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Sample records for a-site molecular switches

  1. Molecular Rotors as Switches

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Mei; Wang, Kang L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene) monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V) revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR) associated with the device. The analysis of the device I–V characteristics suggests the source of the

  2. EDITORIAL: Molecular switches at surfaces Molecular switches at surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinelt, Martin; von Oppen, Felix

    2012-10-01

    In nature, molecules exploit interaction with their environment to realize complex functionalities on the nanometer length scale. Physical, chemical and/or biological specificity is frequently achieved by the switching of molecules between microscopically different states. Paradigmatic examples are the energy production in proton pumps of bacteria or the signal conversion in human vision, which rely on switching molecules between different configurations or conformations by external stimuli. The remarkable reproducibility and unparalleled fatigue resistance of these natural processes makes it highly desirable to emulate nature and develop artificial systems with molecular functionalities. A promising avenue towards this goal is to anchor the molecular switches at surfaces, offering new pathways to control their functional properties, to apply electrical contacts, or to integrate switches into larger systems. Anchoring at surfaces allows one to access the full range from individual molecular switches to self-assembled monolayers of well-defined geometry and to customize the coupling between molecules and substrate or between adsorbed molecules. Progress in this field requires both synthesis and preparation of appropriate molecular systems and control over suitable external stimuli, such as light, heat, or electrical currents. To optimize switching and generate function, it is essential to unravel the geometric structure, the electronic properties and the dynamic interactions of the molecular switches on surfaces. This special section, Molecular Switches at Surfaces, collects 17 contributions describing different aspects of this research field. They analyze elementary processes, both in single molecules and in ensembles of molecules, which involve molecular switching and concomitant changes of optical, electronic, or magnetic properties. Two topical reviews summarize the current status, including both challenges and achievements in the field of molecular switches on

  3. Soliton switching in a site-dependent ferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjudarvannan, R.; Sathishkumar, P.; Vijayalakshmi, S.

    2017-02-01

    Switching of soliton in a ferromagnetic medium offers the possibility of developing a new innovative approach for information storage technologies. The nonlinear spin dynamics of a site-dependent Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with Gilbert damping under the influence of external magnetic field is expressed in the form of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in the classical continuum limit. The corresponding evolution equation is developed through stereographic projection technique by projecting the unit sphere of spin onto a complex plane. The exact soliton solutions are constructed by solving the associated evolution equation through the modified extended tanh-function method. The impact of damping and external magnetic field on the magnetic soliton under the invariant inhomogeneity is investigated and finally, the magnetization switching in the form of shape changing solitons are demonstrated.

  4. Molecular switches and motors on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pathem, Bala Krishna; Claridge, Shelley A; Zheng, Yue Bing; Weiss, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Molecular switches and motors respond structurally, electronically, optically, and/or mechanically to external stimuli, testing and potentially enabling extreme miniaturization of optoelectronic devices, nanoelectromechanical systems, and medical devices. The assembly of motors and switches on surfaces makes it possible both to measure the properties of individual molecules as they relate to their environment and to couple function between assembled molecules. In this review, we discuss recent progress in assembling molecular switches and motors on surfaces, measuring static and dynamic structures, understanding switching mechanisms, and constructing functional molecular materials and devices. As demonstrative examples, we choose a representative molecule from three commonly studied classes including molecular switches, photochromic molecules, and mechanically interlocked molecules. We conclude by offering perspectives on the future of molecular switches and motors on surfaces.

  5. An electrically actuated molecular toggle switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, Lukas; Edelmann, Kevin; Homberg, Jan; Valášek, Michal; Bahoosh, Safa G.; Lukas, Maya; Pauly, Fabian; Mayor, Marcel; Wulfhekel, Wulf

    2017-03-01

    Molecular electronics is considered a promising approach for future nanoelectronic devices. In order that molecular junctions can be used as electrical switches or even memory devices, they need to be actuated between two distinct conductance states in a controlled and reproducible manner by external stimuli. Here we present a tripodal platform with a cantilever arm and a nitrile group at its end that is lifted from the surface. The formation of a coordinative bond between the nitrile nitrogen and the gold tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope can be controlled by both electrical and mechanical means, and leads to a hysteretic switching of the conductance of the junction by more than two orders of magnitude. This toggle switch can be actuated with high reproducibility so that the forces involved in the mechanical deformation of the molecular cantilever can be determined precisely with scanning tunnelling microscopy.

  6. Quinonoid metal complexes: toward molecular switches.

    PubMed

    Dei, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Sangregorio, Claudio; Sorace, Lorenzo

    2004-11-01

    The peculiar redox-active character of quinonoid metal complexes makes them extremely appealing to design materials of potential technological interest. We show here how the tuning of the properties of these systems can be pursued by using appropriate molecular synthetic techniques. In particular, we focus our attention on metal polyoxolene complexes exhibiting intramolecular electron transfer processes involving either the ligand and the metal ion or the two dioxolene moieties of a properly designed ligand thus inducing electronic bistability. The transition between the two metastable electronic states can be induced by different external stimuli such as temperature, pressure, light, or pH suggesting the use of these systems for molecular switches.

  7. Organic-based molecular switches for molecular electronics.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Noelia; Martín-Lasanta, Ana; Alvarez de Cienfuegos, Luis; Ribagorda, Maria; Parra, Andres; Cuerva, Juan M

    2011-10-05

    In a general sense, molecular electronics (ME) is the branch of nanotechnology which studies the application of molecular building blocks for the fabrication of electronic components. Among the different types of molecules, organic compounds have been revealed as promising candidates for ME, due to the easy access, great structural diversity and suitable electronic and mechanical properties. Thanks to these useful capabilities, organic molecules have been used to emulate electronic devices at the nanoscopic scale. In this feature article, we present the diverse strategies used to develop organic switches towards ME with special attention to non-volatile systems.

  8. Molecular mechanism of the Syk activation switch.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Emily; Giannetti, Anthony M; Shaw, David; Dinh, Marie; Tse, Joyce K Y; Gandhi, Shaan; Ho, Hoangdung; Wang, Sandra; Papp, Eva; Bradshaw, J Michael

    2008-11-21

    Many immune signaling pathways require activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase to link ligation of surface receptors to changes in gene expression. Despite the central role of Syk in these pathways, the Syk activation process remains poorly understood. In this work we quantitatively characterized the molecular mechanism of Syk activation in vitro using a real time fluorescence kinase assay, mutagenesis, and other biochemical techniques. We found that dephosphorylated full-length Syk demonstrates a low initial rate of substrate phosphorylation that increases during the kinase reaction due to autophosphorylation. The initial rate of Syk activity was strongly increased by either pre-autophosphorylation or binding of phosphorylated immune tyrosine activation motif peptides, and each of these factors independently fully activated Syk. Deletion mutagenesis was used to identify regions of Syk important for regulation, and residues 340-356 of the SH2 kinase linker region were identified to be important for suppression of activity before activation. Comparison of the activation processes of Syk and Zap-70 revealed that Syk is more readily activated by autophosphorylation than Zap-70, although both kinases are rapidly activated by Src family kinases. We also studied Syk activity in B cell lysates and found endogenous Syk is also activated by phosphorylation and immune tyrosine activation motif binding. Together these experiments show that Syk functions as an "OR-gate" type of molecular switch. This mechanism of switch-like activation helps explain how Syk is both rapidly activated after receptor binding but also sustains activity over time to facilitate longer term changes in gene expression.

  9. Tunneling Nanoelectromechanical Switches Based on Compressible Molecular Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Niroui, Farnaz; Wang, Annie I; Sletten, Ellen M; Song, Yi; Kong, Jing; Yablonovitch, Eli; Swager, Timothy M; Lang, Jeffrey H; Bulović, Vladimir

    2015-08-25

    Abrupt switching behavior and near-zero leakage current of nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches are advantageous properties through which NEMs can outperform conventional semiconductor electrical switches. To date, however, typical NEMs structures require high actuation voltages and can prematurely fail through permanent adhesion (defined as stiction) of device components. To overcome these challenges, in the present work we propose a NEM switch, termed a "squitch," which is designed to electromechanically modulate the tunneling current through a nanometer-scale gap defined by an organic molecular film sandwiched between two electrodes. When voltage is applied across the electrodes, the generated electrostatic force compresses the sandwiched molecular layer, thereby reducing the tunneling gap and causing an exponential increase in the current through the device. The presence of the molecular layer avoids direct contact of the electrodes during the switching process. Furthermore, as the layer is compressed, the increasing surface adhesion forces are balanced by the elastic restoring force of the deformed molecules which can promote zero net stiction and recoverable switching. Through numerical analysis, we demonstrate the potential of optimizing squitch design to enable large on-off ratios beyond 6 orders of magnitude with operation in the sub-1 V regime and with nanoseconds switching times. Our preliminary experimental results based on metal-molecule-graphene devices suggest the feasibility of the proposed tunneling switching mechanism. With optimization of device design and material engineering, squitches can give rise to a broad range of low-power electronic applications.

  10. Electronic transport properties of a quinone-based molecular switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ya-Peng; Bian, Bao-An; Yuan, Pei-Pei

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we carried out first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function to investigate the electronic transport properties of a quinone-based molecule sandwiched between two Au electrodes. The molecular switch can be reversibly switched between the reduced hydroquinone (HQ) and oxidized quinone (Q) states via redox reactions. The switching behavior of two forms is analyzed through their I- V curves, transmission spectra and molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian at zero bias. Then we discuss the transmission spectra of the HQ and Q forms at different bias, and explain the oscillation of current according to the transmission eigenstates of LUMO energy level for Q form. The results suggest that this kind of a quinone-based molecule is usable as one of the good candidates for redox-controlled molecular switches.

  11. Axon growth regulation by a bistable molecular switch.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Pranesh; Goodhill, Geoffrey J

    2018-04-25

    For the brain to function properly, its neurons must make the right connections during neural development. A key aspect of this process is the tight regulation of axon growth as axons navigate towards their targets. Neuronal growth cones at the tips of developing axons switch between growth and paused states during axonal pathfinding, and this switching behaviour determines the heterogeneous axon growth rates observed during brain development. The mechanisms controlling this switching behaviour, however, remain largely unknown. Here, using mathematical modelling, we predict that the molecular interaction network involved in axon growth can exhibit bistability, with one state representing a fast-growing growth cone state and the other a paused growth cone state. Owing to stochastic effects, even in an unchanging environment, model growth cones reversibly switch between growth and paused states. Our model further predicts that environmental signals could regulate axon growth rate by controlling the rates of switching between the two states. Our study presents a new conceptual understanding of growth cone switching behaviour, and suggests that axon guidance may be controlled by both cell-extrinsic factors and cell-intrinsic growth regulatory mechanisms. © 2018 The Author(s).

  12. Action of Molecular Switches in GPCRs - Theoretical and Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Trzaskowski, B; Latek, D; Yuan, S; Ghoshdastider, U; Debinski, A; Filipek, S

    2012-01-01

    G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), also called 7TM receptors, form a huge superfamily of membrane proteins that, upon activation by extracellular agonists, pass the signal to the cell interior. Ligands can bind either to extracellular N-terminus and loops (e.g. glutamate receptors) or to the binding site within transmembrane helices (Rhodopsin-like family). They are all activated by agonists although a spontaneous auto-activation of an empty receptor can also be observed. Biochemical and crystallographic methods together with molecular dynamics simulations and other theoretical techniques provided models of the receptor activation based on the action of so-called “molecular switches” buried in the receptor structure. They are changed by agonists but also by inverse agonists evoking an ensemble of activation states leading toward different activation pathways. Switches discovered so far include the ionic lock switch, the 3-7 lock switch, the tyrosine toggle switch linked with the nPxxy motif in TM7, and the transmission switch. The latter one was proposed instead of the tryptophan rotamer toggle switch because no change of the rotamer was observed in structures of activated receptors. The global toggle switch suggested earlier consisting of a vertical rigid motion of TM6, seems also to be implausible based on the recent crystal structures of GPCRs with agonists. Theoretical and experimental methods (crystallography, NMR, specific spectroscopic methods like FRET/BRET but also single-molecule-force-spectroscopy) are currently used to study the effect of ligands on the receptor structure, location of stable structural segments/domains of GPCRs, and to answer the still open question on how ligands are binding: either via ensemble of conformational receptor states or rather via induced fit mechanisms. On the other hand the structural investigations of homo- and heterodimers and higher oligomers revealed the mechanism of allosteric signal transmission and receptor

  13. Design and characterization of molecular nonlinear optical switches.

    PubMed

    Castet, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Vincent; Pozzo, Jean-Luc; Ducasse, Laurent; Plaquet, Aurélie; Champagne, Benoît

    2013-11-19

    Nanoscale structures, including molecules, supramolecules, polymers, functionalized surfaces, and crystalline/amorphous solids, can commute between two or more forms, displaying contrasts in their nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. Because of this property, they have high potential for applications in data storage, signal processing, and sensing. As potential candidates for integration into responsive materials, scientists have been intensely studying organic and organometallic molecules with switchable first hyperpolarizability over the past two decades. As a result of this, researchers have been able to synthesize and characterize several families of molecular NLO switches that differ by the stimulus used to trigger the commutation. These stimuli can include light irradiation, pH variation, redox reaction, and ion recognition, among others. The design of multistate (including several switchable units) and multifunctional (triggered with different stimuli) systems has also motivated a large amount of work, aiming at the improvement of the storage capacity of optical memories or the diversification of the addressability of the devices. In complement to the synthesis of the compounds and the characterization of their NLO responses by means of hyper-Rayleigh scattering, quantum chemical calculations play a key role in the design of molecular switches with high first hyperpolarizability contrasts. Through the latter, we can gain a fundamental understanding of the various factors governing the efficiency of the switches. These are not easily accessible experimentally, and include donor/acceptor contributions, frequency dispersion, and solvent effects. In this Account, we illustrate the similarities of the experimental and theoretical tools to design and characterize highly efficient NLO switches but also the difficulties in comparing them. After providing a critical overview of the different theoretical approaches used for evaluating the first hyperpolarizabilities

  14. Single molecular orientation switching of an endohedral metallofullerene.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Yuhsuke; Shi, Zujin; Okazaki, Toshiya; Shinohara, Hisanori; Majima, Yutaka

    2005-06-01

    The single molecular orientation switching of the Tb@C82 endohedral metallofullerene has been studied by using low-temperature ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). An octanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was introduced between Tb@C82 and the Au111 substrate to control the thermal rotational states of Tb@C82. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) of Tb@C82 on an octanethiol SAM at 13 K demonstrated hysteresis including negative differential conductance (NDC). This observed hysteresis and NDC is interpreted in terms of a switching of the Tb@C82 molecular orientation caused by the interaction between its electric dipole moment and an external electric field.

  15. Molecular switches from benzene derivatives adsorbed on metal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Filimonov, Sergey N.; Carrasco, Javier; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Transient precursor states are often experimentally observed for molecules adsorbing on surfaces. However, such precursor states are typically rather short-lived, quickly yielding to more stable adsorption configurations. Here we employ first-principles calculations to systematically explore the interaction mechanism for benzene derivatives on metal surfaces, enabling us to selectively tune the stability and the barrier between two metastable adsorption states. In particular, in the case of the tetrachloropyrazine molecule, two equally stable adsorption states are identified with a moderate and conceivably reversible barrier between them. We address the feasibility of experimentally detecting the predicted bistable behaviour and discuss its potential usefulness in a molecular switch. PMID:24157660

  16. Cholecystokinin: A multi-functional molecular switch of neuronal circuits

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Yeun; Soltesz, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK), a peptide originally discovered in the gastrointestinal tract, is one of the most the abundant and widely distributed neuropeptides in the brain. In spite of its abundance, recent data indicate that that CCK modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in a surprisingly cell-type specific manner, acting as a key molecular switch to regulate the functional output of neuronal circuits. The central importance of CCK in neuronal networks is also reflected in its involvement in a variety of neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders including panic attacks and epilepsy. PMID:21154912

  17. Molecular switching behavior in isosteric DNA base pairs.

    PubMed

    Jissy, A K; Konar, Sukanya; Datta, Ayan

    2013-04-15

    The structures and proton-coupled behavior of adenine-thymine (A-T) and a modified base pair containing a thymine isostere, adenine-difluorotoluene (A-F), are studied in different solvents by dispersion-corrected density functional theory. The stability of the canonical Watson-Crick base pair and the mismatched pair in various solvents with low and high dielectric constants is analyzed. It is demonstrated that A-F base pairing is favored in solvents with low dielectric constant. The stabilization and conformational changes induced by protonation are also analyzed for the natural as well as the mismatched base pair. DNA sequences capable of changing their sequence conformation on protonation are used in the construction of pH-based molecular switches. An acidic medium has a profound influence in stabilizing the isostere base pair. Such a large gain in stability on protonation leads to an interesting pH-controlled molecular switch, which can be incorporated in a natural DNA tract. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Molecular switch-like regulation in motor proteins.

    PubMed

    Tafoya, Sara; Bustamante, Carlos

    2018-06-19

    Motor proteins are powered by nucleotide hydrolysis and exert mechanical work to carry out many fundamental biological tasks. To ensure their correct and efficient performance, the motors' activities are allosterically regulated by additional factors that enhance or suppress their NTPase activity. Here, we review two highly conserved mechanisms of ATP hydrolysis activation and repression operating in motor proteins-the glutamate switch and the arginine finger-and their associated regulatory factors. We examine the implications of these regulatory mechanisms in proteins that are formed by multiple ATPase subunits. We argue that the regulatory mechanisms employed by motor proteins display features similar to those described in small GTPases, which require external regulatory elements, such as dissociation inhibitors, exchange factors and activating proteins, to switch the protein's function 'on' and 'off'. Likewise, similar regulatory roles are taken on by the motor's substrate, additional binding factors, and even adjacent subunits in multimeric complexes. However, in motor proteins, more than one regulatory factor and the two mechanisms described here often underlie the machine's operation. Furthermore, ATPase regulation takes place throughout the motor's cycle, which enables a more complex function than the binary 'active' and 'inactive' states.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Allostery and molecular machines'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  19. Solid-state reversible quadratic nonlinear optical molecular switch with an exceptionally large contrast.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhihua; Luo, Junhua; Zhang, Shuquan; Ji, Chengmin; Zhou, Lei; Li, Shenhui; Deng, Feng; Hong, Maochun

    2013-08-14

    Exceptional nonlinear optical (NLO) switching behavior, including an extremely large contrast (on/off) of ∼35 and high NLO coefficients, is displayed by a solid-state reversible quadratic NLO switch. The favorable results, induced by very fast molecular motion and anionic ordering, provides impetus for the design of a novel second-harmonic-generation switch involving molecular motion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Structural analyses of human thymidylate synthase reveal a site that may control conformational switching between active and inactive states.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Jansson, Anna; Sim, Daniel; Larsson, Andreas; Nordlund, Pär

    2017-08-11

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) is the sole enzyme responsible for de novo biosynthesis of thymidylate (TMP) and is essential for cell proliferation and survival. Inhibition of human TS (hTS) has been extensively investigated for cancer chemotherapy, but several aspects of its activity and regulation are still uncertain. In this study, we performed comprehensive structural and biophysical studies of hTS using crystallography and thermal shift assay and provided the first detailed structural information on the conformational changes induced by ligand binding to the hTS active site. We found that upon binding of the antifolate agents raltitrexed and nolatrexed, the two insert regions in hTS, the functions of which are unclear, undergo positional shifts toward the catalytic center. We investigated the inactive conformation of hTS and found that the two insert regions are also involved in the conformational transition between the active and inactive state of hTS. Moreover, we identified a ligand-binding site in the dimer interface, suggesting that the cavity in the dimer interface could serve as an allosteric site of hTS to regulate the conformational switching between the active and inactive states. On the basis of these findings, we propose a regulatory mechanism of hTS activity that involves allosteric regulation of interactions of hTS with its own mRNA depending on cellular demands for TMP. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Necroptosis: Modules and molecular switches with therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Arora, Deepika; Sharma, Pradeep Kumar; Siddiqui, Mohammed Haris; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2017-06-01

    Among the various programmed cell death (PCD) pathways, "Necroptosis" has gained much importance as a novel paradigm of cell death. This pathway has emerged as a backup mechanism when physiologically conserved PCD (apoptosis) is non-functional either genetically or pathogenically. The expanding spectrum of necroptosis from physiological development to diverse patho-physiological disorders, including xenobiotics-mediated toxicity has now grabbed the attention worldwide. The efficient role of necroptosis regulators in disease development and management are under constant examination. In fact, few regulators (e.g. MLKL) have already paved their way towards clinical trials and others are in queue. In this review, emphasis has been paid to the various contributing factors and molecular switches that can regulate necroptosis. Here we linked the overview of current knowledge of this enigmatic signaling with magnitude of therapeutics that may underpin the opportunities for novel therapeutic approaches to suppress the pathogenesis of necroptosis-driven disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  2. A pH-responsive molecular switch with tricolor luminescence.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyungmin; Hong, Jaewan; Kim, Sung Yeon; Choi, Ilyoung; Park, Moon Jeong

    2015-01-14

    We developed a new ratiometric pH sensor based on poly(N-phenylmaleimide) (PPMI)-containing block copolymer that emits three different fluorescent colors depending on the pH. The strong solvatochromism and tautomerism of the PPMI derivatives enabled precise pH sensing for almost the entire range of the pH scale. Theoretical calculations have predicted largely dissimilar band gaps for the keto, enol, and enolate tautomers of PPMI owing to low-dimensional conjugation effects. The tunable emission wavelength and intensity of our sensors, as well as the reversible color switching with high-luminescent contrast, were achieved using rational molecular design of PPMI analogues as an innovative platform for accurate H(+) detection. The self-assembly of block copolymers on the nanometer length scale was particularly highlighted as a novel prospective means of regulating fluorescence properties while avoiding the self-quenching phenomenon, and this system can be used as a fast responsive pH sensor in versatile device forms.

  3. Molecular engineering and measurements to test hypothesized mechanisms in single molecule conductance switching.

    PubMed

    Moore, Amanda M; Dameron, Arrelaine A; Mantooth, Brent A; Smith, Rachel K; Fuchs, Daniel J; Ciszek, Jacob W; Maya, Francisco; Yao, Yuxing; Tour, James M; Weiss, Paul S

    2006-02-15

    Six customized phenylene-ethynylene-based oligomers have been studied for their electronic properties using scanning tunneling microscopy to test hypothesized mechanisms of stochastic conductance switching. Previously suggested mechanisms include functional group reduction, functional group rotation, backbone ring rotation, neighboring molecule interactions, bond fluctuations, and hybridization changes. Here, we test these hypotheses experimentally by varying the molecular designs of the switches; the ability of the molecules to switch via each hypothetical mechanism is selectively engineered into or out of each molecule. We conclude that hybridization changes at the molecule-surface interface are responsible for the switching we observe.

  4. Hydrochromic molecular switches for water-jet rewritable paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Lan; Li, Minjie; Zhu, Shaoyin; Li, Hao; Xi, Guan; Li, Yong-Gang; Wang, Yi; Li, Quanshun; Liang, Shaojun; Zhong, Ke; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An

    2014-01-01

    The days of rewritable paper are coming, printers of the future will use water-jet paper. Although several kinds of rewritable paper have been reported, practical usage of them is rare. Herein, a new rewritable paper for ink-free printing is proposed and demonstrated successfully by using water as the sole trigger to switch hydrochromic dyes on solid media. Water-jet prints with various colours are achieved with a commercial desktop printer based on these hydrochromic rewritable papers. The prints can be erased and rewritten dozens of times with no significant loss in colour quality. This rewritable paper is promising in that it can serve an eco-friendly information display to meet the increasing global needs for environmental protection.

  5. Hydrochromic molecular switches for water-jet rewritable paper.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Lan; Li, Minjie; Zhu, Shaoyin; Li, Hao; Xi, Guan; Li, Yong-Gang; Wang, Yi; Li, Quanshun; Liang, Shaojun; Zhong, Ke; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An

    2014-01-01

    The days of rewritable paper are coming, printers of the future will use water-jet paper. Although several kinds of rewritable paper have been reported, practical usage of them is rare. Herein, a new rewritable paper for ink-free printing is proposed and demonstrated successfully by using water as the sole trigger to switch hydrochromic dyes on solid media. Water-jet prints with various colours are achieved with a commercial desktop printer based on these hydrochromic rewritable papers. The prints can be erased and rewritten dozens of times with no significant loss in colour quality. This rewritable paper is promising in that it can serve an eco-friendly information display to meet the increasing global needs for environmental protection.

  6. Controlled clockwise and anticlockwise rotational switching of a molecular motor.

    PubMed

    Perera, U G E; Ample, F; Kersell, H; Zhang, Y; Vives, G; Echeverria, J; Grisolia, M; Rapenne, G; Joachim, C; Hla, S-W

    2013-01-01

    The design of artificial molecular machines often takes inspiration from macroscopic machines. However, the parallels between the two systems are often only superficial, because most molecular machines are governed by quantum processes. Previously, rotary molecular motors powered by light and chemical energy have been developed. In electrically driven motors, tunnelling electrons from the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope have been used to drive the rotation of a simple rotor in a single direction and to move a four-wheeled molecule across a surface. Here, we show that a stand-alone molecular motor adsorbed on a gold surface can be made to rotate in a clockwise or anticlockwise direction by selective inelastic electron tunnelling through different subunits of the motor. Our motor is composed of a tripodal stator for vertical positioning, a five-arm rotor for controlled rotations, and a ruthenium atomic ball bearing connecting the static and rotational parts. The directional rotation arises from sawtooth-like rotational potentials, which are solely determined by the internal molecular structure and are independent of the surface adsorption site.

  7. Action of molecular switches in GPCRs--theoretical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Trzaskowski, B; Latek, D; Yuan, S; Ghoshdastider, U; Debinski, A; Filipek, S

    2012-01-01

    G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), also called 7TM receptors, form a huge superfamily of membrane proteins that, upon activation by extracellular agonists, pass the signal to the cell interior. Ligands can bind either to extracellular N-terminus and loops (e.g. glutamate receptors) or to the binding site within transmembrane helices (Rhodopsin-like family). They are all activated by agonists although a spontaneous auto-activation of an empty receptor can also be observed. Biochemical and crystallographic methods together with molecular dynamics simulations and other theoretical techniques provided models of the receptor activation based on the action of so-called "molecular switches" buried in the receptor structure. They are changed by agonists but also by inverse agonists evoking an ensemble of activation states leading toward different activation pathways. Switches discovered so far include the ionic lock switch, the 3-7 lock switch, the tyrosine toggle switch linked with the nPxxy motif in TM7, and the transmission switch. The latter one was proposed instead of the tryptophan rotamer toggle switch because no change of the rotamer was observed in structures of activated receptors. The global toggle switch suggested earlier consisting of a vertical rigid motion of TM6, seems also to be implausible based on the recent crystal structures of GPCRs with agonists. Theoretical and experimental methods (crystallography, NMR, specific spectroscopic methods like FRET/BRET but also single-molecule-force-spectroscopy) are currently used to study the effect of ligands on the receptor structure, location of stable structural segments/domains of GPCRs, and to answer the still open question on how ligands are binding: either via ensemble of conformational receptor states or rather via induced fit mechanisms. On the other hand the structural investigations of homoand heterodimers and higher oligomers revealed the mechanism of allosteric signal transmission and receptor

  8. Structure of the torque ring of the flagellar motor and the molecular basis for rotational switching.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lawrence K; Ginsburg, Michael A; Crovace, Claudia; Donohoe, Mhairi; Stock, Daniela

    2010-08-19

    The flagellar motor drives the rotation of flagellar filaments at hundreds of revolutions per second, efficiently propelling bacteria through viscous media. The motor uses the potential energy from an electrochemical gradient of cations across the cytoplasmic membrane to generate torque. A rapid switch from anticlockwise to clockwise rotation determines whether a bacterium runs smoothly forward or tumbles to change its trajectory. A protein called FliG forms a ring in the rotor of the flagellar motor that is involved in the generation of torque through an interaction with the cation-channel-forming stator subunit MotA. FliG has been suggested to adopt distinct conformations that induce switching but these structural changes and the molecular mechanism of switching are unknown. Here we report the molecular structure of the full-length FliG protein, identify conformational changes that are involved in rotational switching and uncover the structural basis for the formation of the FliG torque ring. This allows us to propose a model of the complete ring and switching mechanism in which conformational changes in FliG reverse the electrostatic charges involved in torque generation.

  9. Molecular Simulations of Mutually Exclusive Folding in a Two-Domain Protein Switch

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Brandon M.; Chong, Lillian T.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge with testing designs of protein conformational switches is the need for experimental probes that can independently monitor their individual protein domains. One way to circumvent this issue is to use a molecular simulation approach in which each domain can be directly observed. Here we report what we believe to be the first molecular simulations of mutually exclusive folding in an engineered two-domain protein switch, providing a direct view of how folding of one protein drives unfolding of the other in a barnase-ubiquitin fusion protein. These simulations successfully capture the experimental effects of interdomain linker length and ligand binding on the extent of unfolding in the less stable domain. In addition, the effect of linker length on the potential for oligomerization, which eliminates switch activity, is in qualitative agreement with analytical ultracentrifugation experiments. We also perform what we believe to be the first study of protein unfolding via progressive localized compression. Finally, we are able to explore the kinetics of mutually exclusive folding by determining the effect of linker length on rates of unfolding and refolding of each protein domain. Our results demonstrate that molecular simulations can provide seemingly novel biological insights on the behavior of individual protein domains, thereby aiding in the rational design of bifunctional switches. PMID:21281591

  10. High-Dimensional Mutant and Modular Thermodynamic Cycles, Molecular Switching, and Free Energy Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Charles W.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how distinct parts of proteins produce coordinated behavior has driven and continues to drive advances in protein science and enzymology. However, despite consensus about the conceptual basis for allostery, the idiosyncratic nature of allosteric mechanisms resists general approaches. Computational methods can identify conformational transition states from structural changes, revealing common switching mechanisms that impose multistate behavior. Thermodynamic cycles use factorial perturbations to measure coupling energies between side chains in molecular switches that mediate shear during domain motion. Such cycles have now been complemented by modular cycles that measure energetic coupling between separable domains. For one model system, energetic coupling between domains has been shown to be quantitatively equivalent to that between dynamic side chains. Linkages between domain motion, switching residues, and catalysis make nucleoside triphosphate hydrolysis conditional on domain movement, confirming an essential yet neglected aspect of free energy transduction and suggesting the potential generality of these studies. PMID:28375734

  11. Understanding and controlling regime switching in molecular diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallerberg, S.; de Wijn, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion can be strongly affected by ballistic flights (long jumps) as well as long-lived sticking trajectories (long sticks). Using statistical inference techniques in the spirit of Granger causality, we investigate the appearance of long jumps and sticks in molecular-dynamics simulations of diffusion in a prototype system, a benzene molecule on a graphite substrate. We find that specific fluctuations in certain, but not all, internal degrees of freedom of the molecule can be linked to either long jumps or sticks. Furthermore, by changing the prevalence of these predictors with an outside influence, the diffusion of the molecule can be controlled. The approach presented in this proof of concept study is very generic and can be applied to larger and more complex molecules. Additionally, the predictor variables can be chosen in a general way so as to be accessible in experiments, making the method feasible for control of diffusion in applications. Our results also demonstrate that data-mining techniques can be used to investigate the phase-space structure of high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems.

  12. Reactive molecular dynamics simulations of switching processes of azobenzene-based monolayer on surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ziqi; Wen, Jin; Ma, Jing

    2013-07-01

    It is a challenge to simulate the switching process of functional self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on metal surfaces, since the systems consist of thousands of atoms and the switching is triggered by quantum-mechanical events. Herein a molecular dynamics simulation with a reactive rotation potential of N=N bond is implemented to investigate the dynamic conformational changes and packing effects on the stimuli-responsive isomerization of the terminally thiol functionalized azobiphenyls (AZOs), which are bound on the Au(111) surface. To, respectively, distinguish the time evolutions that start from cis and trans initial configurations, two different functions are established to model the potential energy curves for cis-to-trans and trans-to-cis transitions, instead of the only one cosine function used in the conventional non-reactive force fields. In order to simulate the conformation transitions of the AZO film on surface, a random switching function, depending on the N=N twisting angle, is constructed to consider both forward and backward cis/trans isomerization events and to trigger the reaction by changing the N atom types automatically. The factors that will influence the isomerization process, including the choice of ensembles and thermostat algorithms, the time intervals separating each switching, and the forms of the switching function, are systematically tested. Most AZO molecules switch from the cis to trans configuration with a coverage of 5.76 × 10-6 mol/m2 on a picosecond time scale, and a low coverage might make the switching irreversible, which is in agreement with the experiments.

  13. Mapping reversible photoswitching of molecular-resistance fluctuations during the conformational transformation of azobenzene-terminated molecular switches.

    PubMed

    Cho, Duckhyung; Yang, Myungjae; Shin, Narae; Hong, Seunghun

    2018-06-07

    We report a direct mapping and analysis of electrical noise in azobenzene-terminated molecular monolayers, revealing reversible photoswitching of the molecular-resistance fluctuations in the layers. In this work, a conducting atomic force microscope combined with a homemade spectrum analyzer was used to image electrical current and noise at patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of azobenzene-terminated molecular wires on a gold substrate. We analyzed the current and noise imaging data to obtain maps of molecular resistances and amount of mean-square fluctuations in the resistances of the regions of trans-azobenzene and a cis/trans-azobenzene mixture. We revealed that the fluctuations in the molecular resistances in the SAMs were enhanced after the trans-to-cis isomerization, while the resistances were reduced. This result could be attributed to enhanced disorders in the molecular arrangements in the cis-SAMs. Furthermore, we observed that the changes in the resistance fluctuations were reversible with respect to repeated trans-to-cis and cis-to-trans isomerizations, indicating that the effects originated from reversible photoswitching of the molecular structures rather than irreversible damages of the molecules. These findings provide valuable insights into the electrical fluctuations in photoswitchable molecules, which could be utilized in further studies on molecular switches and molecular electronics in general. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Transport dynamics of molecular motors that switch between an active and inactive state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkoviezky, I.; Gov, N. S.

    2013-08-01

    Molecular motors are involved in key transport processes in the cell. Many of these motors can switch from an active to a nonactive state, either spontaneously or depending on their interaction with other molecules. When active, the motors move processively along the filaments, while when inactive they are stationary. We treat here the simple case of spontaneously switching motors, between the active and inactive states, along an open linear track. We use our recent analogy with vehicular traffic, where we go beyond the mean-field description. We map the phase diagram of this system, and find that it clearly breaks the symmetry between the different phases, as compared to the standard total asymmetric exclusion process. We make several predictions that may be testable using molecular motors in vitro and in living cells.

  15. Research Update: Molecular electronics: The single-molecule switch and transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Sotthewes, Kai; Heimbuch, René, E-mail: r.heimbuch@utwente.nl; Kumar, Avijit

    2014-01-01

    In order to design and realize single-molecule devices it is essential to have a good understanding of the properties of an individual molecule. For electronic applications, the most important property of a molecule is its conductance. Here we show how a single octanethiol molecule can be connected to macroscopic leads and how the transport properties of the molecule can be measured. Based on this knowledge we have realized two single-molecule devices: a molecular switch and a molecular transistor. The switch can be opened and closed at will by carefully adjusting the separation between the electrical contacts and the voltage dropmore » across the contacts. This single-molecular switch operates in a broad temperature range from cryogenic temperatures all the way up to room temperature. Via mechanical gating, i.e., compressing or stretching of the octanethiol molecule, by varying the contact's interspace, we are able to systematically adjust the conductance of the electrode-octanethiol-electrode junction. This two-terminal single-molecule transistor is very robust, but the amplification factor is rather limited.« less

  16. Transient Evolutional Dynamics of Quantum-Dot Molecular Phase Coherence for Sensitive Optical Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian Qi; Gu, Jing

    2018-04-01

    Atomic phase coherence (quantum interference) in a multilevel atomic gas exhibits a number of interesting phenomena. Such an atomic quantum coherence effect can be generalized to a quantum-dot molecular dielectric. Two quantum dots form a quantum-dot molecule, which can be described by a three-level Λ-configuration model { |0> ,|1> ,|2> } , i.e., the ground state of the molecule is the lower level |0> and the highly degenerate electronic states in the two quantum dots are the two upper levels |1> ,|2> . The electromagnetic characteristics due to the |0>-|1> transition can be controllably manipulated by a tunable gate voltage (control field) that drives the |2>-|1> transition. When the gate voltage is switched on, the quantum-dot molecular state can evolve from one steady state (i.e., |0>-|1> two-level dressed state) to another steady state (i.e., three-level coherent-population-trapping state). In this process, the electromagnetic characteristics of a quantum-dot molecular dielectric, which is modified by the gate voltage, will also evolve. In this study, the transient evolutional behavior of the susceptibility of a quantum-dot molecular thin film and its reflection spectrum are treated by using the density matrix formulation of the multilevel systems. The present field-tunable and frequency-sensitive electromagnetic characteristics of a quantum-dot molecular thin film, which are sensitive to the applied gate voltage, can be utilized to design optical switching devices.

  17. Nucleotide Dependent Switching in Rho GTPase: Conformational Heterogeneity and Competing Molecular Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kumawat, Amit; Chakrabarty, Suman; Kulkarni, Kiran

    2017-01-01

    Ras superfamily of GTPases regulate myriad cellular processes through a conserved nucleotide (GTP/GDP) dependent switching mechanism. Unlike Ras family of GTPases, for the Rho GTPases, there is no clear evidence for the existence of “sub-states” such as state 1 & state 2 in the GTP bound form. To explore the nucleotide dependent conformational space of the Switch I loop and also to look for existence of state 1 like conformations in Rho GTPases, atomistic molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations on RhoA were performed. These studies demonstrate that both the nucleotide-free state and the GDP bound “OFF” state have very similar conformations, whereas the GTP bound “ON” state has unique conformations with signatures of two intermediate states. The conformational free energy landscape for these systems suggests the presence of multiple intermediate states. Interestingly, the energetic penalty of exposing the non-polar residues in the GTP bound form is counter balanced by the favourable hydrogen bonded interactions between the γ-phosphate group of GTP with the highly conserved Tyr34 and Thr37 residues. These competing molecular interactions lead to a tuneable energy landscape of the Switch I conformation, which can undergo significant changes based on the local environment including changes upon binding to effectors. PMID:28374773

  18. Nucleotide Dependent Switching in Rho GTPase: Conformational Heterogeneity and Competing Molecular Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumawat, Amit; Chakrabarty, Suman; Kulkarni, Kiran

    2017-04-01

    Ras superfamily of GTPases regulate myriad cellular processes through a conserved nucleotide (GTP/GDP) dependent switching mechanism. Unlike Ras family of GTPases, for the Rho GTPases, there is no clear evidence for the existence of “sub-states” such as state 1 & state 2 in the GTP bound form. To explore the nucleotide dependent conformational space of the Switch I loop and also to look for existence of state 1 like conformations in Rho GTPases, atomistic molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations on RhoA were performed. These studies demonstrate that both the nucleotide-free state and the GDP bound “OFF” state have very similar conformations, whereas the GTP bound “ON” state has unique conformations with signatures of two intermediate states. The conformational free energy landscape for these systems suggests the presence of multiple intermediate states. Interestingly, the energetic penalty of exposing the non-polar residues in the GTP bound form is counter balanced by the favourable hydrogen bonded interactions between the γ-phosphate group of GTP with the highly conserved Tyr34 and Thr37 residues. These competing molecular interactions lead to a tuneable energy landscape of the Switch I conformation, which can undergo significant changes based on the local environment including changes upon binding to effectors.

  19. Age-associated Cognitive Decline: Insights into Molecular Switches and Recovery Avenues.

    PubMed

    Konar, Arpita; Singh, Padmanabh; Thakur, Mahendra K

    2016-03-01

    Age-associated cognitive decline is an inevitable phenomenon that predisposes individuals for neurological and psychiatric disorders eventually affecting the quality of life. Scientists have endeavored to identify the key molecular switches that drive cognitive decline with advancing age. These newly identified molecules are then targeted as recovery of cognitive aging and related disorders. Cognitive decline during aging is multi-factorial and amongst several factors influencing this trajectory, gene expression changes are pivotal. Identifying these genes would elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings as well as offer clues that make certain individuals resilient to withstand the inevitable age-related deteriorations. Our laboratory has focused on this aspect and investigated a wide spectrum of genes involved in crucial brain functions that attribute to senescence induced cognitive deficits. We have recently identified master switches in the epigenome regulating gene expression alteration during brain aging. Interestingly, these factors when manipulated by chemical or genetic strategies successfully reverse the age-related cognitive impairments. In the present article, we review findings from our laboratory and others combined with supporting literary evidences on molecular switches of brain aging and their potential as recovery targets.

  20. Transient photocurrent in molecular junctions: singlet switching on and triplet blocking.

    PubMed

    Petrov, E G; Leonov, V O; Snitsarev, V

    2013-05-14

    The kinetic approach adapted to describe charge transmission in molecular junctions, is used for the analysis of the photocurrent under conditions of moderate light intensity of the photochromic molecule. In the framework of the HOMO-LUMO model for the single electron molecular states, the analytic expressions describing the temporary behavior of the transient and steady state sequential (hopping) as well as direct (tunnel) current components have been derived. The conditions at which the current components achieve their maximal values are indicated. It is shown that if the rates of charge transmission in the unbiased molecular diode are much lower than the intramolecular singlet-singlet excitation/de-excitation rate, and the threefold degenerated triplet excited state of the molecule behaves like a trap blocking the charge transmission, a possibility of a large peak-like transient switch-on photocurrent arises.

  1. Molecular Dynamics of the Proline Switch and Its Role in Crk Signaling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Crk adaptor proteins play a central role as a molecular timer for the formation of protein complexes including various growth and differentiation factors. The loss of regulation of Crk results in many kinds of cancers. A self-regulatory mechanism for Crk was recently proposed, which involves domain–domain rearrangement. It is initiated by a cis–trans isomerization of a specific proline residue (Pro238 in chicken Crk II) and can be accelerated by Cyclophilin A. To understand how the proline switch controls the autoinhibition at the molecular level, we performed large-scale molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations in the context of short peptides and multidomain constructs of chicken Crk II. We found that the equilibrium and kinetic properties of the macrostates are regulated not only by the local environments of specified prolines but also by the global organization of multiple domains. We observe the two macrostates (cis closed/autoinhibited and trans open/uninhibited) consistent with NMR experiments and predict barriers. We also propose an intermediate state, the trans closed state, which interestingly was reported to be a prevalent state in human Crk II. The existence of this macrostate suggests that the rate of switching off the autoinhibition by Cyp A may be limited by the relaxation rate of this intermediate state. PMID:24702481

  2. Molecular dynamics of the proline switch and its role in Crk signaling.

    PubMed

    Xia, Junchao; Levy, Ronald M

    2014-05-01

    The Crk adaptor proteins play a central role as a molecular timer for the formation of protein complexes including various growth and differentiation factors. The loss of regulation of Crk results in many kinds of cancers. A self-regulatory mechanism for Crk was recently proposed, which involves domain-domain rearrangement. It is initiated by a cis-trans isomerization of a specific proline residue (Pro238 in chicken Crk II) and can be accelerated by Cyclophilin A. To understand how the proline switch controls the autoinhibition at the molecular level, we performed large-scale molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations in the context of short peptides and multidomain constructs of chicken Crk II. We found that the equilibrium and kinetic properties of the macrostates are regulated not only by the local environments of specified prolines but also by the global organization of multiple domains. We observe the two macrostates (cis closed/autoinhibited and trans open/uninhibited) consistent with NMR experiments and predict barriers. We also propose an intermediate state, the trans closed state, which interestingly was reported to be a prevalent state in human Crk II. The existence of this macrostate suggests that the rate of switching off the autoinhibition by Cyp A may be limited by the relaxation rate of this intermediate state.

  3. Spin filter and molecular switch based on bowtie-shaped graphene nanoflake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jun; Wu, Fengmin; Li, Jingbo

    2012-11-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of bowtie-shaped graphene nanoflake (BGNF) are investigated from first principles calculations. The eigen states of ferromagnetic (FM) BGNF near Fermi level are found to be delocalized over the whole flake, whereas those of antiferromagnetic (AFM) BGNF are localized in one side. The different characters result in different transport properties for FM and AFM BGNFs. FM BGNF exhibits perfect spin filtering effect and can serve as a spin filter. Moreover, the conductance of BGNF is much larger in FM state than in AFM state, thus BGNF can serve as a molecular switch. These results suggest that BGNF is a good candidate for future nanoelectronics.

  4. A network of molecular switches controls the activation of the two-component response regulator NtrC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanatta, Dan K.; Shukla, Diwakar; Lawrenz, Morgan; Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-06-01

    Recent successes in simulating protein structure and folding dynamics have demonstrated the power of molecular dynamics to predict the long timescale behaviour of proteins. Here, we extend and improve these methods to predict molecular switches that characterize conformational change pathways between the active and inactive state of nitrogen regulatory protein C (NtrC). By employing unbiased Markov state model-based molecular dynamics simulations, we construct a dynamic picture of the activation pathways of this key bacterial signalling protein that is consistent with experimental observations and predicts new mutants that could be used for validation of the mechanism. Moreover, these results suggest a novel mechanistic paradigm for conformational switching.

  5. Humidity-controlled rectification switching in ruthenium-complex molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atesci, Huseyin; Kaliginedi, Veerabhadrarao; Celis Gil, Jose A.; Ozawa, Hiroaki; Thijssen, Joseph M.; Broekmann, Peter; Haga, Masa-aki; van der Molen, Sense Jan

    2018-02-01

    Although molecular rectifiers were proposed over four decades ago1,2, until recently reported rectification ratios (RR) were rather moderate2-11 (RR 101). This ceiling was convincingly broken using a eutectic GaIn top contact12 to probe molecular monolayers of coupled ferrocene groups (RR 105), as well as using scanning tunnelling microscopy-break junctions13-16 and mechanically controlled break junctions17 to probe single molecules (RR 102-103). Here, we demonstrate a device based on a molecular monolayer in which the RR can be switched by more than three orders of magnitude (between RR 100 and RR ≥ 103) in response to humidity. As the relative humidity is toggled between 5% and 60%, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of a monolayer of di-nuclear Ru-complex molecules reversibly change from symmetric to strongly asymmetric (diode-like). Key to this behaviour is the presence of two localized molecular orbitals in series, which are nearly degenerate in dry circumstances but become misaligned under high humidity conditions, due to the displacement of counter ions (PF6-). This asymmetric gating of the two relevant localized molecular orbital levels results in humidity-controlled diode-like behaviour.

  6. Prohibitin as the Molecular Binding Switch in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Sripathi, Srinivas R; Sylvester, O'Donnell; He, Weilue; Moser, Trevor; Um, Ji-Yeon; Lamoke, Folami; Ramakrishna, Wusirika; Bernstein, Paul S; Bartoli, Manuela; Jahng, Wan Jin

    2016-02-01

    Previously, our molecular binding study showed that prohibitin interacts with phospholipids, including phosphatidylinositide and cardiolipin. Under stress conditions, prohibitin interacts with cardiolipin as a retrograde response to activate mitochondrial proliferation. The lipid-binding switch mechanism of prohibitin with phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate and cardiolipin may suggest the role of prohibitin effects on energy metabolism and age-related diseases. The current study examined the region-specific expressions of prohibitin with respect to the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A detailed understanding of prohibitin binding with lipids, nucleotides, and proteins shown in the current study may suggest how molecular interactions control apoptosis and how we can intervene against the apoptotic pathway in AMD. Our data imply that decreased prohibitin in the peripheral RPE is a significant step leading to mitochondrial dysfunction that may promote AMD progression.

  7. "Off-On"switching electrochemiluminescence biosensor for mercury(II) detection based on molecular recognition technology.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Wei, BingGuo; He, Ling Ling; Mao, Ling; Zhang, Jie; Ceng, JinXiang; Kong, DeRong; Chen, ChaDan; Cui, HanFeng; Hong, Nian; Fan, Hao

    2017-02-01

    A novel "off-On" electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor has been developed for the detection of mercury(II) based on molecular recognition technology. The ECL mercury(II) biosensor comprises two main parts: an ECL substrate and an ECL intensity switch. The ECL substrate was made by modifying the complex of Ruthenium(II) tris-(bipyridine)(Ru(bpy) 3 2+ )/Cyclodextrins-Au nanoparticles(CD-AuNps)/Nafion on the surface of glass carbon electrode (GCE), and the ECL intensity switch is the single hairpin DNA probe designed according to the "molecular recognition" strategy which was functionalized with ferrocene tag at one end and attached to Cyclodextrins (CD) on modified GCE through supramolecular noncovalent interaction. We demonstrated that, in the absence of Hg(II) ion, the probe keeps single hairpin structure and resulted in a quenching of ECL of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ . Whereas, in the presence of Hg(II) ion, the probe prefers to form the T-Hg(II)-T complex and lead to an obvious recovery of ECL of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ , which provided a sensing platform for the detection of Hg(II) ion. Using this sensing platform, a simple, rapid and selective "off-On" ECL biosensor for the detection of mercury(II) with a detection limit of 0.1 nM has been developed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Simultaneous and coordinated rotational switching of all molecular rotors in a network

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Y.; Kersell, H.; Stefak, R.; ...

    2016-05-09

    A range of artificial molecular systems have been created that can exhibit controlled linear and rotational motion. In the development of such systems, a key step is the addition of communication between molecules in a network. Here, we show that a two-dimensional array of dipolar molecular rotors can undergo simultaneous rotational switching by applying an electric field from the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope. Several hundred rotors made from porphyrin-based double-decker complexes can be simultaneously rotated when in a hexagonal rotor network on a Cu(111) surface by applying biases above ±1 V at 80 K. The phenomenon is observedmore » only in a hexagonal rotor network due to the degeneracy of the ground state dipole rotational energy barrier of the system. Defects are essential to increase electric torque on the rotor network and to stabilize the switched rotor domains. At low biases and low initial rotator angles, slight reorientations of individual rotors can occur resulting in the rotator arms pointing in different directions. In conclusion, analysis reveals that the rotator arm directions here are not random, but are coordinated to minimize energy via cross talk among the rotors through dipolar interactions.« less

  9. Free-energy simulations reveal molecular mechanism for functional switch of a DNA helicase

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wen; Whitley, Kevin D; Schulten, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Helicases play key roles in genome maintenance, yet it remains elusive how these enzymes change conformations and how transitions between different conformational states regulate nucleic acid reshaping. Here, we developed a computational technique combining structural bioinformatics approaches and atomic-level free-energy simulations to characterize how the Escherichia coli DNA repair enzyme UvrD changes its conformation at the fork junction to switch its function from unwinding to rezipping DNA. The lowest free-energy path shows that UvrD opens the interface between two domains, allowing the bound ssDNA to escape. The simulation results predict a key metastable 'tilted' state during ssDNA strand switching. By simulating FRET distributions with fluorophores attached to UvrD, we show that the new state is supported quantitatively by single-molecule measurements. The present study deciphers key elements for the 'hyper-helicase' behavior of a mutant and provides an effective framework to characterize directly structure-function relationships in molecular machines. PMID:29664402

  10. Free-energy simulations reveal molecular mechanism for functional switch of a DNA helicase.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wen; Whitley, Kevin D; Chemla, Yann R; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida; Schulten, Klaus

    2018-04-17

    Helicases play key roles in genome maintenance, yet it remains elusive how these enzymes change conformations and how transitions between different conformational states regulate nucleic acid reshaping. Here, we developed a computational technique combining structural bioinformatics approaches and atomic-level free-energy simulations to characterize how the Escherichia coli DNA repair enzyme UvrD changes its conformation at the fork junction to switch its function from unwinding to rezipping DNA. The lowest free-energy path shows that UvrD opens the interface between two domains, allowing the bound ssDNA to escape. The simulation results predict a key metastable 'tilted' state during ssDNA strand switching. By simulating FRET distributions with fluorophores attached to UvrD, we show that the new state is supported quantitatively by single-molecule measurements. The present study deciphers key elements for the 'hyper-helicase' behavior of a mutant and provides an effective framework to characterize directly structure-function relationships in molecular machines. © 2018, Ma et al.

  11. Prohibitin as the Molecular Binding Switch in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Sripathi, Srinivasa R.; Sylvester, O’Donnell; He, Weilue; Moser, Trevor; Um, Ji-Yeon; Lamoke, Folami; Ramakrishna, Wusirika; Bernstein, Paul S.; Bartoli, Manuela; Jahng, Wan Jin

    2016-01-01

    Previously, our study showed that prohibitin interacts with phospholipids, including phosphatidylinositide and cardiolipin. Under stress conditions, prohibitin interacts with cardiolipin as a retrograde response to activate mitochondrial proliferation. The lipid-binding switch mechanism of prohibitin with phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) and cardiolipin may suggest the role of prohibitin effects on energy metabolism and age-related diseases. The current study examined the region-specific expressions of prohibitin with respect to the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A detailed understanding of prohibitin binding with lipids, nucleotides, and proteins shown in the current study may suggest how molecular interactions control apoptosis and how we can intervene against the apoptotic pathway in AMD. Our data imply that decreased prohibitin in the peripheral RPE is a significant step leading to mitochondrial dysfunction that may promote AMD progression. PMID:26661103

  12. Total synthesis of marinomycin A using salicylate as a molecular switch to mediate dimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, P. Andrew; Huang, Mu-Hua; Lawler, Michael J.; Maroto, Sergio

    2012-08-01

    Antibiotics play a significant role in human health because of their ability to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. The growing problems with antibiotic resistance have made the development of new antibiotics a World Health Organization priority. Marinomycin A is a member of a new class of bis-salicylate-containing polyene macrodiolides, which have potent antibiotic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Herein, we describe a triply convergent synthesis of this agent using the salicylate as a novel molecular switch for the chemoselective construction of the macrodiolide. This strategy raises new questions regarding the biosynthetic role of the salicylate and its potential impact on the mechanism of action of these types of agents. For instance, in contrast to penicillin, which enhances the electrophilicity of the cyclic amide through ring strain, salicylates reduce the electrophilicity of the aryl ester through an intramolecular resonance-assisted hydrogen bond to provide an amide surrogate.

  13. Molecular-channel driven actuator with considerations for multiple configurations and color switching.

    PubMed

    Mu, Jiuke; Wang, Gang; Yan, Hongping; Li, Huayu; Wang, Xuemin; Gao, Enlai; Hou, Chengyi; Pham, Anh Thi Cam; Wu, Lianjun; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Xu, Zhiping; Guo, Yang; Reichmanis, Elsa; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhu, Meifang

    2018-02-09

    The ability to achieve simultaneous intrinsic deformation with fast response in commercially available materials that can safely contact skin continues to be an unresolved challenge for artificial actuating materials. Rather than using a microporous structure, here we show an ambient-driven actuator that takes advantage of inherent nanoscale molecular channels within a commercial perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer (PFSA) film, fabricated by simple solution processing to realize a rapid response, self-adaptive, and exceptionally stable actuation. Selective patterning of PFSA films on an inert soft substrate (polyethylene terephthalate film) facilitates the formation of a range of different geometries, including a 2D (two-dimensional) roll or 3D (three-dimensional) helical structure in response to vapor stimuli. Chemical modification of the surface allowed the development of a kirigami-inspired single-layer actuator for personal humidity and heat management through macroscale geometric design features, to afford a bilayer stimuli-responsive actuator with multicolor switching capability.

  14. Plastic Transition to Switch Nonlinear Optical Properties Showing the Record High Contrast in a Single-Component Molecular Crystal.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhihua; Chen, Tianliang; Liu, Xitao; Hong, Maochun; Luo, Junhua

    2015-12-23

    To switch bulk nonlinear optical (NLO) effects represents an exciting new branch of NLO material science, whereas it remains a great challenge to achieve high contrast for "on/off" of quadratic NLO effects in crystalline materials. Here, we report the supereminent NLO-switching behaviors of a single-component plastic crystal, 2-(hydroxymethyl)-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol (1), which shows a record high contrast of at least ∼150, exceeding all the known crystalline switches. Such a breakthrough is clearly elucidated from the slowing down of highly isotropic molecular motions during plastic-to-rigid transition. The deep understanding of its intrinsic plasticity and superior NLO property allows the construction of a feasible switching mechanism. As a unique class of substances with short-range disorder embedded in long-range ordered crystalline lattice, plastic crystals enable response to external stimuli and fulfill specific photoelectric functions, which open a newly conceptual avenue for the designing of new functional materials.

  15. Negative differential resistance and switch behavior of T-BxNy (x, y = 5, 6, 11) molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-Liang; Yang, Chuan-Lu; Wang, Mei-Shan; Ma, Xiao-Guang; Xin, Jian-Guo

    2017-05-01

    The electronic transport properties of T-BxNy (x, y = 5, 6, 11) molecular junction are investigated based on first-principle density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method. Strong negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior is observed for T-B5N6 molecule under negative and positive bias voltages, with an obvious switch effect for T-B6N5. However, only small NDR is shown for the complex of the two molecules. The projected device density of states, the spatial distribution of molecular orbitals, and the effect of transmission spectra under various bias voltages on the electronic transport properties are analyzed. The obvious effect of bias voltage on the changes in the electronic distribution of frontier molecular orbitals is responsible for the NDR or switch behavior. Therefore, different functional molecular devices can be obtained with different structures of T-BxNy.

  16. Molecular chaperone TRAP1 regulates a metabolic switch between mitochondrial respiration and aerobic glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Muhlebach, Guillaume; Sourbier, Carole; Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Sunmin; Vartholomaiou, Evangelia; Tatokoro, Manabu; Beebe, Kristin; Miyajima, Naoto; Mohney, Robert P.; Chen, Yang; Hasumi, Hisashi; Xu, Wanping; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Ken; Koga, Fumitaka; Kihara, Kazunori; Trepel, Jane; Picard, Didier; Neckers, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    TRAP1 (TNF receptor-associated protein), a member of the HSP90 chaperone family, is found predominantly in mitochondria. TRAP1 is broadly considered to be an anticancer molecular target. However, current inhibitors cannot distinguish between HSP90 and TRAP1, making their utility as probes of TRAP1-specific function questionable. Some cancers express less TRAP1 than do their normal tissue counterparts, suggesting that TRAP1 function in mitochondria of normal and transformed cells is more complex than previously appreciated. We have used TRAP1-null cells and transient TRAP1 silencing/overexpression to show that TRAP1 regulates a metabolic switch between oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis in immortalized mouse fibroblasts and in human tumor cells. TRAP1-deficiency promotes an increase in mitochondrial respiration and fatty acid oxidation, and in cellular accumulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, ATP and reactive oxygen species. At the same time, glucose metabolism is suppressed. TRAP1-deficient cells also display strikingly enhanced invasiveness. TRAP1 interaction with and regulation of mitochondrial c-Src provide a mechanistic basis for these phenotypes. Taken together with the observation that TRAP1 expression is inversely correlated with tumor grade in several cancers, these data suggest that, in some settings, this mitochondrial molecular chaperone may act as a tumor suppressor. PMID:23564345

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Exploits a Molecular Off Switch of the Immune System for Intracellular Survival.

    PubMed

    von Both, Ulrich; Berk, Maurice; Agapow, Paul-Michael; Wright, Joseph D; Git, Anna; Hamilton, Melissa Shea; Goldgof, Greg; Siddiqui, Nazneen; Bellos, Evangelos; Wright, Victoria J; Coin, Lachlan J; Newton, Sandra M; Levin, Michael

    2018-01-12

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) survives and multiplies inside human macrophages by subversion of immune mechanisms. Although these immune evasion strategies are well characterised functionally, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we show that during infection of human whole blood with M. tuberculosis, host gene transcriptional suppression, rather than activation, is the predominant response. Spatial, temporal and functional characterisation of repressed genes revealed their involvement in pathogen sensing and phagocytosis, degradation within the phagolysosome and antigen processing and presentation. To identify mechanisms underlying suppression of multiple immune genes we undertook epigenetic analyses. We identified significantly differentially expressed microRNAs with known targets in suppressed genes. In addition, after searching regions upstream of the start of transcription of suppressed genes for common sequence motifs, we discovered novel enriched composite sequence patterns, which corresponded to Alu repeat elements, transposable elements known to have wide ranging influences on gene expression. Our findings suggest that to survive within infected cells, mycobacteria exploit a complex immune "molecular off switch" controlled by both microRNAs and Alu regulatory elements.

  18. Isolation of Ion-Driven Conformations in Diphenylacetylene Molecular Switches Using Cryogenic Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolk, Arron B.; Garand, Etienne; Jones, Ian M.; Kamrath, Michael Z.; Hamilton, Rew; Johnson, Mark A.

    2012-06-01

    We report the infrared predissociation spectra of a family of ionic diphenylacetylene molecular switch complexes. The electrosprayed complexes were trapped and cooled in a cryogenic (10K) quadrupole ion trap and tagged with molecular deuterium. The infrared spectra of the vibrationally cold species reveal sharp transitions over a wide energy range (800 - 3800 cm-1), facilitating comparison to harmonic spectra. The evolution of the band pattern upon derivatization of the complexes exposes the signatures of the amide, urea, and carbonyl functionalities, enabling unambiguous identification of the non-covalent interactions that control the secondary structure of the molecule. Complexation with the tetramethylammonium cation reveals a conformation analogous to that of the neutral molecule, while halide ion attachment induces a conformational change similar to that observed earlier in solution. In several cases, both the donor and acceptor groups involved in the multidentate H-bonds are observed, providing a microscopic mechanical picture of the interactions at play. I. Jones, and A. Hamilton, Angew. Chem. Intl. Edit. 50, 4597 (2011).

  19. A Multiaxial Molecular Ferroelectric with Highest Curie Temperature and Fastest Polarization Switching.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Wan-Ying; Ye, Heng-Yun; You, Yu-Meng; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2017-10-04

    The classical organic ferroelectric, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), has attracted much attention as a promising candidate for data storage applications compatible with all-organic electronics. However, it is the low crystallinity, the large coercive field, and the limited thermal stability of remanent polarization that severely hinder large-scale integration. In light of that, we show a molecular ferroelectric thin film of [Hdabco][ReO 4 ] (dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) (1), belonging to another class of typical organic ferroelectrics. Remarkably, it displays not only the highest Curie temperature of 499.6 K but also the fastest polarization switching of 100k Hz among all reported molecular ferroelectrics. Combined with the large remanent polarization values (∼9 μC/cm 2 ), the low coercive voltages (∼10 V), and the unique multiaxial ferroelectric nature, 1 becomes a promising and viable alternative to PVDF for data storage applications in next-generation flexible devices, wearable devices, and bionics.

  20. Ferroelectric molecular field-switch based on double proton transfer process: Static and dynamical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rode, Michał F.; Sobolewski, Andrzej L.; Jankowska, Joanna

    2016-04-07

    In this work, we present a reversible ferroelectric molecular switch controlled by an external electric field. The studied (2Z)-1-(6-((Z)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylvinyl)pyridin-3-yl)-2-(pyridin-2(1H) -ylidene)ethanone (DSA) molecule is polarized by two uniaxial intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Two protons can be transferred along hydrogen bonds upon an electric field applied along the main molecular axis. The process results in reversion of the dipole moment of the system. Static ab initio and on-the-fly dynamical simulations of the DSA molecule placed in an external electric field give insight into the mechanism of the double proton transfer (DPT) in the system and allow for estimation of the time scale ofmore » this process. The results indicate that with increasing strength of the electric field, the step-wise mechanism of DPT changes into the downhill barrierless process in which the synchronous and asynchronous DPTs compete with each other.« less

  1. A Predictive Model of Intein Insertion Site for Use in the Engineering of Molecular Switches

    PubMed Central

    Apgar, James; Ross, Mary; Zuo, Xiao; Dohle, Sarah; Sturtevant, Derek; Shen, Binzhang; de la Vega, Humberto; Lessard, Philip; Lazar, Gabor; Raab, R. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Inteins are intervening protein domains with self-splicing ability that can be used as molecular switches to control activity of their host protein. Successfully engineering an intein into a host protein requires identifying an insertion site that permits intein insertion and splicing while allowing for proper folding of the mature protein post-splicing. By analyzing sequence and structure based properties of native intein insertion sites we have identified four features that showed significant correlation with the location of the intein insertion sites, and therefore may be useful in predicting insertion sites in other proteins that provide native-like intein function. Three of these properties, the distance to the active site and dimer interface site, the SVM score of the splice site cassette, and the sequence conservation of the site showed statistically significant correlation and strong predictive power, with area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.79, 0.76, and 0.73 respectively, while the distance to secondary structure/loop junction showed significance but with less predictive power (AUC of 0.54). In a case study of 20 insertion sites in the XynB xylanase, two features of native insertion sites showed correlation with the splice sites and demonstrated predictive value in selecting non-native splice sites. Structural modeling of intein insertions at two sites highlighted the role that the insertion site location could play on the ability of the intein to modulate activity of the host protein. These findings can be used to enrich the selection of insertion sites capable of supporting intein splicing and hosting an intein switch. PMID:22649521

  2. A Dynamic View of Molecular Switch Behavior at Serotonin Receptors: Implications for Functional Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Martí-Solano, Maria; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Selent, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Functional selectivity is a property of G protein-coupled receptors that allows them to preferentially couple to particular signaling partners upon binding of biased agonists. Publication of the X-ray crystal structure of serotonergic 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors in complex with ergotamine, a drug capable of activating G protein coupling and β-arrestin signaling at the 5-HT1B receptor but clearly favoring β-arrestin over G protein coupling at the 5-HT2B subtype, has recently provided structural insight into this phenomenon. In particular, these structures highlight the importance of specific residues, also called micro-switches, for differential receptor activation. In our work, we apply classical molecular dynamics simulations and enhanced sampling approaches to analyze the behavior of these micro-switches and their impact on the stabilization of particular receptor conformational states. Our analysis shows that differences in the conformational freedom of helix 6 between both receptors could explain their different G protein-coupling capacity. In particular, as compared to the 5-HT1B receptor, helix 6 movement in the 5-HT2B receptor can be constrained by two different mechanisms. On the one hand, an anchoring effect of ergotamine, which shows an increased capacity to interact with the extracellular part of helices 5 and 6 and stabilize them, hinders activation of a hydrophobic connector region at the center of the receptor. On the other hand, this connector region in an inactive conformation is further stabilized by unconserved contacts extending to the intracellular part of the 5-HT2B receptor, which hamper opening of the G protein binding site. This work highlights the importance of considering receptor capacity to adopt different conformational states from a dynamic perspective in order to underpin the structural basis of functional selectivity. PMID:25313636

  3. A dynamic view of molecular switch behavior at serotonin receptors: implications for functional selectivity.

    PubMed

    Martí-Solano, Maria; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Selent, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Functional selectivity is a property of G protein-coupled receptors that allows them to preferentially couple to particular signaling partners upon binding of biased agonists. Publication of the X-ray crystal structure of serotonergic 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors in complex with ergotamine, a drug capable of activating G protein coupling and β-arrestin signaling at the 5-HT1B receptor but clearly favoring β-arrestin over G protein coupling at the 5-HT2B subtype, has recently provided structural insight into this phenomenon. In particular, these structures highlight the importance of specific residues, also called micro-switches, for differential receptor activation. In our work, we apply classical molecular dynamics simulations and enhanced sampling approaches to analyze the behavior of these micro-switches and their impact on the stabilization of particular receptor conformational states. Our analysis shows that differences in the conformational freedom of helix 6 between both receptors could explain their different G protein-coupling capacity. In particular, as compared to the 5-HT1B receptor, helix 6 movement in the 5-HT2B receptor can be constrained by two different mechanisms. On the one hand, an anchoring effect of ergotamine, which shows an increased capacity to interact with the extracellular part of helices 5 and 6 and stabilize them, hinders activation of a hydrophobic connector region at the center of the receptor. On the other hand, this connector region in an inactive conformation is further stabilized by unconserved contacts extending to the intracellular part of the 5-HT2B receptor, which hamper opening of the G protein binding site. This work highlights the importance of considering receptor capacity to adopt different conformational states from a dynamic perspective in order to underpin the structural basis of functional selectivity.

  4. Inversin, the gene product mutated in nephronophthisis type II, functions as a molecular switch between Wnt signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Matias; Gloy, Joachim; Ganner, Athina; Bullerkotte, Axel; Bashkurov, Mikhail; Krönig, Corinna; Schermer, Bernhard; Benzing, Thomas; Cabello, Olga A; Jenny, Andreas; Mlodzik, Marek; Polok, Bozena; Driever, Wolfgang; Obara, Tomoko; Walz, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Cystic renal diseases are caused by mutations of proteins that share a unique subcellular localization: the primary cilium of tubular epithelial cells1. Mutations of the ciliary protein inversin cause nephronophthisis type II, an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease characterized by extensive renal cysts, situs inversus and renal failure2. Here we report that inversin acts as a molecular switch between different Wnt signaling cascades. Inversin inhibits the canonical Wnt pathway by targeting cytoplasmic dishevelled (Dsh or Dvl1) for degradation; concomitantly, it is required for convergent extension movements in gastrulating Xenopus laevis embryos and elongation of animal cap explants, both regulated by noncanonical Wnt signaling. In zebrafish, the structurally related switch molecule diversin ameliorates renal cysts caused by the depletion of inversin, implying that an inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling is required for normal renal development. Fluid flow increases inversin levels in ciliated tubular epithelial cells and seems to regulate this crucial switch between Wnt signaling pathways during renal development. PMID:15852005

  5. The RhoA-ROCK-PTEN pathway as a molecular switch for anchorage dependent cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seungwon; Kim, Hyun-Man

    2012-04-01

    The proliferation of anchorage-dependent cells of mesenchymal origin requires the attachment of the cells to substrates. Thus, cells that are poorly attached to substrates exhibit retarded cell cycle progression or apoptotic death. A major disadvantage of most polymers used in tissue engineering is their hydrophobicity; hydrophobic surfaces do not allow cells to attach firmly and, therefore, do not allow normal proliferation rates. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the reduced proliferation rate of cells that are poorly attached to substrates. There was an inverse relationship between the activity of the small GTPase RhoA (RhoA) and the cell proliferation rate. RhoA activity correlated inversely with the strength of cell adhesion to the substrates. The high RhoA activity in the cells poorly attached to substrates caused an increase in the activity of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), a well-known effector of RhoA that upregulated the activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). The resulting activated PTEN downregulated Akt activity, which is essential for cell proliferation. Thus, the cells that were poorly attached to substrates showed low levels of cell proliferation because the RhoA-ROCK-PTEN pathway was hyperactive. In addition, RhoA activity seemed to be related to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity. Weak FAK activity in these poorly attached cells failed to downregulate the high RhoA activity that restrained cell proliferation. Interestingly, reducing the expression of any component of the RhoA-ROCK-PTEN pathway rescued the proliferation rate without physico-chemical surface modifications. Based on these results, we suggest that the RhoA-ROCK-PTEN pathway acts as a molecular switch to control cell proliferation and determine anchorage dependence. In cells that are poorly attached to substrates, its inhibition is sufficient to restore cell proliferation without the need for physico-chemical modification of the material

  6. A molecular switch on an arrestin-like protein relays glucose signaling to transporter endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Becuwe, Michel; Vieira, Neide; Lara, David; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Soares-Cunha, Carina; Casal, Margarida; Haguenauer-Tsapis, Rosine; Vincent, Olivier; Paiva, Sandra; Léon, Sébastien

    2012-01-23

    Endocytosis regulates the plasma membrane protein landscape in response to environmental cues. In yeast, the endocytosis of transporters depends on their ubiquitylation by the Nedd4-like ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, but how extracellular signals trigger this ubiquitylation is unknown. Various carbon source transporters are known to be ubiquitylated and endocytosed when glucose-starved cells are exposed to glucose. We show that this required the conserved arrestin-related protein Rod1/Art4, which was activated in response to glucose addition. Indeed, Rod1 was a direct target of the glucose signaling pathway composed of the AMPK homologue Snf1 and the PP1 phosphatase Glc7/Reg1. Glucose promoted Rod1 dephosphorylation and its subsequent release from a phospho-dependent interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. Consequently, this allowed Rod1 ubiquitylation by Rsp5, which was a prerequisite for transporter endocytosis. This paper therefore demonstrates that the arrestin-related protein Rod1 relays glucose signaling to transporter endocytosis and provides the first molecular insights into the nutrient-induced activation of an arrestin-related protein through a switch in post-translational modifications.

  7. Temperature control of molecular circuit switch responsible for virulent phenotype expression in uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilov, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The behavior and fate of biological organisms are to a large extent dictated by their environment, which can be often viewed as a collection of features and constraints governed by physics laws. Since biological systems comprise networks of molecular interactions, one such key physical property is temperature, whose variations directly affect the rates of biochemical reactions involved. For instance, temperature is known to control many gene regulatory circuits responsible for pathogenicity in bacteria. One such example is type 1 fimbriae (T1F) -- the foremost virulence factor in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which accounts for 80-90% of all community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). The expression of T1F is randomly `phase variable', i.e. individual cells switch between virulent/fimbriate and avirulent/afimbriate phenotypes, with rates regulated by temperature. Our computational investigation of this process, which is based on FimB/FimE recombinase-mediated inversion of fimS DNA element, offers new insights into its discrete-stochastic kinetics. In particular, it elucidates the logic of T1F control optimization to the host temperature and contributes further understanding toward the development of novel therapeutic approaches to UPEC-caused UTIs.

  8. Triple-helix molecular switch-based aptasensors and DNA sensors.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Elnaz; Abnous, Khalil; Alibolandi, Mona; Ramezani, Mohammad; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad

    2018-07-15

    Utilization of traditional analytical techniques is limited because they are generally time-consuming and require high consumption of reagents, complicated sample preparation and expensive equipment. Therefore, it is of great interest to achieve sensitive, rapid and simple detection methods. It is believed that nucleic acids assays, especially aptamers, are very important in modern life sciences for target detection and biological analysis. Aptamers and DNA-based sensors have been widely used for the design of various sensors owing to their unique features. In recent years, triple-helix molecular switch (THMS)-based aptasensors and DNA sensors have been broadly utilized for the detection and analysis of different targets. The THMS relies on the formation of DNA triplex via Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen base pairings under optimal conditions. This review focuses on recent progresses in the development and applications of electrochemical, colorimetric, fluorescence and SERS aptasensors and DNA sensors, which are based on THMS. Also, the advantages and drawbacks of these methods are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrospun Nanofibers from a Tricyanofuran-Based Molecular Switch for Colorimetric Recognition of Ammonia Gas.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Tawfik A; Abdelmoez, Sherif; Klapötke, Thomas M

    2016-03-14

    A chromophore based on tricyanofuran (TCF) with a hydrazone (H) recognition moiety was developed. Its molecular-switching performance is reversible and has differential sensitivity towards aqueous ammonia at comparable concentrations. Nanofibers were fabricated from the TCF-H chromophore by electrospinning. The film fabricated from these nanofibers functions as a solid-state optical chemosensor for probing ammonia vapor. Recognition of ammonia vapor occurs by proton transfer from the hydrazone fragment of the chromophore to the ammonia nitrogen atom and is facilitated by the strongly electron withdrawing TCF fragment. The TCF-H chromophore was added to a solution of poly(acrylic acid), which was electrospun to obtain a nanofibrous sensor device. The morphology of the nanofibrous sensor was determined by SEM, which showed that nanofibers with a diameter range of 200-450 nm formed a nonwoven mat. The resultant nanofibrous sensor showed very good sensitivity in ammonia-vapor detection. Furthermore, very good reversibility and short response time were also observed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A novel colorimetric triple-helix molecular switch aptasensor for ultrasensitive detection of tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Mohammad; Mohammad Danesh, Noor; Lavaee, Parirokh; Abnous, Khalil; Mohammad Taghdisi, Seyed

    2015-08-15

    Detection methods of antibiotic residues in blood serum and animal derived foods are of great interest. In this study a colorimetric aptasensor was designed for sensitive, selective and fast detection of tetracycline based on triple-helix molecular switch (THMS) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). As a biosensor, THMS shows distinct advantages including high stability, sensitivity and preserving the selectivity and affinity of the original aptamer. In the absence of tetracycline, THMS is stable, leading to the aggregation of AuNPs by salt and an obvious color change from red to blue. In the presence of tetracycline, aptamer binds to its target, signal transduction probe (STP) leaves the THMS and adsorbs on the surface of AuNPs. So the well-dispersed AuNPs remain stable against salt-induced aggregation with a red color. The presented aptasensor showed high selectivity toward tetracyclines with a limit of detection as low as 266 pM for tetracycline. The designed aptasensor was successfully applied to detect tetracycline in serum and milk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase molecular switch occurs in the gills of metamorphic sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferreira-Martins, D.; McCormick, Stephen; Campos, A.; Lopes-Marques, M.; Osorio, H.; Coimbra, J.; Castro, L.F.C.; Wilson, Jonthan M

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase plays a key role in CO2 transport, acid-base and ion regulation and metabolic processes in vertebrates. While several carbonic anhydrase isoforms have been identified in numerous vertebrate species, basal lineages such as the cyclostomes have remained largely unexamined. Here we investigate the repertoire of cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), that has a complex life history marked by a dramatic metamorphosis from a benthic filter-feeding ammocoete larvae into a parasitic juvenile which migrates from freshwater to seawater. We have identified a novel carbonic anhydrase gene (ca19) beyond the single carbonic anhydrase gene (ca18) that was known previously. Phylogenetic analysis and synteny studies suggest that both carbonic anhydrase genes form one or two independent gene lineages and are most likely duplicates retained uniquely in cyclostomes. Quantitative PCR of ca19 and ca18 and protein expression in gill across metamorphosis show that the ca19 levels are highest in ammocoetes and decrease during metamorphosis while ca18 shows the opposite pattern with the highest levels in post-metamorphic juveniles. We propose that a unique molecular switch occurs during lamprey metamorphosis resulting in distinct gill carbonic anhydrases reflecting the contrasting life modes and habitats of these life-history stages.

  12. On the field-induced switching of molecular organization in a biaxial nematic cell and its relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Matteo; Berardi, Roberto; Zannoni, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the switching of a biaxial nematic filling a flat cell with planar homogeneous anchoring using a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation. We have found that an aligning field applied across the film, and acting on specific molecular axes, can drive the reorientation of the secondary biaxial director up to one order of magnitude faster than that for the principal director. While the π/2 switching of the secondary director does not affect the alignment of the long molecular axes, the field-driven reorientation of the principal director proceeds via a concerted rotation of the long and transversal molecular axes. More importantly, while upon switching off a (relatively) weak or intermediate field, the biaxial nematic liquid crystal is always able to relax to the initial surface aligned director state; this is not the case when using fields above a certain threshold. In that case, while the secondary director always recovers the initial state, the principal one remains, occasionally, trapped in a nonuniform director state due to the formation of domain walls.

  13. Molecular Dynamics of Flexible Polar Cations in a Variable Confined Space: Toward Exceptional Two-Step Nonlinear Optical Switches.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-Jian; He, Chun-Ting; Ji, Cheng-Min; Chen, Shao-Li; Huang, Rui-Kang; Lin, Rui-Biao; Xue, Wei; Luo, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Xiong; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2016-07-01

    The changeable molecular dynamics of flexible polar cations in the variable confined space between inorganic chains brings about a new type of two-step nonlinear optical (NLO) switch with genuine "off-on-off" second harmonic generation (SHG) conversion between one NLO-active state and two NLO-inactive states. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Pax2 regulates a fadd-dependent molecular switch that drives tissue fusion during eye development.

    PubMed

    Viringipurampeer, Ishaq A; Ferreira, Todd; DeMaria, Shannon; Yoon, Jookyung J; Shan, Xianghong; Moosajee, Mariya; Gregory-Evans, Kevin; Ngai, John; Gregory-Evans, Cheryl Y

    2012-05-15

    Tissue fusion is an essential morphogenetic mechanism in development, playing a fundamental role in developing neural tube, palate and the optic fissure. Disruption of genes associated with the tissue fusion can lead to congenital malformations, such as spina bifida, cleft lip/palate and ocular coloboma. For instance, the Pax2 transcription factor is required for optic fissure closure, although the mechanism of Pax2 action leading to tissue fusion remains elusive. This lack of information defining how transcription factors drive tissue morphogenesis at the cellular level is hampering new treatments options. Through loss- and gain-of-function analysis, we now establish that pax2 in combination with vax2 directly regulate the fas-associated death domain (fadd) gene. In the presence of fadd, cell proliferation is restricted in the developing eye through a caspase-dependent pathway. However, the loss of fadd results in a proliferation defect and concomitant activation of the necroptosis pathway through RIP1/RIP3 activity, leading to an abnormal open fissure. Inhibition of RIP1 with the small molecule drug necrostatin-1 rescues the pax2 eye fusion defect, thereby overcoming the underlying genetic defect. Thus, fadd has an essential physiological function in protecting the developing optic fissure neuroepithelium from RIP3-dependent necroptosis. This study demonstrates the molecular hierarchies that regulate a cellular switch between proliferation and the apoptotic and necroptotic cell death pathways, which in combination drive tissue morphogenesis. Furthermore, our data suggest that future therapeutic strategies may be based on small molecule drugs that can bypass the gene defects causing common congenital tissue fusion defects.

  15. Realization of a four-step molecular switch in scanning tunneling microscope manipulation of single chlorophyll-a molecules

    PubMed Central

    Iancu, Violeta; Hla, Saw-Wai

    2006-01-01

    Single chlorophyll-a molecules, a vital resource for the sustenance of life on Earth, have been investigated by using scanning tunneling microscope manipulation and spectroscopy on a gold substrate at 4.6 K. Chlorophyll-a binds on Au(111) via its porphyrin unit while the phytyl-chain is elevated from the surface by the support of four CH3 groups. By injecting tunneling electrons from the scanning tunneling microscope tip, we are able to bend the phytyl-chain, which enables the switching of four molecular conformations in a controlled manner. Statistical analyses and structural calculations reveal that all reversible switching mechanisms are initiated by a single tunneling-electron energy-transfer process, which induces bond rotation within the phytyl-chain. PMID:16954201

  16. Molecular switch-modulated fluorescent copper nanoclusters for selective and sensitive detection of histidine and cysteine.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zefeng; Cao, Zhijuan

    2018-06-07

    A novel assay for histidine and cysteine has been constructed based on modulation of fluorescent copper nanoclusters (CuNCs) by molecular switches. In our previous work, a dumbbell DNA template with a poly-T (thymine) loop has been developed as an excellent template for the formation of strongly fluorescent CuNCs. Herein, for the first time, we established this biosensor for sensing two amino acids by using dumbbell DNA-templated CuNCs as the single probe. Among 20 natural amino acids, only histidine and cysteine can selectively quench fluorescence emission of CuNCs, because of the specific interaction of these compounds with copper ions. Furthermore, by using nickel ions (Ni 2+ ) and N-ethylmaleimide as the masking agents for histidine and cysteine respectively, an integrated logic gate system was designed by coupling with the fluorescent CuNCs and demonstrated selective and sensitive detection of cysteine and histidine. Under optimal conditions, cysteine can be detected in the concentration ranges of 0.01-10.0 μM with the detection limit (DL) of as low as 98 pM, while histidine can be detected in the ranges of 0.05-40.0 μM with DL of 1.6 nM. In addition, histidine and cysteine can be observed with the naked eye under a hand-held UV lamp (DL, 50 nM), which can be easily adapted to automated high-throughput screening. Finally, the strategy has been successfully utilized for biological fluids. The proposed system can be conducted in homogeneous solution, eliminating the need for organic cosolvents, separation processes of nanomaterials, or any chemical modifications. Overall, the assay provides an alternative method for simultaneous detection of cysteine and histidine by taking the advantages of high speed, no label and enzyme requirement, and good sensitivity and specificity, and will satisfy the great demand for determination of amino acids in fields such as food processing, biochemistry, pharmaceuticals, and clinical analysis. Graphical abstract.

  17. Observation of ambipolar switching in a silver nanoparticle single-electron transistor with multiple molecular floating gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Makoto; Shinohara, Shuhei; Tamada, Kaoru; Ishii, Hisao; Noguchi, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    Ambipolar switching behavior was observed in a silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-based single-electron transistor (SET) with tetra-tert-butyl copper phthalocyanine (ttbCuPc) as a molecular floating gate. Depending on the wavelength of the incident light, the stability diagram shifted to the negative and positive directions along the gate voltage axis. These results were explained by the photoinduced charging of ttbCuPc molecules in the vicinity of AgNPs. Moreover, multiple device states were induced by the light irradiation at a wavelength of 600 nm, suggesting that multiple ttbCuPc molecules individually worked as a floating gate.

  18. Emerging roles of microRNAs as molecular switches in the integrated circuit of the cancer cell

    PubMed Central

    Sotiropoulou, Georgia; Pampalakis, Georgios; Lianidou, Evi; Mourelatos, Zissimos

    2009-01-01

    Transformation of normal cells into malignant tumors requires the acquisition of six hallmark traits, e.g., self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to antigrowth signals and self-renewal, evasion of apoptosis, limitless replication potential, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, which are common to all cancers (Hanahan and Weinberg 2000). These new cellular traits evolve from defects in major regulatory microcircuits that are fundamental for normal homeostasis. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) as a new class of small non-protein-coding RNAs that control gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to various mRNA targets suggests that these tiny RNA molecules likely act as molecular switches in the extensive regulatory web that involves thousands of transcripts. Most importantly, accumulating evidence suggests that numerous microRNAs are aberrantly expressed in human cancers. In this review, we discuss the emergent roles of microRNAs as switches that function to turn on/off known cellular microcircuits. We outline recent compelling evidence that deregulated microRNA-mediated control of cellular microcircuits cooperates with other well-established regulatory mechanisms to confer the hallmark traits of the cancer cell. Furthermore, these exciting insights into aberrant microRNA control in cancer-associated circuits may be exploited for cancer therapies that will target deregulated miRNA switches. PMID:19561119

  19. Evolution in Action: N and C Termini of Subunits in Related T=4 Viruses Exchange Roles as Molecular Switches

    PubMed Central

    Speir, Jeffrey A.; Taylor, Derek J.; Natarajan, Padmaja; Pringle, Fiona M.; Ball, L. Andrew; Johnson, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The T=4 tetravirus and T=3 nodavirus capsid proteins undergo closely similar autoproteolysis to produce the N-terminal ß and C-terminal, lipophilic γ polypeptides. The γ peptides and N-termini of ß also act as molecular switches that determine their quasi-equivalent capsid structures. The crystal structure of Providence virus (PrV), only the second of a tetravirus (the first was NωV), reveals conserved folds and cleavage sites, but the protein termini have completely different structures and the opposite functions of those in N⌉V. N-termini of ß form the molecular switch in PrV, while γ peptides have this role in N⌉V. PrV γ peptides instead interact with packaged RNA at the particle 2-folds using a repeating sequence pattern found in only four other RNA or membrane binding proteins. The disposition of peptide termini in PrV is closely related to those in nodaviruses suggesting that PrV may be closer to the primordial T=4 particle than NωV. PMID:20541507

  20. Understanding the On-Off Switching Mechanism in Cationic Tetravalent Group-V-Based Fluoride Molecular Sensors Using Orbital Analysis.

    PubMed

    Usui, Kosuke; Ando, Mikinori; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Irle, Stephan

    2015-12-24

    The precise control of on-off switching is essential to the design of ideal molecular sensors. To understand the switching mechanism theoretically, we selected as representative example a 9-anthryltriphenylstibonium cation, which was reported as a fluoride ion sensor. In this molecule, the first excited singlet state exhibits two minimum geometries, where one of them is emissive and the other one dark. The excited state at the geometry with bright emission is of π-π* character, whereas it is of π-σ* character at the "dark" geometry. Geometry changes in the excited state were identified by geometry optimization and partial potential energy surface (PES) mapping. We also studied Group V homologues of this molecule. A barrierless relaxation pathway after vertical excitation to the "dark" geometry was found for the Sb-containing compound on the excited-states PES, whereas barriers appear in the case of P and As. Molecular orbital analysis suggests that the σ* orbital of the antimony compound is stabilized along such relaxation and that the excited state changes its nature correspondingly. Our results indicate that the size of the central atom is crucial for the design of fluoride sensors with this ligand framework.

  1. Molecular Dynamic Simulation Reveals Damaging Impact of RAC1 F28L Mutation in the Switch I Region

    PubMed Central

    Sethumadhavan, Rao; Purohit, Rituraj

    2013-01-01

    Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1) is a plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between the active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound states. There is wide range of evidences indicating its active participation in inducing cancer-associated phenotypes. RAC1 F28L mutation (RACF28L) is a fast recycling mutation which has been implicated in several cancer associated cases. In this work we have performed molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation (~0.3 μs) to investigate the conformational changes occurring in the mutant protein. The RMSD, RMSF and NHbonds results strongly suggested that the loss of native conformation in the Switch I region in RAC1 mutant protein could be the reason behind its oncogenic transformation. The overall results suggested that the mutant protein attained compact conformation as compared to the native. The major impact of mutation was observed in the Switch I region which might be the crucial reason behind the loss of interaction between the guanine ring and F28 residue. PMID:24146998

  2. Molecular Switch for Sub-Diffraction Laser Lithography by Photoenol Intermediate-State Cis-Trans Isomerization.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Patrick; Zieger, Markus M; Richter, Benjamin; Quick, Alexander S; Fischer, Joachim; Mueller, Jonathan B; Zhou, Lu; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich; Bastmeyer, Martin; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Wegener, Martin

    2017-06-27

    Recent developments in stimulated-emission depletion (STED) microscopy have led to a step change in the achievable resolution and allowed breaking the diffraction limit by large factors. The core principle is based on a reversible molecular switch, allowing for light-triggered activation and deactivation in combination with a laser focus that incorporates a point or line of zero intensity. In the past years, the concept has been transferred from microscopy to maskless laser lithography, namely direct laser writing (DLW), in order to overcome the diffraction limit for optical lithography. Herein, we propose and experimentally introduce a system that realizes such a molecular switch for lithography. Specifically, the population of intermediate-state photoenol isomers of α-methyl benzaldehydes generated by two-photon absorption at 700 nm fundamental wavelength can be reversibly depleted by simultaneous irradiation at 440 nm, suppressing the subsequent Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction which constitutes the chemical core of the writing process. We demonstrate the potential of the proposed mechanism for STED-inspired DLW by covalently functionalizing the surface of glass substrates via the photoenol-driven STED-inspired process exploiting reversible photoenol activation with a polymerization initiator. Subsequently, macromolecules are grown from the functionalized areas and the spatially coded glass slides are characterized by atomic-force microscopy. Our approach allows lines with a full-width-at-half-maximum of down to 60 nm and line gratings with a lateral resolution of 100 nm to be written, both surpassing the diffraction limit.

  3. Azobenzenes as light-controlled molecular electronic switches in nanoscale metal-molecule-metal junctions.

    PubMed

    Mativetsky, Jeffrey M; Pace, Giuseppina; Elbing, Mark; Rampi, Maria A; Mayor, Marcel; Samorì, Paolo

    2008-07-23

    Conductance switching associated with the photoisomerization of azobenzene-based (Azo) molecules was observed in nanoscopic metal-molecule-metal junctions. The junctions were formed by using a conducting atomic force microscope (C-AFM) approach, where a metallic AFM tip was used to electrically contact a gold-supported Azo self-assembled monolayer. The measured 30-fold increase in conductance is consistent with the expected decrease in tunneling barrier length resulting from the conformational change of the Azo molecule.

  4. ALMA Reveals Molecular Cloud N55 in the Large Magellanic Cloud as a Site of Massive Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naslim, N.; Tokuda, K.; Onishi, T.; Kemper, F.; Wong, T.; Morata, O.; Takada, S.; Harada, R.; Kawamura, A.; Saigo, K.; Indebetouw, R.; Madden, S. C.; Hony, S.; Meixner, M.

    2018-02-01

    We present the molecular cloud properties of N55 in the Large Magellanic Cloud using 12CO(1–0) and 13CO(1–0) observations obtained with Atacama Large Millimeter Array. We have done a detailed study of molecular gas properties, to understand how the cloud properties of N55 differ from Galactic clouds. Most CO emission appears clumpy in N55, and molecular cores that have young stellar objects (YSOs) show larger linewidths and masses. The massive clumps are associated with high and intermediate mass YSOs. The clump masses are determined by local thermodynamic equilibrium and virial analysis of the 12CO and 13CO emissions. These mass estimates lead to the conclusion that (a) the clumps are in self-gravitational virial equilibrium, and (b) the 12CO(1–0)-to-H2 conversion factor, {X}{CO}, is 6.5 × 1020 cm‑2 (K km s‑1)‑1. This CO-to-H2 conversion factor for N55 clumps is measured at a spatial scale of ∼0.67 pc, which is about two times higher than the {X}{CO} value of the Orion cloud at a similar spatial scale. The core mass function of N55 clearly show a turnover below 200 {M}ȯ , separating the low-mass end from the high-mass end. The low-mass end of the 12CO mass spectrum is fitted with a power law of index 0.5 ± 0.1, while for 13CO it is fitted with a power law index 0.6 ± 0.2. In the high-mass end, the core mass spectrum is fitted with a power index of 2.0 ± 0.3 for 12CO, and with 2.5 ± 0.4 for 13CO. This power law behavior of the core mass function in N55 is consistent with many Galactic clouds.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of the bivalve superfamily Galeommatoidea (Heterodonta, Veneroida) reveals dynamic evolution of symbiotic lifestyle and interphylum host switching

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Galeommatoidea is a superfamily of bivalves that exhibits remarkably diverse lifestyles. Many members of this group live attached to the body surface or inside the burrows of other marine invertebrates, including crustaceans, holothurians, echinoids, cnidarians, sipunculans and echiurans. These symbiotic species exhibit high host specificity, commensal interactions with hosts, and extreme morphological and behavioral adaptations to symbiotic life. Host specialization to various animal groups has likely played an important role in the evolution and diversification of this bivalve group. However, the evolutionary pathway that led to their ecological diversity is not well understood, in part because of their reduced and/or highly modified morphologies that have confounded traditional taxonomy. This study elucidates the taxonomy of the Galeommatoidea and their evolutionary history of symbiotic lifestyle based on a molecular phylogenic analysis of 33 galeommatoidean and five putative galeommatoidean species belonging to 27 genera and three families using two nuclear ribosomal genes (18S and 28S ribosomal DNA) and a nuclear (histone H3) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) protein-coding genes. Results Molecular phylogeny recovered six well-supported major clades within Galeommatoidea. Symbiotic species were found in all major clades, whereas free-living species were grouped into two major clades. Species symbiotic with crustaceans, holothurians, sipunculans, and echiurans were each found in multiple major clades, suggesting that host specialization to these animal groups occurred repeatedly in Galeommatoidea. Conclusions Our results suggest that the evolutionary history of host association in Galeommatoidea has been remarkably dynamic, involving frequent host switches between different animal phyla. Such an unusual pattern of dynamic host switching is considered to have resulted from their commensalistic lifestyle, in which they maintain filter

  6. Allosteric Fine-Tuning of the Binding Pocket Dynamics in the ITK SH2 Domain by a Distal Molecular Switch: An Atomistic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Momin, Mohamed; Xin, Yao; Hamelberg, Donald

    2017-06-29

    Although the regulation of function of proteins by allosteric interactions has been identified in many subcellular processes, molecular switches are also known to induce long-range conformational changes in proteins. A less well understood molecular switch involving cis-trans isomerization of a peptidyl-prolyl bond could induce a conformational change directly to the backbone that is propagated to other parts of the protein. However, these switches are elusive and hard to identify because they are intrinsic to biomolecules that are inherently dynamic. Here, we explore the conformational dynamics and free energy landscape of the SH2 domain of interleukin-2-inducible T-cell or tyrosine kinase (ITK) to fully understand the conformational coupling between the distal cis-trans molecular switch and its binding pocket of the phosphotyrosine motif. We use multiple microsecond-long all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water for over a total of 60 μs. We show that cis-trans isomerization of the Asn286-Pro287 peptidyl-prolyl bond is directly coupled to the dynamics of the binding pocket of the phosphotyrosine motif, in agreement with previous NMR experiments. Unlike the cis state that is localized and less dynamic in a single free energy basin, the trans state samples two distinct conformations of the binding pocket-one that recognizes the phosphotyrosine motif and the other that is somewhat similar to that of the cis state. The results provide an atomic-level description of a less well understood allosteric regulation by a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans molecular switch that could aid in the understanding of normal and aberrant subcellular processes and the identification of these elusive molecular switches in other proteins.

  7. Conformational switching between protein substates studied with 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Sayan; Thorpe, Dayton G; Thorpe, Ian F; Voth, Gregory A; Fayer, M D

    2010-12-30

    Myoglobin is an important protein for the study of structure and dynamics. Three conformational substates have been identified for the carbonmonoxy form of myoglobin (MbCO). These are manifested as distinct peaks in the IR absorption spectrum of the CO stretching mode. Ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo chemical exchange experiments are used to observed switching between two of these substates, A(1) and A(3), on a time scale of <100 ps for two mutants of wild-type Mb. The two mutants are a single mutation of Mb, L29I, and a double mutation, T67R/S92D. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to model the structural differences between the substates of the two MbCO mutants. The MD simulations are also employed to examine the substate switching in the two mutants as a test of the ability of MD simulations to predict protein dynamics correctly for a system in which there is a well-defined transition over a significant potential barrier between two substates. For one mutant, L29I, the simulations show that translation of the His64 backbone may differentiate the two substates. The simulations accurately reproduce the experimentally observed interconversion time for the L29I mutant. However, MD simulations exploring the same His64 backbone coordinate fail to display substate interconversion for the other mutant, T67R/S92D, thus pointing to the likely complexity of the underlying protein interactions. We anticipate that understanding conformational dynamics in MbCO via ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo chemical exchange experiments can help to elucidate fast conformational switching processes in other proteins.

  8. Sialic Acid-Responsive Polymeric Interface Material: From Molecular Recognition to Macroscopic Property Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yuting; Jiang, Ge; Li, Minmin; Qing, Guangyan; Li, Xiuling; Liang, Xinmiao; Sun, Taolei

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems that utilize multiple weak non-covalent interactions and hierarchical assemblies to achieve various bio-functions bring much inspiration for the design of artificial biomaterials. However, it remains a big challenge to correlate underlying biomolecule interactions with macroscopic level of materials, for example, recognizing such weak interaction, further transforming it into regulating material’s macroscopic property and contributing to some new bio-applications. Here we designed a novel smart polymer based on polyacrylamide (PAM) grafted with lactose units (PAM-g-lactose0.11), and reported carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction (CCI)-promoted macroscopic properties switching on this smart polymer surface. Detailed investigations indicated that the binding of sialic acid molecules with the grafted lactose units via the CCIs induced conformational transformation of the polymer chains, further resulted in remarkable and reversible switching in surface topography, wettability and stiffness. With these excellent recognition and response capacities towards sialic acid, the PAM-g-lactose0.11 further facilitated good selectivity, strong anti-interference and high adsorption capacity in the capture of sialylated glycopeptides (important biomarkers for cancers). This work provides some enlightenment for the development of biointerface materials with tunable property, as well as high-performance glycopeptide enrichment materials.

  9. Coupled Molecular Switching Processes in Ordered Mono- and Multilayers of Stimulus-Responsive Rotaxanes on Gold Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Interfaces provide the structural basis for function as, for example, encountered in nature in the membrane-embedded photosystem or in technology in solar cells. Synthetic functional multilayers of molecules cooperating in a coupled manner can be fabricated on surfaces through layer-by-layer self-assembly. Ordered arrays of stimulus-responsive rotaxanes undergoing well-controlled axle shuttling are excellent candidates for coupled mechanical motion. Such stimulus-responsive surfaces may help integrate synthetic molecular machines in larger systems exhibiting even macroscopic effects or generating mechanical work from chemical energy through cooperative action. The present work demonstrates the successful deposition of ordered mono- and multilayers of chemically switchable rotaxanes on gold surfaces. Rotaxane mono- and multilayers are shown to reversibly switch in a coupled manner between two ordered states as revealed by linear dichroism effects in angle-resolved NEXAFS spectra. Such a concerted switching process is observed only when the surfaces are well packed, while less densely packed surfaces lacking lateral order do not exhibit such effects. PMID:25782057

  10. On the Role of the SP1 Domain in HIV-1 Particle Assembly: a Molecular Switch?▿

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Siddhartha A. K.; Temeselew, Lakew G.; Crist, Rachael M.; Soheilian, Ferri; Kamata, Anne; Mirro, Jane; Harvin, Demetria; Nagashima, Kunio; Cachau, Raul E.; Rein, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Expression of a retroviral protein, Gag, in mammalian cells is sufficient for assembly of immature virus-like particles (VLPs). VLP assembly is mediated largely by interactions between the capsid (CA) domains of Gag molecules but is facilitated by binding of the nucleocapsid (NC) domain to nucleic acid. We have investigated the role of SP1, a spacer between CA and NC in HIV-1 Gag, in VLP assembly. Mutational analysis showed that even subtle changes in the first 4 residues of SP1 destroy the ability of Gag to assemble correctly, frequently leading to formation of tubes or other misassembled structures rather than proper VLPs. We also studied the conformation of the CA-SP1 junction region in solution, using both molecular dynamics simulations and circular dichroism. Consonant with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies from other laboratories, we found that SP1 is nearly unstructured in aqueous solution but undergoes a concerted change to an α-helical conformation when the polarity of the environment is reduced by addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), trifluoroethanol, or ethanol. Remarkably, such a coil-to-helix transition is also recapitulated in an aqueous medium at high peptide concentrations. The exquisite sensitivity of SP1 to mutational changes and its ability to undergo a concentration-dependent structural transition raise the possibility that SP1 could act as a molecular switch to prime HIV-1 Gag for VLP assembly. We suggest that changes in the local environment of SP1 when Gag oligomerizes on nucleic acid might trigger this switch. PMID:21325421

  11. A Study of Electrocyclic Reactions in a Molecular Junction: Mechanistic and Energetic Requirements for Switching in the Coulomb Blockade Regime.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Stine T; Brøndsted Nielsen, Mogens; Hansen, Thorsten; Ratner, Mark A; Mikkelsen, Kurt V

    2017-06-20

    Molecular photoswitches incorporated in molecular junctions yield the possibility of light-controlled switching of conductance due to the electronic difference of the photoisomers. Another isomerization mechanism, dark photoswitching, promoted by a voltage stimulus rather than by light, can be operative in the Coulomb blockade regime for a specific charge state of the molecule. Here we elucidate theoretically the mechanistic and thermodynamic restrictions for this dark photoswitching for donor-acceptor substituted 4n and 4n+2 π-electron open-chain oligoenes (1,3-butadiene and 1,3,5-hexatriene) by considering the molecular energies and orbitals of the molecules placed in a junction. For an electrocyclic ring closure reaction to occur for these compounds, we put forward two requirements: a) the closed stereoisomer (cis or trans form) must be of lower energy than the open form, and b) the reaction pathway must be in accordance to the orbital symmetry rules expressed by the Woodward-Hoffmann rules (when the electrodes do not significantly alter the molecular orbital appearances). We find these two requirements to be valid for the dianion of (1E,3Z,5E)-hexa-1,3,5-triene-1,6-diamine, and the Coulomb blockade diamonds were therefore modeled for this compound to elucidate how a dark photoswitching event would manifest itself in the stability plot. From this modeling of conductance as a function of gate and bias potentials, we predict a collapse in Coulomb diamond size, that is, a decrease in the height of the island of zero conductance. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Binding of high molecular weight kininogen to human endothelial cells is mediated via a site within domains 2 and 3 of the urokinase receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Colman, R W; Pixley, R A; Najamunnisa, S; Yan, W; Wang, J; Mazar, A; McCrae, K R

    1997-01-01

    The urokinase receptor (uPAR) binds urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) through specific interactions with uPAR domain 1, and vitronectin through interactions with a site within uPAR domains 2 and 3. These interactions promote the expression of cell surface plasminogen activator activity and cellular adhesion to vitronectin, respectively. High molecular weight kininogen (HK) also stimulates the expression of cell surface plasminogen activator activity through its ability to serve as an acquired receptor for prekallikrein, which, after its activation, may directly activate prourokinase. Here, we report that binding of the cleaved form of HK (HKa) to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) is mediated through zinc-dependent interactions with uPAR. These occur through a site within uPAR domains 2 and 3, since the binding of 125I-HKa to HUVEC is inhibited by vitronectin, anti-uPAR domain 2 and 3 antibodies and soluble, recombinant uPAR (suPAR), but not by antibody 7E3, which recognizes the beta chain of the endothelial cell vitronectin receptor (integrin alphavbeta3), or fibrinogen, another alphavbeta3 ligand. We also demonstrate the formation of a zinc-dependent complex between suPAR and HKa. Interactions of HKa with endothelial cell uPAR may underlie its ability to promote kallikrein-dependent cell surface plasmin generation, and also explain, in part, its antiadhesive properties. PMID:9294114

  13. A molecular switch sensor for detection of PRSS1 genotype based on site-specific DNA cleavage of restriction endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qicai; Gao, Feng; Weng, Shaohuang; Peng, Huaping; Lin, Liqing; Zhao, Chengfei; Lin, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    PRSS1 mutations or polymorphism in the peripheral blood of patients can be used as susceptible molecular markers to pancreatic cancer. A sensor for selective electrochemical detection of PRSS1 genotypes was developed based on site-specific DNA cleavage of restriction endonuclease EcoRI. A mercapto-modified hairpin probe was immobilized on a gold electrode. The probe's neck can be cleaved by EcoRI in the absence of rs10273639 C/C of PRSS1 genotype, but it cannot be cleaved in the presence of T/T. The difference in quantity of electric charge was monitored by biosensors before and after enzymatic cleavage. Electrochemical signals are generated by differential pulse voltammetry interrogation of methylene blue (MB) that quantitatively binds to surface-confined hairpin probe via electrostatic interactions. The results suggested this method had a good specificity in distinguishing PRSS1 genotypes. There was a good linear relationship between the charge and the logarithmic function of PRSS1 rs10273639 T/T type DNA concentration (current=120.6303+8.8512log C, R=0.9942). The detection limit was estimated at 0.5 fM. The molecular switch sensor has several advantages, and it is possible to qualitatively, quantitatively, and noninvasively detect PRSS1 genotypes in the blood of patients with pancreatic cancer. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  14. Molecular engineering of lanthanide ion chelating phospholipids generating assemblies with a switched magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Isabettini, Stéphane; Massabni, Sarah; Hodzic, Arnel; Durovic, Dzana; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Ishikawa, Takashi; Fischer, Peter; Windhab, Erich J; Walde, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2017-08-09

    Lanthanide ion (Ln 3+ ) chelating amphiphiles are powerful molecules for tailoring the magnetic response of polymolecular assemblies. Mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylene triaminepentaacetate (DMPE-DTPA) complexed to Ln 3+ deliver highly magnetically responsive bicelles. Their magnetic properties are readily tuned by changing the bicellar size or the magnetic susceptibility Δχ of the bilayer lipids. The former technique is intrinsically bound to the region of the phase diagram guarantying the formation of bicelles. Methods aiming towards manipulating the Δχ of the bilayer are comparatively more robust, flexible and lacking. Herein, we synthesized a new Ln 3+ chelating phospholipid using glutamic acid as a backbone: DMPE-Glu-DTPA. The chelate polyhedron was specifically engineered to alter the Δχ, whilst remaining geometrically similar to DMPE-DTPA. Planar asymmetric assemblies hundreds of nanometers in size were achieved presenting unprecedented magnetic alignments. The DMPE-Glu-DTPA/Ln 3+ complex switched the Δχ, achieving perpendicular alignment of assemblies containing Dy 3+ and parallel alignment of those containing Tm 3+ . Moreover, samples with chelated Yb 3+ were more alignable than the Tm 3+ chelating counterparts. Such a possibility has never been demonstrated for planar Ln 3+ chelating polymolecular assemblies. The physico-chemical properties of these novel assemblies were further studied by monitoring the alignment behavior at different temperatures and by including 16 mol% of cholesterol (Chol-OH) in the phospholipid bilayer. The DMPE-Glu-DTPA/Ln 3+ complex and the resulting assemblies are promising candidates for applications in numerous fields including pharmaceutical technologies, structural characterization of membrane biomolecules by NMR spectroscopy, as contrasting agents for magnetic resonance imaging, and for the development of smart optical gels.

  15. Molecular switches of the κ opioid receptor triggered by 6'-GNTI and 5'-GNTI.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianxin; Sun, Xianqiang; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Tu, Yaoquan; Tang, Yun

    2016-01-08

    The κ opioid receptor (κOR) is a member of G-protein-coupled receptors, and is considered as a promising drug target for treating neurological diseases. κOR selective 6'-GNTI was proved to be a G-protein biased agonist, whereas 5'-GNTI acts as an antagonist. To investigate the molecular mechanism of how these two ligands induce different behaviors of the receptor, we built two systems containing the 5'-GNTI-κOR complex and the 6'-GNTI-κOR complex, respectively, and performed molecular dynamics simulations of the two systems. We observe that transmembrane (TM) helix 6 of the κOR rotates about 4.6(o) on average in the κOR-6'-GNTI complex. Detailed analyses of the simulation results indicate that E297(6.58) and I294(6.55) play crucial roles in the rotation of TM6. In the simulation of the κOR-5'-GNTI system, it is revealed that 5'-GNTI can stabilize TM6 in the inactive state form. In addition, the kink of TM7 is stabilized by a hydrogen bond between S324(7.47) and the residue V69(1.42) on TM1.

  16. Molecular mechanism of R-bicalutamide switching from androgen receptor antagonist to agonist induced by amino acid mutations using molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongli; Han, Rui; Li, Jiazhong; Liu, Huanxiang; Zheng, Lifang

    2016-12-01

    R-bicalutamide, a first generation antiandrogen, was used to treat prostate cancer for decades. Although it is very effective at the beginning, resistance appears after 2-3 years of treatment. Mutation of androgen receptor (AR) is considered a main reason for drug resistance. It is reported that AR W741C, W741L, W741C_T877A, T877A, F876L, F876L_T877A and L701H mutations can convert R-bicalutamide from AR antagonist to agonist, but the switching mechanisms are not clear. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations and molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) calculations were performed to analyze the interaction mechanisms between R-bicalutamide and wild type/mutant ARs. The results indicate that helix H12, which lies on the top of AR LBD like a cover, plays a vital role in R-bicalutamide binding. When interacting with AR, the B-ring of R-bicalutamide pushes H12 aside, distorting the coactivator binding site (AF2) resulting in the inactivation of transcription. Several residue mutations appear to enlarge the distance between the B-ring of R-bicalutamide and H12, reducing steric clash, which is conducive to a closed H12 conformation, leading to the formation of the coactivator binding site AF2 and increased transcription. Hydrogen bond and per-residue free energy decomposition analyses are also investigated to explore the interacting mechanisms, and M895 is found to be a key residue in the antagonist mechanism. The obtained molecular mechanisms will aid rational screening and design of novel AR antagonists, even to mutant AR.

  17. Molecular mechanism of R-bicalutamide switching from androgen receptor antagonist to agonist induced by amino acid mutations using molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongli; Han, Rui; Li, Jiazhong; Liu, Huanxiang; Zheng, Lifang

    2016-12-01

    R-bicalutamide, a first generation antiandrogen, was used to treat prostate cancer for decades. Although it is very effective at the beginning, resistance appears after 2-3 years of treatment. Mutation of androgen receptor (AR) is considered a main reason for drug resistance. It is reported that AR W741C, W741L, W741C_T877A, T877A, F876L, F876L_T877A and L701H mutations can convert R-bicalutamide from AR antagonist to agonist, but the switching mechanisms are not clear. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations and molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) calculations were performed to analyze the interaction mechanisms between R-bicalutamide and wild type/mutant ARs. The results indicate that helix H12, which lies on the top of AR LBD like a cover, plays a vital role in R-bicalutamide binding. When interacting with AR, the B-ring of R-bicalutamide pushes H12 aside, distorting the coactivator binding site (AF2) resulting in the inactivation of transcription. Several residue mutations appear to enlarge the distance between the B-ring of R-bicalutamide and H12, reducing steric clash, which is conducive to a closed H12 conformation, leading to the formation of the coactivator binding site AF2 and increased transcription. Hydrogen bond and per-residue free energy decomposition analyses are also investigated to explore the interacting mechanisms, and M895 is found to be a key residue in the antagonist mechanism. The obtained molecular mechanisms will aid rational screening and design of novel AR antagonists, even to mutant AR.

  18. Plasma membranes as heat stress sensors: from lipid-controlled molecular switches to therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Török, Zsolt; Crul, Tim; Maresca, Bruno; Schütz, Gerhard J; Viana, Felix; Dindia, Laura; Piotto, Stefano; Brameshuber, Mario; Balogh, Gábor; Péter, Mária; Porta, Amalia; Trapani, Alfonso; Gombos, Imre; Glatz, Attila; Gungor, Burcin; Peksel, Begüm; Vigh, László; Csoboz, Bálint; Horváth, Ibolya; Vijayan, Mathilakath M; Hooper, Phillip L; Harwood, John L; Vigh, László

    2014-06-01

    The classic heat shock (stress) response (HSR) was originally attributed to protein denaturation. However, heat shock protein (Hsp) induction occurs in many circumstances where no protein denaturation is observed. Recently considerable evidence has been accumulated to the favor of the "Membrane Sensor Hypothesis" which predicts that the level of Hsps can be changed as a result of alterations to the plasma membrane. This is especially pertinent to mild heat shock, such as occurs in fever. In this condition the sensitivity of many transient receptor potential (TRP) channels is particularly notable. Small temperature stresses can modulate TRP gating significantly and this is influenced by lipids. In addition, stress hormones often modify plasma membrane structure and function and thus initiate a cascade of events, which may affect HSR. The major transactivator heat shock factor-1 integrates the signals originating from the plasma membrane and orchestrates the expression of individual heat shock genes. We describe how these observations can be tested at the molecular level, for example, with the use of membrane perturbers and through computational calculations. An important fact which now starts to be addressed is that membranes are not homogeneous nor do all cells react identically. Lipidomics and cell profiling are beginning to address the above two points. Finally, we observe that a deregulated HSR is found in a large number of important diseases where more detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved may offer timely opportunities for clinical interventions and new, innovative drug treatments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Structure and Function: Relevance in the Cell's Physiology, Pathology and Therapy. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Single-residue molecular switch for high-temperature dependence of vanilloid receptor TRPV3

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Beiying; Qin, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Thermal transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, a group of ion channels from the transient receptor potential family, play important functions in pain and thermal sensation. These channels are directly activated by temperature and possess strong temperature dependence. Furthermore, their temperature sensitivity can be highly dynamic and use-dependent. For example, the vanilloid receptor transient receptor potential 3 (TRPV3), which has been implicated as a warmth detector, becomes responsive to warm temperatures only after intensive stimulation. Upon initial activation, the channel exhibits a high-temperature threshold in the noxious temperature range above 50 °C. This use dependence of heat sensitivity thus provides a mechanism for sensitization of thermal channels. However, how the channels acquire the use dependence remains unknown. Here, by comparative studies of chimeric channels between use-dependent and use-independent homologs, we have determined the molecular basis that underlies the use dependence of temperature sensitivity of TRPV3. Remarkably, the restoration of a single residue that is apparently missing in the use-dependent homologs could largely eliminate the use dependence of heat sensitivity of TRPV3. The location of the region suggests a mechanism of temperature-dependent gating of thermal TRP channels involving an intracellular region assembled around the TRP domain. PMID:28154143

  20. A Jagged 1-Notch 4 molecular switch mediates airway inflammation induced by ultrafine particles.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mingcan; Harb, Hani; Saffari, Arian; Sioutas, Constantinos; Chatila, Talal A

    2018-04-05

    Exposure to traffic-related particulate matter promotes asthma and allergic diseases. However, the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure acts to mediate these effects remain unclear. We sought to elucidate the cellular targets and signaling pathways critical for augmentation of allergic airway inflammation induced by ambient ultrafine particles (UFP). We used in vitro cell-culture assays with lung-derived antigen-presenting cells and allergen-specific T cells and in vivo mouse models of allergic airway inflammation with myeloid lineage-specific gene deletions, cellular reconstitution approaches, and antibody inhibition studies. We identified lung alveolar macrophages (AM) as the key cellular target of UFP in promoting airway inflammation. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent induction of Jagged 1 (Jag1) expression in AM was necessary and sufficient for augmentation of allergic airway inflammation by UFP. UFP promoted T H 2 and T H 17 cell differentiation of allergen-specific T cells in a Jag1- and Notch 4-dependent manner. Treatment of mice with an anti-Notch 4 antibody abrogated exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation induced by UFP. UFP exacerbate allergic airway inflammation by promoting a Jag1-Notch 4-dependent interaction between AM and allergen-specific T cells, leading to augmented T H cell differentiation. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A complex molecular switch directs stress-induced cyclin C nuclear release through SCFGrr1-mediated degradation of Med13

    PubMed Central

    Stieg, David C.; Willis, Stephen D.; Ganesan, Vidyaramanan; Ong, Kai Li; Scuorzo, Joseph; Song, Mia; Grose, Julianne; Strich, Randy; Cooper, Katrina F.

    2018-01-01

    In response to oxidative stress, cells decide whether to mount a survival or cell death response. The conserved cyclin C and its kinase partner Cdk8 play a key role in this decision. Both are members of the Cdk8 kinase module, which, with Med12 and Med13, associate with the core mediator complex of RNA polymerase II. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, oxidative stress triggers Med13 destruction, which thereafter releases cyclin C into the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic cyclin C associates with mitochondria, where it induces hyperfragmentation and regulated cell death. In this report, we show that residues 742–844 of Med13’s 600–amino acid intrinsic disordered region (IDR) both directs cyclin C-Cdk8 association and serves as the degron that mediates ubiquitin ligase SCFGrr1-dependent destruction of Med13 following oxidative stress. Here, cyclin C-Cdk8 phosphorylation of Med13 most likely primes the phosphodegron for destruction. Next, pro-oxidant stimulation of the cell wall integrity pathway MAP kinase Slt2 initially phosphorylates cyclin C to trigger its release from Med13. Thereafter, Med13 itself is modified by Slt2 to stimulate SCFGrr1-mediated destruction. Taken together, these results support a model in which this IDR of Med13 plays a key role in controlling a molecular switch that dictates cell fate following exposure to adverse environments. PMID:29212878

  2. Advances in methods to characterize ligand-induced ionic lock and rotamer toggle molecular switch in G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiang-Qun; Chowdhury, Ananda

    2013-01-01

    Structural biology of GPCRs has made significant progress upon recently developed technologies for GPCRs expression/purification and elucidation of GPCRs crystal structures. The crystal structures provide a snapshot of the receptor structural disposition of GPCRs itself or with cocrystallized ligands, and the results are congruent with biophysical and computer modeling studies reported about GPCRs conformational and dynamics flexibility, regulated activation, and the various stabilizing interactions, such as "molecular switches." The molecular switches generally constitute the most conserved domains within a particular GPCR superfamily. Often agonist-induced receptor activation proceeds by the disruption of majority of these interactions, while antagonist and inverse agonist act as blockers and structural stabilizers, respectively. Several elegant studies, particularly for the β2AR, have demonstrated the relationship between ligand structure, receptor conformational changes, and corresponding pharmacological outcomes. Thus, it is of great importance to understand GPCRs activation related to cell signaling pathways. Herein, we summarize the steps to produce functional GPCRs, generate suitably fluorescent labeled GPCRs and the procedure to use that to understand if ligand-induced activation can proceed by activation of the GPCRs via ionic lock switch and/or rotamer toggle switch mechanisms. Such understanding of ligand structure and mechanism of receptor activation will provide great insight toward uncovering newer pathways of GPCR activation and aid in structure-based drug design. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Redox-switched complexation/decomplexation of K(+) and Cs(+) by molecular cyanometalate boxes.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Julie L; Ramesh, Maya; Yao, Haijun; Rauchfuss, Thomas B; Wilson, Scott R

    2007-02-21

    The reaction of [N(PPh(3))(2)][CpCo(CN)(3)] and [Cb*Co(NCMe)(3)]PF(6) (Cb* = C(4)Me(4)) in the presence of K(+) afforded {K subset[CpCo(CN)(3)](4)[Cb*Co](4)}PF(6), [KCo(8)]PF(6). IR, NMR, ESI-MS indicate that [KCo(8)]PF(6) is a high-symmetry molecular box containing a potassium ion at its interior. The analogous heterometallic cage {K subset[Cp*Rh(CN)(3)](4)[Cb*Co](4)}PF(6) ([KRh(4)Co(4)]PF(6)) was prepared similarly via the condensation of K[Cp*Rh(CN)(3)] and [Cb*Co(NCMe)(3)]PF(6). Crystallographic analysis confirmed the structure of [KCo(8)]PF(6). The cyanide ligands are ordered, implying that no Co-CN bonds are broken upon cage formation and ion complexation. Eight Co-CN-Co edges of the box bow inward toward the encapsulated K(+), and the remaining four mu-CN ligands bow outward. MeCN solutions of [KCo(8)](+) and [KRh(4)Co(4)](+) were found to undergo ion exchange with Cs(+) to give [CsCo(8)](+) and [CsRh(4)Co(4)](+), both in quantitative yields. Labeling experiments involving [(MeC5H4)Co(CN)(3)]- demonstrated that Cs(+)-for-K(+) ion exchange is accompanied by significant fragmentation. Ion exchange of NH(4+) with [KCo(8)](+) proceeds to completion in THF solution, but in MeCN solution, the exclusive products were [Cb*Co(NCMe)(3)]PF(6) and the poorly soluble salt NH(4)CpCo(CN)(3). The lability of the NH(4+)-containing cage was also indicated by the rapid exchange of the acidic protons in [NH(4)Co(8)](+). Oxidation of [MCo(8)](+) with 4 equiv of FcPF(6) produced paramagnetic (S = 4/2) [Co(8)](4+), releasing Cs(+) or K(+). The oxidation-induced dissociation of M(+) from the cages is chemically reversed by treatment of [Co(8)](4+) and CsOTf with 4 equiv of Cp(2)Co. Cation recognition by [Co(8)] and [Rh(4)Co(4)] cages was investigated. Electrochemical measurements indicated that E(1/2)(Cs(+))--E(1/2)(K(+)) approximately 0.08 V for [MCo(8)](+).

  4. Activation of coherent lattice phonon following ultrafast molecular spin-state photo-switching: A molecule-to-lattice energy transfer

    PubMed Central

    Marino, A.; Cammarata, M.; Matar, S. F.; Létard, J.-F.; Chastanet, G.; Chollet, M.; Glownia, J. M.; Lemke, H. T.; Collet, E.

    2015-01-01

    We combine ultrafast optical spectroscopy with femtosecond X-ray absorption to study the photo-switching dynamics of the [Fe(PM-AzA)2(NCS)2] spin-crossover molecular solid. The light-induced excited spin-state trapping process switches the molecules from low spin to high spin (HS) states on the sub-picosecond timescale. The change of the electronic state (<50 fs) induces a structural reorganization of the molecule within 160 fs. This transformation is accompanied by coherent molecular vibrations in the HS potential and especially a rapidly damped Fe-ligand breathing mode. The time-resolved studies evidence a delayed activation of coherent optical phonons of the lattice surrounding the photoexcited molecules. PMID:26798836

  5. Effect of switching unfractionated heparin to low-molecular-weight heparin on serum potassium in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ezzatzadegan Jahromi, Shahrokh; Mahmoodi, Mohammad Saleh; Behroozi, Fatemeh; Roozbeh, Jamshid; Emamghoreishi, Fatemeh

    2014-11-01

    Unfractionated (UF) heparin is the most common anticoagulant used during hemodialysis. Failure of the kidneys to excrete potassium as well as heparin-induced reduction of aldosterone synthesis put hemodialysis patients at risk of hyperkalemia. It has not yet been clearly known whether hyperkalemia is also induced by low-molecular-weight (LMW) heparins. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of switching UF heparin to LMW heparin enoxaparin, as an anticoagulant during hemodialysis, on serum potassium level in patients on hemodialysis. In two hemodialysis units, 58 patients were randomly assigned into two groups, to receive two different anticoagulation protocols for 3 weeks; one group continued to receive their routine dose of UF heparin, 5000 units, and the other received enoxaparin, 0.5 mg/kg, at the beginning of each hemodialysis session. While there was no significant difference between baseline blood measurements of the two groups in terms of kidney function tests and electrolytes, following 3 weeks of the study, the mean serum potassium level decreased from 4.9 ± 0.8 mEq/L to 4.5 ± 0.5 mEq/L in the LMW heparin group (P = .001); however, there was no change in the mean serum potassium level in those who continued to receive their usual dose of UF heparin. In a subgroup analysis, diabetic patients in the enoxaparin group did not experience significant reduction in serum potassium levels. Our study revealed the role of LMW heparins as a potential alternative to UF heparins in the hemodialysis patients with hyperkalemia.

  6. Photochemically and Thermally Driven Full-Color Reflection in a Self-Organized Helical Superstructure Enabled by a Halogen-Bonded Chiral Molecular Switch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Wang, Ling; Urbas, Augustine M; Bunning, Timothy J; Li, Quan

    2018-02-05

    Supramolecular approaches toward the fabrication of functional materials and systems have been an enabling endeavor. Recently, halogen bonding has been harnessed as a promising supramolecular tool. Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of a novel halogen-bonded light-driven axially chiral molecular switch. The photoactive halogen-bonded chiral switch is able to induce a self-organized, tunable helical superstructure, that is, cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC), when doped into an achiral liquid crystal (LC) host. The halogen-bonded switch as a chiral dopant has a high helical twisting power (HTP) and shows a large change of its HTP upon photoisomerization. This light-driven dynamic modulation enables reversible selective reflection color tuning across the entire visible spectrum. The chiral switch also displays a temperature-dependent HTP change that enables thermally driven red, green, and blue (RGB) reflection colors in the self-organized helical superstructure. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. TIDEL-II: first-line use of imatinib in CML with early switch to nilotinib for failure to achieve time-dependent molecular targets

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, David T.; Osborn, Michael P.; White, Deborah L.; Branford, Susan; Braley, Jodi; Herschtal, Alan; Kornhauser, Michael; Issa, Samar; Hiwase, Devendra K.; Hertzberg, Mark; Schwarer, Anthony P.; Filshie, Robin; Arthur, Christopher K.; Kwan, Yiu Lam; Trotman, Judith; Forsyth, Cecily J.; Taper, John; Ross, David M.; Beresford, Jennifer; Tam, Constantine; Mills, Anthony K.; Grigg, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    The Therapeutic Intensification in De Novo Leukaemia (TIDEL)-II study enrolled 210 patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in two equal, sequential cohorts. All started treatment with imatinib 600 mg/day. Imatinib plasma trough level was performed at day 22 and if <1000 ng/mL, imatinib 800 mg/day was given. Patients were then assessed against molecular targets: BCR-ABL1 ≤10%, ≤1%, and ≤0.1% at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Cohort 1 patients failing any target escalated to imatinib 800 mg/day, and subsequently switched to nilotinib 400 mg twice daily for failing the same target 3 months later. Cohort 2 patients failing any target switched to nilotinib directly, as did patients with intolerance or loss of response in either cohort. At 2 years, 55% of patients remained on imatinib, and 30% on nilotinib. Only 12% were >10% BCR-ABL1 at 3 months. Confirmed major molecular response was achieved in 64% at 12 months and 73% at 24 months. MR4.5 (BCR-ABL1 ≤0.0032%) at 24 months was 34%. Overall survival was 96% and transformation-free survival was 95% at 3 years. This trial supports the feasibility and efficacy of an imatinib-based approach with selective, early switching to nilotinib. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as #12607000325404. PMID:25519749

  8. Effects of molecular chirality on self-assembly and switching in liquid crystals at the cross-over between rod-like and bent shapes.

    PubMed

    Ocak, Hale; Poppe, Marco; Bilgin-Eran, Belkız; Karanlık, Gürkan; Prehm, Marko; Tschierske, Carsten

    2016-09-21

    A bent-core compound derived from a 4-cyanoresorcinol core unit with two terephthalate based rod-like wings and carrying chiral 3,7-dimethyloctyloxy side chains has been synthesized in racemic and enantiomerically pure form and characterized by polarizing microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electro-optical investigations to study the influence of molecular chirality on the superstructural chirality and polar order in lamellar liquid crystalline phases. Herein we demonstrate that the coupling of molecular chirality with superstructural layer chirality in SmCsPF domain phases (forming energetically distinct diastereomeric pairs) can fix the tilt direction and thus stabilize synpolar order, leading to bistable ferroelectric switching in the SmC* phases of the (S)-enantiomer, whereas tristable modes determine the switching of the racemate. Moreover, the mechanism of electric field induced molecular reorganization changes from a rotation around the molecular long axis in the racemate to a rotation on the tilt-cone for the (S)-enantiomer. At high temperature the enantiomer behaves like a rod-like molecule with a chirality induced ferroelectric SmC* phase and an electroclinic effect in the SmA'* phase. At reduced temperature sterically induced polarization, due to the bent molecular shape, becomes dominating, leading to much higher polarization values, thus providing access to high polarization ferroelectric materials with weakly bent compounds having only "weakly chiral" stereogenic units. Moreover, the field induced alignment of the SmCsPF(()*()) domains gives rise to a special kind of electroclinic effect appearing even in the absence of molecular chirality. Comparison with related compounds indicates that the strongest effects of chirality appear for weakly bent molecules with a relatively short coherence length of polar order, whereas for smectic phases with long range polar order the effects of the interlayer interfaces can override

  9. Synthesis, tautomeric stability, spectroscopy and computational study of a potential molecular switch of (Z)-4-(phenylamino)pent-3-en-2-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahid, Farzaneh; Kanaani, Ayoub; Pourmousavi, Seied Ali; Ajloo, Davood

    2017-04-01

    The (Z)-4-(phenylamino) pent-3-en-2-one (PAPO) was synthesised applying carbon-based solid acid and described by experimental techniques. Calculated results reveal that its keto-amine form is more stable than its enol-imine form. A relaxed potential energy surface scan has been accomplished based on the optimised geometry of NH tautomeric form to depict the potential energy barrier related to intramolecular proton transfer. The spectroscopic results and theoretical calculations demonstrate that the intramolecular hydrogen bonding strength of PAPO is stronger than that in 4-amino-3-penten-2-one)APO(. In addition, molecular electrostatic potential, total and partial density of stats (TDOS, PDOS) and non-linear optical properties of the compound were studied using same theoretical calculations. Our calculations show that the title molecule has the potential to be used as molecular switch.

  10. ADP-ribosylation factor arf6p may function as a molecular switch of new end take off in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    Small GTPases act as molecular switches in a wide variety of cellular processes. In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the directions of cell growth change from a monopolar manner to a bipolar manner, which is known as 'New End Take Off' (NETO). Here I report the identification of a gene, arf6{sup +}, encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor small GTPase, that may be essential for NETO. arf6{delta} cells completely fail to undergo NETO. arf6p localizes at both cell ends and presumptive septa in a cell-cycle dependent manner. And its polarized localization is not dependent on microtubules, actin cytoskeletons and some NETO factors (bud6p,more » for3p, tea1p, tea3p, and tea4p). Notably, overexpression of a fast GDP/GTP-cycling mutant of arf6p can advance the timing of NETO. These findings suggest that arf6p functions as a molecular switch for the activation of NETO in fission yeast.« less

  11. What makes Ras an efficient molecular switch: a computational, biophysical, and structural study of Ras-GDP interactions with mutants of Raf.

    PubMed

    Filchtinski, Daniel; Sharabi, Oz; Rüppel, Alma; Vetter, Ingrid R; Herrmann, Christian; Shifman, Julia M

    2010-06-11

    Ras is a small GTP-binding protein that is an essential molecular switch for a wide variety of signaling pathways including the control of cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. In the GTP-bound state, Ras can interact with its effectors, triggering various signaling cascades in the cell. In the GDP-bound state, Ras looses its ability to bind to known effectors. The interaction of the GTP-bound Ras (Ras(GTP)) with its effectors has been studied intensively. However, very little is known about the much weaker interaction between the GDP-bound Ras (Ras(GDP)) and Ras effectors. We investigated the factors underlying the nucleotide-dependent differences in Ras interactions with one of its effectors, Raf kinase. Using computational protein design, we generated mutants of the Ras-binding domain of Raf kinase (Raf) that stabilize the complex with Ras(GDP). Most of our designed mutations narrow the gap between the affinity of Raf for Ras(GTP) and Ras(GDP), producing the desired shift in binding specificity towards Ras(GDP). A combination of our best designed mutation, N71R, with another mutation, A85K, yielded a Raf mutant with a 100-fold improvement in affinity towards Ras(GDP). The Raf A85K and Raf N71R/A85K mutants were used to obtain the first high-resolution structures of Ras(GDP) bound to its effector. Surprisingly, these structures reveal that the loop on Ras previously termed the switch I region in the Ras(GDP).Raf mutant complex is found in a conformation similar to that of Ras(GTP) and not Ras(GDP). Moreover, the structures indicate an increased mobility of the switch I region. This greater flexibility compared to the same loop in Ras(GTP) is likely to explain the natural low affinity of Raf and other Ras effectors to Ras(GDP). Our findings demonstrate that an accurate balance between a rigid, high-affinity conformation and conformational flexibility is required to create an efficient and stringent molecular switch. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd

  12. Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 signaling acts as a molecular switch between syngenic differentiation and neural transdifferentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Janet; Baek, Jeong-Hwa; Choi, Kyu-Sil; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Park, Hye-Young; Ha, Geun-Hyoung; Park, Ho; Lee, Kyo-Won; Lee, Chang Geun; Yang, Dong-Yun; Moon, Hyo Eun; Paek, Sun Ha; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types from different germ layers. However, the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the transdifferentiation of MSCs into specific cell types still need to be elucidated. In this study, we unexpectedly found that treatment of human adipose- and bone marrow-derived MSCs with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, in particular CDK4 inhibitor, selectively led to transdifferentiation into neural cells with a high frequency. Specifically, targeted inhibition of CDK4 expression using recombinant adenovial shRNA induced the neural transdifferentiation of human MSCs. However, the inhibition of CDK4 activity attenuated the syngenic differentiation of human adipose-derived MSCs. Importantly, the forced regulation of CDK4 activity showed reciprocal reversibility between neural differentiation and dedifferentiation of human MSCs. Together, these results provide novel molecular evidence underlying the neural transdifferentiation of human MSCs; in addition, CDK4 signaling appears to act as a molecular switch from syngenic differentiation to neural transdifferentiation of human MSCs. PMID:23324348

  13. Acid/Base and H2PO4(-) Controllable High-Contrast Optical Molecular Switches with a Novel BODIPY Functionalized [2]Rotaxane.

    PubMed

    Arumugaperumal, Reguram; Srinivasadesikan, Venkatesan; Ramakrishnam Raju, Mandapati V; Lin, Ming-Chang; Shukla, Tarun; Singh, Ravinder; Lin, Hong-Cheu

    2015-12-09

    A novel multifunctional mechanically interlocked switchable [2]rotaxane R4 containing two molecular stations and rotaxane arms terminated with boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluorophores and its derivatives were synthesized for the first time by CuAAC click reaction. The shuttling motion of macrocycle between the dibenzylammonium and triazolium recognition sites and the distance dependent photoinduced electron transfer process of R4 is demonstrated by utilizing external chemical stimuli (acid/base). Interestingly, the reversible self-assembly process of R4 was recognized by the acid-base molecular switch strategy. Notably, two symmetrical triazolium groups acted as molecular stations, H2PO4(-) receptors, and H-bonded donors. Both [2]rotaxane R4 and thread R2 demonstrated excellent optical responses and high selectivity toward H2PO4(-) ion. The specific motion and guest-host interactions of mechanically interlocked machines (MIMs) were also further explored by quantum mechanical calculations. The thread R2 also demonstrated to enable the detection of H2PO4(-) in RAW 264.7 cells successfully.

  14. Exciter switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeak, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.

  15. Switch wear leveling

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  16. Adenylyl cyclase-5 in the dorsal striatum function as a molecular switch for the generation of behavioral preferences for cue-directed food choices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hannah; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yunjin; Kang, Minkyung; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2014-11-07

    that the preferred food choices were switched on when either the mGluR3-AC5 pathway was inactive or the mGluR1 pathway was active, whereas the preferred food-choices were switched off when mGluR1 or its downstream pathway was suppressed. These results identify the AC5 and mGluR system in the dorsal striatum as molecular on/off switches to direct decisions on behavioral preferences for cue-oriented options.

  17. Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Implementation of the ORAC Molecular Dynamics Program for Generalized Ensemble and Fast Switching Alchemical Simulations.

    PubMed

    Procacci, Piero

    2016-06-27

    We present a new release (6.0β) of the ORAC program [Marsili et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2010, 31, 1106-1116] with a hybrid OpenMP/MPI (open multiprocessing message passing interface) multilevel parallelism tailored for generalized ensemble (GE) and fast switching double annihilation (FS-DAM) nonequilibrium technology aimed at evaluating the binding free energy in drug-receptor system on high performance computing platforms. The production of the GE or FS-DAM trajectories is handled using a weak scaling parallel approach on the MPI level only, while a strong scaling force decomposition scheme is implemented for intranode computations with shared memory access at the OpenMP level. The efficiency, simplicity, and inherent parallel nature of the ORAC implementation of the FS-DAM algorithm, project the code as a possible effective tool for a second generation high throughput virtual screening in drug discovery and design. The code, along with documentation, testing, and ancillary tools, is distributed under the provisions of the General Public License and can be freely downloaded at www.chim.unifi.it/orac .

  18. Coaxial Switch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-23

    0005] RF coaxial switches are typically used in environments that are prone to mechanical shocks and vibrations . For example, in military...withstand mechanical shocks and vibrations and to maintain an RF connection throughout a shock or a vibration event. Attorney Docket No. 102139...3 of 16 [0006] It has been found that shocks and vibrations on prior art rotary-type coaxial switches may cause the shaft in the coaxial switch

  19. Femtosecond laser spectroscopy of the rhodopsin photochromic reaction: a concept for ultrafast optical molecular switch creation (ultrafast reversible photoreaction of rhodopsin).

    PubMed

    Smitienko, Olga; Nadtochenko, Victor; Feldman, Tatiana; Balatskaya, Maria; Shelaev, Ivan; Gostev, Fedor; Sarkisov, Oleg; Ostrovsky, Mikhail

    2014-11-11

    Ultrafast reverse photoreaction of visual pigment rhodopsin in the femtosecond time range at room temperature is demonstrated. Femtosecond two-pump probe experiments with a time resolution of 25 fs have been performed. The first рump pulse at 500 nm initiated cis-trans photoisomerization of rhodopsin chromophore, 11-cis retinal, which resulted in the formation of the primary ground-state photoproduct within a mere 200 fs. The second pump pulse at 620 nm with a varying delay of 200 to 3750 fs relative to the first рump pulse, initiated the reverse phototransition of the primary photoproduct to rhodopsin. The results of this photoconversion have been observed on the differential spectra obtained after the action of two pump pulses at a time delay of 100 ps. It was found that optical density decreased at 560 nm in the spectral region of bathorhodopsin absorption and increased at 480 nm, where rhodopsin absorbs. Rhodopsin photoswitching efficiency shows oscillations as a function of the time delay between two рump pulses. The quantum yield of reverse photoreaction initiated by the second pump pulse falls within the range 15%±1%. The molecular mechanism of the ultrafast reversible photoreaction of visual pigment rhodopsin may be used as a concept for the development of an ultrafast optical molecular switch.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of "off-on switch" of activities of human IDH1 by tumor-associated mutation R132H.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bei; Zhong, Chen; Peng, Yingjie; Lai, Zheng; Ding, Jianping

    2010-11-01

    Human cytosolic NADP-IDH (IDH1) has recently been found to be involved in tumorigenesis. Notably, the tumor-derived IDH1 mutations identified so far mainly occur at Arg132, and mutation R132H is the most prevalent one. This mutation impairs the oxidative IDH activity of the enzyme, but renders a new reduction function of converting α-ketoglutarate (αKG) to 2-hydroxyglutarate. Here, we report the structures of the R132H mutant IDH1 with and without isocitrate (ICT) bound. The structural data together with mutagenesis and biochemical data reveal a previously undefined initial ICT-binding state and demonstrate that IDH activity requires a conformational change to a closed pre-transition state. Arg132 plays multiple functional roles in the catalytic reaction; in particular, the R132H mutation hinders the conformational changes from the initial ICT-binding state to the pre-transition state, leading to the impairment of the IDH activity. Our results describe for the first time that there is an intermediate conformation that corresponds to an initial ICT-binding state and that the R132H mutation can trap the enzyme in this conformation, therefore shedding light on the molecular mechanism of the "off switch" of the potentially tumor-suppressive IDH activity. Furthermore, we proved the necessity of Tyr139 for the gained αKG reduction activity and propose that Tyr139 may play a vital role by compensating the increased negative charge on the C2 atom of αKG during the transfer of a hydride anion from NADPH to αKG, which provides new insights into the mechanism of the "on switch" of the hypothetically oncogenic reduction activity of IDH1 by this mutation.

  1. Optical switches and switching methods

    DOEpatents

    Doty, Michael

    2008-03-04

    A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.

  2. Diplexer switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauling, C. H., Jr.; Parker, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Switch achieves high isolation and continuous input/output matching by using resonant coupling structure of diplexer. Additionally, dc bias network used to control switch is decoupled from RF input and output lines. Voltage transients in external circuits are thus minimized.

  3. Molecular switches of the κ opioid receptor triggered by 6′-GNTI and 5′-GNTI

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jianxin; Sun, Xianqiang; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Tu, Yaoquan; Tang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The κ opioid receptor (κOR) is a member of G-protein-coupled receptors, and is considered as a promising drug target for treating neurological diseases. κOR selective 6′-GNTI was proved to be a G-protein biased agonist, whereas 5′-GNTI acts as an antagonist. To investigate the molecular mechanism of how these two ligands induce different behaviors of the receptor, we built two systems containing the 5′-GNTI-κOR complex and the 6′-GNTI-κOR complex, respectively, and performed molecular dynamics simulations of the two systems. We observe that transmembrane (TM) helix 6 of the κOR rotates about 4.6o on average in the κOR-6′-GNTI complex. Detailed analyses of the simulation results indicate that E2976.58 and I2946.55 play crucial roles in the rotation of TM6. In the simulation of the κOR-5′-GNTI system, it is revealed that 5′-GNTI can stabilize TM6 in the inactive state form. In addition, the kink of TM7 is stabilized by a hydrogen bond between S3247.47 and the residue V691.42 on TM1. PMID:26742690

  4. Discovery of a regioselectivity switch in nitrating P450s guided by molecular dynamics simulations and Markov models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodani, Sheel C.; Kiss, Gert; Cahn, Jackson K. B.; Su, Ye; Pande, Vijay S.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2016-05-01

    The dynamic motions of protein structural elements, particularly flexible loops, are intimately linked with diverse aspects of enzyme catalysis. Engineering of these loop regions can alter protein stability, substrate binding and even dramatically impact enzyme function. When these flexible regions are unresolvable structurally, computational reconstruction in combination with large-scale molecular dynamics simulations can be used to guide the engineering strategy. Here we present a collaborative approach that consists of both experiment and computation and led to the discovery of a single mutation in the F/G loop of the nitrating cytochrome P450 TxtE that simultaneously controls loop dynamics and completely shifts the enzyme's regioselectivity from the C4 to the C5 position of L-tryptophan. Furthermore, we find that this loop mutation is naturally present in a subset of homologous nitrating P450s and confirm that these uncharacterized enzymes exclusively produce 5-nitro-L-tryptophan, a previously unknown biosynthetic intermediate.

  5. Plasma Switch Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-08

    Appendix II), the progress to date will be detailed here. II° K -BEAM CONTROLLED SWITCH The EBCS is an opening switch concept that has the potential for...such plasma in ᝺ uis. To accurately assess the viability of this scheme, more effort than what was provided to date is required. 0 00 LL k CCj2 E - w...1962 e+A* -A +A (2) ... 2OOOz t~ -- whs A is, in enera, any positive molecular ion (simple or cluster ) of species A. We define the effective rate at

  6. ION SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Cook, B.

    1959-02-10

    An ion switch capable of transferring large magnitudes of power is described. An ion switch constructed in accordance with the invention includes a pair of spaced control electrodes disposed in a highly evacuated region for connection in a conventional circuit to control the passing of power therethrough. A controllable ionic conduction path is provided directiy between the control electrodes by a source unit to close the ion switch. Conventional power supply means are provided to trigger the source unit and control the magnitude, durations and pulse repetition rate of the aforementioned ionic conduction path.

  7. Crystal structure analysis, covalent docking, and molecular dynamics calculations reveal a conformational switch in PhaZ7 PHB depolymerase.

    PubMed

    Kellici, Tahsin F; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Jendrossek, Dieter; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C

    2017-07-01

    An open and a closed conformation of a surface loop in PhaZ7 extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase were identified in two high-resolution crystal structures of a PhaZ7 Y105E mutant. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations revealed high root mean square fluctuations (RMSF) of the 281-295 loop, in particular at residue Asp289 (RMSF 7.62 Å). Covalent docking between a 3-hydroxybutyric acid trimer and the catalytic residue Ser136 showed that the binding energy of the substrate is significantly more favorable in the open loop conformation compared to that in the closed loop conformation. MD simulations with the substrate covalently bound depicted 1 Å RMSF higher values for the residues 281-295 in comparison to the apo (substrate-free) form. In addition, the presence of the substrate in the active site enhanced the ability of the loop to adopt a closed form. Taken together, the analysis suggests that the flexible loop 281-295 of PhaZ7 depolymerase can act as a lid domain to control substrate access to the active site of the enzyme. Proteins 2017; 85:1351-1361. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Trimethylamine-N-oxide switches from stabilizing nature: A mechanistic outlook through experimental techniques and molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Anjeeta; Jayaraj, Abhilash; Jayaram, B.; Pannuru, Venkatesu

    2016-03-01

    In adaptation biology of the discovery of the intracellular osmolytes, the osmolytes are found to play a central role in cellular homeostasis and stress response. A number of models using these molecules are now poised to address a wide range of problems in biology. Here, a combination of biophysical measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method is used to examine the effect of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) on stem bromelain (BM) structure, stability and function. From the analysis of our results, we found that TMAO destabilizes BM hydrophobic pockets and active site as a result of concerted polar and non-polar interactions which is strongly evidenced by MD simulation carried out for 250 ns. This destabilization is enthalpically favourable at higher concentrations of TMAO while entropically unfavourable. However, to the best of our knowledge, the results constitute first detailed unambiguous proof of destabilizing effect of most commonly addressed TMAO on the interactions governing stability of BM and present plausible mechanism of protein unfolding by TMAO.

  9. MD simulations of ligand-bound and ligand-free aptamer: molecular level insights into the binding and switching mechanism of the add A-riboswitch.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Bulusu, Gopalakrishnan; Mitra, Abhijit

    2009-09-01

    Riboswitches are structural cis-acting genetic regulatory elements in 5' UTRs of mRNAs, consisting of an aptamer domain that regulates the behavior of an expression platform in response to its recognition of, and binding to, specific ligands. While our understanding of the ligand-bound structure of the aptamer domain of the adenine riboswitches is based on crystal structure data and is well characterized, understanding of the structure and dynamics of the ligand-free aptamer is limited to indirect inferences from physicochemical probing experiments. Here we report the results of 15-nsec-long explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations of the add A-riboswitch crystal structure (1Y26), both in the adenine-bound (CLOSED) state and in the adenine-free (OPEN) state. Root-mean-square deviation, root-mean-square fluctuation, dynamic cross-correlation, and backbone torsion angle analyses are carried out on the two trajectories. These, along with solvent accessible surface area analysis of the two average structures, are benchmarked against available experimental data and are shown to constitute the basis for obtaining reliable insights into the molecular level details of the binding and switching mechanism. Our analysis reveals the interaction network responsible for, and conformational changes associated with, the communication between the binding pocket and the expression platform. It further highlights the significance of a, hitherto unreported, noncanonical W:H trans base pairing between A73 and A24, in the OPEN state, and also helps us to propose a possibly crucial role of U51 in the context of ligand binding and ligand discrimination.

  10. Light-Driven Reversible Transformation between Self-Organized Simple Cubic Lattice and Helical Superstructure Enabled by a Molecular Switch Functionalized Nanocage.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kang; Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Jin, Jian-Qiu; Yuan, Cong-Long; Liu, Zhen; Shen, Dong; Lu, Yan-Qing; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Weian; Li, Quan

    2018-04-23

    Self-organized stimuli-responsive smart materials with adjustable attributes are highly desirable for a plethora of device applications. Simple cubic lattice is quite uncommon in soft condensed matter due to its lower packing factor. Achieving a stable simple cubic soft lattice and endowing such a lattice with dynamic reconstruction capability solely by a facile light irradiation are of paramount significance for both fundamental studies and engineering explorations. Herein, an elegant stable self-organized simple cubic soft lattice, i.e., blue phase II, in a chiral liquid crystal (LC) system is disclosed, which is stable down to room temperature and exhibits both reversible lattice deformation and transformation to a helical superstructure, i.e., cholesteric LC, by light stimulation. Such an amazing trait is attained by doping a judiciously designed achiral photoresponsive molecular switch functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanocage into a chiral LC host. An unprecedented reversible collapse and reconstruction of such a high symmetric simple cubic blue phase II driven by light has been achieved. Furthermore, a well-defined conglomerate micropattern composed of simple cubic soft lattice and helical superstructure, which is challenging to fabricate in organic and inorganic crystalline materials, is produced using photomasking technology. Moreover, the promising photonic application based on such a micropattern is demonstrated. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. LARP1 functions as a molecular switch for mTORC1-mediated translation of an essential class of mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungki; Freeberg, Mallory A; Han, Ting; Kamath, Avani; Yao, Yao; Fukuda, Tomoko; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Kim, John K; Inoki, Ken

    2017-06-26

    The RNA binding protein, LARP1, has been proposed to function downstream of mTORC1 to regulate the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs such as those encoding ribosome proteins (RP). However, the roles of LARP1 in the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs are controversial and its regulatory roles in mTORC1-mediated translation remain unclear. Here we show that LARP1 is a direct substrate of mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1. Deep sequencing of LARP1-bound mRNAs reveal that non-phosphorylated LARP1 interacts with both 5' and 3'UTRs of RP mRNAs and inhibits their translation. Importantly, phosphorylation of LARP1 by mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1 dissociates it from 5'UTRs and relieves its inhibitory activity on RP mRNA translation. Concomitantly, phosphorylated LARP1 scaffolds mTORC1 on the 3'UTRs of translationally-competent RP mRNAs to facilitate mTORC1-dependent induction of translation initiation. Thus, in response to cellular mTOR activity, LARP1 serves as a phosphorylation-sensitive molecular switch for turning off or on RP mRNA translation and subsequent ribosome biogenesis.

  12. In vivo particle polymorphism results from deletion of a N-terminal peptide molecular switch in brome mosaic virus capsid protein

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Shauni L; Speir, Jeffrey A; Rao, A.L.N.

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between brome mosaic virus (BMV) coat protein (CP) and viral RNA is a carefully orchestrated process resulting in the formation of homogeneous population of infectious virions with T=3 symmetry. Expression in vivo of either wild type or mutant BMV CP through homologous replication never results in the assembly of aberrant particles. In this study, we report that deletion of amino acid residues 41–47 from the N-proximal region of BMV CP resulted in the assembly of polymorphic virions in vivo. Purified virions from symptomatic leaves remain non-infectious and Northern blot analysis of virion RNA displayed packaging defects. Biochemical of variant CP by circular dichroism and MALDI-TOF, respectively, revealed that the engineered deletion affected the protein structure and capsid dynamics. Most significantly, CP subunits dissociated from polymorphic virions are incompetent for in vitro reassembly. Based on these observations, we propose a chaperon mediated mechanism for the assembly of variant CP in vivo and also hypothesize that 41KAIKAIA47 N-proximal peptide functions as a molecular switch in regulating T= 3 virion symmetry. PMID:17449079

  13. Dynamic mapping of spontaneously produced H2S in the entire cell space and in live animals using a rationally designed molecular switch.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linlin; Zhao, Jun; Yu, Xinling; Zhang, Ruilong; Han, Guangmei; Liu, Renyong; Liu, Zhengjie; Zhao, Tingting; Han, Ming-Yong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2018-04-16

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a key signaling molecule in the cytoprotection, vascular mediation and neurotransmission of living organisms. In-depth understanding of its production, trafficking, and transformation in cells is very important in the way H2S mediates cellular signal transductions and organism functions; it also motivates the development of H2S probes and imaging technologies. A fundamental challenge, however, is how to engineer probes with sensitivity and cellular penetrability that allow detection of spontaneous production of H2S in the entire cell space and live animals. Here, we report a rationally designed molecular switch capable of accessing all intracellular compartments, including the nucleus, lysosomes and mitochondria, for H2S detection. Our probe comprised three functional domains (H2S sensing, fluorescence, and biomembrane penetration), could enter almost all cell types readily, and exhibit a rapid and ultrasensitive response to H2S (≤120-fold fluorescence enhancement) for the dynamic mapping of spontaneously produced H2S as well as its distribution in the whole cell. In particular, the probe traversed blood/tissue/cell barriers to achieve mapping of endogenous H2S in metabolic organs of a live Danio rerio (zebrafish). These results open-up exciting opportunities to investigate H2S physiology and H2S-related diseases.

  14. Reversible binding of hemoglobin to band 3 constitutes the molecular switch that mediates O2 regulation of erythrocyte properties

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Mary M.; Krump, Nathan A.; Zheng, Suilan; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Thein, Swee Lay; Garrett, Lisa J.; Bodine, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Functional studies have shown that the oxygenation state of the erythrocyte regulates many important pathways, including glucose metabolism, membrane mechanical stability, and cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release. Deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb), but not oxyhemoglobin, binds avidly and reversibly to band 3, the major erythrocyte membrane protein. Because band 3 associates with multiple metabolic, solute transport, signal transduction, and structural proteins, the hypothesis naturally arises that the O2-dependent regulation of erythrocyte properties might be mediated by the reversible association of deoxyHb with band 3. To explore whether the band 3–deoxyHb interaction constitutes a “molecular switch” for regulating erythrocyte biology, we have generated transgenic mice with mutations in the deoxyHb-binding domain of band 3. One strain of mouse contains a “humanized” band 3 in which the N-terminal 45 residues of mouse band 3 are replaced by the homologous sequence from human band 3, including the normal human band 3 deoxyHb-binding site. The second mouse contains the same substitution as the first, except the deoxyHb site on band 3 (residues 12-23) has been deleted. Comparison of these animals with wild-type mice demonstrates that the following erythrocyte properties are controlled by the O2-dependent association of hemoglobin with band 3: (1) assembly of a glycolytic enzyme complex on the erythrocyte membrane which is associated with a shift in glucose metabolism between the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis, (2) interaction of ankyrin with band 3 and the concomitant regulation of erythrocyte membrane stability, and (3) release of ATP from the red cell which has been linked to vasodilation. PMID:27688804

  15. SERPINE1: A Molecular Switch in the Proliferation-Migration Dichotomy in Wound-“Activated” Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Tessa M.; Higgins, Craig E.; Czekay, Ralf-Peter; Law, Brian K.; Higgins, Stephen P.; Archambeault, Jaclyn; Kutz, Stacie M.; Higgins, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: A highly interactive serine protease/plasmin/matrix metalloproteinase axis regulates stromal remodeling in the wound microenvironment. Current findings highlight the importance of stringent controls on protease expression and their topographic activities in cell proliferation, migration, and tissue homeostasis. Targeting elements in this cascading network may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for fibrotic diseases and chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Matrix-active proteases and their inhibitors orchestrate wound site tissue remodeling, cell migration, and proliferation. Indeed, the serine proteases urokinase plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator (uPA/tPA) and their major phsyiological inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; serine protease inhibitor clade E member 1 [SERPINE1]), are upregulated in several cell types during injury repair. Coordinate expression of proteolytic enzymes and their inhibitors in the wound bed provides a mechanism for fine control of focal proteolysis to facilitate matrix restructuring and cell motility in complex environments. Critical Issues: Cosmetic and tissue functional consequences of wound repair anomalies affect the quality of life of millions of patients in the United States alone. The development of novel therapeutics to manage individuals most affected by healing anomalies will likely derive from the identification of critical, translationally accessible, control elements in the wound site microenvironment. Future Directions: Activation of the PAI-1 gene early after wounding, its prominence in the repair transcriptome and varied functions suggest a key role in the global cutaneous injury response program. Targeting PAI-1 gene expression and/or PAI-1 function with molecular genetic constructs, neutralizing antibodies or small molecule inhibitors may provide a novel, therapeutically relevant approach, to manage the pathophysiology of wound healing disorders associated with

  16. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  17. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  18. Probabilistic switching circuits in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Daniel; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2018-01-01

    A natural feature of molecular systems is their inherent stochastic behavior. A fundamental challenge related to the programming of molecular information processing systems is to develop a circuit architecture that controls the stochastic states of individual molecular events. Here we present a systematic implementation of probabilistic switching circuits, using DNA strand displacement reactions. Exploiting the intrinsic stochasticity of molecular interactions, we developed a simple, unbiased DNA switch: An input signal strand binds to the switch and releases an output signal strand with probability one-half. Using this unbiased switch as a molecular building block, we designed DNA circuits that convert an input signal to an output signal with any desired probability. Further, this probability can be switched between 2n different values by simply varying the presence or absence of n distinct DNA molecules. We demonstrated several DNA circuits that have multiple layers and feedback, including a circuit that converts an input strand to an output strand with eight different probabilities, controlled by the combination of three DNA molecules. These circuits combine the advantages of digital and analog computation: They allow a small number of distinct input molecules to control a diverse signal range of output molecules, while keeping the inputs robust to noise and the outputs at precise values. Moreover, arbitrarily complex circuit behaviors can be implemented with just a single type of molecular building block. PMID:29339484

  19. Cellular Dichotomy Between Anchorage-Independent Growth Responses to bFGF and TA Reflects Molecular Switch in Commitment to Carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Katrina M.; Tan, Ruimin; Opresko, Lee K.

    2009-11-01

    We have investigated gene expression patterns underlying reversible and irreversible anchorage-independent growth (AIG) phenotypes to identify more sensitive markers of cell transformation for studies directed at interrogating carcinogenesis responses. In JB6 mouse epidermal cells, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induces an unusually efficient and reversible AIG response, relative to 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced AIG which is irreversible. The reversible and irreversible AIG phenotypes are characterized by largely non-overlapping global gene expression profiles. However, a subset of differentially expressed genes were identified as common to reversible and irreversible AIG phenotypes, including genes regulated in a reciprocal fashion. Hepatic leukemia factor (HLF) andmore » D-site albumin promoter-binding protein (DBP) were increased in both bFGF and TPA soft agar colonies and selected for functional validation. Ectopic expression of human HLF and DBP in JB6 cells resulted in a marked increase in TPA- and bFGF-regulated AIG responses. HLF and DBP expression were increased in soft agar colonies arising from JB6 cells exposed to gamma radiation and in a human basal cell carcinoma tumor tissue, relative to paired non-tumor tissue. Subsequent biological network analysis suggests that many of the differentially expressed genes that are common to bFGF- and TPA-dependent AIG are regulated by c-Myc, SP-1 and HNF-4 transcription factors. Collectively, we have identified a potential molecular switch that mediates the transition from reversible to irreversible AIG.« less

  20. Ferroelectric switching of elastin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 μC/cm2, whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890

  1. The Effects of Threonine Phosphorylation on the Stability and Dynamics of the Central Molecular Switch Region of 18.5-kDa Myelin Basic Protein

    PubMed Central

    De Avila, Miguel; Polverini, Eugenia; Harauz, George

    2013-01-01

    structure of the peptides through altered electrostatic interactions. The results support the hypothesis that the central conserved segment of MBP constitutes a molecular switch in which the conformation and/or intermolecular interactions are mediated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation at T92 and T95. PMID:23861868

  2. The effects of threonine phosphorylation on the stability and dynamics of the central molecular switch region of 18.5-kDa myelin basic protein.

    PubMed

    Vassall, Kenrick A; Bessonov, Kyrylo; De Avila, Miguel; Polverini, Eugenia; Harauz, George

    2013-01-01

    of the peptides through altered electrostatic interactions. The results support the hypothesis that the central conserved segment of MBP constitutes a molecular switch in which the conformation and/or intermolecular interactions are mediated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation at T92 and T95.

  3. Optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    An optical switching device (10) is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber (16) or a second glass fiber (14) may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber (18). Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system (26, 28, 30). In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber (16) is reflected by a planar mirror (36) into the third glass fiber (18). In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber (14) passes directly into the third glass fiber (18). The planar mirror (36) is attached to a rotatable table (32) which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

  4. Optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, R.P.

    1985-01-18

    An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

  5. Optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, R.P.

    1987-11-10

    An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching. 3 figs.

  6. Switching Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

  7. Switching Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Mazza, M. G.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.; Stokely, K.; Xu, L.

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines can suddenly "switch" from one behavior to another, even though they possess no perfect metronome in time. As if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many temporal patterns in physics, economics, and medicine and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enable a system to pass from one state to another. We discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understanding switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water's anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the "tipping point" immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not "outliers" (another Gladwell immortalization).

  8. Dopamine D1A directly interacts with otoferlin synaptic pathway proteins: Ca2+ and phosphorylation underlie an NSF-to-AP2mu1 molecular switch.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Dakshnamurthy; Drescher, Marian J; Deckard, Nathan A; Ramakrishnan, Neeliyath A; Morley, Barbara J; Drescher, Dennis G

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine receptors regulate exocytosis via protein-protein interactions (PPIs) as well as via adenylyl cyclase transduction pathways. Evidence has been obtained for PPIs in inner ear hair cells coupling D1A to soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-related proteins snapin, otoferlin, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), and adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 (AP2mu1), dependent on [Ca 2+ ] and phosphorylation. Specifically, the carboxy terminus of dopamine D1A was found to directly bind t-SNARE-associated protein snapin in teleost and mammalian hair cell models by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and pull-down assays, and snapin directly interacts with hair cell calcium-sensor otoferlin. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis, competitive pull-downs, and co-immunoprecipitation indicated that these interactions were promoted by Ca 2+ and occur together. D1A was also found to separately interact with NSF, but with an inverse dependence on Ca 2+ Evidence was obtained, for the first time, that otoferlin domains C2A, C2B, C2D, and C2F interact with NSF and AP2mu1, whereas C2C or C2E do not bind to either protein, representing binding characteristics consistent with respective inclusion or omission in individual C2 domains of the tyrosine motif YXXΦ. In competitive pull-down assays, as predicted by K D values from SPR (+Ca 2+ ), C2F pulled down primarily NSF as opposed to AP2mu1. Phosphorylation of AP2mu1 gave rise to a reversal: an increase in binding by C2F to phosphorylated AP2mu1 was accompanied by a decrease in binding to NSF, consistent with a molecular switch for otoferlin from membrane fusion (NSF) to endocytosis (AP2mu1). An increase in phosphorylated AP2mu1 at the base of the cochlear inner hair cell was the observed response elicited by a dopamine D1A agonist, as predicted. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. Neurotransmitter Switching? No Surprise

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    Among the many forms of brain plasticity, changes in synaptic strength and changes in synapse number are particularly prominent. However, evidence for neurotransmitter respecification or switching has been accumulating steadily, both in the developing nervous system and in the adult brain, with observations of transmitter addition, loss, or replacement of one transmitter with another. Natural stimuli can drive these changes in transmitter identity, with matching changes in postsynaptic transmitter receptors. Strikingly, they often convert the synapse from excitatory to inhibitory or vice versa, providing a basis for changes in behavior in those cases in which it has been examined. Progress has been made in identifying the factors that induce transmitter switching and in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which it is achieved. There are many intriguing questions to be addressed. PMID:26050033

  10. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-02-20

    Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches. 6 figs.

  11. Gate-controlled conductance switching in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Limin; Palma, Julio L.; Li, Yueqi; Mujica, Vladimiro; Ratner, Mark A.; Tao, Nongjian

    2017-01-01

    Extensive evidence has shown that long-range charge transport can occur along double helical DNA, but active control (switching) of single-DNA conductance with an external field has not yet been demonstrated. Here we demonstrate conductance switching in DNA by replacing a DNA base with a redox group. By applying an electrochemical (EC) gate voltage to the molecule, we switch the redox group between the oxidized and reduced states, leading to reversible switching of the DNA conductance between two discrete levels. We further show that monitoring the individual conductance switching allows the study of redox reaction kinetics and thermodynamics at single molecular level using DNA as a probe. Our theoretical calculations suggest that the switch is due to the change in the energy level alignment of the redox states relative to the Fermi level of the electrodes. PMID:28218275

  12. Determination of trace alkaline phosphatase by affinity adsorption solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry based on wheat germ agglutinin labeled with 8-quinolineboronic acid phosphorescent molecular switch and prediction of diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Gao, Hui; Li, Fei-Ming; Shi, Xiu-Mei; Lin, Chang-Qing; Lin, Li-Ping; Wang, Xin-Xing; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2010-09-01

    The 8-quinolineboronic acid phosphorescent molecular switch (abbreviated as PMS-8-QBA. Thereinto, 8-QBA is 8-quinolineboronic acid, and PMS is phosphorescent molecular switch) was found for the first time. PMS-8-QBA, which was in the "off" state, could only emit weak room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) on the acetyl cellulose membrane (ACM). However, PMS-8-QBA turned "on" automatically for its changed structure, causing that the RTP of 8-QBA in the system increased, after PMS-8-QBA-WGA (WGA is wheat germ agglutinin) was formed by reaction between -OH of PMS-8-QBA and -COOH of WGA. More interesting is that the -NH 2 of PMS-8-QBA-WGA could react with the -COOH of alkaline phosphatase (AP) to form the affinity adsorption (AA) product WGA-AP-WGA-8-QBA-PMS (containing -NH-CO- bond), which caused RTP of the system to greatly increase. Thus, affinity adsorption solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry using PMS-8-QBA as labelling reagent (PMS-8-QBA-AA-SSRTP) for the determination of trace AP was established. The method had many advantages, such as high sensitivity (the detection limit (LD) was 2.5 zg spot -1. For sample volume of 0.40 μl spot -1, corresponding concentration was 6.2 × 10 -18 g ml -1), good selectivity (the allowed concentration of coexisting material was higher, when the relative error was ±5%), high accuracy (applied to detection of AP content in serum samples, the result was coincided with those obtained by enzyme-linked immunoassay), which was suitable for the detection of trace AP content in serum samples and the forecast of human diseases. Meanwhile, the mechanism of PMS-8-QBA-AASSRTP was discussed. The new field of analytical application and clinic diagnosis technique of molecule switch are exploited, based on the phosphorescence characteristic of PMS-8-QBA, the AA reaction between WGA and AP, as well as the relation between AP content and human diseases. The research results promote the development and interpenetrate among molecule

  13. Determination of trace alkaline phosphatase by affinity adsorption solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry based on wheat germ agglutinin labeled with 8-quinolineboronic acid phosphorescent molecular switch and prediction of diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Gao, Hui; Li, Fei-Ming; Shi, Xiu-Mei; Lin, Chang-Qing; Lin, Li-Ping; Wang, Xin-Xing; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2010-09-01

    The 8-quinolineboronic acid phosphorescent molecular switch (abbreviated as PMS-8-QBA. Thereinto, 8-QBA is 8-quinolineboronic acid, and PMS is phosphorescent molecular switch) was found for the first time. PMS-8-QBA, which was in the "off" state, could only emit weak room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) on the acetyl cellulose membrane (ACM). However, PMS-8-QBA turned "on" automatically for its changed structure, causing that the RTP of 8-QBA in the system increased, after PMS-8-QBA-WGA (WGA is wheat germ agglutinin) was formed by reaction between -OH of PMS-8-QBA and -COOH of WGA. More interesting is that the -NH(2) of PMS-8-QBA-WGA could react with the -COOH of alkaline phosphatase (AP) to form the affinity adsorption (AA) product WGA-AP-WGA-8-QBA-PMS (containing -NH-CO- bond), which caused RTP of the system to greatly increase. Thus, affinity adsorption solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry using PMS-8-QBA as labelling reagent (PMS-8-QBA-AA-SSRTP) for the determination of trace AP was established. The method had many advantages, such as high sensitivity (the detection limit (LD) was 2.5zgspot(-1). For sample volume of 0.40mulspot(-1), corresponding concentration was 6.2x10(-18)gml(-1)), good selectivity (the allowed concentration of coexisting material was higher, when the relative error was +/-5%), high accuracy (applied to detection of AP content in serum samples, the result was coincided with those obtained by enzyme-linked immunoassay), which was suitable for the detection of trace AP content in serum samples and the forecast of human diseases. Meanwhile, the mechanism of PMS-8-QBA-AASSRTP was discussed. The new field of analytical application and clinic diagnosis technique of molecule switch are exploited, based on the phosphorescence characteristic of PMS-8-QBA, the AA reaction between WGA and AP, as well as the relation between AP content and human diseases. The research results promote the development and interpenetrate among molecule switch

  14. Solid-state switch increases switching speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, G. F.

    1966-01-01

    Solid state switch for commutating capacitors in an RC commutated network increases switching speed and extends the filtering or commutating frequency spectrum well into the kilocycle region. The switch is equivalent to the standard double- pole double-throw /DPDT/ relay and is driven from digital micrologic circuits.

  15. Switch Transcripts in Immunoglobulin Class Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Matthias; Jung, Steffen; Radbruch, Andreas

    1995-03-01

    B cells can exchange gene segments for the constant region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain, altering the class and effector function of the antibodies that they produce. Class switching is directed to distinct classes by cytokines, which induce transcription of the targeted DNA sequences. These transcripts are processed, resulting in spliced "switch" transcripts. Switch recombination can be directed to immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) by the heterologous human metallothionein II_A promoter in mutant mice. Induction of the structurally conserved, spliced switch transcripts is sufficient to target switch recombination to IgG1, whereas transcription alone is not.

  16. Miniature intermittent contact switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, A.

    1972-01-01

    Design of electric switch for providing intermittent contact is presented. Switch consists of flexible conductor surrounding, but separated from, fixed conductor. Flexing of outside conductor to contact fixed conductor completes circuit. Advantage is small size of switch compared to standard switches.

  17. Latching relay switch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Duimstra, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

  18. Digital switched hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Min; Plummer, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in digital switched hydraulics particularly the switched inertance hydraulic systems (SIHSs). The performance of SIHSs is presented in brief with a discussion of several possible configurations and control strategies. The soft switching technology and high-speed switching valve design techniques are discussed. Challenges and recommendations are given based on the current research achievements.

  19. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  20. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-03-06

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  1. Temporal switching jitter in photoconductive switches

    SciTech Connect

    GAUDET,JOHN A.; SKIPPER,MICHAEL C.; ABDALLA,MICHAEL D.

    This paper reports on a recent comparison made between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration and the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the temporal switch jitter times. It is found that the optical trigger laser characteristics are dominant in determining the PCSS jitter.

  2. Characterization of pH-sensitive molecular switches that trigger the structural transition of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein from the postfusion state toward the prefusion state.

    PubMed

    Ferlin, Anna; Raux, Hélène; Baquero, Eduard; Lepault, Jean; Gaudin, Yves

    2014-11-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; the prototype rhabdovirus) fusion is triggered at low pH and mediated by glycoprotein G, which undergoes a low-pH-induced structural transition. A unique feature of rhabdovirus G is that its conformational change is reversible. This allows G to recover its native prefusion state at the viral surface after its transport through the acidic Golgi compartments. The crystal structures of G pre- and postfusion states have been elucidated, leading to the identification of several acidic amino acid residues, clustered in the postfusion trimer, as potential pH-sensitive switches controlling the transition back toward the prefusion state. We mutated these residues and produced a panel of single and double mutants whose fusion properties, conformational change characteristics, and ability to pseudotype a virus lacking the glycoprotein gene were assayed. Some of these mutations were also introduced in the genome of recombinant viruses which were further characterized. We show that D268, located in the segment consisting of residues 264 to 273, which refolds into postfusion helix F during G structural transition, is the major pH sensor while D274, D395, and D393 have additional contributions. Furthermore, a single passage of recombinant virus bearing the mutation D268L (which was demonstrated to stabilize the G postfusion state) resulted in a pseudorevertant with a compensatory second mutation, L271P. This revealed that the propensity of the segment of residues 264 to 273 to refold into helix F has to be finely tuned since either an increase (mutation D268L alone) or a decrease (mutation L271P alone) of this propensity is detrimental to the virus. Vesicular stomatitis virus enters cells via endocytosis. Endosome acidification induces a structural transition of its unique glycoprotein (G), which mediates fusion between viral and endosomal membranes. G conformational change is reversible upon increases in pH. This allows G to recover its native

  3. Latching micro optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

    2013-05-21

    An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

  4. The carboxy-terminal αN helix of the archaeal XerA tyrosine recombinase is a molecular switch to control site-specific recombination.

    PubMed

    Serre, Marie-Claude; El Arnaout, Toufic; Brooks, Mark A; Durand, Dominique; Lisboa, Johnny; Lazar, Noureddine; Raynal, Bertrand; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine recombinases are conserved in the three kingdoms of life. Here we present the first crystal structure of a full-length archaeal tyrosine recombinase, XerA from Pyrococcus abyssi, at 3.0 Å resolution. In the absence of DNA substrate XerA crystallizes as a dimer where each monomer displays a tertiary structure similar to that of DNA-bound Tyr-recombinases. Active sites are assembled in the absence of dif except for the catalytic Tyr, which is extruded and located equidistant from each active site within the dimer. Using XerA active site mutants we demonstrate that XerA follows the classical cis-cleavage reaction, suggesting rearrangements of the C-terminal domain upon DNA binding. Surprisingly, XerA C-terminal αN helices dock in cis in a groove that, in bacterial tyrosine recombinases, accommodates in trans αN helices of neighbour monomers in the Holliday junction intermediates. Deletion of the XerA C-terminal αN helix does not impair cleavage of suicide substrates but prevents recombination catalysis. We propose that the enzymatic cycle of XerA involves the switch of the αN helix from cis to trans packing, leading to (i) repositioning of the catalytic Tyr in the active site in cis and (ii) dimer stabilisation via αN contacts in trans between monomers.

  5. Regulated phosphorylation of the K-Cl cotransporter KCC3 is a molecular switch of intracellular potassium content and cell volume homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Adragna, Norma C; Ravilla, Nagendra B; Lauf, Peter K; Begum, Gulnaz; Khanna, Arjun R; Sun, Dandan; Kahle, Kristopher T

    2015-01-01

    The defense of cell volume against excessive shrinkage or swelling is a requirement for cell function and organismal survival. Cell swelling triggers a coordinated homeostatic response termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD), resulting in K(+) and Cl(-) efflux via activation of K(+) channels, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs), and the K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters, including KCC3. Here, we show genetic alanine (Ala) substitution at threonines (Thr) 991 and 1048 in the KCC3a isoform carboxyl-terminus, preventing inhibitory phosphorylation at these sites, not only significantly up-regulates KCC3a activity up to 25-fold in normally inhibitory isotonic conditions, but is also accompanied by reversal of activity of the related bumetanide-sensitive Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1). This results in a rapid (<10 min) and significant (>90%) reduction in intracellular K(+) content (Ki) via both Cl-dependent (KCC3a + NKCC1) and Cl-independent [DCPIB (VRAC inhibitor)-sensitive] pathways, which collectively renders cells less prone to acute swelling in hypotonic osmotic stress. Together, these data demonstrate the phosphorylation state of Thr991/Thr1048 in KCC3a encodes a potent switch of transporter activity, Ki homeostasis, and cell volume regulation, and reveal novel observations into the functional interaction among ion transport molecules involved in RVD.

  6. Regulated phosphorylation of the K-Cl cotransporter KCC3 is a molecular switch of intracellular potassium content and cell volume homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Adragna, Norma C.; Ravilla, Nagendra B.; Lauf, Peter K.; Begum, Gulnaz; Khanna, Arjun R.; Sun, Dandan; Kahle, Kristopher T.

    2015-01-01

    The defense of cell volume against excessive shrinkage or swelling is a requirement for cell function and organismal survival. Cell swelling triggers a coordinated homeostatic response termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD), resulting in K+ and Cl− efflux via activation of K+ channels, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs), and the K+-Cl− cotransporters, including KCC3. Here, we show genetic alanine (Ala) substitution at threonines (Thr) 991 and 1048 in the KCC3a isoform carboxyl-terminus, preventing inhibitory phosphorylation at these sites, not only significantly up-regulates KCC3a activity up to 25-fold in normally inhibitory isotonic conditions, but is also accompanied by reversal of activity of the related bumetanide-sensitive Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1). This results in a rapid (<10 min) and significant (>90%) reduction in intracellular K+ content (Ki) via both Cl-dependent (KCC3a + NKCC1) and Cl-independent [DCPIB (VRAC inhibitor)-sensitive] pathways, which collectively renders cells less prone to acute swelling in hypotonic osmotic stress. Together, these data demonstrate the phosphorylation state of Thr991/Thr1048 in KCC3a encodes a potent switch of transporter activity, Ki homeostasis, and cell volume regulation, and reveal novel observations into the functional interaction among ion transport molecules involved in RVD. PMID:26217182

  7. Programmable DNA switches and their applications.

    PubMed

    Harroun, Scott G; Prévost-Tremblay, Carl; Lauzon, Dominic; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Wang, Xiaomeng; Pedro, Liliana; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2018-03-08

    DNA switches are ideally suited for numerous nanotechnological applications, and increasing efforts are being directed toward their engineering. In this review, we discuss how to engineer these switches starting from the selection of a specific DNA-based recognition element, to its adaptation and optimisation into a switch, with applications ranging from sensing to drug delivery, smart materials, molecular transporters, logic gates and others. We provide many examples showcasing their high programmability and recent advances towards their real life applications. We conclude with a short perspective on this exciting emerging field.

  8. Remote switch actuator

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan

    2013-01-29

    The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

  9. Heat Switches for ADRs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.

  10. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  11. Apollo Ring Optical Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Maestas, J.H.

    1987-03-01

    An optical switch was designed, built, and installed at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to facilitate the integration of two Apollo computer networks into a single network. This report presents an overview of the optical switch as well as its layout, switch testing procedure and test data, and installation.

  12. Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Molecular Switch Designed Using a Systematic Design Process Based on Monte Carlo Methods and Markov Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallapalli, Arjun

    A RET network consists of a network of photo-active molecules called chromophores that can participate in inter-molecular energy transfer called resonance energy transfer (RET). RET networks are used in a variety of applications including cryptographic devices, storage systems, light harvesting complexes, biological sensors, and molecular rulers. In this dissertation, we focus on creating a RET device called closed-diffusive exciton valve (C-DEV) in which the input to output transfer function is controlled by an external energy source, similar to a semiconductor transistor like the MOSFET. Due to their biocompatibility, molecular devices like the C-DEVs can be used to introduce computing power in biological, organic, and aqueous environments such as living cells. Furthermore, the underlying physics in RET devices are stochastic in nature, making them suitable for stochastic computing in which true random distribution generation is critical. In order to determine a valid configuration of chromophores for the C-DEV, we developed a systematic process based on user-guided design space pruning techniques and built-in simulation tools. We show that our C-DEV is 15x better than C-DEVs designed using ad hoc methods that rely on limited data from prior experiments. We also show ways in which the C-DEV can be improved further and how different varieties of C-DEVs can be combined to form more complex logic circuits. Moreover, the systematic design process can be used to search for valid chromophore network configurations for a variety of RET applications. We also describe a feasibility study for a technique used to control the orientation of chromophores attached to DNA. Being able to control the orientation can expand the design space for RET networks because it provides another parameter to tune their collective behavior. While results showed limited control over orientation, the analysis required the development of a mathematical model that can be used to determine the

  13. REMOTE CONTROLLED SWITCHING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, J.C.

    1959-02-01

    An electrical switching device which can be remotely controlled and in which one or more switches may be accurately operated at predetermined times or with predetermined intervening time intervals is described. The switching device consists essentially of a deck, a post projecting from the deck at right angles thereto, cam means mounted for rotation around said posts and a switch connected to said deck and actuated by said cam means. Means is provided for rotating the cam means at a constant speed and the switching apparatus is enclosed in a sealed container with external adjusting means and electrical connection elements.

  14. Switching antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    Weiden, P J; Aquila, R; Dalheim, L; Standard, J M

    1997-01-01

    Compared with conventional antipsychotics, the so-called "atypical" antipsychotics promise improved side effect profiles and better control of the symptoms of schizophrenia. Therefore, most patients currently taking conventional antipsychotics could potentially benefit from a switch to an atypical antipsychotic. Often, the key issue in deciding whether to switch is the presence of countervailing factors that mitigate against the change. This paper discusses the indications and contraindications for switching antipsychotics, plus issues that require consideration before a switch is made. Also, the advantages and disadvantages of various switching techniques are discussed, with a particular focus on the newer antipsychotic olanzapine.

  15. Switching to nilotinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase with molecular suboptimal response to frontline imatinib: SENSOR final results and BIM polymorphism substudy.

    PubMed

    Miyamura, Koichi; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Yamamoto, Kazuhito; Kimura, Shinya; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Matsumura, Itaru; Hata, Tomoko; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Saito, Shigeki; Hino, Masayuki; Tadokoro, Seiji; Meguro, Kuniaki; Hyodo, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masahide; Kubo, Kohmei; Tsukada, Junichi; Kondo, Midori; Aoki, Makoto; Okada, Hikaru; Yanada, Masamitsu; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2016-12-01

    Optimal management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase with suboptimal molecular response (MR) to frontline imatinib is undefined. We report final results from SENSOR, which evaluated efficacy/safety of nilotinib in this setting. A substudy assessed whether BIM polymorphisms impacted response to nilotinib. In this single-arm, multicenter study, Japanese patients with suboptimal MR per European LeukemiaNet 2009 criteria (complete cytogenetic response, but not major MR [MMR]) after ≥18 months of frontline imatinib received nilotinib 400mg twice daily for 24 months. MR, BCR-ABL1 mutations/variants, and BIM polymorphisms were evaluated in a central laboratory. Primary endpoint was the MMR rate at 12 months (null hypothesis of 40%). Of 45 patients (median exposure, 22.08 months), 39 completed the study and six discontinued. At 12 and 24 months, 51.1% (95% CI, 35.8%-66.3%) and 66.7% (95% CI, 51.0%-80.0%) achieved MMR, respectively. Cumulative MMR incidence by 24 months was 75.6%. Of 40 patients analyzed, 10 of 12 (83.3%) with and 17 of 28 (60.7%) without BIM polymorphisms achieved MMR at 24 months. The safety profile was manageable with dose reductions and interruptions. Nilotinib provided clinical benefit for patients with suboptimal response to imatinib, and BIM polymorphisms did not influence MMR achievement. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01043874. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Colorless to purple-red switching electrochromic anthraquinone imides with broad visible/near-IR absorptions in the radical anion state: simulation-aided molecular design.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengkun; Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Hong; Wan, Xinhua

    2013-07-01

    The large redshift of near-infrared (NIR) absorptions of nitro-substituted anthraquinone imide (Nitro-AQI) radical anions, relative to other AQI derivatives, is rationalized based on quantum chemical calculations. Calculations reveal that the delocalization effects of electronegative substitution in the radical anion states is dramatically enhanced, thus leading to a significant decrease in the HOMO-LUMO band gap in the radical anion states. Based on this understanding, an AQI derivative with an even stronger electron-withdrawing dicyanovinyl (di-CN) substituent was designed and prepared. The resulting molecule, di-CN-AQI, displays no absorption in the Vis/NIR region in the neutral state, but absorbs intensively in the range of λ=700-1000 (λmax ≈860 nm) and λ=1100-1800 nm (λmax ≈1400 nm) upon one-electron reduction; this is accompanied by a transition from a highly transmissive colorless solution to one that is purple-red. The relationship between calculated radical anionic HOMO-LUMO gaps and the electron-withdrawing capacity of the substituents is also determined by employing Hammett parameter, which could serve as a theoretical tool for further molecular design. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Understanding product specificity of protein lysine methyltransferases from QM/MM molecular dynamics and free energy simulations: the effects of mutation on SET7/9 beyond the Tyr/Phe switch.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianzhuang; Chu, Yuzhuo; An, Ran; Guo, Hong

    2012-02-27

    The results of hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) free energy (potential of mean force) simulations for methyl-transfer processes in SET7/9 and its Y245A mutant are compared to address the question concerning the change of the product specificity as well as catalytic efficiency due to the mutation. One of the key questions is whether or not the free energy profiles of methyl transfers may be used to predict the change of the product specificity as a result of the mutations for the residues that are not located at the Tyr/Phe switch position. The simulations show that while the wild-type SET7/9 is a monomethylase, the Y245→A mutation increases the ability of the enzyme to add more methyl groups on the target lysine (i.e., acting as a trimethylase). However, the first methyl-transfer process seems to become less efficient in the mutant compared to that in wild-type. All these results are consistent with experimental observations concerning the effects of the mutation on the product specificity and catalytic efficiency. Thus, the previous suggestion that the energetics of the methyl-transfer reactions may determine the product specificity, at least in some cases, is confirmed by the present work. Moreover, the dynamic information of the reactant complexes obtained from the QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations shows that the ability of the reactant complexes to form the reactive transition-state-like configurations may be used as an important indicator for the prediction of the product specificity of PKMTs, consistent with previous computational studies.

  18. The Transcriptional Complex Between the BCL2 i-Motif and hnRNP LL Is a Molecular Switch for Control of Gene Expression That Can Be Modulated by Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In a companion paper (DOI: 10.021/ja410934b) we demonstrate that the C-rich strand of the cis-regulatory element in the BCL2 promoter element is highly dynamic in nature and can form either an i-motif or a flexible hairpin. Under physiological conditions these two secondary DNA structures are found in an equilibrium mixture, which can be shifted by the addition of small molecules that trap out either the i-motif (IMC-48) or the flexible hairpin (IMC-76). In cellular experiments we demonstrate that the addition of these molecules has opposite effects on BCL2 gene expression and furthermore that these effects are antagonistic. In this contribution we have identified a transcriptional factor that recognizes and binds to the BCL2 i-motif to activate transcription. The molecular basis for the recognition of the i-motif by hnRNP LL is determined, and we demonstrate that the protein unfolds the i-motif structure to form a stable single-stranded complex. In subsequent experiments we show that IMC-48 and IMC-76 have opposite, antagonistic effects on the formation of the hnRNP LL–i-motif complex as well as on the transcription factor occupancy at the BCL2 promoter. For the first time we propose that the i-motif acts as a molecular switch that controls gene expression and that small molecules that target the dynamic equilibrium of the i-motif and the flexible hairpin can differentially modulate gene expression. PMID:24559432

  19. Molecular Catalysis of the Electrochemical and Photochemical Reduction of CO2 with Earth-Abundant Metal Complexes. Selective Production of CO vs HCOOH by Switching of the Metal Center.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingjing; Guo, Zhenguo; Wei, Xi-Guang; Gallenkamp, Charlotte; Bonin, Julien; Anxolabéhère-Mallart, Elodie; Lau, Kai-Chung; Lau, Tai-Chu; Robert, Marc

    2015-09-02

    Molecular catalysis of carbon dioxide reduction using earth-abundant metal complexes as catalysts is a key challenge related to the production of useful products--the "solar fuels"--in which solar energy would be stored. A direct approach using sunlight energy as well as an indirect approach where sunlight is first converted into electricity could be used. A Co(II) complex and a Fe(III) complex, both bearing the same pentadentate N5 ligand (2,13-dimethyl-3,6,9,12,18-pentaazabicyclo[12.3.1]octadeca-1(18),2,12,14,16-pentaene), were synthesized, and their catalytic activity toward CO2 reduction was investigated. Carbon monoxide was formed with the cobalt complex, while formic acid was obtained with the iron-based catalyst, thus showing that the catalysis product can be switched by changing the metal center. Selective CO2 reduction occurs under electrochemical conditions as well as photochemical conditions when using a photosensitizer under visible light excitation (λ > 460 nm, solvent acetonitrile) with the Co catalyst. In the case of the Fe catalyst, selective HCOOH production occurs at low overpotential. Sustained catalytic activity over long periods of time and high turnover numbers were observed in both cases. A catalytic mechanism is suggested on the basis of experimental results and preliminary quantum chemistry calculations.

  20. Hydrophobic fluorine mediated switching of the hydrogen bonding site as well as orientation of water molecules in the aqueous mixture of monofluoroethanol: IR, molecular dynamics and quantum chemical studies.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Saptarsi; Biswas, Biswajit; Nandy, Tonima; Singh, Prashant Chandra

    2017-09-20

    The local structures between water-water, alcohol-water and alcohol-alcohol have been investigated for aqueous mixtures of ethanol (ETH) and monofluoroethanol (MFE) by the deconvolution of IR bands in the OH stretching region, molecular dynamics simulation and quantum chemical calculations. It has been found that the addition of a small amount of ETH into the aqueous medium increases the strength of the hydrogen bonds between water molecules. In an aqueous mixture of MFE, the substitution of a single fluorine induces a change in the orientation as well as the hydrogen bonding site of water molecules from the oxygen to the fluorine terminal of MFE. The switching of the hydrogen bonding site of water in the aqueous mixture of MFE results in comparatively strong hydrogen bonds between MFE and water molecules as well as less clustering of water molecules, unlike the case of the aqueous mixture of ETH. These findings about the modification of a hydrogen bond network by the hydrophobic fluorine group probably make fluorinated molecules useful for pharmaceutical as well as biological applications.

  1. An acoustic switch.

    PubMed

    Vanhille, Christian; Campos-Pozuelo, Cleofé

    2014-01-01

    The benefits derived from the development of acoustic transistors which act as switches or amplifiers have been reported in the literature. Here we propose a model of acoustic switch. We theoretically demonstrate that the device works: the input signal is totally restored at the output when the switch is on whereas the output signal nulls when the switch is off. The switch, on or off, depends on a secondary acoustic field capable to manipulate the main acoustic field. The model relies on the attenuation effect of many oscillating bubbles on the main travelling wave in the liquid, as well as on the capacity of the secondary acoustic wave to move the bubbles. This model evidences the concept of acoustic switch (transistor) with 100% efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia [Oak Ridge, TN; Peng, Fang Z [Okemos, MI

    2007-08-07

    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  3. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOEpatents

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  4. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOEpatents

    Barrus, Donald M.; Shires, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  5. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  6. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

    1983-12-21

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  7. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, John P.; Emin, David

    1986-01-01

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  8. Alarm toe switch

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, Floyd P.

    1982-01-01

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

  9. Transient-Switch-Signal Suppressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Circuit delays transmission of switch-opening or switch-closing signal until after preset suppression time. Used to prevent transmission of undesired momentary switch signal. Basic mode of operation simple. Beginning of switch signal initiates timing sequence. If switch signal persists after preset suppression time, circuit transmits switch signal to external circuitry. If switch signal no longer present after suppression time, switch signal deemed transient, and circuit does not pass signal on to external circuitry, as though no transient switch signal. Suppression time preset at value large enough to allow for damping of underlying pressure wave or other mechanical transient.

  10. Asymmetrical Switch Costs in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefson, Michelle R.; Shapiron, Laura R.; Chater, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Switching between tasks produces decreases in performance as compared to repeating the same task. Asymmetrical switch costs occur when switching between two tasks of unequal difficulty. This asymmetry occurs because the cost is greater when switching to the less difficult task than when switching to the more difficult task. Various theories about…

  11. Reflective HTS switch

    DOEpatents

    Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

    1994-09-27

    A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.

  12. Quantum cryptography without switching.

    PubMed

    Weedbrook, Christian; Lance, Andrew M; Bowen, Warwick P; Symul, Thomas; Ralph, Timothy C; Lam, Ping Koy

    2004-10-22

    We propose a new coherent state quantum key distribution protocol that eliminates the need to randomly switch between measurement bases. This protocol provides significantly higher secret key rates with increased bandwidths than previous schemes that only make single quadrature measurements. It also offers the further advantage of simplicity compared to all previous protocols which, to date, have relied on switching.

  13. Reflective HTS switch

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1994-01-01

    A HTS switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time.

  14. Power-Switching Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praver, Gerald A.; Theisinger, Peter C.; Genofsky, John

    1987-01-01

    Functions of circuit breakers, meters, and switches combined. Circuit that includes power field-effect transistors (PFET's) provides on/off switching, soft starting, current monitoring, current tripping, and protection against overcurrent for 30-Vdc power supply at normal load currents up to 2 A. Has no moving parts.

  15. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  16. Phosphotransfer reactions of the CbbRRS three-protein two- component system from Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA010 appear to be controlled by an internal molecular switch on the sensor kinase.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Simona; Tabita, F Robert

    2007-01-01

    The CbbRRS system is an atypical three-protein two-component system that modulates the expression of the cbb(I) CO(2) fixation operon of Rhodopseudomonas palustris, possibly in response to a redox signal. It consists of a membrane-bound hybrid sensor kinase, CbbSR, with a transmitter and receiver domain, and two response regulator proteins, CbbRR1 and CbbRR2. No detectable helix-turn-helix DNA binding domain is associated with either response regulator, but an HPt domain and a second receiver domain are predicted at the C-terminal region of CbbRR1 and CbbRR2, respectively. The abundance of conserved residues predicted to participate in a His-Asp phosphorelay raised the question of their de facto involvement. In this study, the role of the multiple receiver domains was elucidated in vitro by generating site-directed mutants of the putative conserved residues. Distinct phosphorylation patterns were obtained with two truncated versions of the hybrid sensor kinase, CbbSR(T189) and CbbSR(R96) (CbbSR beginning at residues T189 and R96, respectively). These constructs also exhibited substantially different affinities for ATP and phosphorylation stability, which was found to be dependent on a conserved Asp residue (Asp-696) within the kinase receiver domain. Asp-696 also played an important role in defining the specificity of phosphorylation for response regulators CbbRR1 or CbbRR2, and this residue appeared to act in conjunction with residues within the region from Arg-96 to Thr-189 at the N terminus of the sensor kinase. The net effect of concerted interactions at these distinct regions of CbbSR created an internal molecular switch that appears to coordinate a unique branched phosphorelay system.

  17. Membrane Switches Check Seal Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgetts, P. J.; Stuckenberg, F. H.; Morrissey, E. T.

    1984-01-01

    Array of flexible membrane switches used to indicate closure of seal. Switch membrane responds to pressure exerted by rigid surface on compliant sealing medium and provides switch contacts monitored electronically. Membrane switches connected in series and placed under seal. When all switches are closed lamp or LED lights up, indicating requisite seal pressure has been realized at all switch positions. Principle used to ensure integrity of seals on refrigerator and oven doors, weatherstripping, hatches, spacecraft, airplanes, and submarines.

  18. Optical Circuit Switched Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.

  19. Photoconductive switch package

    DOEpatents

    Ca[rasp, George J

    2013-10-22

    A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.

  20. Sleep state switching.

    PubMed

    Saper, Clifford B; Fuller, Patrick M; Pedersen, Nigel P; Lu, Jun; Scammell, Thomas E

    2010-12-22

    We take for granted the ability to fall asleep or to snap out of sleep into wakefulness, but these changes in behavioral state require specific switching mechanisms in the brain that allow well-defined state transitions. In this review, we examine the basic circuitry underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness and discuss a theoretical framework wherein the interactions between reciprocal neuronal circuits enable relatively rapid and complete state transitions. We also review how homeostatic, circadian, and allostatic drives help regulate sleep state switching and discuss how breakdown of the switching mechanism may contribute to sleep disorders such as narcolepsy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sleep State Switching

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Clifford B.; Fuller, Patrick M.; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Lu, Jun; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    We take for granted the ability to fall asleep or to snap out of sleep into wakefulness, but these changes in behavioral state require specific switching mechanisms in the brain that allow well-defined state transitions. In this review, we examine the basic circuitry underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, and discuss a theoretical framework wherein the interactions between reciprocal neuronal circuits enable relatively rapid and complete state transitions. We also review how homeostatic, circadian, and allostatic drives help regulate sleep state switching, and discuss how breakdown of the switching mechanism may contribute to sleep disorders such as narcolepsy. PMID:21172606

  2. SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Neal, R.B.

    1957-12-17

    An improved triggered spark gap switch is described, capable of precisely controllable firing time while switching very large amounts of power. The invention in general comprises three electrodes adjustably spaced and adapted to have a large potential impressed between the outer electrodes. The central electrode includes two separate elements electrically connected togetaer and spaced apart to define a pair of spark gaps between the end electrodes. Means are provided to cause the gas flow in the switch to pass towards the central electrode, through a passage in each separate element, and out an exit disposed between the two separate central electrode elements in order to withdraw ions from the spark gap.

  3. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  4. Intermittent metabolic switching, neuroplasticity and brain health

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.; Moehl, Keelin; Ghena, Nathaniel; Schmaedick, Maggie; Cheng, Aiwu

    2018-01-01

    During evolution, individuals whose brains and bodies functioned well in a fasted state were successful in acquiring food, enabling their survival and reproduction. With fasting and extended exercise, liver glycogen stores are depleted and ketones are produced from adipose-cell-derived fatty acids. This metabolic switch in cellular fuel source is accompanied by cellular and molecular adaptations of neural networks in the brain that enhance their functionality and bolster their resistance to stress, injury and disease. Here, we consider how intermittent metabolic switching, repeating cycles of a metabolic challenge that induces ketosis (fasting and/or exercise) followed by a recovery period (eating, resting and sleeping), may optimize brain function and resilience throughout the lifespan, with a focus on the neuronal circuits involved in cognition and mood. Such metabolic switching impacts multiple signalling pathways that promote neuroplasticity and resistance of the brain to injury and disease. PMID:29321682

  5. An optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-04-30

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch having an electron attaching gas wherein electron attachment is brought about by indirect excitation of molecules to long live states by exposure to laser light. 3 figs.

  6. Miniature Intermittent Contact Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, Antony

    1972-01-01

    This tech brief concerns work to provide a shock-resistant switch capable of being actuated by forces of varying magnitude and direction, primarily for use as a sensor on remote control (tele-operator) and prosthetic devices.

  7. Heteroclinic switching between chimeras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bick, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Functional oscillator networks, such as neuronal networks in the brain, exhibit switching between metastable states involving many oscillators. We give exact results how such global dynamics can arise in paradigmatic phase oscillator networks: Higher-order network interactions give rise to metastable chimeras—localized frequency synchrony patterns—which are joined by heteroclinic connections. Moreover, we illuminate the mechanisms that underly the switching dynamics in these experimentally accessible networks.

  8. Spiers Memorial Lecture. Molecular mechanics and molecular electronics.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Robert; Beverly, Kris; Boukai, Akram; Bunimovich, Yuri; Choi, Jang Wook; DeIonno, Erica; Green, Johnny; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Luo, Yi; Sheriff, Bonnie; Stoddart, Fraser; Heath, James R

    2006-01-01

    We describe our research into building integrated molecular electronics circuitry for a diverse set of functions, and with a focus on the fundamental scientific issues that surround this project. In particular, we discuss experiments aimed at understanding the function of bistable rotaxane molecular electronic switches by correlating the switching kinetics and ground state thermodynamic properties of those switches in various environments, ranging from the solution phase to a Langmuir monolayer of the switching molecules sandwiched between two electrodes. We discuss various devices, low bit-density memory circuits, and ultra-high density memory circuits that utilize the electrochemical switching characteristics of these molecules in conjunction with novel patterning methods. We also discuss interconnect schemes that are capable of bridging the micrometre to submicrometre length scales of conventional patterning approaches to the near-molecular length scales of the ultra-dense memory circuits. Finally, we discuss some of the challenges associated with fabricated ultra-dense molecular electronic integrated circuits.

  9. Organic solid state switches incorporating porphyrin compounds and method for producing organic solid state optical switches

    DOEpatents

    Wasielewski, Michael R.; Gaines, George L.; Niemczyk, Mark P.; Johnson, Douglas G.; Gosztola, David J.; O'Neil, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    A light-intensity dependent molecular switch comprised of a compound which shuttles an electron or a plurality of electrons from a plurality of electron donors to an electron acceptor upon being stimulated with light of predetermined wavelengths, said donors selected from porphyrins and other compounds, and a method for making said compound.

  10. Organic solid state optical switches and method for producing organic solid state optical switches

    DOEpatents

    Wasielewski, M.R.; Gaines, G.L.; Niemczyk, M.P.; Johnson, D.G.; Gosztola, D.J.; O`Neil, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    This invention consists of a light-intensity dependent molecular switch comprised of a compound which shuttles an electron or a plurality of electrons from a plurality of electron donors to an electron acceptor upon being stimulated with light of predetermined wavelengths, and a method for making said compound.

  11. Organic solid state switches incorporating porphyrin compounds and method for producing organic solid state optical switches

    DOEpatents

    Wasielewski, M.R.; Gaines, G.L.; Niemczyk, M.P.; Johnson, D.G.; Gosztola, D.J.; O`Neil, M.P.

    1996-07-23

    A light-intensity dependent molecular switch comprised of a compound which shuttles an electron or a plurality of electrons from a plurality of electron donors to an electron acceptor upon being stimulated with light of predetermined wavelengths, said donors selected from porphyrins and other compounds, and a method for making said compound are disclosed. 4 figs.

  12. Anti-sigma factor YlaD regulates transcriptional activity of sigma factor YlaC and sporulation via manganese-dependent redox-sensing molecular switch in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Min-Kyu; Ryu, Han-Bong; Song, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Won; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2018-05-14

    YlaD, a membrane-anchored anti-sigma factor of Bacillus subtilis , contains a HX 3 CXXC motif that functions as a redox-sensing domain and belongs to one of the zinc-coordinated anti-sigma factor families. Despite previously showing that the YlaC transcription is controlled by YlaD, experimental evidence of how the YlaC-YlaD interaction is affected by active cysteines and/or metal ions is lacking. Here, we showed that the P yla promoter is autoregulated solely by YlaC. Moreover, reduced YlaD contained zinc and iron, while oxidized YlaD did not. Cysteine substitution in YlaD led to changes in its secondary structure; Cys3 had important structural functions in YlaD, and its mutation caused dissociation from YlaC, indicating the essential requirement of a HX 3 CXXC motif for regulating interactions of YlaC with YlaD. Analyses of the far-UV CD spectrum and metal content revealed that the addition of Mn ions to Zn-YlaD changed its secondary structure and that iron was substituted for manganese. The ylaC gene expression using βGlu activity from P yla : gusA was observed at the late-exponential and early-stationary phase and the ylaC -overexpressing mutant constitutively expressed gene transcripts of clpP and sigH , an important alternative sigma factor regulated by ClpXP. Collectively, our data demonstrated that YlaD senses redox changes and elicits increase in manganese ion concentrations and that, in turn, YlaD-mediated transcriptional activity of YlaC regulates sporulation initiation under oxidative stress and manganese-substituted conditions by regulating clpP gene transcripts. This is the first report of the involvement of oxidative stress-responsive B. subtilis extracytoplasmic function sigma factors during sporulation via a manganese-dependent redox-sensing molecular switch. ©2018 The Author(s).

  13. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  14. Pulse power switch development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R.; Gallagher, H.; Hansen, S.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this study program has been to define an optimum technical approach to the longer range goal of achieving practical high repetition rate high power spark gap switches. Requirements and possible means of extending the state of the art of crossed field closing switches, vacuum spark gaps, and pressurized spark gaps are presented with emphasis on reliable, efficient and compact devices operable in burst mode at 250-300 kV, 40-60 kA, =1 kHz with approximately 50 nsec pulses rising in approximately 3 ns. Models of these devices are discussed which are based upon published and generated design data and on underlying physical principles. Based upon its relative advantages, limitations and tradeoffs we conclude that the Hughes Crossatron switch is the nearest term approach to reach the switch goal levels. Theoretical, experimental, and computer simulation models of the plasma show a collective ion acceleration mechanism to be active which is predicted to result in current rise times approaching 10 nsec. A preliminary design concept is presented. For faster rise times we have shown a vacuum surface flashover switch to be an interesting candidate. This device is limited by trigger instabilities and will require further basic development. The problem areas relevant to high pressure spark gaps are reviewed.

  15. Thermionic gas switch

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, G.L.; Brummond, W.A.; Barrus, D.M.

    1984-04-05

    The present invention is directed to an improved temperature responsive thermionic gas switch utilizing a hollow cathode and a folded emitter surface area. The folded emitter surface area of the thermionic switch substantially increases the on/off ratio by changing the conduction surface area involved in the two modes thereof. The improved switch of this invention provides an on/off ratio of 450:1 compared to the 10:1 ratio of the prior known thermionic switch, while providing for adjusting the on current. In the improved switch of this invention the conduction area is made small in the off mode, while in the on mode the conduction area is made large. This is achieved by utilizing a folded hollow cathode configuration and utilizing a folded emitter surface area, and by making the dimensions of the folds small enough so that a space charge will develop in the convolutions of the folds and suppress unignited current, thus limiting the current carrying surface in the off mode.

  16. Switching power pulse system

    DOEpatents

    Aaland, K.

    1983-08-09

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source to a load using a storage capacitor charged through a rectifier, and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch and voltage comparator. A thyristor is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor and fractional turn saturable transformer having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n = n[sup 2]. The saturable reactor functions as a soaker'' while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor into the load through the coupling capacitor. The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core having two secondary windings tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network. To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core is provided around the resistive beampipe to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance until it is fully charged. 5 figs.

  17. Multiple switch actuator

    DOEpatents

    Beyer, Edward T.

    1976-01-06

    The present invention relates to switches and switch actuating devices to be operated for purposes of arming a bomb or other missile as it is dropped or released from an aircraft. The particular bomb or missile in which this invention is applied is one in which there is a plurality of circuits which are to be armed by the closing of switches upon dropping or releasing of the bomb. The operation of the switches to closed position is normally accomplished by means of a pull-out wire; that is, a wire which is withdrawn from the bomb or missile at the time of release of the bomb, one end of the wire being attached to the aircraft. The conditions to be met are that the arming switches must be positively and surely maintained in open position until the bomb is released and the arming action is effected. The action of the pull-out wire in achieving the arming action must be sure and positive with minimum danger of malfunctioning, jamming or binding.

  18. A Multicontrolled Enamine Configurational Switch Undergoing Dynamic Constitutional Exchange.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yansong; Svensson, Per H; Ramström, Olof

    2018-05-22

    A multiresponsive enamine-based molecular switch is presented, in which forward/backward configurational rotation around the C=C bond could be precisely controlled by the addition of an acid/base or metal ions. Fluorescence turn-on/off effects and large Stokes shifts were observed while regulating the switching process with Cu II . The enamine functionality furthermore enabled double dynamic regimes, in which configurational switching could operate in conjunction with constitutional enamine exchange of the rotor part. This behavior was used to construct a prototypical dynamic covalent switch system through enamine exchange with primary amines. The dynamic exchange process could be readily turned on/off by regulating the switch status with pH. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Exact solution of a model DNA-inversion genetic switch with orientational control.

    PubMed

    Visco, Paolo; Allen, Rosalind J; Evans, Martin R

    2008-09-12

    DNA inversion is an important mechanism by which bacteria and bacteriophage switch reversibly between phenotypic states. In such switches, the orientation of a short DNA element is flipped by a site-specific recombinase enzyme. We propose a simple model for a DNA-inversion switch in which recombinase production is dependent on the switch state (orientational control). Our model is inspired by the fim switch in E. coli. We present an exact analytical solution of the chemical master equation for the model switch, as well as stochastic simulations. Orientational control causes the switch to deviate from Poissonian behavior: the distribution of times in the on state shows a peak and successive flip times are correlated.

  20. Calibrating pressure switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, N. J. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A pressure switch assembly comprising a body portion and a switch mechanism having a contact element operable between opposite limit positions is described. A diaphragm chamber is provided in the body portion which mounts therein a system diaphragm and a calibration diaphragm which are of generally the same configuration and having outer faces conforming to the inner and outer walls of the diaphragm chamber. The space between the inner faces of the diaphragms defines a first chamber section and the space between the outer face of one of the diaphragms and the outer wall of the diaphragm chamber defines a second chamber section. The body portion includes a system pressure port communicating with one of the chamber sections and a calibration pressure port communicating with the other chamber section. An actuator connected to one of the diaphragms and the contact element of the switch operates upon pressure change in the diaphragm sections to move said contact element between limit positions.

  1. SWITCH user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The planning program, SWITCH, and its surrounding changed-goal-replanning program, Runaround, are described. The evolution of SWITCH and Runaround from an earlier planner, DEVISER, is recounted. SWITCH's plan representation, and its process of building a plan by backward chaining with strict chronological backtracking, are described. A guide for writing knowledge base files is provided, as are narrative guides for installing the program, running it, and interacting with it while it is running. Some utility functions are documented. For the sake of completeness, a narrative guide to the experimental discrepancy-replanning feature is provided. Appendices contain knowledge base files for a blocksworld domain, and a DRIBBLE file illustrating the output from, and user interaction with, the program in that domain.

  2. Switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  3. Optical computer switching network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.

  4. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Schare, Joshua M [Albuquerque, NM; Bunch, Kyle [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  5. FAST ACTING CURRENT SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Cummings, D.B.; Ryan, J.F.

    1962-05-22

    A high-current, fast-acting switch is designed for utilization as a crowbar switch in a high-current circuit such as used to generate the magnetic confinement field of a plasma-confining and heat device, e.g., Pyrotron. The device particularly comprises a cylindrical housing containing two stationary, cylindrical contacts between which a movable contact is bridged to close the switch. The movable contact is actuated by a differential-pressure, airdriven piston assembly also within the housing. To absorb the acceleration (and the shock imparted to the device by the rapidly driven, movable contact), an adjustable air buffer assembly is provided, integrally connected to the movable contact and piston assembly. Various safety locks and circuit-synchronizing means are also provided to permit proper cooperation of the invention and the high-current circuit in which it is installed. (AEC)

  6. Photoconductive switch package

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.

    2015-10-27

    A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the centralmore » portion to actuate the switch.« less

  7. A multi-stimuli responsive switch as a fluorescent molecular analogue of transistors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedures and additional data on the characterization of 1. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc03395k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo, Iluminada; Morais, Sandy; Prats, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    Although the quantum nature of molecules makes them specially suitable for mimicking the operation of digital electronic elements, molecular compounds can also be envisioned to emulate the behavior of analog devices. In this work we report a novel fluorescent three-state switch capable of reproducing the analog response of transistors, an ubiquitous device in modern electronics. Exploiting the redox and thermal sensitivity of this compound, the amplitude of its fluorescence emission can be continuously modulated, in a similar way as the output current in a transistor is amplified by the gate-to-source voltage. PMID:28959394

  8. Thermionic gas switch

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, George L.; Brummond, William A.; Barrus, Donald M.

    1986-01-01

    A temperature responsive thermionic gas switch having folded electron emitting surfaces. An ionizable gas is located between the emitter and an interior surface of a collector, coaxial with the emitter. In response to the temperature exceeding a predetermined level, sufficient electrons are derived from the emitter to cause the gas in the gap between the emitter and collector to become ionized, whereby a very large increase in current in the gap occurs. Due to the folded emitter surface area of the switch, increasing the "on/off" current ratio and adjusting the "on" current capacity is accomplished.

  9. SHOCKPROOF MAGNETIC REED SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Medal, E.

    1962-03-13

    A shockproof magnetic reed switch is described which comprises essentially a plurality of pairs of reed contacts of magnetic, electrical conducting material which are arranged generally in circumferential spaced relationship. At least two of the pairs are disposed to operate at a predetermined angle with respect to each other, and the contacts are wired in the circuit, so that the continuity, or discontinuity, of the circuit is not affected by a shock imposed on the switch. The contacts are hermetically sealed within an outer tubular jacket. (AEC)

  10. 35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  11. 41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  12. Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the North - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  13. 36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  14. 43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  15. An integrated circuit switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonin, E. L.

    1969-01-01

    Multi-chip integrated circuit switch consists of a GaAs photon-emitting diode in close proximity with S1 phototransistor. A high current gain is obtained when the transistor has a high forward common-emitter current gain.

  16. Gas injected vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, K. Dan

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a gas injected vacuum switch comprising a housing having an interior chamber, a conduit for evacuating the interior chamber, within the chamber an anode and a cathode spaced from the anode, and a detonator for injecting electrically conductive gas into the chamber between the anode and the cathode to provide a current path therebetween.

  17. An Evolutionary Perspective on Yeast Mating-Type Switching

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Sara J.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.

    2017-01-01

    Cell differentiation in yeast species is controlled by a reversible, programmed DNA-rearrangement process called mating-type switching. Switching is achieved by two functionally similar but structurally distinct processes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In both species, haploid cells possess one active and two silent copies of the mating-type locus (a three-cassette structure), the active locus is cleaved, and synthesis-dependent strand annealing is used to replace it with a copy of a silent locus encoding the opposite mating-type information. Each species has its own set of components responsible for regulating these processes. In this review, we summarize knowledge about the function and evolution of mating-type switching components in these species, including mechanisms of heterochromatin formation, MAT locus cleavage, donor bias, lineage tracking, and environmental regulation of switching. We compare switching in these well-studied species to others such as Kluyveromyces lactis and the methylotrophic yeasts Ogataea polymorpha and Komagataella phaffii. We focus on some key questions: Which cells switch mating type? What molecular apparatus is required for switching? Where did it come from? And what is the evolutionary purpose of switching? PMID:28476860

  18. Denoising of genetic switches based on Parrondo's paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotoohinasab, Atiyeh; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Pezeshk, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2018-03-01

    Random decision making in genetic switches can be modeled as tossing a biased coin. In other word, each genetic switch can be considered as a game in which the reactive elements compete with each other to increase their molecular concentrations. The existence of a very small number of reactive element molecules has caused the neglect of effects of noise to be inevitable. Noise can lead to undesirable cell fate in cellular differentiation processes. In this paper, we study the robustness to noise in genetic switches by considering another switch to have a new gene regulatory network (GRN) in which both switches have been affected by the same noise and for this purpose, we will use Parrondo's paradox. We introduce two networks of games based on possible regulatory relations between genes. Our results show that the robustness to noise can increase by combining these noisy switches. We also describe how one of the switches in network II can model lysis/lysogeny decision making of bacteriophage lambda in Escherichia coli and we change its fate by another switch.

  19. Switching power pulse system

    DOEpatents

    Aaland, Kristian

    1983-01-01

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source (10) to a load (20) using a storage capacitor (C3) charged through a rectifier (D1, D2), and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch (Q1) and voltage comparator (12). A thyristor (22) is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor (18) and fractional turn saturable transformer (16) having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n=n.sup.2. The saturable reactor (18) functions as a "soaker" while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor (C4) charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor (C3) into the load through the coupling capacitor (C4). The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core (26) having two secondary windings (28, 30) tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes (32, 34) for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe (40) for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network (42). To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core (44) is provided around the resistive beampipe (40) to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance (42) until it is fully charged.

  20. Heat-transfer thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V.; Anderson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal switch maintains temperature of planetary lander, within definite range, by transferring heat. Switch produces relatively large stroke and force, uses minimum electrical power, is lightweight, is vapor pressure actuated, and withstands sterilization temperatures without damage.

  1. Easily-wired toggle switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. T.; Stringer, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Crimp-type connectors reduce assembly and disassembly time. With design, no switch preparation is necessary and socket contracts are crimped to wires inserted in module attached to back of toggle switch engaging pins inside module to make electrical connections. Wires are easily removed with standard detachment tool. Design can accommodate wires of any gage and as many terminals can be placed on switch as wire gage and switch dimensions will allow.

  2. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

  3. Improved Electro-Optical Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Bruce N.; Cooper, Ronald F.

    1994-01-01

    Improved single-pole, double-throw electro-optical switches operate in switching times less than microsecond developed for applications as optical communication systems and networks of optical sensors. Contain no moving parts. In comparison with some prior electro-optical switches, these are simpler and operate with smaller optical losses. Beam of light switched from one output path to other by applying, to electro-optical crystal, voltage causing polarization of beam of light to change from vertical to horizontal.

  4. Illuminated push-button switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwagiri, T.

    1983-01-01

    An illuminated push-button switch is described. It is characterized by the fact that is consists of a switch group, an operator button opening and closing the switch group, and a light-emitting element which illuminates the face of the operator button.

  5. High-power microstrip switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. D.

    1974-01-01

    Switch, which uses only two p-i-n diodes on microstrip substrate, has been developed for application in spacecraft radio systems. Switch features improved power drain, weight, volume, magnetic cleanliness, and reliability, over currently-used circulator and electromechanical switches.

  6. Organic Materials For Optical Switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelino, Beatriz H.

    1993-01-01

    Equations predict properties of candidate materials. Report presents results of theoretical study of nonlinear optical properties of organic materials. Such materials used in optical switching devices for computers and telecommunications, replacing electronic switches. Optical switching potentially offers extremely high information throughout in compact hardware.

  7. Rotaxane liquid crystals with variable length: The effect of switching efficiency on the isotropic-nematic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hao; Sevick, Edith M.; Williams, David R. M.

    2018-04-01

    We examine a solution of non-adaptive two-state rotaxane molecules which can switch from a short state of length L to a long state of length qL, using statistical thermodynamics. This molecular switching is externally driven and can result in an isotropic-nematic phase transition without altering temperature and concentration. Here we concentrate on the limitation imposed by switching inefficiency, i.e., on the case where molecular switching is not quantitative, leading to a solution of rotaxanes in different states. We present switching diagrams that can guide in the design of rotaxanes which affect a macroscopic phase change.

  8. CMOS analog switches for adaptive filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Adaptive active low-pass filters incorporate CMOS (Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) analog switches (such as 4066 switch) that reduce variation in switch resistance when filter is switched to any selected transfer function.

  9. Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Durandy, Anne; Kracker, Sven

    2012-07-30

    Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies (Ig-CSR-Ds) are rare primary immunodeficiencies characterized by defective switched isotype (IgG/IgA/IgE) production. Depending on the molecular defect in question, the Ig-CSR-D may be combined with an impairment in somatic hypermutation (SHM). Some of the mechanisms underlying Ig-CSR and SHM have been described by studying natural mutants in humans. This approach has revealed that T cell-B cell interaction (resulting in CD40-mediated signaling), intrinsic B-cell mechanisms (activation-induced cytidine deaminase-induced DNA damage), and complex DNA repair machineries (including uracil-N-glycosylase and mismatch repair pathways) are all involved in class-switch recombination and SHM. However, several of the mechanisms required for full antibody maturation have yet to be defined. Elucidation of the molecular defects underlying the diverse set of Ig-CSR-Ds is essential for understanding Ig diversification and has prompted better definition of the clinical spectrum of diseases and the development of increasingly accurate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  10. Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies (Ig-CSR-Ds) are rare primary immunodeficiencies characterized by defective switched isotype (IgG/IgA/IgE) production. Depending on the molecular defect in question, the Ig-CSR-D may be combined with an impairment in somatic hypermutation (SHM). Some of the mechanisms underlying Ig-CSR and SHM have been described by studying natural mutants in humans. This approach has revealed that T cell-B cell interaction (resulting in CD40-mediated signaling), intrinsic B-cell mechanisms (activation-induced cytidine deaminase-induced DNA damage), and complex DNA repair machineries (including uracil-N-glycosylase and mismatch repair pathways) are all involved in class-switch recombination and SHM. However, several of the mechanisms required for full antibody maturation have yet to be defined. Elucidation of the molecular defects underlying the diverse set of Ig-CSR-Ds is essential for understanding Ig diversification and has prompted better definition of the clinical spectrum of diseases and the development of increasingly accurate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:22894609

  11. Switch between Morphospecies of Pocillopora Corals.

    PubMed

    Paz-García, David A; Hellberg, Michael E; García-de-León, Francisco J; Balart, Eduardo F

    2015-09-01

    Pocillopora corals are the main reef builders in the eastern tropical Pacific. The validity of Pocillopora morphospecies remains under debate because of disagreements between morphological and genetic data. To evaluate the temporal stability of morphospecies in situ, we monitored the shapes of individual colonies in three communities in the southern Gulf of California for 44 months. Twenty-three percent of tagged colonies of Pocillopora damicornis changed to Pocillopora inflata morphology during this time. This switch in identity coincided with a shift to a higher frequency of storms and lower water turbidity (i.e., lower chlorophyll a levels). Seven months after the switch, P. inflata colonies were recovering their original P. damicornis morphology. All colonies of both morphospecies shared a common mitochondrial identity, but most P. damicornis colonies undergoing change were at a site with low-flow conditions. This is the first in situ study to document switching between described morphospecies, and it elucidates the influence of temporal shifts in environmental conditions on morphologically plastic responses.

  12. Physical chemistry: Molecular motion watched

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwick, Bradley; Collet, Eric

    2013-04-01

    A laser pulse can switch certain crystals from an insulating phase to a highly conducting phase. The ultrafast molecular motions that drive the transition have been directly observed using electron diffraction. See Letter p.343

  13. An allosterically regulated reversible mechanical molecular switch: A de novo protein maquette functions as a redox/ionic strength sensor coupling chemical binding energy or charge interactions to conformational change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosset, Anne Marie

    2000-10-01

    Switch-like structural rearrangements of subunits due to charge-interactions are common in the basic biological action of proteins that couple and transfer chemical and ionic signals, sensing and regulation, mechanical force and electrochemical free energy. A simple synthetic protein model (maquette) has been designed to better understand the engineering of natural switches. Basic thermodynamic principles define the two key elements required for biological or chemical function of a switch. First, there must be two well-defined states. In this case, the two conformational states must have an energetic difference (DeltaDeltaG°) that is spanned by the applied driving force. Second, there must be an external stimulus, which preferentially interacts with one of the two states. The external stimulus provides the driving force that shifts the equilibrium from the first state to the second state (≥10:1 shifting towards ≤1:10). The energetic difference between the states must be the same order of magnitude as the driving force. In this synthetic protein, the two conformational states correspond to parallel (syn) and antiparallel (anti) assembly of the two identical helix-ss-helix subunits that bind heme close to the di-sulfide loop region. Charge interactions between two ferric hemes bound to histidines provide a driving force on the order of 2 kcal/mol (corresponding in the syn-topology to the 75--100 mV split in the heme redox potentials, or the 25--80 times weaker binding for the second ferric heme). The tetra-alpha-helix bundle has been modified to have a DeltaG around 1.8--2.5 kcal/mol (a 50--80 fold difference in the anti/syn ratio). Therefore, oxidation and reduction of the heme, or the binding of a second charged ferric heme can reversibly switch between syn- and anti-topologies, providing a sensitive detector of redox state or heme concentration. External solution conditions (e.g. ionic composition) can act on the protein remotely from the primary internal

  14. Coulomb Blockade Plasmonic Switch.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Dao; Wu, Jian; Gordon, Reuven

    2017-04-12

    Tunnel resistance can be modulated with bias via the Coulomb blockade effect, which gives a highly nonlinear response current. Here we investigate the optical response of a metal-insulator-nanoparticle-insulator-metal structure and show switching of a plasmonic gap from insulator to conductor via Coulomb blockade. By introducing a sufficiently large charging energy in the tunnelling gap, the Coulomb blockade allows for a conductor (tunneling) to insulator (capacitor) transition. The tunnelling electrons can be delocalized over the nanocapacitor again when a high energy penalty is added with bias. We demonstrate that this has a huge impact on the plasmonic resonance of a 0.51 nm tunneling gap with ∼70% change in normalized optical loss. Because this structure has a tiny capacitance, there is potential to harness the effect for high-speed switching.

  15. Plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Savage, Mark E.; Mendel, Jr., Clifford W.

    2001-01-01

    A command triggered plasma opening switch assembly using an amplification stage. The assembly surrounds a coaxial transmission line and has a main plasma opening switch (POS) close to the load and a trigger POS upstream from the main POS. The trigger POS establishes two different current pathways through the assembly depended on whether it has received a trigger current pulse. The initial pathway has both POS's with plasma between their anodes and cathodes to form a short across the transmission line and isolating the load. The final current pathway is formed when the trigger POS receives a trigger current pulse which energizes its fast coil to push the conductive plasma out from between its anode and cathode, allowing the main transmission line current to pass to the fast coil of the main POS, thus pushing its plasma out the way so as to establish a direct current pathway to the load.

  16. MULTIPLE SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Schofield, A.E.

    1958-07-22

    A multiple spark gap switch of unique construction is described which will permit controlled, simultaneous discharge of several capacitors into a load. The switch construction includes a disc electrode with a plurality of protuberances of generally convex shape on one surface. A firing electrode is insulatingly supponted In each of the electrode protuberances and extends substantially to the apex thereof. Individual electrodes are disposed on an insulating plate parallel with the disc electrode to form a number of spark gaps with the protuberances. These electrodes are each connected to a separate charged capacitor and when a voltage ls applied simultaneously between the trigger electrodes and the dlsc electrode, each spark gap fires to connect its capacitor to the disc electrode and a subsequent load.

  17. Cryogenic switched MOSFET characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Both p channel and n channel enhancement mode MOSFETs can be readily switched on and off at temperatures as low as 2.8 K so that switch sampled readout of a VLWIR Ge:Ga focal plane is electronically possible. Noise levels as low as 100 rms electrons per sample (independent of sample rate) can be achieved using existing p channel MOSFETs, at overall rates up to 30,000 samples/second per multiplexed channel (e.g., 32 detectors at a rate of almost 1,000 frames/second). Run of the mill devices, including very low power dissipation n channel FETs would still permit noise levels of the order of 500 electrons/sample.

  18. Optical fiber switch

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  19. Optical switching using IP protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utreras, Andres J.; Gusqui, Luis; Reyes, Andres; Mena, Ricardo I.; Licenko, Gennady L.; Amirgaliyev, Yedilkhan; Komada, Paweł; Luganskaya, Saule; Kashaganova, Gulzhan

    2017-08-01

    To understand and evaluate the Optical Layer, and how it will affect the IP protocols over WDM (Switching), the present analyse is proposed. Optical communications have attractive proprieties, but also have some disadvantages, so the challenge is to combine the best of both branches. In this paper, general concepts for different options of switching are reviewed as: optical burst switching (OBS) and automatically switching optical network (ASON). Specific details such as their architectures are also discussed. In addition, the relevant characteristics of each variation for switching are reviewed.

  20. CREE: Making the Switch

    ScienceCinema

    Grider, David; Palmer, John

    2018-05-11

    CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.

  1. Composite Material Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  2. The acetate switch.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Alan J

    2005-03-01

    To succeed, many cells must alternate between life-styles that permit rapid growth in the presence of abundant nutrients and ones that enhance survival in the absence of those nutrients. One such change in life-style, the "acetate switch," occurs as cells deplete their environment of acetate-producing carbon sources and begin to rely on their ability to scavenge for acetate. This review explains why, when, and how cells excrete or dissimilate acetate. The central components of the "switch" (phosphotransacetylase [PTA], acetate kinase [ACK], and AMP-forming acetyl coenzyme A synthetase [AMP-ACS]) and the behavior of cells that lack these components are introduced. Acetyl phosphate (acetyl approximately P), the high-energy intermediate of acetate dissimilation, is discussed, and conditions that influence its intracellular concentration are described. Evidence is provided that acetyl approximately P influences cellular processes from organelle biogenesis to cell cycle regulation and from biofilm development to pathogenesis. The merits of each mechanism proposed to explain the interaction of acetyl approximately P with two-component signal transduction pathways are addressed. A short list of enzymes that generate acetyl approximately P by PTA-ACKA-independent mechanisms is introduced and discussed briefly. Attention is then directed to the mechanisms used by cells to "flip the switch," the induction and activation of the acetate-scavenging AMP-ACS. First, evidence is presented that nucleoid proteins orchestrate a progression of distinct nucleoprotein complexes to ensure proper transcription of its gene. Next, the way in which cells regulate AMP-ACS activity through reversible acetylation is described. Finally, the "acetate switch" as it exists in selected eubacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, including humans, is described.

  3. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  4. Avalanche Photoconductive Switching

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    implantation and by MBE growth , and p-type material was created by MBE growth of a Be doped layer. Ion implantation creates a heavily doped layer...which is used commonly for GaAs integrated circuits. We plan to use Ti-Pt-Au for p-type contacts in the future. Experimental Results Test Confi...optical wavelenght does not significantly affect the switching process. Another feature of this mode of operation is that there is a threshold

  5. Fringe Field Superconducting Switch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-31

    However, it is not believed that any known superconducting switch has all of these desirable 3 properties . 4 Many known superconducting devices rely on...will recognize, a weak link is a structure that does not in itself have superconducting properties , but 7 will allow a relatively small flow of tunnel... properties of the junction. 12 Thus, the operating parameters of conventional Josephson junctions tend to drift over time. This 13 shortcoming of

  6. MCT/MOSFET Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1990-01-01

    Metal-oxide/semiconductor-controlled thyristor (MCT) and metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) connected in switching circuit to obtain better performance. Offers high utilization of silicon, low forward voltage drop during "on" period of operating cycle, fast turnon and turnoff, and large turnoff safe operating area. Includes ability to operate at high temperatures, high static blocking voltage, and ease of drive.

  7. Composite Material Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  8. Systematic identification of phosphorylation-mediated protein interaction switches

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Oliver; Utz, Mathias; Andre, Timon; Minguez, Pablo; Parca, Luca; Roth, Frederick P.; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Bork, Peer; Russell, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    Proteomics techniques can identify thousands of phosphorylation sites in a single experiment, the majority of which are new and lack precise information about function or molecular mechanism. Here we present a fast method to predict potential phosphorylation switches by mapping phosphorylation sites to protein-protein interactions of known structure and analysing the properties of the protein interface. We predict 1024 sites that could potentially enable or disable particular interactions. We tested a selection of these switches and showed that phosphomimetic mutations indeed affect interactions. We estimate that there are likely thousands of phosphorylation mediated switches yet to be uncovered, even among existing phosphorylation datasets. The results suggest that phosphorylation sites on globular, as distinct from disordered, parts of the proteome frequently function as switches, which might be one of the ancient roles for kinase phosphorylation. PMID:28346509

  9. Composite Thermal Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert; Brawn, Shelly; Harrison, Katherine; O'Toole, Shannon; Moeller, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Lithium primary and lithium ion secondary batteries provide high specific energy and energy density. The use of these batteries also helps to reduce launch weight. Both primary and secondary cells can be packaged as high-rate cells, which can present a threat to crew and equipment in the event of external or internal short circuits. Overheating of the cell interior from high current flows induced by short circuits can result in exothermic reactions in lithium primary cells and fully charged lithium ion secondary cells. Venting of the cell case, ejection of cell components, and fire have been reported in both types of cells, resulting from abuse, cell imperfections, or faulty electronic control design. A switch has been developed that consists of a thin layer of composite material made from nanoscale particles of nickel and Teflon that conducts electrons at room temperature and switches to an insulator at an elevated temperature, thus interrupting current flow to prevent thermal runaway caused by internal short circuits. The material is placed within the cell, as a thin layer incorporated within the anode and/or the cathode, to control excess currents from metal-to-metal or metal-to-carbon shorts that might result from cell crush or a manufacturing defect. The safety of high-rate cells is thus improved, preventing serious injury to personnel and sensitive equipment located near the battery. The use of recently available nanoscale particles of nickel and Teflon permits an improved, homogeneous material with the potential to be fine-tuned to a unique switch temperature, sufficiently below the onset of a catastrophic chemical reaction. The smaller particles also permit the formation of a thinner control film layer (<50 m), which can be incorporated into commercial high-rate lithium primary and secondary cells. The innovation permits incorporation in current lithium and lithium-ion cell designs with a minimal impact on cell weight and volume. The composite thermal

  10. Neutron activated switch

    DOEpatents

    Barton, David M.

    1991-01-01

    A switch for reacting quickly to a neutron emission. A rod consisting of fissionable material is located inside a vacuum tight body. An adjustable contact is located coaxially at an adjustable distance from one end of the rod. Electrical leads are connected to the rod and to the adjustable contact. With a vacuum drawn inside the body, a neutron bombardment striking the rod causes it to heat and expand longitudinally until it comes into contact with the adjustable contact. This circuit closing occurs within a period of a few microseconds.

  11. Intelligent single switch wheelchair navigation.

    PubMed

    Ka, Hyun W; Simpson, Richard; Chung, Younghyun

    2012-11-01

    We have developed an intelligent single switch scanning interface and wheelchair navigation assistance system, called intelligent single switch wheelchair navigation (ISSWN), to improve driving safety, comfort and efficiency for individuals who rely on single switch scanning as a control method. ISSWN combines a standard powered wheelchair with a laser rangefinder, a single switch scanning interface and a computer. It provides the user with context sensitive and task specific scanning options that reduce driving effort based on an interpretation of sensor data together with user input. Trials performed by 9 able-bodied participants showed that the system significantly improved driving safety and efficiency in a navigation task by significantly reducing the number of switch presses to 43.5% of traditional single switch wheelchair navigation (p < 0.001). All participants made a significant improvement (39.1%; p < 0.001) in completion time after only two trials.

  12. Low-Crosstalk Composite Optical Crosspoint Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Jing-Jong; Liang, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Composite optical switch includes two elementary optical switches in tandem, plus optical absorbers. Like elementary optical switches, composite optical switches assembled into switch matrix. Performance enhanced by increasing number of elementary switches. Advantage of concept: crosstalk reduced to acceptably low level at moderate cost of doubling number of elementary switches rather than at greater cost of tightening manufacturing tolerances and exerting more-precise control over operating conditions.

  13. Optimization of micromachined membrane switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltmann, Kai; Lang, Walter

    1997-09-01

    We have determined the minimum dimensions for micromachined membrane switches in several experiments, both regarding the strength of the membranes themselves and the elongations required for safe switching performance. Based on these data, pressure switches for voltages of 10 - 100 V were made as single and multiple elements and tested. Test results, with scatter of pressure threshold data in the ten per cent range, prove very encouraging for further development.

  14. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOEpatents

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  15. Data center coolant switch

    DOEpatents

    Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-06

    A data center cooling system is operated in a first mode; it has an indoor portion wherein heat is absorbed from components in the data center, and an outdoor heat exchanger portion wherein outside air is used to cool a first heat transfer fluid (e.g., water) present in at least the outdoor heat exchanger portion of the cooling system during the first mode. The first heat transfer fluid is a relatively high performance heat transfer fluid (as compared to the second fluid), and has a first heat transfer fluid freezing point. A determination is made that an appropriate time has been reached to switch from the first mode to a second mode. Based on this determination, the outdoor heat exchanger portion of the data cooling system is switched to a second heat transfer fluid, which is a relatively low performance heat transfer fluid, as compared to the first heat transfer fluid. It has a second heat transfer fluid freezing point lower than the first heat transfer fluid freezing point, and the second heat transfer fluid freezing point is sufficiently low to operate without freezing when the outdoor air temperature drops below a first predetermined relationship with the first heat transfer fluid freezing point.

  16. Optical switch based on thermocapillarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Tomomi; Makihara, Mitsuhiro; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Shimokawa, Fusao; Kaneko, Kazumasa

    2001-11-01

    Space-division optical switches are essential for the protection, optical cross-connects (OXCs), and optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs) needed in future fiber-optic communication networks. For applications in these areas, we proposed a thermocapillarity switch called oil-latching interfacial-tension variation effect (OLIVE) switch. An OLIVE switch is a micro-mechanical optical switch fabricated on planar lightwave circuits (PLC) using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It consists of a crossing waveguide that has a groove at each crossing point and a pair of microheaters. The groove is partially filled with the refractive-index-matching liquid, and optical signals are switched according to the liquid's position in the groove, i.e., whether it is passing straight through the groove or reflecting at the sidewall of the groove. The liquid is driven by thermocapillarity and latched by capillarity. Using the total internal reflection to switch the optical path, the OLIVE switch exhibits excellent optical characteristics, such as high transparency (insertion loss: < 2 dB), high extinction ratio (> 50 dB), and low crosstalk (< -50 dB). Moreover, since this switch has a simple structure and bi-stability, it has wide variety of applications in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks.

  17. A Josephson Junction based SPDT switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Helin; Earnest, Nathan; Lu, Yao; Ma, Ruichao; Chakram, Srivatsan; Schuster, David

    RF microwave switches are useful tools in cryogenic experiments, allowing for multiple experiments to be connected to a single cryogenic measurement chain. However, these switches dissipate a substantial amount of heat, preventing fast switching. Josephson junction (JJ) are a promising avenue for realizing millikelvin microwave switching. We present a JJ based single-pole-double throw (SPDT) switch that has fast switching time, no heat dissipation, large on/off contrast, and works over a wide bandwidth. The switch can be used for real-time switching between experiments, routing single photons, or even generating entanglement. We will describe the design of the switch and present experimental characterization of its performance.

  18. Phenotypic switching in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrin, Jack

    Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial

  19. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  20. Business as a Site of Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra; Bargiela-Chiappini, Francesca

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the field of language for business. Argues for redressing the balance of research into business as a site of language contact in favor of less well-represented languages and cultures through indigenous discourse studies, and notes the increasing frequency and importance of work involving Asian languages. (Author/VWL)

  1. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOEpatents

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  2. MIRO Calibration Switch Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchman, Jason; Salinas, Yuki; Kubo, Holly

    2001-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed, analyzed, built, and tested a calibration switch mechanism for the MIRO instrument on the ROSETTA spacecraft. MIRO is the Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter; this instrument hopes to investigate the origin of the solar system by studying the origin of comets. Specifically, the instrument will be the first to use submillimeter and millimeter wave heterodyne receivers to remotely examine the P-54 Wirtanen comet. In order to calibrate the instrument, it needs to view a hot and cold target. The purpose of the mechanism is to divert the instrument's field of view from the hot target, to the cold target, and then back into space. This cycle is to be repeated every 30 minutes for the duration of the 1.5 year mission. The paper describes the development of the mechanism, as well as analysis and testing techniques.

  3. Optimized scalable network switch

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.

    2010-02-23

    In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

  4. Optimized scalable network switch

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2007-12-04

    In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

  5. ''Smart'' watchdog safety switch

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-10-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring a process having a periodic output so that the process equipment is not damaged in the event of a controller failure, comprising a low-pass and peak clipping filter, an event detector that generates an event pulse for each valid change in magnitude of the filtered periodic output, a timing pulse generator, a counter that increments upon receipt of any timing pulse and resets to zero on receipt of any event pulse, an alarm that alerts when the count reaches some preselected total count, and a set of relays that opens to stop power to process equipment. An interface module can be added to allow the switch to accept a variety of periodic output signals. 21 figures.

  6. FAST OPENING SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Bender, M.; Bennett, F.K.; Kuckes, A.F.

    1963-09-17

    A fast-acting electric switch is described for rapidly opening a circuit carrying large amounts of electrical power. A thin, conducting foil bridges a gap in this circuit and means are provided for producing a magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil, whereby the foil is rapidly broken to open the circuit across the gap. Advantageously the foil has a hole forming two narrow portions in the foil and the means producing the magnetic field and eddy currents comprises an annular coil having its annulus coaxial with the hole in the foil and turns adjacent the narrow portions of the foil. An electrical current flows through the coil to produce the magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil. (AEC)

  7. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOEpatents

    Rink, John P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  8. "Smart" watchdog safety switch

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring a process having a periodic output so that the process equipment is not damaged in the event of a controller failure, comprising a low-pass and peak clipping filter, an event detector that generates an event pulse for each valid change in magnitude of the filtered periodic output, a timing pulse generator, a counter that increments upon receipt of any timing pulse and resets to zero on receipt of any event pulse, an alarm that alerts when the count reaches some preselected total count, and a set of relays that opens to stop power to process equipment. An interface module can be added to allow the switch to accept a variety of periodic output signals.

  9. High power RF coaxial switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caro, E. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coaxial switch capable of operating in a vacuum with high RF power in the 1.2 GHz range without multipactor breakdown, and without relying on pressurization with an inert gas is described. The RF carrying conductors of the switch are surrounded with a high grade solid dielectric, thus eliminating any gaps in which electrons can accelerate.

  10. Megavolt, Multigigawatt Pulsed Plasma Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma switch proposed for use in high-voltage, high-current pulse power system. Designed not only to out-perform conventional spark-gap switch but also relatively compact and lightweight. Features inverse-pinch configuration to prevent constriction of current sheets into filaments, plus multiple-ring-electrode structure to resist high-voltage breakdown.

  11. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOEpatents

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  12. Overload protection for switching regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lachochi, E.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit protects all output lines of switching regulator against overloads without requiring current sensors on every line. If overload is sensed, device short circuits bias on switching transistor so that power is rapidly cut off from loads. Circuit also includes delay network to inhibit erroneous operation during startup.

  13. Switching Matrix For Optical Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed matrix of electronically controlled shutters switches signals in optical fibers between multiple input and output channels. Size, weight, and power consumption reduced. Device serves as building block for small, low-power, broad-band television- and data-signal-switching systems providing high isolation between nominally disconnected channels.

  14. Study of optoelectronic switch for satellite-switched time-division multiple access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Shing-Fong; Jou, Liz; Lenart, Joe

    1987-01-01

    The use of optoelectronic switching for satellite switched time division multiple access will improve the isolation and reduce the crosstalk of an IF switch matrix. The results are presented of a study on optoelectronic switching. Tasks include literature search, system requirements study, candidate switching architecture analysis, and switch model optimization. The results show that the power divided and crossbar switching architectures are good candidates for an IF switch matrix.

  15. Proposal of optical mode switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakura, Ryuta; Jizodo, Makoto; Fujino, Asuka; Tanaka, Tatsushi; Hamamoto, Kiichi

    2014-08-01

    Here, we propose a novel optical mode switch, which is a new concept of the optical switch. It can overcome the matrix size limitation issue, which has been a general issue for the waveguide optical space switch, because of its simple fiber coupling configuration. In addition, it contributes to the lossless mux/demux function such as wavelength multiplexing with powerless mode conversion unlike wavelength conversion. In this paper, we propose the principle of the optical mode switch. The simulation results showed less than -30 dB mode crosstalk, with less than only 0.1 dB excess loss for a two-mode optical switch. Moreover, the scalable configuration up to four modes is also proposed in this paper.

  16. Spin state switching in iron coordination compounds

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Ana B; Garcia, Yann

    2013-01-01

    Summary The article deals with coordination compounds of iron(II) that may exhibit thermally induced spin transition, known as spin crossover, depending on the nature of the coordinating ligand sphere. Spin transition in such compounds also occurs under pressure and irradiation with light. The spin states involved have different magnetic and optical properties suitable for their detection and characterization. Spin crossover compounds, though known for more than eight decades, have become most attractive in recent years and are extensively studied by chemists and physicists. The switching properties make such materials potential candidates for practical applications in thermal and pressure sensors as well as optical devices. The article begins with a brief description of the principle of molecular spin state switching using simple concepts of ligand field theory. Conditions to be fulfilled in order to observe spin crossover will be explained and general remarks regarding the chemical nature that is important for the occurrence of spin crossover will be made. A subsequent section describes the molecular consequences of spin crossover and the variety of physical techniques usually applied for their characterization. The effects of light irradiation (LIESST) and application of pressure are subjects of two separate sections. The major part of this account concentrates on selected spin crossover compounds of iron(II), with particular emphasis on the chemical and physical influences on the spin crossover behavior. The vast variety of compounds exhibiting this fascinating switching phenomenon encompasses mono-, oligo- and polynuclear iron(II) complexes and cages, polymeric 1D, 2D and 3D systems, nanomaterials, and polyfunctional materials that combine spin crossover with another physical or chemical property. PMID:23504535

  17. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller connected to the...

  18. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller connected to the...

  19. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller connected to the...

  20. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller connected to the...

  1. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller connected to the...

  2. Switching Phenomena in a System with No Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preis, Tobias; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-02-01

    It is widely believed that switching phenomena require switches, but this is actually not true. For an intriguing variety of switching phenomena in nature, the underlying complex system abruptly changes from one state to another in a highly discontinuous fashion. For example, financial market fluctuations are characterized by many abrupt switchings creating increasing trends ("bubble formation") and decreasing trends ("financial collapse"). Such switching occurs on time scales ranging from macroscopic bubbles persisting for hundreds of days to microscopic bubbles persisting only for a few seconds. We analyze a database containing 13,991,275 German DAX Future transactions recorded with a time resolution of 10 msec. For comparison, a database providing 2,592,531 of all S&P500 daily closing prices is used. We ask whether these ubiquitous switching phenomena have quantifiable features independent of the time horizon studied. We find striking scale-free behavior of the volatility after each switching occurs. We interpret our findings as being consistent with time-dependent collective behavior of financial market participants. We test the possible universality of our result by performing a parallel analysis of fluctuations in transaction volume and time intervals between trades. We show that these financial market switching processes have properties similar to those of phase transitions. We suggest that the well-known catastrophic bubbles that occur on large time scales—such as the most recent financial crisis—are no outliers but single dramatic representatives caused by the switching between upward and downward trends on time scales varying over nine orders of magnitude from very large (≈102 days) down to very small (≈10 ms).

  3. The formation of the light-sensing compartment of cone photoreceptors coincides with a transcriptional switch

    PubMed Central

    Daum, Janine M; Keles, Özkan; Holwerda, Sjoerd JB; Kohler, Hubertus; Rijli, Filippo M

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution daylight vision is mediated by cone photoreceptors. The molecular program responsible for the formation of their light sensor, the outer segment, is not well understood. We correlated daily changes in ultrastructure and gene expression in postmitotic mouse cones, between birth and eye opening, using serial block-face electron microscopy (EM) and RNA sequencing. Outer segments appeared rapidly at postnatal day six and their appearance coincided with a switch in gene expression. The switch affected over 14% of all expressed genes. Genes that switched off were rich in transcription factors and neurogenic genes. Those that switched on contained genes relevant for cone function. Chromatin rearrangements in enhancer regions occurred before the switch was completed, but not after. We provide a resource comprised of correlated EM, RNAseq, and ATACseq data, showing that the growth of a key compartment of a postmitotic cell involves an extensive switch in gene expression and chromatin accessibility. PMID:29106373

  4. Fast switching of bistable magnetic nanowires through collective spin reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindigni, Alessandro; Rettori, Angelo; Bogani, Lapo; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Sessoli, Roberta; Novak, Miguel A.

    2005-08-01

    The use of magnetic nanowires as memory units is made possible by the exponential divergence of the characteristic time for magnetization reversal at low temperature, but the slow relaxation makes the manipulation of the frozen magnetic states difficult. We suggest that finite-size segments can show a fast switching if collective reversal of the spins is taken into account. This mechanism gives rise at low temperatures to a scaling law for the dynamic susceptibility that has been experimentally observed for the dilute molecular chain Co(hfac)2NitPhOMe. These results suggest a possible way of engineering nanowires for fast switching of the magnetization.

  5. Calibratable solid-state pressure switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Pressure switch, incorporating a semiconductor light-detector coupled to an electrically controlled actuating unit, provides accurate and reliable switching over a broad range of pressures and environments.

  6. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  7. Characteristics of switching plasma in an inverse-pinch switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Choi, Sang H.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Han, Kwang S.; Nam, Sang H.

    1993-01-01

    Characteristics of the plasma that switches on tens of giga volt-ampere in an inverse-pinch plasma switch (INPIStron) have been made. Through optical and spectroscopic diagnostics of the current carrying plasma, the current density, the motion of current paths, dominant ionic species have been determined in order to access their effects on circuit parameters and material erosion. Also the optimum operational condition of the plasma-puff triggering method required for azimuthally uniform conduction in the INPIStron has been determined.

  8. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, James D.

    1998-01-01

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a seriesed combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided.

  9. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, J.D.

    1998-06-02

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a series combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electrically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided. 14 figs.

  10. Switchable molecular magnets

    PubMed Central

    SATO, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Various molecular magnetic compounds whose magnetic properties can be controlled by external stimuli have been developed, including electrochemically, photochemically, and chemically tunable bulk magnets as well as a phototunable antiferromagnetic phase of single chain magnet. In addition, we present tunable paramagnetic mononuclear complexes ranging from spin crossover complexes and valence tautomeric complexes to Co complexes in which orbital angular momentum can be switched. Furthermore, we recently developed several switchable clusters and one-dimensional coordination polymers. The switching of magnetic properties can be achieved by modulating metals, ligands, and molecules/ions in the second sphere of the complexes. PMID:22728438

  11. Spark gap switch system with condensable dielectric gas

    DOEpatents

    Thayer, III, William J.

    1991-01-01

    A spark gap switch system is disclosed which is capable of operating at a high pulse rate comprising an insulated switch housing having a purging gas entrance port and a gas exit port, a pair of spaced apart electrodes each having one end thereof within the housing and defining a spark gap therebetween, an easily condensable and preferably low molecular weight insulating gas flowing through the switch housing from the housing, a heat exchanger/condenser for condensing the insulating gas after it exits from the housing, a pump for recirculating the condensed insulating gas as a liquid back to the housing, and a heater exchanger/evaporator to vaporize at least a portion of the condensed insulating gas back into a vapor prior to flowing the insulating gas back into the housing.

  12. Preparation, Characterization and Application of Optical Switch Probes.

    PubMed

    Petchprayoon, Chutima; Marriott, Gerard

    2010-08-01

    Optical switches represent a new class of molecular probe with applications in high contrast imaging and optical manipulation of protein interactions. Small molecule, organic optical switches based on nitrospirobenzopyran (NitroBIPS) and their reactive derivatives and conjugates undergo efficient, rapid and reversible, orthogonal optically-driven transitions between a colorless spiro (SP) state and a colored merocyanine (MC) state. The excited MC-state also emits fluorescence, which serves as readout of the state of the switch. Defined optical perturbations of SP and MC generate a defined waveform of MC-fluorescence that can be isolated against unmodulated background signals by using a digital optical lock-in detection approach or to control specific dipolar interactions on proteins. The protocols describe general procedures for the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of NitroBIPS and specifically labeled conjugates along with methods for the manipulation of dipolar interactions on proteins and imaging of the MC-state of NitroBIPS within living cells.

  13. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, James S.

    2012-01-20

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the widemore » bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.« less

  14. Switching for electric rail guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, J. P.; Bauer, D. P.

    1984-03-01

    The switching requirements of single-stage electric railguns powered by inductive energy stores are analyzed, and the design of a 500-kA commutation switch is shown. The closed, commutation, and off states of the switch and the reclosure function at the end of the projectile acceleration are discussed in general terms, and the specific requirements of the railgun facility at Australian National University are listed. The switch designed is essentially a railgun mounted perpendicular to the breech of the electric railgun, with the armature accelerating down copper rails at closing speeds from 50 m/sec at 100 kA to 300 m/sec at 500 kA to commutate current to the railgun. Commutation time and maximum voltage during 200 shots at 400 kA were found to be 50 microsec and 100 V; commutation inductance was 18-20 nH.

  15. A Piezoelectric Cryogenic Heat Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios greater than 100 were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an optimized PZHS.

  16. High PRF high current switch

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  17. Chromatic interocular-switch rivalry.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Jens H; D'Antona, Anthony D; Shevell, Steven K

    2017-05-01

    Interocular-switch rivalry (also known as stimulus rivalry) is a kind of binocular rivalry in which two rivalrous images are swapped between the eyes several times a second. The result is stable periods of one image and then the other, with stable intervals that span many eye swaps (Logothetis, Leopold, & Sheinberg, 1996). Previous work used this close kin of binocular rivalry with rivalrous forms. Experiments here test whether chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, in which the swapped stimuli differ in only chromaticity, results in slow alternation between two colors. Swapping equiluminant rivalrous chromaticities at 3.75 Hz resulted in slow perceptual color alternation, with one or the other color often continuously visible for two seconds or longer (during which there were 15+ eye swaps). A well-known theory for sustained percepts from interocular-switch rivalry with form is inhibitory competition between binocular neurons driven by monocular neurons with matched orientation tuning in each eye; such binocular neurons would produce a stable response when a given orientation is swapped between the eyes. A similar model can account for the percepts here from chromatic interocular-switch rivalry and is underpinned by the neurophysiological finding that color-preferring binocular neurons are driven by monocular neurons from each eye with well-matched chromatic selectivity (Peirce, Solomon, Forte, & Lennie, 2008). In contrast to chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, luminance interocular-switch rivalry with swapped stimuli that differ in only luminance did not result in slowly alternating percepts of different brightnesses.

  18. Chromatic interocular-switch rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Jens H.; D'Antona, Anthony D.; Shevell, Steven K.

    2017-01-01

    Interocular-switch rivalry (also known as stimulus rivalry) is a kind of binocular rivalry in which two rivalrous images are swapped between the eyes several times a second. The result is stable periods of one image and then the other, with stable intervals that span many eye swaps (Logothetis, Leopold, & Sheinberg, 1996). Previous work used this close kin of binocular rivalry with rivalrous forms. Experiments here test whether chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, in which the swapped stimuli differ in only chromaticity, results in slow alternation between two colors. Swapping equiluminant rivalrous chromaticities at 3.75 Hz resulted in slow perceptual color alternation, with one or the other color often continuously visible for two seconds or longer (during which there were 15+ eye swaps). A well-known theory for sustained percepts from interocular-switch rivalry with form is inhibitory competition between binocular neurons driven by monocular neurons with matched orientation tuning in each eye; such binocular neurons would produce a stable response when a given orientation is swapped between the eyes. A similar model can account for the percepts here from chromatic interocular-switch rivalry and is underpinned by the neurophysiological finding that color-preferring binocular neurons are driven by monocular neurons from each eye with well-matched chromatic selectivity (Peirce, Solomon, Forte, & Lennie, 2008). In contrast to chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, luminance interocular-switch rivalry with swapped stimuli that differ in only luminance did not result in slowly alternating percepts of different brightnesses. PMID:28510624

  19. Single Active Switch PV Inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanan, V. R.; Pan, Zhiguo

    This report presents a new PV inverter topology that uses only one active switch instead of 7 active switches in a conventional PV inverter. It has a buck boost converter and operates at discontinuous current control mode, which can reduce the output stage from an active switch bridge to a thyristor bridge. This concept, if successfully demonstrated, may have great cost and size/weight benefits over conventional solutions. Since the proposed topology is completely different from the traditional boost converter plus voltage source inverter approach, there is no existing control/modulation scheme available. A new modulation scheme for both the main switchmore » and the thyristors has been developed. An active clamping circuit has also been proposed to reduce switching losses and voltage spike during the switching transient. A simulation model has been set up to validate the control algorithm and clamping circuit. Simulated results show that a proposed 10 kW PV inverter can reach 5% total harmonic distortion (THD), 98.8% peak efficiency with only one main active switch, and an inductor weighing less than 3 kg. Based on that, a 10 kW prototype converter has been designed and built.« less

  20. K-Band Latching Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piotrowski, W. S.; Raue, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Design, development, and tests are described for two single-pole-double-throw latching waveguide ferrite switches: a K-band switch in WR-42 waveguide and a Ka-band switch in WR-28 waveguide. Both switches have structurally simple junctions, mechanically interlocked without the use of bonding materials; they are impervious to the effects of thermal, shock, and vibration stresses. Ferrite material for the Ka-band switch with a proper combination of magnetic and dielectric properties was available and resulted in excellent low loss, wideband performance. The high power handling requirement of the K-band switch limited the choice of ferrite to nickel-zinc compositions with adequate magnetic properties, but with too low relative dielectric constant. The relative dielectric constant determines the junction dimensions for given frequency responses. In this case the too low value unavoidably leads to a larger than optimum junction volume, increasing the insertion loss and restricting the operating bandwidth. Efforts to overcome the materials-related difficulties through the design of a composite junction with increased effective dielectric properties efforts to modify the relative dielectric constant of nickel-zinc ferrite are examined.

  1. 14 CFR 23.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control and shut off each ignition circuit... the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c) Each group of ignition switches, except...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control and shut off each ignition circuit... the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c) Each group of ignition switches, except...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control and shut off each ignition circuit... the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c) Each group of ignition switches, except...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control and shut off each ignition circuit... the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c) Each group of ignition switches, except...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control and shut off each ignition circuit... the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c) Each group of ignition switches, except...

  6. Working Memory Costs of Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Barrouillet, Pierre; Vandierendonck, Andre; Camos, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Although many accounts of task switching emphasize the importance of working memory as a substantial source of the switch cost, there is a lack of evidence demonstrating that task switching actually places additional demands on working memory. The present study addressed this issue by implementing task switching in continuous complex span tasks…

  7. Stochastic models for regulatory networks of the genetic toggle switch.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tianhai; Burrage, Kevin

    2006-05-30

    Bistability arises within a wide range of biological systems from the lambda phage switch in bacteria to cellular signal transduction pathways in mammalian cells. Changes in regulatory mechanisms may result in genetic switching in a bistable system. Recently, more and more experimental evidence in the form of bimodal population distributions indicates that noise plays a very important role in the switching of bistable systems. Although deterministic models have been used for studying the existence of bistability properties under various system conditions, these models cannot realize cell-to-cell fluctuations in genetic switching. However, there is a lag in the development of stochastic models for studying the impact of noise in bistable systems because of the lack of detailed knowledge of biochemical reactions, kinetic rates, and molecular numbers. In this work, we develop a previously undescribed general technique for developing quantitative stochastic models for large-scale genetic regulatory networks by introducing Poisson random variables into deterministic models described by ordinary differential equations. Two stochastic models have been proposed for the genetic toggle switch interfaced with either the SOS signaling pathway or a quorum-sensing signaling pathway, and we have successfully realized experimental results showing bimodal population distributions. Because the introduced stochastic models are based on widely used ordinary differential equation models, the success of this work suggests that this approach is a very promising one for studying noise in large-scale genetic regulatory networks.

  8. Stochastic models for regulatory networks of the genetic toggle switch

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Tianhai; Burrage, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Bistability arises within a wide range of biological systems from the λ phage switch in bacteria to cellular signal transduction pathways in mammalian cells. Changes in regulatory mechanisms may result in genetic switching in a bistable system. Recently, more and more experimental evidence in the form of bimodal population distributions indicates that noise plays a very important role in the switching of bistable systems. Although deterministic models have been used for studying the existence of bistability properties under various system conditions, these models cannot realize cell-to-cell fluctuations in genetic switching. However, there is a lag in the development of stochastic models for studying the impact of noise in bistable systems because of the lack of detailed knowledge of biochemical reactions, kinetic rates, and molecular numbers. In this work, we develop a previously undescribed general technique for developing quantitative stochastic models for large-scale genetic regulatory networks by introducing Poisson random variables into deterministic models described by ordinary differential equations. Two stochastic models have been proposed for the genetic toggle switch interfaced with either the SOS signaling pathway or a quorum-sensing signaling pathway, and we have successfully realized experimental results showing bimodal population distributions. Because the introduced stochastic models are based on widely used ordinary differential equation models, the success of this work suggests that this approach is a very promising one for studying noise in large-scale genetic regulatory networks. PMID:16714385

  9. Electronic logic for enhanced switch reliability

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-20

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and fail-safe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  10. Twinning, Epitaxy and Domain Switching in Ferroelastic Inclusion Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Mark D.; Peterson, Matthew L.

    2003-01-01

    Our research is in the area of solid-state organic chemistry, which lies at the interface between physical organic chemistry and materials science. We use crystalline solids as models to probe fundamental issues about physical processes, molecular interactions and chemical reactions that are important for fabrication, stabilization and application of technological materials. Much of our most recent work has focused on the phenomena of ferroelastic and ferroelectric domain switching, in which application of an external force or electric field to a crystal causes the molecules inside the crystal to reorient, in tandem, to a new orientational state. To better understand and control the domain switching process, we have designed and synthesized over twenty closely related, ferroelastic organic crystals. Our approach has been to use crystalline inclusion compounds, in which one molecule (the guest) is trapped within the crystalline framework of a second molecule (the host). By keeping the host constant and varying the proportions and kinds of guests, it has been possible to tailor these materials so that domain switching is rapid and reversible (which is desirable for high technology applications). Inclusion compounds therefore serve as powerful systems for understanding the specific molecular mechanisms that control domain switching.

  11. Chromosome rearrangements via template switching between diverged repeated sequences

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Ranjith P.; Tsaponina, Olga; Greenwell, Patricia W.; Lee, Cheng-Sheng; Du, Wei; Petes, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent high-resolution genome analyses of cancer and other diseases have revealed the occurrence of microhomology-mediated chromosome rearrangements and copy number changes. Although some of these rearrangements appear to involve nonhomologous end-joining, many must have involved mechanisms requiring new DNA synthesis. Models such as microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MM-BIR) have been invoked to explain these rearrangements. We examined BIR and template switching between highly diverged sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, induced during repair of a site-specific double-strand break (DSB). Our data show that such template switches are robust mechanisms that give rise to complex rearrangements. Template switches between highly divergent sequences appear to be mechanistically distinct from the initial strand invasions that establish BIR. In particular, such jumps are less constrained by sequence divergence and exhibit a different pattern of microhomology junctions. BIR traversing repeated DNA sequences frequently results in complex translocations analogous to those seen in mammalian cells. These results suggest that template switching among repeated genes is a potent driver of genome instability and evolution. PMID:25367035

  12. A Switch Is Not a Switch: Syntactically-Driven Bilingual Language Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Goldrick, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the possibility that language switches could be relatively automatically triggered by context. "Single-word switches," in which bilinguals switched languages on a single word in midsentence and then immediately switched back, were contrasted with more complete "whole-language switches," in which…

  13. 49 CFR 218.103 - Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. 218.103 Section 218.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.103 Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. (a)(1...

  14. 49 CFR 218.103 - Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. 218.103 Section 218.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.103 Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. (a)(1...

  15. 49 CFR 218.103 - Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. 218.103 Section 218.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.103 Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. (a)(1...

  16. 49 CFR 218.103 - Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. 218.103 Section 218.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.103 Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. (a)(1...

  17. 49 CFR 218.103 - Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. 218.103 Section 218.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.103 Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. (a)(1...

  18. High speed packet switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This document constitutes the final report prepared by Proteon, Inc. of Westborough, Massachusetts under contract NAS 5-30629 entitled High-Speed Packet Switching (SBIR 87-1, Phase 2) prepared for NASA-Greenbelt, Maryland. The primary goal of this research project is to use the results of the SBIR Phase 1 effort to develop a sound, expandable hardware and software router architecture capable of forwarding 25,000 packets per second through the router and passing 300 megabits per second on the router's internal busses. The work being delivered under this contract received its funding from three different sources: the SNIPE/RIG contract (Contract Number F30602-89-C-0014, CDRL Sequence Number A002), the SBIR contract, and Proteon. The SNIPE/RIG and SBIR contracts had many overlapping requirements, which allowed the research done under SNIPE/RIG to be applied to SBIR. Proteon funded all of the work to develop new router interfaces other than FDDI, in addition to funding the productization of the router itself. The router being delivered under SBIR will be a fully product-quality machine. The work done during this contract produced many significant findings and results, summarized here and explained in detail in later sections of this report. The SNIPE/RIG contract was completed. That contract had many overlapping requirements with the SBIR contract, and resulted in the successful demonstration and delivery of a high speed router. The development that took place during the SNIPE/RIG contract produced findings that included the choice of processor and an understanding of the issues surrounding inter processor communications in a multiprocessor environment. Many significant speed enhancements to the router software were made during that time. Under the SBIR contract (and with help from Proteon-funded work), it was found that a single processor router achieved a throughput significantly higher than originally anticipated. For this reason, a single processor router was

  19. Optically Driven Q-Switches For Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    1994-01-01

    Optically driven Q-switches for pulsed lasers proposed, taking place of acousto-optical, magneto-optical, and electro-optical switches. Optical switching beams of proposed Q-switching most likely generated in pulsed diode lasers or light-emitting diodes, outputs of which are amplitude-modulated easily by direct modulation of relatively small input currents. Energy efficiencies exceed those of electrically driven Q-switches.

  20. Non-latching relay switch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Duimstra, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    A non-latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes a permanent magnet and an electromagnet. The respective sections are arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch has a "normal" position and is selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly. The switch returns to the "normal" position when the overriding electromagnetic assembly is inactive.

  1. Tyrosine phosphorylation switching of a G protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Tunc-Ozdemir, Meral; Urano, Daisuke; Jia, Haiyan; Werth, Emily G; Mowrey, David D; Hicks, Leslie M; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Torres, Matthew P; Jones, Alan M

    2018-03-30

    Heterotrimeric G protein complexes are molecular switches relaying extracellular signals sensed by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to downstream targets in the cytoplasm, which effect cellular responses. In the plant heterotrimeric GTPase cycle, GTP hydrolysis, rather than nucleotide exchange, is the rate-limiting reaction and is accelerated by a receptor-like regulator of G signaling (RGS) protein. We hypothesized that posttranslational modification of the Gα subunit in the G protein complex regulates the RGS-dependent GTPase cycle. Our structural analyses identified an invariant phosphorylated tyrosine residue (Tyr 166 in the Arabidopsis Gα subunit AtGPA1) located in the intramolecular domain interface where nucleotide binding and hydrolysis occur. We also identified a receptor-like kinase that phosphorylates AtGPA1 in a Tyr 166 -dependent manner. Discrete molecular dynamics simulations predicted that phosphorylated Tyr 166 forms a salt bridge in this interface and potentially affects the RGS protein-accelerated GTPase cycle. Using a Tyr 166 phosphomimetic substitution, we found that the cognate RGS protein binds more tightly to the GDP-bound Gα substrate, consequently reducing its ability to accelerate GTPase activity. In conclusion, we propose that phosphorylation of Tyr 166 in AtGPA1 changes the binding pattern with AtRGS1 and thereby attenuates the steady-state rate of the GTPase cycle. We coin this newly identified mechanism "substrate phosphoswitching." © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Switching dynamics of TaOx-based threshold switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwill, Jonathan M.; Gala, Darshil K.; Bain, James A.; Skowronski, Marek

    2018-03-01

    Bi-stable volatile switching devices are being used as access devices in solid-state memory arrays and as the active part of compact oscillators. Such structures exhibit two stable states of resistance and switch between them at a critical value of voltage or current. A typical resistance transient under a constant amplitude voltage pulse starts with a slow decrease followed by a rapid drop and leveling off at a low steady state value. This behavior prompted the interpretation of initial delay and fast transition as due to two different processes. Here, we show that the entire transient including incubation time, transition time, and the final resistance values in TaOx-based switching can be explained by one process, namely, Joule heating with the rapid transition due to the thermal runaway. The time, which is required for the device in the conducting state to relax back to the stable high resistance one, is also consistent with the proposed mechanism.

  3. Smooth muscle cell phenotypic switching in stroke.

    PubMed

    Poittevin, Marine; Lozeron, Pierre; Hilal, Rose; Levy, Bernard I; Merkulova-Rainon, Tatiana; Kubis, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    Disruption of cerebral blood flow after stroke induces cerebral tissue injury through multiple mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in blood vessel walls play a key role in cerebral blood flow control. Cerebral ischemia triggers these cells to switch to a phenotype that will be either detrimental or beneficial to brain repair. Moreover, SMC can be primarily affected genetically or by toxic metabolic molecules. After stroke, this pathological phenotype has an impact on the incidence, pattern, severity, and outcome of the cerebral ischemic disease. Although little research has been conducted on the pathological role and molecular mechanisms of SMC in cerebrovascular ischemic diseases, some therapeutic targets have already been identified and could be considered for further pharmacological development. We examine these different aspects in this review.

  4. Anion channels: master switches of stress responses.

    PubMed

    Roelfsema, M Rob G; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar

    2012-04-01

    During stress, plant cells activate anion channels and trigger the release of anions across the plasma membrane. Recently, two new gene families have been identified that encode major groups of anion channels. The SLAC/SLAH channels are characterized by slow voltage-dependent activation (S-type), whereas ALMT genes encode rapid-activating channels (R-type). Both S- and R-type channels are stimulated in guard cells by the stress hormone ABA, which leads to stomatal closure. Besides their role in ABA-dependent stomatal movement, anion channels are also activated by biotic stress factors such as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Given that anion channels occur throughout the plant kingdom, they are likely to serve a general function as master switches of stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, James Stephen

    Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6H-SiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators. The successful development of a vanadium compensated, 6H-SiC extrinsic photoconductive switch for use as a closing switch for compact accelerator applications was realized by improvements made to the vanadium, nitrogen and boron impurity densities. The changes made to the impurity densities were based on the physical intuition outlined and simple rate equation models. The final 6H-SiC impurity 'recipe' calls for vanadium, nitrogen and boron densities of 2.5 e17 cm-3, 1.25e17 cm-3 and ≤ 1e16 cm-3, respectively. This recipe was originally developed to maximize the quantum efficiency of the vanadium compensated 6H-SiC, while maintaining a thermally stable semi-insulating material. The rate equation models indicate that, besides increasing the quantum efficiency, the impurity recipe should be expected to also increase the carrier recombination time. Three generations of 6H-SiC materials were tested. The

  6. HOLLOTRON switch for megawatt lightweight space inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Goebel, D. M.; Schumacher, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of satisfying the switching requirements for a megawatt ultralight inverter system using HOLLOTRON switch technology was determined. The existing experimental switch hardware was modified to investigate a coaxial HOLLOTRON switch configuration and the results were compared with those obtained for a modified linear HOLLOTRON configuration. It was concluded that scaling the HOLLOTRON switch to the current and voltage specifications required for a megawatt converter system is indeed feasible using a modified linear configuration. The experimental HOLLOTRON switch operated at parameters comparable to the scaled coaxial HOLLOTRON. However, the linear HOLLOTRON data verified the capability for meeting all the design objectives simultaneously including current density (greater than 2 A/sq cm), voltage (5 kV), switching frequency (20 kHz), switching time (300 ns), and forward voltage drop (less than or equal to 20 V). Scaling relations were determined and a preliminary design was completed for an engineering model linear HOLLOTRON switch to meet the megawatt converter system specifications.

  7. Reversible solvatomagnetic switching in a single-ion magnet from an entatic state.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, J; Pardo, E; Viciano-Chumillas, M; Castro, I; Amorós, P; Déniz, M; Ruiz-Pérez, C; Yuste-Vivas, C; Krzystek, J; Julve, M; Lloret, F; Cano, J

    2017-05-01

    A vast impact on molecular nanoscience can be achieved using simple transition metal complexes as dynamic chemical systems to perform specific and selective tasks under the control of an external stimulus that switches "ON" and "OFF" their electronic properties. While the interest in single-ion magnets (SIMs) lies in their potential applications in information storage and quantum computing, the switching of their slow magnetic relaxation associated with host-guest processes is insufficiently explored. Herein, we report a unique example of a mononuclear cobalt(ii) complex in which geometrical constraints are the cause of easy and reversible water coordination and its release. As a result, a reversible and selective colour and SIM behaviour switch occurs between a "slow-relaxing" deep red anhydrous material (compound 1 ) and its "fast-relaxing" orange hydrated form (compound 2 ). The combination of this optical and magnetic switching in this new class of vapochromic and thermochromic SIMs offers fascinating possibilities for designing multifunctional molecular materials.

  8. Voltage-Driven Conformational Switching with Distinct Raman Signature in a Single-Molecule Junction.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hai; Palma, Carlos-Andres; Gong, Yuxiang; Hasch, Peter; Elbing, Mark; Mayor, Marcel; Reichert, Joachim; Barth, Johannes V

    2018-04-11

    Precisely controlling well-defined, stable single-molecule junctions represents a pillar of single-molecule electronics. Early attempts to establish computing with molecular switching arrays were partly challenged by limitations in the direct chemical characterization of metal-molecule-metal junctions. While cryogenic scanning probe studies have advanced the mechanistic understanding of current- and voltage-induced conformational switching, metal-molecule-metal conformations are still largely inferred from indirect evidence. Hence, the development of robust, chemically sensitive techniques is instrumental for advancement in the field. Here we probe the conformation of a two-state molecular switch with vibrational spectroscopy, while simultaneously operating it by means of the applied voltage. Our study emphasizes measurements of single-molecule Raman spectra in a room-temperature stable single-molecule switch presenting a signal modulation of nearly 2 orders of magnitude.

  9. Stochastic switching in biology: from genotype to phenotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2017-03-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest in non-equilibrium stochastic processes in recent years, driven in part by the observation that the number of molecules (genes, mRNA, proteins) involved in gene expression are often of order 1-1000. This means that deterministic mass-action kinetics tends to break down, and one needs to take into account the discrete, stochastic nature of biochemical reactions. One of the major consequences of molecular noise is the occurrence of stochastic biological switching at both the genotypic and phenotypic levels. For example, individual gene regulatory networks can switch between graded and binary responses, exhibit translational/transcriptional bursting, and support metastability (noise-induced switching between states that are stable in the deterministic limit). If random switching persists at the phenotypic level then this can confer certain advantages to cell populations growing in a changing environment, as exemplified by bacterial persistence in response to antibiotics. Gene expression at the single-cell level can also be regulated by changes in cell density at the population level, a process known as quorum sensing. In contrast to noise-driven phenotypic switching, the switching mechanism in quorum sensing is stimulus-driven and thus noise tends to have a detrimental effect. A common approach to modeling stochastic gene expression is to assume a large but finite system and to approximate the discrete processes by continuous processes using a system-size expansion. However, there is a growing need to have some familiarity with the theory of stochastic processes that goes beyond the standard topics of chemical master equations, the system-size expansion, Langevin equations and the Fokker-Planck equation. Examples include stochastic hybrid systems (piecewise deterministic Markov processes), large deviations and the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method, adiabatic reductions, and queuing/renewal theory. The major aim of this

  10. Switch Using Radio Frequency Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for use as a switch. In one embodiment, the switch comprises at least one RFID tag, each RFID tag comprising an antenna element and an RFID integrated circuit, at least one source element, and at least one lever arm. Each lever arm is connected to one of the RFID tags, and each lever arm is capable of two positions. One of the positions places the lever arm and the RFID tag connected thereto into alignment with the source element. Other embodiments are also described.

  11. Optical switch using Risley prisms

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2003-04-15

    An optical switch using Risley prisms and rotary microactuators to independently rotate the wedge prisms of each Risley prism pair is disclosed. The optical switch comprises an array of input Risley prism pairs that selectively redirect light beams from a plurality of input ports to an array of output Risley prism pairs that similarly direct the light beams to a plurality of output ports. Each wedge prism of each Risley prism pair can be independently rotated by a variable-reluctance stepping rotary microactuator that is fabricated by a multi-layer LIGA process. Each wedge prism can be formed integral to the annular rotor of the rotary microactuator by a DXRL process.

  12. Optical Switch Using Risley Prisms

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2005-02-22

    An optical switch using Risley prisms and rotary microactuators to independently rotate the wedge prisms of each Risley prism pair is disclosed. The optical switch comprises an array of input Risley prism pairs that selectively redirect light beams from a plurality of input ports to an array of output Risley prism pairs that similarly direct the light beams to a plurality of output ports. Each wedge prism of each Risley prism pair can be independently rotated by a variable-reluctance stepping rotary microactuator that is fabricated by a multi-layer LIGA process. Each wedge prism can be formed integral to the annular rotor of the rotary microactuator by a DXRL process.

  13. System for automatically switching transformer coupled lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwinell, W. S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system is presented for automatically controlling transformer coupled alternating current electric lines. The secondary winding of each transformer is provided with a center tap. A switching circuit is connected to the center taps of a pair of secondary windings and includes a switch controller. An impedance is connected between the center taps of the opposite pair of secondary windings. The switching circuit has continuity when the AC lines are continuous and discontinuity with any disconnect of the AC lines. Normally open switching means are provided in at least one AC line. The switch controller automatically opens the switching means when the AC lines become separated.

  14. A-site ordered quadruple perovskite oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youwen, Long

    2016-07-01

    The A-site ordered perovskite oxides with chemical formula display many intriguing physical properties due to the introduction of transition metals at both A‧ and B sites. Here, research on the recently discovered intermetallic charge transfer occurring between A‧-site Cu and B-site Fe ions in LaCu3Fe4O12 and its analogues is reviewed, along with work on the magnetoelectric multiferroicity observed in LaMn3Cr4O12 with cubic perovskite structure. The Cu-Fe intermetallic charge transfer leads to a first-order isostructural phase transition accompanied by drastic variations in magnetism and electrical transport properties. The LaMn3Cr4O12 is a novel spin-driven multiferroic system with strong magnetoelectric coupling effects. The compound is the first example of cubic perovskite multiferroics to be found. It opens up a new arena for studying unexpected multiferroic mechanisms. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB921500), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07030300), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574378).

  15. Hybrid colored noise process with space-dependent switching rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Lawley, Sean D.

    2017-07-01

    A fundamental issue in the theory of continuous stochastic process is the interpretation of multiplicative white noise, which is often referred to as the Itô-Stratonovich dilemma. From a physical perspective, this reflects the need to introduce additional constraints in order to specify the nature of the noise, whereas from a mathematical perspective it reflects an ambiguity in the formulation of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Recently, we have identified a mechanism for obtaining an Itô SDE based on a form of temporal disorder. Motivated by switching processes in molecular biology, we considered a Brownian particle that randomly switches between two distinct conformational states with different diffusivities. In each state, the particle undergoes normal diffusion (additive noise) so there is no ambiguity in the interpretation of the noise. However, if the switching rates depend on position, then in the fast switching limit one obtains Brownian motion with a space-dependent diffusivity of the Itô form. In this paper, we extend our theory to include colored additive noise. We show that the nature of the effective multiplicative noise process obtained by taking both the white-noise limit (κ →0 ) and fast switching limit (ɛ →0 ) depends on the order the two limits are taken. If the white-noise limit is taken first, then we obtain Itô, and if the fast switching limit is taken first, then we obtain Stratonovich. Moreover, the form of the effective diffusion coefficient differs in the two cases. The latter result holds even in the case of space-independent transition rates, where one obtains additive noise processes with different diffusion coefficients. Finally, we show that yet another form of multiplicative noise is obtained in the simultaneous limit ɛ ,κ →0 with ɛ /κ2 fixed.

  16. Incorrect predictions reduce switch costs.

    PubMed

    Kleinsorge, Thomas; Scheil, Juliane

    2015-07-01

    In three experiments, we combined two sources of conflict within a modified task-switching procedure. The first source of conflict was the one inherent in any task switching situation, namely the conflict between a task set activated by the recent performance of another task and the task set needed to perform the actually relevant task. The second source of conflict was induced by requiring participants to guess aspects of the upcoming task (Exps. 1 & 2: task identity; Exp. 3: position of task precue). In case of an incorrect guess, a conflict accrues between the representation of the guessed task and the actually relevant task. In Experiments 1 and 2, incorrect guesses led to an overall increase of reaction times and error rates, but they reduced task switch costs compared to conditions in which participants predicted the correct task. In Experiment 3, incorrect guesses resulted in faster performance overall and to a selective decrease of reaction times in task switch trials when the cue-target interval was long. We interpret these findings in terms of an enhanced level of controlled processing induced by a combination of two sources of conflict converging upon the same target of cognitive control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Long Life MEM Switch Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-23

    Dussopt et al. on the two-level switched-capacitors [2], Peroulis et al. on the extended analog varactor [3], B- Kassem at el. on an extended range analog...Katehi, ”Highly reliable analog MEMS varactors,” 2004 IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., vol. 2, pp. 869-872, June 2004. [4] M. Bakri- Kassem , R. R

  18. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, James S.

    2013-07-03

    Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6HSiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductivemore » switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators.« less

  19. Remotely-actuated biomedical switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1969-01-01

    Remotely-actuated biomedical switching circuit using transistors consumes no power in the off position and can be actuated by a single-frequency telemetry pulse to control implanted instrumentation. Silicon controlled rectifiers permit the circuit design which imposes zero drain on supply batteries when not in use.

  20. Fast all-optical switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Thomas M. (Inventor); Poliakov, Evgeni Y. (Inventor); Hazzard, David A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method wherein polarization rotation in alkali vapors or other mediums is used for all-optical switching and digital logic and where the rate of operation is proportional to the amplitude of the pump field. High rates of speed are accomplished by Rabi flopping of the atomic states using a continuously operating monochromatic atomic beam as the pump.

  1. Anode initiated surface flashover switch

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P.; Koss, Robert J.

    2003-04-29

    A high voltage surface flashover switch has a pair of electrodes spaced by an insulator. A high voltage is applied to an anode, which is smaller than the opposing, grounded, cathode. When a controllable source of electrons near the cathode is energized, the electrons are attracted to the anode where they reflect to the insulator and initiate anode to cathode breakdown.

  2. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  3. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-07-26

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

  4. Light-Driven Chiral Molecular Motors for Passive Agile Filters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-20

    liquid crystal , we fabricated the self-organized, phototubable 3D photonic superstructure, i.e. photoresponsive monodisperse cholesteric liquid...systems for applications. Here the new light-driven chiral molecular switch and upconversion nanoparticles, doped in a liquid crystal media, were...the bottom-up nanofabrication of intelligent molecular devices. Light-driven chiral molecular switches or motors in liquid crystal (LC) media that

  5. Lineage tracing of human B cells reveals the in vivo landscape of human antibody class switching

    PubMed Central

    Horns, Felix; Vollmers, Christopher; Croote, Derek; Mackey, Sally F; Swan, Gary E; Dekker, Cornelia L; Davis, Mark M; Quake, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Antibody class switching is a feature of the adaptive immune system which enables diversification of the effector properties of antibodies. Even though class switching is essential for mounting a protective response to pathogens, the in vivo patterns and lineage characteristics of antibody class switching have remained uncharacterized in living humans. Here we comprehensively measured the landscape of antibody class switching in human adult twins using antibody repertoire sequencing. The map identifies how antibodies of every class are created and delineates a two-tiered hierarchy of class switch pathways. Using somatic hypermutations as a molecular clock, we discovered that closely related B cells often switch to the same class, but lose coherence as somatic mutations accumulate. Such correlations between closely related cells exist when purified B cells class switch in vitro, suggesting that class switch recombination is directed toward specific isotypes by a cell-autonomous imprinted state. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16578.001 PMID:27481325

  6. Design concept for pressure switch calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slingerland, M. G.

    1966-01-01

    Calibrator and switch design enables pressure switches to operate under 150 g shock loads. The design employs a saturated liquid-to-vapor phase transition at constant pressure to produce a known force independent of displacement over a usable range.

  7. Rugged switch responds to minute pressure differentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, L. C.; Shaub, K. D.

    1967-01-01

    Pressure responsive switching device exhibits high sensitivity but is extremely rugged and resistant to large amplitude shock and velocity loading. This snap-action, single pole-double throw switch operates over a wide temperature range.

  8. Working memory costs of task switching.

    PubMed

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Barrouillet, Pierre; Vandierendonck, André; Camos, Valérie

    2008-05-01

    Although many accounts of task switching emphasize the importance of working memory as a substantial source of the switch cost, there is a lack of evidence demonstrating that task switching actually places additional demands on working memory. The present study addressed this issue by implementing task switching in continuous complex span tasks with strictly controlled time parameters. A series of 4 experiments demonstrate that recall performance decreased as a function of the number of task switches and that the concurrent load of item maintenance had no influence on task switching. These results indicate that task switching induces a cost on working memory functioning. Implications for theories of task switching, working memory, and resource sharing are addressed.

  9. Ultrafast Beam Switching Using Coupled VCSELs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng; Goorjian, Peter

    2001-01-01

    We propose a new approach to performing ultrafast beam switching using two coupled Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs). The strategy is demonstrated by numerical simulation, showing a beam switching of 10 deg at 42 GHz.

  10. 49 CFR 213.135 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... point to the stock rail. Broken or cracked switch point rails will be subject to the requirements of... of the stock rail. (d) The heel of each switch rail shall be secure and the bolts in each heel shall...

  11. 49 CFR 213.135 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... point to the stock rail. Broken or cracked switch point rails will be subject to the requirements of... of the stock rail. (d) The heel of each switch rail shall be secure and the bolts in each heel shall...

  12. Switch-connected HyperX network

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip

    A network system includes a plurality of sub-network planes and global switches. The sub-network planes have a same network topology as each other. Each of the sub-network planes includes edge switches. Each of the edge switches has N ports. Each of the global switches is configured to connect a group of edge switches at a same location in the sub-network planes. In each of the sub-network planes, some of the N ports of each of the edge switches are connected to end nodes, and others of the N ports are connected to other edge switches in the same sub-network plane,more » other of the N ports are connected to at least one of the global switches.« less

  13. Picosecond High Pressure Gas Switch Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    the calculated pulse waveform for a much higher voltage and pressure switch . Also, a discussion of the modifications made on an existing pulse...s 80 8 ~ 60 J 40 .. : ~--~: __ ~’----~-~ 0.1 10 100 1000 Frequency Figure 7. Output switch recovery. Conclusion The high- pressure switch has...effective in matching experimental results, and should thus be useful in the design of high-voltage and pressure switch configurations

  14. Energy loss in spark gap switches

    SciTech Connect

    Oreshkin, V. I., E-mail: oreshkin@ovpe.hcei.tsc.ru; Lavrinovich, I. V.; National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, 634050 Tomsk

    2014-04-15

    The paper reports on numerical study of the energy loss in spark gap switches. The operation of the switches is analyzed using the Braginsky model which allows calculation of the time dependence of the spark channel resistance. The Braginsky equation is solved simultaneously with generator circuit equations for different load types. Based on the numerical solutions, expressions which determine both the energy released in a spark gap switch and the switching time are derived.

  15. Spark gap switch with spiral gas flow

    DOEpatents

    Brucker, John P.

    1989-01-01

    A spark gap switch having a contaminate removal system using an injected gas. An annular plate concentric with an electrode of the switch defines flow paths for the injected gas which form a strong spiral flow of the gas in the housing which is effective to remove contaminates from the switch surfaces. The gas along with the contaminates is exhausted from the housing through one of the ends of the switch.

  16. Analytically derived switching functions for exact H2+ eigenstates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorson, W. R.; Kimura, M.; Choi, J. H.; Knudson, S. K.

    1981-10-01

    Electron translation factors (ETF's) appropriate for slow atomic collisions may be constructed using switching functions. In this paper we derive a set of switching functions for the H2+ system by an analytical "two-center decomposition" of the exact molecular eigenstates. These switching functions are closely approximated by the simple form f=bη, where η is the "angle variable" of prolate spheroidal coordinates. For given united atom angular momentum quantum numbers (l,m), the characteristic parameter blm depends only on the quantity c2=-ɛR22, where ɛ is the electronic binding energy and R the internuclear distance in a.u. The resulting parameters are in excellent agreement with those found in our earlier work by a heuristic "optimization" scheme based on a study of coupling matrix-element behavior for a number of H2+ states. An approximate extension to asymmetric cases (HeH2+) has also been made. Nonadiabatic couplings based on these switching functions have been used in recent close-coupling calculations for H+-H(1s) collisions and He2+-H(1s) collisions at energies 1.0-20 keV.

  17. Solid state remote circuit selector switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, V. S.

    1970-01-01

    Remote switching circuit utilizes voltage logic to switch on desired circuit. Circuit controls rotating multi-range pressure transducers in jet engine testing and can be used in coded remote circuit activator where sequence of switching has to occur in defined length of time to prevent false or undesired circuit activation.

  18. High pressure flow-rate switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gale, G. P.

    1970-01-01

    Flow-rate switch adjusts easily over a wide switching range and operates uniformly over many cycles. It adapts easily to control of various fluids and has the possibility of introducing multi-point switching. Novel design features include the tapered spool, balanced porting, capillary-bypass lubrication, and capillary-restriction damping.

  19. 46 CFR 112.43-1 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switches. 112.43-1 Section 112.43-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-1 Switches. An emergency lighting system must not have a switch, except...

  20. 46 CFR 112.43-1 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switches. 112.43-1 Section 112.43-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-1 Switches. An emergency lighting system must not have a switch, except...

  1. 46 CFR 112.43-1 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switches. 112.43-1 Section 112.43-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-1 Switches. An emergency lighting system must not have a switch, except...

  2. 46 CFR 112.43-1 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switches. 112.43-1 Section 112.43-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-1 Switches. An emergency lighting system must not have a switch, except...

  3. 46 CFR 112.43-1 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switches. 112.43-1 Section 112.43-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-1 Switches. An emergency lighting system must not have a switch, except...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Master switch. 27.1361 Section 27.1361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1361 Master switch. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement to allow ready disconnection of each electric power source...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master switch. 27.1361 Section 27.1361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1361 Master switch. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement to allow ready disconnection of each electric power source...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Master switch. 27.1361 Section 27.1361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1361 Master switch. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement to allow ready disconnection of each electric power source...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Master switch. 27.1361 Section 27.1361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1361 Master switch. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement to allow ready disconnection of each electric power source...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Master switch. 27.1361 Section 27.1361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1361 Master switch. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement to allow ready disconnection of each electric power source...

  9. A new very high voltage semiconductor switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    A new family of semiconductor switches using double injection techniques and compensated deep impurities is described. They have the potential to raise switching voltages a factor of 10 higher (up to 100 kV) than p-n junction devices while exhibiting extremely low (or zero) forward voltage. Several potential power switching applications are indicated.

  10. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression. ...

  11. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression. ...

  12. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression. ...

  13. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression. ...

  14. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression. ...

  15. A Bilingual Advantage in Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Anat; MacWhinney, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that lifelong bilingualism may lead to enhanced efficiency in the ability to shift between mental sets. We compared the performance of monolingual and fluent bilingual college students in a task-switching paradigm. Bilinguals incurred reduced switching costs in the task-switching paradigm when compared with…

  16. 14 CFR 25.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each engine ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 29.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each engine ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 29.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each engine ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 29.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each engine ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 29.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each engine ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 29.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c...

  6. Bilingual Control: Sequential Memory in Language Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Philipp, Andrea M.; Koch, Iring

    2013-01-01

    To investigate bilingual language control, prior language switching studies presented visual objects, which had to be named in different languages, typically indicated by a visual cue. The present study examined language switching of predictable responses by introducing a novel sequence-based language switching paradigm. In 4 experiments,…

  7. 49 CFR 236.821 - Switch, sectionalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch, sectionalizing. 236.821 Section 236.821 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, sectionalizing. A switch for disconnecting a section of a power line from the source of energy. ...

  8. 49 CFR 236.820 - Switch, interlocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, interlocked. 236.820 Section 236.820 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, interlocked. A switch within the interlocking limits the control of which is interlocked with...

  9. 49 CFR 236.820 - Switch, interlocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch, interlocked. 236.820 Section 236.820 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, interlocked. A switch within the interlocking limits the control of which is interlocked with...

  10. 30 CFR 57.9308 - Switch throws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Switch throws. 57.9308 Section 57.9308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....9308 Switch throws. Switch throws shall be installed to provide clearance to protect switchmen from...

  11. Switch Detection in Preschoolers' Cognitive Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Nicolas; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Huber, Kristina L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2011-01-01

    The current study addressed the role of switch detection in cognitive flexibility by testing the effect of transition cues (i.e., cues that directly signal the need to switch or maintain a given task goal) in a cued set-shifting paradigm at 5 years of age. Children performed better, especially on switch trials, when transition cues were combined…

  12. 49 CFR 236.821 - Switch, sectionalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch, sectionalizing. 236.821 Section 236.821 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, sectionalizing. A switch for disconnecting a section of a power line from the source of energy. ...

  13. 46 CFR 111.105-19 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switches. 111.105-19 Section 111.105-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-19 Switches. A switch that is explosionproof or flameproof, or that...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1800 - Cutout switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cutout switches. 77.1800 Section 77.1800... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1800 Cutout switches. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be provided with cutout switches at intervals of not more than 2,000 feet and near the beginning of...

  15. 30 CFR 57.9308 - Switch throws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Switch throws. 57.9308 Section 57.9308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....9308 Switch throws. Switch throws shall be installed to provide clearance to protect switchmen from...

  16. 49 CFR 236.821 - Switch, sectionalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch, sectionalizing. 236.821 Section 236.821 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, sectionalizing. A switch for disconnecting a section of a power line from the source of energy. ...

  17. 49 CFR 236.821 - Switch, sectionalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch, sectionalizing. 236.821 Section 236.821 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, sectionalizing. A switch for disconnecting a section of a power line from the source of energy. ...

  18. 30 CFR 56.9308 - Switch throws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Switch throws. 56.9308 Section 56.9308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Switch throws. Switch throws shall be installed to provide clearance to protect switchmen from contact...

  19. 49 CFR 236.821 - Switch, sectionalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, sectionalizing. 236.821 Section 236.821 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, sectionalizing. A switch for disconnecting a section of a power line from the source of energy. ...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1800 - Cutout switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cutout switches. 77.1800 Section 77.1800... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1800 Cutout switches. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be provided with cutout switches at intervals of not more than 2,000 feet and near the beginning of...

  1. 46 CFR 111.105-19 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switches. 111.105-19 Section 111.105-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-19 Switches. A switch that is explosionproof or flameproof, or that...

  2. 30 CFR 57.9308 - Switch throws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Switch throws. 57.9308 Section 57.9308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....9308 Switch throws. Switch throws shall be installed to provide clearance to protect switchmen from...

  3. 46 CFR 111.105-19 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switches. 111.105-19 Section 111.105-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-19 Switches. A switch that is explosionproof or flameproof, or that...

  4. 49 CFR 236.820 - Switch, interlocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch, interlocked. 236.820 Section 236.820 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, interlocked. A switch within the interlocking limits the control of which is interlocked with...

  5. 30 CFR 57.9308 - Switch throws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Switch throws. 57.9308 Section 57.9308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....9308 Switch throws. Switch throws shall be installed to provide clearance to protect switchmen from...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1367 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Switches. 27.1367 Section 27.1367... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1367 Switches. Each switch must be— (a) Able to carry its rated current; (b) Accessible to the crew; and (c) Labeled as to...

  7. 30 CFR 56.9308 - Switch throws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Switch throws. 56.9308 Section 56.9308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Switch throws. Switch throws shall be installed to provide clearance to protect switchmen from contact...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1000 - Cutout switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cutout switches. 75.1000 Section 75.1000... switches. [Statutory Provisions] Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires, shall be provided with cutout switches at intervals of not more than 2,000 feet and near the beginning of all branch lines. ...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1367 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Switches. 27.1367 Section 27.1367... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1367 Switches. Each switch must be— (a) Able to carry its rated current; (b) Accessible to the crew; and (c) Labeled as to...

  10. 49 CFR 213.135 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switches. 213.135 Section 213.135 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.135 Switches. (a) Each stock rail must be securely seated in switch plates, but care shall be used to avoid canting the rail by overtightening the rail...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1800 - Cutout switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cutout switches. 77.1800 Section 77.1800... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1800 Cutout switches. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be provided with cutout switches at intervals of not more than 2,000 feet and near the beginning of...

  12. 49 CFR 236.820 - Switch, interlocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch, interlocked. 236.820 Section 236.820 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, interlocked. A switch within the interlocking limits the control of which is interlocked with...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1800 - Cutout switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cutout switches. 77.1800 Section 77.1800... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1800 Cutout switches. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be provided with cutout switches at intervals of not more than 2,000 feet and near the beginning of...

  14. 46 CFR 111.105-19 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switches. 111.105-19 Section 111.105-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-19 Switches. A switch that is explosionproof or flameproof, or that...

  15. 30 CFR 56.9308 - Switch throws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Switch throws. 56.9308 Section 56.9308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Switch throws. Switch throws shall be installed to provide clearance to protect switchmen from contact...

  16. 49 CFR 236.820 - Switch, interlocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch, interlocked. 236.820 Section 236.820 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, interlocked. A switch within the interlocking limits the control of which is interlocked with...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1000 - Cutout switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cutout switches. 75.1000 Section 75.1000... switches. [Statutory Provisions] Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires, shall be provided with cutout switches at intervals of not more than 2,000 feet and near the beginning of all branch lines. ...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1367 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Switches. 27.1367 Section 27.1367... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1367 Switches. Each switch must be— (a) Able to carry its rated current; (b) Accessible to the crew; and (c) Labeled as to...

  19. 30 CFR 56.9308 - Switch throws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Switch throws. 56.9308 Section 56.9308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Switch throws. Switch throws shall be installed to provide clearance to protect switchmen from contact...

  20. 49 CFR 213.135 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switches. 213.135 Section 213.135 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.135 Switches. (a) Each stock rail must be securely seated in switch plates, but care shall be used to avoid canting the rail by overtightening the rail...

  1. 49 CFR 213.135 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switches. 213.135 Section 213.135 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.135 Switches. (a) Each stock rail must be securely seated in switch plates, but care shall be used to avoid canting the rail by overtightening the rail...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1000 - Cutout switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cutout switches. 75.1000 Section 75.1000... switches. [Statutory Provisions] Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires, shall be provided with cutout switches at intervals of not more than 2,000 feet and near the beginning of all branch lines. ...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1367 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Switches. 27.1367 Section 27.1367... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1367 Switches. Each switch must be— (a) Able to carry its rated current; (b) Accessible to the crew; and (c) Labeled as to...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1367 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Switches. 27.1367 Section 27.1367... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1367 Switches. Each switch must be— (a) Able to carry its rated current; (b) Accessible to the crew; and (c) Labeled as to...

  5. 30 CFR 56.9308 - Switch throws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Switch throws. 56.9308 Section 56.9308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Switch throws. Switch throws shall be installed to provide clearance to protect switchmen from contact...

  6. A CW Gunn Diode Switching Element.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Marco; Rosenbaum, Fred J.

    As part of a study of the application of communication satellites to educational development, certain technical aspects of such a system were examined. A current controlled bistable switching element using a CW Gunn diode is reported on here. With modest circuits switching rates of the order of 10 MHz have been obtained. Switching is initiated by…

  7. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Crosette, D.B.

    1994-07-19

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination. 9 figs.

  8. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Crosette, Dario B.

    1994-01-01

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination.

  9. The allosteric switching mechanism in bacteriophage MS2

    SciTech Connect

    Perkett, Matthew R.; Mirijanian, Dina T.; Hagan, Michael F., E-mail: hagan@brandeis.edu

    2016-07-21

    We use all-atom simulations to elucidate the mechanisms underlying conformational switching and allostery within the coat protein of the bacteriophage MS2. Assembly of most icosahedral virus capsids requires that the capsid protein adopts different conformations at precise locations within the capsid. It has been shown that a 19 nucleotide stem loop (TR) from the MS2 genome acts as an allosteric effector, guiding conformational switching of the coat protein during capsid assembly. Since the principal conformational changes occur far from the TR binding site, it is important to understand the molecular mechanism underlying this allosteric communication. To this end, we usemore » all-atom simulations with explicit water combined with a path sampling technique to sample the MS2 coat protein conformational transition, in the presence and absence of TR-binding. The calculations find that TR binding strongly alters the transition free energy profile, leading to a switch in the favored conformation. We discuss changes in molecular interactions responsible for this shift. We then identify networks of amino acids with correlated motions to reveal the mechanism by which effects of TR binding span the protein. We find that TR binding strongly affects residues located at the 5-fold and quasi-sixfold interfaces in the assembled capsid, suggesting a mechanism by which the TR binding could direct formation of the native capsid geometry. The analysis predicts amino acids whose substitution by mutagenesis could alter populations of the conformational substates or their transition rates.« less

  10. The allosteric switching mechanism in bacteriophage MS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkett, Matthew R.; Mirijanian, Dina T.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2016-07-01

    We use all-atom simulations to elucidate the mechanisms underlying conformational switching and allostery within the coat protein of the bacteriophage MS2. Assembly of most icosahedral virus capsids requires that the capsid protein adopts different conformations at precise locations within the capsid. It has been shown that a 19 nucleotide stem loop (TR) from the MS2 genome acts as an allosteric effector, guiding conformational switching of the coat protein during capsid assembly. Since the principal conformational changes occur far from the TR binding site, it is important to understand the molecular mechanism underlying this allosteric communication. To this end, we use all-atom simulations with explicit water combined with a path sampling technique to sample the MS2 coat protein conformational transition, in the presence and absence of TR-binding. The calculations find that TR binding strongly alters the transition free energy profile, leading to a switch in the favored conformation. We discuss changes in molecular interactions responsible for this shift. We then identify networks of amino acids with correlated motions to reveal the mechanism by which effects of TR binding span the protein. We find that TR binding strongly affects residues located at the 5-fold and quasi-sixfold interfaces in the assembled capsid, suggesting a mechanism by which the TR binding could direct formation of the native capsid geometry. The analysis predicts amino acids whose substitution by mutagenesis could alter populations of the conformational substates or their transition rates.

  11. A reversible single-molecule switch based on activated antiaromaticity

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Xiaodong; Zang, Yaping; Zhu, Liangliang

    Single-molecule electronic devices provide researchers with an unprecedented ability to relate novel physical phenomena to molecular chemical structures. Typically, conjugated aromatic molecular backbones are relied upon to create electronic devices, where the aromaticity of the building blocks is used to enhance conductivity. We capitalize on the classical physical organic chemistry concept of Hückel antiaromaticity by demonstrating a single-molecule switch that exhibits low conductance in the neutral state and, upon electrochemical oxidation, reversibly switches to an antiaromatic high-conducting structure. We form single-molecule devices using the scanning tunneling microscope–based break-junction technique and observe an on/off ratio of ~70 for a thiophenylidene derivativemore » that switches to an antiaromatic state with 6-4-6-p electrons. Through supporting nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, we show that the doubly oxidized core has antiaromatic character and we use density functional theory calculations to rationalize the origin of the high-conductance state for the oxidized single-molecule junction. Together, our work demonstrates how the concept of antiaromaticity can be exploited to create single-molecule devices that are highly conducting.« less

  12. A reversible single-molecule switch based on activated antiaromaticity

    DOE PAGES

    Yin, Xiaodong; Zang, Yaping; Zhu, Liangliang; ...

    2017-10-27

    Single-molecule electronic devices provide researchers with an unprecedented ability to relate novel physical phenomena to molecular chemical structures. Typically, conjugated aromatic molecular backbones are relied upon to create electronic devices, where the aromaticity of the building blocks is used to enhance conductivity. We capitalize on the classical physical organic chemistry concept of Hückel antiaromaticity by demonstrating a single-molecule switch that exhibits low conductance in the neutral state and, upon electrochemical oxidation, reversibly switches to an antiaromatic high-conducting structure. We form single-molecule devices using the scanning tunneling microscope–based break-junction technique and observe an on/off ratio of ~70 for a thiophenylidene derivativemore » that switches to an antiaromatic state with 6-4-6-p electrons. Through supporting nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, we show that the doubly oxidized core has antiaromatic character and we use density functional theory calculations to rationalize the origin of the high-conductance state for the oxidized single-molecule junction. Together, our work demonstrates how the concept of antiaromaticity can be exploited to create single-molecule devices that are highly conducting.« less

  13. The allosteric switching mechanism in bacteriophage MS2

    PubMed Central

    Perkett, Matthew R.; Mirijanian, Dina T.

    2016-01-01

    We use all-atom simulations to elucidate the mechanisms underlying conformational switching and allostery within the coat protein of the bacteriophage MS2. Assembly of most icosahedral virus capsids requires that the capsid protein adopts different conformations at precise locations within the capsid. It has been shown that a 19 nucleotide stem loop (TR) from the MS2 genome acts as an allosteric effector, guiding conformational switching of the coat protein during capsid assembly. Since the principal conformational changes occur far from the TR binding site, it is important to understand the molecular mechanism underlying this allosteric communication. To this end, we use all-atom simulations with explicit water combined with a path sampling technique to sample the MS2 coat protein conformational transition, in the presence and absence of TR-binding. The calculations find that TR binding strongly alters the transition free energy profile, leading to a switch in the favored conformation. We discuss changes in molecular interactions responsible for this shift. We then identify networks of amino acids with correlated motions to reveal the mechanism by which effects of TR binding span the protein. We find that TR binding strongly affects residues located at the 5-fold and quasi-sixfold interfaces in the assembled capsid, suggesting a mechanism by which the TR binding could direct formation of the native capsid geometry. The analysis predicts amino acids whose substitution by mutagenesis could alter populations of the conformational substates or their transition rates. PMID:27448905

  14. Electronic logic to enhance switch reliability in detecting openings and closures of redundant switches

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, James A.

    1986-01-01

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and failsafe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  15. Shape memory thermal conduction switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.

  16. High power ferrite microwave switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardash, I.; Roschak, N. K.

    1975-01-01

    A high power ferrite microwave switch was developed along with associated electronic driver circuits for operation in a spaceborne high power microwave transmitter in geostationary orbit. Three units were built and tested in a space environment to demonstrate conformance to the required performance characteristics. Each unit consisted of an input magic-tee hybrid, two non-reciprocal latching ferrite phase shifters, an out short-slot 3 db quadrature coupler, a dual driver electronic circuit, and input logic interface circuitry. The basic mode of operation of the high power ferrite microwave switch is identical to that of a four-port, differential phase shift, switchable circulator. By appropriately designing the phase shifters and electronic driver circuits to operate in the flux-transfer magnetization mode, power and temperature insensitive operation was achieved. A list of the realized characteristics of the developed units is given.

  17. Switch for Good Community Program

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Tabitha; Amran, Martha

    2013-11-19

    Switch4Good is an energy-savings program that helps residents reduce consumption from behavior changes; it was co-developed by Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management (BB) and WattzOn in Phase I of this grant. The program was offered at 11 Navy bases. Three customer engagement strategies were evaluated, and it was found that Digital Nudges (a combination of monthly consumption statements with frequent messaging via text or email) was most cost-effective. The program was delivered on-time and on-budget, and its success is based on the teamwork of local BB staff and the WattzOn team. The following graphic shows Switch4Good “by the numbers”, e.g.more » the scale of operations achieved during Phase I.« less

  18. Pulsed laser triggered high speed microfluidic switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Gao, Lanyu; Chen, Yue; Wei, Kenneth; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2008-10-01

    We report a high-speed microfluidic switch capable of achieving a switching time of 10 μs. The switching mechanism is realized by exciting dynamic vapor bubbles with focused laser pulses in a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel. The bubble expansion deforms the elastic PDMS channel wall and squeezes the adjacent sample channel to control its fluid and particle flows as captured by the time-resolved imaging system. A switching of polystyrene microspheres in a Y-shaped channel has also been demonstrated. This ultrafast laser triggered switching mechanism has the potential to advance the sorting speed of state-of-the-art microscale fluorescence activated cell sorting devices.

  19. Secure videoconferencing equipment switching system and method

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Michael E [Livermore, CA

    2009-01-13

    A switching system and method are provided to facilitate use of videoconference facilities over a plurality of security levels. The system includes a switch coupled to a plurality of codecs and communication networks. Audio/Visual peripheral components are connected to the switch. The switch couples control and data signals between the Audio/Visual peripheral components and one but nor both of the plurality of codecs. The switch additionally couples communication networks of the appropriate security level to each of the codecs. In this manner, a videoconferencing facility is provided for use on both secure and non-secure networks.

  20. Bistability in a Metabolic Network Underpins the De Novo Evolution of Colony Switching in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Gallie, Jenna; Libby, Eric; Bertels, Frederic; Remigi, Philippe; Jendresen, Christian B.; Ferguson, Gayle C.; Desprat, Nicolas; Buffing, Marieke F.; Sauer, Uwe; Beaumont, Hubertus J. E.; Martinussen, Jan; Kilstrup, Mogens; Rainey, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotype switching is commonly observed in nature. This prevalence has allowed the elucidation of a number of underlying molecular mechanisms. However, little is known about how phenotypic switches arise and function in their early evolutionary stages. The first opportunity to provide empirical insight was delivered by an experiment in which populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 evolved, de novo, the ability to switch between two colony phenotypes. Here we unravel the molecular mechanism behind colony switching, revealing how a single nucleotide change in a gene enmeshed in central metabolism (carB) generates such a striking phenotype. We show that colony switching is underpinned by ON/OFF expression of capsules consisting of a colanic acid-like polymer. We use molecular genetics, biochemical analyses, and experimental evolution to establish that capsule switching results from perturbation of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. Of central importance is a bifurcation point at which uracil triphosphate is partitioned towards either nucleotide metabolism or polymer production. This bifurcation marks a cell-fate decision point whereby cells with relatively high pyrimidine levels favour nucleotide metabolism (capsule OFF), while cells with lower pyrimidine levels divert resources towards polymer biosynthesis (capsule ON). This decision point is present and functional in the wild-type strain. Finally, we present a simple mathematical model demonstrating that the molecular components of the decision point are capable of producing switching. Despite its simple mutational cause, the connection between genotype and phenotype is complex and multidimensional, offering a rare glimpse of how noise in regulatory networks can provide opportunity for evolution. PMID:25763575

  1. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  2. High voltage photoconductive switch package

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.

    2016-11-22

    A photoconductive switch having a wide bandgap material substrate between opposing electrodes, and a doped dielectric filler that is in contact with both the electrodes and the substrate at the triple point. The dielectric filler material is doped with a conductive material to make it partially or completely conducting, to minimize the field enhancement near the triple point both when the substrate is not conducting in the "off" state and when the substrate is rendered conducting by radiation in the "on" state.

  3. Switching to the Rubber Hand

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Su-Ling; Lane, Timothy Joseph; Chang, An-Yi; Chien, Sung-En

    2017-01-01

    Inducing the rubber hand illusion (RHI) requires that participants look at an imitation hand while it is stroked in synchrony with their occluded biological hand. Previous explanations of the RHI have emphasized multisensory integration, and excluded higher cognitive functions. We investigated the relationship between the RHI and higher cognitive functions by experimentally testing task switch (as measured by switch cost) and mind wandering (as measured by SART score); we also included a questionnaire for attentional control that comprises two subscales, attention-shift and attention-focus. To assess experience of RHI, the Botvinick and Cohen (1998) questionnaire was used and illusion onset time was recorded. Our results indicate that rapidity of onset reliably indicates illusion strength. Regression analysis revealed that participants evincing less switch cost and higher attention-shift scores had faster RHI onset times, and that those with higher attention-shift scores experienced the RHI more vividly. These results suggest that the multi-sensory hypothesis is not sufficient to explain the illusion: higher cognitive functions should be taken into account when explaining variation in the experience of ownership for the rubber hand. PMID:29312048

  4. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  5. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  6. 49 CFR 236.382 - Switch obstruction test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch obstruction test. 236.382 Section 236.382... and Tests § 236.382 Switch obstruction test. Switch obstruction test of lock rod of each power-operated switch and lock rod of each hand-operated switch equipped with switch-and-lock-movement shall be...

  7. 49 CFR 236.382 - Switch obstruction test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch obstruction test. 236.382 Section 236.382... and Tests § 236.382 Switch obstruction test. Switch obstruction test of lock rod of each power-operated switch and lock rod of each hand-operated switch equipped with switch-and-lock-movement shall be...

  8. 49 CFR 236.382 - Switch obstruction test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch obstruction test. 236.382 Section 236.382... and Tests § 236.382 Switch obstruction test. Switch obstruction test of lock rod of each power-operated switch and lock rod of each hand-operated switch equipped with switch-and-lock-movement shall be...

  9. 49 CFR 236.382 - Switch obstruction test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch obstruction test. 236.382 Section 236.382... and Tests § 236.382 Switch obstruction test. Switch obstruction test of lock rod of each power-operated switch and lock rod of each hand-operated switch equipped with switch-and-lock-movement shall be...

  10. 49 CFR 236.342 - Switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch circuit controller. 236.342 Section 236.342... Instructions § 236.342 Switch circuit controller. Switch circuit controller connected at the point to switch... corresponding to switch point closure when switch point is open one-fourth inch or more. Inspection and Tests ...

  11. 49 CFR 236.342 - Switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch circuit controller. 236.342 Section 236.342... Instructions § 236.342 Switch circuit controller. Switch circuit controller connected at the point to switch... corresponding to switch point closure when switch point is open one-fourth inch or more. Inspection and Tests ...

  12. 49 CFR 236.382 - Switch obstruction test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch obstruction test. 236.382 Section 236.382... and Tests § 236.382 Switch obstruction test. Switch obstruction test of lock rod of each power-operated switch and lock rod of each hand-operated switch equipped with switch-and-lock-movement shall be...

  13. 49 CFR 236.342 - Switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch circuit controller. 236.342 Section 236.342... Instructions § 236.342 Switch circuit controller. Switch circuit controller connected at the point to switch... corresponding to switch point closure when switch point is open one-fourth inch or more. Inspection and Tests ...

  14. 49 CFR 236.342 - Switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch circuit controller. 236.342 Section 236.342... Instructions § 236.342 Switch circuit controller. Switch circuit controller connected at the point to switch... corresponding to switch point closure when switch point is open one-fourth inch or more. Inspection and Tests ...

  15. 49 CFR 236.342 - Switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch circuit controller. 236.342 Section 236.342... Instructions § 236.342 Switch circuit controller. Switch circuit controller connected at the point to switch... corresponding to switch point closure when switch point is open one-fourth inch or more. Inspection and Tests ...

  16. Conditions for Stabilizability of Linear Switched Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh, Vu Trieu

    2011-06-01

    This paper investigates some conditions that can provide stabilizability for linear switched systems with polytopic uncertainties via their closed loop linear quadratic state feedback regulator. The closed loop switched systems can stabilize unstable open loop systems or stable open loop systems but in which there is no solution for a common Lyapunov matrix. For continuous time switched linear systems, we show that if there exists solution in an associated Riccati equation for the closed loop systems sharing one common Lyapunov matrix, the switched linear systems are stable. For the discrete time switched systems, we derive a Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) to calculate a common Lyapunov matrix and solution for the stable closed loop feedback systems. These closed loop linear quadratic state feedback regulators guarantee the global asymptotical stability for any switched linear systems with any switching signal sequence.

  17. Electrical switching in cadmium boracite single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, T.; Yamada, O.

    1981-01-01

    Cadmium boracite single crystals at high temperatures ( 300 C) were found to exhibit a reversible electric field-induced transition between a highly insulative and a conductive state. The switching threshold is smaller than a few volts for an electrode spacing of a few tenth of a millimeter corresponding to an electric field of 100 to 1000 V/cm. This is much smaller than the dielectric break-down field for an insulator such as boracite. The insulative state reappears after voltage removal. A pulse technique revealed two different types of switching. Unstable switching occurs when the pulse voltage slightly exceeds the switching threshold and is characterized by a pre-switching delay and also a residual current after voltage pulse removal. A stable type of switching occurs when the voltage becomes sufficiently high. Possible device applications of this switching phenomenon are discussed.

  18. An engineered allosteric switch in leucine-zipper oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, L; Plecs, J J; Alber, T

    1996-06-01

    Controversy remains about the role of core side-chain packing in specifying protein structure. To investigate the influence of core packing on the oligomeric structure of a coiled coil, we engineered a GCN4 leucine zipper mutant that switches from two to three strands upon binding the hydrophobic ligands cyclohexane and benzene. In solution these ligands increased the apparent thermal stability and the oligomerization order of the mutant leucine zipper. The crystal structure of the peptide-benzene complex shows a single benzene molecule bound at the engineered site in the core of the trimer. These results indicate that coiled coils are well-suited to function as molecular switches and emphasize that core packing is an important determinant of oligomerization specificity.

  19. Thermal Control Using Liquid-Metal Bridge Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsa, Amir H.; Olles, Joseph; Tilger, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    A short term effort (3-months) was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel method to locally control the heat transfer rate and demonstrate the potential to achieve a turndown ratio of approximately 10:1. The technology had to be demonstrated to be at a TRL of 2-3, with a plan to advance it to a TRL 5-6. Here, we show that the concept recently developed in our laboratory, namely the pinned-contact, double droplet switch made by overfilling a hole drilled in a suitable substrate can be implemented with a low-melting temperature metal. When toggled near a second substrate, a liquid bridge can be reversibly connected or disconnected, on demand. We have shown experimentally that liquid-metal bridge switches can be made from gallium with a suitable choice of substrate materials, activation strategies, and control techniques. Individual as well as arrays of gallium bridge switches were shown to be feasible and can be robustly controlled. The very short response time of the bridge connection and disconnection (on the order of 1 millisecond) provides for utility in a wide range of applications. The liquid bridge switches may be controlled actively or passively. We have shown through computations and analysis that liquid bridge switches provide locally large turndown ratios (on the order of 103:1), so a relatively sparse packing of them would be needed to obtain the desired turndown ratio of 10:1. For the laboratory demonstrations, pressure activation was utilized. Simple designs for a passive control strategy are presented which are highly attractive for several reasons, including i) large turndown ratio, ii) no solid-moving parts, and iii) stable operation. Finally, we note that passive systems do not require any electronics for their control. This along with the relatively small molecular weight of candidate materials for the system, makes for a robust design outside of Earth?s magnetic field, where spacecraft are subject to significant radiation bombardment.

  20. Molecular switches in carbon-rich organometallic compounds: Theoretical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costuas, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Organometallic complexes associated with an appropriate choice of ancillary ligands reveal to have a wide range of physical properties leading to promising applications when incorporated in nano-size devices. The challenge is to design innovative multifunctional compounds based on redox active carbon-rich organometallics associated with spin carriers and/or photochromic units. A multidisciplinary approach in this area has proved to be efficient in a series a systems combining carbon-rich bridging ligands and redox metallic moieties. In this domain, the role of theoretical investigations based on quantum mechanics tools have a crucial role in rationalizing and in helping designing systems possessing target properties.

  1. RIP3: a molecular switch for necrosis and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Moriwaki, Kenta; Chan, Francis Ka-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3/RIPK3) has emerged as a critical regulator of programmed necrosis/necroptosis, an inflammatory form of cell death with important functions in pathogen-induced and sterile inflammation. RIP3 activation is tightly regulated by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and caspase-mediated cleavage. These post-translational modifications coordinately regulate the assembly of a macromolecular signaling complex termed the necrosome. Recently, several reports indicate that RIP3 can promote inflammation independent of its pronecrotic activity. Here, we review our current understanding of the mechanisms that drive RIP3-dependent necrosis and its role in different inflammatory diseases. PMID:23913919

  2. Extension of Branches for Orthogonally Fused Molecular Switches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-16

    converted to its Grignard reagent . Treatment of the Grignard reagent of 7 with the bromide 6 and (diphenylphosphino)- propanenickel(II) dichloride catalysis...6 afforded the dimer which was deprotonation with LDA and quenched with iodine to give the dimer iodide 8. Treatment of the Grignard reagent of 7 with

  3. H∞ control for switched fuzzy systems via dynamic output feedback: Hybrid and switched approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Weiming; Xiao, Jian; Iqbal, Muhammad Naveed

    2013-06-01

    Fuzzy T-S model has been proven to be a practical and effective way to deal with the analysis and synthesis problems for complex nonlinear systems. As for switched nonlinear system, describing its subsystems as fuzzy T-S models, namely switched fuzzy system, naturally is an alternative method to conventional control approaches. In this paper, the H∞ control problem for a class of switched fuzzy systems is addressed. Hybrid and switched design approaches are proposed with different availability of switching signal information at switching instant. The hybrid control strategy includes two parts: fuzzy controllers for subsystems and state updating controller at switching instant, and the switched control strategy contains the controllers for subsystems. It is demonstrated that the conservativeness is reduced by introducing the state updating behavior but its cost is an online prediction of switching signal. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of proposed approaches and compare the conservativeness of two approaches.

  4. Low temperature grown GaNAsSb: A promising material for photoconductive switch application

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K. H.; Yoon, S. F.; Wicaksono, S.

    2013-09-09

    We report a photoconductive switch using low temperature grown GaNAsSb as the active material. The GaNAsSb layer was grown at 200 °C by molecular beam epitaxy in conjunction with a radio frequency plasma-assisted nitrogen source and a valved antimony cracker source. The low temperature growth of the GaNAsSb layer increased the dark resistivity of the switch and shortened the carrier lifetime. The switch exhibited a dark resistivity of 10{sup 7} Ω cm, a photo-absorption of up to 2.1 μm, and a carrier lifetime of ∼1.3 ps. These results strongly support the suitability of low temperature grown GaNAsSb in the photoconductivemore » switch application.« less

  5. Mechanical switching of ferroelectric domains beyond flexoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weijin; Liu, Jianyi; Ma, Lele; Liu, Linjie; Jiang, G. L.; Zheng, Yue

    2018-02-01

    The resurgence of interest in flexoelectricity has prompted discussions on the feasibility of switching ferroelectric domains 'non-electrically'. In this work, we perform three-dimensional thermodynamic simulations in combination with ab initio calculations and effective Hamiltonian simulations to demonstrate the great effects of surface screening and surface bonding on ferroelectric domain switching triggered by local tip loading. A three-dimensional simulation scheme has been developed to capture the tip-induced domain switching behavior in ferroelectric thin films by adequately taking into account the surface screening effect and surface bonding effect of the ferroelectric film, as well as the finite elastic stiffness of the substrate and the electrode layers. The major findings are as follows. (i) Compared with flexoelectricity, surface effects can be overwhelming and lead to much more efficient mechanical switching caused by tip loading. (ii) The surface-assisted mechanical switching can be bi-directional without the necessity of reversing strain gradients. (iii) A mode transition from local to propagating domain switching occurs when the screening below a critical value. A ripple effect of domain switching appears with the formation of concentric loop domains. (iv) The ripple effect can lead to 'domain interference' and a deterministic writing of confined loop domain patterns by local excitations. Our study reveals the hidden switching mechanisms of ferroelectric domains and the possible roles of surface in mechanical switching. The ripple effect of domain switching, which is believed to be general in dipole systems, broadens our current knowledge of domain engineering.

  6. Enhancement of resistive switching properties in Al2O3 bilayer-based atomic switches: multilevel resistive switching.

    PubMed

    Vishwanath, Sujaya Kumar; Woo, Hyunsuk; Jeon, Sanghun

    2018-06-08

    Atomic switches are considered to be building blocks for future non-volatile data storage and internet of things. However, obtaining device structures capable of ultrahigh density data storage, high endurance, and long data retention, and more importantly, understanding the switching mechanisms are still a challenge for atomic switches. Here, we achieved improved resistive switching performance in a bilayer structure containing aluminum oxide, with an oxygen-deficient oxide as the top switching layer and stoichiometric oxide as the bottom switching layer, using atomic layer deposition. This bilayer device showed a high on/off ratio (10 5 ) with better endurance (∼2000 cycles) and longer data retention (10 4 s) than single-oxide layers. In addition, depending on the compliance current, the bilayer device could be operated in four different resistance states. Furthermore, the depth profiles of the hourglass-shaped conductive filament of the bilayer device was observed by conductive atomic force microscopy.

  7. Enhancement of resistive switching properties in Al2O3 bilayer-based atomic switches: multilevel resistive switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanath, Sujaya Kumar; Woo, Hyunsuk; Jeon, Sanghun

    2018-06-01

    Atomic switches are considered to be building blocks for future non-volatile data storage and internet of things. However, obtaining device structures capable of ultrahigh density data storage, high endurance, and long data retention, and more importantly, understanding the switching mechanisms are still a challenge for atomic switches. Here, we achieved improved resistive switching performance in a bilayer structure containing aluminum oxide, with an oxygen-deficient oxide as the top switching layer and stoichiometric oxide as the bottom switching layer, using atomic layer deposition. This bilayer device showed a high on/off ratio (105) with better endurance (∼2000 cycles) and longer data retention (104 s) than single-oxide layers. In addition, depending on the compliance current, the bilayer device could be operated in four different resistance states. Furthermore, the depth profiles of the hourglass-shaped conductive filament of the bilayer device was observed by conductive atomic force microscopy.

  8. Optically-switched submillimeter-wave oscillator and radiator having a switch-to-switch propagation delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Michael G. (Inventor); Maserjian, Joseph (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A submillimeter wave-generating integrated circuit includes an array of N photoconductive switches biased across a common voltage source and an optical path difference from a common optical pulse of repetition rate f sub 0 providing a different optical delay to each of the switches. In one embodiment, each incoming pulse is applied to successive ones of the N switches with successive delays. The N switches are spaced apart with a suitable switch-to-switch spacing so as to generate at the output load or antenna radiation of a submillimeter wave frequency f on the order of N f sub 0. Preferably, the optical pulse has a repetition rate of at least 10 GHz and N is of the order of 100, so that the circuit generates radiation of frequency of the order of or greater than 1 Terahertz.

  9. Finite Ground Coplanar Waveguide Shunt MEMS Switches for Switched Line Phase Shifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Simons, Rainee N.; Scardelletti, Maximillian; Varaljay, Nicholas C.

    2000-01-01

    Switches with low insertion loss and high isolation are required for switched line phase shifters and the transmit/receive switch at the front end of communication systems. A Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) waveguide capacitive, shunt MEMS switch has been implemented on high resistivity Si. The switch has demonstrated an insertion loss of less than 0.3 dB and a return loss greater than 15 dB from 10 to 20, GHz. The switch design, fabrication, and characteristics are presented.

  10. Laser activated diffuse discharge switch

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; Hunter, Scott R.

    1988-01-01

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch which is capable of changing from a conducting state to an insulating state in the presence of electrons upon the introduction of laser light. The mixture is composed of a buffer gas such as nitrogen or argon and an electron attaching gas such as C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SH, C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SCH.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CHO and CF.sub.3 CHO wherein the electron attachment is brought on by indirect excitation of molecules to long-lived states by exposure to laser light.

  11. Microwave-triggered laser switch

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, M.S.

    1982-05-19

    A high-repetition rate switch is described for delivering short duration, high-powered electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

  12. SWITCHING TRANSMITTER POSITIONING OF SYNCHROS

    DOEpatents

    Wolff, H.

    1962-03-13

    A transformer apparatus is designed for effecting the step positioning of synchro motors. The apparatus is provided with ganged switches and pre- selected contacts to permit the units and tens selection of the desired angular position for the synchro motor rotor with only the movement of two selector knobs required. With the selection thus made, the appropriate pre-selected signal is delivered to the synchro motor for positioning the rotor of the latter as selected. The transformer apparatus is divided into smaller arrangements to conform with coraputed trigonometric relations which will give the desired results. (AEC)

  13. Optical switching system and method

    DOEpatents

    Ranganathan, Radha; Gal, Michael; Taylor, P. Craig

    1992-01-01

    An optically bistable device is disclosed. The device includes a uniformly thick layer of amorphous silicon to constitute a Fabry-Perot chamber positioned to provide a target area for a probe beam. The probe beam has a maximum energy less than the energy band gap of the amorphous semiconductor. In a preferred embodiment, a multilayer dielectric mirror is positioned on the Fabry-Perot chamber to increase the finesse of switching of the device. The index of refraction of the amorphous material is thermally altered to alter the transmission of the probe beam.

  14. Microwave-triggered laser switch

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1984-01-01

    A high-repetition rate switch for delivering short duration, high-power electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

  15. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Brannon, Paul J.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  16. Electronic switching spherical array antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockton, R.

    1978-01-01

    This work was conducted to demonstrate the performance levels attainable with an ESSA (Electronic Switching Spherical Array) antenna by designing and testing an engineering model. The antenna was designed to satisfy general spacecraft environmental requirements and built to provide electronically commandable beam pointing capability throughout a hemisphere. Constant gain and beam shape throughout large volumetric coverage regions are the principle characteristics. The model is intended to be a prototype of a standard communications and data handling antenna for user scientific spacecraft with the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Some additional testing was conducted to determine the feasibility of an integrated TDRSS and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna system.

  17. Cobra communications switch integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Robert J.; Haworth, Loran A.; Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Murray, F. Gerald

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a design modification to reduce the visual and manual workload associated with the radio selection and communications tasks in the U.S. Army AH-1 Cobra helicopter. The modification involves the integration of the radio selection and microphone actuating tasks into a single operation controlled by the transmit-intercom switch. Ground-based and flight tests were conducted to evaluate the modified configuration during twelve flight tasks. The results show that the proposed configuration performs twice as fast as the original configuration.

  18. Multiprocessor switch with selective pairing

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Gschwind, Michael K; Salapura, Valentina

    2014-03-11

    System, method and computer program product for a multiprocessing system to offer selective pairing of processor cores for increased processing reliability. A selective pairing facility is provided that selectively connects, i.e., pairs, multiple microprocessor or processor cores to provide one highly reliable thread (or thread group). Each paired microprocessor or processor cores that provide one highly reliable thread for high-reliability connect with a system components such as a memory "nest" (or memory hierarchy), an optional system controller, and optional interrupt controller, optional I/O or peripheral devices, etc. The memory nest is attached to a selective pairing facility via a switch or a bus

  19. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Brannon, P.J.; Cowgill, D.F.

    1990-12-18

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable. 10 figs.

  20. MEMS switches having non-metallic crossbeams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, Maximillian C (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A RF MEMS switch comprising a crossbeam of SiC, supported by at least one leg above a substrate and above a plurality of transmission lines forming a CPW. Bias is provided by at least one layer of metal disposed on a top surface of the SiC crossbeam, such as a layer of chromium followed by a layer of gold, and extending beyond the switch to a biasing pad on the substrate. The switch utilizes stress and conductivity-controlled non-metallic thin cantilevers or bridges, thereby improving the RF characteristics and operational reliability of the switch. The switch can be fabricated with conventional silicon integrated circuit (IC) processing techniques. The design of the switch is very versatile and can be implemented in many transmission line mediums.