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Sample records for a-site ordered perovskites

  1. A-site ordered quadruple perovskite oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youwen, Long

    2016-07-01

    The A-site ordered perovskite oxides with chemical formula display many intriguing physical properties due to the introduction of transition metals at both A‧ and B sites. Here, research on the recently discovered intermetallic charge transfer occurring between A‧-site Cu and B-site Fe ions in LaCu3Fe4O12 and its analogues is reviewed, along with work on the magnetoelectric multiferroicity observed in LaMn3Cr4O12 with cubic perovskite structure. The Cu-Fe intermetallic charge transfer leads to a first-order isostructural phase transition accompanied by drastic variations in magnetism and electrical transport properties. The LaMn3Cr4O12 is a novel spin-driven multiferroic system with strong magnetoelectric coupling effects. The compound is the first example of cubic perovskite multiferroics to be found. It opens up a new arena for studying unexpected multiferroic mechanisms. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB921500), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07030300), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574378).

  2. Antiferromagnetic interaction between A'-site Mn spins in A-site-ordered perovskite YMn3Al4O12.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Takenori; Saito, Takashi; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Agui, Akane; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2010-03-01

    The A-site-ordered perovskite YMn(3)Al(4)O(12) was prepared by high-pressure synthesis. Structural analysis with synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data and the Mn L-edges X-ray absorption spectrum revealed that the compound has a chemical composition Y(3+)Mn(3+)(3)Al(3+)(4)O(2-)(12) with magnetic Mn(3+) at the A' site and non-magnetic Al(3+) at the B site. An antiferromagnetic interaction between the A'-site Mn(3+) spins is induced by the nearest neighboring Mn-Mn direct exchange interaction and causes an antiferromagnetic transition at 34.3 K.

  3. A-site Ordered Chromium Perovskites, ACu3Cr4O12 with A = Trivalent Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Jun; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Umegaki, Izumi; Higemoto, Wataru; Isobe, Masahiko; Takagi, Hidenori; Sakurai, Hiroya; Ansaldo, Eduardo J.; Brewer, Jess H.; Sassa, Yasmine; Forslund, Ola Kenji; Månsson, Martin

    The magnetic ground state of the A-site ordered chromium perovskites, ACu3Cr4O12 with A = Y, La, Eu, and Lu has been investigated with μ+SR using powder samples prepared by a high-pressure technique. Weak transverse field measurements revealed that the four compounds enter into a magnetic phase below 230-260 K. Moreover, the transition temperature (TN) was found to decrease with increasing the size of A3+ ions. Zero field measurements indicated the formation of static antiferromagnetic (AF) order in ACu3Cr4O12 below TN. Furthermore, since the internal magnetic field in the AF phase is independent of A, the role of 4f electrons on the AF state is very limited and/or eventually absence in ACu3Cr4O12.

  4. Zhang-Rice physics and anomalous copper states in A-site ordered perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, D.; Mukherjee, Swarnakamal; Cheng, J.-G.; Middey, S.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J. B.; Gray, B. A.; Freeland, J. W.; Saha-Dasgupta, T.; Chakhalian, J.

    2013-01-01

    In low dimensional cuprates several interesting phenomena, including high Tc superconductivity, are deeply connected to electron correlations on Cu and the presence of the Zhang-Rice (ZR) singlet state. Here, we report on direct spectroscopic observation of the ZR state responsible for the low-energy physical properties in two isostructural A-site ordered cuprate perovskites, CaCu3Co4O12 and CaCu3Cr4O12 as revealed by resonant soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy on the Cu L3,2- and O K-edges. These measurements reveal the signature of Cu in the high-energy 3+ (3d8), the typical 2+ (3d9), as well as features of the ZR singlet state (i.e., 3d9L, L denotes an oxygen hole). First principles GGA + U calculations affirm that the B-site cation controls the degree of Cu-O hybridization and, thus, the Cu valency. These findings introduce another avenue for the study and manipulation of cuprates, bypassing the complexities inherent to conventional chemical doping (i.e. disorder) that hinder the relevant physics. PMID:23666066

  5. Characterization of ordering in A-site deficient perovskite Ca 1–xLa 2x/3TiO 3 using STEM/EELS

    DOE PAGES

    Danaie, Mohsen; Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Ramasse, Quentin M.; ...

    2016-09-15

    The vacancy ordering behavior of an A-site deficient perovskite system, Ca 1–xLa 2x/3TiO 3, was studied using atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in conjunction with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), with the aim of determining the role of A-site composition changes. At low La content (x = 0.2), adopting Pbnm symmetry, there was no indication of long-range ordering. Domains, with clear boundaries, were observed in bright-field (BF) imaging, but were not immediately visible in the corresponding high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) image. These boundaries, with the aid of displacement maps from A-site cations in the HAADF signal, are shown tomore » be tilt boundaries. At the La-rich end of the composition (x = 0.9), adopting Cmmm symmetry, long-range ordering of vacancies and La 3+ ions was observed, with alternating La-rich and La-poor layers on (001)p planes, creating a double perovskite lattice along the c axis. These highly ordered domains can be found isolated within a random distribution of vacancies/La 3+, or within a large population, encompassing a large volume. In regions with a high number density of double perovskite domains, these highly ordered domains were separated by twin boundaries, with 90° or 180° lattice rotations across boundaries. In conclusion, the occurrence and characteristics of these ordered structures are discussed and compared with similar perovskite systems.« less

  6. Effect of A-Site Cation Ordering on Chemical Stability, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Electrical Conductivity in Layered LaBaCo2O5+δ Double Perovskite

    PubMed Central

    Bernuy-Lopez, Carlos; Høydalsvik, Kristin; Einarsrud, Mari-Ann; Grande, Tor

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the A-site cation ordering on the chemical stability, oxygen stoichiometry and electrical conductivity in layered LaBaCo2O5+δ double perovskite was studied as a function of temperature and partial pressure of oxygen. Tetragonal A-site cation ordered layered LaBaCo2O5+δ double perovskite was obtained by annealing cubic A-site cation disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3-δ perovskite at 1100 °C in N2. High temperature X-ray diffraction between room temperature (RT) and 800 °C revealed that LaBaCo2O5+δ remains tetragonal during heating in oxidizing atmosphere, but goes through two phase transitions in N2 and between 450 °C and 675 °C from tetragonal P4/mmm to orthorhombic Pmmm and back to P4/mmm due to oxygen vacancy ordering followed by disordering of the oxygen vacancies. An anisotropic chemical and thermal expansion of LaBaCo2O5+δ was demonstrated. La0.5Ba0.5CoO3-δ remained cubic at the studied temperature irrespective of partial pressure of oxygen. LaBaCo2O5+δ is metastable with respect to La0.5Ba0.5CoO3-δ at oxidizing conditions inferred from the thermal evolution of the oxygen deficiency and oxidation state of Co in the two materials. The oxidation state of Co is higher in La0.5Ba0.5CoO3-δ resulting in a higher electrical conductivity relative to LaBaCo2O5+δ. The conductivity in both materials was reduced with decreasing partial pressure of oxygen pointing to a p-type semiconducting behavior. PMID:28773279

  7. A -Site Ordered Double Perovskite CaMnTi 2 O 6 as a Multifunctional Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric–Photovoltaic Material

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, Gaoyang; Charles, Nenian; Shi, Jing

    2017-09-11

    The double perovskite CaMnTi2O6, is a rare A site ordered perovskite oxide that exhibits a sizable ferroelectric polarization and relatively high Curie temperature. Using first-principles calculations combined with detailed symmetry analyses, we identify the origin of the ferroelectricity in CaMnTi2O6. We further explore the material properties of CaMnTi2O6, including its ferroelectric polarization, dielectric and piezoelectric responses, magnetic order, electronic structure, and optical absorption coefficient. It is found that CaMnTi2O6 exhibits room-temperature-stable ferroelectricity and moderate piezoelectric responses. Moreover, CaMnTi2O6 is predicted to have a semiconducting energy band gap similar to that of BiFeO3, and its band gap can further be tuned-viamore » distortions of the planar Mn-O bond lengths. CaMnTi2O6 exemplifies a new class of single-phase semiconducting ferroelectric perovskites for potential applications in ferroelectric photovoltaic solar cells.« less

  8. Charge disproportionation of mixed-valent Cr triggered by Bi lone-pair effect in the A -site-ordered perovskite BiC u3C r4O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etter, Martin; Isobe, Masahiko; Sakurai, Hiroya; Yaresko, Alexander; Dinnebier, Robert E.; Takagi, Hidenori

    2018-05-01

    A new A -site-ordered perovskite BiC u3C r4O12 is synthesized under a high pressure of 7.7 GPa. A phase transition from a paramagnetic metal to a ferrimagnetic metal is observed at Tc=190 K accompanied with a structural change from cubic to monoclinic. Structural analysis of the low-temperature monoclinic phase reveals that this transition represents a charge disproportionation of C r3.75 + into C r4 + and C r3.5 + . We argue that the asymmetric displacement of Bi caused by a lone-pair effect triggers the formation of a dimeric Cr4+2O5 unit and leads to an ordering of C r4 + and C r3.5 + below the transition.

  9. Synthesis of a polar ordered oxynitride perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadapoo, Rajasekarakumar; Ahart, Muhtar; Somayazulu, Maddury; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Meng, Yue; Konopkova, Zuzana; Hemley, Russell J.; Cohen, R. E.

    2017-06-01

    For decades, numerous attempts have been made to produce polar oxynitride perovskites, where some of the oxygen is replaced by nitrogen, but a polar ordered oxynitride has never been demonstrated. Caracas and Cohen [Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 092902 (2007), 10.1063/1.2776370] studied possible ordered polar oxynitrides within density-functional theory (DFT) and found a few candidates that were predicted to be insulating and at least metastable. YSi O2N stood out with huge predicted polarization and nonlinear optic coefficients. In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of perovskite-structured YSi O2N by using a combination of a diamond-anvil cell and in situ laser-heating techniques. Subsequent in situ x-ray diffraction, second-harmonic generation, and Raman-scattering measurements confirm that it is polar and a strong nonlinear optical material, with structure and properties similar to those predicted by DFT.

  10. Synthesis of a polar ordered oxynitride perovskite

    SciTech Connect

    Vadapoo, Rajasekarakumar; Ahart, Muhtar; Somayazulu, Maddury

    For decades, numerous attempts have been made to produce polar oxynitride perovskites, where some of the oxygen is replaced by nitrogen, but a polar ordered oxynitride has never been demonstrated. Caracas and Cohen [Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 092902 (2007)] studied possible ordered polar oxynitrides within density-functional theory (DFT) and found a few candidates that were predicted to be insulating and at least metastable. YSi O 2 N stood out with huge predicted polarization and nonlinear optic coefficients. In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of perovskite-structured YSi O 2 N by using a combination of a diamond-anvil cell and inmore » situ laser-heating techniques. Subsequent in situ x-ray diffraction, second-harmonic generation, and Raman-scattering measurements confirm that it is polar and a strong nonlinear optical material, with structure and properties similar to those predicted by DFT.« less

  11. High-pressure synthesis, crystal chemistry and physics of perovskites with small cations at the A site.

    PubMed

    Belik, Alexei A; Yi, Wei

    2014-04-23

    ABO3 perovskites with small cations at the A site (A = Sc(3+), In(3+) and Mn(2+) and B = Al(3+) and transition metals) are reviewed. They extend the corresponding families of perovskites with A(3+) = Y, La-Lu, and Bi and A(2+) = Cd, Ca, Sr and Ba and exhibit the largest structural distortions. As a result of these large distortions, they show, in many cases, distinct structural and magnetic properties. These are manifested in: B-site-ordered monoclinic structures of ScMnO3 and 'InMnO3'; an unusual superstructure of ScRhO3 and InRhO3; antiferromagnetic ground states and multiferroic properties of Sc2NiMnO6 and In2NiMnO6; two magnetic transitions in ScCrO3 and InCrO3 with very close transition temperatures; a Pnma-to-P-1 structural transition and k = (½, 0, ½) magnetic ordering in ScVO3; and incommensurate magnetic ordering of Mn(2+) spins in metallic MnVO3. A large number of simple ScBO3, InBO3 and MnBO3 perovskites has not been synthesized yet, and the number of experimental and theoretical works on each known ScBO3, InBO3 and MnBO3 perovskites counts to only one or two (except for ScAlO3). The synthesis, crystal chemistry and physics of perovskites with small cations at the A site is an emerging field in perovskite science.

  12. Topochemical synthesis of cation ordered double perovskite oxynitrides.

    PubMed

    Ceravola, Roberta; Oró-Solé, Judith; Black, Ashley P; Ritter, Clemens; Puente Orench, Inés; Mata, Ignasi; Molins, Elies; Frontera, Carlos; Fuertes, Amparo

    2017-04-19

    Topochemical nitridation in ammonia at moderate temperatures of cation ordered Sr 2 FeWO 6 produces new antiferromagnetic double perovskite oxynitrides Sr 2 FeWO 6-x N x with 0 < x ≤ 1. Nitrogen introduction induces the oxidation of Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ and decreases T N from 38 K (x = 0) to 13 K for Sr 2 FeWO 5 N which represents the first example of a double perovskite oxynitride with both high cationic order and nitrogen content. This synthetic approach can be extended to other cation combinations expanding the possibility of new materials in the large group of double perovskites.

  13. Interplay of Cation Ordering and Ferroelectricity in Perovskite Tin Iodides: Designing a Polar Halide Perovskite for Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, Gaoyang; Young, Joshua; Liu, Xian

    2016-09-28

    Owing to its ideal semiconducting band gap and good carrier transport properties, the fully inorganic perovskite CsSnI 3 has been proposed as a visible-light absorber for photovoltaic (PV) applications. However, compared to the organic inorganic lead halide perovskite CH 3NH 3PbI 3, CsSnI 3 solar cells display very low energy conversion efficiency. In this work, we propose a potential route to improve the PV properties of CsSnI 3. Using first-principles calculations, we examine the crystal structures and electronic properties of CsSnI 3, including its structural polymorphs. Next, we purposefully order Cs and Rb cations on the A site to createmore » the double perovskite (CsRb)Sn 2I 6. We find that a stable ferroelectric polarization arises from the nontrivial coupling between polar displacements and octahedral rotations of the SnI 6 network. These ferroelectric double perovskites are predicted to have energy band gaps and carrier effective masses similar to those of CsSnI 3. More importantly, unlike nonpolar CsSnI 3, the electric polarization present in ferroelectric (CsRb)Sn 2I 6 can effectively separate the photoexcited carriers, leading to novel ferroelectric PV materials with,potentially enhanced energy conversion efficiency.« less

  14. Cation ordering and effect of biaxial strain in double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl 6

    DOE PAGES

    Pilania, G.; Uberuaga, B. P.

    2015-03-19

    Here, we investigate the electronic structure, energetics of cation ordering, and effect of biaxial strain on double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl 6 using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The two constituents (i.e., CsCaCl 3 and RbZnCl 3) forming the double perovskite exhibit a stark contrast. While CsCaCl 3 is known to exist in a cubic perovskite structure and does not show any epitaxial strain induced phase transitions within an experimentally accessible range of compressive strains, RbZnCl 3 is thermodynamically unstable in the perovskite phase and exhibits ultra-sensitive response at small epitaxial strains if constrained in the perovskite phase. We showmore » that combining the two compositions in a double perovskite structure not only improves overall stability but also the strain-polarization coupling of the material. Our calculations predict a ground state with P4/nmm space group for the double perovskite, where A-site cations (i.e., Cs and Rb) are layer-ordered and B-site cations (i.e., Ca and Zn) prefer a rocksalt type ordering. The electronic structure and bandgap in this system are shown to be quite sensitive to the B-site cation ordering and is minimally affected by the ordering of A-site cations. We find that at experimentally accessible compressive strains CsRbCaZnCl 6 can be phase transformed from its paraelectric ground state to an antiferroelectric state, where Zn atoms contribute predominantly to the polarization. Furthermore, both energy difference and activation barrier for a transformation between this antiferroelectric state and the corresponding ferroelectric configuration are predicted to be small. As a result, the computational approach presented here opens a new pathway towards a rational design of novel double perovskites with improved strain response and functionalities.« less

  15. Frustration relieved ferrimagnetism in novel A- and B-site-ordered quadruple perovskite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-tin; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Saito, Takashi; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2013-07-28

    A novel A- and B-site-ordered quadruple perovskite CaCu3Fe2Sb2O12 was obtained and it shows ferrimagnetism below about 170 K. The B-site Fe spin sublattice adapts a tetrahedral framework in a cubic structure and the Fe(3+)-Fe(3+) antiferromagnetic interaction can result in a geometrical spin frustration as seen in a simple perovskite Ca2FeSbO6. With the introduction of Cu(2+) into the A' site, the antiferromagnetic spin frustration is relieved by the strong Cu(2+)-Fe(3+) interaction, and a ferrimagnetic ordering appears at a much higher temperature than the spin-glass transition temperature.

  16. Periodically Ordered Nanoporous Perovskite Photoelectrode for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li; Zhou, Wei; Li, Zhao; Koul, Supriya; Kushima, Akihiro; Yang, Yang

    2018-06-18

    Nonmetallic materials with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) have a great potential for solar energy harvesting applications. Exploring nonmetallic plasmonic materials is desirable yet challenging. Herein, an efficient nonmetallic plasmonic perovskite photoelectrode, namely, SrTiO 3 , with a periodically ordered nanoporous structure showing an intense LSPR in the visible light region is reported. The crystalline-core@amorphous-shell structure of the SrTiO 3 photoelectrode enables a strong LSPR due to the high charge carrier density induced by oxygen vacancies in the amorphous shell. The reversible tunability in LSPR of the SrTiO 3 photoelectrode was observed by oxidation/reduction treatment and incident angle adjusting. Such a nonmetallic plasmonic SrTiO 3 photoelectrode displays a dramatic plasmon-enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting performance with a photocurrent density of 170.0 μA cm -2 under visible light illumination and a maximum incident photon-to-current-conversion efficiency of 4.0% in the visible light region, which are comparable to the state-of-the-art plasmonic noble metal sensitized photoelectrodes.

  17. Effect of cation ordering on oxygen vacancy diffusion pathways in double perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Pilania, Ghanshyam

    2015-07-08

    Perovskite structured oxides (ABO 3) are attractive for a number of technological applications, including as superionics because of the high oxygen conductivities they exhibit. Double perovskites (AA’BB’O 6) provide even more flexibility for tailoring properties. Using accelerated molecular dynamics, we examine the role of cation ordering on oxygen vacancy mobility in one model double perovskite SrLaTiAlO 6. We find that the mobility of the vacancy is very sensitive to the cation ordering, with a migration energy that varies from 0.6 to 2.7 eV. In the extreme cases, the mobility is both higher and lower than either of the two endmore » member single perovskites. Further, the nature of oxygen vacancy diffusion, whether one-dimensional, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional, also varies with cation ordering. We correlate the dependence of oxygen mobility on cation structure to the distribution of Ti 4+ cations, which provide unfavorable environments for the positively charged oxygen vacancy. The results demonstrate the potential of using tailored double perovskite structures to precisely control the behavior of oxygen vacancies in these materials.« less

  18. Structural and thermoelectric properties of A-site substituted (Sr1-x-yCaxNdy)TiO3 perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somaily, Hamoud H.

    Detailed structural results and models are reported for a special class of A-site substituted perovskites, (Sr1-x-yCaxNd y)TiO3, obtained with high resolution NPD data as a function of temperature and Nd composition. Two series with various A-site concentrations were synthesized and investigated. Each series was designed to have a nominally constant tolerance factor. At room temperature (RT), I determine the space groups of the Sr-rich and Sr poor series as being tetragonal I4/mcm and orthorhombic Pbnm, respectively. The RT structures remain unchanged upon increasing the Nd3+ content. However, three different orthorhombic phases, Pbnm, Ibmm, Pbcm, are determined for the Sr-rich series as a function of decreasing temperature; whereas, for the Sr-poor series the orthorhombic Pbnm structure is found to persist throughout the full range of measured temperatures. A phase diagram is constructed and proposed in the temperature range 0-1000 K. Thermoelectric properties of (Sr 1-x-yCaxNdy)TiO3 were also investigated and the best figure of merit ZT=0.07 was obtained with the Sr-rich series.

  19. Spin model for nontrivial types of magnetic order in inverse-perovskite antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Kobayashi, Masaya; Okabe, Reoya; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2018-02-01

    Nontrivial magnetic orders in the inverse-perovskite manganese nitrides are theoretically studied by constructing a classical spin model describing the magnetic anisotropy and frustrated exchange interactions inherent in specific crystal and electronic structures of these materials. With a replica-exchange Monte Carlo technique, a theoretical analysis of this model reproduces the experimentally observed triangular Γ5 g and Γ4 g spin-ordered patterns and the systematic evolution of magnetic orders. Our Rapid Communication solves a 40-year-old problem of nontrivial magnetism for the inverse-perovskite manganese nitrides and provides a firm basis for clarifying the magnetism-driven negative thermal expansion phenomenon discovered in this class of materials.

  20. (La1-xSrx)0.98MnO3 perovskite with A-site deficiencies toward oxygen reduction reaction in aluminum-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yejian; Miao, He; Sun, Shanshan; Wang, Qin; Li, Shihua; Liu, Zhaoping

    2017-02-01

    The strontium doped Mn-based perovskites have been proposed as one of the best oxygen reduction reaction catalysts (ORRCs) to substitute the noble metal. However, few studies have investigated the catalytic activities of LSM with the A-site deficiencies. Here, the (La1-xSrx)0.98MnO3 (LSM) perovskites with A-site deficiencies are prepared by a modified solid-liquid method. The structure, morphology, valence state and oxygen adsorption behaviors of these LSM samples are characterized, and their catalytic activities toward ORR are studied by the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) and aluminum-air battery technologies. The results show that the appropriate doping with Sr and introducing A-site stoichiometry can effectively tailor the Mn valence and increase the oxygen adsorption capacity of LSM. Among all the LSM samples in this work, the (La0.7Sr0.3)0.98MnO3 perovskite composited with 50% carbon (50%LSM30) exhibits the best ORR catalytic activity due to the excellent oxygen adsorption capacity. Also, this catalyst has much higher durability than that of commercial 20%Pt/C. Moreover, the maximum power density of the aluminum-air battery using 50%LSM30 as the ORRC can reach 191.3 mW cm-2. Our work indicates that the LSM/C composite catalysts with A-site deficiencies can be used as a promising ORRC in the metal-air batteries.

  1. Effect of A-site deficiency in LaMn{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} perovskites on their catalytic performance for soot combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Dinamarca, Robinson; Garcia, Ximena; Jimenez, Romel

    Highlights: • A-site defective perovskites increases the oxidation state of the B-cation. • Not always non-stoichiometric perovskites exhibit higher catalytic activity in soot combustion. • The highly symmetric cubic crystalline structure diminishes the redox properties of perovskites. - Abstract: The influence of lanthanum stoichiometry in Ag-doped (La{sub 1-x}Ag{sub x}Mn{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1}O{sub 3}) and A-site deficient (La{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-δ}) perovskites with x equal to 10, 20 and 30 at.% has been investigated in catalysts for soot combustion. The catalysts were prepared by the amorphous citrate method and characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption, XPS, O{sub 2}-TPD and TPR. The formationmore » of a rhombohedral excess-oxygen perovskite for Ag-doped and a cubic perovskite structure for an A-site deficient series is confirmed. The efficient catalytic performance of the larger Ag-doped perovskite structure is attributed to the rhombohedral crystalline structure, Ag{sub 2}O segregated phases and the redox pair Mn{sup 4+}/Mn{sup 3+}. A poor catalytic activity for soot combustion was observed with A-site deficient perovskites, despite the increase in the redox pair Mn{sup 4+}/Mn{sup 3+}, which is attributed to the cubic crystalline structure.« less

  2. Anharmonicity and Octahedral Tilting in Hybrid Vacancy-Ordered Double Perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Maughan, Annalise E.; Ganose, Alex M.; Candia, Andrew M.; ...

    2017-11-30

    The advantageous performance of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite halide semiconduc- tors in optoelectronic applications motivates studies of their fundamental crystal-chemistry. In particular, recent studies have sought to understand how dipolar, dynamic, and organic cations, such as methylammonium (CH 3 NH 3 + ) and formamidinium (CH(NH 2 ) 2 + ) affect physical properties such as light absorption and charge transport. Here, to probe the influence of organic- inorganic coupling on charge transport, we have prepared the series of vacancy-ordered double perovskite derivatives, A 2SnI 6, where A = Cs +, CH 3NH 3 +, and CH(NH 2) 2 +. Despitemore » nearly identical cubic structures by powder X-ray diffraction, replacement of Cs + with CH 3NH 3 + or CH(NH 2) 2 + reduces conductivity through a reduction in both carrier concentration and carrier mobility. We attribute the trends in electronic behavior to anharmonic lattice dynamics from the formation of hydrogen bonds that yield coupled organic-inorganic dynamics. This anharmonicity manifests as asymmetry of the inter-octahedral I-I pair correlations in the X-ray pair distribution function of the hybrid compounds, which can be modeled by large atomistic ensembles with random rotations of rigid [SnI 6] octahedral units. The presence of soft, anharmonic lattice dynamics holds implications for electron-phonon interactions, as supported by calculation of electron-phonon coupling strength that indicates the formation of more tightly-bound polarons and reduced electron mobilities with increasing cation size. Finally, by exploiting the relatively decoupled nature of the octahedral units in these defect-ordered perovskite variants, we can interrogate the impact of organic-inorganic coupling and lattice anharmonicity on the charge transport behavior of hybrid perovskite halide semiconductors.« less

  3. Structural characterization of a new vacancy ordered perovskite modification found for Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F (BaFeO{sub 2.333}F{sub 0.333}): Towards understanding of vacancy ordering for different perovskite-type ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.clemens@kit.edu; Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Nanotechnologie, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen

    2015-05-15

    The new vacancy ordered perovskite-type compound Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F (BaFeO{sub 2.33}F{sub 0.33}) was prepared by topochemical low-temperature fluorination of Ba{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} (BaFeO{sub 2.5}) using stoichiometric amounts of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF). The vacancy order was found to be unique so far for perovskite compounds, and the connectivity pattern can be explained by the formula Ba{sub 3}(FeX{sub 6/2}) (FeX{sub 5/2}) (FeX{sub 3/2}X{sub 1/1}), with X=O/F. Mössbauer measurements were used to confirm the structural analysis and agree with the presence of Fe{sup 3+} in the above mentioned coordination environments. Group–subgroup relationships were used to build a starting model for themore » structure solution and to understand the relationship to the cubic perovskite structure. Furthermore, a comparison of a variety of vacancy-ordered iron-containing perovskite-type structures is given, highlighting the factors which favour one structure type over the other depending on the composition. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F in comparison to other perovskite type ferrites. - Highlights: • The crystal structure of Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F in comparison to other perovskite type ferrites. • Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F was synthesized by low temperature fluorination of Ba{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5}. • Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F shows a unique vacancy order not found for other perovskite type compounds. • The structure of Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F was solved using group–subgroup relationships. • A systematic comparison to other ferrite type compounds reveals structural similarities and differences. • The A-site coordination of the cation is shown to play an important role for the type of vacancy order found.« less

  4. On Characterization of Barium Rare-Earth Antimonates: Ordered Perovskites Suitable as Substrates for Superconducting Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, J. A.; Cascales, C.; García Casado, P.; Rasines, I.

    1997-02-01

    The crystal structure of the ordered perovskites Ba2(RSb)O6(R=Y, Ho) is refined from neutron powder diffraction data in the space groupFmoverline3m(No. 225),Z=4, with Ba at 8(c),Rat 4(b), Sb at 4(a), oxygen at 24(e), oxygen positional parameterx=0.2636(2) forR=Y and Ho, and unit cell dimensions ofa/Å=8.4240(3) and 8.4170(2) forR=Y and Ho, respectively. Bond-valence analysis explains how the highly covalent Sb-O bonds determine the overall structure of these perovskites in whichR-O and Ba-O bonds are under compressive and tensile stresses, respectively. The magnetic susceptibility of Ba2(HoSb)O6has been measured in the temperature range 2-350 K. From ana prioriestimation of the crystal-field parameters corresponding to the point site symmetry of the rare-earth,Oh, and using the wave functions associated with the energy levels obtained, the paramagnetic susceptibility and its evolution vs temperature is simulated according to the van Vleck formalism. The observed deviation from the Curie-Weiss behavior at low temperature, very well reproduced, reflects the splitting of the ground state of this cation under the influence of the crystal field.

  5. Ferromagnetism induced by entangled charge and orbital orderings in ferroelectric titanate perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Bristowe, N. C.; Varignon, J.; Fontaine, D.; Bousquet, E.; Ghosez, Ph.

    2015-01-01

    In magnetic materials, the Pauli exclusion principle typically drives anti-alignment between electron spins on neighbouring species resulting in antiferromagnetic behaviour. Ferromagnetism exhibiting spontaneous spin alignment is a fairly rare behaviour, but once materialized is often associated with itinerant electrons in metals. Here we predict and rationalize robust ferromagnetism in an insulating oxide perovskite structure based on the popular titanate series. In half-doped layered titanates, the combination of Jahn–Teller and oxygen breathing motions opens a band gap and creates an unusual charge and orbital ordering of the Ti d electrons. It is argued that this intriguingly intricate electronic network favours the elusive inter-site ferromagnetic (FM) ordering, on the basis of intra-site Hund's rules. Finally, we find that the layered oxides are also ferroelectric with a spontaneous polarization approaching that of BaTiO3. The concepts are general and design principles of the technologically desirable FM ferroelectric multiferroics are presented. PMID:25807180

  6. Octahedral tilting instabilities in inorganic halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, Jonathon S.; Van der Ven, Anton

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic instabilities, stabilized by anharmonic interactions in cubic and tetragonal halide perovskites at high temperature, play a role in the electronic structure and optoelectronic properties of halide perovskites. In particular, inorganic and hybrid perovskite materials undergo structural phase transitions associated with octahedral tilts of the metal-halide octahedra. We investigate the structural instabilities present in inorganic Cs M X3 perovskites with Pb or Sn on the metal site and Br or I on the X site. Defining primary order parameters in terms of symmetry-adapted collective displacement modes and secondary order parameters in terms of symmetrized Hencky strain components, we unravel the coupling between octahedral tilt modes and macroscopic strains as well as the role of A -site displacements in perovskite phase stability. Symmetry-allowed secondary strain order parameters are enumerated for the 14 unique perovskite tilt systems. Using first-principles calculations to explore the Born-Oppenheimer energy surface in terms of symmetrized order parameters, we find coupling between octahedral tilting and A -site displacements is necessary to stabilize P n m a ground states. Additionally, we show that the relative stability of an inorganic halide perovskite tilt system correlates with the volume decrease from the high-symmetry cubic phase to the low-symmetry distorted phase.

  7. Generalized trends in the formation energies of perovskite oxides.

    PubMed

    Zeng, ZhenHua; Calle-Vallejo, Federico; Mogensen, Mogens B; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2013-05-28

    Generalized trends in the formation energies of several families of perovskite oxides (ABO3) and plausible explanations to their existence are provided in this study through a combination of DFT calculations, solid-state physics analyses and simple physical/chemical descriptors. The studied elements at the A site of perovskites comprise rare-earth, alkaline-earth and alkaline metals, whereas 3d and 5d metals were studied at the B site. We also include ReO3-type compounds, which have the same crystal structure of cubic ABO3 perovskites except without A-site elements. From the observations we extract the following four conclusions for the perovskites studied in the present paper: for a given cation at the B site, (I) perovskites with cations of identical oxidation state at the A site possess close formation energies; and (II) perovskites with cations of different oxidation states at the A site usually have quite different but ordered formation energies. On the other hand, for a given A-site cation, (III) the formation energies of perovskites vary linearly with respect to the atomic number of the elements at the B site within the same period of the periodic table, and the slopes depend systematically on the oxidation state of the A-site cation; and (IV) the trends in formation energies of perovskites with elements from different periods at the B site depend on the oxidation state of A-site cations. Since the energetics of perovskites is shown to be the superposition of the individual contributions of their constituent oxides, the trends can be rationalized in terms of A-O and B-O interactions in the ionic crystal. These findings reveal the existence of general systematic trends in the formation energies of perovskites and provide further insight into the role of ion-ion interactions in the properties of ternary compounds.

  8. Two-dimensional limit of crystalline order in perovskite membrane films

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung Sae; Yu, Jung Ho; Lu, Di; Marshall, Ann F.; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Cui, Yi; Hwang, Harold Y.

    2017-01-01

    Long-range order and phase transitions in two-dimensional (2D) systems—such as magnetism, superconductivity, and crystallinity—have been important research topics for decades. The issue of 2D crystalline order has reemerged recently, with the development of exfoliated atomic crystals. Understanding the dimensional limit of crystalline phases, with different types of bonding and synthetic techniques, is at the foundation of low-dimensional materials design. We study ultrathin membranes of SrTiO3, an archetypal perovskite oxide with isotropic (3D) bonding. Atomically controlled membranes are released after synthesis by dissolving an underlying epitaxial layer. Although all unreleased films are initially single-crystalline, the SrTiO3 membrane lattice collapses below a critical thickness (5 unit cells). This crossover from algebraic to exponential decay of the crystalline coherence length is analogous to the 2D topological Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition. The transition is likely driven by chemical bond breaking at the 2D layer-3D bulk interface, defining an effective dimensional phase boundary for coherent crystalline lattices. PMID:29167822

  9. Improper ferroelectric polarization in a perovskite driven by intersite charge transfer and ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Tin; Wang, Chin-Wei; Wu, Hung-Cheng; Chou, Fang-Cheng; Yang, Hung-Duen; Simonov, Arkadiy; Senn, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    It is of great interest to design and make materials in which ferroelectric polarization is coupled to other order parameters such as lattice, magnetic, and electronic instabilities. Such materials will be invaluable in next-generation data storage devices. Recently, remarkable progress has been made in understanding improper ferroelectric coupling mechanisms that arise from lattice and magnetic instabilities. However, although theoretically predicted, a compact lattice coupling between electronic and ferroelectric (polar) instabilities has yet to be realized. Here we report detailed crystallographic studies of a perovskite HgAMn3A'Mn4BO12 that is found to exhibit a polar ground state on account of such couplings that arise from charge and orbital ordering on both the A'- and B-sites, which are themselves driven by a highly unusual MnA '-MnB intersite charge transfer. The inherent coupling of polar, charge, orbital, and hence magnetic degrees of freedom make this a system of great fundamental interest, and demonstrating ferroelectric switching in this and a host of recently reported hybrid improper ferroelectrics remains a substantial challenge.

  10. Two-dimensional limit of crystalline order in perovskite membrane films

    DOE PAGES

    Hong, Seung Sae; Yu, Jung Ho; Lu, Di; ...

    2017-11-17

    Long-range order and phase transitions in two-dimensional (2D) systems—such as magnetism, superconductivity, and crystallinity—have been important research topics for decades. The issue of 2D crystalline order has reemerged recently, with the development of exfoliated atomic crystals. Understanding the dimensional limit of crystalline phases, with different types of bonding and synthetic techniques, is at the foundation of low-dimensional materials design. We study ultrathin membranes of SrTiO 3, an archetypal perovskite oxide with isotropic (3D) bonding. Atomically controlled membranes are released after synthesis by dissolving an underlying epitaxial layer. Although all unreleased films are initially single-crystalline, the SrTiO 3 membrane lattice collapsesmore » below a critical thickness (5 unit cells). This crossover from algebraic to exponential decay of the crystalline coherence length is analogous to the 2D topological Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition. Finally, the transition is likely driven by chemical bond breaking at the 2D layer-3D bulk interface, defining an effective dimensional phase boundary for coherent crystalline lattices.« less

  11. Anion ordering, magnetic structure and properties of the vacancy ordered perovskite Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.clemens@nano.tu-darmstadt.de; Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Nanotechnologie, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen; University of Birmingham, School of Chemistry, Birmingham B152TT

    2016-11-15

    This article describes a detailed investigation of the crystallographic and magnetic structure of perovskite type Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F by a combined analysis of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. Complete ordering of vacancies within the perovskite lattice could be confirmed. In addition, the structure of the anion sublattice was studied by means of the valence bond method, which suggested partial ordering of the fluoride ions on two of the six crystallographically different anion sites. Moreover, the compound was found to show G-type antiferromagnetic ordering of Fe moments, in agreement with magnetometric measurements as well as previously recorded {sup 57}Femore » Mössbauer spectroscopy data. - Graphical abstract: The vacancy and anion ordered structure of Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F is described together with its magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F possesses a unique vacancy order not found for other perovskite type compounds. • The valence bond method was used to locate oxide and fluoride ions. • Fluoride ions are distributed only on two of the six anion sites in Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F. • The compound shows G-type antiferromagnetic ordering of magnetic moments. • The magnetic structure could be refined in one of the maximal magnetic subgroups of the nuclear structure.« less

  12. Effect of Cation Ordering on the Performance and Chemical Stability of Layered Double Perovskite Cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Bernuy-Lopez, Carlos; Rioja-Monllor, Laura; Nakamura, Takashi; Ricote, Sandrine; O’Hayre, Ryan; Amezawa, Koji; Einarsrud, Mari-Ann

    2018-01-01

    The effect of A-site cation ordering on the cathode performance and chemical stability of A-site cation ordered LaBaCo2O5+δ and disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3−δ materials are reported. Symmetric half-cells with a proton-conducting BaZr0.9Y0.1O3−δ electrolyte were prepared by ceramic processing, and good chemical compatibility of the materials was demonstrated. Both A-site ordered LaBaCo2O5+δ and A-site disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3−δ yield excellent cathode performance with Area Specific Resistances as low as 7.4 and 11.5 Ω·cm2 at 400 °C and 0.16 and 0.32 Ω·cm2 at 600 °C in 3% humidified synthetic air respectively. The oxygen vacancy concentration, electrical conductivity, basicity of cations and crystal structure were evaluated to rationalize the electrochemical performance of the two materials. The combination of high-basicity elements and high electrical conductivity as well as sufficient oxygen vacancy concentration explains the excellent performance of both LaBaCo2O5+δ and La0.5Ba0.5CoO3−δ materials at high temperatures. At lower temperatures, oxygen-deficiency in both materials is greatly reduced, leading to decreased performance despite the high basicity and electrical conductivity. A-site cation ordering leads to a higher oxygen vacancy concentration, which explains the better performance of LaBaCo2O5+δ. Finally, the more pronounced oxygen deficiency of the cation ordered polymorph and the lower chemical stability at reducing conditions were confirmed by coulometric titration. PMID:29373541

  13. Thermoelectric properties of p-type perovskite compounds LaCoO3 systems containing the A-site vacancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzai, Mayuka; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Saito, Miwa; Yamamura, Hiroshi

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric properties of Sr-doped LaCoO3 system which includes both La1-xSrxCoO3 and La0.95-xSrxsquare0.05CoO3 containing the A-site vacancy were prepared by solid state reaction. The crystal phases of the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity were investigated, focusing the effect of A-site vacancy. Doping of Sr to LaCoO3 improved the electrical conductivity but decreased the seebeck coefficient and increased the thermal conductivity. A-site vacancy of La0.95-xSrxsquare0.05CoO3 system, in comparison with La1-xSrxCoO3 system, increased electrical conductivity, and decreased lattice thermal conductivity. As a result, it was found that the thermoelectric properties of La0.95-xSrxsquare0.05CoO3 containing the A-site vacancy showed the higher values than those of La1-xSrxCoO3. The introduction of A-site vacancy was effective on the improvement of thermoelectric property.

  14. Structural and metal-insulator transitions in rhenium-based double perovskites via orbital ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Alex Taekyung; Marianetti, Chris A.

    2018-01-01

    Re-based double perovskites (DPs) have garnered substantial attention due to their high Curie temperatures (TC) and display of complex interplay of structural and metal-insulator transitions (MIT). Here we systematically study the ground-state electronic and structural properties for a family of Re-based DPs A2B ReO6 (A =Sr, Ca and B =Cr, Fe), which are related by a common low-energy Hamiltonian, using density functional theory +U calculations. We show that the on-site interaction U of Re induces orbital ordering (denoted C-OO), with each Re site having an occupied dx y orbital and a C-type alternation among dx z/dy z , resulting in an insulating state consistent with experimentally determined insulators Sr2CrReO6 , Ca2CrReO6 , and Ca2FeReO6 . The threshold value of UR e for orbital ordering is reduced by inducing Eg octahedral distortions of the same C-type wavelength (denoted C-OD), which serves as a structural signature of the orbital ordering; octahedral tilting also reduces the threshold. The C-OO and the concomitant C-OD are a spontaneously broken symmetry for the Sr-based materials (i.e., a0a0c- tilt pattern), while not for the Ca-based systems (i.e., a-a-b+ tilt pattern). Spin-orbit coupling does not qualitatively change the physics of the C-OO/C-OD, but can induce relevant quantitative changes. We prove that a single set of UC r,UF e,UR e capture the experimentally observed metallic state in Sr2FeReO6 and insulating states in other three systems. We predict that the C-OO is the origin of the insulating state in Sr2CrReO6 , and that the concomitant C-OD may be experimentally observed at sufficiently low temperatures (i.e., space group P 42/m ) in pure samples. Additionally, given our prescribed values of U , we show that the C-OO induced insulating state in Ca2CrReO6 will survive even if the C-OD amplitude is suppressed (e.g., due to thermal fluctuations). The role of the C-OO/C-OD in the discontinuous, temperature driven MIT in Ca2FeReO6 is discussed.

  15. A Family of A-Site Cation-Deficient Double-Perovskite-Related Iridates: Ln9Sr2Ir4O24 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Timothy; Smith, Mark D; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2018-06-21

    The compositions of the general formula Ln 11- x Sr x Ir 4 O 24 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm; 1.37 ≥ x ≥ 2) belonging to a family of A-site cation-deficient double-perovskite-related oxide iridates were grown as highly faceted single crystals from a molten strontium chloride flux. Their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. On the basis of the single-crystal results, additional compositions, Ln 9 Sr 2 Ir 4 O 24 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm), were prepared as polycrystalline powders via solid-state reactions and structurally characterized by Rietveld refinement. The compositions Ln 9 Sr 2 Ir 4 O 24 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm) contain Ir(V) and Ir(IV) in a 1:3 ratio with an average iridium oxidation state of 4.25. The single-crystal compositions La 9.15 Sr 1.85 Ir 4 O 24 and Pr 9.63 Sr 1.37 Ir 4 O 24 contain relatively less Ir(V), with the average iridium oxidation states being 4.21 and 4.09, respectively. The magnetic properties of Ln 9 Sr 2 Ir 4 O 24 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm) were measured, and complex magnetic behavior was observed in all cases at temperatures below 30 K.

  16. Magnetization reversal in mixed ferrite-chromite perovskites with non magnetic cation on the A-site.

    PubMed

    Billoni, Orlando V; Pomiro, Fernando; Cannas, Sergio A; Martin, Christine; Maignan, Antoine; Carbonio, Raul E

    2016-11-30

    In this work, we have performed Monte Carlo simulations in a classical model for RFe1-x Cr x O3 with R  =  Y and Lu, comparing the numerical simulations with experiments and mean field calculations. In the analyzed compounds, the antisymmetric exchange or Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction induced a weak ferromagnetism due to a canting of the antiferromagnetically ordered spins. This model is able to reproduce the magnetization reversal (MR) observed experimentally in a field cooling process for intermediate x values and the dependence with x of the critical temperatures. We also analyzed the conditions for the existence of MR in terms of the strength of DM interactions between Fe(3+) and Cr(3+) ions with the x values variations.

  17. Order-disorder antiferroelectric phase transition in a hybrid inorganic-organic framework with the perovskite architecture.

    PubMed

    Jain, Prashant; Dalal, Naresh S; Toby, Brian H; Kroto, Harold W; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2008-08-13

    [(CH3)2NH2]Zn(HCOO)3, 1, adopts a structure that is analogous to that of a traditional perovskite, ABX3, with A = [(CH3)2NH2], B = Zn, and X = HCOO. The hydrogen atoms of the dimethyl ammonium cation, which hydrogen bond to oxygen atoms of the formate framework, are disordered at room temperature. X-ray powder diffraction, dielectric constant, and specific heat data show that 1 undergoes an order-disorder phase transition on cooling below 156 K. We present evidence that this is a classical paraelectric to antiferroelectric phase transition that is driven by ordering of the hydrogen atoms. This sort of electrical ordering associated with order-disorder phase transition is unprecedented in hybrid frameworks and opens up an exciting new direction in rational synthetic strategies to create extended hybrid networks for applications in ferroic-related fields.

  18. Magnetic order and electronic structure of 5d 3 double perovskite Sr 2ScOsO 6

    DOE PAGES

    Taylor, A. E.; Morrow, R.; Singh, D. J.; ...

    2015-03-01

    The magnetic susceptibility, crystal and magnetic structures, and electronic structure of double perovskite Sr 2ScOsO 6 are reported. Using both neutron and x-ray powder diffraction we find that the crystal structure is monoclinic P21/n from 3.5 to 300 K. Magnetization measurements indicate an antiferromagnetic transition at TN=92 K, one of the highest transition temperatures of any double perovskite hosting only one magnetic ion. Type I antiferromagnetic order is determined by neutron powder diffraction, with an Os moment of only 1.6(1) muB, close to half the spin-only value for a crystal field split 5d electron state with t2g^3 ground state. Densitymore » functional calculations show that this reduction is largely the result of strong Os-O hybridization, with spin-orbit coupling responsible for only a ~0.1 muB reduction in the moment.« less

  19. Type I antiferromagnetic order in Ba 2LuReO 6: Exploring the role of structural distortions in double perovskites containing 5d 2 ions

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Jie; Yan, Jiaqiang; Aczel, Adam A.; ...

    2017-12-02

    The structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of the double perovskite Ba 2LuReO 6 have been examined in this paper. It is an insulator whose temperature dependent conductivity is consistent with variable range hopping electrical transport. A transition to an antiferromagnet state with type I order occurs below T N = 31 K. High resolution time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction measurements show that it retains the cubic double perovskite structure down to 10 K. High intensity, low resolution neutron powder diffraction measurements confirm the antiferromagnetic order and indicate that cubic symmetry is still observed at 1.5 K. The small ordered moment ofmore » 0.34(4)μ B per Re is comparable to estimates of moments on 5d 2 ions in other antiferromagnetically ordered cubic double perovskites. Finally, comparisons with related double perovskites containing 5d 2 ions, such as Os 6+ and Re 5+, reveal that subtle changes in structure or electron configuration of the diamagnetic octahedral cations can have a large impact on the magnetic ground state, the size of the ordered moment, and the Néel temperature.« less

  20. Time-Dependent Mechanical Response of APbX 3 (A = Cs, CH 3NH 3; X = I, Br) Single Crystals [The Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Lead-Halide Perovskite Single Crystals are Independent of A-site Cation Chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Reyes-Martinez, Marcos A.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; ...

    2017-05-02

    The ease of processing hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite (HOIPs) films, belonging to a material class with composition ABX 3, from solution and at mild temperatures promises their use in deformable technologies, including flexible photovoltaic devices, sensors, and displays. To successfully apply these materials in deformable devices, knowledge of their mechanical response to dynamic strain is necessary. The authors elucidate the time- and rate-dependent mechanical properties of HOIPs and an inorganic perovskite (IP) single crystal by measuring nanoindentation creep and stress relaxation. The observation of pop-in events and slip bands on the surface of the indented crystals demonstrate dislocation-mediated plastic deformation. Themore » magnitudes of creep and relaxation of both HOIPs and IPs are similar, negating prior hypothesis that the presence of organic A-site cations alters the mechanical response of these materials. Moreover, these samples exhibit a pronounced increase in creep, and stress relaxation as a function of indentation rate whose magnitudes reflect differences in the rates of nucleation and propagation of dislocations within the crystal structures of HOIPs and IP. In conclusion, this contribution provides understanding that is critical for designing perovskite devices capable of withstanding mechanical deformations.« less

  1. Strain-sensitive spin-state ordering in thin films of perovskite LaCoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, J.; Yamasaki, Y.; Doi, A.; Nakao, H.; Kumai, R.; Murakami, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Arima, T.; Tokura, Y.

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated the lattice distortion coupled to the Co 3 d -spin-state ordering in thin films of perovskite LaCoO3 with various epitaxial strains by measurements of the magnetization, x-ray diffraction, and optical spectra. In the system with tensile strain about 0.5%, a lattice distortion characterized by the modulation vector q =(1 /6 ,1 /6 ,1 /6 ) emerges at 40 K, followed by a ferromagnetic ordering at 24 K. Alternatively, in systems with tensile strain exceeding 1%, the lattice distortion characterized by q =(1 /4 ,1 /4 ,1 /4 ) emerges at 120 K or higher, and subsequently the ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic ordering occurs around 90 K. The evolution of infrared phonon spectra and resonant x-ray scattering at the Co K edge suggests that the population change in the Co 3 d spin state causes the strain-induced switching of spin-state ordering as well as of magnetic ordering in this canonical spin-state crossover system.

  2. Lanthanide contraction effect on crystal structures, magnetic, and dielectric properties in ordered double perovskites LnPbCoSbO{sub 6} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd)

    SciTech Connect

    Han, L.; Yao, C. G.; Meng, J. L.

    The crystal structures, magnetic, and dielectric properties for the ordered double perovskites LnPbCoSbO{sub 6} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd) have been investigated. The crystal structure has been solved by Rietveld refinements of X-ray diffraction data in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n (No. 14). The Co{sup 2+} and Sb{sup 5+} ions are almost fully ordered over the B-site, and the octahedral framework displays significant tilting distortion according to the Glazer's tilt system a{sup –}a{sup –}c{sup +}. As the result of lanthanide contraction from La{sup 3+} to Nd{sup 3+}, the B-site sublattice distortions become stronger accompanying with the reduction of themore » tolerance factor and coordination number. The magnetization measurements show an antiferromagnetic ordering with large effective magnetic moments (μ{sub eff}) suggesting that the orbital component is significant. The maximum values of isothermal magnetization increase with the decrease in radii of rare earth ions, which is attributed to the weakening of antiferromagnetic interaction via Co{sup 2+}–O–Sb{sup 5+}–O–Co{sup 2+} paths. The dielectric constants present frequency dependence and monotonically decrease with the ionic radii reduction from La{sup 3+} to Nd{sup 3+} due to the suppression of electron transfer. These results indicate that the magnetic and dielectric properties can be tuned by controlling the degree of lattice distortion, which is realized by introducing different Ln{sup 3+} ions at the A-site.« less

  3. It's All Business: A Site Visit Report on Working Order, Sharpsburg, Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olney, Marjorie F.; Harris, Perri

    This report discusses the results of a case study of Working Order, a Pennsylvania program designed to develop entrepreneurs with and without disabilities by sharing the expertise, resources, and skills of small business owners. The strategy of the program is to invite competitive entrepreneurs, those who could likely produce and sell their…

  4. Raft membrane domains: from a liquid-ordered membrane phase to a site of pathogen attack.

    PubMed

    van der Goot, F G; Harder, T

    2001-04-01

    While the existence of cholesterol/sphingolipid (raft) membrane domains in the plasma membrane is now supported by strong experimental evidence, the structure of these domains, their size, their dynamics, and their molecular composition remain to be understood. Raft domains are thought to represent a specific physical state of lipid bilayers, the liquid-ordered phase. Recent observations suggest that in the mammalian plasma membrane small raft domains in ordered lipid phases are in a dynamic equilibrium with a less ordered membrane environment. Rafts may be enlarged and/or stabilized by protein-mediated cross-linking of raft-associated components. These changes of plasma membrane structure are perceived by the cells as signals, most likely an important element of immunoreceptor signalling. Pathogens abuse raft domains on the host cell plasma membrane as concentration devices, as signalling platforms and/or entry sites into the cell. Elucidation of these interactions requires a detailed understanding raft structure and dynamics. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. Magnetic order and magnetoelectric properties of R2CoMn O6 perovskites (R =Ho , Tm, Yb, and Lu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco, J.; García-Muñoz, J. L.; García, J.; Subías, G.; Stankiewicz, J.; Rodríguez-Velamazán, J. A.; Ritter, C.

    2017-07-01

    We present a detailed study on the magnetic structure and magnetoelectric properties of several double perovskites R2CoMn O6 (R =Ho , Tm, Yb, and Lu). All of these samples show an almost perfect (˜94 %) ordering of C o2 + and M n4 + cations in the unit cell. Our research reveals that the magnetic ground state strongly depends on the R size. For samples with larger R (Ho and Tm), the ground state is formed by a ferromagnetic order (F type) of C o2 + and M n4 + moments, while R either remains mainly disordered (Ho) or is coupled antiferromagnetically (Tm) to the Co/Mn sublattice. For samples with smaller R (Yb or Lu), competitive interactions lead to the formation of an E -type arrangement for the C o2 + and M n4 + moments with a large amount of extended defects such as stacking faults. The Y b3 + is partly ordered at very low temperature. The latter samples undergo a metamagnetic transition from the E into the F type, which is coupled to a negative magnetodielectric effect. Actually, the real part of dielectric permittivity shows an anomaly at the magnetic transition for the samples exhibiting an E -type order. This anomaly is absent in samples with F -type order, and, accordingly, it vanishes coupled to the metamagnetic transition for R =Yb or Lu samples. At room temperature, the huge values of the dielectric constant reveal the presence of Maxwell-Wagner depletion layers. Pyroelectric measurements reveal a high polarization at low temperature, but the onset of pyroelectric current is neither correlated to the kind of magnetic ordering nor to the magnetic transition. Our study identified the pyroelectric current as thermally stimulated depolarization current and electric-field polarization curves show a linear behavior at low temperature. Therefore, no clear ferroelectric transition occurs in these compounds.

  6. Real-Time Observation of Order-Disorder Transformation of Organic Cations Induced Phase Transition and Anomalous Photoluminescence in Hybrid Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Ming, Wenmei; Du, Mao-Hua; Keum, Jong K; Puretzky, Alexander A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Huang, Jinsong; Geohegan, David B; Wang, Xiaoping; Xiao, Kai

    2018-05-01

    A fundamental understanding of the interplay between the microscopic structure and macroscopic optoelectronic properties of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials is essential to design new materials and improve device performance. However, how exactly the organic cations affect the structural phase transition and optoelectronic properties of the materials is not well understood. Here, real-time, in situ temperature-dependent neutron/X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) measurements reveal a transformation of the organic cation CH 3 NH 3 + from order to disorder with increasing temperature in CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 perovskites. The molecular-level order-to-disorder transformation of CH 3 NH 3 + not only leads to an anomalous increase in PL intensity, but also results in a multidomain to single-domain structural transition. This discovery establishes the important role that organic cation ordering has in dictating structural order and anomalous optoelectronic phenomenon in hybrid perovskites. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of methylammonium lead halide perovskite films

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Justin C.; Li, Zhen; Ndione, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    We report third-order nonlinear coefficient values and decay time kinetics vs. halide composition (CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbBr2I), temperature, and excitation wavelength. The maximum values of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility X(3) (-1.6 x 10-6 esu) are similar to or larger than many common third-order materials. The source of the nonlinearity is shown to be primarily excitonic in the tribromide film by virtue of its strong enhancement near the exciton resonance. Nonresonant excitation reduces the nonlinearity significantly, as does increasing the temperature. Substitution of one I for one Br also reduces the nonlinearity by at least one order of magnitude, presumably due tomore » the lack of strong exciton resonance in the substituted form. The thin films are stable, highly homogenous (lacking significant light scattering), and simple and inexpensive to fabricate, making them potentially useful in a variety of optoelectronic applications in which wavelength selectivity is important.« less

  8. Charge and orbital orders and structural instability in high-pressure quadruple perovskite CeCuMn6O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Katsuya, Yoshio; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yamaura, Kazunari; Belik, Alexei A.

    2018-02-01

    We prepared a quadruple perovskite CeCuMn6O12 under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions at 6 GPa and about 1670 K and investigated its structural, magnetic and transport properties. CeCuMn6O12 crystallizes in space group Im-3 above T CO  =  297 K below this temperature, it adopts space group R-3 with the 1:3 (Mn4+:Mn3+) charge and orbital orders. Unusual compressed Mn3+O6 octahedra are realized in CeCuMn6O12 similar to CaMn7O12 with the  -Q 3 Jahn-Teller distortion mode. Below about 90 K, structural instability takes place with phase separation and the appearance of competing phases; and below 70 K, two R-3 phases coexist. CeCuMn6O12 exhibits a ferromagnetic-like transition below T C  =  140 K, and it is a semiconductor with the magnetoresistance reaching about  -40% at 140 K and 70 kOe. We argued that the valence of Ce is  +3 in CeCuMn6O12 with the Ce3+(C{{u}2+}Mn23+ )(Mn33+M{{n}4+} )O12 charge distribution in the charge-ordered R-3 phase and Ce3+(C{{u}2+}Mn23+ )(Mn43.25+ )O12 in the charge-disordered Im-3 phase.

  9. Creation and Ordering of Oxygen Vacancies at WO 3-δ and Perovskite Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kelvin H. L.; Li, Guoqiang; Spurgeon, Steven R.

    Changes in structure and composition resulting from oxygen deficiency can strongly impact the physical and chemical properties of transition metal oxides, which may lead to new functionalities for novel electronic devices. Oxygen vacancies (V o) can be readily formed to accomodate the lattice mismatch during epitixial thin film growth. In this paper, the effects of substrate strain and oxidizing power on the creation and distribution of V o in WO 3-δ thin films are investigated in detail. An 18O 2 isotope labeled time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry study reveals that WO 3-δ films grown on SrTiO 3 substrates display amore » significantly larger oxygen vacancy gradient along the growth direction compared to those grown on LaAlO 3 substrates. This result is corroborated by scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging which reveals a large number of defects close to the interface to accommodate interfacial tensile strain, leading to the ordering of V o and the formation of semi-aligned Magnéli phases. The strain is gradually released and tetragonal phase with much better crystallinity is observed at the film/vacuum interface. The changes in structure resulting from oxygen defect creation are shown to have a direct impact on the electronic and optical properties of the films.« less

  10. Ba3Fe1.56Ir1.44O9: A Polar Semiconducting Triple Perovskite with Near Room Temperature Magnetic Ordering.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Timothy; Carone, Darren; Huon, Amanda; Herklotz, Andreas; Stoian, Sebastian A; Heald, Steve M; Morrison, Gregory; Smith, Mark D; Loye, Hans-Conrad Zur

    2018-05-29

    The crystal chemistry and magnetic properties for two triple perovskites, Ba 3 Fe 1.56 Ir 1.44 O 9 and Ba 3 NiIr 2 O 9 , grown as large, highly faceted single crystals from a molten strontium carbonate flux, are reported. Unlike the idealized A 3 MM 2 'O 9 hexagonal symmetry characteristic of most triple perovskites, including Ba 3 NiIr 2 O 9, Ba 3 Fe 1.56 Ir 1.44 O 9 possesses significant site-disorder, resulting in a noncentrosymmetric polar structure with trigonal symmetry. The valence of iron and iridium in the heavily distorted Fe/Ir sites was determined to be Fe(III) and Ir(V) by X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). Density functional theory calculations were conducted to understand the effect of the trigonal distortion on the local Fe(III)O 6 electronic structure, and the spin state of iron was determined to be S = 5/2 by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Conductivity measurements indicate thermally activated semiconducting behavior in the trigonal perovskite. Magnetic properties were measured and near room temperature magnetic ordering (T N = 270 K) was observed for Ba 3 Fe 1.56 Ir 1.44 O 9 .

  11. Multiferroic behavior associated with an order-disorder hydrogen bonding transition in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the perovskite ABX3 architecture.

    PubMed

    Jain, Prashant; Ramachandran, Vasanth; Clark, Ronald J; Zhou, Hai Dong; Toby, Brian H; Dalal, Naresh S; Kroto, Harold W; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2009-09-30

    Multiferroic behavior in perovskite-related metal-organic frameworks of general formula [(CH(3))(2)NH(2)]M(HCOO)(3), where M = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, is reported. All four compounds exhibit paraelectric-antiferroelectric phase transition behavior in the temperature range 160-185 K (Mn: 185 K, Fe: 160 K; Co: 165 K; Ni: 180 K); this is associated with an order-disorder transition involving the hydrogen bonded dimethylammonium cations. On further cooling, the compounds become canted weak ferromagnets below 40 K. This research opens up a new class of multiferroics in which the electrical ordering is achieved by means of hydrogen bonding.

  12. Band Structure Engineering of Cs2AgBiBr6 Perovskite through Order-Disordered Transition: A First-Principle Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingxiu; Zhang, Peng; Wei, Su-Huai

    2018-01-04

    Cs 2 AgBiBr 6 was proposed as one of the inorganic, stable, and nontoxic replacements of the methylammonium lead halides (CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 , which is currently considered as one of the most promising light-harvesting material for solar cells). However, the wide indirect band gap of Cs 2 AgBiBr 6 suggests that its application in photovoltaics is limited. Using the first-principle calculation, we show that by controlling the ordering parameter at the mixed sublattice, the band gap of Cs 2 AgBiBr 6 can vary continuously from a wide indirect band gap of 1.93 eV for the fully ordered double-perovskite structure to a small pseudodirect band gap of 0.44 eV for the fully random alloy. Therefore, one can achieve better light absorption simply by controlling the growth temperature and thus the ordering parameters and band gaps. We also show that controlled doping in Cs 2 AgBiBr 6 can change the energy difference between ordered and disordered Cs 2 AgBiBr 6 , thus providing further control of the ordering parameters and the band gaps. Our study, therefore, provides a novel approach to carry out band structure engineering in the mixed perovskites for optoelectronic applications.

  13. Anisotropic magnetic structures of the Mn R MnSbO6 high-pressure doubly ordered perovskites (R =La , Pr, and Nd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solana-Madruga, Elena; Arévalo-López, Ángel M.; Dos santos-García, Antonio J.; Ritter, Clemens; Cascales, Concepción; Sáez-Puche, Regino; Attfield, J. Paul

    2018-04-01

    A new type of doubly ordered perovskite (also reported as double double perovskite, DDPv) structure combining columnar and rock-salt orders of the cations at the A and B sites, respectively, was recently found at high pressure for Mn R MnSb O6 (R =La -Sm ). Here we report further magnetic structures of these compounds. M n2 + spins align into antiparallel ferromagnetic sublattices along the x axis for MnLaMnSb O6 , while the magnetic anisotropy of P r3 + magnetic moments induces their preferential order along the z direction for MnPrMnSb O6 . The magnetic structure of MnNdMnSb O6 was reported to show a spin-reorientation transition of M n2 + spins from the z axis towards the x axis driven by the ordering of N d3 + magnetic moments. The crystal-field parameters for P r3 + and N d3 + at the 4 e C2 site of their DDPv structure have been semiempirically estimated and used to derive their energy levels and associated wave functions. The results demonstrate that the spin-reorientation transition in MnNdMnSb O6 arises as a consequence of the crystal-field-induced magnetic anisotropy of N d3 + .

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of a new B-site ordered double perovskite Sr{sub 2}CuIrO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Vasala, Sami; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi

    2014-12-15

    Here we synthesize and characterize a new double-perovskite oxide Sr{sub 2}CuIrO{sub 6}. The synthesis requires the use of high oxygen pressure to stabilize the VI oxidation state of iridium. The compound has a tetragonally-distorted crystal structure due to the Jahn–Teller active Cu{sup II} ion, and a high degree of B-site cation order. Magnetic transition is apparent at 15 K, but the zero-field-cooled and field-cooled susceptibilities diverge below this temperature. The high degree of cation order would exclude the possibility of a typical spin-glass, indicating that the divergence is probably due to a frustration of the magnetic interactions between Cu andmore » Ir, with a high frustration factor of f≈25. - Graphical abstract: A new member of the A{sub 2}B′B″O{sub 6} double-perovskite family with JT-active Cu{sup II} at the B′ site and Ir{sup VI} at the B″ site is synthesized through high pressure synthesis and characterized for the structural and magnetic properties. - Highlights: • New member of the A{sub 2}CuB″O{sub 6} double-perovskite family is synthesized with B″=Ir. • Stabilization of Ir{sup VI} requires the use of high oxygen pressure synthesis. • Crystal structure is tetragonally distorted due to JT-active Cu{sup II}. • Divergence of ZFC and FC curves is seen below the T{sub N} of 15 K. • This is presumably due to a frustration effect.« less

  15. Large effects of A-site average cation size on the properties of the double perovskites Ba2-xSrxMnReO6:  A d5-d1 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Guerman; Greenblatt, Martha; Croft, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Ba2-xSrxMnReO6 (x=0, 0.5, 1, 2) phases with a double-perovskite structure were prepared by solid-state techniques in evacuated sealed silica tubes. Mn2+ and Re6+ are virtually completely ordered on the B sites. The compounds are ferrimagnetic below 120 K. The maximum saturation moment was obtained for a compound with x=0.5 whose tolerance factor is closest to 1. The whole series of compounds, 0.0⩽x⩽2.0, exhibits semiconducting behavior with variable-range hopping type of conduction. Sr2MnReO6 has an unusually high coercive field (2.6 T at 5 K) and two transitions in the M-H loop. Ba2MnReO6 shows large positive magnetoresistance (14% at 80 K, 5 T) below 140 K, while the other compositions studied exhibit negative magnetoresistance in the temperature range measured.

  16. What makes the difference in perovskite titanates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann-Holder, Annette; Roleder, Krystian; Ko, Jae-Hyeon

    2018-06-01

    We have investigated in detail the lattice dynamics of five different perovskite titanates ATiO3 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb, Eu) where the A sites are occupied by +2 ions. In spite of the largely ionic character of these ions, the properties of these compounds differ substantially. They range from order/disorder like, to displacive ferroelectric, quantum paraelectric, and antiferromagnetic. All compounds crystallize in the cubic structure at high temperature and undergo structural phase transitions to tetragonal symmetry, partly followed by further transitions to lower symmetries. Since the TiO6 moiety is the essential electronic and structural unit, the question arises, what makes the significant difference between them. It is shown that the lattice dynamics of these compounds are very different, and that mode-mode coupling effects give rise to many distinct properties. In addition, the oxygen ion nonlinear polarizability plays a key role since it dominates the anharmonicity of these perovskites and determines the structural instability.

  17. Magnetic properties of the doubly ordered perovskite NaLnCoWO6 (Ln = Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Peng; Klein, Holger; Darie, Céline; Colin, Claire V.

    2018-07-01

    The focus of this study is on the magnetic properties of the very recently synthesized doubly ordered perovskite family NaLnCoWO6 (Ln = Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Yb). Magnetic characterizations were performed by magnetic susceptibility vs. temperature, isothermal magnetization and heat capacity measurements. All these compounds have been determined as antiferromagnets with Néel temperatures from 4 K to 13.1 K. When the lanthanide is magnetic, additional transitions were observed below the Néel temperature which are attributed to the polarization of the magnetic Ln3+ sublattice by the ordered Co2+ one. Taking into account the magnetic ordering found in this study and the polar structure in the nine compounds NaLnCoWO6 (Ln = Y, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Yb) reported before, these compounds can be classified as new Type I multiferroics.

  18. Nb K-edge x-ray absorption investigation of the pressure induced amorphization in A-site deficient double perovskite La1/3NbO3.

    PubMed

    Marini, C; Noked, O; Kantor, I; Joseph, B; Mathon, O; Shuker, R; Kennedy, B J; Pascarelli, S; Sterer, E

    2016-02-03

    Nb K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy is utilized to investigate the changes in the local structure of the A-site deficient double perovskite La1/3NbO3 which undergoes a pressure induced irreversible amorphization. EXAFS results show that with increasing pressure up to 7.5 GPa, the average Nb-O bond distance decreases in agreement with the expected compression and tilting of the NbO6 octahedra. On the contrary, above 7.5 GPa, the average Nb-O bond distance show a tendency to increase. Significant changes in the Nb K-edge XANES spectrum with evident low energy shift of the pre-peak and the absorption edge is found to happen in La1/3NbO3 above 6.3 GPa. These changes evidence a gradual reduction of the Nb cations from Nb(5+) towards Nb(4+) above 6.3 GPa. Such a valence change accompanied by the elongation of the average Nb-O bond distances in the octahedra, introduces repulsion forces between non-bonding adjacent oxygen anions in the unoccupied A-sites. Above a critical pressure, the Nb reduction mechanism can no longer be sustained by the changing local structure and amorphization occurs, apparently due to the build-up of local strain. EXAFS and XANES results indicate two distinct pressure regimes having different local and electronic response in the La1/3NbO3 system before the occurence of the pressure induced amorphization at  ∼14.5 GPa.

  19. Strain-induced changes of the electronic properties of B -site ordered double-perovskite Sr2CoIrO6 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, S.; Chang, C. F.; Kuo, C.-Y.; Merten, S.; Roddatis, V.; Ha, T. D.; Jesche, A.; Moshnyaga, V.; Lin, H.-J.; Tanaka, A.; Chen, C. T.; Tjeng, L. H.; Gegenwart, P.

    2018-05-01

    B -site ordered thin films of double perovskite Sr2CoIrO6 were epitaxially grown by a metalorganic aerosol deposition technique on various substrates, actuating different strain states. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and polarized far-field Raman spectroscopy confirm the strained epitaxial growth on all used substrates. Polarization-dependent Co L2 ,3 x-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals a change of the magnetic easy axis of the antiferromagnetically ordered (high-spin) Co3 + sublattice within the strain series. By reversing the applied strain direction from tensile to compressive, the easy axis changes abruptly from in-plane to out-of-plane orientation. The low-temperature magnetoresistance changes its sign respectively and is described by a combination of weak antilocalization and anisotropic magnetoresistance effects.

  20. Chalcogenide Perovskites for Solar Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Samanthe

    Methylammonium Lead halide perovskites have recently emerged as a promising candidate for realizing high efficient low cost photovoltaic modules. Charge transport properties of the solution processed halide perovskites are comparable to some of the existing absorbers used in the current PV industry which require sophisticated processing techniques. Due to this simple processing required to achieve high efficiencies, halide perovskites have become an active field of research. As a result, perovskite solar cells are rapidly reaching towards theoretical efficiency limit of close to 30%. It's believed that ionicity inherent to perovskite materials is one of the contributing factors for the excellent charge transport properties of perovskites. Despite the growing interest for solar energy harvesting purposes, these halide perovskites have serious limitations such as toxicity and instability that need to be addressed in order to commercialize the solar cells incorporating them. This dissertation focuses on a new class of ionic semiconductors, chalcogenide perovskites for solar energy harvesting purposes. Coming from the family perovskites they are expected to have same excellent charge transport properties inherent to perovskites due to the ionicity. Inspired by few theoretical studies on chalcogenide perovskites, BaZrS3 and its Ti alloys were synthesized by sulfurizing the oxide counterpart. Structural characterizations have confirmed the predicted distorted perovskite phase. Optical characterizations have verified the direct band gap suitable for thin film single junction solar cells. Anion alloying was demonstrated by synthesizing oxysulfides with widely tunable band gap suitable for applications such as solid state lighting and sensing.

  1. Polaronic Charge Carrier-Lattice Interactions in Lead Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Christoph; Cho, Himchan; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2017-10-09

    Almost ten years after the renaissance of the popular perovskite-type semiconductors based on lead salts with the general formula AMX 3 (A=organic or inorganic cation; M=divalent metal; X=halide), many facets of photophysics continue to puzzle researchers. In this Minireview, light is shed on the low mobilities of charge carriers in lead halide perovskites with special focus on the lattice properties at non-zero temperature. The polar and soft lattice leads to pronounced electron-phonon coupling, limiting carrier mobility and retarding recombination. We propose that the proper picture of excited charge carriers at temperature ranges that are relevant for device operations is that of a polaron, with Fröhlich coupling constants between 1<α<3. Under the aspect of light-emitting diode application, APbX 3 perovskite show moderate second order (bimolecular) recombination rates and high third-order (Auger) rate constants. It has become apparent that this is a direct consequence of the anisotropic polar A-site cation in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites and might be alleviated by replacing the organic moiety with an isotropic cation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Double perovskite Sr2FeMoO6-xNx (x=0.3, 1.0) oxynitrides with anionic ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retuerto, M.; de la Calle, C.; Martínez-Lope, M. J.; Porcher, F.; Krezhov, K.; Menéndez, N.; Alonso, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Two new oxynitride double perovskites of composition Sr2FeMoO6-xNx (x=0.3, 1.0) have been synthesized by annealing precursor powders obtained by citrate techniques in flowing ammonia at 750 °C and 650 °C, respectively. The polycrystalline samples have been characterized by chemical analysis, x-ray and neutron diffraction (NPD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. They exhibit a tetragonal structure with a=5.5959(1) Å, c=7.9024(2) Å, V=247.46(2) Å3 for Sr2FeMoO5.7N0.3; and a=5.6202(2) Å, c=7.9102(4) Å, V=249.85(2) Å3 for Sr2FeMoO5N; space group I4/m, Z=2. The nitridation process seems to extraordinarily improve the long-range Fe/Mo ordering, achieving 95% at moderate temperatures of 750 °C. The analysis of high resolution NPD data, based on the contrast existing between the scattering lengths of O and N, shows that both atoms are located at (O,N)2 anion substructure corresponding to the basal ab plane of the perovskite structure, whereas the O1 site is fully occupied by oxygen atoms. The evolution of the and distances suggests a shift towards a configuration close to Fe4+(3d4, S=2):Mo5+(4d1, S=1/2). The magnetic susceptibility shows a ferrimagnetic transition with a reduced saturation magnetization compared to Sr2FeMoO6, due to the different nature of the magnetic double exchange interactions through Fe-N-Mo-N-Fe paths in contrast to the stronger Fe-O-Mo-O-Fe interactions. Also, the effect observed by low-temperature NPD seems to reduce the ordered Fe moments and enhance the Mo moments, in agreement with the evolution of the oxidation states, thus decreasing the saturation magnetization.

  3. Mapping chemical/structural order in double perovskite Sr2-xGdxMnTiO6 by atomic resolution electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Inmaculada; Biskup, Neven; Lopez, Maria; Garcia-Hernandez, Mar; Veiga, Luisa; Varela, Maria; UCM Collaboration; ORNL Collaboration; CSIC Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    We report on visualizing the chemical and structural order of double perovskite Sr2-xGdxMnTiO6. The antisite disorder of Mn and Ti is detected even at atomic scale at all x, resulting in Mn-rich and Ti-rich regions. For x ?0.75, the majority of manganese ions are in Mn3+ state and are centered in Jahn-Teller distorted MnO6octahedra. The Fourier transformation of atomic resolution images along the [110] zone axis reveals a superstructure that corresponds to the tilting of oxygen octahedra and that doubles the unit cell along [001]c. This superstructure is spatially inhomogeneous and coincides with the regions where B-site ion (Mn/Ti) is displaced along the [110] direction. We discuss these findings in the frame of possible local ferroelectricity and in the light of strong electroresistance observed in Sr1.25Gd0.75MnTiO6. Research at ORNL supported by the U.S. DOE-BES, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, and also by ORNL's ShaRE User Program (sponsored by DOE-BES). Research at UCM supported by the ERC Starting Investigator Award and MAT2010-20117.

  4. B-Site Cation-Ordered Double-Perovskite Oxide as an Outstanding Electrode Material for Supercapacitive Energy Storage Based on the Anion Intercalation Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenye; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Tade, Moses O; Shao, Zongping

    2018-03-21

    Perovskite oxides are highly promising electrodes for oxygen-ion-intercalation-type supercapacitors owing to their high oxygen vacancy concentration, oxygen diffusion rate, and tap density. Based on the anion intercalation mechanism, the capacitance is contributed by surface redox reactions and oxygen ion intercalation in the bulk materials. A high concentration of oxygen vacancies is needed because it is the main charge carrier. In this study, we propose a B-site cation-ordered Ba 2 Bi 0.1 Sc 0.2 Co 1.7 O 6-δ as an electrode material with an extremely high oxygen vacancy concentration and oxygen diffusion rate. A maximum capacitance of 1050 F g -1 was achieved, and a high capacitance of 780 F g -1 was maintained even after 3000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 1 A g -1 with an aqueous alkaline solution (6 M KOH) electrolyte, indicating an excellent cycling stability. In addition, the specific volumetric capacitance of Ba 2 Bi 0.1 Sc 0.2 Co 1.7 O 6-δ reaches up to 2549.4 F cm -3 based on the dense construction and high tap density (3.2 g cm -3 ). In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor was constructed using activated carbon as a negative electrode, and it displayed the highest specific energy density of 70 Wh kg -1 at the power density of 787 W kg -1 in this study.

  5. Spin State Control of the Perovskite Rh/Co Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Terasaki, Ichiro; Shibasaki, Soichiro; Yoshida, Shin; Kobayashi, Wataru

    2010-01-01

    We show why and how the spin state of transition-metal ions affects the thermoelectric properties of transition-metal oxides by investigating two perovskite-related oxides. In the A-site ordered cobalt oxide Sr3YCo4O10.5, partial substitution of Ca for Sr acts as chemical pressure, which compresses the unit cell volume to drive the spin state crossover, and concomitantly changes the magnetization and thermopower. In the perovskite rhodium oxide LaRhO3, partial substitution of Sr for La acts as hole-doping, and the resistivity and thermopower decrease systematically with the Sr concentration. The thermopower remains large values at high temperatures (>150 μV/K at 800 K), which makes a remarkable contrast to La1−xSrxCoO3. We associate this with the stability of the low spin state of the Rh3+ ions.

  6. Ordered vs. disordered perovskites; structural studies of Fe-doped SrIrO{sub 3} and SrRuO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Qasim, Ilyas; Blanchard, Peter E.R.; Liu, Samuel

    2013-10-15

    The structures of the two Fe containing perovskites Sr{sub 2}IrFeO{sub 6} and SrRu{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} have been established using a combination of synchrotron and neutron diffraction methods. Sr{sub 2}IrFeO{sub 6} and SrRu{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} are shown to be monoclinic I2/m and tetragonal I4/mcm respectively The former exhibits a rock-salt like ordering of the Fe and Ir cations and displays a sequence of phase transitions associated with the loss of the octahedral tilts upon heating; 12/m→I4/m→Fm3{sup ¯}m. The Fe and Ru cations are disordered in SrRu{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} and this shows a single structural phase transition upon heatingmore » due to the loss of the in-phase tilts, viz. I4/mcm→Pm3{sup ¯}m. In both cases XANES measurements show partial oxidation of the Fe{sup 3+} to Fe{sup 4+}. The difference in the structures between the two is remarkable given the similar size of Ir{sup 5+} and Ru{sup 5+}, and this is reflected in their magnetic properties. - Graphical abstract: Sr{sub 2}IrFeO{sub 6} and SrRu{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} are shown, using a combination of synchrotron and neutron diffraction, to be monoclinic I2/m with cation ordering and tetragonal I4/mcm with disordered Fe and Ir, respectively. Both undergo phase transitions upon heating due to the loss of the octahedral tilts. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Sr{sub 2}IrFeO{sub 6} shown to be monoclinic and shows the transitions upon heating I2/m→I4/m→ Fm3{sup ¯}m. • SrRu{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} is tetragonal and shows a single I4/mcm→Pm3m transition upon heating. • The Fe and Ru cations are disordered in SrRu{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} but ordered in Sr{sub 2}FeIrO{sub 6}. • XANES measurements show partial oxidation of the Fe{sup 3+} to Fe{sup 4+}.« less

  7. Electronic structure of ferromagnetic semiconductor material on the monoclinic and rhombohedral ordered double perovskites La{sub 2}FeCoO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Fuh, Huei-Ru; Chang, Ching-Ray; Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan

    2015-05-07

    Double perovskite La{sub 2}FeCoO{sub 6} with monoclinic structure and rhombohedra structure show as ferromagnetic semiconductor based on density functional theory calculation. The ferromagnetic semiconductor state can be well explained by the superexchange interaction. Moreover, the ferromagnetic semiconductor state remains under the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA plus onsite Coulomb interaction calculation.

  8. Long-range ordering in the Bi 1-xAe xFeO 3-x/2 perovskites: Bi 1/3Sr 2/3FeO 2.67 and Bi 1/2Ca 1/2FeO 2.75

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepoittevin, C.; Malo, S.; Barrier, N.; Nguyen, N.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Hervieu, M.

    2008-10-01

    Two-ordered perovskites, Bi 1/3Sr 2/3FeO 2.67 and Bi 1/2Ca 1/2FeO 2.75, have been stabilized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. They both exhibit orthorhombic superstructures, one with a≈ b≈2 ap and c≈3 ap (S.G.: Pb2 n or Pbmn) for the Sr-based compound and one with a≈ b≈2 ap and c≈8 ap (S.G.: B222, Bmm2, B2 mm or Bmmm) for the Ca-based one. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images evidence the existence of one deficient [FeO x] ∞ layer, suggesting that Bi 1/3Sr 2/3FeO 2.67 and Bi 1/2Ca 1/2FeO 2.75 behave differently compared to their Ln-based homolog. The HAADF-STEM images allow to propose a model of cation ordering on the A sites of the perovskite. The Mössbauer analyses confirm the trivalent state of iron and its complex environment with three types of coordination. Both compounds exhibit a high value of resistivity and the inverse molar susceptibility versus temperature curves evidence a magnetic transition at about 730 K for the Bi 1/3Sr 2/3FeO 2.67 and a smooth reversible transition between 590 and 650 K for Bi 1/2Ca 1/2FeO 2.75.

  9. Perovskite-Perovskite Homojunctions via Compositional Doping.

    PubMed

    Dänekamp, Benedikt; Müller, Christian; Sendner, Michael; Boix, Pablo P; Sessolo, Michele; Lovrincic, Robert; Bolink, Henk J

    2018-05-11

    One of the most important properties of semiconductors is the possibility of controlling their electronic behavior via intentional doping. Despite the unprecedented progress in the understanding of hybrid metal halide perovskites, extrinsic doping of perovskite remains nearly unexplored and perovskite-perovskite homojunctions have not been reported. Here we present a perovskite-perovskite homojunction obtained by vacuum deposition of stoichiometrically tuned methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) films. Doping is realized by adjusting the relative deposition rates of MAI and PbI 2 , obtaining p-type (MAI excess) and n-type (MAI defect) MAPI. The successful stoichiometry change in the thin films is confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, which allows us to determine the MA content in the films. We analyzed the resulting thin-film junction by cross-sectional scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) and found a contact potential difference (CPD) of 250 mV between the two differently doped perovskite layers. Planar diodes built with the perovskite-perovskite homojunction show the feasibility of our approach for implementation in devices.

  10. Changes in charge density vs changes in formal oxidation states: The case of Sn halide perovskites and their ordered vacancy analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalpian, Gustavo M.; Liu, Qihang; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Douvalis, Alexios P.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Zunger, Alex

    2017-07-01

    Shifting the Fermi energy in solids by doping, defect formation, or gating generally results in changes in the charge density distribution, which reflect the ability of the bonding pattern in solids to adjust to such external perturbations. In the traditional chemistry textbook, such changes are often described by the formal oxidation states (FOS) whereby a single atom type is presumed to absorb the full burden of the perturbation (change in charge) of the whole compound. In the present paper, we analyze the changes in the position-dependence charge density due to shifts of the Fermi energy on a general physical basis, comparing with the view of the FOS picture. We use the halide perovskites CsSn X3 (X =F , Cl, Br, I) as examples for studying the general principle. When the solar absorber CsSn I3 (termed 113) loses 50 % of its Sn atoms, thereby forming the ordered vacancy compound C s2Sn I6 (termed 216), the Sn is said in the FOS picture to change from Sn(II) to Sn(IV). To understand the electronic properties of these two groups we studied the 113 and 216 compound pairs CsSnC l3 and C s2SnC l6 , CsSnB r3 and C s2SnB r6 , and CsSn I3 and C s2Sn I6 , complementing them by CsSn F3 and C s2Sn F6 in the hypothetical cubic structure for completing the chemical trends. These materials were also synthesized by chemical routes and characterized by x-ray diffraction, 119Sn-Mössbauer spectroscopy, and K -edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy. We find that indeed in going from 113 to 216 (equivalent to the introduction of two holes per unit) there is a decrease in the s charge on Sn, in agreement with the FOS picture. However, at the same time, we observe an increase of the p charge via downshift of the otherwise unoccupied p level, an effect that tends to replenish much of the lost s charge. At the end, the change in the charge on the Sn site as a result of adding two holes to the unit cell is rather small. This effect is theoretically explained as a "self-regulating response

  11. Changes in charge density vs changes in formal oxidation states: The case of Sn halide perovskites and their ordered vacancy analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Dalpian, Gustavo M.; Liu, Qihang; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.

    Shifting the Fermi energy in solids by doping, defect formation, or gating generally results in changes in the charge density distribution, which reflect the ability of the bonding pattern in solids to adjust to such external perturbations. In the traditional chemistry textbook, such changes are often described by the formal oxidation states (FOS) whereby a single atom type is presumed to absorb the full burden of the perturbation (change in charge) of the whole compound. In the present paper, we analyze the changes in the position-dependence charge density due to shifts of the Fermi energy on a general physical basis,more » comparing with the view of the FOS picture. We use the halide perovskites CsSnX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) as examples for studying the general principle. When the solar absorber CsSnI3 (termed 113) loses 50% of its Sn atoms, thereby forming the ordered vacancy compound Cs2SnI6 (termed 216), the Sn is said in the FOS picture to change from Sn(II) to Sn(IV). To understand the electronic properties of these two groups we studied the 113 and 216 compound pairs CsSnCl3 and Cs2SnCl6, CsSnBr3 and Cs2SnBr6, and CsSnI3 and Cs2SnI6, complementing them by CsSnF3 and Cs2SnF6 in the hypothetical cubic structure for completing the chemical trends. These materials were also synthesized by chemical routes and characterized by x-ray diffraction, 119Sn-Mössbauer spectroscopy, and K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy. We find that indeed in going from 113 to 216 (equivalent to the introduction of two holes per unit) there is a decrease in the s charge on Sn, in agreement with the FOS picture. However, at the same time, we observe an increase of the p charge via downshift of the otherwise unoccupied p level, an effect that tends to replenish much of the lost s charge. At the end, the change in the charge on the Sn site as a result of adding two holes to the unit cell is rather small. This effect is theoretically explained as a “self-regulating response” [Raebiger

  12. Oxygen storage properties and catalytic activity of layer-ordered perovskites BaY 1-xGd xMn 2O 5+δ

    SciTech Connect

    Klimkowicz, A.; Świerczek, K.; Rząsa, T.

    2016-05-01

    Crystal structure, oxygen storage-related and preliminary anaerobic methane combustion studies were conducted for BaY 1-xGd xMn 2O 5+δ (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1) series of oxides prepared by a sol–gel method. All samples were found to possess layered-type A-site cation ordering, with the unit cell volume linearly dependent on the average radius of Y 1-xGd x for both the reduced and the oxidized materials. The oxygen content in the temperature range of 400 °C–600 °C indicates change on the order of 1 atomic mole, occurring when the sample's surrounding atmosphere was changed from air to 5 vol.% H 2more » in Ar. The time dependence of the reduction shows activated character on temperature, with an activation energy, which seems to be related to the oxygen diffusion in the bulk of the materials. Initial data concerning methane combustion in oxygen-free conditions show promising catalytic activity of BaYMn 2O 6 at elevated temperatures.« less

  13. Resonant halide perovskite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiguntseva, Ekaterina Y.; Ishteev, Arthur R.; Komissarenko, Filipp E.; Zuev, Dmitry A.; Ushakova, Elena V.; Milichko, Valentin A.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Makarov, Sergey V.; Zakhidov, Anvar A.

    2017-09-01

    The hybrid halide perovskites is a prospective material for fabrication of cost-effective optical devices. Unique perovskites properties are used for solar cells and different photonic applications. Recently, perovskite-based nanophotonics has emerged. Here, we consider perovskite like a high-refractive index dielectric material, which can be considered to be a basis for nanoparticles fabrication with Mie resonances. As a result, we fabricate and study resonant perovskite nanoparticles with different sizes. We reveal, that spherical nanoparticles show enhanced photoluminescence signal. The achieved results lay a cornerstone in the field of novel types of organic-inorganic nanophotonics devices with optical properties improved by Mie resonances.

  14. Cation Ordering within the Perovskite Block of a Six-layer Ruddlesden-Popper Oxide from Layer-by-layer Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lei; Niu, H. J.; Rosseinsky, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    The (AO)(A BO3)n Ruddlesden-Popper structure is an archetypal complex oxide consisting of two distinct structural units, an (AO) rock salt layer separating an n-octahedra thick perovskite block. Conventional high-temperature oxide synthesis methods cannot access members with n > 3 , butlowtemperaturelayer - by - layerthinfilmmethodsallowthepreparationofmaterialswiththickerperovskiteblocks , exploitinghighsurfacemobilityandlatticematchingwiththesubstrate . Thispresentationdescribesthegrowthofann = 6 memberCaO / (ABO 3)n (ABO 3 : CaMnO 3 , La 0.67 Ca 0.33 MnO 3 orCa 0.85 Sm 0.15 MnO 3) epitaxialsinglecrystalfilmsonthe (001) SrTiO 3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition with the assistance of a reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED).

  15. Study of the glassy magnetic behaviour and charge-ordering phase transitions in La0.75Ca0.25FeO3-δ perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Khalek, E. K.; Mohamed, E. A.; Salem, A. F.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, La0.75Ca0.25FeO3-δ perovskite sample was prepared by the coprecipitation method. The nanoparticle was found to crystallize in the orthorhombic (Pbnm) phase as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM). The oxygen non-stoichiometry (δ) and magnetic states of iron ions (three magnetic sextets and non-magnetic doublet) were investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature (RT). The shape of the magnetic hysteresis loop of the sample reveals the existence of a weak ferromagnetism at RT. The magnetization vs. temperature curves, measured in the 9 to 200 K range, showed that the sample exhibits two magnetic-phase transition temperatures at 29 K (Tg) and 120 K (TCO). The magnetization isotherms, M (H), around these magnetic-phase transition temperatures for the sample are analyzed.

  16. Hybrid Perovskite/Perovskite Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yinghong; Schlipf, Johannes; Wussler, Michael; Petrus, Michiel L; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Bein, Thomas; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Docampo, Pablo

    2016-06-28

    Recently developed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells combine low-cost fabrication and high power conversion efficiency. Advances in perovskite film optimization have led to an outstanding power conversion efficiency of more than 20%. Looking forward, shifting the focus toward new device architectures holds great potential to induce the next leap in device performance. Here, we demonstrate a perovskite/perovskite heterojunction solar cell. We developed a facile solution-based cation infiltration process to deposit layered perovskite (LPK) structures onto methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) films. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments were performed to gain insights into the crystallite orientation and the formation process of the perovskite bilayer. Our results show that the self-assembly of the LPK layer on top of an intact MAPI layer is accompanied by a reorganization of the perovskite interface. This leads to an enhancement of the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency due to reduced recombination losses, as well as improved moisture stability in the resulting photovoltaic devices.

  17. Comparative study of A-site order in the lead-free bismuth titanates M{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ag, Tl) from first-principles

    SciTech Connect

    Gröting, Melanie, E-mail: groeting@mm.tu-darmstadt.de; Albe, Karsten, E-mail: albe@mm.tu-darmstadt.de

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the possibility of enhancing chemical order in the relaxor ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} upon substitution of Na{sup +} by other monovalent cations M{sup +} using total energy calculations based on density functional theory. All chemically available monovalent cations M{sup +}, which are Li, Na, Ag, K, Tl, Rb and Cs, are considered and an analysis of the structurally relaxed structures in terms of symmetry-adapted distortion modes is given in order to quantify the chemically induced structural distortions. We demonstrate that the replacement of Na{sup +} by other monovalent cations can hardly alter the tendency of chemical ordermore » with respect to Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}. Only Tl{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} and Ag{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} show enhanced tendency for chemical ordering. Both heavy metals behave similar to the light alkali metals in terms of structural relaxations and relative stabilities of the ordered configurations. Although a comparison of the Goldschmidt factors of components (M TiO{sub 3}){sup −} reveals for Tl a value above the upper stability limit for perovskites, the additional lone-pair effect of Tl{sup +} stabilizes the ordered structure. - Graphical abstract: Amplitudes of chemically induced distortion modes in different ordered perovskites M{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} and visualisation of atomic displacements associated with distortion mode X{sup +}{sub 1} in the 001-ordered compounds Li{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} and Cs{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}. Due to a substantial size mismatch between bismuth (green) and caesium (dark blue), incorporation of the latter leads to enhanced displacements of oxygen atoms (red) and suppresses displacements of titanium (silver) as compared to lithium (light blue) or other smaller monovalent cations. - Highlights: • Lead-free A-site mixed bismuth titanates M{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} are studied by first-principles calculations.

  18. Fabrication of Semiconducting Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Particles by Spray Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadian-Yazdi, Mohammad-Reza; Eslamian, Morteza

    2018-01-01

    In this "nano idea" paper, three concepts for the preparation of methylammonium lead halide perovskite particles are proposed, discussed, and tested. The first idea is based on the wet chemistry preparation of the perovskite particles, through the addition of the perovskite precursor solution to an anti-solvent to facilitate the precipitation of the perovskite particles in the solution. The second idea is based on the milling of a blend of the perovskite precursors in the dry form, in order to allow for the conversion of the precursors to the perovskite particles. The third idea is based on the atomization of the perovskite solution by a spray nozzle, introducing the spray droplets into a hot wall reactor, so as to prepare perovskite particles, using the droplet-to-particle spray approach (spray pyrolysis). Preliminary results show that the spray technology is the most successful method for the preparation of impurity-free perovskite particles and perovskite paste to deposit perovskite thin films. As a proof of concept, a perovskite solar cell with the paste prepared by the sprayed perovskite powder was successfully fabricated.

  19. Fabrication of Semiconducting Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Particles by Spray Technology.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian-Yazdi, Mohammad-Reza; Eslamian, Morteza

    2018-01-10

    In this "nano idea" paper, three concepts for the preparation of methylammonium lead halide perovskite particles are proposed, discussed, and tested. The first idea is based on the wet chemistry preparation of the perovskite particles, through the addition of the perovskite precursor solution to an anti-solvent to facilitate the precipitation of the perovskite particles in the solution. The second idea is based on the milling of a blend of the perovskite precursors in the dry form, in order to allow for the conversion of the precursors to the perovskite particles. The third idea is based on the atomization of the perovskite solution by a spray nozzle, introducing the spray droplets into a hot wall reactor, so as to prepare perovskite particles, using the droplet-to-particle spray approach (spray pyrolysis). Preliminary results show that the spray technology is the most successful method for the preparation of impurity-free perovskite particles and perovskite paste to deposit perovskite thin films. As a proof of concept, a perovskite solar cell with the paste prepared by the sprayed perovskite powder was successfully fabricated.

  20. Room-temperature polar order in [NH4][Cd(HCOO)3]--a hybrid inorganic-organic compound with a unique perovskite architecture.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aguirre, L C; Pato-Doldán, B; Stroppa, A; Yáñez-Vilar, S; Bayarjargal, L; Winkler, B; Castro-García, S; Mira, J; Sánchez-Andújar, M; Señarís-Rodríguez, M A

    2015-03-02

    We report on the hybrid inorganic-organic ammonium compound [NH4][Cd(HCOO)3], which displays a most unusual framework structure: instead of the expected 4(9)·6(6) topology, it shows an ABX3 perovskite architecture with the peculiarity and uniqueness (among all the up-to-date reported hybrid metal formates) that the Cd ions are connected only by syn-anti formate bridges, instead of anti-anti ones. This change of the coordination mode of the formate ligand is thus another variable that can provide new possibilities for tuning the properties of these versatile functional metal-organic framework materials. The room-temperature crystal structure of [NH4][Cd(HCOO)3] is noncentrosymmetric (S.G.: Pna21) and displays a polar axis. DFT calculations and symmetry mode analysis show that the rather large polarization arising from the off-center shift of the ammonium cations in the cavities (4.33 μC/cm(2)) is partially canceled by the antiparallel polarization coming from the [Cd(HCOO)3](-) framework, thus resulting in a net polarization of 1.35 μC/cm(2). As shown by second harmonic generation studies, this net polarization can be greatly increased by applying pressure (Pmax = 14 GPa), an external stimulus that, in turn, induces the appearance of new structural phases, as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  1. Anomalous perovskite PbRuO3 stabilized under high pressure

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, J.-G.; Kweon, K. E.; Zhou, J.-S.; Alonso, J. A.; Kong, P.-P.; Liu, Y.; Jin, Changqing; Wu, Junjie; Lin, Jung-Fu; Larregola, S. A.; Yang, Wenge; Shen, Guoyin; MacDonald, A. H.; Manthiram, Arumugam; Hwang, G. S.; Goodenough, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Perovskite oxides ABO3 are important materials used as components in electronic devices. The highly compact crystal structure consists of a framework of corner-shared BO6 octahedra enclosing the A-site cations. Because of these structural features, forming a strong bond between A and B cations is highly unlikely and has not been reported in the literature. Here we report a pressure-induced first-order transition in PbRuO3 from a common orthorhombic phase (Pbnm) to an orthorhombic phase (Pbn21) at 32 GPa by using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. This transition has been further verified with resistivity measurements and Raman spectra under high pressure. In contrast to most well-studied perovskites under high pressure, the Pbn21 phase of PbRuO3 stabilized at high pressure is a polar perovskite. More interestingly, the Pbn21 phase has the most distorted octahedra and a shortest Pb—Ru bond length relative to the average Pb—Ru bond length that has ever been reported in a perovskite structure. We have also simulated the behavior of the PbRuO3 perovskite under high pressure by first principles calculations. The calculated critical pressure for the phase transition and evolution of lattice parameters under pressure match the experimental results quantitatively. Our calculations also reveal that the hybridization between a Ru:t2g orbital and an sp hybrid on Pb increases dramatically in the Pbnm phase under pressure. This pressure-induced change destabilizes the Pbnm phase to give a phase transition to the Pbn21 phase where electrons in the overlapping orbitals form bonding and antibonding states along the shortest Ru—Pb direction at P > Pc. PMID:24277807

  2. Unusual Ferroelectricity in Two-Dimensional Perovskite Oxide Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinlian; Luo, Wei; Feng, Junsheng; Xiang, Hongjun

    2018-01-10

    Two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectricity have attracted much attention due to their applications in novel miniaturized devices such as nonvolatile memories, field effect transistors, and sensors. Since most of the commercial ferroelectric (FE) devices are based on ABO 3 perovskite oxides, it is important to investigate the properties of 2D ferroelectricity in perovskite oxide thin films. Here, based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we find that there exist three kinds of in-plane FE states that originate from different microscopic mechanisms: (i) a proper FE state with the polarization along [110] due to the second-order Jahn-Teller effect related to the B ion with empty d-orbitals; (ii) a robust FE state with the polarization along [100] induced by the surface effect; (iii) a hybrid improper FE state with the polarization along [110] that is induced by the trilinear coupling between two rotational modes and the A-site displacement. Interestingly, the ferroelectricity in the latter two cases becomes stronger along with decreasing the thin film thickness, in contrast to the usual behavior. Moreover, the latter two FE states are compatible with magnetism since their stability does not depend on the occupation of the d-orbitals of the B-ion. These two novel 2D FE mechanisms provide new avenues to design 2D multiferroics, as we demonstrated in SrVO and CaFeO thin film cases. Our work not only reveals new physical mechanisms of 2D ferroelectricity in perovskite oxide thin films but also provides a new route to design the high-performance 2D FE and multiferroics.

  3. Pb(B{sup {prime}}{sub 1/2}B{sup {prime}{prime}}{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-type perovskites: Part II. Short-range order parameter as a criterion of the distinction between relaxor and normal ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Jang, H.M.

    1997-08-01

    A classification scheme of Pb(B{sup {prime}}{sub 1/2}B{sup {prime}{prime}}{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-type perovskites with respect to the B-site order parameters was proposed based on the theoretical calculation of the short-range order parameter ({sigma}) using the pair-correlation model. The calculated order parameters predict that a Pb(B{sup {prime}}{sub 1/2}B{sup {prime}{prime}}{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-type perovskite without any charge difference between B{sup {prime}} and B{sup {prime}{prime}} cations [e.g., Pb(Zr{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} (PZT)] is represented by a completely disordered state with the absence of a finite coherence length. On the other hand, a Pb(B{sup {prime}}{sub 1/2}B{sup {prime}{prime}}{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} type perovskite system having different ionic charges ismore » characterized either by the short-range ordering with a nanoscale coherence length or by the macroscopic long-range ordering, depending on the magnitude of ionic charge difference between B{sup {prime}} and B{sup {prime}{prime}} ions. The normal ferroelectricity in Pb(B{sup {prime}}{sub 1/2}B{sup {prime}{prime}}{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-type complex perovskites was then correlated either with a completely disordered state ({sigma}=0) or with a perfectly ordered state ({sigma}=1), whereas the relaxor behavior was attributed to the nanoscale short-range ordering (0{lt}{sigma}{lt}1) in the configuration of the B-site cations. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}« less

  4. Two-Dimensional Perovskite Activation with an Organic Luminophore.

    PubMed

    Jemli, Khaoula; Audebert, Pierre; Galmiche, Laurent; Trippé-Allard, Gaelle; Garrot, Damien; Lauret, Jean-Sébastien; Deleporte, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-07

    A great advantage of the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites is the chemical flexibility and the possibility of a molecular engineering of each part of the material (the inorganic part and the organic part respectively) in order to improve or add some functionalities. An adequately chosen organic luminophore has been introduced inside a lead bromide type organic-inorganic perovskite, while respecting the two-dimensional perovskite structure. A substantial increase of the brilliance of the perovskite is obtained. This activation of the perovskite luminescence by the adequate engineering of the organic part is an original approach, and is particularly interesting in the framework of the light-emitting devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) or lasers.

  5. Magnetic and Structural Properties of A-Site Ordered Chromium Spinel Sulfides: Alternating Antiferromagnetic and Ferromagnetic Interactions in the Breathing Pyrochlore Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Mori, Masaki; Katayama, Naoyuki; Miyake, Atsushi; Tokunaga, Masashi; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Takenaka, Koshi

    2018-03-01

    We report a comprehensive study on the magnetic and structural properties of the spinel sulfides LiInCr4S8, LiGaCr4S8, and CuInCr4S8, where Li+/Cu+ and Ga3+/In3+ ions form a zinc-blende-type order. On the basis of synchrotron X-ray diffraction and magnetization data obtained using polycrystalline samples, these three sulfides are suggested to be breathing pyrochlore magnets with alternating antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic interactions on the small and large tetrahedra, respectively. The measured magnetization processes of the three sulfides up to 72 T are significantly different. The magnetization curves of LiInCr4S8 and CuInCr4S8 have large hysteresis loops with different shapes, while there is no hysteresis in that of LiGaCr4S8. Geometrical frustration of the small tetrahedron is likely to give rise to a wide variety of ground states, indicating the rich physics in these antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic breathing pyrochlore magnets.

  6. B-site cation order/disorder and their valence states in Ba3MnNb2O9 perovskite oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yan; Huang, Qing; Shafieizadeh, Zahra; Zhou, Haidong

    2018-06-01

    Polycrystalline samples Ba3MnNb2O9 synthesized by solid state reaction and single crystal samples grown by optical floating zone have been characterized using scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Three types of B-site Mn and Nb ordering phase are observed: fully ordered 1Mn:2Nb; fully disordered; nano-sized 1Mn:1Nb ordered. No electronic structure change for crystals with different ordering/disordering. The Mn valence is determined to be 2+, and Nb valence is 5+. Oxygen 2p orbitals hybridize with Mn 3d and Nb 4d orbitals. Factors that affect the electron energy loss near edge structures of transition metal white-lines in electron energy loss spectroscopy are explicitly illustrated and discussed.

  7. Perovskites keep on giving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2018-05-01

    Whether you like exploring the mysteries of light-matter interactions, playing with a versatile chemical platform, or developing the most efficient devices, metal halide perovskites could be the materials for you.

  8. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films

    DOEpatents

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

    2013-12-10

    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  9. Entropy in halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katan, Claudine; Mohite, Aditya D.; Even, Jacky

    2018-05-01

    Claudine Katan, Aditya D. Mohite and Jacky Even discuss the possible impact of various entropy contributions (stochastic structural fluctuations, anharmonicity and lattice softness) on the optoelectronic properties of halide perovskite materials and devices.

  10. Symmetry mismatch-driven perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for perovskite/brownmillerite heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Zhicheng; Guan, Xiangxiang; Shen, Xi; Zhang, Jine; Han, Furong; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Hongrui; Yan, Xi; Zhang, Qinghua; Gu, Lin; Hu, Fengxia; Yu, Richeng; Shen, Baogen; Sun, Jirong

    2018-05-15

    Grouping different transition metal oxides together by interface engineering is an important route toward emergent phenomenon. While most of the previous works focused on the interface effects in perovskite/perovskite heterostructures, here we reported on a symmetry mismatch-driven spin reorientation toward perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in perovskite/brownmillerite heterostructures, which is scarcely seen in tensile perovskite/perovskite heterostructures. We show that alternately stacking perovskite La 2/3 Sr 1/3 MnO 3 and brownmillerite LaCoO 2.5 causes a strong interface reconstruction due to symmetry discontinuity at interface: neighboring MnO 6 octahedra and CoO 4 tetrahedra at the perovskite/brownmillerite interface cooperatively relax in a manner that is unavailable for perovskite/perovskite interface, leading to distinct orbital reconstructions and thus the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Moreover, the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is robust, with an anisotropy constant two orders of magnitude greater than the in-plane anisotropy of the perovskite/perovskite interface. The present work demonstrates the great potential of symmetry engineering in designing artificial materials on demand.

  11. Electronic and magnetic ordering induced by Mo- and Ru doping of the Mn site in CaMnO3 perovskite: EMR probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shames, A. I.; Auslender, M.; Rozenberg, E.; Gorodetsky, G.; Martin, C.; Maignan, A.

    2005-05-01

    X-band electron magnetic-resonance (EMR) measurements of polycrystalline CaMn1-yMoyO3 (0⩽y ⩽0.14) samples were performed at 120K⩽T⩽540K. The data obtained are compared with those of another electron-doped manganite system, CaMn1-xRuxO3 (0⩽x ⩽0.40). The observed anomalies of the EMR parameters correlate pretty well with the temperatures of antiferro-, ferromagneticlike, and orbital/charge-ordering transitions in these systems. However, a strong difference is observed between the resonant properties of Mo- and Ru doped series at both paramagnetic (PM) and magnetically ordered states. To describe such a difference, the energy-band diagrams, which comprise the deep impurity t2g-like states +eg-like conductive band for CaMn1-xRuxO3 and shallow impurity states+conductive band, both having eg-like symmetry, for CaMn1-yMoyO3, are proposed. Specific electrons' contribution to the EMR linewidth at PM temperatures is introduced for the considered systems.

  12. Structural change and charge ordering correlated ultrasonic anomalies in La1-xCaxMnO3 (x=0.5,0.83) perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, R. K.; Zhu, C. F.; Xie, J. Q.; Li, X. G.

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonic sound velocity and attenuation have been measured in polycrystalline manganese oxide La1-xCaxMnO3 (x=0.5,0.83,1.0) at a frequency of 10 MHz. For x=0.5, on cooling down from high temperature, a slight softening of the sound velocity above the charge ordering transition temperature TCO and dramatic stiffening below TCO coincided with big attenuation peaks for both longitudinal and transverse waves were observed. It was found that these ultrasonic anomalies near TCO are correlated with the fine structure (i.e., the lattice parameters) change caused by the Jahn-Teller effect. For x=0.83, the sound velocity starts to soften dramatically with decreasing temperature from higher temperature to TS (180 K), and stiffens dramatically below TS. The large softening and stiffening of the sound velocity accompanied by a big attenuation peak are strongly correlated with a cubic-to-tetragonal structural phase transition at TS, which is confirmed by the low-temperature powder x-ray diffraction measurements. It is suggested that this structural phase transition be due to the Jahn-Teller distortion of the Mn3+O6 octahedra and related to the charge ordering transition. For CaMnO3, the anomaly in sound velocity is small.

  13. Probing cation and vacancy ordering in the dry and hydrated yttrium-substituted BaSnO3 perovskite by NMR spectroscopy and first principles calculations: implications for proton mobility.

    PubMed

    Buannic, Lucienne; Blanc, Frédéric; Middlemiss, Derek S; Grey, Clare P

    2012-09-05

    Hydrated BaSn(1-x)Y(x)O(3-x/2) is a protonic conductor that, unlike many other related perovskites, shows high conductivity even at high substitution levels. A joint multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and density functional theory (total energy and GIPAW NMR calculations) investigation of BaSn(1-x)Y(x)O(3-x/2) (0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.50) was performed to investigate cation ordering and the location of the oxygen vacancies in the dry material. The DFT energetics show that Y doping on the Sn site is favored over doping on the Ba site. The (119)Sn chemical shifts are sensitive to the number of neighboring Sn and Y cations, an experimental observation that is supported by the GIPAW calculations and that allows clustering to be monitored: Y substitution on the Sn sublattice is close to random up to x = 0.20, while at higher substitution levels, Y-O-Y linkages are avoided, leading, at x = 0.50, to strict Y-O-Sn alternation of B-site cations. These results are confirmed by the absence of a "Y-O-Y" (17)O resonance and supported by the (17)O NMR shift calculations. Although resonances due to six-coordinate Y cations were observed by (89)Y NMR, the agreement between the experimental and calculated shifts was poor. Five-coordinate Sn and Y sites (i.e., sites next to the vacancy) were observed by (119)Sn and (89)Y NMR, respectively, these sites disappearing on hydration. More five-coordinated Sn than five-coordinated Y sites are seen, even at x = 0.50, which is ascribed to the presence of residual Sn-O-Sn defects in the cation-ordered material and their ability to accommodate O vacancies. High-temperature (119)Sn NMR reveals that the O ions are mobile above 400 °C, oxygen mobility being required to hydrate these materials. The high protonic mobility, even in the high Y-content materials, is ascribed to the Y-O-Sn cation ordering, which prevents proton trapping on the more basic Y-O-Y sites.

  14. Perovskite photonic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Brandon R.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-05-01

    The field of solution-processed semiconductors has made great strides; however, it has yet to enable electrically driven lasers. To achieve this goal, improved materials are required that combine efficient (>50% quantum yield) radiative recombination under high injection, large and balanced charge-carrier mobilities in excess of 10 cm2 V-1 s-1, free-carrier densities greater than 1017 cm-3 and gain coefficients exceeding 104 cm-1. Solid-state perovskites are -- in addition to galvanizing the field of solar electricity -- showing great promise in photonic sources, and may be the answer to realizing solution-cast laser diodes. Here, we discuss the properties of perovskites that benefit light emission, review recent progress in perovskite electroluminescent diodes and optically pumped lasers, and examine the remaining challenges in achieving continuous-wave and electrically driven lasing.

  15. Lattice effects on ferromagnetism in perovskite ruthenates

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, J.-G.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Ferromagnetism and its evolution in the orthorhombic perovskite system Sr1–xCaxRuO3 have been widely believed to correlate with structural distortion. The recent development of high-pressure synthesis of the Ba-substituted Sr1–yBayRuO3 makes it possible to study ferromagnetism over a broader phase diagram, which includes the orthorhombic Imma and the cubic phases. However, the chemical substitutions introduce the A-site disorder effect on Tc, which complicates determination of the relationship between ferromagnetism and structural distortion. By clarifying the site disorder effect on Tc in several unique series of ruthenates in which the average bond length 〈A–O〉 remains the same but the bond-length variance varies, we are able to demonstrate a parabolic curve of Tc versus mean bond length 〈A–O〉. A much higher Tc ∼ 177 K than that found in orthorhombic SrRuO3 can be obtained from the curve at a bond length 〈A–O〉, which makes the geometric factor t = 〈A–O〉/(√2〈Ru–O〉) ∼ 1. This result reveals not only that the ferromagnetism in the ruthenates is extremely sensitive to the lattice strain, but also that it has an important implication for exploring the structure–property relationship in a broad range of oxides with perovskite or a perovskite-related structure. PMID:23904477

  16. Cu-In Halide Perovskite Solar Absorbers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Yang, Dongwen; Sun, Yuanhui; Li, Tianshu; Zhang, Lijun; Yu, Liping; Zunger, Alex

    2017-05-17

    The long-term chemical instability and the presence of toxic Pb in otherwise stellar solar absorber APbX 3 made of organic molecules on the A site and halogens for X have hindered their large-scale commercialization. Previously explored ways to achieve Pb-free halide perovskites involved replacing Pb 2+ with other similar M 2+ cations in ns 2 electron configuration, e.g., Sn 2+ or by Bi 3+ (plus Ag + ), but unfortunately this showed either poor stability (M = Sn) or weakly absorbing oversized indirect gaps (M = Bi), prompting concerns that perhaps stability and good optoelectronic properties might be contraindicated. Herein, we exploit the electronic structure underpinning of classic Cu[In,Ga]Se 2 (CIGS) chalcopyrite solar absorbers to design Pb-free halide perovskites by transmuting 2Pb to the pair [B IB + C III ] such as [Cu + Ga] or [Ag + In] and combinations thereof. The resulting group of double perovskites with formula A 2 BCX 6 (A = K, Rb, Cs; B = Cu, Ag; C = Ga, In; X = Cl, Br, I) benefits from the ionic, yet narrow-gap character of halide perovskites, and at the same time borrows the advantage of the strong Cu(d)/Se(p) → Ga/In(s/p) valence-to-conduction-band absorption spectra known from CIGS. This constitutes a new group of CuIn-based Halide Perovskite (CIHP). Our first-principles calculations guided by such design principles indicate that the CIHPs class has members with clear thermodynamic stability, showing direct band gaps, and manifesting a wide-range of tunable gap values (from zero to about 2.5 eV) and combination of light electron and heavy-light hole effective masses. Materials screening of candidate CIHPs then identifies the best-of-class Rb 2 [CuIn]Cl 6 , Rb 2 [AgIn]Br 6 , and Cs 2 [AgIn]Br 6 , having direct band gaps of 1.36, 1.46, and 1.50 eV, and theoretical spectroscopic limited maximal efficiency comparable to chalcopyrites and CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 . Our finding offers a new routine for designing new-type Pb-free halide perovskite solar

  17. Magnetic ground states in the three O s6 + (5 d2 ) double perovskites B a2M Os O6 (M =Mg ,Zn,and Cd) from Néel order to its suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjerrison, C. A.; Thompson, C. M.; Sharma, A. Z.; Hallas, A. M.; Wilson, M. N.; Munsie, T. J. S.; Flacau, R.; Wiebe, C. R.; Gaulin, B. D.; Luke, G. M.; Greedan, J. E.

    2016-10-01

    Three closely related double perovskites (DP) based on the 5 d2 ion, O s6 +,B a2M Os O6 , with M =Mg , Zn, and Cd have been prepared and characterized using x-ray (XRD) and neutron diffraction (ND), dc magnetization, heat capacity, and muon spin relaxation (μ SR ) techniques. All three are cubic, Fm-3 m , at ambient temperature from XRD with Δ d /d ˜5 ×10-4 resolution. For both M =Mg and Zn, ND data at 3.5 K and lower, Δ d /d =2 ×10-3 , resolution show no signs of a distortion. The results are compared with the known DP material, B a2CaOs O6 , which shows antiferromagnetic (AF) order below TN=49 K and a moderate frustration index, f ˜4 , (f =| θCW|/ TN ), where θCW is the Curie-Weiss temperature. B a2MgOs O6 with a unit cell constant a0=8.0757 (1 ) Å , 3% smaller than for B a2CaOs O6 , also shows Néel order below TN=51 K with f ˜2 . However, B a2ZnOs O6,a0=8.0975 (1 ) Å , 0.27% larger than B a2MgOs O6 , does not show Néel order from either heat capacity or μ SR data. A zero field cooled/field cooled (ZFC/FC) irreversibility occurs near 30 K and a broad heat capacity anomaly is detected at a similar temperature. The μ SR data are consistent with a weak spin ordering with an onset below 28 K but with a coexisting dynamic component. B a2CdOs O6 with a0=8.3190 (1 ) Å , 0.5% smaller than B a2CaOs O6 , shows no evidence for any type of order/spin freezing to 0.47 K from any of the measurement techniques applied. The results for M =Zn and Cd appear to lie outside of the mean field theory of Chen and Balents [Phys. Rev. B 84, 094420 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.094420] for cubic d2 DP with strong spin orbit coupling, but B a2MgOs O6 , along with B a2CaOs O6 , is likely one of the three predicted AF phases. The remarkable contrast between the doppelgänger pairs M =Mg /Zn and M =Ca /Cd may be traceable to differences in electronic structure of the diamagnetic M ions. All of the super-super exchange pathways in these DP materials involve Os-O-M -O-Os linkages.

  18. High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xin; Lin, Feng; Wu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells fabricated from organometal halide light harvesters have captured significant attention due to their tremendously low device costs as well as unprecedented rapid progress on power conversion efficiency (PCE). A certified PCE of 20.1% was achieved in late 2014 following the first study of long‐term stable all‐solid‐state perovskite solar cell with a PCE of 9.7% in 2012, showing their promising potential towards future cost‐effective and high performance solar cells. Here, notable achievements of primary device configuration involving perovskite layer, hole‐transporting materials (HTMs) and electron‐transporting materials (ETMs) are reviewed. Numerous strategies for enhancing photovoltaic parameters of perovskite solar cells, including morphology and crystallization control of perovskite layer, HTMs design and ETMs modifications are discussed in detail. In addition, perovskite solar cells outside of HTMs and ETMs are mentioned as well, providing guidelines for further simplification of device processing and hence cost reduction. PMID:27774402

  19. The Synthesis and Characterization of Some Fluoride Perovskites: An Undergraduate Experiment in Solid State Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Richard H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes a senior-level experiment dealing with the synthesis and characterization of a perovskite. Since most perovskites are cubic, their characterization by x-ray diffraction is simplified. In addition, magnetic ordering may be observed and the effects of a Jahn-Teller distortion seen. (JN)

  20. Two-Photon Absorption in Organometallic Bromide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Walters, Grant; Sutherland, Brandon R; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Shi, Dong; Comin, Riccardo; Sellan, Daniel P; Bakr, Osman M; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-09-22

    Organometallic trihalide perovskites are solution-processed semiconductors that have made great strides in third-generation thin film light-harvesting and light-emitting optoelectronic devices. Recently, it has been demonstrated that large, high-purity single crystals of these perovskites can be synthesized from the solution phase. These crystals' large dimensions, clean bandgap, and solid-state order have provided us with a suitable medium to observe and quantify two-photon absorption in perovskites. When CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals are pumped with intense 800 nm light, we observe band-to-band photoluminescence at 572 nm, indicative of two-photon absorption. We report the nonlinear absorption coefficient of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites to be 8.6 cm GW(-1) at 800 nm, comparable to epitaxial single-crystal semiconductors of similar bandgap. We have leveraged this nonlinear process to electrically autocorrelate a 100 fs pulsed laser using a two-photon perovskite photodetector. This work demonstrates the viability of organometallic trihalide perovskites as a convenient and low-cost nonlinear absorber for applications in ultrafast photonics.

  1. Interface architecture between TiO2/perovskite, perovskite/hole transport layer, and perovskite grain boundary(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayase, Shuzi; Hirotani, Daisuke; Moriya, Masahiro; Ogomi, Yuhei; Shen, Qing; Yoshino, Kenji; Toyoda, Taro

    2016-09-01

    In order to examine the interface structure of TiO2/perovskite layer, quartz crystal microbalance sensor (QCM) was used. On the QCM sensor, TiO2 layer was fabricated and the PbI2 solution in Dimethylformamide (DMF) was passed on the QCM sensor to estimate the adsorption density of the PbI2 on the titania2. The amount of PbI2 adsorption on TiO2 surface increased as the adsorption time and leveled off at a certain time. PbI2 still remained even after the solvent only (DMF) was passed on the TiO2 layer on QCM (namely rinsing with DMF), suggesting that the PbI2 was tightly bonded on the TiO2 surface. The bonding structure was found to be Ti-O-Pb linkage by XPS analysis. We concluded that the Ti-OH on the surface of TiO2 reacts with I-Pb-I to form Ti-O-Pb-I and HI (Fig.1 B). The surface trap density was measured by thermally stimulated current (TSC) method. Before the PbI2 passivation, the trap density of TiO2 was 1019 cm3. The trap density decreased to 1016/cm3 after the PbI2 passivation, suggesting that the TiO2 surface trap was passivated with I-Pb-I. The passivation density was tuned by the concentration of PbI2 in DMF, by which TiO2 layer was passivated. Perovskite solar cells were fabricated on the passivated TiO2 layer with various PbI2 passivation densities by one step process (mixture of PbI2 + MAI in DMF). It was found that Jsc increased with an increase in the Ti-O-Pb density. We concluded that the interface between TiO2 and perovskite layer has passivation structure consisting of Ti-O-Pb-I which decreases the trap density of the interfaces and supresses charge recombination. The effect of Cl anion on high efficiency is still controversial when perovskite layer is prepared by one step method from the mixture of MAI and PbCl2. It was found that adsorption density of PbCl2 on TiO2 surface was much higher than that of PbI2 from the experiment using QCM sensor. After the surface was washed with DMF, Cl and Pb were detected. These results suggest that the TiO2

  2. Band Gap Tuning via Lattice Contraction and Octahedral Tilting in Perovskite Materials for Photovoltaics

    DOE PAGES

    Prasanna, Rohit; Gold-Parker, Aryeh; Leijtens, Tomas; ...

    2017-07-13

    Tin and lead iodide perovskite semiconductors of the composition AMX 3, where M is a metal and X is a halide, are leading candidates for high efficiency low cost tandem photovoltaics, in part because they have band gaps that can be tuned over a wide range by compositional substitution. We experimentally identify two competing mechanisms through which the A-site cation influences the band gap of 3D metal halide perovskites. Using a smaller A-site cation can distort the perovskite lattice in two distinct ways: by tilting the MX 6 octahedra or by simply contracting the lattice isotropically. The former effect tendsmore » to raise the band gap, while the latter tends to decrease it. Lead iodide perovskites show an increase in band gap upon partial substitution of the larger formamidinium with the smaller cesium, due to octahedral tilting. Perovskites based on tin, which is slightly smaller than lead, show the opposite trend: they show no octahedral tilting upon Cs-substitution but only a contraction of the lattice, leading to progressive reduction of the band gap. We outline a strategy to systematically tune the band gap and valence and conduction band positions of metal halide perovskites through control of the cation composition. Using this strategy, we demonstrate solar cells that harvest light in the infrared up to 1040 nm, reaching a stabilized power conversion efficiency of 17.8%, showing promise for improvements of the bottom cell of all-perovskite tandem solar cells. In conclusion, the mechanisms of cation-based band gap tuning we describe are broadly applicable to 3D metal halide perovskites and will be useful in further development of perovskite semiconductors for optoelectronic applications.« less

  3. Band Gap Tuning via Lattice Contraction and Octahedral Tilting in Perovskite Materials for Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Prasanna, Rohit; Gold-Parker, Aryeh; Leijtens, Tomas

    Tin and lead iodide perovskite semiconductors of the composition AMX 3, where M is a metal and X is a halide, are leading candidates for high efficiency low cost tandem photovoltaics, in part because they have band gaps that can be tuned over a wide range by compositional substitution. We experimentally identify two competing mechanisms through which the A-site cation influences the band gap of 3D metal halide perovskites. Using a smaller A-site cation can distort the perovskite lattice in two distinct ways: by tilting the MX 6 octahedra or by simply contracting the lattice isotropically. The former effect tendsmore » to raise the band gap, while the latter tends to decrease it. Lead iodide perovskites show an increase in band gap upon partial substitution of the larger formamidinium with the smaller cesium, due to octahedral tilting. Perovskites based on tin, which is slightly smaller than lead, show the opposite trend: they show no octahedral tilting upon Cs-substitution but only a contraction of the lattice, leading to progressive reduction of the band gap. We outline a strategy to systematically tune the band gap and valence and conduction band positions of metal halide perovskites through control of the cation composition. Using this strategy, we demonstrate solar cells that harvest light in the infrared up to 1040 nm, reaching a stabilized power conversion efficiency of 17.8%, showing promise for improvements of the bottom cell of all-perovskite tandem solar cells. In conclusion, the mechanisms of cation-based band gap tuning we describe are broadly applicable to 3D metal halide perovskites and will be useful in further development of perovskite semiconductors for optoelectronic applications.« less

  4. Band Gap Tuning via Lattice Contraction and Octahedral Tilting in Perovskite Materials for Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Rohit; Gold-Parker, Aryeh; Leijtens, Tomas; Conings, Bert; Babayigit, Aslihan; Boyen, Hans-Gerd; Toney, Michael F; McGehee, Michael D

    2017-08-16

    Tin and lead iodide perovskite semiconductors of the composition AMX 3 , where M is a metal and X is a halide, are leading candidates for high efficiency low cost tandem photovoltaics, in part because they have band gaps that can be tuned over a wide range by compositional substitution. We experimentally identify two competing mechanisms through which the A-site cation influences the band gap of 3D metal halide perovskites. Using a smaller A-site cation can distort the perovskite lattice in two distinct ways: by tilting the MX 6 octahedra or by simply contracting the lattice isotropically. The former effect tends to raise the band gap, while the latter tends to decrease it. Lead iodide perovskites show an increase in band gap upon partial substitution of the larger formamidinium with the smaller cesium, due to octahedral tilting. Perovskites based on tin, which is slightly smaller than lead, show the opposite trend: they show no octahedral tilting upon Cs-substitution but only a contraction of the lattice, leading to progressive reduction of the band gap. We outline a strategy to systematically tune the band gap and valence and conduction band positions of metal halide perovskites through control of the cation composition. Using this strategy, we demonstrate solar cells that harvest light in the infrared up to 1040 nm, reaching a stabilized power conversion efficiency of 17.8%, showing promise for improvements of the bottom cell of all-perovskite tandem solar cells. The mechanisms of cation-based band gap tuning we describe are broadly applicable to 3D metal halide perovskites and will be useful in further development of perovskite semiconductors for optoelectronic applications.

  5. Epitaxial Electrodeposition of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Koza, Jakub A.; Hill, James C.; Demster, Ashley C.; ...

    2015-12-16

    Here, an electrochemical/chemical route is introduced to deposit both textured and epitaxial films of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI 3) perovskites. The perovskite films are produced by chemical conversion of lead dioxide films that have been electrodeposited as either textured or epitaxial films onto [111]-textured Au and [100] and [111] single-crystal Au substrates. The epitaxial relationships for the MAPbI 3 films are MAPbI 3(001)[010]∥PbO 2(100)<001> and MAPbI 3(110)[111]∥PbO 2(100)<001> regardless of the Au substrate orientation, because the in-plane order of the converted film is controlled by the epitaxial PbO 2 precursor film. The textured and epitaxial MAPbI 3 films both havemore » trap densities lower than and photoluminescence intensities higher than those of polycrystalline films produced by spin coating.« less

  6. Synthesis of solid solutions of perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Dambekalne, M.Y.; Antonova, M.K.; Perro, I.T.

    The authors carry out thermographic studies, using a derivatograph, in order to understand the nature of the processes taking place during the synthesis of solid solutions of perovskites. Based on the detailed studies on the phase transformations occurring in the charges of the PSN-PMN solid solutions and on the selection of the optimum conditions for carrying out their synthesis, the authors obtained a powder containing a minimum quantity of the undesirable pyrochlore phase and by sintering it using the hot pressing method, they produced single phase ceramic specimens containing the perovskite phase alone with a density close to the theoreticalmore » value and showing zero apparent porosity and water absorption.« less

  7. Organohalide Perovskites for Solar Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianqian; Armin, Ardalan; Burn, Paul L; Meredith, Paul

    2016-03-15

    Lead-based organohalide perovskites have recently emerged as arguably the most promising of all next generation thin film solar cell technologies. Power conversion efficiencies have reached 20% in less than 5 years, and their application to other optoelectronic device platforms such as photodetectors and light emitting diodes is being increasingly reported. Organohalide perovskites can be solution processed or evaporated at low temperatures to form simple thin film photojunctions, thus delivering the potential for the holy grail of high efficiency, low embedded energy, and low cost photovoltaics. The initial device-driven "perovskite fever" has more recently given way to efforts to better understand how these materials work in solar cells, and deeper elucidation of their structure-property relationships. In this Account, we focus on this element of organohalide perovskite chemistry and physics in particular examining critical electro-optical, morphological, and architectural phenomena. We first examine basic crystal and chemical structure, and how this impacts important solar-cell related properties such as the optical gap. We then turn to deeper electronic phenomena such as carrier mobilities, trap densities, and recombination dynamics, as well as examining ionic and dielectric properties and how these two types of physics impact each other. The issue of whether organohalide perovskites are predominantly nonexcitonic at room temperature is currently a matter of some debate, and we summarize the evidence for what appears to be the emerging field consensus: an exciton binding energy of order 10 meV. Having discussed the important basic chemistry and physics we turn to more device-related considerations including processing, morphology, architecture, thin film electro-optics and interfacial energetics. These phenomena directly impact solar cell performance parameters such as open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, internal and external quantum efficiency

  8. Tailoring perovskite compounds for broadband light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hengchang; Guo, Xiaowei; Yang, Cheng; Li, Shaorong

    2018-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells have experienced an outstanding advance in power conversion efficiency (PCE) by optimizing the perovskite layer morphology, composition, interfaces, and charge collection efficiency. To enhance PCE, the mixed perovskites were proposed in recent years. In this study, optoelectronic performance of pure perovskites and mixed ones were investigated. It was demonstrated that the mixed perovskites exhibit superior to the pure ones. The mixed material can absorb broadband light absorption and result in increased short circuit current density and power conversion efficiency.

  9. Curtailing Perovskite Processing Limitations via Lamination at the Perovskite/Perovskite Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hest, Marinus F; Moore, David; Klein, Talysa

    Standard layer-by-layer solution processing methods constrain lead-halide perovskite device architectures. The layer below the perovskite must be robust to the strong organic solvents used to form the perovskite while the layer above has a limited thermal budget and must be processed in nonpolar solvents to prevent perovskite degradation. To circumvent these limitations, we developed a procedure where two transparent conductive oxide/transport material/perovskite half stacks are independently fabricated and then laminated together at the perovskite/perovskite interface. Using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, external quantum efficiency, X-ray diffraction, and time-resolved photoluminesence spectroscopy, we show that this procedure improves photovoltaic properties of the perovskite layer.more » Applying this procedure, semitransparent devices employing two high-temperature oxide transport layers were fabricated, which realized an average efficiency of 9.6% (maximum: 10.6%) despite series resistance limitations from the substrate design. Overall, the developed lamination procedure curtails processing constraints, enables new device designs, and affords new opportunities for optimization.« less

  10. Structural investigations and the effect of strain on lead based double perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbett, Brian; Fennie, Craig J.

    2014-03-01

    The A2 BB' O6 double perovskite structure, in which the B and B' ions are ordered (typically in a rocksalt configuration), provides a versatile platform to realize new properties such as multiferroicity. In particular, compounds with a lone-pair cation on the A-site, such as A=Pb2+, and magnetic B=Co, Mn, and diamagnetic B'= Te, Mo, W, Re, cations have been investigated experimentally, but as of yet none have been found to display ferroelectricity, although several are known to be antiferroelectric. Here we present a first-principles study of the structural and dielectric properties of this family of compounds. We resolve any conflicting reports in the literature as to the ground state structure of compounds and predict the ground state structure when no structural data is available. Additionally, we investigate the effect of epitaxial strain on the structural and magnetic properties.

  11. Laser deposition of resonant silicon nanoparticles on perovskite for photoluminescence enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiguntseva, E. Y.; Zalogina, A. S.; Milichko, V. A.; Zuev, D. A.; Omelyanovich, M. M.; Ishteev, A.; Cerdan Pasaran, A.; Haroldson, R.; Makarov, S. V.; Zakhidov, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid lead halide perovskite based optoelectronics is a promising area of modern technologies yielding excellent characteristics of light emitting diodes and lasers as well as high efficiencies of photovoltaic devices. However, the efficiency of perovskite based devices hold a potential of further improvement. Here we demonstrate high photoluminescence efficiency of perovskites thin films via deposition of resonant silicon nanoparticles on their surface. The deposited nanoparticles have a number of advances over their plasmonic counterparts, which were applied in previous studies. We show experimentally the increase of photoluminescence of perovskite film with the silicon nanoparticles by 150 % as compared to the film without the nanoparticles. The results are supported by numerical calculations. Our results pave the way to high throughput implementation of low loss resonant nanoparticles in order to create highly effective perovskite based optoelectronic devices.

  12. Lead Acetate Based Hybrid Perovskite Through Hot Casting for Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Gwang Su; Choi, Won-Gyu; Na, Sungjae; Gökdemir, Fatma Pinar; Moon, Taeho

    2018-03-01

    Flawless coverage of a perovskite layer is essential in order to achieve realistic high-performance planar heterojunction solar cells. We present that high-quality perovskite layers can be efficiently formed by a novel hot casting route combined with MAI (CH3NH3I) and non-halide lead acetate (PbAc2) precursors under ambient atmosphere. Casting temperature is controlled to produce various perovskite microstructures and the resulted crystalline layers are found to be comprised of closely packed islands with a smooth surface structure. Lead acetate employed perovskite solar cells are fabricated using PEDOT:PSS and PCBM charge transporting layers, in p- i- n type planar architecture. Especially, the outstanding open-circuit voltage demonstrates the high crystallinity and dense coverage of the produced perovskite layers by this facile route.

  13. Glory of piezoelectric perovskites.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Kenji

    2015-08-01

    This article reviews the history of piezoelectric perovskites and forecasts future development trends, including Uchino's discoveries such as the Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 electrostrictor, Pb(Zn 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 single crystal, (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O 3 photostriction, and Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 -Terfenol magnetoelectric composites. We discuss five key trends in the development of piezomaterials: performance to reliability, hard to soft, macro to nano, homo to hetero, and single to multi-functional.

  14. Glory of piezoelectric perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Uchino, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the history of piezoelectric perovskites and forecasts future development trends, including Uchino’s discoveries such as the Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 electrostrictor, Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 single crystal, (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3 photostriction, and Pb(Zr, Ti)O3–Terfenol magnetoelectric composites. We discuss five key trends in the development of piezomaterials: performance to reliability, hard to soft, macro to nano, homo to hetero, and single to multi-functional. PMID:27877827

  15. A Direct Bandgap Copper-Antimony Halide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Brenda; Ramos, Estrella; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Alonso, Juan Carlos; Solis-Ibarra, Diego

    2017-07-12

    Since the establishment of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), there has been an intense search for alternative materials to replace lead and improve their stability toward moisture and light. As single-metal perovskite structures have yielded unsatisfactory performances, an alternative is the use of double perovskites that incorporate a combination of metals. To this day, only a handful of these compounds have been synthesized, but most of them have indirect bandgaps and/or do not have bandgaps energies well-suited for photovoltaic applications. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a unique mixed metal ⟨111⟩-oriented layered perovskite, Cs 4 CuSb 2 Cl 12 (1), that incorporates Cu 2+ and Sb 3+ into layers that are three octahedra thick (n = 3). In addition to being made of abundant and nontoxic elements, we show that this material behaves as a semiconductor with a direct bandgap of 1.0 eV and its conductivity is 1 order of magnitude greater than that of MAPbI 3 (MA = methylammonium). Furthermore, 1 has high photo- and thermal-stability and is tolerant to humidity. We conclude that 1 is a promising material for photovoltaic applications and represents a new type of layered perovskite structure that incorporates metals in 2+ and 3+ oxidation states, thus significantly widening the possible combinations of metals to replace lead in PSCs.

  16. Electrical conductivity of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 Perovskite and a Perovskite-dominated assemblage at lower mantle conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1987-01-01

    Electrical conductivity measurements of Perovskite and a Perovskite-dominated assemblage synthesized from pyroxene and olivine demonstrate that these high-pressure phases are insulating to pressures of 82 GPa and temperatures of 4500 K. Assuming an anhydrous upper mantle composition, the result provides an upper bound of 0.01 S/m for the electrical conductivity of the lower mantle between depths of 700 and 1900 km. This is 2 to 4 orders of magnitude lower than previous estimates of lower-mantle conductivity derived from studies of geomagnetic secular variations.

  17. Perovskites in catalysis and electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jonathan; Rao, Reshma R; Giordano, Livia; Katayama, Yu; Yu, Yang; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2017-11-10

    Catalysts for chemical and electrochemical reactions underpin many aspects of modern technology and industry, from energy storage and conversion to toxic emissions abatement to chemical and materials synthesis. This role necessitates the design of highly active, stable, yet earth-abundant heterogeneous catalysts. In this Review, we present the perovskite oxide family as a basis for developing such catalysts for (electro)chemical conversions spanning carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen chemistries. A framework for rationalizing activity trends and guiding perovskite oxide catalyst design is described, followed by illustrations of how a robust understanding of perovskite electronic structure provides fundamental insights into activity, stability, and mechanism in oxygen electrocatalysis. We conclude by outlining how these insights open experimental and computational opportunities to expand the compositional and chemical reaction space for next-generation perovskite catalysts. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Advances in Perovskite Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Chuantian; Bolink, Henk J.; Han, Hongwei; Huang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Organolead halide perovskite materials possess a combination of remarkable optoelectronic properties, such as steep optical absorption edge and high absorption coefficients, long charge carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes. Taken together with the ability for low temperature preparation, also from solution, perovskite‐based devices, especially photovoltaic (PV) cells have been studied intensively, with remarkable progress in performance, over the past few years. The combination of high efficiency, low cost and additional (non‐PV) applications provides great potential for commercialization. Performance and applications of perovskite solar cells often correlate with their device structures. Many innovative device structures were developed, aiming at large‐scale fabrication, reducing fabrication cost, enhancing the power conversion efficiency and thus broadening potential future applications. This review summarizes typical structures of perovskite solar cells and comments on novel device structures. The applications of perovskite solar cells are discussed. PMID:27812475

  19. Perovskites in catalysis and electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jonathan; Rao, Reshma R.; Giordano, Livia; Katayama, Yu; Yu, Yang; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Catalysts for chemical and electrochemical reactions underpin many aspects of modern technology and industry, from energy storage and conversion to toxic emissions abatement to chemical and materials synthesis. This role necessitates the design of highly active, stable, yet earth-abundant heterogeneous catalysts. In this Review, we present the perovskite oxide family as a basis for developing such catalysts for (electro)chemical conversions spanning carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen chemistries. A framework for rationalizing activity trends and guiding perovskite oxide catalyst design is described, followed by illustrations of how a robust understanding of perovskite electronic structure provides fundamental insights into activity, stability, and mechanism in oxygen electrocatalysis. We conclude by outlining how these insights open experimental and computational opportunities to expand the compositional and chemical reaction space for next-generation perovskite catalysts.

  20. Perovskite Solar Cells | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    & Devices pages: High-Efficiency Crystalline PV Polycrystalline Thin-Film PV Perovskite and Organic -Defect Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Perovskite Films as PV Absorbers. (FY 2015FY 2016). In collaboration with organic metal halide perovskite (see article). Ultrahigh-Efficiency and Low-Cost Polycrystalline Halide

  1. Perovskite and Organic Photovoltaics | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Perovskite and Organic Photovoltaics Perovskite and Organic Photovoltaics Scientist holds several solar cells; 2) electronic energy level alignment at the carbon nanotube/organic metal halide perovskite Hest in the PDIL in the S and TF at NREL. Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) We develop and apply new absorber

  2. Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized band gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eperon, Giles E.; Leijtens, Tomas; Bush, Kevin A.; Prasanna, Rohit; Green, Thomas; Wang, Jacob Tse-Wei; McMeekin, David P.; Volonakis, George; Milot, Rebecca L.; May, Richard; Palmstrom, Axel; Slotcavage, Daniel J.; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Patel, Jay B.; Parrott, Elizabeth S.; Sutton, Rebecca J.; Ma, Wen; Moghadam, Farhad; Conings, Bert; Babayigit, Aslihan; Boyen, Hans-Gerd; Bent, Stacey; Giustino, Feliciano; Herz, Laura M.; Johnston, Michael B.; McGehee, Michael D.; Snaith, Henry J.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate four- and two-terminal perovskite-perovskite tandem solar cells with ideally matched band gaps. We develop an infrared-absorbing 1.2-electron volt band-gap perovskite, FA0.75Cs0.25Sn0.5Pb0.5I3, that can deliver 14.8% efficiency. By combining this material with a wider-band gap FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.5Br0.5)3 material, we achieve monolithic two-terminal tandem efficiencies of 17.0% with >1.65-volt open-circuit voltage. We also make mechanically stacked four-terminal tandem cells and obtain 20.3% efficiency. Notably, we find that our infrared-absorbing perovskite cells exhibit excellent thermal and atmospheric stability, not previously achieved for Sn-based perovskites. This device architecture and materials set will enable “all-perovskite” thin-film solar cells to reach the highest efficiencies in the long term at the lowest costs.

  3. Excitations Partition into Two Distinct Populations in Bulk Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lili; Brawand, Nicholas P.; Vörös, Márton

    2018-01-09

    Organolead halide perovskites convert optical excitations to charge carriers with remarkable efficiency in optoelectronic devices. Previous research predominantly documents dynamics in perovskite thin films; however, extensive disorder in this platform may obscure the observed carrier dynamics. Here, carrier dynamics in perovskite single-domain single crystals is examined by performing transient absorption spectroscopy in a transmissive geometry. Two distinct sets of carrier populations that coexist at the same radiation fluence, but display different decay dynamics, are observed: one dominated by second-order recombination and the other by third-order recombination. Based on ab initio simulations, this observation is found to be most consistent withmore » the hypothesis that free carriers and localized carriers coexist due to polaron formation. The calculations suggest that polarons will form in both CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbI3 crystals, but that they are more pronounced in CH3NH3PbBr3. Single-crystal CH3NH3PbBr3 could represent the key to understanding the impact of polarons on the transport properties of perovskite optoelectronic devices.« less

  4. Toward Increasing Micropore Volume between Hybrid Layered Perovskites with Silsesquioxane Interlayers.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Sho; Kamimura, Yoshihiro; Endo, Akira

    2018-04-10

    Hybrid organic-inorganic layered perovskites are typically nonporous solids. However, the incorporation of silsesquioxanes with a cubic cage structure as interlayer materials creates micropores between the perovskite layers. In this study, we increase in the micropore volume in layered perovskites by replacing a portion of the silsesquioxane interlayers with organic amines. In the proposed method, approximately 20% of the silsesquioxane interlayers can be replaced without changing the layer distance owing to the size of the silsesquioxane. When small amines (e.g., ethylamine) are used in this manner, the micropore volume of the obtained hybrid layered perovskites increases by as much as 44%; when large amines (e.g., phenethylamine) are used, their micropore volume decreases by as much as 43%. Through the variation of amine fraction, the micropore volume can be adjusted in the range. Finally, the magnetic moment measurements reveal that the layered perovskites with mixed interlayers exhibit ferromagnetic ordering at temperature below 20 K, thus indicating that the obtained perovskites maintain their functions as layered perovskites.

  5. A review on photocatalytic CO2 reduction using perovskite oxide nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Sheng; Kar, Piyush; Thakur, Ujwal Kumar; Shankar, Karthik

    2018-02-01

    As the search for efficient catalysts for CO2 photoreduction continues, nanostructured perovskite oxides have emerged as a class of high-performance photocatalytic materials. The perovskite oxide candidates for CO2 photoreduction are primarily nanostructured forms of titanates, niobates, tantalates and cobaltates. These materials form the focus of this review article because they are much sought-after due to their nontoxic nature, adequate chemical stability, and tunable crystal structures, bandgaps and surface energies. As compared to conventional semiconductors and nanomaterial catalysts, nanostructured perovskite oxides also exhibit an extended optical-absorption edge, longer charge carrier lifetimes, and favorable band-alignment with respect to reduction potential of activated CO2 and reduction products of the same. While CO2 reduction product yields of several hundred μmol-1 h-1 are observed with many types of perovskite oxide nanomaterials in stand-alone forms, yield of such quantities are not common with semiconductor nanomaterials of other types. In this review, we present current state-of-the-art synthesis methods to form perovskite oxide nanomaterials, and procedures to engineer their bandgaps. This review also presents a comprehensive summary and discussion on crystal structures, defect distribution, morphologies and electronic properties of the perovskite oxides, and correlation of these properties to CO2 photoreduction performance. This review offers researchers key insights for developing advanced perovskite oxides in order to further improve the yields of CO2 reduction products.

  6. Graded bandgap perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ergen, Onur; Gilbert, S Matt; Pham, Thang; Turner, Sally J; Tan, Mark Tian Zhi; Worsley, Marcus A; Zettl, Alex

    2017-05-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials have emerged as attractive alternatives to conventional solar cell building blocks. Their high light absorption coefficients and long diffusion lengths suggest high power conversion efficiencies, and indeed perovskite-based single bandgap and tandem solar cell designs have yielded impressive performances. One approach to further enhance solar spectrum utilization is the graded bandgap, but this has not been previously achieved for perovskites. In this study, we demonstrate graded bandgap perovskite solar cells with steady-state conversion efficiencies averaging 18.4%, with a best of 21.7%, all without reflective coatings. An analysis of the experimental data yields high fill factors of ∼75% and high short-circuit current densities up to 42.1 mA cm -2 . The cells are based on an architecture of two perovskite layers (CH 3 NH 3 SnI 3 and CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3-x Br x ), incorporating GaN, monolayer hexagonal boron nitride, and graphene aerogel.

  7. White perovskite based lighting devices.

    PubMed

    Bidikoudi, M; Fresta, E; Costa, R D

    2018-06-28

    Hybrid organic-inorganic and all-inorganic metal halide perovskites have been one of the most intensively studied materials during the last few years. In particular, research focusing on understanding how to tune the photoluminescence features and to apply perovskites to optoelectronic applications has led to a myriad of new materials featuring high photoluminescence quantum yields covering the whole visible range, as well as devices with remarkable performances. Having already established their successful incorporation in highly efficient solar cells, the next step is to tackle the challenges in solid-state lighting (SSL) devices. Here, the most prominent is the preparation of white-emitting devices. Herein, we have provided a comprehensive view of the route towards perovskite white lighting devices, including thin film light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) and hybrid LEDs (HLEDs), using perovskite based color down-converting coatings. While synthesis and photoluminescence features are briefly discussed, we focus on highlighting the major achievements and limitations in white devices. Overall, we expect that this review will provide the reader a general overview of the current state of perovskite white SSL, paving the way towards new breakthroughs in the near future.

  8. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Zhou, Huanping; Li, Liang

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials garner enormous attention for a wide range of optoelectronic devices. Due to their attractive optical and electrical properties including high optical absorption coefficient, high carrier mobility, and long carrier diffusion length, perovskites have opened up a great opportunity for high performance photodetectors. This review aims to give a comprehensive summary of the significant results on perovskite-based photodetectors, focusing on the relationship among the perovskite structures, device configurations, and photodetecting performances. An introduction of recent progress in various perovskite structure-based photodetectors is provided. The emphasis is placed on the correlation between the perovskite structure and the device performance. Next, recent developments of bandgap-tunable perovskite and hybrid photodetectors built from perovskite heterostructures are highlighted. Then, effective approaches to enhance the stability of perovskite photodetector are presented, followed by the introduction of flexible and self-powered perovskite photodetectors. Finally, a summary of the previous results is given, and the major challenges that need to be addressed in the future are outlined. A comprehensive summary of the research status on perovskite photodetectors is hoped to push forward the development of this field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Perovskite oxides: Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  10. Effects of Frequency Dependence of the External Quantum Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, Sandheep; Aranda, Clara; Boix, Pablo P; Anta, Juan A; Bisquert, Juan; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà

    2018-06-07

    Perovskite solar cells are known to show very long response time scales, on the order of milliseconds to seconds. This generates considerable doubt over the validity of the measured external quantum efficiency (EQE) and consequently the estimation of the short-circuit current density. We observe a variation as high as 10% in the values of the EQE of perovskite solar cells for different optical chopper frequencies between 10 and 500 Hz, indicating a need to establish well-defined protocols of EQE measurement. We also corroborate these values and obtain new insights regarding the working mechanisms of perovskite solar cells from intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy measurements, identifying the evolution of the EQE over a range of frequencies, displaying a singular reduction at very low frequencies. This reduction in EQE is ascribed to additional resistive contributions hindering charge extraction in the perovskite solar cell at short-circuit conditions, which are delayed because of the concomitant large low-frequency capacitance.

  11. Relationships between Lead Halide Perovskite Thin-Film Fabrication, Morphology, and Performance in Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Sharenko, Alexander; Toney, Michael F

    2016-01-20

    Solution-processed lead halide perovskite thin-film solar cells have achieved power conversion efficiencies comparable to those obtained with several commercial photovoltaic technologies in a remarkably short period of time. This rapid rise in device efficiency is largely the result of the development of fabrication protocols capable of producing continuous, smooth perovskite films with micrometer-sized grains. Further developments in film fabrication and morphological control are necessary, however, in order for perovskite solar cells to reliably and reproducibly approach their thermodynamic efficiency limit. This Perspective discusses the fabrication of lead halide perovskite thin films, while highlighting the processing-property-performance relationships that have emerged from the literature, and from this knowledge, suggests future research directions.

  12. Unraveling the Chemical Nature of the 3D "Hollow" Hybrid Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Spanopoulos, Ioannis; Ke, Weijun; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Schueller, Emily C; Kontsevoi, Oleg Y; Seshadri, Ram; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2018-05-02

    The newly introduced class of 3D halide perovskites, termed "hollow" perovskites, has been recently demonstrated as light absorbing semiconductor materials for fabricating lead-free perovskite solar cells with enhanced efficiency and superior stability. Hollow perovskites derive from three-dimensional (3D) AMX 3 perovskites ( A = methylammonium (MA), formamidinium (FA); M = Sn, Pb; X = Cl, Br, I), where small molecules such as ethylenediammonium cations ( en) can be incorporated as the dication without altering the structure dimensionality. We present in this work the inherent structural properties of the hollow perovskites and expand this class of materials to the Pb-based analogues. Through a combination of physical and spectroscopic methods (XRD, gas pycnometry, 1 H NMR, TGA, SEM/EDX), we have assigned the general formula (A) 1- x ( en) x (M) 1-0.7 x (X) 3-0.4 x to the hollow perovskites. The incorporation of en in the 3D perovskite structure leads to massive M and X vacancies in the 3D [ MX 3 ] framework, thus the term hollow. The resulting materials are semiconductors with significantly blue-shifted direct band gaps from 1.25 to 1.51 eV for Sn-based perovskites and from 1.53 to 2.1 eV for the Pb-based analogues. The increased structural disorder and hollow nature were validated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis as well as pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations support the experimental trends and suggest that the observed widening of the band gap is attributed to the massive M and X vacancies, which create a less connected 3D hollow structure. The resulting materials have superior air stability, where in the case of Sn-based hollow perovskites it exceeds two orders of temporal magnitude compared to the conventional full perovskites of MASnI 3 and FASnI 3 . The hollow perovskite compounds pose as a new platform of promising light absorbers that can be utilized in single junction or tandem solar cells.

  13. Parameters influencing the deposition of methylammonium lead halide iodide in hole conductor free perovskite-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bat-El; Gamliel, Shany; Etgar, Lioz

    2014-08-01

    Perovskite is a promising light harvester for use in photovoltaic solar cells. In recent years, the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells has been dramatically increased, making them a competitive source of renewable energy. An important parameter when designing high efficiency perovskite-based solar cells is the perovskite deposition, which must be performed to create complete coverage and optimal film thickness. This paper describes an in-depth study on two-step deposition, separating the perovskite deposition into two precursors. The effects of spin velocity, annealing temperature, dipping time, and methylammonium iodide concentration on the photovoltaic performance are studied. Observations include that current density is affected by changing the spin velocity, while the fill factor changes mainly due to the dipping time and methylammonium iodide concentration. Interestingly, the open circuit voltage is almost unaffected by these parameters. Hole conductor free perovskite solar cells are used in this work, in order to minimize other possible effects. This study provides better understanding and control over the perovskite deposition through highly efficient, low-cost perovskite-based solar cells.

  14. Modulating Excitonic Recombination Effects through One-Step Synthesis of Perovskite Nanoparticles for Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Sneha A; Muduli, Subas; Xing, Guichuan; Yantara, Natalia; Li, Mingjie; Chen, Shi; Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; White, Tim J; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G

    2017-10-09

    The primary advantages of halide perovskites for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are solution processability, direct band gap, good charge-carrier diffusion lengths, low trap density, and reasonable carrier mobility. The luminescence in 3 D halide perovskite thin films originates from free electron-hole bimolecular recombination. However, the slow bimolecular recombination rate is a fundamental performance limitation. Perovskite nanoparticles could result in improved performance but processability and cumbersome synthetic procedures remain challenges. Herein, these constraints are overcome by tailoring the 3 D perovskite as a near monodisperse nanoparticle film prepared through a one-step in situ deposition method. Replacing methyl ammonium bromide (CH 3 NH 3 Br, MABr) partially by octyl ammonium bromide [CH 3 (CH 2 ) 7 NH 3 Br, OABr] in defined mole ratios in the perovskite precursor proved crucial for the nanoparticle formation. Films consisting of the in situ formed nanoparticles displayed signatures associated with excitonic recombination, rather than that of bimolecular recombination associated with 3 D perovskites. This transition was accompanied by enhanced photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY≈20.5 % vs. 3.40 %). Perovskite LEDs fabricated from the nanoparticle films exhibit a one order of magnitude improvement in current efficiency and doubling in luminance efficiency. The material processing systematics derived from this study provides the means to control perovskite morphologies through the selection and mixing of appropriate additives. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Iron-based perovskite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Ralph, James M.; Rossignol, Cecile C.R.; Vaughey, John T.

    2007-01-02

    An A and/or A' site deficient perovskite of general formula of (A.sub.1-xA'.sub.x).sub.1-yFeO.sub.3-.delta. or of general formula A.sub.1-x-yA'.sub.xFeO.sub.3-67, wherein A is La alone or with one or more of the rare earth metals or a rare earth metal other than Ce alone or a combination of rare earth metals and X is in the range of from 0 to about 1; A' is Sr or Ca or mixtures thereof and Y is in the range of from about 0.01 to about 0.3; .delta. represents the amount of compensating oxygen loss. If either A or A' is zero the remaining A or A' is deficient. A fuel cell incorporating the inventive perovskite as a cathode is disclosed as well as an oxygen separation membrane. The inventive perovskite is preferably single phase.

  16. Amplified spontaneous emission in phenylethylammonium methylammonium lead iodide quasi-2D perovskites.

    PubMed

    Leyden, Matthew R; Matsushima, Toshinori; Qin, Chuanjiang; Ruan, Shibin; Ye, Hao; Adachi, Chihaya

    2018-06-06

    Organo-metal-halide perovskites are a promising set of materials for optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, light emitting diodes and lasers. Perovskite thin films have demonstrated amplified spontaneous emission thresholds as low as 1.6 μJ cm-2 and lasing thresholds as low as 0.2 μJ cm-2. Recently the performance of perovskite light emitting diodes has rapidly risen due to the formation of quasi 2D films using bulky ligands such as phenylethylammonium. Despite the high photoluminescent yield and external quantum efficiency of quasi 2D perovskites, few reports exist on amplified spontaneous emission. We show within this report that the threshold for amplified spontaneous emission of quasi 2D perovskite films increases with the concentration of phenylethylammonium. We attribute this increasing threshold to a charge transfer state at the PEA interface that competes for excitons with the ASE process. Additionally, the comparatively slow inter-grain charge transfer process cannot significantly contribute to the fast radiative recombination in amplified spontaneous emission. These results suggest that relatively low order PEA based perovskite films that are suitable for LED applications are not well suited for lasing applications. However high order films were able to maintain their low threshold values and may still benefit from improved stability.

  17. Monolithic Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells with Advanced Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Goldschmidt, Jan C.; Bett, Alexander J.; Bivour, Martin

    2016-11-14

    For high efficiency monolithic perovskite silicon tandem solar cells, we develop low-temperature processes for the perovskite top cell, rear-side light trapping, optimized perovskite growth, transparent contacts and adapted characterization methods.

  18. Thermochromic halide perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia; Lai, Minliang; Dou, Letian; Kley, Christopher S; Chen, Hong; Peng, Fei; Sun, Junliang; Lu, Dylan; Hawks, Steven A; Xie, Chenlu; Cui, Fan; Alivisatos, A Paul; Limmer, David T; Yang, Peidong

    2018-03-01

    Smart photovoltaic windows represent a promising green technology featuring tunable transparency and electrical power generation under external stimuli to control the light transmission and manage the solar energy. Here, we demonstrate a thermochromic solar cell for smart photovoltaic window applications utilizing the structural phase transitions in inorganic halide perovskite caesium lead iodide/bromide. The solar cells undergo thermally-driven, moisture-mediated reversible transitions between a transparent non-perovskite phase (81.7% visible transparency) with low power output and a deeply coloured perovskite phase (35.4% visible transparency) with high power output. The inorganic perovskites exhibit tunable colours and transparencies, a peak device efficiency above 7%, and a phase transition temperature as low as 105 °C. We demonstrate excellent device stability over repeated phase transition cycles without colour fade or performance degradation. The photovoltaic windows showing both photoactivity and thermochromic features represent key stepping-stones for integration with buildings, automobiles, information displays, and potentially many other technologies.

  19. Thermochromic halide perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jia; Lai, Minliang; Dou, Letian; Kley, Christopher S.; Chen, Hong; Peng, Fei; Sun, Junliang; Lu, Dylan; Hawks, Steven A.; Xie, Chenlu; Cui, Fan; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Limmer, David T.; Yang, Peidong

    2018-03-01

    Smart photovoltaic windows represent a promising green technology featuring tunable transparency and electrical power generation under external stimuli to control the light transmission and manage the solar energy. Here, we demonstrate a thermochromic solar cell for smart photovoltaic window applications utilizing the structural phase transitions in inorganic halide perovskite caesium lead iodide/bromide. The solar cells undergo thermally-driven, moisture-mediated reversible transitions between a transparent non-perovskite phase (81.7% visible transparency) with low power output and a deeply coloured perovskite phase (35.4% visible transparency) with high power output. The inorganic perovskites exhibit tunable colours and transparencies, a peak device efficiency above 7%, and a phase transition temperature as low as 105 °C. We demonstrate excellent device stability over repeated phase transition cycles without colour fade or performance degradation. The photovoltaic windows showing both photoactivity and thermochromic features represent key stepping-stones for integration with buildings, automobiles, information displays, and potentially many other technologies.

  20. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, K.D.

    1991-06-25

    Perovskites of the structure A[sub 2]B[sub 2]C[sub 3]O[sub 10] are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  1. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Kenneth D.

    1991-01-01

    Perovskites of the structure A.sub.2 B.sub.2 C.sub.3 O.sub.10 are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  2. Biexciton Auger Recombination Differs in Hybrid and Inorganic Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Eperon, Giles E; Jedlicka, Erin; Ginger, David S

    2018-01-04

    We use time-resolved photoluminescence measurements to determine the biexciton Auger recombination rate in both hybrid organic-inorganic and fully inorganic halide perovskite nanocrystals as a function of nanocrystal volume. We find that the volume scaling of the biexciton Auger rate in the hybrid perovskites, containing a polar organic A-site cation, is significantly shallower than in the fully inorganic Cs-based nanocrystals. As the nanocrystals become smaller, the Auger rate in the hybrid nanocrystals increases even less than expected, compared to the fully inorganic nanocrystals, which already show a shallower volume dependence than other material systems such as chalcogenide quantum dots. This finding suggests there may be differences in the strength of Coulombic interactions between the fully inorganic and hybrid perovskites, which may prove to be crucial in selecting materials to obtain the highest performing devices in the future, and hints that there could be something "special" about the hybrid materials.

  3. Tailoring Electronic Properties in Semiconducting Perovskite Materials through Octahedral Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, Amber K.

    Perovskite oxides, which take the chemical formula ABO 3, are a very versatile and interesting materials family, exhibiting properties that include ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, mixed ionic/electronic conductivity, metal-insulator behavior and multiferroicity. Key to these functionalities is the network of BO6 corner-connected octahedra, which are known to distort and rotate, directly altering electronic and ferroic properties. By controlling the BO6 octahedral distortions and rotations through cationic substitutions, the use of strain engineering, or through the formation of superlattice structures, the functional properties of perovskites can be tuned. Motivating the use of structure-driven design in oxide heterostructures is the prediction of hybrid improper ferroelectricity in A'BO3/ABO3 superlattices. Two key design rules to realizing hybrid improper ferroelectricity are the growth of high quality superlattice structures with odd periodicities of the A / A' layers, and the control of the octahedral rotation pattern. My work explores the rotational response in perovskite oxides to strain and interface effects in thin films of RFeO3 ( R = La, Eu). I demonstrate a synchrotron x-ray diffraction technique to identify the rotation pattern that is present in the films. I then establish substrate imprinting as a key tool for controlling the rotation patterns in heterostructures, providing a means to realize the necessary structural variants of the predicted hybrid improper ferroelectricity in superlattices. In addition, by pairing measured diffraction data with a structure factor calculation, I demonstrate how one can extract both A-site and oxygen atomic positions in single crystal perovskite oxide films. Finally, I show results from (LaFeO 3)n/(EuFeO3)n superlattices (n = 1-5), synthesized to test the motivating predictions of hybrid improper ferroelectricity in oxide superlattices.

  4. Vapor Grown Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdussamad Abbas, Hisham

    Perovskite solar cells has been the fastest growing solar cell material till date with verified efficiencies of over 22%. Most groups in the world focuses their research on solution based devices that has residual solvent in the material bulk. This work focuses extensively on the fabrication and properties of vapor based perovskite devices that is devoid of solvents. The initial part of my work focuses on the detailed fabrication of high efficiency consistent sequential vapor NIP devices made using P3HT as P-type Type II heterojunction. The sequential vapor devices experiences device anomalies like voltage evolution and IV hysteresis owing to charge trapping in TiO2. Hence, sequential PIN devices were fabricated using doped Type-II heterojunctions that had no device anomalies. The sequential PIN devices has processing restriction, as organic Type-II heterojunction materials cannot withstand high processing temperature, hence limiting device efficiency. Thereby bringing the need of co-evaporation for fabricating high efficiency consistent PIN devices, the approach has no-restriction on substrates and offers stoichiometric control. A comprehensive description of the fabrication, Co-evaporator setup and how to build it is described. The results of Co-evaporated devices clearly show that grain size, stoichiometry and doped transport layers are all critical for eliminating device anomalies and in fabricating high efficiency devices. Finally, Formamidinium based perovskite were fabricated using sequential approach. A thermal degradation study was conducted on Methyl Ammonium Vs. Formamidinium based perovskite films, Formamidinium based perovskites were found to be more stable. Lastly, inorganic films such as CdS and Nickel oxide were developed in this work.

  5. Recent advances of flexible hybrid perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong Hee; Heo, Jin Hyuck; Im, Sang Hyuk

    2017-11-01

    Recently, hybrid perovskite solar cells have attracted great interest because they can be fabricated to low cost, flexible, and highly efficient solar cells. Here, we introduced recent advances of flexible hybrid perovskite solar cells. We introduced research background of flexible perovskite solar cells in introduction part. Then we composed the main body to i) structure and properties of hybrid perovskite solar cells, ii) why flexible hybrid perovskite solar cells are important?, iii) transparent conducting oxide (TCO) based flexible hybrid perovskite solar cells, and iv) TCO-free transparent conducting electrode (TCE) based flexible hybrid perovskite solar cells. Finally, we summarized research outlook of flexible hybrid perovskite solar cells.

  6. Electronically conductive perovskite-based oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R; Schultz, Andrew M

    2015-04-28

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a electronically conducting perovskite-based metal oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the electronically conducting perovskite-based metal oxide with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The electronically conducting perovskite-based metal oxide has a perovskite-based crystal structure and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.-1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at the gas stream temperature. The electronically conducting perovskite-based metal oxide hasmore » an empirical formula A.sub.xB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta., where A is at least a first element at the A-site, B is at least a second element at the B-site, and where 0.8« less

  7. Inorganic perovskite photocatalysts for solar energy utilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guan; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou; Irvine, John T S

    2016-10-24

    The development and utilization of solar energy in environmental remediation and water splitting is being intensively studied worldwide. During the past few decades, tremendous efforts have been devoted to developing non-toxic, low-cost, efficient and stable photocatalysts for water splitting and environmental remediation. To date, several hundreds of photocatalysts mainly based on metal oxides, sulfides and (oxy)nitrides with different structures and compositions have been reported. Among them, perovskite oxides and their derivatives (layered perovskite oxides) comprise a large family of semiconductor photocatalysts because of their structural simplicity and flexibility. This review specifically focuses on the general background of perovskite and its related materials, summarizes the recent development of perovskite photocatalysts and their applications in water splitting and environmental remediation, discusses the theoretical modelling and calculation of perovskite photocatalysts and presents the key challenges and perspectives on the research of perovskite photocatalysts.

  8. Perovskite in Earth’s deep interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Kei; Sinmyo, Ryosuke; Hernlund, John

    2017-11-01

    Silicate perovskite-type phases are the most abundant constituent inside our planet and are the predominant minerals in Earth’s lower mantle more than 660 kilometers below the surface. Magnesium-rich perovskite is a major lower mantle phase and undergoes a phase transition to post-perovskite near the bottom of the mantle. Calcium-rich perovskite is proportionally minor but may host numerous trace elements that record chemical differentiation events. The properties of mantle perovskites are the key to understanding the dynamic evolution of Earth, as they strongly influence the transport properties of lower mantle rocks. Perovskites are expected to be an important constituent of rocky planets larger than Mars and thus play a major role in modulating the evolution of terrestrial planets throughout the universe.

  9. Perovskite Solar Cells for High-Efficiency Tandems

    SciTech Connect

    McGehee, Michael; Buonassisi, Tonio

    moisture penetration to overcome the often-reported thermal and environmental instability of metal halide perovskites. Previous perovskite-containing tandems utilized molybdenum oxide (MoO x) as a sputter buffer layer, but this has raised concerns over long-term stability, as the iodide in the perovskite can chemically react with MoO x. Mixed-cation perovskite solar cells have consistently outperformed their single-cation counterparts. The first perovskite device to exceed 20% PCE was fabricated with a mixture of methylammonium (MA) and formamidinium (FA). Recent reports have shown promising results with the introduction of cesium mixtures, enabling high efficiencies with improved photo-, moisture, and thermal stability. The increased moisture and thermal stability are especially important as they broaden the parameter space for processing on top of the perovskite, enabling the deposition of metal oxide contacts through atomic layer deposition (ALD) or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) that may require elevated temperatures or water as a counter reagent. Both titanium dioxide (TiO 2) and tin oxide (SnO 2) have consistently proven to be effective electron-selective contacts for perovskite solar cells and both can be deposited via ALD at temperatures below 150 °C. We introduced a bilayer of SnO 2 and zinc tin oxide (ZTO) that can be deposited by either low-temperature ALD or pulsed-CVD as a window layer with minimal parasitic absorption, efficient electron extraction, and sufficient buffer properties to prevent the organic and perovskite layers from damage during the subsequent sputter deposition of a transparent ITO electrode. We explored pulsed-CVD as a modified ALD process with a continual, rather than purely step-wise, growth component in order to considerably reduce the process time of the SnO 2 deposition process and minimize potential perovskite degradation. These layers, when used in an excellent mixed-cation perovskite solar cell atop a silicon solar cell tuned to

  10. Strain effects on oxygen migration in perovskites.

    PubMed

    Mayeshiba, Tam; Morgan, Dane

    2015-01-28

    Fast oxygen transport materials are necessary for a range of technologies, including efficient and cost-effective solid oxide fuel cells, gas separation membranes, oxygen sensors, chemical looping devices, and memristors. Strain is often proposed as a method to enhance the performance of oxygen transport materials, but the magnitude of its effect and its underlying mechanisms are not well-understood, particularly in the widely-used perovskite-structured oxygen conductors. This work reports on an ab initio prediction of strain effects on migration energetics for nine perovskite systems of the form LaBO3, where B = [Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Ga]. Biaxial strain, as might be easily produced in epitaxial systems, is predicted to lead to approximately linear changes in migration energy. We find that tensile biaxial strain reduces the oxygen vacancy migration barrier across the systems studied by an average of 66 meV per percent strain for a single selected hop, with a low of 36 and a high of 89 meV decrease in migration barrier per percent strain across all systems. The estimated range for the change in migration barrier within each system is ±25 meV per percent strain when considering all hops. These results suggest that strain can significantly impact transport in these materials, e.g., a 2% tensile strain can increase the diffusion coefficient by about three orders of magnitude at 300 K (one order of magnitude at 500 °C or 773 K) for one of the most strain-responsive materials calculated here (LaCrO3). We show that a simple elasticity model, which assumes only dilative or compressive strain in a cubic environment and a fixed migration volume, can qualitatively but not quantitatively model the strain dependence of the migration energy, suggesting that factors not captured by continuum elasticity play a significant role in the strain response.

  11. Effects of Fe-Enrichment on the Equation of State and Stability of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 Perovskite and Post-Perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, S. M.; Holl, C. M.; Meng, Y.; Prakapenka, V.; Duffy, T. S.

    2010-12-01

    Fe-enrichment in the deep lower mantle has been proposed as an explanation for seismic anomalies such as large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) and ultralow velocity zones (ULVZs). In order to resolve the effect of Fe on the stability and equation of state of the lower mantle’s dominant constituent, (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite, we have studied Fe-rich natural orthopyroxenes, (Mg0.61Fe0.37Ca0.02)SiO3 and (Mg0.25Fe0.70Ca0.05)SiO3 (compositions determined by microprobe analysis), at lower mantle P-T conditions. Pyroxene starting materials were mixed with Au (pressure calibrant and laser absorber) and loaded with NaCl or Ne (pressure medium and thermal insulator) in a symmetric diamond anvil cell. X-ray diffraction experiments at pressures up to 122 GPa with in-situ laser heating were performed at the GSECARS (13-ID-D) and HPCAT (16-ID-B) sectors of the Advanced Photon Source. Heating samples to 2000 K produced single-phase orthorhombic GdFeO3-type perovskite at 63 GPa for the Mg# 61 composition and at 72 GPa for the Mg# 25 composition. At lower pressures (56 GPa for Mg# 61, 67 GPa for Mg# 25), heating both compositions resulted in a mixture of perovskite, SiO2 and (Mg,Fe)O. These measurements provide new constraints on the dependence of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite stability on pressure and composition. Upon further compression to 93 GPa and higher pressures with laser heating, Mg# 25 perovskite transformed to a two-phase mixture of perovskite and post-perovskite. This is consistent with previous findings that Fe substitution destabilizes (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite relative to (Mg,Fe)SiO3 post-perovskite (Mao et al. 2004, Caracas and Cohen 2005). The bulk modulus at 80 GPa (K80) is ~550 GPa for both Fe-rich perovskites, comparable to values measured for MgSiO3 perovskite (Lundin et al. 2008). However, the volume of Fe-rich perovskites increases linearly with Fe-content. The (Mg0.25Fe0.70Ca0.05)SiO3 perovskite is 3% greater at 80 GPa than V80 for the Mg end

  12. One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Ujwal K.; Kisslinger, Ryan; Shankar, Karthik

    2017-01-01

    The electron diffusion length (Ln) is smaller than the hole diffusion length (Lp) in many halide perovskite semiconductors meaning that the use of ordered one-dimensional (1D) structures such as nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) as electron transport layers (ETLs) is a promising method of achieving high performance halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). ETLs consisting of oriented and aligned NWs and NTs offer the potential not merely for improved directional charge transport but also for the enhanced absorption of incoming light and thermodynamically efficient management of photogenerated carrier populations. The ordered architecture of NW/NT arrays affords superior infiltration of a deposited material making them ideal for use in HPSCs. Photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs) as high as 18% have been demonstrated for HPSCs using 1D ETLs. Despite the advantages of 1D ETLs, there are still challenges that need to be overcome to achieve even higher PCEs, such as better methods to eliminate or passivate surface traps, improved understanding of the hetero-interface and optimization of the morphology (i.e., length, diameter, and spacing of NWs/NTs). This review introduces the general considerations of ETLs for HPSCs, deposition techniques used, and the current research and challenges in the field of 1D ETLs for perovskite solar cells. PMID:28468280

  13. Perovskite Oxide Thin Film Growth, Characterization, and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Andrew

    Studies into a class of materials known as complex oxides have evoked a great deal of interest due to their unique magnetic, ferroelectric, and superconducting properties. In particular, materials with the ABO3 perovskite structure have highly tunable properties because of the high stability of the structure, which allows for large scale doping and strain. This also allows for a large selection of A and B cations and valences, which can further modify the material's electronic structure. Additionally, deposition of these materials as thin films and superlattices through techniques such as pulsed laser deposition (PLD) results in novel properties due to the reduced dimensionality of the material. The novel properties of perovskite oxide heterostructures can be traced to a several sources, including chemical intermixing, strain and defect formation, and electronic reconstruction. The correlations between microstructure and physical properties must be investigated by examining the physical and electronic structure of perovskites in order to understand this class of materials. Some perovskites can undergo phase changes due to temperature, electrical fields, and magnetic fields. In this work we investigated Nd0.5Sr 0.5MnO3 (NSMO), which undergoes a first order magnetic and electronic transition at T=158K in bulk form. Above this temperature NSMO is a ferromagnetic metal, but transitions into an antiferromagnetic insulator as the temperature is decreased. This rapid transition has interesting potential in memory devices. However, when NSMO is deposited on (001)-oriented SrTiO 3 (STO) or (001)-oriented (LaAlO3)0.3-(Sr 2AlTaO6)0.7 (LSAT) substrates, this transition is lost. It has been reported in the literature that depositing NSMO on (110)-oriented STO allows for the transition to reemerge due to the partial epitaxial growth, where the NSMO film is strained along the [001] surface axis and partially relaxed along the [11¯0] surface axis. This allows the NSMO film enough

  14. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  15. Colossal change in thermopower with temperature-driven p-n-type conduction switching in La x Sr2-x TiFeO6 double perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Pinku; Maiti, Tanmoy

    2018-02-01

    Double perovskite materials have been studied in detail by many researchers, as their magnetic and electronic properties can be controlled by the substitution of alkaline earth metals or lanthanides in the A site and transition metals in the B site. Here we report the temperature-driven, p-n-type conduction switching assisted, large change in thermopower in La3+-doped Sr2TiFeO6-based double perovskites. Stoichiometric compositions of La x Sr2-x TiFeO6 (LSTF) with 0  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.25 were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. Rietveld refinement of room-temperature XRD data confirmed a single-phase solid solution with cubic crystal structure and Pm\\bar{3}m space group. From temperature-dependent electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient (S) studies it is evident that all the compositions underwent an intermediate semiconductor-to-metal transition before the semiconductor phase reappeared at higher temperature. In the process of semiconductor-metal-semiconductor transition, LSTF compositions demonstrated temperature-driven p-n-type conduction switching behavior. The electronic restructuring which occurs due to the intermediate metallic phase between semiconductor phases leads to the colossal change in S for LSTF oxides. The maximum drop in thermopower (ΔS ~ 2516 µV K-1) was observed for LSTF with x  =  0.1 composition. Owing to their enormous change in thermopower of the order of millivolts per kelvin, integrated with p-n-type resistance switching, these double perovskites can be used for various high-temperature multifunctional device applications such as diodes, sensors, switches, thermistors, thyristors, thermal runaway monitors etc. Furthermore, the conduction mechanisms of these oxides were explained by the small polaron hopping model.

  16. Inhomogeneous degradation in metal halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rong; Zhang, Li; Cao, Yu; Miao, Yanfeng; Ke, You; Wei, Yingqiang; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Ying; Rong, Zhaohua; Wang, Nana; Li, Renzhi; Wang, Jianpu; Huang, Wei; Gao, Feng

    2017-08-01

    Although the rapid development of organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells has led to certified power conversion efficiencies of above 20%, their poor stability remains a major challenge, preventing their practical commercialization. In this paper, we investigate the intrinsic origin of the poor stability in perovskite solar cells by using a confocal fluorescence microscope. We find that the degradation of perovskite films starts from grain boundaries and gradually extend to the center of the grains. Firmly based on our findings, we further demonstrate that the device stability can be significantly enhanced by increasing the grain size of perovskite crystals. Our results have important implications to further enhance the stability of optoelectronic devices based on metal halide perovskites.

  17. Perovskite Superlattices as Tunable Microwave Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christen, H. M.; Harshavardhan, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have shown that superlattices that comprise alternating epitaxial layers of dissimilar paraelectric perovskites can exhibit large changes in permittivity with the application of electric fields. The superlattices are potentially useful as electrically tunable dielectric components of such microwave devices as filters and phase shifters. The present superlattice approach differs fundamentally from the prior use of homogeneous, isotropic mixtures of base materials and dopants. A superlattice can comprise layers of two or more perovskites in any suitable sequence (e.g., ABAB..., ABCDABCD..., ABACABACA...). Even though a single layer of one of the perovskites by itself is not tunable, the compositions and sequence of the layers can be chosen so that (1) the superlattice exhibits low microwave loss and (2) the interfacial interaction between at least two of the perovskites in the superlattice renders either the entire superlattice or else at least one of the perovskites tunable.

  18. Single Crystal Elasticity of Iron Bearing Perovskite and Post Perovskite Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, A.; Fukui, H.; Baron, A. Q. R.

    2014-12-01

    We measured single crystal elasticity of (1) pure and iron bearing MgSiO3 perovskite, and (2) Pbnm-CaIrO3 and Cmcm-CaIrO3, a representative analog of MgSiO3 perovskite and post perovskite, respectively, by means of inelastic X ray scattering at BL35XU, SPring-8. The present results for MgSiO3 perovskite demonstrate that elastic anisotropy of magnesium perovskite is highly enhanced by iron incorporation. Furthermore anti-correlation between bulk sound velocity and shear wave velocity was confirmed with iron content, which is against the theoretical prediction. The anti-correlation found in this study is important, because it enables us to interpret the recent seismological observation of the anti-correlation in the deep lower mantle by means of iron content difference in perovskite. On the other hand, we can learn difference of elasticity between perovskite and post perovskite thorough measurement on CaIrO3, as analog of MgSiO3 perovskite and post perovskite. From a characteristics of the single crystal elasticity of CaIrO3 compounds, we interpreted the texture pattern in the D" layer consistent with recent seismic observation.

  19. A High-Performing Sulfur-Tolerant and Redox-Stable Layered Perovskite Anode for Direct Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hanping; Tao, Zetian; Liu, Shun; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-01-01

    Development of alternative ceramic oxide anode materials is a key step for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Several lanthanide based layered perovskite-structured oxides demonstrate outstanding oxygen diffusion rate, favorable electronic conductivity, and good oxygen surface exchange kinetics, owing to A-site ordered structure in which lanthanide and alkali-earth ions occupy alternate (001) layers and oxygen vacancies are mainly located in [LnOx] planes. Here we report a nickel-free cation deficient layered perovskite, (PrBa)0.95(Fe0.9Mo0.1)2O5 + δ (PBFM), for SOFC anode, and this anode shows an outstanding performance with high resistance against both carbon build-up and sulfur poisoning in hydrocarbon fuels. At 800 °C, the layered PBFM showed high electrical conductivity of 59.2 S cm−1 in 5% H2 and peak power densities of 1.72 and 0.54 W cm−2 using H2 and CH4 as fuel, respectively. The cell exhibits a very stable performance under a constant current load of 1.0 A cm−2. To our best knowledge, this is the highest performance of ceramic anodes operated in methane. In addition, the anode is structurally stable at various fuel and temperature conditions, suggesting that it is a feasible material candidate for high-performing SOFC anode. PMID:26648509

  20. A High-Performing Sulfur-Tolerant and Redox-Stable Layered Perovskite Anode for Direct Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hanping; Tao, Zetian; Liu, Shun; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-12-01

    Development of alternative ceramic oxide anode materials is a key step for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Several lanthanide based layered perovskite-structured oxides demonstrate outstanding oxygen diffusion rate, favorable electronic conductivity, and good oxygen surface exchange kinetics, owing to A-site ordered structure in which lanthanide and alkali-earth ions occupy alternate (001) layers and oxygen vacancies are mainly located in [LnOx] planes. Here we report a nickel-free cation deficient layered perovskite, (PrBa)0.95(Fe0.9Mo0.1)2O5 + δ (PBFM), for SOFC anode, and this anode shows an outstanding performance with high resistance against both carbon build-up and sulfur poisoning in hydrocarbon fuels. At 800 °C, the layered PBFM showed high electrical conductivity of 59.2 S cm-1 in 5% H2 and peak power densities of 1.72 and 0.54 W cm-2 using H2 and CH4 as fuel, respectively. The cell exhibits a very stable performance under a constant current load of 1.0 A cm-2. To our best knowledge, this is the highest performance of ceramic anodes operated in methane. In addition, the anode is structurally stable at various fuel and temperature conditions, suggesting that it is a feasible material candidate for high-performing SOFC anode.

  1. A High-Performing Sulfur-Tolerant and Redox-Stable Layered Perovskite Anode for Direct Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hanping; Tao, Zetian; Liu, Shun; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-12-09

    Development of alternative ceramic oxide anode materials is a key step for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Several lanthanide based layered perovskite-structured oxides demonstrate outstanding oxygen diffusion rate, favorable electronic conductivity, and good oxygen surface exchange kinetics, owing to A-site ordered structure in which lanthanide and alkali-earth ions occupy alternate (001) layers and oxygen vacancies are mainly located in [LnOx] planes. Here we report a nickel-free cation deficient layered perovskite, (PrBa)0.95(Fe0.9Mo0.1)2O5 + δ (PBFM), for SOFC anode, and this anode shows an outstanding performance with high resistance against both carbon build-up and sulfur poisoning in hydrocarbon fuels. At 800 °C, the layered PBFM showed high electrical conductivity of 59.2 S cm(-1) in 5% H2 and peak power densities of 1.72 and 0.54 W cm(-2) using H2 and CH4 as fuel, respectively. The cell exhibits a very stable performance under a constant current load of 1.0 A cm(-2). To our best knowledge, this is the highest performance of ceramic anodes operated in methane. In addition, the anode is structurally stable at various fuel and temperature conditions, suggesting that it is a feasible material candidate for high-performing SOFC anode.

  2. Bilayered Hybrid Perovskite Ferroelectric with Giant Two-Photon Absorption.

    PubMed

    Li, Lina; Shang, Xiaoying; Wang, Sasa; Dong, Ningning; Ji, Chengmin; Chen, Xueyuan; Zhao, Sangen; Wang, Jun; Sun, Zhihua; Hong, Maochun; Luo, Junhua

    2018-06-06

    Perovskite ferroelectrics with prominent nonlinear optical absorption have attracted great attention in the field of photonics. However, they are traditionally dominated by inorganic oxides and exhibit relatively small nonlinear optical absorption coefficients, which hinder their further applications. Herein, we report a new organic-inorganic hybrid bilayered perovskite ferroelectric, (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 (NH 2 CHNH 2 )Pb 2 Br 7 (1), showing an above-room-temperature Curie temperature (∼322 K) and notable spontaneous polarization (∼3.8 μC cm -2 ). Significantly, the unique quantum-well structure of 1 results in intriguing two-photon absorption properties with a giant nonlinear optical absorption coefficient as high as 5.76 × 10 3 cm GW -1 , which is almost two-orders of magnitude larger than those of mostly traditional all-inorganic perovskite ferroelectrics. To our best knowledge, 1 is the first example of hybrid ferroelectrics with giant two-photon absorption coefficient. The mechanisms for ferroelectric and two-photon absorption are revealed. This work will shed light on the design of new ferroelectrics with two-photon absorption and promote their potentials in the photonic application.

  3. Orbital Delocalization and Enhancement of Magnetic Interactions in Perovskite Oxyhydrides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Hou, Yusheng; Gong, Xingao; Xiang, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments showed that some perovskite oxyhydrides have surprisingly high magnetic-transition temperature. In order to unveil the origin of this interesting phenomenon, we investigate the magnetism in SrCrO2H and SrVO2H on the basis of first-principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. Our work indicates that the Cr-O-Cr superexchange interaction in SrCrO2H is unexpectedly strong. Different from the previous explanation in terms of the H− ion substitution induced increase of the Cr-O-Cr bond angle, we reveal instead that this is mainly because the 3d orbitals in perovskite oxyhydrides becomes more delocalized since H− ions have weaker electronegativity and less electrons than O2− ions. The delocalized 3d orbitals result in stronger Cr-O interactions and enhance the magnetic-transition temperature. This novel mechanism is also applicable to the case of SrVO2H. Furthermore, we predict that SrFeO2H will have unprecedented high Neel temperature because of the extraordinarily strong Fe-H-Fe σ-type interactions. Our work suggests the anion substitution can be used to effectively manipulate the magnetic properties of perovskite compounds. PMID:26804825

  4. Competing interactions in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic perovskite superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Takamura, Y.; Biegalski, M.B.; Christen, H.M.

    2009-10-22

    Soft x-ray magnetic dichroism, magnetization, and magnetotransport measurements demonstrate that the competition between different magnetic interactions (exchange coupling, electronic reconstruction, and long-range interactions) in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3}(LSFO)/La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}(LSMO) perovskite oxide superlattices leads to unexpected functional properties. The antiferromagnetic order parameter in LSFO and ferromagnetic order parameter in LSMO show a dissimilar dependence on sublayer thickness and temperature, illustrating the high degree of tunability in these artificially layered materials.

  5. High Photoluminescence Quantum Yields in Organic Semiconductor-Perovskite Composite Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Longo, Giulia; La-Placa, Maria-Grazia; Sessolo, Michele; Bolink, Henk J

    2017-10-09

    One of the obstacles towards efficient radiative recombination in hybrid perovskites is a low exciton binding energy, typically in the orders of tens of meV. It has been shown that the use of electron-donor additives can lead to a substantial reduction of the non-radiative recombination in perovskite films. Herein, the approach using small molecules with semiconducting properties, which are candidates to be implemented in future optoelectronic devices, is presented. In particular, highly luminescent perovskite-organic semiconductor composite thin films have been developed, which can be processed from solution in a simple coating step. By tuning the relative concentration of methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr 3 ) and 9,9spirobifluoren-2-yl-diphenyl-phosphine oxide (SPPO1), it is possible to achieve photoluminescent quantum yields (PLQYs) as high as 85 %. This is attributed to the dual functions of SPPO1 that limit the grain growth while passivating the perovskite surface. The electroluminescence of these materials was investigated by fabricating multilayer LEDs, where charge injection and transport was found to be severely hindered for the perovskite/SPPO1 material. This was alleviated by partially substituting SPPO1 with a hole-transporting material, 1,3-bis(N-carbazolyl)benzene (mCP), leading to bright electroluminescence. The potential of combining perovskite and organic semiconductors to prepare materials with improved properties opens new avenues for the preparation of simple lightemitting devices using perovskites as the emitter. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Dry (Mg,Fe)SiO 3 perovskite in the Earth's lower mantle

    DOE PAGES

    Panero, Wendy R.; Pigott, Jeffrey S.; Reaman, Daniel M.; ...

    2015-02-26

    Combined synthesis experiments and first-principles calculations show that MgSiO 3-perovskite with minor Al or Fe does not incorporate significant OH under lower mantle conditions. Perovskite, stishovite, and residual melt were synthesized from natural Bamble enstatite samples (Mg/(Fe+Mg) = 0.89 and 0.93; Al 2O 3 < 0.1 wt% with 35 and 2065 ppm wt H 2O, respectively) in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell at 1600-2000 K and 25-65 GPa. Combined Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and ex-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis demonstrates little difference in the resulting perovskite as a function of initial water content. Four distinct OHmore » vibrational stretching bands are evident upon cooling below 100 K (3576, 3378, 3274, and 3078 cm -1), suggesting 4 potential bonding sites for OH in perovskite with a maximum water content of 220 ppm wt H 2O, and likely no more than 10 ppm wt H 2O. Complementary, Fe-free, first-principles calculations predict multiple potential bonding sites for hydrogen in perovskite, each with significant solution enthalpy (0.2 eV/defect). We calculate that perovskite can dissolve less than 37 ppm wt H 2O (400 ppm H/Si) at the top of the lower mantle, decreasing to 31 ppm wt H 2O (340 ppm H/Si) at 125 GPa and 3000 K in the absence of a melt or fluid phase. Here, we propose that these results resolve a long-standing debate of the perovskite melting curve and explain the order of magnitude increase in viscosity from upper to lower mantle.« less

  7. Printable organometallic perovskite enables large-area, low-dose X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Churl; Kim, Kwang Hee; Son, Dae-Yong; Jeong, Dong-Nyuk; Seo, Ja-Young; Choi, Yeong Suk; Han, In Taek; Lee, Sang Yoon; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2017-10-01

    Medical X-ray imaging procedures require digital flat detectors operating at low doses to reduce radiation health risks. Solution-processed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have characteristics that make them good candidates for the photoconductive layer of such sensitive detectors. However, such detectors have not yet been built on thin-film transistor arrays because it has been difficult to prepare thick perovskite films (more than a few hundred micrometres) over large areas (a detector is typically 50 centimetres by 50 centimetres). We report here an all-solution-based (in contrast to conventional vacuum processing) synthetic route to producing printable polycrystalline perovskites with sharply faceted large grains having morphologies and optoelectronic properties comparable to those of single crystals. High sensitivities of up to 11 microcoulombs per air KERMA of milligray per square centimetre (μC mGyair-1 cm-2) are achieved under irradiation with a 100-kilovolt bremsstrahlung source, which are at least one order of magnitude higher than the sensitivities achieved with currently used amorphous selenium or thallium-doped cesium iodide detectors. We demonstrate X-ray imaging in a conventional thin-film transistor substrate by embedding an 830-micrometre-thick perovskite film and an additional two interlayers of polymer/perovskite composites to provide conformal interfaces between perovskite films and electrodes that control dark currents and temporal charge carrier transportation. Such an all-solution-based perovskite detector could enable low-dose X-ray imaging, and could also be used in photoconductive devices for radiation imaging, sensing and energy harvesting.

  8. Printable organometallic perovskite enables large-area, low-dose X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Churl; Kim, Kwang Hee; Son, Dae-Yong; Jeong, Dong-Nyuk; Seo, Ja-Young; Choi, Yeong Suk; Han, In Taek; Lee, Sang Yoon; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2017-10-04

    Medical X-ray imaging procedures require digital flat detectors operating at low doses to reduce radiation health risks. Solution-processed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have characteristics that make them good candidates for the photoconductive layer of such sensitive detectors. However, such detectors have not yet been built on thin-film transistor arrays because it has been difficult to prepare thick perovskite films (more than a few hundred micrometres) over large areas (a detector is typically 50 centimetres by 50 centimetres). We report here an all-solution-based (in contrast to conventional vacuum processing) synthetic route to producing printable polycrystalline perovskites with sharply faceted large grains having morphologies and optoelectronic properties comparable to those of single crystals. High sensitivities of up to 11 microcoulombs per air KERMA of milligray per square centimetre (μC mGy air -1 cm -2 ) are achieved under irradiation with a 100-kilovolt bremsstrahlung source, which are at least one order of magnitude higher than the sensitivities achieved with currently used amorphous selenium or thallium-doped cesium iodide detectors. We demonstrate X-ray imaging in a conventional thin-film transistor substrate by embedding an 830-micrometre-thick perovskite film and an additional two interlayers of polymer/perovskite composites to provide conformal interfaces between perovskite films and electrodes that control dark currents and temporal charge carrier transportation. Such an all-solution-based perovskite detector could enable low-dose X-ray imaging, and could also be used in photoconductive devices for radiation imaging, sensing and energy harvesting.

  9. Strained hybrid perovskite thin films and their impact on the intrinsic stability of perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingjing; Deng, Yehao; Wei, Haotong; Zheng, Xiaopeng; Yu, Zhenhua; Shao, Yuchuan; Shield, Jeffrey E.; Huang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (OIHP) solar cells have achieved comparable efficiencies to those of commercial solar cells, although their instability hinders their commercialization. Although encapsulation techniques have been developed to protect OIHP solar cells from external stimuli such as moisture, oxygen, and ultraviolet light, understanding of the origin of the intrinsic instability of perovskite films is needed to improve their stability. We show that the OIHP films fabricated by existing methods are strained and that strain is caused by mismatched thermal expansion of perovskite films and substrates during the thermal annealing process. The polycrystalline films have compressive strain in the out-of-plane direction and in-plane tensile strain. The strain accelerates degradation of perovskite films under illumination, which can be explained by increased ion migration in strained OIHP films. This study points out an avenue to enhance the intrinsic stability of perovskite films and solar cells by reducing residual strain in perovskite films. PMID:29159287

  10. Effect of strain on structure and charge order transitions in epitaxial Bi0.4Ca0.6MnO3 films on perovskite (001) and (011) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Christen, Hans M.; Varela, Maria; Lee, Ho Nyung; Lowndes, Douglas H.

    2006-05-01

    The effect of epitaxial strain on the charge order (CO) transition in Bi0.4Ca0.6MnO3 films was studied by varying the strain's strength and symmetry via the use of SrTiO3 and LaAlO3 substrates having different crystallographic orientations. The film on pseudocubic (001) LaAlO3, under symmetric compressive strain, exhibits a clear CO transition. In the film on a (001) SrTiO3 substrate, under symmetric tensile strain, highly segregated line-shaped features in the Bi distribution are seen in Z-contrast scanning transmission microscopy, accompanied by a strongly broadened CO transition. The asymmetric tensile stress on (011) SrTiO3 results in an apparent compressive strain state with a deviation from tetragonality (i.e., γ ≠90°), accompanied by the sharpest CO transition. These comparisons illustrate the importance of considering both the strength and symmetry of epitaxial strain.

  11. Recent patents on perovskite ferroelectric nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinhua

    2009-01-01

    Ferroelectric oxide materials with a perovskite structure have promising applications in electronic devices such as random access memories, sensors, actuators, infrared detectors, and so on. Recent advances in science and technology of ferroelectrics have resulted in the feature sizes of ferroelectric-based electronic devices entering into nanoscale dimensions. At nanoscale perovskite ferroelectric materials exhibit a pronounced size effect manifesting itself in a significant deviation of the properties of low-dimensional structures from the bulk and film counterparts. One-dimensional perovskite ferroelectric nanotube/nanowire systems, offer fundamental scientific opportunities for investigating the intrinsic size effects in ferroelectrics. In the past several years, much progress has been made both in fabrication and physical property testing of perovskite ferroelectric nanostructures. In the first part of this paper, the recent patents and literatures for fabricating ferroelectric nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes, and nanorings with promising features, are reviewed. The second part deals with the recent advances on the physical property testing of perovskite ferroelectric nanostructures. The third part summarizes the recently patents and literatures about the microstructural characterizations of perovskite ferroelectric nanostructures, to improve their crystalline quality, morphology and uniformity. Finally, we conclude this review with personal perspectives towards the potential future developments of perovskite ferroelectric nanostructures.

  12. Extrinsic ion migration in perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Zhen; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Yang, Ye; ...

    2017-04-10

    In this study, the migration of intrinsic ions (e.g., MA +, Pb 2+, I –) in organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites has received significant attention with respect to the critical roles of these ions in the hysteresis and degradation in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, we demonstrate that extrinsic ions (e.g., Li +, H +, Na +), when used in the contact layers in PSCs, can migrate across the perovskite layer and strongly impact PSC operation. In a TiO 2/perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD-based PSC, Li +-ion migration from spiro-OMeTAD to the perovskite and TiO 2 layer is illustrated by time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry. The movementmore » of Li + ions in PSCs plays an important role in modulating the solar cell performance, tuning TiO 2 carrier-extraction properties, and affecting hysteresis in PSCs. The influence of Li +-ion migration was investigated using time-resolved photoluminescence, Kelvin probe force microscopy, and external quantum efficiency spectra. Other extrinsic ions such as H + and Na + also show a clear impact on the performance and hysteresis in PSCs. Understanding the impacts of extrinsic ions in perovskite-based devices could lead to new material and device designs to further advance perovskite technology for various applications.« less

  13. Large grained perovskite solar cells derived from single-crystal perovskite powders with enhanced ambient stability

    DOE PAGES

    Yen, Hung -Ju; Liang, Po -Wei; Chueh, Chu -Chen; ...

    2016-05-25

    In this study, we demonstrate the large grained perovskite solar cells prepared from precursor solution comprising single-crystal perovskite powders for the first time. Here, the resultant large grained perovskite thin film possesses negligible physical (structural) gap between each large grain and are highly crystalline as evidenced by its fan-shaped birefringence observed under polarized light, which is very different to the thin film prepared from the typical precursor route (MAI + PbI 2).

  14. Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite quantum dots with high PLQY and enhanced carrier mobility through crystallinity control by solvent engineering and solid-state ligand exchange.

    PubMed

    Woo Choi, Jin; Woo, Hee Chul; Huang, Xiaoguang; Jung, Wan-Gil; Kim, Bong-Joong; Jeon, Sie-Wook; Yim, Sang-Youp; Lee, Jae-Suk; Lee, Chang-Lyoul

    2018-05-22

    The photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and charge carrier mobility of organic-inorganic perovskite QDs were enhanced by the optimization of crystallinity and surface passivation as well as solid-state ligand exchange. The crystallinity of perovskite QDs was determined by the Effective solvent field (Esol) of various solvents for precipitation. The solvent with high Esol could more quickly countervail the localized field generated by the polar solvent, and it causes fast crystallization of the dissolved precursor, which results in poor crystallinity. The post-ligand adding process (PLAP) and post-ligand exchange process (PLEP) increase the PLQY of perovskite QDs by reducing non-radiative recombination and the density of surface defect states through surface passivation. Particularly, the post ligand exchange process (PLEP) in the solid-state improved the charge carrier mobility of perovskite QDs in addition to the PLQY enhancement. The ligand exchange with short alkyl chain length ligands could improve the packing density of perovskite QDs in films by reducing the inter-particle distance between perovskite QDs. The maximum hole mobility of 6.2 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1, one order higher than that of pristine QDs without the PLEP, is obtained at perovskite QDs with hexyl ligands. By using PLEP treatment, compared to the pristine device, a 2.5 times higher current efficiency in perovskite QD-LEDs was achieved due to the improved charge carrier mobility and PLQY.

  15. Structural chemistry and magnetic properties of the perovskite Sr{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}TeO{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yawei; Hunter, Emily C.; Battle, Peter D., E-mail: peter.battle@chem.ox.ac.uk

    2016-10-15

    A polycrystalline sample of perovskite-like Sr{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}TeO{sub 9} has been prepared in a solid-state reaction and studied by a combination of electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetometry, X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The majority of the reaction product is shown to be a trigonal phase with a 2:1 ordered arrangement of Fe{sup 3+} and Te{sup 6+} cations. However, the sample is prone to nano-twinning and tetragonal domains with a different pattern of cation ordering exist within many crystallites. Antiferromagnetic ordering exists in the trigonal phase at 300 K and Sr{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}TeO{sub 9} is thus the first example of amore » perovskite with 2:1 trigonal cation ordering to show long-range magnetic order. At 300 K the antiferromagnetic phase coexists with two paramagnetic phases which show spin-glass behaviour below ~80 K. - Graphical abstract: Sr{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}TeO{sub 9} has a 2:1 ordered arrangement of Fe{sup 3+} and Te{sup 6+} cations over the octahedral sites of a perovskite structure and is antiferromagnetic at room temperature. - Highlights: • 2:1 Cation ordering in a trigonal perovskite. • Magnetically ordered trigonal perovskite. • Intergrowth of nanodomains in perovskite microstructure.« less

  16. Monovalent Cation Doping of CH3NH3PbI3 for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba; Dar, M Ibrahim; Sadhanala, Aditya; Senanayak, Satyaprasad P; Grätzel, Michael; Friend, Richard H

    2017-03-19

    Here, we demonstrate the incorporation of monovalent cation additives into CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite in order to adjust the optical, excitonic, and electrical properties. The possibility of doping was investigated by adding monovalent cation halides with similar ionic radii to Pb 2+ , including Cu + , Na + , and Ag + . A shift in the Fermi level and a remarkable decrease of sub-bandgap optical absorption, along with a lower energetic disorder in the perovskite, was achieved. An order-of-magnitude enhancement in the bulk hole mobility and a significant reduction of transport activation energy within an additive-based perovskite device was attained. The confluence of the aforementioned improved properties in the presence of these cations led to an enhancement in the photovoltaic parameters of the perovskite solar cell. An increase of 70 mV in open circuit voltage for AgI and a 2 mA/cm 2 improvement in photocurrent density for NaI- and CuBr-based solar cells were achieved compared to the pristine device. Our work paves the way for further improvements in the optoelectronic quality of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite and subsequent devices. It highlights a new avenue for investigations on the role of dopant impurities in crystallization and controls the electronic defect density in perovskite structures.

  17. Monovalent Cation Doping of CH3NH3PbI3 for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba; Dar, M. Ibrahim; Sadhanala, Aditya; Senanayak, Satyaprasad P.; Grätzel, Michael; Friend, Richard H.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate the incorporation of monovalent cation additives into CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite in order to adjust the optical, excitonic, and electrical properties. The possibility of doping was investigated by adding monovalent cation halides with similar ionic radii to Pb2+, including Cu+, Na+, and Ag+. A shift in the Fermi level and a remarkable decrease of sub-bandgap optical absorption, along with a lower energetic disorder in the perovskite, was achieved. An order-of-magnitude enhancement in the bulk hole mobility and a significant reduction of transport activation energy within an additive-based perovskite device was attained. The confluence of the aforementioned improved properties in the presence of these cations led to an enhancement in the photovoltaic parameters of the perovskite solar cell. An increase of 70 mV in open circuit voltage for AgI and a 2 mA/cm2 improvement in photocurrent density for NaI- and CuBr-based solar cells were achieved compared to the pristine device. Our work paves the way for further improvements in the optoelectronic quality of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite and subsequent devices. It highlights a new avenue for investigations on the role of dopant impurities in crystallization and controls the electronic defect density in perovskite structures. PMID:28362369

  18. Studies of magnetism in rhenium and manganese based perovskite oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Christopher Ryan

    The bulk of this thesis consists of studies of geometric frustration in S = ½ FCC perovskites based upon the chemical formula A2BReO 6. The magnetism of these materials is expected to exhibit geometric frustration, a situation in which the ideal spin arrangements cannot be achieved for antiferromagnetic interactions between adjacent spins. It is proposed that subtle quantum effects are driving these systems to unique ground states in the absence of chemical disorder. Both compounds Sr2CaReO 6 and Sr2MgReO6 exhibit spin glass behaviour at low temperatures (TG ˜ 14 K and TG ˜ 50 K respectively), in which the magnetic moments freeze out in random orientations instead of an ordered array. This work shows that these materials possess several unconventional properties, which suggest that interesting spin dynamics may be present. Other perovskite and perovskite-related materials studied in this thesis include the magnetoresistive CaMnO3-delta and the "pillared" material La5Re3MnO16. Neutron diffraction studies have shown that both CaMnO2.94 and CaMnO2.89 order at TN ˜ 125 K, but possess unique yet related magnetic structures. CaMnO2.94 orders into a simple G-type magnetic structure, as observed in the compound CaMnO3. The slightly more doped sample CaMnO2.89, on the other hand, orders into a magnetic structure related to the G-type, and involves a Mn3+/Mn 4+ charge ordering over every four lattice spacings. The new material La5Re3MnO16 consists of layers of corner shared ReO6 and MnO6 octahedra that are separated by layers of Re2O10 dimer units. Metal-metal bonding involving Re atoms have been postulated for these dimers which separate the Re/Mn layers by approximately 10 A. The magnetic behaviour exhibited by this new class of materials is rich and complex. Despite the large distances separating the perovskite layers, the Re and Mn magnetic moments order into a ferrimagnetic Q = (0, 0, ½) structure below a relatively high T N of 161 K. There may be an additional

  19. Perovskites: transforming photovoltaics, a mini-review

    DOE PAGES

    Chilvery, Ashwith Kumar; Batra, Ashok K.; Yang, Bin; ...

    2015-01-06

    The recent power-packed advent of perovskite solar cells is transforming photovoltaics (PV) with their superior efficiencies, ease of fabrication, and cost. This perovskite solar cell further boasts of many unexplored features that can further enhance its PV properties and lead to it being branded as a successful commercial product. This paper provides a detailed insight of the organometal halide based perovskite structure, its unique stoichiometric design, and its underlying principles for PV applications. Finally, the compatibility of various PV layers and its fabrication methods is also discussed.

  20. High Photoluminescence Quantum Yield in Band Gap Tunable Bromide Containing Mixed Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Sutter-Fella, Carolin M; Li, Yanbo; Amani, Matin; Ager, Joel W; Toma, Francesca M; Yablonovitch, Eli; Sharp, Ian D; Javey, Ali

    2016-01-13

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite based semiconductor materials are attractive for use in a wide range of optoelectronic devices because they combine the advantages of suitable optoelectronic attributes and simultaneously low-cost solution processability. Here, we present a two-step low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process to grow high quality homogeneous CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx perovskite films over the full band gap range of 1.6-2.3 eV. Photoluminescence light-in versus light-out characterization techniques are used to provide new insights into the optoelectronic properties of Br-containing hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites as a function of optical carrier injection by employing pump-powers over a 6 orders of magnitude dynamic range. The internal luminescence quantum yield of wide band gap perovskites reaches impressive values up to 30%. This high quantum yield translates into substantial quasi-Fermi level splitting and high "luminescence or optically implied" open-circuit voltage. Most importantly, both attributes, high internal quantum yield and high optically implied open-circuit voltage, are demonstrated over the entire band gap range (1.6 eV ≤ Eg ≤ 2.3 eV). These results establish the versatility of Br-containing perovskite semiconductors for a variety of applications and especially for the use as high-quality top cell in tandem photovoltaic devices in combination with industry dominant Si bottom cells.

  1. Observation of Internal Photoinduced Electron and Hole Separation in Hybrid Two-Dimentional Perovskite Films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junxue; Leng, Jing; Wu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Jun; Jin, Shengye

    2017-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) organolead halide perovskites are promising for various optoelectronic applications. Here we report a unique spontaneous charge (electron/hole) separation property in multilayered (BA) 2 (MA) n-1 Pb n I 3n+1 (BA = CH 3 (CH 2 ) 3 NH 3 + , MA = CH 3 NH 3 + ) 2D perovskite films by studying the charge carrier dynamics using ultrafast transient absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Surprisingly, the 2D perovskite films, although nominally prepared as "n = 4", are found to be mixture of multiple perovskite phases, with n = 2, 3, 4 and ≈ ∞, that naturally align in the order of n along the direction perpendicular to the substrate. Driven by the band alignment between 2D perovskites phases, we observe consecutive photoinduced electron transfer from small-n to large-n phases and hole transfer in the opposite direction on hundreds of picoseconds inside the 2D film of ∼358 nm thickness. This internal charge transfer efficiently separates electrons and holes to the upper and bottom surfaces of the films, which is a unique property beneficial for applications in photovoltaics and other optoelectronics devices.

  2. Investigation of the Interaction between Perovskite Films with Moisture via in Situ Electrical Resistance Measurement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Long; Shao, Gang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Dengbing; Lv, Xinlin; Wang, Hongya; Liu, Xinsheng; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan

    2015-11-18

    Organometal halide perovskites have recently emerged as outstanding semiconductors for solid-state optoelectronic devices. Their sensitivity to moisture is one of the biggest barriers to commercialization. In order to identify the effect of moisture in the degradation process, here we combined the in situ electrical resistance measurement with time-resolved X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the interaction of CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) perovskite films with moisture. Upon short-time exposure, the resistance of the perovskite films decreased and it could be fully recovered, which were ascribed to a mere chemisorption of water molecules, followed by the reversible hydration into CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)·H2O. Upon long-time exposure, however, the resistance became irreversible due to the decomposition into PbI2. The results demonstrated the formation of monohydrated intermediate phase when the perovskites interacted with moisture. The role of moisture in accelerating the thermal degradation at 85 °C was also demonstrated. Furthermore, our study suggested that the perovskite films with fewer defects may be more inherently resistant to moisture.

  3. Can ferroelectric polarization explain the high performance of hybrid halide perovskite solar cells?

    PubMed

    Sherkar, Tejas S; Koster, L Jan Anton

    2016-01-07

    The power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells based on the use of hybrid halide perovskites, CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), now exceeds 20%. Recently, it was suggested that this high performance originates from the presence of ferroelectricity in the perovskite, which is hypothesized to lower charge recombination in the device. Here, we investigate and quantify the influence of mesoscale ferroelectric polarization on the device performance of perovskite solar cells. We implement a 3D drift diffusion model to describe the solar cell operation. To account for the mesoscale ferroelectricity, we incorporate domains defined by polarization strength, P, in 3D space, forming different polarization landscapes or microstructures. Study of microstructures with highly-ordered polarized domains shows that charge transport and recombination in the solar cell depends significantly on the polarization landscape viz. the orientation of domain boundaries and the size of domains. In the case of the microstructure with random correlated polarization, a realistic scenario, we find indication of the existence of channels for efficient charge transport in the device which leads to lowering of charge recombination, as evidenced by the high fill factor (FF). However, the high open-circuit voltage (VOC), which is typical of high performance perovskite solar cells, is unlikely to be explained by the presence of ferroelectric polarization in the perovskite.

  4. Moessbauer spectroscopy of Mg(0.9)Fe(0.1)SiO3 perovskite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeanloz, Raymond; O'Neill, Bridget; Pasternak, Moshe P.; Taylor, R. D.; Bohlen, Steven R.

    1992-01-01

    Ambient pressure Moessbauer spectra of Mg(0.9)Fe-57(0.1)SiO3 perovskite synthesized at pressure-temperature conditions of about 50 GPa and 1700 K show that the iron is entirely high-spin Fe(2+) and appears to be primarily located in the octahedral site within the crystal structure. We observe broad Moessbauer lines, suggesting a distribution of electric-field gradients caused by disorder associated with the Fe ions. Also, the perovskite exhibits magnetic ordering at temperatures lower than 5 K, implying that there is a magnetic contribution to the absolute ('third-law') entropy of this phase.

  5. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  6. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; ...

    2016-05-16

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes.more » Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.« less

  7. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-09

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  8. Static and dynamic strain coupling behaviour of ferroic and multiferroic perovskites from resonant ultrasound spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M A

    2015-07-08

    PrAlO3, and this is suppressed by application of an external magnetic field in the colossal magnetoresistive manganite Pr0.48Ca0.52MnO3 or by reducing grain size in La0.5Ca0.5MnO3. Spin state transitions for Co(3+) in LaCoO3, NdCoO3 and GdCoO3 produce changes in the shear modulus that scale with a spin state order parameter, which is itself coupled with the order parameter(s) for octahedral tilting in a linear-quadratic manner. A new class of phase transitions in perovskites, due to orientational or conformational ordering of organic molecules on the crystallographic A-site of metal organic frameworks, is illustrated for [(CH3)2NH2]Co(HCOO)3 and [(CH2)3NH2]Mn(HCOO)3 which also display elastic and anelastic anomalies due to the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic strain relaxation behaviour.

  9. Hybrid Lead Halide Layered Perovskites with Silsesquioxane Interlayers.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Sho; Kaburagi, Wako; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Kazuhiko; Endo, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Hybrid organic-lead halide perovskites exhibit remarkable properties as semiconductors and light absorbers. Here, we report the formation of silsesquioxane-lead halide hybrid layered perovskites. We prepared silsesquioxane with a cubic cage-like structure and fabricated hybrid silsesquioxane-lead halide layered perovskites in a self-assembled manner. It is demonstrated that the silsesquioxane maintain their cage-like structure between lead halide perovskite layers. The silsesquioxane-lead halide perovskites also show excitonic absorption and emission in the visible light region similar to typical lead halide layered perovskites.

  10. Dimensionality-driven insulator–metal transition in A-site excess non-stoichiometric perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongchang; Okude, Masaki; Saito, Mitsuhiro; Tsukimoto, Susumu; Ohtomo, Akira; Tsukada, Masaru; Kawasaki, Masashi; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2010-01-01

    Coaxing correlated materials to the proximity of the insulator–metal transition region, where electronic wavefunctions transform from localized to itinerant, is currently the subject of intensive research because of the hopes it raises for technological applications and also for its fundamental scientific significance. In general, this tuning is achieved by either chemical doping to introduce charge carriers, or external stimuli to lower the ratio of Coulomb repulsion to bandwidth. In this study, we combine experiment and theory to show that the transition from well-localized insulating states to metallicity in a Ruddlesden-Popper series, La0.5Srn+1−0.5TinO3n+1, is driven by intercalating an intrinsically insulating SrTiO3 unit, in structural terms, by dimensionality n. This unconventional strategy, which can be understood upon a complex interplay between electron–phonon coupling and electron correlations, opens up a new avenue to obtain metallicity or even superconductivity in oxide superlattices that are normally expected to be insulators. PMID:21045824

  11. Semitransparent Fully Air Processed Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Bu, Lingling; Liu, Zonghao; Zhang, Meng; Li, Wenhui; Zhu, Aili; Cai, Fensha; Zhao, Zhixin; Zhou, Yinhua

    2015-08-19

    Semitransparent solar cells are highly attractive for application as power-generating windows. In this work, we present semitransparent perovskite solar cells that employ conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) film as the transparent counter electrode. The PSS electrode is prepared by transfer lamination technique using plastic wrap as the transfer medium. The use of the transfer lamination technique avoids the damage of the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film by direct contact of PSS aqueous solution. The semitransparent perovskite solar cells yield a power conversion efficiency of 10.1% at an area of about 0.06 cm(2) and 2.9% at an area of 1 cm(2). The device structure and the fabrication technique provide a facile way to produce semitransparent perovskite solar cells.

  12. Mixed-Halide Perovskites with Stabilized Bandgaps.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhengguo; Zhao, Lianfeng; Tran, Nhu L; Lin, Yunhui Lisa; Silver, Scott H; Kerner, Ross A; Yao, Nan; Kahn, Antoine; Scholes, Gregory D; Rand, Barry P

    2017-11-08

    One merit of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites is their tunable bandgap by adjusting the halide stoichiometry, an aspect critical to their application in tandem solar cells, wavelength-tunable light emitting diodes (LEDs), and lasers. However, the phase separation of mixed-halide perovskites caused by light or applied bias results in undesirable recombination at iodide-rich domains, meaning open-circuit voltage (V OC ) pinning in solar cells and infrared emission in LEDs. Here, we report an approach to suppress halide redistribution by self-assembled long-chain organic ammonium capping layers at nanometer-sized grain surfaces. Using the stable mixed-halide perovskite films, we are able to fabricate efficient and wavelength-tunable perovskite LEDs from infrared to green with high external quantum efficiencies of up to 5%, as well as linearly tuned V OC from 1.05 to 1.45 V in solar cells.

  13. Double perovskites with strong spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Ashley M.

    We first present theoretical analysis of powder inelastic neutron scattering experiments in Ba2FeReO6 performed by our experimental collaborators. Ba2FeReO6, a member of the double perovskite family of materials, exhibits half-metallic behavior and high Curie temperatures Tc, making it of interest for spintronics applications. To interpret the experimental data, we develop a local moment model, which incorporates the interaction of Fe spins with spin-orbital locked magnetic moments on Re, and show that it captures the experimental observations. We then develop a tight-binding model of the double perovskite Ba 2FeReO6, a room temperature ferrimagnet with correlated and spin-orbit coupled Re t2g electrons moving in the background of Fe moments stabilized by Hund's coupling. We show that for such 3d/5d double perovskites, strong correlations on the 5d-element (Re) are essential in driving a half-metallic ground state. Incorporating both strong spin-orbit coupling and the Hubbard repulsion on Re leads to a band structure consistent with ab initio calculations. The uncovered interplay of strong correlations and spin-orbit coupling lends partial support to our previous work, which used a local moment description to capture the spin wave dispersion found in neutron scattering measurements. We then adapt this tight-binding model to study {111}-grown bilayers of half-metallic double perovskites such as Sr2FeMoO6. The combination of spin-orbit coupling, inter-orbital hybridization and symmetry-allowed trigonal distortion leads to a rich phase diagram with tunable ferromagnetic order, topological C= +/-1, +/-2 Chern bands, and a C = +/-2 quantum anomalous Hall insulator regime. We have also performed theoretical analysis of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments to investigate the magnetic excitations in the weakly distorted face-centered-cubic (fcc) iridate double perovskites La2ZnIrO 6 and La2MgIrO6. Models with dominant Kitaev exchange seem to most naturally

  14. Spin-Orbital Superstructure in Strained Ferrimagnetic Perovskite Cobalt Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, J.; Yamasaki, Y.; Nakao, H.; Kumai, R.; Murakami, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.

    2013-07-01

    We have investigated the Co-3d spin-orbital state in a thin film of perovskite LaCoO3 to clarify the origin of strain induced spontaneous magnetization (TC=94K) by means of x-ray diffraction, optical spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. A lattice distortion with the propagation vector (1/4 -​​1/4 1/4) and an anomalous activation of optical phonons coupled to Co-3d orbital are observed below 126 K. Combined with the azimuthal angle analysis of superlattice reflection, we propose that the ordering of Co-3d orbital promoted by an epitaxial strain produces a unique ferrimagnetic structure.

  15. Exotic magnetic structures in high-pressure synthesized perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry; Ding, Lei; Yi, Wei; Kumagai, Yu; Oba, Fumiyasu; Orlandi, Fabio; Belik, Alexei

    We present a neutron powder diffraction study of the crystal and magnetic structures of the high-pressure stabilized perovskite phases of TlMnO3, ScCrO3, InCrO3 and TlCrO3. These compounds exhibit original magnetic structures compared to other members of their respective manganite and orthochromite families with TlMnO3 also displaying unusual orbital ordering pattern. For both systems, we rationalise the structures through a combination of group theory and first principle calculations. We also highlight the dominant mechanism controlling the spin direction as being the single ion anisotropy.

  16. Perovskite solar cells: from materials to devices.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2015-01-07

    Perovskite solar cells based on organometal halide light absorbers have been considered a promising photovoltaic technology due to their superb power conversion efficiency (PCE) along with very low material costs. Since the first report on a long-term durable solid-state perovskite solar cell with a PCE of 9.7% in 2012, a PCE as high as 19.3% was demonstrated in 2014, and a certified PCE of 17.9% was shown in 2014. Such a high photovoltaic performance is attributed to optically high absorption characteristics and balanced charge transport properties with long diffusion lengths. Nevertheless, there are lots of puzzles to unravel the basis for such high photovoltaic performances. The working principle of perovskite solar cells has not been well established by far, which is the most important thing for understanding perovksite solar cells. In this review, basic fundamentals of perovskite materials including opto-electronic and dielectric properties are described to give a better understanding and insight into high-performing perovskite solar cells. In addition, various fabrication techniques and device structures are described toward the further improvement of perovskite solar cells. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Photoluminescence characterisations of a dynamic aging process of organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, R.; Wen, X.; Huang, S.; Hao, X.; Chen, S.; Jiang, Y.; Deng, X.; Green, M. A.; Ho-Baillie, A. W. Y.

    2016-01-01

    After unprecedented development of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells over the past few years, one of the biggest barriers towards their commercialization is the stability of the perovskite material. It is thus important to understand the interaction between the perovskite material and oxygen and/or humidity and the associated degradation process in order to improve device and encapsulation design for better durability. Here we characterize the dynamic aging process in vapour-assisted deposited (VASP) CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films using advanced optical techniques, such as time-resolved photoluminescence and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Our investigation reveals that the perovskite grains grow spontaneously and the larger grains are formed at room temperature in the presence of moisture and oxygen. This crystallization process leads to a higher density of defects and a shorter carrier lifetime, specifically in the larger grains. Excitation-intensity-dependent steady-state photoluminescence shows both N2 stored and aged perovskite exhibit a super-linear increase of photoluminescence intensity with increasing excitation intensity; and the larger slope in aged sample suggests a larger density of defects is generated, consistent with time-resolved PL measurements.

  18. Interface Engineering of High-Performance Perovskite Photodetectors Based on PVP/SnO2 Electron Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Zhang, Xingwang; Jiang, Qi; Liu, Heng; Wang, Denggui; Meng, Junhua; You, Jingbi; Yin, Zhigang

    2018-02-21

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have attracted intensive interest as active materials for high-performance photodetectors. However, studies on the electron transport layer (ETL) and its influence on the response time of photodetectors remain limited. Herein, we compare the performances of perovskite photodetectors with TiO 2 and SnO 2 ETLs, especially on the response time. Both photodetectors exhibit a high on/off current ratio of 10 5 , a large detectivity around 10 12 Jones, and a linear dynamic range over 80 dB. The SnO 2 -based perovskite photodiodes show ultrahigh response rates of 3 and 6 μs for the rise and decay times, respectively. However, photodetectors with TiO 2 ETLs have low responsivity and long response time at low driving voltage, which is attributed to the electron extraction barrier at the TiO 2 /perovskite interface and the charge traps in the TiO 2 layer. Furthermore, the dark current of SnO 2 -based perovskite photodiodes is effectively suppressed by inserting a poly(vinylpyrrolidone) interlayer, and then the on/off current ratio increases to 1.2 × 10 6 , corresponding to an improvement of 1 order of magnitude. Such low-cost, solution-processable perovskite photodetectors with high performance show promising potential for future optoelectronic applications.

  19. Planar structured perovskite solar cells by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition with optimized perovskite film thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiangyang; Peng, Yanke; Jing, Gaoshan; Cui, Tianhong

    2018-05-01

    The thickness of perovskite absorber layer is a critical parameter to determine a planar structured perovskite solar cell’s performance. By modifying the spin coating speed and PbI2/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution concentration, the thickness of perovskite absorber layer was optimized to obtain high-performance solar cells. Using a PbI2/DMF solution of 1.3 mol/L, maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a perovskite solar cell is 15.5% with a perovskite film of 413 nm at 5000 rpm, and PCE of 14.3% was also obtained for a solar cell with a perovskite film of 182 nm thick. It is derived that higher concentration of PbI2/DMF will result in better perovskite solar cells. Additionally, these perovskite solar cells are highly uniform. In 14 sets of solar cells, standard deviations of 11 sets of solar cells were less than 0.50% and the smallest standard deviation was 0.25%, which demonstrates the reliability and effectiveness of hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method.

  20. Constructing Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Interconnecting Perovskite Grains.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xian; Huang, Sumei; Ou-Yang, Wei; Pan, Likun; Sun, Zhuo; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-10-11

    A high-quality perovskite film with interconnected perovskite grains was obtained by incorporating terephthalic acid (TPA) additive into the perovskite precursor solution. The presence of TPA changed the crystallization kinetics of the perovskite film and promoted lateral growth of grains in the vicinity of crystal boundaries. As a result, sheet-shaped perovskite was formed and covered onto the bottom grains, which made some adjacent grains partly merge together to form grains-interconnected perovskite film. Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with TPA additive exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.51% with less hysteresis, which is obviously higher than that of pristine cells (15.53%). PSCs without and with TPA additive retain 18 and 51% of the initial PCE value, respectively, aging for 35 days exposed to relative humidity 30% in air without encapsulation. Furthermore, MAPbI 3 film with TPA additive shows superior thermal stability to the pristine one under 100 °C baking. The results indicate that the presence of TPA in perovskite film can greatly improve the performance of PSCs as well as their moisture resistance and thermal stability.

  1. Mixed Sn-Ge Perovskite for Enhanced Perovskite Solar Cell Performance in Air.

    PubMed

    Ito, Nozomi; Kamarudin, Muhammad Akmal; Hirotani, Daisuke; Zhang, Yaohong; Shen, Qing; Ogomi, Yuhei; Iikubo, Satoshi; Minemoto, Takashi; Yoshino, Kenji; Hayase, Shuzi

    2018-04-05

    Lead-based perovskite solar cells have gained ground in recent years, showing efficiency as high as 20%, which is on par with that of silicon solar cells. However, the toxicity of lead makes it a nonideal candidate for use in solar cells. Alternatively, tin-based perovskites have been proposed because of their nontoxic nature and abundance. Unfortunately, these solar cells suffer from low efficiency and stability. Here, we propose a new type of perovskite material based on mixed tin and germanium. The material showed a band gap around 1.4-1.5 eV as measured from photoacoustic spectroscopy, which is ideal from the perspective of solar cells. In a solar cell device with inverted planar structure, pure tin perovskite solar cell showed a moderate efficiency of 3.31%. With 5% doping of germanium into the perovskite, the efficiency improved up to 4.48% (6.90% after 72 h) when measured in air without encapsulation.

  2. Electrochemical Doping of Halide Perovskites with Ion Intercalation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qinglong; Chen, Mingming; Li, Junqiang; Wang, Mingchao; Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Besara, Tiglet; Lu, Jun; Xin, Yan; Shan, Xin; Pan, Bicai; Wang, Changchun; Lin, Shangchao; Siegrist, Theo; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Yu, Zhibin

    2017-01-24

    Halide perovskites have recently been investigated for various solution-processed optoelectronic devices. The majority of studies have focused on using intrinsic halide perovskites, and the intentional incoporation of dopants has not been well explored. In this work, we discovered that small alkali ions, including lithium and sodium ions, could be electrochemically intercalated into a variety of halide and pseudohalide perovskites. The ion intercalation caused a lattice expansion of the perovskite crystals and resulted in an n-type doping of the perovskites. Such electrochemical doping improved the conductivity and changed the color of the perovskites, leading to an electrochromism with more than 40% reduction of transmittance in the 450-850 nm wavelength range. The doped perovskites exhibited improved electron injection efficiency into the pristine perovskite crystals, resulting in bright light-emitting diodes with a low turn-on voltage.

  3. Does low post-perovskite viscosity have an effect on structures at the core-mantle boundary ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, T.; Tackley, P. J.; Ammann, M. W.; Brodholt, J. P.; Dobson, D.

    2009-12-01

    According to recent high pressure experiments [e.g. Yamazaki et al., 2006], viscosity determination using geoid fitting [Tosi et al., 2009], and new ab initio DFT calculations [Ammann et al., 2009], the viscosity of the post-perovskite phase may be lower than the viscosity of the perovskite by up to 2-3 orders of magnitude. Both activation enthalpy and the pre-exponential factor in the viscosity law are expected to be different. Here we implement phase-dependent viscosity into 3-D spherical shell, thermo-chemical mantle convection model, to investigate an effect of low post-perovskite viscosity and its influence on the heterogeneous structures in the core-mantle boundary region, including lateral variations in heat flux across the core-mantle boundary. Rheological parameters are taken from first principle calculations for perovskite [Ammann et al., 2009] plus new calculations for post-perovskite, with post-perovskite viscosity being up to three orders of magnitude lower. A major finding from our simulations is that low PPV viscosity increases the lateral heterogeneity in CMB heat flux and stabilizes compositionally-dense anomalies by basaltic material above the CMB. In order to understand the relationship between local heat flux and seismic anomaly near the core-mantle boundary, the results of these mantle convection simulations are used to expand the simple theory for the scaling relationship between CMB heat flux and seismic anomalies found in our recent paper [Nakagawa and Tackley, 2008]. Stabilizing the dense piles above the CMB by low post-perovskite viscosity effects can explain the current inference of thermo-chemical-phase structures from both seismology and mineral physics . Here we also try to determine how seismic anomalies can predict heat flux across the CMB from our modeling results. References Ammann, M., J. P. Brodholt and D. P. Dobson, PCM, doi:10.1007/s00269-008-0265-z, 2009. Nakagawa, T., and P. J. Tackley, EPSL, 271, 348-358, 2008.

  4. Highly Efficient Perovskite-Perovskite Tandem Solar Cells Reaching 80% of the Theoretical Limit in Photovoltage.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Adharsh; Yang, Zhibin; Jo, Sae Byeok; Braly, Ian L; Liang, Po-Wei; Hillhouse, Hugh W; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2017-09-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite multijunction solar cells have immense potential to realize power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit of single-junction solar cells; however, they are limited by large nonideal photovoltage loss (V oc,loss ) in small- and large-bandgap subcells. Here, an integrated approach is utilized to improve the V oc of subcells with optimized bandgaps and fabricate perovskite-perovskite tandem solar cells with small V oc,loss . A fullerene variant, Indene-C 60 bis-adduct, is used to achieve optimized interfacial contact in a small-bandgap (≈1.2 eV) subcell, which facilitates higher quasi-Fermi level splitting, reduces nonradiative recombination, alleviates hysteresis instabilities, and improves V oc to 0.84 V. Compositional engineering of large-bandgap (≈1.8 eV) perovskite is employed to realize a subcell with a transparent top electrode and photostabilized V oc of 1.22 V. The resultant monolithic perovskite-perovskite tandem solar cell shows a high V oc of 1.98 V (approaching 80% of the theoretical limit) and a stabilized PCE of 18.5%. The significantly minimized nonideal V oc,loss is better than state-of-the-art silicon-perovskite tandem solar cells, which highlights the prospects of using perovskite-perovskite tandems for solar-energy generation. It also unlocks opportunities for solar water splitting using hybrid perovskites with solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies beyond 15%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Two-Dimensional Lead Halide Perovskites Templated by a Conjugated Asymmetric Diammonium.

    PubMed

    Hautzinger, Matthew P; Dai, Jun; Ji, Yujin; Fu, Yongping; Chen, Jie; Guzei, Ilia A; Wright, John C; Li, Youyong; Jin, Song

    2017-12-18

    We report novel two-dimensional lead halide perovskite structures templated by a unique conjugated aromatic dication, N,N-dimethylphenylene-p-diammonium (DPDA). The asymmetrically substituted primary and tertiary ammoniums in DPDA facilitate the formation of two-dimensional network (2DN) perovskite structures incorporating a conjugated dication between the PbX 4 2- (X = Br, I) layers. These 2DN structures of (DPDA)PbI 4 and (DPDA)PbBr 4 were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, showing uniquely low distortions in the Pb-X-Pb bond angle for 2D perovskites. The Pb-I-Pb bond angle is very close to ideal (180°) for a 2DN lead iodide perovskite, which can be attributed to the ability of the rigid diammonium DPDA to insert into the PbX 6 2- octahedral pockets. Optical characterization of (DPDA)PbI 4 shows an excitonic absorption peak at 2.29 eV (541 nm), which is red-shifted in comparison to similar 2DN lead iodide structures. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of both compounds reveals both a self-trapped exciton and free exciton emission feature. The reduced exciton absorption energy and emission properties are attributed to the dication-induced structural order of the inorganic PbX 4 2- layers. DFT calculation results suggest mixing of the conjugated organic orbital component in the valence band of these 2DN perovskites. These results demonstrate a rational new strategy to incorporate conjugated organic dications into hybrid perovskites and will spur spectroscopic investigations of these compounds as well as optoelectronic applications.

  6. Making and Breaking of Lead Halide Perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Manser, Joseph S.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Christians, Jeffrey A.; ...

    2016-01-20

    A new front-runner has emerged in the field of next-generation photovoltaics. A unique class of materials, known as organic metal halide perovskites, bridges the gap between low-cost fabrication and exceptional device performance. These compounds can be processed at low temperature (typically in the range 80-150 °C) and readily self-assemble from the solution phase into high-quality semiconductor thin films. The low energetic barrier for crystal formation has mixed consequences. On one hand, it enables inexpensive processing and both optical and electronic tunability. The caveat, however, is that many as-formed lead halide perovskite thin films lack chemical and structural stability, undergoing rapidmore » degradation in the presence of moisture or heat. To date, improvements in perovskite solar cell efficiency have resulted primarily from better control over thin film morphology, manipulation of the stoichiometry and chemistry of lead halide and alkylammonium halide precursors, and the choice of solvent treatment. Proper characterization and tuning of processing parameters can aid in rational optimization of perovskite devices. Likewise, gaining a comprehensive understanding of the degradation mechanism and identifying components of the perovskite structure that may be particularly susceptible to attack by moisture are vital to mitigate device degradation under operating conditions. This Account provides insight into the lifecycle of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites, including (i) the nature of the precursor solution, (ii) formation of solid-state perovskite thin films and single crystals, and (iii) transformation of perovskites into hydrated phases upon exposure to moisture. In particular, spectroscopic and structural characterization techniques shed light on the thermally driven evolution of the perovskite structure. By tuning precursor stoichiometry and chemistry, and thus the lead halide charge-transfer complexes present in solution

  7. Making and Breaking of Lead Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Manser, Joseph S; Saidaminov, Makhsud I; Christians, Jeffrey A; Bakr, Osman M; Kamat, Prashant V

    2016-02-16

    A new front-runner has emerged in the field of next-generation photovoltaics. A unique class of materials, known as organic metal halide perovskites, bridges the gap between low-cost fabrication and exceptional device performance. These compounds can be processed at low temperature (typically in the range 80-150 °C) and readily self-assemble from the solution phase into high-quality semiconductor thin films. The low energetic barrier for crystal formation has mixed consequences. On one hand, it enables inexpensive processing and both optical and electronic tunability. The caveat, however, is that many as-formed lead halide perovskite thin films lack chemical and structural stability, undergoing rapid degradation in the presence of moisture or heat. To date, improvements in perovskite solar cell efficiency have resulted primarily from better control over thin film morphology, manipulation of the stoichiometry and chemistry of lead halide and alkylammonium halide precursors, and the choice of solvent treatment. Proper characterization and tuning of processing parameters can aid in rational optimization of perovskite devices. Likewise, gaining a comprehensive understanding of the degradation mechanism and identifying components of the perovskite structure that may be particularly susceptible to attack by moisture are vital to mitigate device degradation under operating conditions. This Account provides insight into the lifecycle of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites, including (i) the nature of the precursor solution, (ii) formation of solid-state perovskite thin films and single crystals, and (iii) transformation of perovskites into hydrated phases upon exposure to moisture. In particular, spectroscopic and structural characterization techniques shed light on the thermally driven evolution of the perovskite structure. By tuning precursor stoichiometry and chemistry, and thus the lead halide charge-transfer complexes present in solution, crystallization

  8. Nature of the octahedral tilting phase transitions in perovskites: A case study of CaMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klarbring, Johan; Simak, Sergei I.

    2018-01-01

    The temperature-induced antiferrodistortive (AFD) structural phase transitions in CaMnO3, a typical perovskite oxide, are studied using first-principles density functional theory calculations. These transitions are caused by tilting of the MnO6 octahedra that are related to unstable phonon modes in the high-symmetry cubic perovskite phase. Transitions due to octahedral tilting in perovskites normally are believed to fit into the standard soft-mode picture of displacive phase transitions. We calculate phonon-dispersion relations and potential-energy landscapes as functions of the unstable phonon modes and argue based on the results that the phase transitions are better described as being of order-disorder type. This means that the cubic phase emerges as a dynamical average when the system hops between local minima on the potential-energy surface. We then perform ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and find explicit evidence of the order-disorder dynamics in the system. Our conclusions are expected to be valid for other perovskite oxides, and we finally suggest how to predict the nature (displacive or order-disorder) of the AFD phase transitions in any perovskite system.

  9. Highly Efficient Visible Colloidal Lead-Halide Perovskite Nanocrystal Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Xing, Jun; Xing, Guichuan; Quan, Lina; Tan, Swee Tiam; Zhao, Jiaxin; Su, Rui; Zhang, Lulu; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Yawen; Huan, Alfred; Sargent, Edward H.; Xiong, Qihua; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2018-05-01

    Lead-halide perovskites have been attracting attention for potential use in solid-state lighting. Following the footsteps of solar cells, the field of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) has been growing rapidly. Their application prospects in lighting, however, remain still uncertain due to a variety of shortcomings in device performance including their limited levels of luminous efficiency achievable thus far. Here we show high-efficiency PeLEDs based on colloidal perovskite nanocrystals (PeNCs) synthesized at room temperature possessing dominant first-order excitonic radiation (enabling a photoluminescence quantum yield of 71% in solid film), unlike in the case of bulk perovskites with slow electron-hole bimolecular radiative recombination (a second-order process). In these PeLEDs, by reaching charge balance in the recombination zone, we find that the Auger nonradiative recombination, with its significant role in emission quenching, is effectively suppressed in low driving current density range. In consequence, these devices reach a record high maximum external quantum efficiency of 12.9% reported to date and an unprecedentedly high power efficiency of 30.3 lm W-1 at luminance levels above 1000 cd m-2 as required for various applications. These findings suggest that, with feasible levels of device performance, the PeNCs hold great promise for their use in LED lighting and displays.

  10. (CH3 NH3 )2 PdCl4 : A Compound with Two-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Layered Perovskite Structure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tang Jiao; Thiang, Zhang Xian; Yin, Xuesong; Tang, Chunhua; Qi, Guojun; Gong, Hao

    2016-02-01

    The synthesis of previously unknown perovskite (CH 3 NH 3 ) 2 PdCl 4 is reported. Despite using an organic cation with the smallest possible alkyl group, a 2D organic-inorganic layered Pd-based perovskites was still formed. This demonstrates that Pd-based 2D perovskites can be obtained even if the size of the organic cation is below the size limit predicted by the Goldschmidt tolerance-factor formula. The (CH 3 NH 3 ) 2 PdCl 4 phase has a bulk resistivity of 1.4 Ω cm, a direct optical gap of 2.22 eV, and an absorption coefficient on the order of 10 4  cm -1 . XRD measurements suggest that the compound is moderately stable in air, an important advantage over several existing organic-inorganic perovskites that are prone to phase degradation problems when exposed to the atmosphere. Given the recent interest in organic-inorganic perovskites, the synthesis of this new Pd-based organic-inorganic perovskite may be helpful in the preparation and understanding of other organic-inorganic perovskites. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Pressure Induced Iron Spin Crossover in MgGeO3 Perovskite and Post-perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentzcovitch, R. M.; Shukla, G.; Topsakal, M.

    2014-12-01

    MgGeO3-perovskite is known to be a low-pressure analog of MgSiO3-perovskite in many respects, but especially in regard to the post-perovskite transition. As such, investigation of spin state changes in Fe-bearing MgGeO3 might help to clarify some aspects of this type of state change in Fe-bearing MgSiO3. Using DFT+U calculations, we have investigated pressure induced state changes in Fe-bearing MgGeO3 perovskite and post-perovskite. Owing to the relatively larger atomic size of germanium compared to silicon, germanate phases have larger unit cell volume and interatomic distances than equivalent silicate phases at same pressures. As a result, all pressure induced state changes in iron occur at higher pressures in germanate phases than in the silicate ones, be it a spin state change or position change of (ferrous) iron in the perovskite cage. The effect of iron in the post-perovskite transition is also investigated.

  12. Rational Strategies for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jangwon; Noh, Jun Hong; Seok, Sang Il

    2016-03-15

    A long-standing dream in the large scale application of solar energy conversion is the fabrication of solar cells with high-efficiency and long-term stability at low cost. The realization of such practical goals depends on the architecture, process and key materials because solar cells are typically constructed from multilayer heterostructures of light harvesters, with electron and hole transporting layers as a major component. Recently, inorganic-organic hybrid lead halide perovskites have attracted significant attention as light absorbers for the fabrication of low-cost and high-efficiency solar cells via a solution process. This mainly stems from long-range ambipolar charge transport properties, low exciton binding energies, and suitable band gap tuning by managing the chemical composition. In our pioneering work, a new photovoltaic platform for efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs) was proposed, which yielded a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12%. The platform consisted of a pillared architecture of a three-dimensional nanocomposite of perovskites fully infiltrating mesoporous TiO2, resulting in the formation of continuous phases and perovskite domains overlaid with a polymeric hole conductor. Since then, the PCE of our PSCs has been rapidly increased from 3% to over 20% certified efficiency. The unprecedented increase in the PCE can be attributed to the effective integration of the advantageous attributes of the refined bicontinuous architecture, deposition process, and composition of perovskite materials. Specifically, the bicontinuous architectures used in the high efficiency comprise a layer of perovskite sandwiched between mesoporous metal-oxide layer, which is a very thinner than that of used in conventional dye-sensitized solar cells, and hole-conducting contact materials with a metal back contact. The mesoporous scaffold can affect the hysteresis under different scan direction in measurements of PSCs. The hysteresis also greatly depends on

  13. High-pressure crystal growth and electromagnetic properties of 5d double-perovskite Ca3OsO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hai Luke; Shi, Youguo; Guo, Yanfeng; Li, Jun; Sato, Akira; Sun, Ying; Wang, Xia; Yu, Shan; Sathish, Clastin I.; Yamaura, Kazunari

    2013-05-01

    Single crystals of the osmium-containing compound Ca3OsO6 have been successfully grown under high-pressure conditions, for the first time. The crystal structure of Ca3OsO6 were characterized as an ordered double-perovskite structure of space group P21/n with the Ca and Os atoms being fully ordered at the perovskite B-site. The electromagnetic analysis shows that the crystal exhibits a semiconductor-like behavior below 300 K and undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition at 50 K.

  14. Enhancement in magnetocaloric properties of ErCrO3 via A-site Gd substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianhang; Yin, Shiqi; Seehra, Mohindar S.; Jain, Menka

    2018-05-01

    Rare earth chromites (RCrO3) continue to be of considerable interest due to their intriguing physical properties such as spin-reorientation, multiferroicity, and magnetocaloric effect. In this paper, we compare the structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of bulk ErCrO3 with those of bulk Er0.33Gd0.67CrO3, the latter obtained by Gd substitution at the A-site (Er-site) and report substantial enhancement in the magnetocaloric response by Gd substitution. The samples prepared by the citrate route were structurally characterized at room temperature using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The XRD measurements refined by Rietveld analysis indicate that both samples crystallized in the orthorhombically distorted perovskite structure with Pbnm space group. Magnetic measurements on both samples were carried out between 5 K and 300 K in magnetic fields up to 7 T and show that TNC r (where Cr3+ orders) for Er0.33Gd0.67CrO3 is enhanced to 155 K vs. 133 K for ErCrO3 with analogous changes in the other magnetic parameters. Isothermal magnetization M vs. H data at different temperatures were used to determine changes in the magnetic entropy ( -ΔS ) and relative cooling power (RCP) for the two samples showing considerable improvement with Gd substitution in bulk ErCrO3. The maximum value of -ΔS for Er0.33Gd0.67CrO3 is 27.6 J kg-1 K-1 at 5 K and 7 T with a RCP of 531.1 J kg-1, in comparison to maximum -ΔS = 10.7 J kg-1 K-1 at 15 K with an RCP of 416.4 J kg-1 for ErCrO3 at 7 T.

  15. Hybrid Perovskites: Prospects for Concentrator Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianqian; Wang, Zhiping; Snaith, Henry J; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2018-04-01

    Perovskite solar cells have shown a meteoric rise of power conversion efficiency and a steady pace of improvements in their stability of operation. Such rapid progress has triggered research into approaches that can boost efficiencies beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit stipulated for a single-junction cell under normal solar illumination conditions. The tandem solar cell architecture is one concept here that has recently been successfully implemented. However, the approach of solar concentration has not been sufficiently explored so far for perovskite photovoltaics, despite its frequent use in the area of inorganic semiconductor solar cells. Here, the prospects of hybrid perovskites are assessed for use in concentrator solar cells. Solar cell performance parameters are theoretically predicted as a function of solar concentration levels, based on representative assumptions of charge-carrier recombination and extraction rates in the device. It is demonstrated that perovskite solar cells can fundamentally exhibit appreciably higher energy-conversion efficiencies under solar concentration, where they are able to exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit and exhibit strongly elevated open-circuit voltages. It is therefore concluded that sufficient material and device stability under increased illumination levels will be the only significant challenge to perovskite concentrator solar cell applications.

  16. Molecular behavior of zero-dimensional perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jun; Maity, Partha; De Bastiani, Michele; Dursun, Ibrahim; Bakr, Osman M.; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    Low-dimensional perovskites offer a rare opportunity to investigate lattice dynamics and charge carrier behavior in bulk quantum-confined solids, in addition to them being the leading materials in optoelectronic applications. In particular, zero-dimensional (0D) inorganic perovskites of the Cs4PbX6 (X = Cl, Br, or I) kind have crystal structures with isolated lead halide octahedra [PbX6]4− surrounded by Cs+ cations, allowing the 0D crystals to exhibit the intrinsic properties of an individual octahedron. Using both experimental and theoretical approaches, we studied the electronic and optical properties of the prototypical 0D perovskite Cs4PbBr6. Our results underline that this 0D perovskite behaves akin to a molecule, demonstrating low electrical conductivity and mobility as well as large polaron binding energy. Density functional theory calculations and transient absorption measurements of Cs4PbBr6 perovskite films reveal the polaron band absorption and strong polaron localization features of the material. A short polaron lifetime of ~2 ps is observed in femtosecond transient absorption experiments, which can be attributed to the fast lattice relaxation of the octahedra and the weak interactions among them. PMID:29250600

  17. Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhijun; Gong, Xiwen; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Yassitepe, Emre; Buin, Andrei; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-07-16

    Heteroepitaxy-atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate-is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned 'dots-in-a-matrix' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics.

  18. Hybrid Perovskites: Prospects for Concentrator Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qianqian; Wang, Zhiping; Snaith, Henry J.; Johnston, Michael B.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Perovskite solar cells have shown a meteoric rise of power conversion efficiency and a steady pace of improvements in their stability of operation. Such rapid progress has triggered research into approaches that can boost efficiencies beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit stipulated for a single‐junction cell under normal solar illumination conditions. The tandem solar cell architecture is one concept here that has recently been successfully implemented. However, the approach of solar concentration has not been sufficiently explored so far for perovskite photovoltaics, despite its frequent use in the area of inorganic semiconductor solar cells. Here, the prospects of hybrid perovskites are assessed for use in concentrator solar cells. Solar cell performance parameters are theoretically predicted as a function of solar concentration levels, based on representative assumptions of charge‐carrier recombination and extraction rates in the device. It is demonstrated that perovskite solar cells can fundamentally exhibit appreciably higher energy‐conversion efficiencies under solar concentration, where they are able to exceed the Shockley–Queisser limit and exhibit strongly elevated open‐circuit voltages. It is therefore concluded that sufficient material and device stability under increased illumination levels will be the only significant challenge to perovskite concentrator solar cell applications. PMID:29721426

  19. Crystallographic site swapping of La3+ ion in BaA'LaTeO6 (A' = Na, K, Rb) double perovskite type compounds: diffraction and photoluminescence evidence for the site swapping.

    PubMed

    Phatak, R; Gupta, S K; Krishnan, K; Sali, S K; Godbole, S V; Das, A

    2014-02-28

    Double perovskite type compounds of the formula BaA'LaTeO6 (A' = Na, K, Rb) were synthesized by solid state route and their crystal structures were determined by Rietveld analysis using powder X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction data. Na compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2₁/n space group whereas, K and Rb compounds crystallize in Fm3m space group. All the three compounds show rock salt type ordering at B site. Crystal structure analysis shows that La ion occupies A site in Na compound whereas, it occupies B site in K and Rb compounds according to the general formula of AA'BB'O6 for a double perovskite type compound. Effect of this crystallographic site swapping of the La ion was also observed in the photoluminescence study by doping Eu(3+) in La(3+) site. The large decrease in the intensity of the electric dipole ((5)D0-(7)F2) transition in the Rb compound compared to the Na compound indicates that Eu(3+) ion resides in the centrosymmetric octahedral environment in the Rb compound.

  20. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    DOEpatents

    Krumpel, Michael [Naperville, IL; Liu, Di-Jia [Naperville, IL

    2009-03-24

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  1. Aqueous-Containing Precursor Solutions for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dianyi; Traverse, Christopher J; Chen, Pei; Elinski, Mark; Yang, Chenchen; Wang, Lili; Young, Margaret; Lunt, Richard R

    2018-01-01

    Perovskite semiconductors have emerged as competitive candidates for photovoltaic applications due to their exceptional optoelectronic properties. However, the impact of moisture instability on perovskite films is still a key challenge for perovskite devices. While substantial effort is focused on preventing moisture interaction during the fabrication process, it is demonstrated that low moisture sensitivity, enhanced crystallization, and high performance can actually be achieved by exposure to high water content (up to 25 vol%) during fabrication with an aqueous-containing perovskite precursor. The perovskite solar cells fabricated by this aqueous method show good reproducibility of high efficiency with average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.7% and champion PCE of 20.1% under solar simulation. This study shows that water-perovskite interactions do not necessarily negatively impact the perovskite film preparation process even at the highest efficiencies and that exposure to high contents of water can actually enable humidity tolerance during fabrication in air.

  2. Design, Structure, and Optical Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Containing an Oligothiophene Chromophore.

    PubMed

    Mitzi, David B.; Chondroudis, Konstantinos; Kagan, Cherie R.

    1999-12-27

    A quaterthiophene derivative, 5,5' "-bis(aminoethyl)-2,2':5',2' ':5' ',2' "-quaterthiophene (AEQT), has been selected for incorporation within the layered organic-inorganic perovskite structure. In addition to having an appropriate molecular shape and two tethering aminoethyl groups to bond to the inorganic framework, AEQT is also a dye and can influence the optical properties of lead(II) halide-based perovskites. Crystals of C(20)H(22)S(4)N(2)PbBr(4) were grown from a slowly cooled aqueous solution containing lead(II) bromide and quaterthiophene derivative (AEQT.2HBr) salts. The new layered perovskite adopts a monoclinic (C2/c) subcell with the lattice parameters a = 39.741(2) Å, b = 5.8420(3) Å, c = 11.5734(6) Å, beta = 92.360(1) degrees, and Z = 4. Broad superstructure peaks are observed in the X-ray diffraction data, indicative of a poorly ordered, doubled supercell along both the a and b axes. The quaterthiophene segment of AEQT(2+) is nearly planar, with a syn-anti-syn relationship between adjacent thiophene rings. Each quaterthiophene chromophore is ordered between nearest-neighbor lead(II) bromide sheets in a herringbone arrangement with respect to neighboring quaterthiophenes. Room temperature optical absorption spectra for thermally ablated films of the perovskites (AEQT)PbX(4) (X = Cl, Br, I) exhibit an exciton peak arising from the lead(II) halide sheets, along with absorption from the quaterthiophene moiety. No evidence of the inorganic sheet excitonic transition is observed in the photoluminescence spectra for any of the chromophore-containing perovskites. However, strong quaterthiophene photoluminescence is observed for X = Cl, with an emission peak at approximately lambda(max) = 532 nm. Similar photoluminescence is observed for the X = Br and I materials, but with substantial quenching, as the inorganic layer band gap decreases relative to the chromophore HOMO-LUMO gap.

  3. Feature issue introduction: halide perovskites for optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    White, Thomas P; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Sum, Tze-Chien

    2018-01-22

    This joint Optics Express and Optical Materials Express feature issue presents a collection of nine papers on the topic of halide perovskites for optoelectronics. Perovskite materials have attracted significant attention over the past four years, initially for their outstanding performance in thin film solar cells, but more recently for applications in light-emitting devices (LEDs and lasers), photodetectors and nonlinear optics. At the same time, there is still much more to learn about the fundamental properties of these materials, and how these depend on composition, processing, and exposure to the environment. This feature issue provides a snapshot of some of the latest research in this rapidly-evolving multidisciplinary field.

  4. Novel catalytic properties of quadruple perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Ikuya

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quadruple perovskite oxides AA′3 B 4O12 demonstrate a rich variety of structural and electronic properties. A large number of constituent elements for A/A′/B-site cations can be introduced using the ultra-high-pressure synthesis method. Development of novel functional materials consisting of earth-abundant elements plays a crucial role in current materials science. In this paper, functional properties, especially oxygen reaction catalysis, for quadruple perovskite oxides CaCu3Fe4O12 and AMn7O12 (A = Ca, La) composed of earth-abundant elements are reviewed. PMID:28970864

  5. Excited State Properties of Hybrid Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Saba, Michele; Quochi, Francesco; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni

    2016-01-19

    Metal halide perovskites have come to the attention of the scientific community for the progress achieved in solar light conversion. Energy sustainability is one of the priorities of our society, and materials advancements resulting in low-cost but efficient solar cells and large-area lighting devices represent a major goal for applied research. From a basic point of view, perovskites are an exotic class of hybrid materials combining some merits of organic and inorganic semiconductors: large optical absorption, large mobilities, and tunable band gap together with the possibility to be processed in solution. When a novel class of promising semiconductors comes into the limelight, lively discussions ensue on the photophysics of band-edge excitations, because just the states close to the band edge are entailed in energy/charge transport and light emission. This was the case several decades ago for III-V semiconductors, it has been up to 10 years ago for organics, and it is currently the case for perovskites. Our aim in this Account is to rationalize the body of experimental evidence on perovskite photophysics in a coherent theoretical framework, borrowing from the knowledge acquired over the years in materials optoelectronics. A crucial question is whether photon absorption leads to a population of unbound, conductive free charges or instead excitons, neutral and insulating bound states created by Coulomb interaction just below the energy of the band gap. We first focus on the experimental estimates of the exciton binding energy (Eb): at room temperature, Eb is comparable to the thermal energy kBT in MAPbI3 and increases up to values 2-3kBT in wide band gap MAPbBr3 and MAPbCl3. Statistical considerations predict that these values, even though comparable to or larger than thermal energy, let free carriers prevail over bound excitons for all levels of excitation densities relevant for devices. The analysis of photophysics evidence confirms that all hybrid halide

  6. Perovskite Solar Cells—Towards Commercialization

    DOE PAGES

    Ono, Luis K.; Park, Nam-Gyu; Zhu, Kai; ...

    2017-07-13

    The Symposium ES1, Perovskite Solar Cells - Towards Commercialization, held at the 2017 Materials Research Society (MRS) Spring Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona (April 17-21, 2017) received ~200 abstracts. The 23 invited talks and 72 contributed oral presentations as well as 3 poster presentation sessions were organized into 13 principal themes according to the contents of the received abstracts. This Energy Focus article provides a concise summary of the opinions from the scientists and engineers who participated in this symposium regarding the recent progresses, challenges, and future directions for perovskite solar cells as well as other optoelectronic devices.

  7. Research Update: Behind the high efficiency of hybrid perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakharuddin, Azhar; De Rossi, Francesca; Watson, Trystan M.; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas; Jose, Rajan

    2016-09-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) marked tremendous progress in a short period of time and offer bright hopes for cheap solar electricity. Despite high power conversion efficiency >20%, its poor operational stability as well as involvement of toxic, volatile, and less-abundant materials hinders its practical deployment. The fact that degradation and toxicity are typically observed in the most successful perovskite involving organic cation and toxic lead, i.e., CH3NH3PbX3, requires a deep understanding of their role in photovoltaic performance in order to envisage if a non-toxic, stable yet highly efficient device is feasible. Towards this, we first provide an overview of the basic chemistry and physics of halide perovskites and its correlation with its extraordinary properties such as crystal structure, bandgap, ferroelectricity, and electronic transport. We then discuss device related aspects such as the various device designs in PSCs and role of interfaces in origin of PV parameters particularly open circuit voltage, various film processing methods and their effect on morphology and characteristics of perovskite films, and the origin and elimination of hysteresis and operational stability in these devices. We then identify future perspectives for stable and efficient PSCs for practical deployment.

  8. Giant ferrimagnetism and polarization in a mixed metal perovskite metal-organic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Paresh C.; Srinivasan, Varadharajan

    2018-01-01

    Perovskite metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently emerged as potential candidates for multiferroicity. However, the compounds synthesized so far possess only weak ferromagnetism and low polarization. Additionally, the very low magnetic transition temperatures (Tc) also pose a challenge to the application of the materials. We have computationally designed a mixed metal perovskite MOF—[C(NH2)3] [(Cu0.5Mn0.5) (HCOO) 3] —that is predicted to have magnetization two orders of magnitude larger than its parent ([C (NH2)3] [Cu (HCOO) 3] ), a significantly larger polarization (9.9 μ C /cm2), and an enhanced Tc of up to 56 K, unprecedented in perovskite MOFs. A detailed study of the magnetic interactions revealed a mechanism leading to the large moments as well as the increase in the Tc. Mixing a non-Jahn-Teller ion (Mn2 +) into a Jahn-Teller host (Cu2 +) leads to competing lattice distortions which are directly responsible for the enhanced polarization. The MOF is thermodynamically stable as evidenced by the computed enthalpy of formation and can likely be synthesized. Our work represents a first step towards rational design of multiferroic perovskite MOFs through the largely unexplored mixed metal approach.

  9. Size-dependent phase transition in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite microplate crystals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dehui; Wang, Gongming; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Chih-Yen; Wu, Hao; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite has attracted considerable recent interest for solution processable solar cells and other optoelectronic applications. The orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition in perovskite can significantly alter its optical, electrical properties and impact the corresponding applications. Here, we report a systematic investigation of the size-dependent orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition using a combined temperature-dependent optical, electrical transport and transmission electron microscopy study. Our studies of individual perovskite microplates with variable thicknesses demonstrate that the phase transition temperature decreases with reducing microplate thickness. The sudden decrease of mobility around phase transition temperature and the presence of hysteresis loops in the temperature-dependent mobility confirm that the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition is a first-order phase transition. Our findings offer significant fundamental insight on the temperature- and size-dependent structural, optical and charge transport properties of perovskite materials, and can greatly impact future exploration of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices from these materials. PMID:27098114

  10. Strain coupling of oxygen non-stoichiometry in perovskite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herklotz, Andreas; Lee, Dongkyu; Guo, Er-Jia; Meyer, Tricia L.; Petrie, Jonathan R.; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2017-12-01

    The effects of strain and oxygen vacancies on perovskite thin films have been studied in great detail over the past decades and have been treated separately from each other. While epitaxial strain has been realized as a tuning knob to tailor the functional properties of correlated oxides, oxygen vacancies are usually regarded as undesirable and detrimental. In transition metal oxides, oxygen defects strongly modify the properties and functionalities via changes in oxidation states of the transition metals. However, such coupling is not well understood in epitaxial films, but rather deemed as cumbersome or experimental artifact. Only recently it has been recognized that lattice strain and oxygen non-stoichiometry are strongly correlated in a vast number of perovskite systems and that this coupling can be beneficial for information and energy technologies. Recent experimental and theoretical studies have focused on understanding the correlated phenomena between strain and oxygen vacancies for a wide range of perovskite systems. These correlations not only include the direct relationship between elastic strain and the formation energy of oxygen vacancies, but also comprise highly complex interactions such as strain-induced phase transitions due to oxygen vacancy ordering. Therefore, we aim in this review to give a comprehensive overview on the coupling between strain and oxygen vacancies in perovskite oxides and point out the potential applications of the emergent functionalities strongly coupled to oxygen vacancies.

  11. Size-dependent phase transition in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite microplate crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Dehui; Wang, Gongming; Cheng, Hung -Chieh; ...

    2016-04-21

    Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite has attracted considerable recent interest for solution processable solar cells and other optoelectronic applications. The orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition in perovskite can significantly alter its optical, electrical properties and impact the corresponding applications. Here, we report a systematic investigation of the size-dependent orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition using a combined temperature-dependent optical, electrical transport and transmission electron microscopy study. Our studies of individual perovskite microplates with variable thicknesses demonstrate that the phase transition temperature decreases with reducing microplate thickness. The sudden decrease of mobility around phase transition temperature and the presence of hysteresis loops in the temperature-dependent mobility confirmmore » that the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition is a first-order phase transition. Lastly, our findings offer significant fundamental insight on the temperature-and size-dependent structural, optical and charge transport properties of perovskite materials, and can greatly impact future exploration of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices from these materials.« less

  12. Room-Temperature Processing of TiOx Electron Transporting Layer for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaoyu; Wilkes, George C; Chen, Alexander Z; Prasad, Narasimha S; Gupta, Mool C; Choi, Joshua J

    2017-07-20

    In order to realize high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible perovskite solar cells, low-temperature processing of all device components must be realized. However, the most commonly used electron transporting layer in high-performance perovskite solar cells is based on TiO 2 thin films processed at high temperature (>450 °C). Here, we demonstrate room temperature solution processing of the TiO x layer that performs as well as the high temperature TiO 2 layer in perovskite solar cells, as evidenced by a champion solar cell efficiency of 16.3%. Using optical spectroscopy, electrical measurements, and X-ray diffraction, we show that the room-temperature processed TiO x is amorphous with organic residues, and yet its optical and electrical properties are on par with the high-temperature TiO 2 . Flexible perovskite solar cells that employ a room-temperature TiO x layer with a power conversion efficiency of 14.3% are demonstrated.

  13. Highly Efficient Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells with Antireflection and Self-Cleaning Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Tsui, Kwong-Hoi; Zhang, Qianpeng; He, Jin; Yao, Yan; Li, Dongdong; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-10-27

    Flexible thin film solar cells have attracted a great deal of attention as mobile power sources and key components for building-integrated photovoltaics, due to their light weight and flexible features in addition to compatibility with low-cost roll-to-roll fabrication processes. Among many thin film materials, organometallic perovskite materials are emerging as highly promising candidates for high efficiency thin film photovoltaics; however, the performance, scalability, and reliability of the flexible perovskite solar cells still have large room to improve. Herein, we report highly efficient, flexible perovskite solar cells fabricated on ultrathin flexible glasses. In such a device structure, the flexible glass substrate is highly transparent and robust, with low thermal expansion coefficient, and perovskite thin film was deposited with a thermal evaporation method that showed large-scale uniformity. In addition, a nanocone array antireflection film was attached to the front side of the glass substrate in order to improve the optical transmittance and to achieve a water-repelling effect at the same time. It was found that the fabricated solar cells have reasonable bendability, with 96% of the initial value remaining after 200 bending cycles, and the power conversion efficiency was improved from 12.06 to 13.14% by using the antireflection film, which also demonstrated excellent superhydrophobicity.

  14. Novel Solvent-free Perovskite Deposition in Fabrication of Normal and Inverted Architectures of Perovskite Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nejand, Bahram Abdollahi; Gharibzadeh, Saba; Ahmadi, Vahid; Shahverdi, H. Reza

    2016-01-01

    We introduced a new approach to deposit perovskite layer with no need for dissolving perovskite precursors. Deposition of Solution-free perovskite (SFP) layer is a key method for deposition of perovskite layer on the hole or electron transport layers that are strongly sensitive to perovskite precursors. Using deposition of SFP layer in the perovskite solar cells would extend possibility of using many electron and hole transport materials in both normal and invert architectures of perovskite solar cells. In the present work, we synthesized crystalline perovskite powder followed by successful deposition on TiO2 and cuprous iodide as the non-sensitve and sensitive charge transport layers to PbI2 and CH3NH3I solution in DMF. The post compressing step enhanced the efficiency of the devices by increasing the interface area between perovskite and charge transport layers. The 9.07% and 7.71% cell efficiencies of the device prepared by SFP layer was achieved in respective normal (using TiO2 as a deposition substrate) and inverted structure (using CuI as deposition substrate) of perovskite solar cell. This method can be efficient in large-scale and low cost fabrication of new generation perovskite solar cells. PMID:27640991

  15. Enhanced planar perovskite solar cell efficiency and stability using a perovskite/PCBM heterojunction formed in one step.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Long; Chang, Jingjing; Liu, Ziye; Sun, Xu; Lin, Zhenhua; Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2018-02-08

    Perovskite/PCBM heterojunctions are efficient for fabricating perovskite solar cells with high performance and long-term stability. In this study, an efficient perovskite/PCBM heterojunction was formed via conventional sequential deposition and one-step formation processes. Compared with conventional deposition, the one-step process was more facile, and produced a perovskite thin film of substantially improved quality due to fullerene passivation. Moreover, the resulting perovskite/PCBM heterojunction exhibited more efficient carrier transfer and extraction, and reduced carrier recombination. The perovskite solar cell device based on one-step perovskite/PCBM heterojunction formation exhibited a higher maximum PCE of 17.8% compared with that from the conventional method (13.7%). The device also showed exceptional stability, retaining 83% of initial PCE after 60 days of storage under ambient conditions.

  16. Origins of n -type doping difficulties in perovskite stannates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, L.; Bjaalie, L.; Krishnaswamy, K.; Van de Walle, C. G.

    2018-02-01

    The perovskite stannates (A SnO3 ; A = Ba, Sr, Ca) are promising for oxide electronics, but control of n -type doping has proved challenging. Using first-principles hybrid density functional calculations, we investigate La dopants and explore the formation of compensating acceptor defects. We find that La on the A site always behaves as a shallow donor, but incorporation of La on the Sn site can lead to self-compensation. At low La concentrations and in O-poor conditions, oxygen vacancies form in BaSnO3. A -site cation vacancies are found to be dominant among the native compensating centers. Compared to BaSnO3, charge compensation is a larger problem for the wider-band-gap stannates, SrSnO3 and CaSnO3, a trend we can explain based on conduction-band alignments. The formation of compensating acceptor defects can be inhibited by choosing oxygen-poor (cation-rich) growth or annealing conditions, thus providing a pathway for improved n -type doping.

  17. Ferroelastic switching in a layered-perovskite thin film

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuanshou; Ke, Xiaoxing; Wang, Jianjun; Liang, Renrong; Luo, Zhenlin; Tian, Yu; Yi, Di; Zhang, Qintong; Wang, Jing; Han, Xiu-Feng; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Chen, Long-Qing; Nan, Ce-Wen; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zhang, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    A controllable ferroelastic switching in ferroelectric/multiferroic oxides is highly desirable due to the non-volatile strain and possible coupling between lattice and other order parameter in heterostructures. However, a substrate clamping usually inhibits their elastic deformation in thin films without micro/nano-patterned structure so that the integration of the non-volatile strain with thin film devices is challenging. Here, we report that reversible in-plane elastic switching with a non-volatile strain of approximately 0.4% can be achieved in layered-perovskite Bi2WO6 thin films, where the ferroelectric polarization rotates by 90° within four in-plane preferred orientations. Phase-field simulation indicates that the energy barrier of ferroelastic switching in orthorhombic Bi2WO6 film is ten times lower than the one in PbTiO3 films, revealing the origin of the switching with negligible substrate constraint. The reversible control of the in-plane strain in this layered-perovskite thin film demonstrates a new pathway to integrate mechanical deformation with nanoscale electronic and/or magnetoelectronic applications. PMID:26838483

  18. Photoinduced Giant Dielectric Constant in Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Juarez-Perez, Emilio J; Sanchez, Rafael S; Badia, Laura; Garcia-Belmonte, Germá; Kang, Yong Soo; Mora-Sero, Ivan; Bisquert, Juan

    2014-07-03

    Organic-inorganic lead trihalide perovskites have emerged as an outstanding photovoltaic material that demonstrated a high 17.9% conversion efficiency of sunlight to electricity in a short time. We have found a giant dielectric constant (GDC) phenomenon in these materials consisting on a low frequency dielectric constant in the dark of the order of ε0 = 1000. We also found an unprecedented behavior in which ε0 further increases under illumination or by charge injection at applied bias. We observe that ε0 increases nearly linearly with the illumination intensity up to an additional factor 1000 under 1 sun. Measurement of a variety of samples of different morphologies, compositions, and different types of contacts shows that the GDC is an intrinsic property of MAPbX3 (MA = CH3NH3(+)). We hypothesize that the large dielectric response is induced by structural fluctuations. Photoinduced carriers modify the local unit cell equilibrium and change the polarizability, assisted by the freedom of rotation of MA. The study opens a way for the understanding of a key aspect of the photovoltaic operation of high efficiency perovskite solar cells.

  19. Giant switchable photovoltaic effect in organometal trihalide perovskite devices

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Zhengguo; Yuan, Yongbo; Shao, Yuchuan; ...

    2014-12-08

    Organolead trihalide perovskite (OTP) materials are emerging as naturally abundant materials for low-cost, solution-processed and highly efficient solar cells. Here, we show that, in OTP-based photovoltaic devices with vertical and lateral cell configurations, the photocurrent direction can be switched repeatedly by applying a small electric field of <1 V μm –1. The switchable photocurrent, generally observed in devices based on ferroelectric materials, reached 20.1 mA cm –2 under one sun illumination in OTP devices with a vertical architecture, which is four orders of magnitude larger than that measured in other ferroelectric photovoltaic devices. This field-switchable photovoltaic effect can be explainedmore » by the formation of reversible p–i–n structures induced by ion drift in the perovskite layer. Furthermore, the demonstration of switchable OTP photovoltaics and electric-field-manipulated doping paves the way for innovative solar cell designs and for the exploitation of OTP materials in electrically and optically readable memristors and circuits.« less

  20. Ferroelastic switching in a layered-perovskite thin film

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Chuanshou; Ke, Xiaoxing; Wang, Jianjun; ...

    2016-02-03

    Here, a controllable ferroelastic switching in ferroelectric/multiferroic oxides is highly desirable due to the non-volatile strain and possible coupling between lattice and other order parameter in heterostructures. However, a substrate clamping usually inhibits their elastic deformation in thin films without micro/nano-patterned structure so that the integration of the non-volatile strain with thin film devices is challenging. Here, we report that reversible in-plane elastic switching with a non-volatile strain of approximately 0.4% can be achieved in layered-perovskite Bi 2WO 6 thin films, where the ferroelectric polarization rotates by 90° within four in-plane preferred orientations. Phase-field simulation indicates that the energy barriermore » of ferroelastic switching in orthorhombic Bi 2WO 6 film is ten times lower than the one in PbTiO 3 films, revealing the origin of the switching with negligible substrate constraint. The reversible control of the in-plane strain in this layered-perovskite thin film demonstrates a new pathway to integrate mechanical deformation with nanoscale electronic and/or magnetoelectronic applications.« less

  1. Giant switchable photovoltaic effect in organometal trihalide perovskite devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhengguo; Yuan, Yongbo; Shao, Yuchuan; Wang, Qi; Dong, Qingfeng; Bi, Cheng; Sharma, Pankaj; Gruverman, Alexei; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-02-01

    Organolead trihalide perovskite (OTP) materials are emerging as naturally abundant materials for low-cost, solution-processed and highly efficient solar cells. Here, we show that, in OTP-based photovoltaic devices with vertical and lateral cell configurations, the photocurrent direction can be switched repeatedly by applying a small electric field of <1 V μm-1. The switchable photocurrent, generally observed in devices based on ferroelectric materials, reached 20.1 mA cm-2 under one sun illumination in OTP devices with a vertical architecture, which is four orders of magnitude larger than that measured in other ferroelectric photovoltaic devices. This field-switchable photovoltaic effect can be explained by the formation of reversible p-i-n structures induced by ion drift in the perovskite layer. The demonstration of switchable OTP photovoltaics and electric-field-manipulated doping paves the way for innovative solar cell designs and for the exploitation of OTP materials in electrically and optically readable memristors and circuits.

  2. Lead iodide perovskite light-emitting field-effect transistor

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Xin Yu; Cortecchia, Daniele; Yin, Jun; Bruno, Annalisa; Soci, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of solution-processable hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites in photovoltaic and light-emitting applications, determination of their intrinsic charge transport parameters has been elusive due to the variability of film preparation and history-dependent device performance. Here we show that screening effects associated to ionic transport can be effectively eliminated by lowering the operating temperature of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) field-effect transistors. Field-effect carrier mobility is found to increase by almost two orders of magnitude below 200 K, consistent with phonon scattering-limited transport. Under balanced ambipolar carrier injection, gate-dependent electroluminescence is also observed from the transistor channel, with spectra revealing the tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition. This demonstration of CH3NH3PbI3 light-emitting field-effect transistors provides intrinsic transport parameters to guide materials and solar cell optimization, and will drive the development of new electro-optic device concepts, such as gated light-emitting diodes and lasers operating at room temperature. PMID:26108967

  3. Perovskite-type oxides - Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, E.

    1988-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  4. Innovatively Continuous Mass Production Couette-taylor Flow: Pure Inorganic Green-Emitting Cs4PbBr6 Perovskite Microcrystal for display technology.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Hyun; Choi, Seung Hee; Park, Won Kyu; Yoo, Jin Sun; Kwon, Seok Bin; Kang, Bong Kyun; Park, Sang Ryul; Seo, Young Soo; Yang, Woo Seok; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2018-01-31

    We report for the first time the mass production of Cs 4 PbBr 6 perovskite microcrystal with a Couette-Taylor flow reactor in order to enhance the efficiency of the synthesis reaction. We obtained a pure Cs 4 PbBr 6 perovskite solid within 3 hrs that then realized a high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of 46%. Furthermore, the Cs 4 PbBr 6 perovskite microcrystal is applied with red emitting K 2 SiF 6 phosphor on a blue-emitting InGaN chip, achieving a high-performance luminescence characteristics of 9.79 lm/W, external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 2.9%, and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2976 K; therefore, this perovskite is expected to be a promising candidate material for applications in optoelectronic devices.

  5. Surface passivation of mixed-halide perovskite CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 nanocrystals by selective etching for improved stability.

    PubMed

    Jing, Qiang; Zhang, Mian; Huang, Xiang; Ren, Xiaoming; Wang, Peng; Lu, Zhenda

    2017-06-08

    In recent years, there has been an unprecedented rise in the research of halide perovskites because of their important optoelectronic applications, including photovoltaic cells, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors and lasers. The most pressing question concerns the stability of these materials. Here faster degradation and PL quenching are observed at higher iodine content for mixed-halide perovskite CsPb(Br x I 1-x ) 3 nanocrystals, and a simple yet effective method is reported to significantly enhance their stability. After selective etching with acetone, surface iodine is partially etched away to form a bromine-rich surface passivation layer on mixed-halide perovskite nanocrystals. This passivation layer remarkably stabilizes the nanocrystals, making their PL intensity improved by almost three orders of magnitude. It is expected that a similar passivation layer can also be applied to various other kinds of perovskite materials with poor stability issues.

  6. Light-Independent Ionic Transport in Inorganic Perovskite and Ultrastable Cs-Based Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenke; Zhao, Yicheng; Zhou, Xu; Fu, Rui; Li, Qi; Zhao, Yao; Liu, Kaihui; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Qing

    2017-09-07

    Due to light-induced effects in CH 3 NH 3 -based perovskites, such as ion migration, defects formation, and halide segregation, the degradation of CH 3 NH 3 -based perovskite solar cells under maximum power point is generally implicated. Here we demonstrated that the effect of light-enhanced ion migration in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 can be eliminated by inorganic Cs substitution, leading to an ultrastable perovskite solar cell. Quantitatively, the ion migration barrier for CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 is 0.62 eV under dark conditions, larger than that of CsPbI 2 Br (0.45 eV); however, it reduces to 0.07 eV for CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 under illumination, smaller than that for CsPbI 2 Br (0.43 eV). Meanwhile, photoinduced halide segregation is also suppressed in Cs-based perovskites. Cs-based perovskite solar cells retained >99% of the initial efficiency (10.3%) after 1500 h of maximum power point tracking under AM1.5G illumination, while CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 solar cells degraded severely after 50 h of operation. Our work reveals an uncovered mechanism for stability improvement by inorganic cation substitution in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices.

  7. Efficient Sky-Blue Perovskite Light-Emitting Devices Based on Ethylammonium Bromide Induced Layered Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Ren, Jie; Peng, Xue-Feng; Ji, Xia-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Hui

    2017-09-06

    Low-dimensional organometallic halide perovskites are actively studied for the light-emitting applications due to their properties such as solution processability, high luminescence quantum yield, large exciton binding energy, and tunable band gap. Introduction of large-group ammonium halides not only serves as a convenient and versatile method to obtain layered perovskites but also allows the exploitation of the energy-funneling process to achieve a high-efficiency light emission. Herein, we investigate the influence of the addition of ethylammonium bromide on the morphology, crystallite structure, and optical properties of the resultant perovskite materials and report that the phase transition from bulk to layered perovskite occurs in the presence of excess ethylammonium bromide. On the basis of this strategy, we report green perovskite light-emitting devices with the maximum external quantum efficiency of ca. 3% and power efficiency of 9.3 lm/W. Notably, blue layered perovskite light-emitting devices with the Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage coordinates of (0.16, 0.23) exhibit the maximum external quantum efficiency of 2.6% and power efficiency of 1 lm/W at 100 cd/m 2 , representing a large improvement over the previously reported analogous devices.

  8. Amine treatment induced perovskite nanowire network in perovskite solar cells: efficient surface passivation and carrier transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ke; Cui, Can; Wang, Peng; Lin, Ping; Qiang, Yaping; Xu, Lingbo; Xie, Jiangsheng; Yang, Zhengrui; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yu, Xuegong; Yang, Deren

    2018-02-01

    In the fabrication of high efficiency organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs), an additional interface modifier is usually applied for enhancing the interface passivation and carrier transport. In this paper, we develop an innovative method with in-situ growth of one-dimensional perovskite nanowire (1D PNW) network triggered by Lewis amine over the perovskite films. To our knowledge, this is the first time to fabricate PSCs with shape-controlled perovskite surface morphology, which improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 14.32% to 16.66% with negligible hysteresis. The amine molecule can passivate the trap states on the polycrystalline perovskite surface to reduce trap-state density. Meanwhile, as a fast channel, the 1D PNWs would promote carrier transport from the bulk perovskite film to the electron transport layer. The PSCs with 1D PNW modification not only exhibit excellent photovoltaic performances, but also show good stability with only 4% PCE loss within 30 days in the ambient air without encapsulation. Our results strongly suggest that in-situ grown 1D PNW network provides a feasible and effective strategy for nanostructured optoelectronic devices such as PSCs to achieve superior performances.

  9. Prospects of e-beam evaporated molybdenum oxide as a hole transport layer for perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, F.; Khoshsirat, N.; Duffin, J. L.; Wang, H.; Ostrikov, K.; Bell, J. M.; Tesfamichael, T.

    2017-09-01

    Perovskite solar cells have emerged as one of the most efficient and low cost technologies for delivering of solar electricity due to their exceptional optical and electrical properties. Commercialization of the perovskite solar cells is, however, limited because of the higher cost and environmentally sensitive organic hole transport materials such as spiro-OMETAD and PEDOT:PSS. In this study, an empirical simulation was performed using the Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator software to explore the MoOx thin film as an alternative hole transport material for perovskite solar cells. In the simulation, properties of MoOx thin films deposited by the electron beam evaporation technique from high purity (99.99%) MoO3 pellets at different substrate temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C) were used as input parameters. The films were highly transparent (>80%) and have low surface roughness (≤2 nm) with bandgap energy ranging between 3.75 eV and 3.45 eV. Device simulation has shown that the MoOx deposited at room temperature can work in both the regular and inverted structures of the perovskite solar cell with a promising efficiency of 18.25%. Manufacturing of the full device is planned in order to utilize the MoOx as an alternative hole transport material for improved performance, good stability, and low cost of the perovskite solar cell.

  10. Controllable Growth of Perovskite Films by Room-Temperature Air Exposure for Efficient Planar Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; ...

    2015-12-01

    A two-step-solution-processing approach has been established to grow void-free perovskite films for low-cost and high-performance planar heterojunction photovoltaic devices. We generally applied a high-temperature thermal annealing treatment in order to drive the diffusion of CH 3NH 3I precursor molecules into the compact PbI 2 layer to form perovskite films. But, thermal annealing for extended periods would lead to degraded device performance due to the defects generated by decomposition of perovskite into PbI 2. In this work, we explored a controllable layer-by-layer spin-coating method to grow bilayer CH 3NH 3I/PbI 2 films, and then drive the interdiffusion between PbI 2 andmore » CH 3NH 3I layers by a simple room-temperature-air-exposure for making well-oriented, highly-crystalline perovskite films without thermal annealing. This high degree of crystallinity resulted in a carrier diffusion length of ~ 800 nm and high device efficiency of 15.6%, which is comparable to the reported values from thermally-annealed perovskite films based counterparts. Finally, the simplicity and high device performance of this processing approach is highly promising for direct integration into industrial-scale device manufacture.« less

  11. Material and Device Stability in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hui-Seon; Seo, Ja-Young; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-09-22

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have attracted great attention because of their superb efficiency reaching 22 % and low-cost, facile fabrication processing. Nevertheless, stability issues in perovskite solar cells seem to block further advancements toward commercialization. Thus, device stability is one of the important topics in perovskite solar cell research. In the beginning, the poor moisture resistivity of the perovskite layer was considered as a main problem that hindered further development of perovskite solar cells, which encouraged engineering of the perovskite or protection of the perovskite by a buffer layer. Soon after, other parameters affecting long-term stability were sequentially found and various attempts have been made to enhance intrinsic and extrinsic stability. Here we review the recent progresses addressing stability issues in perovskite solar cells. In this report, we investigated factors affecting stability from material and device points of view. To gain a better understanding of the stability of the bulk perovskite material, decomposition mechanisms were investigated in relation to moisture, photons, and heat. Stability of full device should also be carefully examined because its stability is dependent not only on bulk perovskite but also on the interfaces and selective contacts. In addition, ion migration and current-voltage hysteresis were found to be closely related to stability. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Improved perovskite phototransistor prepared using multi-step annealing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Mingxuan; Zhang, Yating; Yu, Yu; Yao, Jianquan

    2018-02-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites with good intrinsic physical properties have received substantial interest for solar cell and optoelectronic applications. However, perovskite film always suffers from a low carrier mobility due to its structural imperfection including sharp grain boundaries and pinholes, restricting their device performance and application potential. Here we demonstrate a straightforward strategy based on multi-step annealing process to improve the performance of perovskite photodetector. Annealing temperature and duration greatly affects the surface morphology and optoelectrical properties of perovskites which determines the device property of phototransistor. The perovskite films treated with multi-step annealing method tend to form highly uniform, well-crystallized and high surface coverage perovskite film, which exhibit stronger ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectrum compare to the perovskites prepared by conventional one-step annealing process. The field-effect mobilities of perovskite photodetector treated by one-step direct annealing method shows mobility as 0.121 (0.062) cm2V-1s-1 for holes (electrons), which increases to 1.01 (0.54) cm2V-1s-1 for that treated with muti-step slow annealing method. Moreover, the perovskite phototransistors exhibit a fast photoresponse speed of 78 μs. In general, this work focuses on the influence of annealing methods on perovskite phototransistor, instead of obtains best parameters of it. These findings prove that Multi-step annealing methods is feasible to prepared high performance based photodetector.

  13. Highly Efficient Spectrally Stable Red Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Zhou, Chenkun; Worku, Michael; Wang, Xi; Ling, Yichuan; Gao, Hanwei; Zhou, Yan; Miao, Yu; Guan, Jingjiao; Ma, Biwu

    2018-05-01

    Perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have recently attracted great research interest for their narrow emissions and solution processability. Remarkable progress has been achieved in green perovskite LEDs in recent years, but not blue or red ones. Here, highly efficient and spectrally stable red perovskite LEDs with quasi-2D perovskite/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) composite thin films as the light-emitting layer are reported. By controlling the molar ratios of organic salt (benzylammonium iodide) to inorganic salts (cesium iodide and lead iodide), luminescent quasi-2D perovskite thin films are obtained with tunable emission colors from red to deep red. The perovskite/polymer composite approach enables quasi-2D perovskite/PEO composite thin films to possess much higher photoluminescence quantum efficiencies and smoothness than their neat quasi-2D perovskite counterparts. Electrically driven LEDs with emissions peaked at 638, 664, 680, and 690 nm have been fabricated to exhibit high brightness and external quantum efficiencies (EQEs). For instance, the perovskite LED with an emission peaked at 680 nm exhibits a brightness of 1392 cd m -2 and an EQE of 6.23%. Moreover, exceptional electroluminescence spectral stability under continuous device operation has been achieved for these red perovskite LEDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A-SITE-AND/OR B-SITE-MODIFIED PBZRTIO3 MATERIALS AND (PB, SR, CA, BA, MG) (ZR, TI,NB, TA)O3 FILMS HAVING UTILITY IN FERROELECTRIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORIES AND HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN FILM MICROACTUATORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilodeau, Steven (Inventor); Baum, Thomas H. (Inventor); Roeder, Jeffrey F. (Inventor); Chen, Ing-Shin (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A modified PbZrTiO.sub.3 perovskite crystal material thin film, wherein the PbZrTiO.sub.3 perovskite crystal material includes crystal lattice A-sites and B-sites at least one of which is modified by the presence of a substituent selected from the group consisting of (i) A-site substituents consisting of Sr, Ca, Ba and Mg, and (ii) B-site substituents selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta. The perovskite crystal thin film material may be formed by liquid delivery MOCVD from metalorganic precursors of the metal components of the thin film, to form PZT and PSZT, and other piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin film materials. The thin films of the invention have utility in non-volatile ferroelectric memory devices (NV-FeRAMs), and in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as sensor and/or actuator elements, e.g., high speed digital system actuators requiring low input power levels.

  15. Scalable fabrication of perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Zhen; Klein, Talysa R.; Kim, Dong Hoe; ...

    2018-03-27

    Perovskite materials use earth-abundant elements, have low formation energies for deposition and are compatible with roll-to-roll and other high-volume manufacturing techniques. These features make perovskite solar cells (PSCs) suitable for terawatt-scale energy production with low production costs and low capital expenditure. Demonstrations of performance comparable to that of other thin-film photovoltaics (PVs) and improvements in laboratory-scale cell stability have recently made scale up of this PV technology an intense area of research focus. Here, we review recent progress and challenges in scaling up PSCs and related efforts to enable the terawatt-scale manufacturing and deployment of this PV technology. We discussmore » common device and module architectures, scalable deposition methods and progress in the scalable deposition of perovskite and charge-transport layers. We also provide an overview of device and module stability, module-level characterization techniques and techno-economic analyses of perovskite PV modules.« less

  16. Perovskite Patent Portfolio | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    deposition of high-quality perovskite films. These techniques have been published in multiple peer-reviewed substrates that are suitable for high-throughput manufacturing and that can maximize the yield of the % to 3% increase in conversion efficiency when compared to a MAPbI3 film prepared with a standard

  17. Disorder induced magnetism and electrical conduction in La doped Ca2FeMoO6 double perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddar, Asok; Bhowmik, R. N.; Muthuselvam, I. Panneer

    2010-11-01

    We report the magnetism and electrical transport properties of La doped Ca2FeMoO6 double perovskite. Reduction in magnetic moment, nonmonotonic variation in magnetic ordering temperature (TC), increasing magnetic hardness, low temperature resistivity upturn, and loss of metallic conductivity are some of the major changes that we observed due to La doping induced disorder in double perovskite structure. The increase in magnetic disorder in La doped samples and its effect on TC is more consistent with the mean field theory. The modification in electronic band structure due to La doping is understood by establishing a correlation between the temperature dependence of electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power.

  18. Research progress on electronic phase separation in low-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite oxide manganites with a general formula of R1-x AxMnO3 (where R is a trivalent rare-earth element such as La, Pr, Sm, and A is a divalent alkaline-earth element such as Ca, Sr, and Ba) have received much attention due to their unusual electron-transport and magnetic properties, which are indispensable for applications in microelectronic, magnetic, and spintronic devices. Recent advances in the science and technology have resulted in the feature sizes of microelectronic devices based on perovskite manganite oxides down-scaling into nanoscale dimensions. At the nanoscale, low-dimensional perovskite manganite oxide nanostructures display novel physical properties that are different from their bulk and film counterparts. Recently, there is strong experimental evidence to indicate that the low-dimensional perovskite manganite oxide nanostructures are electronically inhomogeneous, consisting of different spatial regions with different electronic orders, a phenomenon that is named as electronic phase separation (EPS). As the geometry sizes of the low-dimensional manganite nanostructures are reduced to the characteristic EPS length scale (typically several tens of nanometers in manganites), the EPS is expected to be strongly modulated, leading to quite dramatic changes in functionality and more emergent phenomena. Therefore, reduced dimensionality opens a door to the new functionalities in perovskite manganite oxides and offers a way to gain new insight into the nature of EPS. During the past few years, much progress has been made in understanding the physical nature of the EPS in low-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures both from experimentalists and theorists, which have a profound impact on the oxide nanoelectronics. This nanoreview covers the research progresses of the EPS in low-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures such as nanoparticles, nanowires/nanotubes, and nanostructured films and/or patterns. The possible physical origins of the

  19. Polaron Stabilization by Cooperative Lattice Distortion and Cation Rotations in Hybrid Perovskite Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Neukirch, Amanda J.; Nie, Wanyi; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; ...

    2016-05-25

    Solution-processed organometallic perovskites have rapidly developed into a top candidate for the active layer of photovoltaic devices. In spite of the remarkable progress associated with perovskite materials, many questions about the fundamental photophysical processes taking place in these devices, remain open. High on the list of unexplained phenomena are very modest mobilities despite low charge carrier effective masses. Moreover, experiments elucidate unique degradation of photocurrent affecting stable operation of perovskite solar cells. These puzzles suggest that, while ionic hybrid perovskite devices may have efficiencies on par with conventional Si and GaAs devices, they exhibit more complicated charge transport phenomena. Wemore » report the results from an in-depth computational study of small polaron formation, electronic structure, charge density, and reorganization energies using both periodic boundary conditions and isolated structures. Using the hybrid density functional theory, we found that volumetric strain in a CsPbI 3 cluster creates a polaron with binding energy of around 300 and 900 meV for holes and electrons, respectively. In the MAPbI 3 (MA = CH 3NH 3) cluster, both volumetric strain and MA reorientation effects lead to larger binding energies at around 600 and 1300 meV for holes and electrons, respectively. Such large reorganization energies suggest appearance of small polarons in organometallic perovskite materials. Furthermore, the fact that both volumetric lattice strain and MA molecular rotational degrees of freedom can cooperate to create and stabilize polarons indicates that in order to mitigate this problem, formamidinium (FA = HC(NH 2) 2) and cesium (Cs) based crystals and alloys, are potentially better materials for solar cell and other optoelectronic applications.« less

  20. High Photoluminescence Quantum Yield in Band Gap Tunable Bromide Containing Mixed Halide Perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Sutter-Fella, Carolin M.; Li, Yanbo; Amani, Matin; ...

    2015-12-21

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite based semiconductor materials are attractive for use in a wide range of optoelectronic devices because they combine the advantages of suitable optoelectronic attributes and simultaneously low-cost solution processability. Here, we present a two-step low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process to grow high quality homogeneous CH 3NH 3PbI 3-xBr x perovskite films over the full band gap range of 1.6-2.3 eV. Photoluminescence light-in versus light-out characterization techniques are used to provide new insights into the optoelectronic properties of Br-containing hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites as a function of optical carrier injection by employing pump-powers over a 6 orders of magnitude dynamicmore » range. The internal luminescence quantum yield of wide band gap perovskites reaches impressive values up to 30%. This high quantum yield translates into substantial quasi-Fermi level splitting and high "luminescence or optically implied" open-circuit voltage. Most importantly, both attributes, high internal quantum yield and high optically implied open-circuit voltage, are demonstrated over the entire band gap range (1.6 eV ≤ E g ≤ 2.3 eV). These results establish the versatility of Br-containing perovskite semiconductors for a variety of applications and especially for the use as high-quality top cell in tandem photovoltaic devices in combination with industry dominant Si bottom cells. (Figure Presented).« less

  1. Low Surface Recombination Velocity in Solution-Grown CH 3NH 3PbBr 3 Perovskite Single Crystal

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Ye; Yan, Yong; Yang, Mengjin; ...

    2015-08-06

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are attracting intense research effort due to their impressive performance in solar cells. While the carrier transport parameters such as mobility and bulk carrier lifetime shows sufficient characteristics, the surface recombination, which can have major impact on the solar cell performance, has not been studied. Here we measure surface recombination dynamics in CH 3NH 3PbBr 3 perovskite single crystals using broadband transient reflectance spectroscopy. The surface recombination velocity is found to be 3.4±0.1 10 3 cm s -1, B2–3 orders of magnitude lower than that in many important unpassivated semiconductors employed in solar cells. Our result suggestsmore » that the planar grain size for the perovskite thin films should be larger thanB30 mm to avoid the influence of surface recombination on the effective carrier lifetime.« less

  2. Perovskite-like fluorides and oxyfluorides: Phase transitions and caloric effects

    SciTech Connect

    Flerov, I. N., E-mail: flerov@iph.krasn.ru; Gorev, M. V., E-mail: gorev@iph.krasn.ru; Tressaud, A.

    2011-01-15

    An analysis of the effect that chemical and hydrostatic pressures have on the thermodynamic properties of perovskite-like fluorine-oxygen compounds A{sub 2}A Prime MeO{sub x}F{sub 6-x} has revealed that materials under-going order-disorder transitions and having significant external-pressure compliance have the highest caloric efficiency. Some of the fluorides and oxyfluorides under study can be considered promising solid coolants.

  3. Neutral- and Multi-Colored Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Guo, L Jay; Park, Hui Joon

    2016-04-11

    In this review, we summarize recent works on perovskite solar cells with neutral- and multi-colored semitransparency for building-integrated photovoltaics and tandem solar cells. The perovskite solar cells exploiting microstructured arrays of perovskite "islands" and transparent electrodes-the latter of which include thin metallic films, metal nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphenes, and transparent conductive oxides for achieving optical transparency-are investigated. Moreover, the perovskite solar cells with distinctive color generation, which are enabled by engineering the band gap of the perovskite light-harvesting semiconductors with chemical management and integrating with photonic nanostructures, including microcavity, are discussed. We conclude by providing future research directions toward further performance improvements of the semitransparent perovskite solar cells.

  4. Morphology-Controlled Synthesis of Organometal Halide Perovskite Inverse Opals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun; Tüysüz, Harun

    2015-11-09

    The booming development of organometal halide perovskites in recent years has prompted the exploration of morphology-control strategies to improve their performance in photovoltaic, photonic, and optoelectronic applications. However, the preparation of organometal halide perovskites with high hierarchical architecture is still highly challenging and a general morphology-control method for various organometal halide perovskites has not been achieved. A mild and scalable method to prepare organometal halide perovskites in inverse opal morphology is presented that uses a polystyrene-based artificial opal as hard template. Our method is flexible and compatible with different halides and organic ammonium compositions. Thus, the perovskite inverse opal maintains the advantage of straightforward structure and band gap engineering. Furthermore, optoelectronic investigations reveal that morphology exerted influence on the conducting nature of organometal halide perovskites. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Perovskite Solar Cell Stability Workshop: Quick Look Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-12

    Commercialization of Perovskite PV – Markets, Concerns, Opportunities” by Dirk Weiss, First Solar , USA j. “Expectations for PV Product Testing Today” by Sarah...Perovskite Solar Cell Stability Workshop Quick-Look Report Held by the Office of Naval Research at University...Workshop Summary, 11-12 Aug 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Perovskite Solar Cell Stability Workshop: Quick-Look Report 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S

  6. New Type of 2D Perovskites with Alternating Cations in the Interlayer Space, (C(NH 2 ) 3 )(CH 3 NH 3 ) n Pb n I 3n+1 : Structure, Properties, and Photovoltaic Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Soe, Chan Myae Myae; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Kepenekian, Mikaël

    We present the new homologous series (C(NH2)3)(CH3NH3)nPbnI3n+1 (n = 1, 2, 3) of layered 2D perovskites. Structural characterization by single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that these compounds adopt an unprecedented structure type, which is stabilized by the alternating ordering of the guanidinium and methylammonium cations in the interlayer space (ACI). Compared to the more common Ruddlesden–Popper (RP) 2D perovskites, the ACI perovskites have a different stacking motif and adopt a higher crystal symmetry. The higher symmetry of the ACI perovskites is expressed in their physical properties, which show a characteristic decrease of the bandgap with respect to their RP perovskite counterpartsmore » with the same perovskite layer thickness (n). The compounds show a monotonic decrease in the optical gap as n increases: Eg = 2.27 eV for n = 1 to Eg = 1.99 eV for n = 2 and Eg = 1.73 eV for n = 3, which show slightly narrower gaps compared to the corresponding RP perovskites. First-principles theoretical electronic structure calculations confirm the experimental optical gap trends suggesting that the ACI perovskites are direct bandgap semiconductors with wide valence and conduction bandwidths. To assess the potential of the ACI perovskites toward solar cell applications, we studied the (C(NH2)3)(CH3NH3)3Pb3I10 (n = 3) compound. Compact thin films from the (C(NH2)3)(CH3NH3)3Pb3I10 compound with excellent surface coverage can be obtained from the antisolvent dripping method. Planar photovoltaic devices from optimized ACI perovskite films yield a power-conversion-efficiency of 7.26% with a high open-circuit voltage of ~1 V and a striking fill factor of ~80%.« less

  7. Synthesis and Structure of A New Perovskite, SrCuO 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bai-Hao; Walker, Dave; Scott, Bruce A.; Mitzi, David B.

    1996-02-01

    A new oxygen-deficient perovskite, SrCuO2.5, was prepared at 950°C and 100 kbar pressure in a multianvil apparatus. Rietveld profile analysis, using X-ray powder diffraction data, was employed for the structural determination. SrCuO2.5is orthorhombic,Pbam(No. 55),Z= 4,a= 5.424(2) Â,b= 10.837(4) Â, andc= 3.731(1) Â, which is related to the perovskite subcell by root{2}ap× 2root{2}ap×ap, whereapis the simple cubic perovskite lattice parameter. It consists of corner-shared CuO5square pyramids with oxygen vacancy ordering in the CuO2layers. The ordered oxygen vacancies create parallel pseudo-hexagonal tunnels where the Sr atoms reside, forming SrO10polyhedra. Structural features with respect to oxygen vacancies, superstructures, and distortions are analogous to the type of ordering observed in Sr2CuO3+δ. Superconductivity was not observed in SrCuO2.5down to 5 K.

  8. Study of the B-site ion behaviour in the multiferroic perovskite bismuth iron chromium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Bethany R.; Lieschke, Jonathon; Berlie, Adam; Cortie, David L.; Playford, Helen Y.; Lu, Teng; Narayanan, Narendirakumar; Withers, Ray L.; Yu, Dehong; Liu, Yun

    2018-04-01

    A simple, near-ambient pressure solid-state method was developed to nominally synthesize BiFe0.5Cr0.5O3. The procedure allowed the gram-scale production of multiferroic samples with appreciable purity and large amounts of Cr incorporation that were suitable for systematic structural investigation by neutron, X-ray, and electron diffraction in tandem with physical characterization of magnetic and ferroelectric properties. The rhombohedrally distorted perovskite phase was assigned to the space group R3c by way of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction analysis. Through a combination of magnetometry and muon spin relaxation, it is evident that there is magnetic ordering in the BFCO phase consistent with G-type antiferromagnetism and a TN ˜ 400 K. There is no clear evidence for chemical ordering of Fe and Cr in the B-site of the perovskite structure and this result is rationalized by density functional theory and bond valence simulations that show a lowered energy associated with a B-site disordered structure. We believe that our contribution of a new, low-complexity method for the synthesis of BFO type samples, and dialogue about realising certain types of ordering in oxide perovskite systems, will assist in the further development of multiferroics for next-generation devices.

  9. Annealing Induced Re-crystallization in CH3NH3PbI3−xClx for High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingguo; Feng, Shanglei; Li, Meng; Xu, Weidong; Yin, Guangzhi; Wang, Zhaokui; Sun, Baoquan; Gao, Xingyu

    2017-01-01

    Using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) as hole conductor, a series of inverted planar CH3NH3PbI3−xClx perovskite solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated based on perovskite annealed by an improved time-temperature dependent (TTD) procedure in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere for different time. Only after an optimum annealing time, an optimized power conversion efficiency of 14.36% could be achieved. To understand their performance dependence on annealing time, an in situ real-time synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) was used to monitor a step-by-step gradual structure transformation from distinct mainly organic-inorganic hybrid materials into highly ordered CH3NH3PbI3 crystal during annealing. However, a re-crystallization process of perovskite crystal was observed for the first time during such an annealing procedure, which helps to enhance the perovskite crystallization and preferential orientations. The present GIXRD findings could well explain the drops of the open circuit voltage (Voc) and the fill factor (FF) during the ramping of temperature as well as the optimized power conversion efficiency achieved after an optimum annealing time. Thus, the present study not only illustrates clearly the decisive roles of post-annealing in the formation of solution-processed perovskite to better understand its formation mechanism, but also demonstrates the crucial dependences of device performance on the perovskite microstructure in PSCs. PMID:28429762

  10. Synergic solventing-out crystallization with subsequent time-delay thermal annealing of PbI2 precursor in mesostructured perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Fujin; Guo, Yanqun; Che, Lijia; Liu, Zhiyong; Zeng, Zhigang; Cai, Chuanbing

    2018-06-01

    Although the two-step sequential deposition method provides an efficient route to fabricate high performance perovskite solar cells (PSSCs) with increasing reproducibility, the inefficient and incomplete conversion of PbI2 to perovskite is still quite a challenge. Following pioneering works, we found that the conversion process from PbI2 to perovskite mainly involves diffusion, infiltration, contact and reaction. In order to facilitate the conversion from PbI2 to perovskite, we demonstrate an effective method to regulate supersaturation level (the driving force to crystallization) of PbI2 by solventing-out crystallization combining with subsequent time-delay thermal annealing of PbI2 wet film. Enough voids and spaces in resulting porous PbI2 layer will be in favor of efficient diffusion, infiltration of CH3NH3I solution, and further enhance the contact and reaction between PbI2 and CH3NH3I in the whole film, leading to rapid, efficient and complete perovskite conversion with a conversion level of about 99.9%. Enhancement of light harvesting ranging from visible to near-IR region was achieved for the resultant high-quality perovskite. Upon this combined method, the fabricated mesostructured solar cells show tremendous power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvement from 3.2% to about 12.3% with less hysteresis owing to the simultaneous enhancement of short-circuit photocurrent density (J sc), open-circuit voltage (V oc) and fill factor (FF).

  11. Charge carrier recombination dynamics in perovskite and polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Paulke, Andreas; Kniepert, Juliane; Kurpiers, Jona

    2016-03-14

    Time-delayed collection field experiments are applied to planar organometal halide perovskite (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) based solar cells to investigate charge carrier recombination in a fully working solar cell at the nanosecond to microsecond time scale. Recombination of mobile (extractable) charges is shown to follow second-order recombination dynamics for all fluences and time scales tested. Most importantly, the bimolecular recombination coefficient is found to be time-dependent, with an initial value of ca. 10{sup −9} cm{sup 3}/s and a progressive reduction within the first tens of nanoseconds. Comparison to the prototypical organic bulk heterojunction device PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM yields important differences with regardmore » to the mechanism and time scale of free carrier recombination.« less

  12. Impact of Ultrathin C60 on Perovskite Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dianyi; Wang, Qiong; Traverse, Christopher J; Yang, Chenchen; Young, Margaret; Kuttipillai, Padmanaban S; Lunt, Sophia Y; Hamann, Thomas W; Lunt, Richard R

    2018-01-23

    Halide perovskite solar cells have seen dramatic progress in performance over the past several years. Certified efficiencies of inverted structure (p-i-n) devices have now exceeded 20%. In these p-i-n devices, fullerene compounds are the most popular electron-transfer materials. However, the full function of fullerenes in perovskite solar cells is still under investigation, and the mechanism of photocurrent hysteresis suppression by fullerene remains unclear. In previous reports, thick fullerene layers (>20 nm) were necessary to fully cover the perovskite film surface to make good contact with perovskite film and avoid large leakage currents. In addition, the solution-processed fullerene layer has been broadly thought to infiltrate into the perovskite film to passivate traps on grain boundary surfaces, causing suppressed photocurrent hysteresis. In this work, we demonstrate an efficient perovskite photovoltaic device with only 1 nm C 60 deposited by vapor deposition as the electron-selective material. Utilizing a combination of fluorescence microscopy and impedance spectroscopy, we show that the ultrathin C 60 predominately acts to extract electrons from the perovskite film while concomitantly suppressing the photocurrent hysteresis by reducing space charge accumulation at the interface. This work ultimately helps to clarify the dominant role of fullerenes in perovskite solar cells while simplifying perovskite solar cell design to reduce manufacturing costs.

  13. Development of Perovskite-Type Materials for Thermoelectric Application.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingjun; Gao, Peng

    2018-06-12

    Oxide perovskite materials have a long history of being investigated for thermoelectric applications. Compared to the state-of-the-art tin and lead chalcogenides, these perovskite compounds have advantages of low toxicity, eco-friendliness, and high elemental abundance. However, because of low electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity, the total thermoelectric performance of oxide perovskites is relatively poor. Variety of methods were used to enhance the TE properties of oxide perovskite materials, such as doping, inducing oxygen vacancy, embedding crystal imperfection, and so on. Recently, hybrid perovskite materials started to draw attention for thermoelectric application. Due to the low thermal conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient feature of hybrid perovskites materials, they can be promising thermoelectric materials and hold the potential for the application of wearable energy generators and cooling devices. This mini-review will build a bridge between oxide perovskites and burgeoning hybrid halide perovskites in the research of thermoelectric properties with an aim to further enhance the relevant performance of perovskite-type materials.

  14. 2D Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskites for Optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yani; Sun, Yong; Peng, Jiajun; Tang, Junhui; Zheng, Kaibo; Liang, Ziqi

    2018-01-01

    Conventional 3D organic-inorganic halide perovskites have recently undergone unprecedented rapid development. Yet, their inherent instabilities over moisture, light, and heat remain a crucial challenge prior to the realization of commercialization. By contrast, the emerging 2D Ruddlesden-Popper-type perovskites have recently attracted increasing attention owing to their great environmental stability. However, the research of 2D perovskites is just in their infancy. In comparison to 3D analogues, they are natural quantum wells with a much larger exciton binding energy. Moreover, their inner structural, dielectric, optical, and excitonic properties remain to be largely explored, limiting further applications. This review begins with an introduction to 2D perovskites, along with a detailed comparison to 3D counterparts. Then, a discussion of the organic spacer cation engineering of 2D perovskites is presented. Next, quasi-2D perovskites that fall between 3D and 2D perovskites are reviewed and compared. The unique excitonic properties, electron-phonon coupling, and polarons of 2D perovskites are then be revealed. A range of their (opto)electronic applications is highlighted in each section. Finally, a summary is given, and the strategies toward structural design, growth control, and photophysics studies of 2D perovskites for high-performance electronic devices are rationalized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Ceramic Single Phase High-Level Nuclear Waste Forms: Hollandite, Perovskite, and Pyrochlore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, M.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    The lack of viable options for the safe, reliable, and long-term storage of nuclear waste is one of the primary roadblocks of nuclear energy's sustainable future. The method being researched is the incorporation and immobilization of harmful radionuclides (Cs, Sr, Actinides, and Lanthanides) into the structure of glasses and ceramics. Borosilicate glasses are the main waste form that is accepted and used by today's nuclear industry, but they aren't the most efficient in terms of waste loading, and durability is still not fully understood. Synroc-phase ceramics (i.e. hollandite, perovskite, pyrochlore, zirconolite) have many attractive qualities that glass waste forms do not: high waste loading, moderate thermal expansion and conductivity, high chemical durability, and high radiation stability. The only downside to ceramics is that they are more complex to process than glass. New compositions can be discovered by using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to have more options to optimize the composition, loading for performance by analyzing the non-linear relationships between ionic radii, electronegativity, channel size, and a mineral's ability to incorporate radionuclides into its structure. Cesium can be incorporated into hollandite's A-site, while pyrochlore and perovskite can incorporate actinides and lanthanides into their A-site. The ANN is used to predict new compositions based on hollandite's channel size, as well as the A-O bond distances of pyrochlore and perovskite, and determine which ions can be incorporated. These new compositions will provide more options for more experiments to potentially improve chemical and thermodynamic properties, as well as increased waste loading capabilities.

  16. Antisite-disorder, magnetic and thermoelectric properties of Mo-rich Sr2Fe1-yMo1+yO6 (0 ≤y≤ 0.2) double perovskites.

    PubMed

    Popuri, Srinivasa R; Redpath, Debbie; Chan, Gavin; Smith, Ronald I; Cespedes, Oscar; Bos, Jan-Willem G

    2015-06-21

    Structure analysis using X-ray and neutron powder diffraction and elemental mapping has been used to demonstrate that nominal A-site deficient Sr(2-x)FeMoO(6-δ) (0 ≤x≤ 0.5) compositions form as Mo-rich Sr(2)Fe(1-y)Mo(1+y)O(6) (0 ≤y≤ 0.2) perovskites at high temperatures and under reducing atmospheres. These materials show a gradual transition from the Fe and Mo rock salt ordered double perovskite structure to a B-site disordered arrangement. Analysis of the fractions of B-O-B' linkages revealed a gradual increase in the number of Mo-O-Mo linkages at the expense of the ferrimagnetic (FIM) Fe-O-Mo linkages that dominate the y = 0 material. All samples contain about 10-15% antiferromagnetic (AF) Fe-O-Fe linkages, independent of the degree of B-site ordering. The magnetic susceptibility of the y = 0.2 sample is characteristic of a small domain ferrimagnet (T(c)∼ 250 K), while room temperature neutron powder diffraction demonstrated the presence of G-type AF ordering linked to the Fe-O-Fe linkages (m(Fe) = 1.25(7)μ(B)). The high temperature thermoelectric properties are characteristic of a metal with a linear temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient, S (for all y) and electrical resistivity ρ (y≥ 0.1). The largest thermoelectric power factor S(2)/ρ = 0.12 mW m(-1) K(-1) is observed for Sr(2)FeMoO(6) at 1000 K.

  17. 4d Electronic structure analysis of ruthenium in the perovskite oxides by Ru K- and L-edge XAS.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Y; Hwang, S H; Kim, S J; Demazeau, G; Choy, J H; Shimada, H

    2001-03-01

    The 4d electronic structure of ruthenium in the perovskite oxides, La2MRuIVO6 (M = Zn, Mg, and Li) and Ba2YRuVO6, has been investigated by the Ru K-and L-edge XANES and EXAFS analyses. Such X-ray absorption spectroscopic results clarify that the RuIV (d4) and RuV (d3) ions are stabilized in nearly regular Oh site. Comparing the Ru L-edge XANES spectra of perovskites containing isovalent ruthenium, it has been found that the t2g state is mainly influenced by A site cation, whereas the eg is mainly affected by neighboring B site cation. The experimental EXAFS spectra in the range of R < or = approximately 4.5 A are well reproduced by ab-initio calculation based on crystallographic data, which supports the long-range structure presented by Rietveld refinement.

  18. Machine learning bandgaps of double perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Pilania, G.; Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, A.; Uberuaga, B. P.; Ramprasad, R.; Gubernatis, J. E.; Lookman, T.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to make rapid and accurate predictions on bandgaps of double perovskites is of much practical interest for a range of applications. While quantum mechanical computations for high-fidelity bandgaps are enormously computation-time intensive and thus impractical in high throughput studies, informatics-based statistical learning approaches can be a promising alternative. Here we demonstrate a systematic feature-engineering approach and a robust learning framework for efficient and accurate predictions of electronic bandgaps of double perovskites. After evaluating a set of more than 1.2 million features, we identify lowest occupied Kohn-Sham levels and elemental electronegativities of the constituent atomic species as the most crucial and relevant predictors. The developed models are validated and tested using the best practices of data science and further analyzed to rationalize their prediction performance. PMID:26783247

  19. Perovskite Materials: Solar Cell and Optoelectronic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid organometallic trihalide perovskites are promising candidates in the applications for next-generation, high-performance, low-cost optoelectronic devices, including photovoltaics, light emitting diodes, and photodetectors. Particularly, the solar cells based on this type of materials have reached 22% lab scale power conversion efficiency in only about seven years, comparable to the other thin film photovoltaic technologies. Hybrid perovskite materials not only exhibit superior optoelectronic properties, but also show many interesting physical properties such as ion migration and defect physics, which may allow the exploration of more device functionalities. In this article, the fundamental understanding of the interrelationships between crystal structure, electronic structure,more » and material properties is discussed. Various chemical synthesis and processing methods for superior device performance in solar cells and optoelectronic devices are reviewed.« less

  20. Machine learning bandgaps of double perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Pilania, G.; Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, A.; Uberuaga, B. P.; ...

    2016-01-19

    The ability to make rapid and accurate predictions on bandgaps of double perovskites is of much practical interest for a range of applications. While quantum mechanical computations for high-fidelity bandgaps are enormously computation-time intensive and thus impractical in high throughput studies, informatics-based statistical learning approaches can be a promising alternative. Here we demonstrate a systematic feature-engineering approach and a robust learning framework for efficient and accurate predictions of electronic bandgaps of double perovskites. After evaluating a set of more than 1.2 million features, we identify lowest occupied Kohn-Sham levels and elemental electronegativities of the constituent atomic species as the mostmore » crucial and relevant predictors. As a result, the developed models are validated and tested using the best practices of data science and further analyzed to rationalize their prediction performance.« less

  1. Acid–base catalysis over perovskites: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Polo-Garzon, Felipe; Wu, Zili

    We present that perovskite catalysts have been extensively studied for reduction–oxidation (redox) reactions; however, their acid–base catalytic properties are still under-explored. This review collects work aiming to study the acid–base catalytic properties of perovskites. Reports regarding combined acid–base/redox catalysis over perovskites lie beyond the scope of the present review. For the characterization of acid–base properties, researchers have studied the interaction of probe molecules with perovskite surfaces by means of multiple techniques that provide information about the density, strength and type of adsorption sites. The top-surface composition of perovskites, which relates to the abundance of the acid–base sites, has been studiedmore » by means of low energy ion scattering (LEIS), and, the less surface sensitive, conventional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Probe reactions, with the conversion of 2-propanol as the common choice, have also been employed for characterizing the acid–base catalytic properties of perovskites. The complex nature of perovskite surfaces, which explains the still absent fundamental relations between the structure of the catalyst and reaction rates/selectivity, encounters a great challenge due to the surface reconstruction of these materials. In this review, we devote a special section to highlight recent publications that report the impact of surface reconstruction and particle shape on acid–base catalysis over perovskites. In addition, we review promising catalytic performances of perovskite catalysts for other reactions of interest. Challenges in acid–base catalysis over perovskites focus on the development of time-resolved monolayer-sensitive characterization of surfaces under operando conditions and the discernment of combined acid–base/redox reaction mechanisms. Finally, opportunities lay on tuning the acid–base characteristics of perovskites with computation-based catalytic descriptors to

  2. Acid–base catalysis over perovskites: a review

    DOE PAGES

    Polo-Garzon, Felipe; Wu, Zili

    2018-01-15

    We present that perovskite catalysts have been extensively studied for reduction–oxidation (redox) reactions; however, their acid–base catalytic properties are still under-explored. This review collects work aiming to study the acid–base catalytic properties of perovskites. Reports regarding combined acid–base/redox catalysis over perovskites lie beyond the scope of the present review. For the characterization of acid–base properties, researchers have studied the interaction of probe molecules with perovskite surfaces by means of multiple techniques that provide information about the density, strength and type of adsorption sites. The top-surface composition of perovskites, which relates to the abundance of the acid–base sites, has been studiedmore » by means of low energy ion scattering (LEIS), and, the less surface sensitive, conventional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Probe reactions, with the conversion of 2-propanol as the common choice, have also been employed for characterizing the acid–base catalytic properties of perovskites. The complex nature of perovskite surfaces, which explains the still absent fundamental relations between the structure of the catalyst and reaction rates/selectivity, encounters a great challenge due to the surface reconstruction of these materials. In this review, we devote a special section to highlight recent publications that report the impact of surface reconstruction and particle shape on acid–base catalysis over perovskites. In addition, we review promising catalytic performances of perovskite catalysts for other reactions of interest. Challenges in acid–base catalysis over perovskites focus on the development of time-resolved monolayer-sensitive characterization of surfaces under operando conditions and the discernment of combined acid–base/redox reaction mechanisms. Finally, opportunities lay on tuning the acid–base characteristics of perovskites with computation-based catalytic descriptors to

  3. Cooperative Couplings between Octahedral Rotations and Ferroelectricity in Perovskites and Related Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Teng; Scarbrough, Timothy; Yang, Yurong; Íñiguez, Jorge; Bellaiche, L.; Xiang, H. J.

    2018-05-01

    The structure of AB O 3 perovskites is dominated by two types of unstable modes, namely, the oxygen octahedral rotation (AFD) and ferroelectric (FE) mode. It is generally believed that such AFD and FE modes tend to compete and suppress each other. Here we use first-principles methods to show that a dual nature of the FE-AFD coupling, which turns from competitive to cooperative as the AFD mode strengthens, occurs in numerous perovskite oxides. We provide a unified model of such a dual interaction by introducing novel high-order coupling terms and explain the atomistic origin of the resulting new form of ferroelectricity in terms of universal steric mechanisms. We also predict that such a novel form of ferroelectricity leads to atypical behaviors, such as an enhancement of all the three Cartesian components of the electric polarization under hydrostatic pressure and compressive epitaxial strain.

  4. Curie temperature behavior in half-metallic ferromagnetic double perovskites within the electronic correlation picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, F.; Guzmán, E. J.; Navarro, O.; Avignon, M.

    2018-05-01

    The half-metallic ferromagnetic compound Sr2FeMoO6 is considered a fundamental material to understand the role of electronic parameters controlling the half-metallic ground state and high Curie temperature in double perovskite. We present an electronic approach using the Green's function technique and the renormalization perturbation expansion method to study the thermodynamical properties of double perovskites. The model is based on a correlated electron picture with localized Fe spins and conduction electrons interacting with the local spins via a double-exchange-type mechanism. Electron correlations within the conduction band are also included in order to study the Curie temperature TC. Our results show an increases of TC by increasing the carrier density in La-doped Sr2FeMoO6 compounds in contrast to the case of uncorrelated itinerant electrons.

  5. Top and bottom surfaces limit carrier lifetime in lead iodide perovskite films

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Ye; Yang, Mengjin; Moore, David T.; ...

    2017-01-23

    Carrier recombination at defects is detrimental to the performance of solar energy conversion systems, including solar cells and photoelectrochemical devices. Point defects are localized within the bulk crystal while extended defects occur at surfaces and grain boundaries. If not properly managed, surfaces can be a large source of carrier recombination. Separating surface carrier dynamics from bulk and/or grain-boundary recombination in thin films is challenging. Here, we employ transient reflection spectroscopy to measure the surface carrier dynamics in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite polycrystalline films. We find that surface recombination limits the total carrier lifetime in perovskite polycrystalline thin films, meaning thatmore » recombination inside grains and/or at grain boundaries is less important than top and bottom surface recombination. As a result, the surface recombination velocity in polycrystalline films is nearly an order of magnitude smaller than that in single crystals, possibly due to unintended surface passivation of the films during synthesis.« less

  6. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Murali, Banavoth; Alarousu, Erkki; Burlakov, Victor M.; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Wang, Lingfei; He, Yao; Maculan, Giacomo; Goriely, Alain; Wu, Tom; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-07-01

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3+, X=Br- or I-) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization.

  7. Theory and modeling of correlated ionic motions in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappe, Andrew

    The perovskite crystal structure hosts a wealth of intriguing properties, and the renaissance of interest in halide (and hybrid organic-inorganic) perovskites (HOIPs) has further broadened the palette of exciting physical phenomena. Breakthroughs in HOIP synthesis, characterization, and solar cell design have led to remarkable increases in reported photovoltaic efficiency. However, the observed long carrier lifetime and PV performance have eluded comprehensive physical justification. The hybrid perovskites serve as an enigmatic crossroads of physics. Concepts from crystalline band theory, molecular physics, liquids, and phase transitions have been applied with some success, but the observations of HOIPs make it clear that none of these conceptual frameworks completely fits. In this talk, recent theoretical progress in understanding HOIPs will be reviewed and integrated with experimental findings. The large amplitude motions of HOIPs will be highlighted, including ionic diffusion, anharmonic phonons, and dynamic incipient order on various length and time scales. The intricate relationships between correlated structural fluctuations, polar order, and excited charge carrier dynamics will also be discussed. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research, under Grant N00014-14-1-0761.

  8. Quasiparticle Interference on Cubic Perovskite Oxide Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshinori; Shiau, Shiue-Yuan; Chang, Tay-Rong; Chang, Guoqing; Kobayashi, Masaki; Shimizu, Ryota; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Shiraki, Susumu; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Bansil, Arun; Lin, Hsin; Hitosugi, Taro

    2017-08-25

    We report the observation of coherent surface states on cubic perovskite oxide SrVO_{3}(001) thin films through spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. A direct link between the observed quasiparticle interference patterns and the formation of a d_{xy}-derived surface state is supported by first-principles calculations. We show that the apical oxygens on the topmost VO_{2} plane play a critical role in controlling the coherent surface state via modulating orbital state.

  9. Magnetic field effects in hybrid perovskite devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Sun, D.; Sheng, C.-X.; Zhai, Y. X.; Mielczarek, K.; Zakhidov, A.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic field effects have been a successful tool for studying carrier dynamics in organic semiconductors as the weak spin-orbit coupling in these materials gives rise to long spin relaxation times. As the spin-orbit coupling is strong in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which are promising materials for photovoltaic and light-emitting applications, magnetic field effects are expected to be negligible in these optoelectronic devices. We measured significant magneto-photocurrent, magneto-electroluminescence and magneto-photoluminescence responses in hybrid perovskite devices and thin films, where the amplitude and shape are correlated to each other through the electron-hole lifetime, which depends on the perovskite film morphology. We attribute these responses to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs with different g-factors--the Δg model. We validate this model by measuring large Δg (~ 0.65) using field-induced circularly polarized photoluminescence, and electron-hole pair lifetime using picosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

  10. Intriguing optoelectronic properties of metal halide perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Manser, Joseph S.; Christians, Jeffrey A.; Kamat, Prashant V.

    2016-06-21

    Here, a new chapter in the long and distinguished history of perovskites is being written with the breakthrough success of metal halide perovskites (MHPs) as solution-processed photovoltaic (PV) absorbers. The current surge in MHP research has largely arisen out of their rapid progress in PV devices; however, these materials are potentially suitable for a diverse array of optoelectronic applications. Like oxide perovskites, MHPs have ABX 3 stoichiometry, where A and B are cations and X is a halide anion. Here, the underlying physical and photophysical properties of inorganic (A = inorganic) and hybrid organic-inorganic (A = organic) MHPs are reviewedmore » with an eye toward their potential application in emerging optoelectronic technologies. Significant attention is given to the prototypical compound methylammonium lead iodide (CH 3NH 3PbI 3) due to the preponderance of experimental and theoretical studies surrounding this material. We also discuss other salient MHP systems, including 2- dimensional compounds, where relevant. More specifically, this review is a critical account of the interrelation between MHP electronic structure, absorption, emission, carrier dynamics and transport, and other relevant photophysical processes that have propelled these materials to the forefront of modern optoelectronics research.« less

  11. Light-trapping in perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Qing Guo; Shen, Guansheng; John, Sajeev

    We numerically demonstrate enhanced light harvesting efficiency in both CH 3NH 3PbI 3 and CH(NH 2) 2PbI 3-based perovskite solar cells using inverted verticalcone photonic-crystal nanostructures. For CH 3NH 3PbI 3 perovskite solar cells, the maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD) reaches 25.1 mA/cm 2, corresponding to 92% of the total available photocurrent in the absorption range of 300 nm to 800 nm. Our cell shows 6% absorption enhancement compared to the Lambertian limit (23.7 mA/cm 2) and has a projected power conversion efficiency of 12.9%. Excellent solar absorption is numerically demonstrated over a broad angular range from 0 to 60more » degree for both S- and P- polarizations. For the corresponding CH(NH 2) 2PbI 3 based perovskite solar cell, with absorption range of 300 nm to 850 nm, we find a MAPD of 29.1 mA/cm 2, corresponding to 95.4% of the total available photocurrent. Furthermore, the projected power conversion efficiency of the CH(NH 2) 2PbI 3 based photonic crystal solar cell is 23.4%, well above the current world record efficiency of 20.1%.« less

  12. Light-trapping in perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Du, Qing Guo; Shen, Guansheng; John, Sajeev

    2016-06-01

    We numerically demonstrate enhanced light harvesting efficiency in both CH 3NH 3PbI 3 and CH(NH 2) 2PbI 3-based perovskite solar cells using inverted verticalcone photonic-crystal nanostructures. For CH 3NH 3PbI 3 perovskite solar cells, the maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD) reaches 25.1 mA/cm 2, corresponding to 92% of the total available photocurrent in the absorption range of 300 nm to 800 nm. Our cell shows 6% absorption enhancement compared to the Lambertian limit (23.7 mA/cm 2) and has a projected power conversion efficiency of 12.9%. Excellent solar absorption is numerically demonstrated over a broad angular range from 0 to 60more » degree for both S- and P- polarizations. For the corresponding CH(NH 2) 2PbI 3 based perovskite solar cell, with absorption range of 300 nm to 850 nm, we find a MAPD of 29.1 mA/cm 2, corresponding to 95.4% of the total available photocurrent. Furthermore, the projected power conversion efficiency of the CH(NH 2) 2PbI 3 based photonic crystal solar cell is 23.4%, well above the current world record efficiency of 20.1%.« less

  13. Structural and Magnetic Phase Coexistence in Oxygen Deficient Perovskites (Sr,Ca)FeO 2 . 5 + δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo, J. P.; Evans, M. E.; Anczarski, J. A.; Ock, J.; Boyd, K.; Pollichemi, J. R.; Leahy, I. A.; Vogel, W.; Viescas, A. J.; Papaefthymiou, G. C.

    A variety of compounds crystallize into perovskite and similar structures, making them versatile laboratories for many phenomena and applications, including multiferroicity, superconductivity, and photovoltaics. Oxygen-deficient perovskites ABOx have attracted interest for use in fuel cells and related applications due to high oxygen mobility and the possibility of charge disproportionation. Vast chemical flexibility is obtained through reductions in lattice symmetry and rotation/distortion of the BO6 octahedra, as well as ordering of oxygen vacancies. We have synthesized and studied the structural and magnetic properties of oxygen-deficient perovskites (Sr,Ca)FeO2 . 5 + δ using x-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. While the ideal perovskite has δ = 0.5, this requires Fe4+, and hence strongly oxidizing environments. When grown in air, Fe3+ is favored, yielding δ ~ 0. SrFeO2 . 5 + δ exhibits cubic symmetry and paramagnetism at 300K, but CaFeO2 . 5 + δ crystallizes into the orthorhombic brownmillerite structure, and is magnetically ordered at 300K. In the doped intermediaries we find coexistence of cubic/paramagnetic and orthorhombic/magnetic phases over a wide range of Ca content. Financial support from the Villanova Undergraduate Research Fellowship program and the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  14. Spin and orbital ordering in Y 1-xLa xVO₃

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, J.-Q.; Zhou, J.-S.; Cheng, J. G.; ...

    2011-12-02

    The spin and orbital ordering in Y 1-xLa xVO₃ (0.30 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) has been studied to map out the phase diagram over the whole doping range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. The phase diagram is compared with that for RVO₃ (R = rare earth or Y) perovskites without A-site variance. For x > 0.20, no long-range orbital ordering was observed above the magnetic ordering temperature T N; the magnetic order is accompanied by a lattice anomaly at a Tt ≤ T N as in LaVO₃. The magnetic ordering below Tt ≤ T N is G type in themore » compositional range 0.20 ≤ x ≤ 0.40 and C type in the range 0.738 ≤ x ≤ 1.0. Magnetization and neutron powder diffraction measurements point to the coexistence below T N of the two magnetic phases in the compositional range 0.4 < x < 0.738. Samples in the compositional range 0.20 < x ≤ 1.0 are characterized by an additional suppression of a glasslike thermal conductivity in the temperature interval T N < T < T* and a change in the slope of 1/χ(T). We argue that T* represents a temperature below which spin and orbital fluctuations couple together via λL∙S.« less

  15. Automated microfluidic platform for systematic studies of colloidal perovskite nanocrystals: towards continuous nano-manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Epps, Robert W; Felton, Kobi C; Coley, Connor W; Abolhasani, Milad

    2017-11-21

    Colloidal organic/inorganic metal-halide perovskite nanocrystals have recently emerged as a potential low-cost replacement for the semiconductor materials in commercial photovoltaics and light emitting diodes. However, unlike III-V and IV-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, studies of colloidal perovskite nanocrystals have yet to develop a fundamental and comprehensive understanding of nucleation and growth kinetics. Here, we introduce a modular and automated microfluidic platform for the systematic studies of room-temperature synthesized cesium-lead halide perovskite nanocrystals. With abundant data collection across the entirety of four orders of magnitude reaction time span, we comprehensively characterize nanocrystal growth within a modular microfluidic reactor. The developed high-throughput screening platform features a custom-designed three-port flow cell with translational capability for in situ spectral characterization of the in-flow synthesized perovskite nanocrystals along a tubular microreactor with an adjustable length, ranging from 3 cm to 196 cm. The translational flow cell allows for sampling of twenty unique residence times at a single equilibrated flow rate. The developed technique requires an average total liquid consumption of 20 μL per spectra and as little as 2 μL at the time of sampling. It may continuously sample up to 30 000 unique spectra per day in both single and multi-phase flow formats. Using the developed plug-and-play microfluidic platform, we study the growth of cesium lead trihalide perovskite nanocrystals through in situ monitoring of their absorption and emission band-gaps at residence times ranging from 100 ms to 17 min. The automated microfluidic platform enables a systematic study of the effect of mixing enhancement on the quality of the synthesized nanocrystals through a direct comparison between single- and multi-phase flow systems at similar reaction time scales. The improved mixing characteristics of the multi-phase flow

  16. NREL Technique Leads to Improved Perovskite Solar Cells | News | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    ), devised a method to improve perovskite solar cells, making them more efficient and reliable with higher according to the skills of the researchers making perovskites at different laboratories, to somewhere cell. The scientists from NREL and SJTU came up with a better method, using what's called the Ostwald

  17. Perovskite Technology is Scalable, But Questions Remain about the Best

    Science.gov Websites

    Methods | News | NREL Perovskite Technology is Scalable, But Questions Remain about the Best Methods News Release: Perovskite Technology is Scalable, But Questions Remain about the Best Methods NREL be used on a larger surface. The NREL researchers examined potential scalable deposition methods

  18. NREL Scientists Demonstrate Remarkable Stability in Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov Websites

    environmentally stable, high-efficiency perovskite solar cell, bringing the emerging technology a step closer to needed to make the devices durable enough for long-term use. NREL's unencapsulated solar cell-a cell used Unencapsulated Perovskite Solar Cells for >1000 Hours of Operational Stability." "A solar cell in

  19. Impact of Interfacial Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, An-Na; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2017-10-09

    Perovskite solar cells (PCSs) are composed of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite as the light harvester. Since the first report on a long-term-durable, 9.7 % efficient, solid-state perovskite solar cell, organic-inorganic halide perovskites have received considerable attention because of their excellent optoelectronic properties. As a result, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 22 % was certified. Controlling the grain size, grain boundary, morphology, and defects of the perovskite layer is important for achieving high efficiency. In addition, interfacial engineering is equally or more important to further improve the PCE through better charge collection and a reduction in charge recombination. In this Review, the type of interfacial layers and their impact on photovoltaic performance are investigated for both the normal and the inverted cell architectures. Four different interfaces of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/electron-transport layer (ETL), ETL/perovskite, perovskite/hole-transport layer (HTL), and HTL/metal are classified, and their roles are investigated. The effects of interfacial engineering with organic or inorganic materials on photovoltaic performance are described in detail. Grain-boundary engineering is also included because it is related to interfacial engineering and the grain boundary in the perovskite layer plays an important role in charge conduction, recombination, and chargecarrier life time. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Miscellaneous Lasing Actions in Organo-Lead Halide Perovskite Films.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zonghui; Wang, Shuai; Yi, Ningbo; Gu, Zhiyuan; Gao, Yisheng; Song, Qinghai; Xiao, Shumin

    2017-06-21

    Lasing actions in organo-lead halide perovskite films have been heavily studied in the past few years. However, due to the disordered nature of synthesized perovskite films, the lasing actions are usually understood as random lasers that are formed by multiple scattering. Herein, we demonstrate the miscellaneous lasing actions in organo-lead halide perovskite films. In addition to the random lasers, we show that a single or a few perovskite microparticles can generate laser emissions with their internal resonances instead of multiple scattering among them. We experimentally observed and numerically confirmed whispering gallery (WG)-like microlasers in polygon shaped and other deformed microparticles. Meanwhile, owing to the nature of total internal reflection and the novel shape of the nanoparticle, the size of the perovskite WG laser can be significantly decreased to a few hundred nanometers. Thus, wavelength-scale lead halide perovskite lasers were realized for the first time. All of these laser behaviors are complementary to typical random lasers in perovskite film and will help the understanding of lasing actions in complex lead halide perovskite systems.

  1. Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jixian; Buin, Andrei; Ip, Alexander H.; Li, Wei; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Yuan, Mingjian; Jeon, Seokmin; Ning, Zhijun; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Sun, Jon-Paul; Lan, Xinzheng; Quan, Li Na; Kim, Dong Ha; Hill, Ian G.; Maksymovych, Peter; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-05-01

    Solution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite-PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3- antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour.

  2. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:26733112

  3. Planar-integrated single-crystalline perovskite photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Adinolfi, Valerio; Comin, Riccardo; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Yuan, Mingjian; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.; Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid perovskites are promising semiconductors for optoelectronic applications. However, they suffer from morphological disorder that limits their optoelectronic properties and, ultimately, device performance. Recently, perovskite single crystals have been shown to overcome this problem and exhibit impressive improvements: low trap density, low intrinsic carrier concentration, high mobility, and long diffusion length that outperform perovskite-based thin films. These characteristics make the material ideal for realizing photodetection that is simultaneously fast and sensitive; unfortunately, these macroscopic single crystals cannot be grown on a planar substrate, curtailing their potential for optoelectronic integration. Here we produce large-area planar-integrated films made up of large perovskite single crystals. These crystalline films exhibit mobility and diffusion length comparable with those of single crystals. Using this technique, we produced a high-performance light detector showing high gain (above 104 electrons per photon) and high gain-bandwidth product (above 108 Hz) relative to other perovskite-based optical sensors. PMID:26548941

  4. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  5. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-06

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  6. Reconditioning perovskite films in vapor environments through repeated cation doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonthum, Chirapa; Pinsuwan, Kusuma; Ponchai, Jitprabhat; Srikhirin, Toemsak; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn

    2018-06-01

    Perovskites have attracted considerable attention for application as high-efficiency photovoltaic devices owing to their low-cost and low-temperature fabrication. A good surface and high crystallinity are necessary for high-performance devices. We examine the negative effects of chemical ambiences on the perovskite crystal formation and morphology. The repeated cation doping (RCD) technique was developed to remedy these issues by gradually dropping methylammonium ions on top of about-to-form perovskite surfaces to cause recrystallization. RCD promotes pinhole-free, compact, and polygonal-like surfaces under various vapor conditions. Furthermore, it enhances the electronic properties and crystallization. The benefits of RCD extend beyond perovskites under vapor ambiences, as it can improve regular and wasted perovskites.

  7. Synthesis and applications of nanoporous perovskite metal oxides

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiubing; Zhao, Guixia

    2018-01-01

    Perovskite-type metal oxides have been widely investigated and applied in various fields in the past several decades due to their extraordinary variability of compositions and structures with targeted physical and chemical properties (e.g., redox behaviour, oxygen mobility, electronic and ionic conductivity). Recently, nanoporous perovskite metal oxides have attracted extensive attention because of their special morphology and properties, as well as superior performance. This minireview aims at summarizing and reviewing the different synthesis methods of nanoporous perovskite metal oxides and their various applications comprehensively. The correlations between the nanoporous structures and the specific performance of perovskite oxides are summarized and highlighted. The future research directions of nanoporous perovskite metal oxides are also prospected. PMID:29862001

  8. First Principles Study of Electronic and Magnetic Structures in Double Perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Molly

    At present, electronic devices are reaching their storage and processing limit causing a major push to find materials that can be used in the next generation of devices. Double perovskites with A2BB'O 6 stoichiometry form one of the leading classes of materials currently being studied as a potential candidate because of their extremely wide range and tunability of functional properties, along with economic and highly scalable synthesis routes. Having a thorough understanding of their electronic and magnetic structure and their dependence on composition and local structure is the basis for targeted development of novel and optimized double perovskites. While the body of knowledge and rules within the field of materials chemistry has enabled many previous discoveries, recent developments within density functional theory (DFT) allow by now a rather realistic description of the electronic and magnetic properties of materials and especially identification of their origin from geometry and orbital structure. This thesis details computational work based on DFT within several collaborative studies to better understand the electronic and magnetic properties of double perovskites and related materials that show promise for future use in multifunctional devices. First, we will begin with a general introduction to the double perovskite structure, their properties, and the computational methods used to study them. In the next section, we will look at the case of the antiferromagnetic, insulating double perovskite Sr2CoOsO6, where measurements showed that the transition metal ions in the two sublattices undergo magnetic ordering independently of each other, indicating weak magnetic short-range coupling and a dominance of longer-range interactions, which has previously not been observed. Here, we performed DFT calculations to extract the exchange strengths between the ions and explain this unique dominance of the long-range interactions. Then, we will look at studies done on thin

  9. Ultrathin efficient perovskite solar cells employing a periodic structure of a composite hole conductor for elevated plasmonic light harvesting and hole collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Mingzhu; Chen, Zefeng; Zhang, Tiankai; Xiao, Yubin; Zeng, Xiaoliang; Chen, Jian; Yan, Keyou; Xu, Jianbin

    2016-03-01

    We developed a molecule/polymer composite hole transporting material (HTM) with a periodic microstructure for morphology replication of a corrugated Au electrode, which in combination plays a dual role in the optical and electronic enhancement of high performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The electro-optics revealed that perovskite couldn't readily extinct the red light even though the thickness increased to 370 nm, but we found that the quasi periodic microstructure composite (PMC) HTM in combination with the conformal Au electrode could promote the absorption through the enhanced cavity effects, leading to comparable absorption even using much thinner perovskite (240 nm). We identified that the cavity was the combination of Fabry-Pérot interferometer and surface plasmonic resonance, with light harvesting enhancement through surface plasmon polariton or waveguide modes that propagate in the plane of the perovskite layer. On the other hand, the PMC HTM increased hole conductivity by one order of magnitude with respect to standard spiro-OMeTAD HTM due to molecular packing and self-assembly, embodying traceable hole mobility and density elevation up to 3 times, and thus the hysteresis was greatly avoided. Owing to dual optical and electronic enhancement, the PMC PSC afforded high efficiency PSC using as thin as 240 nm perovskite layer, delivering a Voc of 1.05 V, Jsc of 22.9 mA cm-2, FF of 0.736, and efficiency amounting to 17.7% PCE, the highest efficiency with ultrathin perovskite layer.We developed a molecule/polymer composite hole transporting material (HTM) with a periodic microstructure for morphology replication of a corrugated Au electrode, which in combination plays a dual role in the optical and electronic enhancement of high performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The electro-optics revealed that perovskite couldn't readily extinct the red light even though the thickness increased to 370 nm, but we found that the quasi periodic microstructure

  10. Molecular disorder and translation/rotation coupling in the plastic crystal phase of hybrid perovskites.

    PubMed

    Even, J; Carignano, M; Katan, C

    2016-03-28

    The complexity of hybrid organic perovskites calls for an innovative theoretical view that combines usually disconnected concepts in order to achieve a comprehensive picture: (i) the intended applications of this class of materials are currently in the realm of conventional semiconductors, which reveal the key desired properties for the design of efficient devices. (ii) The reorientational dynamics of the organic component resembles that observed in plastic crystals, therefore requiring a stochastic treatment that can be done in terms of pseudospins and rotator functions. (iii) The overall structural similarity with all inorganic perovskites suggests the use of the high temperature pseudo cubic phase as the reference platform on which further refinements can be built. In this paper we combine the existing knowledge on these three fields to define a general scenario based on which we can continue the quest towards a fundamental understanding of hybrid organic perovskites. With the introduction of group theory as the main tool to rationalize the different ideas and with the help of molecular dynamics simulations, several experimentally observed properties are naturally explained with possible suggestions for future work.

  11. Molecular disorder and translation/rotation coupling in the plastic crystal phase of hybrid perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Even, J.; Carignano, M.; Katan, C.

    2016-03-01

    The complexity of hybrid organic perovskites calls for an innovative theoretical view that combines usually disconnected concepts in order to achieve a comprehensive picture: (i) the intended applications of this class of materials are currently in the realm of conventional semiconductors, which reveal the key desired properties for the design of efficient devices. (ii) The reorientational dynamics of the organic component resembles that observed in plastic crystals, therefore requiring a stochastic treatment that can be done in terms of pseudospins and rotator functions. (iii) The overall structural similarity with all inorganic perovskites suggests the use of the high temperature pseudo cubic phase as the reference platform on which further refinements can be built. In this paper we combine the existing knowledge on these three fields to define a general scenario based on which we can continue the quest towards a fundamental understanding of hybrid organic perovskites. With the introduction of group theory as the main tool to rationalize the different ideas and with the help of molecular dynamics simulations, several experimentally observed properties are naturally explained with possible suggestions for future work.

  12. Benzoyl Peroxide as an Efficient Dopant for Spiro-OMeTAD in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiuju; Fan, Lisheng; Zhang, Qin'e; Zhou, An'an; Wang, Baozeng; Bai, Hua; Tian, Qingyong; Fan, Bin; Zhang, Tongyi

    2017-08-10

    Although organic small molecule spiro-OMeTAD is widely used as a hole-transport material in perovskite solar cells, its limited electric conductivity poses a bottleneck in the efficiency improvement of perovskite solar cells. Here, a low-cost and easy-fabrication technique is developed to enhance the conductivity and hole-extraction ability of spiro-OMeTAD by doping it with commercially available benzoyl peroxide (BPO). The experimental results show that the conductivity increases several orders of magnitude, from 6.2×10 -6  S cm -1 for the pristine spiro-OMeTAD to 1.1×10 -3  S cm -1 at 5 % BPO doping and to 2.4×10 -2  S cm -1 at 15 % BPO doping, which considerably outperform the conductivity of 4.62×10 -4  S cm -1 for the currently used oxygen-doped spiro-OMeTAD. The fluorescence spectra suggest that the BPO-doped spiro-OMeTAD-OMeTAD layer is able to efficiently extract holes from CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 and thus greatly enhances the charge transfer. The BPO-doped spiro-OMeTAD is used in the fabrication of perovskite solar cells, which exhibit enhancement in the power conversion efficiency. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Tailoring the Energy Landscape in Quasi-2D Halide Perovskites Enables Efficient Green-Light Emission.

    PubMed

    Quan, Li Na; Zhao, Yongbiao; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Sabatini, Randy; Walters, Grant; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Li, Yiying; Fan, James Z; Tan, Hairen; Pan, Jun; Yuan, Mingjian; Bakr, Osman M; Lu, Zhenghong; Kim, Dong Ha; Sargent, Edward H

    2017-06-14

    Organo-metal halide perovskites are a promising platform for optoelectronic applications in view of their excellent charge-transport and bandgap tunability. However, their low photoluminescence quantum efficiencies, especially in low-excitation regimes, limit their efficiency for light emission. Consequently, perovskite light-emitting devices are operated under high injection, a regime under which the materials have so far been unstable. Here we show that, by concentrating photoexcited states into a small subpopulation of radiative domains, one can achieve a high quantum yield, even at low excitation intensities. We tailor the composition of quasi-2D perovskites to direct the energy transfer into the lowest-bandgap minority phase and to do so faster than it is lost to nonradiative centers. The new material exhibits 60% photoluminescence quantum yield at excitation intensities as low as 1.8 mW/cm 2 , yielding a ratio of quantum yield to excitation intensity of 0.3 cm 2 /mW; this represents a decrease of 2 orders of magnitude in the excitation power required to reach high efficiency compared with the best prior reports. Using this strategy, we report light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiencies of 7.4% and a high luminescence of 8400 cd/m 2 .

  14. Dipole Alignment at the Carbon Nanotube and Methyl Ammonium Lead Trihalide Perovskite Interface - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Przepioski, Joshua

    2015-08-25

    This work correlates resonant peaks from first principles calculation on ammonia (NH 3) Nitrogen 1s x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) within the methyl ammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH 3NH 3PbI 3), and proposes a curve to determine the alignment of the methyl ammonium dipole if there exists angular dependence. The Nitrogen 1s XAS was performed at varying incident angles on the perovskite with and without a carbon nanotube (CNT) interface produced from an ultrasonic spray deposition. We investigated the peak contribution from PbI2 and the poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diyl) with bipyridine (PFO-BPy) wrapped around the CNT, and used normalization techniques to better identify themore » dipole alignment. There was angular dependence on samples containing the CNT interface suggesting an existing dipole alignment, but there was no angular dependence on the perovskite samples alone; however, more normalization techniques and experimental work must be performed in order to ensure its validity and to better describe its alignment, and possible controlling factors.« less

  15. Dipole Alignment at the Carbon Nanotube and Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Przepioski, Joshua

    2015-08-28

    This work correlates resonant peaks from first principles calculation on ammonia (NH 3) Nitrogen 1s x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) within the methyl ammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH 3NH 3PbI 3), and proposes a curve to determine the alignment of the methyl ammonium dipole if there exists angular dependence. The Nitrogen 1s XAS was performed at varying incident angles on the perovskite with and without a carbon nanotube (CNT) interface produced from an ultrasonic spray deposition. We investigated the peak contribution from PbI 2 and the poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene- 2,7-diyl) with bipyridine (PFO-BPy) wrapped around the CNT, and used normalization techniques to bettermore » identify the dipole alignment. There was angular dependence on samples containing the CNT interface suggesting an existing dipole alignment, but there was no angular dependence on the perovskite samples alone; however, more normalization techniques and experimental work must be performed in order to ensure its validity and to better describe its alignment, and possible controlling factors.« less

  16. Correlation of energy disorder and open-circuit voltage in hybrid perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Shao, Yuchuan; Yuan, Yongbo; Huang, Jinsong

    2016-01-11

    Organometal trihalide perovskites have been demonstrated as excellent light absorbers for high efficiency photovoltaic applications. Previous approaches to increasing the solar cell efficiency have focussed on optimisation of the grain morphology of perovskite thin films. Here, we show that the structural order of the electron-transport layers also has a significant impact on solar cell performance. We demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency of CH 3NH 3PbI 3 planar-heterojunction photovoltaic cells increases from 17.1% to 19.4% when the energy disorder in the fullerene electron-transport layer is reduced by a simple solvent annealing process. The increase in efficiency is the result ofmore » the enhancement in open-circuit voltage from 1.04 V to 1.13 V without sacrificing the short-circuit current and fill factor. Finally, these results shed light on the origin of open-circuit voltage in perovskite solar cells, and provide a new path to further increase their efficiency« less

  17. Photo-induced halide redistribution in organic–inorganic perovskite films

    DOE PAGES

    deQuilettes, Dane W.; Zhang, Wei; Burlakov, Victor M.; ...

    2016-05-24

    Organic-inorganic perovskites such as CH 3NH 3PbI 3 are promising materials for a variety of optoelectronic applications, with certified power conversion efficiencies in solar cells already exceeding 21%. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art films still contain performance-limiting non-radiative recombination sites and exhibit a range of complex dynamic phenomena under illumination that remain poorly understood. Here we use a unique combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and chemical imaging to correlate the local changes in photophysics with composition in CH 3NH 3PbI 3 films under illumination. We demonstrate that the photo-induced 'brightening' of the perovskite PL can be attributed to an order-of-magnitude reduction inmore » trap state density. By imaging the same regions with time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, we correlate this photobrightening with a net migration of iodine. In conclusion, our work provides visual evidence for photo-induced halide migration in triiodide perovskites and reveals the complex interplay between charge carrier populations, electronic traps and mobile halides that collectively impact optoelectronic performance.« less

  18. Linking local structure and properties in perovskites containing equal concentrations of manganese and ruthenium

    SciTech Connect

    King, Graham; Ricciardo, Rebecca A.; Soliz, Jennifer R.

    The local structures of six perovskite compounds containing equal amounts of manganese and ruthenium on the B-site have been investigated by neutron and x-ray pair distribution function analysis. The compounds SrMn{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}, Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}, and CaMn{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} were studied to investigate the effects of pure chemical pressure on the local structure and valency ratio between Mn{sup 3+}/Ru{sup 5+} and Mn{sup 4+}/Ru{sup 4+}. Reverse Monte Carlo simulations confirm that there is a shift in the B-site cation charge distribution from nearly equal amounts of Mn{sup 3+}, Ru{sup 5+}, Mn{sup 4+}, and Ru{sup 4+}more » for SrMn{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} to primarily Mn{sup 4+} and Ru{sup 4+} for CaMn{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}. The compounds Ba{sub 0.5}La{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}, Ca{sub 0.5}La{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}, and Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.25}La{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} were also investigated to study the effects of changing the charge of the A-site cation. Although substitution of La{sup 3+} for a divalent alkaline earth ion increases the Mn{sup 3+} content, this series of compounds also shows a relative increase in the concentration of Mn{sup 4+} as the average size of the A-site cation is decreased. In all compounds the octahedra containing Mn{sup 3+} are found to be Jahn-Teller distorted regardless of whether or not long-range orbital ordering is observed, while the Ru-centered octahedra are symmetric. No evidence for short-range cation ordering at either the A- or B-sites was found for any of the compositions. This study also reports that locally the A-site cations lie closer to the Mn ions than to the Ru ions and this asymmetry appears to be correlated to the degree of octahedral tilting.« less

  19. DMF as an Additive in a Two-Step Spin-Coating Method for 20% Conversion Efficiency in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jionghua; Xu, Xin; Zhao, Yanhong; Shi, Jiangjian; Xu, Yuzhuan; Luo, Yanhong; Li, Dongmei; Wu, Huijue; Meng, Qingbo

    2017-08-16

    DMF as an additive has been employed in FAI/MAI/IPA (FA= CH 2 (NH 2 ) 2 , MA = CH 3 NH 3 , IPA = isopropanol) solution for a two-step multicycle spin-coating method in order to prepare high-quality FA x MA 1-x PbI 2.55 Br 0.45 perovskite films. Further investigation reveals that the existence of DMF in the FAI/MAI/IPA solution can facilitate perovskite conversion, improve the film morphology, and reduce crystal defects, thus enhancing charge-transfer efficiency. By optimization of the DMF amount and spin-coating cycles, compact, pinhole-free perovskite films are obtained. The nucleation mechanisms of perovskite films in our multicycle spin-coating process are suggested; that is, the introduction of DMF in the spin-coating FAI/MAI/IPA solution can lead to the formation of an amorphous phase PbX 2 -AI-DMSO-DMF (X = I, Br; A = FA, MA) instead of intermediate phase (MA) 2 Pb 3 I 8 ·2DMSO. This amorphous phase, similar to that in the one-step method, can help FAI/MAI penetrate into the PbI 2 framework to completely convert into the perovskite. As high as 20.1% power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been achieved with a steady-state PCE of 19.1%. Our work offers a simple repeatable method to prepare high-quality perovskite films for high-performance PSCs and also help further understand the perovskite-crystallization process.

  20. In-situ measurement of texture development rate in CaIrO 3 post-perovskite

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Simon A.; Walker, Andrew M.; Mariani, Elisabetta

    The rate of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) development during deformation of post-perovskite is crucial in interpreting seismic anisotropy in the lowermost mantle but the stability field of MgSiO 3 post-perovskite prevents high-strain deformation experiments being performed on it. Therefore, to constrain the rate of CPO development in post-perovskite, we deformed CaIrO 3, a low-pressure analogue of MgSiO 3 post-perovskite, in simple shear at 3.2 GPa and 400 °C to a shear strain (γ) of 0.81. From X-ray diffraction patterns acquired during deformation, we invert for CPO as a function of strain. By comparing the CPO that develops with visco-plastic self-consistentmore » (VPSC) models we constrain the critical resolved shear stresses (CRSS) of the non-primary slip-systems in CaIrO 3 to be of order 6 times stronger than the primary [100] (010) slip system. This value is significantly less than has been assumed by previous studies and if applicable to MgSiO 3 implies that seismic anisotropy in the D" layer develops slower than has previously been assumed.« less

  1. Modeling defects and plasticity in MgSiO3 post-perovskite: Part 2-screw and edge [100] dislocations.

    PubMed

    Goryaeva, Alexandra M; Carrez, Philippe; Cordier, Patrick

    In this study, we propose a full atomistic study of [100] dislocations in MgSiO 3 post-perovskite based on the pairwise potential parameterized by Oganov et al. (Phys Earth Planet Inter 122:277-288, 2000) for MgSiO 3 perovskite. We model screw dislocations to identify planes where they glide easier. We show that despite a small tendency to core spreading in {011}, [100] screw dislocations glide very easily (Peierls stress of 1 GPa) in (010) where only Mg-O bonds are to be sheared. Crossing the Si-layers results in a higher lattice friction as shown by the Peierls stress of [100](001): 17.5 GPa. Glide of [100] screw dislocations in {011} appears also to be highly unfavorable. Whatever the planes, (010), (001) or {011}, edge dislocations are characterized by a wider core (of the order of 2 b ). Contrary to screw character, they bear negligible lattice friction (0.1 GPa) for each slip system. The layered structure of post-perovskite results in a drastic reduction in lattice friction opposed to the easiest slip systems compared to perovskite.

  2. Lewis Base Passivation of Hybrid Halide Perovskites Slows Electron-Hole Recombination: Time-Domain Ab Initio Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Fang, Wei-Hai; Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2018-03-01

    Nonradiative electron-hole recombination plays a key role in determining photon conversion efficiencies in solar cells. Experiments demonstrate significant reduction in the recombination rate upon passivation of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite with Lewis base molecules. Using nonadiabatic molecular dynamics combined with time-domain density functional theory, we find that the nonradiative charge recombination is decelerated by an order of magnitude upon adsorption of the molecules. Thiophene acts by the traditional passivation mechanism, forcing electron density away from the surface. In contrast, pyridine localizes the electron at the surface while leaving it energetically near the conduction band edge. This is because pyridine creates a stronger coordinative bond with a lead atom of the perovskite and has a lower energy unoccupied orbital compared with thiophene due to the more electronegative nitrogen atom relative to thiophene's sulfur. Both molecules reduce two-fold the nonadiabatic coupling and electronic coherence time. A broad range of vibrational modes couple to the electronic subsystem, arising from inorganic and organic components. The simulations reveal the atomistic mechanisms underlying the enhancement of the excited-state lifetime achieved by the perovskite passivation, rationalize the experimental results, and advance our understanding of charge-phonon dynamics in perovskite solar cells.

  3. Orientational Glass Formation in Substituted Hybrid Perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Mozur, Eve M.; Maughan, Annalise E.; Cheng, Yongqiang; ...

    2017-11-07

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have gained notoriety in the photovoltaic community for their composition-tunable band gaps and long-lived electronic excited states, which are known to be related to the crystalline phase. While indirect evidence suggests that coupling between polar organic cations affects the phase behavior, it remains unclear how the coupling manifests in hybrid perovskites such as methylammonium lead halides (CH 3NH 3PbX 3). Here, we present crystallographic and spectroscopic data for the series (CH 3NH 3) 1-xCs xPbBr 3. CH 3NH 3PbBr 3 behaves as a plastic crystal in the high temperature cubic phase, and substitution of CH 3NH 3more » + with Cs + leads to the formation of an orientational glass. While the organic molecule exhibits slow, glassy reorientational dynamics, the inorganic framework continues to undergo crystallographic phase transitions. These crystallographic transitions occur in the absence of thermodynamic signatures in the specific heat, which suggests that the phase transitions result from underlying instabilities intrinsic to the inorganic lattice. However, these transitions are not decoupled from the reorientations of the organic molecule, as indicated by inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering. Observation of a reentrant phase transition in (CH 3NH 3) 0.8Cs 0.2PbBr 3 permits the resolution of these complex behaviors within the context of strain mediated interactions. Lastly, together, these results provide critical insight into the coupled phase behavior and dynamics in hybrid perovskites.« less

  4. Ferroelectricity in d0 double perovskite fluoroscandates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Nenian; Rondinelli, James M.

    2015-08-01

    Ferroelectricity in strain-free and strained double perovskite fluorides, Na3ScF6 and K2NaScF6 , is investigated using first-principles density functional theory. Although the experimental room temperature crystal structures of these fluoroscandates are centrosymmetric, i.e., Na3ScF6 (P 21/n ) and K2NaScF6 (F m 3 ¯m ), lattice dynamical calculations reveal that soft polar instabilities exist in each prototypical cubic phase and that the modes harden as the tolerance factor approaches unity. Thus the double fluoroperovskites bear some similarities to A B O3 perovskite oxides; however, in contrast, these fluorides exhibit large acentric displacements of alkali metal cations (Na, K) rather than polar displacements of the transition metal cations. Biaxial strain investigations of the centrosymmetric and polar Na3ScF6 and K2NaScF6 phases reveal that the paraelectric structures are favored under compressive strain, whereas polar structures with in-plane electric polarizations (˜5 -18 μ C cm-2 ) are realized at sufficiently large tensile strains. The electric polarization and stability of the polar structures for both chemistries are found to be further enhanced and stabilized by a coexisting single octahedral tilt system. Our results suggest that polar double perovskite fluorides may be realized by suppression of octahedral rotations about more than one Cartesian axis; structures exhibiting in- or out-of-phase octahedral rotations about the c axis are more susceptible to polar symmetries.

  5. Improved chemical and electrochemical stability of perovskite oxides with less reducible cations at the surface

    DOE PAGES

    Tsvetkov, Nikolai; Lu, Qiyang; Sun, Lixin; ...

    2016-06-13

    Segregation and phase separation of aliovalent dopants on perovskite oxide (ABO 3 ) surfaces are detrimental to the performance of energy conversion systems such as solid oxide fuel/electrolysis cells and catalysts for thermochemical H 2 O and CO 2 splitting. One key reason behind the instability of perovskite oxide surfaces is the electrostatic attraction of the negatively charged A-site dopants (for example, Sr La ') by the positively charged oxygen vacancies (Vmore » $$••\\atop{o}$$) enriched at the surface. Here we show that reducing the surface V $$••\\atop{o}$$ concentration improves the oxygen surface exchange kinetics and stability significantly, albeit contrary to the well-established understanding that surface oxygen vacancies facilitate reactions with O 2 molecules. We take La 0.8 Sr 0.2 CoO 3 (LSC) as a model perovskite oxide, and modify its surface with additive cations that are more and less reducible than Co on the B-site of LSC. By using ambient-pressure X-ray absorption and photoelectron spectroscopy, we proved that the dominant role of the less reducible cations is to suppress the enrichment and phase separation of Sr while reducing the concentration of V $$••\\atop{o}$$ and making the LSC more oxidized at its surface. Consequently, we found that these less reducible cations significantly improve stability, with up to 30 times faster oxygen exchange kinetics after 54 h in air at 530 °C achieved by Hf addition onto LSC. Finally, the results revealed a 'volcano' relation between the oxygen exchange kinetics and the oxygen vacancy formation enthalpy of the binary oxides of the additive cations. This volcano relation highlights the existence of an optimum surface oxygen vacancy concentration that balances the gain in oxygen exchange kinetics and the chemical stability loss.« less

  6. Improved chemical and electrochemical stability of perovskite oxides with less reducible cations at the surface

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Nikolai; Lu, Qiyang; Sun, Lixin

    Segregation and phase separation of aliovalent dopants on perovskite oxide (ABO 3 ) surfaces are detrimental to the performance of energy conversion systems such as solid oxide fuel/electrolysis cells and catalysts for thermochemical H 2 O and CO 2 splitting. One key reason behind the instability of perovskite oxide surfaces is the electrostatic attraction of the negatively charged A-site dopants (for example, Sr La ') by the positively charged oxygen vacancies (Vmore » $$••\\atop{o}$$) enriched at the surface. Here we show that reducing the surface V $$••\\atop{o}$$ concentration improves the oxygen surface exchange kinetics and stability significantly, albeit contrary to the well-established understanding that surface oxygen vacancies facilitate reactions with O 2 molecules. We take La 0.8 Sr 0.2 CoO 3 (LSC) as a model perovskite oxide, and modify its surface with additive cations that are more and less reducible than Co on the B-site of LSC. By using ambient-pressure X-ray absorption and photoelectron spectroscopy, we proved that the dominant role of the less reducible cations is to suppress the enrichment and phase separation of Sr while reducing the concentration of V $$••\\atop{o}$$ and making the LSC more oxidized at its surface. Consequently, we found that these less reducible cations significantly improve stability, with up to 30 times faster oxygen exchange kinetics after 54 h in air at 530 °C achieved by Hf addition onto LSC. Finally, the results revealed a 'volcano' relation between the oxygen exchange kinetics and the oxygen vacancy formation enthalpy of the binary oxides of the additive cations. This volcano relation highlights the existence of an optimum surface oxygen vacancy concentration that balances the gain in oxygen exchange kinetics and the chemical stability loss.« less

  7. Perovskite Materials for Light-Emitting Diodes and Lasers.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Sjoerd A; Boix, Pablo P; Yantara, Natalia; Li, Mingjie; Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G

    2016-08-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have cemented their position as an exceptional class of optoelectronic materials thanks to record photovoltaic efficiencies of 22.1%, as well as promising demonstrations of light-emitting diodes, lasers, and light-emitting transistors. Perovskite materials with photoluminescence quantum yields close to 100% and perovskite light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiencies of 8% and current efficiencies of 43 cd A(-1) have been achieved. Although perovskite light-emitting devices are yet to become industrially relevant, in merely two years these devices have achieved the brightness and efficiencies that organic light-emitting diodes accomplished in two decades. Further advances will rely decisively on the multitude of compositional, structural variants that enable the formation of lower-dimensionality layered and three-dimensional perovskites, nanostructures, charge-transport materials, and device processing with architectural innovations. Here, the rapid advancements in perovskite light-emitting devices and lasers are reviewed. The key challenges in materials development, device fabrication, operational stability are addressed, and an outlook is presented that will address market viability of perovskite light-emitting devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Random lasing actions in self-assembled perovskite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuai; Sun, Wenzhao; Li, Jiankai; Gu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Kaiyang; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2016-05-01

    Solution-based perovskite nanoparticles have been intensively studied in the past few years due to their applications in both photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Here, based on the common ground between solution-based perovskite and random lasers, we have studied the mirrorless lasing actions in self-assembled perovskite nanoparticles. After synthesis from a solution, discrete lasing peaks have been observed from optically pumped perovskites without any well-defined cavity boundaries. We have demonstrated that the origin of the random lasing emissions is the scattering between the nanostructures in the perovskite microplates. The obtained quality (Q) factors and thresholds of random lasers are around 500 and 60 μJ/cm2, respectively. Both values are comparable to the conventional perovskite microdisk lasers with polygon-shaped cavity boundaries. From the corresponding studies on laser spectra and fluorescence microscope images, the lasing actions are considered random lasers that are generated by strong multiple scattering in random gain media. In additional to conventional single-photon excitation, due to the strong nonlinear effects of perovskites, two-photon pumped random lasers have also been demonstrated for the first time. We believe this research will find its potential applications in low-cost coherent light sources and biomedical detection.

  9. Perovskite/Carbon Composites: Applications in Oxygen Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yinlong; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping

    2017-03-01

    Oxygen electrocatalysis, i.e., oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), plays an extremely important role in oxygen-based renewable-energy technologies such as rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerative fuel cells and water splitting. Perovskite oxides have recently attracted increasing interest and hold great promise as efficient ORR and OER catalysts to replace noble-metal-based catalysts, owing to their high intrinsic catalytic activity, abundant variety, low cost, and rich resources. The introduction of perovskite-carbon interfaces by forming perovskite/carbon composites may bring a synergistic effect between the two phases, thus benefiting the oxygen electrocatalysis. This review provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in perovskite/carbon composites for oxygen electrocatalysis in alkaline media, aiming to provide insights into the key parameters that influence the ORR/OER performance of the composites, including the physical/chemical properties and morphologies of the perovskites, the multiple roles of carbon, the synthetic method and the synergistic effect. A special emphasis is placed on the origin of the synergistic effect associated with the interfacial interaction between the perovskite and the carbon phases for enhanced ORR/OER performance. Finally, the existing challenges and the future directions for the synthesis and development of more efficient oxygen catalysts based on perovskite/carbon composites are proposed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Deciphering Halogen Competition in Organometallic Halide Perovskite Growth

    DOE PAGES

    Keum, Jong Kahk; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Chen, Shiyou; ...

    2016-03-01

    Organometallic halide perovskites (OHPs) hold great promise for next-generation, low-cost optoelectronic devices. During the chemical synthesis and crystallization of OHP thin films a major unresolved question is the competition between multiple halide species (e.g. I-, Cl-, Br-) in the formation of the mixed halide perovskite crystals. Whether Cl- ions are successfully incorporated into the perovskite crystal structure or alternatively, where they are located, is not yet fully understood. Here, in situ X-ray diffraction measurements of crystallization dynamics are combined with ex situ TOF-SIMS chemical analysis to reveal that Br- or Cl- ions can promote crystal growth, yet reactive I- ionsmore » prevent them from incorporating into the lattice of the final perovskite crystal structure. The Cl- ions are located in the grain boundaries of the perovskite films. These findings significantly advance our understanding of the role of halogens during synthesis of hybrid perovskites, and provide an insightful guidance to the engineering of high-quality perovskite films, essential for exploring superior-performance and cost-effective optoelectronic devices.« less

  11. Computational mineral physics and the physical properties of perovskite.

    PubMed

    Brodholt, John P; Oganov, A R; Price, G D

    2002-11-15

    The inherent uncertainties in modern first-principles calculations are reviewed using geophysically relevant examples. The elastic constants of perovskite at lower-mantle temperatures and pressures are calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics. These are used in conjunction with seismic tomographic models to estimate that the lateral temperature contrasts in the Earth's lower mantle are 800 K at a depth of 1000 km, and 1500 K at a depth of 2000 km. The effect of Al(3+) on the compressibility of MgSiO(3) perovskite is calculated using three different pseudopotentials. The results confirm earlier work and show that the compressibility of perovskites with Al(3+) substituted for both Si(4+) and Mg(2+) is very similar to the compressibility of Al(3+)-free perovskite. Even when 100% of the Si(4+) and Mg(2+) ions are replaced with Al(3+), the bulk modulus is only 7% less than that for Al(3+)-free perovskite. In contrast, perovskites where Al(3+) substitutes for Si(4+) only and that are charge balanced by oxygen vacancies do show higher compressibilities. When corrected to similar concentrations of Al(3+), the calculated compressibilities of the oxygen-vacancy-rich perovskites are in agreement with experimental results.

  12. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G. R.; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X. P.

    2016-01-01

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:27934924

  13. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G R; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X P

    2016-12-09

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  14. Deciphering Halogen Competition in Organometallic Halide Perovskite Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Keum, Jong Kahk; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Chen, Shiyou

    Organometallic halide perovskites (OHPs) hold great promise for next-generation, low-cost optoelectronic devices. During the chemical synthesis and crystallization of OHP thin films a major unresolved question is the competition between multiple halide species (e.g. I-, Cl-, Br-) in the formation of the mixed halide perovskite crystals. Whether Cl- ions are successfully incorporated into the perovskite crystal structure or alternatively, where they are located, is not yet fully understood. Here, in situ X-ray diffraction measurements of crystallization dynamics are combined with ex situ TOF-SIMS chemical analysis to reveal that Br- or Cl- ions can promote crystal growth, yet reactive I- ionsmore » prevent them from incorporating into the lattice of the final perovskite crystal structure. The Cl- ions are located in the grain boundaries of the perovskite films. These findings significantly advance our understanding of the role of halogens during synthesis of hybrid perovskites, and provide an insightful guidance to the engineering of high-quality perovskite films, essential for exploring superior-performance and cost-effective optoelectronic devices.« less

  15. Organometal Halide Perovskite Solar Absorbers and Ferroelectric Nanocomposites for Harvesting Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettiarachchi, Chaminda Lakmal

    nebulization of a mixture of PbI2 and CH3NH3Cl perovskite precursors and BTO nanoparticles dissolved in DMF, and injection of the aerosol into the growth chamber and subsequent deposition on TiO2. While high percentage of BTO in the film increases the carrier separation, it also leads to reduced carrier generation. A model was developed to guide the optimum BTO nanoparticle concentration in the nanocomposite films. Characterization of perovskite solar cells indicated that ferroelectric polarization of BTO nanoparticles leads to the increase of the width of depletion regions in the perovskite layer hence the photo current was increased by one order of magnitude after poling the devices. The ferroelectric polarization of BTO nanoparticles within the perovskite solar absorber provides a new perspective for tailoring the working mechanism and photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells.

  16. Electronic doping of transition metal oxide perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Cammarata, Antonio, E-mail: cammaant@fel.cvut.cz; Rondinelli, James M.

    2016-05-23

    CaFeO{sub 3} is a prototypical negative charge transfer oxide that undergoes electronic metal-insulator transition concomitant with a dilation and contraction of nearly rigid octahedra. Altering the charge neutrality of the bulk system destroys the electronic transition, while the structure is significantly modified at high charge content. Using density functional theory simulations, we predict an alternative avenue to modulate the structure and the electronic transition in CaFeO{sub 3}. Charge distribution can be modulated using strain-rotation coupling and thin film engineering strategies, proposing themselves as a promising avenue for fine tuning electronic features in transition metal-oxide perovskites.

  17. First-principles analysis of ferroelectric transition in MnSnO3 and MnTiO3 perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sung Gu

    2018-06-01

    The ferroelectric instabilities of an artificially adopted Pnma structure in low tolerance perovskites have been explored (Kang et al., 2017) [4], where an unstable A-site environment was reported to be the major driving source for the low tolerance perovskites to exhibit ferroelectric instability. This study examined the ferroelectric transition of two magnetic perovskite materials, MnSnO3 and MnTiO3, in Pnma phase. Phase transitions to the Pnma phase at elevated pressures were observed. MnSnO3, which has a lower (larger) tolerance factor (B-site cation radius), showed a higher ferroelectric mode amplitude than MnTiO3. The distribution of the bond length of Mn-O and the mean quadratic elongation (QE) of octahedra (SnO6 or TiO6) were investigated for structural analysis. However, MnTiO3 showed a larger spontaneous polarization than MnSnO3 due to high Born effective charges of titanium. This study is useful because it provides a valuable pathway to the design of promising multiferroic materials.

  18. Effect of sintering time on structural, microstructural and chemical composition of Ni-doped lanthanum gallate perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomer, M. T.; Kilner, J. A.

    2015-08-01

    This work reports the effect of two different sintering times, 6 and 48 h on the structural, microstructural, and chemical features of Ni-doped La0.90Sr0.10GaO3.00-δ. Independently of the sintering time, La0.90Sr0.10Ga1-xNixO3.00-δ (where x=0.10, and 0.20 (mol)) presents a rhombohedral symmetry with a lattice volume that decreases when NiO dopant increases. Besides the perovskite, LaSrGa3.00O7.00 (nominal composition) is present as second phase in all cases. When the samples are doped with NiO, the peaks of this second phase are shifted with respect to the peaks of the pure phase. These shifts suggest that this second phase could admit some Ni ions in its structure. According to the XRD patterns, the amount of the latter phase is larger when sintering time is increased. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) indicated that the matrix of the samples sintered for 6 h is constituted by a perovskite with an experimental composition very close to the nominal one. However, when the samples are sintered for 48 h the matrix of each sample is constituted by two perovskites; both with compositional deviations with respect to their nominal one. In particular, a significant Sr depletion compensated by a La increment in the A site is observed. Those compositional deviations could be mainly due to the diffusion of the cations in the bulk and/or from the bulk to the surface of the samples. That diffusion can favour the formation, not only, of a second perovskite with a different composition in relation with the first one formed, but also, the formation of second phases. In addition, a very slight broadening of Bragg peaks of the perovskites sintered for 48 h is observed by XRD and can be related to the presence of two different perovskites in each sample according to EPMA results. By BSEM and EPMA analyses La4.00Ga2.00O9.00 (nominal composition) is also observed as second phase when samples are treated for 48 h.

  19. High-pressure synthesis of the cubic perovskite BaRuO3 and evolution of ferromagnetism in ARuO3 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) ruthenates.

    PubMed

    Jin, C-Q; Zhou, J-S; Goodenough, J B; Liu, Q Q; Zhao, J G; Yang, L X; Yu, Y; Yu, R C; Katsura, T; Shatskiy, A; Ito, E

    2008-05-20

    The cubic perovskite BaRuO(3) has been synthesized under 18 GPa at 1,000 degrees C. Rietveld refinement indicates that the new compound has a stretched Ru-O bond. The cubic perovskite BaRuO(3) remains metallic to 4 K and exhibits a ferromagnetic transition at T(c) = 60 K, which is significantly lower than the T(c) approximately = 160 K for SrRuO(3). The availability of cubic perovskite BaRuO(3) not only makes it possible to map out the evolution of magnetism in the whole series of ARuO(3) (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) as a function of the ionic size of the A-site r(A,) but also completes the polytypes of BaRuO(3). Extension of the plot of T(c) versus r(A) in perovskites ARuO(3) (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) shows that T(c) does not increase as the cubic structure is approached, but has a maximum for orthorhombic SrRuO(3). Suppressing T(c) by Ca and Ba doping in SrRuO(3) is distinguished by sharply different magnetic susceptibilities chi(T) of the paramagnetic phase. This distinction has been interpreted in the context of a Griffiths' phase on the (Ca Sr)RuO(3) side and bandwidth broadening on the (Sr,Ba)RuO(3) side.

  20. High-pressure synthesis of the cubic perovskite BaRuO3 and evolution of ferromagnetism in ARuO3 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) ruthenates

    PubMed Central

    Jin, C.-Q.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J. B.; Liu, Q. Q.; Zhao, J. G.; Yang, L. X.; Yu, Y.; Yu, R. C.; Katsura, T.; Shatskiy, A.; Ito, E.

    2008-01-01

    The cubic perovskite BaRuO3 has been synthesized under 18 GPa at 1,000°C. Rietveld refinement indicates that the new compound has a stretched Ru–O bond. The cubic perovskite BaRuO3 remains metallic to 4 K and exhibits a ferromagnetic transition at Tc = 60 K, which is significantly lower than the Tc ≈ 160 K for SrRuO3. The availability of cubic perovskite BaRuO3 not only makes it possible to map out the evolution of magnetism in the whole series of ARuO3 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) as a function of the ionic size of the A-site rA, but also completes the polytypes of BaRuO3. Extension of the plot of Tc versus rA in perovskites ARuO3 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) shows that Tc does not increase as the cubic structure is approached, but has a maximum for orthorhombic SrRuO3. Suppressing Tc by Ca and Ba doping in SrRuO3 is distinguished by sharply different magnetic susceptibilities χ(T) of the paramagnetic phase. This distinction has been interpreted in the context of a Griffiths' phase on the (Ca Sr)RuO3 side and bandwidth broadening on the (Sr,Ba)RuO3 side. PMID:18480262

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Ferromagnetic/Antiferromagnetic Perovskite Oxide Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yue

    layer at the interface, the symmetry of the lattice, and the orbital degeneracy. Therefore, different properties and exchange coupling mechanisms are expected. (111)-oriented LSMO/LSFO superlattices with sublayer thicknesses ranging from 3 to 60 u.c. were synthesized and characterized. Detailed analysis of their structural, electronic, and magnetic properties were performed using synchrotron radiation based resonant x-ray reflectivity, soft x-ray magnetic spectroscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy to explore the effect of sublayer thickness on the magnetic structure and exchange coupling at (111)-oriented perovskite oxide interfaces. Interfacial effects and ultrathin superlattice sublayers can stabilize orientations of the LSFO AF spin axis which differ from that of LSFO films and LSMO/LSFO bilayers. In the ultrathin limit (3 to 6 u.c.), it was found that the AF properties of the LSFO sublayers are preserved with an out-of-plane canting of the AF spin axis, while the FM properties of the LSMO sublayers are significantly depressed. For thicker LSFO layers (> 9 u.c.), the out-of-plane canting of the AF spin axis is only present in superlattices with thick LSMO sublayers. As a result, exchange coupling in the form of spin-flop coupling exists only in superlattices which display both robust ferromagnetism and out-of-plane canting of the AF spin axis. A portion of the AF moments can be reoriented by a moderate external magnetic field through spin-flop coupling with the FM LSMO sublayers that have low magnetocrystalline anisotropy in the (111) plane. The AF order in the spin-flop coupled superlattices was studied using angle-dependent x-ray magnetic linear dichroism. The AF order can be categorized into two types: majority of the AF moments cant out-of-the-plane of the film along the or directions depending on the LSFO layer thickness, while a minority portion lies within the (111) plane in different AF domains. The energy difference between domains with their spin

  2. An efficient copper phthalocyanine additive of perovskite precursor for improving the photovoltaic performance of planar perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shufang; Liu, Qingwei; Zheng, Ya; Li, Renjie; Peng, Tianyou

    2017-08-01

    Solution processable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell has drawn much attention as a promising low-cost photovoltaic device, and much effort has been made to improve its power conversion efficiency by choosing appropriate additives for the perovskite precursor solution. Different to those additives reported, a soluble and thermal stable tert-butyl substituted copper phthalocyanine (CuPc(tBu)4) as additive is first introduced into the perovskite precursor solution of a planar perovskite solar cell that is fabricated via the one-step solution process. It is found that the pristine device without CuPc(tBu)4 additive exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 15.3%, while an extremely low concentration (4.4 × 10-3 mM) of CuPc(tBu)4 in the precursor solution leads to the corresponding device achieving an enhanced power conversion efficiency of 17.3%. CuPc(tBu)4 as an additive can improve the quality of perovskite layer with higher crystallinity and surface coverage, then resulting in enhanced light absorption and reduced charge recombination, and thus the better power conversion efficiency. The finding presented here provides a new choice for improving the quality of perovskite layer and the photovoltaic performance of the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells.

  3. Microscopic origin of entropy-driven polymorphism in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Keith T.; Svane, Katrine; Kieslich, Gregor; Cheetham, Anthony K.; Walsh, Aron

    2016-11-01

    Entropy is a critical, but often overlooked, factor in determining the relative stabilities of crystal phases. The importance of entropy is most pronounced in softer materials, where small changes in free energy can drive phase transitions, which has recently been demonstrated in the case of organic-inorganic hybrid-formate perovskites. In this Rapid Communication we demonstrate the interplay between composition and crystal structure that is responsible for the particularly pronounced role of entropy in determining polymorphism in hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Using ab initio based lattice dynamics, we probe the origins and effects of vibrational entropy of four archetype perovskite (A B X3 ) structures. We consider an inorganic material (SrTiO3), an A -site hybrid-halide material (CH3NH3) PbI3 , a X -site hybrid material KSr (BH4)3 , and a mixed A - and X -site hybrid-formate material (N2H5) Zn (HCO2)3 , comparing the differences in entropy between two common polymorphs. The results demonstrate the importance of low-frequency intermolecular modes in determining the phase stability in these materials. The understanding gained allows us to propose a general principle for the relative stability of different polymorphs of hybrid materials as temperature is increased.

  4. Improving the Stability of Metal Halide Perovskite Materials and Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Himchan; Kim, Young-Hoon; Wolf, Christoph; Lee, Hyeon-Dong; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2018-01-25

    Metal halide perovskites (MHPs) have numerous advantages as light emitters such as high photoluminescence quantum efficiency with a direct bandgap, very narrow emission linewidth, high charge-carrier mobility, low energetic disorder, solution processability, simple color tuning, and low material cost. Based on these advantages, MHPs have recently shown unprecedented radical progress (maximum current efficiency from 0.3 to 42.9 cd A -1 ) in the field of light-emitting diodes. However, perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) suffer from intrinsic instability of MHP materials and instability arising from the operation of the PeLEDs. Recently, many researchers have devoted efforts to overcome these instabilities. Here, the origins of the instability in PeLEDs are reviewed by categorizing it into two types: instability of (i) the MHP materials and (ii) the constituent layers and interfaces in PeLED devices. Then, the strategies to improve the stability of MHP materials and PeLEDs are critically reviewed, such as A-site cation engineering, Ruddlesden-Popper phase, suppression of ion migration with additives and blocking layers, fabrication of uniform bulk polycrystalline MHP layers, and fabrication of stable MHP nanoparticles. Based on this review of recent advances, future research directions and an outlook of PeLEDs for display applications are suggested. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Composition-Graded Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanowires with Tunable Dual-Color Lasing Performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling; Gao, Qinggang; Sun, Ling-Dong; Dong, Hao; Shi, Shuo; Cai, Tong; Liao, Qing; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2018-05-21

    Cesium lead halide (CsPbX 3 ) perovskite has emerged as a promising low-threshold multicolor laser material; however, realizing wavelength-tunable lasing output from a single CsPbX 3 nanostructure is still constrained by integrating different composition. Here, the direct synthesis of composition-graded CsPbBr x I 3- x nanowires (NWs) is reported through vapor-phase epitaxial growth on mica. The graded composition along the NW, with an increased Br/I from the center to the ends, comes from desynchronized deposition of cesium lead halides and temperature-controlled anion-exchange reaction. The graded composition results in varied bandgaps along the NW, which induce a blueshifted emission from the center to the ends. As an efficient gain media, the nanowire exerts position-dependent lasing performance, with a different color at the ends and center respectively above the threshold. Meanwhile, dual-color lasing with a wavelength separation of 35 nm is activated simultaneously at a site with an intermediate composition. This position-dependent dual-color lasing from a single nanowire makes these metal halide perovskites promising for applications in nanoscale optical devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Dynamic Optoelectronic Properties in Perovskite Oxide Thin Films Measured with Ultrafast Transient Absorption & Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolin, Sergey Y.

    -dependent, variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and time-resolved ultrafast optical spectroscopy on a type I heterostructure, we clarify thermal and electronic contributions to spectral transients in LaFeO3. Upon comparison to thermally-derived static spectra of LaFeO3, we find that thermal contributions dominate the transient absorption and reflectance spectra above the band gap. A transient photoinduced absorption feature below the band gap at 1.9 eV is not reproduced in the thermally derived spectra and has significantly longer decay kinetics from the thermallyinduced features; therefore, this long lived photoinduced absorption is likely derived, at least partially, from photoexcited carriers with lifetimes much longer than 3 nanoseconds. LaFeO3 has a wide band gap of 2.4 eV but its absorption can be decreased with chemical substitution of Sr for Fe to make it more suitable for various applications. This type of A-site substitution is a common route to change static optical absorption in perovskite oxides, but there are no systematic studies looking at how A-site substitution changes dynamic optoelectronic properties. To understand the relationship between composition and static and dynamic optical properties we worked with the model system of La1-xSrxFeO 3-delta epitaxial films grown on LSAT, uncovering the effects of A-site cation substitution and oxygen stoichiometry. Variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to measure static optical properties, revealing a linear increase in absorption coefficient at 1.25 eV and a red-shifting of the optical absorption edge with increasing Sr fraction. The absorption spectra can be similarly tuned through the introduction of oxygen vacancies, indicating the critical role that nominal Fe valence plays in optical absorption. Dynamic optoelectronic properties were studied with ultrafast transient reflectance spectroscopy with broadband visible (1.6 eV to 4 eV) and near-infrared (0.9 eV to 1.5 eV) probes. The sign of the reflectance

  7. Magnetic Field Effects in Hybrid Perovskite Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Sun, D.; Sheng, C.-X.; Zhai, Y.; Mielczarek, K.; Zakhidov, A.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2015-03-01

    Solar cells based on the organic-inorganic perovskites (CH3NH3PbX3, X =halogen) have reached a remarkable power conversion efficiency approaching 20%, which calls for research studies of the photophysics behind this high device performance. We measured significant magneto-photocurrent (MPC) response in CH3NH3PbI3-xClx photovoltaic cells, in the form of Lorentzian up to field B = 1T. We attribute the MPC(B) response to spin mixing of loosely-bound photogenerated e-h pairs having different g-factor (dubbed `` Δg mechanism''). We verified this mechanism by measuring Δg directly, using the field induced circularly polarized photoluminescence emission at low temperature, along with the photocarriers' lifetime measured by picosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. We conclude that MPC of spin 1/2 e-h pairs provides a promising method for investigating the spin-related properties of photoexcitations in the novel hybrid perovskites.

  8. All-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jia; Wang, Caixing; Wang, Yanrong; Xu, Zhaoran; Lu, Zhipeng; Ma, Yue; Zhu, Hongfei; Hu, Yi; Xiao, Chengcan; Yi, Xu; Zhu, Guoyin; Lv, Hongling; Ma, Lianbo; Chen, Tao; Tie, Zuoxiu; Jin, Zhong; Liu, Jie

    2016-12-14

    The research field on perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is seeing frequent record breaking in the power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites and organic additives in common hole-transport materials (HTMs) exhibit poor stability against moisture and heat. Here we report the successful fabrication of all-inorganic PSCs without any labile or expensive organic components. The entire fabrication process can be operated in ambient environment without humidity control (e.g., a glovebox). Even without encapsulation, the all-inorganic PSCs present no performance degradation in humid air (90-95% relative humidity, 25 °C) for over 3 months (2640 h) and can endure extreme temperatures (100 and -22 °C). Moreover, by elimination of expensive HTMs and noble-metal electrodes, the cost was significantly reduced. The highest PCE of the first-generation all-inorganic PSCs reached 6.7%. This study opens the door for next-generation PSCs with long-term stability under harsh conditions, making practical application of PSCs a real possibility.

  9. Mesoscopic Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Palma, Alessandro Lorenzo; Cinà, Lucio; Busby, Yan; Marsella, Andrea; Agresti, Antonio; Pescetelli, Sara; Pireaux, Jean-Jacques; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2016-10-03

    Solution-processed hybrid bromide perovskite light-emitting-diodes (PLEDs) represent an attractive alternative technology that would allow overcoming the well-known severe efficiency drop in the green spectrum related to conventional LEDs technologies. In this work, we report on the development and characterization of PLEDs fabricated using, for the first time, a mesostructured layout. Stability of PLEDs is a critical issue; remarkably, mesostructured PLEDs devices tested in ambient conditions and without encapsulation showed a lifetime well-above what previously reported with a planar heterojunction layout. Moreover, mesostructured PLEDs measured under full operative conditions showed a remarkably narrow emission spectrum, even lower than what is typically obtained by nitride- or phosphide-based green LEDs. A dynamic analysis has shown fast rise and fall times, demonstrating the suitability of PLEDs for display applications. Combined electrical and advanced structural analyses (Raman, XPS depth profiling, and ToF-SIMS 3D analysis) have been performed to elucidate the degradation mechanism, the results of which are mainly related to the degradation of the hole-transporting material (HTM) and to the perovskite-HTM interface.

  10. Finding New Perovskite Halides via Machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Kim, Chiho; Lookman, Turab

    2016-04-01

    Advanced materials with improved properties have the potential to fuel future technological advancements. However, identification and discovery of these optimal materials for a specific application is a non-trivial task, because of the vastness of the chemical search space with enormous compositional and configurational degrees of freedom. Materials informatics provides an efficient approach towards rational design of new materials, via learning from known data to make decisions on new and previously unexplored compounds in an accelerated manner. Here, we demonstrate the power and utility of such statistical learning (or machine learning) via building a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier that uses elemental features (or descriptors) to predict the formability of a given ABX3 halide composition (where A and B represent monovalent and divalent cations, respectively, and X is F, Cl, Br or I anion) in the perovskite crystal structure. The classification model is built by learning from a dataset of 181 experimentally known ABX3 compounds. After exploring a wide range of features, we identify ionic radii, tolerance factor and octahedral factor to be the most important factors for the classification, suggesting that steric and geometric packing effects govern the stability of these halides. The trained and validated models then predict, with a high degree of confidence, several novel ABX3 compositions with perovskite crystal structure.

  11. Finding new perovskite halides via machine learning

    SciTech Connect

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Kim, Chiho

    Advanced materials with improved properties have the potential to fuel future technological advancements. However, identification and discovery of these optimal materials for a specific application is a non-trivial task, because of the vastness of the chemical search space with enormous compositional and configurational degrees of freedom. Materials informatics provides an efficient approach toward rational design of new materials, via learning from known data to make decisions on new and previously unexplored compounds in an accelerated manner. Here, we demonstrate the power and utility of such statistical learning (or machine learning, henceforth referred to as ML) via building a support vectormore » machine (SVM) based classifier that uses elemental features (or descriptors) to predict the formability of a given ABX 3 halide composition (where A and B represent monovalent and divalent cations, respectively, and X is F, Cl, Br, or I anion) in the perovskite crystal structure. The classification model is built by learning from a dataset of 185 experimentally known ABX 3 compounds. After exploring a wide range of features, we identify ionic radii, tolerance factor, and octahedral factor to be the most important factors for the classification, suggesting that steric and geometric packing effects govern the stability of these halides. As a result, the trained and validated models then predict, with a high degree of confidence, several novel ABX 3 compositions with perovskite crystal structure.« less

  12. Finding new perovskite halides via machine learning

    DOE PAGES

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Kim, Chiho; ...

    2016-04-26

    Advanced materials with improved properties have the potential to fuel future technological advancements. However, identification and discovery of these optimal materials for a specific application is a non-trivial task, because of the vastness of the chemical search space with enormous compositional and configurational degrees of freedom. Materials informatics provides an efficient approach toward rational design of new materials, via learning from known data to make decisions on new and previously unexplored compounds in an accelerated manner. Here, we demonstrate the power and utility of such statistical learning (or machine learning, henceforth referred to as ML) via building a support vectormore » machine (SVM) based classifier that uses elemental features (or descriptors) to predict the formability of a given ABX 3 halide composition (where A and B represent monovalent and divalent cations, respectively, and X is F, Cl, Br, or I anion) in the perovskite crystal structure. The classification model is built by learning from a dataset of 185 experimentally known ABX 3 compounds. After exploring a wide range of features, we identify ionic radii, tolerance factor, and octahedral factor to be the most important factors for the classification, suggesting that steric and geometric packing effects govern the stability of these halides. As a result, the trained and validated models then predict, with a high degree of confidence, several novel ABX 3 compositions with perovskite crystal structure.« less

  13. A-site- and/or B-site-modified PbZrTiO3 materials and (Pb, Sr, Ca, Ba, Mg) (Zr, Ti, Nb, Ta)O3 films having utility in ferroelectric random access memories and high performance thin film microactuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilodeau, Steven (Inventor); Baum, Thomas H. (Inventor); Roeder, Jeffrey F. (Inventor); Chen, Ing-Shin (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A modified PbZrTiO.sub.3 perovskite crystal material thin film, wherein the PbZrTiO.sub.3 perovskite crystal material includes crystal lattice A-sites and B-sites at least one of which is modified by the presence of a substituent selected from the group consisting of (i) A-site substituents consisting of Sr, Ca, Ba and Mg, and (ii) B-site substituents selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta. The perovskite crystal thin film material may be formed by liquid delivery MOCVD from metalorganic precursors of the metal components of the thin film, to form PZT and PSZT, and other piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin film materials. The thin films of the invention have utility in non-volatile ferroelectric memory devices (NV-FeRAMs), and in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as sensor and/or actuator elements, e.g., high speed digital system actuators requiring low input power levels.

  14. Structure and Electrical-Transport Relations in Ba(Zr,Pr)O3-δ Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Isabel; Amador, Ulises; Alves, Adriana; Correia, Maria Rosário; Ritter, Clemens; Frade, Jorge Ribeiro; Pérez-Coll, Domingo; Mather, Glenn C; Fagg, Duncan Paul

    2017-08-07

    Members of the perovskite solid solution BaZr 1-x Pr x O 3-δ (0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) with potential high-temperature electrochemical applications were synthesized via mechanical activation and high-temperature annealing at 1250 °C. Structural properties were examined by Rietveld analysis of neutron powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy at room temperature, indicating rhombohedral symmetry (space group R3̅c) for members x = 0.2 and 0.4 and orthorhombic symmetry (Imma) for x = 0.6 and 0.8. The sequence of phase transitions for the complete solid solution from BaZrO 3 to BaPrO 3 is Pm3̅m → R3̅c → Imma → Pnma. The structural data indicate that Pr principally exists as Pr 4+ on the B site and that oxygen content increases with higher Pr content. Electrical-conductivity measurements in the temperature range of 250-900 °C in dry and humidified (pH 2 O ≈ 0.03 atm) N 2 and O 2 atmospheres revealed an increase of total conductivity by over 2 orders of magnitude in dry conditions from x = 0.2 to x = 0.8 (σ ≈ 0.08 S cm -1 at 920 °C in dry O 2 for x = 0.8). The conductivity for Pr contents x > 0.2 is attributable to positively charged electronic carriers, whereas for x = 0.2 transport in dry conditions is n-type. The change in conduction mechanism with composition is proposed to arise from the compensation regime for minor amounts of BaO loss changing from predominantly partitioning of Pr on the A site to vacancy formation with increasing Pr content. Conductivity is lower in wet conditions for x > 0.2 indicating that the positive defects are, to a large extent, charge compensated by less mobile protonic species. In contrast, the transport mechanism of the Zr-rich composition (x = 0.2), with much lower electronic conductivity, is essentially independent of moisture content.

  15. Unraveling luminescence mechanisms in zero-dimensional halide perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Dan; Shi, Hongliang; Ming, Wenmei; ...

    2018-01-01

    Zero-dimensional (0D) halides perovskites, in which anionic metal-halide octahedra (MX 6 ) 4− are separated by organic or inorganic countercations, have recently shown promise as excellent luminescent materials.

  16. Working Mechanism for Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells with Simplified Architecture.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaobao; Chen, Qi; Hong, Ziruo; Zhou, Huanping; Liu, Zonghao; Chang, Wei-Hsuan; Sun, Pengyu; Chen, Huajun; De Marco, Nicholas; Wang, Mingkui; Yang, Yang

    2015-10-14

    In this communication, we report an efficient and flexible perovskite solar cell based on formamidinium lead trihalide (FAPbI3) with simplified configuration. The device achieved a champion efficiency of 12.70%, utilizing direct contact between metallic indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and perovskite absorber. The underlying working mechanism is proposed subsequently, via a systematic investigation focusing on the heterojunction within this device. A significant charge storage has been observed in the perovskite, which is believed to generate photovoltage and serves as the driving force for charge transferring from the absorber to ITO electrode as well. More importantly, this simplified device structure on flexible substrates suggests its compatibility for scale-up fabrication, which paves the way for commercialization of perovskite photovoltaic technology.

  17. Recent progress in efficient hybrid lead halide perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jin; Yuan, Huailiang; Li, Junpeng; Xu, Xiaobao; Shen, Yan; Lin, Hong; Wang, Mingkui

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has been improved from 9.7 to 19.3%, with the highest value of 20.1% achieved in 2014. Such a high photovoltaic performance can be attributed to optically high absorption characteristics and balanced charge transport properties with long diffusion lengths of the hybrid lead halide perovskite materials. In this review, some fundamental details of hybrid lead iodide perovskite materials, various fabrication techniques and device structures are described, aiming for a better understanding of these materials and thus highly efficient PSC devices. In addition, some advantages and open issues are discussed here to outline the prospects and challenges of using perovskites in commercial photovoltaic devices. PMID:27877815

  18. Unraveling luminescence mechanisms in zero-dimensional halide perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Dan; Shi, Hongliang; Ming, Wenmei; ...

    2018-05-18

    Here, zero-dimensional (0D) halides perovskites, in which anionic metal-halide octahedra (MX 6) 4– are separated by organic or inorganic countercations, have recently shown promise as excellent luminescent materials.

  19. Laser Direct Write Synthesis of Lead Halide Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Stanley S.; Swartzentruber, Brian S.; Janish, Matthew T.

    Lead halide perovskites are increasingly considered for applications beyond photovoltaics, for example, light emission and detection, where an ability to pattern and prototype microscale geometries can facilitate the incorporation of this class of materials into devices. In this study, we demonstrate laser direct write of lead halide perovskites, a remarkably simple procedure that takes advantage of the inverse dependence between perovskite solubility and temperature by using a laser to induce localized heating of an absorbing substrate. We also demonstrate arbitrary pattern formation of crystalline CH 3NH 3PbBr 3 on a range of substrates and fabricate and characterize a microscale photodetectormore » using this approach. This direct write methodology provides a path forward for the prototyping and production of perovskite-based devices.« less

  20. NREL Research Pinpoints Promise of Polycrystalline Perovskites | News |

    Science.gov Websites

    Beard, David Moore and Elisa Miller are co-authors of a new paper in Nature Energy about perovskites , Yong Yan, Elisa M. Miller, and Kai Zhu. Beard said the research determined surface recombination

  1. The Coulombic Lattice Potential of Ionic Compounds: The Cubic Perovskites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents coulombic models representing the particles of a system by point charges interacting through Coulomb's law to explain coulombic lattice potential. Uses rubidium manganese trifluoride as an example of cubic perovskite structure. Discusses the effects on cluster properties. (CW)

  2. Present status and future prospects of perovskite photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snaith, Henry J.

    2018-05-01

    Solar cells based on metal halide perovskites continue to approach their theoretical performance limits thanks to worldwide research efforts. Mastering the materials properties and addressing stability may allow this technology to bring profound transformations to the electric power generation industry.

  3. Recent advances of lanthanum-based perovskite oxides for catalysis

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Huiyuan; Zhang, Pengfei; Dai, Sheng

    2015-09-21

    There is a need to reduce the use of noble metal elements especially in the field of catalysis, where noble metals are ubiquitously applied. To this end, perovskite oxides, an important class of mixed oxide, have been attracting increasing attention for decades as potential replacements. Benefiting from the extraordinary tunability of their compositions and structures, perovskite oxides can be rationally tailored and equipped with targeted physical and chemical properties e.g. redox behavior, oxygen mobility, and ion conductivity for enhanced catalysis. Recently, the development of highly efficient perovskite oxide catalysts has been extensively studied. This review article summarizes the recent developmentmore » of lanthanum-based perovskite oxides as advanced catalysts for both energy conversion applications and traditional heterogeneous reactions.« less

  4. Laser Direct Write Synthesis of Lead Halide Perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Chou, Stanley S.; Swartzentruber, Brian S.; Janish, Matthew T.; ...

    2016-09-05

    Lead halide perovskites are increasingly considered for applications beyond photovoltaics, for example, light emission and detection, where an ability to pattern and prototype microscale geometries can facilitate the incorporation of this class of materials into devices. In this study, we demonstrate laser direct write of lead halide perovskites, a remarkably simple procedure that takes advantage of the inverse dependence between perovskite solubility and temperature by using a laser to induce localized heating of an absorbing substrate. We also demonstrate arbitrary pattern formation of crystalline CH 3NH 3PbBr 3 on a range of substrates and fabricate and characterize a microscale photodetectormore » using this approach. This direct write methodology provides a path forward for the prototyping and production of perovskite-based devices.« less

  5. Unraveling luminescence mechanisms in zero-dimensional halide perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Dan; Shi, Hongliang; Ming, Wenmei

    Zero-dimensional (0D) halides perovskites, in which anionic metal-halide octahedra (MX 6 ) 4− are separated by organic or inorganic countercations, have recently shown promise as excellent luminescent materials.

  6. Radiative efficiency of lead iodide based perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Malinkiewicz, Olga; Baumann, Andreas; Deibel, Carsten; Snaith, Henry J.; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Bolink, Henk J.

    2014-01-01

    The maximum efficiency of any solar cell can be evaluated in terms of its corresponding ability to emit light. We herein determine the important figure of merit of radiative efficiency for Methylammonium Lead Iodide perovskite solar cells and, to put in context, relate it to an organic photovoltaic (OPV) model device. We evaluate the reciprocity relation between electroluminescence and photovoltaic quantum efficiency and conclude that the emission from the perovskite devices is dominated by a sharp band-to-band transition that has a radiative efficiency much higher than that of an average OPV device. As a consequence, the perovskite have the benefit of retaining an open circuit voltage ~0.14 V closer to its radiative limit than the OPV cell. Additionally, and in contrast to OPVs, we show that the photoluminescence of the perovskite solar cell is substantially quenched under short circuit conditions in accordance with how an ideal photovoltaic cell should operate. PMID:25317958

  7. Perovskite as light harvester: a game changer in photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Kazim, Samrana; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; Ahmad, Shahzada

    2014-03-10

    It is not often that the scientific community is blessed with a material, which brings enormous hopes and receives special attention. When it does, it expands at a rapid pace and its every dimension creates curiosity. One such material is perovskite, which has triggered the development of new device architectures in energy conversion. Perovskites are of great interest in photovoltaic devices due to their panchromatic light absorption and ambipolar behavior. Power conversion efficiencies have been doubled in less than a year and over 15% is being now measured in labs. Every digit increment in efficiency is being celebrated widely in the scientific community and is being discussed in industry. Here we provide a summary on the use of perovskite for inexpensive solar cells fabrication. It will not be unrealistic to speculate that one day perovskite-based solar cells can match the capability and capacity of existing technologies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Hole-Transport Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Calió, Laura; Kazim, Samrana; Grätzel, Michael; Ahmad, Shahzada

    2016-11-14

    The pressure to move towards renewable energy has inspired researchers to look for ideas in photovoltaics that may lead to a major breakthrough. Recently the use of perovskites as a light harvester has lead to stunning progress. The power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells is now approaching parity (>22 %) with that of the established technology which took decades to reach this level of performance. The use of a hole transport material (HTM) remains indispensable in perovskite solar cells. Perovskites can conduct holes, but they are present at low levels, and for efficient charge extraction a HTM layer is a prerequisite. Herein we provide an overview of the diverse types of HTM available, from organic to inorganic, in the hope of encouraging further research and the optimization of these materials. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Perovskite-type catalytic materials for environmental applications

    PubMed Central

    Labhasetwar, Nitin; Saravanan, Govindachetty; Kumar Megarajan, Suresh; Manwar, Nilesh; Khobragade, Rohini; Doggali, Pradeep; Grasset, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Perovskites are mixed-metal oxides that are attracting much scientific and application interest owing to their low price, adaptability, and thermal stability, which often depend on bulk and surface characteristics. These materials have been extensively explored for their catalytic, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties. They are promising candidates for the photocatalytic splitting of water and have also been extensively studied for environmental catalysis applications. Oxygen and cation non-stoichiometry can be tailored in a large number of perovskite compositions to achieve the desired catalytic activity, including multifunctional catalytic properties. Despite the extensive uses, the commercial success for this class of perovskite-based catalytic materials has not been achieved for vehicle exhaust emission control or for many other environmental applications. With recent advances in synthesis techniques, including the preparation of supported perovskites, and increasing understanding of promoted substitute perovskite-type materials, there is a growing interest in applied studies of perovskite-type catalytic materials. We have studied a number of perovskites based on Co, Mn, Ru, and Fe and their substituted compositions for their catalytic activity in terms of diesel soot oxidation, three-way catalysis, N2O decomposition, low-temperature CO oxidation, oxidation of volatile organic compounds, etc. The enhanced catalytic activity of these materials is attributed mainly to their altered redox properties, the promotional effect of co-ions, and the increased exposure of catalytically active transition metals in certain preparations. The recent lowering of sulfur content in fuel and concerns over the cost and availability of precious metals are responsible for renewed interest in perovskite-type catalysts for environmental applications. PMID:27877813

  10. Maximizing and stabilizing luminescence from halide perovskites with potassium passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba; Andaji-Garmaroudi, Zahra; Cacovich, Stefania; Stavrakas, Camille; Philippe, Bertrand; Richter, Johannes M.; Alsari, Mejd; Booker, Edward P.; Hutter, Eline M.; Pearson, Andrew J.; Lilliu, Samuele; Savenije, Tom J.; Rensmo, Håkan; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Friend, Richard H.; Stranks, Samuel D.

    2018-03-01

    Metal halide perovskites are of great interest for various high-performance optoelectronic applications. The ability to tune the perovskite bandgap continuously by modifying the chemical composition opens up applications for perovskites as coloured emitters, in building-integrated photovoltaics, and as components of tandem photovoltaics to increase the power conversion efficiency. Nevertheless, performance is limited by non-radiative losses, with luminescence yields in state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells still far from 100 per cent under standard solar illumination conditions. Furthermore, in mixed halide perovskite systems designed for continuous bandgap tunability (bandgaps of approximately 1.7 to 1.9 electronvolts), photoinduced ion segregation leads to bandgap instabilities. Here we demonstrate substantial mitigation of both non-radiative losses and photoinduced ion migration in perovskite films and interfaces by decorating the surfaces and grain boundaries with passivating potassium halide layers. We demonstrate external photoluminescence quantum yields of 66 per cent, which translate to internal yields that exceed 95 per cent. The high luminescence yields are achieved while maintaining high mobilities of more than 40 square centimetres per volt per second, providing the elusive combination of both high luminescence and excellent charge transport. When interfaced with electrodes in a solar cell device stack, the external luminescence yield—a quantity that must be maximized to obtain high efficiency—remains as high as 15 per cent, indicating very clean interfaces. We also demonstrate the inhibition of transient photoinduced ion-migration processes across a wide range of mixed halide perovskite bandgaps in materials that exhibit bandgap instabilities when unpassivated. We validate these results in fully operating solar cells. Our work represents an important advance in the construction of tunable metal halide perovskite films and interfaces that can

  11. Perovskite-type catalytic materials for environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Labhasetwar, Nitin; Saravanan, Govindachetty; Kumar Megarajan, Suresh; Manwar, Nilesh; Khobragade, Rohini; Doggali, Pradeep; Grasset, Fabien

    2015-06-01

    Perovskites are mixed-metal oxides that are attracting much scientific and application interest owing to their low price, adaptability, and thermal stability, which often depend on bulk and surface characteristics. These materials have been extensively explored for their catalytic, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties. They are promising candidates for the photocatalytic splitting of water and have also been extensively studied for environmental catalysis applications. Oxygen and cation non-stoichiometry can be tailored in a large number of perovskite compositions to achieve the desired catalytic activity, including multifunctional catalytic properties. Despite the extensive uses, the commercial success for this class of perovskite-based catalytic materials has not been achieved for vehicle exhaust emission control or for many other environmental applications. With recent advances in synthesis techniques, including the preparation of supported perovskites, and increasing understanding of promoted substitute perovskite-type materials, there is a growing interest in applied studies of perovskite-type catalytic materials. We have studied a number of perovskites based on Co, Mn, Ru, and Fe and their substituted compositions for their catalytic activity in terms of diesel soot oxidation, three-way catalysis, N 2 O decomposition, low-temperature CO oxidation, oxidation of volatile organic compounds, etc. The enhanced catalytic activity of these materials is attributed mainly to their altered redox properties, the promotional effect of co-ions, and the increased exposure of catalytically active transition metals in certain preparations. The recent lowering of sulfur content in fuel and concerns over the cost and availability of precious metals are responsible for renewed interest in perovskite-type catalysts for environmental applications.

  12. Maximizing and stabilizing luminescence from halide perovskites with potassium passivation.

    PubMed

    Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba; Andaji-Garmaroudi, Zahra; Cacovich, Stefania; Stavrakas, Camille; Philippe, Bertrand; Richter, Johannes M; Alsari, Mejd; Booker, Edward P; Hutter, Eline M; Pearson, Andrew J; Lilliu, Samuele; Savenije, Tom J; Rensmo, Håkan; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Friend, Richard H; Stranks, Samuel D

    2018-03-21

    Metal halide perovskites are of great interest for various high-performance optoelectronic applications. The ability to tune the perovskite bandgap continuously by modifying the chemical composition opens up applications for perovskites as coloured emitters, in building-integrated photovoltaics, and as components of tandem photovoltaics to increase the power conversion efficiency. Nevertheless, performance is limited by non-radiative losses, with luminescence yields in state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells still far from 100 per cent under standard solar illumination conditions. Furthermore, in mixed halide perovskite systems designed for continuous bandgap tunability (bandgaps of approximately 1.7 to 1.9 electronvolts), photoinduced ion segregation leads to bandgap instabilities. Here we demonstrate substantial mitigation of both non-radiative losses and photoinduced ion migration in perovskite films and interfaces by decorating the surfaces and grain boundaries with passivating potassium halide layers. We demonstrate external photoluminescence quantum yields of 66 per cent, which translate to internal yields that exceed 95 per cent. The high luminescence yields are achieved while maintaining high mobilities of more than 40 square centimetres per volt per second, providing the elusive combination of both high luminescence and excellent charge transport. When interfaced with electrodes in a solar cell device stack, the external luminescence yield-a quantity that must be maximized to obtain high efficiency-remains as high as 15 per cent, indicating very clean interfaces. We also demonstrate the inhibition of transient photoinduced ion-migration processes across a wide range of mixed halide perovskite bandgaps in materials that exhibit bandgap instabilities when unpassivated. We validate these results in fully operating solar cells. Our work represents an important advance in the construction of tunable metal halide perovskite films and interfaces that can approach

  13. Application of carbon nanotubes in perovskite solar cells: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oo, Thet Tin; Debnath, Sujan

    2017-11-01

    Solar power, as alternative renewable energy source, has gained momentum in global energy generation in recent time. Solar photovoltaics (PV) systems now fulfill a significant portion of electricity demand and the capacity of solar PV capacity is growing every year. PV cells efficiency has improved significantly following decades of research, evolving into third generations of PV cells. These third generation PV cells are set out to provide low-cost and efficient PV systems, further improving the commercial competitiveness of solar energy generation. Among these latest generations of PV cells, perovskite solar cells have gained attraction due to the simple manufacturing process and the immense growth in PV efficiency in a short period of research and development. Despite these advantages, perovskite solar cells are known for the weak stability and decomposition in exposure to humidity and high temperature, hindering the possibility of commercialization. This paper will discuss the role of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in improving the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells, in various components such as perovskite layer and hole transport layer, as well as the application of CNTs in unique aspects. These includes the use of CNTs fiber in making the perovskite solar cells flexible, as well as simplification of perovskite PV production by using CNT flash evaporation printing process. Despite these advances, challenges remain in incorporation CNTs into perovskite such as lower conversion efficiency compared to rare earth metals and improvements need to be made. Thus, the paper will be also highlighting the CNTs materials suggested for further research and improvement of perovskite solar cells.

  14. Enhanced Charge Collection with Passivation Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Hui; Luo, Jingshan; Son, Min-Kyu; Gao, Peng; Cho, Kyung Taek; Seo, Jiyoun; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-05-01

    The Al2 O3 passivation layer is beneficial for mesoporous TiO2 -based perovskite solar cells when it is deposited selectively on the compact TiO2 surface. Such a passivation layer suppressing surface recombination can be formed by thermal decomposition of the perovskite layer during post-annealing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Transition from orbital liquid to Jahn-Teller insulator in orthorhombic perovskites RTiO3.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J-G; Sui, Y; Zhou, J-S; Goodenough, J B; Su, W H

    2008-08-22

    Following the same strategy used for RVO3, thermal conductivity measurements have been made on a series of single-crystal perovskites RTiO3 (R=La,Nd,...,Yb). Results reveal explicitly a transition from an orbital liquid to an orbitally ordered phase at a magnetic transition temperature, which is common for both the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic phases in the phase diagram of RTiO3. This spin/orbital transition is consistent with the mode softening at T_{N} in antiferromagnetic LaTiO3 and is supported by an anomalous critical behavior at T_{c} in ferromagnetic YTiO3.

  16. Perovskite classification: An Excel spreadsheet to determine and depict end-member proportions for the perovskite- and vapnikite-subgroups of the perovskite supergroup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locock, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Roger H.

    2018-04-01

    Perovskite mineral oxides commonly exhibit extensive solid-solution, and are therefore classified on the basis of the proportions of their ideal end-members. A uniform sequence of calculation of the end-members is required if comparisons are to be made between different sets of analytical data. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet has been programmed to assist with the classification and depiction of the minerals of the perovskite- and vapnikite-subgroups following the 2017 nomenclature of the perovskite supergroup recommended by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA). Compositional data for up to 36 elements are input into the spreadsheet as oxides in weight percent. For each analysis, the output includes the formula, the normalized proportions of 15 end-members, and the percentage of cations which cannot be assigned to those end-members. The data are automatically plotted onto the ternary and quaternary diagrams recommended by the IMA for depiction of perovskite compositions. Up to 200 analyses can be entered into the spreadsheet, which is accompanied by data calculated for 140 perovskite compositions compiled from the literature.

  17. The effect of strontium and barium doping on perovskite-structured energy materials for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Chan, Shun-Hsiang; Su, Wei-Fang

    2018-01-01

    Perovskite solar cell is a novel photovoltaic technology with the superior progress in efficiency and the simple solution processes. Develop lead-free or lead-reduced perovskite materials is a significant concern for high-performance perovskite solar cell. Among the alkaline earth metals, the Sr2+ and Ba2+ are suitable for Pb2+ replacement in perovskite film due to fitting Goldschmidt's tolerance factor. In this study, we adopted Ba-doped and Sr-doped perovskite structured materials with different doping levels, including 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mol%, to prepare perovskite solar cells. Both Ba-doped and Sr-doped perovskite structured materials have a related tendency in absorption behavior and surface morphology. At 10.0 mol% doping level, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of Sr-doped perovskite solar cells is only ∼0.5%, but the PCE of Ba-doped perovskite solar cells can be achieved to ∼9.7%. Ba-doped perovskite solar cells showed the acceptable photovoltaic characteristics than Sr-doped perovskite solar cells. Ba dopant can partially replace the amount of lead in the perovskite solar cells, and it could be a potential candidate in the field of lead-free or lead-reduced perovskite energy materials.

  18. Mechanical tunability via hydrogen bonding in metal-organic frameworks with the perovskite architecture.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Thirumurugan, A; Barton, Phillip T; Lin, Zheshuai; Henke, Sebastian; Yeung, Hamish H-M; Wharmby, Michael T; Bithell, Erica G; Howard, Christopher J; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2014-06-04

    Two analogous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the perovskite architecture, [C(NH2)3][Mn(HCOO)3] (1) and [(CH2)3NH2][Mn(HCOO)3] (2), exhibit significantly different mechanical properties. The marked difference is attributed to their distinct modes of hydrogen bonding between the A-site amine cation and the anionic framework. The stronger cross-linking hydrogen bonding in 1 gives rise to Young's moduli and hardnesses that are up to twice those in 2, while the thermal expansion is substantially smaller. This study presents clear evidence that the mechanical properties of MOF materials can be substantially tuned via hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  19. High Performance Tandem Perovskite/Polymer Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao; Bag, Monojit; Page, Zachariah; Renna, Lawrence; Kim, Paul; Choi, Jaewon; Emrick, Todd; Venkataraman, D.; Russell, Thomas

    Combining perovskites with other inorganic materials, such as copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) or silicon, is enabling significant improvement in solar cell device performance. Here, we demonstrate a highly efficient hybrid tandem solar cell fabricated through a facile solution deposition approach to give a perovskite front sub-cell and a polymer:fullerene blend back sub-cell. This methodology eliminates the adverse effects of thermal annealing during perovskite fabrication on polymer solar cells. The record tandem solar cell efficiency of 15.96% is 40% greater than the corresponding perovskite-based single junction device and 65% greater than the polymer-based single junction device, while mitigating deleterious hysteresis effects often associated with perovskite solar cells. The hybrid tandem devices demonstrate the synergistic effects arising from the combination of perovskite and polymer-based materials for solar cells. This work was supported by the Department of Energy-supported Energy Frontier Research Center at the University of Massachusetts (DE-SC0001087). The authors acknowledge the W.M. Keck Electron Microscopy.

  20. Confining metal-halide perovskites in nanoporous thin films

    PubMed Central

    Demchyshyn, Stepan; Roemer, Janina Melanie; Groiß, Heiko; Heilbrunner, Herwig; Ulbricht, Christoph; Apaydin, Dogukan; Böhm, Anton; Rütt, Uta; Bertram, Florian; Hesser, Günter; Scharber, Markus Clark; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Nickel, Bert; Bauer, Siegfried; Głowacki, Eric Daniel; Kaltenbrunner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Controlling the size and shape of semiconducting nanocrystals advances nanoelectronics and photonics. Quantum-confined, inexpensive, solution-derived metal halide perovskites offer narrowband, color-pure emitters as integral parts of next-generation displays and optoelectronic devices. We use nanoporous silicon and alumina thin films as templates for the growth of perovskite nanocrystallites directly within device-relevant architectures without the use of colloidal stabilization. We find significantly blue-shifted photoluminescence emission by reducing the pore size; normally infrared-emitting materials become visibly red, and green-emitting materials become cyan and blue. Confining perovskite nanocrystals within porous oxide thin films drastically increases photoluminescence stability because the templates auspiciously serve as encapsulation. We quantify the template-induced size of the perovskite crystals in nanoporous silicon with microfocus high-energy x-ray depth profiling in transmission geometry, verifying the growth of perovskite nanocrystals throughout the entire thickness of the nanoporous films. Low-voltage electroluminescent diodes with narrow, blue-shifted emission fabricated from nanocrystalline perovskites grown in embedded nanoporous alumina thin films substantiate our general concept for next-generation photonic devices. PMID:28798959

  1. Hybrid solar cells composed of perovskite and polymer photovoltaic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phaometvarithorn, Apatsanan; Chuangchote, Surawut; Kumnorkaew, Pisist; Wootthikanokkhan, Jatuphorn

    2018-06-01

    Organic/inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells have recently attracted much attention in photovoltaic research, due to the devices show promising ways to achieve high efficiencies. The perovskite devices with high efficiencies, however, are typically fabricated in tandem solar cell which is complicated. In this research work, we introduce a solar cell device with the combination of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite and bulk heterojunction PCDTBT:PC70BM polymer without any tandem structure. The new integrated perovskite/polymer hybrid structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/PCDTBT:PC70BM/PC70BM/TiOx/Al provides higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices compared with conventional perovskite cell structure. With the optimized PCDTBT:PC70BM thickness of ∼70 nm, the highest PCE of 11.67% is achieved. Variation of conducting donor polymers in this new structure is also preliminary demonstrated. This study provides an attractively innovative structure and a promising design for further development of the new-generation solar cells.

  2. Giant photovoltaic response in band engineered ferroelectric perovskite.

    PubMed

    Pal, Subhajit; Swain, Atal Bihari; Biswas, Pranab Parimal; Murali, D; Pal, Arnab; Nanda, B Ranjit K; Murugavel, Pattukkannu

    2018-05-22

    Recently the solar energy, an inevitable part of green energy source, has become a mandatory topics in frontier research areas. In this respect, non-centrosymmetric ferroelectric perovskites with open circuit voltage (V OC ) higher than the bandgap, gain tremendous importance as next generation photovoltaic materials. Here a non-toxic co-doped Ba 1-x (Bi 0.5 Li 0.5 ) x TiO 3 ferroelectric system is designed where the dopants influence the band topology in order to enhance the photovoltaic effect. In particular, at the optimal doping concentration (x opt  ~ 0.125) the sample reveals a remarkably high photogenerated field E OC  = 320 V/cm (V OC  = 16 V), highest ever reported in any bulk polycrystalline non-centrosymmetric systems. The band structure, examined through DFT calculations, suggests that the shift current mechanism is key to explain the large enhancement in photovoltaic effect in this family.

  3. Enhancing perovskite electrocatalysis through strain tuning of oxygen deficiency

    DOE PAGES

    Barron, Sara C.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Petrie, Jonathan R.; ...

    2016-05-27

    Oxygen vacancies in transition-metal oxides facilitate catalysis critical for energy storage and generation. However, promoting vacancies at the lower temperatures required for operation in devices such as metal–air batteries and portable fuel cells has proven elusive. Here we used thin films of perovskite-based strontium cobaltite (SrCoO x) to show that epitaxial strain is a powerful tool for manipulating the oxygen content under conditions consistent with the oxygen evolution reaction, yielding increasingly oxygen-deficient states in an environment where the cobaltite would normally be fully oxidized. The additional oxygen vacancies created through tensile strain enhance the cobaltite’s catalytic activity toward this importantmore » reaction by over an order of magnitude, equaling that of precious-metal catalysts, including IrO2. Lastly, our findings demonstrate that strain in these oxides can dictate the oxygen stoichiometry independent of ambient conditions, allowing unprecedented control over oxygen vacancies essential in catalysis near room temperature.« less

  4. Engineering charge ordering into multiferroicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xu; Jin, Kui-juan

    2016-04-01

    Multiferroic materials have attracted great interest but are rare in nature. In many transition-metal oxides, charge ordering and magnetic ordering coexist, so that a method of engineering charge-ordered materials into ferroelectric materials would lead to a large class of multiferroic materials. We propose a strategy for designing new ferroelectric or even multiferroic materials by inserting a spacing layer into each two layers of charge-ordered materials and artificially making a superlattice. One example of the model demonstrated here is the perovskite (LaFeO3)2/LaTiO3 (111) superlattice, in which the LaTiO3 layer acts as the donor and the spacing layer, and the LaFeO3 layer is half doped and performs charge ordering. The collaboration of the charge ordering and the spacing layer breaks the space inversion symmetry, resulting in a large ferroelectric polarization. As the charge ordering also leads to a ferrimagnetic structure, (LaFeO3)2/LaTiO3 is multiferroic. It is expected that this work can encourage the designing and experimental implementation of a large class of multiferroic structures with novel properties.

  5. Controlled Homoepitaxial Growth of Hybrid Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yusheng; Chen, Yimu; Gu, Yue; Wang, Chunfeng; Huang, Zhenlong; Qian, Haoliang; Nie, Jiuyuan; Hollett, Geoff; Choi, Woojin; Yu, Yugang; Kim, NamHeon; Wang, Chonghe; Zhang, Tianjiao; Hu, Hongjie; Zhang, Yunxi; Li, Xiaoshi; Li, Yang; Shi, Wanjun; Liu, Zhaowei; Sailor, Michael J; Dong, Lin; Lo, Yu-Hwa; Luo, Jian; Xu, Sheng

    2018-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have demonstrated tremendous potential for the next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices due to their remarkable carrier dynamics. Current studies are focusing on polycrystals, since controlled growth of device compatible single crystals is extremely challenging. Here, the first chemical epitaxial growth of single crystal CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 with controlled locations, morphologies, and orientations, using combined strategies of advanced microfabrication, homoepitaxy, and low temperature solution method is reported. The growth is found to follow a layer-by-layer model. A light emitting diode array, with each CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 crystal as a single pixel, with enhanced quantum efficiencies than its polycrystalline counterparts is demonstrated. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Ion-Migration Inhibition by the Cation-π Interaction in Perovskite Materials for Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Ma, Fusheng; Wang, Rui; Dou, Shangyi; Cui, Peng; Huang, Hao; Ji, Jun; Jia, Endong; Jia, Xiaojie; Sajid, Sajid; Elseman, Ahmed Mourtada; Chu, Lihua; Li, Yingfeng; Jiang, Bing; Qiao, Juan; Yuan, Yongbo; Li, Meicheng

    2018-06-25

    Migration of ions can lead to photoinduced phase separation, degradation, and current-voltage hysteresis in perovskite solar cells (PSCs), and has become a serious drawback for the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials (OIPs). Here, the inhibition of ion migration is realized by the supramolecular cation-π interaction between aromatic rubrene and organic cations in OIPs. The energy of the cation-π interaction between rubrene and perovskite is found to be as strong as 1.5 eV, which is enough to immobilize the organic cations in OIPs; this will thus will lead to the obvious reduction of defects in perovskite films and outstanding stability in devices. By employing the cation-immobilized OIPs to fabricate perovskite solar cells (PSCs), a champion efficiency of 20.86% and certified efficiency of 20.80% with negligible hysteresis are acquired. In addition, the long-term stability of cation-immobilized PSCs is improved definitely (98% of the initial efficiency after 720 h operation), which is assigned to the inhibition of ionic diffusions in cation-immobilized OIPs. This cation-π interaction between cations and the supramolecular π system enhances the stability and the performance of PSCs efficiently and would be a potential universal approach to get the more stable perovskite devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. High Chloride Doping Levels Stabilize the Perovskite Phase of Cesium Lead Iodide.

    PubMed

    Dastidar, Subham; Egger, David A; Tan, Liang Z; Cromer, Samuel B; Dillon, Andrew D; Liu, Shi; Kronik, Leeor; Rappe, Andrew M; Fafarman, Aaron T

    2016-06-08

    Cesium lead iodide possesses an excellent combination of band gap and absorption coefficient for photovoltaic applications in its perovskite phase. However, this is not its equilibrium structure under ambient conditions. In air, at ambient temperature it rapidly transforms to a nonfunctional, so-called yellow phase. Here we show that chloride doping, particularly at levels near the solubility limit for chloride in a cesium lead iodide host, provides a new approach to stabilizing the functional perovskite phase. In order to achieve high doping levels, we first co-deposit colloidal nanocrystals of pure cesium lead chloride and cesium lead iodide, thereby ensuring nanometer-scale mixing even at compositions that potentially exceed the bulk miscibility of the two phases. The resulting nanocrystal solid is subsequently fused into a polycrystalline thin film by chemically induced, room-temperature sintering. Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction indicate that the chloride is further dispersed during sintering and a polycrystalline mixed phase is formed. Using density functional theory (DFT) methods in conjunction with nudged elastic band techniques, low-energy pathways for interstitial chlorine diffusion into a majority-iodide lattice were identified, consistent with the facile diffusion and fast halide exchange reactions observed. By comparison to DFT-calculated values (with the PBE exchange-correlation functional), the relative change in band gap and the lattice contraction are shown to be consistent with a Cl/I ratio of a few percent in the mixed phase. At these incorporation levels, the half-life of the functional perovskite phase in a humid atmosphere increases by more than an order of magnitude.

  8. Slater Insulator in Iridate Perovskites with Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling.

    PubMed

    Cui, Q; Cheng, J-G; Fan, W; Taylor, A E; Calder, S; McGuire, M A; Yan, J-Q; Meyers, D; Li, X; Cai, Y Q; Jiao, Y Y; Choi, Y; Haskel, D; Gotou, H; Uwatoko, Y; Chakhalian, J; Christianson, A D; Yunoki, S; Goodenough, J B; Zhou, J-S

    2016-10-21

    The perovskite SrIrO_{3} is an exotic narrow-band metal owing to a confluence of the strengths of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and the electron-electron correlations. It has been proposed that topological and magnetic insulating phases can be achieved by tuning the SOC, Hubbard interactions, and/or lattice symmetry. Here, we report that the substitution of nonmagnetic, isovalent Sn^{4+} for Ir^{4+} in the SrIr_{1-x}Sn_{x}O_{3} perovskites synthesized under high pressure leads to a metal-insulator transition to an antiferromagnetic (AF) phase at T_{N}≥225  K. The continuous change of the cell volume as detected by x-ray diffraction and the λ-shape transition of the specific heat on cooling through T_{N} demonstrate that the metal-insulator transition is of second order. Neutron powder diffraction results indicate that the Sn substitution enlarges an octahedral-site distortion that reduces the SOC relative to the spin-spin exchange interaction and results in the type-G AF spin ordering below T_{N}. Measurement of high-temperature magnetic susceptibility shows the evolution of magnetic coupling in the paramagnetic phase typical of weak itinerant-electron magnetism in the Sn-substituted samples. A reduced structural symmetry in the magnetically ordered phase leads to an electron gap opening at the Brillouin zone boundary below T_{N} in the same way as proposed by Slater.

  9. Selective dissolution of halide perovskites as a step towards recycling solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byeong Jo; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kwon, Seung Lee; Park, So Yeon; Li, Zhen; Zhu, Kai; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-01-01

    Most research on perovskite solar cells has focused on improving power-conversion efficiency and stability. However, if one could refurbish perovskite solar cells, their stability might not be a critical issue. From the perspective of cost effectiveness, if failed, perovskite solar cells could be collected and recycled; reuse of their gold electrodes and transparent conducting glasses could reduce the price per watt of perovskite photovoltaic modules. Herein, we present a simple and effective method for removing the perovskite layer and reusing the mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate via selective dissolution. We find that the perovskite layer can be easily decomposed in polar aprotic solvents because of the reaction between polar aprotic solvents and Pb2+ cations. After 10 cycles of recycling, a mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate-based perovskite solar cell still shows a constant power-conversion efficiency, thereby demonstrating the possibility of recycling perovskite solar cells. PMID:27211006

  10. Selective dissolution of halide perovskites as a step towards recycling solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byeong Jo; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kwon, Seung Lee; Park, So Yeon; Li, Zhen; Zhu, Kai; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-05-01

    Most research on perovskite solar cells has focused on improving power-conversion efficiency and stability. However, if one could refurbish perovskite solar cells, their stability might not be a critical issue. From the perspective of cost effectiveness, if failed, perovskite solar cells could be collected and recycled; reuse of their gold electrodes and transparent conducting glasses could reduce the price per watt of perovskite photovoltaic modules. Herein, we present a simple and effective method for removing the perovskite layer and reusing the mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate via selective dissolution. We find that the perovskite layer can be easily decomposed in polar aprotic solvents because of the reaction between polar aprotic solvents and Pb2+ cations. After 10 cycles of recycling, a mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate-based perovskite solar cell still shows a constant power-conversion efficiency, thereby demonstrating the possibility of recycling perovskite solar cells.

  11. High annealing temperature induced rapid grain coarsening for efficient perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaobing; Zhi, Lili; Jia, Yi; Li, Yahui; Cui, Xian; Zhao, Ke; Ci, Lijie; Ding, Kongxian; Wei, Jinquan

    2018-08-15

    Thermal annealing plays multiple roles in fabricating high quality perovskite films. Generally, it might result in large perovskite grains by elevating annealing temperature, but might also lead to decomposition of perovskite. Here, we study the effects of annealing temperature on the coarsening of perovskite grains in a temperature range from 100 to 250 °C, and find that the coarsening rate of the perovskite grain increase significantly with the annealing temperature. Compared with the perovskite films annealed at 100 °C, high quality perovskite films with large columnar grains are obtained by annealing perovskite precursor films at 250 °C for only 10 s. As a result, the power conversion efficiency of best solar cell increased from 12.35% to 16.35% due to its low recombination rate and high efficient charge transportation in solar cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Selective dissolution of halide perovskites as a step towards recycling solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeong Jo; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kwon, Seung Lee; Park, So Yeon; Li, Zhen; Zhu, Kai; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-05-23

    Most research on perovskite solar cells has focused on improving power-conversion efficiency and stability. However, if one could refurbish perovskite solar cells, their stability might not be a critical issue. From the perspective of cost effectiveness, if failed, perovskite solar cells could be collected and recycled; reuse of their gold electrodes and transparent conducting glasses could reduce the price per watt of perovskite photovoltaic modules. Herein, we present a simple and effective method for removing the perovskite layer and reusing the mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate via selective dissolution. We find that the perovskite layer can be easily decomposed in polar aprotic solvents because of the reaction between polar aprotic solvents and Pb(2+) cations. After 10 cycles of recycling, a mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate-based perovskite solar cell still shows a constant power-conversion efficiency, thereby demonstrating the possibility of recycling perovskite solar cells.

  13. Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells Incorporating Metal-Organic Framework Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting-Hsiang; Kung, Chung-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Huang, Tzu-Yen; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Lu, Hsin-Che; Lee, Min-Han; Boopathi, Karunakara Moorthy; Chu, Chih-Wei; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2015-11-25

    Zr-based porphyrin metal-organic framework (MOF-525) nanocrystals with a crystal size of about 140 nm are synthesized and incorporated into perovskite solar cells. The morphology and crystallinity of the perovskite thin film are enhanced since the micropores of MOF-525 allow the crystallization of perovskite to occur inside; this observation results in a higher cell efficiency of the obtained MOF/perovskite solar cell. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Dimensional scaling of perovskite ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keech, Ryan R.

    Dimensional size reduction has been the cornerstone of the exponential improvement in silicon based logic devices for decades. However, fundamental limits in the device physics were reached ˜2003, halting further reductions in clock speed without significant penalties in power consumption. This has motivated the research into next generation transistors and switching devices to reinstate the scaling laws for clock speed. This dissertation aims to support the scaling of devices that are based on ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity and to provide a roadmap for the corresponding materials performance. First, a scalable growth process to obtain highly {001}-oriented lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (PMN-PT) thin films was developed, motivated by the high piezoelectric responses observed in bulk single crystals. It was found that deposition of a 2-3 nm thick PbO buffer layer on {111} Pt thin film bottom electrodes, prior to chemical solution deposition of PMN-PT reduces the driving force for Pb diffusion from the PMN-PT to the bottom electrode, and facilitates nucleation of {001}-oriented perovskite grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrated that up to 10% of the Pb from a PMN-PT precursor solution may diffuse into the bottom electrode. PMN-PT grains with a mixed {101}/{111} orientation in a matrix of Pb-deficient pyrochlore phase were then promoted near the interface. When this is prevented, phase pure films with {001} orientation with Lotgering factors of 0.98-1.0, can be achieved. The resulting films of only 300 nm in thickness exhibit longitudinal effective d33,f coefficients of ˜90 pm/V and strain values of ˜1% prior to breakdown. 300 nm thick epitaxial and polycrystalline lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (70PMN-30PT) blanket thin films were studied for the relative contributions to property thickness dependence from interfacial and grain boundary low permittivity layers. Epitaxial PMN-PT films were grown on SrRuO 3 /(001)SrTiO3, while

  15. Business as a Site of Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra; Bargiela-Chiappini, Francesca

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the field of language for business. Argues for redressing the balance of research into business as a site of language contact in favor of less well-represented languages and cultures through indigenous discourse studies, and notes the increasing frequency and importance of work involving Asian languages. (Author/VWL)

  16. Long-lived hot-carrier light emission and large blue shift in formamidinium tin triiodide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Adjokatse, Sampson; Shao, Shuyan; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2018-01-16

    A long-lived hot carrier population is critical in order to develop working hot carrier photovoltaic devices with efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit. Here, we report photoluminescence from hot-carriers with unexpectedly long lifetime (a few ns) in formamidinium tin triiodide. An unusual large blue shift of the time-integrated photoluminescence with increasing excitation power (150 meV at 24 K and 75 meV at 293 K) is displayed. On the basis of the analysis of energy-resolved and time-resolved photoluminescence, we posit that these phenomena are associated with slow hot carrier relaxation and state-filling of band edge states. These observations are both important for our understanding of lead-free hybrid perovskites and for an eventual future development of efficient lead-free perovskite photovoltaics.

  17. Ultrasonic vibration imposed on nanoparticle-based ZnO film improves the performance of the ensuing perovskite solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yihe; Du, Peng; Wang, Zhiyu; Chen, Qianli; Eslamian, Morteza

    2018-02-01

    This work focuses on the development of nearly annealing-free ZnO-based perovskite solar cells (PSCs), suitable for low-cost manufacturing of PSCs on flexible substrates. To this end, thin film of ZnO nanoparticles is employed as the electron transporting layer (ETL), because of its low-temperature solution-processability and high electron mobility. In order to remove the structural and surface defects, ultrasonic vibration is imposed on the substrate of the as-spun wet ZnO films for a short duration of 3 min. It is shown that the ultrasonic excitation bridges the ZnO nanoparticles (cold sintering), and brings about significant improvement in the ZnO film nanostructure and functionality. In addition, ethyl acetate (EA), as an emerging volatile anti-solvent, is employed to deposit the methylammonium (MA) lead halide perovskite thin film atop the ZnO ETL, in order to prepare perovskite layers that only need an annealing time of 30 s. The ZnO-based PSCs, with a simple structure and free of additional treatments, except for the ultrasonic vibration, exhibit a promising performance with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 11%, 40% higher than that of the control device. The ultrasonic vibration treatment is facile, low-cost, environmentally friendly, and compatible with the scalable coating and printing techniques, such as spray and blade coating.

  18. Recent Advances in Interface Engineering for Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Pan, Lijia; Yang, Tingbin; Liang, Yongye

    2016-06-25

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells are considered as one of the most promising next-generation solar cells due to their advantages of low-cost precursors, high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and easy of processing. In the past few years, the PCEs have climbed from a few to over 20% for perovskite solar cells. Recent developments demonstrate that perovskite exhibits ambipolar semiconducting characteristics, which allows for the construction of planar heterojunction (PHJ) perovskite solar cells. PHJ perovskite solar cells can avoid the use of high-temperature sintered mesoporous metal oxides, enabling simple processing and the fabrication of flexible and tandem perovskite solar cells. In planar heterojunction materials, hole/electron transport layers are introduced between a perovskite film and the anode/cathode. The hole and electron transporting layers are expected to enhance exciton separation, charge transportation and collection. Further, the supporting layer for the perovskite film not only plays an important role in energy-level alignment, but also affects perovskite film morphology, which have a great effect on device performance. In addition, interfacial layers also affect device stability. In this review, recent progress in interfacial engineering for PHJ perovskite solar cells will be reviewed, especially with the molecular interfacial materials. The supporting interfacial layers for the optimization of perovskite films will be systematically reviewed. Finally, the challenges remaining in perovskite solar cells research will be discussed.

  19. Exploration of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites for surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Mo, Zhi-Hong; Yang, Xiao; Zhou, Hai-Ling; Gao, Qin

    2017-06-22

    The organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites efficiently enhance the infrared absorption of small molecules. It is suggested that the quantum wells of perovskites enable the electrons of the perovskites to be excited by light in the infrared region. The exploration has opened a new path for chemical sensing through infrared spectroscopy.

  20. Overcoming the Photovoltage Plateau in Large Bandgap Perovskite Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Adharsh; Stoddard, Ryan J; Jo, Sae Byeok; Hillhouse, Hugh W; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2018-05-09

    Development of large bandgap (1.80-1.85 eV E g ) perovskite is crucial for perovskite-perovskite tandem solar cells. However, the performance of 1.80-1.85 eV E g perovskite solar cells (PVKSCs) are significantly lagging their counterparts in the 1.60-1.75 eV E g range. This is because the photovoltage ( V oc ) does not proportionally increase with E g due to lower optoelectronic quality of conventional (MA,FA,Cs)Pb(I,Br) 3 and results in a photovoltage plateau ( V oc limited to 80% of the theoretical limit for ∼1.8 eV E g ). Here, we incorporate phenylethylammonium (PEA) in a mixed-halide perovskite composition to solve the inherent material-level challenges in 1.80-1.85 eV E g perovskites. The amount of PEA incorporation governs the topography and optoelectronic properties of resultant films. Detailed structural and spectroscopic characterization reveal the characteristic trends in crystalline size, orientation, and charge carrier recombination dynamics and rationalize the origin of improved material quality with higher luminescence. With careful interface optimization, the improved material characteristics were translated to devices and V oc values of 1.30-1.35 V were achieved, which correspond to 85-87% of the theoretical limit. Using an optimal amount of PEA incorporation to balance the increase in V oc and the decrease in charge collection, a highest power conversion efficiency of 12.2% was realized. Our results clearly overcome the photovoltage plateau in the 1.80-1.85 eV E g range and represent the highest V oc achieved for mixed-halide PVKSCs. This study provides widely translatable insights, an important breakthrough, and a promising platform for next-generation perovskite tandems.

  1. Single-Crystal Thin Films of Cesium Lead Bromide Perovskite Epitaxially Grown on Metal Oxide Perovskite (SrTiO 3)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jie; Morrow, Darien J.; Fu, Yongping

    High-quality metal halide perovskite single crystals have low defect densities and excellent photophysical properties, yet thin films are the most sought after material geometry for optoelectronic devices. Perovskite single-crystal thin films (SCTFs) would be highly desirable for high-performance devices, but their growth remains challenging, particularly for inorganic metal halide perovskites. Herein, we report the facile vapor-phase epitaxial growth of cesium lead bromide perovskite (CsPbBr 3) continuous SCTFs with controllable micrometer thickness, as well as nanoplate arrays, on traditional oxide perovskite SrTiO 3(100) substrates. Heteroepitaxial single-crystal growth is enabled by the serendipitous incommensurate lattice match between these two perovskites, and overcomingmore » the limitation of island-forming Volmer–Weber crystal growth is critical for growing large-area continuous thin films. Time-resolved photoluminescence, transient reflection spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements show that the CsPbBr 3 epitaxial thin film has a slow charge carrier recombination rate, low surface recombination velocity (10 4 cm s –1), and low defect density of 10 12 cm –3, which are comparable to those of CsPbBr 3 single crystals. This work suggests a general approach using oxide perovskites as substrates for heteroepitaxial growth of halide perovskites. Furthermore, the high-quality halide perovskite SCTFs epitaxially integrated with multifunctional oxide perovskites could open up opportunities for a variety of high-performance optoelectronics devices.« less

  2. Single-Crystal Thin Films of Cesium Lead Bromide Perovskite Epitaxially Grown on Metal Oxide Perovskite (SrTiO 3)

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Jie; Morrow, Darien J.; Fu, Yongping; ...

    2017-09-05

    High-quality metal halide perovskite single crystals have low defect densities and excellent photophysical properties, yet thin films are the most sought after material geometry for optoelectronic devices. Perovskite single-crystal thin films (SCTFs) would be highly desirable for high-performance devices, but their growth remains challenging, particularly for inorganic metal halide perovskites. Herein, we report the facile vapor-phase epitaxial growth of cesium lead bromide perovskite (CsPbBr 3) continuous SCTFs with controllable micrometer thickness, as well as nanoplate arrays, on traditional oxide perovskite SrTiO 3(100) substrates. Heteroepitaxial single-crystal growth is enabled by the serendipitous incommensurate lattice match between these two perovskites, and overcomingmore » the limitation of island-forming Volmer–Weber crystal growth is critical for growing large-area continuous thin films. Time-resolved photoluminescence, transient reflection spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements show that the CsPbBr 3 epitaxial thin film has a slow charge carrier recombination rate, low surface recombination velocity (10 4 cm s –1), and low defect density of 10 12 cm –3, which are comparable to those of CsPbBr 3 single crystals. This work suggests a general approach using oxide perovskites as substrates for heteroepitaxial growth of halide perovskites. Furthermore, the high-quality halide perovskite SCTFs epitaxially integrated with multifunctional oxide perovskites could open up opportunities for a variety of high-performance optoelectronics devices.« less

  3. Employing Lead Thiocyanate Additive to Reduce the Hysteresis and Boost the Fill Factor of Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Weijun; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Wang, Changlei

    2016-05-04

    Lead thiocyanate in the perovskite precursor can increase the grain size of a perovskite thin film and reduce the conductivity of the grain boundaries, leading to perovskite solar cells with reduced hysteresis and enhanced fill factor. A planar perovskite solar cell with grain boundary and interface passivation achieves a steady-state efficiency of 18.42%.

  4. Determination of the structural phase and octahedral rotation angle in halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Reis, Roberto; Yang, Hao; Ophus, Colin; Ercius, Peter; Bizarri, Gregory; Perrodin, Didier; Shalapska, Tetiana; Bourret, Edith; Ciston, Jim; Dahmen, Ulrich

    2018-02-01

    A key to the unique combination of electronic and optical properties in halide perovskite materials lies in their rich structural complexity. However, their radiation sensitive nature limits nanoscale structural characterization requiring dose efficient microscopic techniques in order to determine their structures precisely. In this work, we determine the space-group and directly image the Br halide sites of CsPbBr3, a promising material for optoelectronic applications. Based on the symmetry of high-order Laue zone reflections of convergent-beam electron diffraction, we identify the tetragonal (I4/mcm) structural phase of CsPbBr3 at cryogenic temperature. Electron ptychography provides a highly sensitive phase contrast measurement of the halide positions under low electron-dose conditions, enabling imaging of the elongated Br sites originating from the out-of-phase octahedral rotation viewed along the [001] direction of I4/mcm persisting at room temperature. The measurement of these features and comparison with simulations yield an octahedral rotation angle of 6.5°(±1.5°). The approach demonstrated here opens up opportunities for understanding the atomic scale structural phenomena applying advanced characterization tools on a wide range of radiation sensitive halide-based all-inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites.

  5. Determination of the structural phase and octahedral rotation angle in halide perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    dos Reis, Roberto; Yang, Hao; Ophus, Colin; ...

    2018-02-12

    A key to the unique combination of electronic and optical properties in halide perovskite materials lies in their rich structural complexity. However, their radiation sensitive nature limits nanoscale structural characterization requiring dose efficient microscopic techniques in order to determine their structures precisely. In this work, we determine the space-group and directly image the Br halide sites of CsPbBr 3, a promising material for optoelectronic applications. Based on the symmetry of high-order Laue zone reflections of convergent-beam electron diffraction, we identify the tetragonal (I4/mcm) structural phase of CsPbBr 3 at cryogenic temperature. Electron ptychography provides a highly sensitive phase contrast measurementmore » of the halide positions under low electron-dose conditions, enabling imaging of the elongated Br sites originating from the out-of-phase octahedral rotation viewed along the [001] direction of I4/mcm persisting at room temperature. The measurement of these features and comparison with simulations yield an octahedral rotation angle of 6.5°(±1.5°). Finally, the approach demonstrated here opens up opportunities for understanding the atomic scale structural phenomena applying advanced characterization tools on a wide range of radiation sensitive halide-based all-inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites.« less

  6. Pressure-Induced Phase Transformation, Reversible Amorphization, and Anomalous Visible Light Response in Organolead Bromide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonggang; Lü, Xujie; Yang, Wenge; Wen, Ting; Yang, Liuxiang; Ren, Xiangting; Wang, Lin; Lin, Zheshuai; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-09-02

    Hydrostatic pressure, as an alternative of chemical pressure to tune the crystal structure and physical properties, is a significant technique for novel function material design and fundamental research. In this article, we report the phase stability and visible light response of the organolead bromide perovskite, CH3NH3PbBr3 (MAPbBr3), under hydrostatic pressure up to 34 GPa at room temperature. Two phase transformations below 2 GPa (from Pm3̅m to Im3̅, then to Pnma) and a reversible amorphization starting from about 2 GPa were observed, which could be attributed to the tilting of PbBr6 octahedra and destroying of long-range ordering of MA cations, respectively. The visible light response of MAPbBr3 to pressure was studied by in situ photoluminescence, electric resistance, photocurrent measurements and first-principle simulations. The anomalous band gap evolution during compression with red-shift followed by blue-shift is explained by the competition between compression effect and pressure-induced amorphization. Along with the amorphization process accomplished around 25 GPa, the resistance increased by 5 orders of magnitude while the system still maintains its semiconductor characteristics and considerable response to the visible light irradiation. Our results not only show that hydrostatic pressure may provide an applicable tool for the organohalide perovskites based photovoltaic device functioning as switcher or controller, but also shed light on the exploration of more amorphous organometal composites as potential light absorber.

  7. The Origin of Uni-axial Negative Thermal Expansion in a Layered Perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablitt, Chris; Craddock, Sarah; Senn, Mark; Mostofi, Arash; Bristowe, Nicholas

    Using first-principles calculations within the quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA), we explain the origin of experimentally observed uni-axial negative thermal expansion (NTE) in a layered perovskite: the Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) oxide Ca2MnO4, which has anti-ferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures and is closely related to Ca3Mn2O7, which exhibits hybrid improper ferroelectricity and uni-axial NTE in competing phases. Dynamic tilts of MnO6 octahedra, common in many complex oxides, drive the expansion of the a axis and contraction of the c axis of the tetragonal NTE phase. We find that ferroelastic RP phases with a frozen octahedral rotation are unusually compliant to particular combinations of strains along different axes. The atomic mechanism responsible is characteristic of the perovskite/rock-salt interfaces present in the RP structure. We show that the contribution from this anisotropic elasticity must be taken into account in order to accurately predict NTE over the temperature range observed in experiment. A similar compliance to cooperative strains is found in other systems with uni-axial NTE. The development of this mechanistic understanding of NTE in complex oxides may pave the way for designing tunable multifunctional materials. The authors would like to acknowledge support from the EPSRC and the Centre for Doctoral Training in Theory and Simulation of Materials.

  8. A Long-Term View on Perovskite Optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Docampo, Pablo; Bein, Thomas

    2016-02-16

    Recently, metal halide perovskite materials have become an exciting topic of research for scientists of a wide variety of backgrounds. Perovskites have found application in many fields, starting from photovoltaics and now also making an impact in light-emitting applications. This new class of materials has proven so interesting since it can be easily solution processed while exhibiting materials properties approaching the best inorganic optoelectronic materials such as GaAs and Si. In photovoltaics, in only 3 years, efficiencies have rapidly increased from an initial value of 3.8% to over 20% in recent reports for the commonly employed methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) perovskite. The first light emitting diodes and light-emitting electrochemical cells have been developed already exhibiting internal quantum efficiencies exceeding 15% for the former and tunable light emission spectra. Despite their processing advantages, perovskite optoelectronic materials suffer from several drawbacks that need to be overcome before the technology becomes industrially relevant and hence achieve long-term application. Chief among these are the sensitivity of the structure toward moisture and crystal phase transitions in the device operation regime, unreliable device performance dictated by the operation history of the device, that is, hysteresis, the inherent toxicity of the structure, and the high cost of the employed charge selective contacts. In this Account, we highlight recent advances toward the long-term viability of perovskite photovoltaics. We identify material decomposition routes and suggest strategies to prevent damage to the structure. In particular, we focus on the effect of moisture upon the structure and stabilization of the material to avoid phase transitions in the solar cell operating range. Furthermore, we show strategies to achieve low-cost chemistries for the development of hole transporters for perovskite solar cells, necessary to be able to compete with other

  9. Stable High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Inorganic Electron Transporting Bi-layers.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hao; Zhao, Chen; Zhang, Yiqiang; Shao, Guosheng

    2018-06-27

    As one of the significant electron transporting materials (ETM) in efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PSCs), SnO<sub>2</sub> can collect/transfer photo-generated carriers produced in perovskite active absorbers and suppress the carrier recombination at interfaces. In this study, we demonstrate that mild solution-processed SnO<sub>2</sub> compact layer can be an eminent ETM for planar heterojunction PSCs. Here, the device based on chemical-bath-deposited SnO<sub>2</sub> electron transporting layer (ETL) exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.10% and with obvious hysteresis effect (hysteresis index=19.5%), owing to the accumulation and recombination of charge carriers at SnO<sub>2</sub>/perovskite interface. In order to improve the carrier dissociation and transport process, an ultrathin TiO<sub>2</sub> film was deposited on the top of SnO<sub>2</sub> ETL passivating nonradiative recombination center. The corresponding device based on TiO<sub>2</sub>@SnO<sub>2</sub> electron transporting bi-layer (ETBL) exhibited a high PCE (17.45%) and a negligible hysteresis effect (hysteresis index=1.5%). These findings indicate that this facile solution-processed TiO<sub>2</sub>@SnO<sub>2</sub> ETBL paves a scalable and inexpensive way for fabricating hysteresis-less and high-performance PSCs. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Photoinduced Bulk Polarization and Its Effects on Photovoltaic Actions in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Collins, Liam; Zhang, Jia; Lin, Pei-Ying; Ahmadi, Mahshid; Jesse, Stephen; Hu, Bin

    2017-11-28

    This article reports an experimental demonstration of photoinduced bulk polarization in hysteresis-free methylammonium (MA) lead-halide perovskite solar cells [ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/PCBM/PEI/Ag]. An anomalous capacitance-voltage (CV) signal is observed as a broad "shoulder" in the depletion region from -0.5 to +0.5 V under photoexcitation based on CV measurements where a dc bias is gradually scanned to continuously drift mobile ions in order to detect local polarization under a low alternating bias (50 mV, 5 kHz). Essentially, gradually scanning the dc bias and applying a low alternating bias can separately generate continuously drifting ions and a bulk CV signal from local polarization under photoexcitation. Particularly, when the device efficiency is improved from 12.41% to 18.19% upon chlorine incorporation, this anomalous CV signal can be enhanced by a factor of 3. This anomalous CV signal can be assigned as the signature of photoinduced bulk polarization by distinguishing from surface polarization associated with interfacial charge accumulation. Meanwhile, replacing easy-rotational MA + with difficult-rotational formamidinium (FA + ) cations largely minimizes such anomalous CV signal, suggesting that photoinduced bulk polarization relies on the orientational freedom of dipolar organic cations. Furthermore, a Kelvin probe force microscopy study shows that chlorine incorporation can suppress the density of charged defects and thus enhances photoinduced bulk polarization due to the reduced screening effect from charged defects. A bias-dependent photoluminescence study indicates that increasing bulk polarization can suppress carrier recombination by decreasing charge capture probability through the Coulombic screening effect. Clearly, our studies provide an insightful understanding of photoinduced bulk polarization and its effects on photovoltaic actions in perovskite solar cells.

  11. Structure of 18R shifted hexagonal perovskite La{sub 6}MgTi{sub 4}O{sub 18} revisited by neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Fengqi; Kuang, Xiaojun, E-mail: kuangxj@glut.edu.cn

    The structure of 18-layer shifted B-site deficient hexagonal perovskite La{sub 6}MgTi{sub 4}O{sub 18} compound has been re-examined by neutron powder diffraction. Structural analysis reveals that La{sub 6}MgTi{sub 4}O{sub 18} compound adopts a 18R octahedral-tilted structure with LaO{sub 3} layer stacking sequence of (hhcccc){sub 3} in space group R{sup {sup -}}3, in contrast with the previously proposed R3m. La{sub 6}MgTi{sub 4}O{sub 18} demonstrates partially ordered Mg cation distribution with a preference on the central octahedral sites over the outer octahedral sites in the cubic perovskite blocks isolated by the single vacant octahedral layers between the two consecutive hexagonal layers. The instabilitymore » of the La{sub 6}MgTi{sub 4}O{sub 18} on alumina ceramic substrate at high temperature and its dependencies of cell parameters and permittivity were characterized as well. - Graphical abstract: 18-layer shifted hexagonal perovskite La{sub 6}MgTi{sub 4}O{sub 18} adopts octahedral-tilted structure in R{sup {sup -}}3 and demonstrates partially ordered Mg distribution in the cubic perovskite blocks isolated by the vacant octahedral layers. - Highlights: • Neutron diffraction reveals an octahedra-tilted structure in R{sup {sup -}}3 for La{sub 6}MgTi{sub 4}O{sub 18}. • Mg/Ti distribution in La{sub 6}MgTi{sub 4}O{sub 18} is partially ordered in the perovskite blocks. • Instability of La{sub 6}MgTi{sub 4}O{sub 18} on alumina ceramic at high temperature is demonstrated.« less

  12. Exciton Dynamics of 2D Hybrid Perovskite Nanocrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui; Zhu, Zhuan; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Xiao, Kai; Bao, Jiming; Yao, Yan; Li, Wenzhi

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have emerged as promising materials for applications in photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Among the perovskites, two dimensional (2D) perovskites are of great interests due to their remarkable optical and electrical properties as well as the flexibility of material selection for the organic and inorganic moieties. In this study, we demonstrate the solution-phase growth of large square-shaped single-crystalline 2D hybrid perovskites of (C6H5C2H4 NH3) 2 PbBr4 with a few unit cells thickness. Compared to the bulk crystal, a band gap shift and new photoluminescence (PL) peak are observed from the hybrid perovskite sheets. Color of the 2D crystals can be tuned by adjusting the sheet thickness. Pump-probe spectroscopy is used to investigate the exciton dynamics and exhibits a biexponential decay with an amplitude-weighted lifetime of 16.7 ps. Such high-quality (C6H5C2H4 NH3) 2 PbBr4 sheets are expected to have high PL quantum efficiency which can be adopted for light-emitting devices. National Science Foundation (Grant No. CMMI-1334417 and DMR-1506640).

  13. Temperature Gradient-Induced Instability of Perovskite via Ion Transport.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Hong; Zhou, Feng; Dahan, Jeremy; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhengping; Shen, Wenzhong

    2018-01-10

    Perovskite has been known as a promising novel material for photovoltaics and other fields because of its excellent opto-electric properties and convenient fabrication. However, its stability has been a widely known haunting factor that has severely deteriorated its application in reality. In this work, it has been discovered for the first time that perovskite can become significantly chemically unstable with the existence of a temperature gradient in the system, even at temperature far below its thermal decomposition condition. A study of the detailed mechanism has revealed that the existence of a temperature gradient could induce a mass transport process of extrinsic ionic species into the perovskite layer, which enhances its decomposition process. Moreover, this instability could be effectively suppressed with a reduced temperature gradient by simple structural modification of the device. Further experiments have proved the existence of this phenomenon in different perovskites with various mainstream substrates, indicating the universality of this phenomenon in many previous studies and future research. Hopefully, this work may bring deeper understanding of its formation mechanisms and facilitate the general development of perovskite toward its real application.

  14. Electron–phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam D.; Verdi, Carla; Milot, Rebecca L.; Eperon, Giles E.; Pérez-Osorio, Miguel A.; Snaith, Henry J.; Giustino, Feliciano; Johnston, Michael B.; Herz, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Phonon scattering limits charge-carrier mobilities and governs emission line broadening in hybrid metal halide perovskites. Establishing how charge carriers interact with phonons in these materials is therefore essential for the development of high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaics and low-cost lasers. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of emission line broadening in the four commonly studied formamidinium and methylammonium perovskites, HC(NH2)2PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbBr3, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, and discover that scattering from longitudinal optical phonons via the Fröhlich interaction is the dominant source of electron–phonon coupling near room temperature, with scattering off acoustic phonons negligible. We determine energies for the interacting longitudinal optical phonon modes to be 11.5 and 15.3 meV, and Fröhlich coupling constants of ∼40 and 60 meV for the lead iodide and bromide perovskites, respectively. Our findings correlate well with first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, which underlines the suitability of an electronic band-structure picture for describing charge carriers in hybrid perovskites. PMID:27225329

  15. Decreasing the electronic confinement in layered perovskites through intercalation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew D; Pedesseau, Laurent; Kepenekian, Mikaël; Smith, Ian C; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2017-03-01

    We show that post-synthetic small-molecule intercalation can significantly reduce the electronic confinement of 2D hybrid perovskites. Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we explain structural, optical, and electronic effects of intercalating highly polarizable molecules in layered perovskites designed to stabilize the intercalants. Polarizable molecules in the organic layers substantially alter the optical and electronic properties of the inorganic layers. By calculating the spatially resolved dielectric profiles of the organic and inorganic layers within the hybrid structure, we show that the intercalants afford organic layers that are more polarizable than the inorganic layers. This strategy reduces the confinement of excitons generated in the inorganic layers and affords the lowest exciton binding energy for an n = 1 perovskite of which we are aware. We also demonstrate a method for computationally evaluating the exciton's binding energy by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the exciton, which includes an ab initio determination of the material's dielectric profile across organic and inorganic layers. This new semi-empirical method goes beyond the imprecise phenomenological approximation of abrupt dielectric-constant changes at the organic-inorganic interfaces. This work shows that incorporation of polarizable molecules in the organic layers, through intercalation or covalent attachment, is a viable strategy for tuning 2D perovskites towards mimicking the reduced electronic confinement and isotropic light absorption of 3D perovskites while maintaining the greater synthetic tunability of the layered architecture.

  16. The origin of uniaxial negative thermal expansion in layered perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablitt, Chris; Craddock, Sarah; Senn, Mark S.; Mostofi, Arash A.; Bristowe, Nicholas C.

    2017-10-01

    Why is it that ABO3 perovskites generally do not exhibit negative thermal expansion (NTE) over a wide temperature range, whereas layered perovskites of the same chemical family often do? It is generally accepted that there are two key ingredients that determine the extent of NTE: the presence of soft phonon modes that drive contraction (have negative Grüneisen parameters); and anisotropic elastic compliance that predisposes the material to the deformations required for NTE along a specific axis. This difference in thermal expansion properties is surprising since both ABO3 and layered perovskites often possess these ingredients in equal measure in their high-symmetry phases. Using first principles calculations and symmetry analysis, we show that in layered perovskites there is a significant enhancement of elastic anisotropy due to symmetry breaking that results from the combined effect of layering and condensed rotations of oxygen octahedra. This feature, unique to layered perovskites of certain symmetry, is what allows uniaxial NTE to persist over a large temperature range. This fundamental insight means that symmetry and the elastic tensor can be used as descriptors in high-throughput screening and to direct materials design.

  17. Stabilized wide bandgap perovskite solar cells by tin substitution

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Zhibin; Rajagopal, Adharsh; Jo, Sae Byeok; ...

    2016-11-16

    Wide bandgap MAPb(I 1-yBr y) 3 perovskites show promising potential for application in tandem solar cells. However, unstable photovoltaic performance caused by phase segregation has been observed under illumination when y is above 0.2. Herein, we successfully demonstrate stabilization of the I/Br phase by partially replacing Pb 2+ with Sn 2+ and verify this stabilization with X-ray diffractometry and transient absorption spectroscopy. The resulting MAPb 0.75Sn 0.25(I 1-yBr y) 3 perovskite solar cells show stable photovoltaic performance under continuous illumination. Among these cells, the one based on MAPb 0.75Sn 0.25(I 0.4Br 0.6) 3 perovskite shows the highest efficiency of 12.59%more » with a bandgap of 1.73 eV, which make it a promising wide bandgap candidate for application in tandem solar cells. The engineering of internal bonding environment by partial Sn substitution is believed to be the main reason for making MAPb 0.75Sn 0.25(I 1-yBr y) 3 perovskite less vulnerable to phase segregation during the photostriction under illumination. Furthermore, this study establishes composition engineering of the metal site as a promising strategy to impart phase stability in hybrid perovskites under illumination.« less

  18. Planar-Structure Perovskite Solar Cells with Efficiency beyond 21.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Chu, Zema; Wang, Pengyang; Yang, Xiaolei; Liu, Heng; Wang, Ye; Yin, Zhigang; Wu, Jinliang; Zhang, Xingwang; You, Jingbi

    2017-12-01

    Low temperature solution processed planar-structure perovskite solar cells gain great attention recently, while their power conversions are still lower than that of high temperature mesoporous counterpart. Previous reports are mainly focused on perovskite morphology control and interface engineering to improve performance. Here, this study systematically investigates the effect of precise stoichiometry, especially the PbI 2 contents on device performance including efficiency, hysteresis and stability. This study finds that a moderate residual of PbI 2 can deliver stable and high efficiency of solar cells without hysteresis, while too much residual PbI 2 will lead to serious hysteresis and poor transit stability. Solar cells with the efficiencies of 21.6% in small size (0.0737 cm 2 ) and 20.1% in large size (1 cm 2 ) with moderate residual PbI 2 in perovskite layer are obtained. The certificated efficiency for small size shows the efficiency of 20.9%, which is the highest efficiency ever recorded in planar-structure perovskite solar cells, showing the planar-structure perovskite solar cells are very promising. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. X-ray Scintillation in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Birowosuto, M. D.; Cortecchia, D.; Drozdowski, W.; Brylew, K.; Lachmanski, W.; Bruno, A.; Soci, C.

    2016-01-01

    Current technologies for X-ray detection rely on scintillation from expensive inorganic crystals grown at high-temperature, which so far has hindered the development of large-area scintillator arrays. Thanks to the presence of heavy atoms, solution-grown hybrid lead halide perovskite single crystals exhibit short X-ray absorption length and excellent detection efficiency. Here we compare X-ray scintillator characteristics of three-dimensional (3D) MAPbI3 and MAPbBr3 and two-dimensional (2D) (EDBE)PbCl4 hybrid perovskite crystals. X-ray excited thermoluminescence measurements indicate the absence of deep traps and a very small density of shallow trap states, which lessens after-glow effects. All perovskite single crystals exhibit high X-ray excited luminescence yields of >120,000 photons/MeV at low temperature. Although thermal quenching is significant at room temperature, the large exciton binding energy of 2D (EDBE)PbCl4 significantly reduces thermal effects compared to 3D perovskites, and moderate light yield of 9,000 photons/MeV can be achieved even at room temperature. This highlights the potential of 2D metal halide perovskites for large-area and low-cost scintillator devices for medical, security and scientific applications. PMID:27849019

  20. Size-Dependent Photon Emission from Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals Embedded in an Organic Matrix

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, organometal halide perovskite materials have attracted significant research interest in the field of optoelectronics. Here, we introduce a simple and low-temperature route for the formation of self-assembled perovskite nanocrystals in a solid organic matrix. We demonstrate that the size and photoluminescence peak of the perovskite nanocrystals can be tuned by varying the concentration of perovskite in the matrix material. The physical origin of the blue shift of the perovskite nanocrystals’ emission compared to its bulk phase is also discussed. PMID:25949773

  1. Role of organic and inorganic cations on thermal behavior of lead iodide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajan Kumar; Dash, Saumya R.; Kumar, Ranveer; Jain, Neha; Singh, Jai

    2018-04-01

    Recently, organic-inorganic perovskite materials have attracted much attention due to their enormous potential for use in future of new sustainable energy sources. However, fabrication of environmental friendly perovskite and achieving better stability is a major concern towards the commercialization. Here we study the role of cations in the perovskite powder and their influence upon thermodynamic stability. In this study we find, inorganic (cesium, Cs+) cation is shown to be more efficient in the thermal stabilization of the perovskite material than organic (methylamine, CH3NH2+) cation. This study reviles that stability of perovskite can be improved by incorporation of inorganic cation.

  2. Quantum mechanical studies of complex ferroelectric perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramer, Nicholas John

    In many electronic device applications, there is a need to interconvert electrical energy and other types of energy. Ferroelectric materials, which possess a voltage-dependent polarization, can enable this energy conversion process. Because of the broad interest in ferroelectric materials for these devices, there is a critical research effort, both experimental and theoretical, to understand these materials and aid in the development of materials with improved properties. This thesis presents detailed quantum mechanical investigations of the behavior of a complex ferroelectric perovskite under applied stress. In particular, we have chosen to study the solid solution PbZr1-xTix O3 (PZT). Since the study of ferroelectricity involves understanding both its structural and electronic signatures in materials, it has necessitated the development of a novel theoretical technique which improves the accuracy of the pseudopotentials used in our density functional theory calculations as well as a new method for constructing three-dimensional atomistic responses to small amounts of external stress. To examine the material's behavior under larger amounts of stress, we have studied the behavior of a composition of PZT lying near a structural phase boundary. On either side of the phase boundary, the material is characterized by a different polarization direction and may easily be switched between phases by applying external stress. In addition to stress-induced phase transitions, most ferroelectric materials also have composition dependent phase boundaries. Since different compositions of PZT would require increased computational effort, we have formulated an improved virtual crystal approach that makes tractable the study of the entire composition range. Using this method, we have been able to show for the first time via first-principles calculations, a composition dependent phase transition in a ferroelectric material. This thesis has accomplished three important goals: new

  3. The effect of A-site substitution on the structure and magnetism of Sr2-xPrxFeCoO6 (x = 0, 1, 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haripriya, G. R.; Chakraborty, Debamitra; Pradheesh, R.; Sankaranarayanan, V.; Sethupathi, K.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the variation of structure and magnetism observed with the A-site composition of the double perovskite oxide Sr2-xPrxFeCoO6 (x = 0, 1, 2). The lattice symmetry was found to be lowered from tetragonal (x = 0) to orthorhombic (x = 2). With a ratio 1:1 of Sr and Pr, a highly asymmetric monoclinic structure is observed. The magnetic behavior of the middle member (x = 1) shows resemblance with that of Sr2FeCoO6, indicating the effect of Sr in the dilution of rare earth magnetism.

  4. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  5. Crystal structures and high-temperature phase-transitions in SrNdMRuO{sub 6} (M=Zn,Co,Mg,Ni) new double perovskites studied by symmetry-mode analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Iturbe-Zabalo, E., E-mail: iturbe@ill.fr; Fisika Aplikatua II Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao; Igartua, J.M.

    2013-02-15

    Crystal structures of SrNdZnRuO{sub 6}, SrNdCoRuO{sub 6}, SrNdMgRuO{sub 6} and SrNdNiRuO{sub 6} double perovskites have been studied by X-ray, synchrotron radiation and neutron powder diffraction method, at different temperatures, and using the symmetry-mode analysis. All compounds adopt the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n at room-temperature, and contain a completely ordered array of the tilted MO{sub 6} and RuO{sub 6} octahedra, whereas Sr/Nd cations are completely disordered. The analysis of the structures in terms of symmetry-adapted modes of the parent phase allows the identification of the modes responsible for the phase-transition. The high-temperature study (300-1250 K) has shown that the compoundsmore » present a temperature induced structural phase-transition: P2{sub 1}/n{yields}P4{sub 2}/n{yields}Fm3{sup Macron }m. - Graphical abstract: Representation of the dominant distortion modes of the symmetry mode decomposition of the room-temperature (P2{sub 1}/n), intermediate (P4{sub 2}/n) and cubic (Fm-3m) phase SrNdMRuO{sub 6} (M=Zn,Co,Mg,Ni), with respect to the parent phase Fm-3m. The dominant distortion modes are: in the monoclinic phase-GM{sub 4}{sup +} (blue arrow), X{sub 3}{sup +} (green arrow) and X{sub 5}{sup +} acting on A-site cations (red arrow); in the tetragonal phase-GM{sub 4}{sup +} (pink arrow), X{sub 3}{sup +} (light blue arrow) and X{sub 5}{sup +} acting on A-site cations (brown arrow). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural study of four ruthenate double perovskites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Room-temperature structural determination using symmetry-mode procedure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of temperature induced structural phase-transitions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Symmetry adapted-mode analysis.« less

  6. Efficient semitransparent perovskite solar cells for 23.0%-efficiency perovskite/silicon four-terminal tandem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bo; Bai, Yang; Yu, Zhengshan

    Here, we have investigated semi-transparent perovskite solar cells and infrared enhanced silicon heterojunction cells for high-efficiency tandem devices. A semi-transparent metal electrode with good electrical conductivity and optical transparency has been fabricated by thermal evaporation of 7 nm of Au onto a 1-nm-thick Cu seed layer. For this electrode to reach its full potential, MAPbI3 thin films were formed by a modified one-step spin-coating method, resulting in a smooth layer that allowed the subsequent metal thin film to remain continuous. The fabricated semi-transparent perovskite solar cells demonstrated 16.5% efficiency under one-sun illumination, and were coupled with infrared-enhanced silicon heterojunction cellsmore » tuned specifically for perovskite/Si tandem devices. A double-layer antireflection coating at the front side and MgF2 reflector at rear side of the silicon heterojunction cells reduced parasitic absorption of near-infrared light, leading to 6.5% efficiency after filtering with a perovskite device and 23.0% summed efficiency for the perovskite/Si tandem device.« less

  7. Efficient semitransparent perovskite solar cells for 23.0%-efficiency perovskite/silicon four-terminal tandem cells

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Bo; Bai, Yang; Yu, Zhengshan; ...

    2016-07-19

    Here, we have investigated semi-transparent perovskite solar cells and infrared enhanced silicon heterojunction cells for high-efficiency tandem devices. A semi-transparent metal electrode with good electrical conductivity and optical transparency has been fabricated by thermal evaporation of 7 nm of Au onto a 1-nm-thick Cu seed layer. For this electrode to reach its full potential, MAPbI3 thin films were formed by a modified one-step spin-coating method, resulting in a smooth layer that allowed the subsequent metal thin film to remain continuous. The fabricated semi-transparent perovskite solar cells demonstrated 16.5% efficiency under one-sun illumination, and were coupled with infrared-enhanced silicon heterojunction cellsmore » tuned specifically for perovskite/Si tandem devices. A double-layer antireflection coating at the front side and MgF2 reflector at rear side of the silicon heterojunction cells reduced parasitic absorption of near-infrared light, leading to 6.5% efficiency after filtering with a perovskite device and 23.0% summed efficiency for the perovskite/Si tandem device.« less

  8. Paintable Carbon-Based Perovskite Solar Cells with Engineered Perovskite/Carbon Interface Using Carbon Nanotubes Dripping Method.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jaehoon; Lee, Kisu; Yun, Juyoung; Yu, Haejun; Lee, Jungsup; Jang, Jyongsik

    2017-10-01

    Paintable carbon electrode-based perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are of particular interest due to their material and fabrication process costs, as well as their moisture stability. However, printing the carbon paste on the perovskite layer limits the quality of the interface between the perovskite layer and carbon electrode. Herein, an attempt to enhance the performance of the paintable carbon-based PSCs is made using a modified solvent dripping method that involves dripping of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which is dispersed in chlorobenzene solution. This method allows CNTs to penetrate into both the perovskite film and carbon electrode, facilitating fast hole transport between the two layers. Furthermore, this method is results in increased open circuit voltage (V oc ) and fill factor (FF), providing better contact at the perovskite/carbon interfaces. The best devices made with CNT dripping show 13.57% power conversion efficiency and hysteresis-free performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Mantle dynamics in super-Earths: Post-perovskite rheology and self-regulation of viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, P. J.; Ammann, M.; Brodholt, J. P.; Dobson, D. P.; Valencia, D.

    2013-07-01

    The discovery of extra-solar "super-Earth" planets with sizes up to twice that of Earth has prompted interest in their possible lithosphere and mantle dynamics and evolution. Simple scalings suggest that super-Earths are more likely than an equivalent Earth-sized planet to be undergoing plate tectonics. Generally, viscosity and thermal conductivity increase with pressure while thermal expansivity decreases, resulting in lower convective vigour in the deep mantle, which, if extralopated to the largest super-Earths might, according to conventional thinking, result in no convection in their deep mantles due to the very low effective Rayleigh number. Here we evaluate this. First, as the mantle of a super-Earth is made mostly of post-perovskite we here extend the density functional theory (DFT) calculations of post-perovskite activation enthalpy of to a pressure of 1 TPa, for both slowest diffusion (upper-bound rheology) and fastest diffusion (lower-bound rheology) directions. Along a 1600 K adiabat the upper-bound rheology would lead to a post-perovskite layer of a very high (˜1030 Pa s) but relatively uniform viscosity, whereas the lower-bound rheology leads to a post-perovskite viscosity increase of ˜7 orders of magnitude with depth; in both cases the deep mantle viscosity would be too high for convection. Second, we use these DFT-calculated values in statistically steady-state numerical simulations of mantle convection and lithosphere dynamics of planets with up to ten Earth masses. The models assume a compressible mantle including depth-dependence of material properties and plastic yielding induced plate-like lithospheric behaviour. Results confirm the likelihood of plate tectonics for planets with Earth-like surface conditions (temperature and water) and show a self-regulation of deep mantle temperature. The deep mantle is not adiabatic; instead feedback between internal heating, temperature and viscosity regulates the temperature such that the viscosity has the

  10. Intercalated organic-inorganic perovskites stabilized by fluoroaryl-aryl interactions.

    PubMed

    Mitzi, David B; Medeiros, David R; Malenfant, Patrick R L

    2002-04-22

    Crystals of several new hybrid tin(II) iodide-based perovskites, involving 2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorophenethylammonium or phenethylammonium cation bilayers and intercalated aryl or perfluoroaryl molecules, were grown by slow evaporation of a methanol solution containing the hybrid perovskite and the intercalating species. The (C(6)F(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)H(6)) structure was solved at -75 degrees C in a monoclinic C2/c subcell [a = 41.089(12) A, b = 6.134(2) A, c = 12.245(3) A, beta = 94.021(5) degrees, Z = 4] and consists of sheets of corner-sharing distorted SnI(6) octahedra separated by bilayers of pentafluorophenethylammonium cations. The intercalated benzene molecules form a single well-ordered layer interposed between adjacent fluoroaryl cation layers. The corresponding hybrid with an unfluorinated organic cation and fluorinated intercalating molecule, (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)F(6)), is isostructural [a = 40.685(4) A, b = 6.0804(6) A, c = 12.163(1) A, beta = 93.136(2) degrees, Z = 4]. For each intercalated system, close C...C contacts (3.44-3.50 A) between the aromatic cation and the intercalated molecule are indicative of a significant face-to-face interaction, similar to that found in the complex C(6)H(6).C(6)F(6). Crystal growth runs with the organic cation and prospective intercalating molecule either both fluorinated or both unfluorinated did not yield stable intercalated compounds, demonstrating the significance of fluoroaryl-aryl interactions in the current intercalated structures. Thermal analysis of (C(6)F(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)H(6)) and (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)F(6)) crystals yields, in addition to the characteristic transitions of the parent perovskite, endothermic transitions [12.6(5) and 32.1(8) kJ/mol, respectively] with an onset at 145 degrees C and a weight loss corresponding to the complete loss of the intercalated molecule. The relatively high deintercalation temperature (well above the boiling point of

  11. Structure-property relationships: Synthesis and characterization of Perovskite-related transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaley, Louis

    ; A B-site ordered double perovskite with an unusual a+b+c+ Glazer octahedral tilt system was synthesized, SrFe1/4Re3/4O 3; single crystals of two anhydrous 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMI) salts, EMI octamolybdate, (C6H11N2) 4Mo8O26; and EMI decatungstate, (C6H 11N2)4W10O32; and single crystals of an incommensurate modulated phase, "Sr3CoRh2O 9-delta", with a structure comprising two interpenetrating modulated lattices. Properties of the phases are also reported.

  12. Fast Postmoisture Treatment of Luminescent Perovskite Films for Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoran; Li, Xiaomin; Yuan, Mingjian; Yang, Xuyong

    2018-04-01

    Despite the recent advances in the performance of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs), the effects of water on the perovskite emissive layer and its electroluminescence are still unclear, even though it has been previously demonstrated that moisture has a significant impact on the quality of perovskite films in the fabrication process of perovskite solar cells and is a prerequisite for obtaining high-performance PeLEDs. Here, the effects of postmoisture on the luminescent CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 (MAPbBr 3 ) perovskite films are systematically investigated. It is found that postmoisture treatment can efficiently control the morphology and growth of perovskite films and only a fast moisture exposure at a 60% high relative humidity results in significantly improved crystallinity, carrier lifetime, and photoluminescence quantum yield of perovskite films. With the optimized moisture-treated perovskite films, a high-performance PeLED is fabricated, exhibiting a maximum current efficiency of 20.4 cd A -1 , which is an almost 20-fold enhancement when compared with perovskite films without moisture treatment. The results provide valuable insights into the moisture-assisted growth of luminescent perovskite films and will aid in the development of high-performance perovskite light-emitting devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Atomically thin two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites.

    PubMed

    Dou, Letian; Wong, Andrew B; Yu, Yi; Lai, Minliang; Kornienko, Nikolay; Eaton, Samuel W; Fu, Anthony; Bischak, Connor G; Ma, Jie; Ding, Tina; Ginsberg, Naomi S; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A Paul; Yang, Peidong

    2015-09-25

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which have proved to be promising semiconductor materials for photovoltaic applications, have been made into atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) sheets. We report the solution-phase growth of single- and few-unit-cell-thick single-crystalline 2D hybrid perovskites of (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4 with well-defined square shape and large size. In contrast to other 2D materials, the hybrid perovskite sheets exhibit an unusual structural relaxation, and this structural change leads to a band gap shift as compared to the bulk crystal. The high-quality 2D crystals exhibit efficient photoluminescence, and color tuning could be achieved by changing sheet thickness as well as composition via the synthesis of related materials. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Atomically thin two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Letian; Wong, Andrew B.; Yu, Yi; Lai, Minliang; Kornienko, Nikolay; Eaton, Samuel W.; Fu, Anthony; Bischak, Connor G.; Ma, Jie; Ding, Tina; Ginsberg, Naomi S.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Yang, Peidong

    2015-09-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which have proved to be promising semiconductor materials for photovoltaic applications, have been made into atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) sheets. We report the solution-phase growth of single- and few-unit-cell-thick single-crystalline 2D hybrid perovskites of (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4 with well-defined square shape and large size. In contrast to other 2D materials, the hybrid perovskite sheets exhibit an unusual structural relaxation, and this structural change leads to a band gap shift as compared to the bulk crystal. The high-quality 2D crystals exhibit efficient photoluminescence, and color tuning could be achieved by changing sheet thickness as well as composition via the synthesis of related materials.

  15. Solution-Phase Synthesis of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dandan; Eaton, Samuel W; Yu, Yi; Dou, Letian; Yang, Peidong

    2015-07-29

    Halide perovskites have attracted much attention over the past 5 years as a promising class of materials for optoelectronic applications. However, compared to hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, the study of their pure inorganic counterparts, like cesium lead halides (CsPbX3), lags far behind. Here, a catalyst-free, solution-phase synthesis of CsPbX3 nanowires (NWs) is reported. These NWs are single-crystalline, with uniform growth direction, and crystallize in the orthorhombic phase. Both CsPbBr3 and CsPbI3 are photoluminescence active, with composition-dependent temperature and self-trapping behavior. These NWs with a well-defined morphology could serve as an ideal platform for the investigation of fundamental properties and the development of future applications in nanoscale optoelectronic devices based on all-inorganic perovskites.

  16. A polymer scaffold for self-healing perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yicheng; Wei, Jing; Li, Heng; Yan, Yin; Zhou, Wenke; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Advancing of the lead halide perovskite solar cells towards photovoltaic market demands large-scale devices of high-power conversion efficiency, high reproducibility and stability via low-cost fabrication technology, and in particular resistance to humid environment for long-time operation. Here we achieve uniform perovskite film based on a novel polymer-scaffold architecture via a mild-temperature process. These solar cells exhibit efficiency of up to ~16% with small variation. The unencapsulated devices retain high output for up to 300 h in highly humid environment (70% relative humidity). Moreover, they show strong humidity resistant and self-healing behaviour, recovering rapidly after removing from water vapour. Not only the film can self-heal in this case, but the corresponding devices can present power conversion efficiency recovery after the water vapour is removed. Our work demonstrates the value of cheap, long chain and hygroscopic polymer scaffold in perovskite solar cells towards commercialization.

  17. Local Polar Fluctuations in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yaffe, Omer; Guo, Yinsheng; Tan, Liang Z.

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid lead-halide perovskites have emerged as an excellent class of photovoltaic materials. Recent reports suggest that the organic molecular cation is responsible for local polar fluctuations that inhibit carrier recombination. We combine low-frequency Raman scattering with first-principles molecular dynamics (MD) to study the fundamental nature of these local polar fluctuations. Our observations of a strong central peak in the cubic phase of both hybrid (CH3NH3PbBr3) and all-inorganic (CsPbBr3) leadhalide perovskites show that anharmonic, local polar fluctuations are intrinsic to the general lead-halide perovskite structure, and not unique to the dipolar organic cation. MD simulations indicate that head-tohead Cs motion coupledmore » to Br face expansion, occurring on a few hundred femtosecond time scale, drives the local polar fluctuations in CsPbBr3.« less

  18. Lasing from lead halide perovskite semiconductor microcavity system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Da, Peimei; Zhang, Zhe; Luo, Song; Liao, Liming; Sun, Zeyuan; Shen, Xuechu; Wu, Shiwei; Zheng, Gengfeng; Chen, Zhanghai

    2018-06-07

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductors are ideal gain media for fabricating laser and photonic devices due to high absorption, photoluminescence (PL) efficiency and low nonradiative recombination losses. Herein, organic-inorganic halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 is embedded in the Fabry-Perot (FP) microcavity, and a wavelength-tunable excitonic lasing with a threshold of 12.9 μJ cm-2 and the spectral coherence of 0.76 nm are realized. The lasing threshold decreases and the spectral coherence enhances as the temperature decreases; these results are ascribed to the suppression of exciton irradiative recombination caused by thermal fluctuation. Moreover, both lasing and light emission below threshold from the perovskite microcavity (PM) system demonstrate a redshift with the decreasing temperature. These results provide a feasible platform based on the PM system for the study of light-matter interaction for quantum optics and the development of optoelectronic devices such as polariton lasers.

  19. Intrinsic white-light emission from layered hybrid perovskites.

    PubMed

    Dohner, Emma R; Jaffe, Adam; Bradshaw, Liam R; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2014-09-24

    We report on the second family of layered perovskite white-light emitters with improved photoluminescence quantum efficiencies (PLQEs). Upon near-ultraviolet excitation, two new Pb-Cl and Pb-Br perovskites emit broadband "cold" and "warm" white light, respectively, with high color rendition. Emission from large, single crystals indicates an origin from the bulk material and not surface defect sites. The Pb-Br perovskite has a PLQE of 9%, which is undiminished after 3 months of continuous irradiation. Our mechanistic studies indicate that the emission has contributions from strong electron-phonon coupling in a deformable lattice and from a distribution of intrinsic trap states. These hybrids provide a tunable platform for combining the facile processability of organic materials with the structural definition of crystalline, inorganic solids.

  20. Exciton localization in solution-processed organolead trihalide perovskites

    PubMed Central

    He, Haiping; Yu, Qianqian; Li, Hui; Li, Jing; Si, Junjie; Jin, Yizheng; Wang, Nana; Wang, Jianpu; He, Jingwen; Wang, Xinke; Zhang, Yan; Ye, Zhizhen

    2016-01-01

    Organolead trihalide perovskites have attracted great attention due to the stunning advances in both photovoltaic and light-emitting devices. However, the photophysical properties, especially the recombination dynamics of photogenerated carriers, of this class of materials are controversial. Here we report that under an excitation level close to the working regime of solar cells, the recombination of photogenerated carriers in solution-processed methylammonium–lead–halide films is dominated by excitons weakly localized in band tail states. This scenario is evidenced by experiments of spectral-dependent luminescence decay, excitation density-dependent luminescence and frequency-dependent terahertz photoconductivity. The exciton localization effect is found to be general for several solution-processed hybrid perovskite films prepared by different methods. Our results provide insights into the charge transport and recombination mechanism in perovskite films and help to unravel their potential for high-performance optoelectronic devices. PMID:26996605

  1. Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Structural Versatility for Functional Materials Design.

    PubMed

    Saparov, Bayrammurad; Mitzi, David B

    2016-04-13

    Although known since the late 19th century, organic-inorganic perovskites have recently received extraordinary research community attention because of their unique physical properties, which make them promising candidates for application in photovoltaic (PV) and related optoelectronic devices. This review will explore beyond the current focus on three-dimensional (3-D) lead(II) halide perovskites, to highlight the great chemical flexibility and outstanding potential of the broader class of 3-D and lower dimensional organic-based perovskite family for electronic, optical, and energy-based applications as well as fundamental research. The concept of a multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid, in which the organic and inorganic structural components provide intentional, unique, and hopefully synergistic features to the compound, represents an important contemporary target.

  2. Chemical Stabilization of Perovskite Solar Cells with Functional Fulleropyrrolidines

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    While perovskite solar cells have invigorated the photovoltaic research community due to their excellent power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), these devices notably suffer from poor stability. To address this crucial issue, a solution-processable organic chemical inhibition layer (OCIL) was integrated into perovskite solar cells, resulting in improved device stability and a maximum PCE of 16.3%. Photoenhanced self-doping of the fulleropyrrolidine mixture in the interlayers afforded devices that were advantageously insensitive to OCIL thickness, ranging from 4 to 190 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that the fulleropyrrolidine mixture improved device stability by stabilizing the metal electrode and trapping ionic defects (i.e., I–) that originate from the perovskite active layer. Moreover, degraded devices were rejuvenated by repeatedly peeling away and replacing the OCIL/Ag electrode, and this repeel and replace process resulted in further improvement to device stability with minimal variation of device efficiency. PMID:29532021

  3. Chemical Stabilization of Perovskite Solar Cells with Functional Fulleropyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Page, Zachariah A; Zhou, Dongming; Duzhko, Volodimyr V; Kittilstved, Kevin R; Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas P

    2018-02-28

    While perovskite solar cells have invigorated the photovoltaic research community due to their excellent power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), these devices notably suffer from poor stability. To address this crucial issue, a solution-processable organic chemical inhibition layer (OCIL) was integrated into perovskite solar cells, resulting in improved device stability and a maximum PCE of 16.3%. Photoenhanced self-doping of the fulleropyrrolidine mixture in the interlayers afforded devices that were advantageously insensitive to OCIL thickness, ranging from 4 to 190 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that the fulleropyrrolidine mixture improved device stability by stabilizing the metal electrode and trapping ionic defects (i.e., I - ) that originate from the perovskite active layer. Moreover, degraded devices were rejuvenated by repeatedly peeling away and replacing the OCIL/Ag electrode, and this repeel and replace process resulted in further improvement to device stability with minimal variation of device efficiency.

  4. A polymer scaffold for self-healing perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yicheng; Wei, Jing; Li, Heng; Yan, Yin; Zhou, Wenke; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Advancing of the lead halide perovskite solar cells towards photovoltaic market demands large-scale devices of high-power conversion efficiency, high reproducibility and stability via low-cost fabrication technology, and in particular resistance to humid environment for long-time operation. Here we achieve uniform perovskite film based on a novel polymer-scaffold architecture via a mild-temperature process. These solar cells exhibit efficiency of up to ∼16% with small variation. The unencapsulated devices retain high output for up to 300 h in highly humid environment (70% relative humidity). Moreover, they show strong humidity resistant and self-healing behaviour, recovering rapidly after removing from water vapour. Not only the film can self-heal in this case, but the corresponding devices can present power conversion efficiency recovery after the water vapour is removed. Our work demonstrates the value of cheap, long chain and hygroscopic polymer scaffold in perovskite solar cells towards commercialization. PMID:26732479

  5. A polymer scaffold for self-healing perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yicheng; Wei, Jing; Li, Heng; Yan, Yin; Zhou, Wenke; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Qing

    2016-01-06

    Advancing of the lead halide perovskite solar cells towards photovoltaic market demands large-scale devices of high-power conversion efficiency, high reproducibility and stability via low-cost fabrication technology, and in particular resistance to humid environment for long-time operation. Here we achieve uniform perovskite film based on a novel polymer-scaffold architecture via a mild-temperature process. These solar cells exhibit efficiency of up to ∼ 16% with small variation. The unencapsulated devices retain high output for up to 300 h in highly humid environment (70% relative humidity). Moreover, they show strong humidity resistant and self-healing behaviour, recovering rapidly after removing from water vapour. Not only the film can self-heal in this case, but the corresponding devices can present power conversion efficiency recovery after the water vapour is removed. Our work demonstrates the value of cheap, long chain and hygroscopic polymer scaffold in perovskite solar cells towards commercialization.

  6. Los Alamos Discovers Super Efficient Solar Using Perovskite Crystals

    ScienceCinema

    Mohite, Aditya; Nie, Wanyi

    2018-05-11

    State-of-the-art photovoltaics using high-purity, large-area, wafer-scale single-crystalline semiconductors grown by sophisticated, high temperature crystal-growth processes offer promising routes for developing low-cost, solar-based clean global energy solutions for the future. Solar cells composed of the recently discovered material organic-inorganic perovskites offer the efficiency of silicon, yet suffer from a variety of deficiencies limiting the commercial viability of perovskite photovoltaic technology. In research to appear in Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers reveal a new solution-based hot-casting technique that eliminates these limitations, one that allows for the growth of high-quality, large-area, millimeter-scale perovskite crystals and demonstrates that highly efficient and reproducible solar cells with reduced trap assisted recombination can be realized.

  7. Local polar fluctuations in lead halide perovskite crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Yaffe, Omer; Guo, Yinsheng; Tan, Liang Z.; ...

    2017-03-28

    Hybrid lead-halide perovskites have emerged as an excellent class of photovoltaic materials. Recent reports suggest that the organic molecular cation is responsible for local polar fluctuations that inhibit carrier recombination. We combine low-frequency Raman scattering with first-principles molecular dynamics (MD) to study the fundamental nature of these local polar fluctuations. Our observations of a strong central peak in the cubic phase of both hybrid (CH 3NH 3PbBr 3) and all-inorganic (CsPbBr 3) lead-halide perovskites show that anharmonic, local polar fluctuations are intrinsic to the general lead-halide perovskite structure, and not unique to the dipolar organic cation. Furthermore, MD simulations indicatemore » that head-to-head Cs motion coupled to Br face expansion, occurring on a few hundred femtosecond time scale, drives the local polar fluctuations in CsPbBr 3.« less

  8. Specific features of nonvalent interactions in orthorhombic perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serezhkin, V. N.; Pushkin, D. V.; Serezhkina, L. B.

    2014-07-01

    It is established that isostructural orthorhombic perovskites ABO3 (sp. gr. Pnma in different systems, no. 62, Z = 4), depending on the specificity of nonvalent interactions (which determine the combinatorial-topological type of the Voronoi-Dirichlet polyhedra (VDPs) of four basis atoms), are divided into ten different stereotypes. It is shown by the example of 259 perovskites belonging to the DyCrO3 stereotype that VDP characteristics can be used to quantitatively estimate the distortion of BO6 octahedra, including that caused by the Jahn-Teller effect. It is found that one of the causes of the distortion of the coordination polyhedra of atoms in the structure of orthorhombic perovskites is heteroatomic metal-metal interactions, for which the interatomic distances are much shorter than the sum of the Slater radii of A and B atoms.

  9. Research progress on organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials and solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Luis K.; Qi, Yabing

    2018-03-01

    Owing to the intensive research efforts across the world since 2009, perovskite solar cell power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) are now comparable or even better than several other photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In this topical review article, we review recent progress in the field of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials and solar cells. We associate these achievements with the fundamental knowledge gained in the perovskite research. The major recent advances in the fundamental perovskite material and solar cell research are highlighted, including the current efforts in visualizing the dynamical processes (in operando) taking place within a perovskite solar cell under operating conditions. We also discuss the existing technological challenges. Based on a survey of recently published works, we point out that to move the perovskite PV technology forward towards the next step of commercialization, what perovskite PV technology need the most in the coming next few years is not only further PCE enhancements, but also up-scaling, stability, and lead-toxicity.

  10. Suppressed decomposition of organometal halide perovskites by impermeable electron-extraction layers in inverted solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmann, K.O.; Zhao, J.; Pourdavoud, N.; Becker, T.; Hu, T.; Olthof, S.; Meerholz, K.; Hoffmann, L.; Gahlmann, T.; Heiderhoff, R.; Oszajca, M. F.; Luechinger, N. A.; Rogalla, D.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, B.; Riedl, T

    2017-01-01

    The area of thin-film photovoltaics has been overwhelmed by organometal halide perovskites. Unfortunately, serious stability concerns arise with perovskite solar cells. For example, methyl-ammonium lead iodide is known to decompose in the presence of water and, more severely, even under inert conditions at elevated temperatures. Here, we demonstrate inverted perovskite solar cells, in which the decomposition of the perovskite is significantly mitigated even at elevated temperatures. Specifically, we introduce a bilayered electron-extraction interlayer consisting of aluminium-doped zinc oxide and tin oxide. We evidence tin oxide grown by atomic layer deposition does form an outstandingly dense gas permeation barrier that effectively hinders the ingress of moisture towards the perovskite and—more importantly—it prevents the egress of decomposition products of the perovskite. Thereby, the overall decomposition of the perovskite is significantly suppressed, leading to an outstanding device stability. PMID:28067308

  11. Ultrasmooth Perovskite Film via Mixed Anti-Solvent Strategy with Improved Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yu; Yang, Songwang; Lei, Lei; Cao, Qipeng; Shao, Jun; Zhang, Sheng; Liu, Yan

    2017-02-01

    Most antisolvents employed in previous research were miscible with perovskite precursor solution. They always led to fast formation of perovskite even if the intermediate stage existed, which was not beneficial to obtain high quality perovskite films and made the formation process less controllable. In this work, a novel ethyl ether/n-hexane mixed antisolvent (MAS) was used to achieve high nucleation density and slow down the formation process of perovskite, producing films with improved orientation of grains and ultrasmooth surfaces. These high quality films exhibited efficient charge transport at the interface of perovskite/hole transport material and perovskite solar cells based on these films showed greatly improved performance with the best power conversion efficiency of 17.08%. This work also proposed a selection principle of MAS and showed that solvent engineering by designing the mixed antisolvent system can lead to the fabrication of high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  12. Ab initio study of perovskite type oxide materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin

    2011-12-01

    Perovskite type oxides form a family of materials of significant interest for cathodes and electrolytes of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). These perovskites not only are active catalysts for surface oxygen reduction (OR) reactions but also allow incorporating the spilt oxygen monomers into their bulk, an unusual and poorly understood catalytic mechanism that couples surface and bulk properties. The OR mechanisms can be influenced strongly by defects in perovskite oxides, composition, and surface defect structures. This thesis work initiates a first step in developing a general strategy based on first-principles calculations for detailed control of oxygen vacancy content, transport rates of surface and bulk oxygen species, and surface/interfacial reaction kinetics. Ab initio density functional theory methods are used to model properties relevant for the OR reactions on SOFC cathodes. Three main research thrusts, which focus on bulk defect chemistry, surface defect structures and surface energetics, and surface catalytic properties, are carried to investigate different level of material chemistry for improved understanding of key physics/factors that govern SOFC cathode OR activity. In the study of bulk defect chemistry, an ab initio based defect model is developed for modeling defect chemistry of LaMnO 3 under SOFC conditions. The model suggests an important role for defect interactions, which are typically excluded in previous defect models. In the study of surface defect structures and surface energetics, it is shown that defect energies change dramatically (1˜2 eV lower) from bulk values near surfaces. Based on the existing bulk defect model with the calculated ab initio surface defect energetics, we predict the (001) MnO 2 surface oxygen vacancy concentration of (La0.9Sr0.1 )MnO3 is about 5˜6 order magnitude higher than that of the bulk under typical SOFC conditions. Finally, for surface catalytic properties, we show that area specific resistance, oxygen

  13. Pin-Hole Free Perovskite Film for Solar Cells Application Prepared by Controlled Two-Step Spin-Coating Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahtiar, A.; Rahmanita, S.; Inayatie, Y. D.

    2017-05-01

    Morphology of perovskite film is a key important for achieving high performance perovskite solar cells. Perovskite films are commonly prepared by two-step spin-coating method. However, pin-holes are frequently formed in perovskite films due to incomplete conversion of lead-iodide (PbI2) into perovskite CH3NH3PbI3. Pin-holes in perovskite film cause large hysteresis in current-voltage curve of solar cells due to large series resistance between perovskite layer-hole transport material. Moreover, crystal structure and grain size of perovskite crystal are also other important parameters for achieving high performance solar cells, which are significantly affected by preparation of perovskite film. We studied the effect of preparation of perovskite film using controlled spin-coating parameters on crystal structure and morphological properties of perovskite film. We used two-step spin-coating method for preparation of perovskite film with varied spinning speed, spinning time and temperature of spin-coating process to control growth of perovskite crystal aimed to produce high quality perovskite crystal with pin-hole free and large grain size. All experiment was performed in air with high humidity (larger than 80%). The best crystal structure, pin-hole free with large grain crystal size of perovskite film was obtained from film prepared at room temperature with spinning speed 1000 rpm for 20 seconds and annealed at 100°C for 300 seconds.

  14. Guanidinium: A Route to Enhanced Carrier Lifetime and Open-Circuit Voltage in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Nicholas; Zhou, Huanping; Chen, Qi; Sun, Pengyu; Liu, Zonghao; Meng, Lei; Yao, En-Ping; Liu, Yongsheng; Schiffer, Andy; Yang, Yang

    2016-02-10

    Hybrid perovskites have shown astonishing power conversion efficiencies owed to their remarkable absorber characteristics including long carrier lifetimes, and a relatively substantial defect tolerance for solution-processed polycrystalline films. However, nonradiative charge carrier recombination at grain boundaries limits open circuit voltages and consequent performance improvements of perovskite solar cells. Here we address such recombination pathways and demonstrate a passivation effect through guanidinium-based additives to achieve extraordinarily enhanced carrier lifetimes and higher obtainable open circuit voltages. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements yield carrier lifetimes in guanidinium-based films an order of magnitude greater than pure-methylammonium counterparts, giving rise to higher device open circuit voltages and power conversion efficiencies exceeding 17%. A reduction in defect activation energy of over 30% calculated via admittance spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence intensity mapping indicates successful passivation of recombination/trap centers at grain boundaries. We speculate that guanidinium ions serve to suppress formation of iodide vacancies and passivate under-coordinated iodine species at grain boundaries and within the bulk through their hydrogen bonding capability. These results present a simple method for suppressing nonradiative carrier loss in hybrid perovskites to further improve performances toward highly efficient solar cells.

  15. Density Functional Studies of Stoichiometric Surfaces of Orthorhombic Hybrid Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yun; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G.; ...

    2014-12-19

    Organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite materials are highly attractive for dye-sensitized solar cells as demonstrated by their rapid advances in energy conversion efficiency. In this work, the structures, energetics, and electronic properties for a range of stoichiometric surfaces of the orthorhombic perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 are theoretically studied using density functional theory. Various possible spatially and constitutionally isomeric surfaces are considered by diversifying the spatial orientations and connectivities of surface Pb-I bonds. The comparison of the surface energies for the most stable configurations identified for various surfaces shows that the stabilities of stoichiometric surfaces are mainly dictated by the coordination numbers of surface atoms,more » which are directly correlated with the numbers of broken bonds. Additionally, Coulombic interactions between I anions and organic countercations on the surface also contribute to the stabilization. Electronic properties are compared between the most stable (100) surface and the bulk phase, showing generally similar features except for the lifted band degeneracy and the enhanced bandgap energy for the surface. These studies on the stoichiometric surfaces serve as the first step toward gaining a fundamental understanding of the interfacial properties in the current structural design of perovskite based solar cells, in order to achieve further breakthroughs in solar conversion efficiencies.« less

  16. Extremely Low Operating Current Resistive Memory Based on Exfoliated 2D Perovskite Single Crystals for Neuromorphic Computing.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Zhao, Lianfeng; Wang, Xuefeng; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Yao, Nan; Rand, Barry P; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-12-26

    Extremely low energy consumption neuromorphic computing is required to achieve massively parallel information processing on par with the human brain. To achieve this goal, resistive memories based on materials with ionic transport and extremely low operating current are required. Extremely low operating current allows for low power operation by minimizing the program, erase, and read currents. However, materials currently used in resistive memories, such as defective HfO x , AlO x , TaO x , etc., cannot suppress electronic transport (i.e., leakage current) while allowing good ionic transport. Here, we show that 2D Ruddlesden-Popper phase hybrid lead bromide perovskite single crystals are promising materials for low operating current nanodevice applications because of their mixed electronic and ionic transport and ease of fabrication. Ionic transport in the exfoliated 2D perovskite layer is evident via the migration of bromide ions. Filaments with a diameter of approximately 20 nm are visualized, and resistive memories with extremely low program current down to 10 pA are achieved, a value at least 1 order of magnitude lower than conventional materials. The ionic migration and diffusion as an artificial synapse is realized in the 2D layered perovskites at the pA level, which can enable extremely low energy neuromorphic computing.

  17. Diode-Pumped Organo-Lead Halide Perovskite Lasing in a Metal-Clad Distributed Feedback Resonator.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yufei; Kerner, Ross A; Grede, Alex J; Brigeman, Alyssa N; Rand, Barry P; Giebink, Noel C

    2016-07-13

    Organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite semiconductors have recently reignited the prospect of a tunable, solution-processed diode laser, which has the potential to impact a wide range of optoelectronic applications. Here, we demonstrate a metal-clad, second-order distributed feedback methylammonium lead iodide perovskite laser that marks a significant step toward this goal. Optically pumping this device with an InGaN diode laser at low temperature, we achieve lasing above a threshold pump intensity of 5 kW/cm(2) for durations up to ∼25 ns at repetition rates exceeding 2 MHz. We show that the lasing duration is not limited by thermal runaway and propose instead that lasing ceases under continuous pumping due to a photoinduced structural change in the perovskite that reduces the gain on a submicrosecond time scale. Our results indicate that the architecture demonstrated here could provide the foundation for electrically pumped lasing with a threshold current density Jth < 5 kA/cm(2) under sub-20 ns pulsed drive.

  18. Alloying n-Butylamine into CsPbBr3 to Give a Two-Dimensional Bilayered Perovskite Ferroelectric Material.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenyue; Ji, Chengmin; Li, Lina; Kong, Jintao; Sun, Zhihua; Zhao, Sangen; Wang, Sasa; Hong, Maochun; Luo, Junhua

    2018-05-11

    Cesium-lead halide perovskites (e.g. CsPbBr 3 ) have gained attention because of their rich physical properties, but their bulk ferroelectricity remains unexplored. Herein, by alloying flexible organic cations into the cubic CsPbBr 3 , we design the first cesium-based two-dimensional (2D) perovskite ferroelectric material with both inorganic alkali metal and organic cations, (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 CsPb 2 Br 7 (1). Strikingly, 1 shows a high Curie temperature (T c =412 K) above that of BaTiO 3 (ca. 393 K) and notable spontaneous polarization (ca. 4.2 μC cm -2 ), triggered by not only the ordering of organic cations but also atomic displacement of inorganic Cs + ions. To our knowledge, such a 2D bilayered Cs + -based metal-halide perovskite ferroelectric material with inorganic and organic cations is unprecedented. 1 also shows photoelectric semiconducting behavior with large "on/off" ratios of photoconductivity (>10 3 ). © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Insights into the structure–photoreactivity relationships in well-defined perovskite ferroelectric KNbO 3 nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Tingting; Lei, Wanying; Liu, Ping; ...

    2015-04-23

    Structure–function correlations are a central theme in heterogeneous (photo)catalysis. In this study, the geometric and electronic structure of perovskite ferroelectric KNbO 3 nanowires with respective orthorhombic and monoclinic polymorphs have been systematically addressed. By virtue of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, we directly visualize surface photocatalytic active sites, measure local atomic displacements at an accuracy of several picometers, and quantify ferroelectric polarization combined with first-principles calculations. The photoreactivity of the as-prepared KNbO 3 nanowires is assessed toward aqueous rhodamine B degradation under UV light. A synergy between the ferroelectric polarization and electronic structure in photoreactivity enhancement is uncovered, which accountsmore » for the prominent reactivity order: orthorhombic > monoclinic. Additionally, by identifying new photocatalytic products, rhodamine B degradation pathways involving N-deethylation and conjugated structure cleavage are proposed. The findings not only provide new insights into the structure–photoreactivity relationships in perovskite ferroelectric photocatalysts, but also have broad implications in perovskite-based water splitting and photovoltaics, among others.« less

  20. Bifacial Perovskite Solar Cells Featuring Semitransparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hanmandlu, Chintam; Chen, Chien-Yu; Boopathi, Karunakara Moorthy; Lin, Hao-Wu; Lai, Chao-Sung; Chu, Chih-Wei

    2017-09-27

    Inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are promising devices for providing future clean energy because of their low cost, ease of fabrication, and high efficiencies, similar to those of silicon solar cells. These materials have been investigated for their potential use in bifacial PSCs, which can absorb light from both sides of the electrodes. Here, we fabricated bifacial PSCs featuring transparent BCP/Ag/MoO 3 rear electrodes, which we formed through low-temperature processing using thermal evaporation methods. We employed a comprehensive optical distribution program to calculate the distributions of the optical field intensities with constant thicknesses of the absorbing layer in the top electrode configuration. The best PSC having a transparent BCP/Ag/MoO 3 electrode achieved PCEs of 13.49% and 9.61% when illuminated from the sides of the indium tin oxide and BCP/Ag/MoO 3 electrodes, respectively. We observed significant power enhancement when operating this PSC using mirror reflectors and bifacial light illumination from both sides of the electrodes.

  1. Excitonic Effects in Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xihan; Lu, Haipeng; Yang, Ye; Beard, Matthew C

    2018-05-17

    The exciton binding energy in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI 3 ) is about 10 meV, around 1/3 of the available thermal energy ( k B T ∼ 26 meV) at room temperature. Thus, exciton populations are not stable at room temperature at moderate photoexcited carrier densities. However, excitonic resonances dominate the absorption onset. Furthermore, these resonances determine the transient absorbance and transient reflectance spectra. The exciton binding energy is a reflection of the Coulomb interaction energy between photoexcited electrons and holes. As such, it serves as a marker for the strength of electron/hole interactions and impacts a variety of phenomena, such as, absorption, radiative recombination, and Auger recombination. In this Perspective, we discuss the role of excitons and excitonic resonances in the optical properties of lead-halide perovskite semiconductors. Finally, we discuss how the strong light-matter interactions induce an optical stark effect splitting the doubly spin degenerate ground exciton states and are easily observed at room temperature.

  2. A hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chiho; Huan, Tran Doan; Krishnan, Sridevi; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) have been attracting a great deal of attention due to their versatility of electronic properties and fabrication methods. We prepare a dataset of 1,346 HOIPs, which features 16 organic cations, 3 group-IV cations and 4 halide anions. Using a combination of an atomic structure search method and density functional theory calculations, the optimized structures, the bandgap, the dielectric constant, and the relative energies of the HOIPs are uniformly prepared and validated by comparing with relevant experimental and/or theoretical data. We make the dataset available at Dryad Digital Repository, NoMaD Repository, and Khazana Repository (http://khazana.uconn.edu/), hoping that it could be useful for future data-mining efforts that can explore possible structure-property relationships and phenomenological models. Progressive extension of the dataset is expected as new organic cations become appropriate within the HOIP framework, and as additional properties are calculated for the new compounds found.

  3. Large Thermal Motion in Halide Perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Tyson, T. A.; Gao, W.; Chen, Y. -S.; ...

    2017-08-24

    Solar cells based on hybrid perovskites have shown high efficiency while possessing simple processing methods. To gain a fundamental understanding of their properties on an atomic level, we investigate single crystals of CH 3NH 3PbI 3 with a narrow transition (~5 K) near 327 K. Temperature dependent structural measurements reveal a persistent tetragonal structure with smooth changes in the atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) on crossing T*. We show that the ADPs for I ions yield extended flat regions in the potential wells consistent with the measured large thermal expansion parameter. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that this material exhibits significant asymmetriesmore » in the Pb-I pair distribution functions. We also show that the intrinsically enhanced freedom of motion of the iodine atoms enables large deformations. This flexibility (softness) of the atomic structure results in highly localized atomic relaxation about defects and hence accounts for both the high carrier mobility as well as the structural instability.« less

  4. Topological Oxide Insulator in Cubic Perovskite Structure

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hosub; Rhim, Sonny H.; Im, Jino; Freeman, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of topologically protected conducting states with the chiral spin texture is the most prominent feature at the surface of topological insulators. On the application side, large band gap and high resistivity to distinguish surface from bulk degrees of freedom should be guaranteed for the full usage of the surface states. Here, we suggest that the oxide cubic perovskite YBiO3, more than just an oxide, defines itself as a new three-dimensional topological insulator exhibiting both a large bulk band gap and a high resistivity. Based on first-principles calculations varying the spin-orbit coupling strength, the non-trivial band topology of YBiO3 is investigated, where the spin-orbit coupling of the Bi 6p orbital plays a crucial role. Taking the exquisite synthesis techniques in oxide electronics into account, YBiO3 can also be used to provide various interface configurations hosting exotic topological phenomena combined with other quantum phases. PMID:23575973

  5. Effect of aluminium on the compressibility of silicate perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Isabelle; Bass, Jay D.; Fiquet, Guillaume; Cardon, Hervé; Zhang, Jianzhong; Hanfland, Michael

    2004-08-01

    Volume measurements for aluminous MgSiO3 perovskite containing 5 mol% Al2O3 were carried out up to pressures of 40 GPa at ambient temperature, using monochromatic synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A least-squares refinement of the data to the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state yields the following parameters V0 = 163.234(8) Å3, KT0 = 251.5(13) GPa, K'0 = 4. Within uncertainties, the presence of 5 mol% Al2O3 in MgSiO3 perovskite induces a decrease of the bulk modulus in the range of 0% to 1.8%. Thus, KT of perovskite is affected little if at all by the presence of Al3+. This result is in excellent agreement with the values deduced from sound velocity measurements on the same sample [Jackson et al., 2004]. We discuss the possible origin of discrepancies among the different bulk moduli reported to date for aluminous perovskite. In light of recent calculations, our results are consistent with aluminium being dissolved in MgSiO3 perovskite through a coupled substitution mechanism involving the replacement of both Mg2+ and Si4+ in the dodecahedral and octahedral sites by 2 Al3+. Moreover, any slight reduction in the bulk modulus of MgSiO3 perovskite induced by the dissolution of 5 mol% Al2O3, indicates that the relative proportions of the minerals characteristic of the lower mantle, as inferred from seismological models, should not be significantly altered by the introduction of Al in the system.

  6. Overcoming the Photovoltage Plateau in Large Bandgap Perovskite Photovoltaics

    DOE PAGES

    Rajagopal, Adharsh; Stoddard, Ryan J.; Jo, Sae Byeok; ...

    2018-05-07

    Development of large bandgap (1.80−1.85 eV Eg) perovskite is crucial for perovskite−perovskite tandem solar cells. However, the performance of 1.80−1.85 eV Eg perovskite solar cells (PVKSCs) are significantly lagging their counterparts in the 1.60−1.75 eV Eg range. This is because the photovoltage (Voc) does not proportionally increase with Eg due to lower optoelectronic quality of conventional (MA,FA,Cs)Pb(I,Br)3 and results in a photovoltage plateau (Voc limited to 80% of the theoretical limit for ∼1.8 eV Eg). Here, we incorporate phenyl- ethylammonium (PEA) in a mixed-halide perovskite composition to solve the inherent material-level challenges in 1.80−1.85 eV Eg perovskites. The amount ofmore » PEA incorporation governs the topography and optoelectronic properties of resultant films. Detailed structural and spectroscopic characterization reveal the characteristic trends in crystalline size, orientation, and charge carrier recombination dynamics and rationalize the origin of improved material quality with higher luminescence. With careful interface optimization, the improved material characteristics were translated to devices and Voc values of 1.30−1.35 V were achieved, which correspond to 85−87% of the theoretical limit. Using an optimal amount of PEA incorporation to balance the increase in Voc and the decrease in charge collection, a highest power conversion efficiency of 12.2% was realized. Our results clearly overcome the photovoltage plateau in the 1.80−1.85 eV Eg range and represent the highest Voc achieved for mixed-halide PVKSCs. This study provides widely translatable insights, an important breakthrough, and a promising platform for next- generation perovskite tandems.« less

  7. Overcoming the Photovoltage Plateau in Large Bandgap Perovskite Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopal, Adharsh; Stoddard, Ryan J.; Jo, Sae Byeok

    Development of large bandgap (1.80−1.85 eV Eg) perovskite is crucial for perovskite−perovskite tandem solar cells. However, the performance of 1.80−1.85 eV Eg perovskite solar cells (PVKSCs) are significantly lagging their counterparts in the 1.60−1.75 eV Eg range. This is because the photovoltage (Voc) does not proportionally increase with Eg due to lower optoelectronic quality of conventional (MA,FA,Cs)Pb(I,Br)3 and results in a photovoltage plateau (Voc limited to 80% of the theoretical limit for ∼1.8 eV Eg). Here, we incorporate phenyl- ethylammonium (PEA) in a mixed-halide perovskite composition to solve the inherent material-level challenges in 1.80−1.85 eV Eg perovskites. The amount ofmore » PEA incorporation governs the topography and optoelectronic properties of resultant films. Detailed structural and spectroscopic characterization reveal the characteristic trends in crystalline size, orientation, and charge carrier recombination dynamics and rationalize the origin of improved material quality with higher luminescence. With careful interface optimization, the improved material characteristics were translated to devices and Voc values of 1.30−1.35 V were achieved, which correspond to 85−87% of the theoretical limit. Using an optimal amount of PEA incorporation to balance the increase in Voc and the decrease in charge collection, a highest power conversion efficiency of 12.2% was realized. Our results clearly overcome the photovoltage plateau in the 1.80−1.85 eV Eg range and represent the highest Voc achieved for mixed-halide PVKSCs. This study provides widely translatable insights, an important breakthrough, and a promising platform for next- generation perovskite tandems.« less

  8. Partial nitrogen loss in SrTaO2N and LaTiO2N oxynitride perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daixi; Habu, Daiki; Masubuchi, Yuji; Torii, Shuki; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kikkawa, Shinichi

    2016-04-01

    SrTaO2N heated in a helium atmosphere began to release nitrogen of approximately 30 at% at 950 °C while maintaining the perovskite structure and its color changed from orange to dark green. Then it decomposed above 1200 °C to a black mixture of Sr1.4Ta0.6O2.73, Ta2N, and Sr5Ta4O15. The second decomposition was not clearly observed when SrTaO2N was heated in a nitrogen atmosphere below 1550 °C. After heating at 1500 °C for 3 h under a 0.2 MPa nitrogen atmosphere, the perovskite product became dark green and conductive. Structure refinement results suggested that the product was a mixture of tetragonal and cubic perovskites with a decreased ordering of N3-/O2-. The sintered body was changed to an n-type semiconductor after a partial loss of nitrogen to be reduced from the originally insulating SrTaO2N perovskite lattice. LaTiO2N was confirmed to have a similar cis-configuration of the TiO4N2 octahedron as that of TaO4N2 in SrTaO2N. It also released some of its nitrogen at 800 °C changing its color from brown to black and then decomposed to a mixture of LaTiO3, La2O3, and TiN at 1100 °C. These temperatures are lower than those in SrTaO2N.

  9. The effect of moisture on the structures and properties of lead halide perovskites: a first-principles theoretical investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Ju, Ming-Gang; Liang, WanZhen

    2016-08-17

    With efficiencies exceeding 20% and low production costs, lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have become potential candidates for future commercial applications. However, there are serious concerns about their long-term stability and environmental friendliness, heavily related to their commercial viability. Herein, we present a theoretical investigation based on the ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations and the first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate the effects of sunlight and moisture on the structures and properties of MAPbI3 perovskites. AIMD simulations have been performed to simulate the impact of a few water molecules on the structures of MAPbI3 surfaces terminated in three different ways. The evolution of geometric and electronic structures as well as the absorption spectra has been shown. It is found that the PbI2-terminated surface is the most stable while both the MAI-terminated and PbI2-defective surfaces undergo structural reconstruction, leading to the formation of hydrated compounds in a humid environment. The moisture-induced weakening of photoabsorption is closely related to the formation of hydrated species, and the hydrated crystals MAPbI3·H2O and MA4PbI6·2H2O scarcely absorb the visible light. The electronic excitation in the bare and water-absorbed MAPbI3 nanoparticles tends to weaken Pb-I bonds, especially those around water molecules, and the maximal decrease of photoexcitation-induced bond order can reach up to 20% in the excited state in which the water molecules are involved in the electronic excitation, indicating the accelerated decomposition of perovskites in the presence of sunlight and moisture. This work is valuable for understanding the mechanism of chemical or photochemical instability of MAPbI3 perovskites in the presence of moisture.

  10. Anharmonicity and Disorder in the Black Phases of Cesium Lead Iodide Used for Stable Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Marronnier, Arthur; Roma, Guido; Boyer-Richard, Soline; Pedesseau, Laurent; Jancu, Jean-Marc; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Katan, Claudine; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Even, Jacky

    2018-04-24

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites emerged as a new generation of absorber materials for high-efficiency low-cost solar cells in 2009. Very recently, fully inorganic perovskite quantum dots also led to promising efficiencies, making them a potentially stable and efficient alternative to their hybrid cousins. Currently, the record efficiency is obtained with CsPbI 3 , whose crystallographical characterization is still limited. Here, we show through high-resolution in situ synchrotron XRD measurements that CsPbI 3 can be undercooled below its transition temperature and temporarily maintained in its perovskite structure down to room temperature, stabilizing a metastable perovskite polytype (black γ-phase) crucial for photovoltaic applications. Our analysis of the structural phase transitions reveals a highly anisotropic evolution of the individual lattice parameters versus temperature. Structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of all the experimentally observed black phases are further inspected based on several theoretical approaches. Whereas the black γ-phase is shown to behave harmonically around equilibrium, for the tetragonal phase, density functional theory reveals the same anharmonic behavior, with a Brillouin zone-centered double-well instability, as for the cubic phase. Using total energy and vibrational entropy calculations, we highlight the competition between all the low-temperature phases of CsPbI 3 (γ, δ, β) and show that avoiding the order-disorder entropy term arising from double-well instabilities is key to preventing the formation of the yellow perovskitoid phase. A symmetry-based tight-binding model, validated by self-consistent GW calculations including spin-orbit coupling, affords further insight into their electronic properties, with evidence of Rashba effect for both cubic and tetragonal phases when using the symmetry-breaking structures obtained through frozen phonon calculations.

  11. Ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy of lead halide perovskite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idowu, Mopelola A.; Yau, Sung H.; Varnavski, Oleg; Goodson, Theodore

    2015-09-01

    Recently, lead halide perovskites which are organic-inorganic hybrid structures, have been discovered to be highly efficient as light absorbers. Herein, we show the investigation of the excited state dynamics and emission properties of non-stoichiometric precursor formed lead halide perovskites grown by interdiffusion method using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements. The influence of the different ratios of the non-stoichiometric precursor solution was examined. The observed photoluminescence properties were correlated with the femtosecond transient absorption measurements.

  12. Methods for producing single crystal mixed halide perovskites

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Yixin

    2017-07-11

    An aspect of the present invention is a method that includes contacting a metal halide and a first alkylammonium halide in a solvent to form a solution and maintaining the solution at a first temperature, resulting in the formation of at least one alkylammonium halide perovskite crystal, where the metal halide includes a first halogen and a metal, the first alkylammonium halide includes the first halogen, the at least one alkylammonium halide perovskite crystal includes the metal and the first halogen, and the first temperature is above about 21.degree. C.

  13. Perovskite Solar Cells and Devices at EPFL Valais Wallis.

    PubMed

    Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-09-22

    Stability required! Perovskite solar cells have emerged as one of the most exciting fields of research, owing to their impressive rise in power conversion efficiency surpassing 22% in six short years of research. Current research is focused on ways to improve stability of perovskite-based devices, a key characteristic required to bring this technology from the lab into the market. In this Editorial, guest editor Prof. Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin describes the context of this Special Issue, and summarizes the work being performed in his research group toward this low-cost near-future photovoltaic technology. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Electrocatalytic performances of LaNi1-xMgxO3 perovskite oxides as bi-functional catalysts for lithium air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zhenzhen; Yang, Peng; Wang, Long; Lu, Yuhao; Goodenough, J. B.; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Dawei

    2014-11-01

    Mg-doped perovskite oxides LaNi1-xMgxO3 (x = 0, 0.08, 0.15) electrocatalysts are synthesized by a sol-gel method using citric acid as complex agent and ethylene glycol as thickening agent. The intrinsic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity of as-prepared perovskite oxides in aqueous electrolyte are examined on a rotating disk electrode (RDE) set up. Li-air primary batteries on the basis of Mg-doped perovskite oxides LaNi1-xMgxO3 (x = 0, 0.08, 0.15) and nonaqueous electrolyte are also fabricated and tested. In terms of the ORR current densities and OER current densities, the performance is enhanced in the order of LaNiO3, LaNi0.92Mg0.08O3 and LaNi0.85Mg0.15O3. Most notably, partially substituting nickel with magnesium suppresses formation of Ni2+ and ensures high concentration of both OER and ORR reaction energy favorable Ni3+ (eg = 1) on the surface of perovskite catalysts. Nonaqueous Li-air primary battery using LaNi0.92Mg0.08O3 and LaNi0.85Mg0.15O3 as the cathode catalysts exhibit improved performances compared with LaNiO3 catalyst, which are consistent with the ORR current densities.

  15. Optical determination of Shockley-Read-Hall and interface recombination currents in hybrid perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Sarritzu, Valerio; Sestu, Nicola; Marongiu, Daniela; Chang, Xueqing; Masi, Sofia; Rizzo, Aurora; Colella, Silvia; Quochi, Francesco; Saba, Michele; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Metal-halide perovskite solar cells rival the best inorganic solar cells in power conversion efficiency, providing the outlook for efficient, cheap devices. In order for the technology to mature and approach the ideal Shockley-Queissier efficiency, experimental tools are needed to diagnose what processes limit performances, beyond simply measuring electrical characteristics often affected by parasitic effects and difficult to interpret. Here we study the microscopic origin of recombination currents causing photoconversion losses with an all-optical technique, measuring the electron-hole free energy as a function of the exciting light intensity. Our method allows assessing the ideality factor and breaks down the electron-hole recombination current into bulk defect and interface contributions, providing an estimate of the limit photoconversion efficiency, without any real charge current flowing through the device. We identify Shockley-Read-Hall recombination as the main decay process in insulated perovskite layers and quantify the additional performance degradation due to interface recombination in heterojunctions. PMID:28317883

  16. Slow cooling and highly efficient extraction of hot carriers in colloidal perovskite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingjie; Bhaumik, Saikat; Goh, Teck Wee; Kumar, Muduli Subas; Yantara, Natalia; Grätzel, Michael; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Mathews, Nripan; Sum, Tze Chien

    2017-02-08

    Hot-carrier solar cells can overcome the Schottky-Queisser limit by harvesting excess energy from hot carriers. Inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals are considered prime candidates. However, hot-carrier harvesting is compromised by competitive relaxation pathways (for example, intraband Auger process and defects) that overwhelm their phonon bottlenecks. Here we show colloidal halide perovskite nanocrystals transcend these limitations and exhibit around two orders slower hot-carrier cooling times and around four times larger hot-carrier temperatures than their bulk-film counterparts. Under low pump excitation, hot-carrier cooling mediated by a phonon bottleneck is surprisingly slower in smaller nanocrystals (contrasting with conventional nanocrystals). At high pump fluence, Auger heating dominates hot-carrier cooling, which is slower in larger nanocrystals (hitherto unobserved in conventional nanocrystals). Importantly, we demonstrate efficient room temperature hot-electrons extraction (up to ∼83%) by an energy-selective electron acceptor layer within 1 ps from surface-treated perovskite NCs thin films. These insights enable fresh approaches for extremely thin absorber and concentrator-type hot-carrier solar cells.

  17. Spontaneous Self-Assembly of Perovskite Nanocrystals into Electronically Coupled Supercrystals: Toward Filling the Green Gap.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yu; Yao, En-Ping; Manzi, Aurora; Bladt, Eva; Wang, Kun; Döblinger, Markus; Bals, Sara; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Urban, Alexander S; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Feldmann, Jochen

    2018-06-05

    Self-assembly of nanoscale building blocks into ordered nanoarchitectures has emerged as a simple and powerful approach for tailoring the nanoscale properties and the opportunities of using these properties for the development of novel optoelectronic nanodevices. Here, the one-pot synthesis of CsPbBr 3 perovskite supercrystals (SCs) in a colloidal dispersion by ultrasonication is reported. The growth of the SCs occurs through the spontaneous self-assembly of individual nanocrystals (NCs), which form in highly concentrated solutions of precursor powders. The SCs retain the high photoluminescence (PL) efficiency of their NC subunits, however also exhibit a redshifted emission wavelength compared to that of the individual nanocubes due to interparticle electronic coupling. This redshift makes the SCs pure green emitters with PL maxima at ≈530-535 nm, while the individual nanocubes emit a cyan-green color (≈512 nm). The SCs can be used as an emissive layer in the fabrication of pure green light-emitting devices on rigid or flexible substrates. Moreover, the PL emission color is tunable across the visible range by employing a well-established halide ion exchange reaction on the obtained CsPbBr 3 SCs. These results highlight the promise of perovskite SCs for light emitting applications, while providing insight into their collective optical properties. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Quantum chemical modeling of perovskite: An investigation of piezoelectricity in ferrite of yttrium.

    PubMed

    de Lira, Fábio Augusto M; Farias, Márcio de Souza; de Figueiredo, Antonio Florêncio; Gil, Fábio dos Santos; dos Santos, Marcos Antonio B; Malheiros, Bruno Veiga; Ferreira, João Elias V; Pinheiro, José Ciríaco; Treu-Filho, Oswaldo; Kondo, Rogério Toshiaki

    2011-07-01

    In a previous article, we used Hartree-Fock (HF) theory to study the piezoelectricity in BaTiO₃. In this paper, we applied the Douglas-Kroll-Hess second order scalar relativistic method to investigate the possible piezoelectric properties in the perovskite YFeO₃ structure, which has not yet been studied experimentally. The 30s20p13d and 31s21p17d Gaussian basis sets for the Fe (⁵D) and Y (²D) atoms, respectively, were built with the Generator Coordinate HF method. After contraction to [13s7p5d] and [13s8p7d], in combination with the 20s14p/6s4p basis set for the O (³P) atom from literature, they had their quality evaluated using calculations of the total and the orbital energies for the ²FeO⁺¹ and ¹YO⁺¹ fragments. The dipole moment, the total energy, and the total atomic charges in YFeO₃ in C(s) space group were calculated. The results and the analysis lead us to believe that the perovskite YFeO₃ does not present piezoelectric properties.

  19. Light-current-induced acceleration of degradation of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yuren; Zhang, Fan; He, Junjie; Lian, Jiarong; Zeng, Pengju; Song, Jun; Qu, Junle

    2018-04-01

    The photo-conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has been improved considerably in recent years, but the poor stability of PSCs still prevents their commercialization. In this report, we use the rate of the integrated short-circuit current change (Drate) to investigate the performance degradation kinetics and identify the degradation of PSCs that is accelerated by the light current. The value of Drate increases by an order of magnitude from about 0.02 to 0.35 mA cm-2·min-1 after light-IV testing. The accelerated degradation progress is proven to be dominated by the hydration process and the migration of the iodine ions of the light current. The migration of the iodine ions enhances the hydration process through a chain reaction, enabling the formation of fast diffusion channels for both H2O and O2, which induce the rapid decomposition of the perovskite film and increase the density of the trap state. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement data also indicate that the super oxygen may be formed due to the PCBM damage caused by the migration iodine ions. An understanding of the degradation acceleration mechanism would provide an insight into the effect of ion migration on the stability of PSCs.

  20. Slow cooling and highly efficient extraction of hot carriers in colloidal perovskite nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingjie; Bhaumik, Saikat; Goh, Teck Wee; Kumar, Muduli Subas; Yantara, Natalia; Grätzel, Michael; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Mathews, Nripan; Sum, Tze Chien

    2017-01-01

    Hot-carrier solar cells can overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit by harvesting excess energy from hot carriers. Inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals are considered prime candidates. However, hot-carrier harvesting is compromised by competitive relaxation pathways (for example, intraband Auger process and defects) that overwhelm their phonon bottlenecks. Here we show colloidal halide perovskite nanocrystals transcend these limitations and exhibit around two orders slower hot-carrier cooling times and around four times larger hot-carrier temperatures than their bulk-film counterparts. Under low pump excitation, hot-carrier cooling mediated by a phonon bottleneck is surprisingly slower in smaller nanocrystals (contrasting with conventional nanocrystals). At high pump fluence, Auger heating dominates hot-carrier cooling, which is slower in larger nanocrystals (hitherto unobserved in conventional nanocrystals). Importantly, we demonstrate efficient room temperature hot-electrons extraction (up to ∼83%) by an energy-selective electron acceptor layer within 1 ps from surface-treated perovskite NCs thin films. These insights enable fresh approaches for extremely thin absorber and concentrator-type hot-carrier solar cells. PMID:28176882

  1. Polar Fluctuations in Metal Halide Perovskites Uncovered by Acoustic Phonon Anomalies

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Peijun; Xia, Yi; Gong, Jue; ...

    2017-09-28

    Solution-processable metal-halide perovskites (MHPs) offer great promise for efficient light harvesting and emitting devices due to their long carrier lifetime and superior carrier transport characteristics. Ferroelectric effects, a hallmark of traditional oxide perovskites, was proposed to be a mechanism to suppress carrier recombination and enhance charge transport in MHPs, but the existence and influence of such polar order is still of considerable debate. Here we performed transient reflection measurements on single crystals of both inorganic and organic-inorganic (hybrid) MHPs over a range of temperatures, and demonstrate significant phonon softening in the cubic phases close to the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition temperatures.more » Such phonon softening indicates the formation of polar domains, which grow in size upon cooling and can persist in the low-temperature tetragonal and orthorhombic phases. Our results link the extraordinary electronic properties of MHPs to the spontaneous polarizations which can contribute to more efficient charge separation and characteristics of an indirect bandgap.« less

  2. Concentration dependent carriers dynamics in CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals film with transient grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yinghui; Wang, Yanting; Dev Verma, Sachin; Tan, Mingrui; Liu, Qinghui; Yuan, Qilin; Sui, Ning; Kang, Zhihui; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Han-Zhuang

    2017-05-01

    The concentration dependence of the carrier dynamics is a key parameter to describe the photo-physical properties of semiconductor films. Here, we investigate the carrier dynamics in the CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystal film by employing the transient grating (TG) technique with continuous bias light. The concentration of initial carriers is determined by the average number of photons per nanocrystals induced by pump light (⟨N⟩). The multi-body interaction would appear and accelerate the TG dynamics with ⟨N⟩. When ⟨N⟩ is more than 3.0, the TG dynamics slightly changes, which implies that the Auger recombination would be the highest order multi-body interaction in carrier recombination dynamics. The concentration of non-equilibrium carriers in the film is controlled by the average number of photons per nanocrystals excited by continuous bias light (⟨nne⟩). Increasing ⟨nne⟩ would improve the trapping-detrapping process by filling the trapping state, which would accelerate the carrier diffusion and add the complexity of the mono-molecular recombination mechanism. The results should be useful to further understand the mechanism of carrier dynamics in the CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystal film and of great importance for the operation of the corresponding optoelectronic devices.

  3. Spin-Orbit Dimers and Noncollinear Phases in d1 Cubic Double Perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romhányi, Judit; Balents, Leon; Jackeli, George

    2017-05-01

    We formulate and study a spin-orbital model for a family of cubic double perovskites with d1 ions occupying a frustrated fcc sublattice. A variational approach and a complementary analytical analysis reveal a rich variety of phases emerging from the interplay of Hund's rule and spin-orbit coupling. The phase digram includes noncollinear ordered states, with or without a net moment, and, remarkably, a large window of a nonmagnetic disordered spin-orbit dimer phase. The present theory uncovers the physical origin of the unusual amorphous valence bond state experimentally suggested for Ba2B Mo O6 (B =Y , Lu) and predicts possible ordered patterns in Ba2B Os O6 (B =Na , Li) compounds.

  4. On the energy scale involved in the metal to insulator transition of quadruple perovskite EuCu3Fe4O12: infrared spectroscopy and ab-initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Brière, B; Kalinko, A; Yamada, I; Roy, P; Brubach, J B; Sopracase, R; Zaghrioui, M; Phuoc, V Ta

    2016-06-27

    Optical measurements were carried out by infrared spectroscopy on AA'3B4O12 A-site ordered quadruple perovskite EuCu3Fe4O12 (microscopic sample) as function of temperature. At 240 K (=TMI), EuCu3Fe4O12 undergoes a very abrupt metal to insulator transition, a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition and an isostructural transformation with an abrupt large volume expansion. Above TMI, optical conductivity reveals a bad metal behavior and below TMI, an insulating phase with an optical gap of 125 meV is observed. As temperature is decreased, a large and abrupt spectral weight transfer toward an energy scale larger than 1 eV is detected. Concurrently, electronic structure calculations for both high and low temperature phases were compared to the optical conductivity results giving a precise pattern of the transition. Density of states and computed optical conductivity analysis identified Cu3dxy, Fe3d and O2p orbitals as principal actors of the spectral weight transfer. The present work constitutes a first step to shed light on EuCu3Fe4O12 electronic properties with optical measurements and ab-initio calculations.

  5. On the energy scale involved in the metal to insulator transition of quadruple perovskite EuCu3Fe4O12: infrared spectroscopy and ab-initio calculations

    PubMed Central

    Brière, B.; Kalinko, A.; Yamada, I.; Roy, P.; Brubach, J. B.; Sopracase, R.; Zaghrioui, M.; Phuoc, V. Ta

    2016-01-01

    Optical measurements were carried out by infrared spectroscopy on AA′3B4O12 A-site ordered quadruple perovskite EuCu3Fe4O12 (microscopic sample) as function of temperature. At 240 K (=TMI), EuCu3Fe4O12 undergoes a very abrupt metal to insulator transition, a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition and an isostructural transformation with an abrupt large volume expansion. Above TMI, optical conductivity reveals a bad metal behavior and below TMI, an insulating phase with an optical gap of 125 meV is observed. As temperature is decreased, a large and abrupt spectral weight transfer toward an energy scale larger than 1 eV is detected. Concurrently, electronic structure calculations for both high and low temperature phases were compared to the optical conductivity results giving a precise pattern of the transition. Density of states and computed optical conductivity analysis identified Cu3dxy, Fe3d and O2p orbitals as principal actors of the spectral weight transfer. The present work constitutes a first step to shed light on EuCu3Fe4O12 electronic properties with optical measurements and ab-initio calculations. PMID:27346212

  6. Structural evolution of the double perovskites Sr{sub 2}B'UO{sub 6} (B' = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) upon reduction: Magnetic behavior of the uranium cations

    SciTech Connect

    Pinacca, R.M., E-mail: rmp@unsl.edu.ar; Viola, M.C.; Pedregosa, J.C.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Evolution of the double perovskites Sr{sub 2}B'UO{sub 6} upon reduction were studied by XRPD. {yields} Orthorhombic (Pnma) disordered perovskites SrB'{sub 0.5-x}U{sub 0.5+x}O{sub 3} were obtained at 900 {sup o}C. {yields} U{sup 5+/4+} and Zn{sup 2+} cations are distributed at random over the octahedral positions. {yields} AFM ordering for the perovskite with B' = Zn appears below 30 K. -- Abstract: We describe the preparation of five perovskite oxides obtained upon reduction of Sr{sub 2}B'UO{sub 6} (B' = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) with H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (5%/95%) at 900 {sup o}C during 8 h, and their structural characterizationmore » by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). During the reduction process there is a partial segregation of the elemental metal when B' = Co, Ni, Fe, and the corresponding B'O oxide when B' = Mn, Zn. Whereas the parent, oxygen stoichiometric double perovskites Sr{sub 2}B'UO{sub 6} are long-range ordered concerning B' and U cations. The crystal structures of the reduced phases, SrB'{sub 0.5-x}U{sub 0.5+x}O{sub 3} with 0.37 < x < 0.27, correspond to simple, disordered perovskites; they are orthorhombic, space group Pnma (No. 62), with a full cationic disorder at the B site. Magnetic measurements performed on the phase with B' = Zn, indicate uncompensated antiferromagnetic ordering of the U{sup 5+}/U{sup 4+} sublattice below 30 K.« less

  7. Converged G W quasiparticle energies for transition metal oxide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergönenc, Zeynep; Kim, Bongjae; Liu, Peitao; Kresse, Georg; Franchini, Cesare

    2018-02-01

    The ab initio calculation of quasiparticle (QP) energies is a technically and computationally challenging problem. In condensed matter physics, the most widely used approach to determine QP energies is the G W approximation. Although the G W method has been widely applied to many typical semiconductors and insulators, its application to more complex compounds such as transition metal oxide perovskites has been comparatively rare, and its proper use is not well established from a technical point of view. In this work, we have applied the single-shot G0W0 method to a representative set of transition metal oxide perovskites including 3 d (SrTiO3, LaScO3, SrMnO3, LaTiO3, LaVO3, LaCrO3, LaMnO3, and LaFeO3), 4 d (SrZrO3, SrTcO3, and Ca2RuO4 ), and 5 d (SrHfO3, KTaO3, and NaOsO3) compounds with different electronic configurations, magnetic orderings, structural characteristics, and band gaps ranging from 0.1 to 6.1 eV. We discuss the proper procedure to obtain well-converged QP energies and accurate band gaps within single-shot G0W0 by comparing the conventional approach based on an incremental variation of a specific set of parameters (number of bands, energy cutoff for the plane-wave expansion and number of k points) and the basis-set extrapolation scheme [J. Klimeš et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 075125 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.075125]. Although the conventional scheme is not supported by a formal proof of convergence, for most cases it delivers QP energies in reasonably good agreement with those obtained by the basis-set correction procedure and it is by construction more useful for calculating band structures. In addition, we have inspected the difference between the adoption of norm-conserving and ultrasoft potentials in G W calculations and found that the norm violation for the d shell can lead to less accurate results in particular for charge-transfer systems and late transition metals. A minimal statistical analysis indicates that the correlation of the G W data

  8. Tailored Engineering of an Unusual (C4 H9 NH3 )2 (CH3 NH3 )2 Pb3 Br10 Two-Dimensional Multilayered Perovskite Ferroelectric for a High-Performance Photodetector.

    PubMed

    Li, Lina; Sun, Zhihua; Wang, Peng; Hu, Weida; Wang, Sasa; Ji, Chengmin; Hong, Maochun; Luo, Junhua

    2017-09-25

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered hybrid perovskites have shown great potential in optoelectronics, owing to their unique physical attributes. However, 2D hybrid perovskite ferroelectrics remain rare. The first hybrid ferroelectric with unusual 2D multilayered perovskite framework, (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 (CH 3 NH 3 ) 2 Pb 3 Br 10 (1), has been constructed by tailored alloying of the mixed organic cations into 3D prototype of CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 . Ferroelectricity is created through molecular reorientation and synergic ordering of organic moieties, which are unprecedented for the known 2D multilayered hybrid perovskites. Single-crystal photodetectors of 1 exhibit fascinating performances, including extremely low dark currents (ca. 10 -12  A), large on/off current ratios (ca. 2.5×10 3 ), and very fast response rate (ca. 150 μs). These merits are superior to integrated detectors of other 2D perovskites, and compete with the most active CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Enhancement of photoresponse property of perovskite solar cell by aluminium chloride (AlCl3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. S.; Sil, A.

    2018-05-01

    The fabrication of a three layer solar cell device is a new area of research. The formation of perovskite phase is evident from x-ray diffraction and its particle size is observed by microstructural analysis. A thin layer of gold coating over the device increases the surface conductivity. Direct contact between a SnCl2 or AlCl3 based perovskite with the gold coating increases the durability of the film but decreases the hole transport properties due to absence of an organic hole transport material. The absorbance spectroscopy analysis gives characteristic peaks showing the evidence of ITO, TiO2 (rutile) and Sn2+ complexes present in the Sn-perovskite film or Al3+ complexes present within the Al-perovskite cell. The desired absorbance near 550 nm due to Al3+ complexes causes a much higher flow of current on illumination and thus is also evidenced by the presence of comparatively high intensity PL spectra in the Al-perovskite system which occurred due to free exciton formation near band edge excitation. The fill factor of the devices is estimated as ∼0.83 and ∼0.65 for Sn-perovskite and Al-perovskite devices respectively. The PCE values of Sn-perovskite and Al-perovskite devices are calculated 0.39% and 0.96% respectively, which establish Al-perovskite film as a useful component for future solar cell device manufacturing.

  10. Low-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite: Structure, Properties, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ravi K; Cohen, Bat-El; Iagher, Lior; Etgar, Lioz

    2017-10-09

    Three-dimensional (3 D) perovskite has attracted a lot of attention owing to its success in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. However, one of its major crucial issues lies in its stability, which has limited its commercialization. An important property of organic-inorganic perovskite is the possibility of forming a layered material by using long organic cations that do not fit into the octahedral cage. These long organic cations act as a "barrier" that "caps" 3 D perovskite to form the layered material. Controlling the number of perovskite layers could provide a confined structure with chemical and physical properties that are different from those of 3 D perovskite. This opens up a whole new batch of interesting materials with huge potential for optoelectronic applications. This Minireview presents the synthesis, properties, and structural orientation of low-dimensional perovskite. It also discusses the progress of low-dimensional perovskite in PV solar cells, which, to date, have performance comparable to that of 3 D perovskite but with enhanced stability. Finally, the use of low-dimensional perovskite in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors is discussed. The low-dimensional perovskites are promising candidates for LED devices, mainly because of their high radiative recombination as a result of the confined low-dimensional quantum well. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Fabrication of single phase 2D homologous perovskite microplates by mechanical exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junze; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yingjun; Wang, Haizhen; Lin, Gaoming; Xiong, Xuan; Zhou, Weihang; Luo, Hongmei; Li, Dehui

    2018-04-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) Ruddlesden-Popper type perovskites have attracted intensive interest for their great environmental stability and various potential optoelectronic applications. Fundamental understanding of the photophysical and electronic properties of the 2D perovskites with pure single phase is essential for improving the performance of the optoelectronic devices and designing devices with new architectures. Investigating the optical and electronic properties of these materials with pure single phase is required to obtain pure single phase 2D perovskites. Here, we report on an alternative approach to fabricate (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3) n-1Pb n I3n+1 microplates with pure single n-number perovskite phase for n  >  2 by mechanical exfoliation. Micro-photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy studies reveal that the as-synthesized 2D perovskite plates for n  >  2 are comprised by dominant n-number phase and small inclusions of hybrid perovskite phases with different n values, which is supported by excitation power dependent photoluminescence. By mechanical exfoliation method, 2D perovskite microplates with the thickness of around 20 nm are obtained, which surprisingly have single n-number perovskite phase for n  =  2-5. In addition, we have demonstrated that the exfoliated 2D perovskite microplates can be integrated with other 2D layered materials such as boron nitride, and are able to be transferred to prefabricated electrodes for photodetections. Our studies not only provide a strategy to prepare 2D perovskites with a single n-number perovskite phase allowing us to extract the basic optical and electronic parameters of pure phase perovskites, but also demonstrate the possibility to integrate the 2D perovskites with other 2D layered materials to extend the device’s functionalities.

  12. Low-cost electrodes for stable perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, João P.; Manghooli, Sara; Jaysankar, Manoj; Tait, Jeffrey G.; Qiu, Weiming; Gehlhaar, Robert; De Volder, Michael; Uytterhoeven, Griet; Poortmans, Jef; Paetzold, Ulrich W.

    2017-06-01

    Cost-effective production of perovskite solar cells on an industrial scale requires the utilization of exclusively inexpensive materials. However, to date, highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells rely on expensive gold electrodes since other metal electrodes are known to cause degradation of the devices. Finding a low-cost electrode that can replace gold and ensure both efficiency and long-term stability is essential for the success of the perovskite-based solar cell technology. In this work, we systematically compare three types of electrode materials: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), alternative metals (silver, aluminum, and copper), and transparent oxides [indium tin oxide (ITO)] in terms of efficiency, stability, and cost. We show that multi-walled carbon nanotubes are the only electrode that is both more cost-effective and stable than gold. Devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes present remarkable shelf-life stability, with no decrease in the efficiency even after 180 h of storage in 77% relative humidity (RH). Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes to achieve high efficiencies. These developments are an important step forward to mass produce perovskite photovoltaics in a commercially viable way.

  13. Oxide perovskite crystals for HTSC film substrates microwave applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhalla, A. S.; Guo, Ruyan

    1995-01-01

    The research focused upon generating new substrate materials for the deposition of superconducting yttrium barium cuprate (YBCO) has yielded several new hosts in complex perovskites, modified perovskites, and other structure families. New substrate candidates such as Sr(Al(1/2)Ta(1/2))O3 and Sr(Al(1/2)Nb(1/2))O3, Ba(Mg(1/3)Ta(2/3))O3 in complex oxide perovskite structure family and their solid solutions with ternary perovskite LaAlO3 and NdGaO3 are reported. Conventional ceramic processing techniques were used to fabricate dense ceramic samples. A laser heated molten zone growth system was utilized for the test-growth of these candidate materials in single crystal fiber form to determine crystallographic structure, melting point, thermal, and dielectric properties as well as to make positive identification of twin free systems. Some of those candidate materials present an excellent combination of properties suitable for microwave HTSC substrate applications.

  14. Thermodynamic origin of instability in hybrid halide perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Tenuta, E.; Zheng, C.; Rubel, O.

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of hybrid halide perovskites under the influence of environmental factors impairs future prospects of using these materials as absorbers in solar cells. First principle calculations can be used as a guideline in search of new materials, provided we can rely on their predictive capabilities. We show that the instability of perovskites can be captured using ab initio total energy calculations for reactants and products augmented with additional thermodynamic data to account for finite temperature effects. Calculations suggest that the instability of CH3NH3PbI3 in moist environment is linked to the aqueous solubility of the CH3NH3I salt, thus making other perovskite materials with soluble decomposition products prone to degradation. Properties of NH3OHPbI3, NH3NH2PbI3, PH4PbI3, SbH4PbI3, CsPbBr3, and a new hypothetical SF3PbI3 perovskite are studied in the search for alternative solar cell absorber materials with enhanced chemical stability. PMID:27883032

  15. Nanoscale Confinement Leads to New All-inorganic Perovskite with

    Science.gov Websites

    research into perovskites has centered on a hybrid organic-inorganic structure. Since research into climbed steadily and now shows greater than 22 percent power conversion efficiency. However, the organic unstable organic component and open the door to high-efficiency quantum dot optoelectronics that can be

  16. How Strong Is the Hydrogen Bond in Hybrid Perovskites?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites represent a special class of metal–organic framework where a molecular cation is encased in an anionic cage. The molecule–cage interaction influences phase stability, phase transformations, and the molecular dynamics. We examine the hydrogen bonding in four AmBX3 formate perovskites: [Am]Zn(HCOO)3, with Am+ = hydrazinium (NH2NH3+), guanidinium (C(NH2)3+), dimethylammonium (CH3)2NH2+, and azetidinium (CH2)3NH2+. We develop a scheme to quantify the strength of hydrogen bonding in these systems from first-principles, which separates the electrostatic interactions between the amine (A