Science.gov

Sample records for a-site mrna cleavage

  1. Selection of hammerhead ribozymes for optimum cleavage of interleukin 6 mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hendrix, C; Anné, J; Joris, B; Van Aerschot, A; Herdewijn, P

    1996-01-01

    Four GUC triplets in the coding region of the MRNA of interleukin 6 (IL-6) were examined for their suitabilty to serve as a target for hammerhead ribozome-mediated cleavage. This selection procedure was performed with the intention to downregulate IL-6 production as a potential treatment of those diseases in which IL-6 overexpression is involved. Hammerhead ribozymes and their respective short synthetic substrates (19-mers) were synthesized for these four GUC triplets. Notwithstanding the identical catalytic core sequences, the difference in base composition of the helices involved in substrate binding caused substantial variation in cleavage activity. The cleavage reactions on the 1035 nucleotide IL-6 mRNA transcript revealed that two ribozymes were able to cleave this substrate, showing a decrease in catalytic efficiency to 1/30 and 1/300 of the short substrate. This study indicates that the GUC triplet located at nucleotide 510 of the mRNA of IL-6 is the best site for hammerhead ribozyme-mediated cleavage. We suggest that in future targeting of chemically modified hammerhead ribosomes for cleavage of IL-6 RNA should be directed at this location. PMID:8670082

  2. Transition State Charge Stabilization and Acid-Base Catalysis of mRNA Cleavage by the Endoribonuclease RelE

    PubMed Central

    Dunican, Brian F.; Hiller, David A.; Strobel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial toxin RelE is a ribosome-dependent endoribonuclease. It is part of a type II toxin-antitoxin system that contributes to antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. During amino acid starvation RelE cleaves mRNA in the ribosomal A-site, globally inhibiting protein translation. RelE is structurally similar to microbial RNases that employ general acid-base catalysis to facilitate RNA cleavage. The RelE active-site is atypical for acid-base catalysis, in that it is enriched for positively charged residues and lacks the prototypical histidine-glutamate catalytic pair, making the mechanism of mRNA cleavage unclear. In this study we use a single-turnover kinetic analysis to measure the effect of pH and phosphorothioate substitution on the rate constant for cleavage of mRNA by wild-type RelE and seven active-site mutants. Mutation and thio-effects indicate a major role for stabilization of increased negative change in the transition state by arginine 61. The wild-type RelE cleavage rate constant is pH-independent, but the reaction catalyzed by many of the mutants is strongly pH dependent, suggestive of general acid-base catalysis. pH-rate curves indicate that wild-type RelE operates with the pKa of at least one catalytic residue significantly downshifted by the local environment. Mutation of any single active-site residue is sufficient to disrupt this microenvironment and revert the shifted pKa back above neutrality. pH-rate curves are consistent with K54 functioning as a general base and R81 as a general acid. The capacity of RelE to effect a large pKa shift and facilitate a common catalytic mechanism by uncommon means furthers our understanding of other atypical enzymatic active sites. PMID:26535789

  3. In vivo characterization of the Drosophila mRNA 3′ end processing core cleavage complex

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Daniel; Steiniger, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    A core cleavage complex (CCC) consisting of CPSF73, CPSF100, and Symplekin is required for cotranscriptional 3′ end processing of all metazoan pre-mRNAs, yet little is known about the in vivo molecular interactions within this complex. The CCC is a component of two distinct complexes, the cleavage/polyadenylation complex and the complex that processes nonpolyadenylated histone pre-mRNAs. RNAi-depletion of CCC factors in Drosophila culture cells causes reduction of CCC processing activity on histone mRNAs, resulting in read through transcription. In contrast, RNAi-depletion of factors only required for histone mRNA processing allows use of downstream cryptic polyadenylation signals to produce polyadenylated histone mRNAs. We used Dmel-2 tissue culture cells stably expressing tagged CCC components to determine that amino acids 272–1080 of Symplekin and the C-terminal approximately 200 amino acids of both CPSF73 and CPSF100 are required for efficient CCC formation in vivo. Additional experiments reveal that the C-terminal 241 amino acids of CPSF100 are sufficient for histone mRNA processing indicating that the first 524 amino acids of CPSF100 are dispensable for both CCC formation and histone mRNA 3′ end processing. CCCs containing deletions of Symplekin lacking the first 271 amino acids resulted in dramatic increased use of downstream polyadenylation sites for histone mRNA 3′ end processing similar to RNAi-depletion of histone-specific 3′ end processing factors FLASH, SLBP, and U7 snRNA. We propose a model in which CCC formation is mediated by CPSF73, CPSF100, and Symplekin C-termini, and the N-terminal region of Symplekin facilitates cotranscriptional 3′ end processing of histone mRNAs. PMID:26081560

  4. Cleavage of HPV-16 E6/E7 mRNA mediated by modified 10-23 deoxyribozymes.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gutiérrez, Pablo; Alvarez-Salas, Luis M

    2009-09-01

    Deoxyribozymes (DXZs) are small oligodeoxynucleotides capable of mediating phosphodiester bond cleavage of a target RNA in a sequence-specific manner. These molecules are a new generation of artificial catalytic nucleic acids currently used to silence many disease-related genes. The present study describes a DXZ (Dz1023-434) directed against the polycistronic mRNA from the E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16), the main etiological agent of cervical cancer. Dz1023-434 showed efficient cleavage against a bona fide antisense window at nt 410-445 within HPV-16 E6/E7 mRNA even in low [Mg(2+)] conditions. Using a genetic analysis as guidance, we introduced diverse chemical modifications within Dz1023-434 catalytic core to produce a stable locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified DXZ (Dz434-LNA) with significant cleavage activity of full E6/E7 transcripts. Cell culture testing of Dz434-LNA produced a sharp decrement of E6/E7 mRNA levels in HPV-16-positive cells resulting in decreased proliferation and considerable cell death in a specific and dose-dependent manner. No significant effects were observed with inactive or scrambled control DXZs nor from using HPV-negative cells, suggesting catalysis-dependent effect and high specificity. The biological effects of Dz434-LNA suggest a potential use for the treatment of cervical cancer.

  5. Stabilization of Clostridium perfringens collagenase mRNA by VR-RNA-dependent cleavage in 5' leader sequence.

    PubMed

    Obana, Nozomu; Shirahama, Yu; Abe, Kimihiro; Nakamura, Kouji

    2010-09-01

    The small RNA (sRNA), VR-RNA that is directly regulated by the VirR/VirS two-component system, regulates many genes including toxin genes such as collagenase (colA) and phospholipase C (plc) in Clostridium perfringens. Although the VR-RNA 3' region is sufficient to regulate the colA and plc genes, the molecular mechanism of toxin gene regulation by VR-RNA remains unclear. Here, we found that colA mRNA is cleaved at position -79 and -78 from the A of the first codon (ATG) in the presence of VR-RNA. The processed transcripts were stable compared with longer intact transcripts. On the other hand, colA mRNA was labile in a VR-RNA-deficient strain, and processed transcripts were undetectable. The stability and processing of colA mRNA were restored by transformation of the 3' region of VR-RNA-expression vector. The 3' region of VR-RNA and colA mRNA had significant complementation and interacted in vitro. These results show that VR-RNA base pairs with colA mRNA and induces cleavage in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of colA mRNA, which leads to the stabilization of colA mRNA and the activation of colA expression. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Role of miRNAs and alternative mRNA 3'-end cleavage and polyadenylation of their mRNA targets in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Soetanto, R; Hynes, C J; Patel, H R; Humphreys, D T; Evers, M; Duan, G; Parker, B J; Archer, S K; Clancy, J L; Graham, R M; Beilharz, T H; Smith, N J; Preiss, T

    2016-05-01

    miRNAs play critical roles in heart disease. In addition to differential miRNA expression, miRNA-mediated control is also affected by variable miRNA processing or alternative 3'-end cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) of their mRNA targets. To what extent these phenomena play a role in the heart remains unclear. We sought to explore miRNA processing and mRNA APA in cardiomyocytes, and whether these change during cardiac hypertrophy. Thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) was performed to induce hypertrophy in C57BL/6J mice. RNA extracted from cardiomyocytes of sham-treated, pre-hypertrophic (2 days post-TAC), and hypertrophic (7 days post-TAC) mice was subjected to small RNA- and poly(A)-test sequencing (PAT-Seq). Differential expression analysis matched expectations; nevertheless we identified ~400 mRNAs and hundreds of noncoding RNA loci as altered with hypertrophy for the first time. Although multiple processing variants were observed for many miRNAs, there was little change in their relative proportions during hypertrophy. PAT-Seq mapped ~48,000 mRNA 3'-ends, identifying novel 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) for over 7000 genes. Importantly, hypertrophy was associated with marked changes in APA with a net shift from distal to more proximal mRNA 3'-ends, which is predicted to decrease overall miRNA repression strength. We independently validated several examples of 3'UTR proportion change and showed that alternative 3'UTRs associate with differences in mRNA translation. Our work suggests that APA contributes to altered gene expression with the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and provides a rich resource for a systems-level understanding of miRNA-mediated regulation in physiological and pathological states of the heart. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A ribonuclease coordinates siRNA amplification and mRNA cleavage during RNAi.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsin-Yue; Chen, Chun-Chieh G; Conte, Darryl; Moresco, James J; Chaves, Daniel A; Mitani, Shohei; Yates, John R; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Mello, Craig C

    2015-01-29

    Effective silencing by RNA-interference (RNAi) depends on mechanisms that amplify and propagate the silencing signal. In some organisms, small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are amplified from target mRNAs by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). Both RdRP recruitment and mRNA silencing require Argonaute proteins, which are generally thought to degrade RNAi targets by directly cleaving them. However, in C. elegans, the enzymatic activity of the primary Argonaute, RDE-1, is not required for silencing activity. We show that RDE-1 can instead recruit an endoribonuclease, RDE-8, to target RNA. RDE-8 can cleave RNA in vitro and is needed for the production of 3' uridylated fragments of target mRNA in vivo. We also find that RDE-8 promotes RdRP activity, thereby ensuring amplification of siRNAs. Together, our findings suggest a model in which RDE-8 cleaves target mRNAs to mediate silencing, while generating 3' uridylated mRNA fragments to serve as templates for the RdRP-directed amplification of the silencing signal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A ribonuclease coordinates siRNA amplification and mRNA cleavage during RNAi

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsin-Yue; Chen, Chun-Chieh G.; Conte, Darryl; Moresco, James J.; Chaves, Daniel A.; Mitani, Shohei; Yates, John R.; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Mello, Craig C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Effective silencing by RNA-interference (RNAi) depends on mechanisms that amplify and propagate the silencing signal. In some organisms, small-interfering (si) RNAs are amplified from target mRNAs by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). Both RdRP recruitment and mRNA silencing require Argonaute proteins, which are generally thought to degrade RNAi targets by directly cleaving them. However in C. elegans, the enzymatic activity of the primary Argonaute, RDE-1, is not required for silencing activity. We show that RDE-1 can instead recruit an endoribonuclease, RDE-8, to target RNA. RDE-8 can cleave RNA in vitro and is needed for the production of 3′ uridylated fragments of target mRNA in vivo. We also find that RDE-8 promotes RdRP activity, thereby ensuring amplification of siRNAs. Together, our findings suggest a model in which RDE-8 cleaves target mRNAs to mediate silencing, while generating 3’ uridylated mRNA fragments to serve as templates for the RdRP-directed amplification of the silencing signal. PMID:25635455

  9. Detection of siRNA Mediated Target mRNA Cleavage Activities in Human Cells by a Novel Stem-Loop Array RT-PCR Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-07

    sequences of the target mRNA, and a double stranded stem at the 5′ end that forms a stem -loop to function as a forceps to stabilize the secondary...E-mjournal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/bbrepDetection of siRNA-mediated target mRNA cleavage activities in human cells by a novel stem -loop...challenges for the accurate and efficient detection and verification of cleavage sites on target mRNAs. Here we used a sensitive stem -loop array reverse

  10. RNA Sequencing Identifies New RNase III Cleavage Sites in Escherichia coli and Reveals Increased Regulation of mRNA

    DOE PAGES

    Gordon, Gina C.; Cameron, Jeffrey C.; Pfleger, Brian F.

    2017-03-28

    Ribonucleases facilitate rapid turnover of RNA, providing cells with another mechanism to adjust transcript and protein levels in response to environmental conditions. While many examples have been documented, a comprehensive list of RNase targets is not available. To address this knowledge gap, we compared levels of RNA sequencing coverage of Escherichia coli and a corresponding RNase III mutant to expand the list of known RNase III targets. RNase III is a widespread endoribonuclease that binds and cleaves double-stranded RNA in many critical transcripts. RNase III cleavage at novel sites found in aceEF, proP, tnaC, dctA, pheM, sdhC, yhhQ, glpT, aceK,more » and gluQ accelerated RNA decay, consistent with previously described targets wherein RNase III cleavage initiates rapid degradation of secondary messages by other RNases. In contrast, cleavage at three novel sites in the ahpF, pflB, and yajQ transcripts led to stabilized secondary transcripts. Two other novel sites in hisL and pheM overlapped with transcriptional attenuators that likely serve to ensure turnover of these highly structured RNAs. Many of the new RNase III target sites are located on transcripts encoding metabolic enzymes. For instance, two novel RNase III sites are located within transcripts encoding enzymes near a key metabolic node connecting glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was increased in an rnc deletion mutant compared to the wild-type (WT) strain in early stationary phase, confirming the novel link between RNA turnover and regulation of pathway activity. Identification of these novel sites suggests that mRNA turnover may be an underappreciated mode of regulating metabolism. IMPORTANCE: The concerted action and overlapping functions of endoribonucleases, exoribonucleases, and RNA processing enzymes complicate the study of global RNA turnover and recycling of specific transcripts. More information about RNase specificity and activity is

  11. RNA Sequencing Identifies New RNase III Cleavage Sites in Escherichia coli and Reveals Increased Regulation of mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Gina C.; Cameron, Jeffrey C.; Pfleger, Brian F.

    Ribonucleases facilitate rapid turnover of RNA, providing cells with another mechanism to adjust transcript and protein levels in response to environmental conditions. While many examples have been documented, a comprehensive list of RNase targets is not available. To address this knowledge gap, we compared levels of RNA sequencing coverage of Escherichia coli and a corresponding RNase III mutant to expand the list of known RNase III targets. RNase III is a widespread endoribonuclease that binds and cleaves double-stranded RNA in many critical transcripts. RNase III cleavage at novel sites found in aceEF, proP, tnaC, dctA, pheM, sdhC, yhhQ, glpT, aceK,more » and gluQ accelerated RNA decay, consistent with previously described targets wherein RNase III cleavage initiates rapid degradation of secondary messages by other RNases. In contrast, cleavage at three novel sites in the ahpF, pflB, and yajQ transcripts led to stabilized secondary transcripts. Two other novel sites in hisL and pheM overlapped with transcriptional attenuators that likely serve to ensure turnover of these highly structured RNAs. Many of the new RNase III target sites are located on transcripts encoding metabolic enzymes. For instance, two novel RNase III sites are located within transcripts encoding enzymes near a key metabolic node connecting glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was increased in an rnc deletion mutant compared to the wild-type (WT) strain in early stationary phase, confirming the novel link between RNA turnover and regulation of pathway activity. Identification of these novel sites suggests that mRNA turnover may be an underappreciated mode of regulating metabolism. IMPORTANCE: The concerted action and overlapping functions of endoribonucleases, exoribonucleases, and RNA processing enzymes complicate the study of global RNA turnover and recycling of specific transcripts. More information about RNase specificity and activity is

  12. [Positioning of mRNA 3' of the a site bound codon on the human 80S ribosome].

    PubMed

    Molotkov, M V; Graĭfer, D M; Demeshkina, N A; Repkova, M N; Ven'iaminova, A G; Karpova, G G

    2005-01-01

    Short mRNA analogues carrying a UUU triplet at the 5'-termini and a perfluorophenylazide group at either the N7 atom of the guanosine or the C5 atom of the uridine 3' of the triplet were applied to study positioning of mRNA 3' of the A site codon. Complexes of 80S ribosomes with the mRNA analogues were obtained in the presence of tRNAPhe that directed UUU codon to the P site and consequently provided placement of the nucleotide with cross-linker in positions +9 or +12 with respect to the first nucleotide of the P site bound codon. Both types mRNA analogues cross-linked to the 18S rRNA and 40S proteins under mild UV-irradiation. Cross-linking patterns in the complexes where modified nucleotides of the mRNA analogues were in position +7 were analyzed for comparison (cross-linking to the 18S rRNA in such complexes has been studied previously). The efficiency of cross-linking to the ribosomal components depended on the nature of the modified nucleotide in the mRNA analogue and its position on the ribosome, extent of cross-linking to the 18S rRNA being decreased drastically when the modified nucleotide was moved from position +7 to position +12. The nucleotides of 18S rRNA cross-linked to mRNA analogues were determined. Modified nucleotides in positions +9 and +12 cross-linked to the invariant dinucleotide A1824/A1825 and to variable A1823 in the 3'-minidomain of 18S rRNA as well as to protein S15. The same ribosomal components have been found earlier to cross-link to modified mRNA nucleotides in positions from +4 to +7. Besides, all mRNA analogues cross-linked to the invariant nucleotide c1698 in the 3'-minidomain and to and the conserved region 605-620 closing helix 18 in the 5'-domain.

  13. Translation of Polioviral mRNA Is Inhibited by Cleavage of Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Proteins Executed by Polioviral 3Cpro

    PubMed Central

    Back, Sung Hoon; Kim, Yoon Ki; Kim, Woo Jae; Cho, Sungchan; Oh, Hoe Rang; Kim, Jung-Eun; Jang, Sung Key

    2002-01-01

    The translation of polioviral mRNA occurs through an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). Several RNA-binding proteins, such as polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) and poly(rC)-binding protein (PCBP), are required for the poliovirus IRES-dependent translation. Here we report that a poliovirus protein, 3Cpro (and/or 3CDpro), cleaves PTB isoforms (PTB1, PTB2, and PTB4). Three 3Cpro target sites (one major target site and two minor target sites) exist in PTBs. PTB fragments generated by poliovirus infection are redistributed to the cytoplasm from the nucleus, where most of the intact PTBs are localized. Moreover, these PTB fragments inhibit polioviral IRES-dependent translation in a cell-based assay system. We speculate that the proteolytic cleavage of PTBs may contribute to the molecular switching from translation to replication of polioviral RNA. PMID:11836431

  14. AthMethPre: a web server for the prediction and query of mRNA m6A sites in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Shunian; Yan, Zhangming; Liu, Ke; Zhang, Yaou; Sun, Zhirong

    2016-10-18

    N 6 -Methyladenosine (m 6 A) is the most prevalent and abundant modification in mRNA that has been linked to many key biological processes. High-throughput experiments have generated m 6 A-peaks across the transcriptome of A. thaliana, but the specific methylated sites were not assigned, which impedes the understanding of m 6 A functions in plants. Therefore, computational prediction of mRNA m 6 A sites becomes emergently important. Here, we present a method to predict the m 6 A sites for A. thaliana mRNA sequence(s). To predict the m 6 A sites of an mRNA sequence, we employed the support vector machine to build a classifier using the features of the positional flanking nucleotide sequence and position-independent k-mer nucleotide spectrum. Our method achieved good performance and was applied to a web server to provide service for the prediction of A. thaliana m 6 A sites. The server also provides a comprehensive database of predicted transcriptome-wide m 6 A sites and curated m 6 A-seq peaks from the literature for query and visualization. The AthMethPre web server is the first web server that provides a user-friendly tool for the prediction and query of A. thaliana mRNA m 6 A sites, which is freely accessible for public use at .

  15. Substance P activates ADAM9 mRNA expression and induces α-secretase-mediated amyloid precursor protein cleavage.

    PubMed

    Marolda, R; Ciotti, M T; Matrone, C; Possenti, R; Calissano, P; Cavallaro, S; Severini, C

    2012-04-01

    Altered levels of Substance P (SP), a neuropeptide endowed with neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic properties, were found in brain areas and spinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. One of the hallmarks of AD is the abnormal extracellular deposition of neurotoxic beta amyloid (Aβ) peptides, derived from the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). In the present study, we confirmed, the neurotrophic action of SP in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) and investigated its effects on APP metabolism. Incubation with low (5 mM) potassium induced apoptotic cell death of CGCs and amyloidogenic processing of APP, whereas treatment with SP (200 nM) reverted these effects via NK1 receptors. The non-amyloidogenic effect of SP consisted of reduction of Aβ(1-42), increase of sAPPα and enhanced α-secretase activity, without a significant change in steady-state levels of cellular APP. The intracellular mechanisms whereby SP alters APP metabolism were further investigated by measuring mRNA and/or steady-state protein levels of key enzymes involved with α-, β- and γ-secretase activity. Among them, Adam9, both at the mRNA and protein level, was the only enzyme to be significantly down-regulated following the induction of apoptosis (K5) and up-regulated after SP treatment. In addition to its neuroprotective properties, this study shows that SP is able to stimulate non-amyloidogenic APP processing, thereby reducing the possibility of generation of toxic Aβ peptides in brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Splicing History of an mRNA Affects Its Level of Translation and Sensitivity to Cleavage by the Virion Host Shutoff Endonuclease during Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Jouliana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During lytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, the virion host shutoff (Vhs) (UL41) endoribonuclease degrades many cellular and viral mRNAs. In uninfected cells, spliced mRNAs emerge into the cytoplasm bound by exon junction complexes (EJCs) and are translated several times more efficiently than unspliced mRNAs that have the same sequence but lack EJCs. Notably, most cellular mRNAs are spliced, whereas most HSV mRNAs are not. To examine the effect of splicing on gene expression during HSV infection, cells were transfected with plasmids harboring an unspliced renilla luciferase (RLuc) reporter mRNA or RLuc constructs with introns near the 5′ or 3′ end of the gene. After splicing of intron-containing transcripts, all three RLuc mRNAs had the same primary sequence. Upon infection in the presence of actinomycin D, spliced mRNAs were much less sensitive to degradation by copies of Vhs from infecting virions than were unspliced mRNAs. During productive infections (in the absence of drugs), RLuc was expressed at substantially higher levels from spliced than from unspliced mRNAs. Interestingly, the stimulatory effect of splicing on RLuc expression was significantly greater in infected than in uninfected cells. The translational stimulatory effect of an intron during HSV-1 infections could be replicated by artificially tethering various EJC components to an unspliced RLuc transcript. Thus, the splicing history of an mRNA, and the consequent presence or absence of EJCs, affects its level of translation and sensitivity to Vhs cleavage during lytic HSV infections. IMPORTANCE Most mammalian mRNAs are spliced. In contrast, of the more than 80 mRNAs harbored by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), only 5 are spliced. In addition, synthesis of the immediate early protein ICP27 causes partial inhibition of pre-mRNA splicing, with the resultant accumulation of both spliced and unspliced versions of some mRNAs in the cytoplasm. A common perception is that HSV-1 infection

  17. Molecular cloning of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage and changes in its mRNA expression during gonadal development of brown hagfish, Paramyxine atami.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Maki; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Abe, Nozomi; Nozaki, Masumi

    2015-02-01

    Since hagfishes are considered the most primitive vertebrate known, extant or extinct, studies on their reproduction are indispensable for understanding phylogenetic aspects of vertebrate reproduction. However, little information is available on the endocrine regulation of the gonadal function in the hagfish. Based on EST analysis of the testis of the brown hagfish (Paramyxine atami), P450 side chain cleavage (CYP11A), which is the first and essential enzyme for steroidogenesis in jawed vertebrates, was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence of hagfish CYP11A shows high identity to other animal forms especially in two functional domains, adrenodoxin binding domain and heme-binding domain. In the phylogenetic analysis, hagfish CYP11A forms a clade with the vertebrate CYP11A. Following the real-time PCR analysis, CYP11A mRNA expression levels were clearly correlated to the developmental stages of gonads in both sexes of the brown hagfish. By in situ hybridization, CYP11A mRNA signals were found in the theca cells of the ovarian follicles and Leydig cells and the tubule-boundary cells of the testis. These molecular and histological evidences are suggesting that CYP11A plays functional roles as a steroidogenic enzyme in gonadal development. Moreover, native GTH purified from hagfish pituitary stimulated the transcriptional levels of CYP11A in the organ-cultured testis in vitro, clearly suggesting that the steroidogenic activity of the hagfish is under the control of the pituitary GTH. It is suggested that vertebrates, during their early evolution, have established the pituitary-gonadal reproductive system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. APASdb: a database describing alternative poly(A) sites and selection of heterogeneous cleavage sites downstream of poly(A) signals

    PubMed Central

    You, Leiming; Wu, Jiexin; Feng, Yuchao; Fu, Yonggui; Guo, Yanan; Long, Liyuan; Zhang, Hui; Luan, Yijie; Tian, Peng; Chen, Liangfu; Huang, Guangrui; Huang, Shengfeng; Li, Yuxin; Li, Jie; Chen, Chengyong; Zhang, Yaqing; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2015-01-01

    Increasing amounts of genes have been shown to utilize alternative polyadenylation (APA) 3′-processing sites depending on the cell and tissue type and/or physiological and pathological conditions at the time of processing, and the construction of genome-wide database regarding APA is urgently needed for better understanding poly(A) site selection and APA-directed gene expression regulation for a given biology. Here we present a web-accessible database, named APASdb (http://mosas.sysu.edu.cn/utr), which can visualize the precise map and usage quantification of different APA isoforms for all genes. The datasets are deeply profiled by the sequencing alternative polyadenylation sites (SAPAS) method capable of high-throughput sequencing 3′-ends of polyadenylated transcripts. Thus, APASdb details all the heterogeneous cleavage sites downstream of poly(A) signals, and maintains near complete coverage for APA sites, much better than the previous databases using conventional methods. Furthermore, APASdb provides the quantification of a given APA variant among transcripts with different APA sites by computing their corresponding normalized-reads, making our database more useful. In addition, APASdb supports URL-based retrieval, browsing and display of exon-intron structure, poly(A) signals, poly(A) sites location and usage reads, and 3′-untranslated regions (3′-UTRs). Currently, APASdb involves APA in various biological processes and diseases in human, mouse and zebrafish. PMID:25378337

  19. [Protein S3 in the human 80S ribosome adjoins mRNA from 3'-side of the A-site codon].

    PubMed

    Molotkov, M V; Graĭfer, D M; Popugaeva, E A; Bulygin, K N; Meshchaninova, M I; Ven'iaminova, A G; Karpova, G G

    2007-01-01

    The protein environment of mRNA 3' of the A-site codon (the decoding site) in the human 80S ribosome was studied using a set of oligoribonucleotide derivatives bearing a UUU triplet at the 5'-end and a perfluoroarylazide group at one of the nucleotide residues at the 3'-end of this triplet. Analogues of mRNA were phased into the ribosome using binding at the tRNAPhe P-site, which recognizes the UUU codon. Mild UV irradiation of ribosome complexes with tRNAPhe and mRNA analogues resulted in the predominant crosslinking of the analogues with the 40S subunit components, mainly with proteins and, to a lesser extent, with rRNA. Among the 40S subunit ribosomal proteins, the S3 protein was the main target for modification in all cases. In addition, minor crosslinking with the S2 protein was observed. The crosslinking with the S3 and S2 proteins occurred both in triple complexes and in the absence of tRNA. Within triple complexes, crosslinking with S15 protein was also found, its efficiency considerably falling when the modified nucleotide was moved from positions +5 to +12 relative to the first codon nucleotide in the P-site. In some cases, crosslinking with the S30 protein was observed, it was most efficient for the derivative containing a photoreactive group at the +7 adenosine residue. The results indicate that the S3 protein in the human ribosome plays a key role in the formation of the mRNA binding site 3' of the codon in the decoding site.

  20. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  1. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  2. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  3. mRNA 3' of the A site bound codon is located close to protein S3 on the human 80S ribosome.

    PubMed

    Molotkov, Maxim V; Graifer, Dmitri M; Popugaeva, Elena A; Bulygin, Konstantin N; Meschaninova, Maria I; Ven'yaminova, Aliya G; Karpova, Galina G

    2006-07-01

    Ribosomal proteins neighboring the mRNA downstream of the codon bound at the decoding site of human 80S ribosomes were identified using three sets of mRNA analogues that contained a UUU triplet at the 5' terminus and a perfluorophenylazide cross-linker at guanosine, adenosine or uridine residues placed at various locations 3' of this triplet. The positions of modified mRNA nucleotides on the ribosome were governed by tRNA(Phe) cognate to the UUU triplet targeted to the P site. Upon mild UV-irradiation, the mRNA analogues cross-linked preferentially to the 40S subunit, to the proteins and to a lesser extent to the 18S rRNA. Cross-linked nucleotides of 18S rRNA were identified previously. In the present study, it is shown that among the proteins the main target for cross-linking with all the mRNA analogues tested was protein S3 (homologous to prokaryotic S3, S3p); minor cross-linking to protein S2 (S5p) was also detected. Both proteins cross-linked to mRNA analogues in the ternary complexes as well as in the binary complexes (without tRNA). In the ternary complexes protein S15 (S19p) also cross-linked, the yield of the cross-link decreased significantly when the modified nucleotide moved from position +5 to position +12 with respect to the first nucleotide of the P site bound codon. In several ternary complexes minor cross-linking to protein S30 was likewise detected. The results of this study indicate that S3 is a key protein at the mRNA binding site neighboring mRNA downstream of the codon at the decoding site in the human ribosome.

  4. Kinetics of hairpin ribozyme cleavage in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, C P; Fedor, M J

    1997-01-01

    Hairpin ribozymes catalyze a self-cleavage reaction that provides a simple model for quantitative analyses of intracellular mechanisms of RNA catalysis. Decay rates of chimeric mRNAs containing self-cleaving ribozymes give a direct measure of intracellular cleavage kinetics in yeast. Intracellular ribozyme-mediated cleavage occurs at similar rates and shows similar inhibition by ribozyme mutations as ribozyme-mediated reactions in vitro, but only when ribozymes are located in a favorable mRNA sequence context. The impact of cleavage on mRNA abundance is shown to depend directly on intrinsic mRNA stability. Surprisingly, cleavage products are no more labile than uncleaved mRNAs despite the loss of terminal cap structures or poly (A). PMID:9292496

  5. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  6. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  7. Cleavage and polyadenylation: Ending the message expands gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Neve, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cleavage and polyadenylation (pA) is a fundamental step that is required for the maturation of primary protein encoding transcripts into functional mRNAs that can be exported from the nucleus and translated in the cytoplasm. 3′end processing is dependent on the assembly of a multiprotein processing complex on the pA signals that reside in the pre-mRNAs. Most eukaryotic genes have multiple pA signals, resulting in alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA), a widespread phenomenon that is important to establish cell state and cell type specific transcriptomes. Here, we review how pA sites are recognized and comprehensively summarize how APA is regulated and creates mRNA isoform profiles that are characteristic for cell types, tissues, cellular states and disease. PMID:28453393

  8. Analysis of RNA Processing Reactions Using Cell Free Systems: 3' End Cleavage of Pre-mRNA Substrates in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Joseph; Clementz, Mark; Ryan, Kevin; Valente, Susana T.

    2014-01-01

    The 3’ end of mammalian mRNAs is not formed by abrupt termination of transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNPII). Instead, RNPII synthesizes precursor mRNA beyond the end of mature RNAs, and an active process of endonuclease activity is required at a specific site. Cleavage of the precursor RNA normally occurs 10-30 nt downstream from the consensus polyA site (AAUAAA) after the CA dinucleotides. Proteins from the cleavage complex, a multifactorial protein complex of approximately 800 kDa, accomplish this specific nuclease activity. Specific RNA sequences upstream and downstream of the polyA site control the recruitment of the cleavage complex. Immediately after cleavage, pre-mRNAs are polyadenylated by the polyA polymerase (PAP) to produce mature stable RNA messages. Processing of the 3’ end of an RNA transcript may be studied using cellular nuclear extracts with specific radiolabeled RNA substrates. In sum, a long 32P-labeled uncleaved precursor RNA is incubated with nuclear extracts in vitro, and cleavage is assessed by gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. When proper cleavage occurs, a shorter 5’ cleaved product is detected and quantified. Here, we describe the cleavage assay in detail using, as an example, the 3’ end processing of HIV-1 mRNAs. PMID:24835792

  9. Combined actions of multiple hairpin loop structures and sites of rate-limiting endonucleolytic cleavage determine differential degradation rates of individual segments within polycistronic puf operon mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Klug, G; Cohen, S N

    1990-01-01

    Differential expression of the genes within the puf operon of Rhodobacter capsulatus is accomplished in part by differences in the rate of degradation of different segments of the puf transcript. We report here that decay of puf mRNA sequences specifying the light-harvesting I (LHI) and reaction center (RC) photosynthetic membrane peptides is initiated endoribonucleolytically within a discrete 1.4-kilobase segment of the RC-coding region. Deletion of this segment increased the half-life of the RC-coding region from 8 to 20 min while not affecting decay of LHI-coding sequences upstream from an intercistronic hairpin loop structure shown previously to impede 3'-to-5' degradation. Prolongation of RC segment half-life was dependent on the presence of other hairpin structures 3' to the RC region. Inserting the endonuclease-sensitive sites into the LHI-coding segment markedly accelerated its degradation. Our results suggest that differential degradation of the RC- and LHI-coding segments of puf mRNA is accomplished at least in part by the combined actions of RC region-specific endonuclease(s), one or more exonucleases, and several strategically located exonuclease-impeding hairpins. Images PMID:2394682

  10. Defining the mRNA recognition signature of a bacterial toxin protein

    DOE PAGES

    Schureck, Marc A.; Dunkle, Jack A.; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; ...

    2015-10-27

    Bacteria contain multiple type II toxins that selectively degrade mRNAs bound to the ribosome to regulate translation and growth and facilitate survival during the stringent response. Ribosome-dependent toxins recognize a variety of three-nucleotide codons within the aminoacyl (A) site, but how these endonucleases achieve substrate specificity remains poorly understood. In this paper, we identify the critical features for how the host inhibition of growth B (HigB) toxin recognizes each of the three A-site nucleotides for cleavage. X-ray crystal structures of HigB bound to two different codons on the ribosome illustrate how HigB uses a microbial RNase-like nucleotide recognition loop tomore » recognize either cytosine or adenosine at the second A-site position. Strikingly, a single HigB residue and 16S rRNA residue C1054 form an adenosine-specific pocket at the third A-site nucleotide, in contrast to how tRNAs decode mRNA. Finally, our results demonstrate that the most important determinant for mRNA cleavage by ribosome-dependent toxins is interaction with the third A-site nucleotide.« less

  11. Defining the mRNA recognition signature of a bacterial toxin protein

    SciTech Connect

    Schureck, Marc A.; Dunkle, Jack A.; Maehigashi, Tatsuya

    Bacteria contain multiple type II toxins that selectively degrade mRNAs bound to the ribosome to regulate translation and growth and facilitate survival during the stringent response. Ribosome-dependent toxins recognize a variety of three-nucleotide codons within the aminoacyl (A) site, but how these endonucleases achieve substrate specificity remains poorly understood. In this paper, we identify the critical features for how the host inhibition of growth B (HigB) toxin recognizes each of the three A-site nucleotides for cleavage. X-ray crystal structures of HigB bound to two different codons on the ribosome illustrate how HigB uses a microbial RNase-like nucleotide recognition loop tomore » recognize either cytosine or adenosine at the second A-site position. Strikingly, a single HigB residue and 16S rRNA residue C1054 form an adenosine-specific pocket at the third A-site nucleotide, in contrast to how tRNAs decode mRNA. Finally, our results demonstrate that the most important determinant for mRNA cleavage by ribosome-dependent toxins is interaction with the third A-site nucleotide.« less

  12. [Protein S3 fragments neighboring mRNA during elongation and translation termination on the human ribosome].

    PubMed

    Khaĭrulina, Iu S; Molotkov, M V; Bulygin, K N; Graĭfer, D M; Ven'yaminova, A G; Frolova, L Iu; Stahl, J; Karpova, G G

    2008-01-01

    Protein S3 fragments were determined that crosslink to modified mRNA analogues in positions +5 to +12 relative to the first nucleotide in the P-site binding codon in model complexes mimicking states of ribosomes at the elongation and translation termination steps. The mRNA analogues contained a Phe codon UUU/UUC at the 5'-termini that could predetermine the position of the tRNA(Phe) on the ribosome by the location of P-site binding and perfluorophenylazidobenzoyl group at a nucleotide in various positions 3' of the UUU/UUC codon. The crosslinked S3 protein was isolated from 80S ribosomal complexes irradiated with mild UV light and subjected to cyanogen bromide-induced cleavage at methionine residues with subsequent identification of the crosslinked oligopeptides. An analysis of the positions of modified oligopeptides resulting from the cleavage showed that, in dependence on the positions of modified nucleotides in the mRNA analogue, the crosslinking sites were found in the N-terminal half of the protein (fragment 2-127) and/or in the C-terminal fragment 190-236; the latter reflects a new peculiarity in the structure of the mRNA binding center in the ribosome, unknown to date. The results of crosslinking did not depend on the type of A-site codon or on the presence of translation termination factor eRF1.

  13. Detection of nucleic acid sequences by invader-directed cleavage

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Mary Ann D.; Hall, Jeff Steven Grotelueschen; Lyamichev, Victor; Olive, David Michael; Prudent, James Robert

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The 5' nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based by charge.

  14. Cooperative modulation by eIF4G of eIF4E-binding to the mRNA 5' cap in yeast involves a site partially shared by p20.

    PubMed Central

    Ptushkina, M; von der Haar, T; Vasilescu, S; Frank, R; Birkenhäger, R; McCarthy, J E

    1998-01-01

    Interaction between the mRNA 5'-cap-binding protein eIF4E and the multiadaptor protein eIF4G has been demonstrated in all eukaryotic translation assemblies examined so far. This study uses immunological, genetic and biochemical methods to map the surface amino acids on eIF4E that contribute to eIF4G binding. Cap-analogue chromatography and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses demonstrate that one class of mutations in these surface regions disrupts eIF4E-eIF4G association, and thereby polysome formation and growth. The residues at these positions in wild-type eIF4E mediate positive cooperativity between the binding of eIF4G to eIF4E and the latter's cap-affinity. Moreover, two of the mutations confer temperature sensitivity in eIF4G binding to eIF4E which correlates with the formation of large numbers of inactive ribosome 80S couples in vivo and the loss of cellular protein synthesis activity. The yeast 4E-binding protein p20 is estimated by SPR to have a ten times lower binding affinity than eIF4G for eIF4E. Investigation of a second class of eIF4E mutations reveals that p20 shares only part of eIF4G's binding site on the cap-binding protein. The results presented provide a basis for understanding how cycling of eIF4E and eIF4G occurs in yeast translation and explains how p20 can act as a fine, but not as a coarse, regulator of protein synthesis. PMID:9707439

  15. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  16. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages 02

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  17. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G; Lyamichev, Victor I; Mast, Andrea L; Brow, Mary Ann D

    2012-10-16

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  18. Analysis of alterative cleavage and polyadenylation by 3′ region extraction and deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Mainul; Ji, Zhe; Zheng, Dinghai; Luo, Wenting; Li, Wencheng; You, Bei; Park, Ji Yeon; Yehia, Ghassan; Tian, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) leads to mRNA isoforms with different coding sequences (CDS) and/or 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs). Using 3′ Region Extraction And Deep Sequencing (3′READS), a method which addresses the internal priming and oligo(A) tail issues that commonly plague polyA site (pA) identification, we comprehensively mapped pAs in the mouse genome, thoroughly annotating 3′ ends of genes and revealing over five thousand pAs (~8% of total) flanked by A-rich sequences, which have hitherto been overlooked. About 79% of mRNA genes and 66% of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes have APA; but these two gene types have distinct usage patterns for pAs in introns and upstream exons. Promoter-distal pAs become relatively more abundant during embryonic development and cell differentiation, a trend affecting pAs in both 3′-most exons and upstream regions. Upregulated isoforms generally have stronger pAs, suggesting global modulation of the 3′ end processing activity in development and differentiation. PMID:23241633

  19. Compilation of mRNA Polyadenylation Signals in Arabidopsis Revealed a New Signal Element and Potential Secondary Structures1[w

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Johnny C.; Stahlberg, Eric A.; Strenski, David G.; Haas, Brian J.; Wood, Paul Chris; Li, Qingshun Quinn

    2005-01-01

    Using a novel program, SignalSleuth, and a database containing authenticated polyadenylation [poly(A)] sites, we analyzed the composition of mRNA poly(A) signals in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and reevaluated previously described cis-elements within the 3′-untranslated (UTR) regions, including near upstream elements and far upstream elements. As predicted, there are absences of high-consensus signal patterns. The AAUAAA signal topped the near upstream elements patterns and was found within the predicted location to only approximately 10% of 3′-UTRs. More importantly, we identified a new set, named cleavage elements, of poly(A) signals flanking both sides of the cleavage site. These cis-elements were not previously revealed by conventional mutagenesis and are contemplated as a cluster of signals for cleavage site recognition. Moreover, a single-nucleotide profile scan on the 3′-UTR regions unveiled a distinct arrangement of alternate stretches of U and A nucleotides, which led to a prediction of the formation of secondary structures. Using an RNA secondary structure prediction program, mFold, we identified three main types of secondary structures on the sequences analyzed. Surprisingly, these observed secondary structures were all interrupted in previously constructed mutations in these regions. These results will enable us to revise the current model of plant poly(A) signals and to develop tools to predict 3′-ends for gene annotation. PMID:15965016

  20. Mechanism of endonuclease cleavage by the HigB toxin

    PubMed Central

    Schureck, Marc A.; Repack, Adrienne; Miles, Stacey J.; Marquez, Jhomar; Dunham, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria encode multiple type II toxin–antitoxin modules that cleave ribosome-bound mRNAs in response to stress. All ribosome-dependent toxin family members structurally characterized to date adopt similar microbial RNase architectures despite possessing low sequence identities. Therefore, determining which residues are catalytically important in this specialized RNase family has been a challenge in the field. Structural studies of RelE and YoeB toxins bound to the ribosome provided significant insights but biochemical experiments with RelE were required to clearly demonstrate which residues are critical for acid-base catalysis of mRNA cleavage. Here, we solved an X-ray crystal structure of the wild-type, ribosome-dependent toxin HigB bound to the ribosome revealing potential catalytic residues proximal to the mRNA substrate. Using cell-based and biochemical assays, we further determined that HigB residues His54, Asp90, Tyr91 and His92 are critical for activity in vivo, while HigB H54A and Y91A variants have the largest effect on mRNA cleavage in vitro. Comparison of X-ray crystal structures of two catalytically inactive HigB variants with 70S-HigB bound structures reveal that HigB active site residues undergo conformational rearrangements likely required for recognition of its mRNA substrate. These data support the emerging concept that ribosome-dependent toxins have diverse modes of mRNA recognition. PMID:27378776

  1. Characterization of rat calcitonin mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Amara, S G; David, D N; Rosenfeld, M G; Roos, B A; Evans, R M

    1980-01-01

    A chimeric plasmic containing cDNA complementary to rat calcitonin mRNA has been constructed. Partial sequence analysis shows that the insert contains a nucleotide sequence encoding the complete amino acid sequence of calcitonin. Two basic amino acids precede and three basic amino acids follow the hormone sequence, suggesting that calcitonin is generated by the proteolytic cleavage of a larger precursor in a manner analogous to that of other small polypeptide hormones. The COOH-terminal proline, known to be amidated in the secreted hormone, is followed by a glycine in the precursor. The cloned calcitonin DNA was used to characterize the expression of calcitonin mRNA. Cytoplasmic mRNAs from calcitonin-producing rat medullary thyroid carcinoma lines and from normal rat thyroid glands contain a single species, 1050 nucleotides long, whch hybridizes to the cloned calcitonin cDNA. The concentration of calcitonin mRNA sequences is greater in those tumors that produce larger amounts of immunoreactive calcitonin. RNAs from other endocrine tissues, including anterior and neurointermediate lobes of rat pituitary, contain no detectable calcitonin mRNA. Images PMID:6933496

  2. Characteristics of eyes with inner retinal cleavage.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young Hoon; Kim, Yong Yeon; Kim, Hwang Ki; Sohn, Yong Ho

    2015-02-01

    Inner retinal cleavage can be misdiagnosed as a glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect. This study was performed to characterize eyes with inner retinal cleavage. Inner retinal cleavage is defined as the appearance of a dark spindle-shaped space between the nerve fibers. Patients who presented at our institution with inner retinal cleavage were enrolled in the study. All participants were evaluated by fundus examination, visual field testing with standard automated perimetry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. A total of 15 eyes of 11 subjects with inner retinal cleavage were included in the study. The median age of the subjects was 57 years (age range, 30-67 years). In each case, inner retinal cleavage was located adjacent to retinal blood vessels. Tissue bridging the cleavage area was observed in ten eyes. Six eyes had epiretinal membranes (ERMs), two eyes had glaucoma, and one eye had ERM in addition to glaucoma. Six eyes with inner retinal cleavage without combined ocular abnormalities had highly myopic refractive error (-6.50 to -8.50 diopters). Cross-sectional OCT images of the areas of inner retinal cleavage demonstrated defects with irregular margins and empty spaces in the inner layers of the retina. During the follow-up period, no eye showed changes in inner retinal layer cleavage or visual field sensitivity. Inner retinal cleavage was found in eyes with high myopia or ERMs. Inner retinal cleavage was associated with structural changes distinct from those associated with glaucomatous RNFL defects.

  3. mRNA bound to the 30S subunit is a HigB toxin substrate

    PubMed Central

    Schureck, Marc A.; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Miles, Stacey J.; Marquez, Jhomar; Dunham, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of bacterial toxins during stress results in cleavage of mRNAs in the context of the ribosome. These toxins are thought to function as global translational inhibitors yet recent studies suggest each may have distinct mRNA specificities that result in selective translation for bacterial survival. Here we demonstrate that mRNA in the context of a bacterial 30S subunit is sufficient for ribosome-dependent toxin HigB endonucleolytic activity, suggesting that HigB interferes with the initiation step of translation. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of HigB bound to the 30S, revealing that two solvent-exposed clusters of HigB basic residues directly interact with 30S 16S rRNA helices 18, 30, and 31. We further show that these HigB residues are essential for ribosome recognition and function. Comparison with other ribosome-dependent toxins RelE and YoeB reveals that each interacts with similar features of the 30S aminoacyl (A) site yet does so through presentation of diverse structural motifs. PMID:27307497

  4. Delta ribozyme has the ability to cleave in transan mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Roy, G; Ananvoranich, S; Perreault, J P

    1999-01-01

    We report here the first demonstration of the cleavage of an mRNA in trans by delta ribozyme derived from the antigenomic version of the human hepatitis delta virus (HDV). We characterized potential delta ribozyme cleavage sites within HDV mRNA sequence (i.e. C/UGN6), using oligonucleotide binding shift assays and ribonuclease H hydrolysis. Ribozymes were synthesized based on the structural data and then tested for their ability to cleave the mRNA. Of the nine ribozymes examined, three specifically cleaved a derivative HDV mRNA. All three active ribozymes gave consistent indications that they cleaved single-stranded regions. Kinetic characterization of the ability of ribozymes to cleave both the full-length mRNA and either wild-type or mutant small model substrate suggests: (i) delta ribozyme has turnovers, that is to say, several mRNA molecules can be successively cleaved by one ribozyme molecule; and (ii) the substrate specificity of delta ribozyme cleavage is not restricted to C/UGN6. Specifically, substrates with a higher guanosine residue content upstream of the cleavage site (i.e. positions -4 to -2) were always cleaved more efficiently than wild-type substrate. This work shows that delta ribozyme constitutes a potential catalytic RNA for further gene-inactivation therapy. PMID:9927724

  5. Programmable RNA recognition and cleavage by CRISPR/Cas9

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Mitchell R.; Oakes, Benjamin L.; Sternberg, Samuel H.; East-Seletsky, Alexandra; Kaplan, Matias; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 is an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease that uses RNA:DNA complementarity to identify target sites for sequence-specific doublestranded DNA (dsDNA) cleavage1-5. In its native context, Cas9 acts on DNA substrates exclusively because both binding and catalysis require recognition of a short DNA sequence, the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), next to and on the strand opposite the 20-nucleotide target site in dsDNA4-7. Cas9 has proven to be a versatile tool for genome engineering and gene regulation in many cell types and organisms8, but it has been thought to be incapable of targeting RNA5. Here we show that Cas9 binds with high affinity to single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) targets matching the Cas9-associated guide RNA sequence when the PAM is presented in trans as a separate DNA oligonucleotide. Furthermore, PAM-presenting oligonucleotides (PAMmers) stimulate site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage of ssRNA targets, similar to PAM-mediated stimulation of Cas9-catalyzed DNA cleavage7. Using specially designed PAMmers, Cas9 can be specifically directed to bind or cut RNA targets while avoiding corresponding DNA sequences, and we demonstrate that this strategy enables the isolation of a specific endogenous mRNA from cells. These results reveal a fundamental connection between PAM binding and substrate selection by Cas9, and highlight the utility of Cas9 for programmable and tagless transcript recognition. PMID:25274302

  6. A snoRNA modulates mRNA 3′ end processing and regulates the expression of a subset of mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chunliu; Shi, Junjie; Guo, Yibin; Huang, Weijun; Huang, Shanshan; Ming, Siqi; Wu, Xingui; Zhang, Rui; Ding, Junjun; Zhao, Wei; Jia, Jie; Huang, Xi; Xiang, Andy Peng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract mRNA 3′ end processing is an essential step in gene expression. It is well established that canonical eukaryotic pre-mRNA 3′ processing is carried out within a macromolecular machinery consisting of dozens of trans-acting proteins. However, it is unknown whether RNAs play any role in this process. Unexpectedly, we found that a subset of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are associated with the mammalian mRNA 3′ processing complex. These snoRNAs primarily interact with Fip1, a component of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF). We have functionally characterized one of these snoRNAs and our results demonstrated that the U/A-rich SNORD50A inhibits mRNA 3′ processing by blocking the Fip1-poly(A) site (PAS) interaction. Consistently, SNORD50A depletion altered the Fip1–RNA interaction landscape and changed the alternative polyadenylation (APA) profiles and/or transcript levels of a subset of genes. Taken together, our data revealed a novel function for snoRNAs and provided the first evidence that non-coding RNAs may play an important role in regulating mRNA 3′ processing. PMID:28911119

  7. Specificity of hammerhead ribozyme cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, K J; Herschlag, D; Uhlenbeck, O C

    1996-01-01

    To be effective in gene inactivation, the hammerhead ribozyme must cleave a complementary RNA target without deleterious effects from cleaving non-target RNAs that contain mismatches and shorter stretches of complementarity. The specificity of hammerhead cleavage was evaluated using HH16, a well-characterized ribozyme designed to cleave a target of 17 residues. Under standard reaction conditions, HH16 is unable to discriminate between its full-length substrate and 3'-truncated substrates, even when six fewer base pairs are formed between HH16 and the substrate. This striking lack of specificity arises because all the substrates bind to the ribozyme with sufficient affinity so that cleavage occurs before their affinity differences are manifested. In contrast, HH16 does exhibit high specificity towards certain 3'-truncated versions of altered substrates that either also contain a single base mismatch or are shortened at the 5' end. In addition, the specificity of HH16 is improved in the presence of p7 nucleocapsid protein from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, which accelerates the association and dissociation of RNA helices. These results support the view that the hammerhead has an intrinsic ability to discriminate against incorrect bases, but emphasizes that the high specificity is only observed in a certain range of helix lengths. Images PMID:8670879

  8. Site-specific cleavage of the transactivation response site of human immunodeficiency virus RNA with a tat-based chemical nuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, S D; Johnston, B H

    1992-01-01

    tat, an essential transactivator of gene transcription in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is believed to activate viral gene expression by binding to the transactivation response (TAR) site located at the 5' end of all viral mRNAs. The TAR element forms a stem-loop structure containing a 3-nucleotide bulge that is the site for tat binding and is required for transactivation. Here we report the synthesis of a site-specific chemical ribonuclease based on the TAR binding domain of the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) tat. A peptide consisting of this 24-amino acid domain plus an additional C-terminal cysteine residue was chemically synthesized and covalently linked to 1,10-phenanthroline at the cysteine residue. The modified peptide binds to TAR sequences of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 and, in the presence of cupric ions and a reducing agent, cleaves these RNAs at specific sites. Cleavage sites on TAR sequences are consistent with peptide binding to the 3-nucleotide bulge, and the relative displacement of cleavage sites on the two strands suggests peptide binding to the major groove of the RNA. These results and existing evidence of the rapid cellular uptake of tat-derived peptides suggest that chemical nucleases based on tat may be useful for inactivating HIV mRNA in vivo. Images PMID:1565648

  9. Base substitutions at scissile bond sites are sufficient to alter RNA-binding and cleavage activity of RNase III.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungsub; Sim, Se-Hoon; Jeon, Che Ok; Lee, Younghoon; Lee, Kangseok

    2011-02-01

    RNase III, a double-stranded RNA-specific endoribonuclease, degrades bdm mRNA via cleavage at specific sites. To better understand the mechanism of cleavage site selection by RNase III, we performed a genetic screen for sequences containing mutations at the bdm RNA cleavage sites that resulted in altered mRNA stability using a transcriptional bdm'-'cat fusion construct. While most of the isolated mutants showed the increased bdm'-'cat mRNA stability that resulted from the inability of RNase III to cleave the mutated sequences, one mutant sequence (wt-L) displayed in vivo RNA stability similar to that of the wild-type sequence. In vivo and in vitro analyses of the wt-L RNA substrate showed that it was cut only once on the RNA strand to the 5'-terminus by RNase III, while the binding constant of RNase III to this mutant substrate was moderately increased. A base substitution at the uncleaved RNase III cleavage site in wt-L mutant RNA found in another mutant lowered the RNA-binding affinity by 11-fold and abolished the hydrolysis of scissile bonds by RNase III. Our results show that base substitutions at sites forming the scissile bonds are sufficient to alter RNA cleavage as well as the binding activity of RNase III. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Quenching-qPCR (Q-Q) assay for measuring absolute intracellular cleavage efficiency of ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Woo; Sun, Gwanggyu; Lee, Jung Hyuk; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2018-06-01

    Ribozyme (Rz) is a very attractive RNA molecule in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology fields where RNA processing is required as a control unit or ON/OFF signal for its cleavage reaction. In order to use Rz for such RNA processing, Rz must have highly active and specific catalytic activity. However, current methods for assessing the intracellular activity of Rz have limitations such as difficulty in handling and inaccuracies in the evaluation of correct cleavage activity. In this paper, we proposed a simple method to accurately measure the "intracellular cleavage efficiency" of Rz. This method deactivates unwanted activity of Rz which may consistently occur after cell lysis using DNA quenching method, and calculates the cleavage efficiency by analyzing the cleaved fraction of mRNA by Rz from the total amount of mRNA containing Rz via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The proposed method was applied to measure "intracellular cleavage efficiency" of sTRSV, a representative Rz, and its mutant, and their intracellular cleavage efficiencies were calculated as 89% and 93%, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Unusual enzymatic glycoside cleavage mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jongkees, Seino A K; Withers, Stephen G

    2014-01-21

    Over the sixty years since Koshland initially formulated the classical mechanisms for retaining and inverting glycosidases, researchers have assembled a large body of supporting evidence and have documented variations of these mechanisms. Recently, however, researchers have uncovered a number of completely distinct mechanisms for enzymatic cleavage of glycosides involving elimination and/or hydration steps. In family GH4 and GH109 glycosidases, the reaction proceeds via transient NAD(+)-mediated oxidation at C3, thereby acidifying the proton at C2 and allowing for elimination across the C1-C2 bond. Subsequent Michael-type addition of water followed by reduction at C3 generates the hydrolyzed product. Enzymes employing this mechanism can hydrolyze thioglycosides as well as both anomers of activated substrates. Sialidases employ a conventional retaining mechanism in which a tyrosine functions as the nucleophile, but in some cases researchers have observed off-path elimination end products. These reactions occur via the normal covalent intermediate, but instead of an attack by water on the anomeric center, the catalytic acid/base residue abstracts an adjacent proton. These enzymes can also catalyze hydration of the enol ether via the reverse pathway. Reactions of α-(1,4)-glucan lyases also proceed through a covalent intermediate with subsequent abstraction of an adjacent proton to give elimination. However, in this case, the departing carboxylate "nucleophile" serves as the base in a concerted but asynchronous syn-elimination process. These enzymes perform only elimination reactions. Polysaccharide lyases, which act on uronic acid-containing substrates, also catalyze only elimination reactions. Substrate binding neutralizes the charge on the carboxylate, which allows for abstraction of the proton on C5 and leads to an elimination reaction via an E1cb mechanism. These enzymes can also cleave thioglycosides, albeit slowly. The unsaturated product of polysaccharide

  12. Cnidarian microRNAs frequently regulate targets by cleavage.

    PubMed

    Moran, Yehu; Fredman, David; Praher, Daniela; Li, Xin Z; Wee, Liang Meng; Rentzsch, Fabian; Zamore, Phillip D; Technau, Ulrich; Seitz, Hervé

    2014-04-01

    In bilaterians, which comprise most of extant animals, microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the majority of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) via base-pairing of a short sequence (the miRNA "seed") to the target, subsequently promoting translational inhibition and transcript instability. In plants, many miRNAs guide endonucleolytic cleavage of highly complementary targets. Because little is known about miRNA function in nonbilaterian animals, we investigated the repertoire and biological activity of miRNAs in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a representative of Cnidaria, the sister phylum of Bilateria. Our work uncovers scores of novel miRNAs in Nematostella, increasing the total miRNA gene count to 87. Yet only a handful are conserved in corals and hydras, suggesting that microRNA gene turnover in Cnidaria greatly exceeds that of other metazoan groups. We further show that Nematostella miRNAs frequently direct the cleavage of their mRNA targets via nearly perfect complementarity. This mode of action resembles that of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and plant miRNAs. It appears to be common in Cnidaria, as several of the miRNA target sites are conserved among distantly related anemone species, and we also detected miRNA-directed cleavage in Hydra. Unlike in bilaterians, Nematostella miRNAs are commonly coexpressed with their target transcripts. In light of these findings, we propose that post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs functions differently in Cnidaria and Bilateria. The similar, siRNA-like mode of action of miRNAs in Cnidaria and plants suggests that this may be an ancestral state.

  13. piRNA-directed cleavage of meiotic transcripts regulates spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goh, Wee Siong Sho; Falciatori, Ilaria; Tam, Oliver H; Burgess, Ralph; Meikar, Oliver; Kotaja, Noora; Hammell, Molly; Hannon, Gregory J

    2015-05-15

    MIWI catalytic activity is required for spermatogenesis, indicating that piRNA-guided cleavage is critical for germ cell development. To identify meiotic piRNA targets, we augmented the mouse piRNA repertoire by introducing a human meiotic piRNA cluster. This triggered a spermatogenesis defect by inappropriately targeting the piRNA machinery to mouse mRNAs essential for germ cell development. Analysis of such de novo targets revealed a signature for pachytene piRNA target recognition. This enabled identification of both transposable elements and meiotically expressed protein-coding genes as targets of native piRNAs. Cleavage of genic targets began at the pachytene stage and resulted in progressive repression through meiosis, driven at least in part via the ping-pong cycle. Our data support the idea that meiotic piRNA populations must be strongly selected to enable successful spermatogenesis, both driving the response away from essential genes and directing the pathway toward mRNA targets that are regulated by small RNAs in meiotic cells. © 2015 Goh et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Experiments on schistosity and slaty cleavage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, George Ferdinand

    1904-01-01

    Schistosity as a structure is important, and it is a part of the business of geologists to explain its origin. Slaty cleavage has further and greater importance as a possible tectonic feature. Scarcely a great mountain range exists, or has existed, along the course of which belts of slaty rock are not found, the dip of the cleavage usually approaching verticality. Are these slate belts equivalent to minutely distributed step faults of great total throw, or do they indicate compression perpendicular to the cleavage without attendant relative dislocation? Evidently the answer to this question is of first importance in the interpretation of orogenic phenomena.

  15. miRNA-dependent gene silencing involving Ago2-mediated cleavage of a circular antisense RNA

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Thomas B; Wiklund, Erik D; Bramsen, Jesper B; Villadsen, Sune B; Statham, Aaron L; Clark, Susan J; Kjems, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ∼22 nt non-coding RNAs that typically bind to the 3′ UTR of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm, resulting in mRNA destabilization and translational repression. Here, we report that miRNAs can also regulate gene expression by targeting non-coding antisense transcripts in human cells. Specifically, we show that miR-671 directs cleavage of a circular antisense transcript of the Cerebellar Degeneration-Related protein 1 (CDR1) locus in an Ago2-slicer-dependent manner. The resulting downregulation of circular antisense has a concomitant decrease in CDR1 mRNA levels, independently of heterochromatin formation. This study provides the first evidence for non-coding antisense transcripts as functional miRNA targets, and a novel regulatory mechanism involving a positive correlation between mRNA and antisense circular RNA levels. PMID:21964070

  16. Does Cleavage Work at Work? Men, but Not Women, Falsely Believe Cleavage Sells a Weak Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Peter; Chrislock, Karyna; Petersik, Korinne; Vijay, Madhuri; Turek, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether men, but not women, would be distracted by a female sales representative's exposed cleavage, leading to greater perceived efficacy for a weak, but not for a strong product. A community sample of 88 men and 97 women viewed a video of a female pharmaceutical sales representative who (a) had exposed cleavage or dressed modestly…

  17. Verification of 2A peptide cleavage.

    PubMed

    Szymczak-Workman, Andrea L; Vignali, Kate M; Vignali, Dario A A

    2012-02-01

    The need for reliable, multicistronic vectors for multigene delivery is at the forefront of biomedical technology. It is now possible to express multiple proteins from a single open reading frame (ORF) using 2A peptide-linked multicistronic vectors. These small sequences, when cloned between genes, allow for efficient, stoichiometric production of discrete protein products within a single vector through a novel "cleavage" event within the 2A peptide sequence. The easiest and most effective way to assess 2A cleavage is to perform transient transfection of 293T cells (human embryonic kidney cells) followed by western blot analysis, as described in this protocol. 293T cells are easy to grow and can be efficiently transfected with a variety of vectors. Cleavage can be assessed by detection with antibodies against the target proteins or anti-2A serum.

  18. RNase MRP cleaves the CLB2 mRNA to promote cell cycle progression: novel method of mRNA degradation.

    PubMed

    Gill, Tina; Cai, Ti; Aulds, Jason; Wierzbicki, Sara; Schmitt, Mark E

    2004-02-01

    RNase mitochondrial RNA processing (RNase MRP) mutants have been shown to have an exit-from-mitosis defect that is caused by an increase in CLB2 mRNA levels, leading to increased Clb2p (B-cyclin) levels and a resulting late anaphase delay. Here we describe the molecular defect behind this delay. CLB2 mRNA normally disappears rapidly as cells complete mitosis, but the level remains high in RNase MRP mutants. This is in direct contrast to other exit-from-mitosis mutants and is the result of an increase in CLB2 mRNA stability. We found that highly purified RNase MRP cleaved the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the CLB2 mRNA in several places in an in vitro assay. In vivo, we identified RNase MRP-dependent cleavage products on the CLB2 mRNA that closely matched in vitro products. Disposal of these products was dependent on the 5'-->3' exoribonuclease Xrn1 and not the exosome. Our results demonstrate that the endoribonuclease RNase MRP specifically cleaves the CLB2 mRNA in its 5'-UTR to allow rapid 5' to 3' degradation by the Xrn1 nuclease. Degradation of the CLB2 mRNA by the RNase MRP endonuclease provides a novel way to regulate the cell cycle that complements the protein degradation machinery. In addition, these results denote a new mechanism of mRNA degradation not seen before in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  19. Cleavage reaction of HDV ribozymes in the presence of Mg2+ is accompanied by a conformational change.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoichiro; Tagaya, Mitsuhiro; Hori, Tamaki; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Katahira, Masato; Uesugi, Seiichi

    2002-06-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozymes cleave RNA in the presence of divalent metal ions. We have previously elucidated the solution conformation of a minimized trans-acting HDV ribozyme and obtained evidence by NMR study that an Mg2+ ion binds to a site close to the cleavage site. We examined two ribozyme systems: a pre-cleavage complex with a non-cleavable substrate analogue (mS8) and a post-cleavage complex with a 3' cleavage product (P7). Upon titration with MgCl2, the complex with P7 showed a profound spectral change, while that with mS8 showed broadening of the signals. Analysis of the NOESY spectra of the P7 complex at high Mg2+ concentration revealed that a G:U pair is formed within the L3 loop, and the P1 and P4 stems are stabilized with respect to those of the pre-cleavage complex. The present analysis indicates that the cleavage reaction of the HDV ribozyme produces a big conformational change. Furthermore, presence of the 5'-terminal cytidine residue prevents this conformational change and its absence stabilizes the product-ribozyme complex in the presence of Mg2+. The structure of the Mg2+-bound P7 complex is similar to the crystal structure found for a product-ribozyme complex but is different from the pre-cleavage structure.

  20. Toxin MqsR Cleaves Single-Stranded mRNA with Various 5 Ends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-24

    either protein ORIGINAL RESEARCH Toxin MqsR cleaves single- stranded mRNA with various 5’ ends Nityananda Chowdhury1,*, Brian W. Kwan1,*, Louise C...in which a single 5′- GCU site was predicted to be single- stranded (ssRNA), double- stranded (dsRNA), in the loop of a stem - loop (slRNA), or in a...single- stranded 5′- GCU sites since cleavage was approximately 20- fold higher than cleavage seen with the 5′- GCU site in the stem - loop and

  1. Cell cycle-dependent regulation of Aurora kinase B mRNA by the Microprocessor complex.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eunsun; Seong, Youngmo; Seo, Jae Hong; Kwon, Young-Soo; Song, Hoseok

    2014-03-28

    Aurora kinase B regulates the segregation of chromosomes and the spindle checkpoint during mitosis. In this study, we showed that the Microprocessor complex, which is responsible for the processing of the primary transcripts during the generation of microRNAs, destabilizes the mRNA of Aurora kinase B in human cells. The Microprocessor-mediated cleavage kept Aurora kinase B at a low level and prevented premature entrance into mitosis. The cleavage was reduced during mitosis leading to the accumulation of Aurora kinase B mRNA and protein. In addition to Aurora kinase B mRNA, the processing of other primary transcripts of miRNAs were also decreased during mitosis. We found that the cleavage was dependent on an RNA helicase, DDX5, and the association of DDX5 and DDX17 with the Microprocessor was reduced during mitosis. Thus, we propose a novel mechanism by which the Microprocessor complex regulates stability of Aurora kinase B mRNA and cell cycle progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cleavage fracture in pearlitic eutectoid steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, D. J.; Bernstein, I. M.

    1989-11-01

    The effect of microstructure on flow and fracture properties of fully pearlitic steel has been studied by independently varying the prior austenite grain size and the pearlite interlamellar spacing through appropriate heat treatments. The yield strength is independent of the prior austenite grain size but increases as the interlamellar spacing or the temperature decreases. The microstructural dependence can be explained by using a model which assumes that yielding is controlled by dislocation motion in the ferrite lamellae. The critical tensile stress for cleavage fracture is found to be independent of prior austenite grain size, increasing as the interlamellar spacing decreases. The cleavage fracture stress is independent of temperature for fine pearlite but increases as the temperature decreases for coarse pearlite. The associated fracture in blunt notch specimens initiates at inclusions beneath notch surface near the location of maximum tensile stress. From the size of such inclusions, the effective surface energy for cleavage fracture can be directly calculated and is found to be independent of temperature and prior austenite grain size but to increase as the interlamellar spacing decreases, from about 5 to 13 J/m2 for the range of microstructures and temperatures used in this study. Additional measurements of the effective surface energy and further theoretical analyses of the cleavage process are needed.

  3. Reductive cleavage of the peptide bond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holian, J.; Garrison, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    In many biological research efforts, long chain organic molecules are studied by breaking large molecules into smaller components. Cleavage technique of recent interest is the use of solvated electrons. These are formed when aqueous solutions are bombarded with gamma radiation. Solvated electron is very reactive and can reduce most any species present, even to form free radicals.

  4. A manganese-dependent ribozyme in the 3'-untranslated region of Xenopus Vg1 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Kolev, Nikolay G; Hartland, Emilia I; Huber, Paul W

    2008-10-01

    The smallest catalytic RNA identified to date is a manganese-dependent ribozyme that requires only a complex between GAAA and UUU to effect site-specific cleavage. We show here that this ribozyme occurs naturally in the 3'-UTR of Vg1 and beta-actin mRNAs. In accord with earlier studies with model RNAs, cleavage occurs only in the presence of manganese or cadmium ions and proceeds optimally near 30 degrees C and physiological pH. The time course of cleavage in Vg1 mRNA best fits a two-step process in which both steps are first-order. In Vg1 mRNA, the ribozyme is positioned adjacent to a polyadenylation signal, but has no influence on translation of the mRNA in Xenopus oocytes. Putative GAAA ribozyme structures are also near polyadenylation sites in yeast and rat actin mRNAs. Analysis of sequences in the PolyA Cleavage Site and 3'-UTR Database (PACdb) revealed no particular bias in the frequency or distribution of the GAAA motif that would suggest that this ribozyme is currently or was recently used for cleavage to generate processed transcripts. Nonetheless, we speculate that the complementary strands that comprise the ribozyme may account for the origin of sequence elements that direct present-day 3'-end processing of eukaryotic mRNAs.

  5. Systematic Profiling of Poly(A)+ Transcripts Modulated by Core 3’ End Processing and Splicing Factors Reveals Regulatory Rules of Alternative Cleavage and Polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wencheng; You, Bei; Hoque, Mainul; Zheng, Dinghai; Luo, Wenting; Ji, Zhe; Park, Ji Yeon; Gunderson, Samuel I.; Kalsotra, Auinash; Manley, James L.; Tian, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) results in mRNA isoforms containing different 3’ untranslated regions (3’UTRs) and/or coding sequences. How core cleavage/polyadenylation (C/P) factors regulate APA is not well understood. Using siRNA knockdown coupled with deep sequencing, we found that several C/P factors can play significant roles in 3’UTR-APA. Whereas Pcf11 and Fip1 enhance usage of proximal poly(A) sites (pAs), CFI-25/68, PABPN1 and PABPC1 promote usage of distal pAs. Strong cis element biases were found for pAs regulated by CFI-25/68 or Fip1, and the distance between pAs plays an important role in APA regulation. In addition, intronic pAs are substantially regulated by splicing factors, with U1 mostly inhibiting C/P events in introns near the 5’ end of gene and U2 suppressing those in introns with features for efficient splicing. Furthermore, PABPN1 inhibits expression of transcripts with pAs near the transcription start site (TSS), a property possibly related to its role in RNA degradation. Finally, we found that groups of APA events regulated by C/P factors are also modulated in cell differentiation and development with distinct trends. Together, our results support an APA code where an APA event in a given cellular context is regulated by a number of parameters, including relative location to the TSS, splicing context, distance between competing pAs, surrounding cis elements and concentrations of core C/P factors. PMID:25906188

  6. Regulation of Dpp activity by tissue-specific cleavage of an upstream site within the prodomain

    PubMed Central

    Sopory, Shailaja; Kwon, Sunjong; Wehrli, Marcel; Christian, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    BMP4 is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is cleaved at two sites during maturation: initially at a site (S1) adjacent to the ligand domain, and then at an upstream site (S2) within the prodomain. Cleavage at the second site regulates the stability of mature BMP4 and this in turn influences its signaling intensity and range of action. The Drosophila ortholog of BMP4, Dpp, functions as a long- or short-range signaling molecule in the wing disc or embryonic midgut, respectively but mechanisms that differentially regulate its bioactivity in these tissues have not been explored. In the current studies we demonstrate, by dpp mutant rescue, that cleavage at the S2 site of proDpp is required for development of the wing and leg imaginal discs, whereas cleavage at the S1 site is sufficient to rescue Dpp function in the midgut. Both the S1 and S2 site of proDpp are cleaved in the wing disc, and S2-cleavage is essential to generate sufficient ligand to exceed the threshold for pMAD activation at both short- and long-range in most cells. By contrast, proDpp is cleaved at the S1 site alone in the embryonic mesoderm and this generates sufficient ligand to activate physiological target genes in neighboring cells. These studies provide the first biochemical and genetic evidence that that selective cleavage of the S2 site of proDPP provides a tissue-specific mechanism for regulating Dpp activity, and that differential cleavage can contribute to, but is not an absolute determinant of signaling range. PMID:20659445

  7. Tissue-specific autoregulation of Drosophila suppressor of forked by alternative poly(A) site utilization leads to accumulation of the suppressor of forked protein in mitotically active cells.

    PubMed Central

    Juge, F; Audibert, A; Benoit, B; Simonelig, M

    2000-01-01

    The Suppressor of forked protein is the Drosophila homolog of the 77K subunit of human cleavage stimulation factor, a complex required for the first step of the mRNA 3'-end-processing reaction. We have shown previously that wild-type su(f) function is required for the accumulation of a truncated su(f) transcript polyadenylated in intron 4 of the gene. This led us to propose a model in which the Su(f) protein would negatively regulate its own accumulation by stimulating 3'-end formation of this truncated su(f) RNA. In this article, we demonstrate this model and show that su(f) autoregulation is tissue specific. The Su(f) protein accumulates at a high level in dividing tissues, but not in nondividing tissues. We show that this distribution of the Su(f) protein results from stimulation by Su(f) of the tissue-specific utilization of the su(f) intronic poly(A) site, leading to the accumulation of the truncated su(f) transcript in nondividing tissues. Utilization of this intronic poly(A) site is affected in a su(f) mutant and restored in the mutant with a transgene encoding wild-type Su(f) protein. These data provide an in vivo example of cell-type-specific regulation of a protein level by poly(A) site choice, and confirm the role of Su(f) in regulation of poly(A) site utilization. PMID:11105753

  8. IGF-1 receptor cleavage in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cirrik, Selma; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2018-06-01

    Increased protease activity causes receptor dysfunction due to extracellular cleavage of different membrane receptors in hypertension. The vasodilatory effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are decreased in hypertension. Therefore, in the present study the association of an enhanced protease activity and IGF-1 receptor cleavage was investigated using the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls (n = 4). Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities were determined using gelatin zymography on plasma and different tissue samples. WKY aorta rings were incubated in WKY or SHR plasma with or without MMP inhibitors, and immunohistochemistry was used to quantify the densities of the alpha and beta IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) subunits and to determine receptor cleavage. The pAkt and peNOS levels in the aorta were investigated using immunoblotting as a measure of IGF-IR function. Increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were detected in plasma and peripheral tissues of SHRs. IGF-1R beta labeling was similar in both groups without plasma incubation, but the fraction of immunolabeled area for IGF-1R alpha was lower in the endothelial layer of the SHR aorta (p < 0.05). A 24-h incubation of WKY aorta with SHR plasma did not affect the IGF-1R beta labeling density, but reduced the IGF-1R alpha labeling density in the endothelium (p < 0.05). MMP inhibitors prevented this decrease (p < 0.01). Western blot analyses revealed that the pAkt and peNOS levels under IGF-1-stimulated and -unstimulated conditions were lower in SHRs (p < 0.05). A reduced IGF-1 cellular response in the aorta was associated with the decrease in the IGF-1R alpha subunit in the SHR hypertension model. Our results indicate that MMP-dependent receptor cleavage contributed to the reduced IGF-1 response in SHRs.

  9. Prediction of proprotein convertase cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Duckert, Peter; Brunak, Søren; Blom, Nikolaj

    2004-01-01

    Many secretory proteins and peptides are synthesized as inactive precursors that in addition to signal peptide cleavage undergo post-translational processing to become biologically active polypeptides. Precursors are usually cleaved at sites composed of single or paired basic amino acid residues by members of the subtilisin/kexin-like proprotein convertase (PC) family. In mammals, seven members have been identified, with furin being the one first discovered and best characterized. Recently, the involvement of furin in diseases ranging from Alzheimer's disease and cancer to anthrax and Ebola fever has created additional focus on proprotein processing. We have developed a method for prediction of cleavage sites for PCs based on artificial neural networks. Two different types of neural networks have been constructed: a furin-specific network based on experimental results derived from the literature, and a general PC-specific network trained on data from the Swiss-Prot protein database. The method predicts cleavage sites in independent sequences with a sensitivity of 95% for the furin neural network and 62% for the general PC network. The ProP method is made publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/ProP.

  10. Controllable laser thermal cleavage of sapphire wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiayu; Hu, Hong; Zhuang, Changhui; Ma, Guodong; Han, Junlong; Lei, Yulin

    2018-03-01

    Laser processing of substrates for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offers advantages over other processing techniques and is therefore an active research area in both industrial and academic sectors. The processing of sapphire wafers is problematic because sapphire is a hard and brittle material. Semiconductor laser scribing processing suffers certain disadvantages that have yet to be overcome, thereby necessitating further investigation. In this work, a platform for controllable laser thermal cleavage was constructed. A sapphire LED wafer was modeled using the finite element method to simulate the thermal and stress distributions under different conditions. A guide groove cut by laser ablation before the cleavage process was observed to guide the crack extension and avoid deviation. The surface and cross section of sapphire wafers processed using controllable laser thermal cleavage were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy, and their morphology was compared to that of wafers processed using stealth dicing. The differences in luminous efficiency between substrates prepared using these two processing methods are explained.

  11. AID-induced decrease in topoisomerase 1 induces DNA structural alteration and DNA cleavage for class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maki; Aida, Masatoshi; Nagaoka, Hitoshi; Begum, Nasim A; Kitawaki, Yoko; Nakata, Mikiyo; Stanlie, Andre; Doi, Tomomitsu; Kato, Lucia; Okazaki, Il-mi; Shinkura, Reiko; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Honjo, Tasuku

    2009-12-29

    To initiate class switch recombination (CSR) activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) induces staggered nick cleavage in the S region, which lies 5' to each Ig constant region gene and is rich in palindromic sequences. Topoisomerase 1 (Top1) controls the supercoiling of DNA by nicking, rotating, and religating one strand of DNA. Curiously, Top1 reduction or AID overexpression causes the genomic instability. Here, we report that the inactivation of Top1 by its specific inhibitor camptothecin drastically blocked both the S region cleavage and CSR, indicating that Top1 is responsible for the S region cleavage in CSR. Surprisingly, AID expression suppressed Top1 mRNA translation and reduced its protein level. In addition, the decrease in the Top1 protein by RNA-mediated knockdown augmented the AID-dependent S region cleavage, as well as CSR. Furthermore, Top1 reduction altered DNA structure of the Smu region. Taken together, AID-induced Top1 reduction alters S region DNA structure probably to non-B form, on which Top1 can introduce nicks but cannot religate, resulting in S region cleavage.

  12. Structural basis of UGUA recognition by the Nudix protein CFIm25 and implications for a regulatory role in mRNA 3′ processing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qin; Gilmartin, Gregory M.; Doublié, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Human Cleavage Factor Im (CFIm) is an essential component of the pre-mRNA 3′ processing complex that functions in the regulation of poly(A) site selection through the recognition of UGUA sequences upstream of the poly(A) site. Although the highly conserved 25 kDa subunit (CFIm25) of the CFIm complex possesses a characteristic α/β/α Nudix fold, CFIm25 has no detectable hydrolase activity. Here we report the crystal structures of the human CFIm25 homodimer in complex with UGUAAA and UUGUAU RNA sequences. CFIm25 is the first Nudix protein to be reported to bind RNA in a sequence-specific manner. The UGUA sequence contributes to binding specificity through an intramolecular G:A Watson–Crick/sugar-edge base interaction, an unusual pairing previously found to be involved in the binding specificity of the SAM-III riboswitch. The structures, together with mutational data, suggest a novel mechanism for the simultaneous sequence-specific recognition of two UGUA elements within the pre-mRNA. Furthermore, the mutually exclusive binding of RNA and the signaling molecule Ap4A (diadenosine tetraphosphate) by CFIm25 suggests a potential role for small molecules in the regulation of mRNA 3′ processing. PMID:20479262

  13. Structural basis of UGUA recognition by the Nudix protein CFI(m)25 and implications for a regulatory role in mRNA 3' processing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Gilmartin, Gregory M; Doublié, Sylvie

    2010-06-01

    Human Cleavage Factor Im (CFI(m)) is an essential component of the pre-mRNA 3' processing complex that functions in the regulation of poly(A) site selection through the recognition of UGUA sequences upstream of the poly(A) site. Although the highly conserved 25 kDa subunit (CFI(m)25) of the CFI(m) complex possesses a characteristic alpha/beta/alpha Nudix fold, CFI(m)25 has no detectable hydrolase activity. Here we report the crystal structures of the human CFI(m)25 homodimer in complex with UGUAAA and UUGUAU RNA sequences. CFI(m)25 is the first Nudix protein to be reported to bind RNA in a sequence-specific manner. The UGUA sequence contributes to binding specificity through an intramolecular G:A Watson-Crick/sugar-edge base interaction, an unusual pairing previously found to be involved in the binding specificity of the SAM-III riboswitch. The structures, together with mutational data, suggest a novel mechanism for the simultaneous sequence-specific recognition of two UGUA elements within the pre-mRNA. Furthermore, the mutually exclusive binding of RNA and the signaling molecule Ap(4)A (diadenosine tetraphosphate) by CFI(m)25 suggests a potential role for small molecules in the regulation of mRNA 3' processing.

  14. Cleavage crystallography of liquid metal embrittled aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, A. P.; Stoner, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    The crystallography of liquid metal-induced transgranular cleavage in six aluminum alloys having a variety of microstructures has been determined via Laue X-ray back reflection. The cleavage crystallography was independent of alloy microstructure, and the cleavage plane was 100-plane oriented in all cases. It was further determined that the cleavage crystallography was not influenced by alloy texture. Examination of the fracture surface indicated that there was not a unique direction of crack propagation. In addition, the existence of 100-plane cleavage on alloy 2024 fracture surfaces was inferred by comparison of secondary cleavage crack intersection geometry on the 2024 surfaces with the geometry of secondary cleavage crack intersections on the test alloys.

  15. Structure-based cleavage mechanism of Thermus thermophilus Argonaute DNA guide strand-mediated DNA target cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Gang; Zhao, Hongtu; Wang, Jiuyu; Rao, Yu; Tian, Wenwen; Swarts, Daan C.; van der Oost, John; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Wang, Yanli

    2014-01-01

    We report on crystal structures of ternary Thermus thermophilus Argonaute (TtAgo) complexes with 5′-phosphorylated guide DNA and a series of DNA targets. These ternary complex structures of cleavage-incompatible, cleavage-compatible, and postcleavage states solved at improved resolution up to 2.2 Å have provided molecular insights into the orchestrated positioning of catalytic residues, a pair of Mg2+ cations, and the putative water nucleophile positioned for in-line attack on the cleavable phosphate for TtAgo-mediated target cleavage by a RNase H-type mechanism. In addition, these ternary complex structures have provided insights into protein and DNA conformational changes that facilitate transition between cleavage-incompatible and cleavage-compatible states, including the role of a Glu finger in generating a cleavage-competent catalytic Asp-Glu-Asp-Asp tetrad. Following cleavage, the seed segment forms a stable duplex with the complementary segment of the target strand. PMID:24374628

  16. Cleavage in conical sand dollar eggs.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, R; Rappaport, B N

    1994-07-01

    Previous experiments have shown that the mitotic apparatus and the surface can interact and produce functional furrows in various unusual geometrical circumstances. The consistent development of the furrow in the plane equidistant from the aster centers has led to conjecture about the need for a special structural configuration of the subsurface in the future cleavage plane. In most experiments involving altered cell geometry, the relation between each aster and nearby surface was symmetrical, and the effect of that symmetry upon the position and orientation of the cleavage mechanism in the cortex has not been systematically analyzed. The normal symmetry of sand dollar eggs can be changed by reshaping them into cones. When the cone and mitotic axes are parallel, the aster center closer to the vertex is also closer to the nearby surface, and the cleavage plane develops on the vertex side of the midpoint between the asters. A mitotic apparatus oriented perpendicular to the cone axis produces in the base of the cone a normal unilateral furrow that advances toward the vertex, and a second contractile band that isolates the vertex region. This event only occurs when the surface is conical and the mitotic apparatus is perpendicular to the cone axis. Furrow formation is not restricted to the plane of the metaphase plate or the midpoint between the aster centers. The orientation of mitotic apparatus-produced contractile bands is not limited to the circumstances in normal cytokinesis, but may vary according to surface contour. These results confirm predictions of the Harris and Gewalt model of contractile ring induction.

  17. Picornavirus Modification of a Host mRNA Decay Protein

    PubMed Central

    Rozovics, Janet M.; Chase, Amanda J.; Cathcart, Andrea L.; Chou, Wayne; Gershon, Paul D.; Palusa, Saiprasad; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Semler, Bert L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the limited coding capacity of picornavirus genomic RNAs, host RNA binding proteins play essential roles during viral translation and RNA replication. Here we describe experiments suggesting that AUF1, a host RNA binding protein involved in mRNA decay, plays a role in the infectious cycle of picornaviruses such as poliovirus and human rhinovirus. We observed cleavage of AUF1 during poliovirus or human rhinovirus infection, as well as interaction of this protein with the 5′ noncoding regions of these viral genomes. Additionally, the picornavirus proteinase 3CD, encoded by poliovirus or human rhinovirus genomic RNAs, was shown to cleave all four isoforms of recombinant AUF1 at a specific N-terminal site in vitro. Finally, endogenous AUF1 was found to relocalize from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells to sites adjacent to (but distinct from) putative viral RNA replication complexes. PMID:23131833

  18. Resistance of Actin to Cleavage during Apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qizhong; Wei, Tie; Lees-Miller, Susan; Alnemri, Emad; Watters, Dianne; Lavin, Martin F.

    1997-01-01

    A small number of cellular proteins present in the nucleus, cytosol, and membrane fraction are specifically cleaved by the interleukin-1β -converting enzyme (ICE)-like family of proteases during apoptosis. Previous results have demonstrated that one of these, the cytoskeletal protein actin, is degraded in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells upon serum withdrawal. Extracts from etoposide-treated U937 cells are also capable of cleaving actin. It was assumed that cleavage of actin represented a general phenomenon, and a mechanism coordinating proteolytic, endonucleolytic, and morphological aspects of apoptosis was proposed. We demonstrate here that actin is resistant to degradation in several different human cells induced to undergo apoptosis in response to a variety of stimuli, including Fas ligation, serum withdrawal, cytotoxic T-cell killing, and DNA damage. On the other hand, cell-free extracts from these cells and the ICE-like protease CPP32 were capable of cleaving actin in vitro. We conclude that while actin contains cleavage sites for ICE-like proteases, it is not degraded in vivo in human cells either because of lack of access of these proteases to actin or due to the presence of other factors that prevent degradation.

  19. Phosphodiester models for cleavage of nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Nucleic acids that store and transfer biological information are polymeric diesters of phosphoric acid. Cleavage of the phosphodiester linkages by protein enzymes, nucleases, is one of the underlying biological processes. The remarkable catalytic efficiency of nucleases, together with the ability of ribonucleic acids to serve sometimes as nucleases, has made the cleavage of phosphodiesters a subject of intensive mechanistic studies. In addition to studies of nucleases by pH-rate dependency, X-ray crystallography, amino acid/nucleotide substitution and computational approaches, experimental and theoretical studies with small molecular model compounds still play a role. With small molecules, the importance of various elementary processes, such as proton transfer and metal ion binding, for stabilization of transition states may be elucidated and systematic variation of the basicity of the entering or departing nucleophile enables determination of the position of the transition state on the reaction coordinate. Such data is important on analyzing enzyme mechanisms based on synergistic participation of several catalytic entities. Many nucleases are metalloenzymes and small molecular models offer an excellent tool to construct models for their catalytic centers. The present review tends to be an up to date summary of what has been achieved by mechanistic studies with small molecular phosphodiesters. PMID:29719577

  20. A selective splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Toki, Yasumichi; Sasaki, Katsunori, E-mail: k-sasaki@asahikawa-med.ac.jp; Tanaka, Hiroki

    2016-08-05

    Hepcidin is a main regulator of iron metabolism, of which abnormal expression affects intestinal absorption and reticuloendothelial sequestration of iron by interacting with ferroportin. It is also noted that abnormal iron accumulation is one of the key factors to facilitate promotion and progression of cancer including hepatoma. By RT-PCR/agarose gel electrophoresis of hepcidin mRNA in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HLF, a smaller mRNA band was shown in addition to the wild-type hepcidin mRNA. From sequencing analysis, this additional band was a selective splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA lacking exon 2 of HAMP gene, producing the transcript that encodes truncatedmore » peptide lacking 20 amino acids at the middle of preprohepcidin. In the present study, we used the digital PCR, because such a small amount of variant mRNA was difficult to quantitate by the conventional RT-PCR amplification. Among seven hepatoma-derived cell lines, six cell lines have significant copy numbers of this variant mRNA, but not in one cell line. In the transient transfection analysis of variant-type hepcidin cDNA, truncated preprohepcidin has a different character comparing with native preprohepcidin: its product is insensitive to digestion, and secreted into the medium as a whole preprohepcidin form without maturation. Loss or reduction of function of HAMP gene by aberrantly splicing may be a suitable phenomenon to obtain the proliferating advantage of hepatoma cells. - Highlights: • An aberrant splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA lacking exon 2 of HAMP gene. • Absolute quantification of hepcidin mRNA by digital PCR amplification. • Hepatoma-derived cell lines have significant copies of variant-type hepcidin mRNA. • Truncated preprohepcidin is secreted from cells without posttranslational cleavage.« less

  1. Influence of codon usage bias on FGLamide-allatostatin mRNA secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Francisco; Bendena, William G; Chang, Belinda S W; Tobe, Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    The FGLamide allatostatins (ASTs) are invertebrate neuropeptides which inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis in Dictyoptera and related orders. They also show myomodulatory activity. FGLamide AST nucleotide frequencies and codon bias were investigated with respect to possible effects on mRNA secondary structure. 367 putative FGLamide ASTs and their potential endoproteolytic cleavage sites were identified from 40 species of crustaceans, chelicerates and insects. Among these, 55% comprised only 11 amino acids. An FGLamide AST consensus was identified to be (X)(1→16)Y(S/A/N/G)FGLGKR, with a strong bias for the codons UUU encoding for Phe and AAA for Lys, which can form strong Watson-Crick pairing in all peptides analyzed. The physical distance between these codons favor a loop structure from Ser/Ala-Phe to Lys-Arg. Other loop and hairpin loops were also inferred from the codon frequencies in the N-terminal motif, and the first amino acids from the C-terminal motif, or the dibasic potential endoproteolytic cleavage site. Our results indicate that nucleotide frequencies and codon usage bias in FGLamide ASTs tend to favor mRNA folds in the codon sequence in the C-terminal active peptide core and at the dibasic potential endoproteolytic cleavage site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. AT-rich sequence elements promote nascent transcript cleavage leading to RNA polymerase II termination

    PubMed Central

    White, Eleanor; Kamieniarz-Gdula, Kinga; Dye, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Nick J.

    2013-01-01

    RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) termination is dependent on RNA processing signals as well as specific terminator elements located downstream of the poly(A) site. One of the two major terminator classes described so far is the Co-Transcriptional Cleavage (CoTC) element. We show that homopolymer A/T tracts within the human β-globin CoTC-mediated terminator element play a critical role in Pol II termination. These short A/T tracts, dispersed within seemingly random sequences, are strong terminator elements, and bioinformatics analysis confirms the presence of such sequences in 70% of the putative terminator regions (PTRs) genome-wide. PMID:23258704

  3. Identification of Caspase Cleavage Sites in KSHV Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen and Their Effects on Caspase-Related Host Defense Responses.

    PubMed

    Davis, David A; Naiman, Nicole E; Wang, Victoria; Shrestha, Prabha; Haque, Muzammel; Hu, Duosha; Anagho, Holda A; Carey, Robert F; Davidoff, Katharine S; Yarchoan, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus-8, is the causative agent of three hyperproliferative disorders: Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease. During viral latency a small subset of viral genes are produced, including KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which help the virus thwart cellular defense responses. We found that exposure of KSHV-infected cells to oxidative stress, or other inducers of apoptosis and caspase activation, led to processing of LANA and that this processing could be inhibited with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Using sequence, peptide, and mutational analysis, two caspase cleavage sites within LANA were identified: a site for caspase-3 type caspases at the N-terminus and a site for caspase-1 and-3 type caspases at the C-terminus. Using LANA expression plasmids, we demonstrated that mutation of these cleavage sites prevents caspase-1 and caspase-3 processing of LANA. This indicates that these are the principal sites that are susceptible to caspase cleavage. Using peptides spanning the identified LANA cleavage sites, we show that caspase activity can be inhibited in vitro and that a cell-permeable peptide spanning the C-terminal cleavage site could inhibit cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and increase viability in cells undergoing etoposide-induced apoptosis. The C-terminal peptide of LANA also inhibited interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) production from lipopolysaccharide-treated THP-1 cells by more than 50%. Furthermore, mutation of the two cleavage sites in LANA led to a significant increase in IL-1β production in transfected THP-1 cells; this provides evidence that these sites function to blunt the inflammasome, which is known to be activated in latently infected PEL cells. These results suggest that specific caspase cleavage sites in KSHV LANA function to blunt apoptosis as well as interfere with the caspase-1-mediated inflammasome

  4. Conformational changes in the P site and mRNA entry channel evoked by AUG recognition in yeast translation preinitiation complexes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Saini, Adesh K.; Shin, Byung-Sik; Nanda, Jagpreet; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    The translation preinitiation complex (PIC) is thought to assume an open conformation when scanning the mRNA leader, with AUG recognition evoking a closed conformation and more stable P site interaction of Met-tRNAi; however, physical evidence is lacking that AUG recognition constrains interaction of mRNA with the 40S binding cleft. We compared patterns of hydroxyl radical cleavage of rRNA by Fe(II)-BABE tethered to unique sites in eIF1A in yeast PICs reconstituted with mRNA harboring an AUG or near-cognate (AUC) start codon. rRNA residues in the P site display reduced cleavage in AUG versus AUC PICs; and enhanced cleavage in the AUC complexes was diminished by mutations of scanning enhancer elements of eIF1A that increase near-cognate recognition in vivo. This suggests that accessibility of these rRNA residues is reduced by accommodation of Met-tRNAi in the P site (PIN state) and by their interactions with the anticodon stem of Met-tRNAi. Our cleavage data also provide evidence that AUG recognition evokes dissociation of eIF1 from its 40S binding site, ejection of the eIF1A-CTT from the P-site and rearrangement to a closed conformation of the entry channel with reduced mobility of mRNA. PMID:25670678

  5. Chymase Cleavage of Stem Cell Factor Yields a Bioactive, Soluble Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longley, B. Jack; Tyrrell, Lynda; Ma, Yongsheng; Williams, David A.; Halaban, Ruth; Langley, Keith; Lu, Hsieng S.; Schechter, Norman M.

    1997-08-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) is produced by stromal cells as a membrane-bound molecule, which may be proteolytically cleaved at a site close to the membrane to produce a soluble bioactive form. The proteases producing this cleavage are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that human mast cell chymase, a chymotrypsin-like protease, cleaves SCF at a novel site. Cleavage is at the peptide bond between Phe-158 and Met-159, which are encoded by exon 6 of the SCF gene. This cleavage results in a soluble bioactive product that is 7 amino acids shorter at the C terminus than previously identified soluble SCF. This research shows the identification of a physiologically relevant enzyme that specifically cleaves SCF. Because mast cells express the KIT protein, the receptor for SCF, and respond to SCF by proliferation and degranulation, this observation identifies a possible feedback loop in which chymase released from mast cell secretory granules may solubilize SCF bound to the membrane of surrounding stromal cells. The liberated soluble SCF may in turn stimulate mast cell proliferation and differentiated functions; this loop could contribute to abnormal accumulations of mast cells in the skin and hyperpigmentation at sites of chronic cutaneous inflammation.

  6. Bacillus subtilis MazF-bs (EndoA) is a UACAU-specific mRNA interferase.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Ho; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Inouye, Masayori

    2011-08-04

    MazF is an mRNA interferase which cleaves mRNAs at a specific sequence. Here, we show that in contrast to MazF-ec from Escherichia coli, which specifically cleaves ACA sequences, MazF-bs from Bacillus subtilis is an mRNA interferase that specifically cleaves a five-base sequence, UACAU. MazF homologues widely prevailing in Gram-positive bacteria were found to be highly homologous to MazF-bs, suggesting that they may also have similar cleavage specificity. This cleavage site is over-represented in the B. subtilis genes associated with biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, suggesting that MazF-bs may be involved in the regulation of the production of secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement of the cleavage energy of graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wen; Dai, Shuyang; Li, Xide

    Here, the basal plane cleavage energy (CE) of graphite is a key material parameter for understanding many of the unusual properties of graphite, graphene and carbon nanotubes. Nonetheless, a wide range of values for the CE has been reported and no consensus has yet emerged. Here we report the first direct, accurate experimental measurement of the CE of graphite using a novel method based on the self-retraction phenomenon in graphite. The measured value, 0.37±0.01 J m –2 for the incommensurate state of bicrystal graphite, is nearly invariant with respect to temperature (22 °C≤T≤198 °C) and bicrystal twist angle, and insensitivemore » to impurities from the atmosphere. The CE for the ideal ABAB graphite stacking, 0.39±0.02 J m –2, is calculated based on a combination of the measured CE and a theoretical calculation. These experimental measurements are also ideal for use in evaluating the efficacy of competing theoretical approaches.« less

  8. Measurement of the cleavage energy of graphite

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Wen; Dai, Shuyang; Li, Xide; ...

    2015-08-28

    Here, the basal plane cleavage energy (CE) of graphite is a key material parameter for understanding many of the unusual properties of graphite, graphene and carbon nanotubes. Nonetheless, a wide range of values for the CE has been reported and no consensus has yet emerged. Here we report the first direct, accurate experimental measurement of the CE of graphite using a novel method based on the self-retraction phenomenon in graphite. The measured value, 0.37±0.01 J m –2 for the incommensurate state of bicrystal graphite, is nearly invariant with respect to temperature (22 °C≤T≤198 °C) and bicrystal twist angle, and insensitivemore » to impurities from the atmosphere. The CE for the ideal ABAB graphite stacking, 0.39±0.02 J m –2, is calculated based on a combination of the measured CE and a theoretical calculation. These experimental measurements are also ideal for use in evaluating the efficacy of competing theoretical approaches.« less

  9. mRNA stability in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J

    1995-01-01

    This review concerns how cytoplasmic mRNA half-lives are regulated and how mRNA decay rates influence gene expression. mRNA stability influences gene expression in virtually all organisms, from bacteria to mammals, and the abundance of a particular mRNA can fluctuate manyfold following a change in the mRNA half-life, without any change in transcription. The processes that regulate mRNA half-lives can, in turn, affect how cells grow, differentiate, and respond to their environment. Three major questions are addressed. Which sequences in mRNAs determine their half-lives? Which enzymes degrade mRNAs? Which (trans-acting) factors regulate mRNA stability, and how do they function? The following specific topics are discussed: techniques for measuring eukaryotic mRNA stability and for calculating decay constants, mRNA decay pathways, mRNases, proteins that bind to sequences shared among many mRNAs [like poly(A)- and AU-rich-binding proteins] and proteins that bind to specific mRNAs (like the c-myc coding-region determinant-binding protein), how environmental factors like hormones and growth factors affect mRNA stability, and how translation and mRNA stability are linked. Some perspectives and predictions for future research directions are summarized at the end. PMID:7565413

  10. Cleavage of the Drosophila seminal protein Acp36DE in mated females enhances its sperm storage activity.

    PubMed

    Avila, Frank W; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2017-08-01

    Sperm storage in the mated female reproductive tract (RT) is required for optimal fertility in numerous species with internal fertilization. In Drosophila melanogaster, sperm storage is dependent on female receipt of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) during mating. The seminal fluid protein Acp36DE is necessary for the accumulation of sperm into storage. In the female RT, Acp36DE localizes to the anterior mating plug and also to a site in the common oviduct, potentially "corralling" sperm near the entry sites into the storage organs. Genetic studies showed that Acp36DE is also required for a series of conformational changes of the uterus that begin at the onset of mating and are hypothesized to move sperm towards the entry sites of the sperm storage organs. After Acp36DE is transferred to the female RT, the protein is cleaved by the astacin-metalloprotease Semp1. However, the effect of this cleavage on Acp36DE's function in sperm accumulation into storage is unknown. We used mass spectrometry to identify the single cleavage site in Acp36DE. We then mutated this site and tested the effects on sperm storage. Mutations of Acp36DE's cleavage site that slowed or prevented cleavage of the protein slowed the accumulation of sperm into storage, although they did not affect uterine conformational changes in mated females. Moreover, the N-terminal cleavage product of Acp36DE was sufficient to mediate sperm accumulation in storage, and it did so faster than versions of Acp36DE that could not be cleaved or were only cleaved slowly. These results suggest that cleavage of Acp36E may increase the number of bioactive molecules within the female RT, a mechanism similar to that hypothesized for Semp1's other substrate, the seminal fluid protein ovulin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-11 receptor cleavage.

    PubMed

    Lokau, Juliane; Wandel, Marieke; Garbers, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound Interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) by the metalloprotease ADAM17 releases an agonistic soluble form of the IL-6R (sIL-6R), which is responsible for the pro-inflammatory trans-signaling branch of the cytokine's activities. This proteolytic step, which is also called ectodomain shedding, is critically regulated by the cleavage site within the IL-6R stalk, because mutations or small deletions within this region are known to render the IL-6R irresponsive towards proteolysis. In the present study, we employed cleavage site profiling data of ADAM17 to generate an IL-6R with increased cleavage susceptibility. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that the non-prime sites P3 and P2 and the prime site P1' were critical for this increase in proteolysis, whereas other positions within the cleavage site were of minor importance. Insertion of this optimized cleavage site into the stalk of the Interleukin-11 receptor (IL-11R) was not sufficient to enable ADAM17-mediated proteolysis, but transfer of different parts of the IL-6R stalk enabled shedding by ADAM17. These findings shed light on the cleavage site specificities of ADAM17 using a native substrate and reveal further differences in the proteolysis of IL-6R and IL-11R. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Specific Cleavage of the Nucleoprotein of Fish Rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G-Z; Yi, Y-J; Chen, Z-Y; Zhang, Q-Y

    2015-11-01

    Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) is one of myriad rhabdoviruses recorded in fish. Preliminary data show that inhibition of the SCRV nucleoprotein (N) could significantly reduce the progeny virus titers in infected Epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cells. Here, the authors propose that cleavage of the viral 47-kDa N protein is caspase-mediated based on caspase inhibition experiments, transient expression in EPC transfection, and analysis of cleavage sites. Cleavage of the SCRV N protein in culture was prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK (z-Val-Ala-DL-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone). Subsequently, N was transiently expressed in EPC cells, the results of which indicated that the specific cleavage of N also occurred in the cells transfected with N-GFP plasmid. Several truncated fragments of the N gene were constructed and transiently transfected into EPC cells. Immunoblotting results indicated that D324 and D374 are the cleavage sites of N by caspases. The authors also found that z-VAD-FMK could inhibit the cytopathic effect in SCRV-infected EPC cells but not affect the production of infectious progeny, suggesting that the caspase-mediated cleavage of N protein is not required for in vitro SCRV replication. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the cleavage of rhabdovirus proteins. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Quantification of DNA cleavage specificity in Hi-C experiments.

    PubMed

    Meluzzi, Dario; Arya, Gaurav

    2016-01-08

    Hi-C experiments produce large numbers of DNA sequence read pairs that are typically analyzed to deduce genomewide interactions between arbitrary loci. A key step in these experiments is the cleavage of cross-linked chromatin with a restriction endonuclease. Although this cleavage should happen specifically at the enzyme's recognition sequence, an unknown proportion of cleavage events may involve other sequences, owing to the enzyme's star activity or to random DNA breakage. A quantitative estimation of these non-specific cleavages may enable simulating realistic Hi-C read pairs for validation of downstream analyses, monitoring the reproducibility of experimental conditions and investigating biophysical properties that correlate with DNA cleavage patterns. Here we describe a computational method for analyzing Hi-C read pairs to estimate the fractions of cleavages at different possible targets. The method relies on expressing an observed local target distribution downstream of aligned reads as a linear combination of known conditional local target distributions. We validated this method using Hi-C read pairs obtained by computer simulation. Application of the method to experimental Hi-C datasets from murine cells revealed interesting similarities and differences in patterns of cleavage across the various experiments considered. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Nerve growth factor influences cleavage rate and embryo development in sheep.

    PubMed

    Crispo, M; Dos Santos-Neto, P C; Vilariño, M; Mulet, A P; de León, A; Barbeito, L; Menchaca, A

    2016-10-01

    Recent information about Nerve growth factor (NGF), a protein traditionally associated to the nervous system that regulates survival and maturation of developing neurons, suggests that it may exert action also on different levels in the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NGF added during in vitro oocyte maturation, fertilization or in vitro embryo development in sheep. Nerve growth factor was supplemented to the culture medium at 0, 100, or 1,000 ng/mL, during either in vitro maturation (Exp. 1), in vitro fertilization (Exp. 2), or in vitro culture (Exp. 3). In addition, NGF mRNA expression was determined in cumulus cells and oocytes. Nerve growth factor induced early cleavage when added during oocyte maturation or fertilization, improved embryo development when added during fertilization, and had no significant effect when added during embryo culture. In general, the effect was more evident with 100 rather than 1,000 ng/mL (P < 0.05). Expression of endogenous NGF was not detected in oocytes, and increased in cumulus cells when 1,000 ng/mL of NGF was added during fertilization, but not during maturation and embryo culture. In conclusion, the addition of NGF during oocyte maturation and fertilization affects in vitro cleavage and embryo development in sheep. We suggest a possible effect of this growth factor on oocyte maturation and mainly on the fertilization process.

  15. The Oxygenase CAO-1 of Neurospora crassa Is a Resveratrol Cleavage Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta; F. Estrada, Alejandro; Limón, M. Carmen; Al-Babili, Salim

    2013-01-01

    The genome of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa encodes CAO-1 and CAO-2, two members of the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family that target double bonds in different substrates. Previous studies demonstrated the role of CAO-2 in cleaving the C40 carotene torulene, a key step in the synthesis of the C35 apocarotenoid pigment neurosporaxanthin. In this work, we investigated the activity of CAO-1, assuming that it may provide retinal, the chromophore of the NOP-1 rhodopsin, by cleaving β-carotene. For this purpose, we tested CAO-1 activity with carotenoid substrates that were, however, not converted. In contrast and consistent with its sequence similarity to family members that act on stilbenes, CAO-1 cleaved the interphenyl Cα-Cβ double bond of resveratrol and its derivative piceatannol. CAO-1 did not convert five other similar stilbenes, indicating a requirement for a minimal number of unmodified hydroxyl groups in the stilbene background. Confirming its biological function in converting stilbenes, adding resveratrol led to a pronounced increase in cao-1 mRNA levels, while light, a key regulator of carotenoid metabolism, did not alter them. Targeted Δcao-1 mutants were not impaired by the presence of resveratrol, a phytoalexin active against different fungi, which did not significantly affect the growth and development of wild-type Neurospora. However, under partial sorbose toxicity, the Δcao-1 colonies exhibited faster radial growth than control strains in the presence of resveratrol, suggesting a moderate toxic effect of resveratrol cleavage products. PMID:23893079

  16. Multilayer regulatory mechanisms control cleavage factor I proteins in filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Romero, J.; Franceschetti, M.; Bueno, E.; Sesma, A.

    2015-01-01

    Cleavage factor I (CFI) proteins are core components of the polyadenylation machinery that can regulate several steps of mRNA life cycle, including alternative polyadenylation, splicing, export and decay. Here, we describe the regulatory mechanisms that control two fungal CFI protein classes in Magnaporthe oryzae: Rbp35/CfI25 complex and Hrp1. Using mutational, genetic and biochemical studies we demonstrate that cellular concentration of CFI mRNAs is a limited indicator of their protein abundance. Our results suggest that several post-transcriptional mechanisms regulate Rbp35/CfI25 complex and Hrp1 in the rice blast fungus, some of which are also conserved in other ascomycetes. With respect to Rbp35, these include C-terminal processing, RGG-dependent localization and cleavage, C-terminal autoregulatory domain and regulation by an upstream open reading frame of Rbp35-dependent TOR signalling pathway. Our proteomic analyses suggest that Rbp35 regulates the levels of proteins involved in melanin and phenylpropanoids synthesis, among others. The drastic reduction of fungal CFI proteins in carbon-starved cells suggests that the pre-mRNA processing pathway is altered. Our findings uncover broad and multilayer regulatory mechanisms controlling fungal polyadenylation factors, which have profound implications in pre-mRNA maturation. This area of research offers new avenues for fungicide design by targeting fungal-specific proteins that globally affect thousands of mRNAs. PMID:25514925

  17. OH cleavage from tyrosine: debunking a myth

    DOE PAGES

    Bury, Charles S.; Carmichael, Ian; Garman, Elspeth F.

    2017-01-01

    During macromolecular X-ray crystallography experiments, protein crystals held at 100 K have been widely reported to exhibit reproducible bond scission events at doses on the order of several MGy. With the objective to mitigate the impact of radiation damage events on valid structure determination, it is essential to correctly understand the radiation chemistry mechanisms at play. OH-cleavage from tyrosine residues is regularly cited as amongst the most available damage pathways in protein crystals at 100 K, despite a lack of widespread reports of this phenomenon in protein crystal radiation damage studies. Furthermore, no clear mechanism for phenolic C—O bond cleavagemore » in tyrosine has been reported, with the tyrosyl radical known to be relatively robust and long-lived in both aqueous solutions and the solid state. Here, the initial findings of Tyr –OH group damage in a myrosinase protein crystal have been reviewed. Consistent with that study, at increasing doses, clear electron density loss was detectable local to Tyr –OH groups. A systematic investigation performed on a range of protein crystal damage series deposited in the Protein Data Bank has established that Tyr –OH electron density loss is not generally a dominant damage pathway in protein crystals at 100 K. Full Tyr aromatic ring displacement is here proposed to account for instances of observable Tyr –OH electron density loss, with the original myrosinase data shown to be consistent with such a damage model. Also presented are systematic analysis of the effects of other environmental factors, including solvent accessibility and proximity to disulfide bonds or hydrogen bond interactions. Residues in known active sites showed enhanced sensitivity to radiation-induced disordering, as has previously been reported.« less

  18. Ribozyme-mediated cleavage of c-fos mRNA reduces gene expression of DNA synthesis enzymes and metallothionein.

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, K J; Jiao, L; Funato, T; Wang, W; Tone, T; Rossi, J J; Kashani-Sabet, M

    1991-01-01

    The c-fos gene product Fos has been implicated in many cellular processes, including signal transduction, DNA synthesis, and resistance to antineoplastic agents. A fos ribozyme (catalytic RNA) was designed to evaluate the effects of suppressing Fos protein synthesis on expression of enzymes involved in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and drug resistance. DNA encoding the fos ribozyme (fosRb) was cloned into the pMAMneo expression plasmid, and the resultant vector was transfected into A2780DDP cells resistant to the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. The parental drug-sensitive A2780S cells were transfected with the pMMV vector containing the c-fos gene. Morphological alterations were accompanied by significant changes in pharmacological sensitivity in both c-fos- and fosRb-transfected cells. pMAMneo fosRb transfectants revealed decreased c-fos gene expression, concomitant with reduced thymidylate (dTMP) synthase, DNA polymerase beta, topoisomerase I, and metallothionein IIA mRNAs. In contrast, c-myc expression was elevated after fos ribozyme action. Insertion of a mutant ribozyme, mainly capable of antisense activity, into A2780DDP cells resulted in smaller reductions in c-fos gene expression and in cisplatin resistance than the active ribozyme. These studies establish a role for c-fos in drug resistance and in mediating DNA synthesis and repair processes by modulating expression of genes such as dTMP synthase, DNA polymerase beta, and topoisomerase I. These studies also suggest the utility of ribozymes in the analysis of cellular gene expression. Images PMID:1660142

  19. Mechanisms for ribotoxin-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    He, Kaiyu; Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824; Zhou, Hui-Ren

    The Type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to contaminate cereal-based foods, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage in the macrophage via p38-directed activation of caspases. Here we employed the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model to test the hypothesis that this rRNA cleavage pathway is similarly induced by other ribotoxins. Capillary electrophoresis confirmed that the antibiotic anisomycin (≥ 25 ng/ml), the macrocylic trichothecene satratoxin G (SG) (≥ 10 ng/ml) and ribosome-inactivating protein ricin (≥ 300 ng/ml) induced 18s and 28s rRNA fragmentation patterns identical to that observed for DON. Also, as found for DON, inhibition of p38, double-stranded RNA-activatedmore » kinase (PKR) and hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) suppressed MAPK anisomycin-induced rRNA cleavage, while, in contrast, their inhibition did not affect SG- and ricin-induced rRNA fragmentation. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ and pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suppressed rRNA cleavage induced by anisomycin, SG and ricin, indicating that these ribotoxins shared with DON a conserved downstream pathway. Activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 concurrently with apoptosis further suggested that rRNA cleavage occurred in parallel with both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. When specific inhibitors of cathepsins L and B (lysosomal cysteine cathepsins active at cytosolic neutral pH) were tested, only the former impaired anisomycin-, SG-, ricin- and DON-induced rRNA cleavage. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) all four ribotoxins induced p53-dependent rRNA cleavage via activation of cathepsin L and caspase 3, and (2) activation of p53 by DON and anisomycin involved p38 whereas SG and ricin activated p53 by an alternative mechanism. Highlights: ► Deoxynivalenol (DON) anisomycin, satratoxin G (SG) and ricin are ribotoxins. ► Ribotoxins induce 18s and 28s rRNA cleavage in the RAW 264.7 macrophage model. ► Ribotoxins induce r

  20. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOEpatents

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1994-10-25

    A microbial process is described for selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials. Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  1. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOEpatents

    Kilbane, II, John J.

    1994-01-01

    A microbial process for selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials, Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  2. Intermolecular cleavage by UmuD-like mutagenesis proteins

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, John P.; Frank, Ekaterina G.; Levine, Arthur S.; Woodgate, Roger

    1998-01-01

    The activity of a number of proteins is regulated by self-processing reactions. Elegant examples are the cleavage of the prokaryotic LexA and λCI transcriptional repressors and the UmuD-like mutagenesis proteins. Various studies support the hypothesis that LexA and λCI cleavage reactions are predominantly intramolecular in nature. The recently described crystal structure of the Escherichia coli UmuD′ protein (the posttranslational cleavage product of the UmuD protein) suggests, however, that the region of the protein corresponding to the cleavage site is at least 50 Å away from the catalytic active site. We considered the possibility, therefore, that the UmuD-like proteins might undergo self-processing that, in contrast to LexA and λCI, occurs via an intermolecular rather than intramolecular reaction. To test this hypothesis, we introduced into E. coli compatible plasmids with mutations at either the cleavage or the catalytic site of three UmuD-like proteins. Cleavage of these proteins only occurs in the presence of both plasmids, indicating that the reaction is indeed intermolecular in nature. Furthermore, this intermolecular reaction is completely dependent upon the multifunctional RecA protein and leads to the restoration of cellular mutagenesis in nonmutable E. coli strains. Intermolecular cleavage of a biotinylated UmuD active site mutant was also observed in vitro in the presence of the wild-type UmuD′ protein, indicating that in addition to the intact UmuD protein, the normal cleavage product (UmuD′) can also act as a classical enzyme. PMID:9465040

  3. Cleavage fracture in high strength low alloy weld metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, W.W.; Bowen, P.; Strangwood, M.

    1996-12-31

    The present investigation gives an evaluation of the effect of microstructure on the cleavage fracture process of High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) multipass weld metals. With additions of alloying elements, such as Ti, Ni, Mo and Cr, the microstructure of C-Mn weld metal changes from the classical composition, i.e., allotriomorphic ferrite with acicular ferrite and Widmanstaetten ferrite, to bainite and low carbon martensite. Although the physical metallurgy of some HSLA weld metals has been studied before, more work is necessary to correlate the effect of the microstructure on the fracture behavior of such weld metals. In this work detailed microstructuralmore » analysis was carried out using optical and electron (SEM and TEM) microscopy. Single edge notched (SEN) bend testpieces were used to assess the cleavage fracture stress, {sigma}{sub F}. Inclusions beneath the notch surface were identified as the crack initiators of unstable cleavage fracture. From the size of such inclusions and the value of tensile stress predicted at the initiation site, the effective surface energy for cleavage was calculated using a modified Griffth energy balance for a penny shape crack. The results suggest that even though inclusions initiate cleavage fracture, the local microstructure may play an important role in the fracture process of these weld metals. The implications of these observations for a quantitative theory of the cleavage fracture of ferritic steels is discussed.« less

  4. Mitochondrial dysfunction-associated OPA1 cleavage contributes to muscle degeneration: preventative effect of hydroxytyrosol acetate.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Li, H; Zheng, A; Yang, L; Liu, J; Chen, C; Tang, Y; Zou, X; Li, Y; Long, J; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Feng, Z

    2014-11-13

    Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the development of muscle disorders, including muscle wasting, muscle atrophy and degeneration. Despite the knowledge that oxidative stress closely interacts with mitochondrial dysfunction, the detailed mechanisms remain obscure. In this study, tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) was used to induce oxidative stress on differentiated C2C12 myotubes. t-BHP induced significant mitochondrial dysfunction in a time-dependent manner, accompanied by decreased myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Consistently, endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction triggered by carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor, was accompanied by decreased membrane potential and decreased MyHC protein content. However, the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) efficiently reduced the ROS level and restored MyHC content, suggesting a close association between ROS and MyHC expression. Meanwhile, we found that both t-BHP and FCCP promoted the cleavage of optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) from the long form into short form during the early stages. In addition, the ATPase family gene 3-like 2, a mitochondrial inner membrane protease, was also markedly increased. Moreover, OPA1 knockdown in myotubes was accompanied by decreased MyHC content, whereas NAC failed to prevent FCCP-induced MyHC decrease with OPA1 knockdown, suggesting that ROS might affect MyHC content by modulating OPA1 cleavage. In addition, hydroxytyrosol acetate (HT-AC), an important compound in virgin olive oil, could significantly prevent t-BHP-induced mitochondrial membrane potential and cell viability loss in myotubes. Specifically, HT-AC inhibited t-BHP-induced OPA1 cleavage and mitochondrial morphology changes, accompanied by improvement on mitochondrial oxygen consumption capacity, ATP productive potential and activities of mitochondrial complex I, II and V. Moreover, both

  5. Efficient trans-cleavage by the Schistosoma mansoni SMα1 hammerhead ribozyme in the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Castán, Pablo; Moreno, Renata; Smith, James M.; Berenguer, José; Cedergren, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The catalytic hammerhead structure has been found in association with repetitive DNA from several animals, including salamanders, crickets and schistosomes, and functions to process in cis the long multimer transcripts into monomer RNA in vivo. The cellular role of these repetitive elements and their transcripts is unknown. Moreover, none of these natural hammerheads have been shown to trans-cleave a host mRNA in vivo. We analyzed the cis- and trans-cleavage properties of the hammerhead ribozyme associated with the SMα DNA family from the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. The efficiency of trans-cleavage of a target RNA in vitro was affected mainly by both the temperature-dependent chemical step and the ribozyme–product dissociation step. The optimal temperature for trans-cleavage was 70°C. This result was confirmed when both the SMα1 ribozyme and the target RNA were expressed in the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus. Moreover, SMα1 RNA showed a remarkable thermostability, equal or superior to that of the most stable RNAs in this species, suggesting that SMα1 RNA has been selected for stability. Computer analysis predicts that the monomer and multimer transcripts fold into highly compact secondary structures, which may explain their exceptional stability in vivo. PMID:11917021

  6. PAF Complex Plays Novel Subunit-Specific Roles in Alternative Cleavage and Polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Li, Wencheng; Hoque, Mainul; Hou, Liming; Shen, Steven; Tian, Bin; Dynlacht, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    The PAF complex (Paf1C) has been shown to regulate chromatin modifications, gene transcription, and RNA polymerase II (PolII) elongation. Here, we provide the first genome-wide profiles for the distribution of the entire complex in mammalian cells using chromatin immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing. We show that Paf1C is recruited not only to promoters and gene bodies, but also to regions downstream of cleavage/polyadenylation (pA) sites at 3’ ends, a profile that sharply contrasted with the yeast complex. Remarkably, we identified novel, subunit-specific links between Paf1C and regulation of alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) and upstream antisense transcription using RNAi coupled with deep sequencing of the 3’ ends of transcripts. Moreover, we found that depletion of Paf1C subunits resulted in the accumulation of PolII over gene bodies, which coincided with APA. Depletion of specific Paf1C subunits led to global loss of histone H2B ubiquitylation, although there was little impact of Paf1C depletion on other histone modifications, including tri-methylation of histone H3 on lysines 4 and 36 (H3K4me3 and H3K36me3), previously associated with this complex. Our results provide surprising differences with yeast, while unifying observations that link Paf1C with PolII elongation and RNA processing, and indicate that Paf1C subunits could play roles in controlling transcript length through suppression of PolII accumulation at transcription start site (TSS)-proximal pA sites and regulating pA site choice in 3’UTRs. PMID:26765774

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Park, Sang Un

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at various chain positions to form a broad spectrum of apocarotenoids, including aromatic substances, pigments and phytohormones. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR method, we isolated three cDNA-encoding CCDs (McCCD1, McCCD4, and McNCED) from Momordica charantia. Amino acid sequence alignments showed that they share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes. Quantitative real-time RT PCR (reverse transcriptase PCR) analysis revealed that the expression of McCCD1 and McCCD4 was highest in flowers, and lowest in roots and old leaves (O-leaves). During fruit maturation, the two genes displayed differential expression, with McCCD1 peaking at mid-stage maturation while McCCD4 showed the lowest expression at that stage. The mRNA expression level of McNCED, a key enzyme involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, was high during fruit maturation and further increased at the beginning of seed germination. When first-leaf stage plants of M. charantia were exposed to dehydration stress, McNCED mRNA expression was induced primarily in the leaves and, to a lesser extend, in roots and stems. McNCED expression was also induced by high temperature and salinity, while treatment with exogenous ABA led to a decrease. These results should be helpful in determining the substrates and cleavage sites catalyzed by CCD genes in M. charantia, and also in defining the roles of CCDs in growth and development, and in the plant's response to environmental stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanism of Intramembrane Cleavage of Alcadeins by γ-Secretase

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Yi; Kimura, Ayano; Urano, Satomi; Saito, Yuhki; Taru, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Tohru; Hata, Saori; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcadein proteins (Alcs; Alcα, Alcβand Alcγ) are predominantly expressed in neurons, as is Alzheimer's β-amyloid (Aβ) precursor protein (APP). Both Alcs and APP are cleaved by primary α- or β-secretase to generate membrane-associated C-terminal fragments (CTFs). Alc CTFs are further cleaved by γ-secretase to secrete p3-Alc peptide along with the release of intracellular domain fragment (Alc ICD) from the membrane. In the case of APP, APP CTFβ is initially cleaved at the ε-site to release the intracellular domain fragment (AICD) and consequently the γ-site is determined, by which Aβ generates. The initial ε-site is thought to define the final γ-site position, which determines whether Aβ40/43 or Aβ42 is generated. However, initial intracellular ε-cleavage sites of Alc CTF to generate Alc ICD and the molecular mechanism that final γ-site position is determined remains unclear in Alcs. Methodology Using HEK293 cells expressing Alcs plus presenilin 1 (PS1, a catalytic unit of γ-secretase) and the membrane fractions of these cells, the generation of p3-Alc possessing C-terminal γ-cleavage site and Alc ICD possessing N-terminal ε-cleavage site were analysed with MALDI-TOF/MS. We determined the initial ε-site position of all Alcα, Alcβ and Alcγ, and analyzed the relationship between the initially determined ε-site position and the final γ-cleavage position. Conclusions The initial ε-site position does not always determine the final γ-cleavage position in Alcs, which differed from APP. No additional γ-cleavage sites are generated from artificial/non-physiological positions of ε-cleavage for Alcs, while the artificial ε-cleavage positions can influence in selection of physiological γ-site positions. Because alteration of γ-secretase activity is thought to be a pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease, Alcs are useful and sensitive substrate to detect the altered cleavage of substrates by γ-secretase, which may be induced by

  9. Cleavage of Poly(A)-Binding Protein by Enterovirus Proteases Concurrent with Inhibition of Translation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Joachims, Michelle; Van Breugel, Pieter C.; Lloyd, Richard E.

    1999-01-01

    Many enteroviruses, members of the family Picornaviridae, cause a rapid and drastic inhibition of host cell protein synthesis during infection, a process referred to as host cell shutoff. Poliovirus, one of the best-studied enteroviruses, causes marked inhibition of host cell translation while preferentially allowing translation of its own genomic mRNA. An abundance of experimental evidence has accumulated to indicate that cleavage of an essential translation initiation factor, eIF4G, during infection is responsible at least in part for this shutoff. However, evidence from inhibitors of viral replication suggests that an additional event is necessary for the complete translational shutoff observed during productive infection. This report examines the effect of poliovirus infection on a recently characterized 3′ end translational stimulatory protein, poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). PABP is involved in stimulating translation initiation in lower eukaryotes by its interaction with the poly(A) tail on mRNAs and has been proposed to facilitate 5′-end–3′-end interactions in the context of the closed-loop translational model. Here, we show that PABP is specifically degraded during poliovirus infection and that it is cleaved in vitro by both poliovirus 2A and 3C proteases and coxsackievirus B3 2A protease. Further, PABP cleavage by 2A protease is accompanied by concurrent loss of translational activity in an in vitro-translation assay. Similar loss of translational activity also occurs simultaneously with partial 3C protease-mediated cleavage of PABP in translation assays. Further, PABP is not degraded during infections in the presence of guanidine-HCl, which blocks the complete development of host translation shutoff. These results provide preliminary evidence that cleavage of PABP may contribute to inhibition of host translation in infected HeLa cells, and they are consistent with the hypothesis that PABP plays a role in facilitating translation initiation in

  10. Cleavage Entropy as Quantitative Measure of Protease Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Julian E.; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Huber, Roland G.; Margreiter, Michael A.; Spitzer, Gudrun M.; Wallnoefer, Hannes G.; Liedl, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    A purely information theory-guided approach to quantitatively characterize protease specificity is established. We calculate an entropy value for each protease subpocket based on sequences of cleaved substrates extracted from the MEROPS database. We compare our results with known subpocket specificity profiles for individual proteases and protease groups (e.g. serine proteases, metallo proteases) and reflect them quantitatively. Summation of subpocket-wise cleavage entropy contributions yields a measure for overall protease substrate specificity. This total cleavage entropy allows ranking of different proteases with respect to their specificity, separating unspecific digestive enzymes showing high total cleavage entropy from specific proteases involved in signaling cascades. The development of a quantitative cleavage entropy score allows an unbiased comparison of subpocket-wise and overall protease specificity. Thus, it enables assessment of relative importance of physicochemical and structural descriptors in protease recognition. We present an exemplary application of cleavage entropy in tracing substrate specificity in protease evolution. This highlights the wide range of substrate promiscuity within homologue proteases and hence the heavy impact of a limited number of mutations on individual substrate specificity. PMID:23637583

  11. Binding and cleavage of nucleic acids by the "hairpin" ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Chowrira, B M; Burke, J M

    1991-09-03

    The "hairpin" ribozyme derived from the minus strand of tobacco ringspot virus satellite RNA [(-)sTRSV] efficiently catalyzes sequence-specific RNA hydrolysis in trans (Feldstein et al., 1989; Hampel & Triz, 1989; Haseloff & Gerlach, 1989). The ribozyme does not cleave DNA. An RNA substrate analogue containing a single deoxyribonucleotide residue 5' to the cleavage site (A-1) binds to the ribozyme efficiently but cannot be cleaved. A DNA substrate analogue with a ribonucleotide at A-1 is cleaved; thus A-1 provides the only 2'-OH required for cleavage. These results support cleavage via a transphosphorylation mechanism initiated by attack of the 2'-OH of A-1 on the scissile phosphodiester. The ribozyme discriminates between DNA and RNA in both binding and cleavage. Results indicate that the 2'-OH of A-1 functions in complex stabilization as well as cleavage. The ribozyme efficiently cleaves a phosphorothioate diester linkage, suggesting that the pro-Rp oxygen at the scissile phosphodiester does not coordinate Mg2+.

  12. Two Antagonistic MALT1 Auto-Cleavage Mechanisms Reveal a Role for TRAF6 to Unleash MALT1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Florian; Lam, Stephen; Freuler, Felix; Gerrits, Bertran; Voshol, Johannes; Calzascia, Thomas; Régnier, Catherine H.; Renatus, Martin; Nikolay, Rainer; Israël, Laura; Bornancin, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 has arginine-directed proteolytic activity triggered by engagement of immune receptors. Recruitment of MALT1 into activation complexes is required for MALT1 proteolytic function. Here, co-expression of MALT1 in HEK293 cells, either with activated CARD11 and BCL10 or with TRAF6, was used to explore the mechanism of MALT1 activation at the molecular level. This work identified a prominent self-cleavage site of MALT1 isoform A (MALT1A) at R781 (R770 in MALT1B) and revealed that TRAF6 can activate MALT1 independently of the CBM. Intramolecular cleavage at R781/R770 removes a C-terminal TRAF6-binding site in both MALT1 isoforms, leaving MALT1B devoid of the two key interaction sites with TRAF6. A previously identified auto-proteolysis site of MALT1 at R149 leads to deletion of the death-domain, thereby abolishing interaction with BCL10. By using MALT1 isoforms and cleaved fragments thereof, as well as TRAF6 WT and mutant forms, this work shows that TRAF6 induces N-terminal auto-proteolytic cleavage of MALT1 at R149 and accelerates MALT1 protein turnover. The MALT1 fragment generated by N-terminal self-cleavage at R149 was labile and displayed enhanced signaling properties that required an intact K644 residue, previously shown to be a site for mono-ubiquitination of MALT1. Conversely, C-terminal self-cleavage at R781/R770 hampered the ability for self-cleavage at R149 and stabilized MALT1 by hindering interaction with TRAF6. C-terminal self-cleavage had limited impact on MALT1A but severely reduced MALT1B proteolytic and signaling functions. It also abrogated NF-κB activation by N-terminally cleaved MALT1A. Altogether, this study provides further insights into mechanisms that regulate the scaffolding and activation cycle of MALT1. It also emphasizes the reduced functional capacity of MALT1B as compared to MALT1A. PMID:28052131

  13. Biomaterials for mRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Reesor, Emma K. G.; Xu, Yingjie; Zope, Harshal R.; Zetter, Bruce R.; Shi, Jinjun

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) has recently emerged with remarkable potential as an effective alternative to DNA-based therapies because of several unique advantages. mRNA does not require nuclear entry for transfection activity and has a negligible chance of integrating into the host genome which excludes the possibility of potentially detrimental genomic alternations. Chemical modification of mRNA has further enhanced its stability and decreased its activation of innate immune responses. Additionally, mRNA has been found to have rapid expression and predictable kinetics. Nevertheless, the ubiquitous application of mRNA remains challenging given its unfavorable attributes, such as large size, negative charge and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Further refinement of mRNA delivery modalities is therefore essential for its development as a therapeutic tool. This review provides an exclusive overview of current state-of-the-art biomaterials and nanotechnology platforms for mRNA delivery, and discusses future prospects to bring these exciting technologies into clinical practice. PMID:26280625

  14. Single-stranded DNA cleavage by divergent CRISPR-Cas9 enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Enbo; Harrington, Lucas B.; O’Connell, Mitchell R.; Zhou, Kaihong; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cleavage by Cas9 is a hallmark of type II CRISPR-Cas immune systems. Cas9–guide RNA complexes recognize 20-base-pair sequences in DNA and generate a site-specific double-strand break, a robust activity harnessed for genome editing. DNA recognition by all studied Cas9 enzymes requires a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) next to the target site. We show that Cas9 enzymes from evolutionarily divergent bacteria can recognize and cleave single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by an RNA-guided, PAM-independent recognition mechanism. Comparative analysis shows that in contrast to the type II-A S. pyogenes Cas9 that is widely used for genome engineering, the smaller type II-C Cas9 proteins have limited dsDNA binding and unwinding activity and promiscuous guide-RNA specificity. These results indicate that inefficiency of type II-C Cas9 enzymes for genome editing results from a limited ability to cleave dsDNA, and suggest that ssDNA cleavage was an ancestral function of the Cas9 enzyme family. PMID:26545076

  15. Poly(A)-tag deep sequencing data processing to extract poly(A) sites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohui; Ji, Guoli; Li, Qingshun Quinn

    2015-01-01

    Polyadenylation [poly(A)] is an essential posttranscriptional processing step in the maturation of eukaryotic mRNA. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has offered feasible means to generate large-scale data and new opportunities for intensive study of polyadenylation, particularly deep sequencing of the transcriptome targeting the junction of 3'-UTR and the poly(A) tail of the transcript. To take advantage of this unprecedented amount of data, we present an automated workflow to identify polyadenylation sites by integrating NGS data cleaning, processing, mapping, normalizing, and clustering. In this pipeline, a series of Perl scripts are seamlessly integrated to iteratively map the single- or paired-end sequences to the reference genome. After mapping, the poly(A) tags (PATs) at the same genome coordinate are grouped into one cleavage site, and the internal priming artifacts removed. Then the ambiguous region is introduced to parse the genome annotation for cleavage site clustering. Finally, cleavage sites within a close range of 24 nucleotides and from different samples can be clustered into poly(A) clusters. This procedure could be used to identify thousands of reliable poly(A) clusters from millions of NGS sequences in different tissues or treatments.

  16. Variable context Markov chains for HIV protease cleavage site prediction.

    PubMed

    Oğul, Hasan

    2009-06-01

    Deciphering the knowledge of HIV protease specificity and developing computational tools for detecting its cleavage sites in protein polypeptide chain are very desirable for designing efficient and specific chemical inhibitors to prevent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In this study, we developed a generative model based on a generalization of variable order Markov chains (VOMC) for peptide sequences and adapted the model for prediction of their cleavability by certain proteases. The new method, called variable context Markov chains (VCMC), attempts to identify the context equivalence based on the evolutionary similarities between individual amino acids. It was applied for HIV-1 protease cleavage site prediction problem and shown to outperform existing methods in terms of prediction accuracy on a common dataset. In general, the method is a promising tool for prediction of cleavage sites of all proteases and encouraged to be used for any kind of peptide classification problem as well.

  17. Ab Initio energetics of SiO bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Hühn, Carolin; Erlebach, Andreas; Mey, Dorothea; Wondraczek, Lothar; Sierka, Marek

    2017-10-15

    A multilevel approach that combines high-level ab initio quantum chemical methods applied to a molecular model of a single, strain-free SiOSi bridge has been used to derive accurate energetics for SiO bond cleavage. The calculated SiO bond dissociation energy and the activation energy for water-assisted SiO bond cleavage of 624 and 163 kJ mol -1 , respectively, are in excellent agreement with values derived recently from experimental data. In addition, the activation energy for H 2 O-assisted SiO bond cleavage is found virtually independent of the amount of water molecules in the vicinity of the reaction site. The estimated reaction energy for this process including zero-point vibrational contribution is in the range of -5 to 19 kJ mol -1 . © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Experimental verification of cleavage characteristic stress vs grain size

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, W.; Li, D.; Yao, M.

    Instead of the accepted cleavage fracture stress [sigma][sub f] proposed by Knott et al, a new parameter S[sub co], named as ''cleavage characteristic stress,'' has been recently recommended to characterize the microscopic resistance to cleavage fracture. To give a definition, S[sub co] is the fracture stress at the brittle/ductile transition temperature of steels in plain tension, below which the yield strength approximately equals the true fracture stress combined with an abrupt curtailment of ductility. By considering a single-grain microcrack arrested at a boundary, Huang and Yao set up an expression of S[sub co] as a function of grain size. Themore » present work was arranged to provide an experimental verification of S[sub co] vs grain size.« less

  19. Stars and Symbiosis: MicroRNA- and MicroRNA*-Mediated Transcript Cleavage Involved in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Devers, Emanuel A.; Branscheid, Anja; May, Patrick; Krajinski, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    The majority of plants are able to form the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in association with AM fungi. During symbiosis development, plant cells undergo a complex reprogramming resulting in profound morphological and physiological changes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important components of the regulatory network of plant cells. To unravel the impact of miRNAs and miRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage on root cell reprogramming during AM symbiosis, we carried out high-throughput (Illumina) sequencing of small RNAs and degradome tags of Medicago truncatula roots. This led to the annotation of 243 novel miRNAs. An increased accumulation of several novel and conserved miRNAs in mycorrhizal roots suggest a role of these miRNAs during AM symbiosis. The degradome analysis led to the identification of 185 root transcripts as mature miRNA and also miRNA*-mediated mRNA cleavage targets. Several of the identified miRNA targets are known to be involved in root symbioses. In summary, the increased accumulation of specific miRNAs and the miRNA-mediated cleavage of symbiosis-relevant genes indicate that miRNAs are an important part of the regulatory network leading to symbiosis development. PMID:21571671

  20. New Insight into the Cleavage Reaction of Nostoc sp. Strain PCC 7120 Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase in Natural and Nonnatural Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jinsol; Kim, Se Hyeuk

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at a specific double bond to generate apocarotenoids. In this study, we investigated the activity and substrate preferences of NSC3, a CCD of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, in vivo and in vitro using natural and nonnatural carotenoid structures. NSC3 cleaved β-apo-8′-carotenal at 3 positions, C-13C-14, C-15C-15′, and C-13′C-14′, revealing a unique cleavage pattern. NSC3 cleaves the natural structure of carotenoids 4,4′-diaponeurosporene, 4,4′-diaponeurosporen-4′-al, 4,4′-diaponeurosporen-4′-oic acid, 4,4′-diapotorulene, and 4,4′-diapotorulen-4′-al to generate novel cleavage products (apo-14′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-13′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-10′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-14′-diapotorulenal, and apo-10′-diapotorulenal, respectively). The study of carotenoids with natural or nonnatural structures produced by using synthetic modules could provide information valuable for understanding the cleavage reactions or substrate preferences of other CCDs in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23524669

  1. A Cellular High-Throughput Screening Approach for Therapeutic trans-Cleaving Ribozymes and RNAi against Arbitrary mRNA Disease Targets

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Edwin H.; Butler, Mark C.; Sullivan, Jack M.

    2016-01-01

    Major bottlenecks in development of therapeutic post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) agents (e.g. ribozymes, RNA interference, antisense) include the challenge of mapping rare accessible regions of the mRNA target that are open for annealing and cleavage, testing and optimization of agents in human cells to identify lead agents, testing for cellular toxicity, and preclinical evaluation in appropriate animal models of disease. Methods for rapid and reliable cellular testing of PTGS agents are needed to identify potent lead candidates for optimization. Our goal was to develop a means of rapid assessment of many RNA agents to identify a lead candidate for a given mRNA associated with a disease state. We developed a rapid human cell-based screening platform to test efficacy of hammerhead ribozyme (hhRz) or RNA interference (RNAi) constructs, using a model retinal degeneration target, human rod opsin (RHO) mRNA. The focus is on RNA Drug Discovery for diverse retinal degeneration targets. To validate the approach, candidate hhRzs were tested against NUH↓ cleavage sites (N=G,C,A,U; H=C,A,U) within the target mRNA of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), a model gene expression reporter, based upon in silico predictions of mRNA accessibility. HhRzs were embedded in a larger stable adenoviral VAI RNA scaffold for high cellular expression, cytoplasmic trafficking, and stability. Most hhRz expression plasmids exerted statistically significant knockdown of extracellular SEAP enzyme activity when readily assayed by a fluorescence enzyme assay intended for high throughput screening (HTS). Kinetics of PTGS knockdown of cellular targets is measureable in live cells with the SEAP reporter. The validated SEAP HTS platform was transposed to identify lead PTGS agents against a model hereditary retinal degeneration target, RHO mRNA. Two approaches were used to physically fuse the model retinal gene target mRNA to the SEAP reporter mRNA. The most expedient way to evaluate a

  2. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    PubMed

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (<1 hr) P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  3. Regulation of cytoplasmic mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Daniel R.; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2012-01-01

    Discoveries made over the past 20 years highlight the importance of mRNA decay as a means to modulate gene expression and thereby protein production. Up until recently, studies focused largely on identifying cis-acting sequences that serve as mRNA stability or instability elements, the proteins that bind these elements, how the process of translation influences mRNA decay, and the ribonucleases that catalyze decay. Now, current studies have begun to elucidate how the decay process is regulated. This review examines our current understanding of how mammalian-cell mRNA decay is controlled by different signaling pathways and lays out a framework for future research. PMID:22392217

  4. mRNA export: threading the needle

    PubMed Central

    Gaouar, Ouassila; Germain, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    After mRNA biogenesis, several proteins interact with the messenger to ensure its proper export to the cytoplasm. Some of these proteins will bind RNA early on, at the onset of transcription by RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, while others will join later for downstream processing steps, such as poly-adenylation or splicing, or may direct mRNA ribonucleoprotein particle migration to the nucleopore. We recently discovered that Arabidopsis plant knockout for the protein MOS11 (MODIFIER OF SNC1, 11) partially suppresses autoimmune responses observed in the TNL-type [TIR/NBS/LRR (Toll-interleukin-like receptor/nucleotide-binding site/C-terminal leucine-rich repeat)] R gene gain-of-function variant snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1). This suppression of resistance to pathogens appears to be caused by a decrease in nuclear mRNA export in mos11-1 snc1 plants. In humans, the putative ortholog of MOS11, CIP29 (29-kDa cytokine-induced protein), interacts with three proteins that are also involved in mRNA export: DDX39 (DEAD-box RNA helicase), TAF15 of the FUS family (FUSED IN SARCOMA), and ALY (ALWAYS EARLY), a protein implicated in mRNA export in mammalian systems. These proteins have received very little attention in plants. Here, we will discuss their particularities and role in mRNA export and biotic stress. PMID:23526740

  5. Cleavage sites within the poliovirus capsid protein precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, G.R.; Anderson, C.W.; Dorner, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Partial amino-terminal sequence analysis was performed on radiolabeled poliovirus capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. A computer-assisted comparison of the amino acid sequences obtained with that predicted by the nucleotide sequence of the poliovirus genome allows assignment of the amino terminus of each capsid protein to a unique position within the virus polyprotein. Sequence analysis of trypsin-digested VP4, which has a blocked amino terminus, demonstrates that VP4 is encoded at or very near to the amino terminus of the polyprotein. The gene order of the capsid proteins is VP4-VP2-VP3-VP1. Cleavage of VP0 to VP4 and VP2 is shown to occurmore » between asparagine and serine, whereas the cleavages that separate VP2/VP3 and VP3/VP1 occur between glutamine and glycine residues. This finding supports the hypothesis that the cleavage of VP0, which occurs during virion morphogenesis, is distinct from the cleavages that separate functional regions of the polyprotein.« less

  6. Oxidative cleavage of diverse ethers by an extracellular fungal peroxygenase

    Treesearch

    Matthias Kinne; Marzena Poraj-Kobielska; Sally A. Ralph; Rene Ullrich; Martin Hofrichter; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2009-01-01

    Many litter-decay fungi secrete heme-thiolate peroxygenases that oxidize various organic chemicals, but little is known about the role or mechanism of these enzymes. We found that the extracellular peroxygenase of Agrocybe aegerita catalyzed the H2O2-dependent cleavage of environmentally significant...

  7. Modeling Radial Holoblastic Cleavage: A Laboratory Activity for Developmental Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a laboratory activity designed for an undergraduate developmental biology course. Uses Play-Doh (plastic modeling clay) to build a multicellular embryo in order to provide a 3-D demonstration of cleavage. Includes notes for the instructor and student directions. (YDS)

  8. Kinetics of acid-catalyzed cleavage of procyanindins

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; Gerald W. McGraw

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of the rates of cleavage of isomeric procyanidin dimers in the presence of excess phenylmethane thiol and acetic acid showed that compounds with a C(4)-C(8) interflavanoid bond were cleaved more rapidly than their C(4)-C(6) linked isomers, that 2,3-cis isomers with an axial flavan substituent were cleaved more-rapidly than a 2,3-...

  9. PNPase autocontrols its expression by degrading a double-stranded structure in the pnp mRNA leader

    PubMed Central

    Jarrige, Anne-Charlotte; Mathy, Nathalie; Portier, Claude

    2001-01-01

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase synthesis is autocontrolled at a post-transcriptional level in an RNase III-dependent mechanism. RNase III cleaves a long stem–loop in the pnp leader, which triggers pnp mRNA instability, resulting in a decrease in the synthesis of polynucleotide phosphorylase. The staggered cleavage by RNase III removes the upper part of the stem–loop structure, creating a duplex with a short 3′ extension. Mutations or high temperatures, which destabilize the cleaved stem–loop, decrease expression of pnp, while mutations that stabilize the stem increase expression. We propose that the dangling 3′ end of the duplex created by RNase III constitutes a target for polynucleotide phosphorylase, which binds to and degrades the upstream half of this duplex, hence inducing pnp mRNA instability. Consistent with this interpretation, a pnp mRNA starting at the downstream RNase III processing site exhibits a very low level of expression, regardless of the presence of polynucleotide phosphorylase. Moreover, using an in vitro synthesized pnp leader transcript, it is shown that polynucleotide phosphorylase is able to digest the duplex formed after RNase III cleavage. PMID:11726520

  10. Viperin mRNA is a novel target for the human RNase MRP/RNase P endoribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Mattijssen, Sandy; Hinson, Ella R; Onnekink, Carla; Hermanns, Pia; Zabel, Bernhard; Cresswell, Peter; Pruijn, Ger J M

    2011-07-01

    RNase MRP is a conserved endoribonuclease, in humans consisting of a 267-nucleotide RNA associated with 7-10 proteins. Mutations in its RNA component lead to several autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasias, including cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH). Because the known substrates of mammalian RNase MRP, pre-ribosomal RNA, and RNA involved in mitochondrial DNA replication are not likely involved in CHH, we analyzed the effects of RNase MRP (and the structurally related RNase P) depletion on mRNAs using DNA microarrays. We confirmed the upregulation of the interferon-inducible viperin mRNA by RNAi experiments and this appeared to be independent of the interferon response. We detected two cleavage sites for RNase MRP/RNase P in the coding sequence of viperin mRNA. This is the first study providing direct evidence for the cleavage of a mRNA by RNase MRP/RNase P in human cells. Implications for the involvement in the pathophysiology of CHH are discussed.

  11. An effective system for detecting protein-protein interaction based on in vivo cleavage by PPV NIa protease.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nuoyan; Huang, Xiahe; Yin, Bojiao; Wang, Dan; Xie, Qi

    2012-12-01

    Detection of protein-protein interaction can provide valuable information for investigating the biological function of proteins. The current methods that applied in protein-protein interaction, such as co-immunoprecipitation and pull down etc., often cause plenty of working time due to the burdensome cloning and purification procedures. Here we established a system that characterization of protein-protein interaction was accomplished by co-expression and simply purification of target proteins from one expression cassette within E. coli system. We modified pET vector into co-expression vector pInvivo which encoded PPV NIa protease, two cleavage site F and two multiple cloning sites that flanking cleavage sites. The target proteins (for example: protein A and protein B) were inserted at multiple cloning sites and translated into polyprotein in the order of MBP tag-protein A-site F-PPV NIa protease-site F-protein B-His(6) tag. PPV NIa protease carried out intracellular cleavage along expression, then led to the separation of polyprotein components, therefore, the interaction between protein A-protein B can be detected through one-step purification and analysis. Negative control for protein B was brought into this system for monitoring interaction specificity. We successfully employed this system to prove two cases of reported protien-protein interaction: RHA2a/ANAC and FTA/FTB. In conclusion, a convenient and efficient system has been successfully developed for detecting protein-protein interaction.

  12. Flanking signal and mature peptide residues influence signal peptide cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Khar Heng; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2008-01-01

    Background Signal peptides (SPs) mediate the targeting of secretory precursor proteins to the correct subcellular compartments in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Identifying these transient peptides is crucial to the medical, food and beverage and biotechnology industries yet our understanding of these peptides remains limited. This paper examines the most common type of signal peptides cleavable by the endoprotease signal peptidase I (SPase I), and the residues flanking the cleavage sites of three groups of signal peptide sequences, namely (i) eukaryotes (Euk) (ii) Gram-positive (Gram+) bacteria, and (iii) Gram-negative (Gram-) bacteria. Results In this study, 2352 secretory peptide sequences from a variety of organisms with amino-terminal SPs are extracted from the manually curated SPdb database for analysis based on physicochemical properties such as pI, aliphatic index, GRAVY score, hydrophobicity, net charge and position-specific residue preferences. Our findings show that the three groups share several similarities in general, but they display distinctive features upon examination in terms of their amino acid compositions and frequencies, and various physico-chemical properties. Thus, analysis or prediction of their sequences should be separated and treated as distinct groups. Conclusion We conclude that the peptide segment recognized by SPase I extends to the start of the mature protein to a limited extent, upon our survey of the amino acid residues surrounding the cleavage processing site. These flanking residues possibly influence the cleavage processing and contribute to non-canonical cleavage sites. Our findings are applicable in defining more accurate prediction tools for recognition and identification of cleavage site of SPs. PMID:19091014

  13. Alternative Polyadenylation and Nonsense-Mediated Decay Coordinately Regulate the Human HFE mRNA Levels

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Rute; Proença, Daniela; Silva, Bruno; Barbosa, Cristina; Silva, Ana Luísa; Faustino, Paula; Romão, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is an mRNA surveillance pathway that selectively recognizes and degrades defective mRNAs carrying premature translation-termination codons. However, several studies have shown that NMD also targets physiological transcripts that encode full-length proteins, modulating their expression. Indeed, some features of physiological mRNAs can render them NMD-sensitive. Human HFE is a MHC class I protein mainly expressed in the liver that, when mutated, can cause hereditary hemochromatosis, a common genetic disorder of iron metabolism. The HFE gene structure comprises seven exons; although the sixth exon is 1056 base pairs (bp) long, only the first 41 bp encode for amino acids. Thus, the remaining downstream 1015 bp sequence corresponds to the HFE 3′ untranslated region (UTR), along with exon seven. Therefore, this 3′ UTR encompasses an exon/exon junction, a feature that can make the corresponding physiological transcript NMD-sensitive. Here, we demonstrate that in UPF1-depleted or in cycloheximide-treated HeLa and HepG2 cells the HFE transcripts are clearly upregulated, meaning that the physiological HFE mRNA is in fact an NMD-target. This role of NMD in controlling the HFE expression levels was further confirmed in HeLa cells transiently expressing the HFE human gene. Besides, we show, by 3′-RACE analysis in several human tissues that HFE mRNA expression results from alternative cleavage and polyadenylation at four different sites – two were previously described and two are novel polyadenylation sites: one located at exon six, which confers NMD-resistance to the corresponding transcripts, and another located at exon seven. In addition, we show that the amount of HFE mRNA isoforms resulting from cleavage and polyadenylation at exon seven, although present in both cell lines, is higher in HepG2 cells. These results reveal that NMD and alternative polyadenylation may act coordinately to control HFE mRNA levels, possibly varying its

  14. Nuclease footprint analyses of the interactions between RNase P ribozyme and a model mRNA substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Trang, P; Hsu, A W; Liu, F

    1999-01-01

    RNase P ribozyme cleaves an RNA helix substrate which resembles the acceptor stem and T-stem structures of its natural tRNA substrate. By linking the ribozyme covalently to a sequence (guide sequence) complementary to a target RNA, the catalytic RNA can be converted into a sequence-specific ribozyme, M1GS RNA. We have previously shown that M1GS RNA can efficiently cleave the mRNA sequence encoding thymidine kinase (TK) of herpes simplex virus 1. In this study, a footprint procedure using different nucleases was carried out to map the regions of a M1GS ribozyme that potentially interact with the TK mRNA substrate. The ribozyme regions that are protected from nuclease degradation in the presence of the TK mRNA substrate include those that interact with the acceptor stem and T-stem, the 3' terminal CCA sequence and the cleavage site of a tRNA substrate. However, some of the protected regions (e.g. P13 and P14) are unique and not among those protected in the presence of a tRNA substrate. Identification of the regions that interact with a mRNA substrate will allow us to study how M1GS RNA recognizes a mRNA substrate and facilitate the development of mRNA-cleaving ribozymes for gene-targeting applications. PMID:10556315

  15. Sequences within the 5' untranslated region regulate the levels of a kinetoplast DNA topoisomerase mRNA during the cell cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Pasion, S G; Hines, J C; Ou, X; Mahmood, R; Ray, D S

    1996-01-01

    Gene expression in trypanosomatids appears to be regulated largely at the posttranscriptional level and involves maturation of mRNA precursors by trans splicing of a 39-nucleotide miniexon sequence to the 5' end of the mRNA and cleavage and polyadenylation at the 3' end of the mRNA. To initiate the identification of sequences involved in the periodic expression of DNA replication genes in trypanosomatids, we have mapped splice acceptor sites in the 5' flanking region of the TOP2 gene, which encodes the kinetoplast DNA topoisomerase, and have carried out deletion analysis of this region on a plasmid-encoded TOP2 gene. Block deletions within the 5' untranslated region (UTR) identified two regions (-608 to -388 and -387 to -186) responsible for periodic accumulation of the mRNA. Deletion of one or the other of these sequences had no effect on periodic expression of the mRNA, while deletion of both regions resulted in constitutive expression of the mRNA throughout the cell cycle. Subcloning of these sequences into the 5' UTR of a construct lacking both regions of the TOP2 5' UTR has shown that an octamer consensus sequence present in the 5' UTR of the TOP2, RPA1, and DHFR-TS mRNAs is required for normal cycling of the TOP2 mRNA. Mutation of the consensus octamer sequence in the TOP2 5' UTR in a plasmid construct containing only a single consensus octamer and that shows normal cycling of the plasmid-encoded TOP2 mRNA resulted in substantial reduction of the cycling of the mRNA level. These results imply a negative regulation of TOP2 mRNA during the cell cycle by a mechanism involving redundant elements containing one or more copies of a conserved octamer sequence within the 5' UTR of TOP2 mRNA. PMID:8943327

  16. Sequences within the 5' untranslated region regulate the levels of a kinetoplast DNA topoisomerase mRNA during the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Pasion, S G; Hines, J C; Ou, X; Mahmood, R; Ray, D S

    1996-12-01

    Gene expression in trypanosomatids appears to be regulated largely at the posttranscriptional level and involves maturation of mRNA precursors by trans splicing of a 39-nucleotide miniexon sequence to the 5' end of the mRNA and cleavage and polyadenylation at the 3' end of the mRNA. To initiate the identification of sequences involved in the periodic expression of DNA replication genes in trypanosomatids, we have mapped splice acceptor sites in the 5' flanking region of the TOP2 gene, which encodes the kinetoplast DNA topoisomerase, and have carried out deletion analysis of this region on a plasmid-encoded TOP2 gene. Block deletions within the 5' untranslated region (UTR) identified two regions (-608 to -388 and -387 to -186) responsible for periodic accumulation of the mRNA. Deletion of one or the other of these sequences had no effect on periodic expression of the mRNA, while deletion of both regions resulted in constitutive expression of the mRNA throughout the cell cycle. Subcloning of these sequences into the 5' UTR of a construct lacking both regions of the TOP2 5' UTR has shown that an octamer consensus sequence present in the 5' UTR of the TOP2, RPA1, and DHFR-TS mRNAs is required for normal cycling of the TOP2 mRNA. Mutation of the consensus octamer sequence in the TOP2 5' UTR in a plasmid construct containing only a single consensus octamer and that shows normal cycling of the plasmid-encoded TOP2 mRNA resulted in substantial reduction of the cycling of the mRNA level. These results imply a negative regulation of TOP2 mRNA during the cell cycle by a mechanism involving redundant elements containing one or more copies of a conserved octamer sequence within the 5' UTR of TOP2 mRNA.

  17. Interactions between the HIV-1 Unspliced mRNA and Host mRNA Decay Machineries

    PubMed Central

    Toro-Ascuy, Daniela; Rojas-Araya, Bárbara; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) unspliced transcript is used both as mRNA for the synthesis of structural proteins and as the packaged genome. Given the presence of retained introns and instability AU-rich sequences, this viral transcript is normally retained and degraded in the nucleus of host cells unless the viral protein REV is present. As such, the stability of the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA must be particularly controlled in the nucleus and the cytoplasm in order to ensure proper levels of this viral mRNA for translation and viral particle formation. During its journey, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA assembles into highly specific messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) containing many different host proteins, amongst which are well-known regulators of cytoplasmic mRNA decay pathways such as up-frameshift suppressor 1 homolog (UPF1), Staufen double-stranded RNA binding protein 1/2 (STAU1/2), or components of miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) and processing bodies (PBs). More recently, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA was shown to contain N6-methyladenosine (m6A), allowing the recruitment of YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 (YTHDF2), an m6A reader host protein involved in mRNA decay. Interestingly, these host proteins involved in mRNA decay were shown to play positive roles in viral gene expression and viral particle assembly, suggesting that HIV-1 interacts with mRNA decay components to successfully accomplish viral replication. This review summarizes the state of the art in terms of the interactions between HIV-1 unspliced mRNA and components of different host mRNA decay machineries. PMID:27886048

  18. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Subcellular RNA profiling links splicing and nuclear DICER1 to alternative cleavage and polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Neve, Jonathan; Burger, Kaspar; Li, Wencheng; Hoque, Mainul; Patel, Radhika; Tian, Bin; Gullerova, Monika; Furger, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression across eukaryotes. Although APA is extensively studied, its regulation within cellular compartments and its physiological impact remains largely enigmatic. Here, we used a rigorous subcellular fractionation approach to compare APA profiles of cytoplasmic and nuclear RNA fractions from human cell lines. This approach allowed us to extract APA isoforms that are subjected to differential regulation and provided us with a platform to interrogate the molecular regulatory pathways that shape APA profiles in different subcellular locations. Here, we show that APA isoforms with shorter 3′ UTRs tend to be overrepresented in the cytoplasm and appear to be cell-type–specific events. Nuclear retention of longer APA isoforms occurs and is partly a result of incomplete splicing contributing to the observed cytoplasmic bias of transcripts with shorter 3′ UTRs. We demonstrate that the endoribonuclease III, DICER1, contributes to the establishment of subcellular APA profiles not only by expected cytoplasmic miRNA-mediated destabilization of APA mRNA isoforms, but also by affecting polyadenylation site choice. PMID:26546131

  20. The fractography-modeling link in cleavage fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.W.

    1997-12-31

    Cleavage fracture has historically been modelled, out of necessity, in rather idealized terms. In real materials, however, there are a number of difficulties in linking such models with metallographic and fractographic observations. Some of the most vivid examples occur for {alpha}{sub 2} titanium aluminide alloys, in which, when the microstructure contains primary {alpha}{sub 2} particles, the primary particles crack first. When basketweave or Widmanstaetten structures of {alpha}{sub 2} laths comprise the microstructure, it appears that individual laths crack first. And in colony structures, cracking occurs first across the {alpha}{sub 2} lath colonies. Both detailed fractographic observations, and also a statisticalmore » model for brittle fracture by failure of weakest links, have been developed. The extent to which this can be interpreted in classical cleavage terms will be discussed.« less

  1. Development and application of bond cleavage reactions in bioorthogonal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chen, Peng R

    2016-03-01

    Bioorthogonal chemical reactions are a thriving area of chemical research in recent years as an unprecedented technique to dissect native biological processes through chemistry-enabled strategies. However, current concepts of bioorthogonal chemistry have largely centered on 'bond formation' reactions between two mutually reactive bioorthogonal handles. Recently, in a reverse strategy, a collection of 'bond cleavage' reactions has emerged with excellent biocompatibility. These reactions have expanded our bioorthogonal chemistry repertoire, enabling an array of exciting new biological applications that range from the chemically controlled spatial and temporal activation of intracellular proteins and small-molecule drugs to the direct manipulation of intact cells under physiological conditions. Here we highlight the development and applications of these bioorthogonal cleavage reactions. Furthermore, we lay out challenges and propose future directions along this appealing avenue of research.

  2. Polycystin-1 Cleavage and the Regulation of Transcriptional Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Merrick, David; Bertuccio, Claudia A.; Chapin, Hannah C.; Lal, Mark; Chauvet, Veronique; Caplan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic cause of end stage renal disease, affecting ~1 in 1,000 people. The disease is characterized by the development of numerous large fluid filled renal cysts over the course of decades. These cysts compress the surrounding renal parenchyma and impair its function. Mutations in two genes are responsible for ADPKD. The protein products of both of these genes, polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, localize to the primary cilium and participate in a wide variety of signaling pathways. Polycystin-1 undergoes several proteolytic cleavages that produce fragments that manifest biological activities. Recent results suggest that the production of polycystin-1 cleavage fragments is necessary and sufficient to account for at least some, although certainly not all, of the physiological functions of the parent protein. PMID:23824180

  3. Sequence-dependent DNA flexibility mediates DNase I cleavage.

    PubMed

    Heddi, Brahim; Abi-Ghanem, Josephine; Lavigne, Marc; Hartmann, Brigitte

    2010-01-08

    Understanding the preference of nonspecific proteins for certain DNA structural features requires an accurate description of the properties of free DNA, especially regarding their possible predisposition to adopt a conformation that favors the formation of a complex. Exploiting previous exhaustive NMR studies performed on free DNA oligomers, we investigated the molecular basis of DNase I sensitivity under conditions where DNase I binding limits the probability of cleavage. We showed that cleavage intensity was correlated with adjacent 3' phosphate linkage flexibility, monitored by (31)P chemical shifts. Examining NMR-refined DNA structures highlighted that sequence-dependent flexible phosphates were associated with large minor groove variations that may promote the affinity of DNase I, according to relevant DNA-protein complexes. In sum, this work demonstrates that specificity in DNA-DNase I interaction is mediated by DNA flexibility, which influences the induced-fit transitions required to form productive complexes.

  4. Stille coupling via C-N bond cleavage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Yu; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yang, Ze-Kun; Miyamoto, Kazunori; Komagawa, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Wang, Chao; Uchiyama, Masanobu

    2016-09-01

    Cross-coupling is a fundamental reaction in the synthesis of functional molecules, and has been widely applied, for example, to phenols, anilines, alcohols, amines and their derivatives. Here we report the Ni-catalysed Stille cross-coupling reaction of quaternary ammonium salts via C-N bond cleavage. Aryl/alkyl-trimethylammonium salts [Ar/R-NMe3]+ react smoothly with arylstannanes in 1:1 molar ratio in the presence of a catalytic amount of commercially available Ni(cod)2 and imidazole ligand together with 3.0 equivalents of CsF, affording the corresponding biaryl with broad functional group compatibility. The reaction pathway, including C-N bond cleavage step, is proposed based on the experimental and computational findings, as well as isolation and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of Ni-containing intermediates. This reaction should be widely applicable for transformation of amines/quaternary ammonium salts into multi-aromatics.

  5. Possible involvement of inefficient cleavage of preprovasopressin by signal peptidase as a cause for familial central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, M; Oiso, Y; Murase, T; Kondo, K; Saito, H; Chinzei, T; Racchi, M; Lively, M O

    1993-01-01

    A transition of G to A at nucleotide position 279 in exon 1 of the vasopressin gene has been identified in patients with familial central diabetes insipidus. The mutation predicts an amino acid substitution of Thr (ACG) for Ala (GCG) at the COOH terminus of the signal peptide in preprovasopression (preproVP). Translation in vitro of wild-type and mutant mRNAs produced 19-kD preproVPs. When translated in the presence of canine pancreatic rough microsomes, wild-type preproVP was converted to a 21-kD protein, whereas the mutant mRNA produced proteins of 21 kD and 23 kD. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the 21-kD proteins from the wild-type and the mutants were proVPs generated by the proteolytic cleavage of the 19-residue signal peptide and the addition of carbohydrate. Accordingly, mutant preproVP was cleaved at the correct site after Thr-19, but the efficiency of cleavage by signal peptidase was < 25% that observed for the wild-type preproVP, resulting in the formation of a predominant glycosylated but uncleaved 23-kD product. These data suggest that inefficient processing of preproVP produced by the mutant allele is possibly involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes insipidus in the affected individuals. Images PMID:8514868

  6. Glutamic Acid Selective Chemical Cleavage of Peptide Bonds.

    PubMed

    Nalbone, Joseph M; Lahankar, Neelam; Buissereth, Lyssa; Raj, Monika

    2016-03-04

    Site-specific hydrolysis of peptide bonds at glutamic acid under neutral aqueous conditions is reported. The method relies on the activation of the backbone amide chain at glutamic acid by the formation of a pyroglutamyl (pGlu) imide moiety. This activation increases the susceptibility of a peptide bond toward hydrolysis. The method is highly specific and demonstrates broad substrate scope including cleavage of various bioactive peptides with unnatural amino acid residues, which are unsuitable substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis.

  7. Enterovirus 71 Inhibits Pyroptosis through Cleavage of Gasdermin D

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Xiao, Xia; Qi, Jianli

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in young children. Severe infection with EV71 can lead to neurological complications and even death. However, the molecular basis of viral pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Here, we report that EV71 induces degradation of gasdermin D (GSDMD), an essential component of pyroptosis. Remarkably, the viral protease 3C directly targets GSDMD and induces its cleavage, which is dependent on the protease activity. Further analyses show that the Q193-G194 pair within GSDMD is the cleavage site of 3C. This cleavage produces a shorter N-terminal fragment spanning amino acids 1 to 193 (GSDMD1–193). However, unlike the N-terminal fragment produced by caspase-1 cleavage, this fragment fails to trigger cell death or inhibit EV71 replication. Importantly, a T239D or F240D substitution abrogates the activity of GSDMD consisting of amino acids 1 to 275 (GSDMD1–275). This is correlated with the lack of pyroptosis or inhibition of viral replication. These results reveal a previously unrecognized strategy for EV71 to evade the antiviral response. IMPORTANCE Recently, it has been reported that GSDMD plays a critical role in regulating lipopolysaccharide and NLRP3-mediated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion. In this process, the N-terminal domain of p30 released from GSDMD acts as an effector in cell pyroptosis. We show that EV71 infection downregulates GSDMD. EV71 3C cleaves GSDMD at the Q193-G194 pair, resulting in a truncated N-terminal fragment disrupted for inducing cell pyroptosis. Notably, GSDMD1–275 (p30) inhibits EV71 replication whereas GSDMD1–193 does not. These results reveal a new strategy for EV71 to evade the antiviral response. PMID:28679757

  8. Enterovirus 71 Inhibits Pyroptosis through Cleavage of Gasdermin D.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Xiao, Xia; Qi, Jianli; He, Bin; Wang, Jianwei

    2017-09-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in young children. Severe infection with EV71 can lead to neurological complications and even death. However, the molecular basis of viral pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Here, we report that EV71 induces degradation of gasdermin D (GSDMD), an essential component of pyroptosis. Remarkably, the viral protease 3C directly targets GSDMD and induces its cleavage, which is dependent on the protease activity. Further analyses show that the Q193-G194 pair within GSDMD is the cleavage site of 3C. This cleavage produces a shorter N-terminal fragment spanning amino acids 1 to 193 (GSDMD 1-193 ). However, unlike the N-terminal fragment produced by caspase-1 cleavage, this fragment fails to trigger cell death or inhibit EV71 replication. Importantly, a T239D or F240D substitution abrogates the activity of GSDMD consisting of amino acids 1 to 275 (GSDMD 1-275 ). This is correlated with the lack of pyroptosis or inhibition of viral replication. These results reveal a previously unrecognized strategy for EV71 to evade the antiviral response. IMPORTANCE Recently, it has been reported that GSDMD plays a critical role in regulating lipopolysaccharide and NLRP3-mediated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion. In this process, the N-terminal domain of p30 released from GSDMD acts as an effector in cell pyroptosis. We show that EV71 infection downregulates GSDMD. EV71 3C cleaves GSDMD at the Q193-G194 pair, resulting in a truncated N-terminal fragment disrupted for inducing cell pyroptosis. Notably, GSDMD 1-275 (p30) inhibits EV71 replication whereas GSDMD 1-193 does not. These results reveal a new strategy for EV71 to evade the antiviral response. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Domainal cleavage as an Anisotropic Reaction-diffusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulchrone, Kieran; Meere, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Domainal cleavage comprises zones dominated by quartz and feldspar (QF-domains) and zones dominated by Mica (M-domains) which form at low metamorphic grades. The protolith is typically fairly homogeneous mudstone, siltstone, sandstone or limestone. Wet diffusion or pressure solution along grain boundaries is a key mechanism in the development of domanial cleavage. However, this does not explain why M-domains become sub-regularly spaced, visually evident in coarser-grained rocks, and take on an anastomising morphology. The ratio of M to QF-domains by volume can range from 1 to 0.1 and lower i.e. in extreme cases M-domains are intermittent but regularly spaced. It is suggested here that an anisotropic reaction-diffusion process model can explain these features. The imposed stress field instantaneously leads to anisotropy of diffusion by narrowing intergranular channels perpendicular to the principal stress. This leads to a preferred diffusion of chemicals parallel to the principal stress direction and lower diffusion rates in the normal direction. Combining this with the chemical reaction of pressure solution produces an anisotropic reaction-diffusion system. Both isotropic and anistropic reaction diffusion systems lead to pattern formation as discovered by Alan Turing on the 1950's as an explanation for patterns found in animal skins such as spots and stripes. Thus domanial cleavage is a striped pattern induced by diffusion anisotropy combined with a chemical reaction. Furthermore, rates of chemical reaction in intergranular fluids is likely to be many orders of magnitude greater that rates of deformation. Therefore we expect domanial cleavage to form relatively rapidly. As deformation progresses the M-domains behave less competently and may be the site of enhanced shearing. An example from Co. Cork, Ireland demonstrates shear folding in low-grade metasedimentary rocks with reverse shear along M-domains at a high angle to the maximum compressive stress.

  10. Demethylation and cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate in marine intertidal sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Visscher, P.T.; Kiene, R.P.; Taylor, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    Demethylation and cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) was measured in three different types of,intertidal marine sediments: a cyanobacterial mat, a diatom-covered tidal flat and a carbonate sediment. Consumption rates of added DMSP were highest in cyanobacterial mat slurries (59 ?? mol DMSP l-1 slurry h-1) and lower in slurries from a diatom mat and a carbonate tidal sediment (24 and 9 ??mol DMSP l-1 h-1, respectively). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and 3-mercaptopropionate (MPA) were produced simultaneously during DMSP consumption, indicating that cleavage and demethylation occurred at the same time. Viable counts of DMSP-utilizing bacteria revealed a population of 2 x 107 cells cm-3 sediment (90% of these cleaved DMSP to DMS, 10% demethylated DMSP to MPA) in the cyanobacterial mat, 7 x 105 cells cm-3 in the diatom mat (23% cleavers, 77% demethylators), and 9 x 104 cells cm-3 (20% cleavers and 80% demethylators) in the carbonate sediment. In slurries of the diatom mat, the rate of MPA production from added 3-methiolpropionate (MMPA) was 50% of the rate of MPA formation from DMSP. The presence of a large population of demethylating bacteria and the production of MPA from DMSP suggest that the demethylation pathway, in addition to cleavage, contributes significantly to DMSP consumption in coastal sediments.

  11. Kinetic Control in the Cleavage of Unsymmetrical Disilanes.

    PubMed

    Hevesi, Làszlò; Dehon, Michael; Crutzen, Raphael; Lazarescu-Grigore, Adriana

    1997-04-04

    A series of 12 phenyl-substituted arylpentamethyldisilanes 1a-l have been synthesized in order to examine the regioselectivity of their nucleophilic Si,Si bond cleavage reactions under Still's conditions (MeLi/HMPA/0 degrees C). It has been found that the sensitivity of these reactions to the electronic effects of the substituents in the phenyl ring could be described by the Hammett-type equation log(k(A)/k(B)) = 0.4334 + 2.421(Sigmasigma); (correlation coefficient R = 0.983). The k(A)/k(B) ratio represents the relative rate of attack at silicon atom A (linked to the aryl ring) or at silicon atom B (away from the aryl ring) of the unsymmetrical disilanes. Thus, the present investigation shows that the earlier belief according to which the nucleophilic cleavage of unsymmetrical disilanes always produces the more stable silyl anionic species (thermodynamic control) should be abandoned, or at least seriously amended: kinetic factors appear to exert a primary influence on the regioselectivity of such reactions. Since the two major kinetic factors (i.e., electrophilic character of and steric hindrance at a given silicon atom) have opposite effects on the orientation of the reaction, it may happen that kinetic and thermodynamic control lead to the same result. For some of the unsymmetrical disilanes studied, the major reaction path was not the Si,Si bond cleavage; instead, Si-aryl bond breaking occurred, producing the corresponding aryl anions.

  12. Embryonic Cleavage Cycles: How Is a Mouse Like a Fly?

    PubMed Central

    O’Farrell, Patrick H.; Stumpff, Jason; Su, Tin Tin

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionary advent of uterine support of embryonic growth in mammals is relatively recent. Nonetheless, striking differences in the earliest steps of embryogenesis make it difficult to draw parallels even with other chordates. We suggest that use of fertilization as a reference point misaligns the earliest stages and masks parallels that are evident when development is aligned at conserved stages surrounding gastrulation. In externally deposited eggs from representatives of all the major phyla, gastrulation is preceded by specialized extremely rapid cleavage cell cycles. Mammals also exhibit remarkably fast cell cycles in close association with gastrulation, but instead of beginning development with these rapid cycles, the mammalian egg first devotes itself to the production of extraembryonic structures. Previous attempts to identify common features of cleavage cycles focused on post-fertilization divisions of the mammalian egg. We propose that comparison to the rapid peri-gastrulation cycles is more appropriate and suggest that these cycles are related by evolutionary descent to the early cleavage stages of embryos such as those of frog and fly. The deferral of events in mammalian embryogenesis might be due to an evolutionary shift in the timing of fertilization. PMID:14711435

  13. Cathepsins limit macrophage necroptosis through cleavage of Rip1 kinase.

    PubMed

    McComb, Scott; Shutinoski, Bojan; Thurston, Susan; Cessford, Erin; Kumar, Kriti; Sad, Subash

    2014-06-15

    It has recently been shown that programmed necrosis, necroptosis, may play a key role in the development of inflammation. Deciphering the regulation of this pathway within immune cells may therefore have implications in pathology associated with inflammatory diseases. We show that treatment of macrophages with the pan caspase inhibitor (zVAD-FMK) results in both increased phosphorylation and decreased cleavage of receptor interacting protein kinase-1 (Rip1), leading to necroptosis that is dependent on autocrine TNF signaling. Stimulation of cells with TLR agonists such as LPS in the presence of zVAD-FMK also induced Rip1-phosphorylation via a TNFR-independent mechanism. Further examination of Rip1 expression under these stimulatory conditions revealed a regulatory cleavage of Rip1 in macrophages that is not apparently attributable to caspase-8. Instead, we provide novel evidence that cysteine family cathepsins, which are highly abundant in myeloid cells, can also cleave Rip1 kinase. Using small interfering RNA knockdown, specific cathepsin inhibitors, and cell-free cleavage assays, we demonstrate that cysteine cathepsins B and S can directly cleave Rip1. Finally, we demonstrate that only through combined inhibition of cathepsins and caspase-8 could a potent induction of macrophage necroptosis be achieved. These data reveal a novel mechanism of regulation of necroptosis by cathepsins within macrophage cells. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. N-CADHERIN PRODOMAIN CLEAVAGE REGULATES SYNAPSE FORMATION IN VIVO

    PubMed Central

    Latefi, Nazlie S.; Pedraza, Liliana; Schohl, Anne; Li, Ziwei; Ruthazer, Edward S.

    2009-01-01

    Cadherins are initially synthesized bearing a prodomain that is thought to limit adhesion during early stages of biosynthesis. Functional cadherins lack this prodomain, raising the intriguing possibility that cells may utilize prodomain cleavage as a means to temporally or spatially regulate adhesion after delivery of cadherin to the cell surface. In support of this idea, immunostaining for the prodomain of zebrafish N-cadherin revealed enriched labeling at neuronal surfaces at the soma and along axonal processes. To determine whether post-translational cleavage of the prodomain affects synapse formation, we imaged Rohon-Beard cells in zebrafish embryos expressing GFP-tagged wild-type N-cadherin (NCAD-GFP) or a GFP-tagged N-cadherin mutant expressing an uncleavable prodomain (PRON-GFP) rendering it non-adhesive. NCAD-GFP accumulated at synaptic microdomains in a developmentally regulated manner, and its overexpression transiently accelerated synapse formation. PRON-GFP was much more diffusely distributed along the axon and its overexpression delayed synapse formation. Our results support the notion that N-cadherin serves to stabilize pre- to postsynaptic contacts early in synapse development and suggests that regulated cleavage of the N-cadherin prodomain may be a mechanism by which the kinetics of synaptogenesis are regulated. PMID:19365814

  15. Sensitivity of mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    Poker, Gilad; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    Using the dynamic mean-field approximation of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), we investigate the effect of small changes in the initiation, elongation, and termination rates along the mRNA strand on the steady-state protein translation rate. We show that the sensitivity of mRNA translation is equal to the sensitivity of the maximal eigenvalue of a symmetric, nonnegative, tridiagonal, and irreducible matrix. This leads to new analytical results as well as efficient numerical schemes that are applicable for large-scale models. Our results show that in the usual endogenous case, when initiation is more rate-limiting than elongation, the sensitivity of the translation rate to small mutations rapidly increases towards the 5′ end of the ORF. When the initiation rate is high, as may be the case for highly expressed and/or heterologous optimized genes, the maximal sensitivity is with respect to the elongation rates at the middle of the mRNA strand. We also show that the maximal possible effect of a small increase/decrease in any of the rates along the mRNA is an increase/decrease of the same magnitude in the translation rate. These results are in agreement with previous molecular evolutionary and synthetic biology experimental studies. PMID:26238363

  16. Architecture of eukaryotic mRNA 3′-end processing machinery

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Chris H.; Easter, Ashley D.; Emsley, Paul; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Gordiyenko, Yuliya; Santhanam, Balaji; Wolf, Jana; Wiederhold, Katrin; Dornan, Gillian L.; Skehel, Mark; Robinson, Carol V.; Passmore, Lori A.

    2018-01-01

    Newly transcribed eukaryotic precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs) are processed at their 3′ ends by the ~1-megadalton multiprotein cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPF). CPF cleaves pre-mRNAs, adds a polyadenylate tail, and triggers transcription termination, but it is unclear how its various enzymes are coordinated and assembled. Here, we show that the nuclease, polymerase, and phosphatase activities of yeast CPF are organized into three modules. Using electron cryomicroscopy, we determined a 3.5-angstrom-resolution structure of the ~200-kilodalton polymerase module. This revealed four β propellers, in an assembly markedly similar to those of other protein complexes that bind nucleic acid. Combined with in vitro reconstitution experiments, our data show that the polymerase module brings together factors required for specific and efficient polyadenylation, to help coordinate mRNA 3′-end processing. PMID:29074584

  17. 2'-O-methylation in mRNA disrupts tRNA decoding during translation elongation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Junhong; Indrisiunaite, Gabriele; DeMirci, Hasan; Ieong, Ka-Weng; Wang, Jinfan; Petrov, Alexey; Prabhakar, Arjun; Rechavi, Gideon; Dominissini, Dan; He, Chuan; Ehrenberg, Måns; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2018-03-01

    Chemical modifications of mRNA may regulate many aspects of mRNA processing and protein synthesis. Recently, 2'-O-methylation of nucleotides was identified as a frequent modification in translated regions of human mRNA, showing enrichment in codons for certain amino acids. Here, using single-molecule, bulk kinetics and structural methods, we show that 2'-O-methylation within coding regions of mRNA disrupts key steps in codon reading during cognate tRNA selection. Our results suggest that 2'-O-methylation sterically perturbs interactions of ribosomal-monitoring bases (G530, A1492 and A1493) with cognate codon-anticodon helices, thereby inhibiting downstream GTP hydrolysis by elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and A-site tRNA accommodation, leading to excessive rejection of cognate aminoacylated tRNAs in initial selection and proofreading. Our current and prior findings highlight how chemical modifications of mRNA tune the dynamics of protein synthesis at different steps of translation elongation.

  18. γ-Secretase Modulators and APH1 Isoforms Modulate γ-Secretase Cleavage but Not Position of ε-Cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP).

    PubMed

    Lessard, Christian B; Cottrell, Barbara A; Maruyama, Hiroko; Suresh, Suraj; Golde, Todd E; Koo, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    The relative increase in Aβ42 peptides from familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) linked APP and PSEN mutations can be related to changes in both ε-cleavage site utilization and subsequent step-wise cleavage. Cleavage at the ε-site releases the amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain (AICD), and perturbations in the position of ε-cleavage are closely associated with changes in the profile of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) species that are produced and secreted. The mechanisms by which γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) or FAD mutations affect the various γ-secretase cleavages to alter the generation of Aβ peptides have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies suggested that GSMs do not modulate ε-cleavage of APP, but the data were derived principally from recombinant truncated epitope tagged APP substrate. Here, using full length APP from transfected cells, we investigated whether GSMs modify the ε-cleavage of APP under more native conditions. Our results confirmed the previous findings that ε-cleavage is insensitive to GSMs. In addition, fenofibrate, an inverse GSM (iGSM), did not alter the position or kinetics of ε-cleavage position in vitro. APH1A and APH1B, a subunit of the γ-secretase complex, also modulated Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio without any alterations in ε-cleavage, a result in contrast to what has been observed with PS1 and APP FAD mutations. Consequently, GSMs and APH1 appear to modulate γ-secretase activity and Aβ42 generation by altering processivity but not ε-cleavage site utilization.

  19. Mechanism of Cytoplasmic mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a fundamental process in gene expression that depends upon the abundance and accessibility of the mRNA transcript as well as the activity of many protein and RNA-protein complexes. Here we focus on the intricate mechanics of mRNA translation in the cytoplasm of higher plants. This chapter includes an inventory of the plant translational apparatus and a detailed review of the translational processes of initiation, elongation, and termination. The majority of mechanistic studies of cytoplasmic translation have been carried out in yeast and mammalian systems. The factors and mechanisms of translation are for the most part conserved across eukaryotes; however, some distinctions are known to exist in plants. A comprehensive understanding of the complex translational apparatus and its regulation in plants is warranted, as the modulation of protein production is critical to development, environmental plasticity and biomass yield in diverse ecosystems and agricultural settings. PMID:26019692

  20. Staufen-mediated mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Park, Eonyoung; Maquat, Lynne E

    2013-01-01

    Staufen1 (STAU1)-mediated mRNA decay (SMD) is an mRNA degradation process in mammalian cells that is mediated by the binding of STAU1 to a STAU1-binding site (SBS) within the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of target mRNAs. During SMD, STAU1, a double-stranded (ds) RNA-binding protein, recognizes dsRNA structures formed either by intramolecular base pairing of 3'-UTR sequences or by intermolecular base pairing of 3'-UTR sequences with a long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA) via partially complementary Alu elements. Recently, STAU2, a paralog of STAU1, has also been reported to mediate SMD. Both STAU1 and STAU2 interact directly with the ATP-dependent RNA helicase UPF1, a key SMD factor, enhancing its helicase activity to promote effective SMD. Moreover, STAU1 and STAU2 form homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions via domain-swapping. Because both SMD and the mechanistically related nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) employ UPF1; SMD and NMD are competitive pathways. Competition contributes to cellular differentiation processes, such as myogenesis and adipogenesis, placing SMD at the heart of various physiologically important mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Staufen-mediated mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eonyoung; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2013-01-01

    Staufen1 (STAU1)-mediated mRNA decay (SMD) is an mRNA degradation process in mammalian cells that is mediated by the binding of STAU1 to a STAU1-binding site (SBS) within the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of target mRNAs. During SMD, STAU1, a double-stranded (ds) RNA-binding protein, recognizes dsRNA structures formed either by intramolecular base-pairing of 3'UTR sequences or by intermolecular base-pairing of 3'UTR sequences with a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) via partially complementary Alu elements. Recently, STAU2, a paralog of STAU1, has also been reported to mediate SMD. Both STAU1 and STAU2 interact directly with the ATP-dependent RNA helicase UPF1, a key SMD factor, enhancing its helicase activity to promote effective SMD. Moreover, STAU1 and STAU2 form homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions via domain-swapping. Since both SMD and the mechanistically related nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) employ UPF1, SMD and NMD are competitive pathways. Competition contributes to cellular differentiation processes, such as myogenesis and adipogenesis, placing SMD at the heart of various physiologically important mechanisms. PMID:23681777

  2. Programmable RNA recognition and cleavage by CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Mitchell R; Oakes, Benjamin L; Sternberg, Samuel H; East-Seletsky, Alexandra; Kaplan, Matias; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-12-11

    The CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 is an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease that uses RNA-DNA complementarity to identify target sites for sequence-specific double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cleavage. In its native context, Cas9 acts on DNA substrates exclusively because both binding and catalysis require recognition of a short DNA sequence, known as the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), next to and on the strand opposite the twenty-nucleotide target site in dsDNA. Cas9 has proven to be a versatile tool for genome engineering and gene regulation in a large range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, and in whole organisms, but it has been thought to be incapable of targeting RNA. Here we show that Cas9 binds with high affinity to single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) targets matching the Cas9-associated guide RNA sequence when the PAM is presented in trans as a separate DNA oligonucleotide. Furthermore, PAM-presenting oligonucleotides (PAMmers) stimulate site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage of ssRNA targets, similar to PAM-mediated stimulation of Cas9-catalysed DNA cleavage. Using specially designed PAMmers, Cas9 can be specifically directed to bind or cut RNA targets while avoiding corresponding DNA sequences, and we demonstrate that this strategy enables the isolation of a specific endogenous messenger RNA from cells. These results reveal a fundamental connection between PAM binding and substrate selection by Cas9, and highlight the utility of Cas9 for programmable transcript recognition without the need for tags.

  3. Carotenoid-cleavage activities of crude enzymes from Pandanous amryllifolius.

    PubMed

    Ningrum, Andriati; Schreiner, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Carotenoid degradation products, known as norisoprenoids, are aroma-impact compounds in several plants. Pandan wangi is a common name of the shrub Pandanus amaryllifolius. The genus name 'Pandanus' is derived from the Indonesian name of the tree, pandan. In Indonesia, the leaves from the plant are used for several purposes, e.g., as natural colorants and flavor, and as traditional treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the cleavage of β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal by carotenoid-cleavage enzymes isolated from pandan leaves, to investigate dependencies of the enzymatic activities on temperature and pH, to determine the enzymatic reaction products by using Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometry (HS-SPME GC/MS), and to investigate the influence of heat treatment and addition of crude enzyme on formation of norisoprenoids. Crude enzymes from pandan leaves showed higher activity against β-carotene than β-apo-8'-carotenal. The optimum temperature of crude enzymes was 70°, while the optimum pH value was 6. We identified β-ionone as the major volatile reaction product from the incubations of two different carotenoid substrates, β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal. Several treatments, e.g., heat treatment and addition of crude enzymes in pandan leaves contributed to the norisoprenoid content. Our findings revealed that the crude enzymes from pandan leaves with carotenoid-cleavage activity might provide a potential application, especially for biocatalysis, in natural-flavor industry. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Agent-based modeling: case study in cleavage furrow models

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Manhart, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies in cell biology in which quantitative models accompany experiments has been growing steadily. Roughly, mathematical and computational techniques of these models can be classified as “differential equation based” (DE) or “agent based” (AB). Recently AB models have started to outnumber DE models, but understanding of AB philosophy and methodology is much less widespread than familiarity with DE techniques. Here we use the history of modeling a fundamental biological problem—positioning of the cleavage furrow in dividing cells—to explain how and why DE and AB models are used. We discuss differences, advantages, and shortcomings of these two approaches. PMID:27811328

  5. Motoneurons secrete angiogenin to induce RNA cleavage in astroglia.

    PubMed

    Skorupa, Alexandra; King, Matthew A; Aparicio, Isabela M; Dussmann, Heiko; Coughlan, Karen; Breen, Bridget; Kieran, Dairin; Concannon, Caoimhin G; Marin, Philippe; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2012-04-11

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder affecting motoneurons. Mutations in angiogenin, encoding a member of the pancreatic RNase A superfamily, segregate with ALS. We previously demonstrated that angiogenin administration shows promise as a neuroprotective therapeutic in studies using transgenic ALS mice and primary motoneuron cultures. Its mechanism of action and target cells in the spinal cord, however, are largely unknown. Using mixed motoneuron cultures, motoneuron-like NSC34 cells, and primary astroglia cultures as model systems, we here demonstrate that angiogenin is a neuronally secreted factor that is endocytosed by astroglia and mediates neuroprotection in paracrine. We show that wild-type angiogenin acts unidirectionally to induce RNA cleavage in astroglia, while the ALS-associated K40I mutant is also secreted and endocytosed, but fails to induce RNA cleavage. Angiogenin uptake into astroglia requires heparan sulfate proteoglycans, and engages clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We show that this uptake mechanism exists for mouse and human angiogenin, and delivers a functional RNase output. Moreover, we identify syndecan 4 as the angiogenin receptor mediating the selective uptake of angiogenin into astroglia. Our data provide new insights into the paracrine activities of angiogenin in the nervous system, and further highlight the critical role of non-neuronal cells in the pathogenesis of ALS.

  6. Developmental bias in cleavage-stage mouse blastomeres

    PubMed Central

    Tabansky, Inna; Lenarcic, Alan; Draft, Ryan W.; Loulier, Karine; Keskin, Derin B; Rosains, Jacqueline; Rivera-Feliciano, José; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Livet, Jean; Stern, Joel NH; Sanes, Joshua R.; Eggan, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction The cleavage stage mouse embryo is composed of superficially equivalent blastomeres that will generate both the embryonic inner cell mass (ICM) and the supportive trophectoderm (TE). However, it remains unsettled whether the contribution of each blastomere to these two lineages can be accounted for by chance. Addressing the question of blastomere cell fate may be of practical importance, as preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) requires removal of blastomeres from the early human embryo. To determine if blastomere allocation to the two earliest lineages is random, we developed and utilized a recombination-mediated, non-invasive combinatorial fluorescent labeling method for embryonic lineage tracing. Results When we induced recombination at cleavage stages, we observed a statistically significant bias in the contribution of the resulting labeled clones to the trophectoderm or the inner cell mass in a subset of embryos. Surprisingly, we did not find a correlation between localization of clones in the embryonic and abembryonic hemispheres of the late blastocyst and their allocation to the TE and ICM, suggesting that TE-ICM bias arises separately from embryonic-abembryonic bias. Rainbow lineage tracing also allowed us to demonstrate that the bias observed in the blastocyst persists into post-implantation stages, and therefore has relevance for subsequent development. Discussion The Rainbow transgenic mice that we describe here have allowed us to detect lineage-dependent bias in early development. They should also enable assessment of the developmental equivalence of mammalian progenitor cells in a variety of tissues. PMID:23177476

  7. Improving the prospects of cleavage-based nanopore sequencing engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Kyle T.; Reiner, Joseph E.

    2015-08-01

    Recently proposed methods for DNA sequencing involve the use of cleavage-based enzymes attached to the opening of a nanopore. The idea is that DNA interacting with either an exonuclease or polymerase protein will lead to a small molecule being cleaved near the mouth of the nanopore, and subsequent entry into the pore will yield information about the DNA sequence. The prospects for this approach seem promising, but it has been shown that diffusion related effects impose a limit on the capture probability of molecules by the pore, which limits the efficacy of the technique. Here, we revisit the problem with the goal of optimizing the capture probability via a step decrease in the nucleotide diffusion coefficient between the pore and bulk solutions. It is shown through random walk simulations and a simplified analytical model that decreasing the molecule's diffusion coefficient in the bulk relative to its value in the pore increases the nucleotide capture probability. Specifically, we show that at sufficiently high applied transmembrane potentials (≥100 mV), increasing the potential by a factor f is equivalent to decreasing the diffusion coefficient ratio Dbulk/Dpore by the same factor f. This suggests a promising route toward implementation of cleavage-based sequencing protocols. We also discuss the feasibility of forming a step function in the diffusion coefficient across the pore-bulk interface.

  8. Impact of PCOS on early embryo cleavage kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wissing, M L; Bjerge, M R; Olesen, A I G; Hoest, T; Mikkelsen, A L

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated whether polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affected early embryo development assessed by time-lapse analysis of embryo kinetics from fertilization to the blastocyst stage. This was a prospective cohort study of two pronuclei (2PN) embryos from 25 hyperandrogenic PCOS patients (110 2PN embryos), 26 normoandrogenic PCOS patients (140 2PN embryos) and 20 healthy, regularly cycling women (controls, 97 2PN embryos). Patients underwent the same baseline evaluation and the same ovarian stimulation from April 2010 to February 2013. Oocytes were fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and incubated in an EmbryoScope with pictures taken every 20 min in seven focal planes. Time to 2PN breakdown, first cleavage and cleavage to 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 cells, morula and blastocyst (t₂, t₃, t₄, t₅, t₆, t₇, t₈, t(M), t(B)) were annotated. Differences in embryo kinetics between groups were assessed by mixed modelling. Compared with controls, embryos from hyperandrogenic PCOS patients were significantly delayed at 2PN breakdown, t₂, t₃, t₄ and t₇ but not at t₅, t₆, t₈, t(M) or t(B). Embryos from hyperandrogenic PCOS women had developed slower from fertilization to the 8-cell stage compared with embryos from controls. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Caspase-2 cleavage of tau reversibly impairs memory.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Kotilinek, Linda A; Smith, Benjamin; Hlynialuk, Chris; Zahs, Kathleen; Ramsden, Martin; Cleary, James; Ashe, Karen H

    2016-11-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies, the tau protein forms fibrils, which are believed to be neurotoxic. However, fibrillar tau has been dissociated from neuron death and network dysfunction, suggesting the involvement of nonfibrillar species. Here we describe a novel pathological process in which caspase-2 cleavage of tau at Asp314 impairs cognitive and synaptic function in animal and cellular models of tauopathies by promoting the missorting of tau to dendritic spines. The truncation product, Δtau314, resists fibrillation and is present at higher levels in brains from cognitively impaired mice and humans with AD. The expression of tau mutants that resisted caspase-2 cleavage prevented tau from infiltrating spines, dislocating glutamate receptors and impairing synaptic function in cultured neurons, and it prevented memory deficits and neurodegeneration in mice. Decreasing the levels of caspase-2 restored long-term memory in mice that had existing deficits. Our results suggest an overall treatment strategy for re-establishing synaptic function and restoring memory in patients with AD by preventing tau from accumulating in dendritic spines.

  10. Regulation of adipolin/CTRP12 cleavage by obesity.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Takashi; Shibata, Rei; Ohashi, Koji; Kambara, Takahiro; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Uemura, Yusuke; Yuasa, Daisuke; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ouchi, Noriyuki

    2012-11-09

    Obesity is highly associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recently we found that adipolin/CRTP12 is an adipocytokine that exerts beneficial actions on glucose metabolism. Here we investigated the regulation of circulating adipolin under conditions of obesity and assessed its potential mechanisms. Both full and cleaved forms of adipolin were observed in mouse plasma. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice showed a significant reduction of plasma levels of full and total (full and cleaved) adipolin compared with control mice, resulting in an increase in the ratio of cleaved to full isoform. In vitro gene transfection studies using HEK293 cells revealed that a deletion mutant of adipolin gene (Δaa90-93) caused a reduction of cleaved production of adipolin in media. A bioinformatics analysis of adipolin amino acid sequence indicated the potential involvement of the family of proprotein convertases (PCs) in cleavage of adipolin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with an inhibitor for PCs abolished the expression of cleaved adipolin form in the media. The expression of furin, the member of PCs, was increased in adipose tissue of DIO mice. Furin expression was also increased in cultured adipocytes by treatment with an inducer of inflammation. These data suggest that obesity states facilitate the cleavage of adipolin presumably through upregulation of furin in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Active Site Mutations Change the Cleavage Specificity of Neprilysin

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Travis; Hitchcook, Lisa J.; Rodgers, David W.; Bradley, Luke H.; Hersh, Louis B.

    2012-01-01

    Neprilysin (NEP), a member of the M13 subgroup of the zinc-dependent endopeptidase family is a membrane bound peptidase capable of cleaving a variety of physiological peptides. We have generated a series of neprilysin variants containing mutations at either one of two active site residues, Phe563 and Ser546. Among the mutants studied in detail we observed changes in their activity towards leucine5-enkephalin, insulin B chain, and amyloid β1–40. For example, NEPF563I displayed an increase in preference towards cleaving leucine5-enkephalin relative to insulin B chain, while mutant NEPS546E was less discriminating than neprilysin. Mutants NEPF563L and NEPS546E exhibit different cleavage site preferences than neprilysin with insulin B chain and amyloid ß1–40 as substrates. These data indicate that it is possible to alter the cleavage site specificity of neprilysin opening the way for the development of substrate specific or substrate exclusive forms of the enzyme with enhanced therapeutic potential. PMID:22384224

  12. Mismatch cleavage by single-strand specific nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Till, Bradley J.; Burtner, Chris; Comai, Luca; Henikoff, Steven

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the ability of single-strand specific (sss) nucleases from different sources to cleave single base pair mismatches in heteroduplex DNA templates used for mutation and single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis. The TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) mismatch cleavage protocol was used with the LI-COR gel detection system to assay cleavage of amplified heteroduplexes derived from a variety of induced mutations and naturally occurring polymorphisms. We found that purified nucleases derived from celery (CEL I), mung bean sprouts and Aspergillus (S1) were able to specifically cleave nearly all single base pair mismatches tested. Optimal nicking of heteroduplexes for mismatch detection was achieved using higher pH, temperature and divalent cation conditions than are routinely used for digestion of single-stranded DNA. Surprisingly, crude plant extracts performed as well as the highly purified preparations for this application. These observations suggest that diverse members of the S1 family of sss nucleases act similarly in cleaving non-specifically at bulges in heteroduplexes, and single-base mismatches are the least accessible because they present the smallest single-stranded region for enzyme binding. We conclude that a variety of sss nucleases and extracts can be effectively used for high-throughput mutation and polymorphism discovery. PMID:15141034

  13. Is nucleophilic cleavage chemistry practical for 4-membered heterocycles?

    PubMed

    Banks, Harold D

    2009-11-07

    A computational study at the MP2(Full)/6-311++G(d,p)//MP2(Full)/6-31+G(d) level of the ammonolysis of halogen substituted azetidines, oxetanes and thietanes was performed in the gas phase and in the commonly used solvent, acetonitrile. Using the free energy of activation of a benchmark reaction for evaluation of synthetic viability, several haloazetidines and oxetanes that possessed the required reactivity were identified; however, no substituted thietane investigated herein was determined to be synthetically useful under the mild conditions selected for this study. In the case of the azetidines, the side reaction of displacement of halide ion was determined to be the preferred reaction course in acetonitrile; however, the amino product of the reactions of the 2-haloazetidines cleaved at an acceptable rate under mild conditions. For the oxetane derivatives investigated, 2-fluorooxetane proved to be a direct source of ring cleavage product. Nucleophilic cleavage of halogen-substituted azetidines and oxetanes is predicted to be a viable source of functionalized three-carbon moieties under mild conditions in organic synthesis.

  14. Association of extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin mediated by MMP-7 with HGF-induced in vitro invasion in human stomach cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H; Choi, E Y; Hyun, M S; Jang, B I; Kim, T N; Kim, S W; Song, S K; Kim, J H; Kim, J-R

    2007-01-01

    Proteolytic shedding of the ectodomain of a variety of transmembrane proteins, including cell-to-cell adhesion molecules, has been observed in solid cancers. We have investigated whether extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is involved in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced in vitro invasion in stomach cancer cells. The effects of HGF on the expression of E-cadherin/beta-catenin and MMP-7 at both the protein and mRNA levels were assessed in stomach cancer cells, NUGC-3 and MKN-28, and in cells in which the expression of MMP-7 was downregulated by transfection with a MMP-7 short hairpin RNA plasmid. Treatment with HGF increased the extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin and the release of MMP-7 and reduced the level of E-cadherin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HGF treatment repressed the phosphorylation of beta-catenin in a Triton-soluble fraction, but enhanced this phosphorylation in a Triton-insoluble fraction. The association of E-cadherin with beta-catenin was decreased by HGF treatment in the Triton-soluble fraction. In addition, treatment of MMP-7 short hairpin RNA transfected NUGC-3 cells with HGF resulted in no extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin and also decreased the in vitro cell invasion. These results suggest that incubation with HGF mediated the release of MMP-7, resulting in extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin from stomach cancer cells. This might be a key mechanism in HGF-induced in vitro invasion and metastasis. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Structural basis for 16S ribosomal RNA cleavage by the cytotoxic domain of colicin E3.

    PubMed

    Ng, C Leong; Lang, Kathrin; Meenan, Nicola Ag; Sharma, Amit; Kelley, Ann C; Kleanthous, Colin; Ramakrishnan, V

    2010-10-01

    The toxin colicin E3 targets the 30S subunit of bacterial ribosomes and cleaves a phosphodiester bond in the decoding center. We present the crystal structure of the 70S ribosome in complex with the cytotoxic domain of colicin E3 (E3-rRNase). The structure reveals how the rRNase domain of colicin binds to the A site of the decoding center in the 70S ribosome and cleaves the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) between A1493 and G1494. The cleavage mechanism involves the concerted action of conserved residues Glu62 and His58 of the cytotoxic domain of colicin E3. These residues activate the 16S rRNA for 2' OH-induced hydrolysis. Conformational changes observed for E3-rRNase, 16S rRNA and helix 69 of 23S rRNA suggest that a dynamic binding platform is required for colicin E3 binding and function.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Honeybee (Apis Mellifera) Haploid and Diploid Embryos Reveals Early Zygotic Transcription during Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Camilla Valente; Freitas, Flávia Cristina de Paula; Cristino, Alexandre S.; Dearden, Peter K.; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2016-01-01

    In honeybees, the haplodiploid sex determination system promotes a unique embryogenesis process wherein females develop from fertilized eggs and males develop from unfertilized eggs. However, the developmental strategies of honeybees during early embryogenesis are virtually unknown. Similar to most animals, the honeybee oocytes are supplied with proteins and regulatory elements that support early embryogenesis. As the embryo develops, the zygotic genome is activated and zygotic products gradually replace the preloaded maternal material. The analysis of small RNA and mRNA libraries of mature oocytes and embryos originated from fertilized and unfertilized eggs has allowed us to explore the gene expression dynamics in the first steps of development and during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). We localized a short sequence motif identified as TAGteam motif and hypothesized to play a similar role in honeybees as in fruit flies, which includes the timing of early zygotic expression (MZT), a function sustained by the presence of the zelda ortholog, which is the main regulator of genome activation. Predicted microRNA (miRNA)-target interactions indicated that there were specific regulators of haploid and diploid embryonic development and an overlap of maternal and zygotic gene expression during the early steps of embryogenesis. Although a number of functions are highly conserved during the early steps of honeybee embryogenesis, the results showed that zygotic genome activation occurs earlier in honeybees than in Drosophila based on the presence of three primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) (ame-mir-375, ame-mir-34 and ame-mir-263b) during the cleavage stage in haploid and diploid embryonic development. PMID:26751956

  17. Atomistic Details of the Associative Phosphodiester Cleavage in Human Ribonuclease H

    SciTech Connect

    Elsasser, Brigitta M.; Fels, Gregor

    2010-07-30

    During translation of the genetic information of DNA into proteins, mRNA is synthesized by RNA polymerase and after the transcription process degraded by RNase H. The endoribonuclease RNase H is a member of the nucleotidyl-transferase (NT) superfamily and is known to hydrolyze the phosphodiester bonds of RNA which is hybridized to DNA. Retroviral RNase H is part of the viral reverse transcriptase enzyme that is indispensable for the proliferation of retroviruses, such as HIV. Inhibitors of this enzyme could therefore provide new drugs against diseases like AIDS. In our study we investigated the molecular mechanism of RNA cleavage by humanmore » RNase H using a comprehensive high level DFT/B3LYP QM/MM theoretical method for the calculation of the stationary points and nudged elastic band (NEB) and free energy calculations to identify the transition state structures, the rate limiting step and the reaction barrier. Our calculations reveal that the catalytic mechanism proceeds in two steps and that the nature of the nucleophile is a water molecule. In the first step, the water attack on the scissile phosphorous is followed by a proton transfer from the water to the O2P oxygen and a trigonal bipyramidal pentacoordinated phosphorane is formed. Subsequently, in the second step the proton is shuttled to the O30 oxygen to generate the product state. During the reaction mechanism two Mg2+ ions support the formation of a stable associated in-line SN2-type phosphorane intermediate. Our calculated energy barrier of 19.3 kcal mol*1 is in excellent agreement with experimental findings (20.5 kcal mol*1). These results may contribute to the clarification and understanding of the RNase H reaction mechanism and of further enzymes from the RNase family.« less

  18. RNase L Cleavage Products Promote Switch from Autophagy to Apoptosis by Caspase-Mediated Cleavage of Beclin-1

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Mukherjee, Sushovita; Manivannan, Praveen; Malathi, Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis share regulatory molecules enabling crosstalk in pathways that affect cellular homeostasis including response to viral infections and survival of tumor cells. Ribonuclease L (RNase L) is an antiviral endonuclease that is activated in virus-infected cells and cleaves viral and cellular single-stranded RNAs to produce small double-stranded RNAs with roles in amplifying host responses. Activation of RNase L induces autophagy and apoptosis in many cell types. However, the mechanism by which RNase L mediates crosstalk between these two pathways remains unclear. Here we show that small dsRNAs produced by RNase L promote a switch from autophagy to apoptosis by caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin-1, terminating autophagy. The caspase 3-cleaved C-terminal fragment of Beclin-1 enhances apoptosis by translocating to the mitochondria along with proapoptotic protein, Bax, and inducing release of cytochrome C to the cytosol. Cleavage of Beclin-1 determines switch to apoptosis since expression of caspase-resistant Beclin-1 inhibits apoptosis and sustains autophagy. Moreover, inhibiting RNase L-induced autophagy promotes cell death and inhibiting apoptosis prolongs autophagy in a cross-inhibitory mechanism. Our results demonstrate a novel role of RNase L generated small RNAs in cross-talk between autophagy and apoptosis that impacts the fate of cells during viral infections and cancer. PMID:26263979

  19. Influence of culture medium composition on relative mRNA abundances in domestic cat embryos.

    PubMed

    Hribal, R; Jewgenow, K; Braun, B C; Comizzoli, P

    2013-04-01

    Different culture conditions have been used to produce domestic cat embryos. As part of the in vitro procedures, the medium composition significantly affects the quality of the embryo development also. Quality assessments based on cleavage kinetics and blastomere symmetry are useful, but embryos also can differ in their relative gene expression patterns despite similar morphological characteristics. The aim of this study was to compare cat embryos produced with two different in vitro culture systems routinely used in two different laboratories [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Washington D.C., USA (SCBI) and Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany (IZW)]. Specifically, relative mRNA expression patterns of critical genes for pre-implantation embryo development were assessed in both conditions. Embryos were produced in parallel in both culture systems by IVF using frozen-thawed ejaculated semen in the United States and fresh epididymal sperm in Germany. Success of embryo development in vitro was recorded as well as relative mRNA abundances [DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3A (DNMT1, DNMT3A), gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 [OCT4], insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 receptors (IGF1R, IGF2R), beta-actin (ACTB)] in pools of days 4-5 morulae by semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay. Percentages of cleaved embryos were similar (p > 0.05) between both culture systems, regardless of the location. OCT4 mRNA abundance was higher (p < 0.05) in embryos derived in the SCBI culture system compared with those from the IZW system when epididymal sperm was used for IVF. No clear correlation between the expression pattern and the culture system could be found for all other genes. It is suggested that OCT4 expression might be affected by the media composition in some conditions and can be the indicator of a better embryo quality. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Progesterone treatment modulates mRNA OF neurosteroidogenic enzymes in a murine model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Garay, Laura; Gonzalez Giqueaux, Paula; Guennoun, Rachida; Schumacher, Michael; Gonzalez Deniselle, Maria Claudia; De Nicola, Alejandro F

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) have shown that progesterone decreases inflammatory cell infiltration and proinflammatory factors, increases myelination and attenuates clinical grade of EAE mice. To elucidate potential mediators of these effects, we analyzed the mRNA expression of neurosteroidogenic enzymes in the spinal cord, in view of the protective role of steroids in EAE. We also analyzed mitochondrial morphology and dynamics (fusion and fission proteins), considering the role of mitochondria in neurosteroidogenesis. EAE was induced in C57Bl6 mice using MOG 40-54 and killed on day 16 after induction. Using qPCR, we found in steroid-untreated EAE mice decreased mRNAs for the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), P450scc (cholesterol side-chain cleavage), 5α-reductase, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) and aromatase, whereas levels of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) showed a large intra-group variance. We also found increased mRNA expression of 18Kd translocator protein (TSPO), which likely resulted from the reactive microgliosis in this model. EAE mice also showed pathological mitochondrial morphology and reduced expression of fission and fusion protein mRNAs. Most importantly, pretreatment with progesterone a week before EAE induction increased Star,VDAC, P450scc, 5α-reductase type I, 3α-HSD and aromatase mRNAs and did not modify 3β-HSD. TSPO mRNA was decreased, consequent with the inhibition of microgliosis. Mitochondrial morphology was improved and fission/fusion protein mRNAs were enhanced by progesterone treatment. Furthermore, progesterone protective effects on mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum may allow the recovery of neurosteroidogenesis. In this way, endogenously synthesized neurosteroids may reinforce the beneficial effects of exogenous progesterone previously shown in MS mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stability of the Osmoregulated Promoter-Derived proP mRNA Is Posttranscriptionally Regulated by RNase III in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Boram

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The enzymatic activity of Escherichia coli endo-RNase III determines the stability of a subgroup of mRNA species, including bdm, betT, and proU, whose protein products are associated with the cellular response to osmotic stress. Here, we report that the stability of proP mRNA, which encodes a transporter of osmoprotectants, is controlled by RNase III in response to osmotic stress. We observed that steady-state levels of proP mRNA and ProP protein are inversely correlated with cellular RNase III activity and, in turn, affect the proline uptake capacity of the cell. In vitro and in vivo analyses of proP mRNA revealed RNase III cleavage sites in a stem-loop within the 5′ untranslated region present only in proP mRNA species synthesized from the osmoregulated P1 promoter. Introduction of nucleotide substitutions in the cleavage site identified inhibited the ribonucleolytic activity of RNase III on proP mRNA, increasing the steady-state levels and half-life of the mRNA. In addition, decreased RNase III activity coincided with a significant increase in both the half-life and abundance of proP mRNA under hyperosmotic stress conditions. Analysis of the RNA bound to RNase III via in vivo cross-linking and immunoprecipitation indicated that this phenomenon is related to the decreased RNA binding capacity of RNase III. Our findings suggest the existence of an RNase III-mediated osmoregulatory network that rapidly balances the expression levels of factors associated with the cellular response to osmotic stress in E. coli. IMPORTANCE Our results demonstrate that RNase III activity on proP mRNA degradation is downregulated in Escherichia coli cells under osmotic stress. In addition, we show that the downregulation of RNase III activity is associated with decreased RNA binding capacity of RNase III under hyperosmotic conditions. In particular, our findings demonstrate a link between osmotic stress and RNase III activity, underscoring the growing importance of

  2. MMP‐2 and MMP‐14 Silencing Inhibits VEGFR2 Cleavage and Induces the Differentiation of Porcine Adipose‐Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Almalki, Sami G.; Llamas Valle, Yovani

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The molecular mechanisms that control the ability of adipose‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) to remodel three‐dimensional extracellular matrix barriers during differentiation are not clearly understood. Herein, we studied the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during the differentiation of AMSCs to endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro. MSCs were isolated from porcine abdominal adipose tissue, and characterized by immunopositivity to CD44, CD90, CD105, and immunonegativity to CD14 and CD45. Plasticity of AMSCs was confirmed by multilineage differentiation. The mRNA transcripts for MMPs and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and protein expression of EC markers were analyzed. The enzyme activity and protein expression were analyzed by gelatin zymography, enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blot. The differentiation of AMSCs to ECs was confirmed by mRNA and protein expressions of the endothelial markers. The mRNA transcripts for MMP‐2 and MMP‐14 were significantly increased during the differentiation of MSCs into ECs. Findings revealed an elevated MMP‐14 and MMP‐2 expression, and MMP2 enzyme activity. Silencing of MMP‐2 and MMP‐14 significantly increased the expression of EC markers, formation of capillary tubes, and acetylated‐low‐density lipoprotein uptake, and decreased the cleavage of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2). Inhibition of VEGFR2 significantly decreased the expression of EC markers. These novel findings demonstrate that the upregulation of MMP2 and MMP14 has an inhibitory effect on the differentiation of AMSCs to ECs, and silencing these MMPs inhibit the cleavage of VEGFR2 and stimulate the differentiation of AMSCs to ECs. These findings provide a potential mechanism for the regulatory role of MMP‐2 and MMP‐14 in the re‐endothelialization of coronary arteries following intervention. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1385–1398 PMID

  3. Sequence-selective DNA cleavage by a chimeric metallopeptide.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Roger T; Welch, Joel T; Franklin, Sonya J

    2003-06-04

    A chimeric metallopeptide derived from the sequences of two structurally superimposable motifs was designed as an artificial nuclease. Both DNA recognition and nuclease activity have been incorporated into a small peptide sequence. P3W, a 33-mer peptide comprising helices alpha2 and alpha3 from the engrailed homeodomain and the consensus EF-hand Ca-binding loop binds one equivalent of lanthanides or calcium and folds upon metal binding. The conditional formation constants (in the presence of 50 mM Tris) of P3W for Eu(III) (K(a) = (2.1 +/- 0.1) x 10(5) M(-1)) and Ce(IV) (K(a) = (2.6 +/- 0.1) x 10(5) M(-1)) are typical of isolated EF-hand peptides. Circular dichroism studies show that 1:1 CeP3W is 26% alpha-helical and EuP3W is up to 40% alpha-helical in the presence of excess metal. The predicted helicity of the folded peptide based on helix length and end effects is about 50%, showing the metallopeptides are significantly folded. EuP3W has considerably more secondary structure than our previously reported chimeras (Welch, J. T.; Sirish, M.; Lindstrom, K. M.; Franklin, S. J. Inorg. Chem. 2001, 40, 1982-1984). Eu(III)P3W and Ce(IV)P3W nick supercoiled DNA at pH 6.9, although EuP3W is more active at pH 8. CeP3W cleaves linearized, duplex DNA as well as supercoiled plasmid. The cleavage of a 5'-(32)P-labeled 121-mer DNA fragment was followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The cleavage products are 3'-OPO(3) termini exclusively, suggesting a regioselective or multistep mechanism. In contrast, uncomplexed Ce(IV) and Eu(III) ions produce both 3'-OPO(3) and 3'-OH, and no evidence of 4'-oxidative cleavage termini with either metal. The complementary 3'-(32)P-labeled oligonucleotide experiment also showed both 5'-OPO(3) and 5'-OH termini were produced by the free ions, whereas CeP3W produces only 5'-OPO(3) termini. In addition to apparent regioselectivity, the metallopeptides cut DNA with modest sequence discrimination, which suggests that the HTH motif binds DNA as

  4. Embryo apoptosis identification: Oocyte grade or cleavage stage?

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Noraina Mohd; Ibrahim, Siti Fatimah; Osman, Nurul Atikah; Hasan, Nurhaslina; Jaffar, Farah Hanan Fathihah; Rahman, Zulaiha Abdul; Osman, Khairul

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a programed cell death that is vital for tissue homeostasis. However, embryo apoptosis had been known to be related to embryo fragmentation which should be avoided in in vitro fertilization (IVF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of embryo apoptosis with the grade of immature oocytes and cleavage stage of in vitro produced (IVP) cattle embryos. This study consisted of 345 oocytes collected through ovary slicing. Immature oocytes were graded as A, B and C. This grading was based on cumulus cell thickness and compactness. All oocytes then underwent an in vitro maturation (IVM) procedure. An IVF was done 24 h after IVM culture. Prior to staining, stage of cleaved embryos was determined and classified as either 2, 4, 8 or >8-cell embryo stage. Apoptosis status of cleaved IVP embryos was determined by using annexin V-FITC staining technique at 48 and 72 h post insemination (hpi). Apoptosis status for each embryo was classified as either early or late. The result showed that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status among grade A, B and C embryos. All grades of oocytes showed embryo apoptosis where 1.5% late apoptosis for grade A, 4.5% and 10.4% of early and late apoptosis for grade B and grade C. Early apoptosis was not seen in grade A embryo. We also noted no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status between 2, 4, 8 and >8-cell embryo stage. Early apoptosis was also not seen in >8-cell stage. Even though there were no differences in apoptosis expression between the three classes, the cleavage rate of grade A oocytes was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than grade B and grade C. In conclusion, the apoptosis expression in the embryo can occur regardless of the oocyte quality and the cleavage stage of the embryo produced. PMID:26858565

  5. Changes in the mRNA expression of structural proteins, hormone synthesis and secretion from bovine placentome sections after DDT and DDE treatment.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, A; Mlynarczuk, J; Kotwica, J

    2017-01-15

    Disorders in the barrier function and secretory activity of the placenta can be caused by xenobiotics (XB) present in the environment and their accumulation in tissues of living organisms. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2,-bis-4-chlorophenyl-ethane (DDT) and its metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-4-chlorophenyl-ethene (DDE) (for 24 or 48h) at doses of 1, 10 or 100ng/ml on the function of cow placentome sections in the second trimester of pregnancy. DDT and DDE affected neither (P>0.05) the viability nor hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1α) mRNA expression of the sections. XB decreased (P<0.05) connexin (Cx) 26, 32, 43 and placenta-specific 1 (PLAC-1) mRNA expression but did not affect (P>0.05) keratin 8 (KRT8) mRNA expression. DDT and DDE also reduced (P<0.05) prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) synthase (PGFS) mRNA expression, while DDT increased (P<0.05) prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthase (PGES) mRNA expression. Neither cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA expression nor PGF2α and PGE2 secretion were affected. Both DDT and DDE increased (P<0.05) neurophysin I/oxytocin (NP1/OT) mRNA expression and oxytocin (OT), oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) secretion while DDT stimulated only 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD) and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) mRNA expression (P<0.05). In summary, DDT and DDE impaired the barrier function and secretory activity of the placenta. Thus, these compounds can disrupt trophoblast invasion, myometrium contractility and gas/nutrient exchange throughout pregnancy in cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SPEPlip: the detection of signal peptide and lipoprotein cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Fariselli, Piero; Finocchiaro, Giacomo; Casadio, Rita

    2003-12-12

    SPEPlip is a neural network-based method, trained and tested on a set of experimentally derived signal peptides from eukaryotes and prokaryotes. SPEPlip identifies the presence of sorting signals and predicts their cleavage sites. The accuracy in cross-validation is similar to that of other available programs: the rate of false positives is 4 and 6%, for prokaryotes and eukaryotes respectively and that of false negatives is 3% in both cases. When a set of 409 prokaryotic lipoproteins is predicted, SPEPlip predicts 97% of the chains in the signal peptide class. However, by integrating SPEPlip with a regular expression search utility based on the PROSITE pattern, we can successfully discriminate signal peptide-containing chains from lipoproteins. We propose the method for detecting and discriminating signal peptides containing chains and lipoproteins. It can be accessed through the web page at http://gpcr.biocomp.unibo.it/predictors/

  7. A statistical model of brittle fracture by transgranular cleavage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsann; Evans, A. G.; Ritchie, R. O.

    A MODEL for brittle fracture by transgranular cleavage cracking is presented based on the application of weakest link statistics to the critical microstructural fracture mechanisms. The model permits prediction of the macroscopic fracture toughness, KI c, in single phase microstructures containing a known distribution of particles, and defines the critical distance from the crack tip at which the initial cracking event is most probable. The model is developed for unstable fracture ahead of a sharp crack considering both linear elastic and nonlinear elastic ("elastic/plastic") crack tip stress fields. Predictions are evaluated by comparison with experimental results on the low temperature flow and fracture behavior of a low carbon mild steel with a simple ferrite/grain boundary carbide microstructure.

  8. Cleavage of an amide bond by a ribozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, X.; De Mesmaeker, A.; Joyce, G. F.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    A variant form of a group I ribozyme, optimized by in vitro evolution for its ability to catalyze magnesium-dependent phosphoester transfer reactions involving DNA substrates, also catalyzes the cleavage of an unactivated alkyl amide when that linkage is presented in the context of an oligodeoxynucleotide analog. Substrates containing an amide bond that joins either two DNA oligos, or a DNA oligo and a short peptide, are cleaved in a magnesium-dependent fashion to generate the expected products. The first-order rate constant, kcat, is 0.1 x 10(-5) min-1 to 1 x 10(-5) min-1 for the DNA-flanked substrates, which corresponds to a rate acceleration of more than 10(3) as compared with the uncatalyzed reaction.

  9. Agent-based modeling: case study in cleavage furrow models.

    PubMed

    Mogilner, Alex; Manhart, Angelika

    2016-11-07

    The number of studies in cell biology in which quantitative models accompany experiments has been growing steadily. Roughly, mathematical and computational techniques of these models can be classified as "differential equation based" (DE) or "agent based" (AB). Recently AB models have started to outnumber DE models, but understanding of AB philosophy and methodology is much less widespread than familiarity with DE techniques. Here we use the history of modeling a fundamental biological problem-positioning of the cleavage furrow in dividing cells-to explain how and why DE and AB models are used. We discuss differences, advantages, and shortcomings of these two approaches. © 2016 Mogilner and Manhart. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Single-Molecule Analysis for RISC Assembly and Target Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroshi M; Tadakuma, Hisashi; Tomari, Yukihide

    2018-01-01

    RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is a small RNA-protein complex that mediates silencing of complementary target RNAs. Biochemistry has been successfully used to characterize the molecular mechanism of RISC assembly and function for nearly two decades. However, further dissection of intermediate states during the reactions has been warranted to fill in the gaps in our understanding of RNA silencing mechanisms. Single-molecule analysis with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is a powerful imaging-based approach to interrogate complex formation and dynamics at the individual molecule level with high sensitivity. Combining this technique with our recently established in vitro reconstitution system of fly Ago2-RISC, we have developed a single-molecule observation system for RISC assembly. In this chapter, we summarize the detailed protocol for single-molecule analysis of chaperone-assisted assembly of fly Ago2-RISC as well as its target cleavage reaction.

  11. Enzymic Pathways for Formation of Carotenoid Cleavage Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischmann, Peter; Zorn, Holger

    Degraded carotenoids (apocarotenoids, norisoprenoids) have been a subject of intensive research for several decades. From the perspective of human physiology and nutrition, the retinoids, acting as vitamins, signalling molecules, and visual pigments, attracted the greatest attention (Chapters 15 and 16). Plant scientists, however, detected a wealth of different apocarotenoids, presumably derived by the excentric cleavage of carotenoids in various species, the plant hormone abscisic acid (1, Scheme 6) being the best-investigated example. With the onset of fruit ripening, flower opening or senescence of green tissues, carotenoids are degraded oxidatively to smaller, volatile compounds. The natural biological functions of the reaction products are outlined in Chapter 15. As many of these apocarotenoids act as potent flavour compounds, food chemists and flavourists worldwide have investigated meticulously their structural and sensory properties. Many aspects of carotenoid metabolites and breakdown products as aroma compounds are presented in a comprehensive book [1].

  12. Mutations altering the cleavage specificity of a homing endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Seligman, Lenny M.; Chisholm, Karen M.; Chevalier, Brett S.; Chadsey, Meggen S.; Edwards, Samuel T.; Savage, Jeremiah H.; Veillet, Adeline L.

    2002-01-01

    The homing endonuclease I-CreI recognizes and cleaves a particular 22 bp DNA sequence. The crystal structure of I-CreI bound to homing site DNA has previously been determined, leading to a number of predictions about specific protein–DNA contacts. We test these predictions by analyzing a set of endonuclease mutants and a complementary set of homing site mutants. We find evidence that all structurally predicted I-CreI/DNA contacts contribute to DNA recognition and show that these contacts differ greatly in terms of their relative importance. We also describe the isolation of a collection of altered specificity I-CreI derivatives. The in vitro DNA-binding and cleavage properties of two such endonucleases demonstrate that our genetic approach is effective in identifying homing endonucleases that recognize and cleave novel target sequences. PMID:12202772

  13. Genome level analysis of rice mRNA 3′-end processing signals and alternative polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yingjia; Ji, Guoli; Haas, Brian J.; Wu, Xiaohui; Zheng, Jianti; Reese, Greg J.; Li, Qingshun Quinn

    2008-01-01

    The position of a poly(A) site of eukaryotic mRNA is determined by sequence signals in pre-mRNA and a group of polyadenylation factors. To reveal rice poly(A) signals at a genome level, we constructed a dataset of 55 742 authenticated poly(A) sites and characterized the poly(A) signals. This resulted in identifying the typical tripartite cis-elements, including FUE, NUE and CE, as previously observed in Arabidopsis. The average size of the 3′-UTR was 289 nucleotides. When mapped to the genome, however, 15% of these poly(A) sites were found to be located in the currently annotated intergenic regions. Moreover, an extensive alternative polyadenylation profile was evident where 50% of the genes analyzed had more than one unique poly(A) site (excluding microheterogeneity sites), and 13% had four or more poly(A) sites. About 4% of the analyzed genes possessed alternative poly(A) sites at their introns, 5′-UTRs, or protein coding regions. The authenticity of these alternative poly(A) sites was partially confirmed using MPSS data. Analysis of nucleotide profile and signal patterns indicated that there may be a different set of poly(A) signals for those poly(A) sites found in the coding regions. Based on the features of rice poly(A) signals, an updated algorithm termed PASS-Rice was designed to predict poly(A) sites. PMID:18411206

  14. Principles of mRNA transport in yeast.

    PubMed

    Heym, Roland Gerhard; Niessing, Dierk

    2012-06-01

    mRNA localization and localized translation is a common mechanism by which cellular asymmetry is achieved. In higher eukaryotes the mRNA transport machinery is required for such diverse processes as stem cell division and neuronal plasticity. Because mRNA localization in metazoans is highly complex, studies at the molecular level have proven to be cumbersome. However, active mRNA transport has also been reported in fungi including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ustilago maydis and Candida albicans, in which these events are less difficult to study. Amongst them, budding yeast S. cerevisiae has yielded mechanistic insights that exceed our understanding of other mRNA localization events to date. In contrast to most reviews, we refrain here from summarizing mRNA localization events from different organisms. Instead we give an in-depth account of ASH1 mRNA localization in budding yeast. This approach is particularly suited to providing a more holistic view of the interconnection between the individual steps of mRNA localization, from transcriptional events to cytoplasmic mRNA transport and localized translation. Because of our advanced mechanistic understanding of mRNA localization in yeast, the present review may also be informative for scientists working, for example, on mRNA localization in embryogenesis or in neurons.

  15. Messenger RNA (mRNA) nanoparticle tumour vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phua, Kyle K. L.; Nair, Smita K.; Leong, Kam W.

    2014-06-01

    Use of mRNA-based vaccines for tumour immunotherapy has gained increasing attention in recent years. A growing number of studies applying nanomedicine concepts to mRNA tumour vaccination show that the mRNA delivered in nanoparticle format can generate a more robust immune response. Advances in the past decade have deepened our understanding of gene delivery barriers, mRNA's biological stability and immunological properties, and support the notion for engineering innovations tailored towards a more efficient mRNA nanoparticle vaccine delivery system. In this review we will first examine the suitability of mRNA for engineering manipulations, followed by discussion of a model framework that highlights the barriers to a robust anti-tumour immunity mediated by mRNA encapsulated in nanoparticles. Finally, by consolidating existing literature on mRNA nanoparticle tumour vaccination within the context of this framework, we aim to identify bottlenecks that can be addressed by future nanoengineering research.

  16. Efficient Cleavage of Ribosome-Associated Poly(A)-Binding Protein by Enterovirus 3C Protease

    PubMed Central

    Kuyumcu-Martinez, N. Muge; Joachims, Michelle; Lloyd, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Poliovirus (PV) causes a rapid and drastic inhibition of host cell cap-dependent protein synthesis during infection while preferentially allowing cap-independent translation of its own genomic RNA via an internal ribosome entry site element. Inhibition of cap-dependent translation is partly mediated by cleavage of an essential translation initiation factor, eIF4GI, during PV infection. In addition to cleavage of eIF4GI, cleavage of eIF4GII and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) has been recently proposed to contribute to complete host translation shutoff; however, the relative importance of eIF4GII and PABP cleavage has not been determined. At times when cap-dependent translation is first blocked during infection, only 25 to 35% of the total cellular PABP is cleaved; therefore, we hypothesized that the pool of PABP associated with polysomes may be preferentially targeted by viral proteases. We have investigated what cleavage products of PABP are produced in vivo and the substrate determinants for cleavage of PABP by 2A protease (2Apro) or 3C protease (3Cpro). Our results show that PABP in ribosome-enriched fractions is preferentially cleaved in vitro and in vivo compared to PABP in other fractions. Furthermore, we have identified four N-terminal PABP cleavage products produced during PV infection and have shown that viral 3C protease generates three of the four cleavage products. Also, 3Cpro is more efficient in cleaving PABP in ribosome-enriched fractions than 2Apro in vitro. In addition, binding of PABP to poly(A) RNA stimulates 3Cpro-mediated cleavage and inhibits 2Apro-mediated cleavage. These results suggest that 3Cpro plays a major role in processing PABP during virus infection and that the interaction of PABP with translation initiation factors, ribosomes, or poly(A) RNA may promote its cleavage by viral 2A and 3C proteases. PMID:11836384

  17. Renewing the Assault on mRNA

    PubMed Central

    McCAIN, JACK

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian cells dislike double-stranded RNA. They interpret it as a sign of an intruder, and they can unleash a recently discovered defensive mechanism to deal with the problem – they chop the invader into little pieces and use the remnants, called small interfering RNA, to identify and destroy the invader and its progeny. This process, known as RNA interference, may lend itself to new treatments for a wide range of diseases. RNA interference, however, resembles two therapies studied during the 1990s, antisense and ribozymes, in that the gene-silencing target is messenger RNA (mRNA). Is RNA interference really the Next Big Thing – or just a variation on an older but still intriguing theme? PMID:23372488

  18. Alternative polyadenylation of mRNA precursors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bin; Manley, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is an RNA-processing mechanism that generates distinct 3′ termini on mRNAs and other RNA polymerase II transcripts. It is widespread across all eukaryotic species and is recognized as a major mechanism of gene regulation. APA exhibits tissue specificity and is important for cell proliferation and differentiation. In this Review, we discuss the roles of APA in diverse cellular processes, including mRNA metabolism, protein diversification and protein localization, and more generally in gene regulation. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying APA, such as variation in the concentration of core processing factors and RNA-binding proteins, as well as transcription-based regulation. PMID:27677860

  19. Bifunctional alkylating agent-mediated MGMT-DNA cross-linking and its proteolytic cleavage in 16HBE cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jin; Ye, Feng; Dan, Guorong

    Nitrogen mustard (NM), a bifunctional alkylating agent (BAA), contains two alkyl arms and can act as a cross-linking bridge between DNA and protein to form a DNA-protein cross-link (DPC). O{sup 6}-methylguanine–DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a DNA repair enzyme for alkyl adducts removal, is found to enhance cell sensitivity to BAAs and to promote damage, possibly due to its stable covalent cross-linking with DNA mediated by BAAs. To investigate MGMT-DNA cross-link (mDPC) formation and its possible dual roles in NM exposure, human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE was subjected to different concentrations of HN2, a kind of NM, and we found mDPCmore » was induced by HN2 in a concentration-dependent manner, but the mRNA and total protein of MGMT were suppressed. As early as 1 h after HN2 treatment, high mDPC was achieved and the level maintained for up to 24 h. Quick total DPC (tDPC) and γ-H2AX accumulation were observed. To evaluate the effect of newly predicted protease DVC1 on DPC cleavage, we applied siRNA of MGMT and DVC1, MG132 (proteasome inhibitor), and NMS-873 (p97 inhibitor) and found that proteolysis plays a role. DVC1 was proven to be more important in the cleavage of mDPC than tDPC in a p97-dependent manner. HN2 exposure induced DVC1 upregulation, which was at least partially contributed to MGMT cleavage by proteolysis because HN2-induced mDPC level and DNA damage was closely related with DVC1 expression. Homologous recombination (HR) was also activated. Our findings demonstrated that MGMT might turn into a DNA damage promoter by forming DPC when exposed to HN2. Proteolysis, especially DVC1, plays a crucial role in mDPC repair. - Highlights: • Nitrogen mustard-induced MGMT-DNA cross-linking was detected in a living cell. • Concentration- and time-dependent manners of MGMT-DNA cross-linking were revealed. • Proteolysis played an important role in protein (MGMT)-DNA cross-linking repair. • DVC1 acts as a proteolytic enzyme in cross

  20. Business as a Site of Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra; Bargiela-Chiappini, Francesca

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the field of language for business. Argues for redressing the balance of research into business as a site of language contact in favor of less well-represented languages and cultures through indigenous discourse studies, and notes the increasing frequency and importance of work involving Asian languages. (Author/VWL)

  1. Purification and characterization of VDE, a site-specific endonuclease from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gimble, F S; Thorner, J

    1993-10-15

    The 119-kDa primary translation product of the VMA1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes a self-catalyzed rearrangement ("protein splicing") that excises an internal 50-kDa segment of the polypeptide and joins the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal segments to generate the 69-kDa subunit of the vacuolar membrane-associated H(+)-ATPase. We have shown previously that the internal segment is a site-specific endonuclease (Gimble, F. S., and Thorner, J. (1992) Nature 357, 301-306). Here we describe methods for the high level expression and purification to near homogeneity of both the authentic VMA1-derived endonuclease (or VDE) from yeast (yield 18%) and a recombinant form of VDE made in bacteria (yield 29%). Detailed characterization of these preparations demonstrated that the yeast-derived and bacterially produced enzymes were indistinguishable, as judged by: (a) behavior during purification; (b) apparent native molecular mass (50 kDa); (c) immunological reactivity; and (d) catalytic properties (specific activity; cleavage site recognition; and optima for pH, temperature, divalent cation and ionic strength). The minimal site required for VDE cleavage was delimited to a 30-base pair sequence within its specific substrate (the VMA1 delta vde allele).

  2. GPS-CCD: A Novel Computational Program for the Prediction of Calpain Cleavage Sites

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xinjiao; Ma, Qian; Ren, Jian; Xue, Yu

    2011-01-01

    As one of the most essential post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, proteolysis, especially calpain-mediated cleavage, plays an important role in many biological processes, including cell death/apoptosis, cytoskeletal remodeling, and the cell cycle. Experimental identification of calpain targets with bona fide cleavage sites is fundamental for dissecting the molecular mechanisms and biological roles of calpain cleavage. In contrast to time-consuming and labor-intensive experimental approaches, computational prediction of calpain cleavage sites might more cheaply and readily provide useful information for further experimental investigation. In this work, we constructed a novel software package of GPS-CCD (Calpain Cleavage Detector) for the prediction of calpain cleavage sites, with an accuracy of 89.98%, sensitivity of 60.87% and specificity of 90.07%. With this software, we annotated potential calpain cleavage sites for hundreds of calpain substrates, for which the exact cleavage sites had not been previously determined. In this regard, GPS-CCD 1.0 is considered to be a useful tool for experimentalists. The online service and local packages of GPS-CCD 1.0 were implemented in JAVA and are freely available at: http://ccd.biocuckoo.org/. PMID:21533053

  3. Coordinate tropic hormone regulation of mRNAs for insulin-like growth factor II and the cholesterol side-chain-cleavage enzyme, P450scc [corrected], in human steroidogenic tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Voutilainen, R; Miller, W L

    1987-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are single-chain polypeptides important for cell proliferation and growth. IGFs are produced in several tissues, suggesting that they function in a paracrine or autocrine fashion as well as functioning as endocrine hormones. We studied the hormonal regulation of IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA in human steroidogenic tissues. In cultured human ovarian granulosa cells, follicle-stimulating hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and dibutyryl cAMP increased IGF-II mRNA, but corticotropin [adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)], chorionic somatomammotropin, growth hormone, prolactin, dexamethasone, estradiol, and progesterone had no effect. In cultured human fetal adrenal cells, ACTH and dibutyryl cAMP increased IGF-II mRNA accumulation, but human chorionic gonadotropin and angiotensin II did not. The same five size species of IGF-II mRNA were detected in transfer blots of RNA from granulosa cells and fetal adrenal cells, and all of these increased after hormonal stimuli. Dibutyryl cAMP also increased IGF-II mRNA accumulation in cultured human placental cells. Accumulation of mRNA for the cholesterol side-chain-cleavage monooxygenase [P450scc [corrected]; cholesterol, reduced-adrenal-ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (side-chain-cleaving), EC 1.14.15.6] was regulated in parallel with IGF-II mRNA in all these steroidogenic tissues. IGF-I mRNA was not detected in transfer blots of these RNAs, and the minimal amounts detected in dot blots showed no detectable change after any of the hormonal stimuli studied. The data indicate that the IGF-II gene is expressed in human steroidogenic tissues and is regulated by cAMP. These data suggest that IGF-II may act in an autocrine or paracrine fashion to stimulate the adrenal and gonadal growth stimulated by ACTH and gonadotropins, respectively. Images PMID:3031644

  4. Coupled Evolution of Transcription and mRNA Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Dori-Bachash, Mally; Shema, Efrat; Tirosh, Itay

    2011-01-01

    mRNA levels are determined by the balance between transcription and mRNA degradation, and while transcription has been extensively studied, very little is known regarding the regulation of mRNA degradation and its coordination with transcription. Here we examine the evolution of mRNA degradation rates between two closely related yeast species. Surprisingly, we find that around half of the evolutionary changes in mRNA degradation were coupled to transcriptional changes that exert opposite effects on mRNA levels. Analysis of mRNA degradation rates in an interspecific hybrid further suggests that opposite evolutionary changes in transcription and in mRNA degradation are mechanistically coupled and were generated by the same individual mutations. Coupled changes are associated with divergence of two complexes that were previously implicated both in transcription and in mRNA degradation (Rpb4/7 and Ccr4-Not), as well as with sequence divergence of transcription factor binding motifs. These results suggest that an opposite coupling between the regulation of transcription and that of mRNA degradation has shaped the evolution of gene regulation in yeast. PMID:21811398

  5. Bond cleavage of lignin model compounds into aromatic monomers using supported metal catalysts in supercritical water

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Aritomo; Mimura, Naoki; Shirai, Masayuki; Sato, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    More efficient use of lignin carbon is necessary for carbon-efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Conversion of lignin into valuable aromatic compounds requires the cleavage of C–O ether bonds and C–C bonds between lignin monomer units. The catalytic cleavage of C–O bonds is still challenging, and cleavage of C–C bonds is even more difficult. Here, we report cleavage of the aromatic C–O bonds in lignin model compounds using supported metal catalysts in supercritical water without adding hydrogen gas and without causing hydrogenation of the aromatic rings. The cleavage of the C–C bond in bibenzyl was also achieved with Rh/C as a catalyst. Use of this technique may greatly facilitate the conversion of lignin into valuable aromatic compounds. PMID:28387304

  6. Chaperone-Assisted Protein Folding Is Critical for Yellow Fever Virus NS3/4A Cleavage and Replication.

    PubMed

    Bozzacco, Leonia; Yi, Zhigang; Andreo, Ursula; Conklin, Claire R; Li, Melody M H; Rice, Charles M; MacDonald, Margaret R

    2016-01-06

    DNAJC14, a heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40) cochaperone, assists with Hsp70-mediated protein folding. Overexpressed DNAJC14 is targeted to sites of yellow fever virus (YFV) replication complex (RC) formation, where it interacts with viral nonstructural (NS) proteins and inhibits viral RNA replication. How RCs are assembled and the roles of chaperones in this coordinated process are largely unknown. We hypothesized that chaperones are diverted from their normal cellular protein quality control function to play similar roles during viral infection. Here, we show that DNAJC14 overexpression affects YFV polyprotein processing and alters RC assembly. We monitored YFV NS2A-5 polyprotein processing by the viral NS2B-3 protease in DNAJC14-overexpressing cells. Notably, DNAJC14 mutants that did not inhibit YFV replication had minimal effects on polyprotein processing, while overexpressed wild-type DNAJC14 affected the NS3/4A and NS4A/2K cleavage sites, resulting in altered NS3-to-NS3-4A ratios. This suggests that DNAJC14's folding activity normally modulates NS3/4A/2K cleavage events to liberate appropriate levels of NS3 and NS4A and promote RC formation. We introduced amino acid substitutions at the NS3/4A site to alter the levels of the NS3 and NS4A products and examined their effects on YFV replication. Residues with reduced cleavage efficiency did not support viral RNA replication, and only revertant viruses with a restored wild-type arginine or lysine residue at the NS3/4A site were obtained. We conclude that DNAJC14 inhibition of RC formation upon DNAJC14 overexpression is likely due to chaperone dysregulation and that YFV probably utilizes DNAJC14's cochaperone function to modulate processing at the NS3/4A site as a mechanism ensuring virus replication. Flaviviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that cause a wide range of illnesses. Upon host cell entry, the viral genome is translated on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes to produce a single polyprotein, which is

  7. Chaperone-Assisted Protein Folding Is Critical for Yellow Fever Virus NS3/4A Cleavage and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Bozzacco, Leonia; Yi, Zhigang; Andreo, Ursula; Conklin, Claire R.; Li, Melody M. H.; Rice, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNAJC14, a heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40) cochaperone, assists with Hsp70-mediated protein folding. Overexpressed DNAJC14 is targeted to sites of yellow fever virus (YFV) replication complex (RC) formation, where it interacts with viral nonstructural (NS) proteins and inhibits viral RNA replication. How RCs are assembled and the roles of chaperones in this coordinated process are largely unknown. We hypothesized that chaperones are diverted from their normal cellular protein quality control function to play similar roles during viral infection. Here, we show that DNAJC14 overexpression affects YFV polyprotein processing and alters RC assembly. We monitored YFV NS2A-5 polyprotein processing by the viral NS2B-3 protease in DNAJC14-overexpressing cells. Notably, DNAJC14 mutants that did not inhibit YFV replication had minimal effects on polyprotein processing, while overexpressed wild-type DNAJC14 affected the NS3/4A and NS4A/2K cleavage sites, resulting in altered NS3-to-NS3-4A ratios. This suggests that DNAJC14's folding activity normally modulates NS3/4A/2K cleavage events to liberate appropriate levels of NS3 and NS4A and promote RC formation. We introduced amino acid substitutions at the NS3/4A site to alter the levels of the NS3 and NS4A products and examined their effects on YFV replication. Residues with reduced cleavage efficiency did not support viral RNA replication, and only revertant viruses with a restored wild-type arginine or lysine residue at the NS3/4A site were obtained. We conclude that DNAJC14 inhibition of RC formation upon DNAJC14 overexpression is likely due to chaperone dysregulation and that YFV probably utilizes DNAJC14's cochaperone function to modulate processing at the NS3/4A site as a mechanism ensuring virus replication. IMPORTANCE Flaviviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that cause a wide range of illnesses. Upon host cell entry, the viral genome is translated on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes to produce a single

  8. Transcription elongation rate has a tissue-specific impact on alternative cleavage and polyadenylation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaochuan; Freitas, Jaime; Zheng, Dinghai; Oliveira, Marta S; Hoque, Mainul; Martins, Torcato; Henriques, Telmo; Tian, Bin; Moreira, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a mechanism that generates multiple mRNA isoforms with different 3'UTRs and/or coding sequences from a single gene. Here, using 3' region extraction and deep sequencing (3'READS), we have systematically mapped cleavage and polyadenylation sites (PASs) in Drosophila melanogaster , expanding the total repertoire of PASs previously identified for the species, especially those located in A-rich genomic sequences. Cis -element analysis revealed distinct sequence motifs around fly PASs when compared to mammalian ones, including the greater enrichment of upstream UAUA elements and the less prominent presence of downstream UGUG elements. We found that over 75% of mRNA genes in Drosophila melanogaster undergo APA. The head tissue tends to use distal PASs when compared to the body, leading to preferential expression of APA isoforms with long 3'UTRs as well as with distal terminal exons. The distance between the APA sites and intron location of PAS are important parameters for APA difference between body and head, suggesting distinct PAS selection contexts. APA analysis of the RpII215 C4 mutant strain, which harbors a mutant RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) with a slower elongation rate, revealed that a 50% decrease in transcriptional elongation rate leads to a mild trend of more usage of proximal, weaker PASs, both in 3'UTRs and in introns, consistent with the "first come, first served" model of APA regulation. However, this trend was not observed in the head, suggesting a different regulatory context in neuronal cells. Together, our data expand the PAS collection for Drosophila melanogaster and reveal a tissue-specific effect of APA regulation by RNAPII elongation rate. © 2017 Liu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  9. mRNA Cancer Vaccines-Messages that Prevail.

    PubMed

    Grunwitz, Christian; Kranz, Lena M

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade, mRNA became increasingly recognized as a versatile tool for the development of new innovative therapeutics. Especially for vaccine development, mRNA is of outstanding interest and numerous clinical trials have been initiated. Strikingly, all of these studies have proven that large-scale GMP production of mRNA is feasible and concordantly report a favorable safety profile of mRNA vaccines. Induction of T-cell immunity is a multi-faceted process comprising antigen acquisition, antigen processing and presentation, as well as immune stimulation. The effectiveness of mRNA vaccines is critically dependent on making the antigen(s) of interest available to professional antigen-presenting cells, especially DCs. Efficient delivery of mRNA into DCs in vivo remains a major challenge in the mRNA vaccine field. This review summarizes the principles of mRNA vaccines and highlights the importance of in vivo mRNA delivery and recent advances in harnessing their therapeutic potential.

  10. Cleavage of GSDMD by inflammatory caspases determines pyroptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianjin; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Kun; Shi, Xuyan; Wang, Yue; Huang, Huanwei; Zhuang, Yinghua; Cai, Tao; Wang, Fengchao; Shao, Feng

    2015-10-29

    Inflammatory caspases (caspase-1, -4, -5 and -11) are critical for innate defences. Caspase-1 is activated by ligands of various canonical inflammasomes, and caspase-4, -5 and -11 directly recognize bacterial lipopolysaccharide, both of which trigger pyroptosis. Despite the crucial role in immunity and endotoxic shock, the mechanism for pyroptosis induction by inflammatory caspases is unknown. Here we identify gasdermin D (Gsdmd) by genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 nuclease screens of caspase-11- and caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis in mouse bone marrow macrophages. GSDMD-deficient cells resisted the induction of pyroptosis by cytosolic lipopolysaccharide and known canonical inflammasome ligands. Interleukin-1β release was also diminished in Gsdmd(-/-) cells, despite intact processing by caspase-1. Caspase-1 and caspase-4/5/11 specifically cleaved the linker between the amino-terminal gasdermin-N and carboxy-terminal gasdermin-C domains in GSDMD, which was required and sufficient for pyroptosis. The cleavage released the intramolecular inhibition on the gasdermin-N domain that showed intrinsic pyroptosis-inducing activity. Other gasdermin family members were not cleaved by inflammatory caspases but shared the autoinhibition; gain-of-function mutations in Gsdma3 that cause alopecia and skin defects disrupted the autoinhibition, allowing its gasdermin-N domain to trigger pyroptosis. These findings offer insight into inflammasome-mediated immunity/diseases and also change our understanding of pyroptosis and programmed necrosis.

  11. Enzymatic carotenoid cleavage in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola).

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Peter; Watanabe, Naoharu; Winterhalter, Peter

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents the first description of an enzyme fraction exhibiting carotenoid cleavage activity isolated from fruit skin of Averrhoa carambola. Partial purification of the enzyme could be achieved by acetone precipitation, ultrafiltration (300 kDa, 50 kDa), isoelectric focusing (pH 3-10) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (7.5%). In this way, an enzymatically active protein fraction was obtained, consisting of four proteins in the molecular weight range of between 12 and 90 kDa. Using beta-carotene as substrate, the enzyme activity was detected spectrophotometrically at 505 nm. The main reaction product, detected by GC analysis, was beta-ionone. This proves that the isolated enzymes are closely related to aroma metabolism and release of star fruit. The time constant of the reaction was 16.6 min, the Michaelis Constant K(m)=3.6 micromol 1(-1) and the maximum velocity V(max)=10.5 x 10(-3) micromol l(-1) s(-1) mg((Protein))(-1). The optimum temperature was 45 degrees C.

  12. A Cleavage-potentiated Fragment of Tear Lacritin Is Bactericidal*

    PubMed Central

    McKown, Robert L.; Coleman Frazier, Erin V.; Zadrozny, Kaneil K.; Deleault, Andrea M.; Raab, Ronald W.; Ryan, Denise S.; Sia, Rose K.; Lee, Jae K.; Laurie, Gordon W.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are important as the first line of innate defense, through their tendency to disrupt bacterial membranes or intracellular pathways and potentially as the next generation of antibiotics. How they protect wet epithelia is not entirely clear, with most individually inactive under physiological conditions and many preferentially targeting Gram-positive bacteria. Tears covering the surface of the eye are bactericidal for Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Here we narrow much of the bactericidal activity to a latent C-terminal fragment in the prosecretory mitogen lacritin and report that the mechanism combines membrane permeabilization with rapid metabolic changes, including reduced levels of dephosphocoenzyme A, spermidine, putrescine, and phosphatidylethanolamines and elevated alanine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, proline, glycine, lysine, serine, glutamate, cadaverine, and pyrophosphate. Thus, death by metabolic stress parallels cellular attempts to survive. Cleavage-dependent appearance of the C-terminal cationic amphipathic α-helix is inducible within hours by Staphylococcus epidermidis and slowly by another mechanism, in a chymotrypsin- or leupeptin protease-inhibitable manner. Although bactericidal at low micromolar levels, within a biphasic 1–10 nm dose optimum, the same domain is mitogenic and cytoprotective for epithelia via a syndecan-1 targeting mechanism dependent on heparanase. Thus, the C terminus of lacritin is multifunctional by dose and proteolytic processing and appears to play a key role in the innate protection of the eye, with wider potential benefit elsewhere as lacritin flows from exocrine secretory cells. PMID:24942736

  13. Interactome disassembly during apoptosis occurs independent of caspase cleavage.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nichollas E; Rogers, Lindsay D; Prudova, Anna; Brown, Nat F; Fortelny, Nikolaus; Overall, Christopher M; Foster, Leonard J

    2017-01-12

    Protein-protein interaction networks (interactomes) define the functionality of all biological systems. In apoptosis, proteolysis by caspases is thought to initiate disassembly of protein complexes and cell death. Here we used a quantitative proteomics approach, protein correlation profiling (PCP), to explore changes in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial interactomes in response to apoptosis initiation as a function of caspase activity. We measured the response to initiation of Fas-mediated apoptosis in 17,991 interactions among 2,779 proteins, comprising the largest dynamic interactome to date. The majority of interactions were unaffected early in apoptosis, but multiple complexes containing known caspase targets were disassembled. Nonetheless, proteome-wide analysis of proteolytic processing by terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS) revealed little correlation between proteolytic and interactome changes. Our findings show that, in apoptosis, significant interactome alterations occur before and independently of caspase activity. Thus, apoptosis initiation includes a tight program of interactome rearrangement, leading to disassembly of relatively few, select complexes. These early interactome alterations occur independently of cleavage of these protein by caspases. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  14. DELAY OF CLEAVAGE OF THE ARBACIA EGG BY ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Harold F.; Price, Judith P.

    1950-01-01

    While our data do not permit us to state the exact locus or mode of action of ultraviolet radiation in the Arbacia egg, certain general conclusions may be reached. The amount of delay of cleavage of these eggs is determined by two principal factors: (1) The extent of an effect, resulting from photochemical action induced by ultraviolet radiation, which is reversible in a biological sense, the reversibility not being directly dependent upon the process of cell division. (2) The sensitivity of the cell division process to the effects of the ultraviolet-induced photochemical reaction. This factor varies with the stage of cell division, the cell being insensitive during a period corresponding to most of mitosis. It seems likely that these findings may apply to cell division in general, but, since the quantitative relationships observed must, in this case, reflect the integration of two semi-independent factors, the over-all picture may appear quite different for different kinds of cells. PMID:15410486

  15. Diaphanous gene mutation affects spiral cleavage and chirality in snails

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Reiko; Fujikura, Kohei; Abe, Masanori; Hosoiri, Yuji; Asakawa, Shuichi; Shimizu, Miho; Umeda, Shin; Ichikawa, Futaba; Takahashi, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    L-R (left and right) symmetry breaking during embryogenesis and the establishment of asymmetric body plan are key issues in developmental biology, but the onset including the handedness-determining gene locus still remains unknown. Using pure dextral (DD) and sinistral (dd) strains of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis as well as its F2 through to F10 backcrossed lines, the single handedness-determining-gene locus was mapped by genetic linkage analysis, BAC cloning and chromosome walking. We have identified the actin-related diaphanous gene Lsdia1 as the strongest candidate. Although the cDNA and derived amino acid sequences of the tandemly duplicated Lsdia1 and Lsdia2 genes are very similar, we could discriminate the two genes/proteins in our molecular biology experiments. The Lsdia1 gene of the sinistral strain carries a frameshift mutation that abrogates full-length LsDia1 protein expression. In the dextral strain, it is already translated prior to oviposition. Expression of Lsdia1 (only in the dextral strain) and Lsdia2 (in both chirality) decreases after the 1-cell stage, with no asymmetric localization throughout. The evolutionary relationships among body handedness, SD/SI (spiral deformation/spindle inclination) at the third cleavage, and expression of diaphanous proteins are discussed in comparison with three other pond snails (L. peregra, Physa acuta and Indoplanorbis exustus). PMID:27708420

  16. Determination of Key Residues for Catalysis and RNA Cleavage Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Barbas, Ana; Matos, Rute G.; Amblar, Mónica; López-Viñas, Eduardo; Gomez-Puertas, Paulino; Arraiano, Cecília M.

    2009-01-01

    RNase II is the prototype of a ubiquitous family of enzymes that are crucial for RNA metabolism. In Escherichia coli this protein is a single-stranded-specific 3′-exoribonuclease with a modular organization of four functional domains. In eukaryotes, the RNase II homologue Rrp44 (also known as Dis3) is the catalytic subunit of the exosome, an exoribonuclease complex essential for RNA processing and decay. In this work we have performed a functional characterization of several highly conserved residues located in the RNase II catalytic domain to address their precise role in the RNase II activity. We have constructed a number of RNase II mutants and compared their activity and RNA binding to the wild type using different single- or double-stranded substrates. The results presented in this study substantially improve the RNase II model for RNA degradation. We have identified the residues that are responsible for the discrimination of cleavage of RNA versus DNA. We also show that the Arg-500 residue present in the RNase II active site is crucial for activity but not for RNA binding. The most prominent finding presented is the extraordinary catalysis observed in the E542A mutant that turns RNase II into a “super-enzyme.” PMID:19458082

  17. Cleavage of the vesicular glutamate transporters under excitotoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Andrea C; Gomes, João R; Catarino, Tatiana; Mele, Miranda; Fernandez, Pedro; Inácio, Ana R; Bahr, Ben A; Santos, Armanda E; Wieloch, Tadeusz; Carvalho, Ana Luísa; Duarte, Carlos B

    2011-12-01

    Glutamate is loaded into synaptic vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs), and alterations in the transporters expression directly regulate neurotransmitter release. We investigated changes in VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 protein levels after ischemic and excitotoxic insults. The results show that VGLUT2 is cleaved by calpains after excitotoxic stimulation of hippocampal neurons with glutamate, whereas VGLUT1 is downregulated to a lower extent. VGLUT2 was also cleaved by calpains after oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD), and downregulated after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and intrahippocampal injection of kainate. In contrast, VGLUT1 was not affected after OGD. Incubation of isolated synaptic vesicles with recombinant calpain also induced VGLUT2 cleavage, with a little effect observed for VGLUT1. N-terminal sequencing analysis showed that calpain cleaves VGLUT2 in the C-terminus, at Asn(534) and Lys(542). The truncated GFP-VGLUT2 forms were found to a great extent in non-synaptic regions along neurites, when compared to GFP-VGLUT2. These findings show that excitotoxic and ischemic insults downregulate VGLUT2, which is likely to affect glutamatergic transmission and cell death, especially in the neonatal period when the transporter is expressed at higher levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. CYP3A5 mRNA degradation by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Busi, Florent; Cresteil, Thierry

    2005-09-01

    The total CYP3A5 mRNA level is significantly greater in carriers of the CYP3A5*1 allele than in CYP3A5*3 homozygotes. Most of the CYP3A5*3 mRNA includes an intronic sequence (exon 3B) containing premature termination codons (PTCs) between exons 3 and 4. Two models were used to investigate the degradation of CYP3A5 mRNA: a CYP3A5 minigene consisting of CYP3A5 exons and introns 3 to 6 transfected into MCF7 cells, and the endogenous CYP3A5 gene expressed in HepG2 cells. The 3'-untranslated region g.31611C>T mutation has no effect on CYP3A5 mRNA decay. Splice variants containing exon 3B were more unstable than wild-type (wt) CYP3A5 mRNA. Cycloheximide prevents the recognition of PTCs by ribosomes: in transfected MCF7 and HepG2 cells, cycloheximide slowed down the degradation of exon 3B-containing splice variants, suggesting the participation of nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). When PTCs were removed from pseudoexon 3B or when UPF1 small interfering RNA was used to impair the NMD mechanism, the decay of the splice variant was reduced, confirming the involvement of NMD in the degradation of CYP3A5 splice variants. Induction could represent a source of variability for CYP3A5 expression and could modify the proportion of splice variants. The extent of CYP3A5 induction was investigated after exposure to barbiturates or steroids: CYP3A4 was markedly induced in a pediatric population compared with untreated neonates. However, no effect could be detected in either the total CYP3A5 RNA, the proportion of splice variant RNA, or the protein level. Therefore, in these carriers, induction is unlikely to switch on the phenotypic CYP3A5 expression in carriers of CYP3A5*3/*3.

  19. Replacement of all arginine residues with canavanine in MazF-bs mRNA interferase changes its specificity.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yojiro; Park, Jung-Ho; Mao, Lili; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Inouye, Masayori

    2013-03-15

    Replacement of a specific amino acid residue in a protein with nonnatural analogues is highly challenging because of their cellular toxicity. We demonstrate for the first time the replacement of all arginine (Arg) residues in a protein with canavanine (Can), a toxic Arg analogue. All Arg residues in the 5-base specific (UACAU) mRNA interferase from Bacillus subtilis (MazF-bs(arg)) were replaced with Can by using the single-protein production system in Escherichia coli. The resulting MazF-bs(can) gained a 6-base recognition sequence, UACAUA, for RNA cleavage instead of the 5-base sequence, UACAU, for MazF-bs(arg). Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that all Arg residues were replaced with Can. The present system offers a novel approach to create new functional proteins by replacing a specific amino acid in a protein with its analogues.

  20. Characterization of Bleomycin-Mediated Cleavage of a Hairpin DNA Library

    PubMed Central

    Segerman, Zachary J.; Roy, Basab; Hecht, Sidney M.

    2013-01-01

    A study of BLM A5 was conducted using a previously isolated library of hairpin DNAs found to bind strongly to metal free BLM. The ability of Fe(II)•BLM to effect cleavage on both the 3' and 5'-arms of the hairpin DNAs was characterized. The strongly bound DNAs were found to be efficient substrates for Fe•BLM A5-mediated hairpin DNA cleavage. Surprisingly, the most prevalent site of BLM-mediated cleavage was found to be the 5′-AT-3′ dinucleotide sequence. This dinucleotide sequence, and other sequences generally not cleaved well by BLM when examined using arbitrarily chosen DNA substrates, were apparent when examining the library of ten hairpin DNAs. In total, 132 sites of DNA cleavage were produced by exposure of the hairpin DNA library to Fe•BLM A5. The existence of multiple sites of cleavage on both the 3′- and 5′-arms of the hairpin DNAs suggested that some of these might be double-strand cleavage events. Accordingly, an assay was developed with which to test the propensity of the hairpin DNAs to undergo double-strand DNA damage. One hairpin DNA was characterized using this method, and gave results consistent with earlier reports of double-strand DNA cleavage, but with a sequence selectivity different from those reported previously. PMID:23834496

  1. External Guide Sequences Targeting the aac(6′)-Ib mRNA Induce Inhibition of Amikacin Resistance▿

    PubMed Central

    Bistué, Alfonso J. C. Soler; Ha, Hongphuc; Sarno, Renee; Don, Michelle; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.

    2007-01-01

    The dissemination of AAC(6′)-I-type acetyltransferases have rendered amikacin and other aminoglycosides all but useless in some parts of the world. Antisense technologies could be an alternative to extend the life of these antibiotics. External guide sequences are short antisense oligoribonucleotides that induce RNase P-mediated cleavage of a target RNA by forming a precursor tRNA-like complex. Thirteen-nucleotide external guide sequences complementary to locations within five regions accessible for interaction with antisense oligonucleotides in the mRNA that encodes AAC(6′)-Ib were analyzed. While small variations in the location targeted by different external guide sequences resulted in big changes in efficiency of binding to native aac(6′)-Ib mRNA, most of them induced high levels of RNase P-mediated cleavage in vitro. Recombinant plasmids coding for selected external guide sequences were introduced into Escherichia coli harboring aac(6′)-Ib, and the transformant strains were tested to determine their resistance to amikacin. The two external guide sequences that showed the strongest binding efficiency to the mRNA in vitro, EGSC3 and EGSA2, interfered with expression of the resistance phenotype at different degrees. Growth curve experiments showed that E. coli cells harboring a plasmid coding for EGSC3, the external guide sequence with the highest mRNA binding affinity in vitro, did not grow for at least 300 min in the presence of 15 μg of amikacin/ml. EGSA2, which had a lower mRNA-binding affinity in vitro than EGSC3, inhibited the expression of amikacin resistance at a lesser level; growth of E. coli harboring a plasmid coding for EGSA2, in the presence of 15 μg of amikacin/ml was undetectable for 200 min but reached an optical density at 600 nm of 0.5 after 5 h of incubation. Our results indicate that the use of external guide sequences could be a viable strategy to preserve the efficacy of amikacin. PMID:17387154

  2. A complex structure in the mRNA of Tf1 is recognized and cleaved to generate the primer of reverse transcription.

    PubMed

    Lin, J H; Levin, H L

    1997-01-15

    All retroviruses and LTR-containing retrotransposons are thought to require specific tRNA molecules to serve as primers of reverse transcription. An exception is the LTR-containing retrotransposon Tf1, isolated from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Instead of requiring a tRNA, the reverse transcriptase of Tf1 uses the first 11 bases of the Tf1 transcript as the primer for reverse transcription. The primer is generated by a cleavage that occurs between bases 11 and 12 of the Tf1 mRNA. Sequence analysis of the 5' untranslated region of the Tf1 mRNA resulted in the identification of a region with the potential to form an RNA structure of 89 bases that included the primer binding site and the first 11 bases of the Tf1 mRNA. Systematic mutagenesis of this region revealed 34 single-point mutants in the structure that resulted in reduced transposition activity. The defects in transposition correlated with reduced level of Tf1 reverse transcripts as determined by DNA blot analysis. Evidence that the RNA structure did form in vivo included the result that strains with second site mutations that restored complementarity resulted in increased levels of reverse transcripts and Tf1 transposition. The majority of the mutants defective for reverse transcription were unable to cleave the Tf1 mRNA between bases 11 and 12. These data indicate that formation of an extensive RNA structure was required for the cleavage reaction that generated the primer for Tf1 reverse transcription.

  3. Comparative Analysis of mRNA Isoform Expression in Cardiac Hypertrophy and Development Reveals Multiple Post-Transcriptional Regulatory Modules

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Yeon; Li, Wencheng; Zheng, Dinghai; Zhai, Peiyong; Zhao, Yun; Matsuda, Takahisa; Vatner, Stephen F.; Sadoshima, Junichi; Tian, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is enlargement of the heart in response to physiological or pathological stimuli, chiefly involving growth of myocytes in size rather than in number. Previous studies have shown that the expression pattern of a group of genes in hypertrophied heart induced by pressure overload resembles that at the embryonic stage of heart development, a phenomenon known as activation of the “fetal gene program”. Here, using a genome-wide approach we systematically defined genes and pathways regulated in short- and long-term cardiac hypertrophy conditions using mice with transverse aortic constriction (TAC), and compared them with those regulated at different stages of embryonic and postnatal development. In addition, exon-level analysis revealed widespread mRNA isoform changes during cardiac hypertrophy resulting from alternative usage of terminal or internal exons, some of which are also developmentally regulated and may be attributable to decreased expression of Fox-1 protein in cardiac hypertrophy. Genes with functions in certain pathways, such as cell adhesion and cell morphology, are more likely to be regulated by alternative splicing. Moreover, we found 3′UTRs of mRNAs were generally shortened through alternative cleavage and polyadenylation in hypertrophy, and microRNA target genes were generally de-repressed, suggesting coordinated mechanisms to increase mRNA stability and protein production during hypertrophy. Taken together, our results comprehensively delineated gene and mRNA isoform regulation events in cardiac hypertrophy and revealed their relations to those in development, and suggested that modulation of mRNA isoform expression plays an importance role in heart remodeling under pressure overload. PMID:21799842

  4. Functional analysis of coordinated cleavage in V(D)J recombination.

    PubMed

    Kim, D R; Oettinger, M A

    1998-08-01

    V(D)J recombination in vivo requires a pair of signals with distinct spacer elements of 12 and 23 bp that separate conserved heptamer and nonamer motifs. Cleavage in vitro by the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins can occur at individual signals when the reaction buffer contains Mn2+, but cleavage is restricted to substrates containing two signals when Mg2+ is the divalent cation. By using a novel V(D)J cleavage substrate, we show that while the RAG proteins alone establish a moderate preference for a 12/23 pair versus a 12/12 pair, a much stricter dependence of cleavage on the 12/23 signal pair is produced by the inclusion of HMG1 and competitor double-stranded DNA. The competitor DNA serves to inhibit the cleavage of substrates carrying a 12/12 or 23/23 pair, as well as the cutting at individual signals in 12/23 substrates. We show that a 23/33 pair is more efficiently recombined than a 12/33 pair, suggesting that the 12/23 rule can be generalized to a requirement for spacers that differ from each other by a single helical turn. Furthermore, we suggest that a fixed spatial orientation of signals is required for cleavage. In general, the same signal variants that can be cleaved singly can function under conditions in which a signal pair is required. However, a chemically modified substrate with one noncleavable signal enables us to show that formation of a functional cleavage complex is mechanistically separable from the cleavage reaction itself and that although cleavage requires a pair of signals, cutting does not have to occur simultaneously at both. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the mechanism of V(D)J recombination and the generation of chromosomal translocations.

  5. Site-specific creation of uridine from cytidine in apolipoprotein B mRNA editing.

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, P E; Navaratnam, N; Greeve, J C; Scott, J

    1991-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein (apo) B mRNA is edited in a tissue specific reaction, to convert glutamine codon 2153 (CAA) to a stop translation codon. The RNA editing product templates and hybridises as uridine, but the chemical nature of this reaction and the physical identity of the product are unknown. After editing in vitro of [32P] labelled RNA, we are able to demonstrate the production of uridine from cytidine; [alpha 32P] cytidine triphosphate incorporated into RNA gave rise to [32P] uridine monophosphate after editing in vitro, hydrolysis with nuclease P1 and thin layer chromatography using two separation systems. By cleaving the RNA into ribonuclease T1 fragments, we show that uridine is produced only at the authentic editing site and is produced in quantities that parallel an independent primer extension assay for editing. We conclude that apo B mRNA editing specifically creates a uridine from a cytidine. These observations are inconsistent with the incorporation of a uridine nucleotide by any polymerase, which would replace the alpha-phosphate and so rule out a model of endonucleolytic excision and repair as the mechanism for the production of uridine. Although transamination and transglycosylation remain to be formally excluded as reaction mechanisms our results argue strongly in favour of the apo B mRNA editing enzyme as a site-specific cytidine deaminase. Images PMID:2030940

  6. Implications of caspase-dependent proteolytic cleavage of cyclin A1 in DNA damage-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Sang Hyeok; Seo, Sung-Keum; An, Sungkwan

    Highlights: • Caspase-1 mediates doxorubicin-induced downregulation of cyclin A1. • Active caspase-1 effectively cleaved cyclin A1 at D165. • Cyclin A1 expression is involved in DNA damage-induced cell death. - Abstract: Cyclin A1 is an A-type cyclin that directly binds to CDK2 to regulate cell-cycle progression. In the present study, we found that doxorubicin decreased the expression of cyclin A1 at the protein level in A549 lung cancer cells, while markedly downregulating its mRNA levels. Interestingly, doxorubicin upregulated caspase-1 in a concentration-dependent manner, and z-YAVD-fmk, a specific inhibitor of caspase-1, reversed the doxorubicin-induced decrease in cyclin A1 in A549 lungmore » cancer and MCF7 breast cancer cells. Active caspase-1 effectively cleaved cyclin A1 at D165 into two fragments, which in vitro cleavage assays showed were further cleaved by caspase-3. Finally, we found that overexpression of cyclin A1 significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin, and knockdown of cyclin A1 by RNA interference enhanced the sensitivity of cells to ionizing radiation. Our data suggest a new mechanism for the downregulation of cyclin A1 by DNA-damaging stimuli that could be intimately involved in the cell death induced by DNA damage-inducing stimuli, including doxorubicin and ionizing radiation.« less

  7. Massive Analysis of Rice Small RNAs: Mechanistic Implications of Regulated MicroRNAs and Variants for Differential Target RNA Cleavage[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Dong-Hoon; Park, Sunhee; Zhai, Jixian; Gurazada, Sai Guna Ranjan; De Paoli, Emanuele; Meyers, Blake C.; Green, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Small RNAs have a variety of important roles in plant development, stress responses, and other processes. They exert their influence by guiding mRNA cleavage, translational repression, and chromatin modification. To identify previously unknown rice (Oryza sativa) microRNAs (miRNAs) and those regulated by environmental stress, 62 small RNA libraries were constructed from rice plants and used for deep sequencing with Illumina technology. The libraries represent several tissues from control plants and plants subjected to different environmental stress treatments. More than 94 million genome-matched reads were obtained, resulting in more than 16 million distinct small RNA sequences. This allowed an evaluation of ~400 annotated miRNAs with current criteria and the finding that among these, ~150 had small interfering RNA–like characteristics. Seventy-six new miRNAs were found, and miRNAs regulated in response to water stress, nutrient stress, or temperature stress were identified. Among the new examples of miRNA regulation were members of the same miRNA family that were differentially regulated in different organs and had distinct sequences Some of these distinct family members result in differential target cleavage and provide new insight about how an agriculturally important rice phenotype could be regulated in the panicle. This high-resolution analysis of rice miRNAs should be relevant to plant miRNAs in general, particularly in the Poaceae. PMID:22158467

  8. RISC-Target Interaction: Cleavage and Translational Suppression

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Arjen; Mols, Johann; Han, Jiahuai

    2008-01-01

    Summary Small RNA molecules have been known and utilized to suppress gene expression for more than a decade. The discovery that these small RNA molecules are endogenously expressed in many organisms and have a critical role in controlling gene expression have led to the arising of a whole new field of research. Termed small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA (miRNA) these ~22 nt RNA molecules have the capability to suppress gene expression through various mechanisms once they are incorporated in the multi-protein RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) and interact with their target mRNA. This review introduces siRNAs and microRNAs in a historical perspective and focuses on the key molecules in RISC, structural properties and mechanisms underlying the process of small RNA regulated post-transcriptional suppression of gene expression. PMID:18692607

  9. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication via HBV DNA cleavage by Cas9 from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Miaoxian; Gong, Mingxing; Xu, Ying; Xie, Cantao; Deng, Haohui; Li, Xueying; Wu, Hongkai; Wang, Zhanhui

    2018-04-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is difficult to cure due to the presence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Accumulating evidence indicates that the CRISPR/Cas9 system effectively disrupts HBV genome, including cccDNA, in vitro and in vivo. However, efficient delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 system to the liver or hepatocytes using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector remains challenging due to the large size of Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp). The recently identified Cas9 protein from Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) is smaller than SpCas9 and thus is able to be packaged into the AAV vector. To examine the efficacy of SaCas9 system on HBV genome destruction, we designed 5 guide RNAs (gRNAs) that targeted different HBV genotypes, 3 of which were shown to be effective. The SaCas9 system significantly reduced HBV antigen expression, as well as pgRNA and cccDNA levels, in Huh7, HepG2.2.15 and HepAD38 cells. The dual expression of gRNAs/SaCas9 in these cell lines resulted in more efficient HBV genome cleavage. In the mouse model, hydrodynamic injection of gRNA/SaCas9 plasmids resulted in significantly lower levels of HBV protein expression. We also delivered the SaCas9 system into mice with persistent HBV replication using an AAV vector. Both the AAV vector and the mRNA of Cas9 could be detected in the C3H mouse liver cells. Decreased hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HBV DNA and pgRNA levels were observed when a higher titer of AAV was injected, although this decrease was not significantly different from the control. In summary, the SaCas9 system accurately and efficiently targeted the HBV genome and inhibited HBV replication both in vitro and in vivo. The system was delivered by an AAV vector and maybe used as a novel therapeutic strategy against chronic HBV infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Endonuclease G promotes mitochondrial genome cleavage and replication

    PubMed Central

    Wiehe, Rahel Stefanie; Gole, Boris; Chatre, Laurent; Walther, Paul; Calzia, Enrico; Ricchetti, Miria; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Endonuclease G (EndoG) is a nuclear-encoded endonuclease, mostly localised in mitochondria. In the nucleus EndoG participates in site-specific cleavage during replication stress and genome-wide DNA degradation during apoptosis. However, the impact of EndoG on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) metabolism is poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether EndoG is involved in the regulation of mtDNA replication and removal of aberrant copies. We applied the single-cell mitochondrial Transcription and Replication Imaging Protocol (mTRIP) and PCR-based strategies on human cells after knockdown/knockout and re-expression of EndoG. Our analysis revealed that EndoG stimulates both mtDNA replication initiation and mtDNA depletion, the two events being interlinked and dependent on EndoG's nuclease activity. Stimulation of mtDNA replication by EndoG was independent of 7S DNA processing at the replication origin. Importantly, both mtDNA-directed activities of EndoG were promoted by oxidative stress. Inhibition of base excision repair (BER) that repairs oxidative stress-induced DNA damage unveiled a pronounced effect of EndoG on mtDNA removal, reminiscent of recently discovered links between EndoG and BER in the nucleus. Altogether with the downstream effects on mitochondrial transcription, protein expression, redox status and morphology, this study demonstrates that removal of damaged mtDNA by EndoG and compensatory replication play a critical role in mitochondria homeostasis. PMID:29719607

  11. Regulation of bone sialoprotein mRNA by steroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    In this report we demonstrate an increase in the steady-state level of bone sialoprotein (BSP) mRNA in rat calvaria and a rat osteosarcoma cell line (ROS 17/2.8) after treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone. In contrast, 1.25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 reduced the amount of BSP mRNA in calvaria and inhibited the dexamethasone induction in ROS 17/2.8 cells. The increase in BSP mRNA is most likely due to an increase in the transcriptional rate. The stability of mRNA was unchanged after dexamethasone treatment with a half-life of approximately 5 h. Nuclear transcription experiments with nuclei isolated from ROS 17/2.8 cells showed an increased BSP mRNA synthesis in cells treated with dexamethasone. PMID:2592421

  12. CELFish ways to modulate mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    St. Louis, Irina Vlasova; Dickson, Alexa M.; Bohjanen, Paul R.; Wilusz, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    The CELF family of RNA-binding proteins regulates many steps of mRNA metabolism. Although their best characterized function is in pre-mRNA splice site choice, CELF family members are also powerful modulators of mRNA decay. In this review we focus on the different modes of regulation that CELF proteins employ to mediate mRNA decay by binding to GU-rich elements. After starting with an overview of the importance of CELF proteins during development and disease pathogenesis, we then review the mRNA networks and cellular pathways these proteins regulate and the mechanisms by which they influence mRNA decay. Finally, we discuss how CELF protein activity is modulated during development and in response to cellular signals. We conclude by highlighting the priorities for new experiments in this field. PMID:23328451

  13. The presence of HBV mRNA in the fertilized in vitro embryo of HBV patients confirms vertical transmission of HBV via the ovum.

    PubMed

    Ye, F; Jin, Y; Kong, Y; Shi, J Z; Qiu, H T; Zhang, X; Zhang, S L; Lin, S M

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to confirm that vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) can occur via the infected ovum. Specimens studied were obtained from discarded test-tube embryos from mothers with chronic HBV infection who had received in vitro fertilization treatment. Single-cell reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect HBV mRNA in the embryos. HBV mRNA was detected in the cleavage embryos of patients with chronic HBV infection, with a detection rate of 13.2% (5/38). The level of serum HBV DNA was not related to the HBV mRNA positivity rates in embryos. In this study, HBV mRNA was detected in test-tube embryos from HBV-infected mothers who had received in vitro fertilization treatment. This confirms the theory of vertical transmission of HBV via the ovum, thereby providing an important theoretical basis for further study on the mechanism of HBV vertical transmission, influencing factors and blocking measures.

  14. Dehydration stress extends mRNA 3′ untranslated regions with noncoding RNA functions in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hai-Xi; Li, Yan; Niu, Qi-Wen; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2017-01-01

    The 3′ untranslated regions (3′ UTRs) of mRNAs play important roles in the regulation of mRNA localization, translation, and stability. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) generates mRNAs with different 3′ UTRs, but the involvement of this process in stress response has not yet been clarified. Here, we report that a subset of stress-related genes exhibits 3′ UTR extensions of their mRNAs during dehydration stress. These extended 3′ UTRs have characteristics of long noncoding RNAs and likely do not interact with miRNAs. Functional studies using T-DNA insertion mutants reveal that they can act as antisense transcripts to repress expression levels of sense genes from the opposite strand or can activate the transcription or lead to read-through transcription of their downstream genes. Further analysis suggests that transcripts with 3′ UTR extensions have weaker poly(A) signals than those without 3′ UTR extensions. Finally, we show that their biogenesis is partially dependent on a trans-acting factor FPA. Taken together, we report that dehydration stress could induce transcript 3′ UTR extensions and elucidate a novel function for these stress-induced 3′ UTR extensions as long noncoding RNAs in the regulation of their neighboring genes. PMID:28522613

  15. Differential restriction patterns of mRNA decay factor AUF1 during picornavirus infections.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Andrea L; Semler, Bert L

    2014-07-01

    During infection by picornaviruses, the cellular environment is modified to favour virus replication. This includes the modification of specific host proteins, including the recently discovered viral proteinase cleavage of mRNA decay factor AU-rich binding factor 1 (AUF1). This cellular RNA-binding protein was shown previously to act as a restriction factor during poliovirus, rhinovirus and coxsackievirus infection. During infection by these viruses, AUF1 relocalizes to the cytoplasm and is cleaved by the viral 3C/3CD proteinase. In this study, we demonstrated that replication of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a picornavirus belonging to the genus Cardiovirus, is AUF1 independent. During EMCV infection, AUF1 relocalized to the cytoplasm; however, unlike what is seen during enterovirus infections, AUF1 was not cleaved to detectable levels, even at late times after infection. This suggests that AUF1 does not act broadly as an inhibitor of picornavirus infections but may instead act as a selective restriction factor targeting members of the genus Enterovirus. © 2014 The Authors.

  16. Site-Specific Pyrolysis Induced Cleavage at Aspartic Acid Residue in Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaofeng; Basile, Franco

    2011-01-01

    A simple and site-specific non-enzymatic method based on pyrolysis has been developed to cleave peptides and proteins. Pyrolytic cleavage was found to be specific and rapid as it induced a cleavage at the C-terminal side of aspartic acid in the temperature range of 220–250 °C in 10 seconds. Electrospray Ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem-MS (MS/MS) were used to characterize and identify pyrolysis cleavage products, confirming that sequence information is conserved after the pyrolysis process in both peptides and protein tested. This suggests that pyrolysis-induced cleavage at aspartyl residues can be used as a rapid protein digestion procedure for the generation of sequence specific protein biomarkers. PMID:17388620

  17. Antisense targeting of 3' end elements involved in DUX4 mRNA processing is an efficient therapeutic strategy for facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: a new gene-silencing approach.

    PubMed

    Marsollier, Anne-Charlotte; Ciszewski, Lukasz; Mariot, Virginie; Popplewell, Linda; Voit, Thomas; Dickson, George; Dumonceaux, Julie

    2016-04-15

    Defects in mRNA 3'end formation have been described to alter transcription termination, transport of the mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, stability of the mRNA and translation efficiency. Therefore, inhibition of polyadenylation may lead to gene silencing. Here, we choose facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) as a model to determine whether or not targeting key 3' end elements involved in mRNA processing using antisense oligonucleotide drugs can be used as a strategy for gene silencing within a potentially therapeutic context. FSHD is a gain-of-function disease characterized by the aberrant expression of the Double homeobox 4 (DUX4) transcription factor leading to altered pathogenic deregulation of multiple genes in muscles. Here, we demonstrate that targeting either the mRNA polyadenylation signal and/or cleavage site is an efficient strategy to down-regulate DUX4 expression and to decrease the abnormally high-pathological expression of genes downstream of DUX4. We conclude that targeting key functional 3' end elements involved in pre-mRNA to mRNA maturation with antisense drugs can lead to efficient gene silencing and is thus a potentially effective therapeutic strategy for at least FSHD. Moreover, polyadenylation is a crucial step in the maturation of almost all eukaryotic mRNAs, and thus all mRNAs are virtually eligible for this antisense-mediated knockdown strategy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Nanorelief of the natural cleavage surface of triglycine sulphate crystals with substitutional and interstitial impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Belugina, N. V.; Gainutdinov, R. V.; Tolstikhina, A. L., E-mail: alla@ns.crys.ras.ru

    2011-11-15

    Ferroelectric triglycine sulphate crystals (TGS) with substitutional (LADTGS+ADP, DTGS) and interstitial (Cr) impurities have been studied by atomic-force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray fluorescence. The nanorelief parameters of the mirror cleavage TGS(010) surface have been measured with a high accuracy. A correlation between the crystal defect density in the bulk and the cleavage surface nanorelief is revealed at the submicrometer level.

  19. Condensed tannins: A novel rearrangement of procyanidins and prodelphinidins in thiolytic cleavage

    Treesearch

    G. Wayne McGraw; Jan P. Steynberg; Richard W. Hemingway

    1993-01-01

    Conditions commonly used for the thiolytic cleavage of interflavanoid bonds of condensed tannins also result in cleavage of the C4 to C10 bond of flavan units. Subsequenet lectrophilic attack of the C4 carbocation on the C2' or C6' of the B-ring, and loss of phloroglucinol (the A-ring), result in the formation of a mixture of 1,3-dithiobenzyl-2,4,s,6-...

  20. Specific detection of the cleavage activity of mycobacterial enzymes using a quantum dot based DNA nanosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepsen, Morten Leth; Harmsen, Charlotte; Godbole, Adwait Anand; Nagaraja, Valakunja; Knudsen, Birgitta R.; Ho, Yi-Ping

    2015-12-01

    We present a quantum dot based DNA nanosensor specifically targeting the cleavage step in the reaction cycle of the essential DNA-modifying enzyme, mycobacterial topoisomerase I. The design takes advantages of the unique photophysical properties of quantum dots to generate visible fluorescence recovery upon specific cleavage by mycobacterial topoisomerase I. This report, for the first time, demonstrates the possibility to quantify the cleavage activity of the mycobacterial enzyme without the pre-processing sample purification or post-processing signal amplification. The cleavage induced signal response has also proven reliable in biological matrices, such as whole cell extracts prepared from Escherichia coli and human Caco-2 cells. It is expected that the assay may contribute to the clinical diagnostics of bacterial diseases, as well as the evaluation of treatment outcomes.We present a quantum dot based DNA nanosensor specifically targeting the cleavage step in the reaction cycle of the essential DNA-modifying enzyme, mycobacterial topoisomerase I. The design takes advantages of the unique photophysical properties of quantum dots to generate visible fluorescence recovery upon specific cleavage by mycobacterial topoisomerase I. This report, for the first time, demonstrates the possibility to quantify the cleavage activity of the mycobacterial enzyme without the pre-processing sample purification or post-processing signal amplification. The cleavage induced signal response has also proven reliable in biological matrices, such as whole cell extracts prepared from Escherichia coli and human Caco-2 cells. It is expected that the assay may contribute to the clinical diagnostics of bacterial diseases, as well as the evaluation of treatment outcomes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Characterization of the QD-based DNA Nanosensor. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06326d

  1. Surface Antigens Common to Mouse Cleavage Embryos and Primitive Teratocarcinoma Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Artzt, Karen; Dubois, Philippe; Bennett, Dorothea; Condamine, Hubert; Babinet, Charles; Jacob, François

    1973-01-01

    Syngeneic antisera have been produced in mouse strain 129/Sv-CP males against the primitive cells of teratocarcinoma. These sera react specifically with the primitive cells and are negative on various types of differentiated teratoma cells derived from the same original tumor. They are negative on all other mouse cells tested, with the exception of male germ cells and cleavage-stage embryos. Thus, teratoma cells possess cell-surface antigens in common with normal cleavage-stage embryos. Images PMID:4355379

  2. Effects of flexibility of the α2 chain of type I collagen on collagenase cleavage.

    PubMed

    Mekkat, Arya; Poppleton, Erik; An, Bo; Visse, Robert; Nagase, Hideaki; Kaplan, David L; Brodsky, Barbara; Lin, Yu-Shan

    2018-05-12

    Cleavage of collagen by collagenases such as matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) is a key step in development, tissue remodeling, and tumor proliferation. The abundant heterotrimeric type I collagen composed of two α1(I) chains and one α2(I) chain is efficiently cleaved by MMP-1 at a unique site in the triple helix, a process which may be initiated by local unfolding within the peptide chains. Atypical homotrimers of the α1(I) chain, found in embryonic and cancer tissues, are very resistant to MMP cleavage. To investigate MMP-1 cleavage, recombinant homotrimers were constructed with sequences from the MMP cleavage regions of human collagen chains inserted into a host bacterial collagen protein system. All triple-helical constructs were cleaved by MMP-1, with α2(I) homotrimers cleaved efficiently at a rate similar to that seen for α1(II) and α1(III) homotrimers, while α1(I) homotrimers were cleaved at a much slower rate. The introduction of destabilizing Gly to Ser mutations within the human collagenase susceptible region of the α2(I) chain did not interfere with MMP-1 cleavage. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated a greater degree of transient hydrogen bond breaking in α2(I) homotrimers compared with α1(I) homotrimers at the MMP-1 cleavage site, and showed an extensive disruption of hydrogen bonding in the presence of a Gly to Ser mutation, consistent with chymotrypsin digestion results. This study indicates that α2(I) homotrimers are susceptible to MMP-1, proves that the presence of an α1(I) chain is not a requirement for α2(I) cleavage, and supports the importance of local unfolding of α2(I) in collagenase cleavage. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. On the temperature independence of statistical model parameters for cleavage fracture in ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Guian; Lei, Wei-Sheng; Niffenegger, M.; González-Albuixech, V. F.

    2018-04-01

    The work relates to the effect of temperature on the model parameters in local approaches (LAs) to cleavage fracture. According to a recently developed LA model, the physical consensus of plastic deformation being a prerequisite to cleavage fracture enforces any LA model of cleavage fracture to observe initial yielding of a volume element as its threshold stress state to incur cleavage fracture in addition to the conventional practice of confining the fracture process zone within the plastic deformation zone. The physical consistency of the new LA model to the basic LA methodology and the differences between the new LA model and other existing models are interpreted. Then this new LA model is adopted to investigate the temperature dependence of LA model parameters using circumferentially notched round tensile specimens. With the published strength data as input, finite element (FE) calculation is conducted for elastic-perfectly plastic deformation and the realistic elastic-plastic hardening, respectively, to provide stress distributions for model calibration. The calibration results in temperature independent model parameters. This leads to the establishment of a 'master curve' characteristic to synchronise the correlation between the nominal strength and the corresponding cleavage fracture probability at different temperatures. This 'master curve' behaviour is verified by strength data from three different steels, providing a new path to calculate cleavage fracture probability with significantly reduced FE efforts.

  4. Argonaute-based programmable RNase as a tool for cleavage of highly-structured RNA.

    PubMed

    Dayeh, Daniel M; Cantara, William A; Kitzrow, Jonathan P; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Nakanishi, Kotaro

    2018-06-12

    The recent identification and development of RNA-guided enzymes for programmable cleavage of target nucleic acids offers exciting possibilities for both therapeutic and biotechnological applications. However, critical challenges such as expensive guide RNAs and inability to predict the efficiency of target recognition, especially for highly-structured RNAs, remain to be addressed. Here, we introduce a programmable RNA restriction enzyme, based on a budding yeast Argonaute (AGO), programmed with cost-effective 23-nucleotide (nt) single-stranded DNAs as guides. DNA guides offer the advantage that diverse sequences can be easily designed and purchased, enabling high-throughput screening to identify optimal recognition sites in the target RNA. Using this DNA-induced slicing complex (DISC) programmed with 11 different guide DNAs designed to span the sequence, sites of cleavage were identified in the 352-nt human immunodeficiency virus type 1 5'-untranslated region. This assay, coupled with primer extension and capillary electrophoresis, allows detection and relative quantification of all DISC-cleavage sites simultaneously in a single reaction. Comparison between DISC cleavage and RNase H cleavage reveals that DISC not only cleaves solvent-exposed sites, but also sites that become more accessible upon DISC binding. This study demonstrates the advantages of the DISC system for programmable cleavage of highly-structured, functional RNAs.

  5. Structure of the cleavage-activated prefusion form of the parainfluenza virus 5 fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Welch, Brett D; Liu, Yuanyuan; Kors, Christopher A; Leser, George P; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Lamb, Robert A

    2012-10-09

    The paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) enters cells by fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane through the concerted action of the fusion (F) protein and the receptor binding protein hemagglutinin-neuraminidase. The F protein folds initially to form a trimeric metastable prefusion form that is triggered to undergo large-scale irreversible conformational changes to form the trimeric postfusion conformation. It is thought that F refolding couples the energy released with membrane fusion. The F protein is synthesized as a precursor (F0) that must be cleaved by a host protease to form a biologically active molecule, F1,F2. Cleavage of F protein is a prerequisite for fusion and virus infectivity. Cleavage creates a new N terminus on F1 that contains a hydrophobic region, known as the FP, which intercalates target membranes during F protein refolding. The crystal structure of the soluble ectodomain of the uncleaved form of PIV5 F is known; here we report the crystal structure of the cleavage-activated prefusion form of PIV5 F. The structure shows minimal movement of the residues adjacent to the protease cleavage site. Most of the hydrophobic FP residues are buried in the uncleaved F protein, and only F103 at the newly created N terminus becomes more solvent-accessible after cleavage. The conformational freedom of the charged arginine residues that compose the protease recognition site increases on cleavage of F protein.

  6. Recycling of protein subunits during DNA translocation and cleavage by Type I restriction-modification enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Michelle; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The Type I restriction-modification enzymes comprise three protein subunits; HsdS and HsdM that form a methyltransferase (MTase) and HsdR that associates with the MTase and catalyses Adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent DNA translocation and cleavage. Here, we examine whether the MTase and HsdR components can ‘turnover’ in vitro, i.e. whether they can catalyse translocation and cleavage events on one DNA molecule, dissociate and then re-bind a second DNA molecule. Translocation termination by both EcoKI and EcoR124I leads to HsdR dissociation from linear DNA but not from circular DNA. Following DNA cleavage, the HsdR subunits appear unable to dissociate even though the DNA is linear, suggesting a tight interaction with the cleaved product. The MTases of EcoKI and EcoAI can dissociate from DNA following either translocation or cleavage and can initiate reactions on new DNA molecules as long as free HsdR molecules are available. In contrast, the MTase of EcoR124I does not turnover and additional cleavage of circular DNA is not observed by inclusion of RecBCD, a helicase–nuclease that degrades the linear DNA product resulting from Type I cleavage. Roles for Type I restriction endonuclease subunit dynamics in restriction alleviation in the cell are discussed. PMID:21712244

  7. Structure of the cleavage-activated prefusion form of the parainfluenza virus 5 fusion protein

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Brett D.; Liu, Yuanyuan; Kors, Christopher A.; Leser, George P.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) enters cells by fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane through the concerted action of the fusion (F) protein and the receptor binding protein hemagglutinin-neuraminidase. The F protein folds initially to form a trimeric metastable prefusion form that is triggered to undergo large-scale irreversible conformational changes to form the trimeric postfusion conformation. It is thought that F refolding couples the energy released with membrane fusion. The F protein is synthesized as a precursor (F0) that must be cleaved by a host protease to form a biologically active molecule, F1,F2. Cleavage of F protein is a prerequisite for fusion and virus infectivity. Cleavage creates a new N terminus on F1 that contains a hydrophobic region, known as the FP, which intercalates target membranes during F protein refolding. The crystal structure of the soluble ectodomain of the uncleaved form of PIV5 F is known; here we report the crystal structure of the cleavage-activated prefusion form of PIV5 F. The structure shows minimal movement of the residues adjacent to the protease cleavage site. Most of the hydrophobic FP residues are buried in the uncleaved F protein, and only F103 at the newly created N terminus becomes more solvent-accessible after cleavage. The conformational freedom of the charged arginine residues that compose the protease recognition site increases on cleavage of F protein. PMID:23012473

  8. The Vasa homolog RDE-12 engages target mRNA and multiple Argonaute proteins to promote RNAi in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Shirayama, Masaki; Stanney, William; Gu, Weifeng; Seth, Meetu; Mello, Craig C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Argonaute proteins (AGOs) are key nuclease effectors of RNA interference (RNAi) [1]. Although purified AGOs can mediate a single round of target-RNA cleavage in vitro, accessory factors are required for short-interfering (si)RNAs loading and to achieve multiple-target turnover [2, 3]. To identify AGO co-factors we immunoprecipitated the C. elegans AGO WAGO-1, which engages amplified small RNAs during RNAi [4]. These studies identified a robust association between WAGO-1 and a conserved Vasa ATPase-related protein RDE-12. rde-12 mutants are deficient in RNAi including viral suppression, and fail to produce amplified secondary siRNAs and certain endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs). RDE-12 co-localizes with WAGO-1 in germline P-granules and in cytoplasmic and peri-nuclear foci in somatic cells. These findings and our genetic studies suggest that RDE-12 is first recruited to target mRNA by upstream AGOs (RDE-1 and ERGO-1) where it promotes small-RNA amplification and/or WAGO-1 loading. Downstream of these events, RDE-12 forms an RNase-resistant (target mRNA-independent) complex with WAGO-1 and may thus have additional functions in target mRNA surveillance and silencing. PMID:24684931

  9. The Vasa Homolog RDE-12 engages target mRNA and multiple argonaute proteins to promote RNAi in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Shirayama, Masaki; Stanney, William; Gu, Weifeng; Seth, Meetu; Mello, Craig C

    2014-04-14

    Argonaute (AGO) proteins are key nuclease effectors of RNAi. Although purified AGOs can mediate a single round of target RNA cleavage in vitro, accessory factors are required for small interfering RNA (siRNA) loading and to achieve multiple-target turnover. To identify AGO cofactors, we immunoprecipitated the C. elegans AGO WAGO-1, which engages amplified small RNAs during RNAi. These studies identified a robust association between WAGO-1 and a conserved Vasa ATPase-related protein RDE-12. rde-12 mutants are deficient in RNAi, including viral suppression, and fail to produce amplified secondary siRNAs and certain endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs). RDE-12 colocalizes with WAGO-1 in germline P granules and in cytoplasmic and perinuclear foci in somatic cells. These findings and our genetic studies suggest that RDE-12 is first recruited to target mRNA by upstream AGOs (RDE-1 and ERGO-1), where it promotes small RNA amplification and/or WAGO-1 loading. Downstream of these events, RDE-12 forms an RNase-resistant (target mRNA-independent) complex with WAGO-1 and may thus have additional functions in target mRNA surveillance and silencing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation of anti-mouse caspase-12 mRNA hammerhead ribozyme and identification of its activity in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shan; Xie, Qing; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xia-Qiu; Jin, You-Xin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To prepare and identify specific anti-mouse caspase-12 hammerhead ribozymes in vitro, in order to select a more effective ribozyme against mouse caspase-12 as a potential tool to rescue cells from endoplasmic reticulum stress induced apoptosis. METHODS: Two hammerhead ribozymes directed separately against 138 and 218 site of nucleotide of mouse caspase-12 mRNA were designed by computer software, and their DNA sequences were synthesized. The synthesized ribozymes were cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector-neorpBSKU6 and embedded in U6 SnRNA context for further study. Mouse caspase-12 gene segment was cloned into PGEM-T vector under the control of T7 RNA polymerase promoter (containing gene sequence from positions nt 41 to nt 894) as target. In vitro transcription both the ribozymes and target utilize T7 promoter. The target was labeled with [α-32P]UTP, while ribozymes were not labeled. After gel purification the RNAs were dissolved in RNase free water. Ribozyme and target were incubated for 90 min at 37°C in reaction buffer (40 mmol/L Tris-HCL, pH 7.5, 10 mmol/L Mg2+). Molar ratio of ribozyme vs target was 30:1. Samples were analyzed on 6% PAGE (containing 8 mol/L urea). RESULTS: Both caspase-12 and ribozyme gene sequences were successfully cloned into expression vector confirmed by sequencing. Ribozymes and caspase-12 mRNA were obtained by in vitro transcription. Cleavage experiment showed that in a physiological similar condition (37°C, pH 7.5), Rz138 and Rz218 both cleaved targets at predicted sites, for Rz138 the cleavage efficiency was about 100%, for Rz218 the value was 36.66%. CONCLUSION: Rz138 prepared in vitro can site specific cleave mouse caspase-12 mRNA with an excellent efficiency. It shows a potential to suppress the expression of caspase-12 in vivo, thus provided a new way to protect cells from ER stress induced apoptosis. PMID:15996037

  11. mRNA vaccines — a new era in vaccinology

    PubMed Central

    Pardi, Norbert; Hogan, Michael J.; Porter, Frederick W.; Weissman, Drew

    2018-01-01

    mRNA vaccines represent a promising alternative to conventional vaccine approaches because of their high potency, capacity for rapid development and potential for low-cost manufacture and safe administration. However, their application has until recently been restricted by the instability and inefficient in vivo delivery of mRNA. Recent technological advances have now largely overcome these issues, and multiple mRNA vaccine platforms against infectious diseases and several types of cancer have demonstrated encouraging results in both animal models and humans. This Review provides a detailed overview of mRNA vaccines and considers future directions and challenges in advancing this promising vaccine platform to widespread therapeutic use. PMID:29326426

  12. A-site ordered quadruple perovskite oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youwen, Long

    2016-07-01

    The A-site ordered perovskite oxides with chemical formula display many intriguing physical properties due to the introduction of transition metals at both A‧ and B sites. Here, research on the recently discovered intermetallic charge transfer occurring between A‧-site Cu and B-site Fe ions in LaCu3Fe4O12 and its analogues is reviewed, along with work on the magnetoelectric multiferroicity observed in LaMn3Cr4O12 with cubic perovskite structure. The Cu-Fe intermetallic charge transfer leads to a first-order isostructural phase transition accompanied by drastic variations in magnetism and electrical transport properties. The LaMn3Cr4O12 is a novel spin-driven multiferroic system with strong magnetoelectric coupling effects. The compound is the first example of cubic perovskite multiferroics to be found. It opens up a new arena for studying unexpected multiferroic mechanisms. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB921500), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07030300), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574378).

  13. Determining if an mRNA is a Substrate of Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Marcus J O

    2017-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a conserved eukaryotic quality control mechanism which triggers decay of mRNAs harboring premature translation termination codons. In this chapter, I describe methods for monitoring the influence of NMD on mRNA abundance and decay rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The descriptions include detailed methods for growing yeast cells, total RNA isolation, and Northern blotting. Although the chapter focuses on NMD, the methods can be easily adapted to assess the effect of other mRNA decay pathways.

  14. Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL) proteolytic cleavage as a terminator of activatory intracellular signals.

    PubMed

    Arbulo-Echevarria, Mikel M; Muñoz-Miranda, Juan Pedro; Caballero-García, Andrés; Poveda-Díaz, José L; Fernández-Ponce, Cecilia; Durán-Ruiz, M Carmen; Miazek, Arkadiusz; García-Cózar, Francisco; Aguado, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    Non-T cell activation linker is an adaptor protein that is tyrosine phosphorylated upon cross-linking of immune receptors expressed on B lymphocytes, NK cells, macrophages, basophils, or mast cells, allowing the recruitment of cytosolic mediators for downstream signaling pathways. Fas receptor acts mainly as a death receptor, and when cross-linked with Fas ligand, many proteins are proteolytically cleaved, including several signaling molecules in T and B cells. Fas receptor triggering also interferes with TCR intracellular signals, probably by means of proteolytic cleavage of several adaptor proteins. We have previously found that the adaptor linker for activation of T cells, evolutionarily related to non-T cell activation linker, is cleaved upon proapoptotic stimuli in T lymphocytes and thymocytes, in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent fashion. Here, we describe non-T cell activation linker proteolytic cleavage triggered in human B cells and monocytes by Fas cross-linking and staurosporine treatment. Non-T cell activation linker is cleaved, producing an N-terminal fragment of ∼22 kDa, and such cleavage is abrogated in the presence of caspase 8/granzyme B and caspase 3 inhibitors. Moreover, we have identified an aspartic acid residue at which non-T cell activation linker is cleaved, which similar to linker for activation of T cells, this aspartic acid residue is located close to tyrosine and serine residues, suggesting an interdependence of phosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage. Consistently, induction of non-T cell activation linker phosphorylation by pervanadate inhibits its cleavage. Interestingly, the truncated isoform of non-T cell activation linker, generated after cleavage, has a decreased signaling ability when compared with the full-length molecule. Altogether, our results suggest that cleavage of transmembrane adaptors constitutes a general mechanism for signal termination of immune receptors. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  15. Yeast ribonuclease III uses a network of multiple hydrogen bonds for RNA binding and cleavage.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Mathieu; Abou Elela, Sherif

    2008-08-19

    Members of the bacterial RNase III family recognize a variety of short structured RNAs with few common features. It is not clear how this group of enzymes supports high cleavage fidelity while maintaining a broad base of substrates. Here we show that the yeast orthologue of RNase III (Rnt1p) uses a network of 2'-OH-dependent interactions to recognize substrates with different structures. We designed a series of bipartite substrates permitting the distinction between binding and cleavage defects. Each substrate was engineered to carry a single or multiple 2'- O-methyl or 2'-fluoro ribonucleotide substitutions to prevent the formation of hydrogen bonds with a specific nucleotide or group of nucleotides. Interestingly, introduction of 2'- O-methyl ribonucleotides near the cleavage site increased the rate of catalysis, indicating that 2'-OH are not required for cleavage. Substitution of nucleotides in known Rnt1p binding site with 2'- O-methyl ribonucleotides inhibited cleavage while single 2'-fluoro ribonucleotide substitutions did not. This indicates that while no single 2'-OH is essential for Rnt1p cleavage, small changes in the substrate structure are not tolerated. Strikingly, several nucleotide substitutions greatly increased the substrate dissociation constant with little or no effect on the Michaelis-Menten constant or rate of catalysis. Together, the results indicate that Rnt1p uses a network of nucleotide interactions to identify its substrate and support two distinct modes of binding. One mode is primarily mediated by the dsRNA binding domain and leads to the formation of stable RNA/protein complex, while the other requires the presence of the nuclease and N-terminal domains and leads to RNA cleavage.

  16. Expression of calmodulin mRNA in rat olfactory neuroepithelium.

    PubMed

    Biffo, S; Goren, T; Khew-Goodall, Y S; Miara, J; Margolis, F L

    1991-04-01

    A calmodulin (CaM) cDNA was isolated by differential hybridization screening of a lambda gt10 library prepared from rat olfactory mucosa. This cDNA fragment, containing most of the open reading frame of the rat CaMI gene, was subcloned and used to characterize steady-state expression of CaM mRNA in rat olfactory neuroepithelium and bulb. Within the bulb mitral cells are the primary neuronal population expressing CaM mRNA. The major CaM mRNA expressed in the olfactory mucosa is 1.7 kb with smaller contributions from mRNAs of 4.0 and 1.4 kb. CaM mRNA was primarily associated with the olfactory neurons and, despite the cellular complexity of the tissue and the known involvement of CaM in diverse cellular processes, was only minimally evident in sustentacular cells, gland cells or respiratory epithelium. Following bulbectomy CaM mRNA declines in the olfactory neuroepithelium as does olfactory marker protein (OMP) mRNA. In contrast to the latter, CaM mRNA makes a partial recovery by one month after surgery. These results, coupled with those from in situ hybridization, indicate that CaM mRNA is expressed in both mature and immature olfactory neurons. The program regulating CaM gene expression in olfactory neurons is distinct from those controlling expression of B50/GAP43 in immature, or OMP in mature, neurons respectively.

  17. Role of mRNA Methylation in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    position of adenosine (m6A) is a post-transcriptional modification of mRNA. However, little is known regarding the biological meanings of this epigenetic ...its level is altered in various cancer cell lines. FTO, the fat mass and obesity associated gene, was recently shown as an m6A demethylase. FTO gene...mRNA. However, little is known regarding the biological meanings of this epigenetic regulation of mRNA. Recent technological advances have made it

  18. Thrombin specificity. Requirement for apolar amino acids adjacent to the thrombin cleavage site of polypeptide substrate.

    PubMed

    Chang, J Y

    1985-09-02

    alpha-Thrombin cleavage of 30 polypeptide hormones and their derivatives were analysed by quantitative amino-terminal analysis. The polypeptides included secretin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, cholecystokinin fragment, dynorphin A, somatostatins, gastrin-releasing peptide, calcitonins and human parathyroid hormone fragment. Most of them were selected mainly on the ground that they contain sequence structures homologous to the well known tripeptide substrates of alpha-thrombin. All selected polypeptides have one single major cleavage site and both Arg-Xaa and Lys-Xaa bonds were found to be selectively cleaved by alpha-thrombin. Under fixed conditions (1 nmol polypeptide/0.5 NIH unit alpha-thrombin in 20 microliters of 50 mM ammonium bicarbonate at 25 degrees C), the time required for 50% cleavage ranges from less than 1 min to longer than 24 h. Heparin invariably enhanced thrombin cleavage on all polypeptide analysed. The optimum cleavage site for alpha-thrombin has the structures of (a) P4-P3-Pro-Arg-P1'-P2', where P3 and P4 are hydrophobic amino acid and P1', P2' are nonacidic amino acids and (b) P2-Arg-P1', where P2 or P1' are Gly. The requirement for hydrophobic P3 and P4 was further demonstrated by the drastic decrease of thrombin cleavage rates in both gastrin-releasing peptide and calcitonins after chemical removal of hydrophobic P3 and P4 residues. The requirement for nonacidic P1' and P2' residues was demonstrated by the drastic increase of thrombin cleavage rates in both calcitonin and parathyroid hormone fragments, after specific chemical modification of acidic P1' and P2' residues. These findings confirm the importance of hydrophobic P2-P4 residues for thrombin specificity and provide new evidence to indicate that apolar P1' and P2' residues are also crucial for thrombin specificity. It is concluded that specific cleavage of polypeptides by alpha-thrombin can be reasonably predicted and that chemical modification can be a useful tool in enhancing

  19. Changes in Contact Area in Meniscus Horizontal Cleavage Tears Subjected to Repair and Resection.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Brandon S; Walley, Kempland C; Okajima, Stephen; Manoukian, Ohan S; Perez-Viloria, Miguel; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Ramappa, Arun J; Nazarian, Ara

    2017-03-01

    To assess the changes in tibiofemoral contact pressure and contact area in human knees with a horizontal cleavage tear before and after treatment. Ten human cadaveric knees were tested. Pressure sensors were placed under the medial meniscus and the knees were loaded at twice the body weight for 20 cycles at 0°, 10°, and 20° of flexion. Contact area and pressure were recorded for the intact meniscus, the meniscus with a horizontal cleavage tear, after meniscal repair, after partial meniscectomy (single leaflet), and after subtotal meniscectomy (double leaflet). The presence of a horizontal cleavage tear significantly increased average peak contact pressure and reduced effective average tibiofemoral contact area at all flexion angles tested compared with the intact state (P < .03). There was approximately a 70% increase in contact pressure after creation of the horizontal cleavage tear. Repairing the horizontal cleavage tear restored peak contact pressures and areas to within 15% of baseline, statistically similar to the intact state at all angles tested (P < .05). Partial meniscectomy and subtotal meniscectomy significantly increased average peak contact pressure and reduced average contact area at all degrees of flexion compared with the intact state (P < .05). The presence of a horizontal cleavage tear in the medial meniscus causes a significant reduction in contact area and a significant elevation in contact pressure. These changes may accelerate joint degeneration. A suture-based repair of these horizontal cleavage tears returns the contact area and contact pressure to nearly normal, whereas both partial and subtotal meniscectomy lead to significant reductions in contact area and significant elevations in contact pressure within the knee. Repairing horizontal cleavage tears may lead to improved clinical outcomes by preserving meniscal tissue and the meniscal function. Understanding contact area and peak contact pressure resulting from differing strategies

  20. Autotransporter structure reveals intra-barrel cleavage followed by conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Travis J; Dautin, Nathalie; Lukacik, Petra; Bernstein, Harris D; Buchanan, Susan K

    2007-12-01

    Autotransporters are virulence factors produced by Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of two domains, an N-terminal 'passenger' domain and a C-terminal beta-domain. beta-domains form beta-barrel structures in the outer membrane while passenger domains are translocated into the extracellular space. In some autotransporters, the two domains are separated by proteolytic cleavage. Using X-ray crystallography, we solved the 2.7-A structure of the post-cleavage state of the beta-domain of EspP, an autotransporter produced by Escherichia coli strain O157:H7. The structure consists of a 12-stranded beta-barrel with the passenger domain-beta-domain cleavage junction located inside the barrel pore, approximately midway between the extracellular and periplasmic surfaces of the outer membrane. The structure reveals an unprecedented intra-barrel cleavage mechanism and suggests that two conformational changes occur in the beta-domain after cleavage, one conferring increased stability on the beta-domain and another restricting access to the barrel pore.

  1. Novel Functional Complexity of Polycystin-1 by GPS Cleavage In Vivo: Role in Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kurbegovic, Almira; Kim, Hyunho; Xu, Hangxue; Yu, Shengqiang; Cruanès, Julie; Maser, Robin L.; Boletta, Alessandra; Trudel, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Polycystin-1 (Pc1) cleavage at the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) proteolytic site (GPS) is required for normal kidney morphology in humans and mice. We found a complex pattern of endogenous Pc1 forms by GPS cleavage. GPS cleavage generates not only the heterodimeric cleaved full-length Pc1 (Pc1cFL) in which the N-terminal fragment (NTF) remains noncovalently associated with the C-terminal fragment (CTF) but also a novel (Pc1) form (Pc1deN) in which NTF becomes detached from CTF. Uncleaved Pc1 (Pc1U) resides primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas both Pc1cFL and Pc1deN traffic through the secretory pathway in vivo. GPS cleavage is not a prerequisite, however, for Pc1 trafficking in vivo. Importantly, Pc1deN is predominantly found at the plasma membrane of renal epithelial cells. By functional genetic complementation with five Pkd1 mouse models, we discovered that CTF plays a crucial role in Pc1deN trafficking. Our studies support GPS cleavage as a critical regulatory mechanism of Pc1 biogenesis and trafficking for proper kidney development and homeostasis. PMID:24958103

  2. Propeptide cleavage conditions sortilin/neurotensin receptor-3 for ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Munck Petersen, C; Nielsen, M S; Jacobsen, C; Tauris, J; Jacobsen, L; Gliemann, J; Moestrup, S K; Madsen, P

    1999-02-01

    We recently reported the isolation and sequencing of sortilin, a new putative sorting receptor that binds receptor-associated protein (RAP). The luminal N-terminus of sortilin comprises a consensus sequence for cleavage by furin, R41WRR44, which precedes a truncation originally found in sortilin isolated from human brain. We now show that the truncation results from cellular processing. Sortilin is synthesized as a proform which, in late Golgi compartments, is converted to the mature receptor by furin-mediated cleavage of a 44 residue N-terminal propeptide. We further demonstrate that the propeptide exhibits pH-dependent high affinity binding to fully processed sortilin, that the binding is competed for by RAP and the newly discovered sortilin ligand neurotensin, and that prevention of propeptide cleavage essentially prevents binding of RAP and neurotensin. The findings evidence that the propeptide sterically hinders ligands from gaining access to overlapping binding sites in prosortilin, and that cleavage and release of the propeptide preconditions sortilin for full functional activity. Although proteolytic processing is involved in the maturation of several receptors, the described exposure of previously concealed ligand-binding sites after furin-mediated cleavage of propeptide represents a novel mechanism in receptor activation.

  3. Propeptide cleavage conditions sortilin/neurotensin receptor-3 for ligand binding.

    PubMed Central

    Munck Petersen, C; Nielsen, M S; Jacobsen, C; Tauris, J; Jacobsen, L; Gliemann, J; Moestrup, S K; Madsen, P

    1999-01-01

    We recently reported the isolation and sequencing of sortilin, a new putative sorting receptor that binds receptor-associated protein (RAP). The luminal N-terminus of sortilin comprises a consensus sequence for cleavage by furin, R41WRR44, which precedes a truncation originally found in sortilin isolated from human brain. We now show that the truncation results from cellular processing. Sortilin is synthesized as a proform which, in late Golgi compartments, is converted to the mature receptor by furin-mediated cleavage of a 44 residue N-terminal propeptide. We further demonstrate that the propeptide exhibits pH-dependent high affinity binding to fully processed sortilin, that the binding is competed for by RAP and the newly discovered sortilin ligand neurotensin, and that prevention of propeptide cleavage essentially prevents binding of RAP and neurotensin. The findings evidence that the propeptide sterically hinders ligands from gaining access to overlapping binding sites in prosortilin, and that cleavage and release of the propeptide preconditions sortilin for full functional activity. Although proteolytic processing is involved in the maturation of several receptors, the described exposure of previously concealed ligand-binding sites after furin-mediated cleavage of propeptide represents a novel mechanism in receptor activation. PMID:9927419

  4. Protein cleavage strategies for an improved analysis of the membrane proteome

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Frank; Poetsch, Ansgar

    2006-01-01

    Background Membrane proteins still remain elusive in proteomic studies. This is in part due to the distribution of the amino acids lysine and arginine, which are less frequent in integral membrane proteins and almost absent in transmembrane helices. As these amino acids are cleavage targets for the commonly used protease trypsin, alternative cleavage conditions, which should improve membrane protein analysis, were tested by in silico digestion for the three organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, and Corynebacterium glutamicum as hallmarks for eukaryotes, archea and eubacteria. Results For the membrane proteomes from all three analyzed organisms, we identified cleavage conditions that achieve better sequence and proteome coverage than trypsin. Greater improvement was obtained for bacteria than for yeast, which was attributed to differences in protein size and GRAVY. It was demonstrated for bacteriorhodopsin that the in silico predictions agree well with the experimental observations. Conclusion For all three examined organisms, it was found that a combination of chymotrypsin and staphylococcal peptidase I gave significantly better results than trypsin. As some of the improved cleavage conditions are not more elaborate than trypsin digestion and have been proven useful in practice, we suppose that the cleavage at both hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids should facilitate in general the analysis of membrane proteins for all organisms. PMID:16512920

  5. Global identification of target recognition and cleavage by the Microprocessor in human ES cells

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Youngmo; Lim, Do-Hwan; Kim, Augustine; Seo, Jae Hong; Lee, Young Sik; Song, Hoseok; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The Microprocessor plays an essential role in canonical miRNA biogenesis by facilitating cleavage of stem-loop structures in primary transcripts to yield pre-miRNAs. Although miRNA biogenesis has been extensively studied through biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, it has yet to be addressed to what extent the current miRNA biogenesis models hold true in intact cells. To address the issues of in vivo recognition and cleavage by the Microprocessor, we investigate RNAs that are associated with DGCR8 and Drosha by using immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing. Here, we present global protein–RNA interactions with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity. Our data indicate that precursors of canonical miRNAs and miRNA-like hairpins are the major substrates of the Microprocessor. As a result of specific enrichment of nascent cleavage products, we are able to pinpoint the Microprocessor-mediated cleavage sites per se at single-nucleotide resolution. Unexpectedly, a 2-nt 3′ overhang invariably exists at the ends of cleaved bases instead of nascent pre-miRNAs. Besides canonical miRNA precursors, we find that two novel miRNA-like structures embedded in mRNAs are cleaved to yield pre-miRNA-like hairpins, uncoupled from miRNA maturation. Our data provide a framework for in vivo Microprocessor-mediated cleavage and a foundation for experimental and computational studies on miRNA biogenesis in living cells. PMID:25326327

  6. Real-time single cell analysis of Bid cleavage and translocation in cisplatin-induced apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Xing, Da; Pei, Yihui; Chen, Wei R.

    2007-02-01

    Cancer cell apoptosis can be induced by cisplatin, an efficient anticancer agent. However, its mechanism is not fully understood. Bcl-2 homology domain (BH) 3-only proteins couple stress signals to mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. Calpain-mediated cleavage of the BH3-only protein Bid into a 14 kD truncated protein (tBid) has been implicated in cisplatin-induced apoptotic pathway. We utilized a recombinant fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) Bid probe to determine the kinetics of Bid cleavage during cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ASTC-a-1 cells. The cells were also co-transfected with Bid-CFP and DsRed-Mit to dynamically detect tBid translocation. Cells showed a cleavage of the Bid-FRET probe occurring at about 4-5 h after treated with 20 µM cisplatin. Cleavage of the Bid-FRET probe coincided with a translocation of tBid from the cytosolic to the mitochondria, and the translocation lasted about 1.5 h. Using real-time single-cell analysis, we first observed the kinetics of Bid cleavage and translocation to mitochondria in living cells during cisplatin-induced apoptosis.

  7. miRNA164-directed cleavage of ZmNAC1 confers lateral root development in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Guo, Guanghui; Guo, Weiwei; Guo, Ganggang; Tong, Dan; Ni, Zhongfu; Sun, Qixin; Yao, Yingyin

    2012-11-21

    MicroRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding target mRNA, which leads to cleavage or translational inhibition. The NAC proteins, which include NAM, ATAF, and CUC, are a plant-specific transcription factor family with diverse roles in development and stress regulation. It has been reported that miR164 negatively regulates NAC1 expression, which in turn affects lateral root development in Arabidopsis; however, little is known about the involvement of the maize NAC family and miR164 in lateral root development. We collected 175 maize transcripts with NAC domains. Of these, 7 ZmNACs were putative targets for regulation by miR164. We isolated one gene, called TC258020 (designated ZmNAC1) from 2 maize inbred lines, 87-1 and Zong3. ZmNAC1 had a high expression level in roots and showed higher abundance (1.8 fold) in Zong3 relative to 87-1, which had less lateral roots than Zong3. There was a significant correlation between the expression level of ZmNAC1 and the lateral root density in the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Transgenic Arabidopsis that overexpressed ZmNAC1 had increased lateral roots in comparison to the wild type. These findings suggest that ZmNAC1 played a significant role in lateral root development. An allelic expression assay showed that trans-regulatory elements were the dominant mediators of ZmNAC1 differential expression in 87-1 and Zong3, and further analysis revealed that miR164 was a trans-element that guided the cleavage of endogenous ZmNAC1 mRNA. Both mature miR164 and miR164 precursors had higher expression in 87-1 than Zong3, which was the opposite of the expression pattern of ZmNAC1. Additionally, the allelic assay showed that the cis-regulatory element most likely affected Zm-miR164b's expression pattern. A β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay showed that the Zm-miR164b promoter had higher GUS activity in 87-1 than in Zong3. In addition, we detected miR164b expression in the RIL population, and the

  8. Advances in cleavage fracture modelling in steels: Micromechanical, numerical and multiscale aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, André; Tanguy, Benoît

    2010-04-01

    Brittle cleavage fracture remains one of the major concerns for structural integrity assessment. The main characteristics of this mode of failure in relation to the stress field ahead of a crack, tip are described in the introduction. The emphasis is laid on the physical origins of scatter and the size effect observed in ferritic steels. It is shown that cleavage fracture is controlled by physical events occurring at different scales: initiation at (sub)micrometric particles, propagation across grain boundaries (10-50 microns) and final fracture at centimetric scale. The two first scales are detailed in this paper. The statistical origin of cleavage is described quantitatively from both microstructural defects and stress-strain heterogeneities due to crystalline plasticity at the grain scale. Existing models are applied to the prediction of the variation of Charpy fracture toughness with temperature.

  9. Inflammatory Caspases: Activation and Cleavage of Gasdermin-D In Vitro and During Pyroptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Shi, Jianjin; Shao, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Gasdermin-D (also known as GSDMD), the newly identified executioner of pyroptotic cell death, is cleaved by activated caspase-1 downstream of canonical inflammasome activation or caspase-4, 5, and 11 upon their ligation and activation by cytosolic LPS. Upon a single cleavage between the two domains in Gasdermin-D, the N-terminal domain binds to membrane lipids and lyses cells by forming pores of an inner diameter of 10-14 nm within the membrane. The inter-domain cleavage of Gasdermin-D is a reliable marker for the activation of inflammatory caspases and cell pyroptosis. Here, we describe the methods for examining Gasdermin-D cleavage by activated inflammatory caspases in vitro and upon inflammasome activation in vivo.

  10. RacGAP50C is sufficient to signal cleavage furrow formation during cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    D'Avino, Pier Paolo; Savoian, Matthew S; Capalbo, Luisa; Glover, David M

    2006-11-01

    Several studies indicate that spindle microtubules determine the position of the cleavage plane at the end of cell division, but their exact role in triggering the formation and ingression of the cleavage furrow is still unclear. Here we show that in Drosophila depletion of either the GAP (GTPase-activating protein) or the kinesin-like subunit of the evolutionary conserved centralspindlin complex prevents furrowing without affecting the association of astral microtubules with the cell cortex. Moreover, time-lapse imaging indicates that astral microtubules serve to deliver the centralspindlin complex to the equatorial cortex just before furrow formation. However, when the GAP-signaling component was mislocalized around the entire cortex using a membrane-tethering motif, this caused ectopic furrowing even in the absence of its motor partner. Thus, the GAP component of centralspindlin is both necessary and sufficient for furrow formation and ingression and astral microtubules provide a route for its delivery to the cleavage site.

  11. Pressure modulates the self-cleavage step of the hairpin ribozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuabb, Caroline; Kumar, Narendra; Pataraia, Salome; Marx, Dominik; Winter, Roland

    2017-03-01

    The ability of certain RNAs, denoted as ribozymes, to not only store genetic information but also catalyse chemical reactions gave support to the RNA world hypothesis as a putative step in the development of early life on Earth. This, however, might have evolved under extreme environmental conditions, including the deep sea with pressures in the kbar regime. Here we study pressure-induced effects on the self-cleavage of hairpin ribozyme by following structural changes in real-time. Our results suggest that compression of the ribozyme leads to an accelerated transesterification reaction, being the self-cleavage step, although the overall process is retarded in the high-pressure regime. The results reveal that favourable interactions between the reaction site and neighbouring nucleobases are strengthened under pressure, resulting therefore in an accelerated self-cleavage step upon compression. These results suggest that properly engineered ribozymes may also act as piezophilic biocatalysts in addition to their hitherto known properties.

  12. Prenatal Organophosphates Exposure Alternates the Cleavage Plane Orientation of Apical Neural Progenitor in Developing Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Wei-Feng; Wang, Da-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal organophosphate exposure elicits long-term brain cytoarchitecture and cognitive function impairments, but the mechanism underlying the onset and development of neural progenitors remain largely unclear. Using precise positioned brain slices, we observed an alternated cleavage plane bias that emerged in the mitotic neural progenitors of embryonal neocortex with diazinion (DZN) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) pretreatment. In comparison with the control, DZN and CPF treatment induced decrease of vertical orientation, increase of oblique orientation, and increase of horizontal orientation. That is, the cleavage plane orientation bias had been rotated from vertical to horizontal after DZN and CPF treatment. Meanwhile, general morphology and mitotic index of the progenitors were unchanged. Acephate (ACP), another common organophosphate, had no significant effects on the cleavage plane orientation, cell morphology and mitotic index. These results represent direct evidence for the toxicity mechanism in onset multiplication of neural progenitors. PMID:24740262

  13. Mining HIV protease cleavage data using genetic programming with a sum-product function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zheng Rong; Dalby, Andrew R; Qiu, Jing

    2004-12-12

    In order to design effective HIV inhibitors, studying and understanding the mechanism of HIV protease cleavage specification is critical. Various methods have been developed to explore the specificity of HIV protease cleavage activity. However, success in both extracting discriminant rules and maintaining high prediction accuracy is still challenging. The earlier study had employed genetic programming with a min-max scoring function to extract discriminant rules with success. However, the decision will finally be degenerated to one residue making further improvement of the prediction accuracy difficult. The challenge of revising the min-max scoring function so as to improve the prediction accuracy motivated this study. This paper has designed a new scoring function called a sum-product function for extracting HIV protease cleavage discriminant rules using genetic programming methods. The experiments show that the new scoring function is superior to the min-max scoring function. The software package can be obtained by request to Dr Zheng Rong Yang.

  14. Cell elongation is an adaptive response for clearing long chromatid arms from the cleavage plane

    PubMed Central

    Kotadia, Shaila; Montembault, Emilie; Sullivan, William

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell cleavage to ensure correct transmission of the genome to daughter cells. Here we identify a novel mechanism by which Drosophila melanogaster neuronal stem cells coordinate sister chromatid segregation with cleavage furrow ingression. Cells adapted to a dramatic increase in chromatid arm length by transiently elongating during anaphase/telophase. The degree of cell elongation correlated with the length of the trailing chromatid arms and was concomitant with a slight increase in spindle length and an enlargement of the zone of cortical myosin distribution. Rho guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (Pebble)–depleted cells failed to elongate during segregation of long chromatids. As a result, Pebble-depleted adult flies exhibited morphological defects likely caused by cell death during development. These studies reveal a novel pathway linking trailing chromatid arms and cortical myosin that ensures the clearance of chromatids from the cleavage plane at the appropriate time during cytokinesis, thus preserving genome integrity. PMID:23185030

  15. TMPRSS2 Independency for Haemagglutinin Cleavage In Vivo Differentiates Influenza B Virus from Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Kouji; Ami, Yasushi; Nakajima, Noriko; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Anraku, Masaki; Takayama, Ikuyo; Sangsriratanakul, Natthanan; Komura, Miyuki; Sato, Yuko; Asanuma, Hideki; Takashita, Emi; Komase, Katsuhiro; Takehara, Kazuaki; Tashiro, Masato; Hasegawa, Hideki; Odagiri, Takato; Takeda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses show clear differences in their host specificity and pandemic potential. Recent studies have revealed that the host protease TMPRSS2 plays an essential role for proteolytic activation of H1, H3, and H7 subtype strains of influenza A virus (IAV) in vivo. IAV possessing a monobasic cleavage site in the haemagglutinin (HA) protein replicates poorly in TMPRSS2 knockout mice owing to insufficient HA cleavage. In the present study, human isolates of influenza B virus (IBV) strains and a mouse-adapted IBV strain were analysed. The data showed that IBV successfully underwent HA cleavage in TMPRSS2 knockout mice, and that the mouse-adapted strain was fully pathogenic to these mice. The present data demonstrate a clear difference between IAV and IBV in their molecular mechanisms for spreading in vivo. PMID:27389476

  16. TMPRSS2 Independency for Haemagglutinin Cleavage In Vivo Differentiates Influenza B Virus from Influenza A Virus.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kouji; Ami, Yasushi; Nakajima, Noriko; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Anraku, Masaki; Takayama, Ikuyo; Sangsriratanakul, Natthanan; Komura, Miyuki; Sato, Yuko; Asanuma, Hideki; Takashita, Emi; Komase, Katsuhiro; Takehara, Kazuaki; Tashiro, Masato; Hasegawa, Hideki; Odagiri, Takato; Takeda, Makoto

    2016-07-08

    Influenza A and B viruses show clear differences in their host specificity and pandemic potential. Recent studies have revealed that the host protease TMPRSS2 plays an essential role for proteolytic activation of H1, H3, and H7 subtype strains of influenza A virus (IAV) in vivo. IAV possessing a monobasic cleavage site in the haemagglutinin (HA) protein replicates poorly in TMPRSS2 knockout mice owing to insufficient HA cleavage. In the present study, human isolates of influenza B virus (IBV) strains and a mouse-adapted IBV strain were analysed. The data showed that IBV successfully underwent HA cleavage in TMPRSS2 knockout mice, and that the mouse-adapted strain was fully pathogenic to these mice. The present data demonstrate a clear difference between IAV and IBV in their molecular mechanisms for spreading in vivo.

  17. Sequences downstream of AAUAAA signals affect pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation in vitro both directly and indirectly.

    PubMed Central

    Ryner, L C; Takagaki, Y; Manley, J L

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the role of sequences lying downstream of the conserved AAUAAA hexanucleotide in pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation, deletions or substitutions were constructed in polyadenylation signals from simian virus 40 and adenovirus, and their effects were assayed in both crude and fractionated HeLa cell nuclear extracts. As expected, these sequences influenced the efficiency of both cleavage and polyadenylation as well as the accuracy of the cleavage reaction. Sequences near or upstream of the actual site of poly(A) addition appeared to specify a unique cleavage site, since their deletion resulted, in some cases, in heterogeneous cleavage. Furthermore, the sequences that allowed the simian virus 40 late pre-RNA to be cleaved preferentially by partially purified cleavage activity were also those at the cleavage site itself. Interestingly, sequences downstream of the cleavage site interacted with factors not directly involved in catalyzing cleavage and polyadenylation, since the effects of deletions were substantially diminished when partially purified components were used in assays. In addition, these sequences contained elements that could affect 3'-end formation both positively and negatively. Images PMID:2566911

  18. [Causal mechanisms of nuclear movement and division during early cleavage stages in the egg of a gall midge,Wachtliella persicariae L.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Rainer

    1973-03-01

    Between each mitotic cycle, the cleavage nuclei ofWachtliella move over long distances, thus populating the ooplasm within a short time. Besides being shifted passively by flowing pulses of the ooplasm, thenuclei are also migrating actively. The active movements are accompanied by such oscillations of yolk particles as are known from the eggs of other insects, too. For a closer analysis of these "quivering movements" the inseminated eggs werepressed, either totally or partially, reducing their smaller diameters to ooplasmic layers of 30 μm or between 12 and 4 μm, respectively. Along with the experimental reduction of the radius of the curvature at the egg surface, there is anincreased tendency of cell membrane formation, resulting in anearly total cleavage already at the 2-nuclei-stage. Furthermore, theinitial region of cleavage (= initial region of quivering movements)may be shifted to a site free from nuclei; the initial region even may becomesplit up into two, one near each of the egg's poles. Yet, in flattened eggs, division and migration activities of the nuclei are not prevented. Untreated as well as flattened eggs have been analysed by means of time-lapse motion pictures taken either by the phase contrast or by the differential interference contrast method, using apochromatic objectives of maximum resolution, combined with an inverted microscope.According to the rhythm of the cleavage divisions,waves of irregular quivering movements spread from the initial region(s) of cleavage throughout the whole egg space. They are composed of irregular oscillations of yolk particles, probably caused by the effect of actively shortening, dynamic elements irregularly spread within the ooplasm. The presence ofcleavage nuclei obviously exerts a kind ofregulative effect: Shortly before such a wave of quivering movements reaches a metaphasic cleavage energide, regular oscillations and approximations of yolk particles are visible in the surroundings of the nucleus. The

  19. Cleavage strain in the Variscan fold belt, County Cork, Ireland, estimated from stretched arsenopyrite rosettes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, M.; Ferguson, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    In south-west Ireland, hydrothermally formed arsenopyrite crystals in a Devonian mudstone have responded to Variscan deformation by brittle extension fracture and fragment separation. The interfragment gaps and terminal extension zones of each crystal are infilled with fibrous quartz. Stretches within the cleavage plane have been calculated by the various methods available, most of which can be modified to incorporate terminal extension zones. The Strain Reversal Method is the most accurate currently available but still gives a minimum estimate of the overall strain. The more direct Hossain method, which gives only slightly lower estimates with this data, is more practical for field use. A strain ellipse can be estimated from each crystal rosette composed of three laths (assuming the original interlimb angles were all 60??) and, because actual rather than relative stretches are estimated, this provides a lower bound to the area increase in the plane of cleavage. Based on the average of our calculated strain ellipses this area increase is at least 114% and implies an average shortening across the cleavage of at least 53%. However, several lines of evidence suggest that the cleavage deformation was more intense and more oblate than that calculated, and we argue that a 300% area increase in the cleavage plane and 75% shortening across the cleavage are more realistic estimates of the true strain. Furthermore, the along-strike elongation indicated is at least 80%, which may be regionally significant. Estimates of orogenic contraction derived from balanced section construction should therefore take into account the possibility of a substantial strike elongation, and tectonic models that can accommodate such elongations need to be developed. ?? 1985.

  20. Selection of the in vitro culture media influences mRNA expression of Hedgehog genes, Il-6, and important genes regarding reactive oxygen species in single murine preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, N; Baston-Büst, D M; Hirchenhain, J; Friebe-Hoffmann, U; Rein, D T; Krüssel, J S; Hess, A P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the influence of different in vitro culture media on mRNA expression of Hedgehog genes, il-6, and important genes regarding reactive oxygen species in single mouse embryos. Reverse transcription of single embryos either cultured in vitro from day 0.5 until 3.5 (COOK's Cleavage medium or Vitrolife's G-1 PLUS medium) or in vivo until day 3.5 post coitum. PCR was carried out for β-actin followed by nested-PCR for shh, ihh, il-6, nox, gpx4, gpx1, and prdx2. The number of murine blastocysts cultured in COOK medium which expressed il-6, gpx4, gpx1, and prdx2 mRNA differed significantly compared to the in vivo group. Except for nox, the mRNA profile of the Vitrolife media group embryos varied significantly from the in vivo ones regarding the number of blastocysts expressing the mRNA of shh, ihh, il-6, gpx4, gpx1 and prdx2. The present study shows that different in vitro culture media lead to different mRNA expression profiles during early development. Even the newly developed in vitro culture media are not able to mimic the female reproductive tract. The question of long-term consequences for children due to assisted reproduction techniques needs to be addressed in larger studies.

  1. Selection of the In Vitro Culture Media Influences mRNA Expression of Hedgehog Genes, Il-6, and Important Genes regarding Reactive Oxygen Species in Single Murine Preimplantation Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, N.; Baston-Büst, D. M.; Hirchenhain, J.; Friebe-Hoffmann, U.; Rein, D. T.; Krüssel, J. S.; Hess, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of this paper was to determine the influence of different in vitro culture media on mRNA expression of Hedgehog genes, il-6, and important genes regarding reactive oxygen species in single mouse embryos. Methods. Reverse transcription of single embryos either cultured in vitro from day 0.5 until 3.5 (COOK's Cleavage medium or Vitrolife's G-1 PLUS medium) or in vivo until day 3.5 post coitum. PCR was carried out for β-actin followed by nested-PCR for shh, ihh, il-6, nox, gpx4, gpx1, and prdx2. Results. The number of murine blastocysts cultured in COOK medium which expressed il-6, gpx4, gpx1, and prdx2 mRNA differed significantly compared to the in vivo group. Except for nox, the mRNA profile of the Vitrolife media group embryos varied significantly from the in vivo ones regarding the number of blastocysts expressing the mRNA of shh, ihh, il-6, gpx4, gpx1 and prdx2. Conclusions. The present study shows that different in vitro culture media lead to different mRNA expression profiles during early development. Even the newly developed in vitro culture media are not able to mimic the female reproductive tract. The question of long-term consequences for children due to assisted reproduction techniques needs to be addressed in larger studies. PMID:22919324

  2. Interconnections between mRNA degradation and RDR-dependent siRNA production in mRNA turnover in plants.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Masayuki; Motomura, Kazuki; Kumakura, Naoyoshi; Takeda, Atsushi

    2017-03-01

    Accumulation of an mRNA species is determined by the balance between the synthesis and the degradation of the mRNA. Individual mRNA molecules are selectively and actively degraded through RNA degradation pathways, which include 5'-3' mRNA degradation pathway, 3'-5' mRNA degradation pathway, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-mediated mRNA degradation pathway. Recent studies have revealed that these RNA degradation pathways compete with each other in mRNA turnover in plants and that plants have a hidden layer of non-coding small-interfering RNA production from a set of mRNAs. In this review, we summarize the current information about plant mRNA degradation pathways in mRNA turnover and discuss the potential roles of a novel class of the endogenous siRNAs derived from plant mRNAs.

  3. Ways and means of eukaryotic mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Balagopal, Vidya; Fluch, Lydia; Nissan, Tracy

    2012-06-01

    Messenger RNA degradation is an important point of control for gene expression. Genome-wide studies on mRNA stability have demonstrated its importance in adaptation and stress response. Most of the key players in mRNA decay appear to have been identified. The study of these proteins brings insight into the mechanism of general and specific targeting of transcripts for degradation. Recruitment and assembly of mRNP complexes enhance and bring specificity to mRNA decay. mRNP complexes can form larger structures that have been found to be ubiquitous in nature. Discovery of P-Bodies, an archetype of this sort of aggregates, has generated interest in the question of where mRNA degrades. This is currently an open question under extensive investigation. This review will discuss in detail the recent developments in the regulation of mRNA decay focusing on yeast as a model system. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear Transport and RNA Processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimal Down Regulation of mRNA Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarai, Yoram; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2017-01-01

    Down regulation of mRNA translation is an important problem in various bio-medical domains ranging from developing effective medicines for tumors and for viral diseases to developing attenuated virus strains that can be used for vaccination. Here, we study the problem of down regulation of mRNA translation using a mathematical model called the ribosome flow model (RFM). In the RFM, the mRNA molecule is modeled as a chain of n sites. The flow of ribosomes between consecutive sites is regulated by n + 1 transition rates. Given a set of feasible transition rates, that models the outcome of all possible mutations, we consider the problem of maximally down regulating protein production by altering the rates within this set of feasible rates. Under certain conditions on the feasible set, we show that an optimal solution can be determined efficiently. We also rigorously analyze two special cases of the down regulation optimization problem. Our results suggest that one must focus on the position along the mRNA molecule where the transition rate has the strongest effect on the protein production rate. However, this rate is not necessarily the slowest transition rate along the mRNA molecule. We discuss some of the biological implications of these results.

  5. Cleavage of transmembrane junction proteins and their role in regulating epithelial homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Porfirio; Kamekura, Ryuta; Nusrat, Asma

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial tissues form a selective barrier that separates the external environment from the internal tissue milieu. Single epithelial cells are densely packed and associate via distinct intercellular junctions. Intercellular junction proteins not only control barrier properties of the epithelium but also play an important role in regulating epithelial homeostasis that encompasses cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and regulated shedding. Recent studies have revealed that several proteases target epithelial junction proteins during physiological maturation as well as in pathologic states such as inflammation and cancer. This review discusses mechanisms and biological consequences of transmembrane junction protein cleavage. The influence of junction protein cleavage products on pathogenesis of inflammation and cancer is discussed. PMID:24665393

  6. Mechanistic Analysis of Oxidative C–H Cleavages Using Inter- and Intramolecular Kinetic Isotope Effects

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyung Hoon; Floreancig, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    A series of monodeuterated benzylic and allylic ethers were subjected to oxidative carbon–hydrogen bond cleavage to determine the impact of structural variation on intramolecular kinetic isotope effects in DDQ-mediated cyclization reactions. These values are compared to the corresponding intermolecular kinetic isotope effects that were accessed through subjecting mixtures of non-deuterated and dideuterated substrates to the reaction conditions. The results indicate that carbon–hydrogen bond cleavage is rate determining and that a radical cation is most likely a key intermediate in the reaction mechanism. PMID:20640173

  7. [Cleavage of DNA fragments induced by UV nanosecond laser excitation at 193 nm].

    PubMed

    Vtiurina, N N; Grokhovskiĭ, S L; Filimonov, I V; Medvedkov, O I; Nechipurenko, D Iu; Vasil'ev, S A; Nechipurenko, Iu D

    2011-01-01

    The cleavage of dsDNA fragments in aqueous solution after irradiation with UV laser pulses at 193 nm has been studied. Samples were investigated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The intensity of damage of particular phosphodiester bond after hot alkali treatment was shown to depend on the base pair sequence. It was established that the probability of cleavage is twice higher for sites of DNA containing two or more successively running guanine residues. A possible mechanism of damage to the DNA molecule connected with the migration of holes along the helix is discussed.

  8. Useful Bicistronic Reporter System for Studying Poly(A) Site-Defining cis Elements and Regulation of Alternative Polyadenylation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Shen; Gu, Shaohua; Ni, Xinzhi; Zeng, Wenxian; Li, Xianchun

    2018-01-17

    The link between polyadenylation (pA) and various biological, behavioral, and pathological events of eukaryotes underlines the need to develop in vivo polyadenylation assay methods for characterization of the cis -acting elements, trans -acting factors and environmental stimuli that affect polyadenylation efficiency and/or relative usage of two alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites. The current protein-based CAT or luciferase reporter systems can measure the polyadenylation efficiency of a single pA site or candidate cis element but not the choice of two APA sites. To address this issue, we developed a set of four new bicistronic reporter vectors that harbor either two luciferase or fluorescence protein open reading frames connected with one Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES). Transfection of single or dual insertion constructs of these vectors into mammalian cells demonstrated that they could be utilized not only to quantify the strength of a single candidate pA site or cis element, but also to accurately measure the relative usage of two APA sites at both the mRNA (qRT-PCR) and protein levels. This represents the first reporter system that can study polyadenylation efficiency of a single pA site or element and regulation of two APA sites at both the mRNA and protein levels.

  9. Role of RNase Y in Clostridium perfringens mRNA Decay and Processing.

    PubMed

    Obana, Nozomu; Nakamura, Kouji; Nomura, Nobuhiko

    2017-01-15

    RNase Y is a major endoribonuclease that plays a crucial role in mRNA degradation and processing. We study the role of RNase Y in the Gram-positive anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens, which until now has not been well understood. Our study implies an important role for RNase Y-mediated RNA degradation and processing in virulence gene expression and the physiological development of the organism. We began by constructing an RNase Y conditional knockdown strain in order to observe the importance of RNase Y on growth and virulence. Our resulting transcriptome analysis shows that RNase Y affects the expression of many genes, including toxin-producing genes. We provide data to show that RNase Y depletion repressed several toxin genes in C. perfringens and involved the virR-virS two-component system. We also observe evidence that RNase Y is indispensable for processing and stabilizing the transcripts of colA (encoding a major toxin collagenase) and pilA2 (encoding a major pilin component of the type IV pili). Posttranscriptional regulation of colA is known to be mediated by cleavage in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR), and we observe that RNase Y depletion diminishes colA 5'UTR processing. We show that RNase Y is also involved in the posttranscriptional stabilization of pilA2 mRNA, which is thought to be important for host cell adherence and biofilm formation. RNases have important roles in RNA degradation and turnover in all organisms. C. perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacterial pathogen that produces numerous extracellular enzymes and toxins, and it is linked to digestive disorders and disease. A highly conserved endoribonuclease, RNase Y, affects the expression of hundreds of genes, including toxin genes, and studying these effects is useful for understanding C. perfringens specifically and RNases generally. Moreover, RNase Y is involved in processing specific transcripts, and we observed that this processing in C. perfringens results

  10. Active site specificity profiling of the matrix metalloproteinase family: Proteomic identification of 4300 cleavage sites by nine MMPs explored with structural and synthetic peptide cleavage analyses.

    PubMed

    Eckhard, Ulrich; Huesgen, Pitter F; Schilling, Oliver; Bellac, Caroline L; Butler, Georgina S; Cox, Jennifer H; Dufour, Antoine; Goebeler, Verena; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; Keller, Ulrich Auf dem; Klein, Theo; Lange, Philipp F; Marino, Giada; Morrison, Charlotte J; Prudova, Anna; Rodriguez, David; Starr, Amanda E; Wang, Yili; Overall, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Secreted and membrane tethered matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key homeostatic proteases regulating the extracellular signaling and structural matrix environment of cells and tissues. For drug targeting of proteases, selectivity for individual molecules is highly desired and can be met by high yield active site specificity profiling. Using the high throughput Proteomic Identification of protease Cleavage Sites (PICS) method to simultaneously profile both the prime and non-prime sides of the cleavage sites of nine human MMPs, we identified more than 4300 cleavages from P6 to P6' in biologically diverse human peptide libraries. MMP specificity and kinetic efficiency were mainly guided by aliphatic and aromatic residues in P1' (with a ~32-93% preference for leucine depending on the MMP), and basic and small residues in P2' and P3', respectively. A wide differential preference for the hallmark P3 proline was found between MMPs ranging from 15 to 46%, yet when combined in the same peptide with the universally preferred P1' leucine, an unexpected negative cooperativity emerged. This was not observed in previous studies, probably due to the paucity of approaches that profile both the prime and non-prime sides together, and the masking of subsite cooperativity effects by global heat maps and iceLogos. These caveats make it critical to check for these biologically highly important effects by fixing all 20 amino acids one-by-one in the respective subsites and thorough assessing of the inferred specificity logo changes. Indeed an analysis of bona fide MEROPS physiological substrate cleavage data revealed that of the 37 natural substrates with either a P3-Pro or a P1'-Leu only 5 shared both features, confirming the PICS data. Upon probing with several new quenched-fluorescent peptides, rationally designed on our specificity data, the negative cooperativity was explained by reduced non-prime side flexibility constraining accommodation of the rigidifying P3 proline with

  11. The cleavage product of amyloid-β protein precursor sAβPPα modulates BAG3-dependent aggresome formation and enhances cellular proteasomal activity.

    PubMed

    Renziehausen, Jana; Hiebel, Christof; Nagel, Heike; Kundu, Arpita; Kins, Stefan; Kögel, Donat; Behl, Christian; Hajieva, Parvana

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major age-associated form of dementia characterized by gradual cognitive decline. Aberrant cleavage of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) is thought to play an important role in the pathology of this disease. Two principal AβPP processing pathways exist: amyloidogenic cleavage of AβPP resulting in production of the soluble N-terminal fragment sAβPPβ, amyloid-β (Aβ), which accumulates in AD brain, and the AβPP intracellular domain (AICD) sAβPPα, p3 and AICD are generated in the non-amyloidogenic pathway. Prevalence of amyloidogenic versus non-amyloidogenic processing leads to depletion of sAβPPα and an increase in Aβ. Although sAβPPα is a well-accepted neurotrophic protein, molecular effects of this fragment remains unknown. Different studies reported impaired protein degradation pathways in AD brain, pointing to a role of disturbed proteasomal activity in the pathogenesis of this disease. Here we studied the possible role of sAβPPα in Bag3-mediated selective macroautophagy and proteasomal degradation. Employing human IMR90 cells, HEK 293 cells, and primary neurons, we demonstrate that sAβPPα prevents the proteotoxic stress-induced increase of Bag3 at the protein and at the mRNA level indicating a transcriptional regulation. Intriguingly, p62 and LC3, two other key players of autophagy, were not affected. Moreover, the formation and the accumulation of disease-related protein aggregates were significantly reduced by sAβPPα. Interestingly, there was a significant increase of proteasomal activity by sAβPPα as demonstrated by using various proteasome substrates. Our findings demonstrate that sAβPPα modulates Bag3 expression, aggresome formation, and proteasomal activity, thereby providing first evidence for a function of sAβPPα in the regulation of proteostasis.

  12. Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 Enhances the Developmental Efficiency of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos by Accelerating the Kinetics of Cleavage During In Vitro Maturation.

    PubMed

    Son, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Eun; Park, Yun-Gwi; Jeong, Sang-Gi; Shin, Min-Young; Kim, Eun-Young; Park, Se-Pill

    2018-06-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is required for the generation of transgenic animals as disease models. During the in vitro development of SCNT embryos, the quality of matured oocytes is one of the major factors regulating the developmental potential of embryos. Time-lapse monitoring systems are new tools that assess the developmental capacity of embryos for use in embryo transfer. In this study, we investigated the effect of fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF 10) on the developmental potential of SCNT embryos. After the in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes in IVM medium containing 10 ng/mL FGF 10 (10 F), the polar body extrusion rate was significantly higher than in the control. However, there was no difference in the percentage of fused embryos between the groups. The cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of embryos were significantly increased in the 10 F compared with the control. In addition, the total cell number was higher and the apoptotic index was lower in the 10 F than control at day 7. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of genes involved in apoptosis (baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat containing 5 [BIRC5] and caspase 3 [CASP3]) and development (octamer-binding transcription factor 4 [POU5F1] and sex determining region Y box 2 [SOX2]) increased after 10 F treatment. Furthermore, the kinetics of the first cleavage was faster and the percentage of embryos at cell block was significantly lower in the 10 F group than in the control. These results demonstrate that exposure of oocytes to FGF 10 during IVM promotes developmental competence.

  13. Conjunctival mucin mRNA expression in contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Rosa M; Galarreta, David; Herreras, Jose M; Saez, Victoria; Arranz, Isabel; González, Maria J; Mayo, Agustin; Calonge, Margarita; Chaves, Felipe J

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the influence of the water content in non-ionic hydrogel contact lenses (HCL) on the mRNA levels of human conjunctival mucin genes (MUCs). Sixteen healthy subjects with no history of contact lenses wear were selected and randomized into two equal groups. Group 1 subjects wore low water content (38%, Soflens 38) non-ionic HCLs. Group 2 wore high water content (66%, Soflens 66) non-ionic HCLs. Conjunctival impression cytology was applied to the superior bulbar conjunctiva of both eyes before, 6 months, and 1 year after HCL fitting, and 15 days after discontinuation of wearing. Total RNA was isolated, retrotranscribed, and amplified by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by quantitative real time PCR to study the mRNA levels of MUCs and to analyze variations during the study period. Time- and HCL-dependent variations in mRNA expression were analyzed using Student's test. From the known MUCs, transcripts from MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC7, MUC13, MUC15, MUC16, and MUC17 genes were detected in all subjects before HCL fitting. Except for MUC2, the expression of some MUC genes significantly increased whereas others significantly decreased at either the 6- and 12-month period. Statistically significant differences between both HCL groups (p < 0.001) were found in the MUC4, MUC13, and MUC15 mRNA expression after 1 year of wear and after the 15 days without HCL wear. However, these differences were not clearly related to the water content of the lenses. Low and high water content non-ionic HCLs induced different changes in the mRNA levels of several MUCs, but the water content was not related to the changes. Recovery to basal levels of conjunctival MUC mRNA expression after wearing HCL lenses for a year takes longer than 15 days for some MUCs.

  14. Post-transcriptional regulation tends to attenuate the mRNA noise and to increase the mRNA gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Changhong; Wang, Shuqiang; Zhou, Tianshou; Jiang, Yiguo

    2015-10-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation is ubiquitous in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, but how it impacts gene expression remains to be fully explored. Here, we analyze a simple gene model in which we assume that mRNAs are produced in a constitutive manner but are regulated post-transcriptionally by a decapping enzyme that switches between the active state and the inactive state. We derive the analytical mRNA distribution governed by a chemical master equation, which can be well used to analyze the mechanism of how post-transcription regulation influences the mRNA expression level including the mRNA noise. We demonstrate that the mean mRNA level in the stochastic case is always higher than that in the deterministic case due to the stochastic effect of the enzyme, but the size of the increased part depends mainly on the switching rates between two enzyme states. More interesting is that we find that in contrast to transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional regulation tends to attenuate noise in mRNA. Our results provide insight into the role of post-transcriptional regulation in controlling the transcriptional noise.

  15. Phosphorylation-dependent cleavage regulates von Hippel Lindau proteostasis and function

    PubMed Central

    German, Peter; Bai, Shanshan; Liu, Xian-De; Sun, Mianen; Zhou, Lijun; Kalra, Sarathi; Zhang, Xuesong; Minelli, Rosalba; Scott, Kenneth L.; Mills, Gordon B.; Jonasch, Eric; Ding, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Loss of von Hippel Lindau (VHL) protein function is a key driver of VHL diseases, including sporadic and inherited clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Modulation of the proteostasis of VHL, especially missense point-mutated VHL, is a promising approach to augmenting VHL levels and function. VHL proteostasis is regulated by multiple mechanisms including folding, chaperone binding, complex formation, and phosphorylation. Nevertheless, many details underlying the regulations of VHL proteostasis are unknown. VHL is expressed as two variants, VHL30 and VHL19. Furthermore, the long form variant of VHL was often detected as multiple bands by Western blotting. However, how these multiple species of VHL are generated and whether the process regulates VHL proteostasis and function are unknown. We hypothesized that the two major species are generated by VHL protein cleavage, and the cleavage regulates VHL proteostasis and subsequent function. We characterized VHL species using genetic and pharmacologic approaches and showed that VHL was first cleaved at the N-terminus by chymotrypsin C before being directed for proteasomal degradation. Casein kinase 2-mediated phosphorylation at VHL N-terminus was required for the cleavage. Furthermore, inhibition of cleavage stabilized VHL protein, thereby promoting HIF downregulation. Our study reveals a novel mechanism regulating VHL proteostasis and function, which is significant for identifying new drug targets and developing new therapeutic approaches targeting VHL deficiency in VHL diseases. PMID:26973240

  16. Racial Cleavage in Local Voting: The Case of School and Tax Issue Referendums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, James

    1993-01-01

    Explores voting behavior of African Americans and whites in local school and tax referenda to determine whether racial conflict is still a primal factor in noncandidate elections. Results for voters in 5 counties in Florida (over 1,699,000 voters) reveal African-American underregistration and the continuing importance of racial cleavage. (SLD)

  17. Proximity-activated nanoparticles: in vitro performance of specific structural modification by enzymatic cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Adam Smith, R; Sewell, Sarah L; Giorgio, Todd D

    2008-01-01

    The development and in vitro performance of a modular nanoscale system capable of specific structural modification by enzymatic activity is described in this work. Due to its small physical size and adaptable characteristics, this system has the potential for utilization in targeted delivery systems and biosensing. Nanoparticle probes were synthesized containing two distinct fluorescent species including a quantum dot base particle and fluorescently labeled cleavable peptide substrate. Activity of these probes was monitored by gel electrophoresis with quantitative cleavage measurements made by fluorometric analysis. The model proximity-activated nanoparticles studied here exhibit significant susceptibility to cleavage by matrix metalloprotease-7 (MMP-7) at physiologically relevant concentrations, with nearly complete cleavage of available substrate molecules after 24 hours. This response is specific to MMP-7 enzyme activity, as cleavage is completely inhibited with the addition of EDTA. Utilization of enzyme-specific modification is a sensitive approach with broad applications for targeted therapeutics and biosensing. The versatility of this nanoparticle system is highlighted in its modular design, as it has the capability to integrate characteristics for detection, biosensing, targeting, and payload delivery into a single, multifunctional nanoparticle structure. PMID:18488420

  18. Activation and reactivation of the RNA polymerase II trigger loop for intrinsic RNA cleavage and catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Čabart, Pavel; Jin, Huiyan; Li, Liangtao; Kaplan, Craig D

    2014-01-01

    In addition to RNA synthesis, multisubunit RNA polymerases (msRNAPs) support enzymatic reactions such as intrinsic transcript cleavage. msRNAP active sites from different species appear to exhibit differential intrinsic transcript cleavage efficiency and have likely evolved to allow fine-tuning of the transcription process. Here we show that a single amino-acid substitution in the trigger loop (TL) of Saccharomyces RNAP II, Rpb1 H1085Y, engenders a gain of intrinsic cleavage activity where the substituted tyrosine appears to participate in acid-base chemistry at alkaline pH for both intrinsic cleavage and nucleotidyl transfer. We extensively characterize this TL substitution for each of these reactions by examining the responses RNAP II enzymes to catalytic metals, altered pH, and factor inputs. We demonstrate that TFIIF stimulation of the first phosphodiester bond formation by RNAP II requires wild type TL function and that H1085Y substitution within the TL compromises or alters RNAP II responsiveness to both TFIIB and TFIIF. Finally, Mn2+ stimulation of H1085Y RNAP II reveals possible allosteric effects of TFIIB on the active center and cooperation between TFIIB and TFIIF. PMID:25764335

  19. Metabolic Engineering to Develop a Pathway for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Nitrogen Bonds

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane II

    The objective of the project is to develop a biochemical pathway for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. Specifically a novel biochemical pathway will be developed for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in carbazole. The cleavage of the first C-N bond in carbazole is accomplished by the enzyme carbazole dioxygenase, that catalyzes the conversion of carbazole to 2-aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol. The genes encoding carbazole dioxygenase were cloned from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 and from Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10. The selective cleavage of the second C-N bond has been challenging, and efforts to overcome that challenge have been themore » focus of recent research in this project. Enrichment culture experiments succeeded in isolating bacterial cultures that can metabolize 2-aminobiphenyl, but no enzyme capable of selectively cleaving the C-N bond in 2-aminobiphenyl has been identified. Aniline is very similar to the structure of 2-aminobiphenyl and aniline dioxygenase catalyzes the conversion of aniline to catechol and ammonia. For the remainder of the project the emphasis of research will be to simultaneously express the genes for carbazole dioxygenase and for aniline dioxygenase in the same bacterial host and then to select for derivative cultures capable of using carbazole as the sole source of nitrogen.« less

  20. Effect of substrate RNA sequence on the cleavage reaction by a short ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Ohmichi, T; Okumoto, Y; Sugimoto, N

    1998-01-01

    Leadzyme is a ribozyme that requires Pb2+. The catalytic sequence, CUGGGAGUCC, binds to an RNA substrate, GGACC downward arrowGAGCCAG, cleaving the RNA substrate at one site. We have investigated the effect of the substrate sequence on the cleavage activity of leadzyme using mutant substrates in order to structurally understand the RNA catalysis. The results showed that leadzyme acted as a catalyst for single site cleavage of a C5 deletion mutant substrate, GGAC downward arrowGAGCCAG, as well as the wild-type substrate. However, a mutant substrate GGACCGACCAG, which had G8 deleted from the wild-type substrate, was not cleaved. Kinetic studies by surface plasmon resonance indicated that the difference between active and inactive structures reflected the slow association and dissociation rate constants of complex formation induced by Pb2+rather than differences in complex stability. CD spectra showed that the active form of the substrate-leadzyme complex was rearranged by Pb2+binding. The G8 of the wild-type substrate, which was absent in the inactive complex, is not near the cleavage site. Thus, these results show that the active substrate-leadzyme complex has a Pb2+binding site at the junction between the unpaired region (asymmetric internal loop) and the stem region, which is distal to the cleavage site. Pb2+may play a role in rearranging the bases in the asymmetric internal loop to the correct position for catalysis. PMID:9837996

  1. Sequence features associated with the cleavage efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Homma, Ayaka; Sayadi, Jamasb; Yang, Shu; Ohashi, Jun; Takumi, Toru

    2016-01-27

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system has recently emerged as a versatile tool for biological and medical research. In this system, a single guide RNA (sgRNA) directs the endonuclease Cas9 to a targeted DNA sequence for site-specific manipulation. In addition to this targeting function, the sgRNA has also been shown to play a role in activating the endonuclease activity of Cas9. This dual function of the sgRNA likely underlies observations that different sgRNAs have varying on-target activities. Currently, our understanding of the relationship between sequence features of sgRNAs and their on-target cleavage efficiencies remains limited, largely due to difficulties in assessing the cleavage capacity of a large number of sgRNAs. In this study, we evaluated the cleavage activities of 218 sgRNAs using in vitro Surveyor assays. We found that nucleotides at both PAM-distal and PAM-proximal regions of the sgRNA are significantly correlated with on-target efficiency. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that the genomic context of the targeted DNA, the GC percentage, and the secondary structure of sgRNA are critical factors contributing to cleavage efficiency. In summary, our study reveals important parameters for the design of sgRNAs with high on-target efficiencies, especially in the context of high throughput applications.

  2. Quercetin-Iron Complex: Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant, DNA Binding, DNA Cleavage, and Antibacterial Activity Studies.

    PubMed

    Raza, Aun; Xu, Xiuquan; Xia, Li; Xia, Changkun; Tang, Jian; Ouyang, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Quercetin-iron (II) complex was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron micrography and molar conductivity. The low molar conductivity value investigates the non-electrolyte nature of the complex. The elemental analysis and other physical and spectroscopic methods reveal the 1:2 stoichiometric ratio (metal:ligand) of the complex. Antioxidant study of the quercetin and its metal complex against 2, 2-di-phenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical showed that the complex has much more radical scavenging activity than free quercetin. The interaction of quercetin-iron (II) complex with DNA was determined using ultraviolet visible spectra, fluorescence spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that quercetin-iron (II) complex can intercalate moderately with DNA, quench a strong intercalator ethidium bromide and compete for the intercalative binding sites. The complex showed significant cleavage of pBR 322 DNA from supercoiled form to nicked circular form and these cleavage effects were dose-dependent. Moreover, the mechanism of DNA cleavage indicated that it was an oxidative cleavage pathway. These results revealed the potential nuclease activity of complex to cleave DNA. In addition, antibacterial activity of complex on E.coli and S. aureus was also investigated. The results showed that complex has higher antibacterial activity than ligand.

  3. A set of simple cell processes is sufficient to model spiral cleavage.

    PubMed

    Brun-Usan, Miguel; Marín-Riera, Miquel; Grande, Cristina; Truchado-Garcia, Marta; Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    During cleavage, different cellular processes cause the zygote to become partitioned into a set of cells with a specific spatial arrangement. These processes include the orientation of cell division according to: an animal-vegetal gradient; the main axis (Hertwig's rule) of the cell; and the contact areas between cells or the perpendicularity between consecutive cell divisions (Sachs' rule). Cell adhesion and cortical rotation have also been proposed to be involved in spiral cleavage. We use a computational model of cell and tissue biomechanics to account for the different existing hypotheses about how the specific spatial arrangement of cells in spiral cleavage arises during development. Cell polarization by an animal-vegetal gradient, a bias to perpendicularity between consecutive cell divisions (Sachs' rule), cortical rotation and cell adhesion, when combined, reproduce the spiral cleavage, whereas other combinations of processes cannot. Specifically, cortical rotation is necessary at the 8-cell stage to direct all micromeres in the same direction. By varying the relative strength of these processes, we reproduce the spatial arrangement of cells in the blastulae of seven different invertebrate species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Hemoglobin Cleavage Site-Specificity of the Plasmodium falciparum Cysteine Proteases Falcipain-2 and Falcipain-3

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Shoba; Hardt, Markus; Choe, Youngchool; Niles, Richard K.; Johansen, Eric B.; Legac, Jennifer; Gut, Jiri; Kerr, Iain D.; Craik, Charles S.; Rosenthal, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteases falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 degrade host hemoglobin to provide free amino acids for parasite protein synthesis. Hemoglobin hydrolysis has been described as an ordered process initiated by aspartic proteases, but cysteine protease inhibitors completely block the process, suggesting that cysteine proteases can also initiate hemoglobin hydrolysis. To characterize the specific roles of falcipains, we used three approaches. First, using random P1 – P4 amino acid substrate libraries, falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 demonstrated strong preference for cleavage sites with Leu at the P2 position. Second, with overlapping peptides spanning α and β globin and proteolysis-dependent 18O labeling, hydrolysis was seen at many cleavage sites. Third, with intact hemoglobin, numerous cleavage products were identified. Our results suggest that hemoglobin hydrolysis by malaria parasites is not a highly ordered process, but rather proceeds with rapid cleavage by falcipains at multiple sites. However, falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 show strong specificity for P2 Leu in small peptide substrates, in agreement with the specificity in optimized small molecule inhibitors that was identified previously. These results are consistent with a principal role of falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 in the hydrolysis of hemoglobin by P. falciparum and with the possibility of developing small molecule inhibitors with optimized specificity as antimalarial agents. PMID:19357776

  5. Oxidative cleavage of erucic acid for the synthesis of brassylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed J. Nasrullah; Pooja Thapliyal; Erica N. Pfarr

    2010-10-29

    The main focus of this work is to synthesize Brassylic Acid (BA) using oxidative cleavage of Erucic Acid (EA). Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is an industrial oilseed grown in North Dakota. Crambe has potential as an industrial fatty acid feedstock as a source of Erucic acid (EA). It has approximately 50-60 % of EA, a C{sub 22} monounsaturated fatty acid. Oxidative cleavage of unsaturated fatty acids derived from oilseeds produces long chain (9, 11, and 13 carbon atoms) dibasic and monobasic acids. These acids are known commercial feedstocks for the preparation of nylons, polyesters, waxes, surfactants, and perfumes. Other sources ofmore » EA are Rapeseed seed oil which 50-60 % of EA. Rapeseed is grown outside USA. The oxidative cleavage of EA was done using a high throughput parallel pressure reactor system. Kinetics of the reaction shows that BA yields reach a saturation at 12 hours. H{sub 2}WO{sub 4} was found to be the best catalyst for the oxidative cleavage of EA. High yields of BA were obtained at 80 C with bubbling of O{sub 2} or 10 bar of O{sub 2} for 12 hours.« less

  6. Wnt5A Activates the Calpain-Mediated Cleavage of Filamin A

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Michael P.; Fiori, Jennifer L.; Baugher, Katherine M.; Indig, Fred E.; French, Amanda D.; Camilli, Tura C.; Frank, Brittany P.; Earley, Rachel; Hoek, Keith S.; Hasskamp, Joanne H.; Elias, E. George; Taub, Dennis D.; Bernier, Michel; Weeraratna, Ashani T.

    2009-01-01

    We have previously shown that Wnt5A and ROR2, an orphan tyrosine kinase receptor, interact to mediate melanoma cell motility. In other cell types, this can occur through the interaction of ROR2 with the cytoskeletal protein filamin A. Here, we found that filamin A protein levels correlated with Wnt5A levels in melanoma cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of WNT5A decreased filamin A expression. Knockdown of filamin A also corresponded to a decrease in melanoma cell motility. In metastatic cells, filamin A expression was predominant in the cytoplasm, which western analysis indicated was due to the cleavage of filamin A in these cells. Treatment of nonmetastatic melanoma cells with recombinant Wnt5A increased filamin A cleavage, and this could be prevented by the knockdown of ROR2 expression. Further, BAPTA-AM chelation of intracellular calcium also inhibited filamin A cleavage, leading to the hypothesis that Wnt5A/ROR2 signaling could cleave filamin A through activation of calcium-activated proteases, such as calpains. Indeed, WNT5A knockdown decreased calpain 1 expression, and by inhibiting calpain 1 either pharmacologically or using siRNA, it decreased cell motility. Our results indicate that Wnt5A activates calpain-1, leading to the cleavage of filamin A, which results in a remodeling of the cytoskeleton and an increase in melanoma cell motility. PMID:19177143

  7. Crystal Structure of the 25 kDa Subunit of Human Cleavage Factor I{m}

    SciTech Connect

    Coseno,M.; Martin, G.; Berger, C.

    Cleavage factor Im is an essential component of the pre-messenger RNA 3'-end processing machinery in higher eukaryotes, participating in both the polyadenylation and cleavage steps. Cleavage factor Im is an oligomer composed of a small 25 kDa subunit (CF Im25) and a variable larger subunit of either 59, 68 or 72 kDa. The small subunit also interacts with RNA, poly(A) polymerase, and the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein. These protein-protein interactions are thought to be facilitated by the Nudix domain of CF Im25, a hydrolase motif with a characteristic {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} fold and a conserved catalytic sequence or Nudix box. We present heremore » the crystal structures of human CF Im25 in its free and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) bound forms at 1.85 and 1.80 Angstroms, respectively. CF Im25 crystallizes as a dimer and presents the classical Nudix fold. Results from crystallographic and biochemical experiments suggest that CF Im25 makes use of its Nudix fold to bind but not hydrolyze ATP and Ap4A. The complex and apo protein structures provide insight into the active oligomeric state of CF Im and suggest a possible role of nucleotide binding in either the polyadenylation and/or cleavage steps of pre-messenger RNA 3'-end processing.« less

  8. Crystal structure of the 25 kDa subunit of human cleavage factor Im

    PubMed Central

    Coseno, Molly; Martin, Georges; Berger, Christopher; Gilmartin, Gregory; Keller, Walter; Doublié, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    Cleavage factor Im is an essential component of the pre-messenger RNA 3′-end processing machinery in higher eukaryotes, participating in both the polyadenylation and cleavage steps. Cleavage factor Im is an oligomer composed of a small 25 kDa subunit (CF Im25) and a variable larger subunit of either 59, 68 or 72 kDa. The small subunit also interacts with RNA, poly(A) polymerase, and the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein. These protein–protein interactions are thought to be facilitated by the Nudix domain of CF Im25, a hydrolase motif with a characteristic α/β/α fold and a conserved catalytic sequence or Nudix box. We present here the crystal structures of human CF Im25 in its free and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) bound forms at 1.85 and 1.80 Å, respectively. CF Im25 crystallizes as a dimer and presents the classical Nudix fold. Results from crystallographic and biochemical experiments suggest that CF Im25 makes use of its Nudix fold to bind but not hydrolyze ATP and Ap4A. The complex and apo protein structures provide insight into the active oligomeric state of CF Im and suggest a possible role of nucleotide binding in either the polyadenylation and/or cleavage steps of pre-messenger RNA 3′-end processing. PMID:18445629

  9. Polycystin-1 C-terminal Cleavage Is Modulated by Polycystin-2 Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Bertuccio, Claudia A.; Chapin, Hannah C.; Cai, Yiqiang; Mistry, Kavita; Chauvet, Veronique; Somlo, Stefan; Caplan, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is caused by mutations in the genes encoding polycystin-1 (PC-1) and polycystin-2 (PC-2). PC-1 cleavage releases its cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (CTT), which enters the nucleus. To determine whether PC-1 CTT cleavage is influenced by PC-2, a quantitative cleavage assay was utilized, in which the DNA binding and activation domains of Gal4 and VP16, respectively, were appended to PC-1 downstream of its CTT domain (PKDgalvp). Cells cotransfected with the resultant PKDgalvp fusion protein and PC-2 showed an increase in luciferase activity and in CTT expression, indicating that the C-terminal tail of PC-1 is cleaved and enters the nucleus. To assess whether CTT cleavage depends upon Ca2+ signaling, cells transfected with PKDgalvp alone or together with PC-2 were incubated with several agents that alter intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. PC-2 enhancement of luciferase activity was not altered by any of these treatments. Using a series of PC-2 C-terminal truncated mutations, we identified a portion of the PC-2 protein that is required to stimulate PC-1 CTT accumulation. These data demonstrate that release of the CTT from PC-1 is influenced and stabilized by PC-2. This effect is independent of Ca2+ but is regulated by sequences contained within the PC-2 C-terminal tail, suggesting a mechanism through which PC-1 and PC-2 may modulate a novel signaling pathway. PMID:19491093

  10. Metal-organic framework catalysts for selective cleavage of aryl-ether bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie

    The present invention relates to methods of employing a metal-organic framework (MOF) as a catalyst for cleaving chemical bonds. In particular instances, the MOF results in selective bond cleavage that results in hydrogenolyzis. Furthermore, the MOF catalyst can be reused in multiple cycles. Such MOF-based catalysts can be useful, e.g., to convert biomass components.

  11. Calpain cleavage within dysferlin exon 40a releases a synaptotagmin-like module for membrane repair

    PubMed Central

    Redpath, G. M. I.; Woolger, N.; Piper, A. K.; Lemckert, F. A.; Lek, A.; Greer, P. A.; North, K. N.; Cooper, S. T.

    2014-01-01

    Dysferlin and calpain are important mediators of the emergency response to repair plasma membrane injury. Our previous research revealed that membrane injury induces cleavage of dysferlin to release a synaptotagmin-like C-terminal module we termed mini-dysferlinC72. Here we show that injury-activated cleavage of dysferlin is mediated by the ubiquitous calpains via a cleavage motif encoded by alternately spliced exon 40a. An exon 40a–specific antibody recognizing cleaved mini-dysferlinC72 intensely labels the circumference of injury sites, supporting a key role for dysferlinExon40a isoforms in membrane repair and consistent with our evidence suggesting that the calpain-cleaved C-terminal module is the form specifically recruited to injury sites. Calpain cleavage of dysferlin is a ubiquitous response to membrane injury in multiple cell lineages and occurs independently of the membrane repair protein MG53. Our study links calpain and dysferlin in the calcium-activated vesicle fusion of membrane repair, placing calpains as upstream mediators of a membrane repair cascade that elicits cleaved dysferlin as an effector. Of importance, we reveal that myoferlin and otoferlin are also cleaved enzymatically to release similar C-terminal modules, bearing two C2 domains and a transmembrane domain. Evolutionary preservation of this feature highlights its functional importance and suggests that this highly conserved C-terminal region of ferlins represents a functionally specialized vesicle fusion module. PMID:25143396

  12. Knowledge-transfer learning for prediction of matrix metalloprotease substrate-cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanan; Song, Jiangning; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T; Leier, André; Li, Chen; Lithgow, Trevor; Webb, Geoffrey I; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2017-07-18

    Matrix Metalloproteases (MMPs) are an important family of proteases that play crucial roles in key cellular and disease processes. Therefore, MMPs constitute important targets for drug design, development and delivery. Advanced proteomic technologies have identified type-specific target substrates; however, the complete repertoire of MMP substrates remains uncharacterized. Indeed, computational prediction of substrate-cleavage sites associated with MMPs is a challenging problem. This holds especially true when considering MMPs with few experimentally verified cleavage sites, such as for MMP-2, -3, -7, and -8. To fill this gap, we propose a new knowledge-transfer computational framework which effectively utilizes the hidden shared knowledge from some MMP types to enhance predictions of other, distinct target substrate-cleavage sites. Our computational framework uses support vector machines combined with transfer machine learning and feature selection. To demonstrate the value of the model, we extracted a variety of substrate sequence-derived features and compared the performance of our method using both 5-fold cross-validation and independent tests. The results show that our transfer-learning-based method provides a robust performance, which is at least comparable to traditional feature-selection methods for prediction of MMP-2, -3, -7, -8, -9 and -12 substrate-cleavage sites on independent tests. The results also demonstrate that our proposed computational framework provides a useful alternative for the characterization of sequence-level determinants of MMP-substrate specificity.

  13. Mo(CO)/sub 6/-promoted reductive cleavage of the carbon-sulfur bond

    SciTech Connect

    Luh, T.Y.; Wong, C.S.

    1985-12-13

    In order to study the reductive cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds by Mo(CO/sub 6/, various organosulfur compounds are reacted with Mo(CO)/sub 6/ in THF. Results of these experiments demonstrate that benzylic-, aryl-, or ..cap alpha..-acyl-activated carbon-sulfur bonds are reduced by treatment with Mo(CO)/sub 6/. 1 table.

  14. A Python Analytical Pipeline to Identify Prohormone Precursors and Predict Prohormone Cleavage Sites

    PubMed Central

    Southey, Bruce R.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptides and hormones are signaling molecules that support cell–cell communication in the central nervous system. Experimentally characterizing neuropeptides requires significant efforts because of the complex and variable processing of prohormone precursor proteins into neuropeptides and hormones. We demonstrate the power and flexibility of the Python language to develop components of an bioinformatic analytical pipeline to identify precursors from genomic data and to predict cleavage as these precursors are en route to the final bioactive peptides. We identified 75 precursors in the rhesus genome, predicted cleavage sites using support vector machines and compared the rhesus predictions to putative assignments based on homology to human sequences. The correct classification rate of cleavage using the support vector machines was over 97% for both human and rhesus data sets. The functionality of Python has been important to develop and maintain NeuroPred (http://neuroproteomics.scs.uiuc.edu/neuropred.html), a user-centered web application for the neuroscience community that provides cleavage site prediction from a wide range of models, precision and accuracy statistics, post-translational modifications, and the molecular mass of potential peptides. The combined results illustrate the suitability of the Python language to implement an all-inclusive bioinformatics approach to predict neuropeptides that encompasses a large number of interdependent steps, from scanning genomes for precursor genes to identification of potential bioactive neuropeptides. PMID:19169350

  15. Dual CRISPR-Cas9 Cleavage Mediated Gene Excision and Targeted Integration in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Gao, Difeng; Smith, Spencer; Spagnuolo, Michael; Rodriguez, Gabriel; Blenner, Mark

    2018-05-29

    CRISPR-Cas9 technology has been successfully applied in Yarrowia lipolytica for targeted genomic editing including gene disruption and integration; however, disruptions by existing methods typically result from small frameshift mutations caused by indels within the coding region, which usually resulted in unnatural protein. In this study, a dual cleavage strategy directed by paired sgRNAs is developed for gene knockout. This method allows fast and robust gene excision, demonstrated on six genes of interest. The targeted regions for excision vary in length from 0.3 kb up to 3.5 kb and contain both non-coding and coding regions. The majority of the gene excisions are repaired by perfect nonhomologous end-joining without indel. Based on this dual cleavage system, two targeted markerless integration methods are developed by providing repair templates. While both strategies are effective, homology mediated end joining (HMEJ) based method are twice as efficient as homology recombination (HR) based method. In both cases, dual cleavage leads to similar or improved gene integration efficiencies compared to gene excision without integration. This dual cleavage strategy will be useful for not only generating more predictable and robust gene knockout, but also for efficient targeted markerless integration, and simultaneous knockout and integration in Y. lipolytica. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Preferential cleavage sites for Sau3A restriction endonuclease in human ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Kupriyanova, N S; Kirilenko, P M; Netchvolodov, K K; Ryskov, A P

    2000-07-21

    Previous studies of cloned ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variants isolated from the cosmid library of human chromosome 13 have revealed some disproportion in representativity of different rDNA regions (N. S. Kupriyanova, K. K. Netchvolodov, P. M. Kirilenko, B. I. Kapanadze, N. K. Yankovsky, and A. P. Ryskov, Mol. Biol. 30, 51-60, 1996). Here we show nonrandom cleavage of human rDNA with Sau3A or its isoshizomer MboI under mild hydrolysis conditions. The hypersensitive cleavage sites were found to be located in the ribosomal intergenic spacer (rIGS), especially in the regions of about 5-5.5 and 11 kb upstream of the rRNA transcription start point. This finding is based on sequencing mapping of the rDNA insert ends in randomly selected cosmid clones of human chromosome 13 and on the data of digestion kinetics of cloned and noncloned human genomic rDNA with Sau3A and MboI. The results show that a methylation status and superhelicity state of the rIGS have no effect on cleavage site sensitivity. It is interesting that all primary cleavage sites are adjacent to or entering into Alu or Psi cdc 27 retroposons of the rIGS suggesting a possible role of neighboring sequences in nuclease accessibility. The results explain nonequal representation of rDNA sequences in the human genomic DNA library used for this study. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Development of Lead Hammerhead Ribozyme Candidates against Human Rod Opsin mRNA for Retinal Degeneration Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmaksoud, Heba E.; Yau, Edwin H.; Zuker, Michael; Sullivan, Jack M.

    2011-01-01

    To identify lead candidate allele-independent hammerhead ribozymes (hhRz) for the treatment of autosomal dominant mutations in the human rod opsin (RHO) gene, we tested a series of hhRzs for potential to significantly knockdown human RHO gene expression in a human cell expression system. Multiple computational criteria were used to select target mRNA regions likely to be single stranded and accessible to hhRz annealing and cleavage. Target regions are tested for accessibility in a human cell culture expression system where the hhRz RNA and target mRNA and protein are coexpressed. The hhRz RNA is embedded in an adenoviral VAI RNA chimeric RNA of established structure and properties which are critical to the experimental paradigm. The chimeric hhRz-VAI RNA is abundantly transcribed so that the hhRzs are expected to be in great excess over substrate mRNA. HhRz-VAI traffics predominantly to the cytoplasm to colocalize with the RHO mRNA target. Colocalization is essential for second-order annealing reactions. The VAI chimera protects the hhRz RNA from degradation and provides for a long half life. With cell lines chosen for high transfection efficiency and a molar excess of hhRz plasmid over target plasmid, the conditions of this experimental paradigm are specifically designed to evaluate for regions of accessibility of the target mRNA in cellulo. Western analysis was used to measure the impact of hhRz expression on RHO protein expression. Three lead candidate hhRz designs were identified that significantly knockdown target protein expression relative to control (p < 0.05). Successful lead candidates (hhRz CUC↓ 266, hhRz CUC↓ 1411, hhRz AUA↓ 1414) targeted regions of human RHO mRNA that were predicted to be accessible by a bioinformatics approach, whereas regions predicted to be inaccessible supported no knockdown. The maximum opsin protein level knockdown is approximately 30% over a 48 hr paradigm of testing. These results validate a rigorous computational

  18. Observation of Early Cleavage in Animal Development: A Simple Technique for Obtaining the Eggs of Rhabditis (Nematoda)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the advantages of using the readily available eggs of the nematode Rhabditis in studying the early cleavage stages of animal development. Discusses the identification and life history of Rhabditis, how to culture and examine the organism, the cleavage stages and cell lineage, and sources of visual aids. (JR)

  19. Hairpin ribozyme cleavage catalyzed by aminoglycoside antibiotics and the polyamine spermine in the absence of metal ions.

    PubMed Central

    Earnshaw, D J; Gait, M J

    1998-01-01

    The hairpin ribozyme is a small catalytic RNA that achieves an active configuration by docking of its two helical domains in an antiparallel fashion. Both docking and subsequent cleavage are dependent on the presence of divalent metal ions, such as magnesium, but there is no evidence to date for direct participation of such ions in the chemical cleavage step. We show that aminoglycoside antibiotics inhibit cleavage of the hairpin ribozyme in the presence of metal ions with the most effective being 5-epi-sisomicin and neomycin B. In contrast, in the absence of metal ions, a number of aminoglycoside antibiotics at 10 mM concentration promote hairpin cleavage with rates only 13-20-fold lower than the magnesium-dependent reaction. We show that neomycin B competes with metal ions by ion replacement with the postively charged amino groups of the antibiotic. In addition, we show that the polyamine spermine at 10 mM promotes efficient hairpin cleavage with rates similar to the magnesium-dependent reaction. Low concentrations of either spermine or the shorter polyamine spermidine synergize with 5 mM magnesium ions to boost cleavage rates considerably. In contrast, at 500 microM magnesium ions, 4 mM spermine, but not spermidine, boosts the cleavage rate. The results have significance both in understanding the role of ions in hairpin ribozyme cleavage and in potential therapeutic applications in mammalian cells. PMID:9837982

  20. Can sucrose cleavage enzymes serve as markers for sink strength and is sucrose a signal molecule during plant sink development?

    Treesearch

    C.C. Black; T. Lobodia; J.-Q Chen; Shi-Jean S. Sung

    1995-01-01

    Sucrose cleavage is an essential reaction for higher plant cells to initiate intermediary metabolism and to direct its carbon into the host of essential compounds derived therefrom for maintaining the cells of intact plants.This review will focus on: the concentrations of sucrose available to plant cells; some biochemical traits of sucrose cleavage enzymes; the...

  1. Nucleotide sequence of the 3' terminal region of lettuce mosaic potyvirus RNA shows a Gln/Val dipeptide at the cleavage site between the polymerase and the coat protein.

    PubMed

    Dinant, S; Lot, H; Albouy, J; Kuziak, C; Meyer, M; Astier-Manifacier, S

    1991-01-01

    DNA complementary to the 3' terminal 1651 nucleotides of the genome of the common strain of lettuce mosaic virus (LMV-O) has been cloned and sequenced. Microsequencing of the N-terminus enabled localization of the coat protein gene in this sequence. It showed also that the LMV coat protein coding region is at the 3' end of the genome, and that the coat protein is processed from a larger protein by cleavage at an unusual Q/V dipeptide between the polymerase and the coat protein. This is the first report of such a site for cleavage of a potyvirus polyprotein, where only Q/A, Q/S, and Q/G cleavage sites have been reported. The LMV coat protein gene encodes a 278 amino acid polypeptide with a calculated Mr of 31,171 and is flanked by a region which has a high degree of homology with the putative polymerase and a 3' untranslated region of 211 nucleotides in length. Percentage of homology with the coat protein of other potyviruses confirms that LMV is a distinct member of this group. Moreover, amino acid homologies noticed with the coat protein of potexvirus, bymovirus, and carlavirus elongated plant viruses suggest a functional significance for the conserved domains.

  2. [The expressions of HSP 70 mRNA and c-fos mRNA in the skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle of rabbits by electrocuted].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Liu, Min; Cheng, Wei-bo; He, Gui-qiong; Li, Fan; Liao, Zhi-gang

    2008-08-01

    To study the changes of HSP 70 mRNA and c-fos mRNA expression and to find a method to differentiate antemortem from postmortem electrocution. Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups, the antemortem electrocution group, the postmortem electrocution group, and the control group. Each group consists of five rabbits. The levels of HSP 70 mRNA and c-fos mRNA in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle were examined with quantitative fluorescent RT-PCR. The levels of HSP 70 mRNA and c-fos mRNA in the antemortem electrocution group increased significantly (P<0.05), compared with that of the postmortem electrocution group. The changes of HSP 70 mRNA and c-fos mRNA expression in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle can be used as an indicator to distinguish antemortem from postmortem electrocution.

  3. BIOMARKERS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION AT THE MRNA LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Denslow, Nancy D., Christopher J. Bowman, Gillian Robinson, H. Stephen Lee, Ronald J. Ferguson, Michael J. Hemmer and Leroy C. Folmar. 1999. Biomarkers of Endocrine Disruption at the mRNA Level. In: Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment: Standardization of Biomarkers for ...

  4. Regulation of mRNA Trafficking by Nuclear Pore Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Amandine; Palancade, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have explored the mechanisms governing mRNA export out of the nucleus, a crucial step in eukaryotic gene expression. During transcription and processing, mRNAs are assembled into messenger ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs). mRNPs are then exported through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which are large multiprotein assemblies made of several copies of a limited number of nucleoporins. A considerable effort has been put into the dissection of mRNA export through NPCs at both cellular and molecular levels, revealing the conserved contributions of a subset of nucleoporins in this process, from yeast to vertebrates. Several reports have also demonstrated the ability of NPCs to sort out properly-processed mRNPs for entry into the nuclear export pathway. Importantly, changes in mRNA export have been associated with post-translational modifications of nucleoporins or changes in NPC composition, depending on cell cycle progression, development or exposure to stress. How NPC modifications also impact on cellular mRNA export in disease situations, notably upon viral infection, is discussed. PMID:25184662

  5. The Generation of Dehydroalanine Residues in Protonated Polypeptides: Ion/Ion Reactions for Introducing Selective Cleavages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhou; Bu, Jiexun; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2017-09-01

    We examine a gas-phase approach for converting a subset of amino acid residues in polypeptide cations to dehydroalanine (Dha). Subsequent activation of the modified polypeptide ions gives rise to specific cleavage N-terminal to the Dha residue. This process allows for the incorporation of selective cleavages in the structural characterization of polypeptide ions. An ion/ion reaction within the mass spectrometer between a multiply protonated polypeptide and the sulfate radical anion introduces a radical site into the multiply protonated polypeptide reactant. Subsequent collisional activation of the polypeptide radical cation gives rise to radical side chain loss from one of several particular amino acid side chains (e.g., leucine, asparagine, lysine, glutamine, and glutamic acid) to yield a Dha residue. The Dha residues facilitate preferential backbone cleavages to produce signature c- and z-ions, demonstrated with cations derived from melittin, mechano growth factor (MGF), and ubiquitin. The efficiencies for radical side chain loss and for subsequent generation of specific c- and z-ions have been examined as functions of precursor ion charge state and activation conditions using cations of ubiquitin as a model for a small protein. It is noted that these efficiencies are not strongly dependent on ion trap collisional activation conditions but are sensitive to precursor ion charge state. Moderate to low charge states show the greatest overall yields for the specific Dha cleavages, whereas small molecule losses (e.g., water/ammonia) dominate at the lowest charge states and proton catalyzed amide bond cleavages that give rise to b- and y-ions tend to dominate at high charge states. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Coupling fibroblast growth factor 23 production and cleavage: iron deficiency, rickets, and kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Myles; White, Kenneth E

    2014-07-01

    High levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) cause the rare disorders of hypophosphatemic rickets and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite major advances in understanding FGF23 biology, fundamental aspects of FGF23 regulation in health and in CKD remain mostly unknown. Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage, but affected individuals experience a waxing and waning course of phosphate wasting. This led to the discovery that iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. Unlike osteocytes in ADHR, normal osteocytes couple increased FGF23 production with commensurately increased FGF23 cleavage to ensure that normal phosphate homeostasis is maintained in the event of iron deficiency. Simultaneous measurement of FGF23 by intact and C-terminal assays supported these breakthroughs by providing minimally invasive insight into FGF23 production and cleavage in bone. These findings also suggest a novel mechanism of FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient and demonstrate increased FGF23 production and decreased FGF23 cleavage, consistent with an acquired state that mimics the molecular pathophysiology of ADHR. Iron deficiency stimulates FGF23 production, but normal osteocytes couple increased FGF23 production with increased cleavage to maintain normal circulating levels of biologically active hormone. These findings uncover a second level of FGF23 regulation within osteocytes, failure of which culminates in elevated levels of biologically active FGF23 in ADHR and perhaps CKD.

  7. Longitudinal cleavage of the penis in chronic spinal cord injury: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Mansoor, Sahibzada Nasir; Ayaz, Saeed Bin; New, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Context Penile cleavage is a rare complication of spinal cord injury (SCI) in patients with a chronic indwelling catheter. We report two cases of chronic SCI who developed penile urethral cleavage after prolonged use of an indwelling catheter for bladder management. Findings A 25-year-old wheelchair mobile male with T7 American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) grade A paraplegia developed a 4 × 1.5 cm ventral urethral cleavage after using an indwelling catheter for four months with inadequate care. He had an associated urinary tract infection and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. A suprapubic catheter was inserted and surgical repair recommended after resolution of UTI and adequate control of his diabetes mellitus. After initial treatment he was lost to follow-up. The second patient was a 15-year-old male with AIS grade B tetraplegia who presented with a 2.5 cm cleavage on the ventral aspect of penis for the preceding three months. He had been using an indwelling catheter for bladder management for the previous 18 months. He had modified Ashworth scale grade III spasticity in lower limbs resistant to conservative management. There was no history of trauma, infection or diabetes mellitus. The patient was advised penile urethral repair surgery but was lost to follow-up. Conclusion Penile cleavage is a rare complication of neurogenic bladder in SCI patients. Patients and care givers should be trained in proper bladder management techniques during the hospital stay, counseled regarding the need for regular follow up, and be taught identification and prevention of common complications. PMID:26108452

  8. Longitudinal cleavage of the penis in chronic spinal cord injury: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Sahibzada Nasir; Ayaz, Saeed Bin; Rathore, Farooq Azam; New, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Penile cleavage is a rare complication of spinal cord injury (SCI) in patients with a chronic indwelling catheter. We report two cases of chronic SCI who developed penile urethral cleavage after prolonged use of an indwelling catheter for bladder management. A 25-year-old wheelchair mobile male with T7 American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) grade A paraplegia developed a 4 × 1.5 cm ventral urethral cleavage after using an indwelling catheter for four months with inadequate care. He had an associated urinary tract infection and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. A suprapubic catheter was inserted and surgical repair recommended after resolution of UTI and adequate control of his diabetes mellitus. After initial treatment he was lost to follow-up. The second patient was a 15-year-old male with AIS grade B tetraplegia who presented with a 2.5 cm cleavage on the ventral aspect of penis for the preceding three months. He had been using an indwelling catheter for bladder management for the previous 18 months. He had modified Ashworth scale grade III spasticity in lower limbs resistant to conservative management. There was no history of trauma, infection or diabetes mellitus. The patient was advised penile urethral repair surgery but was lost to follow-up. Penile cleavage is a rare complication of neurogenic bladder in SCI patients. Patients and care givers should be trained in proper bladder management techniques during the hospital stay, counseled regarding the need for regular follow up, and be taught identification and prevention of common complications.

  9. Maximizing Selective Cleavages at Aspartic Acid and Proline Residues for the Identification of Intact Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, David J.; Dziekonski, Eric T.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2018-04-01

    A new approach for the identification of intact proteins has been developed that relies on the generation of relatively few abundant products from specific cleavage sites. This strategy is intended to complement standard approaches that seek to generate many fragments relatively non-selectively. Specifically, this strategy seeks to maximize selective cleavage at aspartic acid and proline residues via collisional activation of precursor ions formed via electrospray ionization (ESI) under denaturing conditions. A statistical analysis of the SWISS-PROT database was used to predict the number of arginine residues for a given intact protein mass and predict a m/z range where the protein carries a similar charge to the number of arginine residues thereby enhancing cleavage at aspartic acid residues by limiting proton mobility. Cleavage at aspartic acid residues is predicted to be most favorable in the m/z range of 1500-2500, a range higher than that normally generated by ESI at low pH. Gas-phase proton transfer ion/ion reactions are therefore used for precursor ion concentration from relatively high charge states followed by ion isolation and subsequent generation of precursor ions within the optimal m/z range via a second proton transfer reaction step. It is shown that the majority of product ion abundance is concentrated into cleavages C-terminal to aspartic acid residues and N-terminal to proline residues for ions generated by this process. Implementation of a scoring system that weights both ion fragment type and ion fragment area demonstrated identification of standard proteins, ranging in mass from 8.5 to 29.0 kDa. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Maximizing Selective Cleavages at Aspartic Acid and Proline Residues for the Identification of Intact Proteins.

    PubMed

    Foreman, David J; Dziekonski, Eric T; McLuckey, Scott A

    2018-04-30

    A new approach for the identification of intact proteins has been developed that relies on the generation of relatively few abundant products from specific cleavage sites. This strategy is intended to complement standard approaches that seek to generate many fragments relatively non-selectively. Specifically, this strategy seeks to maximize selective cleavage at aspartic acid and proline residues via collisional activation of precursor ions formed via electrospray ionization (ESI) under denaturing conditions. A statistical analysis of the SWISS-PROT database was used to predict the number of arginine residues for a given intact protein mass and predict a m/z range where the protein carries a similar charge to the number of arginine residues thereby enhancing cleavage at aspartic acid residues by limiting proton mobility. Cleavage at aspartic acid residues is predicted to be most favorable in the m/z range of 1500-2500, a range higher than that normally generated by ESI at low pH. Gas-phase proton transfer ion/ion reactions are therefore used for precursor ion concentration from relatively high charge states followed by ion isolation and subsequent generation of precursor ions within the optimal m/z range via a second proton transfer reaction step. It is shown that the majority of product ion abundance is concentrated into cleavages C-terminal to aspartic acid residues and N-terminal to proline residues for ions generated by this process. Implementation of a scoring system that weights both ion fragment type and ion fragment area demonstrated identification of standard proteins, ranging in mass from 8.5 to 29.0 kDa. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Evaluation of fusion protein cleavage site sequences of Newcastle disease virus in genotype matched vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Chen, Zongyan; Yoshida, Asuka; Paldurai, Anandan; Xiao, Sa; Samal, Siba K

    2017-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a devastating poultry disease worldwide. Frequent outbreaks of NDV in chickens vaccinated with conventional live vaccines suggest a need to develop new vaccines that are genetically matched against circulating NDV strains, such as the genotype V virulent strains currently circulating in Mexico and Central America. In this study, a reverse genetics system was developed for the virulent NDV strain Mexico/01/10 strain and used to generate highly attenuated vaccine candidates by individually modifying the cleavage site sequence of fusion (F) protein. The cleavage site sequence of parental virus was individually changed to those of the avirulent NDV strain LaSota and other serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses (APMV serotype-2, -3, -4, -6, -7, -8, and -9). In general, these mutations affected cell-to-cell fusion activity in vitro and the efficiency of the F protein cleavage and made recombinant Mexico/01/10 (rMex) virus highly attenuated in chickens. When chickens were immunized with the rMex mutant viruses and challenged with the virulent parent virus, there was reduced challenge virus shedding compared to birds immunized with the heterologous vaccine strain LaSota. Among the vaccine candidates, rMex containing the cleavage site sequence of APMV-2 induced the highest neutralizing antibody titer and completely protected chickens from challenge virus shedding. These results show the role of the F protein cleavage site sequence of each APMV type in generating genotype V-matched vaccines and the efficacy of matched vaccine strains to provide better protection against NDV strains currently circulating in Mexico.

  12. Efficient plasmid DNA cleavage by a mononuclear copper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Sissi, Claudia; Mancin, Fabrizio; Gatos, Maddalena; Palumbo, Manlio; Tecilla, Paolo; Tonellato, Umberto

    2005-04-04

    The Cu(II) complex of the ligand all-cis-2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-trihydroxycyclohexane (TACI) is a very efficient catalyst of the cleavage of plasmid DNA in the absence of any added cofactor. The maximum rate of degradation of the supercoiled plasmid DNA form, obtained at pH 8.1 and 37 degrees C, in the presence of 48 microM TACI.Cu(II), is 2.3 x 10(-3) s(-1), corresponding to a half-life time of only 5 min for the cleavage of form I (supercoiled) to form II (relaxed circular). The dependence of the rate of plasmid DNA cleavage from the TACI.Cu(II) complex concentration follows an unusual and very narrow bell-like profile, which suggests an high DNA affinity of the complexes but also a great tendency to form unreactive dimers. The reactivity of the TACI.Cu(II) complexes is not affected by the presence of several scavengers for reactive oxygen species or when measured under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, no degradation of the radical reporter Rhodamine B is observed in the presence of such complexes. These results are consistent with the operation of a prevailing hydrolytic pathway under the normal conditions used, although the failure to obtain enzymatic religation of the linearized DNA does not allow one to rule out the occurrence of a nonhydrolytic oxygen-independent cleavage. A concurrent oxidative mechanism becomes competitive upon addition of reductants or in the presence of high levels of molecular oxygen: under such conditions, in fact, a remarkable increase in the rate of DNA cleavage is observed.

  13. Global identification of target recognition and cleavage by the Microprocessor in human ES cells.

    PubMed

    Seong, Youngmo; Lim, Do-Hwan; Kim, Augustine; Seo, Jae Hong; Lee, Young Sik; Song, Hoseok; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2014-11-10

    The Microprocessor plays an essential role in canonical miRNA biogenesis by facilitating cleavage of stem-loop structures in primary transcripts to yield pre-miRNAs. Although miRNA biogenesis has been extensively studied through biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, it has yet to be addressed to what extent the current miRNA biogenesis models hold true in intact cells. To address the issues of in vivo recognition and cleavage by the Microprocessor, we investigate RNAs that are associated with DGCR8 and Drosha by using immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing. Here, we present global protein-RNA interactions with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity. Our data indicate that precursors of canonical miRNAs and miRNA-like hairpins are the major substrates of the Microprocessor. As a result of specific enrichment of nascent cleavage products, we are able to pinpoint the Microprocessor-mediated cleavage sites per se at single-nucleotide resolution. Unexpectedly, a 2-nt 3' overhang invariably exists at the ends of cleaved bases instead of nascent pre-miRNAs. Besides canonical miRNA precursors, we find that two novel miRNA-like structures embedded in mRNAs are cleaved to yield pre-miRNA-like hairpins, uncoupled from miRNA maturation. Our data provide a framework for in vivo Microprocessor-mediated cleavage and a foundation for experimental and computational studies on miRNA biogenesis in living cells. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Connections Underlying Translation and mRNA Stability.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Aditya; Green, Rachel

    2016-09-11

    Gene expression and regulation in organisms minimally depends on transcription by RNA polymerase and on the stability of the RNA product (for both coding and non-coding RNAs). For coding RNAs, gene expression is further influenced by the amount of translation by the ribosome and by the stability of the protein product. The stabilities of these two classes of RNA, non-coding and coding, vary considerably: tRNAs and rRNAs tend to be long lived while mRNAs tend to be more short lived. Even among mRNAs, however, there is a considerable range in stability (ranging from seconds to hours in bacteria and up to days in metazoans), suggesting a significant role for stability in the regulation of gene expression. Here, we review recent experiments from bacteria, yeast and metazoans indicating that the stability of most mRNAs is broadly impacted by the actions of ribosomes that translate them. Ribosomal recognition of defective mRNAs triggers "mRNA surveillance" pathways that target the mRNA for degradation [Shoemaker and Green (2012) ]. More generally, even the stability of perfectly functional mRNAs appears to be dictated by overall rates of translation by the ribosome [Herrick et al. (1990), Presnyak et al. (2015) ]. Given that mRNAs are synthesized for the purpose of being translated into proteins, it is reassuring that such intimate connections between mRNA and the ribosome can drive biological regulation. In closing, we consider the likelihood that these connections between protein synthesis and mRNA stability are widespread or whether other modes of regulation dominate the mRNA stability landscape in higher organisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The differential expression of alternatively polyadenylated transcripts is a common stress-induced response mechanism that modulates mammalian mRNA expression in a quantitative and qualitative fashion.

    PubMed

    Hollerer, Ina; Curk, Tomaz; Haase, Bettina; Benes, Vladimir; Hauer, Christian; Neu-Yilik, Gabriele; Bhuvanagiri, Madhuri; Hentze, Matthias W; Kulozik, Andreas E

    2016-09-01

    Stress adaptation plays a pivotal role in biological processes and requires tight regulation of gene expression. In this study, we explored the effect of cellular stress on mRNA polyadenylation and investigated the implications of regulated polyadenylation site usage on mammalian gene expression. High-confidence polyadenylation site mapping combined with global pre-mRNA and mRNA expression profiling revealed that stress induces an accumulation of genes with differentially expressed polyadenylated mRNA isoforms in human cells. Specifically, stress provokes a global trend in polyadenylation site usage toward decreased utilization of promoter-proximal poly(A) sites in introns or ORFs and increased utilization of promoter-distal polyadenylation sites in intergenic regions. This extensively affects gene expression beyond regulating mRNA abundance by changing mRNA length and by altering the configuration of open reading frames. Our study highlights the impact of post-transcriptional mechanisms on stress-dependent gene regulation and reveals the differential expression of alternatively polyadenylated transcripts as a common stress-induced mechanism in mammalian cells. © 2016 Hollerer et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  16. Mutation in cpsf6/CFIm68 (Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor Subunit 6) causes short 3'UTRs and disturbs gene expression in developing embryos, as revealed by an analysis of primordial germ cell migration using the medaka mutant naruto.

    PubMed

    Sasado, Takao; Kondoh, Hisato; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Naruse, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Our previous studies analyzing medaka mutants defective in primordial germ cell (PGC) migration identified cxcr4b and cxcr7, which are both receptors of the chemokine sdf1/cxcl12, as key regulators of PGC migration. Among PGC migration mutants, naruto (nar) is unique in that the mutant phenotype includes gross morphological abnormalities of embryos, suggesting that the mutation affects a broader range of processes. A fine genetic linkage mapping and genome sequencing showed the nar gene encodes Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor subunit 6 (CPSF6/CFIm68). CPSF6 is a component of the Cleavage Factor Im complex (CFIm) which plays a key role in pre-mRNA 3'-cleavage and polyadenylation. 3'RACE of sdf1a/b and cxcr7 transcripts in the mutant embryos indicated shorter 3'UTRs with poly A additions occurring at more upstream positions than wild-type embryos, suggesting CPSF6 functions to prevent premature 3'UTR cleavage. In addition, expression of the coding region sequences of sdf1a/b in nar mutants was more anteriorly extended in somites than wild-type embryos, accounting for the abnormally extended distribution of PGCs in nar mutants. An expected consequence of shortening 3'UTR is the escape from the degradation mechanism mediated by microRNAs interacting with distal 3'UTR sequence. The abnormal expression pattern of sdf1a coding sequence may be at least partially accounted for by this mechanism. Given the pleiotropic effects of nar mutation, further analysis using the nar mutant will reveal processes in which CPSF6 plays essential regulatory roles in poly A site selection and involvement of 3'UTRs in posttranscriptional gene regulation in various genes in vivo.

  17. Mutation in cpsf6/CFIm68 (Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor Subunit 6) causes short 3'UTRs and disturbs gene expression in developing embryos, as revealed by an analysis of primordial germ cell migration using the medaka mutant naruto

    PubMed Central

    Kondoh, Hisato; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Naruse, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Our previous studies analyzing medaka mutants defective in primordial germ cell (PGC) migration identified cxcr4b and cxcr7, which are both receptors of the chemokine sdf1/cxcl12, as key regulators of PGC migration. Among PGC migration mutants, naruto (nar) is unique in that the mutant phenotype includes gross morphological abnormalities of embryos, suggesting that the mutation affects a broader range of processes. A fine genetic linkage mapping and genome sequencing showed the nar gene encodes Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor subunit 6 (CPSF6/CFIm68). CPSF6 is a component of the Cleavage Factor Im complex (CFIm) which plays a key role in pre-mRNA 3'-cleavage and polyadenylation. 3'RACE of sdf1a/b and cxcr7 transcripts in the mutant embryos indicated shorter 3’UTRs with poly A additions occurring at more upstream positions than wild-type embryos, suggesting CPSF6 functions to prevent premature 3’UTR cleavage. In addition, expression of the coding region sequences of sdf1a/b in nar mutants was more anteriorly extended in somites than wild-type embryos, accounting for the abnormally extended distribution of PGCs in nar mutants. An expected consequence of shortening 3'UTR is the escape from the degradation mechanism mediated by microRNAs interacting with distal 3’UTR sequence. The abnormal expression pattern of sdf1a coding sequence may be at least partially accounted for by this mechanism. Given the pleiotropic effects of nar mutation, further analysis using the nar mutant will reveal processes in which CPSF6 plays essential regulatory roles in poly A site selection and involvement of 3'UTRs in posttranscriptional gene regulation in various genes in vivo. PMID:28253363

  18. Continued Monitoring of Indiana's SPS9-A Site : [Technical Summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-01-01

    The Indianas SPS9-A site was initiated as a part of the : SHRPs LTPP program in 1997 to study the influence : of binder grades on mixture performance. In the earlier : phase of this study entitled Development of Indianas : SPS9-A Site, five ...

  19. Functional characterisation of three members of the Vitis vinifera L. carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In plants, carotenoids serve as the precursors to C13-norisoprenoids, a group of apocarotenoid compounds with diverse biological functions. Enzymatic cleavage of carotenoids catalysed by members of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) family has been shown to produce a number of industrially important volatile flavour and aroma apocarotenoids including β-ionone, geranylacetone, pseudoionone, α-ionone and 3-hydroxy-β-ionone in a range of plant species. Apocarotenoids contribute to the floral and fruity attributes of many wine cultivars and are thereby, at least partly, responsible for the “varietal character”. Despite their importance in grapes and wine; carotenoid cleavage activity has only been described for VvCCD1 and the mechanism(s) and regulation of carotenoid catabolism remains largely unknown. Results Three grapevine-derived CCD-encoding genes have been isolated and shown to be functional with unique substrate cleavage capacities. Our results demonstrate that the VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b catalyse the cleavage of both linear and cyclic carotenoid substrates. The expression of VvCCD1, VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b was detected in leaf, flower and throughout berry development. VvCCD1 expression was constitutive, whereas VvCCD4a expression was predominant in leaves and VvCCD4b in berries. A transgenic population with a 12-fold range of VvCCD1 expression exhibited a lack of correlation between VvCCD1 expression and carotenoid substrates and/or apocarotenoid products in leaves, providing proof that the in planta function(s) of VvCCD1 in photosynthetically active tissue is distinct from the in vitro activities demonstrated. The isolation and functional characterisation of VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b identify two additional CCDs that are functional in grapevine. Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that the three CCDs are under various levels of control that include gene expression (spatial and temporal), substrate specificity and compartmentalisation

  20. SWI/SNF interacts with cleavage and polyadenylation factors and facilitates pre-mRNA 3' end processing.

    PubMed

    Yu, Simei; Jordán-Pla, Antonio; Gañez-Zapater, Antoni; Jain, Shruti; Rolicka, Anna; Östlund Farrants, Ann-Kristin; Visa, Neus

    2018-05-31

    SWI/SNF complexes associate with genes and regulate transcription by altering the chromatin at the promoter. It has recently been shown that these complexes play a role in pre-mRNA processing by associating at alternative splice sites. Here, we show that SWI/SNF complexes are involved also in pre-mRNA 3' end maturation by facilitating 3' end cleavage of specific pre-mRNAs. Comparative proteomics show that SWI/SNF ATPases interact physically with subunits of the cleavage and polyadenylation complexes in fly and human cells. In Drosophila melanogaster, the SWI/SNF ATPase Brahma (dBRM) interacts with the CPSF6 subunit of cleavage factor I. We have investigated the function of dBRM in 3' end formation in S2 cells by RNA interference, single-gene analysis and RNA sequencing. Our data show that dBRM facilitates pre-mRNA cleavage in two different ways: by promoting the association of CPSF6 to the cleavage region and by stabilizing positioned nucleosomes downstream of the cleavage site. These findings show that SWI/SNF complexes play a role also in the cleavage of specific pre-mRNAs in animal cells.

  1. The large terminase DNA packaging motor grips DNA with its ATPase domain for cleavage by the flexible nuclease domain

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Brendan J.; Hayes, Janelle A.; Stone, Nicholas P.; Xu, Rui-Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Many viruses use a powerful terminase motor to pump their genome inside an empty procapsid shell during virus maturation. The large terminase (TerL) protein contains both enzymatic activities necessary for packaging in such viruses: the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) that powers DNA translocation and an endonuclease that cleaves the concatemeric genome at both initiation and completion of genome packaging. However, how TerL binds DNA during translocation and cleavage remains mysterious. Here we investigate DNA binding and cleavage using TerL from the thermophilic phage P74-26. We report the structure of the P74-26 TerL nuclease domain, which allows us to model DNA binding in the nuclease active site. We screened a large panel of TerL variants for defects in binding and DNA cleavage, revealing that the ATPase domain is the primary site for DNA binding, and is required for nuclease activity. The nuclease domain is dispensable for DNA binding but residues lining the active site guide DNA for cleavage. Kinetic analysis of DNA cleavage suggests flexible tethering of the nuclease domains during DNA cleavage. We propose that interactions with the procapsid during DNA translocation conformationally restrict the nuclease domain, inhibiting cleavage; TerL release from the capsid upon completion of packaging unlocks the nuclease domains to cleave DNA. PMID:28082398

  2. A role for exosomes in the constitutive and stimulus-induced ectodomain cleavage of L1 and CD44.

    PubMed

    Stoeck, Alexander; Keller, Sascha; Riedle, Svenja; Sanderson, Michael P; Runz, Steffen; Le Naour, Francois; Gutwein, Paul; Ludwig, Andreas; Rubinstein, Eric; Altevogt, Peter

    2006-02-01

    Ectodomain shedding is a proteolytic mechanism by which transmembrane molecules are converted into a soluble form. Cleavage is mediated by metalloproteases and proceeds in a constitutive or inducible fashion. Although believed to be a cell-surface event, there is increasing evidence that cleavage can take place in intracellular compartments. However, it is unknown how cleaved soluble molecules get access to the extracellular space. By analysing L1 (CD171) and CD44 in ovarian carcinoma cells, we show in the present paper that the cleavage induced by ionomycin, APMA (4-aminophenylmercuric acetate) or MCD (methyl-beta-cyclodextrin) is initiated in an endosomal compartment that is subsequently released in the form of exosomes. Calcium influx augmented the release of exosomes containing functionally active forms of ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10) and ADAM17 [TACE (tumour necrosis factor a-converting enzyme)] as well as CD44 and L1 cytoplasmic cleavage fragments. Cleavage could also proceed in released exosomes, but only depletion of ADAM10 by small interfering RNA blocked cleavage under constitutive and induced conditions. In contrast, cleavage of L1 in response to PMA occurred at the cell surface and was mediated by ADAM17. We conclude that different ADAMs are involved in distinct cellular compartments and that ADAM10 is responsible for shedding in vesicles. Our findings open up the possibility that exosomes serve as a platform for ectodomain shedding and as a vehicle for the cellular export of soluble molecules.

  3. Antisense RNA protects mRNA from RNase E degradation by RNA–RNA duplex formation during phage infection

    PubMed Central

    Stazic, Damir; Lindell, Debbie; Steglich, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The ecologically important cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus possesses the smallest genome among oxyphototrophs, with a reduced suite of protein regulators and a disproportionately high number of regulatory RNAs. Many of these are asRNAs, raising the question whether they modulate gene expression through the protection of mRNA from RNase E degradation. To address this question, we produced recombinant RNase E from Prochlorococcus sp. MED4, which functions optimally at 12 mM Mg2+, pH 9 and 35°C. RNase E cleavage assays were performed with this recombinant protein to assess enzyme activity in the presence of single- or double-stranded RNA substrates. We found that extraordinarily long asRNAs of 3.5 and 7 kb protect a set of mRNAs from RNase E degradation that accumulate during phage infection. These asRNA–mRNA duplex formations mask single-stranded recognition sites of RNase E, leading to increased stability of the mRNAs. Such interactions directly modulate RNA stability and provide an explanation for enhanced transcript abundance of certain mRNAs during phage infection. Protection from RNase E-triggered RNA decay may constitute a hitherto unknown regulatory function of bacterial cis-asRNAs, impacting gene expression. PMID:21325266

  4. Antisense RNA protects mRNA from RNase E degradation by RNA-RNA duplex formation during phage infection.

    PubMed

    Stazic, Damir; Lindell, Debbie; Steglich, Claudia

    2011-06-01

    The ecologically important cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus possesses the smallest genome among oxyphototrophs, with a reduced suite of protein regulators and a disproportionately high number of regulatory RNAs. Many of these are asRNAs, raising the question whether they modulate gene expression through the protection of mRNA from RNase E degradation. To address this question, we produced recombinant RNase E from Prochlorococcus sp. MED4, which functions optimally at 12 mM Mg(2+), pH 9 and 35°C. RNase E cleavage assays were performed with this recombinant protein to assess enzyme activity in the presence of single- or double-stranded RNA substrates. We found that extraordinarily long asRNAs of 3.5 and 7 kb protect a set of mRNAs from RNase E degradation that accumulate during phage infection. These asRNA-mRNA duplex formations mask single-stranded recognition sites of RNase E, leading to increased stability of the mRNAs. Such interactions directly modulate RNA stability and provide an explanation for enhanced transcript abundance of certain mRNAs during phage infection. Protection from RNase E-triggered RNA decay may constitute a hitherto unknown regulatory function of bacterial cis-asRNAs, impacting gene expression.

  5. Vibrational force alters mRNA expression in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjandrawinata, R. R.; Vincent, V. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1997-01-01

    Serum-deprived mouse osteoblastic (MC3T3E1) cells were subjected to a vibrational force modeled by NASA to simulate a space shuttle launch (7.83 G rms). The mRNA levels for eight genes were investigated to determine the effect of vibrational force on mRNA expression. The mRNA levels of two growth-related protooncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, were up-regulated significantly within 30 min after vibration, whereas those of osteocalcin as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 were decreased significantly within 3 h after vibration. No changes were detected in the levels of beta-actin, histone H4, or cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 after vibration. No basal levels of cyclooxygenase-2 expression were detected. In addition, the extracellular concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent autocrine/paracrine growth factor in bone, were not significantly altered after vibration most likely due to the serum deprivation state of the osteoblasts. In comparison with the gravitational launch profile, vibrational-induced changes in gene expression were greater both in magnitude and number of genes activated. Taken together, these data suggest that the changes in mRNA expression are due to a direct mechanical effect of the vibrational force on the osteoblast cells and not to changes in the local PGE2 concentrations. The finding that launch forces induce gene expression is of utmost importance since many of the biological experiments do not dampen vibrational loads on experimental samples. This lack of dampening of vibrational forces may partially explain why 1-G onboard controls sometimes do not reflect 1-G ground controls. These data may also suggest that scientists use extra ground controls that are exposed to launch forces, have these forces dampened on launched samples, or use facilities such as Biorack that provide an onboard 1-G centrufuge in order to control for space shuttle launch forces.

  6. Identification of succinimide sites in proteins by N-terminal sequence analysis after alkaline hydroxylamine cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, M. Y.; Harris, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Under favorable conditions, Asp or Asn residues can undergo rearrangement to a succinimide (cyclic imide), which may also serve as an intermediate for deamidation and/or isoaspartate formation. Direct identification of such succinimides by peptide mapping is hampered by their lability at neutral and alkaline pH. We determined that incubation in 2 M hydroxylamine, 0.2 M Tris buffer, pH 9, for 2 h at 45 degrees C will specifically cleave on the C-terminal side of succinimides without cleavage at Asn-Gly bonds; yields are typically approximately 50%. N-terminal sequence analysis can then be used to identify an internal sequence generated by cleavage of the succinimide, hence identifying the succinimide site. PMID:8142891

  7. RNA methylation by Dnmt2 protects transfer RNAs against stress-induced cleavage.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Matthias; Pollex, Tim; Hanna, Katharina; Tuorto, Francesca; Meusburger, Madeleine; Helm, Mark; Lyko, Frank

    2010-08-01

    Dnmt2 proteins are the most conserved members of the DNA methyltransferase enzyme family, but their substrate specificity and biological functions have been a subject of controversy. We show here that, in addition to tRNA(Asp-GTC), tRNA(Val-AAC) and tRNA(Gly-GCC) are also methylated by Dnmt2. Drosophila Dnmt2 mutants showed reduced viability under stress conditions, and Dnmt2 relocalized to stress granules following heat shock. Strikingly, stress-induced cleavage of tRNAs was Dnmt2-dependent, and Dnmt2-mediated methylation protected tRNAs against ribonuclease cleavage. These results uncover a novel biological function of Dnmt2-mediated tRNA methylation, and suggest a role for Dnmt2 enzymes during the biogenesis of tRNA-derived small RNAs.

  8. 2-Chlorotrityl chloride resin. Studies on anchoring of Fmoc-amino acids and peptide cleavage.

    PubMed

    Barlos, K; Chatzi, O; Gatos, D; Stavropoulos, G

    1991-06-01

    The esterification of 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin with Fmoc-amino acids in the presence of DIEA is studied under various conditions. High esterification yields are obtained using 0.6 equiv. Fmoc-amino acid/mmol resin in DCM or DCE, in 25 min, at room temperature. The reaction proceeds without by product formation even in the case of Fmoc-Asn and Fmoc-Gln. The quantitative and easy cleavage of amino acids and peptides from 2-chlorotrityl resin, by using AcOH/TFE/DCM mixtures, is accomplished within 15-60 min at room temperature, while t-butyl type protecting groups remain unaffected. Under these exceptionally mild conditions 2-chlorotrityl cations generated during the cleavage of amino acids and peptides from resin do not attack the nucleophilic side chains of Trp, Met, and Tyr.

  9. HIV-1 protease cleavage site prediction based on two-stage feature selection method.

    PubMed

    Niu, Bing; Yuan, Xiao-Cheng; Roeper, Preston; Su, Qiang; Peng, Chun-Rong; Yin, Jing-Yuan; Ding, Juan; Li, HaiPeng; Lu, Wen-Cong

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge of the mechanism of HIV protease cleavage specificity is critical to the design of specific and effective HIV inhibitors. Searching for an accurate, robust, and rapid method to correctly predict the cleavage sites in proteins is crucial when searching for possible HIV inhibitors. In this article, HIV-1 protease specificity was studied using the correlation-based feature subset (CfsSubset) selection method combined with Genetic Algorithms method. Thirty important biochemical features were found based on a jackknife test from the original data set containing 4,248 features. By using the AdaBoost method with the thirty selected features the prediction model yields an accuracy of 96.7% for the jackknife test and 92.1% for an independent set test, with increased accuracy over the original dataset by 6.7% and 77.4%, respectively. Our feature selection scheme could be a useful technique for finding effective competitive inhibitors of HIV protease.

  10. Cup regulates oskar mRNA stability during oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Broyer, Risa M; Monfort, Elena; Wilhelm, James E

    2017-01-01

    The proper regulation of the localization, translation, and stability of maternally deposited transcripts is essential for embryonic development in many organisms. These different forms of regulation are mediated by the various protein subunits of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes that assemble on maternal mRNAs. However, while many of the subunits that regulate the localization and translation of maternal transcripts have been identified, relatively little is known about how maternal mRNAs are stockpiled and stored in a stable form to support early development. One of the best characterized regulators of maternal transcripts is Cup - a broadly conserved component of the maternal RNP complex that in Drosophila acts as a translational repressor of the localized message oskar. In this study, we have found that loss of cup disrupts the localization of both the oskar mRNA and its associated proteins to the posterior pole of the developing oocyte. This defect is not due to a failure to specify the oocyte or to disruption of RNP transport. Rather, the localization defects are due to a drop in oskar mRNA levels in cup mutant egg chambers. Thus, in addition to its role in regulating oskar mRNA translation, Cup also plays a critical role in controlling the stability of the oskar transcript. This suggests that Cup is ideally positioned to coordinate the translational control function of the maternal RNP complex with its role in storing maternal transcripts in a stable form. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Exaptive origins of regulated mRNA decay in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Fursham M.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is extensively controlled at the level of mRNA stability and the mechanisms underlying this regulation are markedly different from their archaeal and bacterial counterparts. We propose that two such mechanisms, nonsense‐mediated decay (NMD) and motif‐specific transcript destabilization by CCCH‐type zinc finger RNA‐binding proteins, originated as a part of cellular defense against RNA pathogens. These branches of the mRNA turnover pathway might have been used by primeval eukaryotes alongside RNA interference to distinguish their own messages from those of RNA viruses and retrotransposable elements. We further hypothesize that the subsequent advent of “professional” innate and adaptive immunity systems allowed NMD and the motif‐triggered mechanisms to be efficiently repurposed for regulation of endogenous cellular transcripts. This scenario explains the rapid emergence of archetypical mRNA destabilization pathways in eukaryotes and argues that other aspects of post‐transcriptional gene regulation in this lineage might have been derived through a similar exaptation route. PMID:27438915

  12. Exaptive origins of regulated mRNA decay in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Fursham M; Makeyev, Eugene V

    2016-09-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is extensively controlled at the level of mRNA stability and the mechanisms underlying this regulation are markedly different from their archaeal and bacterial counterparts. We propose that two such mechanisms, nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) and motif-specific transcript destabilization by CCCH-type zinc finger RNA-binding proteins, originated as a part of cellular defense against RNA pathogens. These branches of the mRNA turnover pathway might have been used by primeval eukaryotes alongside RNA interference to distinguish their own messages from those of RNA viruses and retrotransposable elements. We further hypothesize that the subsequent advent of "professional" innate and adaptive immunity systems allowed NMD and the motif-triggered mechanisms to be efficiently repurposed for regulation of endogenous cellular transcripts. This scenario explains the rapid emergence of archetypical mRNA destabilization pathways in eukaryotes and argues that other aspects of post-transcriptional gene regulation in this lineage might have been derived through a similar exaptation route. © 2016 The Authors BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Polysome Fractionation to Analyze mRNA Distribution Profiles.

    PubMed

    Panda, Amaresh C; Martindale, Jennifer L; Gorospe, Myriam

    2017-02-05

    Eukaryotic cells adapt to changes in external or internal signals by precisely modulating the expression of specific gene products. The expression of protein-coding genes is controlled at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Among the latter steps, the regulation of translation is particularly important in cellular processes that require rapid changes in protein expression patterns. The translational efficiency of mRNAs is altered by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and noncoding (nc)RNAs such as microRNAs (Panda et al. , 2014a and 2014b; Abdelmohsen et al. , 2014). The impact of factors that regulate selective mRNA translation is a critical question in RNA biology. Polyribosome (polysome) fractionation analysis is a powerful method to assess the association of ribosomes with a given mRNA. It provides valuable information about the translational status of that mRNA, depending on the number of ribosomes with which they are associated, and identifies mRNAs that are not translated (Panda et al. , 2016). mRNAs associated with many ribosomes form large polysomes that are predicted to be actively translated, while mRNAs associated with few or no ribosomes are expected to be translated poorly if at all. In sum, polysome fractionation analysis allows the direct determination of translation efficiencies at the level of the whole transcriptome as well as individual mRNAs.

  14. Leptin receptor mRNA in rat brain astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hsuchou, Hung; Pan, Weihong; Barnes, Maria J.; Kastin, Abba J.

    2009-01-01

    We recently reported that mouse astrocytes express leptin receptors (ObR), and that obesity induces upregulation of astrocytic ObR. To provide further evidence of the importance of astrocytic ObR expression, we performed double-labeling fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry in the rat hypothalamus. Laser confocal microscopic image analysis showed that ObR mRNA was present in glial fibrillary acidic protein (+) cells that show distinctive astrocytic morphology as well as in neurons. In addition to the presence of ObR mRNA, ObR protein was shown in both astrocytes and neurons in the rat hypothalamus by double-labeling immunohistochemistry. In cultured rat C6 astrocytoma cells treated with different doses of lipopolysaccharide for 6 h, the mRNA for ObRa or ObRb did not show significant changes, as measured by quantitative RT-PCR. However, the protein expression of both ObRa and ObRb, determined by western blotting, was increased after the C6 cells were treated with either lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor-α. The results indicate that astrocytic ObR expression is present in rats as well as mice, and that it probably plays a role in the neuroinflammatory response. PMID:19747514

  15. mRNA interactome capture in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, Nicolai; Landthaler, Markus

    2017-08-15

    Throughout their entire life cycle, mRNAs are associated with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), forming ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes with highly dynamic compositions. Their interplay is one key to control gene regulatory mechanisms from mRNA synthesis to decay. To assay the global scope of RNA-protein interactions, we and others have published a method combining crosslinking with highly stringent oligo(dT) affinity purification to enrich proteins associated with polyadenylated RNA (poly(A)+ RNA). Identification of the poly(A)+ RNA-bound proteome (also: mRNA interactome capture) has by now been applied to a diversity of cell lines and model organisms, uncovering comprehensive repertoires of RBPs and hundreds of novel RBP candidates. In addition to determining the RBP catalog in a given biological system, mRNA interactome capture allows the examination of changes in protein-mRNA interactions in response to internal and external stimuli, altered cellular programs and disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. cis-Apa: a practical linker for the microwave-assisted preparation of cyclic pseudopeptides via RCM cyclative cleavage.

    PubMed

    Baron, Alice; Verdié, Pascal; Martinez, Jean; Lamaty, Frédéric

    2011-02-04

    A new linker cis-5-aminopent-3-enoic acid (cis-Apa) was prepared for the synthesis of cyclic pseudopeptides by cyclization-cleavage by using ring-closing methatesis (RCM). We developed a new synthetic pathway for the preparation of the cis-Apa linker that was tested in the cyclization-cleavage process of different RGD peptide sequences. Different macrocyclic peptidomimetics were prepared by using this integrated microwave-assisted method, showing that the readily available cis-Apa amino acid is well adapted as a linker in the cyclization-cleavage process.

  17. C-N bond cleavage of anilines by a (salen)ruthenium(VI) nitrido complex.

    PubMed

    Man, Wai-Lun; Xie, Jianhui; Pan, Yi; Lam, William W Y; Kwong, Hoi-Ki; Ip, Kwok-Wa; Yiu, Shek-Man; Lau, Kai-Chung; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2013-04-17

    We report experimental and computational studies of the facile oxidative C-N bond cleavage of anilines by a (salen)ruthenium(VI) nitrido complex. We provide evidence that the initial step involves nucleophilic attack of aniline at the nitrido ligand of the ruthenium complex, which is followed by proton and electron transfer to afford a (salen)ruthenium(II) diazonium intermediate. This intermediate then undergoes unimolecular decomposition to generate benzene and N2.

  18. Unconjugated Bilirubin Inhibits Proteolytic Cleavage of von Willebrand Factor by ADAMTS13 Protease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Rui-Nan; Yang, Shangbin; Wu, Haifeng M.; Zheng, X. Long

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of heme catabolism. Increased serum levels of unconjugated bilirubin are conditions commonly seen in premature neonates and adults with acute hemolysis including thrombotic microangiopathy. Previous studies have shown that unconjugated bilirubin lowers plasma ADAMTS13 activity, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Objectives The study is to determine whether unconjugated bilirubin directly inhibits the cleavage of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and its analogs by ADAMTS13. Methods Fluorogenic, SELDI-TOF mass spectrometric assay, and Western blotting analyses were employed to address this question. Results Unconjugated bilirubin inhibits the cleavage of F485-rVWF73-H, D633-rVWF73-H, and GST-rVWF71-11K by ADAMTS13 in a concentration-dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of ~13 μM, ~70 μM, and ~17 μM, respectively. Unconjugated bilirubin also dose-dependently inhibits the cleavage of multimeric VWF by ADAMTS13 under denaturing conditions. The inhibitory activity of bilirubin on the cleavage of D633-rVWF73-H and multimeric VWF, but not F485-rVWF73-H, was eliminated after incubation with bilirubin oxidase that converts bilirubin to biliverdin. Furthermore, plasma ADAMTS13 activity in patients with hyperbilirubinemia is lower prior to than after treatment with bilirubin oxidase. Conclusions unconjugated bilirubin directly inhibits ADAMTS13’s ability to cleave both peptidyl and native VWF substrates in addition to its interference with certain fluorogenic assays. Our findings may help proper interpretation of ADAMTS13 results under pathological conditions. Whether elevated serum unconjugated bilirubin has an adverse effect in vivo remains to be determined in our future study. PMID:25782102

  19. Signal peptide discrimination and cleavage site identification using SVM and NN.

    PubMed

    Kazemian, H B; Yusuf, S A; White, K

    2014-02-01

    About 15% of all proteins in a genome contain a signal peptide (SP) sequence, at the N-terminus, that targets the protein to intracellular secretory pathways. Once the protein is targeted correctly in the cell, the SP is cleaved, releasing the mature protein. Accurate prediction of the presence of these short amino-acid SP chains is crucial for modelling the topology of membrane proteins, since SP sequences can be confused with transmembrane domains due to similar composition of hydrophobic amino acids. This paper presents a cascaded Support Vector Machine (SVM)-Neural Network (NN) classification methodology for SP discrimination and cleavage site identification. The proposed method utilises a dual phase classification approach using SVM as a primary classifier to discriminate SP sequences from Non-SP. The methodology further employs NNs to predict the most suitable cleavage site candidates. In phase one, a SVM classification utilises hydrophobic propensities as a primary feature vector extraction using symmetric sliding window amino-acid sequence analysis for discrimination of SP and Non-SP. In phase two, a NN classification uses asymmetric sliding window sequence analysis for prediction of cleavage site identification. The proposed SVM-NN method was tested using Uni-Prot non-redundant datasets of eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins with SP and Non-SP N-termini. Computer simulation results demonstrate an overall accuracy of 0.90 for SP and Non-SP discrimination based on Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) tests using SVM. For SP cleavage site prediction, the overall accuracy is 91.5% based on cross-validation tests using the novel SVM-NN model. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The in vitro cleavage of the hAtg proteins by cell death proteases.

    PubMed

    Norman, Joanna M; Cohen, Gerald M; Bampton, Edward T W

    2010-11-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that there is crosstalk between the apoptotic and autophagic pathways, with autophagy helping to contribute to cell death by providing energy to allow the energy-requiring programmed cell death process to complete, as well as degrading cellular material in its own right. Recent evidence has suggested that Atg proteins can themselves be targets of caspases, providing potential regulation of autophagy as well as uncovering novel functions for fragments derived from Atg proteins. However, to date there has not been a detailed examination of which Atg proteins may be the targets of which death proteases. We show that the majority of human Atg (hAtg) proteins can be cleaved by calpain 1, which is activated in some apoptotic paradigms, as well as other forms of death. We also show that hAtg3 is cleaved by caspases-3, -6 and -8, hAtg6 (Beclin 1) is cleaved by caspase-3 and -6, while hAtg9, hAtg7 and the hAtg4 homologues can be cleaved by caspase-3. Cleavage of Beclin 1 was also seen in apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by staurosporine and TRAIL, along with cleavage of Atg3 and Atg4C. There were subtle effects of caspase inhibition on GFP-LC3 lipidation but more marked effects on the formation of GFP-LC3 puncta (a marker of autophagosome formation) and p62 degradation, indicating that caspase cleavage of autophagy-related proteins can affect the autophagic process. Notably we show that p62 is a target for caspase-6 and -8 cleavage.

  1. Cleavage/alteration of interleukin-8 by matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the female lower genital tract.

    PubMed

    Zariffard, M Reza; Anastos, Kathryn; French, Audrey L; Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Cohen, Mardge; Landay, Alan L; Spear, Gregory T

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8) plays important roles in immune responses at mucosal sites including in the lower genital tract. Since several types of bacteria produce proteases that cleave IL-8 and many types of bacteria can be present in lower genital tract microbiota, we assessed genital fluids for IL-8 cleavage/alteration. Genital fluids collected by lavage from 200 women (23 HIV-seronegative and 177 HIV-seropositive) were tested for IL-8 cleavage/alteration by ELISA. IL-8 cleaving/altering activity was observed in fluids from both HIV-positive (28%) and HIV-negative women (35%). There was no clear relationship between the activity and the types of bacteria present in the lower genital tract as determined by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Protease inhibitors specific for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) reduced the activity and a multiplex assay that detects both inactive and active MMPs showed the presence of multiple MMPs, including MMP-1, -3, -7, -8, -9, -10 and -12 in genital secretions from many of the women. The IL-8-cleaving/altering activity significantly correlated with active MMP-9 as well as with cleavage of a substrate that is acted on by several active MMPs. These studies show that multiple MMPs are present in the genital tract of women and strongly suggest that MMP-9 in genital secretions can cleave IL-8 at this mucosal site. These studies suggest that MMP-mediated cleavage of IL-8 can modulate inflammatory responses in the lower genital tract.

  2. Effects of Olive Metabolites on DNA Cleavage Mediated by Human Type II Topoisomerases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several naturally occurring dietary polyphenols with chemopreventive or anticancer properties are topoisomerase II poisons. To identify additional phytochemicals that enhance topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage, a library of 341 Mediterranean plant extracts was screened for activity against human topoisomerase IIα. An extract from Phillyrea latifolia L., a member of the olive tree family, displayed high activity against the human enzyme. On the basis of previous metabolomics studies, we identified several polyphenols (hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, verbascoside, tyrosol, and caffeic acid) as potential candidates for topoisomerase II poisons. Of these, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside enhanced topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. The potency of these olive metabolites increased 10–100-fold in the presence of an oxidant. Hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside displayed hallmark characteristics of covalent topoisomerase II poisons. (1) The activity of the metabolites was abrogated by a reducing agent. (2) Compounds inhibited topoisomerase II activity when they were incubated with the enzyme prior to the addition of DNA. (3) Compounds were unable to poison a topoisomerase IIα construct that lacked the N-terminal domain. Because hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside are broadly distributed across the olive family, extracts from the leaves, bark, and fruit of 11 olive tree species were tested for activity against human topoisomerase IIα. Several of the extracts enhanced enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage. Finally, a commercial olive leaf supplement and extra virgin olive oils pressed from a variety of Olea europea subspecies enhanced DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase IIα. Thus, olive metabolites appear to act as topoisomerase II poisons in complex formulations intended for human dietary consumption. PMID:26132160

  3. Deciphering the Mechanism of Alternative Cleavage and Polyadenylation in Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Kubo , T., Wada, T., Yamaguchi, Y., Shimizu, A. & Handa, H. Knock-down of 25 kDa subunit of cleavage factor Im inHela cells alters alternative...usage was calculated as 62normalized DDDCT. Oligonucleotides used for qRT–PCR. Cyclin D1 common forward, 59-CTGC CAGGAGCAGATCGAAG; reverse, 59...CTdeviation of either amplicon at all of the dilutions was calculated as a correction factor. d, The experiment shown in c was repeated for DICER1 and

  4. Inhibition of influenza virus infection and hemagglutinin cleavage by the protease inhibitor HAI-2

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Brian S.; Chung, Changik; Cyphers, Soreen Y.

    Highlights: • Biochemical and cell biological analysis of HAI-2 as an inhibitor of influenza HA cleavage activation. • Biochemical and cell biological analysis of HAI-2 as an inhibitor of influenza virus infection. • Comparative analysis of HAI-2 for vesicular stomatitis virus and human parainfluenza virus type-1. • Analysis of the activity of HAI-2 in a mouse model of influenza. - Abstract: Influenza virus remains a significant concern to public health, with the continued potential for a high fatality pandemic. Vaccination and antiviral therapeutics are effective measures to circumvent influenza virus infection, however, multiple strains have emerged that are resistant tomore » the antiviral therapeutics currently on the market. With this considered, investigation of alternative antiviral therapeutics is being conducted. One such approach is to inhibit cleavage activation of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), which is an essential step in the viral replication cycle that permits viral-endosome fusion. Therefore, targeting trypsin-like, host proteases responsible for HA cleavage in vivo may prove to be an effective therapeutic. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor 2 (HAI-2) is naturally expressed in the respiratory tract and is a potent inhibitor of trypsin-like serine proteases, some of which have been determined to cleave HA. In this study, we demonstrate that HAI-2 is an effective inhibitor of cleavage of HA from the human-adapted H1 and H3 subtypes. HAI-2 inhibited influenza virus H1N1 infection in cell culture, and HAI-2 administration showed protection in a mouse model of influenza. HAI-2 has the potential to be an effective, alternative antiviral therapeutic for influenza.« less

  5. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 ectodomain shedding cleavage-site identification: determinants and constraints.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zon W; Hanchapola, Iresha; Steer, David L; Smith, A Ian

    2011-06-14

    ADAM17, also known as tumor necrosis factor α-converting enzyme, is involved in the ectodomain shedding of many integral membrane proteins. We have previously reported that ADAM17 is able to mediate the cleavage secretion of the ectodomain of human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a functional receptor for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. In this study, we demonstrate that purified recombinant human ADAM17 is able to cleave a 20-amino acid peptide mimetic corresponding to the extracellular juxtamembrane region of human ACE2 between Arg(708) and Ser(709). A series of peptide analogues were also synthesized, showing that glutamate subtitution at Arg(708) and/or Arg(710) attenuated the cleavage process, while alanine substitution at Arg(708) and/or Ser(709) did not inhibit peptide cleavage by recombinant ADAM17. Analysis of CD spectra showed a minimal difference in the secondary structure of the peptide analogues in the buffer system used for the ADAM17 cleavage assay. The observation of the shedding profiles of ACE2 mutants expressing CHO-K1 and CHO-P cells indicates that the Arg(708) → Glu(708) mutation and the Arg(708)Arg(710) → Glu(708)Glu(710) double mutation produced increases in the amount of ACE2 shed when stimulated by phorbol ester PMA. In summary, we have demonstrated that ADAM17 is able to cleave ACE2 peptide sequence analogues between Arg(708) and Ser(709). These findings also indicate that Arg(708) and Arg(710) play a role in site recognition in the regulation of ACE2 ectodomain shedding mediated by ADAM17.

  6. Mechanistic Insights into Ring Cleavage and Contraction of Benzene over a Titanium Hydride Cluster.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaohui; Luo, Gen; Luo, Lun; Hu, Shaowei; Luo, Yi; Hou, Zhaomin

    2016-09-14

    Carbon-carbon bond cleavage of benzene by transition metals is of great fundamental interest and practical importance, as this transformation is involved in the production of fuels and other important chemicals in the industrial hydrocracking of naphtha on solid catalysts. Although this transformation is thought to rely on cooperation of multiple metal sites, molecular-level information on the reaction mechanism has remained scarce to date. Here, we report the DFT studies of the ring cleavage and contraction of benzene by a molecular trinuclear titanium hydride cluster. Our studies suggest that the reaction is initiated by benzene coordination, followed by H2 release, C6H6 hydrometalation, repeated C-C and C-H bond cleavage and formation to give a MeC5H4 unit, and insertion of a Ti atom into the MeC5H4 unit with release of H2 to give a metallacycle product. The C-C bond cleavage and ring contraction of toluene can also occur in a similar fashion, though some details are different due to the presence of the methyl substituent. Obviously, the facile release of H2 from the metal hydride cluster to provide electrons and to alter the charge population at the metal centers, in combination with the flexible metal-hydride connections and dynamic redox behavior of the trimetallic framework, has enabled this unusual transformation to occur. This work has not only provided unprecedented insights into the activation and transformation of benzene over a multimetallic framework but it may also offer help in the design of new molecular catalysts for the activation and transformation of inactive aromatics.

  7. Both positional and chemical variables control in vitro proteolytic cleavage of a presenilin ortholog

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Swe-Htet; Kalyoncu, Sibel; Smalley, David M.; Kim, Hyojung; Tao, Xingjian; George, Josh B.; Jonke, Alex P.; Oliver, Ryan C.; Urban, Volker S.; Torres, Matthew P.; Lieberman, Raquel L.

    2018-01-01

    Mechanistic details of intramembrane aspartyl protease (IAP) chemistry, which is central to many biological and pathogenic processes, remain largely obscure. Here, we investigated the in vitro kinetics of a microbial intramembrane aspartyl protease (mIAP) fortuitously acting on the renin substrate angiotensinogen and the C-terminal transmembrane segment of amyloid precursor protein (C100), which is cleaved by the presenilin subunit of γ-secretase, an Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated IAP. mIAP variants with substitutions in active-site and putative substrate-gating residues generally exhibit impaired, but not abolished, activity toward angiotensinogen and retain the predominant cleavage site (His–Thr). The aromatic ring, but not the hydroxyl substituent, within Tyr of the catalytic Tyr–Asp (YD) motif plays a catalytic role, and the hydrolysis reaction incorporates bulk water as in soluble aspartyl proteases. mIAP hydrolyzes the transmembrane region of C100 at two major presenilin cleavage sites, one corresponding to the AD-associated Aβ42 peptide (Ala–Thr) and the other to the non-pathogenic Aβ48 (Thr–Leu). For the former site, we observed more favorable kinetics in lipid bilayer–mimicking bicelles than in detergent solution, indicating that substrate–lipid and substrate–enzyme interactions both contribute to catalytic rates. High-resolution MS analyses across four substrates support a preference for threonine at the scissile bond. However, results from threonine-scanning mutagenesis of angiotensinogen demonstrate a competing positional preference for cleavage. Our results indicate that IAP cleavage is controlled by both positional and chemical factors, opening up new avenues for selective IAP inhibition for therapeutic interventions. PMID:29382721

  8. TIME RELATIONSHIPS IN THE CLEAVAGE OF THE NORMAL FERTILIZED EGG OF ARBACIA PUNCTULATA

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Harold F.; Price, Judith P.

    1950-01-01

    Quantitative data are presented indicating the extent of variability in the time of cleavage of normal fertilized eggs of Arbacia punctulata. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the valuable suggestions and criticisms of Professor Arthur K. Parpart during the course of the experiments described in this and the preceding paper, and those of Professor Douglas A. Marsland and Professor M. J. Kopac at the final manuscript stage. PMID:15406367

  9. Correlation between Heart-type Fatty Acid-binding Protein Gene Polymorphism and mRNA Expression with Intramuscular Fat in Baicheng-oil Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; He, Jianzhong; Yang, Wenxuan; Muhantay, Gemenggul; Chen, Ying; Xing, Jinming; Liu, Jianzhu

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the polymorphism and mRNA expression pattern of the heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) gene and their association with intramuscular fat (IMF) content in the breast and leg muscles of Baicheng oil chicken (BOC). A total of 720 chickens, including 240 black Baicheng oil chicken (BBOC), 240 silky Baicheng oil chicken (SBOC), and 240 white Baicheng oil chicken (WBOC) were raised. Three genotypes of H-FABP gene second extron following AA, AB, and BB were detected by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) strategy. The G939A site created AA genotype and G956A site created BB genotype. The content of IMF in AA genotype in breast muscle of BBOC was significantly higher than that of AB (p = 0.0176) and the genotype in leg muscle of WBOC was significantly higher than that of AB (p = 0.0145). The G939A site could be taken as genetic marker for higher IMF content selecting for breast muscle of BBOC and leg muscle of WBOC. The relative mRNA expression of H-FABP was measured by real-time PCR at 30, 60, 90, and 120 d. The IMF content significantly increased with age in both muscles. The mRNA expression level of H-FABP significantly decreased with age in both muscles of the three types of chickens. Moreover, a significant negative correlation between H-FABP abundance and IMF content in the leg muscles of WBOC (p = 0.035) was observed. The mRNA expression of H-FABP negatively correlated with the IMF content in both breast and leg muscles of BOC sat slaughter time. PMID:26323394

  10. Developmentally programmed DNA splicing in Paramecium reveals short-distance crosstalk between DNA cleavage sites

    PubMed Central

    Gratias, Ariane; Lepère, Gersende; Garnier, Olivier; Rosa, Sarah; Duharcourt, Sandra; Malinsky, Sophie; Meyer, Eric; Bétermier, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    Somatic genome assembly in the ciliate Paramecium involves the precise excision of thousands of short internal eliminated sequences (IESs) that are scattered throughout the germline genome and often interrupt open reading frames. Excision is initiated by double-strand breaks centered on the TA dinucleotides that are conserved at each IES boundary, but the factors that drive cleavage site recognition remain unknown. A degenerate consensus was identified previously at IES ends and genetic analyses confirmed the participation of their nucleotide sequence in efficient excision. Even for wild-type IESs, however, variant excision patterns (excised or nonexcised) may be inherited maternally through sexual events, in a homology-dependent manner. We show here that this maternal epigenetic control interferes with the targeting of DNA breaks at IES ends. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a mutation in the TA at one end of an IES impairs DNA cleavage not only at the mutant end but also at the wild-type end. We conclude that crosstalk between both ends takes place prior to their cleavage and propose that the ability of an IES to adopt an excision-prone conformation depends on the combination of its nucleotide sequence and of additional determinants. PMID:18420657

  11. ADAM13 cleavage of cadherin-11 promotes CNC migration independently of the homophilic binding site.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Becker, Sarah F; Kashef, Jubin; Alfandari, Dominique

    2016-07-15

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) is a highly motile population of cells that is responsible for forming the face and jaw in all vertebrates and perturbing their migration can lead to craniofacial birth defects. Cell motility requires a dynamic modification of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. In the CNC, cleavage of the cell adhesion molecule cadherin-11 by ADAM13 is essential for cell migration. This cleavage generates a shed extracellular fragment of cadherin-11 (EC1-3) that possesses pro-migratory activity via an unknown mechanism. Cadherin-11 plays an important role in modulating contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) in the CNC to regulate directional cell migration. Here, we show that while the integral cadherin-11 requires the homophilic binding site to promote CNC migration in vivo, the EC1-3 fragment does not. In addition, we show that increased ADAM13 activity or expression of the EC1-3 fragment increases CNC invasiveness in vitro and blocks the repulsive CIL response in colliding cells. This activity requires the presence of an intact homophilic binding site on the EC1-3 suggesting that the cleavage fragment may function as a competitive inhibitor of cadherin-11 adhesion in CIL but not to promote cell migration in vivo. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by an archaeal presenilin homologue PSH

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Shangyu; Wu, Shenjie; Wang, Jiawei; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Min; He, Wei; Li, Yue-Ming; Wong, Catherine C. L.; Shi, Yigong

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by γ-secretase contributes to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. More than 200 disease-derived mutations have been identified in presenilin (the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase), making modulation of γ-secretase activity a potentially attractive therapeutic opportunity. Unfortunately, the technical challenges in dealing with intact γ-secretase have hindered discovery of modulators and demand a convenient substitute approach. Here we report that, similar to γ-secretase, the archaeal presenilin homolog PSH faithfully processes the substrate APP C99 into Aβ42, Aβ40, and Aβ38. The molar ratio of the cleavage products Aβ42 over Aβ40 by PSH is nearly identical to that by γ-secretase. The proteolytic activity of PSH is specifically suppressed by presenilin-specific inhibitors. Known modulators of γ-secretase also modulate PSH similarly in terms of the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio. Structural analysis reveals association of a known γ-secretase inhibitor with PSH between its two catalytic aspartate residues. These findings identify PSH as a surrogate protease for the screening of agents that may regulate the protease activity and the cleavage preference of γ-secretase. PMID:25733893

  13. The timing of pronuclear formation, DNA synthesis and cleavage in the human 1-cell embryo.

    PubMed

    Capmany, G; Taylor, A; Braude, P R; Bolton, V N

    1996-05-01

    The timing of pronuclear formation and breakdown, DNA synthesis and cleavage during the first cell cycle of human embryogenesis are described. Pronuclei formed between 3 and 10 h post-insemination (hpi; median 8 hpi). S-phase commenced between 8 and 14 hpi, and was completed between 10 and 18 hpi. M-phase was observed between 22 and 31 hpi (median duration 3 h), and cleavage to the 2-cell stage took place between 25 and 33 hpi. The timing of the same events was determined in 1-cell embryos derived from re-inseminated human oocytes that had failed to fertilize during therapeutic in-vitro fertilization (IVF). In these embryos, pronuclei formed between 3 and 8 h post-re-insemination (hpr-i), coinciding with the beginning of S-phase. While S-phase was completed as early as 10 hpr-i in some embryos, it extended until at least 16 hpr-i in others. Pronuclear breakdown and cleavage occurred from 23 and 26 hpr-i respectively; however, they did not occur in some embryos until after 46 hpr-i. The results demonstrate a markedly greater degree of variation in the timing of these events in embryos derived from re-inseminated oocytes compared with embryos derived from conventional IVF, and thus throw into question the validity of using the former as models for studies of the first cell cycle of human embryogenesis.

  14. Trichomonas vaginalis Metalloproteinase Induces mTOR Cleavage of SiHa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Yang, Jung-Bo; Zhou, Wei; Cha, Guang-Ho; Zhou, Yu; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis secretes a number of proteases which are suspected to be the cause of pathogenesis; however, little is understood how they manipulate host cells. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, and transcription. We detected various types of metalloproteinases including GP63 protein from T. vaginalis trophozoites, and T. vaginalis GP63 metalloproteinase was confirmed by sequencing and western blot. When SiHa cells were stimulated with live T. vaginalis, T. vaginalis excretory-secretory products (ESP) or T. vaginalis lysate, live T. vaginalis and T. vaginalis ESP induced the mTOR cleavage in both time- and parasite load-dependent manner, but T. vaginalis lysate did not. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with a metalloproteinase inhibitor, 1,10-phenanthroline, completely disappeared the mTOR cleavage in SiHa cells. Collectively, T. vaginalis metallopeptidase induces host cell mTOR cleavage, which may be related to survival of the parasite. PMID:25548410

  15. Urokinase links plasminogen activation and cell adhesion by cleavage of the RGD motif in vitronectin.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzi, Valentina; Sarra Ferraris, Gian Maria; Madsen, Jeppe B; Lupia, Michela; Andreasen, Peter A; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2016-07-01

    Components of the plasminogen activation system including urokinase (uPA), its inhibitor (PAI-1) and its cell surface receptor (uPAR) have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes related to tissue homoeostasis. Firstly, the binding of uPA to uPAR favours extracellular proteolysis by enhancing cell surface plasminogen activation. Secondly, it promotes cell adhesion and signalling through binding of the provisional matrix protein vitronectin. We now report that uPA and plasmin induces a potent negative feedback on cell adhesion through specific cleavage of the RGD motif in vitronectin. Cleavage of vitronectin by uPA displays a remarkable receptor dependence and requires concomitant binding of both uPA and vitronectin to uPAR Moreover, we show that PAI-1 counteracts the negative feedback and behaves as a proteolysis-triggered stabilizer of uPAR-mediated cell adhesion to vitronectin. These findings identify a novel and highly specific function for the plasminogen activation system in the regulation of cell adhesion to vitronectin. The cleavage of vitronectin by uPA and plasmin results in the release of N-terminal vitronectin fragments that can be detected in vivo, underscoring the potential physiological relevance of the process. © 2016 The Authors.

  16. Programmable RNA Cleavage and Recognition by a Natural CRISPR-Cas9 System from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Beth A; Hou, Zhonggang; Gramelspacher, Max J; Zhang, Yan

    2018-03-01

    The microbial CRISPR systems enable adaptive defense against mobile elements and also provide formidable tools for genome engineering. The Cas9 proteins are type II CRISPR-associated, RNA-guided DNA endonucleases that identify double-stranded DNA targets by sequence complementarity and protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) recognition. Here we report that the type II-C CRISPR-Cas9 from Neisseria meningitidis (Nme) is capable of programmable, RNA-guided, site-specific cleavage and recognition of single-stranded RNA targets and that this ribonuclease activity is independent of the PAM sequence. We define the mechanistic feature and specificity constraint for RNA cleavage by NmeCas9 and also show that nuclease null dNmeCas9 binds to RNA target complementary to CRISPR RNA. Finally, we demonstrate that NmeCas9-catalyzed RNA cleavage can be blocked by three families of type II-C anti-CRISPR proteins. These results fundamentally expand the targeting capacities of CRISPR-Cas9 and highlight the potential utility of NmeCas9 as a single platform to target both RNA and DNA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A new trinuclear complex of platinum and iron efficiently promotes cleavage of plasmid DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Lempers, E L; Bashkin, J S; Kostić, N M

    1993-01-01

    The compound [[Pt(trpy)]2Arg-EDTA]+ is synthesized in five steps, purified, and characterized by 1H, 13C, and 195Pt NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, UV-vis spectrophotometry, and elemental analysis. The binuclear [[(Pt(trpy)]2Arg]3+ moiety binds to double-stranded DNA, and the chelating EDTA moiety holds metal cations. In the presence of ferrous ions and the reductant dithiothreitol, the new compound cleaves DNA. It cleaves a single strand in the pBR322 plasmid nearly as efficiently as methidiumrpropyl-EDTA (MPE), and it cleaves a restriction fragment of the XP10 plasmid nonselectively and more efficiently than [Fe(EDTA)]2-. The mechanism of cleavage was studied in control experiments involving different transition-metal ions, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose oxidase with glucose, metal-sequestering agents, and deaeration. These experiments indicate that adventitious iron and copper ions, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide are not involved and that dioxygen is required. The cleavage apparently is done by hydroxyl radicals generated in the vicinity of the DNA molecule. The reagent [[Pt(trypy)]2Arg-EDTA]+ differs from methidiumpropyl-EDTA in not containing an intercalator. This difference in binding modes between the binuclear platinum(II) complex and the planar heterocycle may cause useful differences between the two reagents in cleavage of nucleic acids. Images PMID:8493109

  18. Importance of specific purine amino and hydroxyl groups for efficient cleavage by a hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, D J; McLaughlin, L W

    1992-01-01

    Eight modified ribozymes of 19 residues have been prepared with individual purine amino or hydroxyl groups excised. The modified ribozymes were chemically synthesized with the substitution of a single 2'-deoxyadenosine, 2'-deoxyguanosine, inosine, or purine riboside for residues G10, A11, G13, or A14. Five of the modified ribozymes cleaved the 24-mer substrate with little change in rate as monitored by simple first-order kinetics. However, deletion of the 2-amino group at G10 (replacement with inosine) or deletion of either of the 2'-hydroxyls at G10 or G13 (replacement with 2'-deoxyguanosine) resulted in ribozymes with a drastic decrease in cleavage efficiency. Increasing the concentration of the Mg2+ cofactor from 10 mM to 50 mM significantly enhanced cleavage efficiency by these three derivatives. Steady-state kinetic assays for these three ribozymes indicated that the modifications result in both an increase in Km and a decrease in kcat. These results suggest that the exocyclic amino group at-G10 and the hydroxyls at G10 and G13 are important both for ribozyme-substrate binding and for the Mg(2+)-catalyzed cleavage reaction. PMID:1570323

  19. Tibiofemoral contact mechanics following a horizontal cleavage lesion in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Arno, Sally; Bell, Christopher P; Uquillas, Carlos; Borukhov, Ilya; Walker, Peter S

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a horizontal cleavage lesion (HCL) of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus would result in changes to tibiofemoral contact mechanics, as measured by peak contact pressure and contact area, which can lead to cartilage degeneration. To study this, 10 cadaveric knees were tested in a rig where forces were applied (500 N Compression, 100 N shear, 2.5 Nm Torque) and the knee dynamically flexed from -5° to 135°, as peak contact pressure and contact area were recorded. After testing of the intact knee, a horizontal cleavage lesion was created arthroscopically and testing repeated. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to determine if there were differences in peak contact pressure and contact area between the intact knee and that with the HCL. A statistically significant increase in peak contact pressure of 13%, on average, and a decrease in contact area of 6%, on average, was noted following the HCL. This suggests that a horizontal cleavage lesion will result in small but statistically significant changes in tibiofemoral contact mechanics which may lead to cartilage degeneration. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. High-fat diet feeding causes rapid, non-apoptotic cleavage of caspase-3 in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Guyenet, Stephan J; Nguyen, Hong T; Hwang, Bang H; Schwartz, Michael W; Baskin, Denis G; Thaler, Joshua P

    2013-05-28

    Astrocytes respond to multiple forms of central nervous system (CNS) injury by entering a reactive state characterized by morphological changes and a specific pattern of altered protein expression. Termed astrogliosis, this response has been shown to strongly influence the injury response and functional recovery of CNS tissues. This pattern of CNS inflammation and injury associated with astrogliosis has recently been found to occur in the energy homeostasis centers of the hypothalamus during diet-induced obesity (DIO) in rodent models, but the characterization of the astrocyte response remains incomplete. Here, we report that astrocytes in the mediobasal hypothalamus respond robustly and rapidly to purified high-fat diet (HFD) feeding by cleaving caspase-3, a protease whose cleavage is often associated with apoptosis. Although obesity develops in HFD-fed rats by day 14, caspase-3 cleavage occurs by day 3, prior to the development of obesity, suggesting the possibility that it could play a causal role in the hypothalamic neuropathology and fat gain observed in DIO. Caspase-3 cleavage is not associated with an increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL staining, suggesting it plays a non-apoptotic role analogous to the response to excitotoxic neuron injury. Our results indicate that astrocytes in the mediobasal hypothalamus respond rapidly and robustly to HFD feeding, activating caspase-3 in the absence of apoptosis, a process that has the potential to influence the course of DIO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sequence-specific DNA cleavage by Fe2+-mediated fenton reactions has possible biological implications.

    PubMed

    Henle, E S; Han, Z; Tang, N; Rai, P; Luo, Y; Linn, S

    1999-01-08

    Preferential cleavage sites have been determined for Fe2+/H2O2-mediated oxidations of DNA. In 50 mM H2O2, preferential cleavages occurred at the nucleoside 5' to each of the dG moieties in the sequence RGGG, a sequence found in a majority of telomere repeats. Within a plasmid containing a (TTAGGG)81 human telomere insert, 7-fold more strand breakage occurred in the restriction fragment with the insert than in a similar-sized control fragment. This result implies that telomeric DNA could protect coding DNA from oxidative damage and might also link oxidative damage and iron load to telomere shortening and aging. In micromolar H2O2, preferential cleavage occurred at the thymidine within the sequence RTGR, a sequence frequently found to be required in promoters for normal responses of many procaryotic and eucaryotic genes to iron or oxygen stress. Computer modeling of the interaction of Fe2+ with RTGR in B-DNA suggests that due to steric hindrance with the thymine methyl, Fe2+ associates in a specific manner with the thymine flipped out from the base stack so as to allow an octahedrally-oriented coordination of the Fe2+ with the three purine N7 residues. Fe2+-dependent changes in NMR spectra of duplex oligonucleotides containing ATGA versus those containing AUGA or A5mCGA were consistent with this model.

  2. Cas9-catalyzed DNA Cleavage Generates Staggered Ends: Evidence from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhicheng; Liu, Jin

    2016-11-01

    The CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (spCas9) along with a single guide RNA (sgRNA) has emerged as a versatile toolbox for genome editing. Despite recent advances in the mechanism studies on spCas9-sgRNA-mediated double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) recognition and cleavage, it is still unclear how the catalytic Mg2+ ions induce the conformation changes toward the catalytic active state. It also remains controversial whether Cas9 generates blunt-ended or staggered-ended breaks with overhangs in the DNA. To investigate these issues, here we performed the first all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the spCas9-sgRNA-dsDNA system with and without Mg2+ bound. The simulation results showed that binding of two Mg2+ ions at the RuvC domain active site could lead to structurally and energetically favorable coordination ready for the non-target DNA strand cleavage. Importantly, we demonstrated with our simulations that Cas9-catalyzed DNA cleavage produces 1-bp staggered ends rather than generally assumed blunt ends.

  3. ADAM13 cleavage of cadherin-11 promotes CNC migration independently of the homophilic binding site

    PubMed Central

    Kashef, Jubin; Alfandari, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) is a highly motile population of cells that is responsible for forming the face and jaw in all vertebrates and perturbing their migration can lead to craniofacial birth defects. Cell motility requires a dynamic modification of cell–cell and cell-matrix adhesion. In the CNC, cleavage of the cell adhesion molecule cadherin-11 by ADAM13 is essential for cell migration. This cleavage generates a shed extracellular fragment of cadherin-11 (EC1-3) that possesses pro-migratory activity via an unknown mechanism. Cadherin-11 plays an important role in modulating contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) in the CNC to regulate directional cell migration. Here, we show that while the integral cadherin-11 requires the homophilic binding site to promote CNC migration in vivo, the EC1-3 fragment does not. In addition, we show that increased ADAM13 activity or expression of the EC1-3 fragment increases CNC invasiveness in vitro and blocks the repulsive CIL response in colliding cells. This activity requires the presence of an intact homophilic binding site on the EC1-3 suggesting that the cleavage fragment may function as a competitive inhibitor of cadherin-11 adhesion in CIL but not to promote cell migration in vivo. PMID:26206614

  4. Cleavage and shedding of E-cadherin after induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Steinhusen, U; Weiske, J; Badock, V; Tauber, R; Bommert, K; Huber, O

    2001-02-16

    Apoptotic cell death induces dramatic molecular changes in cells, becoming apparent on the structural level as membrane blebbing, condensation of the cytoplasm and nucleus, and loss of cell-cell contacts. The activation of caspases is one of the fundamental steps during programmed cell death. Here we report a detailed analysis of the fate of the Ca(2+)-dependent cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin in apoptotic epithelial cells and show that during apoptosis fragments of E-cadherin with apparent molecular masses of 24, 29, and 84 kDa are generated by two distinct proteolytic activities. In addition to a caspase-3-mediated cleavage releasing the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin, a metalloproteinase sheds the extracellular domain from the cell surface during apoptosis. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that concomitant with the disappearance of E-cadherin staining at the cell surface, the E-cadherin cytoplasmic domain accumulates in the cytosol. In the presence of inhibitors of caspase-3 and/or metalloproteinases, cleavage of E-cadherin was almost completely blocked. The simultaneous cleavage of the intracellular and extracellular domains of E-cadherin may provide a highly efficient mechanism to disrupt cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts in apoptotic cells, a prerequisite for cell rounding and exit from the epithelium.

  5. Neural transcription factors bias cleavage stage blastomeres to give rise to neural ectoderm

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Shailly; Mandelbaum, Max; Herold, Mona; Majumdar, Himani Datta; Neilson, Karen M.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Mood, Kathy; Daar, Ira O.; Moody, Sally A.

    2016-01-01

    The decision by embryonic ectoderm to give rise to epidermal versus neural derivatives is the result of signaling events during blastula and gastrula stages. However, there also is evidence in Xenopus that cleavage stage blastomeres contain maternally derived molecules that bias them toward a neural fate. We used a blastomere explant culture assay to test whether maternally deposited transcription factors bias 16-cell blastomere precursors of epidermal or neural ectoderm to express early zygotic neural genes in the absence of gastrulation interactions or exogenously supplied signaling factors. We found that Foxd4l1, Zic2, Gmnn and Sox11 each induced explants made from ventral, epidermis-producing blastomeres to express early neural genes, and that at least some of the Foxd4l1 and Zic2 activity is required at cleavage stages. Similarly, providing extra Foxd4l1 or Zic2 to explants made from dorsal, neural plate-producing blastomeres significantly increased expression of early neural genes, whereas knocking down either significantly reduced them. These results show that maternally delivered transcription factors bias cleavage stage blastomeres to a neural fate. We demonstrate that mouse and human homologues of Foxd4l1 have similar functional domains compared to the frog protein, as well as conserved transcriptional activities when expressed in Xenopus embryos and blastomere explants. PMID:27092474

  6. The poly(A)-binding protein nuclear 1 suppresses alternative cleavage and polyadenylation sites.

    PubMed

    Jenal, Mathias; Elkon, Ran; Loayza-Puch, Fabricio; van Haaften, Gijs; Kühn, Uwe; Menzies, Fiona M; Oude Vrielink, Joachim A F; Bos, Arnold J; Drost, Jarno; Rooijers, Koos; Rubinsztein, David C; Agami, Reuven

    2012-04-27

    Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) is emerging as an important layer of gene regulation. Factors controlling APA are largely unknown. We developed a reporter-based RNAi screen for APA and identified PABPN1 as a regulator of this process. Genome-wide analysis of APA in human cells showed that loss of PABPN1 resulted in extensive 3' untranslated region shortening. Messenger RNA transcription, stability analyses, and in vitro cleavage assays indicated enhanced usage of proximal cleavage sites (CSs) as the underlying mechanism. Using Cyclin D1 as a test case, we demonstrated that enhanced usage of proximal CSs compromises microRNA-mediated repression. Triplet-repeat expansion in PABPN1 (trePABPN1) causes autosomal-dominant oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). The expression of trePABPN1 in both a mouse model of OPMD and human cells elicited broad induction of proximal CS usage, linked to binding to endogenous PABPN1 and its sequestration in nuclear aggregates. Our results elucidate a novel function for PABPN1 as a suppressor of APA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Effects of lipopolysaccharides extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis on the expression of IL-1beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA in osteoblasts].

    PubMed

    Yang, Di; Li, Ren; Qiu, Li-Hong; Li, Chen

    2009-04-01

    To quantify the IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA expression induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS)extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis(P.e) in osteoblasts, and to relate P.e-LPS to bone absorption pathogenesis in lesions of chronical apical periodontitis. MG63 was treated with different concentrations of P.e-LPS(0-50 microg/mL) for different hours(0-24h). The expression of IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Statistical analysis was performed using one- way ANOVA and Dunnett t test with SPSS11.0 software package. The level of IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA increased significantly after treatment with P.e-LPS at more than 5 microg/mL (P<0.01)and for more than 1 hour (P<0.01), which indicated that P.e-LPS induced osteoblasts to express IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA in dose and time dependent manners. P.e-LPS may promote bone resorption in lesions of chronical apical periodontitis by inducing IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA expression in osteoblasts.

  8. Rubber Oxygenase and Latex Clearing Protein Cleave Rubber to Different Products and Use Different Cleavage Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Birke, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Two types of enzyme for oxidative cleavage of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) are known. One is rubber oxygenase (RoxA) that is secreted by Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y and a few other Gram-negative rubber-degrading bacteria during growth on polyisoprene. RoxA was studied in the past, and the recently solved structure showed a structural relationship to bacterial cytochrome c peroxidases (J. Seidel et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110:13833–13838, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1305560110). The other enzyme is latex-clearing protein (Lcp) that is secreted by rubber-degrading actinomycetes, but Lcp has not yet been purified. Here, we expressed Lcp of Streptomyces sp. strain K30 in a ΔroxA background of Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y and purified native (untagged) Lcp. The specific activities of Lcp and RoxA were 0.70 and 0.48 U/mg, respectively. Lcp differed from RoxA in the absence of heme groups and other characteristics. Notably, Lcp degraded polyisoprene via endo-type cleavage to tetra-C20 and higher oligo-isoprenoids with aldehyde and keto end groups, whereas RoxA used an exo-type cleavage mechanism to give the main end product 12-oxo-4,8-dimethyltrideca-4,8-diene-1-al (ODTD). RoxA was able to cleave isolated Lcp-derived oligo-isoprenoid molecules to ODTD. Inhibitor studies, spectroscopic investigations and metal analysis gave no indication for the presence of iron, other metals, or cofactors in Lcp. Our results suggest that Lcp could be a member of the growing group of cofactor-independent oxygenases and differs in the cleavage mechanism from heme-dependent RoxA. In conclusion, RoxA and Lcp represent two different answers to the same biochemical problem, the cleavage of polyisoprene, a polymer that has carbon-carbon double bonds as the only functional groups for enzymatic attack. PMID:24907333

  9. Stimulation of NADH-dependent microsomal DNA strand cleavage by rifamycin SV.

    PubMed

    Kukiełka, E; Cederbaum, A I

    1995-04-15

    Rifamycin SV is an antibiotic anti-bacterial agent used in the treatment of tuberculosis. This drug can autoxidize, especially in the presence of metals, and generate reactive oxygen species. A previous study indicated that rifamycin SV can increase NADH-dependent microsomal production of reactive oxygen species. The current study evaluated the ability of rifamycin SV to interact with iron and increase microsomal production of hydroxyl radical, as detected by conversion of supercoiled plasmid DNA into the relaxed open circular state. The plasmid used was pBluescript II KS(-), and the forms of DNA were separated by agarose-gel electrophoresis. Incubation of rat liver microsomes with plasmid plus NADH plus ferric-ATP caused DNA strand cleavage. The addition of rifamycin SV produced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in DNA-strand cleavage. No stimulation by rifamycin SV occurred in the absence of microsomes, NADH or ferric-ATP. Stimulation occurred with other ferric complexes besides ferric-ATP, e.g. ferric-histidine, ferric-citrate, ferric-EDTA, and ferric-(NH4)2SO4. Rifamycin SV did not significantly increase the high rates of DNA strand cleavage found with NADPH as the microsomal reductant. The stimulation of NADH-dependent microsomal DNA strand cleavage was completely blocked by catalase, superoxide dismutase, GSH and a variety of hydroxyl-radical-scavenging agents, but not by anti-oxidants that prevent microsomal lipid peroxidation. Redox cycling agents, such as menadione and paraquat, in contrast with rifamycin SV, stimulated the NADPH-dependent reaction; menadione and rifamycin SV were superior to paraquat in stimulating the NADH-dependent reaction. These results indicate that rifamycin SV can, in the presence of an iron catalyst, increase microsomal production of reactive oxygen species which can cause DNA-strand cleavage. In contrast with other redox cycling agents, the stimulation by rifamycin SV is more pronounced with NADH than with NADPH as the

  10. Ferromagnetic nanoparticles with peroxidase-like activity enhance the cleavage of biological macromolecules for biofilm elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GaoCurrent Address: University Of Pennsylvania, School Of Dental Medicine, Philadelphia, Pa 19104, Usa. E.-Mail: Gaoliz@Dental. Upenn. Edu, Lizeng; Giglio, Krista M.; Nelson, Jacquelyn L.; Sondermann, Holger; Travis, Alexander J.

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a ``green chemical'' that has various cleaning and disinfectant uses, including as an anti-bacterial agent for hygienic and medical treatments. However, its efficacy is limited against biofilm-producing bacteria, because of poor penetration into the protective, organic matrix. Here we show new applications for ferromagnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4, MNPs) with peroxidase-like activity in potentiating the efficacy of H2O2 in biofilm degradation and prevention. Our data show that MNPs enhanced oxidative cleavage of biofilm components (model nucleic acids, proteins, and oligosaccharides) in the presence of H2O2. When challenged with live, biofilm-producing bacteria, the MNP-H2O2 system efficiently broke down the existing biofilm and prevented new biofilms from forming, killing both planktonic bacteria and those within the biofilm. By enhancing oxidative cleavage of various substrates, the MNP-H2O2 system provides a novel strategy for biofilm elimination, and other applications utilizing oxidative breakdown.Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a ``green chemical'' that has various cleaning and disinfectant uses, including as an anti-bacterial agent for hygienic and medical treatments. However, its efficacy is limited against biofilm-producing bacteria, because of poor penetration into the protective, organic matrix. Here we show new applications for ferromagnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4, MNPs) with peroxidase-like activity in potentiating the efficacy of H2O2 in biofilm degradation and prevention. Our data show that MNPs enhanced oxidative cleavage of biofilm components (model nucleic acids, proteins, and oligosaccharides) in the presence of H2O2. When challenged with live, biofilm-producing bacteria, the MNP-H2O2 system efficiently broke down the existing biofilm and prevented new biofilms from forming, killing both planktonic bacteria and those within the biofilm. By enhancing oxidative cleavage of various substrates, the MNP-H2O2 system provides a novel

  11. Steroid exposure during larval development of Xenopus laevis affects mRNA expression of the reproductive pituitary-gonadal axis in a sex- and stage-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Urbatzka, Ralph; Lorenz, Claudia; Wiedemann, Caterina; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner

    2014-03-01

    Steroids are known to influence the reproductive pituitary-gonadal axis in adult amphibians. Here, we studied the effects of hormones on pituitary and gonadal mRNA expression during the development of Xenopus laevis. Tadpoles at NF 58 (prometamorphosis) and at NF 66 (freshly metamorphosed) were exposed for three days to 17β-estradiol (E2), tamoxifen (TAM), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at 10(-7)M, and flutamide (FLU) at 10(-6)M. In both genders at NF 58 and 66, T and DHT decreased luteinizing hormone beta (lhβ), but increased follicle stimulating hormone beta (fshβ), while FLU induced lhβ specifically in males. In the testis steroidogenic genes (p450 side chain cleavage enzyme, p450scc; steroid acute regulatory protein, star) at NF 58 showed a similar pattern as for lhβ, while the response at NF 66 was only partially present. In females, TAM induced lhβ at NF 58, while E2 decreased lhβ and increased fshβ at NF 66. In the ovaries, no alterations were observed for the steroidogenic genes. Summarizing, gonadotropic and steroidogenic mRNA expression may indicate control of androgen level during testis differentiation in male tadpoles at NF 58. In females the non-responsiveness of steroidogenic genes could be a sign of gonadal quiescence during pre-pubertal stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Antiferromagnetic interaction between A'-site Mn spins in A-site-ordered perovskite YMn3Al4O12.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Takenori; Saito, Takashi; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Agui, Akane; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2010-03-01

    The A-site-ordered perovskite YMn(3)Al(4)O(12) was prepared by high-pressure synthesis. Structural analysis with synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data and the Mn L-edges X-ray absorption spectrum revealed that the compound has a chemical composition Y(3+)Mn(3+)(3)Al(3+)(4)O(2-)(12) with magnetic Mn(3+) at the A' site and non-magnetic Al(3+) at the B site. An antiferromagnetic interaction between the A'-site Mn(3+) spins is induced by the nearest neighboring Mn-Mn direct exchange interaction and causes an antiferromagnetic transition at 34.3 K.

  13. A density functional theory study on peptide bond cleavage at aspartic residues: direct vs cyclic intermediate hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Sang-aroon, Wichien; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya

    2013-12-01

    In this work, peptide bond cleavages at carboxy- and amino-sides of the aspartic residue in a peptide model via direct (concerted and step-wise) and cyclic intermediate hydrolysis reaction pathways were explored computationally. The energetics, thermodynamic properties, rate constants, and equilibrium constants of all hydrolysis reactions, as well as their energy profiles were computed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The result indicated that peptide bond cleavage of the Asp residue occurred most preferentially via the cyclic intermediate hydrolysis pathway. In all reaction pathways, cleavage of the peptide bond at the amino-side occurred less preferentially than at the carboxy-side. The overall reaction rate constants of peptide bond cleavage of the Asp residue at the carboxy-side for the assisted system were, in increasing order: concerted < step-wise < cyclic intermediate.

  14. Multiple nucleotide preferences determine cleavage-site recognition by the HIV-1 and M-MuLV RNases H.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Sharon J; Zhang, Miaohua; Champoux, James J

    2010-03-19

    The RNase H activity of reverse transcriptase is required during retroviral replication and represents a potential target in antiviral drug therapies. Sequence features flanking a cleavage site influence the three types of retroviral RNase H activity: internal, DNA 3'-end-directed, and RNA 5'-end-directed. Using the reverse transcriptases of HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) and Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV), we evaluated how individual base preferences at a cleavage site direct retroviral RNase H specificity. Strong test cleavage sites (designated as between nucleotide positions -1 and +1) for the HIV-1 and M-MuLV enzymes were introduced into model hybrid substrates designed to assay internal or DNA 3'-end-directed cleavage, and base substitutions were tested at specific nucleotide positions. For internal cleavage, positions +1, -2, -4, -5, -10, and -14 for HIV-1 and positions +1, -2, -6, and -7 for M-MuLV significantly affected RNase H cleavage efficiency, while positions -7 and -12 for HIV-1 and positions -4, -9, and -11 for M-MuLV had more modest effects. DNA 3'-end-directed cleavage was influenced substantially by positions +1, -2, -4, and -5 for HIV-1 and positions +1, -2, -6, and -7 for M-MuLV. Cleavage-site distance from the recessed end did not affect sequence preferences for M-MuLV reverse transcriptase. Based on the identified sequence preferences, a cleavage site recognized by both HIV-1 and M-MuLV enzymes was introduced into a sequence that was otherwise resistant to RNase H. The isolated RNase H domain of M-MuLV reverse transcriptase retained sequence preferences at positions +1 and -2 despite prolific cleavage in the absence of the polymerase domain. The sequence preferences of retroviral RNase H likely reflect structural features in the substrate that favor cleavage and represent a novel specificity determinant to consider in drug design. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Efficiency of Dentin Sialoprotein-Phosphophoryn Processing Is Affected by Mutations Both Flanking and Distant from the Cleavage Site*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Robert T.; Lim, Glendale L.; Dong, Zhihong; Lee, Arthur M.; Yee, Colin T.; Fuller, Robert S.; Ritchie, Helena H.

    2013-01-01

    Normal dentin mineralization requires two highly acidic proteins, dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and phosphophoryn (PP). DSP and PP are synthesized as part of a single secreted precursor, DSP-PP, which is conserved in marsupial and placental mammals. Using a baculovirus expression system, we previously found that DSP-PP is accurately cleaved into DSP and PP after secretion into medium by an endogenous, secreted, zinc-dependent Sf9 cell activity. Here we report that mutation of conserved residues near and distant from the G447↓D448 cleavage site in DSP-PP240 had dramatic effects on cleavage efficiency by the endogenous Sf9 cell processing enzyme. We found that: 1) mutation of residues flanking the cleavage site from P4 to P4′ blocked, impaired, or enhanced DSP-PP240 cleavage; 2) certain conserved amino acids distant from the cleavage site were important for precursor cleavage; 3) modification of the C terminus by appending a C-terminal tag altered the pattern of processing; and 4) mutations in DSP-PP240 had similar effects on cleavage by recombinant human BMP1, a candidate physiological processing enzyme, as was seen with the endogenous Sf9 cell activity. An analysis of a partial TLR1 cDNA from Sf9 cells indicates that residues that line the substrate-binding cleft of Sf9 TLR1 and human BMP1 are nearly perfectly conserved, offering an explanation of why Sf9 cells so accurately process mammalian DSP-PP. The fact that several mutations in DSP-PP240 significantly modified the amount of PP240 product generated from DSP-PP240 precursor protein cleavage suggests that such mutation may affect the mineralization process. PMID:23297400

  16. The efficiency of dentin sialoprotein-phosphophoryn processing is affected by mutations both flanking and distant from the cleavage site.

    PubMed

    Yang, Robert T; Lim, Glendale L; Dong, Zhihong; Lee, Arthur M; Yee, Colin T; Fuller, Robert S; Ritchie, Helena H

    2013-02-22

    Normal dentin mineralization requires two highly acidic proteins, dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and phosphophoryn (PP). DSP and PP are synthesized as part of a single secreted precursor, DSP-PP, which is conserved in marsupial and placental mammals. Using a baculovirus expression system, we previously found that DSP-PP is accurately cleaved into DSP and PP after secretion into medium by an endogenous, secreted, zinc-dependent Sf9 cell activity. Here we report that mutation of conserved residues near and distant from the G(447)↓D(448) cleavage site in DSP-PP(240) had dramatic effects on cleavage efficiency by the endogenous Sf9 cell processing enzyme. We found that: 1) mutation of residues flanking the cleavage site from P(4) to P(4)' blocked, impaired, or enhanced DSP-PP(240) cleavage; 2) certain conserved amino acids distant from the cleavage site were important for precursor cleavage; 3) modification of the C terminus by appending a C-terminal tag altered the pattern of processing; and 4) mutations in DSP-PP(240) had similar effects on cleavage by recombinant human BMP1, a candidate physiological processing enzyme, as was seen with the endogenous Sf9 cell activity. An analysis of a partial TLR1 cDNA from Sf9 cells indicates that residues that line the substrate-binding cleft of Sf9 TLR1 and human BMP1 are nearly perfectly conserved, offering an explanation of why Sf9 cells so accurately process mammalian DSP-PP. The fact that several mutations in DSP-PP(240) significantly modified the amount of PP(240) product generated from DSP-PP(240) precursor protein cleavage suggests that such mutation may affect the mineralization process.

  17. Copper-catalyzed transformation of ketones to amides via C(CO)-C(alkyl) bond cleavage directed by picolinamide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haojie; Zhou, Xiaoqiang; Zhan, Zhenzhen; Wei, Daidong; Shi, Chong; Liu, Xingxing; Huang, Guosheng

    2017-09-13

    Copper catalyzed chemoselective cleavage of the C(CO)-C(alkyl) bond leading to C-N bond formation with chelation assistance of N-containing directing groups is described. Inexpensive Cu(ii)-acetate serves as a convenient catalyst for this transformation. This method highlights the emerging strategy to transform unactivated alkyl ketones into amides in organic synthesis and provides a new strategy for C-C bond cleavage.

  18. The action of the bacterial toxin microcin B17. Insight into the cleavage-religation reaction of DNA gyrase.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Olivier A; Maxwell, Anthony

    2003-09-12

    We have examined the effects of the bacterial toxin microcin B17 (MccB17) on the reactions of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase. MccB17 slows down but does not completely inhibit the DNA supercoiling and relaxation reactions of gyrase. A kinetic analysis of the cleavage-religation equilibrium of gyrase was performed to determine the effect of the toxin on the forward (cleavage) and reverse (religation) reactions. A simple mechanism of two consecutive reversible reactions with a nicked DNA intermediate was used to simulate the kinetics of cleavage and religation. The action of MccB17 on the kinetics of cleavage and religation was compared with that of the quinolones ciprofloxacin and oxolinic acid. With relaxed DNA as substrate, only a small amount of gyrase cleavage complex is observed with MccB17 in the absence of ATP, whereas the presence of the nucleotide significantly enhances the effect of the toxin on both the cleavage and religation reactions. In contrast, ciprofloxacin, oxolinic acid, and Ca2+ show lesser dependence on ATP to stabilize the cleavage complex. MccB17 enhances the overall rate of DNA cleavage by increasing the forward rate constant (k2) of the second equilibrium. In contrast, ciprofloxacin increases the amount of cleaved DNA by a combined effect on the forward and reverse rate constants of both equilibria. Based on these results and on the observations that MccB17 only slowly inhibits the supercoiling and relaxation reactions, we suggest a model of the interaction of MccB17 with gyrase.

  19. Role of cleavage at the core-E1 junction of hepatitis C virus polyprotein in viral morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pène, Véronique; Lemasson, Matthieu; Harper, Francis; Pierron, Gérard; Rosenberg, Arielle R

    2017-01-01

    In hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyprotein sequence, core protein terminates with E1 envelope signal peptide. Cleavage by signal peptidase (SP) separates E1 from the complete form of core protein, anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by the signal peptide. Subsequent cleavage of the signal peptide by signal-peptide peptidase (SPP) releases the mature form of core protein, which preferentially relocates to lipid droplets. Both of these cleavages are required for the HCV infectious cycle, supporting the idea that HCV assembly begins at the surface of lipid droplets, yet SPP-catalyzed cleavage is dispensable for initiation of budding in the ER. Here we have addressed at what step(s) of the HCV infectious cycle SP-catalyzed cleavage at the core-E1 junction is required. Taking advantage of the sole system that has allowed visualization of HCV budding events in the ER lumen of mammalian cells, we showed that, unexpectedly, mutations abolishing this cleavage did not prevent but instead tended to promote the initiation of viral budding. Moreover, even though no viral particles were released from Huh-7 cells transfected with a full-length HCV genome bearing these mutations, intracellular viral particles containing core protein protected by a membrane envelope were formed. These were visualized by electron microscopy as capsid-containing particles with a diameter of about 70 nm and 40 nm before and after delipidation, respectively, comparable to intracellular wild-type particle precursors except that they were non-infectious. Thus, our results show that SP-catalyzed cleavage is dispensable for HCV budding per se, but is required for the viral particles to acquire their infectivity and secretion. These data support the idea that HCV assembly occurs in concert with budding at the ER membrane. Furthermore, capsid-containing particles did not accumulate in the absence of SP-catalyzed cleavage, suggesting the quality of newly formed viral particles is controlled before

  20. Role of cleavage at the core-E1 junction of hepatitis C virus polyprotein in viral morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pène, Véronique; Lemasson, Matthieu; Harper, Francis; Pierron, Gérard; Rosenberg, Arielle R.

    2017-01-01

    In hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyprotein sequence, core protein terminates with E1 envelope signal peptide. Cleavage by signal peptidase (SP) separates E1 from the complete form of core protein, anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by the signal peptide. Subsequent cleavage of the signal peptide by signal-peptide peptidase (SPP) releases the mature form of core protein, which preferentially relocates to lipid droplets. Both of these cleavages are required for the HCV infectious cycle, supporting the idea that HCV assembly begins at the surface of lipid droplets, yet SPP-catalyzed cleavage is dispensable for initiation of budding in the ER. Here we have addressed at what step(s) of the HCV infectious cycle SP-catalyzed cleavage at the core-E1 junction is required. Taking advantage of the sole system that has allowed visualization of HCV budding events in the ER lumen of mammalian cells, we showed that, unexpectedly, mutations abolishing this cleavage did not prevent but instead tended to promote the initiation of viral budding. Moreover, even though no viral particles were released from Huh-7 cells transfected with a full-length HCV genome bearing these mutations, intracellular viral particles containing core protein protected by a membrane envelope were formed. These were visualized by electron microscopy as capsid-containing particles with a diameter of about 70 nm and 40 nm before and after delipidation, respectively, comparable to intracellular wild-type particle precursors except that they were non-infectious. Thus, our results show that SP-catalyzed cleavage is dispensable for HCV budding per se, but is required for the viral particles to acquire their infectivity and secretion. These data support the idea that HCV assembly occurs in concert with budding at the ER membrane. Furthermore, capsid-containing particles did not accumulate in the absence of SP-catalyzed cleavage, suggesting the quality of newly formed viral particles is controlled before

  1. Novel insights into the fungal oxidation of monoaromatic and biarylic environmental pollutants by characterization of two new ring cleavage enzymes.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Rabea; Lippmann, Ramona; Hammer, Elke; Gesell Salazar, Manuela; Schauer, Frieder

    2013-06-01

    The phenol-degrading yeast Trichosporon mucoides can oxidize and detoxify biarylic environmental pollutants such as dibenzofuran, diphenyl ether and biphenyl by ring cleavage. The degradation pathways are well investigated, but the enzymes involved are not. The high similarity of hydroxylated biphenyl derivatives and phenol raised the question if the enzymes of the phenol degradation are involved in ring cleavage or whether specific enzymes are necessary. Purification of enzymes from T. mucoides with catechol cleavage activity demonstrated the existence of three different enzymes: a classical catechol-1,2-dioxygenase (CDO), not able to cleave the aromatic ring system of 3,4-dihydroxybiphenyl, and two novel enzymes with a high affinity towards 3,4-dihydroxybiphenyl. The comparison of the biochemical characteristics and mass spectrometric sequence data of these three enzymes demonstrated that they have different substrate specificities. CDO catalyzes the ortho-cleavage of dihydroxylated monoaromatic compounds, while the two novel enzymes carry out a similar reaction on biphenyl derivatives. The ring fission of 3,4-dihydroxybiphenyl by the purified enzymes results in the formation of (5-oxo-3-phenyl-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)acetic acid. These results suggest that the ring cleavage enzymes catalyzing phenol degradation are not involved in the ring cleavage of biarylic compounds by this yeast, although some intermediates of the phenol metabolism may function as inducers.

  2. Association of a peptoid ligand with the apical loop of pri-miR-21 inhibits cleavage by Drosha

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Jason P.; Chirayil, Rachel; Chirayil, Sara; Tom, Martin; Head, Katie J.; Luebke, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    We have found a small molecule that specifically inhibits cleavage of a precursor to the oncogenic miRNA, miR-21, by the microprocessor complex of Drosha and DGCR8. We identified novel ligands for the apical loop of this precursor from a screen of 14,024 N-substituted oligoglycines (peptoids) in a microarray format. Eight distinct compounds with specific affinity were obtained, three having affinities for the targeted loop in the low micromolar range and greater than 15-fold discrimination against a closely related hairpin. One of these compounds completely inhibits microprocessor cleavage of a miR-21 primary transcript at concentrations at which cleavage of another miRNA primary transcript, pri-miR-16, is little affected. The apical loop of pri-miR-21, placed in the context of pri-miR-16, is sufficient for inhibition of microprocessor cleavage by the peptoid. This compound also inhibits cleavage of pri-miR-21 containing the pri-miR-16 apical loop, suggesting an additional site of association within pri-miR-21. The reported peptoid is the first example of a small molecule that inhibits microprocessor cleavage by binding to the apical loop of a pri-miRNA. PMID:24497550

  3. Characterization and Modeling of the Collision Induced Dissociation Patterns of Deprotonated Glycosphingolipids: Cleavage of the Glycosidic Bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rožman, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Glycosphingolipid fragmentation behavior was investigated by combining results from analysis of a series of negative ion tandem mass spectra and molecular modeling. Fragmentation patterns extracted from 75 tandem mass spectra of mainly acidic glycosphingolipid species (gangliosides) suggest prominent cleavage of the glycosidic bonds with retention of the glycosidic oxygen atom by the species formed from the reducing end (B and Y ion formation). Dominant product ions arise from dissociation of sialic acids glycosidic bonds whereas product ions resulting from cleavage of other glycosidic bonds are less abundant. Potential energy surfaces and unimolecular reaction rates of several low-energy fragmentation pathways leading to cleavage of glycosidic bonds were estimated in order to explain observed dissociation patterns. Glycosidic bond cleavage in both neutral (unsubstituted glycosyl group) and acidic glycosphingolipids was the outcome of the charge-directed intramolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) mechanism. According to the suggested mechanism, the nucleophile in a form of carboxylate or oxyanion attacks the carbon at position one of the sugar ring, simultaneously breaking the glycosidic bond and yielding an epoxide. For gangliosides, unimolecular reaction rates suggest that dominant product ions related to the cleavage of sialic acid glycosidic bonds are formed via direct dissociation channels. On the other hand, low abundant product ions related to the dissociation of other glycosidic bonds are more likely to be the result of sequential dissociation. Although results from this study mainly contribute to the understanding of glycosphingolipid fragmentation chemistry, some mechanistic findings regarding cleavage of the glycosidic bond may be applicable to other glycoconjugates.

  4. Intergenic mRNA molecules resulting from trans-splicing.

    PubMed

    Finta, Csaba; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G

    2002-02-22

    Accumulated recent evidence is indicating that alternative splicing represents a generalized process that increases the complexity of human gene expression. Here we show that mRNA production may not necessarily be limited to single genes, as human liver also has the potential to produce a variety of hybrid cytochrome P450 3A mRNA molecules. The four known cytochrome P450 3A genes in humans, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, and CYP3A43, share a high degree of similarity, consist of 13 exons with conserved exon-intron boundaries, and form a cluster on chromosome 7. The chimeric CYP3A mRNA molecules described herein are characterized by CYP3A43 exon 1 joined at canonical splice sites to distinct sets of CYP3A4 or CYP3A5 exons. Because the CYP3A43 gene is in a head-to-head orientation with the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes, bypassing transcriptional termination can not account for the formation of hybrid CYP3A mRNAs. Thus, the mechanism generating these molecules has to be an RNA processing event that joins exons of independent pre-mRNA molecules, i.e. trans-splicing. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the ratio of one CYP3A43/3A4 intergenic combination was estimated to be approximately 0.15% that of the CYP3A43 mRNAs. Moreover, trans-splicing has been found not to interfere with polyadenylation. Heterologous expression of the chimeric species composed of CYP3A43 exon 1 joined to exons 2-13 of CYP3A4 revealed catalytic activity toward testosterone.

  5. Microinjection and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay for Studying mRNA Export in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Shi, Min; Cheng, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Microinjection and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) assay is a useful method for mRNA export studies, which can overcome the problems of traditional transfection in cells. Here, we describe the method of microinjection and FISH assay applied in investigation of mRNA export. By this method we can estimate the mRNA export kinetics, examining mRNA export in cells with low transfection efficiencies, and observing nuclear export of aberrant RNAs.

  6. Nucleolin Mediates MicroRNA-directed CSF-1 mRNA Deadenylation but Increases Translation of CSF-1 mRNA*

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Ho-Hyung; Baker, Terri; Laszlo, Csaba; Chambers, Setsuko K.

    2013-01-01

    CSF-1 mRNA 3′UTR contains multiple unique motifs, including a common microRNA (miRNA) target in close proximity to a noncanonical G-quadruplex and AU-rich elements (AREs). Using a luciferase reporter system fused to CSF-1 mRNA 3′UTR, disruption of the miRNA target region, G-quadruplex, and AREs together dramatically increased reporter RNA levels, suggesting important roles for these cis-acting regulatory elements in the down-regulation of CSF-1 mRNA. We find that nucleolin, which binds both G-quadruplex and AREs, enhances deadenylation of CSF-1 mRNA, promoting CSF-1 mRNA decay, while having the capacity to increase translation of CSF-1 mRNA. Through interaction with the CSF-1 3′UTR miRNA common target, we find that miR-130a and miR-301a inhibit CSF-1 expression by enhancing mRNA decay. Silencing of nucleolin prevents the miRNA-directed mRNA decay, indicating a requirement for nucleolin in miRNA activity on CSF-1 mRNA. Downstream effects followed by miR-130a and miR-301a inhibition of directed cellular motility of ovarian cancer cells were found to be dependent on nucleolin. The paradoxical effects of nucleolin on miRNA-directed CSF-1 mRNA deadenylation and on translational activation were explored further. The nucleolin protein contains four acidic stretches, four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), and nine RGG repeats. All three domains in nucleolin regulate CSF-1 mRNA and protein levels. RRMs increase CSF-1 mRNA, whereas the acidic and RGG domains decrease CSF-1 protein levels. This suggests that nucleolin has the capacity to differentially regulate both CSF-1 RNA and protein levels. Our finding that nucleolin interacts with Ago2 indirectly via RNA and with poly(A)-binding protein C (PABPC) directly suggests a nucleolin-Ago2-PABPC complex formation on mRNA. This complex is in keeping with our suggestion that nucleolin may work with PABPC as a double-edged sword on both mRNA deadenylation and translational activation. Our findings underscore the complexity of

  7. Interactome Analysis of NS1 Protein Encoded by Influenza A H7N9 Virus Reveals an Inhibitory Role of NS1 in Host mRNA Maturation.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Rei-Lin; Chen, Chi-Jene; Tam, Ee-Hong; Huang, Chung-Guei; Li, Li-Hsin; Li, Zong-Hua; Su, Pei-Chia; Liu, Hao-Ping; Wu, Chih-Ching

    2018-04-06

    Influenza A virus infections can result in severe respiratory diseases. The H7N9 subtype of avian influenza A virus has been transmitted to humans and caused severe disease and death. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus is a virulence determinant during viral infection. To elucidate the functions of the NS1 encoded by influenza A H7N9 virus (H7N9 NS1), interaction partners of H7N9 NS1 in human cells were identified with immunoprecipitation followed by SDS-PAGE coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS). We identified 36 cellular proteins as the interacting partners of the H7N9 NS1, and they are involved in RNA processing, mRNA splicing via spliceosome, and the mRNA surveillance pathway. Two of the interacting partners, cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 2 (CPSF2) and CPSF7, were confirmed to interact with H7N9 NS1 using coimmunoprecipitation and immunoblotting based on the previous finding that the two proteins are involved in pre-mRNA polyadenylation machinery. Furthermore, we illustrate that overexpression of H7N9 NS1, as well as infection by the influenza A H7N9 virus, interfered with pre-mRNA polyadenylation in host cells. This study comprehensively profiled the interactome of H7N9 NS1 in host cells, and the results demonstrate a novel endotype for H7N9 NS1 in inhibiting host mRNA maturation.

  8. Subcellular mRNA localisation at a glance

    PubMed Central

    Parton, Richard M.; Davidson, Alexander; Davis, Ilan; Weil, Timothy T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT mRNA localisation coupled to translational regulation provides an important means of dictating when and where proteins function in a variety of model systems. This mechanism is particularly relevant in polarised or migrating cells. Although many of the models for how this is achieved were first proposed over 20 years ago, some of the molecular details are still poorly understood. Nevertheless, advanced imaging, biochemical and computational approaches have started to shed light on the cis-acting localisation signals and trans-acting factors that dictate the final destination of localised transcripts. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster, we provide an overview of mRNA localisation, from transcription to degradation, focusing on the microtubule-dependent active transport and anchoring mechanism, which we will use to explain the general paradigm. However, it is clear that there are diverse ways in which mRNAs become localised and target protein expression, and we highlight some of the similarities and differences between these mechanisms. PMID:24833669

  9. Tracking single mRNA molecules in live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hyungseok C.; Lee, Byung Hun; Lim, Kiseong; Son, Jae Seok; Song, Minho S.; Park, Hye Yoon

    2016-06-01

    mRNAs inside cells interact with numerous RNA-binding proteins, microRNAs, and ribosomes that together compose a highly heterogeneous population of messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particles. Perhaps one of the best ways to investigate the complex regulation of mRNA is to observe individual molecules. Single molecule imaging allows the collection of quantitative and statistical data on subpopulations and transient states that are otherwise obscured by ensemble averaging. In addition, single particle tracking reveals the sequence of events that occur in the formation and remodeling of mRNPs in real time. Here, we review the current state-of-the-art techniques in tagging, delivery, and imaging to track single mRNAs in live cells. We also discuss how these techniques are applied to extract dynamic information on the transcription, transport, localization, and translation of mRNAs. These studies demonstrate how single molecule tracking is transforming the understanding of mRNA regulation in live cells.

  10. Matrin 3 binds and stabilizes mRNA.

    PubMed

    Salton, Maayan; Elkon, Ran; Borodina, Tatiana; Davydov, Aleksey; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Halperin, Eran; Shiloh, Yosef

    2011-01-01

    Matrin 3 (MATR3) is a highly conserved, inner nuclear matrix protein with two zinc finger domains and two RNA recognition motifs (RRM), whose function is largely unknown. Recently we found MATR3 to be phosphorylated by the protein kinase ATM, which activates the cellular response to double strand breaks in the DNA. Here, we show that MATR3 interacts in an RNA-dependent manner with several proteins with established roles in RNA processing, and maintains its interaction with RNA via its RRM2 domain. Deep sequencing of the bound RNA (RIP-seq) identified several small noncoding RNA species. Using microarray analysis to explore MATR3's role in transcription, we identified 77 transcripts whose amounts depended on the presence of MATR3. We validated this finding with nine transcripts which were also bound to the MATR3 complex. Finally, we demonstrated the importance of MATR3 for maintaining the stability of several of these mRNA species and conclude that it has a role in mRNA stabilization. The data suggest that the cellular level of MATR3, known to be highly regulated, modulates the stability of a group of gene transcripts.

  11. Matrin 3 Binds and Stabilizes mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Salton, Maayan; Elkon, Ran; Borodina, Tatiana; Davydov, Aleksey; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Halperin, Eran; Shiloh, Yosef

    2011-01-01

    Matrin 3 (MATR3) is a highly conserved, inner nuclear matrix protein with two zinc finger domains and two RNA recognition motifs (RRM), whose function is largely unknown. Recently we found MATR3 to be phosphorylated by the protein kinase ATM, which activates the cellular response to double strand breaks in the DNA. Here, we show that MATR3 interacts in an RNA-dependent manner with several proteins with established roles in RNA processing, and maintains its interaction with RNA via its RRM2 domain. Deep sequencing of the bound RNA (RIP-seq) identified several small noncoding RNA species. Using microarray analysis to explore MATR3′s role in transcription, we identified 77 transcripts whose amounts depended on the presence of MATR3. We validated this finding with nine transcripts which were also bound to the MATR3 complex. Finally, we demonstrated the importance of MATR3 for maintaining the stability of several of these mRNA species and conclude that it has a role in mRNA stabilization. The data suggest that the cellular level of MATR3, known to be highly regulated, modulates the stability of a group of gene transcripts. PMID:21858232

  12. Incorporation of mRNA in Lamellar Lipid Matrices for Parenteral Administration.

    PubMed

    Ziller, Antje; Nogueira, Sara S; Hühn, Eva; Funari, Sergio S; Brezesinski, Gerald; Hartmann, Hermann; Sahin, Ugur; Haas, Heinrich; Langguth, Peter

    2018-02-05

    Insertion of high molecular weight messenger RNA (mRNA) into lyotropic lipid phases as model systems for controlled release formulations for the mRNA was investigated. Low fractions of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) were used as an anchor to load the mRNA into a lamellar lipid matrix. Dispersions of zwitterionic lipid in the aqueous phase in the presence of increasing fractions of mRNA and cationic lipid were prepared, and the molecular organization was investigated as a function of mRNA and cationic lipid fraction. Insertion of both cationic lipid and mRNA was clearly proven from the physicochemical characteristics. The d-spacing of the lipid bilayers, as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, responded sensitively to the amount of inserted DOTAP and mRNA. A concise model of the insertion of the mRNA in the lipid matrices was derived, indicating that the mRNA was accommodated in the aqueous slab between lipid bilayers. Depending on the DOTAP and mRNA fraction, a different excess of water was present in this slab. Results from further physicochemical characterization, including determination of free and bound mRNA, zeta potential, and calorimetry data, were in line with this assumption. The structure of these concentrated lipid/mRNA preparations was maintained upon dilution. The functionality of the inserted mRNA was proven by cell culture experiments using C2C12 murine myoblast cells with the luciferase-encoding mRNA. The described lipid phases as carriers for the mRNA may be applicable for different routes of local administration, where control of the release kinetics and the form of the released mRNA (bound or free) is required.

  13. Uncoupling of Protease trans-Cleavage and Helicase Activities in Pestivirus NS3

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fengwei; Lu, Guoliang; Li, Ling

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nonstructural protein NS3 from the Flaviviridae family is a multifunctional protein that contains an N-terminal protease and a C-terminal helicase, playing essential roles in viral polyprotein processing and genome replication. Here we report a full-length crystal structure of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) NS3 in complex with its NS4A protease cofactor segment (PCS) at a 2.35-Å resolution. The structure reveals a previously unidentified ∼2,200-Å2 intramolecular protease-helicase interface comprising three clusters of interactions, representing a “closed” global conformation related to the NS3-NS4A cis-cleavage event. Although this conformation is incompatible with protease trans-cleavage, it appears to be functionally important and beneficial to the helicase activity, as the mutations designed to perturb this conformation impaired both the helicase activities in vitro and virus production in vivo. Our work reveals important features of protease-helicase coordination in pestivirus NS3 and provides a key basis for how different conformational states may explicitly contribute to certain functions of this natural protease-helicase fusion protein. IMPORTANCE Many RNA viruses encode helicases to aid their RNA genome replication and transcription by unwinding structured RNA. Being naturally fused to a protease participating in viral polyprotein processing, the NS3 helicases encoded by the Flaviviridae family viruses are unique. Therefore, how these two enzyme modules coordinate in a single polypeptide is of particular interest. Here we report a previously unidentified conformation of pestivirus NS3 in complex with its NS4A protease cofactor segment (PCS). This conformational state is related to the protease cis-cleavage event and is optimal for the function of helicase. This work provides an important basis to understand how different enzymatic activities of NS3 may be achieved by the coordination between the protease and helicase through

  14. Selected classes of minimised hammerhead ribozyme have very high cleavage rates at low Mg2+ concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Conaty, J; Hendry, P; Lockett, T

    1999-01-01

    In vitro selection was used to enrich for highly efficient RNA phosphodiesterases within a size-constrained (18 nt) ribonucleotide domain. The starting population (g0) was directed in trans against an RNA oligonucleotide substrate immobilised to an avidin-magnetic phase. Four rounds of selection were conducted using 20 mM Mg2+to fractionate the population on the basis of divalent metal ion-dependent phosphodiesterase activity. The resulting generation 4 (g4) RNA was then directed through a further two rounds of selection using low concentrations of Mg2+. Generation 6 (g6) was composed of sets of active, trans cleaving minimised ribozymes, containing recognised hammerhead motifs in the conserved nucleotides, but with highly variable linker domains (loop II-L.1-L.4). Cleavage rate constants in the g6 population ranged from 0.004 to 1.3 min-1at 1 mM Mg2+(pH 8.0, 37 degrees C). Selection was further used to define conserved positions between G(10.1) and C(11.1) required for high cleavage activity at low Mg2+concentration. At 10 mM MgCl2the kinetic phenotype of these molecules was comparable to a hammerhead ribozyme with 4 bp in helix II. At low Mg2+concentration, the disparity in cleavage rate constants increases in favour of the minimised ribozymes. Favourable kinetic traits appeared to be a general property for specific selected linker sequences, as the high rates of catalysis were transferable to a different substrate system. PMID:10325431

  15. Phospholipase cleavage of D- and L-chiro-glycosylphosphoinositides asymmetrically incorporated into liposomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Julia B; Cid, M Belén; Contreras, F-Xabier; Goñi, Félix M; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2006-02-01

    The nature of chiro-inositol-containing inositolphosphoglycans (IPGs), reported to be putative insulin mediators, was studied by examination of the substrate specificities of the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD) by using a series of synthetic D- and L-chiro-glycosylphosphoinositides. 3-O-alpha-D-Glucosaminyl- (3) and -galactosaminyl-2-phosphatidyl-L-chiro-inositol (4), which show the maximum stereochemical similarity to the 6-O-alpha-D-glucosaminylphosphatidylinositol pseudodisaccharide motifs of GPI anchors, were synthesized and asymmetrically incorporated into phospholipid bilayers in the form of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). Similarly, 2-O-alpha-D-glucosaminyl- (5) and -galactosaminyl-1-phosphatidyl-D-chiro-inositol (6), which differ from the corresponding pseudodisaccharide motif of the GPI anchors only in the axial orientation of the phosphatidyl moiety, were also synthesized and asymmetrically inserted into LUVs. The cleavage of these synthetic molecules in the liposomal constructs by PI-PLC from Bacillus cereus and by GPI-PLD from bovine serum was studied with the use of 6-O-alpha-D-glucosaminylphosphatidylinositol (7) and the conserved GPI anchor structure (8) as positive controls. Although PI-PLC cleaved 3 and 4 with about the same efficiency as 7 and 8, this enzyme did not accept 5 or 6. GPI-PLD accepted both the L-chiro- (3 and 4) and the D-chiro- (5 and 6) glycosylinositolphosphoinositides. Therefore, IPGs containing L-chiro-inositol only are expected to be released from chiro-inositol-containing GPIs if the cleavage is effected by a PI-PLC, whereas GPI-PLD cleavage could result in both L-chiro- and D-chiro-inositol-containing IPGs.

  16. Modeling study on the cleavage step of the self-splicing reaction in group I introns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setlik, R. F.; Garduno-Juarez, R.; Manchester, J. I.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of the Tetrahymena thermophila group I intron is used to further explore the catalytic mechanism of the transphosphorylation reaction of the cleavage step. Based on the coordinates of the catalytic core model proposed by Michel and Westhof (Michel, F., Westhof, E. J. Mol. Biol. 216, 585-610 (1990)), we first converted their ligation step model into a model of the cleavage step by the substitution of several bases and the removal of helix P9. Next, an attempt to place a trigonal bipyramidal transition state model in the active site revealed that this modified model for the cleavage step could not accommodate the transition state due to insufficient space. A lowering of P1 helix relative to surrounding helices provided the additional space required. Simultaneously, it provided a better starting geometry to model the molecular contacts proposed by Pyle et al. (Pyle, A. M., Murphy, F. L., Cech, T. R. Nature 358, 123-128. (1992)), based on mutational studies involving the J8/7 segment. Two hydrated Mg2+ complexes were placed in the active site of the ribozyme model, using the crystal structure of the functionally similar Klenow fragment (Beese, L.S., Steitz, T.A. EMBO J. 10, 25-33 (1991)) as a guide. The presence of two metal ions in the active site of the intron differs from previous models, which incorporate one metal ion in the catalytic site to fulfill the postulated roles of Mg2+ in catalysis. The reaction profile is simulated based on a trigonal bipyramidal transition state, and the role of the hydrated Mg2+ complexes in catalysis is further explored using molecular orbital calculations.

  17. The Echinoid Mitotic Gradient: Effect of Cell Size on the Micromere Cleavage Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Langelan Duncan, Rosalie E.; Whiteley, Arthur H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Like other euechinoids, the fertilized eggs of the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus proceed through cleavages that produce a pattern of macromeres, mesomeres, and micromeres at the 4th division. The 8 cells of the macro-mesomere lineage proceed through 6 additional cleavages before hatching. At the fifth overall division, the 4 micromeres produce a lineage of large micromeres that will divide 3 additional times, and a lineage of small micromeres that will divide once more before hatching. Irrespective of lineage, the length of the cell cycles is closely related to the size of the blastomere; cells of the same size have the same cell cycle time. A consequence is that at the fourth cleavage, there is a gradient of mitotic activity from the fastest dividers at the animal pole and the slowest cleacing micromeres at the vegetal pole. By the time of hatching, which is the 10th division of meso-macromeres, all cells are the same small size, the metachronic pattern of division gives way to asynchrony, and the mitotic gradient along the polar axis is lost. Experimental pre-exposure to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), however, blocks the appearance of the gradients in cell size, the mitotic gradient, and the differential in cell cycle times. It is proposed that the mitotic gradients, cell cycle times, and attainment of a state of asynchrony are functions of cell size. Developmental consequences of the transition are large, and include coordinated activation of transcriptions, synthesis of new patterns of proteins, alterations of metabolism, and onset of morphogenesis. PMID:22006441

  18. Two Divalent Metal Ions and Conformational Changes Play Roles in the Hammerhead Ribozyme Cleavage Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Aamir; Chen, Ji; Robinson, Kyle; Lendy, Emma; Goodman, Jaclyn; Neau, David; Golden, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme is a self-cleaving RNA broadly dispersed across all kingdoms of life. Although it was the first of the small, nucleolytic ribozymes discovered, the mechanism by which it catalyzes its reaction remains elusive. The nucleobase of G12 is well positioned to be a general base, but it is unclear if or how this guanine base becomes activated for proton transfer. Metal ions have been implicated in the chemical mechanism, but no interactions between divalent metal ions and the cleavage site have been observed crystallographically. To better understand how this ribozyme functions, we have solved crystal structures of wild-type and G12A mutant ribozymes. We observe a pH-dependent conformational change centered around G12, consistent with this nucleotide becoming deprotonated. Crystallographic and kinetic analysis of the G12A mutant reveals a Zn2+ specificity switch suggesting a direct interaction between a divalent metal ion and the purine at position 12. The metal ion specificity switch and the pH–rate profile of the G12A mutant suggest that the minor imino tautomer of A12 serves as the general base in the mutant ribozyme. We propose a model in which the hammerhead ribozyme rearranges prior to the cleavage reaction, positioning two divalent metal ions in the process. The first metal ion, positioned near G12, becomes directly coordinated to the O6 keto oxygen, to lower the pKa of the general base and organize the active site. The second metal ion, positioned near G10.1, bridges the N7 of G10.1 and the scissile phosphate and may participate directly in the cleavage reaction. PMID:26398724

  19. Molecular insight into bacterial cleavage of oceanic dimethylsulfoniopropionate into dimethyl sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Yang; Wei, Tian-Di; Zhang, Sheng-Hui; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Peng; Xie, Bin-Bin; Su, Hai-Nan; Qin, Qi-Long; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Yang, Gui-Peng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    The microbial cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) generates volatile DMS through the action of DMSP lyases and is important in the global sulfur and carbon cycles. When released into the atmosphere from the oceans, DMS is oxidized, forming cloud condensation nuclei that may influence weather and climate. Six different DMSP lyase genes are found in taxonomically diverse microorganisms, and dddQ is among the most abundant in marine metagenomes. Here, we examine the molecular mechanism of DMSP cleavage by the DMSP lyase, DddQ, from Ruegeria lacuscaerulensis ITI_1157. The structures of DddQ bound to an inhibitory molecule 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and of DddQ inactivated by a Tyr131Ala mutation and bound to DMSP were solved. DddQ adopts a β-barrel fold structure and contains a Zn2+ ion and six highly conserved hydrophilic residues (Tyr120, His123, His125, Glu129, Tyr131, and His163) in the active site. Mutational and biochemical analyses indicate that these hydrophilic residues are essential to catalysis. In particular, Tyr131 undergoes a conformational change during catalysis, acting as a base to initiate the β-elimination reaction in DMSP lysis. Moreover, structural analyses and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that two loops over the substrate-binding pocket of DddQ can alternate between “open” and “closed” states, serving as a gate for DMSP entry. We also propose a molecular mechanism for DMS production through DMSP cleavage. Our study provides important insight into the mechanism involved in the conversion of DMSP into DMS, which should lead to a better understanding of this globally important biogeochemical reaction. PMID:24395783

  20. Atorvastatin prevents Aβ oligomer-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by inhibiting Tau cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Hai-juan; Zhang, Ling-ling; Liu, Zhou; Jin, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The proteolytic cleavage of Tau is involved in Aβ-induced neuronal dysfunction and cell death. In this study, we investigated whether atorvastatin could prevent Tau cleavage and hence prevent Aβ1–42 oligomer (AβO)-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cortical neurons. Methods: Cultured rat hippocampal neurons were incubated in the presence of AβOs (1.25 μmol/L) with or without atorvastatin pretreatment. ATP content and LDH in the culture medium were measured to assess the neuronal viability. Caspase-3/7 and calpain protease activities were detected. The levels of phospho-Akt, phospho-Erk1/2, phospho-GSK3β, p35 and Tau proteins were measured using Western blotting. Results: Treatment of the neurons with AβO significantly decreased the neuronal viability, induced rapid activation of calpain and caspase-3/7 proteases, accompanied by Tau degradation and relatively stable fragments generated in the neurons. AβO also suppressed Akt and Erk1/2 kinase activity, while increased GSK3β and Cdk5 activity in the neurons. Pretreatment with atorvastatin (0.5, 1, 2.5 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited AβO-induced activation of calpain and caspase-3/7 proteases, and effectively diminished the generation of Tau fragments, attenuated synaptic damage and increased neuronal survival. Atorvastatin pretreatment also prevented AβO-induced decreases in Akt and Erk1/2 kinase activity and the increases in GSK3β and Cdk5 kinase activity. Conclusion: Atorvastatin prevents AβO-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by inhibiting calpain- and caspase-mediated Tau cleavage. PMID:25891085

  1. Diastereoselective DNA Cleavage Recognition by Ni(II)•Gly-Gly-His Derived Metallopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ya-Yin; Claussen, Craig A.; Lipkowitz, Kenny B.; Long, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    Site-selective DNA cleavage by diastereoisomers of Ni(II)•Gly-Gly-His-derived metallopeptides was investigated through high-resolution gel analyses and molecular dynamics simulations. Ni(II)•L-Arg-Gly-His and Ni(II)•D-Arg-Gly-His (and their respective Lys analogues) targeted A/T-rich regions; however, the L-isomers consistently modified a sub-set of available nucleotides within a given minor groove site while the D-isomers differed in both their sites of preference and ability to target individual nucleotides within some sites. In comparison, Ni(II)•L-Pro-Gly-His and Ni(II)•D-Pro-Gly-His were unable to exhibit a similar diastereoselectivity. Simulations of the above systems, along with Ni(II)•Gly-Gly-His, indicated that the stereochemistry of the amino-terminal amino acid produces either an isohelical metallopeptide that associates stably at individual DNA sites (L-Arg or L-Lys) or, with D-Arg and D-Lys, a non-complementary metallopeptide structure that cannot fully employ its side chain nor amino-terminal amine as a positional stabilizing moiety. In contrast, amino-terminal Pro-containing metallopeptides of either stereochemistry, lacking an extended side chain directed toward the minor groove, did not exhibit a similar diastereoselectivity. While the identity and stereochemistry of amino acids located in the amino-terminal peptide position influenced DNA cleavage, metallopeptide diastereoisomers containing L- and D-Arg (or Lys) within the second peptide position did not exhibit diastereoselective DNA cleavage patterns; simulations indicated that a positively-charged amino acid in this location alters the interaction of the metallopeptide equatorial plane and the minor groove leading to an interaction similar to Ni(II)•Gly-Gly-His. PMID:16522100

  2. Structural basis for activation of the complement system by component C4 cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Kidmose, Rune T.; Laursen, Nick S.; Dobó, József; Kjaer, Troels R.; Sirotkina, Sofia; Yatime, Laure; Sottrup-Jensen, Lars; Thiel, Steffen; Gál, Péter; Andersen, Gregers R.

    2012-01-01

    An essential aspect of innate immunity is recognition of molecular patterns on the surface of pathogens or altered self through the lectin and classical pathways, two of the three well-established activation pathways of the complement system. This recognition causes activation of the MASP-2 or the C1s serine proteases followed by cleavage of the protein C4. Here we present the crystal structures of the 203-kDa human C4 and the 245-kDa C4⋅MASP-2 substrate⋅enzyme complex. When C4 binds to MASP-2, substantial conformational changes in C4 are induced, and its scissile bond region becomes ordered and inserted into the protease catalytic site in a manner canonical to serine proteases. In MASP-2, an exosite located within the CCP domains recognizes the C4 C345C domain 60 Å from the scissile bond. Mutations in C4 and MASP-2 residues at the C345C–CCP interface inhibit the intermolecular interaction and C4 cleavage. The possible assembly of the huge in vivo enzyme–substrate complex consisting of glycan-bound mannan-binding lectin, MASP-2, and C4 is discussed. Our own and prior functional data suggest that C1s in the classical pathway of complement activated by, e.g., antigen–antibody complexes, also recognizes the C4 C345C domain through a CCP exosite. Our results provide a unified structural framework for understanding the early and essential step of C4 cleavage in the elimination of pathogens and altered self through two major pathways of complement activation. PMID:22949645

  3. Two Divalent Metal Ions and Conformational Changes Play Roles in the Hammerhead Ribozyme Cleavage Reaction.

    PubMed

    Mir, Aamir; Chen, Ji; Robinson, Kyle; Lendy, Emma; Goodman, Jaclyn; Neau, David; Golden, Barbara L

    2015-10-20

    The hammerhead ribozyme is a self-cleaving RNA broadly dispersed across all kingdoms of life. Although it was the first of the small, nucleolytic ribozymes discovered, the mechanism by which it catalyzes its reaction remains elusive. The nucleobase of G12 is well positioned to be a general base, but it is unclear if or how this guanine base becomes activated for proton transfer. Metal ions have been implicated in the chemical mechanism, but no interactions between divalent metal ions and the cleavage site have been observed crystallographically. To better understand how this ribozyme functions, we have solved crystal structures of wild-type and G12A mutant ribozymes. We observe a pH-dependent conformational change centered around G12, consistent with this nucleotide becoming deprotonated. Crystallographic and kinetic analysis of the G12A mutant reveals a Zn(2+) specificity switch suggesting a direct interaction between a divalent metal ion and the purine at position 12. The metal ion specificity switch and the pH-rate profile of the G12A mutant suggest that the minor imino tautomer of A12 serves as the general base in the mutant ribozyme. We propose a model in which the hammerhead ribozyme rearranges prior to the cleavage reaction, positioning two divalent metal ions in the process. The first metal ion, positioned near G12, becomes directly coordinated to the O6 keto oxygen, to lower the pKa of the general base and organize the active site. The second metal ion, positioned near G10.1, bridges the N7 of G10.1 and the scissile phosphate and may participate directly in the cleavage reaction.

  4. Raman characterization of Avocado Sunblotch viroid and its response to external perturbations and self-cleavage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Viroids are the smallest pathogens of plants. To date the structural and conformational details of the cleavage of Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) and the catalytic role of Mg2+ ions in efficient self-cleavage are of crucial interest. Results We report the first Raman characterization of the structure and activity of ASBVd, for plus and minus viroid strands. Both strands exhibit a typical A-type RNA conformation with an ordered double-helical content and a C3′-endo/anti sugar pucker configuration, although small but specific differences are found in the sugar puckering and base-stacking regions. The ASBVd(-) is shown to self-cleave 3.5 times more actively than ASBVd(+). Deuteration and temperature increase perturb differently the double-helical content and the phosphodiester conformation, as revealed by corresponding characteristic Raman spectral changes. Our data suggest that the structure rigidity and stability are higher and the D2O accessibility to H-bonding network is lower for ASBVd(+) than for ASBVd(-). Remarkably, the Mg2+-activated self-cleavage of the viroid does not induce any significant alterations of the secondary viroid structure, as evidenced from the absence of intensity changes of Raman marker bands that, however exhibit small but noticeable frequency downshifts suggesting several minor changes in phosphodioxy, internal loops and hairpins of the cleaved viroids. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy in monitoring structural and conformational changes of the viroid and constitute the basis for further studies of its interactions with therapeutic agents and cell membranes. PMID:24655924

  5. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, María J.; Alquézar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly β-citraurin (3-hydroxy-β-apo-8′-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of β-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in β-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7′,8′ double bond in zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7′,8′ double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

  6. Expression of CD30 mRNA, CD30L mRNA and a variant form of CD30 mRNA in restimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with helminthic infections resembling a Th2 disease

    PubMed Central

    Kilwinski, J; Berger, T; Mpalaskas, J; Reuter, S; Flick, W; Kern, P

    1999-01-01

    It has been proposed that CD30, a member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, is preferentially up-regulated on Th2-type human T cells. In order to investigate a correlation between infection with Echinococcus multilocularis and CD30 expression, we analysed regulation of CD30 mRNA, a variant form of CD30 mRNA (CD30v) and CD30 ligand (CD30L) mRNA expression on PBMC from patients with alveolar echinococcosis (AE) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In PBMC of patients with AE as well as healthy donors, spontaneous expression of CD30L mRNA and the CD30v mRNA could be detected. However, the intact form of CD30 mRNA could be detected neither in freshly isolated PBMC of patients nor in PBMC of healthy individuals. Expression of CD30L mRNA and the variant form of CD30 mRNA was frequently detected at individual time points during 72 h of culture of PBMC stimulated with crude Echinococcus antigen. In contrast to CD30v or CD30L mRNA expression, induction of CD30 mRNA expression was detected only in three out of six (50%) healthy donors and in 10 out of 21 (48%) patients with alveolar echinococcosis after 72 h of incubation. As a control, mitogenic stimulation of PBMC of both healthy individuals and infected patients led to expression of intact CD30 mRNA within 24 h of culture. These data demonstrate the different expression of two different forms of CD30 mRNA in PBMC of human individuals. The specific induction of CD30 expression is correlated only in rare cases with the clinical status of patients with AE, indicating the lack of a general induction of CD30 mRNA in this Th2-type-dominated helminthic disease. The data provide further evidence that the CD30 receptor is not an exclusive marker for a Th2-type response. PMID:9933429

  7. Photosensitized cleavage of some olefins as potential linkers to be used in drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinache, Andra; Smarandache, Adriana; Simon, Agota; Nastasa, Viorel; Tozar, Tatiana; Pascu, Alexandru; Enescu, Mironel; Khatyr, Abderrahim; Sima, Felix; Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Staicu, Angela

    2017-09-01

    A study of photosensitized cleavage of different olefins as potential linkers for drug carrier complexes is reported. The role of singlet oxygen and the kinetic rates for light induced reactions were estimated by time-resolved measurements of singlet oxygen phosphorescence (at 1270 nm) obtained via 532 nm pulse laser excitation of a photosensitizer. The mixture of each studied olefin with verteporfin (used as photosensitizer) were exposed to low energy visible radiation. The rate constants for singlet oxygen quenching by studied olefins were determined. The irradiated solutions were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and potential photoproducts were suggested. The experimental results were compared with simulations made by DFT method.

  8. Granule swelling and cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinases in human neutrophils undergoing apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Takayuki, E-mail: tkato@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp; Ikemoto, Masaru; Hato, Fumihiko

    2009-04-10

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 have been shown to be cleaved in human neutrophils undergoing apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and cycloheximide. However, the cleavage products of these molecules were undetected when apoptotic neutrophils were pretreated with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride or disrupted by nitrogen cavitation before preparation of cell lysates. The electron microscopy revealed that granules in apoptotic neutrophils were significantly swollen than those in control cells. These findings suggest that granule membrane may become destabilized during neutrophil apoptosis, leading to rapid proteolysis of these molecules by granule-derived serine proteases during preparation of cell lysates with the conventional lysis buffer.

  9. Transition-metal-catalyzed direct arylation of (hetero)arenes by C-H bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Lutz; Vicente, Rubén; Kapdi, Anant R

    2009-01-01

    The area of transition-metal-catalyzed direct arylation through cleavage of C-H bonds has undergone rapid development in recent years, and is becoming an increasingly viable alternative to traditional cross-coupling reactions with organometallic reagents. In particular, palladium and ruthenium catalysts have been described that enable the direct arylation of (hetero)arenes with challenging coupling partners--including electrophilic aryl chlorides and tosylates as well as simple arenes in cross-dehydrogenative arylations. Furthermore, less expensive copper, iron, and nickel complexes were recently shown to be effective for economically attractive direct arylations.

  10. Post-translational processing of progastrin: inhibition of cleavage, phosphorylation and sulphation by brefeldin A.

    PubMed Central

    Varro, A; Dockray, G J

    1993-01-01

    The precursor for the acid-stimulating hormone gastrin provides a useful model for studies of post-translational processing because defined sites of cleavage, amidation, sulphation and phosphorylation occur within a dodecapeptide sequence. The factors determining these post-translational processing events are still poorly understood. We have used brefeldin A, which disrupts transport from rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, to examine the mechanisms of cleavage, phosphorylation and sulphation of rat progastrin-derived peptides. Biosynthetic products were detected after immunoprecipitation using antibodies specific for the extreme C-terminus of progastrin, followed by reversed-phase and ion-exchange h.p.l.c. Gastrin cells incorporated [3H]tyrosine, [32P]phosphate and [35S]sulphate into both progastrin and its extreme C-terminal tryptic (nona-) peptide. Ion-exchange chromatography resolved four forms of the C-terminal tryptic fragment of progastrin which differed in whether they were phosphorylated at Ser96, sulphated at Tyr103, both or neither. The specific activity of [3H]tyrosine in the peak that was both phosphorylated and sulphated was higher than in the others. Brefeldin A inhibited the appearance of [3H]tyrosine-labelled C-terminal tryptic fragment but there was an accumulation of labelled progastrin and a peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 46 residues of progastrin. Brefeldin A also inhibited incorporation of 32P and 35S into both progastrin and its C-terminal fragment. Thus phosphorylation of Ser96, sulphation of Tyr103 and cleavage at Arg94-Arg95 depend on passage of newly synthesized progastrin along the secretory pathway; as brefeldin A is thought to act proximal to the trans-Golgi, these processing steps would appear to occur distal to this point. The data also indicate that the stores of unphosphorylated C-terminal tryptic fragment are not available for phosphorylation, implying that this modification occurs proximal to the secretory

  11. Dendritic polymer imaging systems for the evaluation of conjugate uptake and cleavage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald R.; Nagel, Gregor; Wedepohl, Stefanie; Calderón, Marcelo

    2015-02-01

    Fluorescent turn-on probes combined with polymers have a broad range of applications, e.g. for intracellular sensing of ions, small molecules, or DNA. In the field of polymer therapeutics, these probes can be applied to extend the in vitro characterization of novel conjugates beyond cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies. This is particularly true in cases in which polymer conjugates contain drugs attached by cleavable linkers. Better information on the intracellular linker cleavage and drug release would allow a faster evaluation and optimization of novel polymer therapeutic concepts. We therefore developed a fluorescent turn-on probe that enables direct monitoring of pH-mediated cleavage processes over time. This is achieved by exploiting the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two dyes that have been coupled to a dendritic polymer. We demonstrate the use of this probe to evaluate polymer uptake and intracellular release of cargo in a cell based microplate assay that is suitable for high throughput screening.Fluorescent turn-on probes combined with polymers have a broad range of applications, e.g. for intracellular sensing of ions, small molecules, or DNA. In the field of polymer therapeutics, these probes can be applied to extend the in vitro characterization of novel conjugates beyond cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies. This is particularly true in cases in which polymer conjugates contain drugs attached by cleavable linkers. Better information on the intracellular linker cleavage and drug release would allow a faster evaluation and optimization of novel polymer therapeutic concepts. We therefore developed a fluorescent turn-on probe that enables direct monitoring of pH-mediated cleavage processes over time. This is achieved by exploiting the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two dyes that have been coupled to a dendritic polymer. We demonstrate the use of this probe to evaluate polymer uptake and intracellular

  12. Direct evidence of photochemical α-cleavage of benzoin in fluid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyanagi, Motohiko; Futami, Hiroshi; Mukai, Masahiro; Yamauchi, Seigo

    1989-02-01

    By means of optical absorption, 1 NMR, and transient EPR techniques, the fate of diluted benzoin upon light irradiation to its S 1 (nπ*) state has been investigated in methylcyclohexane and benzene solutions at room temperature. The CIDEP spectrum of benzoin is observed for the first time, and the intermediate radicals involved are assigned. The overall results show that the main scheme of the photochemical reactions is the α-cleavage occurring in the excited triplet state of benzoin, as proved in the almost net emission pattern of the CIDEP spectra. A stoichiometric reaction leading to effective benzaldehyde formation is established for the benzoin solutions.

  13. RNActive® Technology: Generation and Testing of Stable and Immunogenic mRNA Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Susanne; Lutz, Johannes; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Schlake, Thomas; Heidenreich, Regina

    2017-01-01

    Developing effective mRNA vaccines poses certain challenges concerning mRNA stability and ability to induce sufficient immune stimulation and requires a specific panel of techniques for production and testing. Here, we describe the production of stabilized mRNA with enhanced immunogenicity, generated using conventional nucleotides only, by introducing changes to the mRNA sequence and by complexation with the nucleotide-binding peptide protamine (RNActive® technology). Methods described here include the synthesis, purification, and protamine complexation of mRNA vaccines as well as a comprehensive panel of in vitro and in vivo methods for evaluation of vaccine quality and immunogenicity.

  14. Zinc-dependent cleavage in the catalytic core of the hammerhead ribozyme: evidence for a pH-dependent conformational change

    PubMed Central

    Borda, Emily J.; Markley, John C.; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th.

    2003-01-01

    We have characterized a novel Zn2+-catalyzed cleavage site between nucleotides C3 and U4 in the catalytic core of the hammerhead ribozyme. In contrast to previously described divalent metal-ion-dependent cleavage of RNA, U4 cleavage is only observed in the presence of Zn2+. This new cleavage site has an unusual pH dependence, in that U4 cleavage products are only observed above pH 7.9 and reach a maximum yield at about pH 8.5. These data, together with the fact that no metal ion-binding site is observed in proximity to the U4 cleavage site in either of the crystal structures, point toward a pH-dependent conformational change in the hammerhead ribozyme. We have described previously Zn2+-dependent cleavage between G8 and A9 in the hammerhead ribozyme and have discovered that U4 cleavage occurs only after A9 cleavage. To our knowledge, this is the first example of sequential cleavage events as a possible regulatory mechanism in ribozymes. PMID:12736309

  15. Control of cleavage spindle orientation in Caenorhabditis elegans: The role of the genes par-2 and par-3

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, N.N.; Kirby, C.M.; Kemphues, K.J.

    1995-02-01

    Polarized asymmetric divisions play important roles in the development of plants and animals. The first two embryonic cleavages of Caenorhabditis elegans provide an opportunity to study the mechanisms controlling polarized asymmetric divisions. The first cleavage is unequal, producing daughters with different sizes and fates. The daughter blastomeres divide with different orientations at the second cleavage; the anterior blastomere divides equally across the long axis of the egg, whereas the posterior blastomere divides unequally along the long axis. We report here the results of our analysis of the genes par-2 and par-3 with respect to their contribution to the polarity ofmore » these divisions. Strong loss-of-function mutations in both genes lead to an equal first cleavage and an altered second cleavage. Interestingly, the mutations exhibit striking gene-specific differences at the second cleavage. The par-2 mutations lead to transverse spindle orientations in both blastomeres, whereas par-3 mutations lead to longitudinal spindle orientations in both blastomeres. The spindle orientation defects correlate with defects in centrosome movements during both the first and the second cell cycle. Temperature shift experiments with par-2 (it5ts) indicate that the par-2(+) activity is not required after the two-cell stage. Analysis of double mutants shows that par-3 is epistatic to par-2. We propose a model wherein par-2(+) and par-3(+) act in concert during the first cell cycle to affect asymmetric modification of the cytoskeleton. This polar modification leads to different behaviors of centrosomes in the anterior and posterior and leads ultimately to blastomere-specific spindle orientations at the second cleavage. 44 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  16. Recovery of Recombinant Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Reveals a Function for Non-structural Glycoproteins Cleavage by Furin.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Zivcec, Marko; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Nichol, Stuart T; Albariño, César G; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2015-05-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a negative-strand RNA virus of the family Bunyaviridae (genus: Nairovirus). In humans, CCHFV causes fever, hemorrhage, severe thrombocytopenia, and high fatality. A major impediment in precisely determining the basis of CCHFV's high pathogenicity has been the lack of methodology to produce recombinant CCHFV. We developed a reverse genetics system based on transfecting plasmids into BSR-T7/5 and Huh7 cells. In our system, bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase produced complementary RNA copies of the viral S, M, and L segments that were encapsidated with the support, in trans, of CCHFV nucleoprotein and L polymerase. The system was optimized to systematically recover high yields of infectious CCHFV. Additionally, we tested the ability of the system to produce specifically designed CCHFV mutants. The M segment encodes a polyprotein that is processed by host proprotein convertases (PCs), including the site-1 protease (S1P) and furin-like PCs. S1P and furin cleavages are necessary for producing the non-structural glycoprotein GP38, while S1P cleavage yields structural Gn. We studied the role of furin cleavage by rescuing a recombinant CCHFV encoding a virus glycoprotein precursor lacking a functional furin cleavage motif (RSKR mutated to ASKA). The ASKA mutation blocked glycoprotein precursor's maturation to GP38, and Gn precursor's maturation to Gn was slightly diminished. Furin cleavage was not essential for replication, as blocking furin cleavage resulted only in transient reduction of CCHFV titers, suggesting that either GP38 and/or decreased Gn maturation accounted for the reduced virion production. Our data demonstrate that nairoviruses can be produced by reverse genetics, and the utility of our system uncovered a function for furin cleavage. This viral rescue system could be further used to study the CCHFV replication cycle and facilitate the development of efficacious vaccines to counter this biological and public

  17. Recovery of Recombinant Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Reveals a Function for Non-structural Glycoproteins Cleavage by Furin

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Éric; Zivcec, Marko; Chakrabarti, Ayan K.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Albariño, César G.; Spiropoulou, Christina F.

    2015-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a negative-strand RNA virus of the family Bunyaviridae (genus: Nairovirus). In humans, CCHFV causes fever, hemorrhage, severe thrombocytopenia, and high fatality. A major impediment in precisely determining the basis of CCHFV’s high pathogenicity has been the lack of methodology to produce recombinant CCHFV. We developed a reverse genetics system based on transfecting plasmids into BSR-T7/5 and Huh7 cells. In our system, bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase produced complementary RNA copies of the viral S, M, and L segments that were encapsidated with the support, in trans, of CCHFV nucleoprotein and L polymerase. The system was optimized to systematically recover high yields of infectious CCHFV. Additionally, we tested the ability of the system to produce specifically designed CCHFV mutants. The M segment encodes a polyprotein that is processed by host proprotein convertases (PCs), including the site-1 protease (S1P) and furin-like PCs. S1P and furin cleavages are necessary for producing the non-structural glycoprotein GP38, while S1P cleavage yields structural Gn. We studied the role of furin cleavage by rescuing a recombinant CCHFV encoding a virus glycoprotein precursor lacking a functional furin cleavage motif (RSKR mutated to ASKA). The ASKA mutation blocked glycoprotein precursor’s maturation to GP38, and Gn precursor’s maturation to Gn was slightly diminished. Furin cleavage was not essential for replication, as blocking furin cleavage resulted only in transient reduction of CCHFV titers, suggesting that either GP38 and/or decreased Gn maturation accounted for the reduced virion production. Our data demonstrate that nairoviruses can be produced by reverse genetics, and the utility of our system uncovered a function for furin cleavage. This viral rescue system could be further used to study the CCHFV replication cycle and facilitate the development of efficacious vaccines to counter this biological and public

  18. An mRNA decapping mutant deficient in P body assembly limits mRNA stabilization in response to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Huch, Susanne; Nissan, Tracy

    2017-03-14

    Yeast is exposed to changing environmental conditions and must adapt its genetic program to provide a homeostatic intracellular environment. An important stress for yeast in the wild is high osmolarity. A key response to this stress is increased mRNA stability primarily by the inhibition of deadenylation. We previously demonstrated that mutations in decapping activators (edc3∆ lsm4∆C), which result in defects in P body assembly, can destabilize mRNA under unstressed conditions. We wished to examine whether mRNA would be destabilized in the edc3∆ lsm4∆C mutant as compared to the wild-type in response to osmotic stress, when P bodies are intense and numerous. Our results show that the edc3∆ lsm4∆C mutant limits the mRNA stability in response to osmotic stress, while the magnitude of stabilization was similar as compared to the wild-type. The reduced mRNA stability in the edc3∆ lsm4∆C mutant was correlated with a shorter PGK1 poly(A) tail. Similarly, the MFA2 mRNA was more rapidly deadenylated as well as significantly stabilized in the ccr4∆ deadenylation mutant in the edc3∆ lsm4∆C background. These results suggest a role for these decapping factors in stabilizing mRNA and may implicate P bodies as sites of reduced mRNA degradation.

  19. 12. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. AFTER SEGREGATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. AFTER SEGREGATION, PLUTONIUM MATERIALS WERE EITHER RETURNED TO THE BUILDING 776 FOUNDRY WHERE THEY WERE CAST INTO FEED INGOTS, OR UNDERWENT CHEMICAL RECOVERY FOR PURIFICATION. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. 40 CFR 60.2895 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... health or the environment. In considering such alternatives, you may consider costs, energy impacts...) Analyses of your OSWI unit's impacts that are prepared to comply with State, local, or other Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a siting analysis? 60.2895...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2050 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alternatives. (b) Analyses of your CISWI unit's impacts that are prepared to comply with State, local, or other... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a siting analysis? 60.2050 Section 60.2050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4805 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... impacts that are prepared to comply with state, local, or other Federal regulatory requirements may be... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a siting analysis? 60.4805 Section 60.4805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2895 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... health or the environment. In considering such alternatives, you may consider costs, energy impacts...) Analyses of your OSWI unit's impacts that are prepared to comply with State, local, or other Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a siting analysis? 60.2895...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2050 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alternatives. (b) Analyses of your CISWI unit's impacts that are prepared to comply with State, local, or other... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a siting analysis? 60.2050 Section 60.2050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  5. 11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS WERE NUCLEAR WEAPONS SHIPPED TO THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM THE NUCLEAR WEAPON STOCKPILE FOR RETIREMENT, TESTING, OR UPGRADING. FISSILE MATERIALS (PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, ETC.) AND RARE MATERIALS (BERYLLIUM) WERE RECOVERED FOR REUSE, AND THE REMAINDER WAS DISPOSED. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. 40 CFR 60.1115 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a siting analysis? 60.1115 Section 60.1115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... unit affects ambient air quality, visibility, soils, vegetation, and other relevant factors. The...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2050 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Analysis § 60.2050 What is a siting analysis? (a) The siting analysis must consider air pollution control... include the consideration of air pollution control alternatives specified in paragraph (a) of this section... Section 60.2050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4805 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... siting analysis must consider air pollution control alternatives that minimize, on a site-specific basis, to the maximum extent practicable, potential risks to public health or the environment, including... Section 60.4805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2895 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... What is a siting analysis? (a) The siting analysis must consider air pollution control alternatives... consideration of air pollution control alternatives specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) You must... Section 60.2895 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2895 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... What is a siting analysis? (a) The siting analysis must consider air pollution control alternatives... consideration of air pollution control alternatives specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) You must... Section 60.2895 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2895 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... What is a siting analysis? (a) The siting analysis must consider air pollution control alternatives... consideration of air pollution control alternatives specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) You must... Section 60.2895 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  12. 40 CFR 60.4805 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... siting analysis must consider air pollution control alternatives that minimize, on a site-specific basis, to the maximum extent practicable, potential risks to public health or the environment, including... Section 60.4805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  13. 40 CFR 60.4805 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... siting analysis must consider air pollution control alternatives that minimize, on a site-specific basis, to the maximum extent practicable, potential risks to public health or the environment, including... Section 60.4805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2050 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...? (a) The siting analysis must consider air pollution control alternatives that minimize, on a site... air pollution control alternatives specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) You must complete... Section 60.2050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2050 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...? (a) The siting analysis must consider air pollution control alternatives that minimize, on a site... air pollution control alternatives specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) You must complete... Section 60.2050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1115 - What is a siting analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999 or for Which... § 60.1115 What is a siting analysis? The siting analysis addresses how your municipal waste combustion... environmental and social costs resulting from its location and construction. The analysis must also consider...

  17. Imaging mRNA In Vivo, from Birth to Death.

    PubMed

    Tutucci, Evelina; Livingston, Nathan M; Singer, Robert H; Wu, Bin

    2018-05-20

    RNA is the fundamental information transfer system in the cell. The ability to follow single messenger RNAs (mRNAs) from transcription to degradation with fluorescent probes gives quantitative information about how the information is transferred from DNA to proteins. This review focuses on the latest technological developments in the field of single-mRNA detection and their usage to study gene expression in both fixed and live cells. By describing the application of these imaging tools, we follow the journey of mRNA from transcription to decay in single cells, with single-molecule resolution. We review current theoretical models for describing transcription and translation that were generated by single-molecule and single-cell studies. These methods provide a basis to study how single-molecule interactions generate phenotypes, fundamentally changing our understating of gene expression regulation.

  18. Deciphering mRNA Sequence Determinants of Protein Production Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szavits-Nossan, Juraj; Ciandrini, Luca; Romano, M. Carmen

    2018-03-01

    One of the greatest challenges in biophysical models of translation is to identify coding sequence features that affect the rate of translation and therefore the overall protein production in the cell. We propose an analytic method to solve a translation model based on the inhomogeneous totally asymmetric simple exclusion process, which allows us to unveil simple design principles of nucleotide sequences determining protein production rates. Our solution shows an excellent agreement when compared to numerical genome-wide simulations of S. cerevisiae transcript sequences and predicts that the first 10 codons, which is the ribosome footprint length on the mRNA, together with the value of the initiation rate, are the main determinants of protein production rate under physiological conditions. Finally, we interpret the obtained analytic results based on the evolutionary role of the codons' choice for regulating translation rates and ribosome densities.

  19. Emplacement history of a thrust sheet based on analysis of pressure solution cleavage and deformed fossils

    SciTech Connect

    Protzman, G.M.; Mitra, G.

    The emplacement history of a thrust sheet is recorded by the strain accumulated in its hanging wall and footwall. Detailed studies of second order structures and analysis of strain due to pressure solution and plastic deformation allow the authors to determine the deformation history of the Meade thrust in the Idaho - Wyoming thrust belt. Emplacement of the Meade thrust was accompanied by the formation of a series of second order in echelon folds in the footwall. Temporal relations based on detailed structural studies show that these folds, which are confined to the Jurassic Twin Creek Formation, formed progressively inmore » front of the advancing Meade thrust and were successively truncated and overridden by footwall imbricates of the Meade thrust. The Twin Creek Formation in both the hanging wall and footwall of the Meade thrust is penetratively deformed, with a well developed pressure solution cleavage. In addition, plastic strain is recorded by deformed Pentacrinus within fossil hash layers in the Twin Creek. Much of this penetrative deformation took place early in the history of the thrust sheet as layer parallel shortening, and the cleavage and deformed fossils behaved passively during subsequent folding and faulting. The later stages of deformation may be sequentially removed through balancing techniques to track successive steps in the deformation. This strain history, which is typical of an internal thrust sheet, is partly controlled by the lithologies involved, timing between successive thrusts, and the amount of interaction between major faults.« less

  20. Two combinatorial optimization problems for SNP discovery using base-specific cleavage and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Ruimin; Zhang, Louxin

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has important implications in a variety of genetic studies on human diseases and biological functions. One valuable approach proposed for SNP discovery is based on base-specific cleavage and mass spectrometry. However, it is still very challenging to achieve the full potential of this SNP discovery approach. In this study, we formulate two new combinatorial optimization problems. While both problems are aimed at reconstructing the sample sequence that would attain the minimum number of SNPs, they search over different candidate sequence spaces. The first problem, denoted as SNP - MSP, limits its search to sequences whose in silico predicted mass spectra have all their signals contained in the measured mass spectra. In contrast, the second problem, denoted as SNP - MSQ, limits its search to sequences whose in silico predicted mass spectra instead contain all the signals of the measured mass spectra. We present an exact dynamic programming algorithm for solving the SNP - MSP problem and also show that the SNP - MSQ problem is NP-hard by a reduction from a restricted variation of the 3-partition problem. We believe that an efficient solution to either problem above could offer a seamless integration of information in four complementary base-specific cleavage reactions, thereby improving the capability of the underlying biotechnology for sensitive and accurate SNP discovery.

  1. Cleavage sites in the polypeptide precursors of poliovirus protein P2-X

    SciTech Connect

    Selmer, B.L.; Hanecak, R.; Anderson, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Partial amino-terminal sequence analysis has been performed on the three major polypeptide products (P2-3b, P2-5b, and P2-X) from the central region (P2) of the poliovirus polyprotein, and this analysis precisely locates the amino termini of these products with respect to the nucleotide sequence of the poliovirus RNA genome. Like most of the products of the replicase region (P3), the amino termini of P2-5b and P2-X are generated by cleavage between glutamine and glycine residues. Thus, P2-5b and P2-X are probably both produced by the action of a singly (virus-encoded.) proteinase. The amino terminus of P2-3b, on the other hand, ismore » produced by a cleavage between the carboxy-terminal tyrosine of VP1 and the glycine encoded by nucleotides 3381-3383. This result may suggest that more than one proteolytic activity is required for the complete processing of the poliovirus polyprotein.« less

  2. Cyanidin and cyanidin 3-O-beta-D -glucoside as DNA cleavage protectors and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Acquaviva, R; Russo, A; Galvano, F; Galvano, G; Barcellona, M L; Li Volti, G; Vanella, A

    2003-08-01

    Anthocyanins, colored flavonoids, are water-soluble pigments present in the plant kingdom; in fact they are secondary plant metabolites responsible for the blue, purple, and red color of many plant tissues. Present in beans, fruits, vegetables and red wines, considerable amounts of anthocyanins are ingested as constituents of the human diet (180-215 mg daily). There is now increasing interest in the in vivo protective function of natural antioxidants contained in dietary plants against oxidative damage caused by free radical species. Recently, the antioxidant activity of phenolic phytochemicals, has been investigated. Since the antioxidant mechanism of anthocyanin pigments is still controversial, in the present study we evaluated the effects of cyanidin and cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside on DNA cleavage, on their free radical scavenging capacity and on xanthine oxidase activity. Cyanidin and cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside showed a protective effect on DNA cleavage, a dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity and significant inhibition of XO activity. These effects suggest that anthocyanins exhibit interesting antioxidant properties, and could therefore represent a promising class of compounds useful in the treatment of pathologies where free radical production plays a key role.

  3. Degradation of toluene by ortho cleavage enzymes in Burkholderia fungorum FLU100

    PubMed Central

    Dobslaw, Daniel; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia fungorum FLU100 simultaneously oxidized any mixture of toluene, benzene and mono-halogen benzenes to (3-substituted) catechols with a selectivity of nearly 100%. Further metabolism occurred via enzymes of ortho cleavage pathways with complete mineralization. During the transformation of 3-methylcatechol, 4-carboxymethyl-2-methylbut-2-en-4-olide (2-methyl-2-enelactone, 2-ML) accumulated transiently, being further mineralized only after a lag phase of 2 h in case of cells pre-grown on benzene or mono-halogen benzenes. No lag phase, however, occurred after growth on toluene. Cultures inhibited by chloramphenicol after growth on benzene or mono-halogen benzenes were unable to metabolize 2-ML supplied externally, even after prolonged incubation. A control culture grown with toluene did not show any lag phase and used 2-ML as a substrate. This means that 2-ML is an intermediate of toluene degradation and converted by specific enzymes. The conversion of 4-methylcatechol as a very minor by-product of toluene degradation in strain FLU100 resulted in the accumulation of 4-carboxymethyl-4-methylbut-2-en-4-olide (4-methyl-2-enelactone, 4-ML) as a dead-end product, excluding its nature as a possible intermediate. Thus, 3-methylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-diol, 3-methylcatechol, 2-methyl muconate and 2-ML were identified as central intermediates of productive ortho cleavage pathways for toluene metabolism in B. fungorum FLU100. PMID:25130674

  4. Live births after polar body biopsy and frozen-thawed cleavage stage embryo transfer: case report

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Fernando; Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Kostolias, Alessandra; de Azevedo, Rodrigo A; Martinhago, Ciro D; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2016-01-01

    Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) or screening (PGS) technology, has emerged and developed in the past few years, benefiting couples as it allows the selection and transfer of healthy embryos during IVF treatments. These techniques can be performed in oocytes (polar-body biopsy) or embryos (blastomere or trophectoderm biopsy). In this case report, we describe the first two live births to be published in Brazil after a polar-body (PB) biopsy. In case 1, a 42-year-old was submitted to PB biopsy with PGS due to advanced maternal age and poor ovarian reserve. Five MII oocytes underwent first and second polar body biopsy and four cleavage embryos were cryopreserved. The PGS analysis resulted in two euploid embryos (next generation sequence). A frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) was performed after endometrial priming and a healthy baby was delivered after a cesarean section (37 weeks, female, 3390g, 47.5 cm). In case 2, a 40-year old patient with balanced translocation and poor ovarian response was submitted to PB biopsy. Two MII oocytes underwent first and second polar body biopsy and two embryos were cryopreserved in cleavage stage. The analysis resulted in one euploid embryo that was transferred after endometrial priming. A preterm healthy baby (34 weeks, female, 2100g, 40 cm) was delivered via cesarean section. In conclusion, although the blastocyst biopsy is the norm when performing PGS/PGD during IVF treatments, other alternatives (as PB biopsy) should be considered in some specific situations. PMID:28050963

  5. Live births after polar body biopsy and frozen-thawed cleavage stage embryo transfer: case report.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Fernando; Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Kostolias, Alessandra; Azevedo, Rodrigo A de; Martinhago, Ciro D; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2016-12-01

    Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) or screening (PGS) technology, has emerged and developed in the past few years, benefiting couples as it allows the selection and transfer of healthy embryos during IVF treatments. These techniques can be performed in oocytes (polar-body biopsy) or embryos (blastomere or trophectoderm biopsy). In this case report, we describe the first two live births to be published in Brazil after a polar-body (PB) biopsy. In case 1, a 42-year-old was submitted to PB biopsy with PGS due to advanced maternal age and poor ovarian reserve. Five MII oocytes underwent first and second polar body biopsy and four cleavage embryos were cryopreserved. The PGS analysis resulted in two euploid embryos (next generation sequence). A frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) was performed after endometrial priming and a healthy baby was delivered after a cesarean section (37 weeks, female, 3390g, 47.5 cm). In case 2, a 40-year old patient with balanced translocation and poor ovarian response was submitted to PB biopsy. Two MII oocytes underwent first and second polar body biopsy and two embryos were cryopreserved in cleavage stage. The analysis resulted in one euploid embryo that was transferred after endometrial priming. A preterm healthy baby (34 weeks, female, 2100g, 40 cm) was delivered via cesarean section. In conclusion, although the blastocyst biopsy is the norm when performing PGS/PGD during IVF treatments, other alternatives (as PB biopsy) should be considered in some specific situations.

  6. Mechanistic Insights into Archaeal and Human Argonaute Substrate Binding and Cleavage Properties

    PubMed Central

    Willkomm, Sarah; Zander, Adrian; Grohmann, Dina; Restle, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Argonaute (Ago) proteins from all three domains of life are key players in processes that specifically regulate cellular nucleic acid levels. Some of these Ago proteins, among them human Argonaute2 (hAgo2) and Ago from the archaeal organism Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MjAgo), are able to cleave nucleic acid target strands that are recognised via an Ago-associated complementary guide strand. Here we present an in-depth kinetic side-by-side analysis of hAgo2 and MjAgo guide and target substrate binding as well as target strand cleavage, which enabled us to disclose similarities and differences in the mechanistic pathways as a function of the chemical nature of the substrate. Testing all possible guide-target combinations (i.e. RNA/RNA, RNA/DNA, DNA/RNA and DNA/DNA) with both Ago variants we demonstrate that the molecular mechanism of substrate association is highly conserved among archaeal-eukaryotic Argonautes. Furthermore, we show that hAgo2 binds RNA and DNA guide strands in the same fashion. On the other hand, despite striking homology between the two Ago variants, MjAgo cannot orientate guide RNA substrates in a way that allows interaction with the target DNA in a cleavage-compatible orientation. PMID:27741323

  7. Cleavage of cohesin rings coordinates the separation of centrioles and chromatids.

    PubMed

    Schöckel, Laura; Möckel, Martin; Mayer, Bernd; Boos, Dominik; Stemmann, Olaf

    2011-07-10

    Cohesin pairs sister chromatids by forming a tripartite Scc1-Smc1-Smc3 ring around them. In mitosis, cohesin is removed from chromosome arms by the phosphorylation-dependent prophase pathway. Centromeric cohesin is protected by shugoshin 1 and protein phosphatase 2A (Sgo1-PP2A) and opened only in anaphase by separase-dependent cleavage of Scc1 (refs 4-6). Following chromosome segregation, centrioles loosen their tight orthogonal arrangement, which licenses later centrosome duplication in S phase. Although a role of separase in centriole disengagement has been reported, the molecular details of this process remain enigmatic. Here, we identify cohesin as a centriole-engagement factor. Both premature sister-chromatid separation and centriole disengagement are induced by ectopic activation of separase or depletion of Sgo1. These unscheduled events are suppressed by expression of non-cleavable Scc1 or inhibition of the prophase pathway. When endogenous Scc1 is replaced by artificially cleavable Scc1, the corresponding site-specific protease triggers centriole disengagement. Separation of centrioles can alternatively be induced by ectopic cleavage of an engineered Smc3. Thus, the chromosome and centrosome cycles exhibit extensive parallels and are coordinated with each other by dual use of the cohesin ring complex.

  8. Thiophene antibacterials that allosterically stabilize DNA-cleavage complexes with DNA gyrase.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pan F; Germe, Thomas; Bax, Benjamin D; Huang, Jianzhong; Thalji, Reema K; Bacqué, Eric; Checchia, Anna; Chen, Dongzhao; Cui, Haifeng; Ding, Xiao; Ingraham, Karen; McCloskey, Lynn; Raha, Kaushik; Srikannathasan, Velupillai; Maxwell, Anthony; Stavenger, Robert A

    2017-05-30

    A paucity of novel acting antibacterials is in development to treat the rising threat of antimicrobial resistance, particularly in Gram-negative hospital pathogens, which has led to renewed efforts in antibiotic drug discovery. Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antibacterials that target DNA gyrase by stabilizing DNA-cleavage complexes, but their clinical utility has been compromised by resistance. We have identified a class of antibacterial thiophenes that target DNA gyrase with a unique mechanism of action and have activity against a range of bacterial pathogens, including strains resistant to fluoroquinolones. Although fluoroquinolones stabilize double-stranded DNA breaks, the antibacterial thiophenes stabilize gyrase-mediated DNA-cleavage complexes in either one DNA strand or both DNA strands. X-ray crystallography of DNA gyrase-DNA complexes shows the compounds binding to a protein pocket between the winged helix domain and topoisomerase-primase domain, remote from the DNA. Mutations of conserved residues around this pocket affect activity of the thiophene inhibitors, consistent with allosteric inhibition of DNA gyrase. This druggable pocket provides potentially complementary opportunities for targeting bacterial topoisomerases for antibiotic development.

  9. Cathepsin-Mediated Cleavage of Peptides from Peptide Amphiphiles Leads to Enhanced Intracellular Peptide Accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Acar, Handan; Samaeekia, Ravand; Schnorenberg, Mathew R.

    Peptides synthesized in the likeness of their native interaction domain(s) are natural choices to target protein protein interactions (PPIs) due to their fidelity of orthostatic contact points between binding partners. Despite therapeutic promise, intracellular delivery of biofunctional peptides at concentrations necessary for efficacy remains a formidable challenge. Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) provide a facile method of intracellular delivery and stabilization of bioactive peptides. PAs consisting of biofunctional peptide headgroups linked to hydrophobic alkyl lipid-like tails prevent peptide hydrolysis and proteolysis in circulation, and PA monomers are internalized via endocytosis. However, endocytotic sequestration and steric hindrance from the lipid tail are twomore » major mechanisms that limit PA efficacy to target intracellular PPIs. To address these problems, we have constructed a PA platform consisting of cathepsin-B cleavable PAs in which a selective p53-based inhibitory peptide is cleaved from its lipid tail within endosomes, allowing for intracellular peptide accumulation and extracellular recycling of the lipid moiety. We monitor for cleavage and follow individual PA components in real time using a resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based tracking system. Using this platform, components in real time using a Forster we provide a better understanding and quantification of cellular internalization, trafficking, and endosomal cleavage of PAs and of the ultimate fates of each component.« less

  10. Degradation of Phenolic Compounds and Ring Cleavage of Catechol by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Leatham, Gary F.; Crawford, R. L.; Kirk, T. Kent

    1983-01-01

    POL-88, a mutant of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was selected for diminished phenol-oxidizing enzyme activity. A wide variety of phenolic compounds were degraded by ligninolytic cultures of this mutant. With several o-diphenolic substrates, degradation intermediates were produced that had UV spectra consistent with muconic acids. Extensive spectrophotometric and polarographic assays failed to detect classical ring-cleaving dioxygenases in cell homogenates or in extracts from ligninolytic cultures. Even so, a sensitive carrier-trapping assay showed that intact cultures degraded [U-14C]catechol to [14C]muconic acid, establishing the presence of a system capable of 1,2-intradiol fission. Significant accumulation of [14C]muconic acid into carrier occurred only when evolution of 14CO2 from [14C]catechol was inhibited by treating cultures with excess nutrient nitrogen (e.g., l-glutamic acid) or with cycloheximide. l-Glutamic acid is known from past work to repress the ligninolytic system in P. chrysosporium and to mimic the effect of cycloheximide. The results here indicate, therefore, that the enzyme system responsible for degrading ring-cleavage products to CO2 turns over faster than does the system responsible for ring cleavage. PMID:16346340

  11. Influence of storage time on vitrified human cleavage-stage embryos froze in open system.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Wanqiu; Xue, Xia; Zhang, Silin; Zhang, Xin; Shi, Juanzi

    2017-02-01

    During in vitro fertilization, rapid growth of vitrification and liquid nitrogen storage of embryos have been well characterized. However, the effect of storage time on vitrified cleavage-stage embryos in an open system is poorly understood. To investigate the influence of storage time on the survival and pregnancy outcomes of vitrified human cleavage-stage embryos froze and stored in an open system. A retrospective study of 786 vitrified-warmed cycles of 735 patients was performed from January 2013 to October 2013. The cycles were divided into five groups according to storage time: 1-3 months, 4-6 months, 7-12 months, 13-24 and 25-60 months. The clinical outcomes of cycles with different storage time were analyzed. There were no significant differences of the survival rate, clinical pregnancy outcomes, birth rate, gestational weeks and singleton birthweights at various storage times. For vitrified embryos froze and stored in an open system, the storage time would not influence the survival rate and pregnancy outcomes by storage time up to 5 years.

  12. The Conformational Dynamics of Cas9 Governing DNA Cleavage Are Revealed by Single-Molecule FRET.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengyi; Peng, Sijia; Sun, Ruirui; Lin, Jingdi; Wang, Nan; Chen, Chunlai

    2018-01-09

    Off-target binding and cleavage by Cas9 pose major challenges in its application. How the conformational dynamics of Cas9 govern its nuclease activity under on- and off-target conditions remains largely unknown. Here, using intra-molecular single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements, we revealed that Cas9 in apo, sgRNA-bound, and dsDNA/sgRNA-bound forms spontaneously transits among three major conformational states, mainly reflecting significant conformational mobility of the catalytic HNH domain. We also uncovered surprising long-range allosteric communication between the HNH domain and the RNA/DNA heteroduplex at the PAM-distal end to ensure correct positioning of the catalytic site, which demonstrated that a unique proofreading mechanism served as the last checkpoint before DNA cleavage. Several Cas9 residues were likely to mediate the allosteric communication and proofreading step. Modulating interactions between Cas9 and heteroduplex at the PAM-distal end by introducing mutations on these sites provides an alternative route to improve and optimize the CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HAI-2 stabilizes, inhibits and regulates SEA-cleavage-dependent secretory transport of matriptase.

    PubMed

    Nonboe, Annika W; Krigslund, Oliver; Soendergaard, Christoffer; Skovbjerg, Signe; Friis, Stine; Andersen, Martin N; Ellis, Vincent; Kawaguchi, Makiko; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Bugge, Thomas H; Vogel, Lotte K

    2017-06-01

    It has recently been shown that hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-2 (HAI-2) is able to suppress carcinogenesis induced by overexpression of matriptase, as well as cause regression of individual established tumors in a mouse model system. However, the role of HAI-2 is poorly understood. In this study, we describe 3 mutations in the binding loop of the HAI-2 Kunitz domain 1 (K42N, C47F and R48L) that cause a delay in the SEA domain cleavage of matriptase, leading to accumulation of non-SEA domain cleaved matriptase in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We suggest that, like other known SEA domains, the matriptase SEA domain auto-cleaves and reflects that correct oligomerization, maturation, and/or folding has been obtained. Our results suggest that the HAI-2 Kunitz domain 1 mutants influence the flux of matriptase to the plasma membrane by affecting the oligomerization, maturation and/or folding of matriptase, and as a result the SEA domain cleavage of matriptase. Two of the HAI-2 Kunitz domain 1 mutants investigated (C47F, R48L and C47F/R48L) also displayed a reduced ability to proteolytically silence matriptase. Hence, HAI-2 separately stabilizes matriptase, regulates the secretory transport, possibly via maturation/oligomerization and inhibits the proteolytic activity of matriptase in the ER, and possible throughout the secretory pathway. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mechanisms of catalytic cleavage of benzyl phenyl ether in aqueous and apolar phases

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jiayue; Lu, Lu; Zhao, Chen

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic pathways for the cleavage of ether bonds in benzyl phenyl ether (BPE) in liquid phase using Ni- and zeolite-based catalysts are explored. In the absence of catalysts, the C-O bond is selectively cleaved in water by hydrolysis, forming phenol and benzyl alcohol as intermediates, followed by alkylation. The hydronium ions catalyzing the reactions are provided by the dissociation of water at 523 K. Upon addition of HZSM-5, rates of hydrolysis and alkylation are markedly increased in relation to proton concentrations. In the presence of Ni/SiO 2, the selective hydrogenolysis dominates for cleaving the C aliphatic-O bond. Catalyzed by themore » dual-functional Ni/HZSM-5, hydrogenolysis occurs as the major route rather than hydrolysis (minor route). In apolar undecane, the non-catalytic thermal pyrolysis route dominates. Hydrogenolysis of BPE appears to be the major reaction pathway in undecane in the presence of Ni/SiO 2 or Ni/HZSM-5, almost completely suppressing radical reactions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations strongly support the proposed C-O bond cleavage mechanisms on BPE in aqueous and apolar phases. These calculations show that BPE is initially protonated and subsequently hydrolyzed in the aqueous phase. Finally, DFT calculations suggest that the radical reactions in non-polar solvents lead to primary benzyl and phenoxy radicals in undecane, which leads to heavier condensation products as long as metals are absent for providing dissociated hydrogen.« less

  15. Translocation-coupled DNA cleavage by the Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Mahesh Kumar; Nirwan, Neha; Diffin, Fiona M.; van Aelst, Kara; Kulkarni, Manasi; Pernstich, Christian; Szczelkun, Mark D.; Saikrishnan, Kayarat

    2015-01-01

    Endonucleolytic double-strand DNA break production requires separate strand cleavage events. Although catalytic mechanisms for simple dimeric endonucleases are available, there are many complex nuclease machines which are poorly understood in comparison. Here we studied the single polypeptide Type ISP restriction-modification (RM) enzymes, which cleave random DNA between distant target sites when two enzymes collide following convergent ATP-driven translocation. We report the 2.7 Angstroms resolution X-ray crystal structure of a Type ISP enzyme-DNA complex, revealing that both the helicase-like ATPase and nuclease are unexpectedly located upstream of the direction of translocation, inconsistent with simple nuclease domain-dimerization. Using single-molecule and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that each ATPase remodels its DNA-protein complex and translocates along DNA without looping it, leading to a collision complex where the nuclease domains are distal. Sequencing of single cleavage events suggests a previously undescribed endonuclease model, where multiple, stochastic strand nicking events combine to produce DNA scission. PMID:26389736

  16. Impaired Cleavage of Preproinsulin Signal Peptide Linked to Autosomal-Dominant Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Lara-Lemus, Roberto; Shan, Shu-ou; Wright, Jordan; Haataja, Leena; Barbetti, Fabrizio; Guo, Huan; Larkin, Dennis; Arvan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recently, missense mutations upstream of preproinsulin’s signal peptide (SP) cleavage site were reported to cause mutant INS gene-induced diabetes of youth (MIDY). Our objective was to understand the molecular pathogenesis using metabolic labeling and assays of proinsulin export and insulin and C-peptide production to examine the earliest events of insulin biosynthesis, highlighting molecular mechanisms underlying β-cell failure plus a novel strategy that might ameliorate the MIDY syndrome. We find that whereas preproinsulin-A(SP23)S is efficiently cleaved, producing authentic proinsulin and insulin, preproinsulin-A(SP24)D is inefficiently cleaved at an improper site, producing two subpopulations of molecules. Both show impaired oxidative folding and are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Preproinsulin-A(SP24)D also blocks ER exit of coexpressed wild-type proinsulin, accounting for its dominant-negative behavior. Upon increased expression of ER–oxidoreductin-1, preproinsulin-A(SP24)D remains blocked but oxidative folding of wild-type proinsulin improves, accelerating its ER export and increasing wild-type insulin production. We conclude that the efficiency of SP cleavage is linked to the oxidation of (pre)proinsulin. In turn, impaired (pre)proinsulin oxidation affects ER export of the mutant as well as that of coexpressed wild-type proinsulin. Improving oxidative folding of wild-type proinsulin may provide a feasible way to rescue insulin production in patients with MIDY. PMID:22357960

  17. Activation and cleavage of SASH1 by caspase-3 mediates an apoptotic response

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Joshua T; Bolderson, Emma; Adams, Mark N; Baird, Anne-Marie; Zhang, Shu-Dong; Gately, Kathy A; Umezawa, Kazuo; O'Byrne, Kenneth J; Richard, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a highly regulated cellular process that functions to remove undesired cells from multicellular organisms. This pathway is often disrupted in cancer, providing tumours with a mechanism to avoid cell death and promote growth and survival. The putative tumour suppressor, SASH1 (SAM and SH3 domain containing protein 1), has been previously implicated in the regulation of apoptosis; however, the molecular role of SASH1 in this process is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that SASH1 is cleaved by caspase-3 following UVC-induced apoptosis. Proteolysis of SASH1 enables the C-terminal fragment to translocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus where it associates with chromatin. The overexpression of wild-type SASH1 or a cleaved form of SASH1 representing amino acids 231–1247 leads to an increase in apoptosis. Conversely, mutation of the SASH1 cleavage site inhibits nuclear translocation and prevents the initiation of apoptosis. SASH1 cleavage is also required for the efficient translocation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) to the nucleus. The use of the NF-κB inhibitor DHMEQ demonstrated that the effect of SASH1 on apoptosis was dependent on NF-κB, indicating a codependence between SASH1 and NF-κB for this process. PMID:27831555

  18. Activation and cleavage of SASH1 by caspase-3 mediates an apoptotic response.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Joshua T; Bolderson, Emma; Adams, Mark N; Baird, Anne-Marie; Zhang, Shu-Dong; Gately, Kathy A; Umezawa, Kazuo; O'Byrne, Kenneth J; Richard, Derek J

    2016-11-10

    Apoptosis is a highly regulated cellular process that functions to remove undesired cells from multicellular organisms. This pathway is often disrupted in cancer, providing tumours with a mechanism to avoid cell death and promote growth and survival. The putative tumour suppressor, SASH1 (SAM and SH3 domain containing protein 1), has been previously implicated in the regulation of apoptosis; however, the molecular role of SASH1 in this process is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that SASH1 is cleaved by caspase-3 following UVC-induced apoptosis. Proteolysis of SASH1 enables the C-terminal fragment to translocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus where it associates with chromatin. The overexpression of wild-type SASH1 or a cleaved form of SASH1 representing amino acids 231-1247 leads to an increase in apoptosis. Conversely, mutation of the SASH1 cleavage site inhibits nuclear translocation and prevents the initiation of apoptosis. SASH1 cleavage is also required for the efficient translocation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) to the nucleus. The use of the NF-κB inhibitor DHMEQ demonstrated that the effect of SASH1 on apoptosis was dependent on NF-κB, indicating a codependence between SASH1 and NF-κB for this process.

  19. Caspase-2-mediated cleavage of Mdm2 creates p53-induced positive feedback loop

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Trudy G.; Meylan, Etienne; Chang, Gregory P.; Xue, Wen; Burke, James R.; Humpton, Timothy J.; Hubbard, Diana; Bhutkar, Arjun; Jacks, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Caspase-2 is an evolutionarily conserved caspase, yet its biological function and cleavage targets are poorly understood. Caspase-2 is activated by the p53 target gene product PIDD (also known as LRDD) in a complex called the Caspase-2-PIDDosome. We show that PIDD expression promotes growth arrest and chemotherapy resistance by a mechanism that depends on Caspase-2 and wild-type p53. PIDD-induced Caspase-2 directly cleaves the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 at Asp 367, leading to loss of the C-terminal RING domain responsible for p53 ubiquitination. As a consequence, N-terminally truncated Mdm2 binds p53 and promotes its stability. Upon DNA damage, p53 induction of the Caspase-2-PIDDosome creates a positive feedback loop that inhibits Mdm2 and reinforces p53 stability and activity, contributing to cell survival and drug resistance. These data establish Mdm2 as a cleavage target of Caspase-2 and provide insight into a mechanism of Mdm2 inhibition that impacts p53 dynamics upon genotoxic stress. PMID:21726810

  20. Targeted expression, purification, and cleavage of fusion proteins from inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Peter M; Pan, Jonathan S; Sykes, Brian D

    2014-01-21

    Today, proteins are typically overexpressed using solubility-enhancing fusion tags that allow for affinity chromatographic purification and subsequent removal by site-specific protease cleavage. In this review, we present an alternative approach to protein production using fusion partners specifically designed to accumulate in insoluble inclusion bodies. The strategy is appropriate for the mass production of short peptides, intrinsically disordered proteins, and proteins that can be efficiently refolded in vitro. There are many fusion protein systems now available for insoluble expression: TrpLE, ketosteroid isomerase, PurF, and PagP, for example. The ideal fusion partner is effective at directing a wide variety of target proteins into inclusion bodies, accumulates in large quantities in a highly pure form, and is readily solubilized and purified in commonly used denaturants. Fusion partner removal under denaturing conditions is biochemically challenging, requiring harsh conditions (e.g., cyanogen bromide in 70% formic acid) that can result in unwanted protein modifications. Recent advances in metal ion-catalyzed peptide bond cleavage allow for more mild conditions, and some methods involving nickel or palladium will likely soon appear in more biological applications. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EMMPRIN Modulates Epithelial Barrier Function through a MMP–Mediated Occludin Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Huet, Eric; Vallée, Benoit; Delbé, Jean; Mourah, Samia; Prulière-Escabasse, Virginie; Tremouilleres, Magali; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Doan, Serge; Baudouin, Christophe; Menashi, Suzanne; Gabison, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disease that develops as a result of alteration of tear fluid, leading to osmotic stress and a perturbed epithelial barrier. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) may be important in dry eye disease, as its genetic knockout conferred resistance to the epithelial disruption. We show that extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN; also termed CD147), an inducer of MMP expression, participates in the pathogenesis of dry eye through MMP-mediated cleavage of occludin, an important component of tight junctions. EMMPRIN expression was increased on the ocular surface of dry eye patients and correlated with those of MMP-9. High osmolarity in cell culture, mimicking dry eye conditions, increased both EMMPRIN and MMP-9 and resulted in the disruption of epithelial junctions through the cleavage of occludin. Exogenously added recombinant EMMPRIN had similar effects that were abrogated in the presence of the MMP inhibitor marimastat. Membrane occludin immunostaining was markedly increased in the apical corneal epithelium of both EMMPRIN and MMP-9 knock-out mice. Furthermore, an inverse correlation between EMMPRIN and occludin membrane staining was consistently observed both in vitro and in vivo as a function of corneal epithelial cells differentiation. These data suggest a possible role of EMMPRIN in regulating the amount of occludin at the cell surface in homeostasis beyond patholog