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Sample records for a-site mrna cleavage

  1. The bacterial toxin RelE induces specific mRNA cleavage in the A site of the eukaryote ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Andreev, Dmitri; Hauryliuk, Vasili; Terenin, Ilya; Dmitriev, Sergey; Ehrenberg, Måns; Shatsky, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    RelE/RelB is a well-characterized toxin–anti-toxin pair involved in nutritional stress responses in Bacteria and Archae. RelE lacks any eukaryote homolog, but we demonstrate here that it efficiently and specifically cleaves mRNA in the A site of the eukaryote ribosome. The cleavage mechanism is similar to that in bacteria, showing the feasibility of A-site cleavage of mRNA for regulatory purposes also in eukaryotes. RelE cleavage in the A-site codon of a stalled eukaryote ribosome is precise and easily monitored, making “RelE printing” a useful complement to toeprinting to determine the exact mRNA location on the eukaryote ribosome and to probe the occupancy of its A site. PMID:18083838

  2. Ribosomal Protein S12 and Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Modulate A-site mRNA Cleavage and Transfer-Messenger RNA Activity in Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Holberger, Laura E.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Translational pausing in Escherichia coli can lead to mRNA cleavage within the ribosomal A-site. A-site mRNA cleavage is thought to facilitate transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)·SmpB- mediated recycling of stalled ribosome complexes. Here, we demonstrate that the aminoglycosides paromomycin and streptomycin inhibit A-site cleavage of stop codons during inefficient translation termination. Aminoglycosides also induced stop codon read-through, suggesting that these antibiotics alleviate ribosome pausing during termination. Streptomycin did not inhibit A-site cleavage in rpsL mutants, which express streptomycin-resistant variants of ribosomal protein S12. However, rpsL strains exhibited reduced A-site mRNA cleavage compared with rpsL+ cells. Additionally, tmRNA·SmpB-mediated SsrA peptide tagging was significantly reduced in several rpsL strains but could be fully restored in a subset of mutants when treated with streptomycin. The streptomycin-dependent rpsL(P90K) mutant also showed significantly lower levels of A-site cleavage and tmRNA·SmpB activity. Mutations in rpsD (encoding ribosomal protein S4), which suppressed streptomycin dependence, were able to partially restore A-site cleavage to rpsL(P90K) cells but failed to increase tmRNA·SmpB activity. Taken together, these results show that perturbations to A-site structure and function modulate A-site mRNA cleavage and tmRNA·SmpB activity. We propose that tmRNA·SmpB binds to streptomycin-resistant rpsL ribosomes less efficiently, leading to a partial loss of ribosome rescue function in these mutants. PMID:19776006

  3. Crystal structure of A. aeolicus argonaute, a site-specific DNA-guided endoribonuclease, provides insights into RISC-mediated mRNA cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan,Y.; Pei, Y.; Ma, J.; Kuryavyi, V.; Zhadina, M.; Meister, G.; Chen, H.; Dauter, Z.; Tuschi, T.; Patel, D.

    2005-01-01

    Argonaute (Ago) proteins constitute a key component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). We report the crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus Ago (Aa-Ago) together with binding and cleavage studies, which establish this eubacterial Ago as a bona fide guide DNA strand-mediated site-specific RNA endonuclease. We have generated a stereochemically robust model of the complex, where the guide DNA-mRNA duplex is positioned within a basic channel spanning the bilobal interface, such that the 5' phosphate of the guide strand can be anchored in a basic pocket, and the mRNA can be positioned for site-specific cleavage by RNase H-type divalent cation-coordinated catalytic Asp residues of the PIWI domain. Domain swap experiments involving chimeras of human Ago (hAgo1) and cleavage-competent hAgo2 reinforce the role of the PIWI domain in 'slicer' activity. We propose a four-step Ago-mediated catalytic cleavage cycle model, which provides distinct perspectives into the mechanism of guide strand-mediated mRNA cleavage within the RISC.

  4. Identification of Plastoglobules as a Site of Carotenoid Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Rottet, Sarah; Devillers, Julie; Glauser, Gaétan; Douet, Véronique; Besagni, Céline; Kessler, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids play an essential role in light harvesting and protection from excess light. During chloroplast senescence carotenoids are released from their binding proteins and are eventually metabolized. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) is involved in carotenoid breakdown in senescing leaf and desiccating seed, and is part of the proteome of plastoglobules (PG), which are thylakoid-associated lipid droplets. Here, we demonstrate that CCD4 is functionally active in PG. Leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana ccd4 mutants constitutively expressing CCD4 fused to yellow fluorescent protein showed strong fluorescence in PG and reduced carotenoid levels upon dark-induced senescence. Lipidome-wide analysis indicated that β-carotene, lutein, and violaxanthin were the principle substrates of CCD4 in vivo and were cleaved in senescing chloroplasts. Moreover, carotenoids were shown to accumulate in PG of ccd4 mutant plants during senescence, indicating translocation of carotenoids to PG prior to degradation. PMID:28018391

  5. Translation of poly(A) tails leads to precise mRNA cleavage.

    PubMed

    Guydosh, Nicholas R; Green, Rachel

    2017-02-13

    Translation of poly(A) tails leads to mRNA cleavage but the mechanism and global pervasiveness of this "nonstop/no-go" decay process is not understood. Here we performed ribosome profiling (in a yeast strain lacking exosome function) of short 15-18 nt mRNA footprints to identify ribosomes stalled at 3' ends of mRNA decay intermediates. In this background, we found mRNA cleavage extending hundreds of nucleotides upstream of ribosome stalling in poly(A) and predominantly in one reading frame. These observations suggest that decay-triggering endonucleolytic cleavage is closely associated with the ribosome. Surprisingly, ribosomes appeared to accumulate (i.e. stall) in the transcriptome when as few as 3 consecutive ORF-internal lysine codons were positioned in the A, P, and E sites though significant mRNA degradation was not observed. Endonucleolytic cleavage was found, however, at sites of premature polyadenylation (encoding polylysine) and rescue of the ribosomes stalled at these sites was dependent on Dom34. These results suggest this process may be critical when changes in the polyadenylation site occur during development, tumorigenesis, or when translation termination/recycling is impaired.

  6. Transition State Charge Stabilization and Acid-Base Catalysis of mRNA Cleavage by the Endoribonuclease RelE.

    PubMed

    Dunican, Brian F; Hiller, David A; Strobel, Scott A

    2015-12-01

    The bacterial toxin RelE is a ribosome-dependent endoribonuclease. It is part of a type II toxin-antitoxin system that contributes to antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. During amino acid starvation, RelE cleaves mRNA in the ribosomal A-site, globally inhibiting protein translation. RelE is structurally similar to microbial RNases that employ general acid-base catalysis to facilitate RNA cleavage. The RelE active site is atypical for acid-base catalysis, in that it is enriched with positively charged residues and lacks the prototypical histidine-glutamate catalytic pair, making the mechanism of mRNA cleavage unclear. In this study, we use a single-turnover kinetic analysis to measure the effect of pH and phosphorothioate substitution on the rate constant for cleavage of mRNA by wild-type RelE and seven active-site mutants. Mutation and thio effects indicate a major role for stabilization of increased negative change in the transition state by arginine 61. The wild-type RelE cleavage rate constant is pH-independent, but the reaction catalyzed by many of the mutants is strongly dependent on pH, suggestive of general acid-base catalysis. pH-rate curves indicate that wild-type RelE operates with the pK(a) of at least one catalytic residue significantly downshifted by the local environment. Mutation of any single active-site residue is sufficient to disrupt this microenvironment and revert the shifted pK(a) back above neutrality. pH-rate curves are consistent with K54 functioning as a general base and R81 as a general acid. The capacity of RelE to effect a large pK(a) shift and facilitate a common catalytic mechanism by uncommon means furthers our understanding of other atypical enzymatic active sites.

  7. MicroRNA-mediated target mRNA cleavage and 3'-uridylation in human cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai; Lin, Jing; Zandi, Roza; Roth, Jack A; Ji, Lin

    2016-07-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in targeted gene silencing by facilitating posttranscriptional and translational repression. However, the precise mechanism of mammalian miRNA-mediated gene silencing remains to be elucidated. Here, we used a stem-loop array reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay to analyse miRNA-induced mRNA recognition, cleavage, posttranscriptional modification, and degradation. We detected endogenous let-7 miRNA-induced and Argonaute-catalysed endonucleolytic cleavage on target mRNAs at various sites within partially paired miRNA:mRNA sequences. Most of the cleaved mRNA 5'-fragments were 3'-oligouridylated by activities of terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTases) in miRNA-induced silencing complexes and temporarily accumulated in the cytosol for 5'-3' degradation or other molecular fates. Some 3'-5' decayed mRNA fragments could also be captured by the miRNA-induced silencing complex stationed at the specific miRNA:mRNA target site and oligouridylated by other TUTases at its proximity without involving Argonaute-mediated RNA cleavage. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanics of mammalian miRNA-mediated gene silencing by coordinated target mRNA recognition, cleavage, uridylation and degradation.

  8. In vivo characterization of the Drosophila mRNA 3′ end processing core cleavage complex

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Daniel; Steiniger, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    A core cleavage complex (CCC) consisting of CPSF73, CPSF100, and Symplekin is required for cotranscriptional 3′ end processing of all metazoan pre-mRNAs, yet little is known about the in vivo molecular interactions within this complex. The CCC is a component of two distinct complexes, the cleavage/polyadenylation complex and the complex that processes nonpolyadenylated histone pre-mRNAs. RNAi-depletion of CCC factors in Drosophila culture cells causes reduction of CCC processing activity on histone mRNAs, resulting in read through transcription. In contrast, RNAi-depletion of factors only required for histone mRNA processing allows use of downstream cryptic polyadenylation signals to produce polyadenylated histone mRNAs. We used Dmel-2 tissue culture cells stably expressing tagged CCC components to determine that amino acids 272–1080 of Symplekin and the C-terminal approximately 200 amino acids of both CPSF73 and CPSF100 are required for efficient CCC formation in vivo. Additional experiments reveal that the C-terminal 241 amino acids of CPSF100 are sufficient for histone mRNA processing indicating that the first 524 amino acids of CPSF100 are dispensable for both CCC formation and histone mRNA 3′ end processing. CCCs containing deletions of Symplekin lacking the first 271 amino acids resulted in dramatic increased use of downstream polyadenylation sites for histone mRNA 3′ end processing similar to RNAi-depletion of histone-specific 3′ end processing factors FLASH, SLBP, and U7 snRNA. We propose a model in which CCC formation is mediated by CPSF73, CPSF100, and Symplekin C-termini, and the N-terminal region of Symplekin facilitates cotranscriptional 3′ end processing of histone mRNAs. PMID:26081560

  9. Does the Mutant CAG Expansion in Huntingtin mRNA Interfere with Exonucleolytic Cleavage of its First Exon?

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanzhao; Pfister, Edith L; Kennington, Lori A; Chase, Kathryn O; Mueller, Christian; DiFiglia, Marian; Aronin, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Silencing mutant huntingtin mRNA by RNA interference (RNAi) is a therapeutic strategy for Huntington's disease. RNAi induces specific endonucleolytic cleavage of the target HTT mRNA, followed by exonucleolytic processing of the cleaved mRNA fragments. We investigated the clearance of huntingtin mRNA cleavage products following RNAi, to find if particular huntingtin mRNA sequences persist. We especially wanted to find out if the expanded CAG increased production of a toxic mRNA species by impeding degradation of human mutant huntingtin exon 1 mRNA. Mice expressing the human mutant HTT transgene with 128 CAG repeats (YAC128 mice) were injected in the striatum with self-complementary AAV9 vectors carrying a miRNA targeting exon 48 of huntingtin mRNA (scAAV-U6-miRNA-HTT-GFP). Transgenic huntingtin mRNA levels were measured in striatal lysates after two weeks. For qPCR, we used species specific primer-probe combinations that together spanned 6 positions along the open reading frame and untranslated regions of the human huntingtin mRNA. Knockdown was also measured in the liver following tail vein injection. Two weeks after intrastriatal administration of scAAV9-U6-miRNA-HTT-GFP, we measured transgenic mutant huntingtin in striatum using probes targeting six different sites along the huntingtin mRNA. Real time PCR showed a reduction of 29% to 36% in human HTT. There was no significant difference in knockdown measured at any of the six sites, including exon 1. In liver, we observed a more pronounced HTT mRNA knockdown of 70% to 76% relative to the untreated mice, and there were also no significant differences among sites. Our results demonstrate that degradation is equally distributed across the human mutant huntingtin mRNA following RNAi-induced cleavage.

  10. Does the mutant CAG expansion in huntingtin mRNA interfere with exonucleolytic cleavage of its first exon?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wanzhao; Pfister, Edith L.; Kennington, Lori A.; Chase, Kathryn O.; Mueller, Christian; DiFiglia, Marian; Aronin, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background Silencing mutant huntingtin mRNA by RNA interference (RNAi) is a therapeutic strategy for Huntington’s disease. RNAi induces specific endonucleolytic cleavage of the target HTT mRNA, followed by exonucleolytic processing of the cleaved mRNA fragments. Objectives We investigated the clearance of huntingtin mRNA cleavage products following RNAi, to find if particular huntingtin mRNA sequences persist. We especially wanted to find out if the expanded CAG increased production of a toxic mRNA species by impeding degradation of human mutant huntingtin exon 1 mRNA. Methods Mice expressing the human mutant HTT transgene with 128 CAG repeats (YAC128 mice) were injected in the striatum with self-complementary AAV9 vectors carrying a miRNA targeting exon 48 of huntingtin mRNA (scAAV-U6-miRNA-HTT-GFP). Transgenic huntingtin mRNA levels were measured in striatal lysates after two weeks. For qPCR, we used species specific primer-probe combinations that together spanned 6 positions along the open reading frame and untranslated regions of the human huntingtin mRNA. Knockdown was also measured in the liver following tail vein injection. Results Two weeks after intrastriatal administration of scAAV9-U6-miRNA-HTT-GFP, we measured transgenic mutant huntingtin in striatum using probes targeting six different sites along the huntingtin mRNA. Real time PCR showed a reduction of 29% to 36% in human HTT. There was no significant difference in knockdown measured at any of the six sites, including exon 1. In liver, we observed a more pronounced HTT mRNA knockdown of 70% to 76% relative to the untreated mice, and there were also no significant differences among sites. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that degradation is equally distributed across the human mutant huntingtin mRNA following RNAi-induced cleavage. PMID:27003665

  11. MicroRNA-mediated target mRNA cleavage and 3′-uridylation in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai; Lin, Jing; Zandi, Roza; Roth, Jack A.; Ji, Lin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in targeted gene silencing by facilitating posttranscriptional and translational repression. However, the precise mechanism of mammalian miRNA-mediated gene silencing remains to be elucidated. Here, we used a stem-loop array reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay to analyse miRNA-induced mRNA recognition, cleavage, posttranscriptional modification, and degradation. We detected endogenous let-7 miRNA-induced and Argonaute-catalysed endonucleolytic cleavage on target mRNAs at various sites within partially paired miRNA:mRNA sequences. Most of the cleaved mRNA 5′-fragments were 3′-oligouridylated by activities of terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTases) in miRNA-induced silencing complexes and temporarily accumulated in the cytosol for 5′-3′ degradation or other molecular fates. Some 3′-5′ decayed mRNA fragments could also be captured by the miRNA-induced silencing complex stationed at the specific miRNA:mRNA target site and oligouridylated by other TUTases at its proximity without involving Argonaute-mediated RNA cleavage. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanics of mammalian miRNA-mediated gene silencing by coordinated target mRNA recognition, cleavage, uridylation and degradation. PMID:27440378

  12. Structure and expression of the guinea pig preproenkephalin gene: site-specific cleavage in the 3' untranslated region yields truncated mRNA transcripts in specific brain regions.

    PubMed Central

    LaForge, K S; Unterwald, E M; Kreek, M J

    1995-01-01

    We isolated the guinea pig preproenkephalin gene from a genomic library by hybridization to a rat cDNA probe. The entire nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined. Genomic Southern blot hybridization demonstrated that the gene exists in a single copy within the genome. On the basis of RNase protection transcript mapping and homology comparisons with known preproenkephalin sequences from other species and assuming a poly(A) tail length of 100 residues, we predicted an mRNA transcript of approximately 1,400 nucleotides encoded by three exons. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of total RNA from several brain regions showed high levels of preproenkephalin mRNA in the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and hypothalamus, with detectable levels in the amygdala, ventral tegmental area, and central gray and also in the pituitary. Unexpectedly, in several brain regions, the mRNA appeared not only in the 1,400-nucleotide length but also in a shorter length of approximately 1,130 bases. Significant amounts of the shorter mRNA were found in the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala. The longer, but not the shorter, transcripts from the caudate putamen were found to be polyadenylated, but the difference in size was not due solely to the presence of poly(A) tails. Northern gel analysis of total RNA from the caudate putamen with probes from each exon, together with RNase protection mapping of the 3' end of the mRNA demonstrated that the 1,400-base preproenkephalin mRNA transcripts are cleaved in a site-specific manner in some brain regions, yielding a 1,130-base transcript and a 165-base polyadenylated fragment derived from the terminal end of the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA. This cleavage may serve as a preliminary step in RNA degradation and provide a mechanism for control of preproenkephalin mRNA abundance through selective degradation. PMID:7891703

  13. Cleavage of HPV-16 E6/E7 mRNA mediated by modified 10-23 deoxyribozymes.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gutiérrez, Pablo; Alvarez-Salas, Luis M

    2009-09-01

    Deoxyribozymes (DXZs) are small oligodeoxynucleotides capable of mediating phosphodiester bond cleavage of a target RNA in a sequence-specific manner. These molecules are a new generation of artificial catalytic nucleic acids currently used to silence many disease-related genes. The present study describes a DXZ (Dz1023-434) directed against the polycistronic mRNA from the E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16), the main etiological agent of cervical cancer. Dz1023-434 showed efficient cleavage against a bona fide antisense window at nt 410-445 within HPV-16 E6/E7 mRNA even in low [Mg(2+)] conditions. Using a genetic analysis as guidance, we introduced diverse chemical modifications within Dz1023-434 catalytic core to produce a stable locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified DXZ (Dz434-LNA) with significant cleavage activity of full E6/E7 transcripts. Cell culture testing of Dz434-LNA produced a sharp decrement of E6/E7 mRNA levels in HPV-16-positive cells resulting in decreased proliferation and considerable cell death in a specific and dose-dependent manner. No significant effects were observed with inactive or scrambled control DXZs nor from using HPV-negative cells, suggesting catalysis-dependent effect and high specificity. The biological effects of Dz434-LNA suggest a potential use for the treatment of cervical cancer.

  14. Detection of siRNA-mediated target mRNA cleavage activities in human cells by a novel stem-loop array RT-PCR analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jing; Xu, Kai; Roth, Jack A.; Ji, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated target mRNA cleavage activity generates cleaved mRNA fragments with varied termini, which creates major technical challenges for the accurate and efficient detection and verification of cleavage sites on target mRNAs. Here we used a sensitive stem-loop array reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (SLA-RT-PCR) approach to detect and verify the siRNA-mediated target mRNA cleavage sites by determining precise sequences at the 3′-termini of cleaved mRNA fragments in human cells under physiological conditions. Our results demonstrated the great potential and broad applications of using the SLA-RT-PCR as a sensitive, cost-efficient, and high-throughput tool to systematically detect siRNA-targeted mRNA cleavage sites and fragments in human cells. PMID:26949742

  15. Stabilization of Clostridium perfringens collagenase mRNA by VR-RNA-dependent cleavage in 5' leader sequence.

    PubMed

    Obana, Nozomu; Shirahama, Yu; Abe, Kimihiro; Nakamura, Kouji

    2010-09-01

    The small RNA (sRNA), VR-RNA that is directly regulated by the VirR/VirS two-component system, regulates many genes including toxin genes such as collagenase (colA) and phospholipase C (plc) in Clostridium perfringens. Although the VR-RNA 3' region is sufficient to regulate the colA and plc genes, the molecular mechanism of toxin gene regulation by VR-RNA remains unclear. Here, we found that colA mRNA is cleaved at position -79 and -78 from the A of the first codon (ATG) in the presence of VR-RNA. The processed transcripts were stable compared with longer intact transcripts. On the other hand, colA mRNA was labile in a VR-RNA-deficient strain, and processed transcripts were undetectable. The stability and processing of colA mRNA were restored by transformation of the 3' region of VR-RNA-expression vector. The 3' region of VR-RNA and colA mRNA had significant complementation and interacted in vitro. These results show that VR-RNA base pairs with colA mRNA and induces cleavage in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of colA mRNA, which leads to the stabilization of colA mRNA and the activation of colA expression. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. microRNA-directed cleavage of ATHB15 mRNA regulates vascular development in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joonki; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Reyes, Jose L.; Kim, Youn-Sung; Kim, Sun-Young; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Kim, Jin A.; Lee, Minsun; Lee, Yoontae; Kim, V. Narry; Chua, Nam-Hai; Park, Chung-Mo

    2006-01-01

    Summary Class III homeodomain-leucine zipper proteins regulate critical aspects of plant development, including lateral organ polarity, apical and lateral meristem formation, and vascular development. ATHB15, a member of this transcription factor family, is exclusively expressed in vascular tissues. Recently, a microRNA (miRNA) binding sequence has been identified in ATHB15 mRNA, suggesting that a molecular mechanism governed by miRNA binding may direct vascular development through ATHB15. Here, we show that miR166-mediated ATHB15 mRNA cleavage is a principal mechanism for the regulation of vascular development. In a gain-of-function MIR166a mutant, the decreased transcript level of ATHB15 was accompanied by an altered vascular system with expanded xylem tissue and interfascicular region, indicative of accelerated vascular cell differentiation from cambial/procambial cells. A similar phenotype was observed in Arabidopsis plants with reduced ATHB15 expression but reversed in transgenic plants overexpressing an miR166-resistant ATHB15. ATHB15 mRNA cleavage occurred in standard wheat germ extracts and in Arabidopsis and was mediated by miR166 in Nicotiana benthamiana cells. miR166-assisted ATHB15 repression is likely to be a conserved mechanism that regulates vascular development in all vascular plants. PMID:15773855

  17. Role of miRNAs and alternative mRNA 3'-end cleavage and polyadenylation of their mRNA targets in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Soetanto, R; Hynes, C J; Patel, H R; Humphreys, D T; Evers, M; Duan, G; Parker, B J; Archer, S K; Clancy, J L; Graham, R M; Beilharz, T H; Smith, N J; Preiss, T

    2016-05-01

    miRNAs play critical roles in heart disease. In addition to differential miRNA expression, miRNA-mediated control is also affected by variable miRNA processing or alternative 3'-end cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) of their mRNA targets. To what extent these phenomena play a role in the heart remains unclear. We sought to explore miRNA processing and mRNA APA in cardiomyocytes, and whether these change during cardiac hypertrophy. Thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) was performed to induce hypertrophy in C57BL/6J mice. RNA extracted from cardiomyocytes of sham-treated, pre-hypertrophic (2 days post-TAC), and hypertrophic (7 days post-TAC) mice was subjected to small RNA- and poly(A)-test sequencing (PAT-Seq). Differential expression analysis matched expectations; nevertheless we identified ~400 mRNAs and hundreds of noncoding RNA loci as altered with hypertrophy for the first time. Although multiple processing variants were observed for many miRNAs, there was little change in their relative proportions during hypertrophy. PAT-Seq mapped ~48,000 mRNA 3'-ends, identifying novel 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) for over 7000 genes. Importantly, hypertrophy was associated with marked changes in APA with a net shift from distal to more proximal mRNA 3'-ends, which is predicted to decrease overall miRNA repression strength. We independently validated several examples of 3'UTR proportion change and showed that alternative 3'UTRs associate with differences in mRNA translation. Our work suggests that APA contributes to altered gene expression with the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and provides a rich resource for a systems-level understanding of miRNA-mediated regulation in physiological and pathological states of the heart. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. RNAMethPre: A Web Server for the Prediction and Query of mRNA m6A Sites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaou; Sun, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common mRNA modification; it occurs in a wide range of taxon and is associated with many key biological processes. High-throughput experiments have identified m6A-peaks and sites across the transcriptome, but studies of m6A sites at the transcriptome-wide scale are limited to a few species and tissue types. Therefore, the computational prediction of mRNA m6A sites has become an important strategy. In this study, we integrated multiple features of mRNA (flanking sequences, local secondary structure information, and relative position information) and trained a SVM classifier to predict m6A sites in mammalian mRNA sequences. Our method achieves ideal performance in both cross-validation tests and rigorous independent dataset tests. The server also provides a comprehensive database of predicted transcriptome-wide m6A sites and curated m6A-seq peaks from the literature for both human and mouse, and these can be queried and visualized in a genome browser. The RNAMethPre web server provides a user-friendly tool for the prediction and query of mRNA m6A sites, which is freely accessible for public use at http://bioinfo.tsinghua.edu.cn/RNAMethPre/index.html. PMID:27723837

  19. Characterization of the specific cleavage of ceiE7-mRNA of the bactericidal ColE7 operon.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ssu-Jean; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Yuan, Hanna S; Chak, Kin-Fu

    2002-12-13

    Posttranscriptional control of the bactericidal ColE7 operon has been implicated by a feedback endonucleolytic cleavage of its own mRNA. The cleavage site has been located at the coding region of ceiE7, the second cistron of the ColE7 cea-cei-cel polycistronic transcript. Interestingly, Im7 protein, the translation product of ceiE7, is required for the specific cleavage. It was found that both sequence (GAUCUGAUU) flanking the cleavage site and the putative T1 stem-loop structure distal to the coding region of ceiE7 gene play a critical role for the specific cleavage of ceiE7-mRNA. Furthermore, we have verified that a di-nucleotide GG sequence located at the topmost position of the loop region of the putative stem-loop structure is essential for the specific cleavage of ceiE7-mRNA. Thus, our data reveal the existence of a novel mRNA degradative machinery for the regulation of the expression of ColE7 operon.

  20. Translation-dependent mRNA cleavage by YhaV in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonho; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Lee, Jae-Woo; Jang, Kyung-Min; Inouye, Masayori; Kim, Sung-Gun; Yoon, Min-Ho; Park, Jung-Ho

    2017-07-01

    Many bacteria have toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems, where toxin gene expression inhibits their own cell growth. mRNA is one of the well-known targets of the toxins in the type II toxin-antitoxin systems. Here, we examined the ribosome dependency of the endoribonuclease activity of YhaV, one of the toxins in type II TA systems, on mRNA in vitro and in vivo. A polysome profiling assay revealed that YhaV is bound to the 70S ribosomes and 50S ribosomal subunits. Moreover, we found that while YhaV cleaves ompF and lpp mRNAs in a translation-dependent manner, they did not cleave the 5' untranslated region in primer extension experiments. From these results, we conclude that YhaV is a ribosome-dependent toxin that cleaves mRNA in a translation-dependent manner. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  1. RNA Sequencing Identifies New RNase III Cleavage Sites in Escherichia coli and Reveals Increased Regulation of mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Gina C.; Cameron, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ribonucleases facilitate rapid turnover of RNA, providing cells with another mechanism to adjust transcript and protein levels in response to environmental conditions. While many examples have been documented, a comprehensive list of RNase targets is not available. To address this knowledge gap, we compared levels of RNA sequencing coverage of Escherichia coli and a corresponding RNase III mutant to expand the list of known RNase III targets. RNase III is a widespread endoribonuclease that binds and cleaves double-stranded RNA in many critical transcripts. RNase III cleavage at novel sites found in aceEF, proP, tnaC, dctA, pheM, sdhC, yhhQ, glpT, aceK, and gluQ accelerated RNA decay, consistent with previously described targets wherein RNase III cleavage initiates rapid degradation of secondary messages by other RNases. In contrast, cleavage at three novel sites in the ahpF, pflB, and yajQ transcripts led to stabilized secondary transcripts. Two other novel sites in hisL and pheM overlapped with transcriptional attenuators that likely serve to ensure turnover of these highly structured RNAs. Many of the new RNase III target sites are located on transcripts encoding metabolic enzymes. For instance, two novel RNase III sites are located within transcripts encoding enzymes near a key metabolic node connecting glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was increased in an rnc deletion mutant compared to the wild-type (WT) strain in early stationary phase, confirming the novel link between RNA turnover and regulation of pathway activity. Identification of these novel sites suggests that mRNA turnover may be an underappreciated mode of regulating metabolism. PMID:28351917

  2. Antibiotics that bind to the A site of the large ribosomal subunit can induce mRNA translocation.

    PubMed

    Ermolenko, Dmitri N; Cornish, Peter V; Ha, Taekjip; Noller, Harry F

    2013-02-01

    In the absence of elongation factor EF-G, ribosomes undergo spontaneous, thermally driven fluctuation between the pre-translocation (classical) and intermediate (hybrid) states of translocation. These fluctuations do not result in productive mRNA translocation. Extending previous findings that the antibiotic sparsomycin induces translocation, we identify additional peptidyl transferase inhibitors that trigger productive mRNA translocation. We find that antibiotics that bind the peptidyl transferase A site induce mRNA translocation, whereas those that do not occupy the A site fail to induce translocation. Using single-molecule FRET, we show that translocation-inducing antibiotics do not accelerate intersubunit rotation, but act solely by converting the intrinsic, thermally driven dynamics of the ribosome into translocation. Our results support the idea that the ribosome is a Brownian ratchet machine, whose intrinsic dynamics can be rectified into unidirectional translocation by ligand binding.

  3. Ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 is required for endonucleolytic cleavage induced by stalled ribosome at the 3' end of nonstop mRNA.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Ken; Inada, Toshifumi

    2016-06-17

    Dom34-Hbs1 stimulates degradation of aberrant mRNAs lacking termination codons by dissociating ribosomes stalled at the 3' ends, and plays crucial roles in Nonstop Decay (NSD) and No-Go Decay (NGD). In the dom34Δ mutant, nonstop mRNA is degraded by sequential endonucleolytic cleavages induced by a stalled ribosome at the 3' end. Here, we report that ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 is required for the endonucleolytic cleavage of nonstop mRNA by stalled ribosome at the 3' end of mRNA in dom34Δ mutant cells. Asc1/RACK1 facilitates degradation of truncated GFP-Rz mRNA in the absence of Dom34 and exosome-dependent decay. Asc1/RACK1 is required for the sequential endonucleolytic cleavages by the stalled ribosome in the dom34Δ mutant, depending on its ribosome-binding activity. The levels of peptidyl-tRNA derived from nonstop mRNA were elevated in dom34Δasc1Δ mutant cells, and overproduction of nonstop mRNA inhibited growth of mutant cells. E3 ubiquitin ligase Ltn1 degrades the arrest products from truncated GFP-Rz mRNA in dom34Δ and dom34Δasc1Δ mutant cells, and Asc1/RACK1 represses the levels of substrates for Ltn1-dependent degradation. These indicate that ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 facilitates endonucleolytic cleavage of nonstop mRNA by stalled ribosomes and represses the levels of aberrant products even in the absence of Dom34. We propose that Asc1/RACK1 acts as a fail-safe in quality control for nonstop mRNA.

  4. Ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 is required for endonucleolytic cleavage induced by stalled ribosome at the 3′ end of nonstop mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Ikeuchi, Ken; Inada, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Dom34-Hbs1 stimulates degradation of aberrant mRNAs lacking termination codons by dissociating ribosomes stalled at the 3′ ends, and plays crucial roles in Nonstop Decay (NSD) and No-Go Decay (NGD). In the dom34Δ mutant, nonstop mRNA is degraded by sequential endonucleolytic cleavages induced by a stalled ribosome at the 3′ end. Here, we report that ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 is required for the endonucleolytic cleavage of nonstop mRNA by stalled ribosome at the 3′ end of mRNA in dom34Δ mutant cells. Asc1/RACK1 facilitates degradation of truncated GFP-Rz mRNA in the absence of Dom34 and exosome-dependent decay. Asc1/RACK1 is required for the sequential endonucleolytic cleavages by the stalled ribosome in the dom34Δ mutant, depending on its ribosome-binding activity. The levels of peptidyl-tRNA derived from nonstop mRNA were elevated in dom34Δasc1Δ mutant cells, and overproduction of nonstop mRNA inhibited growth of mutant cells. E3 ubiquitin ligase Ltn1 degrades the arrest products from truncated GFP-Rz mRNA in dom34Δ and dom34Δasc1Δ mutant cells, and Asc1/RACK1 represses the levels of substrates for Ltn1-dependent degradation. These indicate that ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 facilitates endonucleolytic cleavage of nonstop mRNA by stalled ribosomes and represses the levels of aberrant products even in the absence of Dom34. We propose that Asc1/RACK1 acts as a fail-safe in quality control for nonstop mRNA. PMID:27312062

  5. RNA Sequencing Identifies New RNase III Cleavage Sites in Escherichia coli and Reveals Increased Regulation of mRNA

    DOE PAGES

    Gordon, Gina C.; Cameron, Jeffrey C.; Pfleger, Brian F.

    2017-03-28

    Ribonucleases facilitate rapid turnover of RNA, providing cells with another mechanism to adjust transcript and protein levels in response to environmental conditions. While many examples have been documented, a comprehensive list of RNase targets is not available. To address this knowledge gap, we compared levels of RNA sequencing coverage of Escherichia coli and a corresponding RNase III mutant to expand the list of known RNase III targets. RNase III is a widespread endoribonuclease that binds and cleaves double-stranded RNA in many critical transcripts. RNase III cleavage at novel sites found in aceEF, proP, tnaC, dctA, pheM, sdhC, yhhQ, glpT, aceK,more » and gluQ accelerated RNA decay, consistent with previously described targets wherein RNase III cleavage initiates rapid degradation of secondary messages by other RNases. In contrast, cleavage at three novel sites in the ahpF, pflB, and yajQ transcripts led to stabilized secondary transcripts. Two other novel sites in hisL and pheM overlapped with transcriptional attenuators that likely serve to ensure turnover of these highly structured RNAs. Many of the new RNase III target sites are located on transcripts encoding metabolic enzymes. For instance, two novel RNase III sites are located within transcripts encoding enzymes near a key metabolic node connecting glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was increased in an rnc deletion mutant compared to the wild-type (WT) strain in early stationary phase, confirming the novel link between RNA turnover and regulation of pathway activity. Identification of these novel sites suggests that mRNA turnover may be an underappreciated mode of regulating metabolism. IMPORTANCE: The concerted action and overlapping functions of endoribonucleases, exoribonucleases, and RNA processing enzymes complicate the study of global RNA turnover and recycling of specific transcripts. More information about RNase specificity and activity is

  6. RNA Sequencing Identifies New RNase III Cleavage Sites in Escherichia coli and Reveals Increased Regulation of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Gina C; Cameron, Jeffrey C; Pfleger, Brian F

    2017-03-28

    Ribonucleases facilitate rapid turnover of RNA, providing cells with another mechanism to adjust transcript and protein levels in response to environmental conditions. While many examples have been documented, a comprehensive list of RNase targets is not available. To address this knowledge gap, we compared levels of RNA sequencing coverage of Escherichia coli and a corresponding RNase III mutant to expand the list of known RNase III targets. RNase III is a widespread endoribonuclease that binds and cleaves double-stranded RNA in many critical transcripts. RNase III cleavage at novel sites found in aceEF, proP, tnaC, dctA, pheM, sdhC, yhhQ, glpT, aceK, and gluQ accelerated RNA decay, consistent with previously described targets wherein RNase III cleavage initiates rapid degradation of secondary messages by other RNases. In contrast, cleavage at three novel sites in the ahpF, pflB, and yajQ transcripts led to stabilized secondary transcripts. Two other novel sites in hisL and pheM overlapped with transcriptional attenuators that likely serve to ensure turnover of these highly structured RNAs. Many of the new RNase III target sites are located on transcripts encoding metabolic enzymes. For instance, two novel RNase III sites are located within transcripts encoding enzymes near a key metabolic node connecting glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was increased in an rnc deletion mutant compared to the wild-type (WT) strain in early stationary phase, confirming the novel link between RNA turnover and regulation of pathway activity. Identification of these novel sites suggests that mRNA turnover may be an underappreciated mode of regulating metabolism.IMPORTANCE The concerted action and overlapping functions of endoribonucleases, exoribonucleases, and RNA processing enzymes complicate the study of global RNA turnover and recycling of specific transcripts. More information about RNase specificity and activity is needed to make

  7. Arrangement of mRNA 3' of the A site codon on the human 80S ribosome.

    PubMed

    Molotkov, Maxim; Graifer, Dmitri; Demeshkna, Natalia; Repkova, Marina; Ven'yaminova, Aliya; Karpova, Galina

    2005-04-01

    Positioning of mRNA 3' of the A site codon was studied with the use of short mRNA analogues carrying a UUU triplet at the 5'-termini and a perfluorophenylazide group at either the N7 atom of the guanosine or the C5 atom of the uridine 3' of the triplet. Modified nucleotides were directed to positions +7, +9 or +12 with respect to the first nucleotide of the P site codon by tRNA(Phe) cognate to the UUU triplet targeted to the P site. Mild UV-irradiation resulted in cross-linking of the mRNA analogues to the 18S rRNA and to 40S proteins, the yield of cross-linking depending on the nature of the mRNA nucleotide bearing the modified group and its position on the ribosome. In addition, the yield of cross-linking to the 18S rRNA decreased strongly when the modified nucleotide was moved from position +7 to position +12. All the mRNA analogues cross-linked to the 18S rRNA nucleotides that had been found earlier at the decoding site, namely, to the invariant dinucleotide A1824/A1825 and the variable A1823 in the 3'-minidomain of the 18S rRNA, and also to the invariant nucleotide C1698 in the 3'-minidomain and the conserved region 605-620 in the apical region of helix 18 in the 5'-domain. The results indicate that (1) the mRNA makes a sharp turn between positions +6 and +7, (2) the triplet immediately 3' of the A site codon neighbors the 18S rRNA and proteins, and (3) the codon 3' of the triplet mentioned is surrounded mainly by proteins.

  8. CsrA activates flhDC expression by protecting flhDC mRNA from RNase E-mediated cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Yakhnin, Alexander V.; Baker, Carol S.; Vakulskas, Christopher A.; Yakhnin, Helen; Berezin, Igor; Romeo, Tony; Babitzke, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Summary Csr is a conserved global regulatory system that controls expression of several hundred Escherichia coli genes. CsrA protein represses translation of numerous genes by binding to mRNA and inhibiting ribosome access. CsrA also activates gene expression, although an activation mechanism has not been reported. CsrA activates flhDC expression, encoding the master regulator of flagellum biosynthesis and chemotaxis, by stabilizing the mRNA. Computer modeling, gel mobility shift, and footprint analyses identified two CsrA binding sites extending from positions 1–12 (BS1) and 44–55 (BS2) of the 198-nt flhDC leader transcript. flhD'-'lacZ expression was reduced by mutations in csrA and/or the CsrA binding sites. The position of BS1 suggested that bound CsrA might inhibit 5' end-dependent RNase E cleavage of flhDC mRNA. Consistent with this hypothesis, CsrA protected flhDC leader RNA from RNase E cleavage in vitro and protection depended on BS1 and BS2. Primer extension studies identified flhDC decay intermediates in vivo that correspond to in vitro RNase E cleavage sites. Deletion of these RNase E cleavage sites resulted in increased flhD'-'lacZ expression. Data from mRNA decay studies and quantitative primer extension assays support a model in which bound CsrA activates flhDC expression by inhibiting the 5' end-dependent RNase E cleavage pathway. PMID:23305111

  9. CsrA activates flhDC expression by protecting flhDC mRNA from RNase E-mediated cleavage.

    PubMed

    Yakhnin, Alexander V; Baker, Carol S; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Yakhnin, Helen; Berezin, Igor; Romeo, Tony; Babitzke, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Csr is a conserved global regulatory system that controls expression of several hundred Escherichia coli genes. CsrA protein represses translation of numerous genes by binding to mRNA and inhibiting ribosome access. CsrA also activates gene expression, although an activation mechanism has not been reported. CsrA activates flhDC expression, encoding the master regulator of flagellum biosynthesis and chemotaxis, by stabilizing the mRNA. Computer modelling, gel mobility shift and footprint analyses identified two CsrA binding sites extending from positions 1-12 (BS1) and 44-55 (BS2) of the 198 nt flhDC leader transcript. flhD'-'lacZ expression was reduced by mutations in csrA and/or the CsrA binding sites. The position of BS1 suggested that bound CsrA might inhibit 5' end-dependent RNase E cleavage of flhDC mRNA. Consistent with this hypothesis, CsrA protected flhDC leader RNA from RNase E cleavage in vitro and protection depended on BS1 and BS2. Primer extension studies identified flhDC decay intermediates in vivo that correspond to in vitro RNase E cleavage sites. Deletion of these RNase E cleavage sites resulted in increased flhD'-'lacZ expression. Data from mRNA decay studies and quantitative primer extension assays support a model in which bound CsrA activates flhDC expression by inhibiting the 5' end-dependent RNase E cleavage pathway. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. [Positioning of mRNA 3' of the a site bound codon on the human 80S ribosome].

    PubMed

    Molotkov, M V; Graĭfer, D M; Demeshkina, N A; Repkova, M N; Ven'iaminova, A G; Karpova, G G

    2005-01-01

    Short mRNA analogues carrying a UUU triplet at the 5'-termini and a perfluorophenylazide group at either the N7 atom of the guanosine or the C5 atom of the uridine 3' of the triplet were applied to study positioning of mRNA 3' of the A site codon. Complexes of 80S ribosomes with the mRNA analogues were obtained in the presence of tRNAPhe that directed UUU codon to the P site and consequently provided placement of the nucleotide with cross-linker in positions +9 or +12 with respect to the first nucleotide of the P site bound codon. Both types mRNA analogues cross-linked to the 18S rRNA and 40S proteins under mild UV-irradiation. Cross-linking patterns in the complexes where modified nucleotides of the mRNA analogues were in position +7 were analyzed for comparison (cross-linking to the 18S rRNA in such complexes has been studied previously). The efficiency of cross-linking to the ribosomal components depended on the nature of the modified nucleotide in the mRNA analogue and its position on the ribosome, extent of cross-linking to the 18S rRNA being decreased drastically when the modified nucleotide was moved from position +7 to position +12. The nucleotides of 18S rRNA cross-linked to mRNA analogues were determined. Modified nucleotides in positions +9 and +12 cross-linked to the invariant dinucleotide A1824/A1825 and to variable A1823 in the 3'-minidomain of 18S rRNA as well as to protein S15. The same ribosomal components have been found earlier to cross-link to modified mRNA nucleotides in positions from +4 to +7. Besides, all mRNA analogues cross-linked to the invariant nucleotide c1698 in the 3'-minidomain and to and the conserved region 605-620 closing helix 18 in the 5'-domain.

  11. Crystal structure of a human cleavage factor CFI(m)25/CFI(m)68/RNA complex provides an insight into poly(A) site recognition and RNA looping.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Coseno, Molly; Gilmartin, Gregory M; Doublié, Sylvie

    2011-03-09

    Cleavage factor I(m) (CFI(m)) is a highly conserved component of the eukaryotic mRNA 3' processing machinery that functions in sequence-specific poly(A) site recognition through the collaboration of a 25 kDa subunit containing a Nudix domain and a larger subunit of 59, 68, or 72 kDa containing an RNA recognition motif (RRM). Our previous work demonstrated that CFI(m)25 is both necessary and sufficient for sequence-specific binding of the poly(A) site upstream element UGUA. Here, we report the crystal structure of CFI(m)25 complexed with the RRM domain of CFI(m)68 and RNA. The CFI(m)25 dimer is clasped on opposite sides by two CFI(m)68 RRM domains. Each CFI(m)25 subunit binds one UGUA element specifically. Biochemical analysis indicates that the CFI(m)68 RRMs serve to enhance RNA binding and facilitate RNA looping. The intrinsic ability of CFI(m) to direct RNA looping may provide a mechanism for its function in the regulation of alternative poly(A) site selection.

  12. The rate-limiting step in yeast PGK1 mRNA degradation is an endonucleolytic cleavage in the 3'-terminal part of the coding region.

    PubMed Central

    Vreken, P; Raué, H A

    1992-01-01

    Insertion of an 18-nucleotide-long poly(G) tract into the 3'-terminal untranslated region of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1) mRNA increases its chemical half-life by about a factor of 2 (P. Vreken, R. Van der Veen, V. C. H. F. de Regt, A. L. de Maat, R. J. Planta, and H. A. Raué, Biochimie 73:729-737, 1991). In this report, we show that this insertion also causes the accumulation of a degradation intermediate extending from the poly(G) sequence down to the transcription termination site. Reverse transcription and S1 nuclease mapping experiments demonstrated that this intermediate is the product of shorter-lived primary fragments resulting from endonucleolytic cleavage immediately downstream from the U residue of either of two 5'-GGUG-3' sequences present between positions 1100 and 1200 close to the 3' terminus (position 1251) of the coding sequence. Similar endonucleolytic cleavages appear to initiate degradation of wild-type PGK1 mRNA. Insertion of a poly(G) tract just upstream from the AUG start codon resulted in the accumulation of a 5'-terminal degradation intermediate extending from the insertion to the 1100-1200 region. RNase H degradation in the presence of oligo(dT) demonstrated that the wild-type and mutant PGK1 mRNAs are deadenylated prior to endonucleolytic cleavage and that the half-life of the poly(A) tail is three- to sixfold lower than that of the remainder of the mRNA. Thus, the endonucleolytic cleavage constitutes the rate-limiting step in degradation of both wild-type and mutant PGK1 transcripts, and the resulting fragments are degraded by a 5'----3' exonuclease, which appears to be severely retarded by a poly(G) sequence. Images PMID:1320194

  13. Accurate in vitro cleavage by RNase III of phosphorothioate-substituted RNA processing signals in bacteriophage T7 early mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, A W; Niebling, K R; McOsker, P L; Robertson, H D

    1988-01-01

    To test the ability of an RNA processing enzyme to cleave chemically-modified RNA substrates, RNA transcripts containing RNase III cleavage sites were enzymatically synthesized in vitro to contain specific phosphorothioate diester internucleotide linkages. One transcript (R1.1 RNA) was generated using phage T7 RNA polymerase and a cloned segment of phage T7 DNA containing the R1.1 RNase III processing site. The second transcript was the phage T7 polycistronic early mRNA precursor, which was synthesized using E. coli RNA polymerase and T7 genomic DNA. The RNA transcripts contained phosphorothioate diester groups at positions including the scissile bonds. The modified RNAs were stable to incubation in Mg2+-containing buffer, and were specifically cleaved by RNase III. RNA oligonucleotide sequence analysis showed that the modified R1.1 RNA processing site was the same as the canonical site and contained a phosphorothioate bond. Furthermore, RNase III cleaved the phosphorothioate internucleotide bond with 5' polarity. RNase III cleavage of phosphorothioate substituted T7 polycistronic early mRNA precursor produced the same gel electrophoretic pattern as that obtained with the control transcript. Thus, RNase III cleavage specificity is not altered by phosphorothioate internucleotide linkages. Images PMID:3279395

  14. 3' RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends for validating viroid induced cleavage at the 3' extremity of the host mRNA.

    PubMed

    Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Bru, Pierrick; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2017-09-22

    5' RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5' RLM-RACE) is a widely-accepted method for the validation of direct cleavage of a target gene by a microRNA (miRNA) and viroid-derived small RNA (vd-sRNA). However, this method cannot be used if cleavage takes place in the 3' extremity of the target RNA, as this gives insufficient sequence length to design nested PCR primers for 5' RLM RACE. To overcome this hurdle, we have developed 3' RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3' RLM RACE). In this method, an oligonucleotide adapter having 5' adenylated and 3' blocked is ligated to the 3' end of the cleaved RNA followed by PCR amplification using gene specific primers. In other words, in 3' RLM RACE, 3' end is mapped using 5' fragment instead of small 3' fragment. The method developed here was verified by examining the bioinformatics predicted and parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE) proved cleavage sites of chloride channel protein CLC-b-like mRNA in Potato spindle tuber viroid infected tomato plants. The 3' RLM RACE developed in this study has the potential to validate the miRNA and vd-sRNA mediated cleavage of mRNAs at its 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. AthMethPre: a web server for the prediction and query of mRNA m(6)A sites in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Shunian; Yan, Zhangming; Liu, Ke; Zhang, Yaou; Sun, Zhirong

    2016-10-18

    N(6)-Methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent and abundant modification in mRNA that has been linked to many key biological processes. High-throughput experiments have generated m(6)A-peaks across the transcriptome of A. thaliana, but the specific methylated sites were not assigned, which impedes the understanding of m(6)A functions in plants. Therefore, computational prediction of mRNA m(6)A sites becomes emergently important. Here, we present a method to predict the m(6)A sites for A. thaliana mRNA sequence(s). To predict the m(6)A sites of an mRNA sequence, we employed the support vector machine to build a classifier using the features of the positional flanking nucleotide sequence and position-independent k-mer nucleotide spectrum. Our method achieved good performance and was applied to a web server to provide service for the prediction of A. thaliana m(6)A sites. The server also provides a comprehensive database of predicted transcriptome-wide m(6)A sites and curated m(6)A-seq peaks from the literature for query and visualization. The AthMethPre web server is the first web server that provides a user-friendly tool for the prediction and query of A. thaliana mRNA m(6)A sites, which is freely accessible for public use at .

  16. Rapid hydrolytic cleavage of the mRNA model compound HPNP by glycine based macrocyclic lanthanide ribonuclease mimics.

    PubMed

    Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur; Davies, R Jeremy H; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; Stevenson, Clarke S; Viguier, Romain; Mulready, Sinead

    2002-09-21

    The lanthanide ion based macrocyclic complexes 1.Ln mimic the hydrophobic nature of ribonucleases, where the lanthanide ions induce the formation of a hydrophobic cavity for 1, giving rise to a large order of magnitude enhancement in the hydrolytic cleavage of HPNP.

  17. Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Gene Expression in Theca Cells: Augmented Transcriptional Regulation and mRNA Stability in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nelson-DeGrave, Velen L.; Legro, Richard S.; Strauss, Jerome F.; McAllister, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism is characteristic of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ovarian theca cells isolated from PCOS follicles and maintained in long-term culture produce elevated levels of progestins and androgens compared to normal theca cells. Augmented steroid production in PCOS theca cells is associated with changes in the expression of genes for several steroidogenic enzymes, including CYP11A1, which encodes cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage. Here, we further examined CYP11A1 gene expression, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in normal and PCOS theca cells propagated in long-term culture utilizing quantitative RT-PCR, functional promoter analyses, and mRNA degradation studies. The minimal element(s) that conferred increased basal and cAMP-dependent CYP11A1 promoter function were determined. CYP11A1 mRNA half-life in normal and PCOS theca cells was compared. Results of these cumulative studies showed that basal and forskolin stimulated steady state CYP11A1 mRNA abundance and CYP11A1 promoter activity were increased in PCOS theca cells. Deletion analysis of the CYP11A1 promoter demonstrated that augmented promoter function in PCOS theca cells results from increased basal regulation conferred by a minimal sequence between −160 and −90 bp of the transcriptional start site. The transcription factor, nuclear factor 1C2, was observed to regulate basal activity of this minimal CYP11A1 element. Examination of mRNA stability in normal and PCOS theca cells demonstrated that CYP11A1 mRNA half-life increased >2-fold, from approximately 9.22+/−1.62 h in normal cells, to 22.38+/−0.92 h in PCOS cells. Forskolin treatment did not prolong CYP11A1 mRNA stability in either normal or PCOS theca cells. The 5′-UTR of CYP11A1 mRNA confers increased basal mRNA stability in PCOS cells. In conclusion, these studies show that elevated steady state CYP11A1 mRNA abundance in PCOS cells results from increased transactivation of the CYP

  18. Respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein: nucleotide sequence of mRNA, identification of cleavage activation site and amino acid sequence of N-terminus of F1 subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Elango, N; Satake, M; Coligan, J E; Norrby, E; Camargo, E; Venkatesan, S

    1985-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein (Fo) was deduced from the sequence of a partial cDNA clone of mRNA and from the 5' mRNA sequence obtained by primer extension and dideoxysequencing. The encoded protein of 574 amino acids is extremely hydrophobic and has a molecular weight of 63371 daltons. The site of proteolytic cleavage within this protein was accurately mapped by determining a partial amino acid sequence of the N-terminus of the larger subunit (F1) purified by radioimmunoprecipitation using monoclonal antibodies. Alignment of the N-terminus of the F1 subunit within the deduced amino acid sequence of Fo permitted us to identify a sequence of lys-lys-arg-lys-arg-arg at the C-terminus of the smaller N-terminal F2 subunit that appears to represent the cleavage/activation domain. Five potential sites of glycosylation, four within the F2 subunit, were also identified. Three extremely hydrophobic domains are present in the protein; a) the N-terminal signal sequence, b) the N-terminus of the F1 subunit that is analogous to the N-terminus of the paramyxovirus F1 subunit and the HA2 subunit of influenza virus hemagglutinin, and c) the putative membrane anchorage domain near the C-terminus of F1. Images PMID:2987829

  19. APASdb: a database describing alternative poly(A) sites and selection of heterogeneous cleavage sites downstream of poly(A) signals.

    PubMed

    You, Leiming; Wu, Jiexin; Feng, Yuchao; Fu, Yonggui; Guo, Yanan; Long, Liyuan; Zhang, Hui; Luan, Yijie; Tian, Peng; Chen, Liangfu; Huang, Guangrui; Huang, Shengfeng; Li, Yuxin; Li, Jie; Chen, Chengyong; Zhang, Yaqing; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2015-01-01

    Increasing amounts of genes have been shown to utilize alternative polyadenylation (APA) 3'-processing sites depending on the cell and tissue type and/or physiological and pathological conditions at the time of processing, and the construction of genome-wide database regarding APA is urgently needed for better understanding poly(A) site selection and APA-directed gene expression regulation for a given biology. Here we present a web-accessible database, named APASdb (http://mosas.sysu.edu.cn/utr), which can visualize the precise map and usage quantification of different APA isoforms for all genes. The datasets are deeply profiled by the sequencing alternative polyadenylation sites (SAPAS) method capable of high-throughput sequencing 3'-ends of polyadenylated transcripts. Thus, APASdb details all the heterogeneous cleavage sites downstream of poly(A) signals, and maintains near complete coverage for APA sites, much better than the previous databases using conventional methods. Furthermore, APASdb provides the quantification of a given APA variant among transcripts with different APA sites by computing their corresponding normalized-reads, making our database more useful. In addition, APASdb supports URL-based retrieval, browsing and display of exon-intron structure, poly(A) signals, poly(A) sites location and usage reads, and 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs). Currently, APASdb involves APA in various biological processes and diseases in human, mouse and zebrafish.

  20. APASdb: a database describing alternative poly(A) sites and selection of heterogeneous cleavage sites downstream of poly(A) signals

    PubMed Central

    You, Leiming; Wu, Jiexin; Feng, Yuchao; Fu, Yonggui; Guo, Yanan; Long, Liyuan; Zhang, Hui; Luan, Yijie; Tian, Peng; Chen, Liangfu; Huang, Guangrui; Huang, Shengfeng; Li, Yuxin; Li, Jie; Chen, Chengyong; Zhang, Yaqing; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2015-01-01

    Increasing amounts of genes have been shown to utilize alternative polyadenylation (APA) 3′-processing sites depending on the cell and tissue type and/or physiological and pathological conditions at the time of processing, and the construction of genome-wide database regarding APA is urgently needed for better understanding poly(A) site selection and APA-directed gene expression regulation for a given biology. Here we present a web-accessible database, named APASdb (http://mosas.sysu.edu.cn/utr), which can visualize the precise map and usage quantification of different APA isoforms for all genes. The datasets are deeply profiled by the sequencing alternative polyadenylation sites (SAPAS) method capable of high-throughput sequencing 3′-ends of polyadenylated transcripts. Thus, APASdb details all the heterogeneous cleavage sites downstream of poly(A) signals, and maintains near complete coverage for APA sites, much better than the previous databases using conventional methods. Furthermore, APASdb provides the quantification of a given APA variant among transcripts with different APA sites by computing their corresponding normalized-reads, making our database more useful. In addition, APASdb supports URL-based retrieval, browsing and display of exon-intron structure, poly(A) signals, poly(A) sites location and usage reads, and 3′-untranslated regions (3′-UTRs). Currently, APASdb involves APA in various biological processes and diseases in human, mouse and zebrafish. PMID:25378337

  1. Formation of C-terminally truncated version of the Taz1 protein employs cleavage-box structure in mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gunisova, Stanislava; Bartosova, Zdenka; Kramara, Juraj; Nosek, Jozef; Tomaska, Lubomir

    2010-02-12

    When expressed in various hosts the taz1{sup +} gene encoding the fission yeast telomere-binding protein produces two forms of polypeptides: full-length (Taz1p) and truncated (Taz1p{Delta}C) version lacking almost entire Myb-domain. Whereas Taz1p binds telomeric DNA in vitro, Taz1p{Delta}C forms long filaments unable of DNA binding. The formation of Taz1p{Delta}C is a result of neither site-specific proteolysis, nor premature termination of transcription. In silico analysis of the taz1{sup +} RNA transcript revealed a stem-loop structure at the site of cleavage (cleavage box; CB). In order to explore whether it possesses inherent destabilizing effects, we cloned CB sequence into the open reading frame (ORF) of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and observed that when expressed in Escherichia coli the engineered gene produced two forms of the reporter protein. The formation of the truncated version of GST was abolished, when CB was replaced with recoded sequence containing synonymous codons thus indicating that the truncation is based on structural properties of taz1{sup +} mRNA.

  2. Molecular cloning of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage and changes in its mRNA expression during gonadal development of brown hagfish, Paramyxine atami.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Maki; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Abe, Nozomi; Nozaki, Masumi

    2015-02-01

    Since hagfishes are considered the most primitive vertebrate known, extant or extinct, studies on their reproduction are indispensable for understanding phylogenetic aspects of vertebrate reproduction. However, little information is available on the endocrine regulation of the gonadal function in the hagfish. Based on EST analysis of the testis of the brown hagfish (Paramyxine atami), P450 side chain cleavage (CYP11A), which is the first and essential enzyme for steroidogenesis in jawed vertebrates, was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence of hagfish CYP11A shows high identity to other animal forms especially in two functional domains, adrenodoxin binding domain and heme-binding domain. In the phylogenetic analysis, hagfish CYP11A forms a clade with the vertebrate CYP11A. Following the real-time PCR analysis, CYP11A mRNA expression levels were clearly correlated to the developmental stages of gonads in both sexes of the brown hagfish. By in situ hybridization, CYP11A mRNA signals were found in the theca cells of the ovarian follicles and Leydig cells and the tubule-boundary cells of the testis. These molecular and histological evidences are suggesting that CYP11A plays functional roles as a steroidogenic enzyme in gonadal development. Moreover, native GTH purified from hagfish pituitary stimulated the transcriptional levels of CYP11A in the organ-cultured testis in vitro, clearly suggesting that the steroidogenic activity of the hagfish is under the control of the pituitary GTH. It is suggested that vertebrates, during their early evolution, have established the pituitary-gonadal reproductive system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The 'cleavage' activities of foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A site-directed mutants and naturally occurring '2A-like' sequences.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, M L; Hughes, L E; Luke, G; Mendoza, H; ten Dam, E; Gani, D; Ryan, M D

    2001-05-01

    The 2A/2B cleavage of aphtho- and cardiovirus 2A polyproteins is mediated by their 2A proteins 'cleaving' at their own C termini. We have analysed this activity using artificial reporter polyprotein systems comprising green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked via foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A to beta-glucuronidase (GUS) -- forming a single, long, open reading frame. Analysis of the distribution of radiolabel showed a high proportion of the in vitro translation products (approximately 90%) were in the form of the 'cleavage' products GUS and [GFP2A]. Alternative models have been proposed to account for the 'cleavage' activity: proteolysis by a host-cell proteinase, autoproteolysis or a translational effect. To investigate the mechanism of this cleavage event constructs encoding site-directed mutant and naturally occurring '2A-like' sequences were used to program in vitro translation systems and the gel profiles analysed. Analysis of site-directed mutant 2A sequences showed that 'cleavage' occurred in constructs in which all the candidate nucleophilic residues were substituted -- with the exception of aspartate-12. This residue is not, however, conserved amongst all functional '2A-like' sequences. '2A-like' sequences were identified within insect virus polyproteins, the NS34 protein of type C rotaviruses, repeated sequences in Trypanosoma spp. and a eubacterial alpha-glucosiduronasesequence(Thermatoga maritima aguA). All of the 2A-like sequences analysed were active (to various extents), other than the eubacterial alpha-glucosiduronase 2A-like sequence. This method of control of protein biogenesis may well not, therefore, be confined to members of the PICORNAVIRIDAE: Taken together, these data provide additional evidence that neither FMDV 2A nor '2A-like' sequences are autoproteolytic elements.

  4. [Protein S3 in the human 80S ribosome adjoins mRNA from 3'-side of the A-site codon].

    PubMed

    Molotkov, M V; Graĭfer, D M; Popugaeva, E A; Bulygin, K N; Meshchaninova, M I; Ven'iaminova, A G; Karpova, G G

    2007-01-01

    The protein environment of mRNA 3' of the A-site codon (the decoding site) in the human 80S ribosome was studied using a set of oligoribonucleotide derivatives bearing a UUU triplet at the 5'-end and a perfluoroarylazide group at one of the nucleotide residues at the 3'-end of this triplet. Analogues of mRNA were phased into the ribosome using binding at the tRNAPhe P-site, which recognizes the UUU codon. Mild UV irradiation of ribosome complexes with tRNAPhe and mRNA analogues resulted in the predominant crosslinking of the analogues with the 40S subunit components, mainly with proteins and, to a lesser extent, with rRNA. Among the 40S subunit ribosomal proteins, the S3 protein was the main target for modification in all cases. In addition, minor crosslinking with the S2 protein was observed. The crosslinking with the S3 and S2 proteins occurred both in triple complexes and in the absence of tRNA. Within triple complexes, crosslinking with S15 protein was also found, its efficiency considerably falling when the modified nucleotide was moved from positions +5 to +12 relative to the first codon nucleotide in the P-site. In some cases, crosslinking with the S30 protein was observed, it was most efficient for the derivative containing a photoreactive group at the +7 adenosine residue. The results indicate that the S3 protein in the human ribosome plays a key role in the formation of the mRNA binding site 3' of the codon in the decoding site.

  5. Evolution of mRNA polyadenylation between oocyte maturation and first embryonic cleavage in cattle and its relation with developmental competence.

    PubMed

    Brevini, T A L; Lonergan, P; Cillo, F; Francisci, C; Favetta, L A; Fair, T; Gandolfi, F

    2002-12-01

    In this study we analyzed the pattern of polyadenylation changes that takes place between the resumption of meiosis and the first cleavage of bovine oocytes. Moreover, we investigated whether the delayed occurrence of the first cleavage division, which characterizes embryos of low developmental competence, is accompanied by an altered polyadenylation pattern of individual transcripts. We determined the polyadenylation status of a group of genes that characterize physiological processes, involved in early differentiation (Oct-4), compaction, and cavitation (beta-actin, plakophilin, connexin-32, connexin-43), energy metabolism (glucose transporter type 1, pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase), RNA processing (RNA poly(A) polymerase), and stress (heat shock protein 70). RNA was isolated from pools of 20 oocytes or embryos at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, at the end of in vitro maturation, at the end of in vitro fertilization, and at the time of the first cleavage. Cleavage was assessed 27, 30, 36, 42 hr post insemination (hpi), and at the latter time the remaining uncleaved oocytes were retained as a group. Between oocyte isolation and first cleavage at 27 hpi (best quality embryos), the poly(A) tail of individual transcripts followed four patterns: no changes (beta-actin, PDP); gradual reduction (Cx-43, Oct-4, Plako); gradual elongation (Cx-32, TPA); reduction followed by elongation (PAP, HSP-70, Glut-1). If the interval between insemination and first cleavage was longer than 27 hpi (progressively lower quality embryos) further changes of polyadenylation were observed, which differed for each gene considered. These data indicated that specific changes in polyadenylation contribute to the modulation of gene expression in bovine embryos at this stage of development. Defective developmental competence is accompanied by abnormal polyadenylation levels of specific maternal mRNAs with synchrony between polyadenylation and cleavage emerging as an apparently important

  6. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  7. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Cleavage of INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE28 mRNA by microRNA847 upregulates auxin signaling to modulate cell proliferation and lateral organ growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Guo, Hui-Shan

    2015-03-01

    MicroRNAs function in a range of developmental processes. Here, we demonstrate that miR847 targets the mRNA of the auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) repressor-encoding gene IAA28 for cleavage. The rapidly increased accumulation of miR847 in Arabidopsis thaliana coincided with reduced IAA28 mRNA levels upon auxin treatment. This induction of miR847 by auxin was abolished in auxin receptor tir1-1 and auxin-resistant axr1-3 mutants. Further analysis demonstrates that miR847 functions as a positive regulator of auxin-mediated lateral organ development by cleaving IAA28 mRNA. Importantly, the ectopic expression of miR847 increases the expression of cell cycle genes as well as the neoplastic activity of leaf cells, prolonging later-stage rosette leaf growth and producing leaves with serrated margins. Moreover, both miR847 and IAA28 mRNAs are specifically expressed in marginal meristems of rosette leaves and lateral root initiation sites. Our data indicate that auxin-dependent induction of miR847 positively regulates meristematic competence by clearing IAA28 mRNA to upregulate auxin signaling, thereby determining the duration of cell proliferation and lateral organ growth in Arabidopsis. IAA28 mRNA encodes an Aux/IAA repressor protein, which is degraded through the proteasome in response to auxin. Altered signal sensitization to IAA28 mRNA levels, together with targeted IAA28 degradation, ensures a robust signal derepression.

  9. Bacterial toxin HigB associates with ribosomes and mediates translation-dependent mRNA cleavage at A-rich sites.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Jennifer M; Woychik, Nancy A

    2009-07-10

    Most pathogenic Proteus species are primarily associated with urinary tract infections, especially in persons with indwelling catheters or functional/anatomic abnormalities of the urinary tract. Urinary tract infections caused by Proteus vulgaris typically form biofilms and are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. The Rts1 conjugative plasmid from a clinical isolate of P. vulgaris carries over 300 predicted open reading frames, including antibiotic resistance genes. The maintenance of the Rts1 plasmid is ensured in part by the HigBA toxin-antitoxin system. We determined the precise mechanism of action of the HigB toxin in vivo, which is distinct from other known toxins. We demonstrate that HigB is an endoribonuclease whose enzymatic activity is dependent on association with ribosomes through the 50 S subunit. Using primer extension analysis of several test mRNAs, we showed that HigB cleaved extensively across the entire length of coding regions only at specific recognition sequences. HigB mediated cleavage of 100% of both in-frame and out-of-frame AAA sequences. In addition, HigB cleaved approximately 20% of AA sequences in coding regions and occasionally cut single As. Remarkably, the cleavage specificity of HigB coincided with one of the most frequently used codons in the AT-rich Proteus spp., AAA (lysine). Therefore, the HigB-mediated plasmid maintenance system for the Rts1 plasmid highlights the intimate relationship between host cells and extrachromosomal DNA that enables the dynamic acquisition of genes that impart a spectrum of survival advantages, including those encoding multidrug resistance and virulence factors.

  10. Detection of siRNA Mediated Target mRNA Cleavage Activities in Human Cells by a Novel Stem-Loop Array RT-PCR Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-07

    If the SLA-RT primers have no perfect match, on both the length and the base, to the sequence of the 3′ or 5′ end of the mRNA fragment the efficiency...termini. Thus, the priming efficiency by SLA-RT-primers is determined by the perfect match, mismatch, overhang, and gap presented in SLA-RT-primer...resultant SLA-RT-PCR amplicons were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis (Fig. 1C). As expected, the SLA-RT primer (Primer 1) with the perfect match

  11. mRNA 3' of the A site bound codon is located close to protein S3 on the human 80S ribosome.

    PubMed

    Molotkov, Maxim V; Graifer, Dmitri M; Popugaeva, Elena A; Bulygin, Konstantin N; Meschaninova, Maria I; Ven'yaminova, Aliya G; Karpova, Galina G

    2006-07-01

    Ribosomal proteins neighboring the mRNA downstream of the codon bound at the decoding site of human 80S ribosomes were identified using three sets of mRNA analogues that contained a UUU triplet at the 5' terminus and a perfluorophenylazide cross-linker at guanosine, adenosine or uridine residues placed at various locations 3' of this triplet. The positions of modified mRNA nucleotides on the ribosome were governed by tRNA(Phe) cognate to the UUU triplet targeted to the P site. Upon mild UV-irradiation, the mRNA analogues cross-linked preferentially to the 40S subunit, to the proteins and to a lesser extent to the 18S rRNA. Cross-linked nucleotides of 18S rRNA were identified previously. In the present study, it is shown that among the proteins the main target for cross-linking with all the mRNA analogues tested was protein S3 (homologous to prokaryotic S3, S3p); minor cross-linking to protein S2 (S5p) was also detected. Both proteins cross-linked to mRNA analogues in the ternary complexes as well as in the binary complexes (without tRNA). In the ternary complexes protein S15 (S19p) also cross-linked, the yield of the cross-link decreased significantly when the modified nucleotide moved from position +5 to position +12 with respect to the first nucleotide of the P site bound codon. In several ternary complexes minor cross-linking to protein S30 was likewise detected. The results of this study indicate that S3 is a key protein at the mRNA binding site neighboring mRNA downstream of the codon at the decoding site in the human ribosome.

  12. Structural biology of poly(A) site definition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Doublié, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    3' processing is an essential step in the maturation of all messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and is a tightly coupled two-step reaction: endonucleolytic cleavage at the poly(A) site is followed by the addition of a poly(A) tail, except for metazoan histone mRNAs, which are cleaved but not polyadenylated. The recognition of a poly(A) site is coordinated by the sequence elements in the mRNA 3' UTR and associated protein factors. In mammalian cells, three well-studied sequence elements, UGUA, AAUAAA, and GU-rich, are recognized by three multisubunit factors: cleavage factor I(m) (CFI(m) ), cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF), and cleavage stimulation factor (CstF), respectively. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, UA repeats and A-rich sequence elements are recognized by Hrp1p and cleavage factor IA. Structural studies of protein-RNA complexes have helped decipher the mechanisms underlying sequence recognition and shed light on the role of protein factors in poly(A) site selection and 3' processing machinery assembly. In this review we focus on the interactions between the mRNA cis-elements and the protein factors (CFI(m) , CPSF, CstF, and homologous factors from yeast and other eukaryotes) that define the poly(A) site. WIREs RNA 2011 2 732-747 DOI: 10.1002/wrna.88 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Kinetics of hairpin ribozyme cleavage in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, C P; Fedor, M J

    1997-01-01

    Hairpin ribozymes catalyze a self-cleavage reaction that provides a simple model for quantitative analyses of intracellular mechanisms of RNA catalysis. Decay rates of chimeric mRNAs containing self-cleaving ribozymes give a direct measure of intracellular cleavage kinetics in yeast. Intracellular ribozyme-mediated cleavage occurs at similar rates and shows similar inhibition by ribozyme mutations as ribozyme-mediated reactions in vitro, but only when ribozymes are located in a favorable mRNA sequence context. The impact of cleavage on mRNA abundance is shown to depend directly on intrinsic mRNA stability. Surprisingly, cleavage products are no more labile than uncleaved mRNAs despite the loss of terminal cap structures or poly (A). PMID:9292496

  14. Cleavage and polyadenylation: Ending the message expands gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Neve, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cleavage and polyadenylation (pA) is a fundamental step that is required for the maturation of primary protein encoding transcripts into functional mRNAs that can be exported from the nucleus and translated in the cytoplasm. 3′end processing is dependent on the assembly of a multiprotein processing complex on the pA signals that reside in the pre-mRNAs. Most eukaryotic genes have multiple pA signals, resulting in alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA), a widespread phenomenon that is important to establish cell state and cell type specific transcriptomes. Here, we review how pA sites are recognized and comprehensively summarize how APA is regulated and creates mRNA isoform profiles that are characteristic for cell types, tissues, cellular states and disease. PMID:28453393

  15. Analysis of RNA Processing Reactions Using Cell Free Systems: 3' End Cleavage of Pre-mRNA Substrates in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Joseph; Clementz, Mark; Ryan, Kevin; Valente, Susana T.

    2014-01-01

    The 3’ end of mammalian mRNAs is not formed by abrupt termination of transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNPII). Instead, RNPII synthesizes precursor mRNA beyond the end of mature RNAs, and an active process of endonuclease activity is required at a specific site. Cleavage of the precursor RNA normally occurs 10-30 nt downstream from the consensus polyA site (AAUAAA) after the CA dinucleotides. Proteins from the cleavage complex, a multifactorial protein complex of approximately 800 kDa, accomplish this specific nuclease activity. Specific RNA sequences upstream and downstream of the polyA site control the recruitment of the cleavage complex. Immediately after cleavage, pre-mRNAs are polyadenylated by the polyA polymerase (PAP) to produce mature stable RNA messages. Processing of the 3’ end of an RNA transcript may be studied using cellular nuclear extracts with specific radiolabeled RNA substrates. In sum, a long 32P-labeled uncleaved precursor RNA is incubated with nuclear extracts in vitro, and cleavage is assessed by gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. When proper cleavage occurs, a shorter 5’ cleaved product is detected and quantified. Here, we describe the cleavage assay in detail using, as an example, the 3’ end processing of HIV-1 mRNAs. PMID:24835792

  16. PROLYL-tRNAPro IN THE A SITE OF SecM-ARRESTED RIBOSOMES INHIBITS THE RECRUITMENT OF tmRNA*

    PubMed Central

    Garza-Sánchez, Fernando; Janssen, Brian D.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Translational pausing can lead to cleavage of the A-site codon and facilitate recruitment of the tmRNA (SsrA) quality control system to distressed ribosomes. We asked whether A-site mRNA cleavage occurs during regulatory translational pausing using the Escherichia coli SecM-mediated ribosome arrest as a model. We find the SecM ribosome arrest does not elicit efficient A-site cleavage, but instead allows degradation of downstream mRNA to the 3 ´ edge of the arrested ribosome . Characterization of SecM-arrested ribosomes shows the nascent peptide is covalently linked via glycine-165 to tRNA3 Gly in the P site, and prolyl-tRNA2 Pro is bound to the A site. Although A-site cleaved mRNAs were not detected, tmRNA-mediated ssrA-tagging after SecM glycine-165 was observed. This tmRNA activity results from sequestration of prolyl-tRNA2Pro on over-expressed SecM-arrested ribosomes, which produces a second population of stalled ribosomes with unoccupied A sites. Indeed, compensatory over-expression of tRNA2 Pro readily inhibits ssrA-tagging after glycine-165, but has no effect on the duration of SecM ribosome arrest. We conclude that, under physiological conditions, the architecture of SecM-arrested ribosomes allows regulated translational pausing without interference from A-site cleavage or tmRNA activities. Moreover, it seems likely that A-site mRNA cleavage is generally avoided or inhibited during regulated ribosome pauses. PMID:16968693

  17. Characterization of an upstream regulatory element of adenovirus L1 poly (A) site.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li

    2005-06-20

    The transition from early to late stage infection by adenovirus involves a change in mRNA expression from the adenovirus major late transcription unit (AdMLTU). This early to late switch centers around alternative selection of one of five poly (A) sites (L1-L5) that code for the major structural proteins of Adenovirus. During the early stage of infection, steady state mRNA is primarily derived from the L1 poly (A) site. During the late stage of infection, each of the MLTU poly (A) sites is represented in the steady state mRNA pool (Falck-Pedersen, E., Logan, J., 1989. Regulation of poly(A) site selection in adenovirus. J. Virol. 63 (2), 532-541.). Using transient transfection of a plasmid expressing Chloramphenicol Acetyl Transferase with a tandem poly (A) minigene system (L13) (DeZazzo, J.D., Falck-Pedersen, E., Imperiale, M.J., 1991. Sequences regulating temporal poly(A) site switching in the adenovirus major late transcription unit. Mol. Cell. Biol. 11 (12), 5977-5984; Prescott, J., Falck-Pedersen, E., 1994. Sequence elements upstream of the 3' cleavage site confer substrate strength to the adenovirus L1 and L3 polyadenylation sites. Mol. Cell. Biol. 14 (7), 4682-4693.), it has been demonstrated that the promoter-proximal L1 poly (A) site which is poorly recognized by the 3' end processing machinery, contains an upstream repressor element (URE) that influences steady state levels of mRNA (Prescott, J.C., Liu, L., Falck-Pedersen, E., 1997. Sequence-mediated regulation of adenovirus gene expression by repression of mRNA accumulation. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (4), 2207-2216.). In this study, we have further characterized the elements that mediate L1URE function. These studies indicate that the L1 upstream regulatory element (L1 URE) contains a complex RNA architecture that serves to repress gene expression through multiple sub-effectors. The L1URE functions when located upstream of a heterologous poly (A) site, and is able to strongly suppress steady state mRNA

  18. Defining the mRNA recognition signature of a bacterial toxin protein

    PubMed Central

    Schureck, Marc A.; Dunkle, Jack A.; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Miles, Stacey J.; Dunham, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria contain multiple type II toxins that selectively degrade mRNAs bound to the ribosome to regulate translation and growth and facilitate survival during the stringent response. Ribosome-dependent toxins recognize a variety of three-nucleotide codons within the aminoacyl (A) site, but how these endonucleases achieve substrate specificity remains poorly understood. Here, we identify the critical features for how the host inhibition of growth B (HigB) toxin recognizes each of the three A-site nucleotides for cleavage. X-ray crystal structures of HigB bound to two different codons on the ribosome illustrate how HigB uses a microbial RNase-like nucleotide recognition loop to recognize either cytosine or adenosine at the second A-site position. Strikingly, a single HigB residue and 16S rRNA residue C1054 form an adenosine-specific pocket at the third A-site nucleotide, in contrast to how tRNAs decode mRNA. Our results demonstrate that the most important determinant for mRNA cleavage by ribosome-dependent toxins is interaction with the third A-site nucleotide. PMID:26508639

  19. Defining the mRNA recognition signature of a bacterial toxin protein

    DOE PAGES

    Schureck, Marc A.; Dunkle, Jack A.; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; ...

    2015-10-27

    Bacteria contain multiple type II toxins that selectively degrade mRNAs bound to the ribosome to regulate translation and growth and facilitate survival during the stringent response. Ribosome-dependent toxins recognize a variety of three-nucleotide codons within the aminoacyl (A) site, but how these endonucleases achieve substrate specificity remains poorly understood. In this paper, we identify the critical features for how the host inhibition of growth B (HigB) toxin recognizes each of the three A-site nucleotides for cleavage. X-ray crystal structures of HigB bound to two different codons on the ribosome illustrate how HigB uses a microbial RNase-like nucleotide recognition loop tomore » recognize either cytosine or adenosine at the second A-site position. Strikingly, a single HigB residue and 16S rRNA residue C1054 form an adenosine-specific pocket at the third A-site nucleotide, in contrast to how tRNAs decode mRNA. Finally, our results demonstrate that the most important determinant for mRNA cleavage by ribosome-dependent toxins is interaction with the third A-site nucleotide.« less

  20. Defining the mRNA recognition signature of a bacterial toxin protein

    SciTech Connect

    Schureck, Marc A.; Dunkle, Jack A.; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Miles, Stacey J.; Dunham, Christine M.

    2015-10-27

    Bacteria contain multiple type II toxins that selectively degrade mRNAs bound to the ribosome to regulate translation and growth and facilitate survival during the stringent response. Ribosome-dependent toxins recognize a variety of three-nucleotide codons within the aminoacyl (A) site, but how these endonucleases achieve substrate specificity remains poorly understood. In this paper, we identify the critical features for how the host inhibition of growth B (HigB) toxin recognizes each of the three A-site nucleotides for cleavage. X-ray crystal structures of HigB bound to two different codons on the ribosome illustrate how HigB uses a microbial RNase-like nucleotide recognition loop to recognize either cytosine or adenosine at the second A-site position. Strikingly, a single HigB residue and 16S rRNA residue C1054 form an adenosine-specific pocket at the third A-site nucleotide, in contrast to how tRNAs decode mRNA. Finally, our results demonstrate that the most important determinant for mRNA cleavage by ribosome-dependent toxins is interaction with the third A-site nucleotide.

  1. The structure of human cleavage factor I(m) hints at functions beyond UGUA-specific RNA binding: a role in alternative polyadenylation and a potential link to 5' capping and splicing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Gilmartin, Gregory M; Doublié, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    3'-end cleavage and subsequent polyadenylation are critical steps in mRNA maturation. The precise location where cleavage occurs (referred to as poly(A) site) is determined by a tripartite mechanism in which a A(A/U)UAAA hexamer, GU rich downstream element and UGUA upstream element are recognized by the cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPSF), cleavage stimulation factor (CstF) and cleavage factor I(m) (CFI(m)), respectively. CFI(m) is composed of a smaller 25 kDa subunit (CFI(m)25) and a larger 59, 68 or 72 kDa subunit. CFI(m)68 interacts with CFI(m)25 through its N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM). We recently solved the crystal structures of CFI(m)25 bound to RNA and of a complex of CFI(m)25, the RRM domain of CFI(m)68 and RNA. Our study illustrated the molecular basis for UGUA recognition by the CFI(m) complex, suggested a possible mechanism for CFI(m) mediated alternative polyadenylation, and revealed potential links between CFI(m) and other mRNA processing factors, such as the 20 kDa subunit of the cap binding protein (CBP20), and the splicing regulator U2AF65.

  2. Global analyses of endonucleolytic cleavage in mammals reveal expanded repertoires of cleavage-inducing small RNAs and their targets.

    PubMed

    Cass, Ashley A; Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Greer, Christopher; Lin, Xianzhi; Kim, Yong; Hsiao, Yun-Hua Esther; Xiao, Xinshu

    2016-04-20

    In mammals, small RNAs are important players in post-transcriptional gene regulation. While their roles in mRNA destabilization and translational repression are well appreciated, their involvement in endonucleolytic cleavage of target RNAs is poorly understood. Very few microRNAs are known to guide RNA cleavage. Endogenous small interfering RNAs are expected to induce target cleavage, but their target genes remain largely unknown. We report a systematic study of small RNA-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage in mouse through integrative analysis of small RNA and degradome sequencing data without imposing any bias toward known small RNAs. Hundreds of small cleavage-inducing RNAs and their cognate target genes were identified, significantly expanding the repertoire of known small RNA-guided cleavage events. Strikingly, both small RNAs and their target sites demonstrated significant overlap with retrotransposons, providing evidence for the long-standing speculation that retrotransposable elements in mRNAs are leveraged as signals for gene targeting. Furthermore, our analysis showed that the RNA cleavage pathway is also present in human cells but affecting a different repertoire of retrotransposons. These results show that small RNA-guided cleavage is more widespread than previously appreciated. Their impact on retrotransposons in non-coding regions shed light on important aspects of mammalian gene regulation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Detection of nucleic acid sequences by invader-directed cleavage

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Mary Ann D.; Hall, Jeff Steven Grotelueschen; Lyamichev, Victor; Olive, David Michael; Prudent, James Robert

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The 5' nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based by charge.

  4. [Protein S3 fragments neighboring mRNA during elongation and translation termination on the human ribosome].

    PubMed

    Khaĭrulina, Iu S; Molotkov, M V; Bulygin, K N; Graĭfer, D M; Ven'yaminova, A G; Frolova, L Iu; Stahl, J; Karpova, G G

    2008-01-01

    Protein S3 fragments were determined that crosslink to modified mRNA analogues in positions +5 to +12 relative to the first nucleotide in the P-site binding codon in model complexes mimicking states of ribosomes at the elongation and translation termination steps. The mRNA analogues contained a Phe codon UUU/UUC at the 5'-termini that could predetermine the position of the tRNA(Phe) on the ribosome by the location of P-site binding and perfluorophenylazidobenzoyl group at a nucleotide in various positions 3' of the UUU/UUC codon. The crosslinked S3 protein was isolated from 80S ribosomal complexes irradiated with mild UV light and subjected to cyanogen bromide-induced cleavage at methionine residues with subsequent identification of the crosslinked oligopeptides. An analysis of the positions of modified oligopeptides resulting from the cleavage showed that, in dependence on the positions of modified nucleotides in the mRNA analogue, the crosslinking sites were found in the N-terminal half of the protein (fragment 2-127) and/or in the C-terminal fragment 190-236; the latter reflects a new peculiarity in the structure of the mRNA binding center in the ribosome, unknown to date. The results of crosslinking did not depend on the type of A-site codon or on the presence of translation termination factor eRF1.

  5. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G; Lyamichev, Victor I; Mast, Andrea L; Brow, Mary Ann D

    2012-10-16

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  6. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  7. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages 02

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  8. Regulated post-transcriptional RNA cleavage diversifies the eukaryotic transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Tim R; Dinger, Marcel E; Bracken, Cameron P; Kolle, Gabriel; Szubert, Jan M; Korbie, Darren J; Askarian-Amiri, Marjan E; Gardiner, Brooke B; Goodall, Gregory J; Grimmond, Sean M; Mattick, John S

    2010-12-01

    The complexity of the eukaryotic transcriptome is generated by the interplay of transcription initiation, termination, alternative splicing, and other forms of post-transcriptional modification. It was recently shown that RNA transcripts may also undergo cleavage and secondary 5' capping. Here, we show that post-transcriptional cleavage of RNA contributes to the diversification of the transcriptome by generating a range of small RNAs and long coding and noncoding RNAs. Using genome-wide histone modification and RNA polymerase II occupancy data, we confirm that the vast majority of intraexonic CAGE tags are derived from post-transcriptional processing. By comparing exonic CAGE tags to tissue-matched PARE data, we show that the cleavage and subsequent secondary capping is regulated in a developmental-stage- and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, we find evidence of prevalent RNA cleavage in numerous transcriptomic data sets, including SAGE, cDNA, small RNA libraries, and deep-sequenced size-fractionated pools of RNA. These cleavage products include mRNA variants that retain the potential to be translated into shortened functional protein isoforms. We conclude that post-transcriptional RNA cleavage is a key mechanism that expands the functional repertoire and scope for regulatory control of the eukaryotic transcriptome.

  9. Transcriptome-Wide Cleavage Site Mapping on Cellular mRNAs Reveals Features Underlying Sequence-Specific Cleavage by the Viral Ribonuclease SOX

    PubMed Central

    Gaglia, Marta Maria; Rycroft, Chris H.; Glaunsinger, Britt A.

    2015-01-01

    Many viruses express factors that reduce host gene expression through widespread degradation of cellular mRNA. An example of this class of proteins is the mRNA-targeting endoribonuclease SOX from the gamma-herpesvirus Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Previous studies indicated that cleavage of messenger RNAs (mRNA) by SOX occurs at specific locations defined by the sequence of the target RNA, which is at odds with the down-regulation of a large portion of cellular transcripts. In this study, we address this paradox by using high-throughput sequencing of cleavage intermediates combined with a custom bioinformatics-based analysis pipeline to identify SOX cleavage sites across the mRNA transcriptome. These data, coupled with targeted mutagenesis, reveal that while cleavage sites are specific and reproducible, they are defined by a degenerate sequence motif containing a small number of conserved residues rather than a strong consensus sequence. This degenerate element is well represented in both human and KSHV mRNA, and its presence correlates with RNA destabilization by SOX. This represents a new endonuclease targeting strategy, in which use of a degenerate targeting element enables RNA cleavage at specific locations without restricting the range of targets. Furthermore, it shows that strong target selectivity can be achieved without a high degree of sequence specificity. PMID:26646420

  10. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Reveals the Role of mRNA Poly(A) Tail Regulation in Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Aymeric; Klein, Pierre; Pierson, Stéphanie; Barbezier, Nicolas; Gidaro, Teresa; Casas, François; Carberry, Steven; Dowling, Paul; Maynadier, Laurie; Bellec, Maëlle; Oloko, Martine; Jardel, Claude; Moritz, Bodo; Dickson, George; Mouly, Vincent; Ohlendieck, Kay; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Trollet, Capucine; Simonelig, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD), a late-onset disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of specific muscles, results from the extension of a polyalanine tract in poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). While the roles of PABPN1 in nuclear polyadenylation and regulation of alternative poly(A) site choice are established, the molecular mechanisms behind OPMD remain undetermined. Here, we show, using Drosophila and mouse models, that OPMD pathogenesis depends on affected poly(A) tail lengths of specific mRNAs. We identify a set of mRNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins that are down-regulated starting at the earliest stages of OPMD progression. The down-regulation of these mRNAs correlates with their shortened poly(A) tails and partial rescue of their levels when deadenylation is genetically reduced improves muscle function. Genetic analysis of candidate genes encoding RNA binding proteins using the Drosophila OPMD model uncovers a potential role of a number of them. We focus on the deadenylation regulator Smaug and show that it is expressed in adult muscles and specifically binds to the down-regulated mRNAs. In addition, the first step of the cleavage and polyadenylation reaction, mRNA cleavage, is affected in muscles expressing alanine-expanded PABPN1. We propose that impaired cleavage during nuclear cleavage/polyadenylation is an early defect in OPMD. This defect followed by active deadenylation of specific mRNAs, involving Smaug and the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complex, leads to their destabilization and mitochondrial dysfunction. These results broaden our understanding of the role of mRNA regulation in pathologies and might help to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders that involve mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:25816335

  11. Mitochondrial dysfunction reveals the role of mRNA poly(A) tail regulation in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Aymeric; Klein, Pierre; Pierson, Stéphanie; Barbezier, Nicolas; Gidaro, Teresa; Casas, François; Carberry, Steven; Dowling, Paul; Maynadier, Laurie; Bellec, Maëlle; Oloko, Martine; Jardel, Claude; Moritz, Bodo; Dickson, George; Mouly, Vincent; Ohlendieck, Kay; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Trollet, Capucine; Simonelig, Martine

    2015-03-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD), a late-onset disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of specific muscles, results from the extension of a polyalanine tract in poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). While the roles of PABPN1 in nuclear polyadenylation and regulation of alternative poly(A) site choice are established, the molecular mechanisms behind OPMD remain undetermined. Here, we show, using Drosophila and mouse models, that OPMD pathogenesis depends on affected poly(A) tail lengths of specific mRNAs. We identify a set of mRNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins that are down-regulated starting at the earliest stages of OPMD progression. The down-regulation of these mRNAs correlates with their shortened poly(A) tails and partial rescue of their levels when deadenylation is genetically reduced improves muscle function. Genetic analysis of candidate genes encoding RNA binding proteins using the Drosophila OPMD model uncovers a potential role of a number of them. We focus on the deadenylation regulator Smaug and show that it is expressed in adult muscles and specifically binds to the down-regulated mRNAs. In addition, the first step of the cleavage and polyadenylation reaction, mRNA cleavage, is affected in muscles expressing alanine-expanded PABPN1. We propose that impaired cleavage during nuclear cleavage/polyadenylation is an early defect in OPMD. This defect followed by active deadenylation of specific mRNAs, involving Smaug and the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complex, leads to their destabilization and mitochondrial dysfunction. These results broaden our understanding of the role of mRNA regulation in pathologies and might help to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders that involve mitochondrial dysfunction.

  12. Vertebrate Embryonic Cleavage Pattern Determination.

    PubMed

    Hasley, Andrew; Chavez, Shawn; Danilchik, Michael; Wühr, Martin; Pelegri, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The pattern of the earliest cell divisions in a vertebrate embryo lays the groundwork for later developmental events such as gastrulation, organogenesis, and overall body plan establishment. Understanding these early cleavage patterns and the mechanisms that create them is thus crucial for the study of vertebrate development. This chapter describes the early cleavage stages for species representing ray-finned fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, and proto-vertebrate ascidians and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms that govern these patterns. The nearly universal influence of cell shape on orientation and positioning of spindles and cleavage furrows and the mechanisms that mediate this influence are discussed. We discuss in particular models of aster and spindle centering and orientation in large embryonic blastomeres that rely on asymmetric internal pulling forces generated by the cleavage furrow for the previous cell cycle. Also explored are mechanisms that integrate cell division given the limited supply of cellular building blocks in the egg and several-fold changes of cell size during early development, as well as cytoskeletal specializations specific to early blastomeres including processes leading to blastomere cohesion. Finally, we discuss evolutionary conclusions beginning to emerge from the contemporary analysis of the phylogenetic distributions of cleavage patterns. In sum, this chapter seeks to summarize our current understanding of vertebrate early embryonic cleavage patterns and their control and evolution.

  13. Deciphering the Mechanism of Alternative Cleavage and Polyadenylation in Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Cleavage and Polyadenylation in Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chioniso Masamha, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0218 Deciphering the Mechanism of Alternative Cleavage and Polyadenylation in Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) 5b...shorten the 3’UTR of their mRNAs has important implications in cancer. Truncation of the cyclin D1 mRNA in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is one of the

  14. Compilation of mRNA Polyadenylation Signals in Arabidopsis Revealed a New Signal Element and Potential Secondary Structures1[w

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Johnny C.; Stahlberg, Eric A.; Strenski, David G.; Haas, Brian J.; Wood, Paul Chris; Li, Qingshun Quinn

    2005-01-01

    Using a novel program, SignalSleuth, and a database containing authenticated polyadenylation [poly(A)] sites, we analyzed the composition of mRNA poly(A) signals in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and reevaluated previously described cis-elements within the 3′-untranslated (UTR) regions, including near upstream elements and far upstream elements. As predicted, there are absences of high-consensus signal patterns. The AAUAAA signal topped the near upstream elements patterns and was found within the predicted location to only approximately 10% of 3′-UTRs. More importantly, we identified a new set, named cleavage elements, of poly(A) signals flanking both sides of the cleavage site. These cis-elements were not previously revealed by conventional mutagenesis and are contemplated as a cluster of signals for cleavage site recognition. Moreover, a single-nucleotide profile scan on the 3′-UTR regions unveiled a distinct arrangement of alternate stretches of U and A nucleotides, which led to a prediction of the formation of secondary structures. Using an RNA secondary structure prediction program, mFold, we identified three main types of secondary structures on the sequences analyzed. Surprisingly, these observed secondary structures were all interrupted in previously constructed mutations in these regions. These results will enable us to revise the current model of plant poly(A) signals and to develop tools to predict 3′-ends for gene annotation. PMID:15965016

  15. Mechanism of endonuclease cleavage by the HigB toxin

    PubMed Central

    Schureck, Marc A.; Repack, Adrienne; Miles, Stacey J.; Marquez, Jhomar; Dunham, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria encode multiple type II toxin–antitoxin modules that cleave ribosome-bound mRNAs in response to stress. All ribosome-dependent toxin family members structurally characterized to date adopt similar microbial RNase architectures despite possessing low sequence identities. Therefore, determining which residues are catalytically important in this specialized RNase family has been a challenge in the field. Structural studies of RelE and YoeB toxins bound to the ribosome provided significant insights but biochemical experiments with RelE were required to clearly demonstrate which residues are critical for acid-base catalysis of mRNA cleavage. Here, we solved an X-ray crystal structure of the wild-type, ribosome-dependent toxin HigB bound to the ribosome revealing potential catalytic residues proximal to the mRNA substrate. Using cell-based and biochemical assays, we further determined that HigB residues His54, Asp90, Tyr91 and His92 are critical for activity in vivo, while HigB H54A and Y91A variants have the largest effect on mRNA cleavage in vitro. Comparison of X-ray crystal structures of two catalytically inactive HigB variants with 70S-HigB bound structures reveal that HigB active site residues undergo conformational rearrangements likely required for recognition of its mRNA substrate. These data support the emerging concept that ribosome-dependent toxins have diverse modes of mRNA recognition. PMID:27378776

  16. Quantitative analysis of sperm mRNA in the pig: relationship with early embryo development and capacitation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Mulligan, Brendan P; Kim, Hyung-Min; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Lee, Chang-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well known that mRNA is present in mammalian spermatozoa, the relevance of mRNA to capacitation and early embryo development in the pig remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated differences in the abundance of selected mRNAs coding for MYC, CYP19, ADAM2, PRM1 and PRM2 in purified porcine spermatozoa depending on embryo cleavage rate and capacitation (n=20 semen samples). Semen samples were used in IVF procedures, with subsequent embryo development classified into one of two groups based on cleavage rate (i.e. high (>75%) and low (<75%) cleavage groups) and mRNA abundance in purified spermatozoa compared between these two groups. In addition, mRNA abundance was compared between capacitated and non-capacitated spermatozoa. Comparison of mRNA levels between porcine spermatozoa revealed that the abundance of MYC, CYP19, ADAM2, PRM1 and PRM2 mRNA was significantly greater in the high cleavage group (n=10 high cleavage group semen samples) than in the low cleavage group (n=10; P<0.05). Significant downregulation of MYC mRNA was observed in capacitated spermatozoa (n=12; P<0.05). The results of the present study suggest that the amount of specific mRNAs could be used for estimating the quality of spermatozoa in the pig.

  17. Knockdown of pre-mRNA cleavage factor Im 25 kDa promotes neurite outgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumitsu, Hidefumi; Soumiya, Hitomi; Furukawa, Shoei

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFIm25 knockdown promoted NGF-induced neurite out growth from PC12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of CFIm25 did not influence the morphology of proliferating PC12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFIm regulated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth via coordinating RhoA activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFIm25 knockdown increase the number of primary dendrites of hippocampal neurons. -- Abstract: Mammalian precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) cleavage factor I (CFIm) plays important roles in the selection of poly(A) sites in a 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime -UTR), producing mRNAs with variable 3 Prime ends. Because 3 Prime -UTRs often contain cis elements that impact stability or localization of mRNA or translation, alternative polyadenylation diversifies utilization of primary transcripts in mammalian cells. However, the physiological role of CFIm remains unclear. CFIm acts as a heterodimer comprising a 25 kDa subunit (CFIm25) and one of the three large subunits-CFIm59, CFIm68, or CFIm72. CFIm25 binds directly to RNA and introduces and anchors the larger subunit. To examine the physiological roles of CFIm, we knocked down the CFIm25 gene in neuronal cells using RNA interference. Knockdown of CFIm25 increased the number of primary dendrites of developing hippocampal neurons and promoted nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite extension from rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells without affecting the morphology of proliferating PC12 cells. On the other hand, CFIm25 knockdown did not influence constitutively active or dominantly negative RhoA suppression or promotion of NGF-induced neurite extension from PC12 cells, respectively. Taken together, our results indicate that endogenous CFIm may promote neuritogenesis in developing neurons by coordinating events upstream of NGF-induced RhoA inactivation.

  18. Mechanisms of endonuclease-mediated mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Endonuclease cleavage was one of the first identified mechanisms of mRNA decay but until recently it was thought to play a minor role to the better-known processes of deadenylation, decapping and exonuclease-catalyzed decay. Most of the early examples of endonuclease decay came from studies of a particular mRNA whose turnover changed in response to hormone, cytokine, developmental or nutritional stimuli. Only a few of these examples of endonuclease-mediated mRNA decay progressed to the point where the enzyme responsible for the initiating event was identified and studied in any detail. The discovery of microRNAs and RISC-catalyzed endonuclease cleavage followed by the identification of PIN (pilT N-terminal) domains that impart endonuclease activity to a number of the proteins involved in mRNA decay has led to a resurgence of interest in endonuclease-mediated mRNA decay. PIN domains show no substrate selectivity, and their involvement in a number of decay pathways highlights a recurring theme that the context in which an endonuclease functions is a primary factor in determining whether any given mRNA will be targeted for decay by this or the default exonuclease-mediated decay processes. PMID:21957046

  19. Rae1/YacP, a new endoribonuclease involved in ribosome-dependent mRNA decay in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Magali; Piton, Jérémie; Gilet, Laetitia; Pellegrini, Olivier; Proux, Caroline; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Figaro, Sabine; Condon, Ciarán

    2017-03-31

    The PIN domain plays a central role in cellular RNA biology and is involved in processes as diverse as rRNA maturation, mRNA decay and telomerase function. Here, we solve the crystal structure of the Rae1 (YacP) protein of Bacillus subtilis, a founding member of the NYN (Nedd4-BP1/YacP nuclease) subfamily of PIN domain proteins, and identify potential substrates in vivo Unexpectedly, degradation of a characterised target mRNA was completely dependent on both its translation and reading frame. We provide evidence that Rae1 associates with the B. subtilis ribosome and cleaves between specific codons of this mRNA in vivo Critically, we also demonstrate translation-dependent Rae1 cleavage of this substrate in a purified translation assay in vitro Multiple lines of evidence converge to suggest that Rae1 is an A-site endoribonuclease. We present a docking model of Rae1 bound to the B. subtilis ribosomal A-site that is consistent with this hypothesis and show that Rae1 cleaves optimally immediately upstream of a lysine codon (AAA or AAG) in vivo.

  20. Small Molecule-Mediated Cleavage of RNA in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Lirui

    2013-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) control gene expression by triggering the degradation of a mRNA via recruitment of RNase H or the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), respectively.[1] These approaches are hampered, however, by the poor cellular permeability of oligonucleotides. A small molecule approach to cleave RNA targets could obviate uptake issues. Several compounds can induce RNA cleavage in vitro,[2] however, to the best of our knowledge no small molecules have been previously described to cleave RNA in living cells. Herein, we describe the development of a potentially general approach to design small molecules that specifically cleave an RNA in a living cell, affecting biological function. Specifically, a designed, modularly assembled small molecule that binds the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1)[3] was appended with a moiety that generates hydroxyl radicals upon irradiation. Cleavage of the transcript improves DM1-associated defects in cell culture, and compounds are non-toxic at an efficacious dose as determined by a MTT viability assay. This approach may allow for the site-specific cleavage and inactivation of other cellular RNAs.[4] Compounds that bind to and cleave RNA have the potential to serve as chemical genetics probes of function or lead therapeutics with spatial and temporal control. PMID:23280953

  1. Optimizing In Vitro Pre-mRNA 3' Cleavage Efficiency: Reconstitution from Anion-Exchange Separated HeLa Cleavage Factors and from Adherent HeLa Cell Nuclear Extract.

    PubMed

    Na, Mihwa; Valente, Susana T; Ryan, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic RNA processing steps during mRNA maturation present the cell with opportunities for gene expression regulation. One such step is the pre-mRNA 3' cleavage reaction, which defines the downstream end of the 3' untranslated region and, in nearly all mRNA, prepares the message for addition of the poly(A) tail. The in vitro reconstitution of 3' cleavage provides an experimental means to investigate the roles of the various multi-subunit cleavage factors. Anion-exchange chromatography is the simplest procedure for separating the core mammalian cleavage factors. Here we describe a method for optimizing the in vitro reconstitution of 3' cleavage activity from the DEAE-sepharose separated HeLa cleavage factors and show how to ensure, or avoid, dependence on creatine phosphate. Important reaction components needed for optimal processing are discussed. We also provide an optimized procedure for preparing small-scale HeLa nuclear extracts from adherent cells for use in 3' cleavage in vitro.

  2. Specificity of hammerhead ribozyme cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, K J; Herschlag, D; Uhlenbeck, O C

    1996-01-01

    To be effective in gene inactivation, the hammerhead ribozyme must cleave a complementary RNA target without deleterious effects from cleaving non-target RNAs that contain mismatches and shorter stretches of complementarity. The specificity of hammerhead cleavage was evaluated using HH16, a well-characterized ribozyme designed to cleave a target of 17 residues. Under standard reaction conditions, HH16 is unable to discriminate between its full-length substrate and 3'-truncated substrates, even when six fewer base pairs are formed between HH16 and the substrate. This striking lack of specificity arises because all the substrates bind to the ribozyme with sufficient affinity so that cleavage occurs before their affinity differences are manifested. In contrast, HH16 does exhibit high specificity towards certain 3'-truncated versions of altered substrates that either also contain a single base mismatch or are shortened at the 5' end. In addition, the specificity of HH16 is improved in the presence of p7 nucleocapsid protein from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, which accelerates the association and dissociation of RNA helices. These results support the view that the hammerhead has an intrinsic ability to discriminate against incorrect bases, but emphasizes that the high specificity is only observed in a certain range of helix lengths. Images PMID:8670879

  3. UV cross-link mapping of the substrate-binding site of an RNase P ribozyme to a target mRNA sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, A F; Liu, F

    1999-01-01

    RNase P ribozyme cleaves an RNA helix that resembles the acceptor stem and T-stem structure of its natural ptRNA substrate. When covalently linked with a guide sequence, the ribozyme can function as a sequence-specific endonuclease and cleave any target RNA sequences that base pair with the guide sequence. Using a site-directed ultraviolet (UV) cross-linking approach, we have mapped the regions of the ribozyme that are in close proximity to a substrate that contains the mRNA sequence encoding thymidine kinase of human herpes simplex virus 1. Our data suggest that the cleavage site of the mRNA substrate is positioned at the same regions of the ribozyme that bind to the cleavage site of a ptRNA. The mRNA-binding domains include regions that interact with the acceptor stem and T-stem and in addition, regions that are unique and not in close contact with a ptRNA. Identification of the mRNA-binding site provides a foundation to study how RNase P ribozymes achieve their sequence specificity and facilitates the development of gene-targeting ribozymes. PMID:10496224

  4. A snoRNA modulates mRNA 3′ end processing and regulates the expression of a subset of mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chunliu; Shi, Junjie; Guo, Yibin; Huang, Weijun; Huang, Shanshan; Ming, Siqi; Wu, Xingui; Zhang, Rui; Ding, Junjun; Zhao, Wei; Jia, Jie; Huang, Xi; Xiang, Andy Peng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract mRNA 3′ end processing is an essential step in gene expression. It is well established that canonical eukaryotic pre-mRNA 3′ processing is carried out within a macromolecular machinery consisting of dozens of trans-acting proteins. However, it is unknown whether RNAs play any role in this process. Unexpectedly, we found that a subset of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are associated with the mammalian mRNA 3′ processing complex. These snoRNAs primarily interact with Fip1, a component of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF). We have functionally characterized one of these snoRNAs and our results demonstrated that the U/A-rich SNORD50A inhibits mRNA 3′ processing by blocking the Fip1-poly(A) site (PAS) interaction. Consistently, SNORD50A depletion altered the Fip1–RNA interaction landscape and changed the alternative polyadenylation (APA) profiles and/or transcript levels of a subset of genes. Taken together, our data revealed a novel function for snoRNAs and provided the first evidence that non-coding RNAs may play an important role in regulating mRNA 3′ processing.

  5. Delta ribozyme has the ability to cleave in transan mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Roy, G; Ananvoranich, S; Perreault, J P

    1999-01-01

    We report here the first demonstration of the cleavage of an mRNA in trans by delta ribozyme derived from the antigenomic version of the human hepatitis delta virus (HDV). We characterized potential delta ribozyme cleavage sites within HDV mRNA sequence (i.e. C/UGN6), using oligonucleotide binding shift assays and ribonuclease H hydrolysis. Ribozymes were synthesized based on the structural data and then tested for their ability to cleave the mRNA. Of the nine ribozymes examined, three specifically cleaved a derivative HDV mRNA. All three active ribozymes gave consistent indications that they cleaved single-stranded regions. Kinetic characterization of the ability of ribozymes to cleave both the full-length mRNA and either wild-type or mutant small model substrate suggests: (i) delta ribozyme has turnovers, that is to say, several mRNA molecules can be successively cleaved by one ribozyme molecule; and (ii) the substrate specificity of delta ribozyme cleavage is not restricted to C/UGN6. Specifically, substrates with a higher guanosine residue content upstream of the cleavage site (i.e. positions -4 to -2) were always cleaved more efficiently than wild-type substrate. This work shows that delta ribozyme constitutes a potential catalytic RNA for further gene-inactivation therapy. PMID:9927724

  6. RNA cleavage products generated by antisense oligonucleotides and siRNAs are processed by the RNA surveillance machinery

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Walt F.; De Hoyos, Cheryl L.; Liang, Xue-hai; Crooke, Stanley T.

    2016-01-01

    DNA-based antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) elicit cleavage of the targeted RNA by the endoribonuclease RNase H1, whereas siRNAs mediate cleavage through the RNAi pathway. To determine the fates of the cleaved RNA in cells, we lowered the levels of the factors involved in RNA surveillance prior to treating cells with ASOs or siRNA and analyzed cleavage products by RACE. The cytoplasmic 5′ to 3′ exoribonuclease XRN1 was responsible for the degradation of the downstream cleavage products generated by ASOs or siRNA targeting mRNAs. In contrast, downstream cleavage products generated by ASOs targeting nuclear long non-coding RNA Malat 1 and pre-mRNA were degraded by nuclear XRN2. The downstream cleavage products did not appear to be degraded in the 3′ to 5′ direction as the majority of these products contained intact poly(A) tails and were bound by the poly(A) binding protein. The upstream cleavage products of Malat1 were degraded in the 3′ to 5′ direction by the exosome complex containing the nuclear exoribonuclease Dis3. The exosome complex containing Dis3 or cytoplasmic Dis3L1 degraded mRNA upstream cleavage products, which were not bound by the 5′-cap binding complex and, consequently, were susceptible to degradation in the 5′ to 3′ direction by the XRN exoribonucleases. PMID:26843429

  7. The Expression of Antibiotic Resistance Methyltransferase Correlates with mRNA Stability Independently of Ribosome Stalling

    PubMed Central

    Dzyubak, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Erm methyltransferase family modify 23S rRNA of the bacterial ribosome and render cross-resistance to macrolides and multiple distantly related antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that the expression of erm is activated when a macrolide-bound ribosome stalls the translation of the leader peptide preceding the cotranscribed erm. Ribosome stalling is thought to destabilize the inhibitory stem-loop mRNA structure and exposes the erm Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence for translational initiation. Paradoxically, mutations that abolish ribosome stalling are routinely found in hyper-resistant clinical isolates; however, the significance of the stalling-dead leader sequence is largely unknown. Here, we show that nonsense mutations in the Staphylococcus aureus ErmB leader peptide (ErmBL) lead to high basal and induced expression of downstream ErmB in the absence or presence of macrolide concomitantly with elevated ribosome methylation and resistance. The overexpression of ErmB is associated with the reduced turnover of the ermBL-ermB transcript, and the macrolide appears to mitigate mRNA cleavage at a site immediately downstream of the ermBL SD sequence. The stabilizing effect of antibiotics on mRNA is not limited to ermBL-ermB; cationic antibiotics representing a ribosome-stalling inducer and a noninducer increase the half-life of specific transcripts. These data unveil a new layer of ermB regulation and imply that ErmBL translation or ribosome stalling serves as a “tuner” to suppress aberrant production of ErmB because methylated ribosome may impose a fitness cost on the bacterium as a result of misregulated translation. PMID:27645242

  8. Microstructure and cleavage in lath martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, John W., Jr.; Kinney, Chris; Pytlewski, Ken; Adachi, Y.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the microstructure of lath martensitic steels and the mechanisms by which it controls cleavage fracture. The specific experimental example is a 9Ni (9 wt% Ni) steel annealed to have a large prior austenite grain size, then examined and tested in the as-quenched condition to produce a relatively coarse lath martensite. The microstructure is shown to approximate the recently identified ‘classic’ lath martensite structure: prior austenite grains are divided into packets, packets are subdivided into blocks, and blocks contain interleaved laths whose variants are the two Kurjumov-Sachs relations that share the same Bain axis of the transformation. When the steel is fractured in brittle cleavage, the laths in the block share {100} cleavage planes and cleave as a unit. However, cleavage cracks deflect or blunt at the boundaries between blocks with different Bain axes. It follows that, as predicted, the block size governs the effective grain size for cleavage.

  9. Microstructure and cleavage in lath martensitic steels.

    PubMed

    Morris, John W; Kinney, Chris; Pytlewski, Ken; Adachi, Y

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the microstructure of lath martensitic steels and the mechanisms by which it controls cleavage fracture. The specific experimental example is a 9Ni (9 wt% Ni) steel annealed to have a large prior austenite grain size, then examined and tested in the as-quenched condition to produce a relatively coarse lath martensite. The microstructure is shown to approximate the recently identified 'classic' lath martensite structure: prior austenite grains are divided into packets, packets are subdivided into blocks, and blocks contain interleaved laths whose variants are the two Kurjumov-Sachs relations that share the same Bain axis of the transformation. When the steel is fractured in brittle cleavage, the laths in the block share {100} cleavage planes and cleave as a unit. However, cleavage cracks deflect or blunt at the boundaries between blocks with different Bain axes. It follows that, as predicted, the block size governs the effective grain size for cleavage.

  10. IRE1α nucleotide sequence cleavage specificity in the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Poothong, Juthakorn; Sopha, Pattarawut; Kaufman, Randal J; Tirasophon, Witoon

    2017-01-01

    Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) is a conserved sensor of the unfolded protein response that has protein kinase and endoribonuclease (RNase) enzymatic activities and thereby initiates HAC1/XBP1 splicing. Previous studies demonstrated that human IRE1α (hIRE1α) does not cleave Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAC1 mRNA. Using an in vitro cleavage assay, we show that adenine to cytosine nucleotide substitution at the +1 position in the 3' splice site of HAC1 RNA is required for specific cleavage by hIRE1α. A similar restricted nucleotide specificity in the RNA substrate was observed for XBP1 splicing in vivo. Together these findings underscore the essential role of cytosine nucleotide at +1 in the 3' splice site for determining cleavage specificity of hIRE1α.

  11. Mechanism of decay of the cry1Aa mRNA in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Cruz, C; Olmedo-Alvarez, G

    1997-01-01

    We undertook the study of the decay process of the cry1Aa mRNA of Bacillus thuringiensis expressed in B. subtilis. The cry1Aa transcript is a 3.7-kb mRNA expressed during sporulation whose transcriptional control has previously been studied in both B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis. We found that the cry1Aa mRNA has a half-life of around 9 min and that its decay occurs through endoribonucleolytic cleavages which result in three groups of high-molecular-weight mRNA intermediates ranging in size from 2.7 to 0.5 kb. A comparative study carried out with Escherichia coli showed a similar pattern of degradation intermediates. Primer extension analysis carried out on RNA from B. subtilis revealed that most cleavages occur within two regions located toward the 5' and 3' ends of the mRNA. The most prominent processing site observed for the cry1Aa mRNA isolated from B. subtilis is only two bases away from that occurring on RNA isolated from E. coli. Most cleavage sites occur at seemingly single-stranded RNA segments rich in A and U nucleotides, suggesting that a common and conserved mechanism may process the cry1Aa mRNA. PMID:9335281

  12. Characterization of the psbH precursor RNAs reveals a precise endoribonuclease cleavage site in the psbT/psbH intergenic region that is dependent on psbN gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Fabien; Ghulam, Mustafa Malik; Rondet, Damien; Pfannschmidt, Thomas; Merendino, Livia; Lerbs-Mache, Silva

    2015-07-01

    The plastid psbB operon harbours 5 genes, psbB, psbT, psbH, petB and petD. A sixth gene, the psbN gene, is located on the opposite DNA strand in the psbT/psbH intergenic region. Its transcription produces antisense RNA to a large part of the psbB pentacistronic mRNA. We have investigated whether transcription of the psbN gene, i.e. production of antisense RNA, influences psbT/psbH intergenic processing. Results reveal the existence of four different psbH precursor RNAs. Three of them result from processing and one is produced by transcription initiation. One of the processed RNAs is probably created by site-specific RNA cleavage. This RNA is absent in plants where the psbN gene is not transcribed suggesting that cleavage at this site is dependent on the formation of sense/antisense double-stranded RNA. In order to characterize the nuclease that might be responsible for double-stranded RNA cleavage, we analysed csp41a and csp41b knock-out mutants and the corresponding double mutant. Both CSP41 proteins are known to interact physically and CSP41a had been shown to cleave within 3'-untranslated region stem-loop structures, which contain double-stranded RNA, in vitro. We demonstrate that the psbH RNA, that is absent in plants where the psbN gene is not transcribed, is also strongly diminished in all csp41 plants. Altogether, results reveal a site-specific endoribonuclease cleavage event that seems to depend on antisense RNA and might implicate endoribonuclease activity of CSP41a.

  13. Cleavage plane determination in amphibian eggs.

    PubMed

    Sawai, T; Yomota, A

    1990-01-01

    In the present study using eggs of Cynops pyrrhogaster and Xenopus laevis, we examined (1) structural changes in the cytoplasm before the appearance of the cleavage furrow using a cytochemical method, (2) the time of cleavage plane determination depending on the mitotic apparatus (MA), by changing the shape of the eggs, and (3) the time of arrival of the "cleavage stimulus" at the cortex, by injecting colchicine solution or removing cytoplasm. Results were as follows: (1) In amphibian eggs the diastema was formed after development of the MA, appearing between the two asters after the MA had begun to degenerate. (2) The cleavage plane was preliminarily determined by the MA in the meta- to anaphase of karyokinesis. At this time, however, the egg cortex had not yet received the "cleavage stimulus" indispensable for furrow formation. (3) The egg cortex was really prepared to establish the furrow just after the edge of the diastema arrived at the cortex, when the MA had already degenerated. These results imply that the cleavage plane of the amphibian eggs is determined in two steps: the first, depending on the MA, is the determination of the direction of the growth of the diastema, and the second is the arrival of the "cleavage stimulus" at the cortex in association with the diastema.

  14. Cnidarian microRNAs frequently regulate targets by cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Yehu; Fredman, David; Praher, Daniela; Li, Xin Z.; Wee, Liang Meng; Rentzsch, Fabian; Zamore, Phillip D.; Technau, Ulrich; Seitz, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    In bilaterians, which comprise most of extant animals, microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the majority of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) via base-pairing of a short sequence (the miRNA “seed”) to the target, subsequently promoting translational inhibition and transcript instability. In plants, many miRNAs guide endonucleolytic cleavage of highly complementary targets. Because little is known about miRNA function in nonbilaterian animals, we investigated the repertoire and biological activity of miRNAs in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a representative of Cnidaria, the sister phylum of Bilateria. Our work uncovers scores of novel miRNAs in Nematostella, increasing the total miRNA gene count to 87. Yet only a handful are conserved in corals and hydras, suggesting that microRNA gene turnover in Cnidaria greatly exceeds that of other metazoan groups. We further show that Nematostella miRNAs frequently direct the cleavage of their mRNA targets via nearly perfect complementarity. This mode of action resembles that of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and plant miRNAs. It appears to be common in Cnidaria, as several of the miRNA target sites are conserved among distantly related anemone species, and we also detected miRNA-directed cleavage in Hydra. Unlike in bilaterians, Nematostella miRNAs are commonly coexpressed with their target transcripts. In light of these findings, we propose that post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs functions differently in Cnidaria and Bilateria. The similar, siRNA-like mode of action of miRNAs in Cnidaria and plants suggests that this may be an ancestral state. PMID:24642861

  15. Intron cleavage affects processing of alternatively spliced transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, Tibor; Dal Mas, Andrea; Talotti, Gabriele; Bussani, Erica; Pagani, Franco

    2011-01-01

    We previously showed that the insertion of a hammerhead ribozyme (Rz) in a critical intronic position between the EDA exon and a downstream regulatory element affects alternative splicing. Here we evaluate the effect of other intronic cotranscriptional cleavage events on alternative pre-mRNA processing using different ribozymes (Rz) and Microprocessor target sequences (MTSs). In the context of the fibronectin EDA minigene, intronic MTSs were cleaved very inefficiently and did not affect alternative splicing or the level of mature transcripts. On the contrary, all hammerhead Rz derivatives and hepatitis δ Rz were completely cleaved before a splicing decision and able to affect alternative splicing. Despite the very efficient Rz-mediated cleavage, the levels of mature mRNA were only reduced to ∼40%. We show that this effect on mature transcripts occurs regardless of the type and intronic position of Rzs, or changes in alternative splicing and exon definition. Thus, we suggest that intron integrity is not strictly required for splicing but is necessary for efficient pre-mRNA biosynthesis. PMID:21673105

  16. piRNA-directed cleavage of meiotic transcripts regulates spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goh, Wee Siong Sho; Falciatori, Ilaria; Tam, Oliver H; Burgess, Ralph; Meikar, Oliver; Kotaja, Noora; Hammell, Molly; Hannon, Gregory J

    2015-05-15

    MIWI catalytic activity is required for spermatogenesis, indicating that piRNA-guided cleavage is critical for germ cell development. To identify meiotic piRNA targets, we augmented the mouse piRNA repertoire by introducing a human meiotic piRNA cluster. This triggered a spermatogenesis defect by inappropriately targeting the piRNA machinery to mouse mRNAs essential for germ cell development. Analysis of such de novo targets revealed a signature for pachytene piRNA target recognition. This enabled identification of both transposable elements and meiotically expressed protein-coding genes as targets of native piRNAs. Cleavage of genic targets began at the pachytene stage and resulted in progressive repression through meiosis, driven at least in part via the ping-pong cycle. Our data support the idea that meiotic piRNA populations must be strongly selected to enable successful spermatogenesis, both driving the response away from essential genes and directing the pathway toward mRNA targets that are regulated by small RNAs in meiotic cells.

  17. Hammerhead ribozyme cleavage of hamster prion pre-mRNA in complex cell-free model systems.

    PubMed

    Denman, R B; Purow, B; Rubenstein, R; Miller, D L

    1992-07-31

    The cleavage properties of a trans-acting hammerhead ribozyme targeted 51 bases upstream of the putative splicing branch point in the hamster prion pre-mRNA intron were investigated in cell-free model systems in vitro. The specificity of cleavage was demonstrated by the inability of this ribozyme to cleave a non-homologous synthetic message encoding part of the beta amyloid peptide precursor, beta APP, and by the inability of the prion pre-mRNA to be cleaved by a ribozyme targeted to beta amyloid peptide precursor mRNA. Also, the addition of total RNA isolated from rat brain had only a minimal effect on the cleavage of the prion substrate pre-mRNA by the ribozyme. Finally neither the presence of 100 ng of nuclear or cytoplasmic proteins were found to affect the rate of cleavage in vitro.

  18. Nuclease escape elements protect messenger RNA against cleavage by multiple viral endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    During lytic Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, the viral endonu- clease SOX promotes widespread degradation of cytoplasmic messenger RNA (mRNA). However, select mRNAs, including the transcript encoding interleukin-6 (IL-6), escape SOX-induced cleavage. IL-6 escape is mediated through a 3’ UTR RNA regulatory element that overrides the SOX targeting mechanism. Here, we reveal that this protective RNA element functions to broadly restrict cleavage by a range of homologous and non-homologous viral endonucleases. However, it does not impede cleavage by cellular endonucleases. The IL-6 protective sequence may be representative of a larger class of nuclease escape elements, as we identified a similar protective element in the GADD45B mRNA. The IL-6 and GADD45B-derived elements display similarities in their sequence, putative structure, and several associated RNA binding proteins. However, the overall composition of their ribonucleoprotein complexes appears distinct, leading to differences in the breadth of nucleases restricted. These findings highlight how RNA elements can selectively control transcript abundance in the background of widespread virus-induced mRNA degradation. PMID:28841715

  19. Endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at 5' endogenous stem structures by human flap endonuclease 1.

    PubMed

    Stevens, A

    1998-10-20

    Structure-specific nucleases called 5' flap endonucleases cleave unannealed 5' arms of template-primer DNA model substrates at the start of the duplex and are involved in Okazaki fragment processing during DNA synthesis. To determine the possible use of the enzymes in RNA structure analysis, the cleavage of synthetic and native RNAs was examined using flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1) of HeLa cells. RNAs are cleaved at about 20% of the rate of DNA model substrates, and most of the cleavage sites are within 200 nucleotides of the 5' end. Hydrolysis of MFA2 mRNA of yeast shows that the cleavages are at the start of five possible stem structures of a folded secondary structure predicted on the basis of both chemical and enzymatic structure probing. 16S ribosomal RNA of Escherichia coli is cleaved at several 5' stem structures of its phylogenetically predicted folded structure. This type of RNA cleavage specificity may be very useful in secondary structure analysis in the future and also may be used by cells for specific 5' end-geared RNA cleavages.

  20. Cleavage at Arg-1689 influences heavy chain cleavages during thrombin-catalyzed activation of factor VIII.

    PubMed

    Newell, Jennifer L; Fay, Philip J

    2009-04-24

    The procofactor, factor VIII, is activated by thrombin or factor Xa-catalyzed cleavage at three P1 residues: Arg-372, Arg-740, and Arg-1689. The catalytic efficiency for thrombin cleavage at Arg-740 is greater than at either Arg-1689 or Arg-372 and influences reaction rates at these sites. Because cleavage at Arg-372 appears rate-limiting and dependent upon initial cleavage at Arg-740, we investigated whether cleavage at Arg-1689 influences catalysis at this step. Recombinant B-domainless factor VIII mutants, R1689H and R1689Q were prepared and stably expressed to slow and eliminate cleavage, respectively. Specific activity values for the His and Gln mutations were approximately 50 and approximately 10%, respectively, that of wild type. Thrombin activation of the R1689H variant showed an approximately 340-fold reduction in the rate of Arg-1689 cleavage, whereas the R1689Q variant was resistant to thrombin cleavage at this site. Examination of heavy chain cleavages showed approximately 4- and 11-fold reductions in A2 subunit generation and approximately 3- and 7-fold reductions in A1 subunit generation for the R1689H and R1689Q mutants, respectively. These results suggest a linkage between light chain cleavage and cleavages in heavy chain. Results obtained evaluating proteolysis of the factor VIII mutants by factor Xa revealed modest rate reductions (<5-fold) in generating A2 and A1 subunits and in cleaving light chain at Arg-1721 from either variant, suggesting little dependence upon prior cleavage at residue 1689 as compared with thrombin. Overall, these results are consistent with a competition between heavy and light chains for thrombin exosite binding and subsequent proteolysis with binding of the former chain preferred.

  1. Cut in translation: ribosome-dependent mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Lalaouna, David; Massé, Eric

    2017-05-02

    Transcription and translation are two complex mechanisms that are tightly coupled in prokaryotic cells. Even before the completion of transcription, ribosomes attach to the nascent mRNA and initiate protein synthesis. Remarkably, recent publications have indicated an association between translation and decay of certain mRNAs. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Leroy et al (2017) depicts a fascinating mechanism of mRNA degradation, which involves the ribosome-associated ribonuclease Rae1 in Bacillus subtilis In a translation-dependent manner, Rae1 binds the ribosomal aminoacylation (A)-site and cleaves between specific codons of the targeted mRNA. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Does Cleavage Work at Work? Men, but Not Women, Falsely Believe Cleavage Sells a Weak Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Peter; Chrislock, Karyna; Petersik, Korinne; Vijay, Madhuri; Turek, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether men, but not women, would be distracted by a female sales representative's exposed cleavage, leading to greater perceived efficacy for a weak, but not for a strong product. A community sample of 88 men and 97 women viewed a video of a female pharmaceutical sales representative who (a) had exposed cleavage or dressed modestly…

  3. Does Cleavage Work at Work? Men, but Not Women, Falsely Believe Cleavage Sells a Weak Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Peter; Chrislock, Karyna; Petersik, Korinne; Vijay, Madhuri; Turek, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether men, but not women, would be distracted by a female sales representative's exposed cleavage, leading to greater perceived efficacy for a weak, but not for a strong product. A community sample of 88 men and 97 women viewed a video of a female pharmaceutical sales representative who (a) had exposed cleavage or dressed modestly…

  4. Selective cleavage of pepsin by molybdenum metallopeptidase

    SciTech Connect

    Yenjai, Sudarat; Malaikaew, Pinpinat; Liwporncharoenvong, Teerayuth; Buranaprapuk, Apinya

    2012-03-02

    Graphical abstract: Molybdenum metallopeptidase: the Mo(VI) cluster with six molybdenum cations has the ability to cleave protein under mild conditions (37 Degree-Sign C, pH 7) without reducing agents. The reaction required only low concentration of ammonium heptamolybdatetetrahydrate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O) (0.125 mM). The reaction undergoes possibly via a hydrolytic mechanism. This is the first demonstration of protein cleavage by a molybdenum cluster. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first demonstration of protein cleavage by a Mo(VI) cluster with six molybdenum cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cleavage reaction undergoes at mild conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No need of reducing agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only low concentration of Mo(VI) cluster and short time of incubation are needed. -- Abstract: In this study, the cleavage of protein by molybdenum cluster is reported for the first time. The protein target used is porcine pepsin. The data presented in this study show that pepsin is cleaved to at least three fragments with molecular weights of {approx}23, {approx}19 and {approx}16 kDa when the mixture of the protein and ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O) was incubated at 37 Degree-Sign C for 24 h. No self cleavage of pepsin occurs at 37 Degree-Sign C, 24 h indicating that the reaction is mediated by the metal ions. N-terminal sequencing of the peptide fragments indicated three cleavage sites of pepsin between Leu 112-Tyr 113, Leu 166-Leu 167 and Leu 178-Asn 179. The cleavage reaction occurs after incubation of the mixture of pepsin and (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O) only for 2 h. However, the specificity of the cleavage decreases when incubation time is longer than 48 h. The mechanism for cleavage of pepsin is expected to be hydrolytic chemistry of the amide bonds in the protein

  5. Structural basis of cohesin cleavage by separase

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhonghui; Luo, Xuelian; Yu, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation requires timely dissolution of chromosome cohesion after chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic spindle. Separase is absolutely essential for cohesion dissolution in organisms from yeast to man1,2. It cleaves the kleisin subunit of cohesin and opens the cohesin ring to allow chromosome segregation. Cohesin cleavage is spatiotemporally controlled by separase-associated regulatory proteins, including the inhibitory chaperone securin3–6, and by phosphorylation of both the enzyme and substrates7–12. Dysregulation of this process causes chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy, contributing to cancer and birth defects. Despite its essential functions, atomic structures of separase have not been determined. Here, we report crystal structures of the separase protease domain from Chaetomium thermophilum, alone or covalently bound to unphosphorylated and phosphorylated inhibitory peptides derived from a cohesin cleavage site. These structures reveal how separase recognizes cohesin and how cohesin phosphorylation by polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) enhances cleavage. Consistent with a previous cellular study13, mutating two securin residues in a conserved motif that partially matches the separase cleavage consensus converts securin from a separase inhibitor to a substrate. Our study establishes atomic mechanisms of substrate cleavage by separase and suggests competitive inhibition by securin. PMID:27027290

  6. The poly A polymerase Star-PAP controls 3′-end cleavage by promoting CPSF interaction and specificity toward the pre-mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Laishram, Rakesh S; Anderson, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    Star-PAP is a poly (A) polymerase (PAP) that is putatively required for 3′-end cleavage and polyadenylation of a select set of pre-messenger RNAs (mRNAs), including heme oxygenase (HO-1) mRNA. To investigate the underlying mechanism, the cleavage and polyadenylation of pre-mRNA was reconstituted with nuclear lysates. siRNA knockdown of Star-PAP abolished cleavage of HO-1, and this phenotype could be rescued by recombinant Star-PAP but not PAPα. Star-PAP directly associated with cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) 160 and 73 subunits and also the targeted pre-mRNA. In vitro and in vivo Star-PAP was required for the stable association of CPSF complex to pre-mRNA and then CPSF 73 specifically cleaved the mRNA at the 3′-cleavage site. This mechanism is distinct from canonical PAPα, which is recruited to the cleavage complex by interacting with CPSF 160. The data support a model where Star-PAP binds to the RNA, recruits the CPSF complex to the 3′-end of pre-mRNA and then defines cleavage by CPSF 73 and subsequent polyadenylation of its target mRNAs. PMID:21102410

  7. The mRNA assembly line: transcription and processing machines in the same factory.

    PubMed

    Bentley, David

    2002-06-01

    Processing of RNA precursors to their mature form often occurs co-transcriptionally. Consequently, the ternary complex of DNA template, RNA polymerase and nascent RNA chain is the physiological substrate for factors that modify the nascent RNA by capping, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation. mRNA production is thought to occur within a "factory" that contains the RNA polymerase II transcription machine and the processing machines. Newly discovered protein-protein contacts between RNA polymerase and factors that process mRNA precursors are beginning to illuminate how the "mRNA factory" works.

  8. Nanomechanical cleavage of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dai-Ming; Kvashnin, Dmitry G; Najmaei, Sina; Bando, Yoshio; Kimoto, Koji; Koskinen, Pekka; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Yakobson, Boris I; Sorokin, Pavel B; Lou, Jun; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-04-03

    The discovery of two-dimensional materials became possible due to the mechanical cleavage technique. Despite its simplicity, the as-cleaved materials demonstrated surprising macro-continuity, high crystalline quality and extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties that triggered global research interest. Here such cleavage processes and associated mechanical behaviours are investigated by a direct in situ transmission electron microscopy probing technique, using atomically thin molybdenum disulphide layers as a model material. Our technique demonstrates layer number selective cleavage, from a monolayer to double layer and up to 23 atomic layers. In situ observations combined with molecular dynamics simulations reveal unique layer-dependent bending behaviours, from spontaneous rippling (<5 atomic layers) to homogeneous curving (~ 10 layers) and finally to kinking (20 or more layers), depending on the competition of strain energy and interfacial energy.

  9. Nanomechanical cleavage of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dai-Ming; Kvashnin, Dmitry G.; Najmaei, Sina; Bando, Yoshio; Kimoto, Koji; Koskinen, Pekka; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Yakobson, Boris I.; Sorokin, Pavel B.; Lou, Jun; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-04-01

    The discovery of two-dimensional materials became possible due to the mechanical cleavage technique. Despite its simplicity, the as-cleaved materials demonstrated surprising macro-continuity, high crystalline quality and extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties that triggered global research interest. Here such cleavage processes and associated mechanical behaviours are investigated by a direct in situ transmission electron microscopy probing technique, using atomically thin molybdenum disulphide layers as a model material. Our technique demonstrates layer number selective cleavage, from a monolayer to double layer and up to 23 atomic layers. In situ observations combined with molecular dynamics simulations reveal unique layer-dependent bending behaviours, from spontaneous rippling (<5 atomic layers) to homogeneous curving (~ 10 layers) and finally to kinking (20 or more layers), depending on the competition of strain energy and interfacial energy.

  10. Cleavage fracture in bainitic and martensitic microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.Z.; Knott, J.F.

    1999-09-29

    This paper addresses the mechanisms of cleavage fracture in the pressure-vessel steel A533B. Microstructures of single bainite microstructures exhibit a higher propensity for brittle cleavage fracture than do those of auto-tempered martensites. The K{sub 1c} values of mixed microstructures are determined by the statistical distribution of the two phases and the range of the values is bounded by limits set by those for the single-phase microstructures. The results are explained in terms of the RKR model, which involves a local cleavage stress {sigma}*{sub F} and a distance ahead of the macrocrack tip, X, as two critical parameters. It is found that the carbides or carbide colonies act as critical microcrack nuclei, and hence play a key role in determining the fracture toughness, although packet boundaries in bainite may give rise to pop-in arrests in displacement-controlled tests.

  11. Limited caspase cleavage of human BAP31.

    PubMed

    Määttä, J; Hallikas, O; Welti, S; Hildén, P; Schröder, J; Kuismanen, E

    2000-11-10

    Human BAP31 was cleaved at both of its two identical caspase cleavage sites in two previously reported models of apoptosis. We show here that only the most carboxy-terminal site is cleaved during apoptosis induced in HeLa cells by tunicamycin, tumor necrosis factor and cycloheximide, or staurosporine. Similar results were obtained in HL-60 cells using Fas/APO-1 antibodies, or cycloheximide. This limited cleavage, which is inhibited by several caspase inhibitors, removes eight amino acids from human BAP31 including the KKXX coat protein I binding motif. Ectopic expression of the resulting cleavage product induces redistribution of mannosidase II from the Golgi and prevents endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport of virus glycoproteins.

  12. Developmental regulation of elongation factor-1 delta in sea urchin suggests appearance of a mechanism for alternative poly(A) site selection in gastrulae.

    PubMed

    Delalande, C; Monnier, A; Minella, O; Genevière, A M; Mulner-Lorillon, O; Bellé, R; Cormier, P

    1998-07-10

    Elongation factor-1 delta gene expression was analyzed during sea urchin development. EF-1 delta mRNA is present as a single 2.7-kb transcript in unfertilized eggs and in rapidly dividing cleavage stage embryos. It decreases rapidly 6 h after fertilization and then reappears at the gastrula stage as two transcripts of 2.7 and 2.0 kb. cDNA clones encoding the 2.7- and 2.0-kb transcripts were isolated from a sea urchin embryos library. The two cDNAs originate from alternative poly(A) site selection from a unique precursor. Both cDNAs are terminated by a poly(A) tail and were shown to encode for the same protein identified as EF-1 delta. Thus, EF-1 delta gene expression undergoes developmental regulation in early embryos leading to the presence of two poly(A) forms of the transcript. Since the 2.0-kb polyadenylated form of the EF-1 delta transcript appears at gastrula stage, our results suggest that a mechanism for alternative poly(A) site selection of the EF-1 delta transcript appears during embryonic development.

  13. Cleavage of cytoplasm within the oligonucleate zoosporangia of allomyces macrogynus.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yunjeong; Song, Youngsun; Kim, Namhun; Youn, Hyunjoo; Kang, Minkook; Song, Yurim; Cho, Chungwon

    2014-01-01

    Allomyces macrogynus produces zoosporangia that discharge uninucleate zoospores after cleavage of multinucleate cytoplasm. Cleavage of cytoplasm within the oligonucleate zoosporangia of A. macrogynus was visualized by constructing three-dimensional models based on electron micrographs and confocal images. In oligonucleate zoosporangia, three adjacent nuclei can form three cleavage planes with a line of intersection of the planes. The position and boundary of the cleavage planes are thought to be determined by the relative positions of the nuclei. The establishment of three cleavage planes by cleavage membranes occurred sequentially, and the nuclear axis connecting the centers of two nuclei affected the development of cleavage membranes on each cleavage plane. In multinucleate zoosporangia, groups of three neighboring nuclei near the cell cortex may initiate the sequential establishment of cleavage planes and then may interact with the nuclei further from the cortex until the interactions of nuclei are propagated to the central region of the cytoplasm. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  14. Short RNA duplexes guide sequence-dependent cleavage by human Dicer.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Lucien; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Abou Elela, Sherif

    2010-12-01

    Dicer is a member of the double-stranded (ds) RNA-specific ribonuclease III (RNase III) family that is required for RNA processing and degradation. Like most members of the RNase III family, Dicer possesses a dsRNA binding domain and cleaves long RNA duplexes in vitro. In this study, Dicer substrate selectivity was examined using bipartite substrates. These experiments revealed that an RNA helix possessing a 2-nucleotide (nt) 3'-overhang may bind and direct sequence-specific Dicer-mediated cleavage in trans at a fixed distance from the 3'-end overhang. Chemical modifications of the substrate indicate that the presence of the ribose 2'-hydroxyl group is not required for Dicer binding, but some located near the scissile bonds are needed for RNA cleavage. This suggests a flexible mechanism for substrate selectivity that recognizes the overall shape of an RNA helix. Examination of the structure of natural pre-microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) suggests that they may form bipartite substrates with complementary mRNA sequences, and thus induce seed-independent Dicer cleavage. Indeed, in vitro, natural pre-miRNA directed sequence-specific Dicer-mediated cleavage in trans by supporting the formation of a substrate mimic.

  15. Short RNA duplexes guide sequence-dependent cleavage by human Dicer

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Lucien Junior; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Elela, Sherif Abou

    2010-01-01

    Dicer is a member of the double-stranded (ds) RNA-specific ribonuclease III (RNase III) family that is required for RNA processing and degradation. Like most members of the RNase III family, Dicer possesses a dsRNA binding domain and cleaves long RNA duplexes in vitro. In this study, Dicer substrate selectivity was examined using bipartite substrates. These experiments revealed that an RNA helix possessing a 2-nucleotide (nt) 3′-overhang may bind and direct sequence-specific Dicer-mediated cleavage in trans at a fixed distance from the 3′-end overhang. Chemical modifications of the substrate indicate that the presence of the ribose 2′-hydroxyl group is not required for Dicer binding, but some located near the scissile bonds are needed for RNA cleavage. This suggests a flexible mechanism for substrate selectivity that recognizes the overall shape of an RNA helix. Examination of the structure of natural pre-microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) suggests that they may form bipartite substrates with complementary mRNA sequences, and thus induce seed-independent Dicer cleavage. Indeed, in vitro, natural pre-miRNA directed sequence-specific Dicer-mediated cleavage in trans by supporting the formation of a substrate mimic. PMID:20974746

  16. Systematic Profiling of Poly(A)+ Transcripts Modulated by Core 3’ End Processing and Splicing Factors Reveals Regulatory Rules of Alternative Cleavage and Polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wencheng; You, Bei; Hoque, Mainul; Zheng, Dinghai; Luo, Wenting; Ji, Zhe; Park, Ji Yeon; Gunderson, Samuel I.; Kalsotra, Auinash; Manley, James L.; Tian, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) results in mRNA isoforms containing different 3’ untranslated regions (3’UTRs) and/or coding sequences. How core cleavage/polyadenylation (C/P) factors regulate APA is not well understood. Using siRNA knockdown coupled with deep sequencing, we found that several C/P factors can play significant roles in 3’UTR-APA. Whereas Pcf11 and Fip1 enhance usage of proximal poly(A) sites (pAs), CFI-25/68, PABPN1 and PABPC1 promote usage of distal pAs. Strong cis element biases were found for pAs regulated by CFI-25/68 or Fip1, and the distance between pAs plays an important role in APA regulation. In addition, intronic pAs are substantially regulated by splicing factors, with U1 mostly inhibiting C/P events in introns near the 5’ end of gene and U2 suppressing those in introns with features for efficient splicing. Furthermore, PABPN1 inhibits expression of transcripts with pAs near the transcription start site (TSS), a property possibly related to its role in RNA degradation. Finally, we found that groups of APA events regulated by C/P factors are also modulated in cell differentiation and development with distinct trends. Together, our results support an APA code where an APA event in a given cellular context is regulated by a number of parameters, including relative location to the TSS, splicing context, distance between competing pAs, surrounding cis elements and concentrations of core C/P factors. PMID:25906188

  17. Granzyme B cleavage of autoantigens in autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Darrah, Erika; Rosen, Antony

    2011-01-01

    The systemic autoimmune diseases are a complex group of disorders characterized by elaboration of high titer autoantibodies and immune-mediated damage of tissues. Two striking features of autoimmune rheumatic diseases are their self-sustaining nature and capacity for auto-amplification, exemplified by disease flares. These features suggest the presence of a feed-forward cycle in disease propagation, in which immune effector pathways drive the generation/release of autoantigens, which in turn fuel the immune response. There is a growing awareness that structural modification during cytotoxic granule-induced cell death is a frequent and striking feature of autoantigens, and may be an important principle driving disease. This review focuses on granzyme B (GrB)-mediated cleavage of autoantigens including (i) features of GrB cleavage sites within autoantigens, (ii) co-location of cleavage sites with autoimmune epitopes, and (iii) GrB-sensitivity of autoantigens in disease-relevant target tissue. The mechanisms whereby GrB-induced changes in autoantigen structure may contribute to the initiation and propagation of autoimmunity are reviewed and reveal that GrB has the potential to create or destroy autoimmune epitopes. As there remains no direct evidence demonstrating a causal role for GrB-cleavage of antigens in the generation of autoimmunity, this review highlights important outstanding questions about the role of GrB in autoantigen selection. PMID:20075942

  18. Regulation of Dpp activity by tissue-specific cleavage of an upstream site within the prodomain

    PubMed Central

    Sopory, Shailaja; Kwon, Sunjong; Wehrli, Marcel; Christian, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    BMP4 is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is cleaved at two sites during maturation: initially at a site (S1) adjacent to the ligand domain, and then at an upstream site (S2) within the prodomain. Cleavage at the second site regulates the stability of mature BMP4 and this in turn influences its signaling intensity and range of action. The Drosophila ortholog of BMP4, Dpp, functions as a long- or short-range signaling molecule in the wing disc or embryonic midgut, respectively but mechanisms that differentially regulate its bioactivity in these tissues have not been explored. In the current studies we demonstrate, by dpp mutant rescue, that cleavage at the S2 site of proDpp is required for development of the wing and leg imaginal discs, whereas cleavage at the S1 site is sufficient to rescue Dpp function in the midgut. Both the S1 and S2 site of proDpp are cleaved in the wing disc, and S2-cleavage is essential to generate sufficient ligand to exceed the threshold for pMAD activation at both short- and long-range in most cells. By contrast, proDpp is cleaved at the S1 site alone in the embryonic mesoderm and this generates sufficient ligand to activate physiological target genes in neighboring cells. These studies provide the first biochemical and genetic evidence that that selective cleavage of the S2 site of proDPP provides a tissue-specific mechanism for regulating Dpp activity, and that differential cleavage can contribute to, but is not an absolute determinant of signaling range. PMID:20659445

  19. Tailing cDNAs with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase in RT-PCR assays to identify ribozyme cleavage products.

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque-Silva, J; Houard, S; Bollen, A

    1998-01-01

    Polytailing a cDNA with terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) results in the addition of a homopolymeric sequence at its 3'-end. Here we describe the use of tailing in competitive RT-PCR assays to evaluate cleavage efficiency of ribozymes. Using a system that perfectly mimics intracellular cleavage, we were able to detect as few as 1% of cleaved moieties. Furthermore, employing primers overlapping the junction between tails and the cleaved RNA moiety in non-competitive assays, the sensitivity of the method could be improved to <10 fg. Using the latter protocol and reactions employing a trans -acting hairpin ribozyme targeting the nucleocapsid mRNA of the mumps virus, we were able to demonstrate ribozyme-induced cleavage. PMID:9628937

  20. A strategy for developing a hammerhead ribozyme for selective RNA cleavage depending on substitutional RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Masatora; Kurihara, Kei; Tanaka, Yasuyoshi; Deshimaru, Masanobu

    2012-01-01

    Substitutional RNA editing plays a crucial role in the regulation of biological processes. Cleavage of target RNA that depends on the specific site of substitutional RNA editing is a useful tool for analyzing and regulating intracellular processes related to RNA editing. Hammerhead ribozymes have been utilized as small catalytic RNAs for cleaving target RNA at a specific site and may be used for RNA-editing-specific RNA cleavage. Here we reveal a design strategy for a hammerhead ribozyme that specifically recognizes adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) and cytosine to uracil (C-to-U) substitutional RNA-editing sites and cleaves target RNA. Because the hammerhead ribozyme cleaves one base upstream of the target-editing site, the base that pairs with the target-editing site was utilized for recognition. RNA-editing-specific ribozymes were designed such that the recognition base paired only with the edited base. These ribozymes showed A-to-I and C-to-U editing-specific cleavage activity against synthetic serotonin receptor 2C and apolipoprotein B mRNA fragments in vitro, respectively. Additionally, the ribozyme designed for recognizing A-to-I RNA editing at the Q/R site on filamin A (FLNA) showed editing-specific cleavage activity against physiologically edited FLNA mRNA extracted from cells. We demonstrated that our strategy is effective for cleaving target RNA in an editing-dependent manner. The data in this study provided an experimental basis for the RNA-editing-dependent degradation of specific target RNA in vivo. PMID:22798264

  1. Enhancing the specificity of the enterokinase cleavage reaction to promote efficient cleavage of a fusion tag.

    PubMed

    Shahravan, S Hesam; Qu, Xuanlu; Chan, I-San; Shin, Jumi A

    2008-06-01

    In our work with designed minimalist proteins based on the bZIP motif, we have found our His-tagged proteins to be prone to inclusion body formation and aggregation; we suspect this problem is largely due to the His tag, known to promote aggregation. Using AhR6-C/EBP, a hybrid of the AhR basic region and C/EBP leucine zipper, as representative of our bZIP-like protein family, we attempted removal of the His tag with enterokinase (EK) but obtained the desired cleavage product in very small yield. EK is known for proteolysis at noncanonical sites, and most cleavage occurred at unintended sites. We manipulated experimental conditions to improve specificity of proteolysis and analyzed the cleavage products; no effect was observed after changing pH, temperature, or the amount of EK. We then suspected the accessibility of the EK site was impeded due to protein aggregation. We found that the easily implemented strategy of addition of urea (1-4 M) greatly improved EK cleavage specificity at the canonical site and reduced adventitious cleavage. We believe that this enhancement in specificity is due to a more "open" protein structure, in which the now accessible canonical target can compete effectively with adventitious cleavage sites of related sequence.

  2. RNase III cleavage demonstrates a long range RNA: RNA duplex element flanking the hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site

    PubMed Central

    Beguiristain, Nerea; Robertson, Hugh D.; Gómez, Jordi

    2005-01-01

    Here, we show that Escherichia coli Ribonuclease III cleaves specifically the RNA genome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) within the first 570 nt with similar efficiency within two sequences which are ∼400 bases apart in the linear HCV map. Demonstrations include determination of the specificity of the cleavage sites at positions C27 and U33 in the first (5′) motif and G439 in the second (3′) motif, complete competition inhibition of 5′ and 3′ HCV RNA cleavages by added double-stranded RNA in a 1:6 to 1:8 weight ratio, respectively, 50% reverse competition inhibition of the RNase III T7 R1.1 mRNA substrate cleavage by HCV RNA at 1:1 molar ratio, and determination of the 5′ phosphate and 3′ hydroxyl end groups of the newly generated termini after cleavage. By comparing the activity and specificity of the commercial RNase III enzyme, used in this study, with the natural E.coli RNase III enzyme, on the natural bacteriophage T7 R1.1 mRNA substrate, we demonstrated that the HCV cuts fall into the category of specific, secondary RNase III cleavages. This reaction identifies regions of unusual RNA structure, and we further showed that blocking or deletion of one of the two RNase III-sensitive sequence motifs impeded cleavage at the other, providing direct evidence that both sequence motifs, besides being far apart in the linear RNA sequence, occur in a single RNA structural motif, which encloses the HCV internal ribosome entry site in a large RNA loop. PMID:16170153

  3. Cell cycle-dependent regulation of Aurora kinase B mRNA by the Microprocessor complex.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eunsun; Seong, Youngmo; Seo, Jae Hong; Kwon, Young-Soo; Song, Hoseok

    2014-03-28

    Aurora kinase B regulates the segregation of chromosomes and the spindle checkpoint during mitosis. In this study, we showed that the Microprocessor complex, which is responsible for the processing of the primary transcripts during the generation of microRNAs, destabilizes the mRNA of Aurora kinase B in human cells. The Microprocessor-mediated cleavage kept Aurora kinase B at a low level and prevented premature entrance into mitosis. The cleavage was reduced during mitosis leading to the accumulation of Aurora kinase B mRNA and protein. In addition to Aurora kinase B mRNA, the processing of other primary transcripts of miRNAs were also decreased during mitosis. We found that the cleavage was dependent on an RNA helicase, DDX5, and the association of DDX5 and DDX17 with the Microprocessor was reduced during mitosis. Thus, we propose a novel mechanism by which the Microprocessor complex regulates stability of Aurora kinase B mRNA and cell cycle progression.

  4. Quantification of alternatively spliced FGFR2 RNAs using the RNA invasive cleavage assay

    PubMed Central

    WAGNER, ERIC J.; CURTIS, MICHELLE L.; ROBSON, NICOLE D.; BARANIAK, ANDREW P.; EIS, PEGGY S.; GARCIA-BLANCO, MARIANO A.

    2003-01-01

    The regulated splicing of fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) transcripts leads to tissue-specific expression of distinct receptor isoforms. These isoforms contain two different versions of the ligand binding Ig-like domain III, which are encoded by exon IIIb or exon IIIc. The mutually exclusive use of exon IIIb and exon IIIc can be recapitulated in tissue culture using DT3 and AT3 rat prostate carcinoma cells. We used this well-characterized system to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the RNA invasive cleavage assay to specifically measure FGFR2 alternative splicing outcomes. Experiments presented here demonstrated that the RNA invasive cleavage assay could specifically detect isoforms with discrimination levels that ranged from 1 in 5 × 103 to 1 in 105. Moreover the assay could detect close to 0.01 amole of FGFR2 RNAs. The assay detected the expected levels of transcripts containing either exon IIIb or IIIc, but, surprisingly, it detected high levels of IIIb-IIIc double inclusion transcripts. This finding, which has important implications for the role of exon silencing and of mRNA surveillance mechanisms, had been missed by RT-PCR. Additionally, we used the RNA invasive cleavage assay to demonstrate a novel function for the regulatory element IAS2 in repressing exon IIIc inclusion. We also show here that purification of RNA is not necessary for the invasive cleavage assay, because crude cell lysates could be used to accurately measure alternative transcripts. The data presented here indicate that the RNA invasive cleavage assay is an important addition to the repertoire of techniques available for the study of alternative splicing. PMID:14624010

  5. Promoting elongation with transcript cleavage stimulatory factors.

    PubMed

    Fish, Rachel N; Kane, Caroline M

    2002-09-13

    Transcript elongation by RNA polymerase is a dynamic process, capable of responding to a number of intrinsic and extrinsic signals. A number of elongation factors have been identified that enhance the rate or efficiency of transcription. One such class of factors facilitates RNA polymerase transcription through blocks to elongation by stimulating the polymerase to cleave the nascent RNA transcript within the elongation complex. These cleavage factors are represented by the Gre factors from prokaryotes, and TFIIS and TFIIS-like factors found in archaea and eukaryotes. High-resolution structures of RNA polymerases and the cleavage factors in conjunction with biochemical investigations and genetic analyses have provided insights into the mechanism of action of these elongation factors. However, there are yet many unanswered questions regarding the regulation of these factors and their effects on target genes.

  6. Unexpected Trypsin Cleavage at Ubiquitinated Lysines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Unexpected tryptic cleavage has been characterized at modified K48 residues in polyubiquitins. In particular, the tryptic products of all seven of the lysine-linked dimers of ubiquitin and of three trimers—linear Ub–48Ub–48Ub, linear Ub–63Ub–63Ub, and the branched trimer [Ub]2–6,48Ub—have been analyzed. In addition to the peptide products expected under commonly used tryptic conditions, we observe that peptides are formed with an unexpected ε-glycinylglycinyl-Lys carboxyl terminus when the site of linkage is Lys48. Trypsin from three different commercial sources exhibited this aberration. Initial cleavage at R74 is proposed in a distal ubiquitin to produce a glycinylglycinyl-lysine residue which is bound by trypsin. PMID:26182167

  7. [Laparoscopic cleavage in splenic symptomatic cyst].

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, Antonio-José; Candel-Arenas, Marifé; González-Valverde, Francisco-Miguel; Luján-Martínez, Delia; Medina-Manuel, Esther; Albarracín Marín-Blázquez, Antonio

    2016-12-30

    Splenic cysts are rare diseases that are diagnosed incidentally during imaging studies. When cysts are recognized, surgical treatment is recommended adapted to the particular case, depending on the size and location of the cyst and the age of the patient in order to avoid dangerous complications such as spleen rupture or cyst infection with abscess. We report 2patients with symptomatic splenic epidermoid cyst treated by laparoscopic cleavage. Laparoscopic cleavage is a surgical option for splenic cyst, with the goal of reducing postoperative complications while preserving splenic function. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Caspase-mediated specific cleavage of human histone deacetylase 4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Dowling, Melissa; Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Kao, Gary D

    2004-08-13

    Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is a class II HDAC implicated in controlling gene expression important for diverse cellular functions, but little is known about how its expression and stability are regulated. We report here that this deacetylase is unusually unstable, with a half-life of less than 8 h. Consistent with the instability of HDAC4 protein, its mRNA was also highly unstable (with a half-life of less than 4 h). The degradation of HDAC4 could be accelerated by exposure of cells to ultraviolet irradiation. HDAC4 degradation was not dependent on proteasome or CRM1-mediated export activity but instead was caspase-dependent and was detectable in diverse human cancer lines. Of two potential caspase consensus motifs in HDAC4, both lying within a region containing proline-, glutamic acid-, serine-, and threonine-rich (PEST) sequences, we identified, by site-directed mutagenesis, Asp-289 as the prime cleavage site. Notably, this residue is not conserved among other class IIa members, HDAC5, -7, and -9. Finally, the induced expression of caspase-cleavable HDAC4 led to markedly increased apoptosis. These results therefore unexpectedly link the regulation of HDAC4 protein stability to caspases, enzymes that are important for controlling cell death and differentiation.

  9. Elevated levels of the polyadenylation factor CstF 64 enhance formation of the 1kB Testis brain RNA-binding protein (TB-RBP) mRNA in male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Chennathukuzhi, V M; Lefrancois, S; Morales, C R; Syed, V; Hecht, N B

    2001-04-01

    The single copy mouse Testis Brain RNA-Binding Protein (TB-RBP) gene encodes three mRNAs of 3.0, 1.7, and 1.0 kb which only differ in their 3' UTRs. The 1 kb TB-RBP mRNA predominates in testis, while somatic cells preferentially express the 3.0 kb TB-RBP mRNA. Here we show that the 1 kb mRNA is translated several-fold more efficiently than the 3 kb TB-RBP in rabbit reticulocyte lysates and cells with elevated levels of the 1 kB TB-RBP mRNA express high levels of TB-RBP. To determine if the cleavage stimulatory factor CstF 64 can modulate the alternative splicing of the TB-RBP pre-mRNA and therefore TB-RBP expression, CstF 64 levels and binding to alternative polyadenylation sites were examined. CstF 64 is abundant in the testis and preferentially binds to a distal site in the TB-RBP pre-mRNA that produces the 3 kb TB-RBP. Moreover, upregulation or overexpression of CstF 64 increases the poly(A) site selection for the 1 kb TB-RBP mRNA. We propose that the level of the polyadenylation factor CstF 64 modulates the level of TB-RBP synthesis in male germ cells by an alternative processing of the TB-RBP pre-mRNA.

  10. Alpha and omega of carotenoid cleavage.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, M R

    2004-01-01

    In early 1900s, based on indirect evidence, Steenbock and Morton independently predicted that beta-carotene could be the biological precursor of vitamin A, although this notion was contested by others. In the 1930s, Thomas Moore showed the in vivo formation of vitamin A from beta-carotene. But it was not until Jim Olson and DeWitt Goodman independently showed in 1965 the formation of retinal, the aldehyde form of vitamin A from beta-carotene in cell-free extracts of liver and intestine, that this vital pathway of beta-carotene was recognized. Despite compelling evidence in several experimental systems for the central cleavage of beta-carotene to retinal by many investigators, there were some careful independent studies by Glover et al., Ganguly et al., Hansen and Meret and Krinsky et al. showing the eccentric cleavage of beta-carotene resulting in the formation of apocarotenoids both in vivo and in vitro. In an attempt to resolve this controversial issue, we revisited this problem in 1989 and showed beyond doubt the formation of retinal as the sole enzymatic product of a cytosolic enzyme from rabbit and rat intestinal mucosa by mass spectrometry and tracer analysis of the crystallized product. This was confirmed in 1996 by Nagao using the pig intestinal extract. Yeum et al. confirmed in 2000 that retinal is the sole product of beta-carotene cleavage in the presence of alpha-tocopherol, and that the observed formation of apocarotenoids occurs only in the absence of an antioxidant like alpha-tocopherol. In the same year, Barua and Olson also concluded from their in vivo studies in rats that central cleavage is by far the major pathway for the formation of vitamin A from beta-carotene. Beta, beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.21) is the key enzyme that cleaves beta-carotene into two molecules of retinal. It is a cytosolic enzyme primarily localized in the duodenal mucosa although it has been found in liver. It is a 66 kDa sulfhydryl protein, requires

  11. Cleavage crystallography of liquid metal embrittled aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, A. P.; Stoner, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    The crystallography of liquid metal-induced transgranular cleavage in six aluminum alloys having a variety of microstructures has been determined via Laue X-ray back reflection. The cleavage crystallography was independent of alloy microstructure, and the cleavage plane was 100-plane oriented in all cases. It was further determined that the cleavage crystallography was not influenced by alloy texture. Examination of the fracture surface indicated that there was not a unique direction of crack propagation. In addition, the existence of 100-plane cleavage on alloy 2024 fracture surfaces was inferred by comparison of secondary cleavage crack intersection geometry on the 2024 surfaces with the geometry of secondary cleavage crack intersections on the test alloys.

  12. Secondary Structure across the Bacterial Transcriptome Reveals Versatile Roles in mRNA Regulation and Function.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Cristian; Bartholomäus, Alexander; Fedyunin, Ivan; Ignatova, Zoya

    2015-10-01

    Messenger RNA acts as an informational molecule between DNA and translating ribosomes. Emerging evidence places mRNA in central cellular processes beyond its major function as informational entity. Although individual examples show that specific structural features of mRNA regulate translation and transcript stability, their role and function throughout the bacterial transcriptome remains unknown. Combining three sequencing approaches to provide a high resolution view of global mRNA secondary structure, translation efficiency and mRNA abundance, we unraveled structural features in E. coli mRNA with implications in translation and mRNA degradation. A poorly structured site upstream of the coding sequence serves as an additional unspecific binding site of the ribosomes and the degree of its secondary structure propensity negatively correlates with gene expression. Secondary structures within coding sequences are highly dynamic and influence translation only within a very small subset of positions. A secondary structure upstream of the stop codon is enriched in genes terminated by UAA codon with likely implications in translation termination. The global analysis further substantiates a common recognition signature of RNase E to initiate endonucleolytic cleavage. This work determines for the first time the E. coli RNA structurome, highlighting the contribution of mRNA secondary structure as a direct effector of a variety of processes, including translation and mRNA degradation.

  13. Secondary Structure across the Bacterial Transcriptome Reveals Versatile Roles in mRNA Regulation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Fedyunin, Ivan; Ignatova, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA acts as an informational molecule between DNA and translating ribosomes. Emerging evidence places mRNA in central cellular processes beyond its major function as informational entity. Although individual examples show that specific structural features of mRNA regulate translation and transcript stability, their role and function throughout the bacterial transcriptome remains unknown. Combining three sequencing approaches to provide a high resolution view of global mRNA secondary structure, translation efficiency and mRNA abundance, we unraveled structural features in E. coli mRNA with implications in translation and mRNA degradation. A poorly structured site upstream of the coding sequence serves as an additional unspecific binding site of the ribosomes and the degree of its secondary structure propensity negatively correlates with gene expression. Secondary structures within coding sequences are highly dynamic and influence translation only within a very small subset of positions. A secondary structure upstream of the stop codon is enriched in genes terminated by UAA codon with likely implications in translation termination. The global analysis further substantiates a common recognition signature of RNase E to initiate endonucleolytic cleavage. This work determines for the first time the E. coli RNA structurome, highlighting the contribution of mRNA secondary structure as a direct effector of a variety of processes, including translation and mRNA degradation. PMID:26495981

  14. Differential targeting of VDAC3 mRNA isoforms influences mitochondria morphology.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Morgane; Ubrig, Elodie; Filleur, Sophie; Erhardt, Mathieu; Ephritikhine, Geneviève; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Duchêne, Anne-Marie

    2014-06-17

    Intracellular targeting of mRNAs has recently emerged as a prevalent mechanism to control protein localization. For mitochondria, a cotranslational model of protein import is now proposed in parallel to the conventional posttranslational model, and mitochondrial targeting of mRNAs has been demonstrated in various organisms. Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are the most abundant proteins in the outer mitochondrial membrane and the major transport pathway for numerous metabolites. Four nucleus-encoded VDACs have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation generate two VDAC3 mRNA isoforms differing by their 3' UTR. By using quantitative RT-PCR and in vivo mRNA visualization approaches, the two mRNA variants were shown differentially associated with mitochondria. The longest mRNA presents a 3' extension named alternative UTR (aUTR) that is necessary and sufficient to target VDAC3 mRNA to the mitochondrial surface. Moreover, aUTR is sufficient for the mitochondrial targeting of a reporter transcript, and can be used as a tool to target an unrelated mRNA to the mitochondrial surface. Finally, VDAC3-aUTR mRNA variant impacts mitochondria morphology and size, demonstrating the role of mRNA targeting in mitochondria biogenesis.

  15. Functions of maternal mRNA as a cytoplasmic factor responsible for pole cell formation in Drosophila embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Togashi, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Okada, M.

    1986-12-01

    Injection of mRNA extracted from Drosophila cleavage embryos or mature oocytes restored pole cell-forming ability to embryos that had been deprived of this ability by uv irradiation. However, mRNA extracted from blastoderms did not show the restoration activity. Pole cells thus formed in uv-irradiated embryos bear similarities to normal pole cells both in their morphology and their ability to migrate to the gonadal rudiments. But this mRNA does not appear to be capable of rescuing uv-induced sterility, or inducing pole cells in the anterior polar region.

  16. Resistance of Actin to Cleavage during Apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qizhong; Wei, Tie; Lees-Miller, Susan; Alnemri, Emad; Watters, Dianne; Lavin, Martin F.

    1997-01-01

    A small number of cellular proteins present in the nucleus, cytosol, and membrane fraction are specifically cleaved by the interleukin-1β -converting enzyme (ICE)-like family of proteases during apoptosis. Previous results have demonstrated that one of these, the cytoskeletal protein actin, is degraded in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells upon serum withdrawal. Extracts from etoposide-treated U937 cells are also capable of cleaving actin. It was assumed that cleavage of actin represented a general phenomenon, and a mechanism coordinating proteolytic, endonucleolytic, and morphological aspects of apoptosis was proposed. We demonstrate here that actin is resistant to degradation in several different human cells induced to undergo apoptosis in response to a variety of stimuli, including Fas ligation, serum withdrawal, cytotoxic T-cell killing, and DNA damage. On the other hand, cell-free extracts from these cells and the ICE-like protease CPP32 were capable of cleaving actin in vitro. We conclude that while actin contains cleavage sites for ICE-like proteases, it is not degraded in vivo in human cells either because of lack of access of these proteases to actin or due to the presence of other factors that prevent degradation.

  17. Activity dependent CAM cleavage and neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Conant, Katherine; Allen, Megan; Lim, Seung T.

    2015-01-01

    Spatially localized proteolysis represents an elegant means by which neuronal activity dependent changes in synaptic structure, and thus experience dependent learning and memory, can be achieved. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that matrix metalloproteinase and adamalysin activity is concentrated at the cell surface, and emerging evidence suggests that increased peri-synaptic expression, release and/or activation of these proteinases occurs with enhanced excitatory neurotransmission. Synaptically expressed cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) could therefore represent important targets for neuronal activity-dependent proteolysis. Several CAM subtypes are expressed at the synapse, and their cleavage can influence the efficacy of synaptic transmission through a variety of non-mutually exclusive mechanisms. In the following review, we discuss mechanisms that regulate neuronal activity-dependent synaptic CAM shedding, including those that may be calcium dependent. We also highlight CAM targets of activity-dependent proteolysis including neuroligin and intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5). We include discussion focused on potential consequences of synaptic CAM shedding, with an emphasis on interactions between soluble CAM cleavage products and specific pre- and post-synaptic receptors. PMID:26321910

  18. ARTEMIS nuclease facilitates apoptotic chromatin cleavage.

    PubMed

    Britton, Sébastien; Frit, Philippe; Biard, Denis; Salles, Bernard; Calsou, Patrick

    2009-10-15

    One hallmark of apoptosis is DNA degradation that first appears as high molecular weight fragments followed by extensive internucleosomal fragmentation. During apoptosis, the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is activated. DNA-PK is involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and its catalytic subunit is associated with the nuclease ARTEMIS. Here, we report that, on initiation of apoptosis in human cells by agents causing DNA DSB or by staurosporine or other agents, ARTEMIS binds to apoptotic chromatin together with DNA-PK and other DSB repair proteins. ARTEMIS recruitment to chromatin showed a time and dose dependency. It required DNA-PK protein kinase activity and was blocked by antagonizing the onset of apoptosis with a pan-caspase inhibitor or on overexpression of the antiapoptotic BCL2 protein. In the absence of ARTEMIS, no defect in caspase-3, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, and XRCC4 cleavage or in H2AX phosphorylation was observed and DNA-PK catalytic subunit was still phosphorylated on S2056 in response to staurosporine. However, DNA fragmentation including high molecular weight fragmentation was delayed in ARTEMIS-deficient cells compared with cells expressing ARTEMIS. In addition, ARTEMIS enhanced the kinetics of MLL gene cleavage at a breakage cluster breakpoint that is frequently translocated in acute or therapy-related leukemias. These results show a facilitating role for ARTEMIS at least in early, site-specific chromosome breakage during apoptosis.

  19. Regulation of mRNA Decay in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bijoy K; Kushner, Sidney R

    2016-09-08

    Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria use a variety of enzymatic pathways to degrade mRNAs. Although several recent reviews have outlined these pathways, much less attention has been paid to the regulation of mRNA decay. The functional half-life of a particular mRNA, which affects how much protein is synthesized from it, is determined by a combination of multiple factors. These include, but are not necessarily limited to, (a) stability elements at either the 5' or the 3' terminus, (b) posttranscriptional modifications, (c) ribosome density on individual mRNAs, (d) small regulatory RNA (sRNA) interactions with mRNAs, (e) regulatory proteins that alter ribonuclease binding affinities, (f) the presence or absence of endonucleolytic cleavage sites, (g) control of intracellular ribonuclease levels, and (h) physical location within the cell. Changes in physiological conditions associated with environmental alterations can significantly alter the impact of these factors in the decay of a particular mRNA.

  20. Roles of nonstructural polyproteins and cleavage products in regulating Sindbis virus RNA replication and transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Lemm, J A; Rice, C M

    1993-01-01

    Using vaccinia virus to express Sindbis virus (SIN) nonstructural proteins (nsPs) and template RNAs, we showed previously that synthesis of all three viral RNAs occurred only during expression of either the entire nonstructural coding region or the polyprotein precursors P123 and P34. In this report, the vaccinia virus system was used to express cleavage-defective polyproteins and nsP4 proteins containing various N-terminal extensions to directly examine the roles of the P123 and P34 polyproteins in RNA replication. Replication and subgenomic mRNA transcription occurred during coexpression of P34 and P123 polyproteins in which cleavage was blocked at either or both of the 1/2 and 2/3 sites. For all cleavage-defective P123 polyproteins, however, the ratio of subgenomic to genomic RNA was decreased, suggesting that both the 1/2 and 2/3 cleavages are required for efficient subgenomic RNA transcription. These studies indicate that the uncleaved P123 polyprotein can function as a component of the viral replicase capable of synthesizing both plus- and minus-strand RNAs. In contrast, cleavage-defective P34 was unable to function in RNA replication, even in complementation experiments in which minus-strand RNAs were provided by nsP4. A P34 polyprotein whose cleavage site was not altered could only function in RNA replication in the presence of an active nsP2 protease. Although nsP4, the putative RNA polymerase, was capable of synthesizing only minus-strand RNAs during coexpression with P123, the addition of only 22 upstream residues to nsP4 allowed both replication and transcription of subgenomic RNA to occur. These data show that the conserved domains of both nsP3 and the nsP4 polymerase do not need to be present in a P34 polyprotein to form a functional plus-strand replicase-transcriptase and suggest that the presence of an active nsP2 protease and a cleavable 3/4 site correlates with synthesis of all virus-specific RNA species. Images PMID:8445717

  1. Nonsense codons in human beta-globin mRNA result in the production of mRNA degradation products.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, S K; Sigmund, C D; Gross, K W; Maquat, L E

    1992-01-01

    Human beta zero-thalassemic beta-globin genes harboring either a frameshift or a nonsense mutation that results in the premature termination of beta-globin mRNA translation have been previously introduced into the germ line of mice (S.-K. Lim, J.J. Mullins, C.-M. Chen, K. Gross, and L.E. Maquat, EMBO J. 8:2613-2619, 1989). Each transgene produces properly processed albeit abnormally unstable mRNA as well as several smaller RNAs in erythroid cells. These smaller RNAs are detected only in the cytoplasm and, relative to mRNA, are longer-lived and are missing sequences from either exon I or exons I and II. In this communication, we show by using genetics and S1 nuclease transcript mapping that the premature termination of beta-globin mRNA translation is mechanistically required for the abnormal RNA metabolism. We also provide evidence that generation of the smaller RNAs is a cytoplasmic process: the 5' ends of intron 1-containing pre-mRNAs were normal, the rates of removal of introns 1 and 2 were normal, and studies inhibiting RNA synthesis with actinomycin D demonstrated a precursor-product relationship between full-length mRNA and the smaller RNAs. In vivo, about 50% of the full-length species that undergo decay are degraded to the smaller RNAs and the rest are degraded to undetectable products. Exposure of erythroid cells that expressed a normal human beta-globin transgene to either cycloheximide or puromycin did not result in the generation of the smaller RNAs. Therefore, a drug-induced reduction in cellular protein synthesis does not reproduce this aspect of cytoplasmic mRNA metabolism. These data suggest that the premature termination of beta-globin mRNA translation in either exon I or exon II results in the cytoplasmic generation of discrete mRNA degradation products that are missing sequences from exon I or exons I and II. Since these degradation products appear to be the same for all nonsense codons tested, there is no correlation between the position of

  2. Early cleavage in Phoronis muelleri (Phoronida) displays spiral features.

    PubMed

    Pennerstorfer, Markus; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The view that early cleavage in Phoronida follows a radial pattern is widely accepted. However, data supporting this characterization are ambiguous. Studies have been repeatedly reporting variation between individual embryos, and the occurrence of embryos exhibiting oblique divisions or nonradial cell arrangements. Such embryos were often considered to represent variation within radial cleavage, or artificial appearances. Cleavage in Phoronis muelleri was previously characterized as "derived radial," but also oblique spindles and cell elongations, and shifted cell arrangements were observed. We studied the early cleavage in P. muelleri applying 4D microscopy, fluorescent staining, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. To deal with the problem of variation we provide statistical evaluations of our data. These show that oblique divisions do not represent variational abnormalities. In fact, they reveal that most cells divide obliquely from the third cleavage onwards. What is more, in almost all cells the axis of the third cleavage is inclined dextrally. The fourth cleavage is even stronger sinistrally pronounced. Subsequently, the pattern of alternating cleavage orientation is largely restricted to animal and vegetal blastomeres. As a result of the obliqueness of divisions, four cells encircle the poles in most embryos. Cross furrows are occasionally present. We found no indications for radial cleavage in P. muelleri. In contrast, the observed cleavage displays several characters consistent with the pattern of spiral cleavage. A close relation of phoronid and spiralian cleavage is also suggested by molecular phylogenies, allying both groups in the Lophotrochozoa. We suggest our findings to represent morphological support for this lophotrochozoan/spiralian affinity of Phoronida.

  3. [On the Features of Embryonic Cleavage in Diverse Fish Species].

    PubMed

    Desnitskiy, A G

    2015-01-01

    Literature on the earliest steps of fish embryogenesis (including a number of "non-model" species) has been considered. The main attention has been paid to the loss of cleavage division synchrony and the first latitudinal cleavage furrow. In teleostean embryos, the features of their meroblastic cleavage are not rigidly associated with egg size. The midblastula transition (in a form clearly enough) occurs in some chondrostean and teleostean fishes, but it has not been detected in the representatives of sarcopterygian and chondrichthyan fishes.

  4. Controlling mRNA stability and translation with the CRISPR endoribonuclease Csy4

    PubMed Central

    Borchardt, Erin K.; Vandoros, Leonidas A.; Huang, Michael; Lackey, Patrick E.; Marzluff, William F.; Asokan, Aravind

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial CRISPR endoribonuclease Csy4 has recently been described as a potential RNA processing tool. Csy4 recognizes substrate RNA through a specific 28-nt hairpin sequence and cleaves at the 3′ end of the stem. To further explore applicability in mammalian cells, we introduced this hairpin at various locations in mRNAs derived from reporter transgenes and systematically evaluated the effects of Csy4-mediated processing on transgene expression. Placing the hairpin in the 5′ UTR or immediately after the start codon resulted in efficient degradation of target mRNA by Csy4 and knockdown of transgene expression by 20- to 40-fold. When the hairpin was incorporated in the 3′ UTR prior to the poly(A) signal, the mRNA was cleaved, but only a modest decrease in transgene expression (∼2.5-fold) was observed. In the absence of a poly(A) tail, Csy4 rescued the target mRNA substrate from degradation, resulting in protein expression, which suggests that the cleaved mRNA was successfully translated. In contrast, neither catalytically inactive (H29A) nor binding-deficient (R115A/R119A) Csy4 mutants were able to exert any of the effects described above. Generation of a similar 3′ end by RNase P-mediated cleavage was unable to rescue transgene expression independent of Csy4. These results support the idea that the selective generation of the Csy4/hairpin complex resulting from cleavage of target mRNA might serve as a functional poly(A)/poly(A) binding protein (PABP) surrogate, stabilizing the mRNA and supporting translation. Although the exact mechanism(s) remain to be determined, our studies expand the potential utility of CRISPR nucleases as tools for controlling mRNA stability and translation. PMID:26354771

  5. Global decay of mRNA is a hallmark of apoptosis in aging Xenopus eggs

    PubMed Central

    Tokmakov, Alexander A.; Iguchi, Sho; Iwasaki, Tetsushi; Fukami, Yasuo; Sato, Ken-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cytoplasmic mRNAs are specifically degraded in somatic cells as a part of early apoptotic response. However, no reports have been presented so far concerning mRNA fate in apoptotic gametes. In the present study, we analyzed the content of various cytoplasmic mRNAs in aging oocytes and eggs of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. To circumvent large gene expression variation among the individual oocytes and eggs, single-cell monitoring of transcript levels has been implemented, using multiple cytoplasmic collections and reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR. It was found that numerous cytoplasmic mRNAs, coding for proteins classified in different functional types, are robustly degraded in apoptotic Xenopus eggs, but not in aging oocytes. mRNA degradation becomes evident in the eggs after meiotic exit at the time of cytochrome c release. A strong correlation between the length of PCR amplicon and specific transcript content was observed, suggesting endonucleolytic cleavage of mRNA. In addition, it was found that mRNA deadenylation also contributes to apoptotic mRNA degradation. Altogether, these findings indicate that the global decay of mRNA represents a hallmark of apoptosis in aging Xenopus eggs. To our knowledge, this is the first description of mRNA degradation in apoptotic gamete cells. PMID:28045588

  6. Brittle to ductile transition in cleavage fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Argon, A.S.; Berg, Q.

    1992-09-30

    The problem of interpretation of fracture transition from brittle to ductile or vice versa is the subject of study. An instrumented tapered double cantilever beam (TDCB) has been developed as a definitive tool in the study of the intrinsic mechanism in single crystalline samples. In this experiment, the crack velocity is directly proportional to actuator velocity. In experiments performed on TDCB shaped Si single crystals, oriented for cleavage on either [l brace]111[r brace] or [l brace]110[r brace] planes, a number of troubling features of jerky carck extension were encountered. Evidence suggests that nucleation of dislocation loops from crack tip is easier than moving these dislocations away from crack tip. 14 refs, 1 fig.

  7. Stars and symbiosis: microRNA- and microRNA*-mediated transcript cleavage involved in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Devers, Emanuel A; Branscheid, Anja; May, Patrick; Krajinski, Franziska

    2011-08-01

    The majority of plants are able to form the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in association with AM fungi. During symbiosis development, plant cells undergo a complex reprogramming resulting in profound morphological and physiological changes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important components of the regulatory network of plant cells. To unravel the impact of miRNAs and miRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage on root cell reprogramming during AM symbiosis, we carried out high-throughput (Illumina) sequencing of small RNAs and degradome tags of Medicago truncatula roots. This led to the annotation of 243 novel miRNAs. An increased accumulation of several novel and conserved miRNAs in mycorrhizal roots suggest a role of these miRNAs during AM symbiosis. The degradome analysis led to the identification of 185 root transcripts as mature miRNA and also miRNA*-mediated mRNA cleavage targets. Several of the identified miRNA targets are known to be involved in root symbioses. In summary, the increased accumulation of specific miRNAs and the miRNA-mediated cleavage of symbiosis-relevant genes indicate that miRNAs are an important part of the regulatory network leading to symbiosis development.

  8. Influence of mismatched and bulged nucleotides on SNP-preferential RNase H cleavage of RNA-antisense gapmer heteroduplexes.

    PubMed

    Magner, Dorota; Biala, Ewa; Lisowiec-Wachnicka, Jolanta; Kierzek, Ryszard

    2017-10-02

    This study focused on determining design rules for gapmer-type antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), that can differentiate cleavability of two SNP variants of RNA in the presence of ribonuclease H based on the mismatch type and position in the heteroduplex. We describe the influence of structural motifs formed by several arrangements of multiple mismatches (various types of mismatches and their position within the ASO/target RNA duplex) on RNase H cleavage selectivity of five different SNP types. The targets were mRNA fragments of APP, SCA3, SNCA and SOD1 genes, carrying C-to-G, G-to-C, G-to-A, A-to-G and C-to-U substitutions. The results show that certain arrangements of mismatches enhance discrimination between wild type and mutant SNP alleles of RNA in vitro as well as in HeLa cells. Among the over 120 gapmers tested, we found two gapmers that caused preferential degradation of the mutant allele APP 692 G and one that led to preferential cleavage of the mutant SNCA 53 A allele, both in vitro and in cells. However, several gapmers promoted selective cleavage of mRNA mutant alleles in in vitro experiments only.

  9. Proteinase 3-dependent caspase-3 cleavage modulates neutrophil death and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Loison, Fabien; Zhu, Haiyan; Karatepe, Kutay; Kasorn, Anongnard; Liu, Peng; Ye, Keqiang; Zhou, Jiaxi; Cao, Shannan; Gong, Haiyan; Jenne, Dieter E; Remold-O'Donnell, Eileen; Xu, Yuanfu; Luo, Hongbo R

    2014-10-01

    Caspase-3-mediated spontaneous death in neutrophils is a prototype of programmed cell death and is critical for modulating physiopathological inflammatory responses; however, the underlying regulatory pathways remain ill defined. Here we determined that in aging neutrophils, the cleavage and activation of caspase-3 is independent of the canonical caspase-8- or caspase-9-mediated pathway. Instead, caspase-3 activation was mediated by serine protease proteinase 3 (PR3), which is present in the cytosol of aging neutrophils. Specifically, PR3 cleaved procaspase-3 at a site upstream of the canonical caspase-9 cleavage site. In mature neutrophils, PR3 was sequestered in granules and released during aging via lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), leading to procaspase-3 cleavage and apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of PR3 delayed neutrophil death in vitro and consistently delayed neutrophil death and augmented neutrophil accumulation at sites of inflammation in a murine model of peritonitis. Adoptive transfer of both WT and PR3-deficient neutrophils revealed that the delayed death of neutrophils lacking PR3 is due to an altered intrinsic apoptosis/survival pathway, rather than the inflammatory microenvironment. The presence of the suicide protease inhibitor SERPINB1 counterbalanced the protease activity of PR3 in aging neutrophils, and deletion of Serpinb1 accelerated neutrophil death. Taken together, our results reveal that PR3-mediated caspase-3 activation controls neutrophil spontaneous death.

  10. Proteinase 3–dependent caspase-3 cleavage modulates neutrophil death and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Loison, Fabien; Zhu, Haiyan; Karatepe, Kutay; Kasorn, Anongnard; Liu, Peng; Ye, Keqiang; Zhou, Jiaxi; Cao, Shannan; Gong, Haiyan; Jenne, Dieter E.; Remold-O’Donnell, Eileen; Xu, Yuanfu; Luo, Hongbo R.

    2014-01-01

    Caspase-3–mediated spontaneous death in neutrophils is a prototype of programmed cell death and is critical for modulating physiopathological inflammatory responses; however, the underlying regulatory pathways remain ill defined. Here we determined that in aging neutrophils, the cleavage and activation of caspase-3 is independent of the canonical caspase-8– or caspase-9–mediated pathway. Instead, caspase-3 activation was mediated by serine protease proteinase 3 (PR3), which is present in the cytosol of aging neutrophils. Specifically, PR3 cleaved procaspase-3 at a site upstream of the canonical caspase-9 cleavage site. In mature neutrophils, PR3 was sequestered in granules and released during aging via lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), leading to procaspase-3 cleavage and apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of PR3 delayed neutrophil death in vitro and consistently delayed neutrophil death and augmented neutrophil accumulation at sites of inflammation in a murine model of peritonitis. Adoptive transfer of both WT and PR3-deficient neutrophils revealed that the delayed death of neutrophils lacking PR3 is due to an altered intrinsic apoptosis/survival pathway, rather than the inflammatory microenvironment. The presence of the suicide protease inhibitor SERPINB1 counterbalanced the protease activity of PR3 in aging neutrophils, and deletion of Serpinb1 accelerated neutrophil death. Taken together, our results reveal that PR3-mediated caspase-3 activation controls neutrophil spontaneous death. PMID:25180606

  11. OH cleavage from tyrosine: debunking a myth

    PubMed Central

    Bury, Charles S.; Carmichael, Ian; Garman, Elspeth F

    2017-01-01

    During macromolecular X-ray crystallography experiments, protein crystals held at 100 K have been widely reported to exhibit reproducible bond scission events at doses on the order of several MGy. With the objective to mitigate the impact of radiation damage events on valid structure determination, it is essential to correctly understand the radiation chemistry mechanisms at play. OH-cleavage from tyrosine residues is regularly cited as amongst the most available damage pathways in protein crystals at 100 K, despite a lack of widespread reports of this phenomenon in protein crystal radiation damage studies. Furthermore, no clear mechanism for phenolic C—O bond cleavage in tyrosine has been reported, with the tyrosyl radical known to be relatively robust and long-lived in both aqueous solutions and the solid state. Here, the initial findings of Tyr –OH group damage in a myrosinase protein crystal have been reviewed. Consistent with that study, at increasing doses, clear electron density loss was detectable local to Tyr –OH groups. A systematic investigation performed on a range of protein crystal damage series deposited in the Protein Data Bank has established that Tyr –OH electron density loss is not generally a dominant damage pathway in protein crystals at 100 K. Full Tyr aromatic ring displacement is here proposed to account for instances of observable Tyr –OH electron density loss, with the original myrosinase data shown to be consistent with such a damage model. Systematic analysis of the effects of other environmental factors, including solvent accessibility and proximity to di­sulfide bonds or hydrogen bond interactions, is also presented. Residues in known active sites showed enhanced sensitivity to radiation-induced disordering, as has previously been reported. PMID:28009542

  12. Global analysis of mRNA decay intermediates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Harigaya, Yuriko; Parker, Roy

    2012-07-17

    The general pathways of eukaryotic mRNA decay occur via deadenylation followed by 3' to 5' degradation or decapping, although some endonuclease sites have been identified in metazoan mRNAs. To determine the role of endonucleases in mRNA degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we mapped 5' monophosphate ends on mRNAs in wild-type and dcp2 xrn1 yeast cells, wherein mRNA endonuclease cleavage products are stabilized. This led to three important observations. First, only few mRNAs that undergo low-level endonucleolytic cleavage were observed, suggesting that endonucleases are not a major contributor to yeast mRNA decay. Second, independent of known decapping enzymes, we observed low levels of 5' monophosphates on some mRNAs, suggesting that an unknown mechanism can generate 5' exposed ends, although for all substrates tested, Dcp2 was the primary decapping enzyme. Finally, we identified debranched lariat intermediates from intron-containing genes, demonstrating a significant discard pathway for mRNAs during the second step of pre-mRNA splicing, which is a potential step to regulate gene expression.

  13. DNA Methylation Reduces Binding and Cleavage by Bleomycin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In a recent study, we described the enhanced double-strand cleavage of hairpin DNAs by Fe·bleomycin (Fe·BLM) that accompanies increasingly strong binding of this antitumor agent and suggested that this effect may be relevant to the mechanism by which BLM mediates its antitumor effects. Because the DNA in tumor cells is known to be hypomethylated on cytidine relative to that in normal cells, it seemed of interest to study the possible effects of methylation status on BLM-induced double-strand DNA cleavage. Three hairpin DNAs found to bind strongly to bleomycin, and their methylated counterparts, were used to study the effect of methylation on bleomycin-induced DNA degradation. Under conditions of limited DNA cleavage, there was a significant overall decrease in the cleavage of methylated hairpin DNAs. Cytidine methylation was found to result in decreased BLM-induced cleavage at the site of methylation and to result in enhanced cleavage at adjacent nonmethylated sites. For two of the three hairpin DNAs studied, methylation was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in the binding affinity for Fe·BLM, suggesting the likelihood of diminished double-strand cleavage. The source of the persistent binding of BLM by the third hairpin DNA was identified. Also identified was the probable molecular mechanism for diminished binding and cleavage of the methylated DNAs by BLM. The possible implications of these findings for the antitumor selectivity of bleomycin are discussed. PMID:25187079

  14. Regulated Ire1-dependent mRNA decay requires no-go mRNA degradation to maintain endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis in S. pombe.

    PubMed

    Guydosh, Nicholas R; Kimmig, Phillip; Walter, Peter; Green, Rachel

    2017-09-25

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) monitors and adjusts the protein folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In S. pombe, the ER membrane-resident kinase/endoribonuclease Ire1 utilizes a mechanism of selective degradation of ER-bound mRNAs (RIDD) to maintain homeostasis. We used a genetic screen to identify factors critical to the Ire1-mediated UPR and found several proteins, Dom34, Hbs1 and Ski complex subunits, previously implicated in ribosome rescue and mRNA no-go-decay (NGD). Ribosome profiling in ER-stressed cells lacking these factors revealed that Ire1-mediated cleavage of ER-associated mRNAs results in ribosome stalling and mRNA degradation. Stalled ribosomes iteratively served as a ruler to template precise, regularly spaced upstream mRNA cleavage events. This clear signature uncovered hundreds of novel target mRNAs. Our results reveal that the UPR in S. pombe executes RIDD in an intricate interplay between Ire1, translation, and the NGD pathway, and establish a critical role for NGD in maintaining ER homeostasis.

  15. Control of the mitotic cleavage plane by local epithelial topology

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, William T.; Veldhuis, James H.; Rubinstein, Boris; Cartwright, Heather N.; Perrimon, Norbert; Brodland, G. Wayne; Nagpal, Radhika; Gibson, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY For nearly 150 years, it has been recognized that cell shape strongly influences the orientation of the mitotic cleavage plane (e.g. Hofmeister, 1863). However, we still understand little about the complex interplay between cell shape and cleavage plane orientation in epithelia, where polygonal cell geometries emerge from multiple factors, including cell packing, cell growth, and cell division itself. Here, using mechanical simulations, we show that the polygonal shapes of individual cells can systematically bias the long axis orientations of their adjacent mitotic neighbors. Strikingly, analysis of both animal epithelia and plant epidermis confirm a robust and nearly identical correlation between local cell topology and cleavage plane orientation in vivo. Using simple mathematics, we show that this effect derives from fundamental packing constraints. Our results suggest that local epithelial topology is a key determinant of cleavage plane orientation, and that cleavage plane bias may be a widespread property of polygonal cell sheets in plants and animals. PMID:21295702

  16. Site specificity of DSP-PP cleavage by BMP1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Robert T; Lim, Glendale L; Yee, Colin T; Fuller, Robert S; Ritchie, Helena H

    2014-08-01

    Bone morphogenic protein 1 (BMP1), a metalloproteinase, is known to cleave a wide variety of extracellular matrix proteins, suggesting that a consensus substrate cleavage amino acid sequence might exist. However, while such a consensus sequence has been proposed based on P4 to P4' (i.e. the four amino acids flanking either side of the BMP1 cleavage site; P4P3P2P1|P1'P2'P3'P4') sequence homologies between two BMP1 substrates, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialoprotein phosphophoryn (DSP-PP) (i.e. xMQx|DDP), no direct testing has so far been attempted. Using an Sf9 cell expression system, we have been able to produce large amounts of uncleaved DSP-PP. Point mutations introduced into this recombinant DSP-PP were then tested for their effects on DSP-PP cleavage by either Sf9 endogenous tolloid-related protein 1 (TLR-1) or by its human homolog, BMP1. Here, we have measured DSP-PP cleavage efficiencies after modifications based on P4-P4' sequence comparisons with dentin matrix protein 1, as well as for prolysyl oxidase and chordin, two other BMP1 substrates. Our results demonstrate that any mutations within or outside of the DSP-PP P4 to P4' cleavage site can block, impair or accelerate DSP-PP cleavage, and suggest that its BMP1 cleavage site is highly conserved in order to regulate its cleavage efficiency, possibly with additional assistance from its conserved exosites. Thus, BMP1 cleavage cannot be based on a consensus substrate cleavage site.

  17. Structure and topology around the cleavage site regulate post-translational cleavage of the HIV-1 gp160 signal peptide

    PubMed Central

    Quandte, Matthias; Cabartova, Zuzana; Bontjer, Ilja; Källgren, Carolina; Nilsson, IngMarie; Land, Aafke; von Heijne, Gunnar; Sanders, Rogier W

    2017-01-01

    Like all other secretory proteins, the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160 is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by its signal peptide during synthesis. Proper gp160 folding in the ER requires core glycosylation, disulfide-bond formation and proline isomerization. Signal-peptide cleavage occurs only late after gp160 chain termination and is dependent on folding of the soluble subunit gp120 to a near-native conformation. We here detail the mechanism by which co-translational signal-peptide cleavage is prevented. Conserved residues from the signal peptide and residues downstream of the canonical cleavage site form an extended alpha-helix in the ER membrane, which covers the cleavage site, thus preventing cleavage. A point mutation in the signal peptide breaks the alpha helix allowing co-translational cleavage. We demonstrate that postponed cleavage of gp160 enhances functional folding of the molecule. The change to early cleavage results in decreased viral fitness compared to wild-type HIV. PMID:28753126

  18. Peptidase specificity from the substrate cleavage collection in the MEROPS database and a tool to measure cleavage site conservation

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    One peptidase can usually be distinguished from another biochemically by its action on proteins, peptides and synthetic substrates. Since 1996, the MEROPS database (http://merops.sanger.ac.uk) has accumulated a collection of cleavages in substrates that now amounts to 66,615 cleavages. The total number of peptidases for which at least one cleavage is known is 1700 out of a total of 2457 different peptidases. This paper describes how the cleavages are obtained from the scientific literature, how they are annotated and how cleavages in peptides and proteins are cross-referenced to entries in the UniProt protein sequence database. The specificity profiles of 556 peptidases are shown for which ten or more substrate cleavages are known. However, it has been proposed that at least 40 cleavages in disparate proteins are required for specificity analysis to be meaningful, and only 163 peptidases (6.6%) fulfil this criterion. Also described are the various displays shown on the website to aid with the understanding of peptidase specificity, which are derived from the substrate cleavage collection. These displays include a logo, distribution matrix, and tables to summarize which amino acids or groups of amino acids are acceptable (or not acceptable) in each substrate binding pocket. For each protein substrate, there is a display to show how it is processed and degraded. Also described are tools on the website to help with the assessment of the physiological relevance of cleavages in a substrate. These tools rely on the hypothesis that a cleavage site that is conserved in orthologues is likely to be physiologically relevant, and alignments of substrate protein sequences are made utilizing the UniRef50 database, in which in each entry sequences are 50% or more identical. Conservation in this case means substitutions are permitted only if the amino acid is known to occupy the same substrate binding pocket from at least one other substrate cleaved by the same peptidase. PMID

  19. Measurement of the cleavage energy of graphite

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Dai, Shuyang; Li, Xide; Yang, Jiarui; Srolovitz, David J.; Zheng, Quanshui

    2015-01-01

    The basal plane cleavage energy (CE) of graphite is a key material parameter for understanding many of the unusual properties of graphite, graphene and carbon nanotubes. Nonetheless, a wide range of values for the CE has been reported and no consensus has yet emerged. Here we report the first direct, accurate experimental measurement of the CE of graphite using a novel method based on the self-retraction phenomenon in graphite. The measured value, 0.37±0.01 J m−2 for the incommensurate state of bicrystal graphite, is nearly invariant with respect to temperature (22 °C≤T≤198 °C) and bicrystal twist angle, and insensitive to impurities from the atmosphere. The CE for the ideal ABAB graphite stacking, 0.39±0.02 J m−2, is calculated based on a combination of the measured CE and a theoretical calculation. These experimental measurements are also ideal for use in evaluating the efficacy of competing theoretical approaches. PMID:26314373

  20. Prediction of neuropeptide cleavage sites in insects.

    PubMed

    Southey, Bruce R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L

    2008-03-15

    The production of neuropeptides from their precursor proteins is the result of a complex series of enzymatic processing steps. Often, the annotation of new neuropeptide genes from sequence information outstrips biochemical assays and so bioinformatics tools can provide rapid information on the most likely peptides produced by a gene. Predicting the final bioactive neuropeptides from precursor proteins requires accurate algorithms to determine which locations in the protein are cleaved. Predictive models were trained on Apis mellifera and Drosophila melanogaster precursors using binary logistic regression, multi-layer perceptron and k-nearest neighbor models. The final predictive models included specific amino acids at locations relative to the cleavage sites. Correct classification rates ranged from 78 to 100% indicating that the models adequately predicted cleaved and non-cleaved positions across a wide range of neuropeptide families and insect species. The model trained on D.melanogaster data had better generalization properties than the model trained on A. mellifera for the data sets considered. The reliable and consistent performance of the models in the test data sets suggests that the bioinformatics strategies proposed here can accurately predict neuropeptides in insects with sequence information based on neuropeptides with biochemical and sequence information in well-studied species.

  1. 3-Keto-5-aminohexanoate Cleavage Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Bellinzoni, Marco; Bastard, Karine; Perret, Alain; Zaparucha, Anne; Perchat, Nadia; Vergne, Carine; Wagner, Tristan; de Melo-Minardi, Raquel C.; Artiguenave, François; Cohen, Georges N.; Weissenbach, Jean; Salanoubat, Marcel; Alzari, Pedro M.

    2011-01-01

    The exponential increase in genome sequencing output has led to the accumulation of thousands of predicted genes lacking a proper functional annotation. Among this mass of hypothetical proteins, enzymes catalyzing new reactions or using novel ways to catalyze already known reactions might still wait to be identified. Here, we provide a structural and biochemical characterization of the 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate cleavage enzyme (Kce), an enzymatic activity long known as being involved in the anaerobic fermentation of lysine but whose catalytic mechanism has remained elusive so far. Although the enzyme shows the ubiquitous triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel fold and a Zn2+ cation reminiscent of metal-dependent class II aldolases, our results based on a combination of x-ray snapshots and molecular modeling point to an unprecedented mechanism that proceeds through deprotonation of the 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate substrate, nucleophilic addition onto an incoming acetyl-CoA, intramolecular transfer of the CoA moiety, and final retro-Claisen reaction leading to acetoacetate and 3-aminobutyryl-CoA. This model also accounts for earlier observations showing the origin of carbon atoms in the products, as well as the absence of detection of any covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate. Kce is the first representative of a large family of prokaryotic hypothetical proteins, currently annotated as the “domain of unknown function” DUF849. PMID:21632536

  2. Lesion Recognition and Cleavage by Endonuclease V

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun; Gao, Honghai; Schallhorn, Kathryn A.; Harris, Rebecca M.; Cao, Weiguo; Ke, Pu Chun

    2008-01-01

    Endonuclease V (endo V) recognizes and cleaves deoxyinosine in deaminated DNA. These enzymatic activities are precursors of DNA repair and are fueled by metal ions such as Ca2+ and Mg2+, with the former being associated with protein binding and the latter with DNA cleavage. Using the technique of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) we determined the single-molecule kinetics of endo V in a catalytic cycle using a substrate of deoxyinosine-containing single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The ssDNA was labeled with TAMRA, a fluorescence donor, while the endo V was labeled with Cy5, a fluorescence acceptor. The time lapses of FRET, resulting from the sequential association, recognition, and dissociation of the deoxyinosine by the endo V, were determined at 5.9 s, 14.5 s, and 9.1 s, respectively, in the presence of Mg2+. In contrast, the process of deoxyinosine recognition appeared little affected by the metal type. The prolonged association and dissociation events in the presence of the Ca2+-Mg2+ combination, as compared to that of Mg2+ alone, support the hypothesis that endo V has two metal binding sites to regulate its enzymatic activities. PMID:17521169

  3. Influence of codon usage bias on FGLamide-allatostatin mRNA secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Francisco; Bendena, William G; Chang, Belinda S W; Tobe, Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    The FGLamide allatostatins (ASTs) are invertebrate neuropeptides which inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis in Dictyoptera and related orders. They also show myomodulatory activity. FGLamide AST nucleotide frequencies and codon bias were investigated with respect to possible effects on mRNA secondary structure. 367 putative FGLamide ASTs and their potential endoproteolytic cleavage sites were identified from 40 species of crustaceans, chelicerates and insects. Among these, 55% comprised only 11 amino acids. An FGLamide AST consensus was identified to be (X)(1→16)Y(S/A/N/G)FGLGKR, with a strong bias for the codons UUU encoding for Phe and AAA for Lys, which can form strong Watson-Crick pairing in all peptides analyzed. The physical distance between these codons favor a loop structure from Ser/Ala-Phe to Lys-Arg. Other loop and hairpin loops were also inferred from the codon frequencies in the N-terminal motif, and the first amino acids from the C-terminal motif, or the dibasic potential endoproteolytic cleavage site. Our results indicate that nucleotide frequencies and codon usage bias in FGLamide ASTs tend to favor mRNA folds in the codon sequence in the C-terminal active peptide core and at the dibasic potential endoproteolytic cleavage site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A selective splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Toki, Yasumichi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Masayo; Hatayama, Mayumi; Ito, Satoshi; Ikuta, Katsuya; Shindo, Motohiro; Hasebe, Takumu; Nakajima, Shunsuke; Sawada, Koji; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Ohtake, Takaaki; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2016-08-05

    Hepcidin is a main regulator of iron metabolism, of which abnormal expression affects intestinal absorption and reticuloendothelial sequestration of iron by interacting with ferroportin. It is also noted that abnormal iron accumulation is one of the key factors to facilitate promotion and progression of cancer including hepatoma. By RT-PCR/agarose gel electrophoresis of hepcidin mRNA in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HLF, a smaller mRNA band was shown in addition to the wild-type hepcidin mRNA. From sequencing analysis, this additional band was a selective splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA lacking exon 2 of HAMP gene, producing the transcript that encodes truncated peptide lacking 20 amino acids at the middle of preprohepcidin. In the present study, we used the digital PCR, because such a small amount of variant mRNA was difficult to quantitate by the conventional RT-PCR amplification. Among seven hepatoma-derived cell lines, six cell lines have significant copy numbers of this variant mRNA, but not in one cell line. In the transient transfection analysis of variant-type hepcidin cDNA, truncated preprohepcidin has a different character comparing with native preprohepcidin: its product is insensitive to digestion, and secreted into the medium as a whole preprohepcidin form without maturation. Loss or reduction of function of HAMP gene by aberrantly splicing may be a suitable phenomenon to obtain the proliferating advantage of hepatoma cells. - Highlights: • An aberrant splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA lacking exon 2 of HAMP gene. • Absolute quantification of hepcidin mRNA by digital PCR amplification. • Hepatoma-derived cell lines have significant copies of variant-type hepcidin mRNA. • Truncated preprohepcidin is secreted from cells without posttranslational cleavage.

  5. Use of Cleavage as an Aid in the Optical Determination of Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers, Ernest G.

    1980-01-01

    Described is the use of cleavage as an aid to microscopic determination of unknown minerals by immersion methods. Cleavages are examined in relation to fragment shapes, types of extinction, and cleavage-optical relationships. (Author/DS)

  6. Specific Cleavage of the Nucleoprotein of Fish Rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G-Z; Yi, Y-J; Chen, Z-Y; Zhang, Q-Y

    2015-11-01

    Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) is one of myriad rhabdoviruses recorded in fish. Preliminary data show that inhibition of the SCRV nucleoprotein (N) could significantly reduce the progeny virus titers in infected Epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cells. Here, the authors propose that cleavage of the viral 47-kDa N protein is caspase-mediated based on caspase inhibition experiments, transient expression in EPC transfection, and analysis of cleavage sites. Cleavage of the SCRV N protein in culture was prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK (z-Val-Ala-DL-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone). Subsequently, N was transiently expressed in EPC cells, the results of which indicated that the specific cleavage of N also occurred in the cells transfected with N-GFP plasmid. Several truncated fragments of the N gene were constructed and transiently transfected into EPC cells. Immunoblotting results indicated that D324 and D374 are the cleavage sites of N by caspases. The authors also found that z-VAD-FMK could inhibit the cytopathic effect in SCRV-infected EPC cells but not affect the production of infectious progeny, suggesting that the caspase-mediated cleavage of N protein is not required for in vitro SCRV replication. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the cleavage of rhabdovirus proteins. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Bundled slaty cleavage in laminated argillite, north-central minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southwick, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Exceptional bundled slaty cleavage (defined herein) has been found in drill cores of laminated, folded, weakly metamorphosed argillite at several localities in the early Proterozoic Animikie basin of north-central Minnesota. The cleavage domains are more closely spaced within the cleavage bundles than outside them, the mean tectosilicate grain size of siltstone layers, measured normal to cleavage, is less in the cleavage bundles than outside them, and the cleavage bundles are enriched in opaque phases and phyllosilicates relative to extra-bundle segments. These facts suggest that pressure solution was a major factor in bundle development. If it is assumed that opaque phases have been conserved during pressure solution, the modal differences in composition between intra-bundle and extra-bundle segments of beds provide a means for estimating bulk material shortening normal to cleavage. Argillite samples from the central part of the Animikie basin have been shortened a minimum of about 22%, as estimated by this method. These estimates are similar to the shortening values derived from other strain markers in other rock types interbedded with the argillite, and are also consistent with the regional pattern of deformation. ?? 1987.

  8. Quantification of DNA cleavage specificity in Hi-C experiments.

    PubMed

    Meluzzi, Dario; Arya, Gaurav

    2016-01-08

    Hi-C experiments produce large numbers of DNA sequence read pairs that are typically analyzed to deduce genomewide interactions between arbitrary loci. A key step in these experiments is the cleavage of cross-linked chromatin with a restriction endonuclease. Although this cleavage should happen specifically at the enzyme's recognition sequence, an unknown proportion of cleavage events may involve other sequences, owing to the enzyme's star activity or to random DNA breakage. A quantitative estimation of these non-specific cleavages may enable simulating realistic Hi-C read pairs for validation of downstream analyses, monitoring the reproducibility of experimental conditions and investigating biophysical properties that correlate with DNA cleavage patterns. Here we describe a computational method for analyzing Hi-C read pairs to estimate the fractions of cleavages at different possible targets. The method relies on expressing an observed local target distribution downstream of aligned reads as a linear combination of known conditional local target distributions. We validated this method using Hi-C read pairs obtained by computer simulation. Application of the method to experimental Hi-C datasets from murine cells revealed interesting similarities and differences in patterns of cleavage across the various experiments considered.

  9. Mixture-based peptide libraries for identifying protease cleavage motifs.

    PubMed

    Turk, Benjamin E

    2009-01-01

    All proteases and peptidases are to some extent sequence-specific, in that one or more residues are preferred at particular positions surrounding the cleavage site in substrates. I describe here a general protocol for determining protease cleavage site preferences using mixture-based peptide libraries. Initially a completely random, amino-terminally capped peptide mixture is digested with the protease of interest, and the cleavage products are analyzed by automated Edman sequencing. The distribution of amino acids found in each sequencing cycle indicates which residues are preferred by the protease at positions downstream of the cleavage site. On the basis of these results, a second peptide library is designed that is partially degenerate and partially fixed sequence. Edman sequencing analysis of the cleavage products of this peptide mixture provides preferences amino-terminal to the scissile bond. As necessary, the process is reiterated until the full cleavage motif of the protease is known. Cleavage specificity data obtained with this method have been used to generate specific and efficient peptide substrates, to design potent and specific inhibitors, and to identify novel protease substrates.

  10. Conformational changes in the P site and mRNA entry channel evoked by AUG recognition in yeast translation preinitiation complexes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Saini, Adesh K.; Shin, Byung-Sik; Nanda, Jagpreet; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    The translation preinitiation complex (PIC) is thought to assume an open conformation when scanning the mRNA leader, with AUG recognition evoking a closed conformation and more stable P site interaction of Met-tRNAi; however, physical evidence is lacking that AUG recognition constrains interaction of mRNA with the 40S binding cleft. We compared patterns of hydroxyl radical cleavage of rRNA by Fe(II)-BABE tethered to unique sites in eIF1A in yeast PICs reconstituted with mRNA harboring an AUG or near-cognate (AUC) start codon. rRNA residues in the P site display reduced cleavage in AUG versus AUC PICs; and enhanced cleavage in the AUC complexes was diminished by mutations of scanning enhancer elements of eIF1A that increase near-cognate recognition in vivo. This suggests that accessibility of these rRNA residues is reduced by accommodation of Met-tRNAi in the P site (PIN state) and by their interactions with the anticodon stem of Met-tRNAi. Our cleavage data also provide evidence that AUG recognition evokes dissociation of eIF1 from its 40S binding site, ejection of the eIF1A-CTT from the P-site and rearrangement to a closed conformation of the entry channel with reduced mobility of mRNA. PMID:25670678

  11. Effects of Secondary Metabolites from the Fungus Septofusidium berolinense on DNA Cleavage Mediated by Human Topoisomerase IIα

    PubMed Central

    Vann, Kendra R.; Ekiz, Güner; Zencir, Sevil; Bedir, Erdal; Topcu, Zeki; Osheroff, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Two metabolites from the ascomycete fungus Septofusidium berolinense were recently identified as having antineoplastic activity [Ekiz, et al. (2015) J. Antibiot. (Tokyo)]. However, the basis for this activity is not known. One of the compounds [3,6-dihydroxy-2-propylbenzaldehyde (GE-1)] is a hydroquinone and the other [2-hydroxymethyl-3-propylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (GE-2)] is a quinone. Because some hydroquinones and quinones act as topoisomerase II poisons, the effects of GE-1 and GE-2 on DNA cleavage mediated by human topoisomerase IIα were assessed. GE-2 enhanced DNA cleavage ~4–fold and induced scission with a site specificity similar to that of the anticancer drug etoposide. Similar to other quinone-based topoisomerase II poisons, GE-2 displayed several hallmark characteristics of covalent topoisomerase II poisons, including: 1) the inability to poison a topoisomerase IIα construct that lacks the N-terminal domain; 2) the inhibition of DNA cleavage when the compound was incubated with the enzyme prior to the addition of plasmid, and 3) the loss of poisoning activity in the presence of a reducing agent. In contrast to GE-2, GE-1 did not enhance DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase IIα except at very high concentrations. However, the activity and potency of the metabolite were dramatically enhanced under oxidizing conditions. Results suggest that topoisomerase IIα may play a role in mediating the cytotoxic effects of these fungal metabolites. PMID:26894873

  12. Specific oxidative cleavage of carotenoids by VP14 of maize

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.H.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.; Gage, D.A.; Tan, Bao Cai

    1997-06-20

    The plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA) is formed by the oxidative cleavage of an epoxy-carotenoid. The synthesis of other apocarotenoids, such as vitamin A in animals, may occur by a similar mechanism. In ABA biosynthesis, oxidative cleavage is the first committed reaction and is believed to be the key regulatory step. A new ABA-deficient mutant of maize has been identified and the corresponding gene, Vp14, has been cloned. The recombinant VP14 protein catalyzes the cleavage of 9-cis-epoxy-carotenoids to form C{sub 25} apo-aldehydes and xanthoxin, a precursor of ABA in higher plants.

  13. A global profiling of uncapped mRNAs under cold stress reveals specific decay patterns and endonucleolytic cleavages in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background mRNA degradation is a critical factor in determining mRNA abundance and enables rapid adjustment of gene expression in response to environmental stress. The involvement of processing bodies in stress response suggests a role for decapping-mediated mRNA degradation. However, little is known about the role of mRNA degradation under stressful environmental conditions. Results Here, we perform a global study of uncapped mRNAs, via parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE), under cold stress in Brachypodium distachyon. Enrichment analysis indicates that degradation products detected by PARE are mainly generated by the decapping pathway. Endonucleolytic cleavages are detected, uncovering another way of modulating gene expression. PARE and RNA-Seq analyses identify four types of mRNA decay patterns. Type II genes, for which light-harvesting processes are over-represented in gene ontology analyses, show unchanged transcript abundance and altered uncapped transcript abundance. Uncapping-mediated transcript stability of light harvesting-related genes changes significantly in response to cold stress, which may allow rapid adjustments in photosynthetic activity in response to cold stress. Transcript abundance and uncapped transcript abundance for type III genes changes in opposite directions in response to cold stress, indicating that uncapping-mediated mRNA degradation plays a role in regulating gene expression. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first global analysis of mRNA degradation under environmental stress conditions in Brachypodium distachyon. We uncover specific degradation and endonucleolytic cleavage patterns under cold stress, which will deepen our understanding of mRNA degradation under stressful environmental conditions, as well as the cold stress response mechanism in monocots. PMID:24000894

  14. A global profiling of uncapped mRNAs under cold stress reveals specific decay patterns and endonucleolytic cleavages in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyu; Mao, Zhiwei; Chong, Kang

    2013-08-30

    mRNA degradation is a critical factor in determining mRNA abundance and enables rapid adjustment of gene expression in response to environmental stress. The involvement of processing bodies in stress response suggests a role for decapping-mediated mRNA degradation. However, little is known about the role of mRNA degradation under stressful environmental conditions. Here, we perform a global study of uncapped mRNAs, via parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE), under cold stress in Brachypodium distachyon. Enrichment analysis indicates that degradation products detected by PARE are mainly generated by the decapping pathway. Endonucleolytic cleavages are detected, uncovering another way of modulating gene expression. PARE and RNA-Seq analyses identify four types of mRNA decay patterns. Type II genes, for which light-harvesting processes are over-represented in gene ontology analyses, show unchanged transcript abundance and altered uncapped transcript abundance. Uncapping-mediated transcript stability of light harvesting-related genes changes significantly in response to cold stress, which may allow rapid adjustments in photosynthetic activity in response to cold stress. Transcript abundance and uncapped transcript abundance for type III genes changes in opposite directions in response to cold stress, indicating that uncapping-mediated mRNA degradation plays a role in regulating gene expression. To our knowledge, this is the first global analysis of mRNA degradation under environmental stress conditions in Brachypodium distachyon. We uncover specific degradation and endonucleolytic cleavage patterns under cold stress, which will deepen our understanding of mRNA degradation under stressful environmental conditions, as well as the cold stress response mechanism in monocots.

  15. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Nerve growth factor influences cleavage rate and embryo development in sheep.

    PubMed

    Crispo, M; Dos Santos-Neto, P C; Vilariño, M; Mulet, A P; de León, A; Barbeito, L; Menchaca, A

    2016-10-01

    Recent information about Nerve growth factor (NGF), a protein traditionally associated to the nervous system that regulates survival and maturation of developing neurons, suggests that it may exert action also on different levels in the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NGF added during in vitro oocyte maturation, fertilization or in vitro embryo development in sheep. Nerve growth factor was supplemented to the culture medium at 0, 100, or 1,000 ng/mL, during either in vitro maturation (Exp. 1), in vitro fertilization (Exp. 2), or in vitro culture (Exp. 3). In addition, NGF mRNA expression was determined in cumulus cells and oocytes. Nerve growth factor induced early cleavage when added during oocyte maturation or fertilization, improved embryo development when added during fertilization, and had no significant effect when added during embryo culture. In general, the effect was more evident with 100 rather than 1,000 ng/mL (P < 0.05). Expression of endogenous NGF was not detected in oocytes, and increased in cumulus cells when 1,000 ng/mL of NGF was added during fertilization, but not during maturation and embryo culture. In conclusion, the addition of NGF during oocyte maturation and fertilization affects in vitro cleavage and embryo development in sheep. We suggest a possible effect of this growth factor on oocyte maturation and mainly on the fertilization process.

  16. The Oxygenase CAO-1 of Neurospora crassa Is a Resveratrol Cleavage Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta; F. Estrada, Alejandro; Limón, M. Carmen; Al-Babili, Salim

    2013-01-01

    The genome of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa encodes CAO-1 and CAO-2, two members of the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family that target double bonds in different substrates. Previous studies demonstrated the role of CAO-2 in cleaving the C40 carotene torulene, a key step in the synthesis of the C35 apocarotenoid pigment neurosporaxanthin. In this work, we investigated the activity of CAO-1, assuming that it may provide retinal, the chromophore of the NOP-1 rhodopsin, by cleaving β-carotene. For this purpose, we tested CAO-1 activity with carotenoid substrates that were, however, not converted. In contrast and consistent with its sequence similarity to family members that act on stilbenes, CAO-1 cleaved the interphenyl Cα-Cβ double bond of resveratrol and its derivative piceatannol. CAO-1 did not convert five other similar stilbenes, indicating a requirement for a minimal number of unmodified hydroxyl groups in the stilbene background. Confirming its biological function in converting stilbenes, adding resveratrol led to a pronounced increase in cao-1 mRNA levels, while light, a key regulator of carotenoid metabolism, did not alter them. Targeted Δcao-1 mutants were not impaired by the presence of resveratrol, a phytoalexin active against different fungi, which did not significantly affect the growth and development of wild-type Neurospora. However, under partial sorbose toxicity, the Δcao-1 colonies exhibited faster radial growth than control strains in the presence of resveratrol, suggesting a moderate toxic effect of resveratrol cleavage products. PMID:23893079

  17. Nucleoside modifications in RNA limit activation of 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase and increase resistance to cleavage by RNase L

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Bart R.; Muramatsu, Hiromi; Jha, Babal K.; Silverman, Robert H.; Weissman, Drew; Karikó, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    The interferon-induced enzymes 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) and RNase L are key components of innate immunity involved in sensory and effector functions following viral infections. Upon binding target RNA, OAS is activated to produce 2′-5′-linked oligoadenylates (2-5A) that activate RNase L, which then cleaves single-stranded self and non-self RNA. Modified nucleosides that are present in cellular transcripts have been shown to suppress activation of several RNA sensors. Here, we demonstrate that in vitro transcribed, unmodified RNA activates OAS, induces RNase L-mediated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage and is rapidly cleaved by RNase L. In contrast, RNA containing modified nucleosides activates OAS less efficiently and induces limited rRNA cleavage. Nucleoside modifications also make RNA resistant to cleavage by RNase L. Examining translation in RNase L−/− cells and mice confirmed that RNase L activity reduces translation of unmodified mRNA, which is not observed with modified mRNA. Additionally, mRNA containing the nucleoside modification pseudouridine is translated longer and has an extended half-life. The observation that modified nucleosides in RNA reduce 2-5A pathway activation joins OAS and RNase L to the list of RNA sensors and effectors whose functions are limited when RNA is modified, confirming the role of nucleoside modifications in suppressing immune recognition of RNA. PMID:21813458

  18. tRNA is a new target for cleavage by a MazF toxin

    PubMed Central

    Schifano, Jason M.; Cruz, Jonathan W.; Vvedenskaya, Irina O.; Edifor, Regina; Ouyang, Ming; Husson, Robert N.; Nickels, Bryce E.; Woychik, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems play key roles in bacterial persistence, biofilm formation and stress responses. The MazF toxin from the Escherichia coli mazEF TA system is a sequence- and single-strand-specific endoribonuclease, and many studies have led to the proposal that MazF family members exclusively target mRNA. However, recent data indicate some MazF toxins can cleave specific sites within rRNA in concert with mRNA. In this report, we identified the repertoire of RNAs cleaved by Mycobacterium tuberculosis toxin MazF-mt9 using an RNA-seq-based approach. This analysis revealed that two tRNAs were the principal targets of MazF-mt9, and each was cleaved at a single site in either the tRNAPro14 D-loop or within the tRNALys43 anticodon. This highly selective target discrimination occurs through recognition of not only sequence but also structural determinants. Thus, MazF-mt9 represents the only MazF family member known to target tRNA and to require RNA structure for recognition and cleavage. Interestingly, the tRNase activity of MazF-mt9 mirrors basic features of eukaryotic tRNases that also generate stable tRNA-derived fragments that can inhibit translation in response to stress. Our data also suggest a role for tRNA distinct from its canonical adapter function in translation, as cleavage of tRNAs by MazF-mt9 downregulates bacterial growth. PMID:26740583

  19. PAF Complex Plays Novel Subunit-Specific Roles in Alternative Cleavage and Polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Li, Wencheng; Hoque, Mainul; Hou, Liming; Shen, Steven; Tian, Bin; Dynlacht, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    The PAF complex (Paf1C) has been shown to regulate chromatin modifications, gene transcription, and RNA polymerase II (PolII) elongation. Here, we provide the first genome-wide profiles for the distribution of the entire complex in mammalian cells using chromatin immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing. We show that Paf1C is recruited not only to promoters and gene bodies, but also to regions downstream of cleavage/polyadenylation (pA) sites at 3’ ends, a profile that sharply contrasted with the yeast complex. Remarkably, we identified novel, subunit-specific links between Paf1C and regulation of alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) and upstream antisense transcription using RNAi coupled with deep sequencing of the 3’ ends of transcripts. Moreover, we found that depletion of Paf1C subunits resulted in the accumulation of PolII over gene bodies, which coincided with APA. Depletion of specific Paf1C subunits led to global loss of histone H2B ubiquitylation, although there was little impact of Paf1C depletion on other histone modifications, including tri-methylation of histone H3 on lysines 4 and 36 (H3K4me3 and H3K36me3), previously associated with this complex. Our results provide surprising differences with yeast, while unifying observations that link Paf1C with PolII elongation and RNA processing, and indicate that Paf1C subunits could play roles in controlling transcript length through suppression of PolII accumulation at transcription start site (TSS)-proximal pA sites and regulating pA site choice in 3’UTRs. PMID:26765774

  20. Domain swapping between homologous bacterial small RNAs dissects processing and Hfq binding determinants and uncovers an aptamer for conditional RNase E cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Göpel, Yvonne; Khan, Muna Ayesha; Görke, Boris

    2016-01-01

    In E. coli, small RNA GlmZ activates the glmS mRNA by base-pairing in an Hfq dependent manner. When not required, GlmZ is bound by adaptor protein RapZ and recruited to RNase E, which cleaves GlmZ in its base-pairing sequence. Small RNA GlmY counteracts cleavage of GlmZ by sequestration of RapZ. Although both sRNAs are highly homologous, only GlmZ specifically binds Hfq and undergoes cleavage by RNase E. We used domain swapping to identify the responsible modules. Two elements, the 3′ terminal oligo(U) stretch and the base-pairing region enable GlmZ to interact with Hfq. Accordingly, Hfq inhibits cleavage of GlmZ, directing it to base-pairing. Intriguingly, the central stem loop of GlmZ is decisive for cleavage, whereas the sequence comprising the actual cleavage site is dispensable. Assisted by RapZ, RNase E cleaves any RNA fused to the 3′ end of this module. These results suggest a novel mode for RNase E recognition, in which one of the required handholds in the substrate is replaced by an RNA binding protein. This device can generate RNAs of interest in their 5′ monophosphorylated form on demand. As these species are rapidly degraded, this tool allows to regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by modulation of RapZ levels. PMID:26531825

  1. The cis-acting elements involved in endonucleolytic cleavage of the 3' UTR of human IGF-II mRNAs bind a 50 kDa protein.

    PubMed Central

    Scheper, W; Holthuizen, P E; Sussenbach, J S

    1996-01-01

    Site-specific cleavage of human insulin-like growth factor II mRNAs requires two cis-acting elements, I and II, that are both located in the 3' untranslated region and separated by almost 2 kb. These elements can interact and form a stable RNA-RNA stem structure. In this study we have initiated the investigation of transacting factors involved in the cleavage of IGF-II mRNAs. The products of the cleavage reaction accumulate in the cytoplasm, suggesting that cleavage occurs in this cellular compartment. By electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we have identified a cytoplasmic protein with an apparent molecular weight of 48-50 kDa, IGF-II cleavage unit binding protein (ICU-BP), that binds to the stem structure formed by interaction of parts of the cis-acting elements I and II. The binding is resistant to high K+ concentrations and is dependent on Mg2+. In addition, ICU-BP binding is dependent on the cell density and correlates inversely with the IGM-II mRNA levels. In vivo cross-linking data show that this protein is associated with IGF-II mRNAs in vivo. PMID:8604329

  2. Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4G Is Targeted for Proteolytic Cleavage by Caspase 3 during Inhibition of Translation in Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marissen, Wilfred E.; Lloyd, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    Although much is known about the multiple mechanisms which induce apoptosis, comparatively little is understood concerning the execution phase of apoptosis and the mechanism(s) of cell killing. Several reports have demonstrated that cellular translation is shut off during apoptosis; however, details of the mechanism of translation inhibition are lacking. Translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) is a crucial protein required for binding cellular mRNA to ribosomes and is known to be cleaved as the central part of the mechanism of host translation shutoff exerted by several animal viruses. Treatment of HeLa cells with the apoptosis inducers cisplatin and etoposide resulted in cleavage of eIF4G, and the extent of its cleavage correlated with the onset and extent of observed inhibition of cellular translation. The eIF4G-specific cleavage activity could be measured in cell lysates in vitro and was inhibited by the caspase inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO at nanomolar concentrations. A combination of in vivo and in vitro inhibitor studies suggest the involvement of one or more caspases in the activation and execution of eIF4G cleavage. Furthermore recombinant human caspase 3 was expressed in bacteria, and when incubated with HeLa cell lysates, was shown to produce the same eIF4G cleavage products as those observed in apoptotic cells. In addition, purified caspase 3 caused cleavage of purified eIF4G, demonstrating that eIF4G could serve as a substrate for caspase 3. Taken together, these data suggest that cellular translation is specifically inhibited during apoptosis by a mechanism involving cleavage of eIF4G, an event dependent on caspase activity. PMID:9819442

  3. Determinants of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p15NC-RNA interaction that affect enhanced cleavage by the viral protease.

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, N; Pettit, S C; Tritch, R J; Ozturk, D H; Rayner, M M; Swanstrom, R; Erickson-Viitanen, S

    1997-01-01

    During human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion assembly, cleavage of the Gag precursor by the viral protease results in the transient appearance of a nucleocapsid-p1-p6 intermediate product designated p15NC. Utilizing the p15NC precursor protein produced with an in vitro transcription-translation system or purified after expression in Escherichia coli, we have demonstrated that RNA is required for efficient cleavage of HIV p15NC. Gel mobility shift and nitrocellulose filter binding experiments indicate that purified p15NC protein specifically binds its corresponding mRNA with an estimated Kd of 1.5 nM. Binding was not affected by the presence or absence of zinc or EDTA. Moreover, mutagenesis of the cysteine residues within either of the two Cys-His arrays had no effect on RNA binding or on RNA-dependent cleavage by the viral protease. In contrast, decreased binding of RNA and diminished susceptibility to cleavage in vitro were observed with p15NC-containing mutations in one or more residues within the triplet of basic amino acids present in the region between the two zinc fingers. In addition, we found that 21- to 24-base DNA and RNA oligonucleotides of a particular sequence and secondary structure could substitute for p15 RNA in the enhancement of p15NC cleavage. Virus particles carrying a mutation in the triplet of NC basic residues (P3BE) show delayed cleavage of p15NC and a defect in core formation despite the eventual appearance of fully processed virion protein. These results define determinants of the p15NC-RNA interaction that lead to enhanced protease-mediated cleavage and demonstrate the importance of the triplet of basic residues in formation of the virus core. PMID:9223458

  4. Mechanisms for ribotoxin-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Pestka, James J.

    2012-11-15

    The Type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to contaminate cereal-based foods, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage in the macrophage via p38-directed activation of caspases. Here we employed the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model to test the hypothesis that this rRNA cleavage pathway is similarly induced by other ribotoxins. Capillary electrophoresis confirmed that the antibiotic anisomycin (≥ 25 ng/ml), the macrocylic trichothecene satratoxin G (SG) (≥ 10 ng/ml) and ribosome-inactivating protein ricin (≥ 300 ng/ml) induced 18s and 28s rRNA fragmentation patterns identical to that observed for DON. Also, as found for DON, inhibition of p38, double-stranded RNA-activated kinase (PKR) and hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) suppressed MAPK anisomycin-induced rRNA cleavage, while, in contrast, their inhibition did not affect SG- and ricin-induced rRNA fragmentation. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ and pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suppressed rRNA cleavage induced by anisomycin, SG and ricin, indicating that these ribotoxins shared with DON a conserved downstream pathway. Activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 concurrently with apoptosis further suggested that rRNA cleavage occurred in parallel with both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. When specific inhibitors of cathepsins L and B (lysosomal cysteine cathepsins active at cytosolic neutral pH) were tested, only the former impaired anisomycin-, SG-, ricin- and DON-induced rRNA cleavage. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) all four ribotoxins induced p53-dependent rRNA cleavage via activation of cathepsin L and caspase 3, and (2) activation of p53 by DON and anisomycin involved p38 whereas SG and ricin activated p53 by an alternative mechanism. Highlights: ► Deoxynivalenol (DON) anisomycin, satratoxin G (SG) and ricin are ribotoxins. ► Ribotoxins induce 18s and 28s rRNA cleavage in the RAW 264.7 macrophage model. ► Ribotoxins induce rRNA cleavage via

  5. Specificity of the hepatitis C virus NS3 serine protease: effects of substitutions at the 3/4A, 4A/4B, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B cleavage sites on polyprotein processing.

    PubMed Central

    Kolykhalov, A A; Agapov, E V; Rice, C M

    1994-01-01

    Cleavage at four sites (3/4A, 4A/4B, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B) in the hepatitis C virus polyprotein requires a viral serine protease activity residing in the N-terminal one-third of the NS3 protein. Sequence comparison of the residues flanking these cleavage sites reveals conserved features including an acidic residue (Asp or Glu) at the P6 position, a Cys or Thr residue at the P1 position, and a Ser or Ala residue at the P1' position. In this study, we used site-directed mutagenesis to assess the importance of these and other residues for NS3 protease-dependent cleavages. Substitutions at the P7 to P2' positions of the 4A/4B site had varied effects on cleavage efficiency. Only Arg at the P1 position or Pro at P1' substantially blocked processing at this site. Leu was tolerated at the P1 position, whereas five other substitutions allowed various degrees of cleavage. Substitutions with positively charged or other hydrophilic residues at the P7, P3, P2, and P2' positions did not reduce cleavage efficiency. Five substitutions examined at the P6 position allowed complete cleavage, demonstrating that an acidic residue at this position is not essential. Parallel results were obtained with substrates containing an active NS3 protease domain in cis or when the protease domain was supplied in trans. Selected substitutions blocking or inhibiting cleavage at the 4A/4B site were also examined at the 3/4A, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B sites. For a given substitution, a site-dependent gradient in the degree of inhibition was observed, with a 3/4A site being least sensitive to mutagenesis, followed by the 4A/4B, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B sites. In most cases, mutations abolishing cleavage at one site did not affect processing at the other serine protease-dependent sites. However, mutations at the 3/4A site which inhibited cleavage also interfered with processing at the 4B/5A site. Finally, during the course of these studies an additional NS3 protease-dependent cleavage site has been identified in the NS4B

  6. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOEpatents

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1994-10-25

    A microbial process is described for selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials. Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  7. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOEpatents

    Kilbane, II, John J.

    1994-01-01

    A microbial process for selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials, Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  8. A statistical model for cleavage fracture of low alloy steel

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.H.; Wang, G.Z.; Wang, H.J.

    1996-10-01

    A new statistical model for cleavage fracture of the low alloy steel is proposed. This model is based on a recently suggested physical model and takes account of the effect of the preceding loading processes. This statistical model satisfactorily describes the failure probability distribution of 42 precracked specimens fractured at various loads at a test temperature of {minus}100 C. The micromechanisms of cleavage fracture of low alloy steel are also further discussed.

  9. Cleavage of a specific bond in troponin C by thrombin.

    PubMed

    Leavis, P C; Rosenfeld, S; Lu, R C

    1978-08-21

    Limited proteolysis of rabbit skeletal troponin C with bovine thrombin yielded two fragments, TH1 (Mr = 11000) containing Ca2+ binding regions I--III and TH2 (Mr = 6000) containing region IV. Determination of the partial sequences of the fragments established the site of cleavage at Arg120-Ala121. Secondary cleavage by thrombin at other arginyl or lysyl residues in troponin C was ruled out by the sequence data and by the amino acid compositions of the two fragments.

  10. Cleavage events and sperm dynamics in chick intrauterine embryos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Chul; Choi, Hee Jung; Park, Tae Sub; Lee, Sang In; Kim, Young Min; Rengaraj, Deivendran; Nagai, Hiroki; Sheng, Guojun; Lim, Jeong Mook; Han, Jae Yong

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate detailed event of early embryogenesis in chicken embryos using a noninvasive egg retrieval technique before oviposition. White Leghorn intrauterine eggs were retrieved from 95 cyclic hens aged up to 54-56 weeks and morphogenetic observation was made under both bright field and fluorescent image in a time course manner. Differing from mammals, asymmetric cleavage to yield preblastodermal cells was observed throughout early embryogenesis. The first two divisions occurred synchronously and four polarized preblastodermal cells resulted after cruciform cleavage. Then, asynchronous cleavage continued in a radial manner and overall cell size in the initial cleavage region was smaller than that in the distal area. Numerous sperms were visible, regardless of zygotic nuclei formation. Condensed sperm heads were present mainly in the perivitelline space and cytoplasm, and rarely in the yolk region, while decondensed sperm heads were only visible in the yolk. In conclusion, apparent differences in sperm dynamics and early cleavage events compared with mammalian embryos were detected in chick embryo development, which demonstrated polarized cleavage with penetrating supernumerary sperm into multiple regions.

  11. Distinct OGT-Binding Sites Promote HCF-1 Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiyan, Tanja; Waridel, Patrice; Kapuria, Vaibhav; Zoete, Vincent; Herr, Winship

    2015-01-01

    Human HCF-1 (also referred to as HCFC-1) is a transcriptional co-regulator that undergoes a complex maturation process involving extensive O-GlcNAcylation and site-specific proteolysis. HCF-1 proteolysis results in two active, noncovalently associated HCF-1N and HCF-1C subunits that regulate distinct phases of the cell-division cycle. HCF-1 O-GlcNAcylation and site-specific proteolysis are both catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which thus displays an unusual dual enzymatic activity. OGT cleaves HCF-1 at six highly conserved 26 amino acid repeat sequences called HCF-1PRO repeats. Here we characterize the substrate requirements for OGT cleavage of HCF-1. We show that the HCF-1PRO-repeat cleavage signal possesses particular OGT-binding properties. The glutamate residue at the cleavage site that is intimately involved in the cleavage reaction specifically inhibits association with OGT and its bound cofactor UDP-GlcNAc. Further, we identify a novel OGT-binding sequence nearby the first HCF-1PRO-repeat cleavage signal that enhances cleavage. These results demonstrate that distinct OGT-binding sites in HCF-1 promote proteolysis, and provide novel insights into the mechanism of this unusual protease activity. PMID:26305326

  12. Cleavage fracture in high strength low alloy weld metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, W.W.; Bowen, P.; Strangwood, M.

    1996-12-31

    The present investigation gives an evaluation of the effect of microstructure on the cleavage fracture process of High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) multipass weld metals. With additions of alloying elements, such as Ti, Ni, Mo and Cr, the microstructure of C-Mn weld metal changes from the classical composition, i.e., allotriomorphic ferrite with acicular ferrite and Widmanstaetten ferrite, to bainite and low carbon martensite. Although the physical metallurgy of some HSLA weld metals has been studied before, more work is necessary to correlate the effect of the microstructure on the fracture behavior of such weld metals. In this work detailed microstructural analysis was carried out using optical and electron (SEM and TEM) microscopy. Single edge notched (SEN) bend testpieces were used to assess the cleavage fracture stress, {sigma}{sub F}. Inclusions beneath the notch surface were identified as the crack initiators of unstable cleavage fracture. From the size of such inclusions and the value of tensile stress predicted at the initiation site, the effective surface energy for cleavage was calculated using a modified Griffth energy balance for a penny shape crack. The results suggest that even though inclusions initiate cleavage fracture, the local microstructure may play an important role in the fracture process of these weld metals. The implications of these observations for a quantitative theory of the cleavage fracture of ferritic steels is discussed.

  13. An important role of G638 in the cis-cleavage reaction of the Neurospora VS ribozyme revealed by a novel nucleotide analog incorporation method

    PubMed Central

    Jaikaran, Dominic; Smith, M. Duane; Mehdizadeh, Reza; Olive, Joan; Collins, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a chemical coupling procedure that allows joining of two RNAs, one of which contains a site-specific base analog substitution, in the absence of divalent ions. This method allows incorporation of nucleotide analogs at specific positions even into large, cis-cleaving ribozymes. Using this method we have studied the effects of substitution of G638 in the cleavage site loop of the VS ribozyme with a variety of purine analogs having different functional groups and pKa values. Cleavage rate versus pH profiles combined with kinetic solvent isotope experiments indicate an important role for G638 in proton transfer during the rate-limiting step of the cis-cleavage reaction. PMID:18356538

  14. Mitochondrial dysfunction-associated OPA1 cleavage contributes to muscle degeneration: preventative effect of hydroxytyrosol acetate.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Li, H; Zheng, A; Yang, L; Liu, J; Chen, C; Tang, Y; Zou, X; Li, Y; Long, J; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Feng, Z

    2014-11-13

    Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the development of muscle disorders, including muscle wasting, muscle atrophy and degeneration. Despite the knowledge that oxidative stress closely interacts with mitochondrial dysfunction, the detailed mechanisms remain obscure. In this study, tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) was used to induce oxidative stress on differentiated C2C12 myotubes. t-BHP induced significant mitochondrial dysfunction in a time-dependent manner, accompanied by decreased myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Consistently, endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction triggered by carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor, was accompanied by decreased membrane potential and decreased MyHC protein content. However, the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) efficiently reduced the ROS level and restored MyHC content, suggesting a close association between ROS and MyHC expression. Meanwhile, we found that both t-BHP and FCCP promoted the cleavage of optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) from the long form into short form during the early stages. In addition, the ATPase family gene 3-like 2, a mitochondrial inner membrane protease, was also markedly increased. Moreover, OPA1 knockdown in myotubes was accompanied by decreased MyHC content, whereas NAC failed to prevent FCCP-induced MyHC decrease with OPA1 knockdown, suggesting that ROS might affect MyHC content by modulating OPA1 cleavage. In addition, hydroxytyrosol acetate (HT-AC), an important compound in virgin olive oil, could significantly prevent t-BHP-induced mitochondrial membrane potential and cell viability loss in myotubes. Specifically, HT-AC inhibited t-BHP-induced OPA1 cleavage and mitochondrial morphology changes, accompanied by improvement on mitochondrial oxygen consumption capacity, ATP productive potential and activities of mitochondrial complex I, II and V. Moreover, both

  15. Mitochondrial dysfunction-associated OPA1 cleavage contributes to muscle degeneration: preventative effect of hydroxytyrosol acetate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X; Li, H; Zheng, A; Yang, L; Liu, J; Chen, C; Tang, Y; Zou, X; Li, Y; Long, J; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Feng, Z

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the development of muscle disorders, including muscle wasting, muscle atrophy and degeneration. Despite the knowledge that oxidative stress closely interacts with mitochondrial dysfunction, the detailed mechanisms remain obscure. In this study, tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) was used to induce oxidative stress on differentiated C2C12 myotubes. t-BHP induced significant mitochondrial dysfunction in a time-dependent manner, accompanied by decreased myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Consistently, endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction triggered by carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor, was accompanied by decreased membrane potential and decreased MyHC protein content. However, the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) efficiently reduced the ROS level and restored MyHC content, suggesting a close association between ROS and MyHC expression. Meanwhile, we found that both t-BHP and FCCP promoted the cleavage of optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) from the long form into short form during the early stages. In addition, the ATPase family gene 3-like 2, a mitochondrial inner membrane protease, was also markedly increased. Moreover, OPA1 knockdown in myotubes was accompanied by decreased MyHC content, whereas NAC failed to prevent FCCP-induced MyHC decrease with OPA1 knockdown, suggesting that ROS might affect MyHC content by modulating OPA1 cleavage. In addition, hydroxytyrosol acetate (HT-AC), an important compound in virgin olive oil, could significantly prevent t-BHP-induced mitochondrial membrane potential and cell viability loss in myotubes. Specifically, HT-AC inhibited t-BHP-induced OPA1 cleavage and mitochondrial morphology changes, accompanied by improvement on mitochondrial oxygen consumption capacity, ATP productive potential and activities of mitochondrial complex I, II and V. Moreover, both

  16. mRNA stability in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J

    1995-01-01

    This review concerns how cytoplasmic mRNA half-lives are regulated and how mRNA decay rates influence gene expression. mRNA stability influences gene expression in virtually all organisms, from bacteria to mammals, and the abundance of a particular mRNA can fluctuate manyfold following a change in the mRNA half-life, without any change in transcription. The processes that regulate mRNA half-lives can, in turn, affect how cells grow, differentiate, and respond to their environment. Three major questions are addressed. Which sequences in mRNAs determine their half-lives? Which enzymes degrade mRNAs? Which (trans-acting) factors regulate mRNA stability, and how do they function? The following specific topics are discussed: techniques for measuring eukaryotic mRNA stability and for calculating decay constants, mRNA decay pathways, mRNases, proteins that bind to sequences shared among many mRNAs [like poly(A)- and AU-rich-binding proteins] and proteins that bind to specific mRNAs (like the c-myc coding-region determinant-binding protein), how environmental factors like hormones and growth factors affect mRNA stability, and how translation and mRNA stability are linked. Some perspectives and predictions for future research directions are summarized at the end. PMID:7565413

  17. Key Residues for Catalytic Function and Metal Coordination in a Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xuewu; Zhang, Jianye; Golczak, Marcin; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kiser, Philip D

    2016-09-09

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are non-heme iron-containing enzymes found in all domains of life that generate biologically important apocarotenoids. Prior studies have revealed a critical role for a conserved 4-His motif in forming the CCD iron center. By contrast, the roles of other active site residues in catalytic function, including maintenance of the stringent regio- and stereo-selective cleavage activity, typically exhibited by these enzymes have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we examined the functional and structural importance of active site residues in an apocarotenoid-cleaving oxygenase (ACO) from Synechocystis Most active site substitutions variably lowered maximal catalytic activity without markedly affecting the Km value for the all-trans-8'-apocarotenol substrate. Native C15-C15' cleavage activity was retained in all ACO variants examined suggesting that multiple active site residues contribute to the enzyme's regioselectivity. Crystallographic analysis of a nearly inactive W149A-substituted ACO revealed marked disruption of the active site structure, including loss of iron coordination by His-238 apparently from an altered conformation of the conserved second sphere Glu-150 residue. Gln- and Asp-150-substituted versions of ACO further confirmed the structural/functional requirement for a Glu side chain at this position, which is homologous to Glu-148 in RPE65, a site in which substitution to Asp has been associated with loss of enzymatic function in Leber congenital amaurosis. The novel links shown here between ACO active site structure and catalytic activity could be broadly applicable to other CCD members and provide insights into the molecular pathogenesis of vision loss associated with an RPE65 point mutation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Efficient trans-cleavage by the Schistosoma mansoni SMalpha1 hammerhead ribozyme in the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Castán, Pablo; Moreno, Renata; Smith, James M; Berenguer, José; Cedergren, Robert

    2002-04-01

    The catalytic hammerhead structure has been found in association with repetitive DNA from several animals, including salamanders, crickets and schistosomes, and functions to process in cis the long multimer transcripts into monomer RNA in vivo. The cellular role of these repetitive elements and their transcripts is unknown. Moreover, none of these natural hammerheads have been shown to trans-cleave a host mRNA in vivo. We analyzed the cis- and trans-cleavage properties of the hammerhead ribozyme associated with the SMalpha DNA family from the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. The efficiency of trans-cleavage of a target RNA in vitro was affected mainly by both the temperature-dependent chemical step and the ribozyme-product dissociation step. The optimal temperature for trans-cleavage was 70 degrees C. This result was confirmed when both the SMalpha1 ribozyme and the target RNA were expressed in the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus. Moreover, SMalpha1 RNA showed a remarkable thermostability, equal or superior to that of the most stable RNAs in this species, suggesting that SMalpha1 RNA has been selected for stability. Computer analysis predicts that the monomer and multimer transcripts fold into highly compact secondary structures, which may explain their exceptional stability in vivo.

  19. Efficient trans-cleavage by the Schistosoma mansoni SMα1 hammerhead ribozyme in the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Castán, Pablo; Moreno, Renata; Smith, James M.; Berenguer, José; Cedergren, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The catalytic hammerhead structure has been found in association with repetitive DNA from several animals, including salamanders, crickets and schistosomes, and functions to process in cis the long multimer transcripts into monomer RNA in vivo. The cellular role of these repetitive elements and their transcripts is unknown. Moreover, none of these natural hammerheads have been shown to trans-cleave a host mRNA in vivo. We analyzed the cis- and trans-cleavage properties of the hammerhead ribozyme associated with the SMα DNA family from the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. The efficiency of trans-cleavage of a target RNA in vitro was affected mainly by both the temperature-dependent chemical step and the ribozyme–product dissociation step. The optimal temperature for trans-cleavage was 70°C. This result was confirmed when both the SMα1 ribozyme and the target RNA were expressed in the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus. Moreover, SMα1 RNA showed a remarkable thermostability, equal or superior to that of the most stable RNAs in this species, suggesting that SMα1 RNA has been selected for stability. Computer analysis predicts that the monomer and multimer transcripts fold into highly compact secondary structures, which may explain their exceptional stability in vivo. PMID:11917021

  20. RNase footprinting of protein binding sites on an mRNA target of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi; Soper, Toby J; Woodson, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Endoribonuclease footprinting is an important technique for probing RNA-protein interactions with single nucleotide resolution. The susceptibility of RNA residues to enzymatic digestion gives information about the RNA secondary structure, the location of protein binding sites, and the effects of protein binding on the RNA structure. Here we present a detailed protocol for using RNase T2, which cleaves single stranded RNA with a preference for A nucleotides, to footprint the protein Hfq on the rpoS mRNA leader. This protocol covers how to form the RNP complex, determine the correct dose of enzyme, footprint the protein, and analyze the cleavage pattern using primer extension.

  1. RNase footprinting of protein binding sites on an mRNA target of small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Peng; Soper, Toby J.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Endoribonuclease footprinting is an important technique for probing RNA•protein interactions with single nucleotide resolution. The susceptibility of RNA residues to enzymatic digestion gives information about the RNA secondary structure, the location of protein binding sites, and the effects of protein binding on the RNA structure. Here we present a detailed protocol for using RNase T2, which cleaves single stranded RNA with a preference for A nucleotides, to footprint the protein Hfq on the rpoS mRNA leader. This protocol covers how to form the RNP complex, determine the correct dose of enzyme, footprint the protein, and analyze the cleavage pattern using primer extension. PMID:22736006

  2. RNA structure-dependent uncoupling of substrate recognition and cleavage by Escherichia coli ribonuclease III

    PubMed Central

    Calin-Jageman, Irina; Nicholson, Allen W.

    2003-01-01

    Members of the ribonuclease III superfamily of double-strand-specific endoribonucleases participate in diverse RNA maturation and decay pathways. Ribonuclease III of the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli processes rRNA and mRNA precursors, and its catalytic action can regulate gene expression by controlling mRNA translation and stability. It has been proposed that E.coli RNase III can function in a non-catalytic manner, by binding RNA without cleaving phosphodiesters. However, there has been no direct evidence for this mode of action. We describe here an RNA, derived from the T7 phage R1.1 RNase III substrate, that is resistant to cleavage in vitro by E.coli RNase III but retains comparable binding affinity. R1.1[CL3B] RNA is recognized by RNase III in the same manner as R1.1 RNA, as revealed by the similar inhibitory effects of a specific mutation in both substrates. Structure-probing assays and Mfold analysis indicate that R1.1[CL3B] RNA possesses a bulge– helix–bulge motif in place of the R1.1 asymmetric internal loop. The presence of both bulges is required for uncoupling. The bulge–helix–bulge motif acts as a ‘catalytic’ antideterminant, which is distinct from recognition antideterminants, which inhibit RNase III binding. PMID:12711683

  3. Two Antagonistic MALT1 Auto-Cleavage Mechanisms Reveal a Role for TRAF6 to Unleash MALT1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Ginster, Stefanie; Bardet, Maureen; Unterreiner, Adeline; Malinverni, Claire; Renner, Florian; Lam, Stephen; Freuler, Felix; Gerrits, Bertran; Voshol, Johannes; Calzascia, Thomas; Régnier, Catherine H; Renatus, Martin; Nikolay, Rainer; Israël, Laura; Bornancin, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 has arginine-directed proteolytic activity triggered by engagement of immune receptors. Recruitment of MALT1 into activation complexes is required for MALT1 proteolytic function. Here, co-expression of MALT1 in HEK293 cells, either with activated CARD11 and BCL10 or with TRAF6, was used to explore the mechanism of MALT1 activation at the molecular level. This work identified a prominent self-cleavage site of MALT1 isoform A (MALT1A) at R781 (R770 in MALT1B) and revealed that TRAF6 can activate MALT1 independently of the CBM. Intramolecular cleavage at R781/R770 removes a C-terminal TRAF6-binding site in both MALT1 isoforms, leaving MALT1B devoid of the two key interaction sites with TRAF6. A previously identified auto-proteolysis site of MALT1 at R149 leads to deletion of the death-domain, thereby abolishing interaction with BCL10. By using MALT1 isoforms and cleaved fragments thereof, as well as TRAF6 WT and mutant forms, this work shows that TRAF6 induces N-terminal auto-proteolytic cleavage of MALT1 at R149 and accelerates MALT1 protein turnover. The MALT1 fragment generated by N-terminal self-cleavage at R149 was labile and displayed enhanced signaling properties that required an intact K644 residue, previously shown to be a site for mono-ubiquitination of MALT1. Conversely, C-terminal self-cleavage at R781/R770 hampered the ability for self-cleavage at R149 and stabilized MALT1 by hindering interaction with TRAF6. C-terminal self-cleavage had limited impact on MALT1A but severely reduced MALT1B proteolytic and signaling functions. It also abrogated NF-κB activation by N-terminally cleaved MALT1A. Altogether, this study provides further insights into mechanisms that regulate the scaffolding and activation cycle of MALT1. It also emphasizes the reduced functional capacity of MALT1B as compared to MALT1A.

  4. Two Antagonistic MALT1 Auto-Cleavage Mechanisms Reveal a Role for TRAF6 to Unleash MALT1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Florian; Lam, Stephen; Freuler, Felix; Gerrits, Bertran; Voshol, Johannes; Calzascia, Thomas; Régnier, Catherine H.; Renatus, Martin; Nikolay, Rainer; Israël, Laura; Bornancin, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 has arginine-directed proteolytic activity triggered by engagement of immune receptors. Recruitment of MALT1 into activation complexes is required for MALT1 proteolytic function. Here, co-expression of MALT1 in HEK293 cells, either with activated CARD11 and BCL10 or with TRAF6, was used to explore the mechanism of MALT1 activation at the molecular level. This work identified a prominent self-cleavage site of MALT1 isoform A (MALT1A) at R781 (R770 in MALT1B) and revealed that TRAF6 can activate MALT1 independently of the CBM. Intramolecular cleavage at R781/R770 removes a C-terminal TRAF6-binding site in both MALT1 isoforms, leaving MALT1B devoid of the two key interaction sites with TRAF6. A previously identified auto-proteolysis site of MALT1 at R149 leads to deletion of the death-domain, thereby abolishing interaction with BCL10. By using MALT1 isoforms and cleaved fragments thereof, as well as TRAF6 WT and mutant forms, this work shows that TRAF6 induces N-terminal auto-proteolytic cleavage of MALT1 at R149 and accelerates MALT1 protein turnover. The MALT1 fragment generated by N-terminal self-cleavage at R149 was labile and displayed enhanced signaling properties that required an intact K644 residue, previously shown to be a site for mono-ubiquitination of MALT1. Conversely, C-terminal self-cleavage at R781/R770 hampered the ability for self-cleavage at R149 and stabilized MALT1 by hindering interaction with TRAF6. C-terminal self-cleavage had limited impact on MALT1A but severely reduced MALT1B proteolytic and signaling functions. It also abrogated NF-κB activation by N-terminally cleaved MALT1A. Altogether, this study provides further insights into mechanisms that regulate the scaffolding and activation cycle of MALT1. It also emphasizes the reduced functional capacity of MALT1B as compared to MALT1A. PMID:28052131

  5. Single-Stranded DNA Cleavage by Divergent CRISPR-Cas9 Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Enbo; Harrington, Lucas B; O'Connell, Mitchell R; Zhou, Kaihong; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2015-11-05

    Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cleavage by Cas9 is a hallmark of type II CRISPR-Cas immune systems. Cas9-guide RNA complexes recognize 20-base-pair sequences in DNA and generate a site-specific double-strand break, a robust activity harnessed for genome editing. DNA recognition by all studied Cas9 enzymes requires a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) next to the target site. We show that Cas9 enzymes from evolutionarily divergent bacteria can recognize and cleave single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by an RNA-guided, PAM-independent recognition mechanism. Comparative analysis shows that in contrast to the type II-A S. pyogenes Cas9 that is widely used for genome engineering, the smaller type II-C Cas9 proteins have limited dsDNA binding and unwinding activity and promiscuous guide RNA specificity. These results indicate that inefficiency of type II-C Cas9 enzymes for genome editing results from a limited ability to cleave dsDNA and suggest that ssDNA cleavage was an ancestral function of the Cas9 enzyme family.

  6. Single-stranded DNA cleavage by divergent CRISPR-Cas9 enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Enbo; Harrington, Lucas B.; O’Connell, Mitchell R.; Zhou, Kaihong; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cleavage by Cas9 is a hallmark of type II CRISPR-Cas immune systems. Cas9–guide RNA complexes recognize 20-base-pair sequences in DNA and generate a site-specific double-strand break, a robust activity harnessed for genome editing. DNA recognition by all studied Cas9 enzymes requires a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) next to the target site. We show that Cas9 enzymes from evolutionarily divergent bacteria can recognize and cleave single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by an RNA-guided, PAM-independent recognition mechanism. Comparative analysis shows that in contrast to the type II-A S. pyogenes Cas9 that is widely used for genome engineering, the smaller type II-C Cas9 proteins have limited dsDNA binding and unwinding activity and promiscuous guide-RNA specificity. These results indicate that inefficiency of type II-C Cas9 enzymes for genome editing results from a limited ability to cleave dsDNA, and suggest that ssDNA cleavage was an ancestral function of the Cas9 enzyme family. PMID:26545076

  7. Are crenulation cleavage zones mylonites on the microscale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamtani, Manish A.; Karanth, R. V.; Greiling, R. O.

    1999-07-01

    Mylonites commonly show characteristic structures such as S- C fabric and C' type shear bands. In the present paper, the presence of similar structures on the microscale is reported from the cleavage zones of differentiated crenulation cleavage in garnet biotite schists belonging to the Lunavada Group of Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks, India. These rocks have experienced three episodes of deformation. A differentiated crenulation cleavage ( S2), characterized by alternating cleavage zones and microlithons developed during D2 by microfolding of the S1 foliation. Although the schists under investigation do not show any macroscopic- or mesoscopic-scale evidence of mylonitization, they show the presence of shear structures within the cleavage zones. The fabric resembling S- C and C' shear bands within these zones indicates shearing within them during D2 deformation. A model incorporating shearing along the cleavage zones is proposed to explain the genesis of shear structures within them. Accordingly, it is invoked that solution transfer and grain rotation are important deformation mechanisms during the early stages of crenulation and this results in the migration of quartz from the limbs to the hinges of the microfolds. At the later stages of crenulation the phyllosilicates (micas) forming the limbs of the microfolds are at an oblique angle to the direction of shortening and most of the mobile material like quartz has already been removed from the limbs by solution transfer. Therefore, the stress conditions are ideal for shearing and intracrystalline crystal-plastic deformation to occur along the limbs during the later stages of crenulation. It is proposed that the fabric resembling S- C, embryonic C' type shear bands and well developed C' (in that order) develop with increasing strain and shearing within the cleavage zones. At still higher strains, the shear bands may rotate into parallelism with the domain boundary between the cleavage zones and the microlithons

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Park, Sang Un

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at various chain positions to form a broad spectrum of apocarotenoids, including aromatic substances, pigments and phytohormones. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR method, we isolated three cDNA-encoding CCDs (McCCD1, McCCD4, and McNCED) from Momordica charantia. Amino acid sequence alignments showed that they share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes. Quantitative real-time RT PCR (reverse transcriptase PCR) analysis revealed that the expression of McCCD1 and McCCD4 was highest in flowers, and lowest in roots and old leaves (O-leaves). During fruit maturation, the two genes displayed differential expression, with McCCD1 peaking at mid-stage maturation while McCCD4 showed the lowest expression at that stage. The mRNA expression level of McNCED, a key enzyme involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, was high during fruit maturation and further increased at the beginning of seed germination. When first-leaf stage plants of M. charantia were exposed to dehydration stress, McNCED mRNA expression was induced primarily in the leaves and, to a lesser extend, in roots and stems. McNCED expression was also induced by high temperature and salinity, while treatment with exogenous ABA led to a decrease. These results should be helpful in determining the substrates and cleavage sites catalyzed by CCD genes in M. charantia, and also in defining the roles of CCDs in growth and development, and in the plant's response to environmental stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of an imino group indispensable for cleavage by a small ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Spitale, Robert C; Volpini, Rosaria; Heller, Moriah G; Krucinska, Jolanta; Cristalli, Gloria; Wedekind, Joseph E

    2009-05-06

    The hairpin ribozyme is a small, noncoding RNA (ncRNA) that catalyzes a site-specific phosphodiester bond cleavage reaction. Prior biochemical and structural analyses pinpointed the amidine moiety of base Ade38 as a key functional group in catalysis, but base changes designed to probe function resulted in localized misfolding of the active site. To define the requirements for chemical activity using a conservative modification, we synthesized and incorporated N1-deazaadenosine into the full-length ribozyme construct. This single-atom variant severely impairs activity, although the active-site fold remains intact in the accompanying crystal structures. The results demonstrate the essentiality of the imino moiety as well as the importance of its interaction with the substrate in the precatalytic and transition-state conformations. This work demonstrates the efficacy of single-atom approaches in the analysis of ncRNA structure-function relationships.

  10. Binding and cleavage of nucleic acids by the "hairpin" ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Chowrira, B M; Burke, J M

    1991-09-03

    The "hairpin" ribozyme derived from the minus strand of tobacco ringspot virus satellite RNA [(-)sTRSV] efficiently catalyzes sequence-specific RNA hydrolysis in trans (Feldstein et al., 1989; Hampel & Triz, 1989; Haseloff & Gerlach, 1989). The ribozyme does not cleave DNA. An RNA substrate analogue containing a single deoxyribonucleotide residue 5' to the cleavage site (A-1) binds to the ribozyme efficiently but cannot be cleaved. A DNA substrate analogue with a ribonucleotide at A-1 is cleaved; thus A-1 provides the only 2'-OH required for cleavage. These results support cleavage via a transphosphorylation mechanism initiated by attack of the 2'-OH of A-1 on the scissile phosphodiester. The ribozyme discriminates between DNA and RNA in both binding and cleavage. Results indicate that the 2'-OH of A-1 functions in complex stabilization as well as cleavage. The ribozyme efficiently cleaves a phosphorothioate diester linkage, suggesting that the pro-Rp oxygen at the scissile phosphodiester does not coordinate Mg2+.

  11. On the DNA cleavage mechanism of Type I restriction enzymes.

    PubMed

    Jindrova, Eva; Schmid-Nuoffer, Stefanie; Hamburger, Fabienne; Janscak, Pavel; Bickle, Thomas A

    2005-01-01

    Although the DNA cleavage mechanism of Type I restriction-modification enzymes has been extensively studied, the mode of cleavage remains elusive. In this work, DNA ends produced by EcoKI, EcoAI and EcoR124I, members of the Type IA, IB and IC families, respectively, have been characterized by cloning and sequencing restriction products from the reactions with a plasmid DNA substrate containing a single recognition site for each enzyme. Here, we show that all three enzymes cut this substrate randomly with no preference for a particular base composition surrounding the cleavage site, producing both 5'- and 3'-overhangs of varying lengths. EcoAI preferentially generated 3'-overhangs of 2-3 nt, whereas EcoKI and EcoR124I displayed some preference for the formation of 5'-overhangs of a length of approximately 6-7 and 3-5 nt, respectively. A mutant EcoAI endonuclease assembled from wild-type and nuclease-deficient restriction subunits generated a high proportion of nicked circular DNA, whereas the wild-type enzyme catalyzed efficient cleavage of both DNA strands. We conclude that Type I restriction enzymes require two restriction subunits to introduce DNA double-strand breaks, each providing one catalytic center for phosphodiester bond hydrolysis. Possible models for DNA cleavage are discussed.

  12. Cleavage of Signal Regulatory Protein α (SIRPα) Enhances Inflammatory Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Londino, James D.; Gulick, Dexter; Isenberg, Jeffrey S.; Mallampalli, Rama K.

    2015-01-01

    Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is a membrane glycoprotein immunoreceptor abundant in cells of monocyte lineage. SIRPα ligation by a broadly expressed transmembrane protein, CD47, results in phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, resulting in the inhibition of NF-κB signaling in macrophages. Here we observed that proteolysis of SIRPα during inflammation is regulated by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10), resulting in the generation of a membrane-associated cleavage fragment in both THP-1 monocytes and human lung epithelia. We mapped a charge-dependent putative cleavage site near the membrane-proximal domain necessary for ADAM10-mediated cleavage. In addition, a secondary proteolytic cleavage within the membrane-associated SIRPα fragment by γ-secretase was identified. Ectopic expression of a SIRPα mutant plasmid encoding a proteolytically resistant form in HeLa cells inhibited activation of the NF-κB pathway and suppressed STAT1 phosphorylation in response to TNFα to a greater extent than expression of wild-type SIRPα. Conversely, overexpression of plasmids encoding the proteolytically cleaved SIRPα fragments in cells resulted in enhanced STAT-1 and NF-κB pathway activation. Thus, the data suggest that combinatorial actions of ADAM10 and γ-secretase on SIRPα cleavage promote inflammatory signaling. PMID:26534964

  13. Cleavage entropy as quantitative measure of protease specificity.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Julian E; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Huber, Roland G; Margreiter, Michael A; Spitzer, Gudrun M; Wallnoefer, Hannes G; Liedl, Klaus R

    2013-04-01

    A purely information theory-guided approach to quantitatively characterize protease specificity is established. We calculate an entropy value for each protease subpocket based on sequences of cleaved substrates extracted from the MEROPS database. We compare our results with known subpocket specificity profiles for individual proteases and protease groups (e.g. serine proteases, metallo proteases) and reflect them quantitatively. Summation of subpocket-wise cleavage entropy contributions yields a measure for overall protease substrate specificity. This total cleavage entropy allows ranking of different proteases with respect to their specificity, separating unspecific digestive enzymes showing high total cleavage entropy from specific proteases involved in signaling cascades. The development of a quantitative cleavage entropy score allows an unbiased comparison of subpocket-wise and overall protease specificity. Thus, it enables assessment of relative importance of physicochemical and structural descriptors in protease recognition. We present an exemplary application of cleavage entropy in tracing substrate specificity in protease evolution. This highlights the wide range of substrate promiscuity within homologue proteases and hence the heavy impact of a limited number of mutations on individual substrate specificity.

  14. Cleavage Entropy as Quantitative Measure of Protease Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Julian E.; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Huber, Roland G.; Margreiter, Michael A.; Spitzer, Gudrun M.; Wallnoefer, Hannes G.; Liedl, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    A purely information theory-guided approach to quantitatively characterize protease specificity is established. We calculate an entropy value for each protease subpocket based on sequences of cleaved substrates extracted from the MEROPS database. We compare our results with known subpocket specificity profiles for individual proteases and protease groups (e.g. serine proteases, metallo proteases) and reflect them quantitatively. Summation of subpocket-wise cleavage entropy contributions yields a measure for overall protease substrate specificity. This total cleavage entropy allows ranking of different proteases with respect to their specificity, separating unspecific digestive enzymes showing high total cleavage entropy from specific proteases involved in signaling cascades. The development of a quantitative cleavage entropy score allows an unbiased comparison of subpocket-wise and overall protease specificity. Thus, it enables assessment of relative importance of physicochemical and structural descriptors in protease recognition. We present an exemplary application of cleavage entropy in tracing substrate specificity in protease evolution. This highlights the wide range of substrate promiscuity within homologue proteases and hence the heavy impact of a limited number of mutations on individual substrate specificity. PMID:23637583

  15. Ring cleavage of sulfur heterocycles: how does it happen?

    PubMed

    Bressler, D C; Norman, J A; Fedorak, P M

    Sulfur heterocycles are common constituents of petroleum and liquids derived from coal, and they are found in some secondary metabolites of microorganisms and plants. They exist primarily as saturated rings and thiophenes. There are two major objectives driving investigations of the microbial metabolism of organosulfur compounds. One is the quest to develop a process for biodesulfurization of fossil fuels, and the other is to understand the fates of organosulfur compounds in petroleum- or creosote-contaminated environments which is important in assessing bioremediation processes. For these processes to be successful, cleavage of different types of sulfur heterocyclic rings is paramount. This paper reviews the evidence for microbial ring cleavage of a variety of organosulfur compounds and discusses the few well-studied cases which have shown that the C-S bond is most susceptible to breakage leading to disruption of the ring. In most cases, the introduction of one or more oxygen atom(s) onto the adjacent C atom and/or onto the S atom weakens the C-S bond, facilitating its cleavage. Although much is known about the thiophene ring cleavage in dibenzothiophene, there is still a great deal to be learned about the cleavage of other sulfur heterocycles.

  16. Cleavage of Signal Regulatory Protein α (SIRPα) Enhances Inflammatory Signaling.

    PubMed

    Londino, James D; Gulick, Dexter; Isenberg, Jeffrey S; Mallampalli, Rama K

    2015-12-25

    Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is a membrane glycoprotein immunoreceptor abundant in cells of monocyte lineage. SIRPα ligation by a broadly expressed transmembrane protein, CD47, results in phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, resulting in the inhibition of NF-κB signaling in macrophages. Here we observed that proteolysis of SIRPα during inflammation is regulated by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10), resulting in the generation of a membrane-associated cleavage fragment in both THP-1 monocytes and human lung epithelia. We mapped a charge-dependent putative cleavage site near the membrane-proximal domain necessary for ADAM10-mediated cleavage. In addition, a secondary proteolytic cleavage within the membrane-associated SIRPα fragment by γ-secretase was identified. Ectopic expression of a SIRPα mutant plasmid encoding a proteolytically resistant form in HeLa cells inhibited activation of the NF-κB pathway and suppressed STAT1 phosphorylation in response to TNFα to a greater extent than expression of wild-type SIRPα. Conversely, overexpression of plasmids encoding the proteolytically cleaved SIRPα fragments in cells resulted in enhanced STAT-1 and NF-κB pathway activation. Thus, the data suggest that combinatorial actions of ADAM10 and γ-secretase on SIRPα cleavage promote inflammatory signaling.

  17. Differential regulation of plastid mRNA stability. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    Our goal is to identify cis-acting sequences and transacting factors that function in plastid mRNA maturation, stabilization, and/or decay through an in vitro and in vivo analysis of mRNA:protein interactions. Our previous results emphasized the study of 3{prime}end inverted repeat sequences (IRs) that serve both as mRNA processing elements and stability determinants, and associate with plastid proteins that potentially play enzymatic, structural and/or regulatory roles. We seek to define, by single base and internal deletion mutagenesis, the sequence and structural requirements for protein binding to the 3{prime} IRs of petD and psbA mRNAs; to purify RNA-binding proteins that demonstrate gene- or sequence-specific binding, or that are implicated in RNA stabilization or decay; and to investigate the native form of mRNA in the plastid, by attempting to purify ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles from organelles. Our view of mRNA decay is that it is regulated by three interactive components: RNA structure, ribonucleases and RNA-binding proteins. We have used mutagenesis to study the role of RNA structure in regulating RNA decay rates, and to identify protein binding and endonuclease recognition sites. We have identified at least three endonuclease activities; one that cleaves psbA RNA; and two whose cleavage patterns with petD 3{prime} IR-RNA has been studied (endoC1 and endoC2). Additionally, we have continued to analyze the properties of the major RNA processing exoribonuclease. We have concentrated our efforts on three RNA-binding proteins. A 100 kd protein with properties suggestive of a mammalian RNP component has been purified. A protein of 55 kd that may also be an endonuclease has been partially purified. We have studied the interaction of a 29 kd protein with the petD stem/loop, and its role in RNA processing. Recently, we have used a novel gel shift/SDS-PAGE technique to identify new RNA-binding proteins.

  18. Coupling of Termination, 3′ Processing, and mRNA Export

    PubMed Central

    Hammell, C. M.; Gross, Stefan; Zenklusen, Daniel; Heath, Catherine V.; Stutz, Francoise; Moore, Claire; Cole, C. N.

    2002-01-01

    In a screen to identify genes required for mRNA export in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we isolated an allele of poly(A) polymerase (PAP1) and novel alleles encoding several other 3′ processing factors. Many newly isolated and some previously described mutants (rna14-48, rna14-49, rna14-64, rna15-58, and pcf11-1 strains) are defective in polymerase II (Pol II) termination but, interestingly, retain the ability to polyadenylate these improperly processed transcripts at the nonpermissive temperature. Deletion of the cis-acting sequences required to couple 3′ processing and termination also produces transcripts that fail to exit the nucleus, suggesting that all of these processes (cleavage, termination, and export) are coupled. We also find that several but not all mRNA export mutants produce improperly 3′ processed transcripts at the nonpermissive temperature. 3′ maturation defects in mRNA export mutants include improper Pol II termination and/or the previously characterized hyperpolyadenylation of transcripts. Importantly, not all mRNA export mutants have defects in 3′ processing. The similarity of the phenotypes of some mRNA export mutants and 3′ processing mutants indicates that some factors from each process may mechanistically interact to couple mRNA processing and export. Consistent with this assumption, we present evidence that Xpo1p interacts in vivo with several 3′ processing factors and that the addition of recombinant Xpo1p to in vitro processing reaction mixtures stimulates 3′ maturation. Of the core 3′ processing factors tested (Rna14p, Rna15p, Pcf11p, Hrp1p, Fip1p, and Cft1p), only Hrp1p shuttles. Overexpression of Rat8p/Dbp5p suppresses both 3′ processing and mRNA export defects found in xpo1-1 cells. PMID:12192043

  19. Carboxypeptidase D is the only enzyme responsible for antibody C-terminal lysine cleavage in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhilan; Zhang, Henry; Haley, Benjamin; Macchi, Frank; Yang, Feng; Misaghi, Shahram; Elich, Joseph; Yang, Renee; Tang, Yun; Joly, John C; Snedecor, Bradley R; Shen, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Heterogeneity of C-terminal lysine levels often observed in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is believed to result from the proteolysis by endogenous carboxypeptidase(s) during cell culture production. Identifying the responsible carboxypeptidase(s) for C-terminal lysine cleavage in CHO cells would provide valuable insights for antibody production cell culture processes development and optimization. In this study, five carboxypeptidases, CpD, CpM, CpN, CpB, and CpE, were studied for message RNA (mRNA) expression by qRT-PCR analysis in two most commonly used blank hosts (DUXB-11 derived DHFR-deficient DP12 host and DHFR-positive CHOK1 host), used for therapeutic antibody production, as well an antibody-expressing cell line derived from each host. Our results showed that CpD had the highest mRNA expression. When CpD mRNA levels were reduced by RNAi (RNA interference) technology, C-terminal lysine levels increased, whereas there was no obvious change in C-terminal lysine levels when a different carboxypeptidase mRNA level was knocked down suggesting that carboxypeptidase D is the main contributor for C-terminal lysine processing. Most importantly, when CpD expression was knocked out by CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) technology, C-terminal lysine cleavage was completely abolished in CpD knockout cells based on mass spectrometry analysis, demonstrating that CpD is the only endogenous carboxypeptidase that cleaves antibody heavy chain C-terminal lysine in CHO cells. Hence, our work showed for the first time that the cleavage of antibody heavy chain C-terminal lysine is solely mediated by the carboxypeptidase D in CHO cells and our finding provides one solution to eliminating C-terminal lysine heterogeneity for therapeutic antibody production by knocking out CpD gene expression. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2100-2106. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Nonpolar nucleobase analogs illuminate requirements for site-specific DNA cleavage by vaccinia topoisomerase.

    PubMed

    Yakovleva, Lyudmila; Lai, Jacob; Kool, Eric T; Shuman, Stewart

    2006-11-24

    , signifying that base stacking flanking the nick is critical for the religation step. Our findings highlight base isosteres as valuable tools for the analysis of proteins that act on DNA in a site-specific manner.

  1. PROTEOLYTIC CLEAVAGE OF VERSICAN DURING LIMB JOINT DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Capehart, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Versican is highly expressed in developing joint interzones during limb morphogenesis. The present study was undertaken to examine whether proteolytic cleavage of versican occurs that could potentially impact its function during the process of embryonic synovial joint formation. Using an antibody to the DPEAAE neoepitope generated by ADAMTS proteolysis, versican amino terminal cleavage fragments were detected in joint interzones at 12–16 days post coitum (dpc). ADAMTS-1 localization overlapped that of DPEAAE-reactive versican fragments suggesting it as one possible protease activity involved in processing of versican in the interzone. Results show that increased cleavage of versican in the interzone accompanies cavitation and suggests that proteolytic modification of versican may be important during the process of synovial joint maturation PMID:20101710

  2. Ab Initio energetics of SiO bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Hühn, Carolin; Erlebach, Andreas; Mey, Dorothea; Wondraczek, Lothar; Sierka, Marek

    2017-10-15

    A multilevel approach that combines high-level ab initio quantum chemical methods applied to a molecular model of a single, strain-free SiOSi bridge has been used to derive accurate energetics for SiO bond cleavage. The calculated SiO bond dissociation energy and the activation energy for water-assisted SiO bond cleavage of 624 and 163 kJ mol(-1) , respectively, are in excellent agreement with values derived recently from experimental data. In addition, the activation energy for H2 O-assisted SiO bond cleavage is found virtually independent of the amount of water molecules in the vicinity of the reaction site. The estimated reaction energy for this process including zero-point vibrational contribution is in the range of -5 to 19 kJ mol(-1) . © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Experimental verification of cleavage characteristic stress vs grain size

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, W. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Li, D.; Yao, M. . School of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    Instead of the accepted cleavage fracture stress [sigma][sub f] proposed by Knott et al, a new parameter S[sub co], named as ''cleavage characteristic stress,'' has been recently recommended to characterize the microscopic resistance to cleavage fracture. To give a definition, S[sub co] is the fracture stress at the brittle/ductile transition temperature of steels in plain tension, below which the yield strength approximately equals the true fracture stress combined with an abrupt curtailment of ductility. By considering a single-grain microcrack arrested at a boundary, Huang and Yao set up an expression of S[sub co] as a function of grain size. The present work was arranged to provide an experimental verification of S[sub co] vs grain size.

  4. The impact of mRNA structure on guide RNA targeting in kinetoplastid RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Reifur, Larissa; Yu, Laura E; Cruz-Reyes, Jorge; Vanhartesvelt, Michelle; Koslowsky, Donna J

    2010-08-17

    Mitochondrial mRNA editing in Trypanosoma brucei requires the specific interaction of a guide RNA with its cognate mRNA. Hundreds of gRNAs are involved in the editing process, each needing to target their specific editing domain within the target message. We hypothesized that the structure surrounding the mRNA target may be a limiting factor and involved in the regulation process. In this study, we selected four mRNAs with distinct target structures and investigated how sequence and structure affected efficient gRNA targeting. Two of the mRNAs, including the ATPase subunit 6 and ND7-550 (5' end of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 7) that have open, accessible anchor binding sites show very efficient gRNA targeting. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicate that the cognate gRNA for ND7-550 had 10-fold higher affinity for its mRNA than the A6 pair. Surface plasmon resonance studies indicate that the difference in affinity was due to a four-fold faster association rate. As expected, mRNAs with considerable structure surrounding the anchor binding sites were less accessible and had very low affinity for their cognate gRNAs. In vitro editing assays indicate that efficient pairing is crucial for gRNA directed cleavage. However, only the A6 substrate showed gRNA-directed cleavage at the correct editing site. This suggests that different gRNA/mRNA pairs may require different "sets" of accessory factors for efficient editing. By characterizing a number of different gRNA/mRNA interactions, we may be able to define a "bank" of RNA editing substrates with different putative chaperone and other co-factor requirements. This will allow the more efficient identification and characterization of transcript specific RNA editing accessory proteins.

  5. New Insight into the Cleavage Reaction of Nostoc sp. Strain PCC 7120 Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase in Natural and Nonnatural Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jinsol; Kim, Se Hyeuk

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at a specific double bond to generate apocarotenoids. In this study, we investigated the activity and substrate preferences of NSC3, a CCD of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, in vivo and in vitro using natural and nonnatural carotenoid structures. NSC3 cleaved β-apo-8′-carotenal at 3 positions, C-13C-14, C-15C-15′, and C-13′C-14′, revealing a unique cleavage pattern. NSC3 cleaves the natural structure of carotenoids 4,4′-diaponeurosporene, 4,4′-diaponeurosporen-4′-al, 4,4′-diaponeurosporen-4′-oic acid, 4,4′-diapotorulene, and 4,4′-diapotorulen-4′-al to generate novel cleavage products (apo-14′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-13′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-10′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-14′-diapotorulenal, and apo-10′-diapotorulenal, respectively). The study of carotenoids with natural or nonnatural structures produced by using synthetic modules could provide information valuable for understanding the cleavage reactions or substrate preferences of other CCDs in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23524669

  6. New insight into the cleavage reaction of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase in natural and nonnatural carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinsol; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2013-06-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at a specific double bond to generate apocarotenoids. In this study, we investigated the activity and substrate preferences of NSC3, a CCD of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, in vivo and in vitro using natural and nonnatural carotenoid structures. NSC3 cleaved β-apo-8'-carotenal at 3 positions, C-13 C-14, C-15 C-15', and C-13' C-14', revealing a unique cleavage pattern. NSC3 cleaves the natural structure of carotenoids 4,4'-diaponeurosporene, 4,4'-diaponeurosporen-4'-al, 4,4'-diaponeurosporen-4'-oic acid, 4,4'-diapotorulene, and 4,4'-diapotorulen-4'-al to generate novel cleavage products (apo-14'-diaponeurosporenal, apo-13'-diaponeurosporenal, apo-10'-diaponeurosporenal, apo-14'-diapotorulenal, and apo-10'-diapotorulenal, respectively). The study of carotenoids with natural or nonnatural structures produced by using synthetic modules could provide information valuable for understanding the cleavage reactions or substrate preferences of other CCDs in vivo and in vitro.

  7. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    PubMed

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (<1 hr) P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  8. Hammerhead ribozyme targeting connective tissue growth factor mRNA blocks transforming growth factor-beta mediated cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Blalock, Timothy D; Yuan, Rong; Lewin, Alfred S; Schultz, Gregory S

    2004-06-01

    Excessive scarring following trauma or surgery of cornea, conjunctiva or retina can greatly impair visual outcome. At present, no agents are clinically available that selectively reduce activity of genes that regulate fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been linked to fibrosis in several tissues, including cornea and conjunctiva. In this study, hammerhead ribozymes targeting CTGF mRNA were synthesized, kinetic parameters were measured, and the effect on TGF-beta-mediated cell proliferation was measured in cultured human fibroblasts. The mRNA sequence of human CTGF was scanned for potential hammerhead ribozyme cleavage sites, and predicted secondary folding structures around the sites were calculated. Synthetic 12mer ribozymes and 33mer oligonucleotide mRNA targets corresponding to two sites were synthesized, and kinetic constants calculated from Hanes-Wolff plots of in vitro cleavage reactions. The ribozyme with higher percentage cleavage and kinetic rate was cloned into an expression plasmid (pTR-UF21) and stably transfected into cultured human fibroblasts. An inactive ribozyme plasmid served as a negative control. The effects of the ribozyme on expression of TGF-beta-induced CTGF mRNA and protein levels were measured using ELISA and real-time TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR. Finally, the effect of the CTGF ribozyme on TGF-beta-mediated proliferation of fibroblasts was measured using a non-radioactive cell proliferation microtiter assay. Of the eight potential hammerhead ribozyme cleavage sites in human CTGF mRNA, two sites (CHR 745, and CHR 859) were identified with optimal secondary folding. CHR 859 cleaved 94% of the target mRNA, compared to 46% cleavage for CHR 745 after 16 hr of reaction. CHR 859 had a K(m) of 1.56 microM and a K(cat) of 2.97 min(-1), while CHR 745 had a K(m) of 7.80 microM and a K(cat) of 5.7 min(-1). The turnover numbers (K(cat)/K(m)) of CHR 859 and CHR 745 were 1.9 x 10(6) M min(-1) and 7.4 x 10(5) M min(-1), respectively

  9. Stars and Symbiosis: MicroRNA- and MicroRNA*-Mediated Transcript Cleavage Involved in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Devers, Emanuel A.; Branscheid, Anja; May, Patrick; Krajinski, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    The majority of plants are able to form the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in association with AM fungi. During symbiosis development, plant cells undergo a complex reprogramming resulting in profound morphological and physiological changes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important components of the regulatory network of plant cells. To unravel the impact of miRNAs and miRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage on root cell reprogramming during AM symbiosis, we carried out high-throughput (Illumina) sequencing of small RNAs and degradome tags of Medicago truncatula roots. This led to the annotation of 243 novel miRNAs. An increased accumulation of several novel and conserved miRNAs in mycorrhizal roots suggest a role of these miRNAs during AM symbiosis. The degradome analysis led to the identification of 185 root transcripts as mature miRNA and also miRNA*-mediated mRNA cleavage targets. Several of the identified miRNA targets are known to be involved in root symbioses. In summary, the increased accumulation of specific miRNAs and the miRNA-mediated cleavage of symbiosis-relevant genes indicate that miRNAs are an important part of the regulatory network leading to symbiosis development. PMID:21571671

  10. An effective system for detecting protein-protein interaction based on in vivo cleavage by PPV NIa protease.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nuoyan; Huang, Xiahe; Yin, Bojiao; Wang, Dan; Xie, Qi

    2012-12-01

    Detection of protein-protein interaction can provide valuable information for investigating the biological function of proteins. The current methods that applied in protein-protein interaction, such as co-immunoprecipitation and pull down etc., often cause plenty of working time due to the burdensome cloning and purification procedures. Here we established a system that characterization of protein-protein interaction was accomplished by co-expression and simply purification of target proteins from one expression cassette within E. coli system. We modified pET vector into co-expression vector pInvivo which encoded PPV NIa protease, two cleavage site F and two multiple cloning sites that flanking cleavage sites. The target proteins (for example: protein A and protein B) were inserted at multiple cloning sites and translated into polyprotein in the order of MBP tag-protein A-site F-PPV NIa protease-site F-protein B-His(6) tag. PPV NIa protease carried out intracellular cleavage along expression, then led to the separation of polyprotein components, therefore, the interaction between protein A-protein B can be detected through one-step purification and analysis. Negative control for protein B was brought into this system for monitoring interaction specificity. We successfully employed this system to prove two cases of reported protien-protein interaction: RHA2a/ANAC and FTA/FTB. In conclusion, a convenient and efficient system has been successfully developed for detecting protein-protein interaction.

  11. HrpA, a DEAH-box RNA helicase, is involved in mRNA processing of a fimbrial operon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Koo, Jovanka T; Choe, Juno; Moseley, Steve L

    2004-06-01

    Endonucleolytic cleavage of mRNA in the daa operon of Escherichia coli is responsible for co-ordinate regulation of genes involved in F1845 fimbrial biogenesis. Cleavage occurs by an unidentified endoribonuclease, is translation dependent and involves a unique recognition mechanism. Here, we present the results of a genetic strategy used to identify factors involved in daa mRNA processing. We used a reporter construct consisting of the daa mRNA processing region fused to the gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP). A mutant defective in daa mRNA processing and expressing high levels of GFP was isolated by flow cytometry. To determine the location of mutations, two different genetic approaches, Hfr crosses and P1 transductions, were used. The mutation responsible for the processing defect was subsequently mapped to the 32 min region of the E. coli chromosome. A putative DEAH-box RNA helicase-encoding gene at this position, hrpA, was able to restore the ability of the mutant to cleave daa mRNA. Site-directed mutagenesis of the hrpA regions predicted to encode nucleotide triphosphate binding and hydrolysis functions abolished the ability of the gene to restore the processing defect in the mutant. We propose that HrpA is a novel enzyme involved in mRNA processing in E. coli.

  12. TGTG, G clustering and other signals near non-mammalian vertebrate mRNA 3' termini: some implications.

    PubMed

    Nussinov, R

    1986-06-01

    Analysis of non-mammalian vertebrate DNA sequences in the 500 nucleotides preceding and 200 nucleotides following mRNA 3' termini yields some distinct signals. In addition to the well known AATAAA sequence, TGTG recurs very frequently further downstream. GGGG, TGGG, GGAG and GAGG are frequent in this region too. It is suggested that unlike the AATAAA mRNA cleavage/processing signal, the other signals noted above are signals on the DNA, i.e. they are signals for mRNA termination. An asymmetric distribution of some complementary sequences, e.g. TGTG vs. CACA, GGGG vs. CCCC, on the same DNA strand is noted as well. A few other signals are also observed.

  13. mRNA decay during herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections: mutations that affect translation of an mRNA influence the sites at which it is cleaved by the HSV virion host shutoff (Vhs) protein.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, Lora A; Read, G Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    During lytic infections, the herpes simplex virus (HSV) virion host shutoff (Vhs) endoribonuclease degrades many host and viral mRNAs. Within infected cells it cuts mRNAs at preferred sites, including some in regions of translation initiation. Vhs binds the translation initiation factors eIF4H, eIF4AI, and eIF4AII, suggesting that its mRNA degradative function is somehow linked to translation. To explore how Vhs is targeted to preferred sites, we examined the in vitro degradation of a target mRNA in rabbit reticulocyte lysates containing in vitro-translated Vhs. Vhs caused rapid degradation of mRNAs beginning with cleavages at sites in the first 250 nucleotides, including a number near the start codon and in the 5' untranslated region. Ligation of the ends to form a circular mRNA inhibited Vhs cleavage at the same sites at which it cuts capped linear molecules. This was not due to an inability to cut any circular RNA, since Vhs cuts circular mRNAs containing an encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) at the same sites as linear molecules with the IRES. Cutting linear mRNAs at preferred sites was augmented by the presence of a 5' cap. Moreover, mutations that altered the 5' proximal AUG abolished Vhs cleavage at nearby sites, while mutations that changed sequences surrounding the AUG to improve their match to the Kozak consensus sequence enhanced Vhs cutting near the start codon. The results indicate that mutations in an mRNA that affect its translation affect the sites at which it is cut by Vhs and suggest that Vhs is directed to its preferred cut sites during translation initiation.

  14. Plan a Site Visit with Your Legislator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochs, Mike

    2005-01-01

    When members of Congress head home for a recess, participants in the grassroots network have an opportunity to use one of their effective education tools: the site visit. A site visit occurs when a legislator actually visits one's business, school, or organization to see one's work firsthand. A local site visit is effective because grassroots…

  15. Dialogue as a Site of Transformative Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Shilpi

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how affect allows us to view the relational form of dialogue, as built upon the work of Derrida and Levinas, to be a site of transformative possibility for students as they encounter and address issues of social justice and difference in the classroom. The understanding of affect that attends this form of dialogue demands…

  16. Interaction of 2A proteinase of human rhinovirus genetic group A with eIF4E is required for eIF4G cleavage during infection.

    PubMed

    Aumayr, Martina; Schrempf, Anna; Üzülmez, Öykü; Olek, Karin M; Skern, Tim

    2017-08-24

    In enteroviruses, the inhibition of protein synthesis from capped host cell mRNA is catalyzed by the virally encoded 2A proteinase (2A(pro)), which cleaves eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF) 4GI and 4GII. Despite much investigation, the exact mechanism of 2A(pro) cleavage remains however unclear. Here, we identify the domains responsible for the eIF4E/HRV2 2A(pro) interaction using molecular modelling and describe mutations that impair this interaction and delay in vitro cleavage of eIF4G isoforms. Furthermore, we produced HRV1A viruses bearing the mutation L17R, Y32A or Y86A in the 2A(pro) sequence. All three viruses showed reduced yield and were appreciably delayed during infection in eIF4GI cleavage. Thus, we propose for genetic group A HRVs that the eIF4E/2A(pro) interaction is essential for successful viral replication. In contrast, HRV4 2A(pro) and coxsackievirus B4 2A(pro) failed to form complexes with eIF4E, suggesting that the mechanism of eIF4G isoform cleavage in these and related viruses is different. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The eIF4G-eIF4E complex is the target for direct cleavage by the rhinovirus 2A proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Haghighat, A; Svitkin, Y; Novoa, I; Kuechler, E; Skern, T; Sonenberg, N

    1996-01-01

    The 2A proteinases (2Apro) of certain picornaviruses induce the cleavage of the eIF4G subunit of the cap-binding protein complex, eIF4F. Several reports have demonstrated that 2Apro of rhinovirus and coxsackievirus B4 cleave eIF4G directly. However, it was suggested that in poliovirus infection, the 2Apro induces the activation of a cellular proteinase which in turn cleaves eIF4G. Furthermore, it is not clear whether eIF4G is cleaved as part of the eIF4F complex or as an individual polypeptide. To address these issues, recombinant eIF4G was purified from Sf9 insect cells and tested for cleavage by purified rhinovirus 2Apro. Here we report that eIF4G alone is a relatively poor substrate for cleavage by the rhinovirus 2Apro. However, an eIF4G-eIF4E complex is cleaved efficiently by the 2Apro, suggesting that eIF4F is a preferred substrate for cleavage by rhinovirus 2Apro. Furthermore, 2Apr drastically reduced the translation of a capped mRNA. An eIF4G-eIF4E complex, but not eIF4G alone, was required to restore translation. PMID:8970966

  18. Small RNA-induced differential degradation of the polycistronic mRNA iscRSUA

    PubMed Central

    Desnoyers, Guillaume; Morissette, Audrey; Prévost, Karine; Massé, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Most polycistronic genes are expressed in a single transcript, in which each cistron produces a fixed amount of protein. In this report, we show the first example of differential degradation of a polycistronic gene induced by a small regulatory RNA (sRNA). Our data show that the iron-responsive sRNA, RyhB, binds to the second cistron of the polycistronic mRNA, iscRSUA, which encodes the necessary machinery for biosynthesis of Fe–S clusters, and promotes the cleavage of the downstream iscSUA transcript. This cleavage gives rise to the remaining 5′-section of the transcript encoding IscR, a transcriptional regulator responsible for activation and repression of several genes depending on the cellular Fe–S level. Our data indicate that the iscR transcript is stable and that translation is active. The stability of the iscR transcript depends on a 111-nucleotide long non-translated RNA section located between iscR and iscS, which forms a strong repetitive extragenic palindromic secondary structure and may protect against ribonucleases degradation. This novel regulation shows how sRNAs and mRNA structures can work together to modulate the transcriptional response to a specific stress. PMID:19407815

  19. Evolution of development in the sea star genus Patiriella: clade-specific alterations in cleavage.

    PubMed

    Cerra, Anna; Byrne, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Examination of early development in five species of the Patiriella sea star species complex indicates that the ancestral-type radial holoblastic cleavage (Type I) is characteristic of P. regularis and P. exigua, whereas cleavage in species from the calcar clade followed multiple alternatives (Types II-IV) from holoblastic to meroblastic. Considering that invariant radial cleavage is thought to play a role in embryonic axis formation in echinoderms, we documented the details of blastomere formation in Patiriella sp. and followed development of the embryos. In Type II cleavage, the first and second cleavage planes appeared simultaneously at one pole of the embryo, dividing it directly into four equally sized blastomeres. In Type III cleavage, the first and second cleavage planes appeared simultaneously, followed promptly by the third cleavage plane, dividing the embryo directly into eight equally sized blastomeres. In Type IV cleavage, numerous furrows appeared simultaneously at one end of the embryo, dividing it into 32-40 equally sized blastomeres. Confocal sections revealed that embryos with cleavage Types II-IV were initially syncytial. The timing of karyokinesis in embryos with Types II and III cleavage was similar to that seen in clutch mates with Type I cleavage. Karyokinesis in embryos with Type IV cleavage, however, differed in timing compared with Type I clutch mates. Alteration in cleavage was not associated with polarized distribution of maternally provided nutrients. For each cleavage type, development was normal to the competent larval stage. Although variable blastomere configuration in the calcar clade may be linked to possession of a lecithotrophic development, other Patiriella species with this mode of development have typical cleavage. The presence of variable cleavage in all calcar clade species indicates that phylogenetic history has played a role in the distribution of this embryonic trait in Patiriella. The plasticity in early cleavage in these

  20. Determination of secondary structure in the initiation region of ovalbumin mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Liarakos, C D; Maddox, R P; Hilscher, K A; Bishop, J R; McGuire, D K; Kopper, R A

    1988-01-01

    We have analyzed the secondary structure in the region surrounding the initiation codons of both cellular and synthetic versions of ovalbumin mRNA. RNase V1 cleavage sites and structure-dependent, chemically modified bases in cellular ovalbumin mRNA were determined by reverse transcription of hen poly A(+) RNA using ovalbumin-specific, synthetic DNA primers. These results indicate an extensive region of unpaired nucleotides preceding the initiation codon and a region of base-paired nucleotides including and following the initiation codon. A synthetic ovalbumin mRNA (SP65.OV) was prepared by run-off transcription of a cloned ovalbumin cDNA (pSP65.OV). Identical regions of hen ovalbumin and SP65.OV mRNAs gave identical patterns of structure-dependent base modifications. A computer program for determining RNA secondary structure was used to find a 5'-region structure for ovalbumin mRNA that is consistent with our data. Images PMID:3205742

  1. Modeling Radial Holoblastic Cleavage: A Laboratory Activity for Developmental Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a laboratory activity designed for an undergraduate developmental biology course. Uses Play-Doh (plastic modeling clay) to build a multicellular embryo in order to provide a 3-D demonstration of cleavage. Includes notes for the instructor and student directions. (YDS)

  2. Site-selective chemical cleavage of peptide bonds.

    PubMed

    Elashal, Hader E; Raj, Monika

    2016-05-07

    Site-selective cleavage of extremely unreactive peptide bonds is a very important chemical modification that provides invaluable information regarding protein sequence, and it acts as a modulator of protein structure and function for therapeutic applications. For controlled and selective cleavage, a daunting task, chemical reagents must selectively recognize or bind to one or more amino acid residues in the peptide chain and selectively cleave a peptide bond. Building on this principle, we have developed an approach that utilizes a chemical reagent to selectively modify the serine residue in a peptide chain and leads to the cleavage of a peptide backbone at the N-terminus of the serine residue. After cleavage, modified residues can be converted back to the original fragments. This method exhibits broad substrate scope and selectively cleaves various bioactive peptides with post-translational modifications (e.g. N-acetylation and -methylation) and mutations (d- and β-amino acids), which are a known cause of age related diseases.

  3. Mitochondria localize to the cleavage furrow in mammalian cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Elizabeth J; Mandato, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles with multiple cellular functions, including ATP production, calcium buffering, and lipid biosynthesis. Several studies have shown that mitochondrial positioning is regulated by the cytoskeleton during cell division in several eukaryotic systems. However, the distribution of mitochondria during mammalian cytokinesis and whether the distribution is regulated by the cytoskeleton has not been examined. Using live spinning disk confocal microscopy and quantitative analysis of mitochondrial fluorescence intensity, we demonstrate that mitochondria are recruited to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis in HeLa cells. After anaphase onset, the mitochondria are recruited towards the site of cleavage furrow formation, where they remain enriched as the furrow ingresses and until cytokinesis completion. Furthermore, we show that recruitment of mitochondria to the furrow occurs in multiple mammalian cells lines as well as in monopolar, bipolar, and multipolar divisions, suggesting that the mechanism of recruitment is conserved and robust. Using inhibitors of cytoskeleton dynamics, we show that the microtubule cytoskeleton, but not actin, is required to transport mitochondria to the cleavage furrow. Thus, mitochondria are specifically recruited to the cleavage furrow in a microtubule-dependent manner during mammalian cytokinesis. Two possible reasons for this could be to localize mitochondrial function to the furrow to facilitate cytokinesis and / or ensure accurate mitochondrial inheritance.

  4. Regulation of the glycine cleavage system in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    Catabolism of glycine, via the glycine cleavage system was investigated in isolated, fully functional, rat liver mitochondria, and the isolated perfused rat liver. Metabolic flux through the glycine cleavage system, which catalyzes the tetrahydrofolate-dependent cleavage of glycine yielding carbon dioxide, ammonia, N/sup 5/,N/sup 10/-methylenetetrahydrofolate, and NADH + H/sup +/, was monitored by measuring the production of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (1-/sup 14/C)glycine. The glycine cleavage system was demonstrated to be responsible for nearly all /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from (1-/sup 14/C)glycine in both isolated mitochondria and the perfused rat liver. Glycine decarboxylation by rat liver mitochondria was highly sensitive to the metabolic state in which the mitochondria were maintained. Production of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (1-/sup 14/C)glycine was stimulated in State 3 over State 4 and was maximal in the uncoupled state. Alternatively, respiratory inhibitors, such as rotenone, and reducing substrates, inhibited mitochondrial glycine decarboxylation strongly. Propionate stimulated glycine decarboxylation by rat liver mitochondria with a concomitant decrease in the measured intramitochondrial NADPH content. Incubation of mitochondria with propionate evoked a large decrease in the measured intramitochondrial ATP content and a large increase in AMP content. Manipulation of the intramitochondrial adenine nucleotide profile demonstrated that no direct correlation existed between rates of mitochondrial glycine decarboxylation and the intramitochondrial content of either ATP, ADP, or AMP.

  5. Cleavage sites within the poliovirus capsid protein precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, G.R.; Anderson, C.W.; Dorner, A.J.; Semler, B.L.; Wimmer, E.

    1982-01-01

    Partial amino-terminal sequence analysis was performed on radiolabeled poliovirus capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. A computer-assisted comparison of the amino acid sequences obtained with that predicted by the nucleotide sequence of the poliovirus genome allows assignment of the amino terminus of each capsid protein to a unique position within the virus polyprotein. Sequence analysis of trypsin-digested VP4, which has a blocked amino terminus, demonstrates that VP4 is encoded at or very near to the amino terminus of the polyprotein. The gene order of the capsid proteins is VP4-VP2-VP3-VP1. Cleavage of VP0 to VP4 and VP2 is shown to occur between asparagine and serine, whereas the cleavages that separate VP2/VP3 and VP3/VP1 occur between glutamine and glycine residues. This finding supports the hypothesis that the cleavage of VP0, which occurs during virion morphogenesis, is distinct from the cleavages that separate functional regions of the polyprotein.

  6. Oxidative cleavage of diverse ethers by an extracellular fungal peroxygenase

    Treesearch

    Matthias Kinne; Marzena Poraj-Kobielska; Sally A. Ralph; Rene Ullrich; Martin Hofrichter; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2009-01-01

    Many litter-decay fungi secrete heme-thiolate peroxygenases that oxidize various organic chemicals, but little is known about the role or mechanism of these enzymes. We found that the extracellular peroxygenase of Agrocybe aegerita catalyzed the H2O2-dependent cleavage of environmentally significant...

  7. Kinetics of acid-catalyzed cleavage of procyanindins

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; Gerald W. McGraw

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of the rates of cleavage of isomeric procyanidin dimers in the presence of excess phenylmethane thiol and acetic acid showed that compounds with a C(4)-C(8) interflavanoid bond were cleaved more rapidly than their C(4)-C(6) linked isomers, that 2,3-cis isomers with an axial flavan substituent were cleaved more-rapidly than a 2,3-...

  8. A review of statistical methods for prediction of proteolytic cleavage.

    PubMed

    duVerle, David A; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    A fundamental component of systems biology, proteolytic cleavage is involved in nearly all aspects of cellular activities: from gene regulation to cell lifecycle regulation. Current sequencing technologies have made it possible to compile large amount of cleavage data and brought greater understanding of the underlying protein interactions. However, the practical impossibility to exhaustively retrieve substrate sequences through experimentation alone has long highlighted the need for efficient computational prediction methods. Such methods must be able to quickly mark substrate candidates and putative cleavage sites for further analysis. Available methods and expected reliability depend heavily on the type and complexity of proteolytic action, as well as the availability of well-labelled experimental data sets: factors varying greatly across enzyme families. For this review, we chose to give a quick overview of the general issues and challenges in cleavage prediction methods followed by a more in-depth presentation of major techniques and implementations, with a focus on two particular families of cysteine proteases: caspases and calpains. Through their respective differences in proteolytic specificity (high for caspases, broader for calpains) and data availability (much lower for calpains), we aimed to illustrate the strengths and limitations of techniques ranging from position-based matrices and decision trees to more flexible machine-learning methods such as hidden Markov models and Support Vector Machines. In addition to a technical overview for each family of algorithms, we tried to provide elements of evaluation and performance comparison across methods.

  9. Perceiving Social Cleavages and Inequalities: The Case of Israeli Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dar, Yechezkel; Erhard, Rachel; Resh, Nura

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of perceptions of social cleavage and inequality among approximately 9000 Israeli eighth and ninth graders showed students accurately comprehended a multifaceted society with major social divisions. A social map with inequality was revealed in which ethnicity played the least prominent role. Personal and social traits influenced…

  10. The reversibility of adenosine triphosphate cleavage by myosin.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, C R; Trentham, D R

    1973-06-01

    For the simplest kinetic model the reverse rate constants (k(-1) and k(-2)) associated with ATP binding and cleavage on purified heavy meromyosin and heavy meromyosin subfragment 1 from rabbit skeletal muscle in the presence of 5mm-MgCl(2), 50mm-KCl and 20mm-Tris-HCl buffer at pH8.0 and 22 degrees C are: k(-1)<0.02s(-1) and k(-1)=16s(-1). Apparently, higher values of k(-1) and k(-2) are found with less-purified protein preparations. The values of k(-1) and k(-2) satisfy conditions required by previous (18)O-incorporation studies of H(2) (18)O into the P(i) moiety on ATP hydrolysis and suggest that the cleavage step does involve hydrolysis of ATP or formation of an adduct between ATP and water. The equilibrium constant for the cleavage step at the myosin active site is 9. If the cycle of events during muscle contraction is described by the model proposed by Lymn & Taylor (1971), the fact that there is only a small negative standard free-energy change for the cleavage step is advantageous for efficient chemical to mechanical energy exchange during muscle contraction.

  11. The reversibility of adenosine triphosphate cleavage by myosin

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, C. R.; Trentham, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    For the simplest kinetic model the reverse rate constants (k−1 and k−2) associated with ATP binding and cleavage on purified heavy meromyosin and heavy meromyosin subfragment 1 from rabbit skeletal muscle in the presence of 5mm-MgCl2, 50mm-KCl and 20mm-Tris–HCl buffer at pH8.0 and 22°C are: k−1<0.02s−1 and k−1=16s−1. Apparently, higher values of k−1 and k−2 are found with less-purified protein preparations. The values of k−1 and k−2 satisfy conditions required by previous 18O-incorporation studies of H218O into the Pi moiety on ATP hydrolysis and suggest that the cleavage step does involve hydrolysis of ATP or formation of an adduct between ATP and water. The equilibrium constant for the cleavage step at the myosin active site is 9. If the cycle of events during muscle contraction is described by the model proposed by Lymn & Taylor (1971), the fact that there is only a small negative standard free-energy change for the cleavage step is advantageous for efficient chemical to mechanical energy exchange during muscle contraction. PMID:4269253

  12. Mitochondria Localize to the Cleavage Furrow in Mammalian Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Elizabeth J.; Mandato, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles with multiple cellular functions, including ATP production, calcium buffering, and lipid biosynthesis. Several studies have shown that mitochondrial positioning is regulated by the cytoskeleton during cell division in several eukaryotic systems. However, the distribution of mitochondria during mammalian cytokinesis and whether the distribution is regulated by the cytoskeleton has not been examined. Using live spinning disk confocal microscopy and quantitative analysis of mitochondrial fluorescence intensity, we demonstrate that mitochondria are recruited to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis in HeLa cells. After anaphase onset, the mitochondria are recruited towards the site of cleavage furrow formation, where they remain enriched as the furrow ingresses and until cytokinesis completion. Furthermore, we show that recruitment of mitochondria to the furrow occurs in multiple mammalian cells lines as well as in monopolar, bipolar, and multipolar divisions, suggesting that the mechanism of recruitment is conserved and robust. Using inhibitors of cytoskeleton dynamics, we show that the microtubule cytoskeleton, but not actin, is required to transport mitochondria to the cleavage furrow. Thus, mitochondria are specifically recruited to the cleavage furrow in a microtubule-dependent manner during mammalian cytokinesis. Two possible reasons for this could be to localize mitochondrial function to the furrow to facilitate cytokinesis and / or ensure accurate mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:23991162

  13. Modeling Radial Holoblastic Cleavage: A Laboratory Activity for Developmental Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a laboratory activity designed for an undergraduate developmental biology course. Uses Play-Doh (plastic modeling clay) to build a multicellular embryo in order to provide a 3-D demonstration of cleavage. Includes notes for the instructor and student directions. (YDS)

  14. A secreted protein promotes cleavage furrow maturation during cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuehong; Vogel, Bruce E

    2011-01-25

    Developmental modifications in cell shape depend on dynamic interactions between the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton. In contrast, existing models of cytokinesis describe substantial cell surface remodeling that involves many intracellular regulatory and structural proteins but includes no contribution from the extracellular matrix [1-3]. Here, we show that extracellular hemicentins assemble at the cleavage furrow of dividing cells in the C. elegans germline and in preimplantation mouse embryos. In the absence of hemicentin, cleavage furrows form but retract prior to completion, resulting in multinucleate cells. In addition to their role in tissue organization, the data indicate that hemicentins are the first secreted proteins required during mammalian development and the only known secreted proteins required for cytokinesis, with an evolutionarily conserved role in stabilizing and preventing retraction of nascent cleavage furrows. Together with studies showing that extracellular polysaccharides are required for cytokinesis in diverse species [4-9], our data suggest that assembly of a cell type-specific extracellular matrix may be a general requirement for cleavage furrow maturation and contractile ring function during cytokinesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Secreted Protein Promotes Cleavage Furrow Maturation during Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuehong; Vogel, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Developmental modifications in cell shape depend on dynamic interactions between the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton. In contrast, existing models of cytokinesis describe substantial cell surface remodeling that involves many intracellular regulatory and structural proteins but includes no contribution from the extracellular matrix [1–3]. Here, we show that extracellular hemicentins assemble at the cleavage furrow of dividing cells in the C. elegans germline and in preimplantation mouse embryos. In the absence of hemicentin, cleavage furrows form but retract prior to completion, resulting in multinucleate cells. In addition to their role in tissue organization, the data indicate that hemicentins are the first secreted proteins required during mammalian development and the only known secreted proteins required for cytokinesis, with an evolutionarily conserved role in stabilizing and preventing retraction of nascent cleavage furrows. Together with studies showing that extracellular polysaccharides are required for cytokinesis in diverse species [4–9], our data suggest that assembly of a cell type-specific extracellular matrix may be a general requirement for cleavage furrow maturation and contractile ring function during cytokinesis. PMID:21215633

  16. Cytokinesis: RhoGEFs control a developmental cleavage switch.

    PubMed

    Kao, Ling-Rong; Megraw, Timothy

    2012-11-06

    New findings provide evidence that developmentally staged RhoGEFs control assembly of two alternative forms of cleavage furrows: the 'Rappaport' furrows, which govern division of Drosophila syncytial cortical division cycles, and conventional spindle-directed furrows. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stimulation of cleavage of membrane proteins by calmodulin inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Rodríguez, E; Esparís-Ogando, A; Montero, J C; Yuste, L; Pandiella, A

    2000-01-01

    The ectodomain of several membrane-bound proteins can be shed by proteolytic cleavage. The activity of the proteases involved in shedding is highly regulated by several intracellular second messenger pathways, such as protein kinase C (PKC) and intracellular Ca(2+). Recently, the shedding of the adhesion molecule L-selectin has been shown to be regulated by the interaction of calmodulin (CaM) with the cytosolic tail of L-selectin. Prevention of CaM-L-selectin interaction by CaM inhibitors or mutation of a CaM binding site in L-selectin induced L-selectin ectodomain shedding. Whether this action of CaM inhibitors also affects other membrane-bound proteins is not known. In the present paper we show that CaM inhibitors also stimulate the cleavage of several other transmembrane proteins, such as the membrane-bound growth factor precursors pro-transforming growth factor-alpha and pro-neuregulin-alpha2c, the receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkA, and the beta-amyloid precursor protein. Cleavage induced by CaM inhibitors was a rapid event, and resulted from the activation of a mechanism that was independent of PKC or intracellular Ca(2+) increases, but was highly sensitive to hydroxamic acid-based metalloprotease inhibitors. Mutational analysis of the intracellular domain of the TrkA receptor indicated that CaM inhibitors may stimulate membrane-protein ectodomain cleavage by mechanisms independent of CaM-substrate interaction. PMID:10677354

  18. Identification of European starling GnRH-I precursor mRNA and its seasonal regulation.

    PubMed

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; Cadigan, Penelope A; Wang, Ariel; Liu, Jennifer; Bentley, George E

    2009-07-01

    Songbirds show dynamic seasonal changes in their reproductive activities during the year. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) is critical for the control of reproduction in vertebrates. The molecular mechanisms controlling reproduction are not well understood in songbirds, largely because the GnRH-I precursor polypeptide gene was unknown until now. Here, we report the complete sequence and seasonal regulation of GnRH-I precursor polypeptide mRNA in a songbird, European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). The translated starling GnRH-I precursor polypeptide contained an amino acid sequence that can be processed into chicken GnRH-I peptide (pEHWSYGLQPG-NH(2)). However, the overall homology of GnRH-I precursor polypeptide (including a 23 amino acid signal peptide, the decapeptide hormone and Gly-Lys-Arg cleavage site followed by 55 amino acid GnRH-associated peptide sequences) between starling and chicken was only 58%. GnRH-I mRNA and GnRH-I peptide were observed to be co-localized in the preoptic area of sexually mature birds using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. GnRH-I mRNA exhibited large variance in photosensitive birds, and converged to a high level in photostimulated birds. Subsequently, GnRH-I mRNA decreased to below detectability in most of the photorefractory birds. Changes were also observed in GnRH-I peptide levels, although changes in GnRH-I peptide were not as marked. Our data indicate that GnRH-I mRNA synthesis commences but is variable in photosensitive birds, stabilizes in photostimulated birds, then ceases when birds become photorefractory. Finer-scale investigation into temporal regulation of GnRH-I precursor polypeptide mRNA will provide insight into its regulation by environmental, social and physiological cues.

  19. Gleevec shifts APP processing from a β-cleavage to a nonamyloidogenic cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Netzer, William J.; Bettayeb, Karima; Sinha, Subhash C.; Flajolet, Marc; Bustos, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Neurotoxic amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) are major drivers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and are formed by sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase (BACE) and γ-secretase. Our previous study showed that the anticancer drug Gleevec lowers Aβ levels through indirect inhibition of γ-secretase activity. Here we report that Gleevec also achieves its Aβ-lowering effects through an additional cellular mechanism. It renders APP less susceptible to proteolysis by BACE without inhibiting BACE enzymatic activity or the processing of other BACE substrates. This effect closely mimics the phenotype of APP A673T, a recently discovered mutation that protects carriers against AD and age-related cognitive decline. In addition, Gleevec induces formation of a specific set of APP C-terminal fragments, also observed in cells expressing the APP protective mutation and in cells exposed to a conventional BACE inhibitor. These Gleevec phenotypes require an intracellular acidic pH and are independent of tyrosine kinase inhibition, given that a related compound lacking tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, DV2-103, exerts similar effects on APP metabolism. In addition, DV2-103 accumulates at high concentrations in the rodent brain, where it rapidly lowers Aβ levels. This study suggests that long-term treatment with drugs that indirectly modulate BACE processing of APP but spare other BACE substrates and achieve therapeutic concentrations in the brain might be effective in preventing or delaying the onset of AD and could be safer than nonselective BACE inhibitor drugs. PMID:28115709

  20. von Willebrand factor storage requires intact prosequence cleavage site.

    PubMed

    Journet, A M; Saffaripour, S; Cramer, E M; Tenza, D; Wagner, D D

    1993-02-01

    Large multimers of the adhesive glycoprotein von Willebrand factor (vWf) are stored in endothelial cells in rod-shaped granules called Weibel-Palade bodies, while small multimers are secreted constitutively. Expression of pro-vWf in other cells with a regulated pathway of secretion, results in formation of vWf-containing storage granules that have a morphology similar to Weibel-Palade bodies. vWf expressed without its prosequence is not stored. To evaluate the importance of prosequence cleavage in vWf storage, the Arg at position -1, known to be necessary for cleavage, was mutated to Gly. Transfection of this cleavage mutant into two cell lines with a regulated pathway of secretion (RIN 5F and AtT-20 cells) led to the formation of large multimers. However, treatment of the cell lysates by the enzyme endoglycosidase H (Endo-H) did not reveal significant amounts of intracellular Endo-H-resistant vWf, which indicates the absence of a pool of stored processed vWf. In addition, no Weibel-Palade body-like structure was detected in these cells by immunofluorescence labeling with anti-vWf antiserum. Electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry of RIN 5F cells expressing the pro-vWf mutant confirmed the absence of Weibel-Palade body-like structures. In addition, anti-vWf-linked gold particles were found in the ER, occasionally in rounded granules and particularly in lysosomal structures which were abundant. We conclude that the formation of large aggregates is not sufficient to induce efficient vWf storage, and that the lack of cleavage of the prosequence may direct the mutant pro-vWf molecule to a degradative pathway. Therefore, the prosequence cleavage is a requirement for vWf storage.

  1. Crack tip blunting and cleavage under dynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, V. P.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-05-01

    In structural materials with both brittle and ductile phases, cracks often initiate within the brittle phase and propagate dynamically towards the ductile phase. The macroscale, quasistatic toughness of the material thus depends on the outcome of this microscale, dynamic process. Indeed, dynamics has been hypothesized to suppress dislocation emission, which may explain the occurrence of brittle transgranular fracture in mild steels at low temperatures (Lin et al., 1987). Here, crack tip blunting and cleavage under dynamic conditions are explored using continuum mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations. The focus is on two questions: (1) whether dynamics can affect the energy barriers for dislocation emission and cleavage, and (2) what happens in the dynamic "overloaded" situation, in which both processes are energetically possible. In either case, dynamics may shift the balance between brittle cleavage and ductile blunting, thereby affecting the intrinsic ductility of the material. To explore these effects in simulation, a novel interatomic potential is used for which the intrinsic ductility is tunable, and a novel simulation technique is employed, termed as a "dynamic cleavage test", in which cracks can be run dynamically at a prescribed energy release rate into a material. Both theory and simulation reveal, however, that the intrinsic ductility of a material is unaffected by dynamics. The energy barrier to dislocation emission appears to be identical in quasi-static and dynamic conditions, and, in the overloaded situation, ductile crack tip behavior ultimately prevails since a single emission event can blunt and arrest the crack, preventing further cleavage. Thus, dynamics cannot embrittle a ductile material, and the origin of brittle failure in certain alloys (e.g., mild steels) appears unrelated to dynamic effects at the crack tip.

  2. Site-specific laser modification (cleavage) of oligodeoxynucleotides.

    PubMed

    Benimetskaya, L Z; Bulychev, N V; Kozionov, A L; Koshkin, A A; Lebedev, A V; Novozhilov SYu; Stockman, M I

    1989-06-01

    Sequence-specific photomodification of oligodeoxynucleotide pAGAGTATTGACTTA ("a target") has been carried out with the aid of complementary fluorescent probes. Such a probe consisted of oligodeoxynucleotide pAATACTCT and a chromophore group attached to its 5' end. Three different derivatives of ethidium bromide were used as a chromophore. The photomodification was induced by nitrogen laser radiation (337 nm, 15 MW/cm2). The irradiation induces the following photodamages: target cleavage at the specific binding site with a cutting off of the 8-mer from its 5' end (yield up to 12%), formation of specific covalent adduct target-probe with a yield of 20-70%, and piperidine-sensitive target modifications with a 7-27% yield (for different chromophores). The total yield of specific photodamages of all kinds is 50-80%. The target cleavage and generation of piperidine-sensitive modifications are optically nonlinear processes. Piperidine treatment of the irradiated samples led to specific cleavage of the target with the yield up to 40%. All kinds of observed modifications are not influenced by high concentrations of free radical scavengers: 1.3M tBuOH and 10 mM cystamine. The pattern of cleavage indicates that the most probable position of the chromophore is between T8 and G9 of the target, i.e., the chromophore stacks on top of the last A.T base pair of the duplex. The aggregate of evidence is in agreement with the mechanism of nonlinear photomodification (the cleavage and generation of piperidine-sensitive modifications) based on the transfer of two-photon excitation energy from the chromophore to the target.

  3. The crystallography of cleavage fracture in Al sub 3 Sc

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, J.H.; Hazzledine, P.M. )

    1992-04-01

    The intermetallic compound Al{sub 3}Sc is a trialuminide with the L1{sub 2} structure, which deforms easily in compression at room temperature, with yield stresses around 100 MPa. As shown by single crystal compression experiments, slip occurs on {l brace}111{r brace} planes. In tension Al{sub 3}Sc fractures transgranularly in a brittle manner. The predominant cleavage plane is {l brace}011{r brace}. In a scanning electron microscope (SEM) numerous cleavage steps, which are aligned in three major crystallographic directions, are observed. The fracture surfaces almost always show some microscopic waviness along the traces of intersecting slip planes. Regions that are flat within the experimental resolution of the SEM are only occasionally observed. Some of the cleavage steps consist of {l brace}111{r brace} or {l brace}001{r brace} planes, but others are not distinctly crystallographic. Plastic deformation involving dislocation motion or twinning may have occurred at these steps. Reactions among different types of steps are also observed. One type of cleavage pattern found is strikingly similar to the typical appearance of fracture surfaces of fcc or fcc related materials after stress corrosion cracking. However, this particular pattern is only rarely observed in Al{sub 3}Sc and can therefore not be taken as evidence for stress corrosion cracking in this material. Our observations indicate that an interpretation of cleavage fracture in Al{sub 3}Sc in terms of surface energies alone is unlikely to be successful. Similarly, any criterion that categorizes its fracture behavior into either fully brittle or fuly ductile is faced with difficulties. A full understanding of the fracture morphology of Al{sub 3}Sc will therefore require detailed atomistic simulations.

  4. mRNA Decay of Most Arabidopsis miRNA Targets Requires Slicer Activity of AGO11[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression in animals and plants. They guide RNA-induced silencing complexes to complementary target mRNA, thereby mediating mRNA degradation or translational repression. ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins bind directly to miRNAs and may catalyze cleavage (slicing) of target mRNAs. In animals, miRNA target degradation via slicing occurs only exceptionally, and target mRNA decay is induced via AGO-dependent recruitment of deadenylase complexes. Conversely, plant miRNAs generally direct slicing of their targets, but it is unclear whether slicer-independent mechanisms of target mRNA decay also exist, and, if so, how much they contribute to miRNA-induced mRNA decay. Here, we compare phenotypes and transcript profiles of ago1 null and slicer-deficient mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We also construct conditional loss-of-function mutants of AGO1 to allow transcript profiling in true leaves. Although phenotypic differences between ago1 null and slicer-deficient mutants can be discerned, the results of both transcript profiling approaches indicate that slicer activity is required for mRNA repression of the vast majority of miRNA targets. A set of genes exhibiting up-regulation specifically in ago1 null, but not in ago1 slicer-deficient mutants was also identified, leaving open the possibility that AGO1 may have functions in gene regulation independent of small RNAs. PMID:27208258

  5. The spt5 C-terminal region recruits yeast 3' RNA cleavage factor I.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Andreas; Schreieck, Amelie; Lidschreiber, Michael; Leike, Kristin; Martin, Dietmar E; Cramer, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    During transcription elongation, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) binds the general elongation factor Spt5. Spt5 contains a repetitive C-terminal region (CTR) that is required for cotranscriptional recruitment of the Paf1 complex (D. L. Lindstrom et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23:1368-1378, 2003; Z. Zhang, J. Fu, and D. S. Gilmour, Genes Dev. 19:1572-1580, 2005). Here we report a new role of the Spt5 CTR in the recruitment of 3' RNA-processing factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed that the Spt5 CTR is required for normal recruitment of pre-mRNA cleavage factor I (CFI) to the 3' ends of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes. RNA contributes to CFI recruitment, as RNase treatment prior to ChIP further decreases CFI ChIP signals. Genome-wide ChIP profiling detected occupancy peaks of CFI subunits around 100 nucleotides downstream of the polyadenylation (pA) sites of genes. CFI recruitment to this defined region may result from simultaneous binding to the Spt5 CTR, to nascent RNA containing the pA sequence, and to the elongating Pol II isoform that is phosphorylated at serine 2 (S2) residues in its C-terminal domain (CTD). Consistent with this model, the CTR interacts with CFI in vitro but is not required for pA site recognition and transcription termination in vivo.

  6. Widespread mRNA polyadenylation events in introns indicate dynamic interplay between polyadenylation and splicing.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bin; Pan, Zhenhua; Lee, Ju Youn

    2007-02-01

    mRNA polyadenylation and pre-mRNA splicing are two essential steps for the maturation of most human mRNAs. Studies have shown that some genes generate mRNA variants involving both alternative polyadenylation and alternative splicing. Polyadenylation in introns can lead to conversion of an internal exon to a 3' terminal exon, which is termed composite terminal exon, or usage of a 3' terminal exon that is otherwise skipped, which is termed skipped terminal exon. Using cDNA/EST and genome sequences, we identified polyadenylation sites in introns for all currently known human genes. We found that approximately 20% human genes have at least one intronic polyadenylation event that can potentially lead to mRNA variants, most of which encode different protein products. The conservation of human intronic poly(A) sites in mouse and rat genomes is lower than that of poly(A) sites in 3'-most exons. Quantitative analysis of a number of mRNA variants generated by intronic poly(A) sites suggests that the intronic polyadenylation activity can vary under different cellular conditions for most genes. Furthermore, we found that weak 5' splice site and large intron size are the determining factors controlling the usage of composite terminal exon poly(A) sites, whereas skipped terminal exon poly(A) sites tend to be associated with strong polyadenylation signals. Thus, our data indicate that dynamic interplay between polyadenylation and splicing leads to widespread polyadenylation in introns and contributes to the complexity of transcriptome in the cell.

  7. RNase H1-Dependent Antisense Oligonucleotides Are Robustly Active in Directing RNA Cleavage in Both the Cytoplasm and the Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Sun, Hong; Nichols, Joshua G; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-09-06

    RNase H1-dependent antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are active in reducing levels of both cytoplasmic mRNAs and nuclear retained RNAs. Although ASO activity in the nucleus has been well demonstrated, the cytoplasmic activity of ASOs is less clear. Using kinetic and subcellular fractionation studies, we evaluated ASO activity in the cytoplasm. Upon transfection, ASOs targeting exonic regions rapidly reduced cytoplasmically enriched mRNAs, whereas an intron-targeting ASO that only degrades the nuclear pre-mRNA reduced mRNA levels at a slower rate, similar to normal mRNA decay. Importantly, some exon-targeting ASOs can rapidly and vigorously reduce mRNA levels without decreasing pre-mRNA levels, suggesting that pre-existing cytoplasmic mRNAs can be cleaved by RNase H1-ASO treatment. In addition, we expressed a cytoplasm-localized mutant 7SL RNA that contains a partial U16 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) sequence. Treatment with an ASO simultaneously reduced both the nuclear U16 snoRNA and the cytoplasmic 7SL mutant RNA as early as 30 min after transfection in an RNase H1-dependent manner. Both the 5' and 3' cleavage products of the 7SL mutant RNA were accumulated in the cytoplasm. Together, these results demonstrate that RNase H1-dependent ASOs are robustly active in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A cellular high-throughput screening approach for therapeutic trans-cleaving ribozymes and RNAi against arbitrary mRNA disease targets.

    PubMed

    Yau, Edwin H; Butler, Mark C; Sullivan, Jack M

    2016-10-01

    Major bottlenecks in development of therapeutic post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) agents (e.g. ribozymes, RNA interference, antisense) include the challenge of mapping rare accessible regions of the mRNA target that are open for annealing and cleavage, testing and optimization of agents in human cells to identify lead agents, testing for cellular toxicity, and preclinical evaluation in appropriate animal models of disease. Methods for rapid and reliable cellular testing of PTGS agents are needed to identify potent lead candidates for optimization. Our goal was to develop a means of rapid assessment of many RNA agents to identify a lead candidate for a given mRNA associated with a disease state. We developed a rapid human cell-based screening platform to test efficacy of hammerhead ribozyme (hhRz) or RNA interference (RNAi) constructs, using a model retinal degeneration target, human rod opsin (RHO) mRNA. The focus is on RNA Drug Discovery for diverse retinal degeneration targets. To validate the approach, candidate hhRzs were tested against NUH↓ cleavage sites (N = G,C,A,U; H = C,A,U) within the target mRNA of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), a model gene expression reporter, based upon in silico predictions of mRNA accessibility. HhRzs were embedded in a larger stable adenoviral VAI RNA scaffold for high cellular expression, cytoplasmic trafficking, and stability. Most hhRz expression plasmids exerted statistically significant knockdown of extracellular SEAP enzyme activity when readily assayed by a fluorescence enzyme assay intended for high throughput screening (HTS). Kinetics of PTGS knockdown of cellular targets is measureable in live cells with the SEAP reporter. The validated SEAP HTS platform was transposed to identify lead PTGS agents against a model hereditary retinal degeneration target, RHO mRNA. Two approaches were used to physically fuse the model retinal gene target mRNA to the SEAP reporter mRNA. The most expedient way to

  9. A Cellular High-Throughput Screening Approach for Therapeutic trans-Cleaving Ribozymes and RNAi against Arbitrary mRNA Disease Targets

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Edwin H.; Butler, Mark C.; Sullivan, Jack M.

    2016-01-01

    Major bottlenecks in development of therapeutic post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) agents (e.g. ribozymes, RNA interference, antisense) include the challenge of mapping rare accessible regions of the mRNA target that are open for annealing and cleavage, testing and optimization of agents in human cells to identify lead agents, testing for cellular toxicity, and preclinical evaluation in appropriate animal models of disease. Methods for rapid and reliable cellular testing of PTGS agents are needed to identify potent lead candidates for optimization. Our goal was to develop a means of rapid assessment of many RNA agents to identify a lead candidate for a given mRNA associated with a disease state. We developed a rapid human cell-based screening platform to test efficacy of hammerhead ribozyme (hhRz) or RNA interference (RNAi) constructs, using a model retinal degeneration target, human rod opsin (RHO) mRNA. The focus is on RNA Drug Discovery for diverse retinal degeneration targets. To validate the approach, candidate hhRzs were tested against NUH↓ cleavage sites (N=G,C,A,U; H=C,A,U) within the target mRNA of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), a model gene expression reporter, based upon in silico predictions of mRNA accessibility. HhRzs were embedded in a larger stable adenoviral VAI RNA scaffold for high cellular expression, cytoplasmic trafficking, and stability. Most hhRz expression plasmids exerted statistically significant knockdown of extracellular SEAP enzyme activity when readily assayed by a fluorescence enzyme assay intended for high throughput screening (HTS). Kinetics of PTGS knockdown of cellular targets is measureable in live cells with the SEAP reporter. The validated SEAP HTS platform was transposed to identify lead PTGS agents against a model hereditary retinal degeneration target, RHO mRNA. Two approaches were used to physically fuse the model retinal gene target mRNA to the SEAP reporter mRNA. The most expedient way to evaluate a

  10. Biomaterials for mRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Reesor, Emma K. G.; Xu, Yingjie; Zope, Harshal R.; Zetter, Bruce R.; Shi, Jinjun

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) has recently emerged with remarkable potential as an effective alternative to DNA-based therapies because of several unique advantages. mRNA does not require nuclear entry for transfection activity and has a negligible chance of integrating into the host genome which excludes the possibility of potentially detrimental genomic alternations. Chemical modification of mRNA has further enhanced its stability and decreased its activation of innate immune responses. Additionally, mRNA has been found to have rapid expression and predictable kinetics. Nevertheless, the ubiquitous application of mRNA remains challenging given its unfavorable attributes, such as large size, negative charge and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Further refinement of mRNA delivery modalities is therefore essential for its development as a therapeutic tool. This review provides an exclusive overview of current state-of-the-art biomaterials and nanotechnology platforms for mRNA delivery, and discusses future prospects to bring these exciting technologies into clinical practice. PMID:26280625

  11. Iron-mediated cleavage of C-C bonds in vicinal tricarbonyl compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Mecinović, Jasmin; Hamed, Refaat B; Schofield, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Three of a kind: Vicinal tricarbonyl compounds undergo C-C cleavage mediated by ferric ions (see scheme). The observed cleavage of ninhydrin and dehydroascorbic acid has relevance for amino acid detection and the metabolism of vitamin C.

  12. 3[prime] end maturation of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast atpB mRNA is a two-step process

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, D.B.; Kindle, K.L. )

    1993-04-01

    The research studied the 3[prime] end maturation of green algae chloroplast atpB mRNA. Most data on transcription termination and 3[prime] end maturation in chloroplasts have been based on in vitro experiments. Newly developed chloroplast transformation techniques have allowed the use of a green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to examine chloroplast mRNA 3[prime] end stability determinants and mRNA processing both in vitro and in vivo. The results of this research showed that Chlamydomonas chloroplast protein extracts contain an endonuclease activity that cleaves a synthetic precursor of atpB mRNA 10 nucleotides downstream on the mature 3[prime] end in vitro. Rapid cleavage by this endonuclease is followed by exonucleolytic removal of 10 nucleotides to yield the mature 3[prime] end.

  13. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Define Sortase Cleavage Products.

    PubMed

    Duong, Andrew; Koteva, Kalinka; Sexton, Danielle L; Elliot, Marie A

    2016-01-01

    Sortase enzymes have specific endopeptidase activity, cleaving within a defined pentapeptide sequence at the C-terminal end of their protein substrates. Here, we describe how monitoring sortase cleavage activity can be achieved using peptide substrates. Peptide cleavage can be readily analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), which allows for the precise definition of cleavage sites. This technique could be used to analyze the peptidase activity of any enzyme, and identify sites of cleavage within any peptide.

  14. Regulation of cytoplasmic mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Daniel R.; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2012-01-01

    Discoveries made over the past 20 years highlight the importance of mRNA decay as a means to modulate gene expression and thereby protein production. Up until recently, studies focused largely on identifying cis-acting sequences that serve as mRNA stability or instability elements, the proteins that bind these elements, how the process of translation influences mRNA decay, and the ribonucleases that catalyze decay. Now, current studies have begun to elucidate how the decay process is regulated. This review examines our current understanding of how mammalian-cell mRNA decay is controlled by different signaling pathways and lays out a framework for future research. PMID:22392217

  15. Cleavage patterns and the topology of the metazoan tree of life

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, James W.

    1997-01-01

    Several major alliances of metazoan phyla have been identified by small subunit rRNA sequence comparisons. It is possible to arrange the phyla to produce a parsimonious distribution of cleavage types, requiring only one change from a radial ancestral condition to spiral cleavage and one other to “idiosyncratic” cleavage; this arrangement is consistent with most of the recent molecular phylogenies. The cleavage shifts are correlated with changes in many of the features that once were used to distinguish Protostomia and Deuterostomia. It is hypothesized that changes in cleavage direction are causally associated with changes in blastomere fates and thus that cleavage type correlates with such features as the identity of mesoderm founder cells, which in turn can constrain the mode of origination of the eucelom. Cleavage changes may also affect the timing of cell fate specification. In a tree that emphasizes cleavage parsimony, radial cleavage, regulative development, and enterocely are ancestral within the Bilateria, and spiral or idiosyncratic cleavages, mosaic development, and schizocely are associated with a change in cleavage direction. Deuterostomy is presumably ancestral and is correlated with radial cleavage for this reason, rather than mechanistically. PMID:9223303

  16. Viperin mRNA is a novel target for the human RNase MRP/RNase P endoribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Mattijssen, Sandy; Hinson, Ella R; Onnekink, Carla; Hermanns, Pia; Zabel, Bernhard; Cresswell, Peter; Pruijn, Ger J M

    2011-07-01

    RNase MRP is a conserved endoribonuclease, in humans consisting of a 267-nucleotide RNA associated with 7-10 proteins. Mutations in its RNA component lead to several autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasias, including cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH). Because the known substrates of mammalian RNase MRP, pre-ribosomal RNA, and RNA involved in mitochondrial DNA replication are not likely involved in CHH, we analyzed the effects of RNase MRP (and the structurally related RNase P) depletion on mRNAs using DNA microarrays. We confirmed the upregulation of the interferon-inducible viperin mRNA by RNAi experiments and this appeared to be independent of the interferon response. We detected two cleavage sites for RNase MRP/RNase P in the coding sequence of viperin mRNA. This is the first study providing direct evidence for the cleavage of a mRNA by RNase MRP/RNase P in human cells. Implications for the involvement in the pathophysiology of CHH are discussed.

  17. Development and application of bond cleavage reactions in bioorthogonal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chen, Peng R

    2016-03-01

    Bioorthogonal chemical reactions are a thriving area of chemical research in recent years as an unprecedented technique to dissect native biological processes through chemistry-enabled strategies. However, current concepts of bioorthogonal chemistry have largely centered on 'bond formation' reactions between two mutually reactive bioorthogonal handles. Recently, in a reverse strategy, a collection of 'bond cleavage' reactions has emerged with excellent biocompatibility. These reactions have expanded our bioorthogonal chemistry repertoire, enabling an array of exciting new biological applications that range from the chemically controlled spatial and temporal activation of intracellular proteins and small-molecule drugs to the direct manipulation of intact cells under physiological conditions. Here we highlight the development and applications of these bioorthogonal cleavage reactions. Furthermore, we lay out challenges and propose future directions along this appealing avenue of research.

  18. Stille coupling via C–N bond cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong-Yu; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yang, Ze-Kun; Miyamoto, Kazunori; Komagawa, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Wang, Chao; Uchiyama, Masanobu

    2016-01-01

    Cross-coupling is a fundamental reaction in the synthesis of functional molecules, and has been widely applied, for example, to phenols, anilines, alcohols, amines and their derivatives. Here we report the Ni-catalysed Stille cross-coupling reaction of quaternary ammonium salts via C–N bond cleavage. Aryl/alkyl-trimethylammonium salts [Ar/R–NMe3]+ react smoothly with arylstannanes in 1:1 molar ratio in the presence of a catalytic amount of commercially available Ni(cod)2 and imidazole ligand together with 3.0 equivalents of CsF, affording the corresponding biaryl with broad functional group compatibility. The reaction pathway, including C–N bond cleavage step, is proposed based on the experimental and computational findings, as well as isolation and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of Ni-containing intermediates. This reaction should be widely applicable for transformation of amines/quaternary ammonium salts into multi-aromatics. PMID:27686744

  19. Stille coupling via C-N bond cleavage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Yu; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yang, Ze-Kun; Miyamoto, Kazunori; Komagawa, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Wang, Chao; Uchiyama, Masanobu

    2016-09-01

    Cross-coupling is a fundamental reaction in the synthesis of functional molecules, and has been widely applied, for example, to phenols, anilines, alcohols, amines and their derivatives. Here we report the Ni-catalysed Stille cross-coupling reaction of quaternary ammonium salts via C-N bond cleavage. Aryl/alkyl-trimethylammonium salts [Ar/R-NMe3]+ react smoothly with arylstannanes in 1:1 molar ratio in the presence of a catalytic amount of commercially available Ni(cod)2 and imidazole ligand together with 3.0 equivalents of CsF, affording the corresponding biaryl with broad functional group compatibility. The reaction pathway, including C-N bond cleavage step, is proposed based on the experimental and computational findings, as well as isolation and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of Ni-containing intermediates. This reaction should be widely applicable for transformation of amines/quaternary ammonium salts into multi-aromatics.

  20. Enhancing PDT drug delivery by enzymatic cleavage of porphyrin phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bing; Liang, Gaolin; Wang, Ling; Yang, Zhimou; Chan, Kalok; Chang, Chi K.

    2007-02-01

    A new anionic porphyrin-phosphate conjugate has been made as the substrate of phosphatase to evaluate its cellular-uptake and potential targeting on cancer cells, taking advantage of the over-expression of phosphatases associated with the development of cancers. The phosphate groups increase the hydrophilicity of porphyrin dityrosine phosphate and facilitate its formulation in aqueous solvent. Upon hydrolysis by phosphatase after cellular uptaking, the more hydrophobic porphyrin-dityrosine promises to give better cellular retention. Indeed, the phosphate conjugate displayed a much better PDT effect than that of the parent porphyrin at the same concentration (10 μM) and light dosage on HeLa cells, indicating the enzyme-cleavage reaction occurred in HeLa cells plays a role. Photosenzitizers utilizing enzyme-cleavage might be a promising approach for photodynamic therapy.

  1. Sequence specificity of DNA cleavage by Micrococcus luteus. gamma. endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Hentosh, P.; Henner, W.D.; Reynolds, R.J.

    1985-04-01

    DNA fragments of defined sequence have been used to determine the sites of cleavage by ..gamma..-endonuclease activity in extracts prepared from Micrococcus luteus. End-labeled DNA restriction fragments of pBR322 DNA that had been irradiated under nitrogen in the presence of potassium iodide or t-butanol were treated with M. luteus ..gamma.. endonuclease and analyzed on irradiated DNA preferentially at the positions of cytosines and thymines. DNA cleavage occurred immediately to the 3' side of pyrimidines in irradiated DNA and resulted in fragments that terminate in a 5'-phosphoryl group. These studies indicate that both altered cytosines and thymines may be important DNA lesions requiring repair after exposure to ..gamma.. radiation.

  2. Hydrolytic cleavage of DNA by quercetin zinc(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tan; Bochu, Wang; Liancai, Zhu

    2007-03-01

    Quercetin zinc(II) complex was investigated focusing on its hydrolytic activity toward DNA. The complex successfully promotes the cleavage of plasmid DNA, producing single and double DNA strand breaks. The amount of conversion of supercoiled form (SC) of plasmid to the nicked circular form (NC) depends on the concentration of the complex as well as the duration of incubation of the complex with DNA. The rate of conversion of SC to NC is 1.68x10(-4) s(-1) at pH 7.2 in the presence of 100 microM of the complex. The hydrolytic cleavage of DNA by the complex is supported by the evidence from free radical quenching, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay, and T4 ligase ligation.

  3. Hydrolytic cleavage of DNA by quercetin manganese(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tan; Bochu, Wang; Liancai, Zhu

    2007-04-01

    Quercetin manganese(II) complexes were investigated focusing on its DNA hydrolytic activity. The complexes successfully promote the cleavage of plasmid DNA, producing single and double DNA strand breaks. The amount of conversion of supercoiled form (SC) of plasmid DNA to the nicked circular form (NC) depends on the concentration of the complex as well as the duration of incubation of the complexes with DNA. The maximum rate of conversion of the supercoiled form to the nicked circular form at pH 7.2 in the presence of 100 microM of the complexes is found to be 1.32 x 10(-4) s(-1). The hydrolytic cleavage of DNA by the complexes was supported by the evidence from free radical quenching, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay and T4 ligase ligation.

  4. Cytoplasmic mRNA turnover and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Borbolis, Fivos; Syntichaki, Popi

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover that determines the lifetime of cytoplasmic mRNAs is a means to control gene expression under both normal and stress conditions, whereas its impact on ageing and age-related disorders has just become evident. Gene expression control is achieved at the level of the mRNA clearance as well as mRNA stability and accessibility to other molecules. All these processes are regulated by cis-acting motifs and trans-acting factors that determine the rates of translation and degradation of transcripts. Specific messenger RNA granules that harbor the mRNA decay machinery or various factors, involved in translational repression and transient storage of mRNAs, are also part of the mRNA fate regulation. Their assembly and function can be modulated to promote stress resistance to adverse conditions and over time affect the ageing process and the lifespan of the organism. Here, we provide insights into the complex relationships of ageing modulators and mRNA turnover mechanisms. PMID:26432921

  5. Glutamic Acid Selective Chemical Cleavage of Peptide Bonds.

    PubMed

    Nalbone, Joseph M; Lahankar, Neelam; Buissereth, Lyssa; Raj, Monika

    2016-03-04

    Site-specific hydrolysis of peptide bonds at glutamic acid under neutral aqueous conditions is reported. The method relies on the activation of the backbone amide chain at glutamic acid by the formation of a pyroglutamyl (pGlu) imide moiety. This activation increases the susceptibility of a peptide bond toward hydrolysis. The method is highly specific and demonstrates broad substrate scope including cleavage of various bioactive peptides with unnatural amino acid residues, which are unsuitable substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis.

  6. Cytolytic effects of the complement cleavage product, C3a.

    PubMed Central

    Ferluga, J.; Schorlemmer, H. U.; Baptista, L. C.; Allison, A. C.

    1976-01-01

    Purified C3a, a cleavage product of the third component of complement,was incubated with various cell types of human and mouse origin. All the tumour cell types tested were lysed by low concentrations of C3a, whereas normal human lymphocytes were relatively resistant. No lysis was produced by C3 or C3b. The possible role of C3a in immunity against tumours is discussed. PMID:827304

  7. Mycothiol synthesis by an anomerization reaction through endocyclic cleavage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mycothiol is found in Gram-positive bacteria, where it helps in maintaining a reducing intracellular environment and it plays an important role in protecting the cell from toxic chemicals. The inhibition of the mycothiol biosynthesis is considered as a treatment for tuberculosis. Mycothiol contains an α-aminoglycoside, which is difficult to prepare stereoselectively by a conventional glycosylation reaction. In this study, mycothiol was synthesized by an anomerization reaction from an easily prepared β-aminoglycoside through endocyclic cleavage. PMID:26977192

  8. Positioning the cleavage furrow: All you need is Rho

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zairan

    2016-01-01

    RhoA controls cleavage furrow formation during cell division, but whether RhoA suffices to orchestrate spatiotemporal dynamics of furrow formation is unknown. In this issue, Wagner and Glotzer (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201603025) show that RhoA activity can induce furrow formation in all cell cortex positions and cell cycle phases. PMID:27325786

  9. Mechanism and specificity of RNA cleavage by chemical ribonucleases.

    PubMed

    Beloglazova, N; Vlassov, A; Konevetc, D; Sil'nikov, V; Zenkova, M; Giege, R; Vlassov, V

    1999-01-01

    Cleaving of model RNA substrates by chemical ribonucleases constructed by conjugation of 1,4 diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane with histamine and histidine was investigated. Similarly to RNase A, the chemical RNases produce fragments with 5' hydroxy-group and 3'-cyclophosphate. The cleavage occurs as the catalytic reaction: more than 150 phosphodiester bonds in RNA can be cleaved by one molecule of RNase mimic.

  10. Cleavage Mapping the Topology of Protein Folding Intermediates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    investigate the changes that occur in two of these mutants. V66L has a greatly lowered m value while that of A90S is substantially increased (5...stability of the folded state of nuclease. The cleavage technique will be used to investigate the changes that occur in two of these mutants. V66L...Connecticut, 06520 3Instituto de Qufmica y Fisicoquimica Biolögicas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioqufmica (UBA-CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina 4

  11. How the glycosyltransferase OGT catalyzes amide bond cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Janetzko, John; Trauger, Sunia A.; Lazarus, Michael B.; Walker, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    The essential human enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), known for modulating the functions of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins through Ser/Thr glycosylation, was unexpectedly implicated in the proteolytic maturation of the cell cycle regulator host cell factor-1 (HCF-1). Here we show that HCF-1 cleavage occurs via glycosylation of a glutamate side chain followed by on-enzyme formation of an internal pyroglutamate, which undergoes spontaneous backbone hydrolysis. PMID:27618188

  12. Domainal cleavage as an Anisotropic Reaction-diffusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulchrone, Kieran; Meere, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Domainal cleavage comprises zones dominated by quartz and feldspar (QF-domains) and zones dominated by Mica (M-domains) which form at low metamorphic grades. The protolith is typically fairly homogeneous mudstone, siltstone, sandstone or limestone. Wet diffusion or pressure solution along grain boundaries is a key mechanism in the development of domanial cleavage. However, this does not explain why M-domains become sub-regularly spaced, visually evident in coarser-grained rocks, and take on an anastomising morphology. The ratio of M to QF-domains by volume can range from 1 to 0.1 and lower i.e. in extreme cases M-domains are intermittent but regularly spaced. It is suggested here that an anisotropic reaction-diffusion process model can explain these features. The imposed stress field instantaneously leads to anisotropy of diffusion by narrowing intergranular channels perpendicular to the principal stress. This leads to a preferred diffusion of chemicals parallel to the principal stress direction and lower diffusion rates in the normal direction. Combining this with the chemical reaction of pressure solution produces an anisotropic reaction-diffusion system. Both isotropic and anistropic reaction diffusion systems lead to pattern formation as discovered by Alan Turing on the 1950's as an explanation for patterns found in animal skins such as spots and stripes. Thus domanial cleavage is a striped pattern induced by diffusion anisotropy combined with a chemical reaction. Furthermore, rates of chemical reaction in intergranular fluids is likely to be many orders of magnitude greater that rates of deformation. Therefore we expect domanial cleavage to form relatively rapidly. As deformation progresses the M-domains behave less competently and may be the site of enhanced shearing. An example from Co. Cork, Ireland demonstrates shear folding in low-grade metasedimentary rocks with reverse shear along M-domains at a high angle to the maximum compressive stress.

  13. Undesired vs. Designed Enzymatic Cleavage of Linkers for Liver Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Chirapu, Srinivas R.; Bauman, Jonathan N.; Eng, Heather; Goosen, Theunis C.; Strelevitz, Timothy J.; Sinha, Subhash C.; Dow, Robert L.; Finn, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    A design for the selective release of drug molecules in the liver was tested, involving the attachment of a representative active agent by an ester linkage to various 2-substituted 5-aminovaleric acid carbamates. The anticipated pathway of carboxylesterase-1-mediated carbamate cleavage followed by lactamization and drug release was frustrated by unexpectedly high sensitivity of the ester linkage toward hydrolysis by carboxylesterase-2 and other microsomal components. PMID:24461291

  14. Bifunctional alkylating agent-mediated MGMT-DNA cross-linking and its proteolytic cleavage in 16HBE cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin; Ye, Feng; Dan, Guorong; Zhao, Yuanpeng; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Jiqing; Sai, Yan; Zou, Zhongmin

    2016-08-15

    Nitrogen mustard (NM), a bifunctional alkylating agent (BAA), contains two alkyl arms and can act as a cross-linking bridge between DNA and protein to form a DNA-protein cross-link (DPC). O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a DNA repair enzyme for alkyl adducts removal, is found to enhance cell sensitivity to BAAs and to promote damage, possibly due to its stable covalent cross-linking with DNA mediated by BAAs. To investigate MGMT-DNA cross-link (mDPC) formation and its possible dual roles in NM exposure, human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE was subjected to different concentrations of HN2, a kind of NM, and we found mDPC was induced by HN2 in a concentration-dependent manner, but the mRNA and total protein of MGMT were suppressed. As early as 1h after HN2 treatment, high mDPC was achieved and the level maintained for up to 24h. Quick total DPC (tDPC) and γ-H2AX accumulation were observed. To evaluate the effect of newly predicted protease DVC1 on DPC cleavage, we applied siRNA of MGMT and DVC1, MG132 (proteasome inhibitor), and NMS-873 (p97 inhibitor) and found that proteolysis plays a role. DVC1 was proven to be more important in the cleavage of mDPC than tDPC in a p97-dependent manner. HN2 exposure induced DVC1 upregulation, which was at least partially contributed to MGMT cleavage by proteolysis because HN2-induced mDPC level and DNA damage was closely related with DVC1 expression. Homologous recombination (HR) was also activated. Our findings demonstrated that MGMT might turn into a DNA damage promoter by forming DPC when exposed to HN2. Proteolysis, especially DVC1, plays a crucial role in mDPC repair.

  15. DNAzyme-Controlled Cleavage of Dimer and Trimer Origami Tiles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Na; Willner, Itamar

    2016-04-13

    Dimers of origami tiles are bridged by the Pb(2+)-dependent DNAzyme sequence and its substrate or by the histidine-dependent DNAzyme sequence and its substrate to yield the dimers T1-T2 and T3-T4, respectively. The dimers are cleaved to monomer tiles in the presence of Pb(2+)-ions or histidine as triggers. Similarly, trimers of origami tiles are constructed by bridging the tiles with the Pb(2+)-ion-dependent DNAzyme sequence and the histidine-dependent DNAzyme sequence and their substrates yielding the trimer T1-T5-T4. In the presence of Pb(2+)-ions and/or histidine as triggers, the programmed cleavage of trimer proceeds. Using Pb(2+) or histidine as trigger cleaves the trimer to yield T5-T4 and T1 or the dimer T1-T5 and T4, respectively. In the presence of Pb(2+)-ions and histidine as triggers, the cleavage products are the monomer tiles T1, T5, and T4. The different cleavage products are identified by labeling the tiles with 0, 1, or 2 streptavidin labels and AFM imaging.

  16. Mechanism of metabolic cleavage of a furan ring

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Sugihara, J.; Harigaya, S.

    1987-11-01

    We studied the mechanism of metabolic cleavage of a furan ring, using a new hypolipidemic agent, ethyl 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(2-furyl)oxazole-4-acetate (TA-1801), as a model compound. A TA-1801 analogue labeled with deuterium at the 5-position of its furan ring was administered orally to rats. The analysis of urinary metabolites by GC/MS revealed that the deuterium of the furan was retained in the ring-opened metabolite (M3). Metabolic cleavage of furan has been generally considered to proceed by hydroxylation of the 5-position followed by tautomerism and hydrolysis of the resulting 5-hydroxyfuran derivative. However, if the cleavage proceeded by this pathway, the deuterium of the 5-position would be eliminated during hydroxylation. Therefore, we propose that the ring was cleaved directly to form an unsaturated aldehyde, considering the mechanism of oxidation by cytochrome P-450. Although this intermediate was not detected in the biological specimens, a synthetic unsaturated aldehyde was transformed to the actual urinary metabolites M2 and M3 (major ring-opened metabolites) in the isolated rat liver.

  17. Telomere lengths in human oocytes, cleavage stage embryos and blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Turner, S.; Wong, H.P.; Rai, J.; Hartshorne, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres are repeated sequences that protect the ends of chromosomes and harbour DNA repair proteins. Telomeres shorten during each cell division in the absence of telomerase. When telomere length becomes critically short, cell senescence occurs. Telomere length therefore reflects both cellular ageing and capacity for division. We have measured telomere length in human germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes and preimplantation embryos, by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH), providing baseline data towards our hypothesis that telomere length is a marker of embryo quality. The numbers of fluorescent foci suggest that extensive clustering of telomeres occurs in mature GV stage oocytes, and in preimplantation embryos. When calculating average telomere length by assuming that each signal presents one telomere, the calculated telomere length decreased from the oocyte to the cleavage stages, and increased between the cleavage stages and the blastocyst (11.12 versus 8.43 versus 12.22 kb, respectively, P < 0.001). Other methods of calculation, based upon expected maximum and minimum numbers of telomeres, confirm that telomere length in blastocysts is significantly longer than cleavage stages. Individual blastomeres within an embryo showed substantial variation in calculated average telomere length. This study implies that telomere length changes according to the stage of preimplantation embryo development. PMID:20573647

  18. Failure of cell cleavage induces senescence in tetraploid primary cells.

    PubMed

    Panopoulos, Andreas; Pacios-Bras, Cristina; Choi, Justin; Yenjerla, Mythili; Sussman, Mark A; Fotedar, Rati; Margolis, Robert L

    2014-10-15

    Tetraploidy can arise from various mitotic or cleavage defects in mammalian cells, and inheritance of multiple centrosomes induces aneuploidy when tetraploid cells continue to cycle. Arrest of the tetraploid cell cycle is therefore potentially a critical cellular control. We report here that primary rat embryo fibroblasts (REF52) and human foreskin fibroblasts become senescent in tetraploid G1 after drug- or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced failure of cell cleavage. In contrast, T-antigen-transformed REF52 and p53+/+ HCT116 tumor cells rapidly become aneuploid by continuing to cycle after cleavage failure. Tetraploid primary cells quickly become quiescent, as determined by loss of the Ki-67 proliferation marker and of the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator/late cell cycle marker geminin. Arrest is not due to DNA damage, as the γ-H2AX DNA damage marker remains at control levels after tetraploidy induction. Arrested tetraploid cells finally become senescent, as determined by SA-β-galactosidase activity. Tetraploid arrest is dependent on p16INK4a expression, as siRNA suppression of p16INK4a bypasses tetraploid arrest, permitting primary cells to become aneuploid. We conclude that tetraploid primary cells can become senescent without DNA damage and that induction of senescence is critical to tetraploidy arrest.

  19. N-CADHERIN PRODOMAIN CLEAVAGE REGULATES SYNAPSE FORMATION IN VIVO

    PubMed Central

    Latefi, Nazlie S.; Pedraza, Liliana; Schohl, Anne; Li, Ziwei; Ruthazer, Edward S.

    2009-01-01

    Cadherins are initially synthesized bearing a prodomain that is thought to limit adhesion during early stages of biosynthesis. Functional cadherins lack this prodomain, raising the intriguing possibility that cells may utilize prodomain cleavage as a means to temporally or spatially regulate adhesion after delivery of cadherin to the cell surface. In support of this idea, immunostaining for the prodomain of zebrafish N-cadherin revealed enriched labeling at neuronal surfaces at the soma and along axonal processes. To determine whether post-translational cleavage of the prodomain affects synapse formation, we imaged Rohon-Beard cells in zebrafish embryos expressing GFP-tagged wild-type N-cadherin (NCAD-GFP) or a GFP-tagged N-cadherin mutant expressing an uncleavable prodomain (PRON-GFP) rendering it non-adhesive. NCAD-GFP accumulated at synaptic microdomains in a developmentally regulated manner, and its overexpression transiently accelerated synapse formation. PRON-GFP was much more diffusely distributed along the axon and its overexpression delayed synapse formation. Our results support the notion that N-cadherin serves to stabilize pre- to postsynaptic contacts early in synapse development and suggests that regulated cleavage of the N-cadherin prodomain may be a mechanism by which the kinetics of synaptogenesis are regulated. PMID:19365814

  20. Specific cleavage of DJ-1 under an oxidative condition.

    PubMed

    Ooe, Hiromasa; Maita, Chinatsu; Maita, Hiroshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2006-10-09

    DJ-1 was initially identified by us as a novel oncogene and has recently been found to be a causative gene for familial Parkinson's disease (PD) PARK7. DJ-1 plays roles in transcriptional regulation and in oxidative stress function, and its oxidative state at cysteine residues determines activities of DJ-1. In this study, we found that recombinant DJ-1 expressed in and purified from E. coli was specifically cleaved between glycine and proline at amino acid numbers 157 and 158, respectively, by treatment of DJ-1 with H2O2. A substitution mutant of DJ-1 from cysteine to serine at amino acid number 106, a major oxidation site of DJ-1, was found not to be cleaved under an oxidative condition, suggesting oxidation-dependent cleavage of DJ-1. Cleavage of DJ-1 was also observed in human SH-SY5Y cells that had been treated with H2O2. These results suggest that oxidative stress-induced cleavage of DJ-1 regulates functions of DJ-1.

  1. Cleavage and activation of human factor IX by serine proteases

    SciTech Connect

    Enfield, D.L.; Thompson, A.R.

    1984-10-01

    Human factor IX circulates as a single-chain glycoprotein. Upon activation in vitro, it is cleaved into disulfide-linked light and heavy chains and an activation peptide. After reduction of activated /sup 125/I-factor IX, the heavy and light chains are readily identified by gel electrophoresis. A direct, immunoradiometric assay for factor IXa was developed to assess activation of factor IX for proteases that cleaved it. The assay utilized radiolabeled antithrombin III with heparin to identify the active site and antibodies to distinguish factor IX. After cleavage of factor IX by factor XIa, factor VIIa-tissue thromboplastin complex, or the factor X-activating enzyme from Russell's viper venom, antithrombin III bound readily to factor IXa. Cleavage of /sup 125/I-factor IX by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and granulocyte elastase in the presence of calcium yielded major polypeptide fragments of the sizes of the factor XIa-generated light and heavy chains. When the immunoradiometric assay was used to assess trypsin-cleaved factor IX, the product bound antithrombin III, but not maximally. After digesting with insolubilized trypsin, clotting activity confirmed activation. In evaluating activation of factor IX, physical evidence of activation cleavages does not necessarily correlate with generation of an active site.

  2. Elasto-viscoplastic phase field modelling of anisotropic cleavage fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanthraj, P.; Svendsen, B.; Sharma, L.; Roters, F.; Raabe, D.

    2017-02-01

    A finite-strain anisotropic phase field method is developed to model the localisation of damage on a defined family of crystallographic planes, characteristic of cleavage fracture in metals. The approach is based on the introduction of an undamaged configuration, and the inelastic deformation gradient mapping this configuration to a damaged configuration is microstructurally represented by the opening of a set of cleavage planes in the three fracture modes. Crack opening is modelled as a dissipative process, and its evolution is thermodynamically derived. To couple this approach with a physically-based phase field method for brittle fracture, a scalar measure of the overall local damage is introduced, whose evolution is determined by the crack opening rates, and weakly coupled with the non-local phase field energy representing the crack opening resistance in the classical sense of Griffith. A finite-element implementation of the proposed model is employed to simulate the crack propagation path in a laminate and a polycrystalline microstructure. As shown in this work, it is able to predict the localisation of damage on the set of pre-defined cleavage planes, as well as the kinking and branching of the crack resulting from the crystallographic misorientation across the laminate boundary and the grain boundaries respectively.

  3. Invasive cleavage reactions on DNA-modified diamond surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lu, Manchun; Knickerbocker, Tanya; Cai, Wei; Yang, Wensha; Hamers, Robert J; Smith, Lloyd M

    2004-04-05

    Recently developed DNA-modified diamond surfaces exhibit excellent chemical stability to high-temperature incubations in biological buffers. The stability of these surfaces is substantially greater than that of gold or silicon surfaces, using similar surface attachment chemistry. The DNA molecules attached to the diamond surfaces are accessible to enzymes and can be modified in surface enzymatic reactions. An important application of these surfaces is for surface invasive cleavage reactions, in which target DNA strands added to the solution may result in specific cleavage of surface-bound probe oligonucleotides, permitting analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our previous work demonstrated the feasibility of performing such cleavage reactions on planar gold surfaces using PCR-amplified human genomic DNA as target. The sensitivity of detection in this earlier work was substantially limited by a lack of stability of the gold surface employed. In the present work, detection sensitivity is improved by a factor of approximately 100 (100 amole of DNA target compared with 10 fmole in the earlier work) by replacing the DNA-modified gold surface with a more stable DNA-modified diamond surface. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. N-cadherin prodomain cleavage regulates synapse formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Latefi, Nazlie S; Pedraza, Liliana; Schohl, Anne; Li, Ziwei; Ruthazer, Edward S

    2009-07-01

    Cadherins are initially synthesized bearing a prodomain that is thought to limit adhesion during early stages of biosynthesis. Functional cadherins lack this prodomain, raising the intriguing possibility that cells may utilize prodomain cleavage as a means to temporally or spatially regulate adhesion after delivery of cadherin to the cell surface. In support of this idea, immunostaining for the prodomain of zebrafish N-cadherin revealed enriched labeling at neuronal surfaces at the soma and along axonal processes. To determine whether post-translational cleavage of the prodomain affects synapse formation, we imaged Rohon-Beard cells in zebrafish embryos expressing GFP-tagged wild-type N-cadherin (NCAD-GFP) or a GFP-tagged N-cadherin mutant expressing an uncleavable prodomain (PRON-GFP) rendering it nonadhesive. NCAD-GFP accumulated at synaptic microdomains in a developmentally regulated manner, and its overexpression transiently accelerated synapse formation. PRON-GFP was much more diffusely distributed along the axon and its overexpression delayed synapse formation. Our results support the notion that N-cadherin serves to stabilize pre- to postsynaptic contacts early in synapse development and suggests that regulated cleavage of the N-cadherin prodomain may be a mechanism by which the kinetics of synaptogenesis are regulated.

  5. Demethylation and cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate in marine intertidal sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Visscher, P.T.; Kiene, R.P.; Taylor, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    Demethylation and cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) was measured in three different types of,intertidal marine sediments: a cyanobacterial mat, a diatom-covered tidal flat and a carbonate sediment. Consumption rates of added DMSP were highest in cyanobacterial mat slurries (59 ?? mol DMSP l-1 slurry h-1) and lower in slurries from a diatom mat and a carbonate tidal sediment (24 and 9 ??mol DMSP l-1 h-1, respectively). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and 3-mercaptopropionate (MPA) were produced simultaneously during DMSP consumption, indicating that cleavage and demethylation occurred at the same time. Viable counts of DMSP-utilizing bacteria revealed a population of 2 x 107 cells cm-3 sediment (90% of these cleaved DMSP to DMS, 10% demethylated DMSP to MPA) in the cyanobacterial mat, 7 x 105 cells cm-3 in the diatom mat (23% cleavers, 77% demethylators), and 9 x 104 cells cm-3 (20% cleavers and 80% demethylators) in the carbonate sediment. In slurries of the diatom mat, the rate of MPA production from added 3-methiolpropionate (MMPA) was 50% of the rate of MPA formation from DMSP. The presence of a large population of demethylating bacteria and the production of MPA from DMSP suggest that the demethylation pathway, in addition to cleavage, contributes significantly to DMSP consumption in coastal sediments.

  6. Extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin promotes epithelial cell extrusion.

    PubMed

    Grieve, Adam G; Rabouille, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    Epithelial cell extrusion and subsequent apoptosis is a key mechanism to prevent the accumulation of excess cells. By contrast, when driven by oncogene expression, apical cell extrusion is followed by proliferation and represents an initial step of tumorigenesis. E-cadherin (E-cad), the main component of adherens junctions, has been shown to be essential for epithelial cell extrusion, but its mechanistic contribution remains unclear. Here, we provide clear evidence that cell extrusion can be driven by the cleavage of E-cad, both in a wild-type and an oncogenic environment. We first show that CDC42 activation in a single epithelial cell results in its efficient matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-sensitive extrusion through MEK signalling activation and this is supported by E-cad cleavage. Second, using an engineered cleavable form of E-cad, we demonstrate that, by itself, truncation of extracellular E-cad at the plasma membrane promotes apical extrusion. We propose that extracellular cleavage of E-cad generates a rapid change in cell-cell adhesion that is sufficient to drive apical cell extrusion. Whereas in normal epithelia, extrusion is followed by apoptosis, when combined with active oncogenic signalling, it is coupled to cell proliferation.

  7. Precocious (pre-anaphase) cleavage furrows in Mesostoma spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Forer, Arthur; Pickett-Heaps, Jeremy

    2010-08-01

    It generally is assumed that cleavage furrows start ingression at anaphase, but this is not always true. Cleavage furrows are initiated during prometaphase in spermatocytes of the flatworm Mesostoma, becoming detectable soon after the spindles achieve bipolarity. The furrows deepen during prometaphase, but ingression soon arrests. After anaphase the pre-existing furrow recommences its ingression and rapidly cleaves the cell. Such "precocious" furrowing also commonly occurs in diatoms and other algae. The position of the "precocious" cleavage furrow changes when there are changes in the distribution of chromosomes. Each of the 4 unipolarly-oriented univalent chromosomes moves to a pole at the start of prometaphase but later in prometaphase may move to the opposite pole. The furrow position adjusts during prometaphase according to the numbers of univalents at the two poles: when there are two univalent chromosomes at each pole the furrow is symmetrical at the spindle equator, but when there are unequal numbers at the poles the furrow shifts 2-3 microm toward the half-spindle with fewer univalents. Nocodazole causes spindle microtubules to disappear. After addition of nocodazole, bivalents become detached from one pole and move toward the other, which causes the furrow to shift 2-3 microm toward the pole with fewer chromosomes. Furrow positioning thus is sensitive to the positioning of chromosomes in the spindle and furrow positions change in the absence of spindle microtubules.

  8. DNA photoreacts by nucleobase ring cleavage to form labile isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Buschhaus, Laura; Rolf, Josefin; Kleinermanns, Karl

    2013-11-14

    Differential infrared absorption spectroscopy was used to study the formation of isocyanates and further photo-products in the oligonucleotides dG10, dC10 and dT10 and in their mononucleosides by ultraviolet light at 266 nm. We find that α-cleavage takes place in oligonucleotides and mononucleosides both in films and in solution. The very intense and spectrally isolated isocyanate (N=C=O) asymmetric stretch vibration at 2277 cm(-1) is used as a spectroscopic marker for detection of the photo-product. The band disappears upon reaction with small amounts of water vapour as expected for isocyanates. Quantum yields for isocyanate formation by nucleobase ring cleavage in the α-position to the carbonyl group are ∼5 × 10(-5) in the mononucleosides and up to 5 × 10(-4) in the oligonucleotides. In the mixed oligonucleotides dG10/dC10 and dA10/dT10 the quantum yield of α-cleavage drops by a factor of 10 compared to the single oligonucleotides. Implications for DNA repair and photo-induced DNA-protein cross-linking via isocyanate reaction with NH2 groups of amino acids are discussed.

  9. Subcellular RNA profiling links splicing and nuclear DICER1 to alternative cleavage and polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Neve, Jonathan; Burger, Kaspar; Li, Wencheng; Hoque, Mainul; Patel, Radhika; Tian, Bin; Gullerova, Monika; Furger, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression across eukaryotes. Although APA is extensively studied, its regulation within cellular compartments and its physiological impact remains largely enigmatic. Here, we used a rigorous subcellular fractionation approach to compare APA profiles of cytoplasmic and nuclear RNA fractions from human cell lines. This approach allowed us to extract APA isoforms that are subjected to differential regulation and provided us with a platform to interrogate the molecular regulatory pathways that shape APA profiles in different subcellular locations. Here, we show that APA isoforms with shorter 3′ UTRs tend to be overrepresented in the cytoplasm and appear to be cell-type–specific events. Nuclear retention of longer APA isoforms occurs and is partly a result of incomplete splicing contributing to the observed cytoplasmic bias of transcripts with shorter 3′ UTRs. We demonstrate that the endoribonuclease III, DICER1, contributes to the establishment of subcellular APA profiles not only by expected cytoplasmic miRNA-mediated destabilization of APA mRNA isoforms, but also by affecting polyadenylation site choice. PMID:26546131

  10. Keratinocytes produce IL-6 in response to desmoglein 1 cleavage by Staphylococcus aureus exfoliative toxin A.

    PubMed

    Rolle, Cleo E; Chen, Juan; Pastar, Irena; Cardenas, Tatiana C P; Perez, Roberto; Hower, Suzanne; Ferracci, Franco; Snyder, Richard; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Plano, Lisa R W

    2013-12-01

    Many skin infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial pathogen that produces virulence factors associated with these conditions such as exfoliative toxins A and B (ETA, ETB) and the leukotoxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Herein, we examine the potential of skin-infecting S. aureus to produce virulence factors and their impact on the local immune response. Toxin gene profiles were generated from 188 S. aureus isolated as single infecting organisms from skin lesions and demonstrated a higher potential to express ETA, ETB, and PVL than community isolates (p < 0.001). Within the study isolate group, the prevalence of genes encoding PVL was higher among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; n = 49), while genes encoding ETs were more prevalent in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA; n = 139). When lesion-associated white blood cell (WBC) counts were dichotomized into high- or low-WBC-count-associated bacteria, the gene for ETA was found to be associated with a low WBC count among MSSA (p = 0.001). The ETA-induced mouse model of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome was used to investigate the link between ETA and cytokine production. Elevated IL-6 levels in the serum and increased expression of IL-6 mRNA in the skin were detected in response to ETA exposure. These findings were recapitulated in vitro using primary human keratinocytes. Thus, S. aureus may influence the local immune response via ETA cleavage of desmoglein 1 and the induction of cutaneous IL-6 expression.

  11. Enteric virulence associated protein VapC inhibits translation by cleavage of initiator tRNA

    PubMed Central

    Winther, Kristoffer S.; Gerdes, Kenn

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic PIN (PilT N-terminal) domain proteins are ribonucleases involved in quality control, metabolism and maturation of mRNA and rRNA. The majority of prokaryotic PIN-domain proteins are encoded by the abundant vapBC toxin—antitoxin loci and inhibit translation by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that enteric VapCs are site-specific endonucleases that cleave tRNAfMet in the anticodon stem-loop between nucleotides +38 and +39 in vivo and in vitro. Consistently, VapC inhibited translation in vivo and in vitro. Translation-reactions could be reactivated by the addition of VapB and extra charged tRNAfMet. Similarly, ectopic production of tRNAfMet counteracted VapC in vivo. Thus, tRNAfMet is the only cellular target of VapC. Depletion of tRNAfMet by vapC induction was bacteriostatic and stimulated ectopic translation initiation at elongator codons. Moreover, addition of chloramphenicol to cells carrying vapBC induced VapC activity. Thus, by cleavage of tRNAfMet, VapC simultaneously may regulate global cellular translation and reprogram translation initiation. PMID:21502523

  12. Sea urchin akt activity is Runx-dependent and required for post-cleavage stage cell division.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Anthony J; Coluccio, Alison; Jensen, Sarah; Rydlizky, Katarina; Coffman, James A

    2013-05-15

    In animal development following the initial cleavage stage of embryogenesis, the cell cycle becomes dependent on intercellular signaling and controlled by the genomically encoded ontogenetic program. Runx transcription factors are critical regulators of metazoan developmental signaling, and we have shown that the sea urchin Runx gene runt-1, which is globally expressed during early embryogenesis, functions in support of blastula stage cell proliferation and expression of the mitogenic genes pkc1, cyclinD, and several wnts. To obtain a more comprehensive list of early runt-1 regulatory targets, we screened a Strongylocentrotus purpuratus microarray to identify genes mis-expressed in mid-blastula stage runt-1 morphants. This analysis showed that loss of Runx function perturbs the expression of multiple genes involved in cell division, including the pro-growth and survival kinase Akt (PKB), which is significantly underexpressed in runt-1 morphants. Further genomic analysis revealed that Akt is encoded by two genes in the S. purpuratus genome, akt-1 and akt-2, both of which contain numerous canonical Runx target sequences. The transcripts of both genes accumulate several fold during blastula stage, contingent on runt-1 expression. Inhibiting Akt expression or activity causes blastula stage cell cycle arrest, whereas overexpression of akt-1 mRNA rescues cell proliferation in runt-1 morphants. These results indicate that post-cleavage stage cell division requires Runx-dependent expression of akt.

  13. The origin, transport and cleavage of the molt-associated cuticular protein CECP22 from Calpodes ethlius (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Marcu, O; Locke, M

    1999-09-01

    CECP22 (Calpodes ethlius Cuticular Protein 22 kDa) is a molt associated protein found in the cuticle of C. ethlius larvae and pupae. The mRNA for the CECP22 cuticular protein is expressed in the epidermis and fat body during the intermolt. The protein itself accumulates in intermolt hemolymph, but at molting, when the cuticle is being digested, it is also found in the cuticle of surface integument, tracheae, foregut and hindgut and in the molting fluid. CECP22 exists in two forms. The large form (19.17 kDa, pI 6.2) becomes smaller (16.1 kDa, pI 7.4) by cleavage at the proteolytic cleavage site (position 170) with amidation of the C-terminal. The small, more basic peptide, appears only at molting, first in the cuticle and then in the molting fluid. It is presumed to be the active form of an amidase involved in the earliest stages of cuticle degradation. The inactive form accumulates in the hemolymph during the long intermolt and probably represents an abundant source of precursor enzyme that can be provided to all cuticle containing organs for a precise initiation of cuticle degradation.

  14. Mammalian subtilisin/kexin isozyme SKI-1: A widely expressed proprotein convertase with a unique cleavage specificity and cellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Seidah, Nabil G.; Mowla, Seyed J.; Hamelin, Josée; Mamarbachi, Aida M.; Benjannet, Suzanne; Touré, Barry B.; Basak, Ajoy; Munzer, Jon Scott; Marcinkiewicz, Jadwiga; Zhong, Mei; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Lazure, Claude; Murphy, Richard A.; Chrétien, Michel; Marcinkiewicz, Mieczyslaw

    1999-01-01

    Using reverse transcriptase–PCR and degenerate oligonucleotides derived from the active-site residues of subtilisin/kexin-like serine proteinases, we have identified a highly conserved and phylogenetically ancestral human, rat, and mouse type I membrane-bound proteinase called subtilisin/kexin-isozyme-1 (SKI-1). Computer databank searches reveal that human SKI-1 was cloned previously but with no identified function. In situ hybridization demonstrates that SKI-1 mRNA is present in most tissues and cells. Cleavage specificity studies show that SKI-1 generates a 28-kDa product from the 32-kDa brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor, cleaving at an RGLT↓SL bond. In the endoplasmic reticulum of either LoVo or HK293 cells, proSKI-1 is processed into two membrane-bound forms of SKI-1 (120 and 106 kDa) differing by the nature of their N-glycosylation. Late along the secretory pathway some of the membrane-bound enzyme is shed into the medium as a 98-kDa form. Immunocytochemical analysis of stably transfected HK293 cells shows that SKI-1 is present in the Golgi apparatus and within small punctate structures reminiscent of endosomes. In vitro studies suggest that SKI-1 is a Ca2+-dependent serine proteinase exhibiting a wide pH optimum for cleavage of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor. PMID:9990022

  15. Signatures of Host mRNA 5′ Terminus for Efficient Hantavirus Cap Snatching

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Erdong

    2012-01-01

    Hantaviruses, similarly to other negative-strand segmented RNA viruses, initiate the synthesis of translation-competent capped mRNAs by a unique cap-snatching mechanism. Hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (N) binds to host mRNA caps and requires four nucleotides adjacent to the 5′ cap for high-affinity binding. N protects the 5′ caps of cellular transcripts from degradation by the cellular decapping machinery. The rescued 5′ capped mRNA fragments are stored in cellular P bodies by N, which are later efficiently used as primers by the hantaviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for transcription initiation. We showed that N also protects the host mRNA caps in P-body-deficient cells. However, the rescued caps were not effectively used by the hantavirus RdRp during transcription initiation, suggesting that caps stored in cellular P bodies by N are preferred for cap snatching. We examined the characteristics of the 5′ terminus of a capped test mRNA to delineate the minimum requirements for a capped transcript to serve as an efficient cap donor during hantavirus cap snatching. We showed that hantavirus RdRp preferentially snatches caps from the nonsense mRNAs compared to mRNAs engaged in translation. Hantavirus RdRp preferentially cleaves the cap donor mRNA at a G residue located 14 nucleotides downstream of the 5′ cap. The sequence complementarity between the 3′ terminus of viral genomic RNA and the nucleotides located in the vicinity of the cleavage site of the cap donor mRNA favors cap snatching. Our results show that hantavirus RdRp snatches caps from viral mRNAs. However, the negligible cap-donating efficiency of wild-type mRNAs in comparison to nonsense mRNAs suggests that viral mRNAs will not be efficiently used for cap snatching during viral infection due to their continuous engagement in protein synthesis. Our results suggest that efficiency of an mRNA to donate caps for viral mRNA synthesis is primarily regulated at the translational level. PMID

  16. Deformation-dependent enzyme mechanokinetic cleavage of type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Karla E-K; Bourne, Jonathan W; Torzilli, Peter A

    2009-05-01

    Collagen is a key structural protein in the extracellular matrix of many tissues. It provides biological tissues with tensile mechanical strength and is enzymatically cleaved by a class of matrix metalloproteinases known as collagenases. Collagen enzymatic kinetics has been well characterized in solubilized, gel, and reconstituted forms. However, limited information exists on enzyme degradation of structurally intact collagen fibers and, more importantly, on the effect of mechanical deformation on collagen cleavage. We studied the degradation of native rat tail tendon fibers by collagenase after the fibers were mechanically elongated to strains of epsilon=1-10%. After the fibers were elongated and the stress was allowed to relax, the fiber was immersed in Clostridium histolyticum collagenase and the decrease in stress (sigma) was monitored as a means of calculating the rate of enzyme cleavage of the fiber. An enzyme mechanokinetic (EMK) relaxation function T(E)(epsilon) in s(-1) was calculated from the linear stress-time response during fiber cleavage, where T(E)(epsilon) corresponds to the zero order Michaelis-Menten enzyme-substrate kinetic response. The EMK relaxation function T(E)(epsilon) was found to decrease with applied strain at a rate of approximately 9% per percent strain, with complete inhibition of collagen cleavage predicted to occur at a strain of approximately 11%. However, comparison of the EMK response (T(E) versus epsilon) to collagen's stress-strain response (sigma versus epsilon) suggested the possibility of three different EMK responses: (1) constant T(E)(epsilon) within the toe region (epsilon<3%), (2) a rapid decrease ( approximately 50%) in the transition of the toe-to-heel region (epsilon congruent with3%) followed by (3) a constant value throughout the heel (epsilon=3-5%) and linear (epsilon=5-10%) regions. This observation suggests that the mechanism for the strain-dependent inhibition of enzyme cleavage of the collagen triple helix may

  17. Glycine cleavage system: reaction mechanism, physiological significance, and hyperglycinemia

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Goro; Motokawa, Yutaro; Yoshida, Tadashi; Hiraga, Koichi

    2008-01-01

    The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the following reversible reaction: Glycine+H4folate+NAD+⇄5,10-methylene-H4folate+CO2+NH3+NADH+H+The glycine cleavage system is widely distributed in animals, plants and bacteria and consists of three intrinsic and one common components: those are i) P-protein, a pyridoxal phosphate-containing protein, ii) T-protein, a protein required for the tetrahydrofolate-dependent reaction, iii) H-protein, a protein that carries the aminomethyl intermediate and then hydrogen through the prosthetic lipoyl moiety, and iv) L-protein, a common lipoamide dehydrogenase. In animals and plants, the proteins form an enzyme complex loosely associating with the mitochondrial inner membrane. In the enzymatic reaction, H-protein converts P-protein, which is by itself a potential α–amino acid decarboxylase, to an active enzyme, and also forms a complex with T-protein. In both glycine cleavage and synthesis, aminomethyl moiety bound to lipoic acid of H-protein represents the intermediate that is degraded to or can be formed from N5,N10-methylene-H4folate and ammonia by the action of T-protein. N5,N10-Methylene-H4folate is used for the biosynthesis of various cellular substances such as purines, thymidylate and methionine that is the major methyl group donor through S-adenosyl-methionine. This accounts for the physiological importance of the glycine cleavage system as the most prominent pathway in serine and glycine catabolism in various vertebrates including humans. Nonketotic hyperglycinemia, a congenital metabolic disorder in human infants, results from defective glycine cleavage activity. The majority of patients with nonketotic hyperglycinemia had lesions in the P-protein gene, whereas some had mutant T-protein genes. The only patient classified into the degenerative type of nonketotic hyperglycinemia had an H-protein devoid of the prosthetic lipoyl residue. The crystallography of normal T-protein as well as biochemical characterization of

  18. Effect of the increased stability of the penicillin amidase mRNA on the protein expression levels.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Sandra C; Schmidt, Dorothea; Kasche, Volker; Arraiano, Cecília M; Ignatova, Zoya

    2005-09-12

    Several factors at transcriptional, post-transcriptional or post-translational level determine the fate of a target protein and can severely restrict its yield. Here, we focus on the post-transcriptional regulation of the biosynthesis of the periplasmic protein, penicillin amidase (PA). The PA mRNA stability was determined under depleted RNase conditions in strains carrying single or multiple RNase deletions. Single deletion of the endonuclease RNase E yielded, as the highest, a fourfold stabilization of the PA mRNA. This effect, however, was reduced twice at post-translational level. The RNase II, generating secondary exonucleolytic cleavages in the mRNA, although not significantly influencing the PA mRNA decay, led also to an increase of the amount of mature PA. The non-proportional correlation between increased mRNA longevity and amount of active enzyme propose that the rational strategies for yield improvement must be based on a simultaneous tuning of more than one yield restricting factor.

  19. Nuclease footprint analyses of the interactions between RNase P ribozyme and a model mRNA substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Trang, P; Hsu, A W; Liu, F

    1999-01-01

    RNase P ribozyme cleaves an RNA helix substrate which resembles the acceptor stem and T-stem structures of its natural tRNA substrate. By linking the ribozyme covalently to a sequence (guide sequence) complementary to a target RNA, the catalytic RNA can be converted into a sequence-specific ribozyme, M1GS RNA. We have previously shown that M1GS RNA can efficiently cleave the mRNA sequence encoding thymidine kinase (TK) of herpes simplex virus 1. In this study, a footprint procedure using different nucleases was carried out to map the regions of a M1GS ribozyme that potentially interact with the TK mRNA substrate. The ribozyme regions that are protected from nuclease degradation in the presence of the TK mRNA substrate include those that interact with the acceptor stem and T-stem, the 3' terminal CCA sequence and the cleavage site of a tRNA substrate. However, some of the protected regions (e.g. P13 and P14) are unique and not among those protected in the presence of a tRNA substrate. Identification of the regions that interact with a mRNA substrate will allow us to study how M1GS RNA recognizes a mRNA substrate and facilitate the development of mRNA-cleaving ribozymes for gene-targeting applications. PMID:10556315

  20. Applications of Phosphate Modification and Labeling to Study (m)RNA Caps.

    PubMed

    Warminski, Marcin; Sikorski, Pawel J; Kowalska, Joanna; Jemielity, Jacek

    2017-02-01

    The cap is a natural modification present at the 5' ends of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA), which because of its unique structural features, mediates essential biological functions during the process of gene expression. The core structural feature of the mRNA cap is an N7-methylguanosine moiety linked by a 5'-5' triphosphate chain to the first transcribed nucleotide. Interestingly, other RNA 5' end modifications structurally and functionally resembling the m(7)G cap have been discovered in different RNA types and in different organisms. All these structures contain the 'inverted' 5'-5' oligophosphate bridge, which is necessary for interaction with specific proteins and also serves as a cleavage site for phosphohydrolases regulating RNA turnover. Therefore, cap analogs containing oligophosphate chain modifications or carrying spectroscopic labels attached to phosphate moieties serve as attractive molecular tools for studies on RNA metabolism and modification of natural RNA properties. Here, we review chemical, enzymatic, and chemoenzymatic approaches that enable preparation of modified cap structures and RNAs carrying such structures, with emphasis on phosphate-modified mRNA cap analogs and their potential applications.

  1. γ-Secretase Modulators and APH1 Isoforms Modulate γ-Secretase Cleavage but Not Position of ε-Cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP).

    PubMed

    Lessard, Christian B; Cottrell, Barbara A; Maruyama, Hiroko; Suresh, Suraj; Golde, Todd E; Koo, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    The relative increase in Aβ42 peptides from familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) linked APP and PSEN mutations can be related to changes in both ε-cleavage site utilization and subsequent step-wise cleavage. Cleavage at the ε-site releases the amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain (AICD), and perturbations in the position of ε-cleavage are closely associated with changes in the profile of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) species that are produced and secreted. The mechanisms by which γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) or FAD mutations affect the various γ-secretase cleavages to alter the generation of Aβ peptides have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies suggested that GSMs do not modulate ε-cleavage of APP, but the data were derived principally from recombinant truncated epitope tagged APP substrate. Here, using full length APP from transfected cells, we investigated whether GSMs modify the ε-cleavage of APP under more native conditions. Our results confirmed the previous findings that ε-cleavage is insensitive to GSMs. In addition, fenofibrate, an inverse GSM (iGSM), did not alter the position or kinetics of ε-cleavage position in vitro. APH1A and APH1B, a subunit of the γ-secretase complex, also modulated Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio without any alterations in ε-cleavage, a result in contrast to what has been observed with PS1 and APP FAD mutations. Consequently, GSMs and APH1 appear to modulate γ-secretase activity and Aβ42 generation by altering processivity but not ε-cleavage site utilization.

  2. Assignment of the absolute configuration of P-chiral 5' mRNA cap analogues containing phosphorothioate moiety.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Joanna; Lewdorowicz, Magdalena; Zuberek, Joanna; Bojarska, Elzbieta; Stepinski, Janusz; Stolarski, Ryszard; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jemielity, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic cleavage of the P-chiral diastereoisomers of the 5' mRNA cap analogue bearing phosphorothioate moiety in alfa position of 5',5'-triphosphate bridge (m(7)Gppp(S)G D1 and D2) was performed by human Decapping Scavenger (DcpS) enzyme. Analysis of the degradation products allowed to estimate the absolute configuration at the asymmetric phosphorus atoms in examined compounds via correlation with the R(P) and S(P) diastereoisomers of guanosine 5'-O-(1-thiodiphosphate) (GDPalphaS).

  3. Interactions between the HIV-1 Unspliced mRNA and Host mRNA Decay Machineries

    PubMed Central

    Toro-Ascuy, Daniela; Rojas-Araya, Bárbara; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) unspliced transcript is used both as mRNA for the synthesis of structural proteins and as the packaged genome. Given the presence of retained introns and instability AU-rich sequences, this viral transcript is normally retained and degraded in the nucleus of host cells unless the viral protein REV is present. As such, the stability of the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA must be particularly controlled in the nucleus and the cytoplasm in order to ensure proper levels of this viral mRNA for translation and viral particle formation. During its journey, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA assembles into highly specific messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) containing many different host proteins, amongst which are well-known regulators of cytoplasmic mRNA decay pathways such as up-frameshift suppressor 1 homolog (UPF1), Staufen double-stranded RNA binding protein 1/2 (STAU1/2), or components of miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) and processing bodies (PBs). More recently, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA was shown to contain N6-methyladenosine (m6A), allowing the recruitment of YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 (YTHDF2), an m6A reader host protein involved in mRNA decay. Interestingly, these host proteins involved in mRNA decay were shown to play positive roles in viral gene expression and viral particle assembly, suggesting that HIV-1 interacts with mRNA decay components to successfully accomplish viral replication. This review summarizes the state of the art in terms of the interactions between HIV-1 unspliced mRNA and components of different host mRNA decay machineries. PMID:27886048

  4. Interactions between the HIV-1 Unspliced mRNA and Host mRNA Decay Machineries.

    PubMed

    Toro-Ascuy, Daniela; Rojas-Araya, Bárbara; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo

    2016-11-23

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) unspliced transcript is used both as mRNA for the synthesis of structural proteins and as the packaged genome. Given the presence of retained introns and instability AU-rich sequences, this viral transcript is normally retained and degraded in the nucleus of host cells unless the viral protein REV is present. As such, the stability of the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA must be particularly controlled in the nucleus and the cytoplasm in order to ensure proper levels of this viral mRNA for translation and viral particle formation. During its journey, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA assembles into highly specific messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) containing many different host proteins, amongst which are well-known regulators of cytoplasmic mRNA decay pathways such as up-frameshift suppressor 1 homolog (UPF1), Staufen double-stranded RNA binding protein 1/2 (STAU1/2), or components of miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) and processing bodies (PBs). More recently, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA was shown to contain N⁶-methyladenosine (m⁶A), allowing the recruitment of YTH N⁶-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 (YTHDF2), an m⁶A reader host protein involved in mRNA decay. Interestingly, these host proteins involved in mRNA decay were shown to play positive roles in viral gene expression and viral particle assembly, suggesting that HIV-1 interacts with mRNA decay components to successfully accomplish viral replication. This review summarizes the state of the art in terms of the interactions between HIV-1 unspliced mRNA and components of different host mRNA decay machineries.

  5. Rat heart: A site of oxytocin production and action

    PubMed Central

    Jankowski, Marek; Hajjar, Fadi; Kawas, Sausan Al; Mukaddam-Daher, Suhayla; Hoffman, Gloria; McCann, Samuel M.; Gutkowska, Jolanta

    1998-01-01

    We report here that the rat heart is a site of oxytocin (OT) synthesis and release. Oxytocin was detected in all four chambers of the heart. The highest OT concentration was in the right atrium (2128 ± 114 pg/mg protein), which was 19-fold higher than in rat uterus but 3.3-fold lower than in the hypothalamus. OT concentrations were significantly greater in the right and left atria than in the corresponding ventricles. Furthermore, OT was released into the effluent of isolated, perfused rat heart (34.5 ± 4.7 pg/min) and into the medium of cultured atrial myocytes. Reverse-phase HPLC purification of the heart extracts and heart perfusates revealed a main peak identical with the retention time of synthetic OT. Southern blots of reverse transcription–PCR products from rat heart revealed gene expression of specific OT mRNA. OT immunostaining likewise was found in atrial myocytes and fibroblasts, and the intensity of positive stains from OT receptors paralleled the atrial natriuretic peptide stores. Our findings suggest that heart OT is structurally identical, and therefore derived from, the same gene as the OT that is primarily found in the hypothalamus. Thus, the heart synthesizes and processes a biologically active form of OT. The presence of OT and OT receptor in all of the heart’s chambers suggests an autocrine and/or paracrine role for the peptide. Our finding of abundant OT receptor in atrial myocytes supports our hypothesis that OT, directly and/or via atrial natriuretic peptide release, can regulate the force of cardiac contraction. PMID:9826739

  6. Rat heart: a site of oxytocin production and action.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, M; Hajjar, F; Kawas, S A; Mukaddam-Daher, S; Hoffman, G; McCann, S M; Gutkowska, J

    1998-11-24

    We report here that the rat heart is a site of oxytocin (OT) synthesis and release. Oxytocin was detected in all four chambers of the heart. The highest OT concentration was in the right atrium (2128 +/- 114 pg/mg protein), which was 19-fold higher than in rat uterus but 3.3-fold lower than in the hypothalamus. OT concentrations were significantly greater in the right and left atria than in the corresponding ventricles. Furthermore, OT was released into the effluent of isolated, perfused rat heart (34.5 +/- 4.7 pg/min) and into the medium of cultured atrial myocytes. Reverse-phase HPLC purification of the heart extracts and heart perfusates revealed a main peak identical with the retention time of synthetic OT. Southern blots of reverse transcription-PCR products from rat heart revealed gene expression of specific OT mRNA. OT immunostaining likewise was found in atrial myocytes and fibroblasts, and the intensity of positive stains from OT receptors paralleled the atrial natriuretic peptide stores. Our findings suggest that heart OT is structurally identical, and therefore derived from, the same gene as the OT that is primarily found in the hypothalamus. Thus, the heart synthesizes and processes a biologically active form of OT. The presence of OT and OT receptor in all of the heart's chambers suggests an autocrine and/or paracrine role for the peptide. Our finding of abundant OT receptor in atrial myocytes supports our hypothesis that OT, directly and/or via atrial natriuretic peptide release, can regulate the force of cardiac contraction.

  7. Cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) in the hen ovary. I. Regulation of P450scc messenger RNA levels and steroidogenesis in theca cells of developing follicles.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, K I; Tilly, J L; Johnson, A L

    1991-12-01

    We have recently shown that granulosa cells from hen ovarian follicles, collected at a stage of development 2-3 wk prior to ovulation (e.g. 6-8 mm in diameter) are steroidogenically inactive. Therefore, the hypothesis tested in the present studies was that theca cells from follicles at this stage of development must contain sufficient levels of functional cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme to produce the progestin precursor required for the synthesis of androgens and estrogens. Northern blot analysis of total theca RNA collected from 6-8-mm follicles indicated the presence of a single P450scc mRNA transcript of approximately 2 kb whose expression was increased following an 8-h preincubation with 200 ng/ml ovine LH (oLH) or 10 microM forskolin. Western blot analysis of crude mitochondrial protein revealed a band of immunoreactive P450scc protein of approximately 53 kDa that was determined to be capable of converting 25-hydroxycholesterol to pregnenolone in a cell-free system. In the second set of studies, conducted to examine the cellular regulation of steroidogenesis in isolated theca cells of 6-8-mm follicles, theca cells were found to produce measurable basal levels of cAMP, progesterone, androstenedione, and estradiol following a 3-h incubation of 5 x 10(5) cells. Furthermore, significant dose-dependent increases in steroidogenesis were observed in response to oLH (0.2-200 ng/ml), chicken FSH (cFSH; 20-200 ng/ml), cholera toxin (0.002-20 ng/ml), and 8-bromo-cAMP (0.1-3.33 mM). Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 10-167 nM) also stimulated dose-dependent increases in basal progesterone, androstenedione, and estradiol production. In addition, while PMA had no effect on oLH (200 ng/ml)-promoted cAMP accumulation, or on oLH (20 ng/ml)- or 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM)-stimulated progesterone production, it attenuated oLH-induced and 8-bromo-cAMP-induced androstenedione and estradiol accumulation. We conclude that theca cells from 6-8-mm follicles possess mRNA

  8. Binary function of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Kloc, Malgorzata; Foreman, Victor; Reddy, Sriyutha A

    2011-11-01

    Since the discovery of messenger RNA (mRNA) over half a century ago, the assumption has always been that the only function of mRNA is to make a protein. However, recent studies of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms unexpectedly show that some mRNAs may be functionally binary and have additional structural functions that are unrelated to their translation product. These findings imply that some of the phenotypic features of cells and organisms can also be binary, that is, they depend both on the function of a protein and the independent structural function of its mRNA. In this review, we will discuss this concept within the framework of multifunctional RNA molecules and the RNA World Hypothesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization.

  10. Carotenoid-cleavage activities of crude enzymes from Pandanous amryllifolius.

    PubMed

    Ningrum, Andriati; Schreiner, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Carotenoid degradation products, known as norisoprenoids, are aroma-impact compounds in several plants. Pandan wangi is a common name of the shrub Pandanus amaryllifolius. The genus name 'Pandanus' is derived from the Indonesian name of the tree, pandan. In Indonesia, the leaves from the plant are used for several purposes, e.g., as natural colorants and flavor, and as traditional treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the cleavage of β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal by carotenoid-cleavage enzymes isolated from pandan leaves, to investigate dependencies of the enzymatic activities on temperature and pH, to determine the enzymatic reaction products by using Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometry (HS-SPME GC/MS), and to investigate the influence of heat treatment and addition of crude enzyme on formation of norisoprenoids. Crude enzymes from pandan leaves showed higher activity against β-carotene than β-apo-8'-carotenal. The optimum temperature of crude enzymes was 70°, while the optimum pH value was 6. We identified β-ionone as the major volatile reaction product from the incubations of two different carotenoid substrates, β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal. Several treatments, e.g., heat treatment and addition of crude enzymes in pandan leaves contributed to the norisoprenoid content. Our findings revealed that the crude enzymes from pandan leaves with carotenoid-cleavage activity might provide a potential application, especially for biocatalysis, in natural-flavor industry.

  11. Embryo apoptosis identification: Oocyte grade or cleavage stage?

    PubMed

    Bakri, Noraina Mohd; Ibrahim, Siti Fatimah; Osman, Nurul Atikah; Hasan, Nurhaslina; Jaffar, Farah Hanan Fathihah; Rahman, Zulaiha Abdul; Osman, Khairul

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a programed cell death that is vital for tissue homeostasis. However, embryo apoptosis had been known to be related to embryo fragmentation which should be avoided in in vitro fertilization (IVF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of embryo apoptosis with the grade of immature oocytes and cleavage stage of in vitro produced (IVP) cattle embryos. This study consisted of 345 oocytes collected through ovary slicing. Immature oocytes were graded as A, B and C. This grading was based on cumulus cell thickness and compactness. All oocytes then underwent an in vitro maturation (IVM) procedure. An IVF was done 24 h after IVM culture. Prior to staining, stage of cleaved embryos was determined and classified as either 2, 4, 8 or >8-cell embryo stage. Apoptosis status of cleaved IVP embryos was determined by using annexin V-FITC staining technique at 48 and 72 h post insemination (hpi). Apoptosis status for each embryo was classified as either early or late. The result showed that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status among grade A, B and C embryos. All grades of oocytes showed embryo apoptosis where 1.5% late apoptosis for grade A, 4.5% and 10.4% of early and late apoptosis for grade B and grade C. Early apoptosis was not seen in grade A embryo. We also noted no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status between 2, 4, 8 and >8-cell embryo stage. Early apoptosis was also not seen in >8-cell stage. Even though there were no differences in apoptosis expression between the three classes, the cleavage rate of grade A oocytes was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than grade B and grade C. In conclusion, the apoptosis expression in the embryo can occur regardless of the oocyte quality and the cleavage stage of the embryo produced.

  12. Programmable RNA recognition and cleavage by CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Mitchell R; Oakes, Benjamin L; Sternberg, Samuel H; East-Seletsky, Alexandra; Kaplan, Matias; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-12-11

    The CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 is an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease that uses RNA-DNA complementarity to identify target sites for sequence-specific double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cleavage. In its native context, Cas9 acts on DNA substrates exclusively because both binding and catalysis require recognition of a short DNA sequence, known as the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), next to and on the strand opposite the twenty-nucleotide target site in dsDNA. Cas9 has proven to be a versatile tool for genome engineering and gene regulation in a large range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, and in whole organisms, but it has been thought to be incapable of targeting RNA. Here we show that Cas9 binds with high affinity to single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) targets matching the Cas9-associated guide RNA sequence when the PAM is presented in trans as a separate DNA oligonucleotide. Furthermore, PAM-presenting oligonucleotides (PAMmers) stimulate site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage of ssRNA targets, similar to PAM-mediated stimulation of Cas9-catalysed DNA cleavage. Using specially designed PAMmers, Cas9 can be specifically directed to bind or cut RNA targets while avoiding corresponding DNA sequences, and we demonstrate that this strategy enables the isolation of a specific endogenous messenger RNA from cells. These results reveal a fundamental connection between PAM binding and substrate selection by Cas9, and highlight the utility of Cas9 for programmable transcript recognition without the need for tags.

  13. Translational bypassing without peptidyl-tRNA anticodon scanning of coding gap mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Norma M; O'Connor, Michelle; Nelson, Chad C; Rettberg, Charles C; Huang, Wai Mun; Gesteland, Raymond F; Atkins, John F

    2008-01-01

    Half the ribosomes translating the mRNA for phage T4 gene 60 topoisomerase subunit bypass a 50 nucleotide coding gap between codons 46 and 47. The pairing of codon 46 with its cognate peptidyl-tRNA anticodon dissociates, and following mRNA slippage, peptidyl-tRNA re-pairs to mRNA at a matched triplet 5′ adjacent to codon 47, where translation resumes. Here, in studies with gene 60 cassettes, it is shown that the peptidyl-tRNA anticodon does not scan the intervening sequence for potential complementarity. However, certain coding gap mutants allow peptidyl-tRNA to scan sequences in the bypassed segment. A model is proposed in which the coding gap mRNA enters the ribosomal A-site and forms a structure that precludes peptidyl-tRNA scanning of its sequence. Dissipation of this RNA structure, together with the contribution of 16S rRNA anti-Shine–Dalgarno sequence pairing with GAG, facilitates peptidyl-tRNA re-pairing to mRNA. PMID:18772887

  14. Eukaryote-specific motif of ribosomal protein S15 neighbors A site codon during elongation and termination of translation.

    PubMed

    Khairulina, Julia; Graifer, Dmitri; Bulygin, Konstantin; Ven'yaminova, Aliya; Frolova, Ludmila; Karpova, Galina

    2010-07-01

    The eukaryotic ribosomal protein S15 is a key component of the decoding site in contrast to its prokaryotic counterpart, S19p, which is located away from the mRNA binding track on the ribosome. Here, we determined the oligopeptide of S15 neighboring the A site mRNA codon on the human 80S ribosome with the use of mRNA analogues bearing perfluorophenyl azide-modified nucleotides in the sense or stop codon targeted to the 80S ribosomal A site. The protein was cross-linked to mRNA analogues in specific ribosomal complexes that were obtained in the presence of eRF1 in the experiments with mRNAs bearing stop codon. Digestion of modified S15 with various specific proteolytic agents followed by identification of the resulting modified oligopeptides showed that cross-link was in C-terminal fragment in positions 131-145, most probably, in decapeptide 131-PGIGATHSSR-140. The position of cross-linking site on the S15 protein did not depend on the nature of the A site-bound codon (sense or stop codon) and on the presence of polypeptide chain release factor eRF1 in the ribosomal complexes with mRNA analogues bearing a stop codon. The results indicate an involvement of the mentioned decapeptide in the formation of the ribosomal decoding site during elongation and termination of translation. Alignment of amino acid sequences of eukaryotic S15 and its prokaryotic counterpart, S19p from eubacteria and archaea, revealed that decapeptide PGIGATHSSR in positions 131-140 is strongly conserved in eukaryotes and has minor variations in archaea but has no homology with any sequence in C-terminal part of eubacterial S19p, which suggests involvement of the decapeptide in the translation process in a eukaryote-specific manner.

  15. Integration of residue-specific acid cleavage into proteomic workflows.

    PubMed

    Swatkoski, Steven; Gutierrez, Peter; Ginter, Joy; Petrov, Alexey; Dinman, Jonathan D; Edwards, Nathan; Fenselau, Catherine

    2007-11-01

    Microwave-accelerated proteolysis using acetic acid has been shown to occur specifically on either or both sides of aspartate residues. This chemical cleavage is applied to the yeast ribosome proteome to evaluate its suitability for incorporation into high-throughput automated workflows. Peptide product mixtures were analyzed using either an HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap or an HPLC-MALDI-TOF2. The peptides were readily identified, using MASCOT with a modified enzyme rule, and provided information about 73% of the proteome. Implications are considered of the extended length and the presence of multiple basic residues in these peptides.

  16. Morphological and cytogenetic assessment of cleavage and blastocyst stage embryos.

    PubMed

    Fragouli, E; Alfarawati, S; Spath, K; Wells, D

    2014-02-01

    Morphological assessments are the main way in which fertility clinics select in vitro generated embryo(s) for transfer to the uterus. However, it is widely acknowledged that the microscopic appearance of an embryo is only weakly correlated with its viability. Furthermore, the extent to which morphology is affected by aneuploidy, a genetic defect common in human preimplantation embryos, remains unclear. Aneuploidy is of great relevance to embryo selection as it represents one of the most important causes of implantation failure and miscarriage. The current study aimed to examine whether morphological appearance can assist in identifying embryos at risk of aneuploidy. Additionally, the data produced sheds light on how chromosomal anomalies impact development from the cleavage to the blastocyst stage. A total of 1213 embryos were examined. Comprehensive chromosome analysis was combined with well-established criteria for the assessment of embryo morphology. At the cleavage stage, chromosome abnormalities were common even amongst embryos assigned the best morphological scores, indicating that aneuploidy has little effect on microscopic appearance at fixed time points up until Day 3 of development. However, at the blastocyst stage aneuploidies were found to be significantly less common among embryos of optimal morphological quality, while such abnormalities were overrepresented amongst embryos considered to be of poor morphology. Despite the link between aneuploidy and blastocyst appearance, many chromosomally abnormal embryos were able to achieve the highest morphological scores. In particular, blastocysts affected by forms of aneuploidy with the greatest capacity to produce clinical pregnancies (e.g. trisomy 21) were indistinguishable from euploid embryos. The sex ratio was seen to be equal throughout preimplantation development. Interestingly, however, females were overrepresented amongst the fastest growing cleavage-stage embryos, whereas a sex-related skew in the

  17. Kinetics of acid-catalyzed cleavage of cumene hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Levin, M E; Gonzales, N O; Zimmerman, L W; Yang, J

    2006-03-17

    The cleavage of cumene hydroperoxide, in the presence of sulfuric acid, to form phenol and acetone has been examined by adiabatic calorimetry. As expected, acid can catalyze cumene hydroperoxide reaction at temperatures below that of thermally-induced decomposition. At elevated acid concentrations, reactivity is also observed at or below room temperature. The exhibited reactivity behavior is complex and is significantly affected by the presence of other species (including the products). Several reaction models have been explored to explain the behavior and these are discussed.

  18. Agent-based modeling: case study in cleavage furrow models

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Manhart, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies in cell biology in which quantitative models accompany experiments has been growing steadily. Roughly, mathematical and computational techniques of these models can be classified as “differential equation based” (DE) or “agent based” (AB). Recently AB models have started to outnumber DE models, but understanding of AB philosophy and methodology is much less widespread than familiarity with DE techniques. Here we use the history of modeling a fundamental biological problem—positioning of the cleavage furrow in dividing cells—to explain how and why DE and AB models are used. We discuss differences, advantages, and shortcomings of these two approaches. PMID:27811328

  19. Selective cleavage of methoxy protecting groups in carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Boto, Alicia; Hernández, Dácil; Hernández, Rosendo; Suárez, Ernesto

    2006-03-03

    The selective cleavage of methoxy protecting groups next to hydroxy groups is achieved using a radical hydrogen abstraction reaction as the key step. Under the reaction conditions, the hydroxy group generates an alkoxyl radical that reacts with the sterically accessible adjacent methoxy group, which is transformed into an acetal. In the second step, the acetals are hydrolyzed to give alcohols or diols. A one-pot hydrogen abstraction-hydrolysis procedure was also developed. Good yields were usually achieved, and the mild conditions of this methodology were compatible with different functional groups and sensitive substrates such as carbohydrates.

  20. Agent-based modeling: case study in cleavage furrow models.

    PubMed

    Mogilner, Alex; Manhart, Angelika

    2016-11-07

    The number of studies in cell biology in which quantitative models accompany experiments has been growing steadily. Roughly, mathematical and computational techniques of these models can be classified as "differential equation based" (DE) or "agent based" (AB). Recently AB models have started to outnumber DE models, but understanding of AB philosophy and methodology is much less widespread than familiarity with DE techniques. Here we use the history of modeling a fundamental biological problem-positioning of the cleavage furrow in dividing cells-to explain how and why DE and AB models are used. We discuss differences, advantages, and shortcomings of these two approaches.

  1. Micromechanisms and Toughness for Cleavage Fracture of Steel,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    AD-A69 916 MICRONECHANISNS AND TOUGHNESS FOR CLEAVAGE FRACTURE OF 1/1 STEEL (U) BATTELLE MEMORIAL INST COLUMBUS OH A R ROSENFIELD ET AL. JUN 86 ARO...OF STEEL 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER N/A 7. AUTHOR(e) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) K A. R. Rosenfield and B. S. Majumdar DAAG29-85jOO35 9...decision, unless so 9. KEY WORDS (Continue on reveree eide It necesey atd Identify by block number) .L Steel , HSLA Fracture toughness . Ductile fracture

  2. Biotic and abiotic carbon to sulfur bond cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Cleavage of aliphatic organosulfonate carbon to sulfur (C-S) bonds, a critical link in the global biogeochemical sulfur cycle, has been identified in Escherichia coli K-12. Enormous quantities of inorganic sulfate are continuously converted (Scheme I) into methanesulfonic acid 1 and acylated 3-(6-sulfo-{alpha}-D-quinovopyranosyl)-L-glycerol 2. Biocatalytic desulfurization (Scheme I) of 1 and 2, which share the structural feature of an aliphatic carbon bonded to a sulfonic acid sulfur, completes the cycle, Discovery of this desulfurization in E. coli provides an invaluable paradigm for study of a biotic process which, via the biogeochemical cycle, significantly influences the atmospheric concentration of sulfur-containing molecules.

  3. Furin Cleavage of L2 during Papillomavirus Infection: Minimal Dependence on Cyclophilins.

    PubMed

    Bronnimann, Matthew P; Calton, Christine M; Chiquette, Samantha F; Li, Shuaizhi; Lu, Mingfeng; Chapman, Janice A; Bratton, Kristin N; Schlegel, Angela M; Campos, Samuel K

    2016-07-15

    Despite an abundance of evidence supporting an important role for the cleavage of minor capsid protein L2 by cellular furin, direct cleavage of capsid-associated L2 during human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) infection remains poorly characterized. The conserved cleavage site, close to the L2 N terminus, confounds observation and quantification of the small cleavage product by SDS-PAGE. To overcome this difficulty, we increased the size shift by fusing a compact protein domain, the Propionibacterium shermanii transcarboxylase domain (PSTCD), to the N terminus of L2. The infectious PSTCD-L2 virus displayed an appreciable L2 size shift during infection of HaCaT keratinocytes. Cleavage under standard cell culture conditions rarely exceeded 35% of total L2. Cleavage levels were enhanced by the addition of exogenous furin, and the absolute levels of infection correlated to the level of L2 cleavage. Cleavage occurred on both the HaCaT cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM). Contrary to current models, experiments on the involvement of cyclophilins revealed little, if any, role for these cellular enzymes in the modulation of furin cleavage. HPV16 L2 contains two consensus cleavage sites, Arg5 (2RHKR5) and Arg12 (9RTKR12). Mutant PSTCD-L2 viruses demonstrated that although furin can cleave either site, cleavage must occur at Arg12, as cleavage at Arg5 alone is insufficient for successful infection. Mutation of the conserved cysteine residues revealed that the Cys22-Cys28 disulfide bridge is not required for cleavage. The PSTCD-L2 virus or similar N-terminal fusions will be valuable tools to study additional cellular and viral determinants of furin cleavage. Furin cleavage of minor capsid protein L2 during papillomavirus infection has been difficult to directly visualize and quantify, confounding efforts to study this important step of HPV infection. Fusion of a small protein domain to the N terminus greatly facilitates direct visualization of the cleavage product

  4. Furin Cleavage of L2 during Papillomavirus Infection: Minimal Dependence on Cyclophilins

    PubMed Central

    Bronnimann, Matthew P.; Calton, Christine M.; Chiquette, Samantha F.; Li, Shuaizhi; Lu, Mingfeng; Chapman, Janice A.; Bratton, Kristin N.; Schlegel, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite an abundance of evidence supporting an important role for the cleavage of minor capsid protein L2 by cellular furin, direct cleavage of capsid-associated L2 during human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) infection remains poorly characterized. The conserved cleavage site, close to the L2 N terminus, confounds observation and quantification of the small cleavage product by SDS-PAGE. To overcome this difficulty, we increased the size shift by fusing a compact protein domain, the Propionibacterium shermanii transcarboxylase domain (PSTCD), to the N terminus of L2. The infectious PSTCD-L2 virus displayed an appreciable L2 size shift during infection of HaCaT keratinocytes. Cleavage under standard cell culture conditions rarely exceeded 35% of total L2. Cleavage levels were enhanced by the addition of exogenous furin, and the absolute levels of infection correlated to the level of L2 cleavage. Cleavage occurred on both the HaCaT cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM). Contrary to current models, experiments on the involvement of cyclophilins revealed little, if any, role for these cellular enzymes in the modulation of furin cleavage. HPV16 L2 contains two consensus cleavage sites, Arg5 (2RHKR5) and Arg12 (9RTKR12). Mutant PSTCD-L2 viruses demonstrated that although furin can cleave either site, cleavage must occur at Arg12, as cleavage at Arg5 alone is insufficient for successful infection. Mutation of the conserved cysteine residues revealed that the Cys22-Cys28 disulfide bridge is not required for cleavage. The PSTCD-L2 virus or similar N-terminal fusions will be valuable tools to study additional cellular and viral determinants of furin cleavage. IMPORTANCE Furin cleavage of minor capsid protein L2 during papillomavirus infection has been difficult to directly visualize and quantify, confounding efforts to study this important step of HPV infection. Fusion of a small protein domain to the N terminus greatly facilitates direct visualization of the

  5. 3C-like protease of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: identification of cleavage sites in the ORF1 polyprotein and analysis of cleavage specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Wirblich, C; Sibilia, M; Boniotti, M B; Rossi, C; Thiel, H J; Meyers, G

    1995-01-01

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, a positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Caliciviridae, encodes a trypsin-like cysteine protease as part of a large polyprotein. Upon expression in Escherichia coli, the protease releases itself from larger precursors by proteolytic cleavages at its N and C termini. Both cleavage sites were determined by N-terminal sequence analysis of the cleavage products. Cleavage at the N terminus of the protease occurred with high efficiency at an EG dipeptide at positions 1108 and 1109. Cleavage at the C terminus of the protease occurred with low efficiency at an ET dipeptide at positions 1251 and 1252. To study the cleavage specificity of the protease, amino acid substitutions were introduced at the P2, P1, and P1' positions at the cleavage site at the N-terminal boundary of the protease. This analysis showed that the amino acid at the P1 position is the most important determinant for substrate recognition. Only glutamic acid, glutamine, and aspartic acid were tolerated at this position. At the P1' position, glycine, serine, and alanine were the preferred substrates of the protease, but a number of amino acids with larger side chains were also tolerated. Substitutions at the P2 position had only little effect on the cleavage efficiency. Cell-free expression of the C-terminal half of the ORF1 polyprotein showed that the protease catalyzes cleavage at the junction of the RNA polymerase and the capsid protein. An EG dipeptide at positions 1767 and 1768 was identified as the putative cleavage site. Our data show that rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus encodes a trypsin-like cysteine protease that is similar to 3C proteases with regard to function and specificity but is more similar to 2A proteases with regard to size. PMID:7474137

  6. A-site ordered quadruple perovskite oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youwen, Long

    2016-07-01

    The A-site ordered perovskite oxides with chemical formula display many intriguing physical properties due to the introduction of transition metals at both A‧ and B sites. Here, research on the recently discovered intermetallic charge transfer occurring between A‧-site Cu and B-site Fe ions in LaCu3Fe4O12 and its analogues is reviewed, along with work on the magnetoelectric multiferroicity observed in LaMn3Cr4O12 with cubic perovskite structure. The Cu-Fe intermetallic charge transfer leads to a first-order isostructural phase transition accompanied by drastic variations in magnetism and electrical transport properties. The LaMn3Cr4O12 is a novel spin-driven multiferroic system with strong magnetoelectric coupling effects. The compound is the first example of cubic perovskite multiferroics to be found. It opens up a new arena for studying unexpected multiferroic mechanisms. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB921500), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07030300), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574378).

  7. Attenuation of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay facilitates the response to chemotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Maximilian W.; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2015-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) limits the production of aberrant mRNAs containing a premature termination codon and also controls the levels of endogenous transcripts. Here we show that when human cells are treated with clinically used chemotherapeutic compounds, NMD activity declines partly as a result of the proteolytic production of a dominant-interfering form of the key NMD factor UPF1. Production of cleaved UPF1 functions to upregulate genes involved in the response to apoptotic stresses. The biological consequence is the promotion of cell death. Combined exposure of cells to a small molecule inhibitor of NMD, NMDI-1, and the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin leads to enhanced cell death, while inhibiting UPF1 cleavage protects cells from doxorubicin challenge. We propose a model to explain why the expression levels of genes producing mRNAs of diverse structure that encode proteins of diverse function are under the purview of NMD. PMID:25808464

  8. Effects of variations in length of hammerhead ribozyme antisense arms upon the cleavage of longer RNA substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Sioud, M

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of intracellular binding of hammerhead ribozyme to its cleavage site in target RNA is a major requirement for its use as a therapeutic agent. Such efficacy can be influenced by several factors, such as the length of the ribozyme antisense arms and mRNA secondary structures. Analysis of various IL-2 hammerhead ribozymes having different antisense arms but directed to the same site predicts that the hammerhead ribozyme target site is present within a double-stranded region that is flanked by single-stranded loops. Extension of the low cleaving hammerhead ribozyme antisense arms by nucleotides that base pair with the single-stranded regions facilitated the hammerhead ribozyme binding to longer RNA substrates (e.g. mRNA). In addition, a correlation between the in vitro and intracellular results was also found. Thus, the present study would facilitate the design of hammerhead ribozymes directed against higher order structured sites. Further, it emphasises the importance of detailed structural investigations of hammerhead ribozyme full-length target RNAs. PMID:9016562

  9. MCPIP1, alias Regnase-1 binds and cleaves mRNA of C/EBPβ

    PubMed Central

    Gorecki, Andrzej; Jura, Jolanta

    2017-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) is a transcription factor controlling a broad range of genes essential for homeostasis, including genes related to immune functions, inflammation, metabolism and growth. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) also called as Regnase-1 is an RNase and has been shown to decrease the stability of short-lived transcripts coding for inflammation-related proteins, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2, IL-8, IL-12b, IER-3, c-Rel. We found previously that the half-life of the C/EBPβ transcript is regulated by MCPIP. To understand the mechanism driving down-regulation of C/EBPβ by MCPIP1, we applied an in vitro cleavage assay, followed by a luciferase-reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP). We demonstrated that MCPIP1 recognizes regions of the 3’UTR of C/EBPβ mRNA and promotes its decay by introducing direct endonucleolytic cleavage. PMID:28328949

  10. Sensitivity of mRNA Translation.

    PubMed

    Poker, Gilad; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2015-08-04

    Using the dynamic mean-field approximation of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), we investigate the effect of small changes in the initiation, elongation, and termination rates along the mRNA strand on the steady-state protein translation rate. We show that the sensitivity of mRNA translation is equal to the sensitivity of the maximal eigenvalue of a symmetric, nonnegative, tridiagonal, and irreducible matrix. This leads to new analytical results as well as efficient numerical schemes that are applicable for large-scale models. Our results show that in the usual endogenous case, when initiation is more rate-limiting than elongation, the sensitivity of the translation rate to small mutations rapidly increases towards the 5' end of the ORF. When the initiation rate is high, as may be the case for highly expressed and/or heterologous optimized genes, the maximal sensitivity is with respect to the elongation rates at the middle of the mRNA strand. We also show that the maximal possible effect of a small increase/decrease in any of the rates along the mRNA is an increase/decrease of the same magnitude in the translation rate. These results are in agreement with previous molecular evolutionary and synthetic biology experimental studies.

  11. Sensitivity of mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    Poker, Gilad; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    Using the dynamic mean-field approximation of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), we investigate the effect of small changes in the initiation, elongation, and termination rates along the mRNA strand on the steady-state protein translation rate. We show that the sensitivity of mRNA translation is equal to the sensitivity of the maximal eigenvalue of a symmetric, nonnegative, tridiagonal, and irreducible matrix. This leads to new analytical results as well as efficient numerical schemes that are applicable for large-scale models. Our results show that in the usual endogenous case, when initiation is more rate-limiting than elongation, the sensitivity of the translation rate to small mutations rapidly increases towards the 5′ end of the ORF. When the initiation rate is high, as may be the case for highly expressed and/or heterologous optimized genes, the maximal sensitivity is with respect to the elongation rates at the middle of the mRNA strand. We also show that the maximal possible effect of a small increase/decrease in any of the rates along the mRNA is an increase/decrease of the same magnitude in the translation rate. These results are in agreement with previous molecular evolutionary and synthetic biology experimental studies. PMID:26238363

  12. Secondary structure of bacteriophage T4 gene 60 mRNA: implications for translational bypassing.

    PubMed

    Todd, Gabrielle C; Walter, Nils G

    2013-05-01

    Translational bypassing is a unique phenomenon of bacteriophage T4 gene 60 mRNA wherein the bacterial ribosome produces a single polypeptide chain from a discontinuous open reading frame (ORF). Upon reaching the 50-nucleotide untranslated region, or coding gap, the ribosome either dissociates or bypasses the interruption to continue translating the remainder of the ORF, generating a subunit of a type II DNA topoisomerase. Mutational and computational analyses have suggested that a compact structure, including a stable hairpin, forms in the coding gap to induce bypassing, yet direct evidence is lacking. Here we have probed the secondary structure of gene 60 mRNA with both Tb³⁺ ions and the selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) reagent 1M7 under conditions where bypassing is observed. The resulting experimentally informed secondary structure models strongly support the presence of the predicted coding gap hairpin and highlight the benefits of using Tb³⁺ as a second, complementary probing reagent. Contrary to several previously proposed models, however, the rest of the coding gap is highly reactive with both probing reagents, suggesting that it forms only a short stem-loop. Mutational analyses coupled with functional assays reveal that two possible base-pairings of the coding gap with other regions of the mRNA are not required for bypassing. Such structural autonomy of the coding gap is consistent with its recently discovered role as a mobile genetic element inserted into gene 60 mRNA to inhibit cleavage by homing endonuclease MobA.

  13. Tissue-specificity and phylogenetics of Pl-MT mRNA during Paracentrotus lividus embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Russo, Roberta; Zito, Francesca; Matranga, Valeria

    2013-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) constitute a family of cysteine-rich, low molecular weight proteins, which generally provide protection against metal toxicity and oxidative stress counteracting the cell damage caused by essential and non-essential heavy metals. Equally important is the physiological role of MTs in the homeostasis of essential metals, which are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. The aim of this work was to investigate the expression and the territorial localization of Paracentrotus lividus MT (Pl-MT) mRNA during sea urchin development by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (QPCR) and Whole Mount In Situ Hybridization (WMISH), as well as the phylogenetic comparison with selected MT homologs present in different phyla. We found that Pl-MT mRNA is accumulated in unfertilized eggs and constitutively expressed during development, with very low levels of maternal mRNA at cleavage stages, followed by a significant rise during gastrulation with a peak at the prism stage. Pl-MT mRNA was expressed in the vegetative plate at mesenchyme blastula, later restricted to the endoderm of gastrula embryos and finally to the gut of plutei. Indirect immunofluorescence (IF) using a specific antibody for the endoderm marker Endo1 demonstrated a co-localization with the Pl-MT transcripts in the midgut and hindgut after the intestine differentiation occurs and when larval feeding begins. Our results show for the first time the constitutive temporal and tissue-specific expression of MT in P. lividus embryos, providing new information for studies on the mechanisms controlling basal and induced MT gene expression. The analysis of the phylogenetic relationship of Pl-MT with homologs from different phyla, ranging from yeast to vertebrates, suggests the evolutionary process of these proteins, which could have been selected not only on the basis of their ability to bind metals but also by their tissue-specificity.

  14. In vivo cleavage specificity of Trypanosoma brucei editosome endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Carnes, Jason; McDermott, Suzanne; Anupama, Atashi; Oliver, Brian G.; Sather, D. Noah

    2017-01-01

    Abstract RNA editing is an essential post-transcriptional process that creates functional mitochondrial mRNAs in Kinetoplastids. Multiprotein editosomes catalyze pre-mRNA cleavage, uridine (U) insertion or deletion, and ligation as specified by guide RNAs. Three functionally and compositionally distinct editosomes differ by the mutually exclusive presence of the KREN1, KREN2 or KREN3 endonuclease and their associated partner proteins. Because endonuclease cleavage is a likely point of regulation for RNA editing, we elucidated endonuclease specificity in vivo. We used a mutant gamma ATP synthase allele (MGA) to circumvent the normal essentiality of the editing endonucleases, and created cell lines in which both alleles of one, two or all three of the endonucleases were deleted. Cells lacking multiple endonucleases had altered editosome sedimentation on glycerol gradients and substantial defects in overall editing. Deep sequencing analysis of RNAs from such cells revealed clear discrimination by editosomes between sites of deletion versus insertion editing and preferential but overlapping specificity for sites of insertion editing. Thus, endonuclease specificities in vivo are distinct but with some functional overlap. The overlapping specificities likely accommodate the more numerous sites of insertion versus deletion editing as editosomes collaborate to accurately edit thousands of distinct editing sites in vivo. PMID:28334821

  15. Cleavage by MALT1 induces cytosolic release of A20.

    PubMed

    Malinverni, Claire; Unterreiner, Adeline; Staal, Jens; Demeyer, Annelies; Galaup, Marion; Luyten, Marcel; Beyaert, Rudi; Bornancin, Frédéric

    2010-10-01

    The MALT1 paracaspase has arginine-directed proteolytic activity. A20 is a dual ubiquitin-editing enzyme involved in termination of NF-κB signaling. Upon T- or B-cell receptor engagement human (h) A20 is cleaved by MALT1 after arginine 439, yielding an N-terminal fragment (hA20p50) and a C-terminal one (hA20p37). The hA20p50 fragment has never been detected directly, thus limiting insight into the functional consequences of MALT1-mediated cleavage of A20. Here, various antibodies were tested, including newly generated hA20p50 and hA20p37 specific antibodies, leading to detection of the hA20p50 fragment produced after MALT1-mediated cleavage of ectopically expressed as well as endogenous A20 proteins. The properties of both A20 fragments, generated upon co-expression with a constitutively active MALT1 protein, were further studied by sub-cellular fractionation and fluorescence microscopy. In contrast to full-length A20 which is particulate and insoluble, we found hA20p50 to be soluble and readily released into the cytosol whereas hA20p37 was partially soluble, thus suggesting loss of compartmentalization as a possible mechanism for MALT1-mediated dampening of A20 function.

  16. Improving the prospects of cleavage-based nanopore sequencing engines.

    PubMed

    Brady, Kyle T; Reiner, Joseph E

    2015-08-21

    Recently proposed methods for DNA sequencing involve the use of cleavage-based enzymes attached to the opening of a nanopore. The idea is that DNA interacting with either an exonuclease or polymerase protein will lead to a small molecule being cleaved near the mouth of the nanopore, and subsequent entry into the pore will yield information about the DNA sequence. The prospects for this approach seem promising, but it has been shown that diffusion related effects impose a limit on the capture probability of molecules by the pore, which limits the efficacy of the technique. Here, we revisit the problem with the goal of optimizing the capture probability via a step decrease in the nucleotide diffusion coefficient between the pore and bulk solutions. It is shown through random walk simulations and a simplified analytical model that decreasing the molecule's diffusion coefficient in the bulk relative to its value in the pore increases the nucleotide capture probability. Specifically, we show that at sufficiently high applied transmembrane potentials (≥100 mV), increasing the potential by a factor f is equivalent to decreasing the diffusion coefficient ratio D(bulk)/D(pore) by the same factor f. This suggests a promising route toward implementation of cleavage-based sequencing protocols. We also discuss the feasibility of forming a step function in the diffusion coefficient across the pore-bulk interface.

  17. Stress-induced cleavage of Myc promotes cancer cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Conacci-Sorrell, Maralice; Ngouenet, Celine; Anderson, Sarah; Brabletz, Thomas; Eisenman, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Evasion of apoptosis is critical in Myc-induced tumor progression. Here we report that cancer cells evade death under stress by activating calpain-mediated proteolysis of Myc. This generates Myc-nick, a cytoplasmic, transcriptionally inactive cleavage product of Myc. We found conversion of Myc into Myc-nick in cell lines and tissues derived from multiple cancers. In colon cancer, the production of Myc-nick is enhanced under stress conditions such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Under these conditions, ectopic expression of Myc-nick promotes anchorage-independent growth and cell survival at least in part by promoting autophagy. Myc-nick also delays colon cancer cell death after treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs such as etoposide, cisplatin, and imatinib. Furthermore, colon cancer cells expressing a cleavage-resistant form of Myc undergo extensive apoptosis but are rescued by overexpression of Myc-nick. We also found that ectopic expression of Myc-nick results in the induction of the actin-bundling protein fascin, formation of filopodia, and increased cell motility—all mediators of tumor metastasis. Myc-nick-induced survival, autophagy, and motility require Myc box II (MBII), a region of Myc-nick that recruits acetyltransferases that in turn modify cytoplasmic proteins, including α-tubulin and ATG3. Our results suggest that Myc-nick-induced survival and motility contribute to colon cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:24696454

  18. Caspase-2 cleavage of tau reversibly impairs memory.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Kotilinek, Linda A; Smith, Benjamin; Hlynialuk, Chris; Zahs, Kathleen; Ramsden, Martin; Cleary, James; Ashe, Karen H

    2016-11-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies, the tau protein forms fibrils, which are believed to be neurotoxic. However, fibrillar tau has been dissociated from neuron death and network dysfunction, suggesting the involvement of nonfibrillar species. Here we describe a novel pathological process in which caspase-2 cleavage of tau at Asp314 impairs cognitive and synaptic function in animal and cellular models of tauopathies by promoting the missorting of tau to dendritic spines. The truncation product, Δtau314, resists fibrillation and is present at higher levels in brains from cognitively impaired mice and humans with AD. The expression of tau mutants that resisted caspase-2 cleavage prevented tau from infiltrating spines, dislocating glutamate receptors and impairing synaptic function in cultured neurons, and it prevented memory deficits and neurodegeneration in mice. Decreasing the levels of caspase-2 restored long-term memory in mice that had existing deficits. Our results suggest an overall treatment strategy for re-establishing synaptic function and restoring memory in patients with AD by preventing tau from accumulating in dendritic spines.

  19. Improving the prospects of cleavage-based nanopore sequencing engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Kyle T.; Reiner, Joseph E.

    2015-08-01

    Recently proposed methods for DNA sequencing involve the use of cleavage-based enzymes attached to the opening of a nanopore. The idea is that DNA interacting with either an exonuclease or polymerase protein will lead to a small molecule being cleaved near the mouth of the nanopore, and subsequent entry into the pore will yield information about the DNA sequence. The prospects for this approach seem promising, but it has been shown that diffusion related effects impose a limit on the capture probability of molecules by the pore, which limits the efficacy of the technique. Here, we revisit the problem with the goal of optimizing the capture probability via a step decrease in the nucleotide diffusion coefficient between the pore and bulk solutions. It is shown through random walk simulations and a simplified analytical model that decreasing the molecule's diffusion coefficient in the bulk relative to its value in the pore increases the nucleotide capture probability. Specifically, we show that at sufficiently high applied transmembrane potentials (≥100 mV), increasing the potential by a factor f is equivalent to decreasing the diffusion coefficient ratio Dbulk/Dpore by the same factor f. This suggests a promising route toward implementation of cleavage-based sequencing protocols. We also discuss the feasibility of forming a step function in the diffusion coefficient across the pore-bulk interface.

  20. Lysosomal Dysfunction Promotes Cleavage and Neurotoxicity of Tau In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Katherine A.; Loewen, Carin A.; Mulkearns, Erin; Tyynelä, Jaana; Scherzer, Clemens R.; Feany, Mel B.

    2010-01-01

    Expansion of the lysosomal system, including cathepsin D upregulation, is an early and prominent finding in Alzheimer's disease brain. Cell culture studies, however, have provided differing perspectives on the lysosomal connection to Alzheimer's disease, including both protective and detrimental influences. We sought to clarify and molecularly define the connection in vivo in a genetically tractable model organism. Cathepsin D is upregulated with age in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies. Genetic analysis reveals that cathepsin D plays a neuroprotective role because genetic ablation of cathepsin D markedly potentiates tau-induced neurotoxicity. Further, generation of a C-terminally truncated form of tau found in Alzheimer's disease patients is significantly increased in the absence of cathepsin D. We show that truncated tau has markedly increased neurotoxicity, while solubility of truncated tau is decreased. Importantly, the toxicity of truncated tau is not affected by removal of cathepsin D, providing genetic evidence that modulation of neurotoxicity by cathepsin D is mediated through C-terminal cleavage of tau. We demonstrate that removing cathepsin D in adult postmitotic neurons leads to aberrant lysosomal expansion and caspase activation in vivo, suggesting a mechanism for C-terminal truncation of tau. We also demonstrate that both cathepsin D knockout mice and cathepsin D–deficient sheep show abnormal C-terminal truncation of tau and accompanying caspase activation. Thus, caspase cleavage of tau may be a molecular mechanism through which lysosomal dysfunction and neurodegeneration are causally linked in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20664788

  1. Selective cleavage of kinetoplast DNA minicircles promoted by antitrypanosomal drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, T A; Englund, P T

    1990-01-01

    Pentamidine, diminazene aceturate (Berenil), isometamidium chloride (Samorin), and ethidium bromide, which are important antitrypanosomal drugs, promote linearization of Trypanosoma equiperdum minicircle DNA (the principal component of kinetoplast DNA, the mitochondrial DNA in these parasites). This effect occurs at therapeutically relevant concentrations. The linearized minicircles are protease sensitive and are not digested by lambda exonuclease (a 5' to 3' exonuclease), indicating that the break is double stranded and that protein is bound to both 5' ends of the molecule. The cleavage sites map to discrete positions in the minicircle sequence, and the cleavage pattern varies with different drugs. These findings are characteristic for type II topoisomerase inhibitors, and they mimic the effects of the antitumor drug etoposide (VP16-213, a semisynthetic podophyllotoxin analog) on T. equiperdum minicircles. However, the antitrypanosomal drugs differ dramatically from etoposide in that they do not promote detectable formation of nuclear DNA-protein complexes or of strand breaks in nuclear DNA. Selective inhibition of a mitochondrial type II topoisomerase may explain why these antitrypanosomal drugs preferentially disrupt mitochondrial DNA structure and generate dyskinetoplastic trypanosomes (which lack mitochondrial DNA). Images PMID:2153980

  2. Binding and biomimetic cleavage of the RNA poly(U) by synthetic polyimidazoles

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liang; Abhilash, K.G.; Breslow, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Four polyimidazoles were used in the binding and cleavage studies with poly(U). The two polydisperse polyvinylimidazoles were previously described by others, while the other two new polymers of polyethyleneimines were prepared by cationic polymerization of oxazolines. The latter had imidazole units attached to each nitrogen of the polymers. They were characterized by gel permeation chromatography and had very low polydispersities. When they were partially protonated they bound to the poly(U) and catalyzed its cleavage by a process analogous to that used by the enzyme ribonuclease A. The kinetics of the cleavage were followed by an assay we had previously described using phosphodiesterase I from Crotalus venom after the cleavage processes. Cleavage of poly(U) with Zn2+ was also examined, with and without the polymers. A scheme is described in which these cleavages could be made sequence selective with various RNAs, particularly with important targets, such as viral RNAs. PMID:22826260

  3. Comparative Induction of 28S Ribosomal RNA Cleavage by Ricin and the Trichothecenes Deoxynivalenol and T-2 Toxin in the Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Maoxiang; Pestka, James J.

    2008-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) and sesquiterpenoid trichothecene mycotoxins are known to bind to eukaryotic ribosomes, inhibit translation and activate mitogen-activated protein kinases. Here we compared the capacities of the RIP ricin to promote 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage with that of the trichothecenes, deoxynivalenol (DON), and T-2 toxin (T-2). In a cell-free model, exposure to ricin at 300 ng/ml for 30 min depurinated yeast 28S rRNA, however, neither DON (≤ 4 μg/ml) nor T-2 (≤ 2 μg/ml) exhibited this N-glycosidase activity. Incubation of RAW 264.7 macrophages with ricin (20–320 ng/ml), DON (250–5000 ng/ml), or T-2 (2–80 ng/ml) for 6 h, however, generated 28S rRNA-specific products consistent with cleavage sites near the 3′ terminal end of murine 28S rRNA. Oligonucleotide extension analysis of treated RAW 264.7 cells revealed that ricin evoked 28S rRNA damage at one site in the α-sarcin/ricin (S/R)-loop (A4256) and two other sites (A3560 and A4045) in the peptidyl transferase center. Although DON or T-2 did not damage the S/R loop, these trichothecenes did promote cleavage at A3560 and A4045. In addition, incubation of the cells with ricin (≥ 20 ng/ml), DON (≥ 250 ng/ml), or T-2 (≥ 10 ng/ml) induced RNase activity as well as RNase L mRNA and protein expression. These data suggest that only ricin directly damaged 28S rRNA under cell-free conditions but that ricin, DON, and T-2 promoted intracellular 28S rRNA cleavage, potentially by facilitating the action of endogenous RNases and/or by upregulating RNase expression. PMID:18535001

  4. Enzymatic cleavage of myoferlin releases a dual C2-domain module linked to ERK signalling.

    PubMed

    Piper, Ann-Katrin; Ross, Samuel E; Redpath, Gregory M; Lemckert, Frances A; Woolger, Natalie; Bournazos, Adam; Greer, Peter A; Sutton, Roger B; Cooper, Sandra T

    2017-05-01

    Myoferlin and dysferlin are closely related members of the ferlin family of Ca(2+)-regulated vesicle fusion proteins. Dysferlin is proposed to play a role in Ca(2+)-triggered vesicle fusion during membrane repair. Myoferlin regulates endocytosis, recycling of growth factor receptors and adhesion proteins, and is linked to the metastatic potential of cancer cells. Our previous studies establish that dysferlin is cleaved by calpains during membrane injury, with the cleavage motif encoded by alternately-spliced exon 40a. Herein we describe the cleavage of myoferlin, yielding a membrane-associated dual C2 domain 'mini-myoferlin'. Myoferlin bears two enzymatic cleavage sites: a canonical cleavage site encoded by exon 38 within the C2DE domain; and a second cleavage site in the linker adjacent to C2DE, encoded by alternately-spliced exon 38a, homologous to dysferlin exon 40a. Both myoferlin cleavage sites, when introduced into dysferlin, can functionally substitute for exon 40a to confer Ca(2+)-triggered calpain cleavage in response to membrane injury. However, enzymatic cleavage of myoferlin is complex, showing both constitutive or Ca(2+)-enhanced cleavage in different cell lines, that is not solely dependent on calpains-1 or -2. The functional impact of myoferlin cleavage was explored through signalling protein phospho-protein arrays revealing specific activation of ERK1/2 by ectopic expression of cleavable myoferlin, but not an uncleavable isoform. In summary, we molecularly define two enzymatic cleavage sites within myoferlin and demonstrate 'mini-myoferlin' can be detected in human breast cancer tumour samples and cell lines. These data further illustrate that enzymatic cleavage of ferlins is an evolutionarily preserved mechanism to release functionally specialized mini-modules.

  5. Genome level analysis of rice mRNA 3′-end processing signals and alternative polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yingjia; Ji, Guoli; Haas, Brian J.; Wu, Xiaohui; Zheng, Jianti; Reese, Greg J.; Li, Qingshun Quinn

    2008-01-01

    The position of a poly(A) site of eukaryotic mRNA is determined by sequence signals in pre-mRNA and a group of polyadenylation factors. To reveal rice poly(A) signals at a genome level, we constructed a dataset of 55 742 authenticated poly(A) sites and characterized the poly(A) signals. This resulted in identifying the typical tripartite cis-elements, including FUE, NUE and CE, as previously observed in Arabidopsis. The average size of the 3′-UTR was 289 nucleotides. When mapped to the genome, however, 15% of these poly(A) sites were found to be located in the currently annotated intergenic regions. Moreover, an extensive alternative polyadenylation profile was evident where 50% of the genes analyzed had more than one unique poly(A) site (excluding microheterogeneity sites), and 13% had four or more poly(A) sites. About 4% of the analyzed genes possessed alternative poly(A) sites at their introns, 5′-UTRs, or protein coding regions. The authenticity of these alternative poly(A) sites was partially confirmed using MPSS data. Analysis of nucleotide profile and signal patterns indicated that there may be a different set of poly(A) signals for those poly(A) sites found in the coding regions. Based on the features of rice poly(A) signals, an updated algorithm termed PASS-Rice was designed to predict poly(A) sites. PMID:18411206

  6. RNase L Cleavage Products Promote Switch from Autophagy to Apoptosis by Caspase-Mediated Cleavage of Beclin-1

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Mukherjee, Sushovita; Manivannan, Praveen; Malathi, Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis share regulatory molecules enabling crosstalk in pathways that affect cellular homeostasis including response to viral infections and survival of tumor cells. Ribonuclease L (RNase L) is an antiviral endonuclease that is activated in virus-infected cells and cleaves viral and cellular single-stranded RNAs to produce small double-stranded RNAs with roles in amplifying host responses. Activation of RNase L induces autophagy and apoptosis in many cell types. However, the mechanism by which RNase L mediates crosstalk between these two pathways remains unclear. Here we show that small dsRNAs produced by RNase L promote a switch from autophagy to apoptosis by caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin-1, terminating autophagy. The caspase 3-cleaved C-terminal fragment of Beclin-1 enhances apoptosis by translocating to the mitochondria along with proapoptotic protein, Bax, and inducing release of cytochrome C to the cytosol. Cleavage of Beclin-1 determines switch to apoptosis since expression of caspase-resistant Beclin-1 inhibits apoptosis and sustains autophagy. Moreover, inhibiting RNase L-induced autophagy promotes cell death and inhibiting apoptosis prolongs autophagy in a cross-inhibitory mechanism. Our results demonstrate a novel role of RNase L generated small RNAs in cross-talk between autophagy and apoptosis that impacts the fate of cells during viral infections and cancer. PMID:26263979

  7. Mass spectrometric and theoretical studies on dissociation of the Ssbnd S bond in the allicin: Homolytic cleavage vs heterolytic cleavage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang

    2012-08-01

    On the basis of the tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) technique and DFT calculations, an experimental and theoretical investigation has been conducted into the gas-phase dissociation of the S1sbnd S1' bond in the allicin as well as that of the Ssbnd C (S1sbnd C2, S1'sbnd C2') bond. Meanwhile, the influence of protonation, alkali metal ion and electron transfer on the dissociation of the S1sbnd S1' bond has been taken into account. ESI-MS/MS experiments and DFT calculations show that in the neutral allicin, [allicin + Li]+ and [allicin + Na]+, the S1sbnd S1' bond favors homolytic cleavage, while in the allicin radical cation and protonated allicin, the S1sbnd S1' bond prefers heterolytic cleavage. In addition, alkali metal ions can strengthen the S1sbnd S1' bond in the allicin, while protonation or the loss of an electron will weaken the S1sbnd S1' bond.

  8. γ-Secretase Catalyzes Sequential Cleavages of the AβPP Transmembrane Domain

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuemin

    2009-01-01

    The biogenesis of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is a central issue in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. Aβ is produced by β- and γ-secretases from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP). These proteases are targets for the development of therapeutic compounds to downregulate Aβ production. γ-secretase has received more attention 1) because it generates the C-terminus of Aβ, which is important in the pathogenesis of AD because the longer Aβ species are more amyloidogenic, and 2) because it cleaves AβPP within its transmembrane domain. In the understanding the mechanism of γ-secretase cleavage, three major cleavage sites have been identified, namely, γ-cleavage site at Aβ40/42, ζ-cleavage site at Aβ46, and ε-cleavage site at Aβ49. Moreover, the novel finding that some of the known γ-secretase inhibitors inhibit the formation of secreted Aβ40 and Aβ42, but cause an intracellular accumulation of long Aβ46, provided information extremely important for the development of strategies aimed at the design of γ-secretase inhibitors to prevent and treat AD. In addition, it has been established that the C-terminus of Aβ is generated by a series of sequential cleavages: first, ε-cleavage, followed by ζ-cleavage and finally by γ-cleavage, commencing from the membrane boundary to the middle of the AβPP membrane domain. PMID:19221413

  9. Predicting caspase substrate cleavage sites based on a hybrid SVM-PSSM method.

    PubMed

    Li, Dandan; Jiang, Zhenran; Yu, Weiming; Du, Lei

    2010-12-01

    Caspases play an important role in many critical non-apoptosis processes by cleaving relevant substrates at cleavage sites. Identification of caspase substrate cleavage sites is the key to understand these processes. This paper proposes a hybrid method using support vector machine (SVM) in conjunction with position specific scoring matrices (PSSM) for caspase substrate cleavage sites prediction. Three encoding schemes including orthonormal binary encoding, BLOSUM62 matrix profile and PSSM profile of neighborhood surrounding the substrate cleavage sites were regarded as the input of SVM. The 10-fold cross validation results demonstrate that the SVM-PSSM method performs well with an overall accuracy of 97.619% on a larger dataset.

  10. Hydrogen effect on shearing and cleavage of Al: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, F.; Mishin, Y.

    2011-09-01

    We report on first-principles calculations of the effect of a (111) hydrogen layer embedded in Al on generalized stacking fault energies and cleavage energy for different choices of the slip and cleavage planes. It is shown that the H layer softens Al against shear by reducing the stable and unstable stacking fault energies relative to pure Al. This finding points to a possible enhancement of plasticity of Al by H. The H layer also reduces the cleavage energy on the (111) plane. The reductions in the cleavage energy and unstable stacking fault energy compensate each other and produce only a moderate change in the Rice criterion of ductile versus brittle fracture.

  11. Conserved functions of the trigger loop and Gre factors in RNA cleavage by bacterial RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Miropolskaya, Nataliya; Esyunina, Daria; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey

    2017-02-27

    RNA cleavage by RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the central step in co-transcriptional RNA proofreading. Bacterial RNAPs were proposed to rely on the same mobile element of the active site, the trigger loop (TL), for both nucleotide addition and RNA cleavage. RNA cleavage can also be stimulated by universal Gre factors, which should replace the TL to get access to the RNAP active site. The contributions of the TL and Gre factors to RNA cleavage reportedly vary between RNAPs from different bacterial species and, probably, different types of transcription complexes. Here, by comparing RNAPs from Escherichia coli (Eco), Deinococcus radiodurans (Dra) and Thermus aquaticus (Taq) we show that the functions of the TL and Gre factors in RNA cleavage are conserved in various species, with important variations which may be related to extremophilic adaptation. Deletions of the TL strongly impair intrinsic RNA cleavage by all three RNAPs and eliminate the inter-species differences in the reaction rates. GreA factors activate RNA cleavage by wild-type RNAPs to similar levels. The rates of GreA-dependent cleavage are lower for ΔTL RNAP variants, suggesting that the TL contributes to the Gre function. Finally, neither the TL nor GreA can efficiently activate RNA cleavage in certain types of backtracked transcription complexes suggesting that these complexes adopt a catalytically inactive conformation probably important for transcription regulation.

  12. Embryo apoptosis identification: Oocyte grade or cleavage stage?

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Noraina Mohd; Ibrahim, Siti Fatimah; Osman, Nurul Atikah; Hasan, Nurhaslina; Jaffar, Farah Hanan Fathihah; Rahman, Zulaiha Abdul; Osman, Khairul

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a programed cell death that is vital for tissue homeostasis. However, embryo apoptosis had been known to be related to embryo fragmentation which should be avoided in in vitro fertilization (IVF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of embryo apoptosis with the grade of immature oocytes and cleavage stage of in vitro produced (IVP) cattle embryos. This study consisted of 345 oocytes collected through ovary slicing. Immature oocytes were graded as A, B and C. This grading was based on cumulus cell thickness and compactness. All oocytes then underwent an in vitro maturation (IVM) procedure. An IVF was done 24 h after IVM culture. Prior to staining, stage of cleaved embryos was determined and classified as either 2, 4, 8 or >8-cell embryo stage. Apoptosis status of cleaved IVP embryos was determined by using annexin V-FITC staining technique at 48 and 72 h post insemination (hpi). Apoptosis status for each embryo was classified as either early or late. The result showed that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status among grade A, B and C embryos. All grades of oocytes showed embryo apoptosis where 1.5% late apoptosis for grade A, 4.5% and 10.4% of early and late apoptosis for grade B and grade C. Early apoptosis was not seen in grade A embryo. We also noted no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status between 2, 4, 8 and >8-cell embryo stage. Early apoptosis was also not seen in >8-cell stage. Even though there were no differences in apoptosis expression between the three classes, the cleavage rate of grade A oocytes was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than grade B and grade C. In conclusion, the apoptosis expression in the embryo can occur regardless of the oocyte quality and the cleavage stage of the embryo produced. PMID:26858565

  13. Hydrolytic cleavage of DNA-model substrates promoted by polyoxovanadates.

    PubMed

    Steens, Nele; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Absillis, Gregory; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2010-01-14

    Hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate (NPP) and bis-4-nitrophenyl phosphate (BNPP), two commonly used DNA model substrates, was examined in vanadate solutions by means of (1)H, (31)P and (51)V NMR spectroscopy. The hydrolysis of the phosphoester bond in NPP at 50 degrees C and pH 5.0 proceeds with a rate constant of 1.74 x 10(-5) s(-1). The cleavage of the phosphoester bond in BNPP at 70 degrees C and pH 5.0 proceeds with a rate constant of 3.32 x 10(-6) s(-1), representing an acceleration of four orders of magnitude compared to the uncatalyzed cleavage. Inorganic phosphate and nitrophenol (NP) were the only products of hydrolysis. The NMR spectra did not show evidence of any paramagnetic species, excluding the possibility of V(V) reduction to V(IV), indicating that the cleavage of the phosphoester bond is purely hydrolytic. The pH dependence of k(obs) revealed that the hydrolysis proceeds fastest in solutions of pH 5.5. Comparison of the rate profile with the concentration profile of polyoxovanadates shows a striking overlap of the k(obs) profile with the concentration of decavanadate (V(10)). Kinetic experiments at 37 degrees C using a fixed amount of NPP and increasing amounts of V(10) permitted the calculation of catalytic (k(c) = 5.67 x 10(-6) s(-1)) and formation constants for the NPP-V(10) complex (K(f) = 71.53 M(-1)). Variable temperature (31)P NMR spectra of a reaction mixture revealed broadening and shifting of the (31)P resonance upon addition of increasing amounts of decavanadate and upon increasing temperature, implying the dynamic exchange process between free and bound NPP at higher temperatures. The origin of the hydrolytic activity of V(10) is most likely due its high lability and its dissociation into smaller fragments which may allow the attachment of NPP and BNPP into the polyoxovanadate framework.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Honeybee (Apis Mellifera) Haploid and Diploid Embryos Reveals Early Zygotic Transcription during Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Camilla Valente; Freitas, Flávia Cristina de Paula; Cristino, Alexandre S.; Dearden, Peter K.; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2016-01-01

    In honeybees, the haplodiploid sex determination system promotes a unique embryogenesis process wherein females develop from fertilized eggs and males develop from unfertilized eggs. However, the developmental strategies of honeybees during early embryogenesis are virtually unknown. Similar to most animals, the honeybee oocytes are supplied with proteins and regulatory elements that support early embryogenesis. As the embryo develops, the zygotic genome is activated and zygotic products gradually replace the preloaded maternal material. The analysis of small RNA and mRNA libraries of mature oocytes and embryos originated from fertilized and unfertilized eggs has allowed us to explore the gene expression dynamics in the first steps of development and during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). We localized a short sequence motif identified as TAGteam motif and hypothesized to play a similar role in honeybees as in fruit flies, which includes the timing of early zygotic expression (MZT), a function sustained by the presence of the zelda ortholog, which is the main regulator of genome activation. Predicted microRNA (miRNA)-target interactions indicated that there were specific regulators of haploid and diploid embryonic development and an overlap of maternal and zygotic gene expression during the early steps of embryogenesis. Although a number of functions are highly conserved during the early steps of honeybee embryogenesis, the results showed that zygotic genome activation occurs earlier in honeybees than in Drosophila based on the presence of three primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) (ame-mir-375, ame-mir-34 and ame-mir-263b) during the cleavage stage in haploid and diploid embryonic development. PMID:26751956

  15. Mechanism of Cytoplasmic mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a fundamental process in gene expression that depends upon the abundance and accessibility of the mRNA transcript as well as the activity of many protein and RNA-protein complexes. Here we focus on the intricate mechanics of mRNA translation in the cytoplasm of higher plants. This chapter includes an inventory of the plant translational apparatus and a detailed review of the translational processes of initiation, elongation, and termination. The majority of mechanistic studies of cytoplasmic translation have been carried out in yeast and mammalian systems. The factors and mechanisms of translation are for the most part conserved across eukaryotes; however, some distinctions are known to exist in plants. A comprehensive understanding of the complex translational apparatus and its regulation in plants is warranted, as the modulation of protein production is critical to development, environmental plasticity and biomass yield in diverse ecosystems and agricultural settings. PMID:26019692

  16. The Pumilio-domain protein PUF6 contributes to SIDER2 retroposon-mediated mRNA decay in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Hiva; Dumas, Carole; Papadopoulou, Barbara

    2017-09-06

    Leishmania and other trypanosomatid protozoa lack control at the level of transcription initiation and regulate gene expression exclusively posttranscriptionally. We have reported previously that Leishmania harbors a unique class of Short Interspersed DEgenerate Retroposons (SIDERs) that are predominantly located within 3'UTRs and play a major role in posttranscriptional control. We have shown that members of the SIDER2 subfamily initiate mRNA decay through endonucleolytic cleavage within the second conserved 79-nt signature sequence of SIDER2 retroposons. Here, we have developed an optimized MS2 coat protein tethering system to capture trans-acting factor(s) regulating SIDER2-mediated mRNA decay. Tethering of the MS2 coat protein to a reporter RNA harboring two MS2 stem loop aptamers and the cognate SIDER2-containing 3'UTR in combination with immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis led to the identification of RNA-binding proteins with known functions in mRNA decay. Amongst the candidate SIDER2-interacting proteins that were individually tethered to a SIDER2 reporter RNA, the Pumilio-domain protein PUF6 was shown to enhance degradation and reduce transcript half-life. Furthermore, we showed that PUF6 binds to SIDER2 sequences that include the regulatory 79-nt signature motif, hence contributing to the mRNA decay process. Consistent with a role of PUF6 in SIDER2-mediated decay, genetic inactivation of PUF6 resulted in increased accumulation and higher stability of endogenous SIDER2-bearing transcripts. Overall, these studies provide new insights into regulated mRNA decay pathways in Leishmania controlled by SIDER2 retroposons and propose a broader role for PUF proteins in mRNA decay within eukaryotic kingdom. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  17. Posttranscriptional control of bacteriophage lambda gene expression from a site distal to the gene.

    PubMed Central

    Guarneros, G; Montañez, C; Hernandez, T; Court, D

    1982-01-01

    The bacteriophage lambda int gene product, integrase, recombines the phage DNA with the host DNA at specific sites on each to accomplish lysogeny. The int gene is transcribed from two promoters, PL and PI, each regulated positively by lambda proteins. The expression of integrase is also controlled from a site, sib, in the b region of the phage genome. This is a unique regulatory site because it is located distal to the structural gene in relation to the promoters. The expression of int from the PL promoter is inhibited when sib is present. This effect appears to be specific for PL because sib does not cause inhibition of PI-dependent int synthesis. lambda mutants that contain alterations in the site have been isolated. Sequence analyses of the mutations reveal single base changes, spanning 37 base pairs (bp) in the b region, some 240 bp beyond the int gene. Another mutant, hef13, which has a phenotype similar to that of sib, introduces a nucleotide change within the same 37-bp region. The sib and hef mutations cluster within a region of dyad symmetry. Regulation of int synthesis by sib occurs after transcription of the int gene. There is no difference in the rate of PL-promoted int mRNA synthesis in either sib+ or sib- phage infections, yet int mRNA is less stable in the sib+ infection. Because RNase III host mutants are defective in sib regulation, processing of the PL mRNA at sib by this endoribonuclease may cause int mRNA decay and decrease int synthesis. PMID:6281759

  18. Staufen-mediated mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eonyoung; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2013-01-01

    Staufen1 (STAU1)-mediated mRNA decay (SMD) is an mRNA degradation process in mammalian cells that is mediated by the binding of STAU1 to a STAU1-binding site (SBS) within the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of target mRNAs. During SMD, STAU1, a double-stranded (ds) RNA-binding protein, recognizes dsRNA structures formed either by intramolecular base-pairing of 3'UTR sequences or by intermolecular base-pairing of 3'UTR sequences with a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) via partially complementary Alu elements. Recently, STAU2, a paralog of STAU1, has also been reported to mediate SMD. Both STAU1 and STAU2 interact directly with the ATP-dependent RNA helicase UPF1, a key SMD factor, enhancing its helicase activity to promote effective SMD. Moreover, STAU1 and STAU2 form homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions via domain-swapping. Since both SMD and the mechanistically related nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) employ UPF1, SMD and NMD are competitive pathways. Competition contributes to cellular differentiation processes, such as myogenesis and adipogenesis, placing SMD at the heart of various physiologically important mechanisms. PMID:23681777

  19. Antisense targeting of 3' end elements involved in DUX4 mRNA processing is an efficient therapeutic strategy for facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: a new gene-silencing approach.

    PubMed

    Marsollier, Anne-Charlotte; Ciszewski, Lukasz; Mariot, Virginie; Popplewell, Linda; Voit, Thomas; Dickson, George; Dumonceaux, Julie

    2016-04-15

    Defects in mRNA 3'end formation have been described to alter transcription termination, transport of the mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, stability of the mRNA and translation efficiency. Therefore, inhibition of polyadenylation may lead to gene silencing. Here, we choose facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) as a model to determine whether or not targeting key 3' end elements involved in mRNA processing using antisense oligonucleotide drugs can be used as a strategy for gene silencing within a potentially therapeutic context. FSHD is a gain-of-function disease characterized by the aberrant expression of the Double homeobox 4 (DUX4) transcription factor leading to altered pathogenic deregulation of multiple genes in muscles. Here, we demonstrate that targeting either the mRNA polyadenylation signal and/or cleavage site is an efficient strategy to down-regulate DUX4 expression and to decrease the abnormally high-pathological expression of genes downstream of DUX4. We conclude that targeting key functional 3' end elements involved in pre-mRNA to mRNA maturation with antisense drugs can lead to efficient gene silencing and is thus a potentially effective therapeutic strategy for at least FSHD. Moreover, polyadenylation is a crucial step in the maturation of almost all eukaryotic mRNAs, and thus all mRNAs are virtually eligible for this antisense-mediated knockdown strategy.

  20. The vegetally localized mRNA fatvg is associated with the germ plasm in the early embryo and is later expressed in the fat body.

    PubMed

    Chan, A P; Kloc, M; Bilinski, S; Etkin, L D

    2001-01-01

    Vegetally localized RNAs in Xenopus oocytes have been implicated in the establishment of the primary germ layers and the formation and development of the primordial germ cells. fatvg mRNA is localized through the late pathway to the vegetal cortex. Like Vg1 mRNA fatvg is distributed throughout the entire cortex; however, unlike Vg1 there is a small fraction of the fatvg mRNA that is associated with the mitochondrial cloud. In early cleavage stage embryos, fatvg mRNA is associated with the germ plasm located at the tips of the vegetal blastomeres of the embryo. While several localized RNAs that follow the Message Transport Organizer (METRO) pathway have been found in the germ plasm in embryos, fatvg is a late pathway RNA that is associated with the germ plasm. In tadpoles, fatvg mRNA shows a novel pattern of expression which is distinct from the germ cell lineage and is detected at the dorso-anterior margin of the endodermal mass along the midline in two clusters of cells. fatvg mRNA expression is also detected later in the developing fat bodies, the major adipose tissues of the frog.

  1. Regulation of DNA Replication in Early Embryonic Cleavages

    PubMed Central

    Kermi, Chames; Lo Furno, Elena; Maiorano, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Early embryonic cleavages are characterized by short and highly synchronous cell cycles made of alternating S- and M-phases with virtually absent gap phases. In this contracted cell cycle, the duration of DNA synthesis can be extraordinarily short. Depending on the organism, the whole genome of an embryo is replicated at a speed that is between 20 to 60 times faster than that of a somatic cell. Because transcription in the early embryo is repressed, DNA synthesis relies on a large stockpile of maternally supplied proteins stored in the egg representing most, if not all, cellular genes. In addition, in early embryonic cell cycles, both replication and DNA damage checkpoints are inefficient. In this article, we will review current knowledge on how DNA synthesis is regulated in early embryos and discuss possible consequences of replicating chromosomes with little or no quality control. PMID:28106858

  2. Dinitrogen cleavage and hydrogenation by a trinuclear titanium polyhydride complex.

    PubMed

    Shima, Takanori; Hu, Shaowei; Luo, Gen; Kang, Xiaohui; Luo, Yi; Hou, Zhaomin

    2013-06-28

    Both the Haber-Bosch and biological ammonia syntheses are thought to rely on the cooperation of multiple metals in breaking the strong N≡N triple bond and forming an N-H bond. This has spurred investigations of the reactivity of molecular multimetallic hydrides with dinitrogen. We report here the reaction of a trinuclear titanium polyhydride complex with dinitrogen, which induces dinitrogen cleavage and partial hydrogenation at ambient temperature and pressure. By (1)H and (15)N nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray crystallographic, and computational studies of some key reaction steps and products, we have determined that the dinitrogen (N2) reduction proceeds sequentially through scission of a N2 molecule bonded to three Ti atoms in a μ-η(1):η(2):η(2)-end-on-side-on fashion to give a μ2-N/μ3-N dinitrido species, followed by intramolecular hydrogen migration from Ti to the μ2-N nitrido unit.

  3. Catalyzed hydrolytic cleavage reaction of carbon-carbon bond

    SciTech Connect

    Ioffe, I.I.; Rubinskaya, E.V.

    1986-12-01

    The authors split the carbon-carbon bond for a series of simple and complex organic compounds in neutral aqueous solutions on a heterogeneous metal-containing catalyst, palladium on carbon. The experimental results are given. In each case, the catalytic effect was controlled by a blank experiment, without a catalyst, where there was no decomposition of the substrate. The occurrence of the heterogeneous-catalytic cleavage reaction of the carbon-carbon bonds in the molecules is indicated not only by their extensive conversion, but also by the almost complete depletion of the content of organic carbon, confirmed by a similar decrease in the chemical consumption of oxygen coefficient in the system, which is possible only in the complete decomposition of the organic compounds to gaseous products or with the formation of inappreciable amounts of low-molecular-weight water-soluble compounds.

  4. Repetitive cleavage of elastomeric membrane via controlled interfacial fracture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Hun; Choi, Yong Whan; Kim, Min Sung; Um, Hyung Sik; Lee, Sung Hoon; Kim, Pilnam; Suh, Kahp-Yang

    2014-07-23

    Here, we report a method of fabricating thin layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), with a thickness in the range of 60-80 nm, which can be repeatedly generated (more than 10 times) from the same block of PDMS via controlled interfacial fracture. The thin layers can be transferred to various substrates by peeling off from the bulk PDMS. The cleavage is attributed to the built-in stress at the fracture interface due to plasma treatment, resulting in the repetitive formation of the thin membranes, with no residue from processing, and with a surface roughness of ∼5 nm. We were able to demonstrate transferred patterns with controlled thickness by varying the oxygen plasma treatment conditions and the composition of bulk PDMS stamp. Using the method, we achieved residual-free patterns with submicrometer resolution for applications in biomolecule array templates.

  5. Intramolecular Aminocyanation of Alkenes via N–CN Bond Cleavage**

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhongda; Pound, Sarah M.; Rondla, Naveen R.; Douglas, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    A metal-free, Lewis acid-promoted intramolecular aminocyanation of alkenes was developed. B(C6F5)3 activates N-sulfonyl cyanamides, leading an formal cleavage of the N-CN bonds in conjunction with vicinal addition of sulfonamide and nitrile groups across an alkene. This method enables atom-economical access to indolines and tetrahydroquinolines in excellent yields, and provides a complementary strategy for regioselective alkene difunctionalizations with sulfonamide and nitrile groups. Labeling experiments with 13C suggest a fully intramolecular cyclization pattern due to lack of label scrambling in double crossover experiments. Catalysis with Lewis acid is realized and the reaction can be conducted under air. PMID:24719371

  6. Intramolecular aminocyanation of alkenes by N-CN bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhongda; Pound, Sarah M; Rondla, Naveen R; Douglas, Christopher J

    2014-05-12

    A metal-free, Lewis acid promoted intramolecular aminocyanation of alkenes was developed. B(C6F5)3 activates N-sulfonyl cyanamides, thus leading to a formal cleavage of the N-CN bonds in conjunction with vicinal addition of sulfonamide and nitrile groups across an alkene. This method enables atom-economical access to indolines and tetrahydroquinolines in excellent yields, and provides a complementary strategy for regioselective alkene difunctionalizations with sulfonamide and nitrile groups. Labeling experiments with (13)C suggest a fully intramolecular cyclization pattern due to the lack of label scrambling in double crossover experiments. Catalysis with Lewis acid is realized and the reaction can be conducted under air. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Cleavage fracture of austenite induced by nitrogen supersaturation

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, J.B.; Messai, A.; Foct, J. . Lab. de Metallurgie Physique)

    1994-09-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and more generally FCC structure materials are good candidates for cryogenic applications because they remain ductile at low temperatures. In some cases, brittleness may occasionally occur in severe and specific conditions such as hydrogen embrittlement or during stress corrosion cracking at low strain rates. The present study shows that the brittleness observed in the P900 austenitic stainless steel is associated with the presence of a high amount of nitrogen atoms. Brittle fracture occurs both intergranularly and transgranularly. Cleavage mostly on [111] planes is associated with marked slip but with the absence of rivers. The occurrence of a DBTT is explained by the converse variations of brittle rupture stress and flow stress against nitrogen content. The flow stress increases and is mainly controlled by a short range which leads the stress for brittle rupture to be reached before the plastic flow stress.

  8. Cleavage of an amide bond by a ribozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, X.; De Mesmaeker, A.; Joyce, G. F.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    A variant form of a group I ribozyme, optimized by in vitro evolution for its ability to catalyze magnesium-dependent phosphoester transfer reactions involving DNA substrates, also catalyzes the cleavage of an unactivated alkyl amide when that linkage is presented in the context of an oligodeoxynucleotide analog. Substrates containing an amide bond that joins either two DNA oligos, or a DNA oligo and a short peptide, are cleaved in a magnesium-dependent fashion to generate the expected products. The first-order rate constant, kcat, is 0.1 x 10(-5) min-1 to 1 x 10(-5) min-1 for the DNA-flanked substrates, which corresponds to a rate acceleration of more than 10(3) as compared with the uncatalyzed reaction.

  9. Enzymic Pathways for Formation of Carotenoid Cleavage Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischmann, Peter; Zorn, Holger

    Degraded carotenoids (apocarotenoids, norisoprenoids) have been a subject of intensive research for several decades. From the perspective of human physiology and nutrition, the retinoids, acting as vitamins, signalling molecules, and visual pigments, attracted the greatest attention (Chapters 15 and 16). Plant scientists, however, detected a wealth of different apocarotenoids, presumably derived by the excentric cleavage of carotenoids in various species, the plant hormone abscisic acid (1, Scheme 6) being the best-investigated example. With the onset of fruit ripening, flower opening or senescence of green tissues, carotenoids are degraded oxidatively to smaller, volatile compounds. The natural biological functions of the reaction products are outlined in Chapter 15. As many of these apocarotenoids act as potent flavour compounds, food chemists and flavourists worldwide have investigated meticulously their structural and sensory properties. Many aspects of carotenoid metabolites and breakdown products as aroma compounds are presented in a comprehensive book [1].

  10. Catalysts of DNA Strand Cleavage at Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Minko, Irina G.; Jacobs, Aaron C.; de Leon, Arnie R.; Gruppi, Francesca; Donley, Nathan; Harris, Thomas M.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; McCullough, Amanda K.; Lloyd, R. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are constantly formed in cellular DNA due to instability of the glycosidic bond, particularly at purines and various oxidized, alkylated, or otherwise damaged nucleobases. AP sites are also generated by DNA glycosylases that initiate DNA base excision repair. These lesions represent a significant block to DNA replication and are extremely mutagenic. Some DNA glycosylases possess AP lyase activities that nick the DNA strand at the deoxyribose moiety via a β- or β,δ-elimination reaction. Various amines can incise AP sites via a similar mechanism, but this non-enzymatic cleavage typically requires high reagent concentrations. Herein, we describe a new class of small molecules that function at low micromolar concentrations as both β- and β,δ-elimination catalysts at AP sites. Structure-activity relationships have established several characteristics that appear to be necessary for the formation of an iminium ion intermediate that self-catalyzes the elimination at the deoxyribose ring. PMID:27363485

  11. Cleavage of an amide bond by a ribozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, X.; De Mesmaeker, A.; Joyce, G. F.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    A variant form of a group I ribozyme, optimized by in vitro evolution for its ability to catalyze magnesium-dependent phosphoester transfer reactions involving DNA substrates, also catalyzes the cleavage of an unactivated alkyl amide when that linkage is presented in the context of an oligodeoxynucleotide analog. Substrates containing an amide bond that joins either two DNA oligos, or a DNA oligo and a short peptide, are cleaved in a magnesium-dependent fashion to generate the expected products. The first-order rate constant, kcat, is 0.1 x 10(-5) min-1 to 1 x 10(-5) min-1 for the DNA-flanked substrates, which corresponds to a rate acceleration of more than 10(3) as compared with the uncatalyzed reaction.

  12. Structural determinants of RNA recognition and cleavage by Dicer.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Ian J; Zhou, Kaihong; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2007-10-01

    A hallmark of RNA interference is the production of short double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules 21-28 nucleotides in length by the specialized RNase III protein Dicer. Dicer enzymes uniquely generate RNA products of specific lengths by mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. Here we show that the PAZ domain responsible for dsRNA end recognition confers this measuring ability through both its structural position and RNA-binding specificity. Point mutations define the dsRNA-binding surface and reveal a protein loop important for cleavage of substrates containing perfect or imperfect base pairing. On the basis of these results, we reengineered Dicer with a U1A RNA-binding domain in place of the PAZ domain to create an enzyme with altered end-recognition specificity and RNA product length. These results explain how Dicer functions as a molecular ruler and provide a structural basis for modifying its activity in cells.

  13. Uncovering the Protocatechuate 2,3-Cleavage Pathway Genes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Daisuke; Fujinami, Toshihiro; Abe, Tomokuni; Mase, Kohei; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao; Masai, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. (formerly Bacillus macerans) strain JJ-1b is able to grow on 4-hydroxybenzoate (4HB) as a sole source of carbon and energy and is known to degrade 4HB via the protocatechuate (PCA) 2,3-cleavage pathway. However, none of the genes involved in this pathway have been identified. In this study, we identified and characterized the JJ-1b genes for the 4HB catabolic pathway via the PCA 2,3-cleavage pathway, which consisted of praR and praABEGFDCHI. Based on the enzyme activities of cell extracts of Escherichia coli carrying praI, praA, praH, praB, praC, and praD, these genes were found to code for 4HB 3-hydroxylase, PCA 2,3-dioxygenase, 5-carboxy-2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase, 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 4-oxalocrotonate (OCA) tautomerase, and OCA decarboxylase, respectively, which are involved in the conversion of 4HB into 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate (HPD). The praE, praF, and praG gene products exhibited 45 to 61% amino acid sequence identity to the corresponding enzymes responsible for the catabolism of HPD to pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A. The deduced amino acid sequence of praR showed similarity with those of IclR-type transcriptional regulators. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that praABEGFDCHI constitute an operon, and these genes were expressed during the growth of JJ-1b on 4HB and PCA. praR-praABEGFDCHI conferred the ability to grow on 4HB to E. coli, suggesting that praEGF were functional for the conversion of HPD to pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A. A promoter analysis suggested that praR encodes a repressor of the pra operon. PMID:19717587

  14. Genetic Association of the Glycine Cleavage System Genes and Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rita H.; Northrup, Hope; Hixson, James E.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Au, Kit Sing

    2016-01-01

    Background Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common congenital birth defects, with myelomeningocele (MM) being the most severe form compatible with life. Recent studies show a link between mitochondrial folate one carbon metabolism and NTDs via the glycine cleavage system (GCS). We hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and novel variants in the coding regions of the GCS genes increase the risk for MM. Methods DNA was obtained from 96 subjects with MM born before the United States mandated folic acid fortification of grains in 1998. Primers were designed for PCR amplification and sequencing of all exons in the AMT gene, one of four genes in the GCS, followed by identification of SNPs and novel variants. An additional 252 MM subjects underwent whole exome sequencing to examine all four GCS genes (aminomethyltransferase, glycine dehydrogenase, glycine cleavage system protein-H, and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase). Results We identified six novel, heterozygous variants in the AMT gene with three predicted to be deleterious to AMT function (p.Val7Leu, p.Pro251Arg, and p.Val380Met). Five extremely rare, known heterozygous variants were found in the AMT gene and one in the GLDC gene. No novel variants in the exons of the other two GCS genes (DLD and GCSH) were identified. Conclusions We identified novel and rare, known variants in two of the four GCS genes that may contribute to the development of MM. Consistent with previous findings, the current study provides additional support that genetic variations in GCS genes contribute to the risk of NTDs. PMID:27620832

  15. Ultrarapid mutation detection by multiplex, solid-phase chemical cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, G.; Saad, S.; Giannelli, F.; Green, P.M.

    1995-12-10

    The chemical cleavage of mismatches in heteroduplexes formed by probe and test DNA detects and locates any sequence change in long DNA segments ({approximately}1.8 kb), and its efficiency has been well tested in the analysis of both average (e.g., coagulation factor IX) and large, complex genes (e.g., coagulation factor VIII and dystrophin). In the latter application RT/PCR products allow the examination of all essential sequences of the gene in a minimum number of reactions. We use two specific chemical reactants (hydroxylamine and osmium tetroxide) and piperidine cleavage of the above procedure to develop a very fast mutation screening method. This is based on: (1) 5{prime} or internal fluorescent labeling to allow concurrent screening of three to four DNA fragments and (2) solid-phase chemistry to use a microliter format and reduce the time required for the procedure, from amplification of sequence to gel loading inclusive, to one person-working-day. We test the two variations of the method, one entailing 5{prime} labeling of probe DNA and the other uniform labeling of both probe and target DNA, by detecting 114 known hemophilia B (coagulation factor IX) mutations and by analyzing 129 new patients. Uniform labeling of both probe and target DNA prior to formation of the heteroduplexes leads to almost twofold redundancy in the ability to detect mutations. Alternatively, the latter procedure may offer very efficient though less than 100% screening for sequence changes with only hydroxylamine. The full method with two chemical reactions (hydroxylamine and osmium tetroxide) should allow one person to screen with virtually 100% accuracy more than 300 kb of sequence in three ABI 373 gels in 1 day. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Identification of TMPRSS6 cleavage sites of hemojuvelin

    PubMed Central

    Rausa, Marco; Ghitti, Michela; Pagani, Alessia; Nai, Antonella; Campanella, Alessandro; Musco, Giovanna; Camaschella, Clara; Silvestri, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Hemojuvelin (HJV), the coreceptor of the BMP-SMAD pathway that up-regulates hepcidin transcription, is a repulsive guidance molecule (RGMc) which undergoes a complex intracellular processing. Following autoproteolysis, it is exported to the cell surface both as a full-length and a heterodimeric protein. In vitro membrane HJV (m-HJV) is cleaved by the transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS6 to attenuate signalling and to inhibit hepcidin expression. In this study, we investigated the number and position of HJV cleavage sites by mutagenizing arginine residues (R), potential TMPRSS6 targets, to alanine (A). We analysed translation and membrane expression of HJV R mutants and the pattern of fragments they release in the culture media in the presence of TMPRSS6. Abnormal fragments were observed for mutants at arginine 121, 176, 218, 288 and 326. Considering that all variants, except HJVR121A, lack autoproteolytic activity and some (HJVR176A and HJVR288A) are expressed at reduced levels on cell surface, we identified the fragments originating from either full-length or heterodimeric proteins and defined the residues 121 and 326 as the TMPRSS6 cleavage sites in both isoforms. Using the N-terminal FLAG-tagged HJV, we showed that residue 121 is critical also in the rearrangement of the N-terminal heterodimeric HJV. Exploiting the recently reported RGMb crystallographic structure, we generated a model of HJV that was used as input structure for all-atoms molecular dynamics simulation in explicit solvent. As assessed by in silico studies, we concluded that some arginines in the von Willebrand domain appear TMPRSS6 insensitive, likely because of partial protein structure destabilization. PMID:25704252

  17. Chaperone-Assisted Protein Folding Is Critical for Yellow Fever Virus NS3/4A Cleavage and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Bozzacco, Leonia; Yi, Zhigang; Andreo, Ursula; Conklin, Claire R.; Li, Melody M. H.; Rice, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNAJC14, a heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40) cochaperone, assists with Hsp70-mediated protein folding. Overexpressed DNAJC14 is targeted to sites of yellow fever virus (YFV) replication complex (RC) formation, where it interacts with viral nonstructural (NS) proteins and inhibits viral RNA replication. How RCs are assembled and the roles of chaperones in this coordinated process are largely unknown. We hypothesized that chaperones are diverted from their normal cellular protein quality control function to play similar roles during viral infection. Here, we show that DNAJC14 overexpression affects YFV polyprotein processing and alters RC assembly. We monitored YFV NS2A-5 polyprotein processing by the viral NS2B-3 protease in DNAJC14-overexpressing cells. Notably, DNAJC14 mutants that did not inhibit YFV replication had minimal effects on polyprotein processing, while overexpressed wild-type DNAJC14 affected the NS3/4A and NS4A/2K cleavage sites, resulting in altered NS3-to-NS3-4A ratios. This suggests that DNAJC14's folding activity normally modulates NS3/4A/2K cleavage events to liberate appropriate levels of NS3 and NS4A and promote RC formation. We introduced amino acid substitutions at the NS3/4A site to alter the levels of the NS3 and NS4A products and examined their effects on YFV replication. Residues with reduced cleavage efficiency did not support viral RNA replication, and only revertant viruses with a restored wild-type arginine or lysine residue at the NS3/4A site were obtained. We conclude that DNAJC14 inhibition of RC formation upon DNAJC14 overexpression is likely due to chaperone dysregulation and that YFV probably utilizes DNAJC14's cochaperone function to modulate processing at the NS3/4A site as a mechanism ensuring virus replication. IMPORTANCE Flaviviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that cause a wide range of illnesses. Upon host cell entry, the viral genome is translated on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes to produce a single

  18. S1 ribosomal protein and the interplay between translation and mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Delvillani, Francesco; Papiani, Giulia; Dehò, Gianni; Briani, Federica

    2011-01-01

    S1 is an ‘atypical’ ribosomal protein weakly associated with the 30S subunit that has been implicated in translation, transcription and control of RNA stability. S1 is thought to participate in translation initiation complex formation by assisting 30S positioning in the translation initiation region, but little is known about its role in other RNA transactions. In this work, we have analysed in vivo the effects of different intracellular S1 concentrations, from depletion to overexpression, on translation, decay and intracellular distribution of leadered and leaderless messenger RNAs (mRNAs). We show that the cspE mRNA, like the rpsO transcript, may be cleaved by RNase E at multiple sites, whereas the leaderless cspE transcript may also be degraded via an alternative pathway by an unknown endonuclease. Upon S1 overexpression, RNase E-dependent decay of both cspE and rpsO mRNAs is suppressed and these transcripts are stabilized, whereas cleavage of leaderless cspE mRNA by the unidentified endonuclease is not affected. Overall, our data suggest that ribosome-unbound S1 may inhibit translation and that part of the Escherichia coli ribosomes may actually lack S1. PMID:21685451

  19. KSHV SOX mediated host shutoff: the molecular mechanism underlying mRNA transcript processing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunah; Patschull, Anathe O.M.; Bagnéris, Claire; Ryan, Hannah; Sanderson, Christopher M.; Ebrahimi, Bahram; Nobeli, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Onset of the lytic phase in the KSHV life cycle is accompanied by the rapid, global degradation of host (and viral) mRNA transcripts in a process termed host shutoff. Key to this destruction is the virally encoded alkaline exonuclease SOX. While SOX has been shown to possess an intrinsic RNase activity and a potential consensus sequence for endonucleolytic cleavage identified, the structures of the RNA substrates targeted remained unclear. Based on an analysis of three reported target transcripts, we were able to identify common structures and confirm that these are indeed degraded by SOX in vitro as well as predict the presence of such elements in the KSHV pre-microRNA transcript K12-2. From these studies, we were able to determine the crystal structure of SOX productively bound to a 31 nucleotide K12-2 fragment. This complex not only reveals the structural determinants required for RNA recognition and degradation but, together with biochemical and biophysical studies, reveals distinct roles for residues implicated in host shutoff. Our results further confirm that SOX and the host exoribonuclease Xrn1 act in concert to elicit the rapid degradation of mRNA substrates observed in vivo, and that the activities of the two ribonucleases are co-ordinated. PMID:28132029

  20. From polyadenylation to splicing: Dual role for mRNA 3' end formation factors.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ashish; Green, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Recent genome-wide protein-RNA interaction studies have significantly reshaped our understanding of the role of mRNA 3' end formation factors in RNA biology. Originally thought to function solely in mediating cleavage and polyadenylation of mRNAs during their maturation, 3' end formation factors have now been shown to play a role in alternative splicing, even at internal introns--an unanticipated role for factors thought only to act at the 3' end of the mRNA. Here, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the role of 3' end formation factors in promoting global changes in alternative splicing at internal exon-intron junctions and how they act as cofactors for well known splicing regulators. Additionally, we review the mechanism by which these factors affect the recruitment of early intron recognition components to the 5' and 3' splice site. Our understanding of the roles of 3' end formation factors is still evolving, and the final picture might be more complex than originally envisioned.

  1. Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Protein (SREBP) Cleavage Regulates Golgi-to-Endoplasmic Reticulum Recycling of SREBP Cleavage-activating Protein (SCAP)*

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wei; Espenshade, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors are central regulators of cellular lipogenesis. Release of membrane-bound SREBP requires SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) to escort SREBP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi for cleavage by site-1 and site-2 proteases. SCAP then recycles to the ER for additional rounds of SREBP binding and transport. Mechanisms regulating ER-to-Golgi transport of SCAP-SREBP are understood in molecular detail, but little is known about SCAP recycling. Here, we have demonstrated that SCAP Golgi-to-ER transport requires cleavage of SREBP at site-1. Reductions in SREBP cleavage lead to SCAP degradation in lysosomes, providing additional negative feedback control to the SREBP pathway. Current models suggest that SREBP plays a passive role prior to cleavage. However, we show that SREBP actively prevents premature recycling of SCAP-SREBP until initiation of SREBP cleavage. SREBP regulates SCAP in human cells and yeast, indicating that this is an ancient regulatory mechanism. PMID:24478315

  2. Comparative and phylogenetic perspectives of the cleavage process in tailed amphibians.

    PubMed

    Desnitskiy, Alexey G; Litvinchuk, Spartak N

    2015-10-01

    The order Caudata includes about 660 species and displays a variety of important developmental traits such as cleavage pattern and egg size. However, the cleavage process of tailed amphibians has never been analyzed within a phylogenetic framework. We use published data on the embryos of 36 species concerning the character of the third cleavage furrow (latitudinal, longitudinal or variable) and the magnitude of synchronous cleavage period (up to 3-4 synchronous cell divisions in the animal hemisphere or a considerably longer series of synchronous divisions followed by midblastula transition). Several species from basal caudate families Cryptobranchidae (Andrias davidianus and Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) and Hynobiidae (Onychodactylus japonicus) as well as several representatives from derived families Plethodontidae (Desmognathus fuscus and Ensatina eschscholtzii) and Proteidae (Necturus maculosus) are characterized by longitudinal furrows of the third cleavage and the loss of synchrony as early as the 8-cell stage. By contrast, many representatives of derived families Ambystomatidae and Salamandridae have latitudinal furrows of the third cleavage and extensive period of synchronous divisions. Our analysis of these ontogenetic characters mapped onto a phylogenetic tree shows that the cleavage pattern of large, yolky eggs with short series of synchronous divisions is an ancestral trait for the tailed amphibians, while the data on the orientation of third cleavage furrows seem to be ambiguous with respect to phylogeny. Nevertheless, the midblastula transition, which is characteristic of the model species Ambystoma mexicanum (Caudata) and Xenopus laevis (Anura), might have evolved convergently in these two amphibian orders.

  3. Notch receptor cleavage depends on but is not directly executed by presenilins

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Karlström, Helena; Lundkvist, Johan; Mizutani, Tomohiko; Otaka, Akira; Vestling, Monica; Bernstein, Alan; Donoviel, Dorit; Lendahl, Urban; Honjo, Tasuku

    2002-01-01

    Notch receptors undergo three distinct proteolytic cleavages during maturation and activation. The third cleavage occurs within the plasma membrane and results in the release and translocation of the intracellular domain into the nucleus to execute Notch signaling. This so-called γ-secretase cleavage is under the control of presenilins, but it is not known whether presenilins themselves carry out the cleavage or whether they act by means of yet-unidentified γ-secretase(s). In this article, we show that Notch intracellular cleavage in intact cells completely depends on presenilins. In contrast, partial purification of the Notch cleavage activity reveals an activity, which is present only in protein extracts from presenilin-containing cells, and which does not comigrate with presenilin. This finding provides evidence for the existence of a specific Notch-processing activity, which is physically distinct from presenilins. We conclude from these experiments that presenilins are critically required for Notch intracellular cleavage but are not themselves directly mediating the cleavage. PMID:11891288

  4. Proteolytic Characteristics of Cathepsin D Related to the Recognition and Cleavage of Its Target Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Huiying; Lou, Xiaomin; Shan, Qiang; Zhang, Ju; Zhu, Xu; Zhang, Jia; Wang, Yang; Xie, Yingying; Xu, Ningzhi; Liu, Siqi

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsin D (CD) plays an important role in both biological and pathological processes, although the cleavage characteristics and substrate selection of CD have yet to be fully explored. We employed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify the CD cleavage sites in bovine serum albumin (BSA). We found that the hydrophobic residues at P1 were not only a preferential factor for CD cleavage but that the hydrophobicity at P1’ also contributed to CD recognition. The concept of hydrophobic scores of neighbors (HSN) was proposed to describe the hydrophobic microenvironment of CD recognition sites. The survey of CD cleavage characteristics in several proteins suggested that the HSN was a sensitive indicator for judging the favorable sites in peptides for CD cleavage, with HSN values of 0.5–1.0 representing a likely threshold. Ovalbumin (OVA), a protein resistant to CD cleavage in its native state, was easily cleaved by CD after denaturation, and the features of the cleaved peptides were quite similar to those found in BSA, where a higher HSN value indicated greater cleavability. We further conducted two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to find more proteins that were insensitive to CD cleavage in CD-knockdown cells. Based on an analysis of secondary and three-dimensional structures, we postulated that intact proteins with a structure consisting of all α-helices would be relatively accessible to CD cleavage. PMID:23840360

  5. Identification and characterization of the genomic termini and cleavage/packaging signals of gallid herpesvirus 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Herpesvirus replication within host cells produces concatameric genomic DNA which is cleaved into unit-length genomes and packaged into the capsid by a complex of proteins. The sites of cleavage have been identified for many herpesviruses and conserved signaling sequences involved in cleavage and p...

  6. GPS-CCD: A Novel Computational Program for the Prediction of Calpain Cleavage Sites

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xinjiao; Ma, Qian; Ren, Jian; Xue, Yu

    2011-01-01

    As one of the most essential post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, proteolysis, especially calpain-mediated cleavage, plays an important role in many biological processes, including cell death/apoptosis, cytoskeletal remodeling, and the cell cycle. Experimental identification of calpain targets with bona fide cleavage sites is fundamental for dissecting the molecular mechanisms and biological roles of calpain cleavage. In contrast to time-consuming and labor-intensive experimental approaches, computational prediction of calpain cleavage sites might more cheaply and readily provide useful information for further experimental investigation. In this work, we constructed a novel software package of GPS-CCD (Calpain Cleavage Detector) for the prediction of calpain cleavage sites, with an accuracy of 89.98%, sensitivity of 60.87% and specificity of 90.07%. With this software, we annotated potential calpain cleavage sites for hundreds of calpain substrates, for which the exact cleavage sites had not been previously determined. In this regard, GPS-CCD 1.0 is considered to be a useful tool for experimentalists. The online service and local packages of GPS-CCD 1.0 were implemented in JAVA and are freely available at: http://ccd.biocuckoo.org/. PMID:21533053

  7. Use of Divalent Metal Ions in the DNA Cleavage Reaction of Human Type II Topoisomerases†

    PubMed Central

    Deweese, Joseph E.; Burch, Amber M.; Burgin, Alex B.; Osheroff, Neil

    2009-01-01

    All type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions in order to cleave and ligate DNA. In order to further elucidate the mechanistic basis for these critical enzyme-mediated events, the role of the metal ion in the DNA cleavage reaction of human topoisomerase IIβ was characterized and compared to that of topoisomerase IIα. The present study utilized divalent metal ions with varying thiophilicities in conjunction with DNA cleavage substrates that substituted a sulfur atom for the 3′-bridging oxygen or the non-bridging oxygens of the scissile phosphate. Based on time courses of DNA cleavage, cation titrations, and metal ion mixing experiments, we propose the following model for the use of divalent metal ions by human type II topoisomerases. First, both enzymes employ a two-metal-ion mechanism to support DNA cleavage. Second, an interaction between one divalent metal ion and the 3′-bridging atom of the scissile phosphate greatly enhances enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage, most likely by stabilizing the leaving 3′-oxygen. Third, there is an important interaction between a divalent second metal ion and a non-bridging atom of the scissile phosphate that stimulates DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase IIβ. If this interaction exists in topoisomerase IIα, its effects on DNA cleavage are equivocal. This last aspect of the model highlights a difference in metal ion utilization during DNA cleavage mediated by human topoisomerase IIα and IIβ. PMID:19222228

  8. Transferring two grades I cleavage-stage embryo might not be a good protocol.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingzhao; Wang, Hui; Ma, Chun; Shi, Juanzi

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether transferring two grades I cleavage-stage embryo was suitable for the patients in the first fresh transfer. This study included 202 single grades I cleavage-stage, 229 single grades III cleavage-stage, 743 single excellent blastocyst, 522 double grades I cleavage-stage, and 596 double grades III cleavage-stage embryo transfers. Main clinical outcomes: clinical pregnancy and twin-pregnancy rate. Among single excellent blastocyst, single grades I and single grades III group, the clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in single excellent blastocyst group than single grades I and grades III group (67.16% versus 42.08% versus 23.97%; p < 0.001). When transferred double grades I cleavage-stage embryos, the clinical pregnancy rate reached 68.20% which was no significant difference compared with the single excellent blastocyst group (67.16%). However, the twin-pregnancy rate was significantly higher in double grades I group than double grades III and single excellent blastocyst group (43.26% versus 26.70% versus 0.60%; p < 0.001). Because of higher twin-pregnancy incidence rate, transferring two grades I cleavage-stage embryo might not be a good protocol. Extended culture to blastocyst-stage could be considered for the patient with only two grades I cleavage-stage embryos.

  9. DSP-PP Precursor Protein Cleavage by Tolloid-Related-1 Protein and by Bone Morphogenetic Protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Helena H.; Yee, Colin T.; Tang, Xu-na; Dong, Zhihong; Fuller, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and phosphophoryn (PP), acidic proteins critical to dentin mineralization, are translated from a single transcript as a DSP-PP precursor that undergoes specific proteolytic processing to generate DSP and PP. The cleavage mechanism continues to be controversial, in part because of the difficulty of obtaining DSP-PP from mammalian cells and dentin matrix. We have infected Sf9 cells with a recombinant baculovirus to produce large amounts of secreted DSP-PP240, a variant form of rat DSP-PP. Mass spectrometric analysis shows that DSP-PP240 secreted by Sf9 cells undergoes specific cleavage at the site predicted from the N-terminal sequence of PP extracted from dentin matrix: SMQG447↓D448DPN. DSP-PP240 is cleaved after secretion by a zinc-dependent activity secreted by Sf9 cells, generating DSP430 and PP240 products that are stable in the medium. DSP-PP processing activity is constitutively secreted by Sf9 cells, but secretion is diminished 3 days after infection. Using primers corresponding to the highly conserved catalytic domain of Drosophila melanogaster tolloid (a mammalian BMP1 homolog), we isolated a partial cDNA for a Spodopotera frugiperda tolloid-related-1 protein (TLR1) that is 78% identical to Drosophila TLR1 but only 65% identical to Drosophila tolloid. Tlr1 mRNA decreased rapidly in Sf9 cells after baculovirus infection and was undetectable 4d after infection, paralleling the observed decrease in secretion of the DSP-PP240 processing activity after infection. Human BMP1 is more similar to Sf9 and Drosophila TLR1 than to tolloid, and Sf9 TLR1 is more similar to BMP1 than to other mammalian homologs. Recombinant human BMP1 correctly processed baculovirus-expressed DSP-PP240 in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data suggest that the physiologically accurate cleavage of mammalian DSP-PP240 in the Sf9 cell system represents the action of a conserved processing enzyme and support the proposed role of BMP1 in processing DSP-PP in

  10. DSP-PP precursor protein cleavage by tolloid-related-1 protein and by bone morphogenetic protein-1.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Helena H; Yee, Colin T; Tang, Xu-Na; Dong, Zhihong; Fuller, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and phosphophoryn (PP), acidic proteins critical to dentin mineralization, are translated from a single transcript as a DSP-PP precursor that undergoes specific proteolytic processing to generate DSP and PP. The cleavage mechanism continues to be controversial, in part because of the difficulty of obtaining DSP-PP from mammalian cells and dentin matrix. We have infected Sf9 cells with a recombinant baculovirus to produce large amounts of secreted DSP-PP(240), a variant form of rat DSP-PP. Mass spectrometric analysis shows that DSP-PP(240) secreted by Sf9 cells undergoes specific cleavage at the site predicted from the N-terminal sequence of PP extracted from dentin matrix: SMQG(447)↓D(448)DPN. DSP-PP(240) is cleaved after secretion by a zinc-dependent activity secreted by Sf9 cells, generating DSP(430) and PP(240) products that are stable in the medium. DSP-PP processing activity is constitutively secreted by Sf9 cells, but secretion is diminished 3 days after infection. Using primers corresponding to the highly conserved catalytic domain of Drosophila melanogaster tolloid (a mammalian BMP1 homolog), we isolated a partial cDNA for a Spodopotera frugiperda tolloid-related-1 protein (TLR1) that is 78% identical to Drosophila TLR1 but only 65% identical to Drosophila tolloid. Tlr1 mRNA decreased rapidly in Sf9 cells after baculovirus infection and was undetectable 4d after infection, paralleling the observed decrease in secretion of the DSP-PP(240) processing activity after infection. Human BMP1 is more similar to Sf9 and Drosophila TLR1 than to tolloid, and Sf9 TLR1 is more similar to BMP1 than to other mammalian homologs. Recombinant human BMP1 correctly processed baculovirus-expressed DSP-PP(240) in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data suggest that the physiologically accurate cleavage of mammalian DSP-PP(240) in the Sf9 cell system represents the action of a conserved processing enzyme and support the proposed role of BMP1 in

  11. Bond cleavage of lignin model compounds into aromatic monomers using supported metal catalysts in supercritical water

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Aritomo; Mimura, Naoki; Shirai, Masayuki; Sato, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    More efficient use of lignin carbon is necessary for carbon-efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Conversion of lignin into valuable aromatic compounds requires the cleavage of C–O ether bonds and C–C bonds between lignin monomer units. The catalytic cleavage of C–O bonds is still challenging, and cleavage of C–C bonds is even more difficult. Here, we report cleavage of the aromatic C–O bonds in lignin model compounds using supported metal catalysts in supercritical water without adding hydrogen gas and without causing hydrogenation of the aromatic rings. The cleavage of the C–C bond in bibenzyl was also achieved with Rh/C as a catalyst. Use of this technique may greatly facilitate the conversion of lignin into valuable aromatic compounds. PMID:28387304

  12. Engineering a ribozyme cleavage-induced split fluorescent aptamer complementation assay

    PubMed Central

    Ausländer, Simon; Fuchs, David; Hürlemann, Samuel; Ausländer, David; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hammerhead ribozymes are self-cleaving RNA molecules capable of regulating gene expression in living cells. Their cleavage performance is strongly influenced by intra-molecular loop–loop interactions, a feature not readily accessible through modern prediction algorithms. Ribozyme engineering and efficient implementation of ribozyme-based genetic switches requires detailed knowledge of individual self-cleavage performances. By rational design, we devised fluorescent aptamer-ribozyme RNA architectures that allow for the real-time measurement of ribozyme self-cleavage activity in vitro. The engineered nucleic acid molecules implement a split Spinach aptamer sequence that is made accessible for strand displacement upon ribozyme self-cleavage, thereby complementing the fluorescent Spinach aptamer. This fully RNA-based ribozyme performance assay correlates ribozyme cleavage activity with Spinach fluorescence to provide a rapid and straightforward technology for the validation of loop–loop interactions in hammerhead ribozymes. PMID:26939886

  13. Influence of culture medium composition on relative mRNA abundances in domestic cat embryos.

    PubMed

    Hribal, R; Jewgenow, K; Braun, B C; Comizzoli, P

    2013-04-01

    Different culture conditions have been used to produce domestic cat embryos. As part of the in vitro procedures, the medium composition significantly affects the quality of the embryo development also. Quality assessments based on cleavage kinetics and blastomere symmetry are useful, but embryos also can differ in their relative gene expression patterns despite similar morphological characteristics. The aim of this study was to compare cat embryos produced with two different in vitro culture systems routinely used in two different laboratories [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Washington D.C., USA (SCBI) and Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany (IZW)]. Specifically, relative mRNA expression patterns of critical genes for pre-implantation embryo development were assessed in both conditions. Embryos were produced in parallel in both culture systems by IVF using frozen-thawed ejaculated semen in the United States and fresh epididymal sperm in Germany. Success of embryo development in vitro was recorded as well as relative mRNA abundances [DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3A (DNMT1, DNMT3A), gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 [OCT4], insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 receptors (IGF1R, IGF2R), beta-actin (ACTB)] in pools of days 4-5 morulae by semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay. Percentages of cleaved embryos were similar (p > 0.05) between both culture systems, regardless of the location. OCT4 mRNA abundance was higher (p < 0.05) in embryos derived in the SCBI culture system compared with those from the IZW system when epididymal sperm was used for IVF. No clear correlation between the expression pattern and the culture system could be found for all other genes. It is suggested that OCT4 expression might be affected by the media composition in some conditions and can be the indicator of a better embryo quality. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Progesterone treatment modulates mRNA OF neurosteroidogenic enzymes in a murine model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Garay, Laura; Gonzalez Giqueaux, Paula; Guennoun, Rachida; Schumacher, Michael; Gonzalez Deniselle, Maria Claudia; De Nicola, Alejandro F

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) have shown that progesterone decreases inflammatory cell infiltration and proinflammatory factors, increases myelination and attenuates clinical grade of EAE mice. To elucidate potential mediators of these effects, we analyzed the mRNA expression of neurosteroidogenic enzymes in the spinal cord, in view of the protective role of steroids in EAE. We also analyzed mitochondrial morphology and dynamics (fusion and fission proteins), considering the role of mitochondria in neurosteroidogenesis. EAE was induced in C57Bl6 mice using MOG40-54 and killed on day 16 after induction. Using qPCR, we found in steroid-untreated EAE mice decreased mRNAs for the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), P450scc (cholesterol side-chain cleavage), 5α-reductase, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) and aromatase, whereas levels of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) showed a large intra-group variance. We also found increased mRNA expression of 18Kd translocator protein (TSPO), which likely resulted from the reactive microgliosis in this model. EAE mice also showed pathological mitochondrial morphology and reduced expression of fission and fusion protein mRNAs. Most importantly, pretreatment with progesterone a week before EAE induction increased Star,VDAC, P450scc, 5α-reductase type I, 3α-HSD and aromatase mRNAs and did not modify 3β-HSD. TSPO mRNA was decreased, consequent with the inhibition of microgliosis. Mitochondrial morphology was improved and fission/fusion protein mRNAs were enhanced by progesterone treatment. Furthermore, progesterone protective effects on mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum may allow the recovery of neurosteroidogenesis. In this way, endogenously synthesized neurosteroids may reinforce the beneficial effects of exogenous progesterone previously shown in MS mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Helicobacter pylori inhibits the cleavage of TRAF1 via a CagA-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiu-Kun; Yuan, Sheng-Ling; Wang, Yan-Chun; Tao, Hao-Xia; Jiang, Wei; Guan, Zhang-Yan; Cao, Cheng; Liu, Chun-Jie

    2016-12-28

    To study the impact on cleavage of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) regulated by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Cleavage of TRAF1 was detected by western blotting in the human gastric cancer cell line AGS following treatment with an apoptosis inducer. Cleavage of TRAF1 mediated by caspase was examined in vitro using specific caspase inhibitors. The effect of the COOH-terminal TRAF1 fragment on gastric cell apoptosis during H. pylori infection was measured using flow cytometry. The impact of H. pylori infection on TRAF1 cleavage was detected in the presence of apoptosis inducer. The roles of H. pylori virulence factors that may regulate TRAF1 cleavage were analyzed using isogenic cagA-, vacA- and cagE-null mutants. TRAF1 was found to be cleaved in AGS cells treated with the apoptosis inducer, and caspase-8 was the major caspase involved in the cleavage of TRAF1. The COOH-terminal TRAF1 fragment significantly induced cell apoptosis (P < 0.05) as well as promoted H. pylori-induced cell apoptosis (P < 0.05). H. pylori infection was found to significantly inhibit the cleavage of TRAF1 and to inhibit the activation of caspase-8 in the presence of the apoptosis inducer at specific infection times and different cell/bacteria ratios. We also found that the effects of cagE- and cagA-null mutants on the inhibition of TRAF1 cleavage and activation of caspase-8 were significantly attenuated, compared with wild-type H. pylori, in the presence of the apoptosis inducer, showing that the virulence factor CagA was mainly involved in the inhibition of TRAF1 cleavage. H. pylori infection significantly inhibits the cleavage of TRAF1 via a CagA-dependent mechanism, which would increase the relative amounts of full-length TRAF1 and exert an antiapoptotic effect on H. pylori-infected cells.

  16. Requirements for efficient proteolytic cleavage of prelamin A by ZMPSTE24.

    PubMed

    Barrowman, Jemima; Hamblet, Corinne; Kane, Megan S; Michaelis, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The proteolytic maturation of the nuclear protein lamin A by the zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24 is critical for human health. The lamin A precursor, prelamin A, undergoes a multi-step maturation process that includes CAAX processing (farnesylation, proteolysis and carboxylmethylation of the C-terminal CAAX motif), followed by ZMPSTE24-mediated cleavage of the last 15 amino acids, including the modified C-terminus. Failure to cleave the prelamin A "tail", due to mutations in either prelamin A or ZMPSTE24, results in a permanently prenylated form of prelamin A that underlies the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) and related progeroid disorders. Here we have investigated the features of the prelamin A substrate that are required for efficient cleavage by ZMPSTE24. We find that the C-terminal 41 amino acids of prelamin A contain sufficient context to allow cleavage of the tail by ZMPSTE24. We have identified several mutations in amino acids immediately surrounding the cleavage site (between Y646 and L647) that interfere with efficient cleavage of the prelamin A tail; these mutations include R644C, L648A and N650A, in addition to the previously reported L647R. Our data suggests that 9 of the 15 residues within the cleaved tail that lie immediately upstream of the CAAX motif are not critical for ZMPSTE24-mediated cleavage, as they can be replaced by the 9 amino acid HA epitope. However, duplication of the same 9 amino acids (to increase the distance between the prenyl group and the cleavage site) impairs the ability of ZMPSTE24 to cleave prelamin A. Our data reveals amino acid preferences flanking the ZMPSTE24 cleavage site of prelamin A and suggests that spacing from the farnesyl-cysteine to the cleavage site is important for optimal ZMPSTE24 cleavage. These studies begin to elucidate the substrate requirements of an enzyme activity critical to human health and longevity.

  17. Site Specificity of Cleavage of DSP-PP by BMP1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Robert T.; Lim, Glendale L.; Yee, Colin T.; Fuller, Robert S.; Ritchie, Helena H.

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenic protein 1 (BMP1), a metalloproteinase, is known to cleave a wide variety of extracellular matrix proteins, suggesting that a consensus substrate cleavage amino acid sequence might exist. However, while such a consensus sequence has been proposed based on P4 to P4′ (i.e., the four amino acids flanking either side of the BMP1 cleavage site; P4P3P2P1|P1′P2′P3′P4′) sequence homologies between two BMP1 substrates, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialoprotein phosphophoryn (DSP-PP) (i.e., xMQx | DDP), no direct testing has so far been attempted. Using an Sf9 cell expression system, we have been able to produce large amounts of uncleaved DSP-PP,. Point mutations introduced into this recombinant DSP-PP were then tested for their affects on DSP-PP cleavage by either Sf9 endogenous tolloid-related protein 1 (TLR-1) or by its human homolog, BMP1. Here we have measured DSP-PP cleavage efficiencies after modifications based on P4-P4′ sequence comparisons with dentin matrix protein 1, as well as for prolysyl oxidase and chordin, two other BMP1 substrates. Our results demonstrate that any mutations within or outside of the DSP-PP P4 to P4′ cleavage site can block, impair or accelerate DSP-PP cleavage, and suggest that its BMP1 cleavage site is highly conserved in order to regulate its cleavage efficiency, possibly with additional assistance from its conserved exosites. Thus, BMP1 cleavage cannot be based on a consensus substrate cleavage site. PMID:25158199

  18. Targets and Intracellular Signaling Mechanisms for Deoxynivalenol-Induced Ribosomal RNA Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Pestka, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a known translational inhibitor, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage. Here, we characterized this process relative to (1) specific 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA cleavage sites and (2) identity of specific upstream signaling elements in this pathway. Capillary electrophoresis indicated that DON at concentrations as low as 200 ng/ml evoked selective rRNA cleavage after 6 h and that 1000 ng/ml caused cleavage within 2 h. Northern blot analysis revealed that DON exposure induced six rRNA cleavage fragments from 28S rRNA and five fragments from 18S rRNA. When selective kinase inhibitors were used to identify potential upstream signals, RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck), and p38 were found to be required for rRNA cleavage, whereas c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase were not. Furthermore, rRNA fragmentation was suppressed by the p53 inhibitors pifithrin-α and pifithrin-μ as well as the pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Concurrent apoptosis was confirmed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and flow cytometry. DON activated caspases 3, 8, and 9, thus suggesting the possible coinvolvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in rRNA cleavage. Satratoxin G (SG), anisomycin, and ricin also induced specific rRNA cleavage profiles identical to those of DON, suggesting that ribotoxins might share a conserved rRNA cleavage mechanism. Taken together, DON-induced rRNA cleavage is likely to be closely linked to apoptosis activation and appears to involve the sequential activation of PKR/Hck →p38→p53→caspase 8/9→caspase 3. PMID:22491426

  19. Targets and intracellular signaling mechanisms for deoxynivalenol-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage.

    PubMed

    He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Pestka, James J

    2012-06-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a known translational inhibitor, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage. Here, we characterized this process relative to (1) specific 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA cleavage sites and (2) identity of specific upstream signaling elements in this pathway. Capillary electrophoresis indicated that DON at concentrations as low as 200 ng/ml evoked selective rRNA cleavage after 6 h and that 1000 ng/ml caused cleavage within 2 h. Northern blot analysis revealed that DON exposure induced six rRNA cleavage fragments from 28S rRNA and five fragments from 18S rRNA. When selective kinase inhibitors were used to identify potential upstream signals, RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck), and p38 were found to be required for rRNA cleavage, whereas c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase were not. Furthermore, rRNA fragmentation was suppressed by the p53 inhibitors pifithrin-α and pifithrin-μ as well as the pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Concurrent apoptosis was confirmed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and flow cytometry. DON activated caspases 3, 8, and 9, thus suggesting the possible coinvolvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in rRNA cleavage. Satratoxin G (SG), anisomycin, and ricin also induced specific rRNA cleavage profiles identical to those of DON, suggesting that ribotoxins might share a conserved rRNA cleavage mechanism. Taken together, DON-induced rRNA cleavage is likely to be closely linked to apoptosis activation and appears to involve the sequential activation of PKR/Hck →p38→p53→caspase 8/9→caspase 3.

  20. C-S bond cleavage by a polyketide synthase domain

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ming; Lohman, Jeremy R.; Liu, Tao; Shen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Leinamycin (LNM) is a sulfur-containing antitumor antibiotic featuring an unusual 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety that is spiro-fused to a thiazole-containing 18-membered lactam ring. The 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety is essential for LNM’s antitumor activity, by virtue of its ability to generate an episulfonium ion intermediate capable of alkylating DNA. We have previously cloned and sequenced the lnm gene cluster from Streptomyces atroolivaceus S-140. In vivo and in vitro characterizations of the LNM biosynthetic machinery have since established that: (i) the 18-membered macrolactam backbone is synthesized by LnmP, LnmQ, LnmJ, LnmI, and LnmG, (ii) the alkyl branch at C-3 of LNM is installed by LnmK, LnmL, LnmM, and LnmF, and (iii) leinamycin E1 (LNM E1), bearing a thiol moiety at C-3, is the nascent product of the LNM hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-acyltransferase (AT)-less type I polyketide synthase (PKS). Sulfur incorporation at C-3 of LNM E1, however, has not been addressed. Here we report that: (i) the bioinformatics analysis reveals a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent domain, we termed cysteine lyase (SH) domain (LnmJ-SH), within PKS module-8 of LnmJ; (ii) the LnmJ-SH domain catalyzes C-S bond cleavage by using l-cysteine and l-cysteine S-modified analogs as substrates through a PLP-dependent β-elimination reaction, establishing l-cysteine as the origin of sulfur at C-3 of LNM; and (iii) the LnmJ-SH domain, sharing no sequence homology with any other enzymes catalyzing C-S bond cleavage, represents a new family of PKS domains that expands the chemistry and enzymology of PKSs and might be exploited to incorporate sulfur into polyketide natural products by PKS engineering. PMID:26240335

  1. Changes in the mRNA expression of structural proteins, hormone synthesis and secretion from bovine placentome sections after DDT and DDE treatment.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, A; Mlynarczuk, J; Kotwica, J

    2017-01-15

    Disorders in the barrier function and secretory activity of the placenta can be caused by xenobiotics (XB) present in the environment and their accumulation in tissues of living organisms. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2,-bis-4-chlorophenyl-ethane (DDT) and its metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-4-chlorophenyl-ethene (DDE) (for 24 or 48h) at doses of 1, 10 or 100ng/ml on the function of cow placentome sections in the second trimester of pregnancy. DDT and DDE affected neither (P>0.05) the viability nor hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1α) mRNA expression of the sections. XB decreased (P<0.05) connexin (Cx) 26, 32, 43 and placenta-specific 1 (PLAC-1) mRNA expression but did not affect (P>0.05) keratin 8 (KRT8) mRNA expression. DDT and DDE also reduced (P<0.05) prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) synthase (PGFS) mRNA expression, while DDT increased (P<0.05) prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthase (PGES) mRNA expression. Neither cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA expression nor PGF2α and PGE2 secretion were affected. Both DDT and DDE increased (P<0.05) neurophysin I/oxytocin (NP1/OT) mRNA expression and oxytocin (OT), oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) secretion while DDT stimulated only 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD) and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) mRNA expression (P<0.05). In summary, DDT and DDE impaired the barrier function and secretory activity of the placenta. Thus, these compounds can disrupt trophoblast invasion, myometrium contractility and gas/nutrient exchange throughout pregnancy in cows.

  2. The up-regulation of ferritin expression using a small-molecule ligand to the native mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Tibodeau, Jennifer D.; Fox, Paige M.; Ropp, Patricia A.; Theil, Elizabeth C.; Thorp, H. Holden

    2006-01-01

    The binding of small molecules to distinctive three-dimensional structures in mRNA provides a new dimension in RNA control, previously limited to the targeting of secondary structures with antisense and RNA interference; such targeting can modulate mRNA function and rates of protein biosynthesis. Small molecules that selectively bind the iron-responsive element (IRE), a specific three-dimensional structure in the noncoding region of the ferritin mRNA model that is recognized by the iron-regulatory protein repressor, were identified by using chemical footprinting. The assay used involved an oxoruthenium(IV) complex that oxidizes guanine bases in RNA sequences. Small molecules that blocked oxidation of guanines in the internal loop region were expected to selectively increase the rate of ferritin synthesis, because the internal loop region of the ferritin IRE is distinctive from those of other IREs. The natural product yohimbine was found (based on gel mobility shifts) to block cleavage of the internal loop RNA site by >50% and seemed to inhibit protein binding. In the presence of yohimbine, the rate of biosynthesis of ferritin in a cell-free expression system (rabbit reticulocyte lysate) increased by 40%. Assignment of the IRE–yohimbine interaction as the origin of this effect was supported by a similar increase in synthesis of luciferase protein in a chimera of the IRE and luciferase gene. The identification of a small, drug-like molecule that recognizes a naturally occurring three-dimensional mRNA structure and regulates protein biosynthesis rates raises the possibility that small molecules can regulate protein biosynthesis by selectively binding to mRNA. PMID:16381820

  3. Presenilin-dependent intramembrane cleavage of ephrin-B1

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Taisuke; Tanaka, Sayaka; Morohashi, Yuichi; Iwatsubo, Takeshi

    2006-01-01

    Background Presenilin-dependent γ-secretase cleavage of several transmembrane proteins, including amyloid-β precursor protein and Notch, mediates the intramembrane proteolysis to liberate their intracellular domains that are involved in cellular signaling. Considering γ-secretase inhibitors as therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease, understanding the physiologically and biologically important substrate for γ-secretase activity in brains is emerging issue. To elucidate the molecular mechanism and physiological role of γ-secretase, we screened candidate molecules for γ-secretase substrates. Results We show that ephrin-B1, that participates in cell-cell repulsive and attractive signaling together with its Eph receptor, constitutively undergoes ectodomain shedding and that the residual membrane-tethered fragment is sequentially cleaved by γ-secretase to release the intracellular domain. Furthermore, overexpression of membrane-tethered ephrin-B1 caused protrusion of numerous cellular processes consisted of F-actin, that required the preservation of the most C-terminal region of ephrin-B1. In contrast, soluble intracellular domain translocated into the nucleus and had no effect on cell morphology. Conclusion Our findings suggest that ephrin-B is a genuine substrate for γ-secretase and regulates the cytoskeletal dynamics through intramembrane proteolysis. PMID:16930449

  4. Computational redesign of endonuclease DNA binding and cleavage specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, Justin; Havranek, James J.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Sussman, Django; Monnat, Raymond J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Baker, David

    2006-06-01

    The reprogramming of DNA-binding specificity is an important challenge for computational protein design that tests current understanding of protein-DNA recognition, and has considerable practical relevance for biotechnology and medicine. Here we describe the computational redesign of the cleavage specificity of the intron-encoded homing endonuclease I-MsoI using a physically realistic atomic-level forcefield. Using an in silico screen, we identified single base-pair substitutions predicted to disrupt binding by the wild-type enzyme, and then optimized the identities and conformations of clusters of amino acids around each of these unfavourable substitutions using Monte Carlo sampling. A redesigned enzyme that was predicted to display altered target site specificity, while maintaining wild-type binding affinity, was experimentally characterized. The redesigned enzyme binds and cleaves the redesigned recognition site ~10,000 times more effectively than does the wild-type enzyme, with a level of target discrimination comparable to the original endonuclease. Determination of the structure of the redesigned nuclease-recognition site complex by X-ray crystallography confirms the accuracy of the computationally predicted interface. These results suggest that computational protein design methods can have an important role in the creation of novel highly specific endonucleases for gene therapy and other applications.

  5. A Cleavage-potentiated Fragment of Tear Lacritin Is Bactericidal*

    PubMed Central

    McKown, Robert L.; Coleman Frazier, Erin V.; Zadrozny, Kaneil K.; Deleault, Andrea M.; Raab, Ronald W.; Ryan, Denise S.; Sia, Rose K.; Lee, Jae K.; Laurie, Gordon W.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are important as the first line of innate defense, through their tendency to disrupt bacterial membranes or intracellular pathways and potentially as the next generation of antibiotics. How they protect wet epithelia is not entirely clear, with most individually inactive under physiological conditions and many preferentially targeting Gram-positive bacteria. Tears covering the surface of the eye are bactericidal for Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Here we narrow much of the bactericidal activity to a latent C-terminal fragment in the prosecretory mitogen lacritin and report that the mechanism combines membrane permeabilization with rapid metabolic changes, including reduced levels of dephosphocoenzyme A, spermidine, putrescine, and phosphatidylethanolamines and elevated alanine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, proline, glycine, lysine, serine, glutamate, cadaverine, and pyrophosphate. Thus, death by metabolic stress parallels cellular attempts to survive. Cleavage-dependent appearance of the C-terminal cationic amphipathic α-helix is inducible within hours by Staphylococcus epidermidis and slowly by another mechanism, in a chymotrypsin- or leupeptin protease-inhibitable manner. Although bactericidal at low micromolar levels, within a biphasic 1–10 nm dose optimum, the same domain is mitogenic and cytoprotective for epithelia via a syndecan-1 targeting mechanism dependent on heparanase. Thus, the C terminus of lacritin is multifunctional by dose and proteolytic processing and appears to play a key role in the innate protection of the eye, with wider potential benefit elsewhere as lacritin flows from exocrine secretory cells. PMID:24942736

  6. Interactome disassembly during apoptosis occurs independent of caspase cleavage.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nichollas E; Rogers, Lindsay D; Prudova, Anna; Brown, Nat F; Fortelny, Nikolaus; Overall, Christopher M; Foster, Leonard J

    2017-01-12

    Protein-protein interaction networks (interactomes) define the functionality of all biological systems. In apoptosis, proteolysis by caspases is thought to initiate disassembly of protein complexes and cell death. Here we used a quantitative proteomics approach, protein correlation profiling (PCP), to explore changes in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial interactomes in response to apoptosis initiation as a function of caspase activity. We measured the response to initiation of Fas-mediated apoptosis in 17,991 interactions among 2,779 proteins, comprising the largest dynamic interactome to date. The majority of interactions were unaffected early in apoptosis, but multiple complexes containing known caspase targets were disassembled. Nonetheless, proteome-wide analysis of proteolytic processing by terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS) revealed little correlation between proteolytic and interactome changes. Our findings show that, in apoptosis, significant interactome alterations occur before and independently of caspase activity. Thus, apoptosis initiation includes a tight program of interactome rearrangement, leading to disassembly of relatively few, select complexes. These early interactome alterations occur independently of cleavage of these protein by caspases.

  7. Mitosis-specific monoclonal antibodies block cleavage in amphibian embryos.

    PubMed

    Davis, F M; Wright, D A; Penkala, J E; Rao, P N

    1989-04-01

    By microinjecting monoclonal antibodies that bind specifically to mitotic and meiotic cells of a variety of species, we studied the biological activity of antigens recognized by these antibodies. The antibodies recognize a family of phosphoprotein antigens that are found throughout the cytoplasm of mitotic cells and particularly at microtubule organizing centers, including centrosomes and kinetochores. Their binding is dependent on phosphorylation of the polypeptides. Immunoglobulins were introduced into Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens oocytes or cleaving embryos using glass micropipettes. The ability of the antibody-injected oocytes to undergo mitosis or meiosis was compared with those injected with control mouse immunoglobulins. The antibodies failed to block chromosome condensation and germinal vesicle breakdown in progesterone-treated oocytes. However, functional mitotic spindles were not assembled in cleavage stage frog embryos injected with antibodies. In vitro, the binding of the antibodies to the antigens inhibited the dephosphorylation of the antigens by alkaline phosphatase. The antibody binding to the activated microtubule organizing centers (MTOC) seems to block not only the nucleation of microtubules and the organization of the mitotic spindle, but also the dephosphorylation of proteins associated with the MTOC that normally occurs at the mitosis-G1 transition.

  8. Diaphanous gene mutation affects spiral cleavage and chirality in snails

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Reiko; Fujikura, Kohei; Abe, Masanori; Hosoiri, Yuji; Asakawa, Shuichi; Shimizu, Miho; Umeda, Shin; Ichikawa, Futaba; Takahashi, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    L-R (left and right) symmetry breaking during embryogenesis and the establishment of asymmetric body plan are key issues in developmental biology, but the onset including the handedness-determining gene locus still remains unknown. Using pure dextral (DD) and sinistral (dd) strains of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis as well as its F2 through to F10 backcrossed lines, the single handedness-determining-gene locus was mapped by genetic linkage analysis, BAC cloning and chromosome walking. We have identified the actin-related diaphanous gene Lsdia1 as the strongest candidate. Although the cDNA and derived amino acid sequences of the tandemly duplicated Lsdia1 and Lsdia2 genes are very similar, we could discriminate the two genes/proteins in our molecular biology experiments. The Lsdia1 gene of the sinistral strain carries a frameshift mutation that abrogates full-length LsDia1 protein expression. In the dextral strain, it is already translated prior to oviposition. Expression of Lsdia1 (only in the dextral strain) and Lsdia2 (in both chirality) decreases after the 1-cell stage, with no asymmetric localization throughout. The evolutionary relationships among body handedness, SD/SI (spiral deformation/spindle inclination) at the third cleavage, and expression of diaphanous proteins are discussed in comparison with three other pond snails (L. peregra, Physa acuta and Indoplanorbis exustus). PMID:27708420

  9. Separase: Function Beyond Cohesion Cleavage and an Emerging Oncogene.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravinder

    2016-12-14

    Proper and timely segregation of genetic endowment is necessary for survival and perpetuation of every species. Mis-segregation of chromosomes and resulting aneuploidy leads to genetic instability, which can jeopardize the survival of an individual or population as a whole. Abnormality with segregation of genetic contents has been associated with several medical consequences including cancer, sterility, mental retardation, spontaneous abortion, miscarriages, and other birth related defects. Separase, by irreversible cleavage of cohesin complex subunit, paves the way for metaphase/anaphase transition during the cell cycle. Both over or reduced expression and altered level of separase have been associated with several medical consequences including cancer, as a result separase now emerges as an important oncogene and potential molecular target for medical intervenes. Recently, separase is also found to be essential in separation and duplication of centrioles. Here, I review the role of separase in mitosis, meiosis, non-canonical roles of separase, separase regulation, as a regulator of centriole disengagement, nonproteolytic roles, diverse substrates, structural insights, and association of separase with cancer. At the ends, I proposed a model which showed that separase is active throughout the cell cycle and there is a mere increase in separase activity during metaphase contrary to the common believes that separase is inactive throughout cell cycle except for metaphase. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-17, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A cleavage-potentiated fragment of tear lacritin is bactericidal.

    PubMed

    McKown, Robert L; Coleman Frazier, Erin V; Zadrozny, Kaneil K; Deleault, Andrea M; Raab, Ronald W; Ryan, Denise S; Sia, Rose K; Lee, Jae K; Laurie, Gordon W

    2014-08-08

    Antimicrobial peptides are important as the first line of innate defense, through their tendency to disrupt bacterial membranes or intracellular pathways and potentially as the next generation of antibiotics. How they protect wet epithelia is not entirely clear, with most individually inactive under physiological conditions and many preferentially targeting Gram-positive bacteria. Tears covering the surface of the eye are bactericidal for Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Here we narrow much of the bactericidal activity to a latent C-terminal fragment in the prosecretory mitogen lacritin and report that the mechanism combines membrane permeabilization with rapid metabolic changes, including reduced levels of dephosphocoenzyme A, spermidine, putrescine, and phosphatidylethanolamines and elevated alanine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, proline, glycine, lysine, serine, glutamate, cadaverine, and pyrophosphate. Thus, death by metabolic stress parallels cellular attempts to survive. Cleavage-dependent appearance of the C-terminal cationic amphipathic α-helix is inducible within hours by Staphylococcus epidermidis and slowly by another mechanism, in a chymotrypsin- or leupeptin protease-inhibitable manner. Although bactericidal at low micromolar levels, within a biphasic 1-10 nM dose optimum, the same domain is mitogenic and cytoprotective for epithelia via a syndecan-1 targeting mechanism dependent on heparanase. Thus, the C terminus of lacritin is multifunctional by dose and proteolytic processing and appears to play a key role in the innate protection of the eye, with wider potential benefit elsewhere as lacritin flows from exocrine secretory cells. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Enzymatic carotenoid cleavage in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola).

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Peter; Watanabe, Naoharu; Winterhalter, Peter

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents the first description of an enzyme fraction exhibiting carotenoid cleavage activity isolated from fruit skin of Averrhoa carambola. Partial purification of the enzyme could be achieved by acetone precipitation, ultrafiltration (300 kDa, 50 kDa), isoelectric focusing (pH 3-10) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (7.5%). In this way, an enzymatically active protein fraction was obtained, consisting of four proteins in the molecular weight range of between 12 and 90 kDa. Using beta-carotene as substrate, the enzyme activity was detected spectrophotometrically at 505 nm. The main reaction product, detected by GC analysis, was beta-ionone. This proves that the isolated enzymes are closely related to aroma metabolism and release of star fruit. The time constant of the reaction was 16.6 min, the Michaelis Constant K(m)=3.6 micromol 1(-1) and the maximum velocity V(max)=10.5 x 10(-3) micromol l(-1) s(-1) mg((Protein))(-1). The optimum temperature was 45 degrees C.

  12. Proteolytic cleavage, trafficking, and functions of nuclear receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Kuang; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-10-01

    Intracellular localization has been reported for over three-quarters of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) families in response to environmental stimuli. Internalized RTK may bind to non-canonical substrates and affect various cellular processes. Many of the intracellular RTKs exist as fragmented forms that are generated by γ-secretase cleavage of the full-length receptor, shedding, alternative splicing, or alternative translation initiation. Soluble RTK fragments are stabilized and intracellularly transported into subcellular compartments, such as the nucleus, by binding to chaperone or transcription factors, while membrane-bound RTKs (full-length or truncated) are transported from the plasma membrane to the ER through the well-established Rab- or clathrin adaptor protein-coated vesicle retrograde trafficking pathways. Subsequent nuclear transport of membrane-bound RTK may occur via two pathways, INFS or INTERNET, with the former characterized by release of receptors from the ER into the cytosol and the latter characterized by release of membrane-bound receptor from the ER into the nucleoplasm through the inner nuclear membrane. Although most non-canonical intracellular RTK signaling is related to transcriptional regulation, there may be other functions that have yet to be discovered. In this review, we summarize the proteolytic processing, intracellular trafficking and nuclear functions of RTKs, and discuss how they promote cancer progression, and their clinical implications. © 2015 FEBS.

  13. Cleavage Site Localization Differentially Controls Interleukin-6 Receptor Proteolysis by ADAM10 and ADAM17

    PubMed Central

    Riethmueller, Steffen; Ehlers, Johanna C.; Lokau, Juliane; Düsterhöft, Stefan; Knittler, Katharina; Dombrowsky, Gregor; Grötzinger, Joachim; Rabe, Björn; Rose-John, Stefan; Garbers, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Limited proteolysis of the Interleukin-6 Receptor (IL-6R) leads to the release of the IL-6R ectodomain. Binding of the cytokine IL-6 to the soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) results in an agonistic IL-6/sIL-6R complex, which activates cells via gp130 irrespective of whether the cells express the IL-6R itself. This signaling pathway has been termed trans-signaling and is thought to mainly account for the pro-inflammatory properties of IL-6. A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) and ADAM17 are the major proteases that cleave the IL-6R. We have previously shown that deletion of a ten amino acid long stretch within the stalk region including the cleavage site prevents ADAM17-mediated cleavage, whereas the receptor retained its full biological activity. In the present study, we show that deletion of a triple serine (3S) motif (Ser-359 to Ser-361) adjacent to the cleavage site is sufficient to prevent IL-6R cleavage by ADAM17, but not ADAM10. We find that the impaired shedding is caused by the reduced distance between the cleavage site and the plasma membrane. Positioning of the cleavage site in greater distance towards the plasma membrane abrogates ADAM17-mediated shedding and reveals a novel cleavage site of ADAM10. Our findings underline functional differences in IL-6R proteolysis by ADAM10 and ADAM17. PMID:27151651

  14. HIV-1 Vpu Accessory Protein Induces Caspase-mediated Cleavage of IRF3 Transcription Factor*

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Yoon; Waheed, Abdul A.; Zhang, Zai-Rong; Freed, Eric O.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2014-01-01

    Vpu is an accessory protein encoded by HIV-1 that interferes with multiple host-cell functions. Herein we report that expression of Vpu by transfection into 293T cells causes partial proteolytic cleavage of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key transcription factor in the innate anti-viral response. Vpu-induced IRF3 cleavage is mediated by caspases and occurs mainly at Asp-121. Cleavage produces a C-terminal fragment of ∼37 kDa that comprises the IRF dimerization and transactivation domains but lacks the DNA-binding domain. A similar cleavage is observed upon infection of the Jurkat T-cell line with vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped HIV-1. Two other HIV-1 accessory proteins, Vif and Vpr, also contribute to the induction of IRF3 cleavage in both the transfection and the infection systems. The C-terminal IRF3 fragment interferes with the transcriptional activity of full-length IRF3. Cleavage of IRF3 under all of these conditions correlates with cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an indicator of apoptosis. We conclude that Vpu contributes to the attenuation of the anti-viral response by partial inactivation of IRF3 while host cells undergo apoptosis. PMID:25352594

  15. An IDB-containing low molecular weight short peptide as an efficient DNA cleavage reagent.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunying; Chen, Huan; Li, Chao; Zhang, Jin; Qiao, Renzhong

    2015-04-21

    Artificial nucleases have attracted significant interest due to their abilities in accelerating DNA cleavage, which results in the possibility of genome manipulation. However, compared with natural nucleases, the currently available artificial nucleases have low cleavage efficiency, especially metal-free artificial nucleases. Thus, it is still a challenge to develop highly efficient metal-free artificial nucleases via a non-oxidative pathway. We here designed and prepared a group of rigid bis-amine-grafted PASP conjugates (PASP-IDB), and investigated their abilities to induce DNA double-strand cleavage. The detailed assays showed that in the absence of metal ions, these short peptide conjugates can effectively break the phosphodiester linkage at a relatively low concentration and under physiological conditions through a hydrolytic process, giving the 10(7)-fold rate acceleration over uncatalyzed double-strand DNA. The probable mechanism verified by control experiments revealed that IDBs and free carboxyl groups in PASP synergically catalyzed DNA cleavage. In addition, the effects of degrees of substitution on the cleavage activity were studied, and the results indicated the existence of minimum building blocks of PASP-IDB for efficient DNA cleavage. The results of our study have implications on the design of short peptide-based molecules as new artificial nucleases and may provide a strategy for developing safe and efficient metal-free DNA cleavage reagents.

  16. Functional determinants of gate-DNA selection and cleavage by bacterial type II topoisomerases

    PubMed Central

    Arnoldi, Elisa; Pan, Xiao-Su; Fisher, L Mark

    2013-01-01

    Antibacterial fluoroquinolones trap a cleavage complex of gyrase and topoisomerase (topo) IV inducing site-specific DNA breakage within a bent DNA gate engaged in DNA transport. Despite its importance for drug action and in revealing potential sites of topoisomerase catalysis, the mechanism of DNA selectivity is poorly understood. To explore its functional basis, we generated mutant versions of the strongly cleaved E-site and used a novel competitive assay to examine their gemifloxacin-mediated DNA breakage by Streptococcus pneumoniae topo IV and gyrase. Parallel studies of Ca2+-induced cleavage distinguished ‘intrinsic recognition’ of DNA cleavage sites by topo IV from drug-induced preferences. Analysis revealed strong enzyme-determined requirements for −4G, −2A and −1T bases preceding the breakage site (between −1 and +1) and enzyme-unique or degenerate determinants at −3, plus drug-specific preferences at +2/+3 and for +1 purines associated with drug intercalation. Similar cleavage rules were seen additionally at the novel V-site identified here in ColE1-derived plasmids. In concert with DNA binding data, our results provide functional evidence for DNA, enzyme and drug contributions to DNA cleavage at the gate, suggest a mechanism for DNA discrimination involving enzyme-induced DNA bending/helix distortion and cleavage complex stabilization and advance understanding of fluoroquinolones as important cleavage-enhancing therapeutics. PMID:23939623

  17. Messenger RNA (mRNA) nanoparticle tumour vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phua, Kyle K. L.; Nair, Smita K.; Leong, Kam W.

    2014-06-01

    Use of mRNA-based vaccines for tumour immunotherapy has gained increasing attention in recent years. A growing number of studies applying nanomedicine concepts to mRNA tumour vaccination show that the mRNA delivered in nanoparticle format can generate a more robust immune response. Advances in the past decade have deepened our understanding of gene delivery barriers, mRNA's biological stability and immunological properties, and support the notion for engineering innovations tailored towards a more efficient mRNA nanoparticle vaccine delivery system. In this review we will first examine the suitability of mRNA for engineering manipulations, followed by discussion of a model framework that highlights the barriers to a robust anti-tumour immunity mediated by mRNA encapsulated in nanoparticles. Finally, by consolidating existing literature on mRNA nanoparticle tumour vaccination within the context of this framework, we aim to identify bottlenecks that can be addressed by future nanoengineering research.

  18. 3'end maturation of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast atpB mRNA is a two-step process.

    PubMed Central

    Stern, D B; Kindle, K L

    1993-01-01

    Inverted repeat (IR) sequences are found at the 3' ends of most chloroplast protein coding regions, and we have previously shown that the 3'IR is important for accumulation of atpB mRNA in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (D. B. Stern, E.R. Radwanski, and K. L. Kindle, Plant Cell 3:285-297, 1991). In vitro studies indicate that 3' IRs are inefficient transcription termination signals in higher plants and have furthermore defined processing activities that act on the 3' ends of chloroplast transcripts, suggesting that most chloroplast mRNAs are processed at their 3' ends in vivo. To investigate the mechanism of 3' end processing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts, the maturation of atpB mRNA was examined in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, a synthetic atpB mRNA precursor is rapidly cleaved at a position 10 nucleotides downstream from the mature 3' terminus. This cleavage is followed by exonucleolytic processing to generate the mature 3' end. In vivo run-on transcription experiments indicate that a maximum of 50% of atpB transcripts are transcriptionally terminated at or near the IR, while the remainder are subject to 3' end processing. Analysis of transcripts derived from chimeric atpB genes introduced into Chlamydomonas chloroplasts by biolistic transformation suggests that in vivo processing and in vitro processing occur by similar or identical mechanisms. Images PMID:8455609

  19. Concentrating pre-mRNA processing factors in the histone locus body facilitates efficient histone mRNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tatomer, Deirdre C.; Terzo, Esteban; Curry, Kaitlin P.; Salzler, Harmony; Sabath, Ivan; Zapotoczny, Grzegorz; McKay, Daniel J.; Dominski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The histone locus body (HLB) assembles at replication-dependent histone genes and concentrates factors required for histone messenger RNA (mRNA) biosynthesis. FLASH (Flice-associated huge protein) and U7 small nuclear RNP (snRNP) are HLB components that participate in 3′ processing of the nonpolyadenylated histone mRNAs by recruiting the endonuclease CPSF-73 to histone pre-mRNA. Using transgenes to complement a FLASH mutant, we show that distinct domains of FLASH involved in U7 snRNP binding, histone pre-mRNA cleavage, and HLB localization are all required for proper FLASH function in vivo. By genetically manipulating HLB composition using mutations in FLASH, mutations in the HLB assembly factor Mxc, or depletion of the variant histone H2aV, we find that failure to concentrate FLASH and/or U7 snRNP in the HLB impairs histone pre-mRNA processing. This failure results in accumulation of small amounts of polyadenylated histone mRNA and nascent read-through transcripts at the histone locus. Thus, the HLB concentrates FLASH and U7 snRNP, promoting efficient histone mRNA biosynthesis and coupling 3′ end processing with transcription termination. PMID:27241916

  20. High throughput characterizations of poly(A) site choice in plants

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liuyin; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Liu, Man; Li, Qingshun Q.; Hunt, Arthur G.

    2013-01-01

    The polyadenylation of mRNA in eukaryotes is an important biological process. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the field of mRNA polyadenylation owing to the advent of the next generation DNA sequencing technologies. The high-throughput sequencing capabilities have resulted in the direct experimental determinations of large numbers of polyadenylation sites, analysis of which has revealed a vast potential for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. These collections have been generated using specialized sequencing methods that are targeted to the junction of 3’-UTR and the poly(A) tail. Here we present three variations of such a protocol that has been used for the analysis of alternative polyadenylation in plants. While all these methods use oligo(dT) as an anchor to the 3’-end, they differ in the means of generating an anchor for the 5’-end in order to produce PCR products suitable for effective Illumina sequencing; the use of different methods to append 5’ adapters expands the possible utility of these approaches. These methods are versatile, reproducible, and may be used for gene expression analysis as well as global determinations of poly(A) site choice. PMID:23851255

  1. Alternative polyadenylation of mRNA precursors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bin; Manley, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is an RNA-processing mechanism that generates distinct 3′ termini on mRNAs and other RNA polymerase II transcripts. It is widespread across all eukaryotic species and is recognized as a major mechanism of gene regulation. APA exhibits tissue specificity and is important for cell proliferation and differentiation. In this Review, we discuss the roles of APA in diverse cellular processes, including mRNA metabolism, protein diversification and protein localization, and more generally in gene regulation. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying APA, such as variation in the concentration of core processing factors and RNA-binding proteins, as well as transcription-based regulation. PMID:27677860

  2. Enzymology of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases: reaction mechanisms, inhibition and biochemical roles.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Peter J; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2014-02-15

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a large family of non-heme iron (II) dependent enzymes. CCDs catalyse the selective oxidative cleavage of carotenoids to produce apocarotenoids. Apocarotenoid derived molecules form important signalling molecules in plants in the form of abscisic acid and strigolactone and in mammals in the form of retinal. Very little is known biochemically about the CCDs and only a handful of CCDs have been biochemically characterised. Mechanistically, debate surrounds whether CCDs utilise a mono or dioxygenase mechanism. Here, we review the biochemical roles of CCDs, discuss the mechanisms by which CCD cleavage is proposed to occur, and discuss recent reports of selective CCD enzyme inhibitors.

  3. Cleavage pattern of DNA caused by endonuclease: Theoretical modeling and experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Shio; Liu, Li; Takinoue, Masahiro; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2010-02-01

    In apoptotic cells, genomic DNA molecules are fragmented into multiple fragments with lengths that are integer multiples of approximately 180-200 base pairs (bp), i.e., the size of a single nucleosome. Here we propose a simple mathematical model for interpreting this cleavage pattern of DNA. Under the condition of a purely stochastic cleavage process, we derive a time evolution of the probability distribution of the fragment length by a Poisson distribution. We examine the applicability of our model by analyzing experimental results with apoptotic cells. Our model enables us to satisfactorily interpret the experimental trends. Interestingly, this theoretical fitting of the experimental data provides kinetic information for the cleavage reaction.

  4. Improvements to the TMSBr method of peptide resin deprotection and cleavage: application to large peptides.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, J T; Monera, O D

    1996-01-01

    The original trimethylsilyl bromide (TMSBr) method of peptide resin deprotection and cleavage has been modified for convenience and applicability to larger peptides. Equal amounts of a 66-residue test peptide resin were cleaved by the standard hydrogen fluoride (HF) procedure, the original TMSBr method and the modified TMSBr method. The peptide profile from the original TMSBr cleavage procedure showed multiple products and a lower overall yield. In contrast, the modified TMSBr procedure gave high yields of crude products comparable in purity to those obtained by HF cleavage.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide enhances enterokinase-catalysed proteolytic cleavage of fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Cui, Taian; Gao, Yaojun; Ang, Cui X; Puah, Chum M; Gutte, Bernd; Lam, Yulin

    2008-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen peroxide on enterokinase catalysis were studied using several fusion proteins recombinantly produced from E. coli. It was demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide enhanced the rate of enterokinase cleavage reaction, leading to a faster release of the target peptide as discussed in patent WO07149053. Among the conditions tested, we observed that hydrogen peroxide could exert its effect on the cleavage of fusion proteins over a wide range of pH and temperature. This finding might provide a simple solution for the accelerated enterokinase cleavage of thermolabile fusion proteins at low temperature.

  6. Evidence for Cleavage of the Metalloprotease Vsm from Vibrio splendidus Strain JZ6 by an M20 Peptidase (PepT-like Protein) at Low Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Qiu, Limei; Cheng, Qi; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    Metalloprotease Vsm is a major extracellular virulence factor of Vibrio splendidus. The toxicity of Vsm from V. splendidus strain JZ6 has been characterized, and production of this virulence factor proved to be temperature-regulated. The present study provides evidence that two forms (JZE1 and JZE2) of Vsm protein exist in extracellular products (ECPs) of strain JZ6, and a significant conversion of these two forms was detected by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analyses of samples obtained from cells grown at 4, 10, 16, 20, 24, and 28°C. Mass spectroscopy confirmed that JZE1 was composed only of the peptidase_M4 domain of Vsm, and JZE2 contained both the PepSY domain and the peptidase_M4 domain. An M20 peptidase T-like protein (PepTL) was screened from the transcriptome data of strain JZ6, which was considered as a crucial molecule to produce the active Vsm (JZE1) by cleavage of the propeptide. Similar to that of Vsm, PepTL mRNA accumulation was highest at 4°C (836.82-fold of that at 28°C), decreased with increasing of temperature and reached its lowest level at 28°C. Deletion of the gene encoding the PepTL resulted in a mutant strain that did not produce the JZE1 cleavage product. The peptidase activity of PepTL recombinant protein (rPepTL) was confirmed by cleaving the Vsm in ECPs with an in vitro degradation reaction. These results demonstrate that PepTL participates in activating Vsm in strain JZ6 by proteolytic cleavage at low temperature. PMID:27826294

  7. Evidence for Cleavage of the Metalloprotease Vsm from Vibrio splendidus Strain JZ6 by an M20 Peptidase (PepT-like Protein) at Low Temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Qiu, Limei; Cheng, Qi; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    Metalloprotease Vsm is a major extracellular virulence factor of Vibrio splendidus. The toxicity of Vsm from V. splendidus strain JZ6 has been characterized, and production of this virulence factor proved to be temperature-regulated. The present study provides evidence that two forms (JZE1 and JZE2) of Vsm protein exist in extracellular products (ECPs) of strain JZ6, and a significant conversion of these two forms was detected by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analyses of samples obtained from cells grown at 4, 10, 16, 20, 24, and 28°C. Mass spectroscopy confirmed that JZE1 was composed only of the peptidase_M4 domain of Vsm, and JZE2 contained both the PepSY domain and the peptidase_M4 domain. An M20 peptidase T-like protein (PepTL) was screened from the transcriptome data of strain JZ6, which was considered as a crucial molecule to produce the active Vsm (JZE1) by cleavage of the propeptide. Similar to that of Vsm, PepTL mRNA accumulation was highest at 4°C (836.82-fold of that at 28°C), decreased with increasing of temperature and reached its lowest level at 28°C. Deletion of the gene encoding the PepTL resulted in a mutant strain that did not produce the JZE1 cleavage product. The peptidase activity of PepTL recombinant protein (rPepTL) was confirmed by cleaving the Vsm in ECPs with an in vitro degradation reaction. These results demonstrate that PepTL participates in activating Vsm in strain JZ6 by proteolytic cleavage at low temperature.

  8. Two functionally distinct domains generated by in vivo cleavage of Nup145p: a novel biogenesis pathway for nucleoporins.

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, M T; Siniossoglou, S; Podtelejnikov, S; Bénichou, J C; Mann, M; Dujon, B; Hurt, E; Fabre, E

    1997-01-01

    Nup145p is an essential yeast nucleoporin involved in nuclear export of polyadenylated RNAs. We demonstrate here that Nup145p is cleaved in vivo to yield two functionally distinct domains: a carboxy-terminal domain (C-Nup145p) which is located at the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and assembles into the Nup84p complex, and a GLFG-containing amino-terminal domain (N-Nup145p) which is not part of this complex. Whereas the essential C-Nup145p accomplishes the functions required for efficient mRNA export and normal NPC distribution, N-Nup145p, which is homologous to the GLFG-containing nucleoporins Nup100p and Nup116p, is not necessary for cell growth. However, the N-Nup145p becomes essential in a nup188 mutant background. Strikingly, generation of a free N-domain is a prerequisite for complementation of this peculiar synthetic lethal mutant. These data suggest that N- and C-domains of Nup145p perform independent functions, and that the in vivo cleavage observed is of functional importance. PMID:9305650

  9. Identification of DNA cleavage- and recombination-specific hnRNP cofactors for activation-induced cytidine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenjun; Begum, Nasim A; Mondal, Samiran; Stanlie, Andre; Honjo, Tasuku

    2015-05-05

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for antibody class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM). AID originally was postulated to function as an RNA-editing enzyme, based on its strong homology with apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1 (APOBEC1), the enzyme that edits apolipoprotein B-100 mRNA in the presence of the APOBEC cofactor APOBEC1 complementation factor/APOBEC complementation factor (A1CF/ACF). Because A1CF is structurally similar to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), we investigated the involvement of several well-known hnRNPs in AID function by using siRNA knockdown and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9-mediated disruption. We found that hnRNP K deficiency inhibited DNA cleavage and thereby induced both CSR and SHM, whereas hnRNP L deficiency inhibited only CSR and somewhat enhanced SHM. Interestingly, both hnRNPs exhibited RNA-dependent interactions with AID, and mutant forms of these proteins containing deletions in the RNA-recognition motif failed to rescue CSR. Thus, our study suggests that hnRNP K and hnRNP L may serve as A1CF-like cofactors in AID-mediated CSR and SHM.

  10. Implications of caspase-dependent proteolytic cleavage of cyclin A1 in DNA damage-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Sang Hyeok; Seo, Sung-Keum; An, Sungkwan; Choe, Tae-Boo; Hong, Seok-Il; Lee, Yun-Han; Park, In-Chul

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Caspase-1 mediates doxorubicin-induced downregulation of cyclin A1. • Active caspase-1 effectively cleaved cyclin A1 at D165. • Cyclin A1 expression is involved in DNA damage-induced cell death. - Abstract: Cyclin A1 is an A-type cyclin that directly binds to CDK2 to regulate cell-cycle progression. In the present study, we found that doxorubicin decreased the expression of cyclin A1 at the protein level in A549 lung cancer cells, while markedly downregulating its mRNA levels. Interestingly, doxorubicin upregulated caspase-1 in a concentration-dependent manner, and z-YAVD-fmk, a specific inhibitor of caspase-1, reversed the doxorubicin-induced decrease in cyclin A1 in A549 lung cancer and MCF7 breast cancer cells. Active caspase-1 effectively cleaved cyclin A1 at D165 into two fragments, which in vitro cleavage assays showed were further cleaved by caspase-3. Finally, we found that overexpression of cyclin A1 significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin, and knockdown of cyclin A1 by RNA interference enhanced the sensitivity of cells to ionizing radiation. Our data suggest a new mechanism for the downregulation of cyclin A1 by DNA-damaging stimuli that could be intimately involved in the cell death induced by DNA damage-inducing stimuli, including doxorubicin and ionizing radiation.

  11. Induction of CD44 Cleavage in Articular Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Nobunori; Knudson, Cheryl B.; Thankamony, Sai; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Mellor, Liliana; Im, Hee-Jeong; Knudson, Warren

    2010-01-01

    Objective The hyaluronan receptor CD44 provides chondrocytes with a mechanism for sensing and responding to changes in the extracellular matrix. The purpose of this study was to document the fragmentation and loss of CD44 and to determine the likely mechanisms involved. Methods A polyclonal anti-CD44 cytotail antibody was generated to detect CD44 fragmentation by Western blot analysis. Chondrocytes were isolated from human or bovine articular cartilage. Primary articular chondrocytes were treated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β), hyaluronan oligosaccharides, or phorbol myristate acetate or were passaged and subcultured in monolayer to induce dedifferentiation. Conditions that altered the capacity of CD44 to transit into lipid rafts, or pharmacologic inhibitors of metalloproteinase or γ-secretase activity were used to define the mechanism of fragmentation of CD44. Results Chondrocytes from osteoarthritic cartilage exhibited CD44 fragmentation as low molecular mass bands, corresponding to the CD44-EXT and CD44-ICD bands. Following dedifferentiation of chondrocytes or treatment of primary chondrocytes with hyaluronan oligosaccharides, IL-1β, or phorbol myristate acetate, CD44 fragmentation was enhanced. Subsequent culture of the dedifferentiated chondrocytes in 3-dimensional alginate beads rescued the chondrocyte phenotype and diminished the fragmentation of CD44. Fragmentation of CD44 in chondrocytes was blocked in the presence of the metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 and the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. Conclusion CD44 fragmentation, consistent with a signature pattern reported for sequential metalloproteinase/γ-secretase cleavage of CD44, is a common metabolic feature of chondrocytes that have undergone dedifferentiation in vitro and osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Transit of CD44 into lipid rafts may be required for its fragmentation. PMID:20178130

  12. Ribonuclease III mechanisms of double-stranded RNA cleavage.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Allen W

    2014-01-01

    Double-stranded(ds) RNA has diverse roles in gene expression and regulation, host defense, and genome surveillance in bacterial and eukaryotic cells. A central aspect of dsRNA function is its selective recognition and cleavage by members of the ribonuclease III (RNase III) family of divalent-metal-ion-dependent phosphodiesterases. The processing of dsRNA by RNase III family members is an essential step in the maturation and decay of coding and noncoding RNAs, including miRNAs and siRNAs. RNase III, as first purified from Escherichia coli, has served as a biochemically well-characterized prototype, and other bacterial orthologs provided the first structural information. RNase III family members share a unique fold (RNase III domain) that can dimerize to form a structure that binds dsRNA and cleaves phosphodiesters on each strand, providing the characteristic 2 nt, 3'-overhang product ends. Ongoing studies are uncovering the functions of additional domains, including, inter alia, the dsRNA-binding and PAZ domains that cooperate with the RNase III domain to select target sites, regulate activity, confer processivity, and support the recognition of structurally diverse substrates. RNase III enzymes function in multicomponent assemblies that are regulated by diverse inputs, and at least one RNase III-related polypeptide can function as a noncatalytic, dsRNA-binding protein. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the mechanisms of catalysis and target site selection of RNase III family members, and also addresses less well understood aspects of these enzymes and their interactions with dsRNA. © 2013 The Authors. WIREs RNA published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Cleavage of the sarcin–ricin loop of 23S rRNA differentially affects EF-G and EF-Tu binding

    PubMed Central

    García-Ortega, Lucía; Álvarez-García, Elisa; Gavilanes, José G.; Martínez-del-Pozo, Álvaro; Joseph, Simpson

    2010-01-01

    Ribotoxins are potent inhibitors of protein biosynthesis and inactivate ribosomes from a variety of organisms. The ribotoxin α-sarcin cleaves the large 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) at the universally conserved sarcin–ricin loop (SRL) leading to complete inactivation of the ribosome and cellular death. The SRL interacts with translation factors that hydrolyze GTP, and it is important for their binding to the ribosome, but its precise role is not yet understood. We studied the effect of α-sarcin on defined steps of translation by the bacterial ribosome. α-Sarcin-treated ribosomes showed no defects in mRNA and tRNA binding, peptide-bond formation and sparsomycin-dependent translocation. Cleavage of SRL slightly affected binding of elongation factor Tu ternary complex (EF-Tu•GTP•tRNA) to the ribosome. In contrast, the activity of elongation factor G (EF-G) was strongly impaired in α-sarcin-treated ribosomes. Importantly, cleavage of SRL inhibited EF-G binding, and consequently GTP hydrolysis and mRNA–tRNA translocation. These results suggest that the SRL is more critical in EF-G than ternary complex binding to the ribosome implicating different requirements in this region of the ribosome during protein elongation. PMID:20215430

  14. Sequences controlling histone H4 mRNA abundance.

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, O; Bleecker, G C; Heintz, N

    1987-01-01

    The post-transcriptional regulation of histone mRNA abundance is manifest both by accumulation of histone mRNA during the S phase, and by the rapid degradation of mature histone mRNA following the inhibition of DNA synthesis. We have constructed a comprehensive series of substitution mutants within a human H4 histone gene, introduced them into the mouse L cell genome, and analyzed their effects on the post-transcriptional control of the H4 mRNA. Our results demonstrate that most of the H4 mRNA is dispensable for proper regulation of histone mRNA abundance. However, recognition of the 3' terminus of the mature H4 mRNA is critically important for regulating its cytoplasmic half-life. Thus, this region of the mRNA functions both in the nucleus as a signal for proper processing of the mRNA terminus, and in the cytoplasm as an essential element in the control of mRNA stability. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3608993

  15. Coupled Evolution of Transcription and mRNA Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Dori-Bachash, Mally; Shema, Efrat; Tirosh, Itay

    2011-01-01

    mRNA levels are determined by the balance between transcription and mRNA degradation, and while transcription has been extensively studied, very little is known regarding the regulation of mRNA degradation and its coordination with transcription. Here we examine the evolution of mRNA degradation rates between two closely related yeast species. Surprisingly, we find that around half of the evolutionary changes in mRNA degradation were coupled to transcriptional changes that exert opposite effects on mRNA levels. Analysis of mRNA degradation rates in an interspecific hybrid further suggests that opposite evolutionary changes in transcription and in mRNA degradation are mechanistically coupled and were generated by the same individual mutations. Coupled changes are associated with divergence of two complexes that were previously implicated both in transcription and in mRNA degradation (Rpb4/7 and Ccr4-Not), as well as with sequence divergence of transcription factor binding motifs. These results suggest that an opposite coupling between the regulation of transcription and that of mRNA degradation has shaped the evolution of gene regulation in yeast. PMID:21811398

  16. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced expression of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage and 17 alpha-hydroxylase enzyme activity in hen granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L; Li, Z; Gibney, J A; Malamed, S

    1994-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) can regulate expression of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) and P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase (P450 17 alpha-OH) mRNA levels and enzyme activity in granulosa cells from nonhierarchal (6-8-mm) follicles. Initial studies demonstrated that immunoreactive VIP is localized within the theca (but not granulosa) layer of both resting (< 0.5-mm follicles) and 6-8-mm follicles, thus providing a potential paracrine mechanism of action for VIP. While short-term (3 h) incubation of granulosa cells with VIP (0.001-1.0 microM) failed to stimulate progesterone production from 6-8-mm follicle granulosa cells, a 4-h culture period in the presence of VIP resulted in increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation, and a 24-h culture period resulted in progesterone synthesis and increased P450scc mRNA levels; control levels of each endpoint measurement were not altered within the period observed. By contrast, culture with the growth factor transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) in the presence of VIP (1 microM) prevented increases in P450scc mRNA levels and progesterone production. Similar effects of VIP and TGF alpha in the presence of VIP were demonstrated for P450 17 alpha-OH mRNA levels and enzyme activity. Finally, there was an additive effect of VIP (0.1 microM) plus recombinant human (rh) FSH (100 mIU) on the initiation of progesterone production in cultured 6-8-mm follicle granulosa cells compared to the addition of VIP or rhFSH alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Radical induced disulfide bond cleavage within peptides via ultraviolet irradiation of an electrospray plume.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Craig A; Xia, Yu

    2013-05-21

    Radical induced disulfide bond cleavage in peptides was demonstrated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the electrospray ionization (ESI) plume using a low pressure mercury (LP-Hg) lamp. Tandem mass spectrometry and accurate mass measurements confirmed that the primary reaction products were due to disulfide bond cleavage to form thiol (-SH) and sulfinyl radical (-SO˙). Mechanistic studies showed that the 185 nm emission from a LP-Hg lamp was responsible for UV photolysis of atmospheric O2, which further initiated secondary radical formation and subsequent disulfide bond cleavage by radical attack. The radical induced disulfide bond cleavage was found to be analytically useful in providing rich sequence information for naturally occurring peptides containing intrachain disulfide bonds. The utility of this method was also demonstrated for facile disulfide peptide identification and characterization from protein digests.

  18. Dinitrogen cleavage and functionalization by carbon monoxide promoted by a hafnium complex.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Donald J; Lobkovsky, Emil; Chirik, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Molecular nitrogen (N(2)) and carbon monoxide (CO) have the two strongest bonds in chemistry and present significant challenges in developing new transformations that exploit these two abundant feedstocks. At the core of this objective is the discovery of transition-metal compounds that promote the six-electron reductive cleavage of N(2) at ambient temperature and pressure and also promote new nitrogen-element bond formation. Here we show that an organometallic hafnium compound induces N(2) cleavage on the addition of CO, with a simultaneous assembly of new nitrogen-carbon and carbon-carbon bonds. Subsequent addition of a weak acid liberates oxamide, which demonstrates that an important agrochemical can be synthesized directly from N(2) and CO. These studies introduce an alternative paradigm for N(2) cleavage and functionalization in which the six-electron reductive cleavage is promoted by both the transition metal and the incoming ligand, CO, used for the new bond formations.

  19. Site-Specific Pyrolysis Induced Cleavage at Aspartic Acid Residue in Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaofeng; Basile, Franco

    2011-01-01

    A simple and site-specific non-enzymatic method based on pyrolysis has been developed to cleave peptides and proteins. Pyrolytic cleavage was found to be specific and rapid as it induced a cleavage at the C-terminal side of aspartic acid in the temperature range of 220–250 °C in 10 seconds. Electrospray Ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem-MS (MS/MS) were used to characterize and identify pyrolysis cleavage products, confirming that sequence information is conserved after the pyrolysis process in both peptides and protein tested. This suggests that pyrolysis-induced cleavage at aspartyl residues can be used as a rapid protein digestion procedure for the generation of sequence specific protein biomarkers. PMID:17388620

  20. Facile P-C/C-H Bond-Cleavage Reactivity of Nickel Bis(diphosphine) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoguang; Li, Haixia; Appel, Aaron M; Hall, Michael B; Bullock, R Morris

    2016-07-04

    Unusual cleavage of P-C and C-H bonds of the P2 N2 ligand, in heteroleptic [Ni(P2 N2 )(diphosphine)](2+) complexes under mild conditions, results in the formation of an iminium formyl nickelate featuring a C,P,P-tridentate coordination mode. The structures of both the heteroleptic [Ni(P2 N2 )(diphosphine)](2+) complexes and the resulting iminium formyl nickelate have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to investigate the mechanism of the P-C/C-H bond cleavage, which involves C-H bond cleavage, hydride rotation, Ni-C/P-H bond formation, and P-C bond cleavage.

  1. Observation of Cleavage Fracture after Substantial Dimple Rupture in ASTM A710 Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, Walter Graham; Lloyd, Wilson Randolph

    2000-07-01

    A major concern often arising in structural integrity predictions is the possibility that low-energy brittle fracture could result as a consequence of cleavage either under normal operating or design accident conditions. This can be especially troublesome when the leak-before-break (LBB) approach shows an additional safety margin of the design. For LBB to be applicable, the fracture process must remain ductile (dimple rupture), and not change to cleavage. The American Society for Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Code) provides guidelines for avoiding cleavage fracture for Code-accepted materials. Experimental results for a non-Code steel are provided, and show that cleavage may occur for a thickness under16 mm (where the code suggests it will not) after stable crack growth (∆a) of up to 20 mm. This work is still in progress; test results are provided along with possible reasons for the mode transition, but complete explanations are still being developed.

  2. Efficient promotion of phosphate diester cleavage by a face-to-face cyclodextrin dimer without metal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Liu, Gao-Feng; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2012-06-04

    An organic face-to-face cyclodextrin dimer promotes the cleavage of bis(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate efficiently in neutral pH without the addition of metal. Both of the phosphate diester bonds can be cleaved.

  3. Enhanced RNA cleavage within bulge-loops by an artificial ribonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Irina L.; Zenkova, Marina A.; Gross, Hans J.; Vlassov, Valentin V.

    2005-01-01

    Cleavage of phosphodiester bonds by small ribonuclease mimics within different bulge-loops of RNA was investigated. Bulge-loops of different size (1–7 nt) and sequence composition were formed in a 3′ terminal fragment of influenza virus M2 RNA (96 nt) by hybridization of complementary oligodeoxynucleotides. Small bulges (up to 4 nt) were readily formed upon oligonucleotide hybridization, whereas hybridization of the RNA to the oligonucleotides designed to produce larger bulges resulted in formation of several alternative structures. A synthetic ribonuclease mimic displaying Pyr–Pu cleavage specificity cleaved CpA motifs located within bulges faster than similar motifs within the rest of the RNA. In the presence of 10 mM MgCl2, 75% of the cleavage products resulted from the attack of this motif. Thus, selective RNA cleavage at a single target phosphodiester bond was achieved by using bulge forming oligonucleotides and a small ribonuclease A mimic. PMID:15731340

  4. Specific detection of the cleavage activity of mycobacterial enzymes using a quantum dot based DNA nanosensor.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Morten Leth; Harmsen, Charlotte; Godbole, Adwait Anand; Nagaraja, Valakunja; Knudsen, Birgitta R; Ho, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-07

    We present a quantum dot based DNA nanosensor specifically targeting the cleavage step in the reaction cycle of the essential DNA-modifying enzyme, mycobacterial topoisomerase I. The design takes advantages of the unique photophysical properties of quantum dots to generate visible fluorescence recovery upon specific cleavage by mycobacterial topoisomerase I. This report, for the first time, demonstrates the possibility to quantify the cleavage activity of the mycobacterial enzyme without the pre-processing sample purification or post-processing signal amplification. The cleavage induced signal response has also proven reliable in biological matrices, such as whole cell extracts prepared from Escherichia coli and human Caco-2 cells. It is expected that the assay may contribute to the clinical diagnostics of bacterial diseases, as well as the evaluation of treatment outcomes.

  5. DNA Cleavage Activities of Staphylococcus aureus Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV Stimulated by Quinolones and 2-Pyridones

    PubMed Central

    Saiki, Anne Y. C.; Shen, Linus L.; Chen, Chih-Ming; Baranowski, John; Lerner, Claude G.

    1999-01-01

    We have cloned Staphylococcus aureus DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and expressed them in Escherichia coli as polyhistidine-tagged proteins to facilitate purification and eliminate contamination by host enzymes. The enzyme preparations had specific activities similar to previously reported values. Potassium glutamate (K-Glu) stimulated the drug-induced DNA cleavage activity and was optimal between 100 and 200 mM for gyrase and peaked at 100 mM for topoisomerase IV. Higher concentrations of K-Glu inhibited the cleavage activities of both enzymes. Using a common buffer system containing 100 mM K-Glu, we tested the enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage activities of both gyrase and topoisomerase IV with oxolinic acid, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trovafloxacin, clinafloxacin, and the 2-pyridone ABT-719. As expected, all drugs tested demonstrated greater potency against topoisomerase IV than against gyrase. In addition, cleavage activity was found to correlate well with antibacterial activity. PMID:10390205

  6. Surface chain cleavage behavior of PBIA fiber induced by direct fluorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zheng; Wu, Peng; Li, Baoyin; Chen, Teng; Liu, Yang; Ren, Mengmeng; Wang, Zaoming; Lai, Wenchuan; Wang, Xu; Liu, Xiangyang

    2016-10-01

    The surface chain cleavage behavior of PBIA fiber induced by direct fluorination was reported based on the analysis of physical and chemical changes on the fiber surface. The chain cleavage product was obtained to evaluate the chemical reaction during the fluorination process, and its impact on composites performance was also involved. DSC, FTIR spectra, UV-vis absorption spectra and H1NMR were utilized to analyze the chemical structure and composition of the chain cleavage product. The results show gaseous fluorine is most likely to attack the benzimidazole and amide bond in PBIA unit, which was also demonstrated by molecular simulation. Owing to the polar groups contained in chain cleavage products, the wettability of epoxy resin to fiber has been improved, leading to an 11.5% increase of adhesive strength of fiber-epoxy composite.

  7. Identification of cleavage of NS5A of C-strain classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jinxin; Guo, Huancheng; Gong, Wenjie; Jiang, Daliang; Zhang, Li; Jia, Junjie; Tu, Changchun

    2017-02-01

    NS5A is a multifunctional non-structural protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) that plays an important role in viral replication, but how it exerts its functions is unknown. Here, we report the cleavage of NS5A of the vaccine C-strain, resulting in two truncated forms (b and c). Further experiments using calpain- and caspase-family-specific inhibitors, followed by a caspase-6-specific shRNAs and inhibitor, showed that the cleavage of C-strain NS5A to produce truncated form c is mediated by caspase-6, mapping to (272)DTTD(275), while the cleavage producing truncated form b is probably mediated by another unknown protease. shRNA-mediated downregulation of caspase-6 and blocking of enzyme activity in ST cells significantly impaired genome replication and virus production, indicating that NS5A cleavage is required for CSFV replication.

  8. A mild and selective method for cleavage of O-acetyl groups with dibutyltin oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Min; Yan, Xuebin; Li, Wen; Huang, Conghai

    2002-10-11

    A mild and efficient neutral method for the cleavage of O-acetyl groups with dibutyltin oxide has been developed. This method is especially useful in the synthesis of glycosides containing base- or acid-sensitive multifunctional groups.

  9. DNA sequence and structure requirements for cleavage of V(D)J recombination signal sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, C A; Mundy, C L; Oettinger, M A

    1996-01-01

    Purified RAG1 and RAG2 proteins can cleave DNA at V(D)J recombination signals. In dissecting the DNA sequence and structural requirements for cleavage, we find that the heptamer and nonamer motifs of the recombination signal sequence can independently direct both steps of the cleavage reaction. Proper helical spacing between these two elements greatly enhances the efficiency of cleavage, whereas improper spacing can lead to interference between the two elements. The signal sequences are surprisingly tolerant of structural variation and function efficiently when nicks, gaps, and mismatched bases are introduced or even when the signal sequence is completely single stranded. Sequence alterations that facilitate unpairing of the bases at the signal/coding border activate the cleavage reaction, suggesting that DNA distortion is critical for V(D)J recombination. PMID:8816481

  10. A spindle-independent cleavage pathway controls germ cell formation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cinalli, Ryan M.; Lehmann, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the first cells to form during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. While the process of somatic cell formation has been studied in detail, the mechanics of PGC formation are poorly understood. Here, using 4D multi-photon imaging combined with genetic and pharmacological manipulations, we find that PGC formation requires an anaphase spindle-independent cleavage pathway. In addition to utilizing core regulators of cleavage, including the small GTPase RhoA (Drosophila Rho) and the Rho associated kinase, ROCK (Drosophila Rok), we show that this pathway requires Germ cell-less (Gcl), a conserved BTB-domain protein not previously implicated in cleavage mechanics. This alternate form of cell formation suggests that organisms have evolved multiple molecular strategies for regulating the cytoskeleton during cleavage. PMID:23728423

  11. Dual Mechanism for the Translation of Subgenomic mRNA from Sindbis Virus in Infected and Uninfected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Miguel Ángel; Castelló, Alfredo; Ventoso, Iván; Berlanga, Juan José; Carrasco, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Infection of BHK cells by Sindbis virus (SV) gives rise to a profound inhibition of cellular protein synthesis, whereas translation of viral subgenomic mRNA that encodes viral structural proteins, continues for hours. To gain further knowledge on the mechanism by which this subgenomic mRNA is translated, the requirements for some initiation factors (eIFs) and for the presence of the initiator AUG were examined both in infected and in uninfected cells. To this end, BHK cells were transfected with different SV replicons or with in vitro made SV subgenomic mRNAs after inactivation of some eIFs. Specifically, eIF4G was cleaved by expression of the poliovirus 2A protease (2Apro) and the alpha subunit of eIF2 was inactivated by phosphorylation induced by arsenite treatment. Moreover, cellular location of these and other translation components was analyzed in BHK infected cells by confocal microscopy. Cleavage of eIF4G by poliovirus 2Apro does not hamper translation of subgenomic mRNA in SV infected cells, but bisection of this factor blocks subgenomic mRNA translation in uninfected cells or in cell-free systems. SV infection induces phosphorylation of eIF2α, a process that is increased by arsenite treatment. Under these conditions, translation of subgenomic mRNA occurs to almost the same extent as controls in the infected cells but is drastically inhibited in uninfected cells. Notably, the correct initiation site on the subgenomic mRNA is still partially recognized when the initiation codon AUG is modified to other codons only in infected cells. Finally, immunolocalization of different eIFs reveals that eIF2 α and eIF4G are excluded from the foci, where viral RNA replication occurs, while eIF3, eEF2 and ribosomes concentrate in these regions. These findings support the notion that canonical initiation takes place when the subgenomic mRNA is translated out of the infection context, while initiation can occur without some eIFs and even at non-AUG codons in infected cells

  12. Base-catalyzed N-N bond cleavage of hydrazones: synthesis of α-amino ketones.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hai-Tao; Zhou, Yun-Bing; Zhu, Yu; Sun, Hong-Chao; Lin, Min; Zhan, Zhuang-Ping

    2014-05-01

    An efficient Cs2CO3-promoted synthesis of α-amino ketones using hydrazines, aldehydes, and α-haloketones as starting materials through a cascade condensation/nucleophilic substitution/N-N bond cleavage route is developed. The carbonyl group plays a key role in this novel N-N bond cleavage process. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Is hammerhead self-cleavage involved in the replication of a virusoid in vivo?

    PubMed

    Sheldon, C C; Symons, R H

    1993-06-01

    The hammerhead self-cleavage reaction is generally considered to be involved in the in vivo production of (+) and (-) monomeric RNAs of the viroid-like, satellite RNA or virusoid of lucerne transient streak virus (vLTSV) from multimeric replicative intermediates, as part of the symmetrical rolling circle mechanism. To test this, three cDNA clones of vLTSV RNA, mutated at sites that inactivate in vitro self-cleavage of (-) RNA, were inoculated as excised plasmid cDNA inserts, together with helper virus LTSV, on Nicotiana clevelandii plants. As was predicted if hammerhead self-cleavage is involved in in vivo cleavage of (-) RNAs, high molecular weight (-) vLTSV RNAs were present in total RNA extracts from these mutant inoculated plants, but not in wild-type inoculated plants. Surprisingly however, the mutated virusoids also produced monomeric (-) RNAs in vivo. Sequence analysis of cDNA clones prepared from progeny virusoid RNA revealed 8-20% of progeny contained reversions and pseudo-reversions of the introduced mutations. Hence, monomeric (-) RNAs were most likely produced by restoration of in vivo self-cleavage activity in the (-) RNA. Overall, the results indicate that mutations which disrupted self-cleavage in vitro also abolished the production of monomeric (-) RNAs in vivo and that hammerhead self-cleavage is involved in the cleavage of multimeric (-) RNAs to monomers. The observation that greater than 50% of the progeny cDNA clones generated from plants inoculated with mutant vLTSV contained base changes, compared to 20% from wild-type inoculated plants, may reflect an interesting adaptive response on the part of the mutated virusoids.

  14. Specific detection of the cleavage activity of mycobacterial enzymes using a quantum dot based DNA nanosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepsen, Morten Leth; Harmsen, Charlotte; Godbole, Adwait Anand; Nagaraja, Valakunja; Knudsen, Birgitta R.; Ho, Yi-Ping

    2015-12-01

    We present a quantum dot based DNA nanosensor specifically targeting the cleavage step in the reaction cycle of the essential DNA-modifying enzyme, mycobacterial topoisomerase I. The design takes advantages of the unique photophysical properties of quantum dots to generate visible fluorescence recovery upon specific cleavage by mycobacterial topoisomerase I. This report, for the first time, demonstrates the possibility to quantify the cleavage activity of the mycobacterial enzyme without the pre-processing sample purification or post-processing signal amplification. The cleavage induced signal response has also proven reliable in biological matrices, such as whole cell extracts prepared from Escherichia coli and human Caco-2 cells. It is expected that the assay may contribute to the clinical diagnostics of bacterial diseases, as well as the evaluation of treatment outcomes.We present a quantum dot based DNA nanosensor specifically targeting the cleavage step in the reaction cycle of the essential DNA-modifying enzyme, mycobacterial topoisomerase I. The design takes advantages of the unique photophysical properties of quantum dots to generate visible fluorescence recovery upon specific cleavage by mycobacterial topoisomerase I. This report, for the first time, demonstrates the possibility to quantify the cleavage activity of the mycobacterial enzyme without the pre-processing sample purification or post-processing signal amplification. The cleavage induced signal response has also proven reliable in biological matrices, such as whole cell extracts prepared from Escherichia coli and human Caco-2 cells. It is expected that the assay may contribute to the clinical diagnostics of bacterial diseases, as well as the evaluation of treatment outcomes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Characterization of the QD-based DNA Nanosensor. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06326d

  15. Condensed tannins: A novel rearrangement of procyanidins and prodelphinidins in thiolytic cleavage

    Treesearch

    G. Wayne McGraw; Jan P. Steynberg; Richard W. Hemingway

    1993-01-01

    Conditions commonly used for the thiolytic cleavage of interflavanoid bonds of condensed tannins also result in cleavage of the C4 to C10 bond of flavan units. Subsequenet lectrophilic attack of the C4 carbocation on the C2' or C6' of the B-ring, and loss of phloroglucinol (the A-ring), result in the formation of a mixture of 1,3-dithiobenzyl-2,4,s,6-...

  16. Features of Pro-σK Important for Cleavage by SpoIVFB, an Intramembrane Metalloprotease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kangming; Xiang, Xianling; Gu, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Intramembrane proteases regulate diverse processes by cleaving substrates within a transmembrane segment or near the membrane surface. Bacillus subtilis SpoIVFB is an intramembrane metalloprotease that cleaves Pro-σK during sporulation. To elucidate features of Pro-σK important for cleavage by SpoIVFB, coexpression of the two proteins in Escherichia coli was used along with cell fractionation. In the absence of SpoIVFB, a portion of the Pro-σK was peripherally membrane associated. This portion was not observed in the presence of SpoIVFB, suggesting that it serves as the substrate. Deletion of Pro-σK residues 2 to 8, addition of residues at its N terminus, or certain single-residue substitutions near the cleavage site impaired cleavage. Certain multiresidue substitutions near the cleavage site changed the position of cleavage, revealing preferences for a small residue preceding the cleavage site N-terminally (i.e., at the P1 position) and a hydrophobic residue at the second position following the cleavage site C-terminally (i.e., P2′). These features appear to be conserved among Pro-σK orthologs. SpoIVFB did not tolerate an aromatic residue at P1 or P2′ of Pro-σK. A Lys residue at P3′ of Pro-σK could not be replaced with Ala unless a Lys was provided farther C-terminally (e.g., at P9′). α-Helix-destabilizing residues near the cleavage site were not crucial for SpoIVFB to cleave Pro-σK. The preferences and tolerances of SpoIVFB are somewhat different from those of other intramembrane metalloproteases, perhaps reflecting differences in the interaction of the substrate with the membrane and the enzyme. PMID:23585539

  17. Photocatalytic C-C Bond Cleavage and Amination of Cycloalkanols by Cerium(III) Chloride Complex.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing-Jing; Hu, Anhua; Chen, Yilin; Sun, Jianfeng; Tang, Haoming; Zuo, Zhiwei

    2016-12-05

    A general strategy for the cleavage and amination of C-C bonds of cycloalkanols has been achieved through visible-light-induced photoredox catalysis utilizing a cerium(III) chloride complex. This operationally simple methodology has been successfully applied to a wide array of unstrained cyclic alcohols, and represents the first example of catalytic C-C bond cleavage and functionalization of unstrained secondary cycloalkanols.

  18. Conventional and unconventional mechanisms for capping viral mRNA.

    PubMed

    Decroly, Etienne; Ferron, François; Lescar, Julien; Canard, Bruno

    2011-12-05

    In the eukaryotic cell, capping of mRNA 5' ends is an essential structural modification that allows efficient mRNA translation, directs pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA export from the nucleus, limits mRNA degradation by cellular 5'-3' exonucleases and allows recognition of foreign RNAs (including viral transcripts) as 'non-self'. However, viruses have evolved mechanisms to protect their RNA 5' ends with either a covalently attached peptide or a cap moiety (7-methyl-Gppp, in which p is a phosphate group) that is indistinguishable from cellular mRNA cap structures. Viral RNA caps can be stolen from cellular mRNAs or synthesized using either a host- or virus-encoded capping apparatus, and these capping assemblies exhibit a wide diversity in organization, structure and mechanism. Here, we review the strategies used by viruses of eukaryotic cells to produce functional mRNA 5'-caps and escape innate immunity.

  19. cDNA cloning, primary structure and gene expression for H-protein, a component of the glycine-cleavage system (glycine decarboxylase) of pea (Pisum sativum) leaf mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Macherel, D; Lebrun, M; Gagnon, J; Neuburger, M; Douce, R

    1990-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized cDNA clones encoding the H-protein of the glycine-cleavage system of pea (Pisum sativum) leaf mitochondria. The deduced primary structure revealed that the 131-amino-acid polypeptide is cytoplasmically synthesized with a 34-amino-acid mitochondrial targeting peptide. The lipoate-binding site was assigned to be lysine-63, as deduced from a sequence comparison with several lipoate-bearing proteins. The expression of the gene encoding H-protein was shown to occur specifically in the leaf tissue, with light exerting an additional effect by increasing the mRNA levels severalfold. Two polyadenylation sites were found in the mRNA, and a single-copy gene encoding the H-protein was detected in pea genome. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2363710

  20. Links between mRNA splicing, mRNA quality control, and intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Fasken, Milo B.; Corbett, Anita H.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the impairment of RNA binding proteins that play key roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression has been linked to numerous neurological diseases. These RNA binding proteins perform critical mRNA processing steps in the nucleus, including splicing, polyadenylation, and export. In many cases, these RNA binding proteins are ubiquitously expressed raising key questions about why only brain function is impaired. Recently, mutations in the ZC3H14 gene, encoding an evolutionarily conserved, polyadenosine RNA binding protein, have been linked to a nonsyndromic form of autosomal recessive intellectual disability. Thus far, research on ZC3H14 and its Nab2 orthologs in budding yeast and Drosophila reveals that ZC3H14/Nab2 is important for mRNA processing and neuronal patterning. Two recent studies now provide evidence that ZC3H14/Nab2 may function in the quality control of mRNA splicing and export and could help to explain the molecular defects that cause neuronal dysfunction and lead to an inherited form of intellectual disability. These studies on ZC3H14/Nab2 reveal new clues to the puzzle of why loss of the ubiquitously expressed ZC3H14 protein specifically affects neurons. PMID:27868086

  1. Artefactual cleavage of E coli H-NS by OmpT.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M D; Canvin, J R; Freestone, P; Andersen, C; Laoudj, D; Williams, P H; Holland, I B; Norris, V

    1997-06-01

    In the bacterium Escherichia coli, H-NS-(H1, H1a) is a heat-stable protein with a molecular mass of 15.5 kDa involved in nucleoid organisation and gene regulation linked to certain signal transduction pathways. We have shown that, following addition of preparations of everted inner membrane vesicles, heat-stable cleavage products of approximately 10 kDa of H-NS are formed in vitro from newly synthesised, radio-labelled H-NS and from purified H-NS. The 15.5 kDa protein and its cleavage products were also recovered from a minicell system. These results raised the possibility that cleavage of H-NS is physiologically significant. However, the cleavage of H-NS observed appears to occur during cell breakage and to depend on the method of protein extraction and the presence of the outer membrane protease, OmpT. Nevertheless, the results indicate that H-NS may contain at least two separate domains with cleavage occurring between these domains at a preferred OmpT site. Failure to take account of H-NS cleavage in sample preparation and analysis can lead to serious underestimation of H-NS levels.

  2. Presenilin-mediated transmembrane cleavage is required for Notch signal transduction in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Struhl, Gary; Greenwald, Iva

    2001-01-01

    The cleavage model for signal transduction by receptors of the LIN-12/Notch family posits that ligand binding leads to cleavage within the transmembrane domain, so that the intracellular domain is released to translocate to the nucleus and activate target gene expression. The familial Alzheimer's disease-associated protein Presenilin is required for LIN-12/Notch signaling, and several lines of evidence suggest that Presenilin mediates the transmembrane cleavage event that releases the LIN-12/Notch intracellular domain. However, doubt was cast on this possibility by a report that Presenilin is not required for the transducing activity of NECN, a constitutively active transmembrane form of Notch, in Drosophila. Here, we have reassessed this finding and show instead that Presenilin is required for activity of NECN for all cell fate decisions examined. Our results indicate that transmembrane cleavage and signal transduction are strictly correlated, supporting the cleavage model for signal transduction by LIN-12/Notch and a role for Presenilin in mediating the ligand-induced transmembrane cleavage. PMID:11134525

  3. Pistol ribozyme adopts a pseudoknot fold facilitating site-specific in-line cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Aiming; Vušurović, Nikola; Gebetsberger, Jennifer; Gao, Pu; Juen, Michael; Kreutz, Christoph; Micura, Ronald; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2016-01-01

    The field of small self-cleaving nucleolytic ribozymes has been invigorated by the recent discovery of the twister, twister-sister, pistol and hatchet ribozymes. We report on the crystal structure of the env25 pistol ribozyme, which adopts a compact tertiary architecture stabilized by an embedded pseudoknot fold. The G-U cleavage site adopts a splayed-apart conformation with in-line alignment of the modeled 2′-O of G for attack on the adjacent to-be-cleaved P-O5′ bond. Highly conserved residues G40 (N1 position) and A32 (N3 and 2′-OH positions) are aligned to act as general base and general acid respectively to accelerate cleavage chemistry, with their roles confirmed from cleavage assays on mutants, and an increased pKa of 4.7 for A32. Our structure of the pistol ribozyme defines how the overall and local topologies dictate the in-line alignment at the G-U cleavage site, with cleavage assays on mutants identifying key residues partici