crystal structure, band gap and micro structure of the CZTS thin films are affected by the substitution of anion/cations. Moreover, secondary phases are not observed and grain sizes are enhanced significantly with selenium doping (grain size ~1 μm). The earth-abundant Cu2MSnS4/Se4 (M = Zn, Mn and Fe) nanoparticles have band gaps in the range of 1.04–1.51 eV with high optical-absorption coefficients (~104 cm−1) in the visible region. The power conversion efficiency of a CZTS solar cell is enhanced significantly, from 0.4% to 7.4% with selenium doping, within an active area of 1.1 ± 0.1 cm2. The observed changes in the device performance parameters might be ascribed to the variation of optical band gap and microstructure of the thin films. The performance of the device is at par with sputtered fabricated films, at similar scales. PMID:27748406

  9. Cationic micelles self-assembled from cholesterol-conjugated oligopeptides as an efficient gene delivery vector.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin Dong; Tandiono, Fanny; Wiradharma, Nikken; Khor, Dingyue; Tan, Chuan Guan; Khan, Majad; Qian, Yu; Yang, Yi-Yan

    2008-12-01

    Cholesterol-conjugated H(5)R(10) and H(10)R(10) oligopeptides (HR15-Chol and HR20-Chol) were designed and synthesized. These amphiphilic oligopeptides were able to self-assemble into cationic micelles in aqueous solution at low concentrations, and their critical micelle concentrations in sodium acetate buffer (20mM, pH 5.0) were 17.8 and 28.2mg/L respectively. The micelle formation was further evidenced via SEM and dynamic light scattering analyses. The average hydrodynamic size of HR15-Chol and HR20-Chol micelles was about 425 and 435 nM in diameter with zeta potential of 64 and 66 mV respectively. The formation of micelles increased local concentration of cationic charge, leading to higher DNA binding efficiency as compared to the control peptides HR15 and HR20. The minimum size observed for HR15-Chol/DNA and HR20-Chol/DNA complexes was about 175-176 nM, and the maximum zeta potential was around 61-62 mV. In comparison, HR15 and HR20 formed DNA complexes with a similar size but significantly lower zeta potential (i.e. about 31-40 mV). In particular, after being challenged by DMEM medium, the size of peptide/DNA complexes was increased significantly and their surface charge was neutralized. Nevertheless, the size of the micelle/DNA complexes formed from HR15-Chol and HR20-Chol was still about 200 nM with positive charge of around 20 mV at high N/P ratios. The micelles induced much higher overall gene expression (i.e. luciferase expression) levels than the peptides in both HepG2 and HEK293 cell lines. Increasing the histidine residue from 0 to 5 to 10 further increased gene expression efficiency. In particular, HR20-Chol micelles yielded 95% GFP-positive HepG2 cells at N/P 50, much higher than that induced by PEI at its optimal N/P ratio (i.e. 10), which was 6.8%. In 4T1 cells, HR20-Chol induced 2 times higher luciferase expression level than PEI at their optimal N/P ratios. Moreover, HR20-Chol micelle/DNA complexes were less cytotoxic than PEI/DNA complexes. These

  10. Intramolecular cation-π interactions in protonated phenylalanine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fu, Weiqiang; Carr, Patrick J J; Lecours, Michael J; Burt, Michael; Marta, Rick A; Steinmetz, Vincent; Fillion, Eric; McMahon, Terrance B; Hopkins, W Scott

    2016-12-21

    The structures and properties of a series of phenylalanine (Phe) derivatives have been investigated in a joint computational and experimental infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) study. IRMPD spectra in the 1000-2000 cm -1 region show that protonation is localized on the amine group in all cases. Intramolecular cation-π interactions between the ammonium group and the phenyl ring heavily influence molecular geometries and properties such as gas phase basicity and proton affinity. By varying substituents on the phenyl ring, one can sensitively tune the cation-π interaction and, therefore, the molecular structure and properties. Variations in molecular structures and properties as a function of phenyl ring substitution are shown to correlate with substituent Hammett parameters.

  11. New salts of amino acids with dimeric cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaryan, V. V.; Fleck, M.; Petrosyan, A. M.

    2010-10-01

    Among salts of amino acids there are compounds with the composition 2A..HX, which consist of dimeric A...A+ cations with short symmetric or asymmetric hydrogen bonds between zwitter-ionic and protonated moieties. These species are materials liable to undergo phase transitions or possess interesting nonlinear optical properties. Here, we report the preparation of 20 new salts with dimeric cations from aqueous solutions, including compounds of glycine, betaine, β- alanine, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-threonine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-proline, with BF4-, ClO4-, Cl-, Br-, HSeO3-, and HC2O4-; as anions. The prepared salts are characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Some of them are grown in form of good quality single crystals, which allowed the determination of their crystal structure.

  12. Removal of both cationic and anionic contaminants by amphoteric starch.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huanlong; Zhong, Songxiong; Lin, Qintie; Yao, Xiaosheng; Liang, Zhuoying; Yang, Muqun; Yin, Guangcai; Liu, Qianjun; He, Hongfei

    2016-03-15

    A novel amphoteric starch incorporating quaternary ammonium and phosphate groups was applied to investigate the efficiency and mechanism of cationic and anionic contaminant treatment. Its flocculation abilities for kaolin suspension and copper-containing wastewater were evaluated by turbidity reduction and copper removal efficiency, respectively. And the kinetics of formation, breakage and subsequent re-formation of aggregates were monitored using a Photometric Dispersion Analyzer (PDA) and characterized by flocculation index (FI). The results showed that amphoteric starch possessed the advantages of being lower-dosages-consuming and being stronger in shear resistance than cationic starch, and exhibited a good flocculation efficiency over a wide pH range from 3.0 to 11.0. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enzyme-catalyzed cationic epoxide rearrangements in quinolone alkaloid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi; Garcia-Borràs, Marc; Tang, Mancheng C; Hirayama, Yuichiro; Li, Dehai H; Li, Li; Watanabe, Kenji; Houk, K N; Tang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    Epoxides are highly useful synthons and biosynthons for the construction of complex natural products during total synthesis and biosynthesis, respectively. Among enzyme-catalyzed epoxide transformations, a reaction that is notably missing, in regard to the synthetic toolbox, is cationic rearrangement that takes place under strong acid. This is a challenging transformation for enzyme catalysis, as stabilization of the carbocation intermediate upon epoxide cleavage is required. Here, we discovered two Brønsted acid enzymes that can catalyze two unprecedented epoxide transformations in biology. PenF from the penigequinolone pathway catalyzes a cationic epoxide rearrangement under physiological conditions to generate a quaternary carbon center, while AsqO from the aspoquinolone pathway catalyzes a 3-exo-tet cyclization to forge a cyclopropane-tetrahydrofuran ring system. The discovery of these new epoxide-modifying enzymes further highlights the versatility of epoxides in complexity generation during natural product biosynthesis.

  14. Precise Composition Tailoring of Mixed-Cation Hybrid Perovskites for Efficient Solar Cells by Mixture Design Methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Liu, Na; Xu, Ziqi; Chen, Qi; Wang, Xindong; Zhou, Huanping

    2017-09-26

    Mixed anion/cation perovskites absorber has been recently implemented to construct highly efficient single junction solar cells and tandem devices. However, considerable efforts are still required to map the composition-property relationship of the mixed perovskites absorber, which is essential to facilitate device design. Here we report the intensive exploration of mixed-cation perovskites in their compositional space with the assistance of a rational mixture design (MD) methods. Different from the previous linear search of the cation ratios, it is found that by employing the MD methods, the ternary composition can be tuned simultaneously following simplex lattice designs or simplex-centroid designs, which enable significantly reduced experiment/sampling size to unveil the composition-property relationship for mixed perovskite materials and to boost the resultant device efficiency. We illustrated the composition-property relationship of the mixed perovskites in multidimension and achieved an optimized power conversion efficiency of 20.99% in the corresponding device. Moreover, the method is demonstrated to be feasible to help adjust the bandgap through rational materials design, which can be further extended to other materials systems, not limited in polycrystalline perovskites films for photovoltaic applications only.

  15. Effect of cationic lipid composition on properties of oligonucleotide/emulsion complexes: Physico-chemical and release studies.

    PubMed

    Martini, Erico; Fattal, Elias; de Oliveira, Mônica Cristina; Teixeira, Helder

    2008-03-20

    This paper describes the influence of cationic lipid composition on physico-chemical properties of complexes formed between oligonucleotides (ON) and cationic emulsions. Formulations containing medium chain triglycerides, egg lecithin, increasing amounts of either oleylamine (OA) or 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), and water were prepared by a spontaneous emulsification procedure. ON adsorption on emulsions was evidenced by the inversion of the zeta-potential, the increase in droplet size, and the morphology of the oil droplet examined through transmission electron microscopy. Adsorption isotherms showed a higher amount of ON adsorbed on emulsions containing DOTAP when compared to emulsions containing OA. In a final step, the role of the main parameters, which may in fact influence the ON release rate from emulsions, was investigated. ON were progressively released from emulsions with an increase in dilution ratio and remained quite similar for both OA and DOTAP emulsions over time. Conversely, the effect of the cationic lipid composition was observed upon increasing the charge ratio of complexes. ON release at a same charge ratio was lower from emulsions containing DOTAP (bearing dioleyl chains) than from those containing OA (bearing monoleyl chain).

  16. Ga for Zn Cation Exchange Allows for Highly Luminescent and Photostable InZnP-Based Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that a preferential Ga-for-Zn cation exchange is responsible for the increase in photoluminescence that is observed when gallium oleate is added to InZnP alloy QDs. By exposing InZnP QDs with varying Zn/In ratios to gallium oleate and monitoring their optical properties, composition, and size, we conclude that Ga3+ preferentially replaces Zn2+, leading to the formation of InZnP/InGaP core/graded-shell QDs. This cation exchange reaction results in a large increase of the QD photoluminescence, but only for InZnP QDs with Zn/In ≥ 0.5. For InP QDs that do not contain zinc, Ga is most likely incorporated only on the quantum dot surface, and a PL enhancement is not observed. After further growth of a GaP shell and a lattice-matched ZnSeS outer shell, the cation-exchanged InZnP/InGaP QDs continue to exhibit superior PL QY (over 70%) and stability under long-term illumination (840 h, 5 weeks) compared to InZnP cores with the same shells. These results provide important mechanistic insights into recent improvements in InP-based QDs for luminescent applications. PMID:28706347

  17. Reaction of Photochemically Generated Organic Cations with Colloidal Clays.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    University of Notre Dame. IS. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse aide if neceary end identify by block number) Chemistry of colloidal montmorillonite Absorption...Centlws m ftves n N mee.iy mi Identify by block number) Qi Organic radical cations will dimerize when adsorbed to the surface D of montmorillonite in...1 The Nature and Chemistry of Micelles .... 2 The Nature and Chemistry of Clay Minerals 5 Montmorillonite Catalyzed Color

  18. Monovalent Cation Permeation through the Connexin40 Gap Junction Channel

    PubMed Central

    Beblo, Dolores A.; Veenstra, Richard D.

    1997-01-01

    The unitary conductances and permeability sequences of the rat connexin40 (rCx40) gap junction channels to seven monovalent cations and anions were studied in rCx40-transfected neuroblastoma 2A (N2A) cell pairs using the dual whole cell recording technique. Chloride salt cation substitutions (115 mM principal salt) resulted in the following junctional maximal single channel current-voltage relationship slope conductances (γj in pS): CsCl (153), RbCl (148), KCl (142), NaCl (115), LiCl (86), TMACl (71), TEACl (63). Reversible block of the rCx40 channel was observed with TBA. Potassium anion salt γj are: Kglutamate (160), Kacetate (160), Kaspartate (158), KNO3 (157), KF (148), KCl (142), and KBr (132). Ion selectivity was verified by measuring reversal potentials for current in rCx40 gap junction channels with asymmetric salt solutions in the two electrodes and using the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation to calculate relative permeabilities. The permeabilities relative to Li+ are: Cs+ (1.38), Rb+ (1.32), K+ (1.31), Na+ (1.16), TMA+ (0.53), TEA+ (0.45), TBA+ (0.03), Cl− (0.19), glutamate− (0.04), and NO3− (0.14), assuming that the monovalent anions permeate the channel by forming ion pairs with permeant monovalent cations within the pore thereby causing proportionate decreases in the channel conductance. This hypothesis can account for why the predicted increasing conductances with increasing ion mobilities in an essentially aqueous channel were not observed for anions in the rCx40 channel. The rCx40 effective channel radius is estimated to be 6.6 Å from a theoretical fit of the relationship of relative permeability and cation radius. PMID:9101408

  19. Cation-Exchanged Zeolitic Chalcogenides for CO2 Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huajun; Luo, Min; Chen, Xitong; Zhao, Xiang; Lin, Jian; Hu, Dandan; Li, Dongsheng; Bu, Xianhui; Feng, Pingyun; Wu, Tao

    2017-12-18

    We report here the intrinsic advantages of a special family of porous chalcogenides for CO 2 adsorption in terms of high selectivity of CO 2 /N 2 , large uptake capacity, and robust structure due to their first-ever unique integration of the chalcogen-soft surface, high porosity, all-inorganic crystalline framework, and the tunable charge-to-volume ratio of exchangeable cations. Although tuning the CO 2 adsorption properties via the type of exchangeable cations has been well-studied in oxides and MOFs, little is known about the effects of inorganic exchangeable cations in porous chalcogenides, in part because ion exchange in chalcogenides can be very sluggish and incomplete due to their soft character. We have demonstrated that, through a methodological change to progressively tune the host-guest interactions, both facile and nearly complete ion exchange can be accomplished. Herein, a series of cation-exchanged zeolitic chalcogenides (denoted as M@RWY) were studied for the first time for CO 2 adsorption. Samples were prepared through a sequential ion-exchange strategy, and Cs + -, Rb + -, and K + -exchanged samples demonstrated excellent CO 2 adsorption performance. Particularly, K@RWY has the superior CO 2 /N 2 selectivity with the N 2 adsorption even undetected at either 298 or 273 K. It also has the large uptake of 6.3 mmol/g (141 cm 3 /g) at 273 K and 1 atm with an isosteric heat of 35-41 kJ mol -1 , the best among known porous chalcogenides. Moreover, it permits a facile regeneration and exhibits an excellent recyclability, as shown by the multicycling adsorption experiments. Notably, K@RWY also demonstrates a strong tolerance toward water.

  20. Cationic PAMAM Dendrimers Aggressively Initiate Blood Clot Formation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Clinton F.; Campbell, Robert A.; Brooks, Amanda E.; Assemi, Shoeleh; Tadjiki, Soheyl; Thiagarajan, Giridhar; Mulcock, Cheyanne; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Brooks, Benjamin D.; Ghandehari, Hamidreza; Grainger, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are increasingly studied as model nanoparticles for a variety of biomedical applications, notably in systemic administrations. However, with respect to blood contacting applications, amine-terminated dendrimers have recently been shown to activate platelets and cause a fatal, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-like condition in mice and rats. We here demonstrate that, upon addition to blood, cationic G7 PAMAM dendrimers induce fibrinogen aggregation, which may contribute to the in vivo DIC-like phenomenon. We demonstrate that amine-terminated dendrimers act directly on fibrinogen in a thrombin-independent manner to generate dense, high-molecular-weight fibrinogen aggregates with minimal fibrin fibril formation. In addition, we hypothesize this clot-like behavior is likely mediated through electrostatic interactions between the densely charged cationic dendrimer surface and negatively charged fibrinogen domains. Interestingly, cationic dendrimers also induced aggregation of albumin, suggesting that many negatively charged blood proteins may be affected by cationic dendrimers. To investigate this further, zebrafish embryos (ZFE) were employed to more specifically determine the speed of this phenomenon and the pathway- and dose-dependency of the resulting vascular occlusion phenotype. These novel findings show that G7 PAMAM dendrimers significantly and adversely impact many blood components to produce rapid coagulation and strongly suggest that these effects are independent of classic coagulation mechanisms. These results also strongly suggest the need to fully characterize amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers in regards to their adverse effects on both coagulation and platelets, which may contribute to blood toxicity. PMID:23062017

  1. Cation Radical Accelerated Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution via Organic Photoredox Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Tay, Nicholas E S; Nicewicz, David A

    2017-11-15

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (S N Ar) is a direct method for arene functionalization; however, it can be hampered by low reactivity of arene substrates and their availability. Herein we describe a cation radical-accelerated nucleophilic aromatic substitution using methoxy- and benzyloxy-groups as nucleofuges. In particular, lignin-derived aromatics containing guaiacol and veratrole motifs were competent substrates for functionalization. We also demonstrate an example of site-selective substitutive oxygenation with trifluoroethanol to afford the desired trifluoromethylaryl ether.

  2. The Chemistry of Separations Ligand Degradation by Organic Radical Cations

    DOE PAGES

    Mezyk, Stephen P.; Horne, Gregory P.; Mincher, Bruce J.; ...

    2016-12-01

    Solvent based extractions of used nuclear fuel use designer ligands in an organic phase extracting ligand complexed metal ions from an acidic aqueous phase. These extractions will be performed in highly radioactive environments, and the radiation chemistry of all these complexants and their diluents will play a major role in determining extraction efficiency, separation factors, and solvent-recycle longevity. Although there has been considerable effort in investigating ligand damage occurring in acidic water radiolysis conditions, only minimal fundamental kinetic and mechanistic data has been reported for the degradation of extraction ligands in the organic phase. Extraction solvent phases typically use normalmore » alkanes such as dodecane, TPH, and kerosene as diluents. The radiolysis of such diluents produce a mixture of radical cations (R •+), carbon-centered radicals (R •), solvated electrons, and molecular products such as hydrogen. Typically, the radical species will preferentially react with the dissolved oxygen present to produce relatively inert peroxyl radicals. This isolates the alkane radical cation species, R •+ as the major radiolytically-induced organic species that can react with, and degrade, extraction agents in this phase. Here we report on our recent studies of organic radical cation reactions with various ligands. Elucidating these parameters, and combining them with the known acidic aqueous phase chemistry, will allow a full, fundamental, understanding of the impact of radiation on solvent extraction based separation processes to be achieved.« less

  3. Nucleophilic addition of nitrogen to aryl cations: mimicking Titan chemistry.

    PubMed

    Li, Anyin; Jjunju, Fred P M; Cooks, R Graham

    2013-11-01

    The reactivity of aryl cations toward molecular nitrogen is studied systematically in an ion trap mass spectrometer at 10(2) Pascal of nitrogen, the pressure of the Titan main haze layer. Nucleophilic addition of dinitrogen occurs and the nature of aryl group has a significant influence on the reactivity, through inductive effects and by changing the ground state spin multiplicity. The products of nitrogen activation, aryldiazonium ions, react with typical nitriles, aromatic amines, and alkynes (compounds that are relevant as possible Titan atmosphere constituents) to form covalently bonded heterocyclic products. Theoretical calculations at the level [DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p)] indicate that the N2 addition reaction is exothermic for the singlet aryl cations but endothermic for their triplet spin isomers. The -OH and -NH2 substituted aryl ions are calculated to have triplet ground states, which is consistent with their decreased nitrogen addition reactivity. The energy needed for the generation of the aryl cations from their protonated precursors (ca. 340 kJ/mol starting with protonated aniline) is far less than that required to directly activate the nitrogen triple bond (the lowest energy excited state of N2 lies ca. 600 kJ/mol above the ground state). The formation of aza-aromatics via arene ionization and subsequent reactions provide a conceivable route to the genesis of nitrogen-containing organic molecules in the interstellar medium and Titan haze layers.

  4. Salting-out and multivalent cation precipitation of anionic surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.D. Jr.; Keppel, R.A.; Cosper, M.B.

    1981-02-01

    In this surfactant/polymer flooding process, a carefully designed surfactant slug is injected into an oil-bearing formation with a view to reducing the oil/water interfacial tension substantially so as to facilitate mobilization of oil droplets trapped in the less accessible void spaces of the reservoir rock. When the surfactant comes into contact with reservoir brine, oil and rock, several phenomena can occur which result in loss of surfactant from the slug, i.e., salting-out of surfactant by NaCl, precipitation of insoluble soaps by multivalent cations such as calcium, partitioning to oil of both dissolved and precipitated surfactant, and adsorption of surfactant onmore » reservoir rock have been identified as important surfactant loss processes. This study presents some experimental data which illustrate the effects of salt and multivalent cations, identifies the mechanisms which are operative, and develops mathematical relationships which enable one to describe the behavior of surfactant systems when brought into contact with salt, multivalent cations, or both. 26 references.« less

  5. Natural zeolite reactivity towards ozone: the role of compensating cations.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Héctor; Alejandro, Serguei; Zaror, Claudio A

    2012-08-15

    Among indoor pollutants, ozone is recognised to pose a threat to human health. Recently, low cost natural zeolites have been applied as alternative materials for ozone abatement. In this work, the effect of compensating cation content of natural zeolite on ozone removal is studied. A Chilean natural zeolite is used here as starting material. The amount of compensating cations in the zeolite framework was modified by ion exchange using an ammonium sulphate solution (0.1 mol L(-1)). Characterisation of natural and modified zeolites were performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption at 77K, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TGA-MS), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH(3)-TPD). Ozone adsorption and/or decomposition on natural and modified zeolites were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Results show that the zeolite compensating cation content affects ozone interaction with zeolite active sites. Ammonium ion-exchange treatments followed by thermal out-gassing at 823 K, reduces ozone diffusion resistance inside the zeolite framework, increasing ozone abatement on zeolite surface active sites. Weak and strong Lewis acid sites of zeolite surface are identified here as the main active sites responsible of ozone removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Flocculation and antimicrobial properties of a cationized starch.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouzhou; Huang, Mu; Li, Aimin; Yang, Hu

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a series of cationized starch-based flocculants (starch-3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl triethyl ammonium chloride, St-CTA) containing various quaternary ammonium salt groups on the starch backbone were prepared using a simple etherification reaction. All of the prepared starch-based flocculants show effective performance for the flocculation of kaolin suspension, two bacterial (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) suspensions, and two contaminant mixtures (kaolin and each bacterium) under most pH conditions. St-CTA with a high substitution degree of CTA demonstrates improved contaminant removal efficiency because of the strong cationic nature of the grafted quaternary ammonium salt groups and the charge naturalization flocculation effect. The antibacterial effects of St-CTA were also evaluated, considering that many quaternary ammonium salt compounds elicit bactericidal effects. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectra and direct cell morphological observation under scanning electron microscopy reveal that the starch-based flocculants exhibit better antibacterial effects on the Gram-negative bacterium E. coli than on the Gram-positive bacterium S. aureus. The thicker cell wall due to the presence of abundant peptidoglycan and teichoic acids of S. aureus than E. coli explains the uneasy breakage of S. aureus cell wall after being attacked by the cationized starch-based flocculants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Specific cationic emission of cisplatin following ionization by swift protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto-Capelle, Patrick; Champeaux, Jean-Philippe; Deville, Charlotte; Sence, Martine; Cafarelli, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated collision-induced ionization and fragmentation by 100 keV protons of the radio sensitizing molecule cisplatin, which is used in cancer treatments. A large emission of HCl+ and NH2+ is observed, but surprisingly, no cationic fragments containing platinum are detected, in contrast to ionization-dissociation induced by electronic collision. Theoretical investigations show that the ionization processes take place on platinum and on chlorine atoms. We propose new ionization potentials for cisplatin. Dissociation limits corresponding to the measured fragmentation mass spectrum have been evaluated and the theoretical results show that the non-observed cationic fragments containing platinum are mostly associated with low dissociation energies. We have also investigated the reaction path for the hydrogen transfer from the NH3 group to the Cl atom, as well as the corresponding dissociation limits from this tautomeric form. Here again the cations containing platinum correspond to lower dissociation limits. Thus, the experimental results suggest that excited states, probably formed via inner-shell ionization of the platinum atom of the molecule, correlated to higher dissociation limits are favored.

  8. The Chemistry of Separations Ligand Degradation by Organic Radical Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Mezyk, Stephen P.; Horne, Gregory P.; Mincher, Bruce J.

    Solvent based extractions of used nuclear fuel use designer ligands in an organic phase extracting ligand complexed metal ions from an acidic aqueous phase. These extractions will be performed in highly radioactive environments, and the radiation chemistry of all these complexants and their diluents will play a major role in determining extraction efficiency, separation factors, and solvent-recycle longevity. Although there has been considerable effort in investigating ligand damage occurring in acidic water radiolysis conditions, only minimal fundamental kinetic and mechanistic data has been reported for the degradation of extraction ligands in the organic phase. Extraction solvent phases typically use normalmore » alkanes such as dodecane, TPH, and kerosene as diluents. The radiolysis of such diluents produce a mixture of radical cations (R •+), carbon-centered radicals (R •), solvated electrons, and molecular products such as hydrogen. Typically, the radical species will preferentially react with the dissolved oxygen present to produce relatively inert peroxyl radicals. This isolates the alkane radical cation species, R •+ as the major radiolytically-induced organic species that can react with, and degrade, extraction agents in this phase. Here we report on our recent studies of organic radical cation reactions with various ligands. Elucidating these parameters, and combining them with the known acidic aqueous phase chemistry, will allow a full, fundamental, understanding of the impact of radiation on solvent extraction based separation processes to be achieved.« less

  9. Spin structure, magnetism, and cation distributions of NiFe2-xAlxO4 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamali, Saeed

    2017-07-01

    Low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy together with isothermal magnetization and zero-field-cooled and field-cooled measurements have been used to perform a systematic investigation of the cation distributions and magnetic properties of solid solutions of NiFe2-xAlxO4 with x = 0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0. Mössbauer spectroscopy for the starting member of the series, NiFe2O4, shows that nickel atoms occupy the octahedral sites and are in 2+ oxidation state, while iron atoms, all in 3+ oxidation state, occupy equally the tetrahedral and the octahedral sites. When low concentration of aluminum, x = 0.4, is incorporated into the system, they substitute preferentially iron atoms in the octahedral sites. As the concentration of aluminum is increased, there are distributions of them in both the tetrahedral and octahedral sites leading to complex cation distributions. The magnetic characters of iron and nickel atoms and the diamagnetic nature of aluminum atoms and the complex cation distributions result in interesting magnetic properties for this class of materials. As the concentration of aluminum increases, the saturation magnetization decreases drastically and then gradually increases. In the end member of the series, NiAl2O4, the absent of any super-exchange interaction between the A-sites and the B-sites due to presence of Ni ions as the only magnetic atoms in the B-sites results in a paramagnetic structure and a magnetization close to zero although the nickel atoms have a spin moment of 2μB . This paramagnetic feature makes this compound to be considered as a magnetic resonant imaging agent. Another very interesting feature is the back and forth switching of the dominance of the magnetic moments in the tetrahedral sites and the octahedral sites as aluminum concentration increases.

  10. Intracellular dynamics of cationic and anionic polystyrene nanoparticles without direct interaction with mitotic spindle and chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuexian; Li, Wei; Lao, Fang; Liu, Ying; Wang, Liming; Bai, Ru; Zhao, Yuliang; Chen, Chunying

    2011-11-01

    The fate of nanomaterials with different sizes and charges in mitotic cells is of great importance but seldom explored. Herein we investigate the intracellular fate of negatively charged carboxylated polystyrene (COOH-PS) and positively charged amino-modified polystyrene (NH(2)-PS) nanoparticles of three different diameters (50, 100 and 500 nm) on cancer HeLa cells and normal NIH 3T3 cells during the cell cycles. The results showed that all the fluorescent PS nanoparticles differing in size and/or charge did not interact with chromosome reorganization and cytoskeleton assembly during the mitotic process in live cells. They neither disturbed chromosome reorganization nor affected the cytoskeleton reassembly in both normal and cancer cells. However, NH(2)-PS at the size of 50 nm caused G1 phase delay and a decrease of cyclin (D, E) expression, respectively. Moreover, NH(2)-PS displayed higher cellular toxicity and NH(2)-PS of 50 nm disturbed the integrity of cell membranes. Both cationic and anionic PS nanoparticles had a more pronounced effect on normal NIH 3T3 cells than cancer HeLa cell. Our research provides insight into the dynamic fate, intracellular behavior, and the effects of nanoparticles on spindle and chromosomes during cell division, which will enable the optimization of design and selection of much safer nanoparticles for lower risk to human health and widely medical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of palladium doping on the stability and fragmentation patterns of cationic gold clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, P.; Hussein, H. A.; Heard, C. J.; Vanbuel, J.; Johnston, R. L.; Lievens, P.; Janssens, E.

    2018-05-01

    We analyze in detail how the interplay between electronic structure and cluster geometry determines the stability and the fragmentation channels of single Pd-doped cationic Au clusters, PdA uN-1+ (N =2 -20 ). For this purpose, a combination of photofragmentation experiments and density functional theory calculations was employed. A remarkable agreement between the experiment and the calculations is obtained. Pd doping is found to modify the structure of the Au clusters, in particular altering the two-dimensional to three-dimensional transition size, with direct consequences on the stability of the clusters. Analysis of the electronic density of states of the clusters shows that depending on cluster size, Pd delocalizes one 4 d electron, giving an enhanced stability to PdA u6 + , or remains with all 4 d10 electrons localized, closing an electronic shell in PdA u9 + . Furthermore, it is observed that for most clusters, Au evaporation is the lowest-energy decay channel, although for some sizes Pd evaporation competes. In particular, PdA u7 + and PdA u9 + decay by Pd evaporation due to the high stability of the A u7 + and A u9 + fragmentation products.

  12. Electronic effects on melting: Comparison of aluminum cluster anions and cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anne K.; Neal, Colleen M.; Cao, Baopeng; Jarrold, Martin F.; Aguado, Andrés; López, José M.

    2009-07-01

    Heat capacities have been measured as a function of temperature for aluminum cluster anions with 35-70 atoms. Melting temperatures and latent heats are determined from peaks in the heat capacities; cohesive energies are obtained for solid clusters from the latent heats and dissociation energies determined for liquid clusters. The melting temperatures, latent heats, and cohesive energies for the aluminum cluster anions are compared to previous measurements for the corresponding cations. Density functional theory calculations have been performed to identify the global minimum energy geometries for the cluster anions. The lowest energy geometries fall into four main families: distorted decahedral fragments, fcc fragments, fcc fragments with stacking faults, and "disordered" roughly spherical structures. The comparison of the cohesive energies for the lowest energy geometries with the measured values allows us to interpret the size variation in the latent heats. Both geometric and electronic shell closings contribute to the variations in the cohesive energies (and latent heats), but structural changes appear to be mainly responsible for the large variations in the melting temperatures with cluster size. The significant charge dependence of the latent heats found for some cluster sizes indicates that the electronic structure can change substantially when the cluster melts.

  13. The permeability of the cGMP-activated channel to organic cations in retinal rods of the tiger salamander.

    PubMed Central

    Picco, C; Menini, A

    1993-01-01

    1. The permeability of the channel activated by guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) to many organic monovalent cations was determined by recording macroscopic currents in excised inside-out patches of plasma membrane from isolated retinal rod outer segments of the tiger salamander. 2. Current-voltage relations were measured when the NaCl of the bathing medium was replaced by salts of organic cations. Permeability ratios relative to Na+ ions were calculated with the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz potential equation from the measured changes of reversal potentials. 3. Hydroxylammonium+, hydrazinium+ and methylammonium+, which are molecules of very similar shape and size, permeate the channel with very different permeability ratios: 5.92, 1.99 and 0.60 respectively. 4. Methylated and ethylated ammonium+ compounds were investigated. It was found that, not only methylammonium+, but also dimethylammonium+ and ethylammonium+ were permeant with permeability ratios of 0.6, 0.14 and 0.16 respectively. Trimethylammonium+, tetramethylammonium+, diethylammonium+, triethylammonium+, and tetraethylammonium+ were not permeant. 5. Guanidinium+ and its derivatives formamidinium+, aminoguanidinium+, acetamidinium+ and methylguanidinium+ were all permeant with permeability ratios 1.12, 1.00, 0.63, 0.36 and 0.33 respectively. 6. The cGMP-activated channel was found to be permeable to at least thirteen organic cations. Molecular models of the permeant cations indicate that the cross-section of the narrowest part of the pore must be at least as large as a rectangle of 0.38 x 0.5 nm dimensions. PMID:7683718

  14. High-temperature stability of the hydrate shell of a Na+ cation in a flat nanopore with hydrophobic walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevkunov, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    The effect of elevated temperature has on the hydrate shell of a singly charged sodium cation inside a flat nanopore with smooth walls is studied using the Monte Carlo method. The free energy and the entropy of vapor molecule attachment are calculated by means of a bicanonical statistical ensemble using a detailed model of interactions. The nanopore has a stabilizing effect on the hydrate shell with respect to fluctuations and a destabilizing effect with respect to complete evaporation. At the boiling point of water, behavior is observed that is qualitatively similar to behavior at room temperature, but with a substantial shift in the vapor pressure and shell size.

  15. Crystal structure of channelrhodopsin, a light-gated cation channel – all cations lead through the monomer –

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hideaki E.; Nureki, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Channelrhodopsin (ChR) is a light-gated cation channel derived from green algae. Since the inward flow of cations triggers the neuron firing, neurons expressing ChRs can be optically controlled even within freely moving mammals. Although ChR has been broadly applied to neuro-science research, little is known about its molecular mechanisms. We determined the crystal structure of chimeric ChR at 2.3 Å resolution and revealed its molecular architecture. The integration of structural, electrophysio-logical, and computational analyses provided insight into the molecular basis for the channel function of ChR, and paved the way for the principled design of ChR variants with novel properties. PMID:27493541

  16. Unravelling the low thermal expansion coefficient of cation-substituted YBaCo 4O 7+δ

    DOE PAGES

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Huq, Ashfia; Kan, Wang Hay; ...

    2016-01-12

    With an aim to understand the origin of the low thermal expansion coefficients (TECs), cation substituted YBaCo 4O 7-type oxides have been investigated by in-situ neutron diffraction, bond valence sum (BVS), thermogravimetric analysis, and dilatometry. The compositions YBaCo 4O 7+δ, Y 0.9ln 0.1BaCo 3ZnO 7+δ, and Y 0.9ln 0.1BaCo 3Zn 0.6Fe 0.4O 7+δ) were synthesized by solid-state reaction at 1200 °C. Here, Rietveld refinement of the joint synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction data shows that the Zn and Fe dopants have different preferences to substitute the Co ions in the 6c and 2a sites.

  17. Cation-dependent nutrient transport in shrimp digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Tamla; Mozo, Julie; Wilson, Jennifer; Ahearn, Gregory A

    2012-02-01

    Purified epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were produced from the hepatopancreas of the Atlantic White shrimp, Litopeneaus setiferus, using standard methods originally developed for mammalian tissues and previously applied to other crustacean and echinoderm epithelia. These vesicles were used to study the cation dependency of sugar and amino acid transport across luminal membranes of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. (3)H-D: -glucose uptake by BBMV against transient sugar concentration gradients occurred when either transmembrane sodium or potassium gradients were the only driving forces for sugar accumulation, suggesting the presence of a possible coupled transport system capable of using either cation. (3)H-L: -histidine transport was only stimulated by a transmembrane potassium gradient, while (3)H-L: -leucine uptake was enhanced by either a sodium or potassium gradient. These responses suggest the possible presence of a potassium-dependent transporter that accommodates either amino acid and a sodium-dependent system restricted only to L: -leucine. Uptake of (3)H-L: -leucine was significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) by several metallic cations (e.g., Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Cd(2+), or Co(2+)) at external pH values of 7.0 or 5.0 (internal pH 7.0), suggesting a potential synergistic role of the cations in the transmembrane transfer of amino acids. (3)H-L: -histidine influxes (15 suptakes) were hyperbolic functions of external [zinc] or [manganese], following Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent affinity constant (e.g., K (m)) for manganese was an order of magnitude smaller (K (m) = 0.22 μM Mn) than that for zinc (K (m) = 1.80 μM Zn), while no significant difference (P > 0.05) occurred between their maximal transport velocities (e.g., J (max)). These results suggest that a number of cation-dependent nutrient transport systems occur on the shrimp brush border membrane and aid in the absorption of these important dietary elements.

  18. Radiation creation of cation defects in alkali halide crystals: Review and today's concept (Review Article)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lushchik, A.; Lushchik, Ch.; Vasil'chenko, E.; Popov, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    Irradiation of alkali halide crystals creates pairs of Frenkel defects both in anion and cation sublattices. However, the particular nonimpact creation mechanisms (related to the decay of different electronic excitations) of cation Frenkel pairs are still unclear. At helium temperatures, there is yet no direct evidences of the creation of stable (long-lived) elemental cation defects. On the other hand, a number of complex structural defects containing cation vacancies and/or interstitials, were detected after irradiation of alkali halides at higher temperatures. Besides already proved mechanism related to the association of H and VK centers into trihalide molecules, the following possibilities of cation interstitial-vacancy pair creation are analyzed as well: (i) a direct decay of cation or anion excitons, (ii) the transformation of anion Frenkel pairs, formed at the decay of anion excitons or e-h recombination, into cation ones.

  19. Effects of Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation: Part I. Cation series.

    PubMed

    Tuhumury, H C D; Small, D M; Day, L

    2016-12-01

    Different cationic salts were used to investigate the effects of the Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation. The effects of cationic salts on wheat flour dough mixing properties, the rheological and the chemical properties of the gluten extracted from the dough with different respective salts, were investigated. The specific influence of different cationic salts on the gluten structure formation during dough mixing, compared to the sodium ion, were determined. The effects of different cations on dough and gluten of different flours mostly followed the Hofmeister series (NH4(+), K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)). The impacts of cations on gluten structure and dough rheology at levels tested were relatively small. Therefore, the replacement of sodium from a technological standpoint is possible, particularly by monovalent cations such as NH4(+), or K(+). However the levels of replacement need to take into account sensory attributes of the cationic salts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of cationic xylan from annual plants on the mechanical properties of paper.

    PubMed

    Deutschle, Alexander L; Römhild, Katrin; Meister, Frank; Janzon, Ron; Riegert, Christiane; Saake, Bodo

    2014-02-15

    Xylan from oat spelt and wheat was used as an additive to enhance the dry strength of paper. The absorption of xylan by the cellulose fibers was increased by cationization to different degrees of substitution. Paper hand sheets with different doses of xylan and industrial cationic starch were produced, and the mechanical properties were determined. Absorption measurements of cationic oat spelt xylan on pulp fibers explained the differing influences of low and high cationized xylan addition on paper strength. The addition of cationic oat spelt xylan with a degree of substitution of 0.1 at a 4% dose provided the largest improvement in the tensile-index (67%), burst-index (105%) and tear-index (77%). Compared to cationic starch, cationic oat spelt xylan additives led to similar paper strength values, excepting the tear strength. The structural differences and protein impurities made the wheat xylan unsuitable as a strength additive for paper pulp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Equilibrium Acidities and Homolytic Bond Dissociation Enthalpies of the Acidic C-H Bonds in P-(Para-substituted benzyl)triphenylphosphonium Cations and Related Cations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian-Man; Fry, Albert J.; Bordwell, Frederick G.

    1996-06-14

    Equilibrium acidities (pK(HA)) of six P-(para-substituted benzyl)triphenylphosphonium (p-GC(6)H(4)CH(2)PPh(3)(+)) cations, P-allyltriphenylphosphonium cation, P-cinnamyltriphenylphosphonium cation, and As-(p-cyanobenzyl)triphenylarsonium cation, together with the oxidation potentials [E(ox)(A(-))] of their conjugate anions (ylides) have been measured in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution. The acidifying effects of the alpha-triphenylphosphonium groups on the acidic C-H bonds in toluene and propene were found to be ca 25 pK(HA) units (34 kcal/mol). Introduction of an electron-withdrawing group such as 4-NO(2), 4-CN, or 4-Br into the para position of the benzyl ring in p-GC(6)H(4)CH(2)PPh(3)(+) cations resulted in an additional acidity increase, but introduction of the 4-OEt electron-donating group decreases the acidity. The equilibrium acidities of p-GC(6)H(4)CH(2)PPh(3)(+) cations were nicely linearly correlated with the Hammett sigma(-) constants of the substituents (G) with a slope of 4.78 pK(HA) units (R(2) = 0.992) (Figure 1). Reversible oxidation potentials of the P-(para-substituted benzyl)triphenylphosphonium ylides were obtained by fast scan cyclic voltammetry. The homolytic bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) of the acidic C-H bonds in these cations, estimated by combining their equilibrium acidities with the oxidation potentials of their corresponding conjugate anions, showed that the alpha-Ph(3)P(+) groups have negligible stabilizing or destabilizing effects on the adjacent radicals. The equilibrium acidity of As-(p-cyanobenzyl)triphenylarsonium cation is 4 pK(HA) units weaker than that of P-(p-cyanobenzyl)triphenylphosphonium cation, but the BDE of the acidic C-H bond in As-(p-cyanobenzyl)triphenylarsonium cation is ca 2 kcal/mol higher than that in P-(p-cyanobenzyl)triphenylphosphonium cation.

  2. A-site Ordered Chromium Perovskites, ACu3Cr4O12 with A = Trivalent Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Jun; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Umegaki, Izumi; Higemoto, Wataru; Isobe, Masahiko; Takagi, Hidenori; Sakurai, Hiroya; Ansaldo, Eduardo J.; Brewer, Jess H.; Sassa, Yasmine; Forslund, Ola Kenji; Månsson, Martin

    The magnetic ground state of the A-site ordered chromium perovskites, ACu3Cr4O12 with A = Y, La, Eu, and Lu has been investigated with μ+SR using powder samples prepared by a high-pressure technique. Weak transverse field measurements revealed that the four compounds enter into a magnetic phase below 230-260 K. Moreover, the transition temperature (TN) was found to decrease with increasing the size of A3+ ions. Zero field measurements indicated the formation of static antiferromagnetic (AF) order in ACu3Cr4O12 below TN. Furthermore, since the internal magnetic field in the AF phase is independent of A, the role of 4f electrons on the AF state is very limited and/or eventually absence in ACu3Cr4O12.

  3. Soliton switching in a site-dependent ferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjudarvannan, R.; Sathishkumar, P.; Vijayalakshmi, S.

    2017-02-01

    Switching of soliton in a ferromagnetic medium offers the possibility of developing a new innovative approach for information storage technologies. The nonlinear spin dynamics of a site-dependent Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with Gilbert damping under the influence of external magnetic field is expressed in the form of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in the classical continuum limit. The corresponding evolution equation is developed through stereographic projection technique by projecting the unit sphere of spin onto a complex plane. The exact soliton solutions are constructed by solving the associated evolution equation through the modified extended tanh-function method. The impact of damping and external magnetic field on the magnetic soliton under the invariant inhomogeneity is investigated and finally, the magnetization switching in the form of shape changing solitons are demonstrated.

  4. Pretargeted PET Imaging Using a Site-Specifically Labeled Immunoconjugate.

    PubMed

    Cook, Brendon E; Adumeau, Pierre; Membreno, Rosemery; Carnazza, Kathryn E; Brand, Christian; Reiner, Thomas; Agnew, Brian J; Lewis, Jason S; Zeglis, Brian M

    2016-08-17

    In recent years, both site-specific bioconjugation techniques and bioorthogonal pretargeting strategies have emerged as exciting technologies with the potential to improve the safety and efficacy of antibody-based nuclear imaging. In the work at hand, we have combined these two approaches to create a pretargeted PET imaging strategy based on the rapid and bioorthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction between a (64)Cu-labeled tetrazine radioligand ((64)Cu-Tz-SarAr) and a site-specifically modified huA33-trans-cyclooctene immunoconjugate ((ss)huA33-PEG12-TCO). A bioconjugation strategy that harnesses enzymatic transformations and strain-promoted azide-alkyne click chemistry was used to site-specifically append PEGylated TCO moieties to the heavy chain glycans of the colorectal cancer-targeting huA33 antibody. Preclinical in vivo validation studies were performed in athymic nude mice bearing A33 antigen-expressing SW1222 human colorectal carcinoma xenografts. To this end, mice were administered (ss)huA33-PEG12-TCO via tail vein injection and-following accumulation intervals of 24 or 48 h-(64)Cu-Tz-SarAr. PET imaging and biodistribution studies reveal that this strategy clearly delineates tumor tissue as early as 1 h post-injection (6.7 ± 1.7%ID/g at 1 h p.i.), producing images with excellent contrast and high tumor-to-background activity concentration ratios (tumor:muscle = 21.5 ± 5.6 at 24 h p.i.). Furthermore, dosimetric calculations illustrate that this pretargeting approach produces only a fraction of the overall effective dose (0.0214 mSv/MBq; 0.079 rem/mCi) of directly labeled radioimmunoconjugates. Ultimately, this method effectively facilitates the high contrast pretargeted PET imaging of colorectal carcinoma using a site-specifically modified immunoconjugate.

  5. Cations form sequence selective motifs within DNA grooves via a combination of cation-pi and ion-dipole/hydrogen bond interactions.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Mikaela; Dunlap, Tori; Dourlain, Elizabeth; Grant, Bryce; McFail-Isom, Lori

    2013-01-01

    The fine conformational subtleties of DNA structure modulate many fundamental cellular processes including gene activation/repression, cellular division, and DNA repair. Most of these cellular processes rely on the conformational heterogeneity of specific DNA sequences. Factors including those structural characteristics inherent in the particular base sequence as well as those induced through interaction with solvent components combine to produce fine DNA structural variation including helical flexibility and conformation. Cation-pi interactions between solvent cations or their first hydration shell waters and the faces of DNA bases form sequence selectively and contribute to DNA structural heterogeneity. In this paper, we detect and characterize the binding patterns found in cation-pi interactions between solvent cations and DNA bases in a set of high resolution x-ray crystal structures. Specifically, we found that monovalent cations (Tl⁺) and the polarized first hydration shell waters of divalent cations (Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺) form cation-pi interactions with DNA bases stabilizing unstacked conformations. When these cation-pi interactions are combined with electrostatic interactions a pattern of specific binding motifs is formed within the grooves.

  6. Cations Form Sequence Selective Motifs within DNA Grooves via a Combination of Cation-Pi and Ion-Dipole/Hydrogen Bond Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Mikaela; Dunlap, Tori; Dourlain, Elizabeth; Grant, Bryce; McFail-Isom, Lori

    2013-01-01

    The fine conformational subtleties of DNA structure modulate many fundamental cellular processes including gene activation/repression, cellular division, and DNA repair. Most of these cellular processes rely on the conformational heterogeneity of specific DNA sequences. Factors including those structural characteristics inherent in the particular base sequence as well as those induced through interaction with solvent components combine to produce fine DNA structural variation including helical flexibility and conformation. Cation-pi interactions between solvent cations or their first hydration shell waters and the faces of DNA bases form sequence selectively and contribute to DNA structural heterogeneity. In this paper, we detect and characterize the binding patterns found in cation-pi interactions between solvent cations and DNA bases in a set of high resolution x-ray crystal structures. Specifically, we found that monovalent cations (Tl+) and the polarized first hydration shell waters of divalent cations (Mg2+, Ca2+) form cation-pi interactions with DNA bases stabilizing unstacked conformations. When these cation-pi interactions are combined with electrostatic interactions a pattern of specific binding motifs is formed within the grooves. PMID:23940752

  7. Size distribution of ions in atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivácsy, Z.; Molnár, Á.

    The aim of this paper is to present data about the concentration and size distribution of ions in atmospheric aerosol under slightly polluted urban conditions in Hungary. Concentration of inorganic cations (ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium), inorganic anions (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, carbonate) and organic acids (oxalic, malonic, succinic, formic and acetic acid) for 8 particle size range between 0.0625 and 16 μm were determined. As was the case for ammonium, sulfate and nitrate, the organic acids were mostly found in the fine particle size range. Potassium and chloride were rather uniformly distributed between fine and coarse particles. Sodium, calcium, magnesium and carbonate were practically observed in the coarse mode. The results obtained for the summer and the winter half-year were also compared. The mass concentrations were recalculated in equivalents, and the ion balance was found to be reasonable in most cases. Measurement of the pH of the aerosol extracts indicates that the aerosol is acidic in the fine mode, but alkaline in the coarse particle size range.

  8. Anaerobic Killing of Oral Streptococci by Reduced, Transition Metal Cations

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, J. C.; Ma, Y.; Marquis, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    Reduced, transition metal cations commonly enhance oxidative damage to cells caused by hydroperoxides formed as a result of oxygen metabolism or added externally. As expected, the cations Fe2+ and Cu+ enhanced killing of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 by hydroperoxides. However, unexpectedly, they also induced lethal damage under fully anaerobic conditions in a glove box with no exposure to O2 or hydroperoxides from initial treatment with the cations. Sensitivities to anaerobic killing by Fe2+ varied among the organisms tested. The oral streptococci Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558, Streptococcus rattus FA-1, and Streptococcus sanguis NCTC 10904 were approximately as sensitive as S. mutans GS-5. Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790, Actinomyces viscosus OMZ105E, and Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 had intermediate sensitivity, while Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4646 and Escherichia coli B were insensitive. Killing of S. mutans GS-5 in response to millimolar levels of added Fe2+ occurred over a wide range of temperatures and pH. The organism was able to take up ferrous iron, but ferric reductase activity could not be detected. Chelators, uric acid, and thiocyanate were not effective inhibitors of the lethal damage. Sulfhydryl compounds, ferricyanide, and ferrocyanide were protective if added prior to Fe2+ exposure. Fe2+, but not Fe3+, acted to reduce the acid tolerance of glycolysis by intact cells of S. mutans. The reduction in acid tolerance appeared to be related directly to Fe2+ inhibition of F-ATPase, which could be assayed with permeabilized cells, isolated membranes, or F1 enzyme separated from membranes. Cu+ and Cu2+ also inhibited F-ATPase and sensitized glycolysis by intact cells to acid. All of these damaging actions occurred anaerobically and thus did not appear to involve reactive oxygen species. PMID:9435058

  9. Reactive p-block cations stabilized by weakly coordinating anions

    PubMed Central

    Engesser, Tobias A.; Lichtenthaler, Martin R.; Schleep, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The chemistry of the p-block elements is a huge playground for fundamental and applied work. With their bonding from electron deficient to hypercoordinate and formally hypervalent, the p-block elements represent an area to find terra incognita. Often, the formation of cations that contain p-block elements as central ingredient is desired, for example to make a compound more Lewis acidic for an application or simply to prove an idea. This review has collected the reactive p-block cations (rPBC) with a comprehensive focus on those that have been published since the year 2000, but including the milestones and key citations of earlier work. We include an overview on the weakly coordinating anions (WCAs) used to stabilize the rPBC and give an overview to WCA selection, ionization strategies for rPBC-formation and finally list the rPBC ordered in their respective group from 13 to 18. However, typical, often more organic ion classes that constitute for example ionic liquids (imidazolium, ammonium, etc.) were omitted, as were those that do not fulfill the – naturally subjective – “reactive”-criterion of the rPBC. As a rule, we only included rPBC with crystal structure and only rarely refer to important cations published without crystal structure. This collection is intended for those who are simply interested what has been done or what is possible, as well as those who seek advice on preparative issues, up to people having a certain application in mind, where the knowledge on the existence of a rPBC that might play a role as an intermediate or active center may be useful. PMID:26612538

  10. Cation symmetry effect on the volatility of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Marisa A A; Coutinho, João A P; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2012-09-06

    This work reports the first data for the vapor pressures at several temperatures of the ionic liquids, [C(N/2)C(N/2)im][NTf(2)] (N = 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) measured using a Knudsen effusion apparatus combined with a quartz crystal microbalance. The morphology and the thermodynamic parameters of vaporization derived from the vapor pressures, are compared with those for the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide series, [C(N-1)C(1)im][NTf(2)] (N = 3 - 9, 11, and 13). It was found that the volatility of [C(N/2)C(N/2)im][NTf(2)] series is significantly higher than the asymmetric cation ILs with the same total number of carbons in the alkyl side chains, [C(N-1)C(1)im][NTf(2)]. The observed higher volatility is related with the lower enthalpy of vaporization. The symmetric cation, [C(N/2)C(N/2)im][NTf(2)], presents lower entropies of vaporization compared with the asymmetric [C(N-1)C(1)im][NTf(2)], indicating an increase of the absolute liquid entropy in the symmetric cation ILs, being a reflection of a change of the ion dynamics in the IL liquid phase. Moreover both the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization of the [C(N/2)C(N/2)im][NTf(2)] ILs, present a clear odd-even effect with higher enthalpies/entropies of vaporization for the odd number of carbons in each alkyl chain ([C(3)C(3)im][NTf(2)] and [C(5)C(5)im][NTf(2)]).

  11. Effect of alkaline metal cations on the ionic structure of cryolite melts: Ab-initio NpT MD study.

    PubMed

    Bučko, Tomáš; Šimko, František

    2018-02-14

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in an NpT ensemble have been performed to study the role of alkaline metal cations (Me = Li, Na, K, Rb) on the structure and vibrational properties of melts of Me-cryolites (Me 3 AlF 6 ) at T = 1300 K. In all melts examined in this work, the species AlF 5 2- has been found to be formed at the highest abundance [from 58% (Li) to 70% (Na)] among the Al-containing anionic clusters. The concentration of clusters AlF 4 - increases with the size of cations while that of anions AlF 6 3- follows the opposite trend and it becomes negligible in the melts of the K- and Rb-cryolites. The computed percentage of the Al atoms participating in the formation of dimers Al 2 F m 6-m bridged via common F atoms is significant only in the case of Li- and Na-cryolites (16% and 10%, respectively) and the formation of even larger aggregates is found to be unlikely in all four melts. The percentage of the F atoms that are not bound to Al is ∼20% in all four melts and the ions formed by Me + and F - are found to be only short-lived. Vibrational analysis has been performed using the velocity autocorrelation functions computed for the Cartesian and selected internal coordinates describing Raman-active symmetric stretching vibrations of different AlF n species. The results of vibrational analysis allowed us to identify trends in the variation of positions and shapes of peaks corresponding to the anionic fragments AlF 4 - , AlF 5 2- , and AlF 6 3- with the size of cations, and these trends are found to be consistent with those deduced from the available Raman spectroscopy experiments. Our findings represent a new insight into the properties of cryolite melts, which will be useful for the interpretation of experimental data.

  12. Effect of alkaline metal cations on the ionic structure of cryolite melts: Ab-initio NpT MD study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bučko, Tomáš; Šimko, František

    2018-02-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in an NpT ensemble have been performed to study the role of alkaline metal cations (Me = Li, Na, K, Rb) on the structure and vibrational properties of melts of Me-cryolites (Me3AlF6) at T = 1300 K. In all melts examined in this work, the species AlF52 - has been found to be formed at the highest abundance [from 58% (Li) to 70% (Na)] among the Al-containing anionic clusters. The concentration of clusters AlF4- increases with the size of cations while that of anions AlF63 - follows the opposite trend and it becomes negligible in the melts of the K- and Rb-cryolites. The computed percentage of the Al atoms participating in the formation of dimers Al2Fm6 -m bridged via common F atoms is significant only in the case of Li- and Na-cryolites (16% and 10%, respectively) and the formation of even larger aggregates is found to be unlikely in all four melts. The percentage of the F atoms that are not bound to Al is ˜20% in all four melts and the ions formed by Me+ and F- are found to be only short-lived. Vibrational analysis has been performed using the velocity autocorrelation functions computed for the Cartesian and selected internal coordinates describing Raman-active symmetric stretching vibrations of different AlFn species. The results of vibrational analysis allowed us to identify trends in the variation of positions and shapes of peaks corresponding to the anionic fragments AlF4-, AlF52 -, and AlF63 - with the size of cations, and these trends are found to be consistent with those deduced from the available Raman spectroscopy experiments. Our findings represent a new insight into the properties of cryolite melts, which will be useful for the interpretation of experimental data.

  13. Development of a novel device to trap heavy metal cations: application of the specific interaction between heavy metal cation and mismatch DNA base pair.

    PubMed

    Torigoe, Hidetaka; Miyakawa, Yukako; Fukushi, Miyako; Ono, Akira; Kozasa, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    We have already found that Hg(II) cation specifically binds to T:T mismatch base pair in heteroduplex DNA, which increases the melting temperature of heteroduplex DNA involving T:T mismatch base pair by about 4 degrees C. We have also found that Ag(I) cation specifically binds to C:C mismatch base pair in heteroduplex DNA, which increases the melting temperature of heteroduplex DNA involving C:C mismatch base pair by about 4 degrees C. Using the specific interaction, we developed a novel device to trap each of Hg(II) and Ag(I) cation. The device is composed of 5'-biotinylated T-rich or C-rich DNA oligonucleotides, BIO-T20: 5'-Bio-T(20)-3' or BIO-C20: 5'-Bio-C(20)-3' (Bio is a biotin), immobilized on streptavidin-coated polystylene beads. When the BIO-T20-immobilized beads were added to a solution containing Hg(II) cation, and the beads trapping Hg(II) cation were collected by centrifugation, almost all of Hg(II) cation were removed from the solution. Also, when the BIO-C20-immobilized beads were added to a solution containing Ag(I) cation, and the beads trapping Ag(I) cation were collected by centrifugation, almost all of Ag(I) cation were removed from the solution. We conclude that, using the novel device developed in this study, Hg(II) and Ag(I) cation can be effectively removed from the solution.

  14. Hydrogen release reactions of Al-based complex hydrides enhanced by vibrational dynamics and valences of metal cations

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, T.; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J.; Daemen, Luke L.

    2016-08-31

    Hydrogen release from Al-based complex hydrides composed of metal cation(s) and [AlH4] – was investigated using inelastic neutron scattering viewed from vibrational dynamics. Here, the hydrogen release followed the softening of translational and [AlH4] – librational modes, which was enhanced by vibrational dynamics and the valence(s) of the metal cation(s).

  15. Rubidium as an Alternative Cation for Efficient Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Kanwat, Anil; Moyen, Eric; Cho, Sinyoung; Jang, Jin

    2018-05-16

    Incorporation of rubidium (Rb) into mixed lead halide perovskites has recently achieved record power conversion efficiency and excellent stability in perovskite solar cells. Inspired by these tremendous advances in photovoltaics, this study demonstrates the impact of Rb incorporation into MAPbBr 3 -based light emitters. Rb partially substitutes MA (methyl ammonium), resulting in a mixed cation perovskite with the formula MA (1- x) Rb x PbBr 3 . Pure MAPbBr 3 crystallizes into a polycrystalline layer with highly defective sub-micrometer grains. However, the addition of a small amount of Rb forms MA (1- x) Rb x PbBr 3 nanocrystals (10 nm) embedded in an amorphous matrix of MA/Rb Br. These nanocrystals grow into defect-free sub-micrometer-sized crystallites with further addition of Rb, resulting in a 3-fold increase in exciton lifetime when the molar ratio of MABr/RbBr is 1:1. A thin film fabricated with a 1:1 molar ratio of MABr/RbBr showed the best electroluminescent properties with a current efficiency (CE) of 9.45 cd/A and a luminance of 7694 cd/m 2 . These values of CE and luminance are, respectively, 19 and 10 times larger than those achieved by pure MAPbBr 3 devices (0.5 cd/A and 790 cd/m 2 ). We believe this work provides important information on the future compositional optimization of Rb + -based mixed cation perovskites for obtaining high-performance light-emitting diodes.

  16. Antifungal Properties of Cationic Phenylene Ethynylenes and Their Impact on β-Glucan Exposure.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Harry C; Sylejmani, Rina; Graus, Matthew S; Donabedian, Patrick L; Whitten, David G; Neumann, Aaron K

    2016-08-01

    Candida species are the cause of many bloodstream infections through contamination of indwelling medical devices. These infections account for a 40% mortality rate, posing a significant risk to immunocompromised patients. Traditional treatments against Candida infections include amphotericin B and various azole treatments. Unfortunately, these treatments are associated with high toxicity, and resistant strains have become more prevalent. As a new frontier, light-activated phenylene ethynylenes have shown promising biocidal activity against Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae In this study, we monitored the viability of Candida species after treatment with a cationic conjugated polymer [poly(p-phenylene ethynylene); PPE] or oligomer ["end-only" oligo(p-phenylene ethynylene); EO-OPE] by flow cytometry in order to explore the antifungal properties of these compounds. The oligomer was found to disrupt Candida albicans yeast membrane integrity independent of light activation, while PPE is able to do so only in the presence of light, allowing for some control as to the manner in which cytotoxic effects are induced. The contrast in killing efficacy between the two compounds is likely related to their size difference and their intrinsic abilities to penetrate the fungal cell wall. Unlike EO-OPE-DABCO (where DABCO is quaternized diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane), PPE-DABCO displayed a strong propensity to associate with soluble β-glucan, which is expected to inhibit its ability to access and perturb the inner cell membrane of Candida yeast. Furthermore, treatment with PPE-DABCO unmasked Candida albicans β-glucan and increased phagocytosis by Dectin-1-expressing HEK-293 cells. In summary, cationic phenylene ethynylenes show promising biocidal activity against pathogenic Candida yeast cells while also exhibiting immunostimulatory effects. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  17. Antifungal Properties of Cationic Phenylene Ethynylenes and Their Impact on β-Glucan Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Harry C.; Sylejmani, Rina; Graus, Matthew S.; Donabedian, Patrick L.; Whitten, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are the cause of many bloodstream infections through contamination of indwelling medical devices. These infections account for a 40% mortality rate, posing a significant risk to immunocompromised patients. Traditional treatments against Candida infections include amphotericin B and various azole treatments. Unfortunately, these treatments are associated with high toxicity, and resistant strains have become more prevalent. As a new frontier, light-activated phenylene ethynylenes have shown promising biocidal activity against Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we monitored the viability of Candida species after treatment with a cationic conjugated polymer [poly(p-phenylene ethynylene); PPE] or oligomer [“end-only” oligo(p-phenylene ethynylene); EO-OPE] by flow cytometry in order to explore the antifungal properties of these compounds. The oligomer was found to disrupt Candida albicans yeast membrane integrity independent of light activation, while PPE is able to do so only in the presence of light, allowing for some control as to the manner in which cytotoxic effects are induced. The contrast in killing efficacy between the two compounds is likely related to their size difference and their intrinsic abilities to penetrate the fungal cell wall. Unlike EO-OPE-DABCO (where DABCO is quaternized diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane), PPE-DABCO displayed a strong propensity to associate with soluble β-glucan, which is expected to inhibit its ability to access and perturb the inner cell membrane of Candida yeast. Furthermore, treatment with PPE-DABCO unmasked Candida albicans β-glucan and increased phagocytosis by Dectin-1-expressing HEK-293 cells. In summary, cationic phenylene ethynylenes show promising biocidal activity against pathogenic Candida yeast cells while also exhibiting immunostimulatory effects. PMID:27161628

  18. Laboratory spectroscopy and astronomical significance of the fully-benzenoid PAH triphenylene and its cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofman, V.; Sarre, P. J.; Hibbins, R. E.; ten Kate, I. L.; Linnartz, H.

    2017-06-01

    Triphenylene (C18H12) is a highly symmetric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecule with a 'fully-benzenoid' electronic structure. This confers a high chemical stability compared with PAHs of similar size. Although numerous infrared and UV-vis experimental spectroscopic and theoretical studies of a wide range PAHs in an astrophysical context have been conducted, triphenylene and its radical cation have received almost no attention. There exists a huge body of spectroscopic evidence for neutral and ionised PAHs in astrophysical sources, obtained principally through detection of infrared emission features that are characteristic of PAHs as a chemical class. However, it has so far not proved possible to identify spectroscopically a single isolated PAH in space, although PAHs including triphenylene have been detected mass spectrometrically in meteorites. In this work we focus on recording laboratory electronic spectra of neutral and ionised triphenylene between 220 and 780 nm, trapped in H2O ice and solid argon at 12 K. The studies are motivated by the potential for spectroscopic astronomical detection of electronic absorption spectra of PAHs in ice mantles on interstellar grains as discussed by Linnartz (2014), and were performed also in a cold Ar matrix to provide guidance as to whether triphenylene (particularly in its singly positively ionised form) could be a viable candidate for any of the unidentified diffuse interstellar absorption bands. Based on the argon-matrix experimental results, comparison is made with previously unpublished astronomical spectra near 400 nm which contain broad interstellar absorption features consistent with the predictions from the laboratory matrix spectra, thus providing motivation for the recording of gas-phase electronic spectra of the internally cold triphenylene cation.

  19. The formation of the dolomite-analogue norsethite: Reaction pathway and cation ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Carlos; Pina, Carlos M.

    2014-10-01

    Reaction pathways and cation ordering mechanisms involved in the formation of the mineral dolomite in nature still remain poorly understood. This is mainly due to the experimental problems posed by the synthesis of dolomite at ambient conditions, which preclude monitoring its formation in reasonable time scales. However, processes leading to the crystallization of fully-ordered dolomite-like structures can be studied by conducting experiments with mineral analogues, which are more readily precipitated. In this paper we present a study of the formation of the dolomite-analogue norsethite [BaMg(CO3)2] from a slurry which was aged at room temperature during 14 days. We found that norsethite forms by two dissolution-crystallization reactions from an initial amorphous nano-sized precipitate. The first reaction produces a mineral assemblage composed by witherite [BaCO3], northupite [Na3Mg(CO3)2Cl] and norsethite. The second dissolution-crystallization process leads to the almost complete depletion of witherite and northupite in favor of norsethite. While the composition of norsethite crystals rapidly reaches a Ba/Mg = 1 ratio, X-ray diffraction peaks indicate an increase in the crystallinity of those crystals during the first 48 h of reaction. Simultaneously, Ba-Mg cation ordering increases, as shown by the evolution of intensity ratios of certain superstructure and structure reflections. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the formation of fully-ordered norsethite occurs by a sequence of solvent-mediated processes which involve a number of precursors. Our study also suggests that similar processes might lead to the formation of dolomite in natural environments.

  20. Gold for the generation and control of fluxional barbaralyl cations.

    PubMed

    McGonigal, Paul R; de León, Claudia; Wang, Yahui; Homs, Anna; Solorio-Alvarado, César R; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2012-12-21

    The frog prince with his two identities pales in comparison with the shape-shifting barbaralyl cation, which exists as a mixture of 181,400 degenerate forms. Gold-catalyzed cycloisomerizations of 7-alkynyl cyclohepta-1,3,5-trienes were found to proceed via fluxional barbaralyl intermediates. The evolution of the intermediates into 1- or 2-substituted indenes could be controlled by the choice of gold complex. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Elemental composition of some essential cations in human ocular tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Panessa-Warren, B.J.; Kraner, H.W.; Warren, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    To obtain data on the baseline elemental content in normal adult sensory retina, RPE and iris, normal non-diabetic eyes were analyzed and these results were used for comparison to similarly prepared samples from diabetic donor eyes. To determine if the concentrations of the cations, Ca, Ba and Zn were altered by the age, alimentation and exposure to light of the donor, tissue from children (from 25 weeks gestation to 8-1/2 years old) was also analyzed by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, proton induced x-ray emission spectroscopy, and light and electron (scanning and transmission) microscopy.

  2. Interactions of anions and cations in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, L; Quaino, P; Schmickler, W

    2016-12-12

    We consider the insertion of alkali-halide ion pairs into a narrow (5,5) carbon nanotube. In all cases considered, the insertion of a dimer is only slightly exothermic. While the image charge induced on the surface of the tube favors insertion, it simultaneously weakens the Coulomb attraction between the two ions. In addition, the anion experiences a sizable Pauli repulsion. For a one dimensional chain of NaCl embedded in the tube the most favorable position for the anion is at the center, and for the cation near the wall. The phonon spectrum of such chains shows both an acoustic and an optical branch.

  3. CATIONIC EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION OF RARE EARTHS

    DOEpatents

    Choppin, G.R.; Thompson, S.G.; Harvey, B.G.

    1960-02-16

    A process for separating mixtures of elements in the lanthanum and actinium series of the periodic table is described. The mixture of elements is dissolved in 0.05 M HCI, wherein the elements exist as tripositive ions. The resulting solution is then transferred to a column of cationic exchange resin and the column eluted with 0.1 to 0.6 M aqueous ammonium alpha hydroxy isobutyrate solution of pH 3.8 to 5.0. The use of ammonium alpha hydroxy isobutyrate as an eluting agent results in sharper and more rapid separations than previously obtainable with eluants such as citric, tartaric, glycolic, and lactic acids.

  4. Entrapment of ovalbumin into liposomes--factors affecting entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential.

    PubMed

    Brgles, Marija; Jurasin, Darija; Sikirić, Maja Dutour; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2008-01-01

    Various amounts of Ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated into positively and negatively charged multilamellar liposomes, with the aim to investigate the entrapment efficiency in different buffers and to study their effects on the liposome size and zeta potential. Results showed that the entrapment efficiency of OVA in anionic liposomes was the same in 10 mM Phosphate Buffer (PB) as in Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS; PB + 0.15 M NaCl). Also, liposome size was approximately 1200 nm for all anionic liposomes incorporating OVA. The entrapment efficiency of OVA in cationic liposomes was highly dependent on ionic strength. The size of cationic liposomes was approximately 1200 nm in PBS, regardless of protein content, but increased with the amount of the incorporated protein in PB. Aggregation of cationic liposomes in PB was observed when the mass of the protein was 2.5 mg or greater. The zeta potential of anionic liposomes was negative and of cationic liposomes positive in the whole range of protein mass tested. These results show how different compositions of lipid and aqueous phases can be used to vary the entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential--the factors that are of great importance for the use of liposomes as drug carriers.

  5. Mixed titanium, silicon, and aluminum oxide nanostructures as novel adsorbent for removal of rhodamine 6G and methylene blue as cationic dyes from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Pal, Umapada; Sandoval, Alberto; Madrid, Sergio Isaac Uribe; Corro, Grisel; Sharma, Vivek; Mohanty, Paritosh

    2016-11-01

    Mixed oxide nanoparticles containing Ti, Si, and Al of 8-15 nm size range were synthesized using a combined sol-gel - hydrothermal method. Effects of composition on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of the nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), microRaman spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Dye removal abilities of the nanoparticles from aqueous solutions were tested for different cationic dyes. While all the mixed oxide nanoparticles revealed high and fast adsorption of cationic dyes, the particles containing Ti and Si turned out to be the best. The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium adsorption behavior of the adsorbate - adsorbent systems could be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Estimated thermodynamic parameters revealed the adsorption process is spontaneous, driven mainly by the electrostatic force between the cationic dye molecules and negative charge at nanoparticle surface. Highest dye adsorption capacity (162.96 mg MB/g) of the mixed oxide nanostructures containing Ti and Si is associated to their high specific surface area, and the presence of surface Si-O(δ-) groups, in addition to the hydroxyl groups of amorphous titania. Mixed oxide nanoparticles containing 75% Ti and 25% Si seen to be the most efficient adsorbents for removing cationic dye molecules from wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Binding selectivity of dibenzo-18-crown-6 for alkali metal cations in aqueous solution: A density functional theory study using a continuum solvation model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Min; Heo, Jiyoung; Kim, Nam Joon

    2012-08-08

    Dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) exhibits the binding selectivity for alkali metal cations in solution phase. In this study, we investigate the main forces that determine the binding selectivity of DB18C6 for the metal cations in aqueous solution using the density functional theory (DFT) and the conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM). The bond dissociation free energies (BDFE) of DB18C6 complexes with alkali metal cations (M+-DB18C6, M = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) in aqueous solution are calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31 + G(d) level using the CPCM. It is found that the theoretical BDFE is the largest for K+-DB18C6 and decreases as the size of the metal cation gets larger or smaller than that of K+, which agrees well with previous experimental results. The solvation energy of M+-DB18C6 in aqueous solution plays a key role in determining the binding selectivity of DB18C6. In particular, the non-electrostatic dispersion interaction between the solute and solvent, which depends strongly on the complex structure, is largely responsible for the different solvation energies of M+-DB18C6. This study shows that the implicit solvation model like the CPCM works reasonably well in predicting the binding selectivity of DB18C6 in aqueous solution.

  7. Lysine-containing cationic liposomes activate the NLRP3 inflammasome: Effect of a spacer between the head group and the hydrophobic moieties of the lipids.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianshu; He, Jieyan; Horvath, Gabor; Próchnicki, Tomasz; Latz, Eicke; Takeoka, Shinji

    2018-02-01

    Cationic lipids containing lysine head groups and ditetradecyl, dihexadecyl or dioctadecyl glutamate hydrophobic moieties with/without propyl, pentyl or heptyl spacers were applied for the preparation of cationic liposomes using a simple bath type-sonicator. The size distribution, zeta potential, cellular internalization, and cytotoxicity of the liposomes were characterized, and the innate immune stimulation, e.g., the NLRP3 inflammasome activation of human macrophages and THP-1 cells, was evaluated by the detection of IL-1β release. Comparatively, L3C14 and L5C14 liposomes, made from the lipids bearing lysine head groups, ditetradecyl hydrophobic chains and propyl or pentyl spacers, respectively, were the most potent to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. The possible mechanism includes endocytosis of the cationic liposomes and subsequent lysosome rupture without significant inducement of reactive oxygen species production. In summary, we first disclosed the structural effect of cationic liposomes on the NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which gives an insight into the application of nanoparticles for improved immune response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Skeleton-Controlled pDNA Delivery of Renewable Steroid-Based Cationic Lipids, the Endocytosis Pathway Analysis and Intracellular Localization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Luo, Ting; Cao, Amin; Sun, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    Using renewable and biocompatible natural-based resources to construct functional biomaterials has attracted great attention in recent years. In this work, we successfully prepared a series of steroid-based cationic lipids by integrating various steroid skeletons/hydrophobes with (l-)-arginine headgroups via facile and efficient synthetic approach. The plasmid DNA (pDNA) binding affinity of the steroid-based cationic lipids, average particle sizes, surface potentials, morphologies and stability of the steroid-based cationic lipids/pDNA lipoplexes were disclosed to depend largely on the steroid skeletons. Cellular evaluation results revealed that cytotoxicity and gene transfection efficiency of the steroid-based cationic lipids in H1299 and HeLa cells strongly relied on the steroid hydrophobes. Interestingly, the steroid lipids/pDNA lipoplexes inclined to enter H1299 cells mainly through caveolae and lipid-raft mediated endocytosis pathways, and an intracellular trafficking route of “lipid-raft-mediated endocytosis→lysosome→cell nucleic localization” was accordingly proposed. The study provided possible approach for developing high-performance steroid-based lipid gene carriers, in which the cytotoxicity, gene transfection capability, endocytosis pathways, and intracellular trafficking/localization manners could be tuned/controlled by introducing proper steroid skeletons/hydrophobes. Noteworthy, among the lipids, Cho-Arg showed remarkably high gene transfection efficacy, even under high serum concentration (50% fetal bovine serum), making it an efficient gene transfection agent for practical application. PMID:29373505

  9. Formation of supramolecular clusters at the interface of zeolite X following the adsorption of rare-earth cations and their impact on the macroscopic properties of the zeolite.

    PubMed

    Guzzinati, Roberta; Sarti, Elena; Catani, Martina; Costa, Valentina; Pagnoni, Antonella; Martucci, Annalisa; Rodeghero, Elisa; Capitani, Donatella; Pietrantonio, Massimiliana; Cavazzini, Alberto; Pasti, Luisa

    2018-05-18

    The adsorption behavior of neodymium (Nd3+) and yttrium (Y3+) cations on synthetic FAU zeolite 13X in its sodium form (Na13X) has been investigated by means of an approach based on both macroscopic (namely, adsorption isotherm determination and thermal analysis) and microscopic measurements (including solid-state NMR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction). The multidisciplinary study has revealed some unexpected features. Firstly, adsorption constants of cations are not correlated to their ionic radii (or hydration enthalpy). The adsorption constant of Y3+ on Na13X was indeed about twice that of Nd3+, which is the opposite of what could be expected based on the size of the cations. In addition, adsorption was accompanied by partial dealumination of the zeolite framework. The extent of dealumination changed depending on exchanged cations. It was more significant on the Nd-exchanged zeolite than on the Y-exchanged one. The most interesting finding of this study, however, is the presence of supramolecular clusters composed of water, Nd3+, residual sodium ions and extraframework aluminum at the interface of Nd-exchanged zeolite. The hypothesis that these host-guest complexes are responsible of the significantly different behavior exhibited by Na13X towards the adsorption/desorption of Nd3+ and Y3+ has been formulated. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Block ionomer complexes of PEG-block-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate) and cationic surfactants as highly stable, pH responsive drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Masao; Kim, Jong Oh; Kabanov, Alexander V; Bronich, Tatiana K; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2012-06-28

    A new family of block ionomer complexes (BIC) formed by poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate) (PEG-b-PVBP) and various cationic surfactants was prepared and characterized. These complexes spontaneously self-assembled in aqueous solutions into particles with average size of 40-60nm and remained soluble over the entire range of the compositions of the mixtures including stoichiometric electroneutral complexes. Solution behavior and physicochemical properties of such BIC were very sensitive to the structure of cationic surfactants. Furthermore, such complexation was used for incorporation of cationic anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), into the core of BIC with high loading capacity and efficiency. The DOX/PEG-b-PVBP BIC also displayed high stability against dilution, changes in ionic strength. Furthermore, DOX release at the extracellular pH of DOX/PEG-b-PVBP BIC was slow. It was greatly increased at the acidic pH mimicking the endosomal/lysosomal environment. Confocal fluorescence microscopy using live MCF-7 breast cancer cells suggested that DOX/PEG-b-PVBP BICs are transported to lysosomes. Subsequently, the drugs are released and exert cytotoxic effect killing these cancer cells. These findings indicate that the obtained complexes can be attractive candidates for delivery of cationic drugs to tumors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a site analysis tool for distributed wind projects

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Shawn

    The Cadmus Group, Inc., in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Encraft, was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a site analysis tool for distributed wind technologies. As the principal investigator for this project, Mr. Shawn Shaw was responsible for overall project management, direction, and technical approach. The product resulting from this project is the Distributed Wind Site Analysis Tool (DSAT), a software tool for analyzing proposed sites for distributed wind technology (DWT) systems. This user-friendly tool supports the long-term growth and stability of the DWT market by providing reliable, realistic estimatesmore » of site and system energy output and feasibility. DSAT-which is accessible online and requires no purchase or download of software-is available in two account types; Standard: This free account allows the user to analyze a limited number of sites and to produce a system performance report for each; and Professional: For a small annual fee users can analyze an unlimited number of sites, produce system performance reports, and generate other customizable reports containing key information such as visual influence and wind resources. The tool’s interactive maps allow users to create site models that incorporate the obstructions and terrain types present. Users can generate site reports immediately after entering the requisite site information. Ideally, this tool also educates users regarding good site selection and effective evaluation practices.« less

  12. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium on cationic cross-linked starches of different botanic origins.

    PubMed

    Klimaviciute, Rima; Bendoraitiene, Joana; Rutkaite, Ramune; Zemaitaitis, Algirdas

    2010-09-15

    The influence of origin of native starch used to obtain cationic cross-linked starch (CCS) on the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto CCS has been investigated. CCS granule size is influenced by the botanic source of native starch. The equilibrium adsorption of Cr(VI) onto CCS was described by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Temkin models. The more equal the adsorption energy of the quaternary ammonium groups in CCS granule as indicated by low value of change of Temkin adsorption energy DeltaE(T) the greater amount of Cr(VI) was adsorbed onto CCS. The value of DeltaE(T) decreased and sorption capacity of CCS increased with the decrease of CCS granule size and with the increase of number of amorphous regions in CCS granules. The affinity of dichromate anions increases and adsorption proceeds more spontaneously when Cr(VI) is adsorbed onto more amorphous CCS. Adsorption process of Cr(VI) onto such CCS is more exothermic and order of system undergoes major changes during adsorption. After the adsorption on CCS Cr(VI) could be regenerated by incineration at temperature of 800 degrees C. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cholesteryl oleate-loaded cationic solid lipid nanoparticles as carriers for efficient gene-silencing therapy

    PubMed Central

    Suñé-Pou, Marc; Prieto-Sánchez, Silvia; El Yousfi, Younes; Boyero-Corral, Sofía; Nardi-Ricart, Anna; Nofrerias-Roig, Isaac; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; García-Montoya, Encarna; Miñarro-Carmona, Montserrat; Ticó, Josep Ramón; Suñé-Negre, Josep Mª; Hernández-Munain, Cristina; Suñé, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Background Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been given considerable attention for therapeutic nucleic acid delivery owing to their advantages over viral and other nanoparticle delivery systems. However, poor delivery efficiency and complex formulations hinder the clinical translation of SLNs. Aim The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize SLNs incorporating the cholesterol derivative cholesteryl oleate to produce SLN–nucleic acid complexes with reduced cytotoxicity and more efficient cellular uptake. Methods Five cholesteryl oleate-containing formulations were prepared. Laser diffraction and laser Doppler microelectrophoresis were used to evaluate particle size and zeta potential, respectively. Nanoparticle morphology was analyzed using electron microscopy. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of lipoplexes were evaluated using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The gene inhibition capacity of the lipoplexes was assessed using siRNAs to block constitutive luciferase expression. Results We obtained nanoparticles with a mean diameter of approximately 150–200 nm in size and zeta potential values of 25–40 mV. SLN formulations with intermediate concentrations of cholesteryl oleate exhibited good stability and spherical structures with no aggregation. No cell toxicity of any reference SLN was observed. Finally, cellular uptake experiments with DNA-and RNA-SLNs were performed to select one reference with superior transient transfection efficiency that significantly decreased gene activity upon siRNA complexation. Conclusion The results indicate that cholesteryl oleate-loaded SLNs are a safe and effective platform for nonviral nucleic acid delivery. PMID:29881274

  14. pH-induced motion control of self-propelled oil droplets using a hydrolyzable gemini cationic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Miura, Shingo; Banno, Taisuke; Tonooka, Taishi; Osaki, Toshihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji; Toyota, Taro

    2014-07-15

    Self-propelled motion of micrometer-sized substances has drawn much attention as an autonomous transportation system. One candidate vehicle is a chemically driven micrometer-sized oil droplet. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of a chemical reaction system controlling the three-dimensional motion of oil droplets underwater. In this study, we developed a molecular system that controlled the self-propelled motion of 4-heptyloxybenzaldehyde oil droplets by using novel gemini cationic surfactants containing carbonate linkages (2G12C). We found that, in emulsions containing sodium hydroxide, the motion time of the self-propelled oil droplets was longer in the presence of 2G12C than in the presence of gemini cationic surfactants without carbonate linkages. Moreover, in 2G12C solution, oil droplets at rest underwent unidirectional, self-propelled motion in a gradient field toward a higher concentration of sodium hydroxide. Even though they stopped within several seconds, they restarted in the same direction. 2G12C was gradually hydrolyzed under basic conditions to produce a pair of the corresponding monomeric surfactants, which exhibit different interfacial properties from 2G12C. The prolonged and restart motion of the oil droplets were explained by the increase in the heterogeneity of the interfacial tension of the oil droplets.

  15. Rapid and selective adsorption of cationic dyes by a unique metal-organic framework with decorated pore surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Li, Fan; Sun, Qian

    2018-05-01

    Organic dye pollutants become a big headache due to their toxic nature to the environment, and it should be one of the best solutions if we can remove and separate them. Here, a metal-organic framework (MOF) (denoted as Zn-MOF) with carbonyl group based on fluorenone-2,7-dicarboxylate ligand, was directly synthesized without post-synthesis method and applied to selectively absorb cationic dyes such as MB, CV, RhB from aqueous solution, while anionic or neutral dyes were excluded. Characterization of the Zn-MOF was achieved by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and elemental analysis. The Zn-MOF mainly possesses open pore channels, high surface area, big pore volume, and most important, the pore surface is furnished with carbonyl groups arising from the ligand and pointing toward the centers of the large chambers of the framework, which are benefit for the adsorption of the cationic dyes. The MB maximum adsorption capacities can attain 326 mg g-1, which is probably due to the suitable pore size, higher solvent-accessible void, and the prominent adsorption capacity of the mesoporous material. The dye adsorption process for the material is proven to be charge-selective and size-selective, and the adsorption isotherms, as well as kinetics characteristic of dye adsorption onto the Zn-MOF were also investigated.

  16. Tree species affect cation exchange capacity (CEC) and cation binding properties of organic matter in acid forest soils.

    PubMed

    Gruba, Piotr; Mulder, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) in forest soil is of major importance for cation binding and acid buffering, but its characteristics may differ among soils under different tree species. We investigated acidity, cation exchange properties and Al bonding to SOM in stands of Scots pine, pedunculate oak, Norway spruce, European beech and common hornbeam in southern Poland. The content of total carbon (Ct) was by far the major contributor to total cation exchange capacity (CECt) even in loamy soils and a strong relationship between Ct and CECt was found. The slope of the regression of CECt to Ct increased in the order hornbeam≈oak

  17. Removal of anionic and cationic dyes with bioadsorbent oxidized chitosans.

    PubMed

    León, Orietta; Muñoz-Bonilla, Alexandra; Soto, Diana; Pérez, Daniela; Rangel, Medarda; Colina, Marinela; Fernández-García, Marta

    2018-08-15

    Different oxidized chitosans were prepared following various approaches, by thermo-acid oxidation or by using KMnO 4 /NaHSO 3 , (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 /NaHSO 3 and K 2 Cr 2 O 7 /NaHSO 3 redox pairs added sequentially or simultaneously. All these reactions pursue the formation of carboxylic groups which enhance their capability to remove model cationic and anionic dyes such as methylene blue and methyl orange, respectively. The resulting oxidized chitosans were structurally and thermally characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry. The swelling capacity of these hydrogels was also determined as well as the remediation ability of dyes in different conditions. The results showed that the adsorption of methylene blue followed a pseudo second-order kinetics model, while the adsorption behavior was in agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model. Remarkably, the oxidized chitosans showed removal ability for both dyes cationic and anionic, which of great importance for application of these materials as versatile bioadsorbents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chitosan nanoparticles for the linear release of model cationic Peptide.

    PubMed

    Piras, Anna Maria; Sandreschi, Stefania; Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna; Chiellini, Federica

    2015-07-01

    The present study is focused on the development of a model drug delivery system (DDS) based on Chitosan (CS) nanoparticles using Renin substrate I (RSI) as model agent. RSI shares the main chemical-physical features of several biologically active antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). AMPs have a great therapeutic potential that is hampered by their lability in the biological fluids and as such they are perfect candidates for DDS. The development studies of quality DDS loaded with AMPs would require highly sensitive and specific quantification assays. The use of RSI allowed for the fine-tuning and optimization of the formulation parameters to promote the hydrophobic interactions between CS and the cationic peptide, favour the loading of the active ingredient and enhance the release properties of the carrier. RSI was encapsulated in chitosan NPs by mean of ionic gelation and a chromogenic enzymatic essay was carried out for the release kinetics evaluation. The developed formulations displayed almost 100% of encapsulation efficacy, low burst percentages, and a linear release of the model peptide. A release model was created showing a direct dependence on both the amount of RSI and NPs radius. Although CS has always been formulated with negatively charged active agents (e.g. oligonucleotides or anionic proteins), the use of ionotropic gelation in presence of a small cationic active agent promoted the formation of "core-shell" NPs. The described model, with tuneable linear release rates, appears eligible for further exploitation such as the loading of therapeutically active AMPs.

  19. H2O Nucleation Around Noble Metal Cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calaminici, Patrizia; Oropeza Alfaro, Pavel; Juarez Flores, Martin; Köster, Andreas; Beltran, Marcela; Ulises Reveles, J.; Khanna, Shiv N.

    2008-03-01

    First principle electronic structure calculations have been carried out to investigate the ground state geometry, electronic structure and binding energy of noble metal cations (H2O)n^+ clusters containing up to 10 H2O molecules. The calculations are performed with the density functional theory code deMon2k [1]. Due to the very flat potential energy surface of these systems special care to the numerical stability of energy and gradient calculation must be taken.Comparison of the results obtained with Cu^+, Ag^+ and Au^+ will be shown. This investigation provides insight into the structural arrangement of the water molecules around these metals and a microscopic understanding of the observed incremental binding energy in the case of the gold cation based on collision induced dissociation experiments. [1] A.M. Köster, P. Calaminici, M.E. Casida, R. Flores-Moreno, G. Geudtner, A. Goursot, T. Heine, A. Ipatov, F. Janetzko, J. Martin del Campo, S. Patchkovski, J.U. Reveles, A. Vela and D.R. Salahub, deMon2k, The deMon Developers, Cinvestav, 2006

  20. The adsorption of helium atoms on coronene cations

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzthaler, Thomas; Rasul, Bilal; Kuhn, Martin

    2016-08-14

    We report the first experimental study of the attachment of multiple foreign atoms to a cationic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The chosen PAH was coronene, C{sub 24}H{sub 12}, which was added to liquid helium nanodroplets and then subjected to electron bombardment. Using mass spectrometry, coronene cations decorated with helium atoms were clearly seen and the spectrum shows peaks with anomalously high intensities (“magic number” peaks), which represent ion-helium complexes with added stability. The data suggest the formation of a rigid helium layer consisting of 38 helium atoms that completely cover both faces of the coronene ion. Additional magic numbers canmore » be seen for the further addition of 3 and 6 helium atoms, which are thought to attach to the edge of the coronene. The observation of magic numbers for the addition of 38 and 44 helium atoms is in good agreement with a recent path integral Monte Carlo prediction for helium atoms on neutral coronene. An understanding of how atoms and molecules attach to PAH ions is important for a number of reasons including the potential role such complexes might play in the chemistry of the interstellar medium.« less

  1. Column Chromatography To Obtain Organic Cation Sorption Isotherms.

    PubMed

    Jolin, William C; Sullivan, James; Vasudevan, Dharni; MacKay, Allison A

    2016-08-02

    Column chromatography was evaluated as a method to obtain organic cation sorption isotherms for environmental solids while using the peak skewness to identify the linear range of the sorption isotherm. Custom packed HPLC columns and standard batch sorption techniques were used to intercompare sorption isotherms and solid-water sorption coefficients (Kd) for four organic cations (benzylamine, 2,4-dichlorobenzylamine, phenyltrimethylammonium, oxytetracycline) with two aluminosilicate clay minerals and one soil. A comparison of Freundlich isotherm parameters revealed isotherm linearity or nonlinearity was not significantly different between column chromatography and traditional batch experiments. Importantly, skewness (a metric of eluting peak symmetry) analysis of eluting peaks can establish isotherm linearity, thereby enabling a less labor intensive means to generate the extensive data sets of linear Kd values required for the development of predictive sorption models. Our findings clearly show that column chromatography can reproduce sorption measures from conventional batch experiments with the benefit of lower labor-intensity, faster analysis times, and allow for consistent sorption measures across laboratories with distinct chromatography instrumentation.

  2. Photoinduced Bimolecular Electron Transfer in Ionic Liquids: Cationic Electron Donors

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Boning; Liang, Min; Zmich, Nicole

    Recently, we have reported a systematic study of photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in ionic liquid solvents using neutral and anionic electron donors and a series of cyano-substituted anthracene acceptors [Wu, B.; Maroncelli, M.; Castner, E. W., Jr.Photoinduced Bimolecular Electron Transfer in Ionic Liquids. J. Am. Chem. Soc.139, 2017, 14568]. In this paper, we report complementary results for a cationic class of 1-alkyl-4-dimethylaminopyridinium electron donors. Reductive quenching of cyano-substituted anthracene fluorophores by these cationic quenchers is studied in solutions of acetonitrile and the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. Varying the length of the alkyl chain permits tuning of the quencher diffusivities in solution.more » The observed quenching kinetics are interpreted using a diffusion-reaction analysis. Finally, together with results from the prior study, these results show that the intrinsic electron-transfer rate constant does not depend on the quencher charge in this family of reactions.« less

  3. Excited state dynamics of the astaxanthin radical cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarie, Sergiu; Förster, Ute; Gildenhoff, Nina; Dreuw, Andreas; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2010-07-01

    Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy in the visible and NIR and ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy were used to examine the excited state dynamics of astaxanthin and its radical cation. For neutral astaxanthin, two kinetic components corresponding to time constants of 130 fs (decay of the S 2 excited state) and 5.2 ps (nonradiative decay of the S 1 excited state) were sufficient to describe the data. The dynamics of the radical cation proved to be more complex. The main absorption band was shifted to 880 nm (D 0 → D 3 transition), showing a weak additional band at 1320 nm (D 0 → D 1 transition). We found, that D 3 decays to the lower-lying D 2 within 100 fs, followed by a decay to D 1 with a time constant of 0.9 ps. The D 1 state itself exhibited a dual behavior, the majority of the population is transferred to the ground state in 4.9 ps, while a small population decays on a longer timescale of 40 ps. Both transitions from D 1 were found to be fluorescent.

  4. Structural evolution of the methane cation in subfemtosecond photodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, T.; Varandas, A. J. C.

    2015-07-01

    An ab initio quantum dynamics study has been performed to explore the structural rearrangement of ground state CH 4+ in subfemtosecond resolved photodynamics. The method utilizes time-dependent wave-packet propagation on the X ˜ 2 T 2 electronic manifold of the title cation in full dimensionality, including nonadiabatic coupling of the three electronic sheets. Good agreement is obtained with recent experiments [Baker et al., Science 312, 424 (2006)] which use high-order harmonic generation to probe the attosecond proton dynamics. The novel results provide direct theoretical support of the observations while unravelling the underlying details. With the geometrical changes obtained by calculating the expectation values of the nuclear coordinates as a function of time, the structural evolution is predicted to begin through activation of the totally symmetric a1 and doubly degenerate e modes. While the former retains the original Td symmetry of the cation, the Jahn-Teller active e mode conducts it to a D2d structure. At ˜1.85 fs, the intermediate D2d structure is further predicted to rearrange to local C2v minimum geometry via Jahn-Teller active bending vibrations of t2 symmetry.

  5. Cation Dynamics Governed Thermal Properties of Lead Halide Perovskite Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuxi; Lin, Renxing; Zhu, Pengchen; Zheng, Qinghui; Wang, Qianjin; Li, Deyu; Zhu, Jia

    2018-05-09

    Metal halide perovskite (MHP) nanowires such as hybrid organic-inorganic CH 3 NH 3 PbX 3 (X = Cl, Br, I) have drawn significant attention as promising building blocks for high-performance solar cells, light-emitting devices, and semiconductor lasers. However, the physics of thermal transport in MHP nanowires is still elusive even though it is highly relevant to the device thermal stability and optoelectronic performance. Through combined experimental measurements and theoretical analyses, here we disclose the underlying mechanisms governing thermal transport in three different kinds of lead halide perovskite nanowires (CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 , CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 and CsPbBr 3 ). It is shown that the thermal conductivity of CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 nanowires is significantly suppressed as compared to that of CsPbBr 3 nanowires, which is attributed to the cation dynamic disorder. Furthermore, we observed different temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of hybrid perovskites CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 and CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 , which can be attributed to accelerated cation dynamics in CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 at low temperature and the combined effects of lower phonon group velocity and higher Umklapp scattering rate in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 at high temperature. These data and understanding should shed light on the design of high-performance MHP based thermal and optoelectronic devices.

  6. Electronic spectra of the tetraphenylcyclobutadienecyclopentadienylnickel(II) cation and radical

    DOE PAGES

    Peter R. Craig; Miller, John R.; Havlas, Zdenek; ...

    2016-05-02

    In this study, properties of the tetraphenylcyclobutadienecyclopentadienylnickel(II) cation 1 and its tetra-o-fluoro derivative 1a have been measured and calculated. The B3LYP/TZP optimized geometry of the free cation 1 agrees with a single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure except that in the crystal one of the phenyl substituents is strongly twisted to permit a close-packing interaction of two of its hydrogens with a nearby BF – 4 anion. The low-energy parts of the solution electronic absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of 1 and 1a have been interpreted by comparison with TD-DFT (B3LYP/TZP) results. Reduction or pulse radiolysis lead to a neutralmore » 19-electron radical, whose visible absorption and MCD spectra have been recorded and interpreted as well. The reduction is facilitated by ~0.1 V upon going from 1 to 1a« less

  7. Role of Reverse Divalent Cation Diffusion in Forward Osmosis Biofouling.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Bar-Zeev, Edo; Hashmi, Sara M; Nghiem, Long D; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-11-17

    We investigated the role of reverse divalent cation diffusion in forward osmosis (FO) biofouling. FO biofouling by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was simulated using pristine and chlorine-treated thin-film composite polyamide membranes with either MgCl2 or CaCl2 draw solution. We related FO biofouling behavior-water flux decline, biofilm architecture, and biofilm composition-to reverse cation diffusion. Experimental results demonstrated that reverse calcium diffusion led to significantly more severe water flux decline in comparison with reverse magnesium permeation. Unlike magnesium, reverse calcium permeation dramatically altered the biofilm architecture and composition, where extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) formed a thicker, denser, and more stable biofilm. We propose that FO biofouling was enhanced by complexation of calcium ions to bacterial EPS. This hypothesis was confirmed by dynamic and static light scattering measurements using extracted bacterial EPS with the addition of either MgCl2 or CaCl2 solution. We observed a dramatic increase in the hydrodynamic radius of bacterial EPS with the addition of CaCl2, but no change was observed after addition of MgCl2. Static light scattering revealed that the radius of gyration of bacterial EPS with addition of CaCl2 was 20 times larger than that with the addition of MgCl2. These observations were further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy imaging, where bacterial EPS in the presence of calcium ions was globular, while that with magnesium ions was rod-shaped.

  8. Cationic Contrast Agent Diffusion Differs Between Cartilage and Meniscus.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Juuso T J; Turunen, Mikael J; Freedman, Jonathan D; Saarakkala, Simo; Grinstaff, Mark W; Ylärinne, Janne H; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-10-01

    Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is a non-destructive imaging technique used for the assessment of composition and structure of articular cartilage and meniscus. Due to structural and compositional differences between these tissues, diffusion and distribution of contrast agents may differ in cartilage and meniscus. The aim of this study is to determine the diffusion kinematics of a novel iodine based cationic contrast agent (CA(2+)) in cartilage and meniscus. Cylindrical cartilage and meniscus samples (d = 6 mm, h ≈ 2 mm) were harvested from healthy bovine knee joints (n = 10), immersed in isotonic cationic contrast agent (20 mgI/mL), and imaged using a micro-CT scanner at 26 time points up to 48 h. Subsequently, normalized X-ray attenuation and contrast agent diffusion flux, as well as water, collagen and proteoglycan (PG) contents in the tissues were determined. The contrast agent distributions within cartilage and meniscus were different. In addition, the normalized attenuation and diffusion flux were higher (p < 0.05) in cartilage. Based on these results, diffusion kinematics vary between cartilage and meniscus. These tissue specific variations can affect the interpretation of CECT images and should be considered when cartilage and meniscus are assessed simultaneously.

  9. Photoinduced Bimolecular Electron Transfer in Ionic Liquids: Cationic Electron Donors

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Boning; Liang, Min; Zmich, Nicole; ...

    2018-01-29

    Recently, we have reported a systematic study of photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in ionic liquid solvents using neutral and anionic electron donors and a series of cyano-substituted anthracene acceptors [Wu, B.; Maroncelli, M.; Castner, E. W., Jr.Photoinduced Bimolecular Electron Transfer in Ionic Liquids. J. Am. Chem. Soc.139, 2017, 14568]. In this paper, we report complementary results for a cationic class of 1-alkyl-4-dimethylaminopyridinium electron donors. Reductive quenching of cyano-substituted anthracene fluorophores by these cationic quenchers is studied in solutions of acetonitrile and the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. Varying the length of the alkyl chain permits tuning of the quencher diffusivities in solution.more » The observed quenching kinetics are interpreted using a diffusion-reaction analysis. Finally, together with results from the prior study, these results show that the intrinsic electron-transfer rate constant does not depend on the quencher charge in this family of reactions.« less

  10. Hydrogen Sulfide as a Scavenger of Sulfur Atomic Cation.

    PubMed

    Fortenberry, Ryan C; Trabelsi, Tarek; Francisco, Joseph S

    2018-06-07

    The well-studied hydrogen sulfide molecule is shown here for the first time to form a S-S bond barrierlessly with sulfur atomic cation to produce stable H 2 SS + , a compound for which there is nearly no literature data. Previous work has shown that the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with neutral atomic sulfur will likely only take place at high pressures. Conversely, this work shows that hydrogen sulfide will readily bind with atomic sulfur cation first through the 1 4 A″ state from association of H 2 S with S + ( 4 S) and then will relax to the nearly degenerate 1 2 A' or 1 2 A″ states. S + ( 4 S) + H 2 S lies 29.5 kcal/mol above the 1 4 A″ H 2 SS + minimum. The 1 4 A″ H 2 SS + minimum in the S-S bond is also directly intersected by the doublet potential energy surface. As the S-S bond shortens in the association, the 1 2 A' and 1 2 A″ states split, falling 33.5 and 26.4 kcal/mol, respectively, below the 1 4 A″ state. Hence, this work is opening the door for novel synthesis of S-S bonds or potential removal of the common H 2 S toxin/pollutant through concatenation and subsequent precipitation.

  11. From planes to bowls: Photodissociation of the bisanthenequinone cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Zhen, Junfeng; Wang, Ying; Linnartz, Harold; Tielens, Alexander G.