Science.gov

Sample records for a-stereogenic ketone moiety

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Various Poly(ether ether ketone) Containing Imidazolium Moiety for Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeol-Nim; Son, Tae Yang; Park, Chi Hoon; Kim, Tae Hyun; Nam, Sang Yong

    2018-09-01

    In this study, various poly(ether ether ketone) were synthesized using three different monomers and the imidazolium group was introduced into synthesized poly(ether ether ketone)s by using substitution reaction. Synthesized polymers were used to prepare anion exchange membranes and to evaluate its properties. Thermal, chemical and structural properties were carried out using thermogravimetric analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance. The anion exchange membranes with different imidazolium moieties were characterized by several different analytical techniques such as water up take, ion exchange capacity, hydroxide conductivity for checking the possibility to apply the anion exchange membrane fuel cell. Consequently, results of characterization were studied to understand the correlation between stabilities of the membrane and functional group and polymer backbone structures. And we confirm membrane performance was improved by increasing imidazolium cation groups.

  2. Considerations of the Effects of Naphthalene Moieties on the Design of Proton-Conductive Poly(arylene ether ketone) Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baolong; Hong, Lihua; Li, Yunfeng; Zhao, Liang; Wei, Yuxue; Zhao, Chengji; Na, Hui

    2016-09-14

    Novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketones) (SDN-PAEK-x), consisting of dual naphthalene and flexible sulfoalkyl groups, were prepared via polycondensation, demethylation, and sulfobutylation grafting reaction. Among them, SDN-PAEK-1.94 membrane with the highest ion exchange capacity (IEC = 2.46 mequiv·g(-1)) exhibited the highest proton conductivity, which was 0.147 S· cm(-1) at 25 °C and 0.271 S·cm(-1) at 80 °C, respectively. The introduction of dual naphthalene moieties is expected to achieve much enhanced properties compared to those of sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketones) (SNPAEK-x), consisting of single naphthalene and flexible sulfoalkyl groups. Compared with SNPAEK-1.60 with a similar IEC, SDN-PAEK-1.74 membrane showed higher proton conductivity, higher IEC normalized conductivity, and higher effective proton mobility, although it had lower analytical acid concentration. The SDN-PAEK-x membranes with IECs higher than 1.96 mequiv·g(-1) also exhibited higher proton conductivity than that of recast Nafion membrane. Furthermore, SDN-PAEK-1.94 displayed a better single cell performance with a maximum power density of 60 mW·cm(-2) at 80 °C. Considering its high proton conductivity, excellent single cell performance, good mechanical stabilities, low membrane swelling, and methanol permeability, SDN-PAEK-x membranes are promising candidates as alternative polymer electrolyte membranes to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  3. Raspberry Ketone

    MedlinePlus

    ... raspberry ketone solution to the scalp might increase hair growth in people with hair loss. Male pattern baldness ( ... raspberry ketone solution to the scalp might increase hair growth in people with male pattern baldness Obesity. Early ...

  4. Ketones urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  5. Ketones blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ... fat cells break down in the blood. This test is used to diagnose ketoacidosis . This is a ...

  6. Palladium-catalyzed, pyrrolidine-mediated arylmethylation of ketones and aldehydes with coumarinyl(methyl) acetates.

    PubMed

    Cattopadhyay, Kalicharan; Recio, Antonio; Tunge, Jon A

    2012-09-14

    We report the palladium-catalyzed, pyrrolidine-mediated α-benzylation of enamines generated from aldehydes and ketones. The method allows for direct coupling of medicinally relevant coumarin moieties with aldehydes and ketones in good yield under mild conditions. The reaction is believed to proceed via a Pd-π-benzyl complex generated from (coumarinyl)methyl acetates.

  7. Palladium-catalyzed, pyrrolidine-mediated arylmethylation of ketones and aldehydes with coumarinyl(methyl) acetates†

    PubMed Central

    Cattopadhyay, Kalicharan; Recio, Antonio; Tunge, Jon A.

    2012-01-01

    We report the palladium-catalyzed, pyrrolidine-mediated α-benzylation of enamines generated from aldehydes and ketones. The method allows for direct coupling of medicinally relevant coumarin moieties with aldehydes and ketones in good yield under mild conditions. The reaction is believed to proceed via a Pd-π-benzyl complex generated from (coumarinyl)methyl acetates. PMID:22832549

  8. Ketone bodies in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    McNally, Melanie A; Hartman, Adam L

    2012-04-01

    Seizures that are resistant to standard medications remain a major clinical problem. One underutilized option for patients with medication-resistant seizures is the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. The diet received its name based on the observation that patients consuming this diet produce ketone bodies (e.g., acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone). Although the exact mechanisms of the diet are unknown, ketone bodies have been hypothesized to contribute to the anticonvulsant and antiepileptic effects. In this review, anticonvulsant properties of ketone bodies and the ketogenic diet are discussed (including GABAergic and glutamatergic effects). Because of the importance of ketone body metabolism in the early stages of life, the effects of ketone bodies on developing neurons in vitro also are discussed. Understanding how ketone bodies exert their effects will help optimize their use in treating epilepsy and other neurological disorders. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. Ketone Bodies in Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Melanie A.; Hartman, Adam L.

    2014-01-01

    Seizures that are resistant to standard medications remain a major clinical problem. One underutilized option for patients with medication-resistant seizures is the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. The diet received its name based on the observation that patients consuming this diet produce ketone bodies (e.g., acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone). Although the exact mechanisms of the diet are unknown, ketone bodies have been hypothesized to contribute to the anticonvulsant and antiepileptic effects. In this review, anticonvulsant properties of ketone bodies and the ketogenic diet are discussed (including GABAergic and glutamatergic effects). Because of the importance of ketone body metabolism in the early stages of life, the effects of ketone bodies on developing neurons in vitro also are discussed. Understanding how ketone bodies exert their effects will help optimize their use in treating epilepsy and other neurological disorders. PMID:22268909

  10. Ketones and Human Performance.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jonathan M; Deuster, Patricia A

    Everyone is seeking nutritional strategies that might benefit performance. One approach receiving much attention is ketones, or ketosis. Ketones are very simple compounds made of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, and ketosis is a metabolic state whereby the body uses predominantly ketones. Ketosis can be achieved by fasting for longer than 72 hours or by following a very lowcarbohydrate, high-fat diet (ketogenic diet) for several days to weeks. Alternatively, ketone supplements purportedly induce ketosis rapidly and do not require strict adherence to any specific type of diet; however, much of the touted benefits are anecdotal. A potential role for ketosis as a performance enhancer was first introduced in 1983 with the idea that chronic ketosis without caloric restriction could preserve submaximal exercise capability by sparing glycogen or conserving the limited carbohydrate stores. Few human studies on the effects of a ketogenic diet on performance have yielded positive results, and most studies have yielded equivocal or null results, and a few negative results. Many questions about ketones relevant to Special Operations Forces (SOF) remain unanswered. At present, a ketogenic diet and/or a ketone supplement do not appear confer performance benefits for SOF. Instead, Operators should engage with their unit dietitian to develop individualized nutritional strategies based on unique mission requirements. The authors review the concept of a ketogenic diet, describe some potential benefits and risks of ketosis, review the performance literature and how to measure ketone status, and then summarize the landscape in 2017. 2017.

  11. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl ethyl ketone ( MEK ) ( CASRN 78 - 93 - 3 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  12. Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl Isobutyl Ketone ( MIBK ) ; CASRN 108 - 10 - 1 ; Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  13. Methodology for in situ protection of aldehydes and ketones using trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate and phosphines: selective alkylation and reduction of ketones, esters, amides, and nitriles.

    PubMed

    Yahata, Kenzo; Minami, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Watanabe, Kei; Fujioka, Hiromichi

    2013-01-01

    A methodology for selective transformations of ketones, esters, Weinreb amides, and nitriles in the presence of aldehydes has been developed. The use of a combination of PPh(3)-trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf) promotes selective transformation of aldehydes to their corresponding, temporarily protected, O,P-acetal type phosphonium salts. Because, hydrolytic work-up following ensuing reactions of other carbonyl moieties in the substrates liberates the aldehyde moiety, a sequence involving aldehyde protection, transformation of other carbonyl groups, and deprotection can be accomplished in a one-pot manner. Furthermore, the use of PEt(3) instead of PPh(3) enables ketones to be converted in situ to their corresponding O,P-ketal type phosphonium salts and, consequently, selective transformations of esters, Weinreb amides, and nitriles in the presence of ketones can be performed. This methodology is applicable to various dicarbonyl compounds, including substrates that possess heteroaromatic skeletons and hydroxyl protecting groups.

  14. Ketone bodies as signaling metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John C.; Verdin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) has been looked upon as a carrier of energy from liver to peripheral tissues during fasting or exercise. However, βOHB also signals via extracellular receptors and acts as an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). These recent findings support a model in which βOHB functions to link the environment, in this case the diet, and gene expression via chromatin modifications. Here, we review the regulation and functions of ketone bodies, the relationship between ketone bodies and calorie restriction, and the implications of HDAC inhibition by the ketone body βOHB in the modulation of metabolism, and diseases of aging. PMID:24140022

  15. Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

    Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

  16. Cerebral ketone body metabolism.

    PubMed

    Morris, A A M

    2005-01-01

    Ketone bodies (KBs) are an important source of energy for the brain. During the neonatal period, they are also precursors for the synthesis of lipids (especially cholesterol) and amino acids. The rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends primarily on the concentration in blood; high concentrations occur during fasting and on a high-fat diet. Cerebral KB metabolism is also regulated by the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which depends on the abundance of monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCT1). The BBB's permeability to KBs increases with fasting in humans. In rats, permeability increases during the suckling period, but human neonates have not been studied. Monocarboxylic acid transporters are also present in the plasma membranes of neurons and glia but their role in regulating KB metabolism is uncertain. Finally, the rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends on the activities of the relevant enzymes in brain. The activities vary with age in rats, but reliable results are not available for humans. Cerebral KB metabolism in humans differs from that in the rat in several respects. During fasting, for example, KBs supply more of the brain's energy in humans than in the rat. Conversely, KBs are probably used more extensively in the brain of suckling rats than in human neonates. These differences complicate the interpretation of rodent studies. Most patients with inborn errors of ketogenesis develop normally, suggesting that the only essential role for KBs is as an alternative fuel during illness or prolonged fasting. On the other hand, in HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, imaging generally shows asymptomatic white-matter abnormalities. The ability of KBs to act as an alternative fuel explains the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet in GLUT1 deficiency, but its effectiveness in epilepsy remains unexplained.

  17. Ketone bodies as epigenetic modifiers.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Hai-Bin; Crawford, Peter A

    2018-07-01

    Ketone body metabolism is a dynamic and integrated metabolic node in human physiology, whose roles include but extend beyond alternative fuel provision during carbohydrate restriction. Here we discuss the most recent observations suggesting that ketosis coordinates cellular function via epigenomic regulation. Ketosis has been linked to covalent modifications, including lysine acetylation, methylation, and hydroxybutyrylation, to key histones that serve as dynamic regulators of chromatin architecture and gene transcription. Although it remains to be fully established whether these changes to the epigenome are attributable to ketone bodies themselves or other aspects of ketotic states, the regulated genes mediate classical responses to carbohydrate restriction. Direct regulation of gene expression may occur in-vivo via through ketone body-mediated histone modifications during adherence to low-carbohydrate diets, fasting ketosis, exogenous ketone body therapy, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Additional convergent functional genomics, metabolomics, and proteomics studies are required in both animal models and in humans to identify the molecular mechanisms through which ketosis regulates nuclear signaling events in a myriad of conditions relevant to disease, and the contexts in which the benefits of ketosis might outweigh the risks.

  18. Volatilization of ketones from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The overall mass-transfer coefficients for the volatilization from water of acetone, 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, 3-pentanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, and 2-octanone were measured simultaneously with the oxygen-absorption coefficient in a laboratory stirred water bath. The liquid-film and gas-film coefficients of the two-film model were determined for the ketones from the overall coefficients, and both film resistances were important for volatilization of the ketones.The liquid-film coefficients for the ketones varied with the 0.719 power of the molecular-diffusion coefficient, in agreement with the literature. The liquid-film coefficients showed a variable dependence on molecular weight, with the dependence ranging from the −0.263 power for acetone to the −0.378 power for 2-octanone. This is in contrast with the literature where a constant −0.500 power dependence on the molecular weight is assumed.The gas-film coefficients for the ketones showed no dependence on molecular weight, in contrast with the literature where a −0.500 power is assumed.

  19. Bacterial production of methyl ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, Harry R.; Goh, Ee-Been

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for increasing production of methyl ketones in a genetically modified host cell that overproduces .beta.-ketoacyl-CoAs through a re-engineered .beta.-oxidation pathway and overexpresses FadM.

  20. Presence and potential significance of aromatic-ketone groups in aquatic humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Wilson, M.A.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Aquatic humic- and fulvic-acid standards of the International Humic Substances Society were characterized, with emphasis on carbonyl-group nature and content, by carbon-13 nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy, proton nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. After comparing spectral results of underivatized humic and fulvic acids with spectral results of chemically modified derivatives, that allow improved observation of the carbonyl group, the data clearly indicated that aromatic ketone groups comprised the majority of the carbonyl-group content. About one ketone group per monocyclic aromatic ring was determined for both humic and fulvic acids. Aromatic-ketone groups were hypothesized to form by photolytic rearrangements and oxidation of phenolic ester and hydrocarbon precursors; these groups have potential significance regarding haloform formation in water, reactivity resulting from active hydrogen of the methyl and methylene adjacent to the ketone groups, and formation of hemiketal and lactol structures. Aromatic-ketone groups also may be the point of attachment between aliphatic and aromatic moieties of aquatic humic-substance structure. ?? 1987.

  1. Ketone body metabolism and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, David G.; Schugar, Rebecca C.

    2013-01-01

    Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply. The metabolism of ketone bodies interfaces with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, β-oxidation of fatty acids, de novo lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, hormonal signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the microbiome. Here we review the mechanisms through which ketone bodies are metabolized and how their signals are transmitted. We focus on the roles this metabolic pathway may play in cardiovascular disease states, the bioenergetic benefits of myocardial ketone body oxidation, and prospective interactions among ketone body metabolism, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Ketone body metabolism is noninvasively quantifiable in humans and is responsive to nutritional interventions. Therefore, further investigation of this pathway in disease models and in humans may ultimately yield tailored diagnostic strategies and therapies for specific pathological states. PMID:23396451

  2. EXTRACTION OF TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES WITH METHYL ETHYL KETONE, METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE ACETOPHENONE OR MENTHONE

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1961-08-01

    A process is described for extracting tetravalent plutonium from an aqueous acid solution with methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or acetophenone and with the extraction of either tetravalent or hexavalent plutonium into menthone. (AEC)

  3. Cerebral Ketone Metabolism During Development and Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Mayumi L.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral metabolism of ketones is a normal part of the process of brain development. While the mature brain relies on glucose as a primary fuel source, metabolism of ketone bodies remains an alternative energy source under conditions of starvation. The neuroprotective properties of brain ketone metabolism make this alternative substrate a viable therapeutic option for various pathologies. Since the ability to revert to utilizing ketones as an alternative substrate is greatest in the younger post-weaned brain, this particular therapeutic approach remains an untapped resource particularly for pediatric pathological conditions. PMID:22104087

  4. Clinical review: Ketones and brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Although much feared by clinicians, the ability to produce ketones has allowed humans to withstand prolonged periods of starvation. At such times, ketones can supply up to 50% of basal energy requirements. More interesting, however, is the fact that ketones can provide as much as 70% of the brain's energy needs, more efficiently than glucose. Studies suggest that during times of acute brain injury, cerebral uptake of ketones increases significantly. Researchers have thus attempted to attenuate the effects of cerebral injury by administering ketones exogenously. Hypertonic saline is commonly utilized for management of intracranial hypertension following cerebral injury. A solution containing both hypertonic saline and ketones may prove ideal for managing the dual problems of refractory intracranial hypertension and low cerebral energy levels. The purpose of the present review is to explore the physiology of ketone body utilization by the brain in health and in a variety of neurological conditions, and to discuss the potential for ketone supplementation as a therapeutic option in traumatic brain injury. PMID:21489321

  5. Fuel cell performance of pendent methylphenyl sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hanyu; Stanis, Ronald J.; Song, Yang; Hu, Wei; Cornelius, Chris J.; Shi, Qiang; Liu, Baijun; Guiver, Michael D.

    2017-11-01

    Meta- and para-linked homopolymers bearing 3-methylphenyl (Me) pendent groups were postsulfonated to create sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) (SPEEKK) backbone isomers, which are referred to as Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK. Their thermal and oxidative stability, mechanical properties, dimensional stability, methanol permeability, and proton conductivity are characterized. Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK proton conductivities at 100 °C are 116 and 173 mS cm-1, respectively. Their methanol permeabilities are 3.3-3.9 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, and dimensional swelling at 100 °C is 16.4-17.5%. Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK were fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), and electrochemical properties were evaluated within a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). When O2 is used as the oxidant at 80 °C and 100% RH, the maximum power density of Me-m-SPEEKK reaches 657 mW cm-2, which is higher than those of Nafion 115 (552 mW cm-2). DMFC performance is 85 mW cm-2 at 80 °C with 2.0 M methanol using Me-p-SPEEKK due to its low MeOH crossover. In general, these electrochemical results are comparable to Nafion. These ionomer properties, combined with a potentially less expensive and scalable polymer manufacturing process, may broaden their potential for many practical applications.

  6. Homologation Reaction of Ketones with Diazo Compounds.

    PubMed

    Candeias, Nuno R; Paterna, Roberta; Gois, Pedro M P

    2016-03-09

    This review covers the addition of diazo compounds to ketones to afford homologated ketones, either in the presence or in the absence of promoters or catalysts. Reactions with diazoalkanes, aryldiazomethanes, trimethylsilyldiazomethane, α-diazo esters, and disubstituted diazo compounds are covered, commenting on the complex regiochemistry of the reaction and the nature of the catalysts and promoters. The recent reports on the enantioselective version of ketone homologation reactions are gathered in one section, followed by reports on the use of cyclic ketones ring expansion in total synthesis. Although the first reports of this reaction appeared in the literature almost one century ago, the recent achievements, in particular, for the asymmetric version, forecast the development of new breakthroughs in the synthetically valuable field of diazo chemistry.

  7. Synthesis and antifungal activity of novel pyrazolecarboxamide derivatives containing a hydrazone moiety

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The plant pathogenic fungus (such as Gibberella zeae, Fusarium oxysporum and Cytospora mandshurica) causes devastating disease in agriculture. The pathogenic fungus is responsible for billions of dollars in economic losses worldwide each year. In order to discover new fungicidal molecule with good fungicidal activity against G. zeae, F. oxysporum, and C. mandshurica, we sought to combine the active sub-structure of hydrazone and pyrazole amide derivatives together to design and synthesize novel pyrazole amide derivatives containing a hydrazone moiety. Results A series of novel pyrazole amide derivatives bearing hydrazone moiety were synthesized. Their structures were characterized by 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. The preliminary biological assays revealed that most of the synthesized compounds exhibit favorable antifungal activities against G. zeae. The activity of compounds 7a, 7f, 7g, 7h, 7i, 7j, 7l and 7q were 40.82%, 47.78%, 50.32%, 40.82%, 49.05%, 48.73%, 40.19% and 45.89%, respectively, and the synthesized compounds showed certain antifungal activities against F. oxysporum and C.mandshurica. Conclusion A practical synthetic route to pyrazole amide derivatives containing a hydrazone moiety were synthesized by the condensation of intermediates 5-chloro-N-(4-subsititued-2-(hydrazinecarbonyl)-6-methylphenyl)-1,3-dimethyl-1 H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide with different aldehydes or ketones in ethanol at room temperature is presented, the results of the study suggested that the pyrazole amide derivatives containing hydrazone moieties could inhibit the growth of G. zeae, F. oxysporium and C. mandshurica to a certain extent. PMID:22647315

  8. Colorimetric Recognition of Aldehydes and Ketones.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Fang, Ming; LaGasse, Maria K; Askim, Jon R; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2017-08-07

    A colorimetric sensor array has been designed for the identification of and discrimination among aldehydes and ketones in vapor phase. Due to rapid chemical reactions between the solid-state sensor elements and gaseous analytes, distinct color difference patterns were produced and digitally imaged for chemometric analysis. The sensor array was developed from classical spot tests using aniline and phenylhydrazine dyes that enable molecular recognition of a wide variety of aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes and ketones, as demonstrated by hierarchical cluster, principal component, and support vector machine analyses. The aldehyde/ketone-specific sensors were further employed for differentiation among and identification of ten liquor samples (whiskies, brandy, vodka) and ethanol controls, showing its potential applications in the beverage industry. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Ketones: A Repeated Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, John W.; Wilson, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion of carboxylic acids to ketones is a useful chemical transformation with a long history. Several chemists have claimed that they discovered the conversion of carboxylic acids to ketones yet in fact the reaction is actually known for centuries.

  10. Lanthanum tricyanide-catalyzed acyl silane-ketone benzoin additions.

    PubMed

    Tarr, James C; Johnson, Jeffrey S

    2009-09-03

    Lanthanum tricyanide efficiently catalyzes a benzoin-type coupling between acyl silanes and ketones. Yields range from moderate to excellent over a broad substrate scope encompassing aryl, alkyl, electron-rich, and sterically hindered ketones.

  11. Lanthanum Tricyanide-Catalyzed Acyl Silane-Ketone Benzoin Additions

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, James C.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanum tricyanide efficiently catalyzes a benzoin-type coupling between acyl silanes and ketones. Yields range from moderate to excellent over a broad substrate scope encompassing aryl, alkyl, electron-rich, and sterically hindered ketones. PMID:19655731

  12. Ketone-DNA: a versatile postsynthetic DNA decoration platform.

    PubMed

    Dey, S; Sheppard, T L

    2001-12-13

    [reaction: see text] A general strategy for the functional diversification of DNA oligonucleotides under physiological conditions was developed. We describe the synthesis of DNA molecules bearing ketone ports (ketone-DNA) and the efficient postsynthetic decoration of ketone-DNA with structurally diverse aminooxy compounds.

  13. 40 CFR 721.4568 - Methylpolychloro aliphatic ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylpolychloro aliphatic ketone. 721... Substances § 721.4568 Methylpolychloro aliphatic ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... ketone (PMN No. P-91-1321) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to reporting...

  16. π-Expanded α,β-unsaturated ketones: synthesis, optical properties, and two-photon-induced polymerization.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Rashid; Bourquard, Florent; Balčiūnas, Evaldas; Smoleń, Sabina; Gray, David; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Farsari, Maria; Gryko, Daniel T

    2015-02-23

    A library of π-expanded α,β-unsaturated ketones was designed and synthesized. They were prepared by a combination of Wittig reaction, Sonogashira reaction, and aldol condensation. It was further demonstrated that the double aldol condensation can be performed effectively for highly polarized styrene- and diphenylacetylene-derived aldehydes. The strategic placement of two dialkylamino groups at the periphery of D-π-A-π-D molecules resulted in dyes with excellent solubility. These ketones absorb light in the region 400-550 nm. Many of them display strong solvatochromism so that the emission ranges from 530-580 nm in toluene to the near-IR region in benzonitrile. Ketones based on cyclobutanone as central moieties display very high fluorescence quantum yields in nonpolar solvents, which decrease drastically in polar media. Photophysical studies of these new functional dyes revealed that they possess an enhanced two-photon absorption cross section when compared with simpler ketone derivatives. Due to strong polarization of the resulting dyes, values of two-photon absorption cross sections on the level of 200-300 GM at 800 nm were achieved, and thanks to that as well as the presence of the keto group, these new two-photon initiators display excellent performance so that the operating region is 5-75 mW in some cases. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Stereoselective borylative ketone-diene coupling.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hee Yeon; Yu, Zhiyong; Morken, James P

    2011-10-07

    In the presence of catalytic Ni(cod)(2) and P(t-Bu)(3), ketones, dienes, and B(2)(pin)(2) undergo a stereoselective multicomponent coupling reaction. Upon oxidation, the reaction furnishes 1,3-diols as the major reaction product. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Stereoselective Borylative Ketone-Diene Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Yeon; Yu, Zhiyong; Morken, James P.

    2011-01-01

    In the presence of catalytic Ni(cod)2 and P(t-Bu)3, ketones, dienes, and B2(pin)2 undergo a stereoselective multicomponent coupling reaction. Upon oxidation, the reaction furnishes 1,3-diols as the major reaction product. PMID:21905748

  19. Design, synthesis, and bioactivities screening of a diaryl ketone-inspired pesticide molecular library as derived from natural products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Jin, Hong; Ji, Lan-zhu; Tao, Ke; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Hao-yu; Hou, Tai-ping

    2011-07-01

    Three natural products, 1,5-diphenylpentan-1-one, 1,5-diphenylpent-2-en-1-one, and 3-hydroxy-1,5-diphenylpentan-1-one, with good insecticidal activities were extracted from Stellera chamaejasme L. Based on their shared diaryl ketone moiety as 'pharmacophores', a series of diaryl ketones were synthesized and tested for insecticidal activity, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, and antifungal activity. All synthesized compounds showed poor insecticidal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Compound III with a furyl ring showed strong activities against plant pathogenic fungi. The IC(50) of compound (E)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-(furan-2-yl)- -prop-2-en-1-one (III(2) ) was 1.20 mg/L against Rhizoctonia solani, suggesting its strong potential as a novel antifungal drug. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Low vanadium ion permeabilities of sulfonated poly(phthalazinone ether ketone)s provide high efficiency and stability for vanadium redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liyun; Zhang, Shouhai; Chen, Yuning; Jian, Xigao

    2017-07-01

    A series of novel sulfonated poly(phthalazinone ether ketone)s containing pendant phenyl moieties (SPPEK-Ps) are synthesized and thoroughly characterized. The chemical structures of the polymers are confirmed by 1H NMR and FTIR analysis. The physicochemical properties and single cell performance of SPPEK-P membranes are systematically evaluated, revealing that the membranes are thermally, chemically and mechanically stable. The area resistances of SPPEK-P-90 and SPPEK-P-100 are 0.75 Ω cm2 and 0.34 Ω cm2, respectively. SPPEK-P membranes are impermeable to the bulky hydrated VO2+ ion and exhibited low V3+ ion permeability (SPPEK-P-90, 2.53 × 10-5 cm min-1) (Nafion 115 membrane: 9.0 × 10-4 cm min-1). Tests of SPPEK-P-90 in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) demonstrate a comparable columbic efficiency (CE) and energy efficiency (EE) to that of Nafion 115, where the CE is 98% and the EE is 83% at 60 mA cm-2. Moreover, the SPPEK-P-90 membrane exhibits stable performance in cell over 100 charge-discharge cycles (∼450 h).

  1. Novel proton exchange membranes based on structure-optimized poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s and nanocrystalline cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Chuangjiang; Wei, Yingcong; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Baijun; Sun, Zhaoyan; Gu, Yan; Zhang, Mingyao; Hu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Two sulfonated fluorenyl-containing poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s (SFPEEKKs) were synthesized as the matrix of composite proton exchange membranes by directly sulfonating copolymer precursors comprising non-sulfonatable fluorinated segments and sulfonatable fluorenyl-containing segments. Surface-modified nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was produced as the "performance-enhancing" filler by treating the microcrystalline cellulose with acid. Two families of SFPEEKK/NCC nanocomposite membranes with various NCC contents were prepared via a solution-casting procedure. Results revealed that the insertion of NCC at a suitable ratio could greatly enhance the proton conductivity of the pristine membranes. For example, the proton conductivity of SFPEEKK-60/NCC-4 (SFPEEKK with 60% fluorenyl segments in the repeating unit, and inserted with 4% NCC) composite membrane was as high as 0.245 S cm-1 at 90 °C, which was 61.2% higher than that of the corresponding pure SFPEEKK-60 membrane. This effect could be attributed to the formation of hydrogen bond networks and proton conduction paths through the interaction between -SO3H/-OH groups on the surface of NCC particles and -SO3H groups on the SFPEEKK backbones. Furthermore, the chemically modified NCC filler and the optimized chemical structure of the SFPEEKK matrix also provided good dimensional stability and mechanical properties of the obtained nanocomposites. In conclusion, these novel nanocomposites can be promising proton exchange membranes for fuel cells at moderate temperatures.

  2. Monocarboxylate transporter 1 deficiency and ketone utilization.

    PubMed

    van Hasselt, Peter M; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Monroe, Glen R; Ruiter, Jos P N; Turkenburg, Marjolein; Geerlings, Maartje J; Duran, Karen; Harakalova, Magdalena; van der Zwaag, Bert; Monavari, Ardeshir A; Okur, Ilyas; Sharrard, Mark J; Cleary, Maureen; O'Connell, Nuala; Walker, Valerie; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; de Vries, Maaike C; Visser, Gepke; Houwen, Roderick H J; van der Smagt, Jasper J; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Wanders, Ronald J A; van Haaften, Gijs

    2014-11-13

    Ketoacidosis is a potentially lethal condition caused by the imbalance between hepatic production and extrahepatic utilization of ketone bodies. We performed exome sequencing in a patient with recurrent, severe ketoacidosis and identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in the gene encoding monocarboxylate transporter 1 (SLC16A1, also called MCT1). Genetic analysis in 96 patients suspected of having ketolytic defects yielded seven additional inactivating mutations in MCT1, both homozygous and heterozygous. Mutational status was found to be correlated with ketoacidosis severity, MCT1 protein levels, and transport capacity. Thus, MCT1 deficiency is a novel cause of profound ketoacidosis; the present work suggests that MCT1-mediated ketone-body transport is needed to maintain acid-base balance.

  3. Ketone body metabolism and its defects.

    PubMed

    Fukao, Toshiyuki; Mitchell, Grant; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Hori, Tomohiro; Orii, Kenji; Aoyama, Yuka

    2014-07-01

    Acetoacetate (AcAc) and 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), the two main ketone bodies of humans, are important vectors of energy transport from the liver to extrahepatic tissues, especially during fasting, when glucose supply is low. Blood total ketone body (TKB) levels should be evaluated in the context of clinical history, such as fasting time and ketogenic stresses. Blood TKB should also be evaluated in parallel with blood glucose and free fatty acids (FFA). The FFA/TKB ratio is especially useful for evaluation of ketone body metabolism. Defects in ketogenesis include mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase (mHS) deficiency and HMG-CoA lyase (HL) deficiency. mHS deficiency should be considered in non-ketotic hypoglycemia if a fatty acid beta-oxidation defect is suspected, but cannot be confirmed. Patients with HL deficiency can develop hypoglycemic crises and neurological symptoms even in adolescents and adults. Succinyl-CoA-3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) deficiency and beta-ketothiolase (T2) deficiency are two defects in ketolysis. Permanent ketosis is pathognomonic for SCOT deficiency. However, patients with "mild" SCOT mutations may have nonketotic periods. T2-deficient patients with "mild" mutations may have normal blood acylcarnitine profiles even in ketoacidotic crises. T2 deficient patients cannot be detected in a reliable manner by newborn screening using acylcarnitines. We review recent data on clinical presentation, metabolite profiles and the course of these diseases in adults, including in pregnancy.

  4. A Bio-Catalytic Approach to Aliphatic Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Mingyong; Deng, Jin; Woodruff, Adam P.; Zhu, Minshan; Zhou, Jun; Park, Sun Wook; Li, Hui; Fu, Yao; Zhang, Kechun

    2012-01-01

    Depleting oil reserves and growing environmental concerns have necessitated the development of sustainable processes to fuels and chemicals. Here we have developed a general metabolic platform in E. coli to biosynthesize carboxylic acids. By engineering selectivity of 2-ketoacid decarboxylases and screening for promiscuous aldehyde dehydrogenases, synthetic pathways were constructed to produce both C5 and C6 acids. In particular, the production of isovaleric acid reached 32 g/L (0.22 g/g glucose yield), which is 58% of the theoretical yield. Furthermore, we have developed solid base catalysts to efficiently ketonize the bio-derived carboxylic acids such as isovaleric acid and isocaproic acid into high volume industrial ketones: methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK, yield 84%), diisobutyl ketone (DIBK, yield 66%) and methyl isoamyl ketone (MIAK, yield 81%). This hybrid “Bio-Catalytic conversion” approach provides a general strategy to manufacture aliphatic ketones, and represents an alternate route to expanding the repertoire of renewable chemicals. PMID:22416247

  5. A bio-catalytic approach to aliphatic ketones.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Mingyong; Deng, Jin; Woodruff, Adam P; Zhu, Minshan; Zhou, Jun; Park, Sun Wook; Li, Hui; Fu, Yao; Zhang, Kechun

    2012-01-01

    Depleting oil reserves and growing environmental concerns have necessitated the development of sustainable processes to fuels and chemicals. Here we have developed a general metabolic platform in E. coli to biosynthesize carboxylic acids. By engineering selectivity of 2-ketoacid decarboxylases and screening for promiscuous aldehyde dehydrogenases, synthetic pathways were constructed to produce both C5 and C6 acids. In particular, the production of isovaleric acid reached 32 g/L (0.22 g/g glucose yield), which is 58% of the theoretical yield. Furthermore, we have developed solid base catalysts to efficiently ketonize the bio-derived carboxylic acids such as isovaleric acid and isocaproic acid into high volume industrial ketones: methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK, yield 84%), diisobutyl ketone (DIBK, yield 66%) and methyl isoamyl ketone (MIAK, yield 81%). This hybrid "Bio-Catalytic conversion" approach provides a general strategy to manufacture aliphatic ketones, and represents an alternate route to expanding the repertoire of renewable chemicals.

  6. Enhancement of L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels by pantethine. Relevance to dopaminergic injury.

    PubMed

    Cornille, Emilie; Abou-Hamdan, Mhamad; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Nieoullon, André; de Reggi, Max; Gharib, Bouchra

    2010-04-23

    The administration of the ketone bodies hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate is known to exert a protective effect against metabolic disorders associated with cerebral pathologies. This suggests that the enhancement of their endogenous production might be a rational therapeutic approach. Ketone bodies are generated by fatty acid beta-oxidation, a process involving a mitochondrial oxido-reductase superfamily, with fatty acid-CoA thioesters as substrates. In this report, emphasis is on the penultimate step of the process, i.e. L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. We determined changes in enzyme activity and in circulating ketone body levels in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Since the active moiety of CoA is pantetheine, mice were treated with pantethine, its naturally-occurring form. Pantethine has the advantage of being known as an anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic agent with very few side effects. We found that dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels were drastically reduced by the neurotoxin MPTP, whereas treatment with pantethine overcame these adverse effects. Pantethine prevented dopaminergic neuron loss and motility disorders. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that the protection was associated with enhancement of glutathione (GSH) production as well as restoration of respiratory chain complex I activity and mitochondrial ATP levels. Remarkably, pantethine treatment boosted the circulating ketone body levels in MPTP-intoxicated mice, but not in normal animals. These finding demonstrate the feasibility of the enhancement of endogenous ketone body production and provide a promising therapeutic approach to Parkinson's disease as well as, conceivably, to other neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone (2003 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database....

  8. 27 CFR 21.117 - Methyl isobutyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl isobutyl ketone. 21.117 Section 21.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....117 Methyl isobutyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b) Color...

  9. 27 CFR 21.117 - Methyl isobutyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl isobutyl ketone. 21.117 Section 21.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....117 Methyl isobutyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b) Color...

  10. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 21.118 Section 21.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....118 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b) Color...

  11. Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; West,; Ryan, M [Madison, WI

    2011-06-14

    A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

  12. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 21.118 Section 21.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....118 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b) Color...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1435 - Ketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...) test system is a device intended to identify ketones in urine and other body fluids. Identification of... acidity of body fluids) or ketosis (a condition characterized by increased production of ketone bodies...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1435 - Ketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...) test system is a device intended to identify ketones in urine and other body fluids. Identification of... acidity of body fluids) or ketosis (a condition characterized by increased production of ketone bodies...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1435 - Ketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...) test system is a device intended to identify ketones in urine and other body fluids. Identification of... acidity of body fluids) or ketosis (a condition characterized by increased production of ketone bodies...

  16. Ketones prevent synaptic dysfunction induced by mitochondrial respiratory complex inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Young; Vallejo, Johana; Rho, Jong M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Ketones have previously shown beneficial effects in models of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly against associated mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive impairment. However, evidence of a synaptic protective effect of ketones remains lacking. We tested the effects of ketones on synaptic impairment induced by mitochondrial respiratory complex (MRC) inhibitors using electrophysiological, reactive oxygen species (ROS) imaging and biochemical techniques. MRC inhibitors dose-dependently suppressed both population spike (PS) and field potential amplitudes in the CA1 hippocampus. Pre-treatment with ketones strongly prevented changes in the PS, whereas partial protection was seen in the field potential. Rotenone (Rot; 100 nmol/L), a MRC I inhibitor, suppressed synaptic function without altering ROS levels and PS depression by Rot was unaffected by antioxidants. In contrast, antioxidant-induced PS recovery against the MRC II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP; 1 mmol/L) was similar to the synaptic protective effects of ketones. Ketones also suppressed ROS generation induced by 3-NP. Finally, ketones reversed the decreases in ATP levels caused by Rot and 3-NP. In summary, our data demonstrate that ketones can preserve synaptic function in CA1 hippocampus induced by MRC dysfunction, likely through an antioxidant action and enhanced ATP generation. PMID:20374433

  17. Influence of sulfur oxidation state and steric bulk upon trifluoromethyl ketone (TFK) binding kinetics to carboxylesterases and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Craig E.; Nishi, Kosuke; Ying, Andy; Jones, Paul D.; Colvin, Michael E.; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    Carboxylesterases metabolize numerous exogenous and endogenous ester-containing compounds including the chemotherapeutic agent CPT-11, anti-influenza viral agent oseltamivir and many agrochemicals. Trifluoromethyl ketone (TFK)-containing compounds with a sulfur atom beta to the ketone moiety are some of the most potent carboxylesterase and amidase inhibitors identified to date. This study examined the effects of alkyl chain length (i.e., steric effects) and sulfur oxidation state upon TFK inhibitor potency (IC50) and binding kinetics (ki). The selective carboxylesterase inhibitor benzil was used as a non-TFK containing control. These effects were examined using two commercial esterases (porcine and rabbit liver esterase) and two human recombinant esterases (hCE-1 and hCE-2) as well as human recombinant fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In addition, the inhibition mechanism was examined using a combination of 1H NMR, X-ray crystallography and ab initio calculations. Overall, the data show that while sulfur oxidation state profoundly affects both inhibitor potency and binding kinetics, the steric effects dominate and override the contributions of sulfur oxidation. In addition, the data suggest that inclusion of a sulfur atom beta to the ketone contributes an increase (~5-fold) in inhibitor potency due to effects upon ketone hydration and/or intramolecular hydrogen bond formation. These results provide further information on the nature of the TFK binding interaction and will be useful in increasing our understanding of this basic biochemical process. PMID:18023188

  18. Engineering of bacterial methyl ketone synthesis for biofuels.

    PubMed

    Goh, Ee-Been; Baidoo, Edward E K; Keasling, Jay D; Beller, Harry R

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered Escherichia coli to overproduce saturated and monounsaturated aliphatic methyl ketones in the C₁₁ to C₁₅ (diesel) range; this group of methyl ketones includes 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, which are of importance to the flavor and fragrance industry and also have favorable cetane numbers (as we report here). We describe specific improvements that resulted in a 700-fold enhancement in methyl ketone titer relative to that of a fatty acid-overproducing E. coli strain, including the following: (i) overproduction of β-ketoacyl coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters achieved by modification of the β-oxidation pathway (specifically, overexpression of a heterologous acyl-CoA oxidase and native FadB and chromosomal deletion of fadA) and (ii) overexpression of a native thioesterase (FadM). FadM was previously associated with oleic acid degradation, not methyl ketone synthesis, but outperformed a recently identified methyl ketone synthase (Solanum habrochaites MKS2 [ShMKS2], a thioesterase from wild tomato) in β-ketoacyl-CoA-overproducing strains tested. Whole-genome transcriptional (microarray) studies led to the discovery that FadM is a valuable catalyst for enhancing methyl ketone production. The use of a two-phase system with decane enhanced methyl ketone production by 4- to 7-fold in addition to increases from genetic modifications.

  19. Ketone EC50 values in the Microtox test.

    PubMed

    Chen, H F; Hee, S S

    1995-03-01

    The Microtox EC50 values for the following ketones are reported in the following homologous series: straight chain methyl ketones (acetone, 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, 2-hepatonone, 2-octanone, 2-decanone, and 2-tridecanone); methyl ketones substituted at one alpha carbon (3-methyl-2-butanone; 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone); methyl substituted at two alpha carbons (2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-3-pentanone); phenyl groups replacing methyl in acetone (acetophenone; benzophenone); methyl groups substituted at the alpha carbons of cyclohexanone; and 2,3- 2,4-, and 2,5-hexanediones, most for the first time. While there were linear relationships between log EC50 and MW for the straight chain methyl ketones, and for methyl substitution at the alpha carbon for methyl ketones, there were no other linear relationships. As molecular weight increased, the EC50 values of soluble ketones decreased; as distance between two carbonyl groups decreased so too did EC50 values. Thus, for the ketones the geometry around the carbonyl group is an important determinant of toxicity as well as MW, water solubility, and octanol/water coefficient.

  20. Sirtuin 3 mediates neuroprotection of ketones against ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junxiang; Han, Pengcheng; Tang, Zhiwei; Liu, Qingwei; Shi, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death. Growing evidence indicates that ketone bodies have beneficial effects in treating stroke, but their underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our previous study showed ketone bodies reduced reactive oxygen species by using NADH as an electron donor, thus increasing the NAD+/NADH ratio. In this study, we investigated whether mitochondrial NAD+-dependent Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) could mediate the neuroprotective effects of ketone bodies after ischemic stroke. We injected mice with either normal saline or ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) at 30 minutes after ischemia induced by transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. We found that ketone treatment enhanced mitochondria function, reduced oxidative stress, and therefore reduced infarct volume. This led to improved neurologic function after ischemia, including the neurologic score and the performance in Rotarod and open field tests. We further showed that ketones' effects were achieved by upregulating NAD+-dependent SIRT3 and its downstream substrates forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) in the penumbra region since knocking down SIRT3 in vitro diminished ketones' beneficial effects. These results provide us a foundation to develop novel therapeutics targeting this SIRT3-FoxO3a-SOD2 pathway. PMID:26058697

  1. Direct α-alkylation of ketones with alcohols in water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoqiang; Li, Qiong; Feng, Jiange; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Zuojun; Wang, Xicheng; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Mu, Xindong

    2014-01-01

    The direct α-alkylation of ketones with alcohols has emerged as a new green protocol to construct C-C bonds with H2 O as the sole byproduct. In this work, a very simple and convenient Pd/C catalytic system for the direct α-alkylation of ketones with primary alcohols in pure water is developed. Based on this catalytic system, aqueous mixtures of dilute acetone, 1-butanol, and ethanol (mimicking ABE fermentation products) can be directly transformed into C5 -C11 or longer-chain ketones and alcohols, which are precursors to fuels. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Is there an astrocyte-neuron ketone body shuttle?

    PubMed

    Guzmán, M; Blázquez, C

    2001-01-01

    Ketone bodies can replace glucose as the major source of brain energy when glucose becomes scarce. Although it is generally assumed that the liver supplies extrahepatic tissues with ketone bodies, recent evidence shows that astrocytes are also ketogenic cells. Moreover, the partitioning of fatty acids between ketogenesis and ceramide synthesis de novo might control the survival/death decision of neural cells. These findings support the notion that astrocytes might supply neurons with ketone bodies in situ, and raise the possibility that astrocyte ketogenesis is a cytoprotective pathway.

  3. Rhodium-catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of α-Dehydroamino Ketones: A General Approach to Chiral α-amino Ketones.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenchao; Wang, Qingli; Xie, Yun; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xumu

    2016-01-01

    Rhodium/DuanPhos-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of aliphatic α-dehydroamino ketones has been achieved and afforded chiral α-amino ketones in high yields and excellent enantioselectives (up to 99 % ee), which could be reduced further to chiral β-amino alcohols by LiAlH(tBuO)3 with good yields. This protocol provides a readily accessible route for the synthesis of chiral α-amino ketones and chiral β-amino alcohols. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Grasshopper ketone 3-O-primveroside from Sinocrassula indica.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hai-Hui; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    A new megastigmane glycoside, grasshopper ketone 3-O-primveroside (1), was isolated from the methanolic extract of the whole herbs of Sinocrassula indica (Crassulaceae). Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence.

  5. Novel ketone diet enhances physical and cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Andrew J.; Knight, Nicholas S.; Cole, Mark A.; Cochlin, Lowri E.; Carter, Emma; Tchabanenko, Kirill; Pichulik, Tica; Gulston, Melanie K.; Atherton, Helen J.; Schroeder, Marie A.; Deacon, Robert M. J.; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; King, M. Todd; Pawlosky, Robert; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Tyler, Damian J.; Griffin, Julian L.; Robertson, Jeremy; Veech, Richard L.; Clarke, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Ketone bodies are the most energy-efficient fuel and yield more ATP per mole of substrate than pyruvate and increase the free energy released from ATP hydrolysis. Elevation of circulating ketones via high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets has been used for the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy and for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease. Ketones may also be beneficial for muscle and brain in times of stress, such as endurance exercise. The challenge has been to raise circulating ketone levels by using a palatable diet without altering lipid levels. We found that blood ketone levels can be increased and cholesterol and triglycerides decreased by feeding rats a novel ketone ester diet: chow that is supplemented with (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate as 30% of calories. For 5 d, rats on the ketone diet ran 32% further on a treadmill than did control rats that ate an isocaloric diet that was supplemented with either corn starch or palm oil (P < 0.05). Ketone-fed rats completed an 8-arm radial maze test 38% faster than did those on the other diets, making more correct decisions before making a mistake (P < 0.05). Isolated, perfused hearts from rats that were fed the ketone diet had greater free energy available from ATP hydrolysis during increased work than did hearts from rats on the other diets as shown by using [31P]-NMR spectroscopy. The novel ketone diet, therefore, improved physical performance and cognitive function in rats, and its energy-sparing properties suggest that it may help to treat a range of human conditions with metabolic abnormalities.—Murray, A. J., Knight, N. S., Cole, M. A., Cochlin, L. E., Carter, E., Tchabanenko, K., Pichulik, T., Gulston, M. K., Atherton, H. J., Schroeder, M. A., Deacon, R. M. J., Kashiwaya, Y., King, M. T., Pawlosky, R., Rawlins, J. N. P., Tyler, D. J., Griffin, J. L., Robertson, J., Veech, R. L., Clarke, K. Novel ketone diet enhances physical and cognitive performance. PMID:27528626

  6. Ketone bodies and two-compartment tumor metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Lin, Zhao; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Lisanti, Michael P.; Sotgia, Federica

    2012-01-01

    We have previously suggested that ketone body metabolism is critical for tumor progression and metastasis. Here, using a co-culture system employing human breast cancer cells (MCF7) and hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts, we provide new evidence to directly support this hypothesis. More specifically, we show that the enzymes required for ketone body production are highly upregulated within cancer-associated fibroblasts. This appears to be mechanistically controlled by the stromal expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and/or serum starvation. In addition, treatment with ketone bodies (such as 3-hydroxy-butyrate, and/or butanediol) is sufficient to drive mitochondrial biogenesis in human breast cancer cells. This observation was also validated by unbiased proteomic analysis. Interestingly, an MCT1 inhibitor was sufficient to block the onset of mitochondrial biogenesis in human breast cancer cells, suggesting a possible avenue for anticancer therapy. Finally, using human breast cancer tumor samples, we directly confirmed that the enzymes associated with ketone body production (HMGCS2, HMGCL and BDH1) were preferentially expressed in the tumor stroma. Conversely, enzymes associated with ketone re-utilization (ACAT1) and mitochondrial biogenesis (HSP60) were selectively associated with the epithelial tumor cell compartment. Our current findings are consistent with the “two-compartment tumor metabolism” model. Furthermore, they suggest that we should target ketone body metabolism as a new area for drug discovery, for the prevention and treatment of human cancers. PMID:23082721

  7. Rotational Spectroscopy of Methyl Vinyl Ketone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenko, Olena; Motiyenko, R. A.; Aviles Moreno, Juan-Ramon; Huet, T. R.

    2015-06-01

    Methyl vinyl ketone, MVK, along with previously studied by our team methacrolein, is a major oxidation product of isoprene, which is one of the primary contributors to annual global VOC emissions. In this talk we present the analysis of the rotational spectrum of MVK recorded at room temperature in the 50 -- 650 GHz region using the Lille spectrometer. The spectroscopic characterization of MVK ground state will be useful in the detailed analysis of high resolution infrared spectra. Our study is supported by high level quantum chemical calculations to model the structure of the two stable s-trans and s-cis conformers and to obtain the harmonic force field parameters, internal rotation barrier heights, and vibrational frequencies. In the Doppler-limited spectra the splittings due to the internal rotation of methyl group are resolved, therefore for analysis of this molecule we used the Rho-Axis-Method Hamiltonian and RAM36 code to fit the rotational transitions. At the present time the ground state of two conformers is analyzed. Also we intend to study some low lying excited states. The analysis is in progress and the latest results will be presented. Support from the French Laboratoire d'Excellence CaPPA (Chemical and Physical Properties of the Atmosphere) through contract ANR-10-LABX-0005 of the Programme d'Investissements d'Avenir is acknowledged.

  8. ESR, electrochemical and cyclodextrin-inclusion studies of triazolopyridyl pyridyl ketones and dipyridyl ketones derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olea-Azar, C.; Abarca, B.; Norambuena, E.; Opazo, L.; Jullian, C.; Valencia, S.; Ballesteros, R.; Chadlaoui, M.

    2008-11-01

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of free radicals obtained by electrolytic reduction of triazolopyridyl pyridyl ketones and dipyridyl ketones derivatives were measured in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The hyperfine patterns indicate that the spin density delocalization is dependent of the rings presented in the molecule. The electrochemistry of these compounds was characterized using cyclic voltammetry, in DMSO as solvent. When one carbonyl is present in the molecule one step in the reduction mechanism was observed while two carbonyl are present two steps were detected. The first wave was assigned to the generation of the correspondent free radical species, and the second wave was assigned to the dianion derivatives. The phase-solubility measurements indicated an interaction between molecules selected and cyclodextrins in water. These inclusion complexes are 1:1 with βCD, and HP-βCD. The values of Ks showed a different kind of complexes depending on which rings are included. AM1 and DFT calculations were performed to obtain the optimized geometries, theoretical hyperfine constants, and spin distributions, respectively. The theoretical results are in complete agreement with the experimental ones.

  9. Quinoline derivatives bearing pyrazole moiety: Synthesis and biological evaluation as possible antibacterial and antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    El Shehry, Mohamed F; Ghorab, Mostafa M; Abbas, Samir Y; Fayed, Eman A; Shedid, Said A; Ammar, Yousry A

    2018-01-01

    In an attempt for development of new antimicrobial agents, three series of quinoline derivatives bearing pyrazole moiety have been synthesized. The first series was synthesized through the synthesis of 4-(quinolin-2-yloxy)benzaldehyde and 4-(quinolin-2-yloxy)acetophenone and then treatment with ketone or aldehyde derivatives to afford the corresponding chalcones. Cyclization of the latter chalcones with hydrazine derivatives led to the formation of new pyrazoline derivatives. The second series was synthesized via the synthesis of 2-hydrazinylquinoline and then treatment with formylpyrazoles to afford the corresponding hydrazonyl pyrazole derivatives. The third series was synthesized through the treatment of 2-hydrazinylquinoline with ethoxyethylidene, dithioacetal and arylidene derivatives to afford the corresponding pyrazole derivatives. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their expected antibacterial and antifungal activities; where, the majority of these compounds showed potent antibacterial and antifungal activities against the tested strains of bacteria and fungi. Pyrazole derivative 13b showed better results when compared with the reference drugs as revealed from their MIC values (0.12-0.98 μg/mL). The pyrazole derivative 13b showed fourfold potency of gentamycin in inhibiting the growth of S. flexneri (MIC 0.12 μg/mL). Also, compound 13b showed fourfold potency of amphotericin B in inhibiting the growth of A. clavatus (MIC 0.49 μg/mL) and C. albicans (MIC 0.12 μg/mL), respectively. The same compound showed twofold potency of gentamycin in inhibiting the growth of P. vulgaris (MIC 0.98 μg/mL), equipotent to the ampicillin and amphotericin B in inhibiting the growth of S. epidermidis (MIC 0.49 μg/mL), A. fumigatus (MIC 0.98 μg/mL), respectively. Thus, these studies suggest that quinoline derivatives bearing pyrazole moiety are interesting scaffolds for the development of novel antibacterial and antifungal agents. Copyright © 2017

  10. Compounds containing meta-biphenylenedioxy moieties and polymers therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Pratt, John Richard (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Two monomers containing meta-biphenylenedioxy moieties were prepared. One monomer, a diamine, is used to prepare polyimide, polyamide, and epoxy polymers. The other monomer, a dianhydride, was used to prepare polyimide polymers. These polymers are used to make films, coatings, and selective membranes.

  11. Polyimides containing meta-biphenylenedioxy moieties and articles prepared therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Pratt, Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Two monomers containing meta-biphenylenedioxy moieties were prepared. One monomer, a diamine, is used to prepare polyimide, polyamide, and epoxy polymers. The other monomer, a dianhydride, was used to prepared polyimide polymers. These polymers are used to make films, coatings, and selective membranes.

  12. The Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Ketones: A Repeated Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, John W.; Wilson, Alan

    2004-09-01

    This article describes the history of the reaction converting carboxylic acids to ketones. The reaction has been rediscovered several times, yet has actually been known for centuries. The best known version of the process is the Dakin West reaction (1928), which applies to α-amino acids and also involves the simultaneous conversion of the amine group to amido functionality. Unlike other examples, this particular reaction has attracted a reasonable amount of attention and it appears to be better known than the conversion of simple carboxylic acids to ketones. However, this reaction was described as long ago as 1612, when Beguin published an account of it in his book, Tyrocinium Chymicum . Since then, many chemists have rediscovered the reaction, apparently independently. One of the earliest modern accounts was by W. H. Perkin, Sr., in 1886, who made various simple ketones by refluxing the appropriate carboxylic acids with base. However, this work has been largely ignored, including by his son, W. H. Perkin, Jr., who used a more complicated base-catalyzed ketonization to prepare small ring compounds in the early years of the 20th century. Other articles detailing the application of ketonization to organic acids are discussed, including our own work, which employed the process to crosslink carboxylated polymers for possible technical application in coatings. Despite its relative obscurity, the reaction was used by Woodward et al. in the total synthesis of strychnine, reported in 1963, and this is discussed in detail at the end of the article. See Featured Molecules .

  13. The Failing Heart Relies on Ketone Bodies as a Fuel.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Gregory; Martin, Ola J; Horton, Julie L; Lai, Ling; Vega, Rick B; Leone, Teresa C; Koves, Timothy; Gardell, Stephen J; Krüger, Marcus; Hoppel, Charles L; Lewandowski, E Douglas; Crawford, Peter A; Muoio, Deborah M; Kelly, Daniel P

    2016-02-23

    Significant evidence indicates that the failing heart is energy starved. During the development of heart failure, the capacity of the heart to utilize fatty acids, the chief fuel, is diminished. Identification of alternate pathways for myocardial fuel oxidation could unveil novel strategies to treat heart failure. Quantitative mitochondrial proteomics was used to identify energy metabolic derangements that occur during the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in well-defined mouse models. As expected, the amounts of proteins involved in fatty acid utilization were downregulated in myocardial samples from the failing heart. Conversely, expression of β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1, a key enzyme in the ketone oxidation pathway, was increased in the heart failure samples. Studies of relative oxidation in an isolated heart preparation using ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance combined with targeted quantitative myocardial metabolomic profiling using mass spectrometry revealed that the hypertrophied and failing heart shifts to oxidizing ketone bodies as a fuel source in the context of reduced capacity to oxidize fatty acids. Distinct myocardial metabolomic signatures of ketone oxidation were identified. These results indicate that the hypertrophied and failing heart shifts to ketone bodies as a significant fuel source for oxidative ATP production. Specific metabolite biosignatures of in vivo cardiac ketone utilization were identified. Future studies aimed at determining whether this fuel shift is adaptive or maladaptive could unveil new therapeutic strategies for heart failure. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Cerebral metabolic adaptation and ketone metabolism after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Mayumi L

    2010-01-01

    The developing central nervous system has the capacity to metabolize ketone bodies. It was once accepted that on weaning, the ‘post-weaned/adult’ brain was limited solely to glucose metabolism. However, increasing evidence from conditions of inadequate glucose availability or increased energy demands has shown that the adult brain is not static in its fuel options. The objective of this review is to summarize the body of literature specifically regarding cerebral ketone metabolism at different ages, under conditions of starvation and after various pathologic conditions. The evidence presented supports the following findings: (1) there is an inverse relationship between age and the brain’s capacity for ketone metabolism that continues well after weaning; (2) neuroprotective potentials of ketone administration have been shown for neurodegenerative conditions, epilepsy, hypoxia/ischemia, and traumatic brain injury; and (3) there is an age-related therapeutic potential for ketone as an alternative substrate. The concept of cerebral metabolic adaptation under various physiologic and pathologic conditions is not new, but it has taken the contribution of numerous studies over many years to break the previously accepted dogma of cerebral metabolism. Our emerging understanding of cerebral metabolism is far more complex than could have been imagined. It is clear that in addition to glucose, other substrates must be considered along with fuel interactions, metabolic challenges, and cerebral maturation. PMID:17684514

  15. Contribution of Quinones and Ketones/Aldehydes to the Optical Properties of Humic Substances (HS) and Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM).

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Rossana; Schendorf, Tara Marie; Blough, Neil V

    2017-12-05

    The molecular basis of the optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and humic substances (HS) remains poorly understood and yet to be investigated adequately. This study evaluates the relative contributions of two broad classes of carbonyl-containing compounds, ketones/aldehydes versus quinones, to the absorption and emission properties of a representative suite of HS as well as a lignin sample. Selective reduction of quinones to hydroquinones by addition of small molar excesses of dithionite to these samples under anoxic conditions produced small or negligible changes in their optical properties; however, when measurable, these changes were largely reversible upon exposure to air, consistent with the reoxidation of hydroquinones to quinones. With one exception, estimates of quinone content based on dithionite consumption by the HS under anoxic conditions were in good agreement with past electrochemical measurements. In contrast, reduction of ketones/aldehydes to alcohols employing excess sodium borohydride produced pronounced and largely, but not completely, irreversible changes in the optical properties. The results demonstrate that (aromatic) ketones/aldehydes, as opposed to quinones, play a far more prominent role in the optical absorption and emission properties of these HS, consistent with these moieties acting as the primary acceptors in charge-transfer transitions within these samples. As a method, anoxic dithionite titrations may further allow additional insight into the content and impact of quinones/hydroquinones on the optical properties of HS and CDOM.

  16. Pendant dual sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) proton exchange membranes for fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh Dat Thinh; Yang, Sungwoo; Kim, Dukjoon

    2016-10-01

    Poly(arylene ether ketone) (PAEK) possessing carboxylic groups at the pendant position is synthesized, and the substitution degree of pendant carboxylic groups is controlled by adjusting the ratio of 4,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)valeric acid and 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane. Dual sulfonated 3,3-diphenylpropylamine (SDPA) is grafted onto PAEK as a proton-conducting moiety via the amidation reaction with carboxylic groups. The transparent and flexible membranes with different degrees of sulfonation are fabricated so that we can test and compare their structure and properties with a commercial Nafion® 115 membrane for PEMFC applications. All prepared PAEK-SDPA membranes exhibit good oxidative and hydrolytic stability from Fenton's and high temperature water immersion test. SAXS analysis illustrates an excellent phase separation between the hydrophobic backbone and hydrophilic pendant groups, resulting in big ionic clusters. The proton conductivity was measured at different relative humidity, and its behavior was analyzed by hydration number of the membrane. Among a series of membranes, some samples (including B20V80-SDPA) show not only higher proton conductivity, but also higher integrated cell performance than those of Nafion® 115 at 100% relative humidity, and thus we expect these to be good candidate membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  17. Enantioselective Organocatalytic α-Fluorination of Cyclic Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Piotr; Beeson, Teresa D.; Conrad, Jay C.

    2011-01-01

    The first highly enantioselective α-fluorination of ketones using organocatalysis has been accomplished. The long-standing problem of enantioselective ketone α-fluorination via enamine activation has been overcome via high-throughput evaluation of a new library of amine catalysts. The optimal system, a primary amine functionalized Cinchona alkaloid, allows the direct and asymmetric α-fluorination of a variety of carbo- and heterocyclic substrates. Furthermore, this protocol also provides diastereo-, regio- and chemoselective catalyst control in fluorinations involving complex carbonyl systems. PMID:21247133

  18. Rhodium Catalyzed Intramolecular C-H Insertion of α-Aryl-α-diazo Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Douglass F.; Tian, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    Direct diazo transfer proceeds smoothly with α-aryl ketones. The derived α-aryl-α-diazo ketones cyclize efficiently with Rh catalysis to give the corresponding α-aryl cyclopentanones. PMID:17385917

  19. The disaccharide moiety of bleomycin facilitates uptake by cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Benjamin R; Ghare, M Imran; Bhattacharya, Chandrabali; Paul, Rakesh; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zaleski, Paul A; Bozeman, Trevor C; Rishel, Michael J; Hecht, Sidney M

    2014-10-01

    The disaccharide moiety is responsible for the tumor cell targeting properties of bleomycin (BLM). While the aglycon (deglycobleomycin) mediates DNA cleavage in much the same fashion as bleomycin, it exhibits diminished cytotoxicity in comparison to BLM. These findings suggested that BLM might be modular in nature, composed of tumor-seeking and tumoricidal domains. To explore this possibility, BLM analogues were prepared in which the disaccharide moiety was attached to deglycobleomycin at novel positions, namely, via the threonine moiety or C-terminal substituent. The analogues were compared with BLM and deglycoBLM for DNA cleavage, cancer cell uptake, and cytotoxic activity. BLM is more potent than deglycoBLM in supercoiled plasmid DNA relaxation, while the analogue having the disaccharide on threonine was less active than deglycoBLM and the analogue containing the C-terminal disaccharide was slightly more potent. While having unexceptional DNA cleavage potencies, both glycosylated analogues were more cytotoxic to cultured DU145 prostate cancer cells than deglycoBLM. Dye-labeled conjugates of the cytotoxic BLM aglycons were used in imaging experiments to determine the extent of cell uptake. The rank order of internalization efficiencies was the same as their order of cytotoxicities toward DU145 cells. These findings establish a role for the BLM disaccharide in tumor targeting/uptake and suggest that the disaccharide moiety may be capable of delivering other cytotoxins to cancer cells. While the mechanism responsible for uptake of the BLM disaccharide selectively by tumor cells has not yet been established, data are presented which suggest that the metabolic shift to glycolysis in cancer cells may provide the vehicle for selective internalization.

  20. Catalyst-free dehydrative α-alkylation of ketones with alcohols: green and selective autocatalyzed synthesis of alcohols and ketones.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Chen, Jianhui; Tian, Haiwen; Yuan, Xueqin; Li, Shuangyan; Zhou, Chongkuan; Liu, Jianping

    2014-01-03

    Direct dehydrative α-alkylation reactions of ketones with alcohols are now realized under simple, practical, and green conditions without using external catalysts. These catalyst-free autocatalyzed alkylation methods can efficiently afford useful alkylated ketone or alcohol products in a one-pot manner and on a large scale by CC bond formation of the in situ generated intermediates with subsequent controllable and selective Meerwein-Pondorf-Verley-Oppenauer-type redox processes. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Extractive recovery of phenol and p-alkylphenols from aqueous solutions with hydrophobic ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Korenman, Ya.I.; Ermolaeva, T.N.; Podolina, E.A.

    1994-03-10

    Aliphatic and cyclic hydrophobic ketones were used for extractive recovery of phenol and p-alkylphenols from aqueous solutions, giving a 95-98% extraction of toxicants under the recommended conditions. The extracting agents were cyclohexanone, methylcyclohexanone, butyl methyl ketone, and isobutyl methyl ketone.

  2. Acyl hydrazides as acyl donors for the synthesis of diaryl and aryl alkyl ketones.

    PubMed

    Akhbar, Ahmed R; Chudasama, Vijay; Fitzmaurice, Richard J; Powell, Lyn; Caddick, Stephen

    2014-01-21

    In this communication we describe a novel strategy for the formation of valuable diaryl and aryl alkyl ketones from acyl hydrazides. A wide variety of ketones are prepared and the mild reaction conditions allow for the use of a range of functionalities, especially in the synthesis of diaryl ketones.

  3. ANALYSIS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES IN THE GAS PHASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development and testing of a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-acetonitrile (DNPH-ACN) method for the analysis of aldehydes and ketones in ambient air are described. A discussion of interferences, preparation of calibration standards, analytical testing, fluorescence methods and car...

  4. Catalytic Ketone Hydrodeoxygenation Mediated by Highly Electrophilic Phosphonium Cations.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Meera; Holthausen, Michael H; Mallov, Ian; Pérez, Manuel; Qu, Zheng-Wang; Grimme, Stefan; Stephan, Douglas W

    2015-07-06

    Ketones are efficiently deoxygenated in the presence of silane using highly electrophilic phosphonium cation (EPC) salts as catalysts, thus affording the corresponding alkane and siloxane. The influence of distinct substitution patterns on the catalytic effectiveness of several EPCs was evaluated. The deoxygenation mechanism was probed by DFT methods. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

    SciTech Connect

    Byrn, Marianne; Calvin, Melvin

    1965-12-01

    Using infra-red spectroscopy, the equilibrium exchange times have been determined for a series of ketones, aromatic aldehydes, and {beta}-ketoesters reacting with oxygen 18 enriched water. These exchange times have been evaluated in terms of steric and electronic considerations, and applied to a discussion of the exchange times of chlorophylls a and b and chlorophyll derivatives.

  6. Catecholamine, Corticosteroid and Ketone Excretion in Exercise and Hypoxia,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    OHCS excretion tended to be higher during the experimental period and subsequently lower overnight during the hypoxia week. Ketosis occurred in two...subjects. In one of these it could be readily related to previous extraneous stress. Excretion of unidentified ketones in overnight urines was sometimes suspected and occurred beyond doubt following gross ketosis . (Author)

  7. Inborn errors of ketogenesis and ketone body utilization.

    PubMed

    Sass, Jörn Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Ketone bodies acetoacetate and 3-hydroxy-n-butyric acid are metabolites derived from fatty acids and ketogenic amino acids such as leucine. They are mainly produced in the liver via reactions catalyzed by the ketogenic enzymes mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-coenzyme A synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-coenzyme A lyase. After prolonged starvation, ketone bodies can provide up to two-thirds of the brain's energy requirements. The rate-limiting enzyme of ketone body utilization (ketolysis) is succinyl-coenzyme A:3-oxoacid coenzyme A transferase. The subsequent step of ketolysis is catalyzed by 2-methylactoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, which is also involved in isoleucine catabolism. Inborn errors of metabolism affecting those four enzymes are presented and discussed in the context of differential diagnoses. While disorders of ketogenesis can present with hypoketotic hypoglycemia, inborn errors of ketolysis are characterized by metabolic decompensations with ketoacidosis. If those diseases are considered early and appropriate treatment is initiated without delay, patients with inborn errors of ketone body metabolism often have a good clinical outcome.

  8. Ketones in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Association; c1995–2017. DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones; [updated 2015 Mar 18; cited 2017 Mar 19]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www. ... Testing: What You Need to Know; [cited 2017 Mar 19]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www. ...

  9. Ketonization of Cuphea oil for the production of 2-undecanone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate the viability of the cross ketonization reaction with the triacylglycerol from Cuphea sp. and acetic acid in a fixed-bed plug-flow reactor. The seed oil from Cuphea sp. contains up to 71% decanoic acid and the reaction of this fatty acid residue with ac...

  10. Process for conversion of levulinic acid to ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.

    A method for generating desired platform chemicals from feedstocks such as cellulosic biomass feedstocks containing levulinic acid by decarboxylating a feed stock comprising levulinic acid to generate ketones. This is done by passing a feed stock comprising levulinic acid in a gas phase over a non-precious metal catalyst on a neutral support.

  11. 21 CFR 862.1435 - Ketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ketones (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1435 Section 862.1435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  12. On the Metabolism of Exogenous Ketones in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Brianna J.; Cox, Pete J.; Evans, Rhys D.; Santer, Peter; Miller, Jack J.; Faull, Olivia K.; Magor-Elliott, Snapper; Hiyama, Satoshi; Stirling, Matthew; Clarke, Kieran

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Currently there is considerable interest in ketone metabolism owing to recently reported benefits of ketosis for human health. Traditionally, ketosis has been achieved by following a high-fat, low-carbohydrate “ketogenic” diet, but adherence to such diets can be difficult. An alternative way to increase blood D-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-βHB) concentrations is ketone drinks, but the metabolic effects of exogenous ketones are relatively unknown. Here, healthy human volunteers took part in three randomized metabolic studies of drinks containing a ketone ester (KE); (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, or ketone salts (KS); sodium plus potassium βHB. Methods and Results: In the first study, 15 participants consumed KE or KS drinks that delivered ~12 or ~24 g of βHB. Both drinks elevated blood D-βHB concentrations (D-βHB Cmax: KE 2.8 mM, KS 1.0 mM, P < 0.001), which returned to baseline within 3–4 h. KS drinks were found to contain 50% of the L-βHB isoform, which remained elevated in blood for over 8 h, but was not detectable after 24 h. Urinary excretion of both D-βHB and L-βHB was <1.5% of the total βHB ingested and was in proportion to the blood AUC. D-βHB, but not L-βHB, was slowly converted to breath acetone. The KE drink decreased blood pH by 0.10 and the KS drink increased urinary pH from 5.7 to 8.5. In the second study, the effect of a meal before a KE drink on blood D-βHB concentrations was determined in 16 participants. Food lowered blood D-βHB Cmax by 33% (Fed 2.2 mM, Fasted 3.3 mM, P < 0.001), but did not alter acetoacetate or breath acetone concentrations. All ketone drinks lowered blood glucose, free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations, and had similar effects on blood electrolytes, which remained normal. In the final study, participants were given KE over 9 h as three drinks (n = 12) or a continuous nasogastric infusion (n = 4) to maintain blood D-βHB concentrations greater than 1 mM. Both drinks and

  13. Selective tumor cell targeting by the disaccharide moiety of bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiqiang; Schmaltz, Ryan M; Bozeman, Trevor C; Paul, Rakesh; Rishel, Michael J; Tsosie, Krystal S; Hecht, Sidney M

    2013-02-27

    In a recent study, the well-documented tumor targeting properties of the antitumor agent bleomycin (BLM) were studied in cell culture using microbubbles that had been derivatized with multiple copies of BLM. It was shown that BLM selectively targeted MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells but not the "normal" breast cell line MCF-10A. Furthermore, it was found that the BLM analogue deglycobleomycin, which lacks the disaccharide moiety of BLM, did not target either cell line, indicating that the BLM disaccharide moiety is necessary for tumor selectivity. Not resolved in the earlier study were the issues of whether the BLM disaccharide moiety alone is sufficient for tumor cell targeting and the possible cellular uptake of the disaccharide. In the present study, we conjugated BLM, deglycoBLM, and BLM disaccharide to the cyanine dye Cy5**. It was found that the BLM and BLM disaccharide conjugates, but not the deglycoBLM conjugate, bound selectively to MCF-7 cells and were internalized. The same was also true for the prostate cancer cell line DU-145 (but not for normal PZ-HPV-7 prostate cells) and for the pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 (but not for normal SVR A221a pancreas cells). The targeting efficiency of the disaccharide was only slightly less than that of BLM in MCF-7 and DU-145 cells and comparable to that of BLM in BxPC-3 cells. These results establish that the BLM disaccharide is both necessary and sufficient for tumor cell targeting, a finding with obvious implications for the design of novel tumor imaging and therapeutic agents.

  14. [Chemical constituents from involatile moiety of Pogostemon cablin].

    PubMed

    Huang, Liejun; Mu, Shuzhen; Zhang, Jianxin; Deng, Bin; Song, Zhiqin; Hao, Xiaojiang

    2009-02-01

    To study the chemical constituents of involatile moiety of Pogostemon cablin. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated column chromatography, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Nine compounds have been isolated and identified: epifriedelinol (1), 5-hydroxymethol-2-furfural (2), succinic acid (3), beta-sitosterol (4), daucosterol (5), crenatoside (6), 3'''-O-methylcrenatoside (7), isocrenatoside (8), and apigenin-7-O-beta-D-(6"-p-coumaryl)-glucoside (9). Compounds 2, 3, 6-8 were isolated from Pogostemon genus for the first time.

  15. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, M.V., E-mail: dodson@wsu.edu; Vierck, J.L.; Hausman, G.J.

    2010-04-02

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  16. Seven papers on fused-ring heterocyclic ketones containing an N-tosyl­pyrrolo­[3,4-c]pyrano moiety. Corrigenda

    PubMed Central

    Chinnakali, K.; Jayagobi, M.; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2008-01-01

    Corrections are made to the name of an author in seven papers by Chinnakali et al. [Acta Cryst. (2007), E63, o4363, o4364, o4434–o4435, o4436–o4437, o4438, o4489–o4490 and o4491–o4492]. PMID:21200448

  17. Oxygen permeability of hydrogel contact lenses with organosilicon moieties.

    PubMed

    Compañ, V; Andrio, A; López-Alemany, A; Riande, E; Refojo, M F

    2002-07-01

    Oxygen transport through two extended wear (day and night) hydrogel contact lenses that contain organosilicon moieties (balafilcon A and lotrafilcon A) was studied in the hydrate (hydrogel) and dry (xerogel) states. The water uptake increased the oxygen permeability [(Dk)app] and transmissibility [Dk/L(av)] coefficients of the dry materials by about 70%. The (Dk)app for the hydrated lenses was determined following the so-called stack procedure. The values obtained were 107 +/- 4 barrer for balafilcon A and 141 +/- 5 barrer for lotrafilcon A, about 5-10 times larger than those previously reported for conventional (without organosilicon moieties) extended wear hydrogels contact lenses. The Dk/L(av) for -3.00 diopter lenses (harmonic average thickness, L(av) = 75 +/- 2 microm for lotrafilcon, and 85 +/- 2 microm for balafilcon) was 123 +/- 6 barrer/cm for balafilcon A and 183 +/- 8 barrer/cm for lotralicon A. The minimum oxygen transmissibility 87 barrer/cm stipulated by Holden and Mertz to avoid corneal edema with extended wear contact can be easily achieved with lotrafilcon and balafilcon lenses of diverse dioptric powers if the central and peripheral thickness of the lenses are kept below the critical level of oxygen transmissibility.

  18. Forging C-C Bonds Through Decarbonylation of Aryl Ketones.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Rosie J; Martin, Ruben

    2017-06-06

    The ability of nickel to cleave strong σ-bonds is again in the spotlight after a recent report that demonstrates the feasibility of using nickel complexes to promote decarbonylation of diaryl ketones. This transformation involves the cleavage of two strong C-C(O) bonds and avoids the use of noble metals, hence reinforcing the potential of decarbonylation as a technique for forging C-C bonds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Zinc-catalyzed allenylations of aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Fandrick, Daniel R; Saha, Jaideep; Fandrick, Keith R; Sanyal, Sanjit; Ogikubo, Junichi; Lee, Heewon; Roschangar, Frank; Song, Jinhua J; Senanayake, Chris H

    2011-10-21

    The general zinc-catalyzed allenylation of aldehydes and ketones with an allenyl boronate is presented. Preliminary mechanistic studies support a kinetically controlled process wherein, after a site-selective B/Zn exchange to generate a propargyl zinc intermediate, the addition to the electrophile effectively competes with propargyl-allenyl zinc equilibration. The utility of the methodology was demonstrated by application to a rhodium-catalyzed [4+2] cycloaddition. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Trifluoromethylation of ketones and aldehydes with Bu₃SnCF₃.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, Italo A; Bonney, Karl J; Nielsen, Mads C; Schoenebeck, Franziska

    2013-08-02

    The (trifluoromethyl)stannane reagent, Bu3SnCF3, was found to react under CsF activation with ketones and aldehydes to the corresponding trifluoromethylated stannane ether intermediates at room temperature in high yield. Only a mildly acidic extraction (aqueous NH4Cl) is required to release the corresponding trifluoromethyl alcohol products. The protocol is compatible with acid-sensitive functional groups.

  1. Solvation of Esters and Ketones in Supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, Daisuke; Imanishi, Masayoshi; Saitow, Ken-ichi

    2016-02-04

    Vibrational Raman spectra for the C═O stretching modes of three esters with different functional groups (methyl, a single phenyl, and two phenyl groups) were measured in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The results were compared with Raman spectra for three ketones involving the same functional groups, measured at the same thermodynamic states in scCO2. The peak frequencies of the Raman spectra of these six solute molecules were analyzed by decomposition into the attractive and repulsive energy components, based on the perturbed hard-sphere theory. For all solute molecules, the attractive energy is greater than the repulsive energy. In particular, a significant difference in the attractive energies of the ester-CO2 and ketone-CO2 systems was observed when the methyl group is attached to the ester or ketone. This difference was significantly reduced in the solute systems with a single phenyl group and was completely absent in those with two phenyl groups. The optimized structures among the solutes and CO2 molecules based on quantum chemical calculations indicate that greater attractive energy is obtained for a system where the oxygen atom of the ester is solvated by CO2 molecules.

  2. Ketone bodies and brain glutamate and GABA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Daikhin, Y; Yudkoff, M

    1998-01-01

    The effects of ketone bodies on brain metabolism of glutamate and GABA were studied in three different systems: synaptosomes, cultured astrocytes and the whole animal. In synaptosomes the addition of either acetoacetate or 3-OH-butyrate was associated with diminished consumption of glutamate via transamination to aspartate and increased formation of labelled GABA from either L-[2H5-2,3,3,4, 4]glutamine or L-[15N]glutamine. There was no effect of ketone bodies on synaptosomal GABA transamination. An increase of total forebrain GABA and a diminution of aspartate was noted when mice were injected intraperitoneally with 3-OH-butyrate. In cultured astrocytes the addition of acetoacetate to the medium was associated with a significantly enhanced rate of citrate production and with a diminution in the rate of conversion of [15N]glutamate to [15N]aspartate. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the metabolism of ketone bodies to acetyl-CoA results in a diminution of the pool of brain oxaloacetate, which is consumed in the citrate synthetase reaction (oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA --> citrate). As less oxaloacetate is available to the aspartate aminotransferase reaction, thereby lowering the rate of glutamate transamination, more glutamate becomes accessible to the glutamate decarboxylase pathway, thereby favoring the synthesis of GABA.

  3. Nickel-catalyzed cycloadditions of unsaturated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and ketones.

    PubMed

    Tekavec, Thomas N; Louie, Janis

    2008-04-04

    The nickel-catalyzed cycloaddition of unsaturated hydrocarbons and carbonyls is reported. Diynes and enynes were used as coupling partners. Carbonyl substrates include both aldehdyes and ketones. Reactions of diynes and aldehydes afforded the [3,3] electrocyclic ring-opened tautomers, rather than pyrans, in high yields. The cycloaddition reaction of enynes and aldehydes afforded two distinct products. A new carbon-carbon bond is formed, prior to a competitive beta-hydrogen elimination of a nickel alkoxide, between the carbonyl carbon and either one of the carbons of the olefin or the alkyne. The steric hindrance of the enyne greatly affected the chemoselectivity of the cycloaddition of enynes and aldehydes. In some cases, dihydropyran was also formed. The scope of the cycloaddition reaction was expanded to include the coupling of enynes and ketones. No beta-hydrogen elimination was observed in cycloaddition reaction of enynes and ketones. Instead, C-O bond-forming reductive elimination occurred exclusively to afford dihydropyrans in excellent yields. In all cases, complete chemoselectivity was observed; only dihydropyrans where the carbonyl carbon forms a carbon-carbon bond with a carbon of the olefin, rather than of the alkyne, were observed. All cycloaddition reactions occur at room temperature and employ nickel catalysts bearing the hindered 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IPr) or its saturated analogue, 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazolin-2-ylidene (SIPr).

  4. Nickel-Catalyzed Cycloadditions of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons, Aldehydes, and Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Tekavec, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    The nickel-catalyzed cycloaddition of unsaturated hydrocarbons and carbonyls is reported. Diynes and enynes were used as coupling partners. Carbonyl substrates include both aldehdyes and ketones. Reactions of diynes and aldehydes afforded the [3, 3] electrocyclic ring-opened tautomers, rather than pyrans, in high yields. The cycloaddition reaction of enynes and aldehydes afforded two distinct products. A new carbon–carbon bond is formed, prior to a competitive β-hydrogen elimination of a nickel alkoxide, between the carbonyl carbon and either one of the carbons of the olefin or the alkyne. The steric hindrance of the enyne greatly affected the chemoselectivity of the cycloaddition of enynes and aldehydes. In some cases, dihydropyran was also formed. The scope of the cycloaddition reaction was expanded to include the coupling of enynes and ketones. No β-hydrogen elimination was observed in cycloaddition reaction of enynes and ketones. Instead, C–O bond-forming reductive elimination occurred exclusively to afford dihydropyrans in excellent yields. In all cases, complete chemoselectivity was observed; only dihydropyrans where the carbonyl carbon forms a carbon–carbon bond with a carbon of the olefin, rather than of the alkyne, were observed. All cycloaddition reactions occur at room temperature and employ nickel catalysts bearing the hindered 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IPr) or its saturated analogue, 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazolin-2-ylidene (SIPr). PMID:18318544

  5. Advanced selective non-invasive ketone body detection sensors based on new ionophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyapalan, A.; Sarswat, P. K.; Zhu, Y.; Free, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    New molecules and methods were examined that can be used to detect trace level ketone bodies. Diseases such as type 1 diabetes, childhood hypo-glycaemia-growth hormone deficiency, toxic inhalation, and body metabolism changes are linked with ketone bodies concentration. Here we introduce, selective ketone body detection sensors based on small, environmentally friendly organic molecules with Lewis acid additives. Density functional theory (DFT) simulation of the sensor molecules (Bromo-acetonaphthone tungstate (BANT) and acetonaphthophenyl ether propiono hydroxyl tungstate (APPHT)), indicated a fully relaxed geometry without symmetry attributes and specific coordination which enhances ketone bodies sensitivity. A portable sensing unit was made in which detection media containing ketone bodies at low concentration and new molecules show color change in visible light as well as unique irradiance during UV illumination. RGB analysis, electrochemical tests, SEM characterization, FTIR, absorbance and emission spectroscopy were also performed in order to validate the ketone sensitivity of these new molecules.

  6. Evidence for hypothalamic ketone body sensing: impact on food intake and peripheral metabolic responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Lionel; Geller, Sarah; Fioramonti, Xavier; Hébert, Audrey; Repond, Cendrine; Leloup, Corinne; Pellerin, Luc

    2016-01-15

    Monocarboxylates have been implicated in the control of energy homeostasis. Among them, the putative role of ketone bodies produced notably during high-fat diet (HFD) has not been thoroughly explored. In this study, we aimed to determine the impact of a specific rise in cerebral ketone bodies on food intake and energy homeostasis regulation. A carotid infusion of ketone bodies was performed on mice to stimulate sensitive brain areas for 6 or 12 h. At each time point, food intake and different markers of energy homeostasis were analyzed to reveal the consequences of cerebral increase in ketone body level detection. First, an increase in food intake appeared over a 12-h period of brain ketone body perfusion. This stimulated food intake was associated with an increased expression of the hypothalamic neuropeptides NPY and AgRP as well as phosphorylated AMPK and is due to ketone bodies sensed by the brain, as blood ketone body levels did not change at that time. In parallel, gluconeogenesis and insulin sensitivity were transiently altered. Indeed, a dysregulation of glucose production and insulin secretion was observed after 6 h of ketone body perfusion, which reversed to normal at 12 h of perfusion. Altogether, these results suggest that an increase in brain ketone body concentration leads to hyperphagia and a transient perturbation of peripheral metabolic homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. [Pollution Characteristics of Aldehydes and Ketones Compounds in the Exhaust of Beijing Typical Restaurants].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-chen; Cui, Tong; He, Wan-qing; Nie, Lei; Wang, Jun-ling; Pan, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Aldehydes and ketones compounds, as one of the components in the exhaust of restaurants, are a class of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with strong chemical reactivity. However, there is no systematic study on aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of restaurants. To further clarify the food source emission levels of aldehydes and ketones compounds and controlling measures, to access city group catering VOCs emissions control decision-making basis, this study selected 8 Beijing restaurants with different types. The aldehydes and ketones compounds were sampled using DNPH-silica tube, and then ultra performance liquid chromatography was used for quantitative measurement. The aldehydes and ketones concentrations of reference volume condition from 8 restaurants in descending order were Roasted Duck restaurant, Chinese Style Barbecue, Home Dishes, Western Fast-food, School Canteen, Chinese Style Fast-food, Sichuan Cuisine, Huaiyang Cuisine. The results showed that the range of aldehydes and ketones compounds (C1-C9) concentrations of reference volume condition in the exhaust of restaurants was 115.47-1035.99 microg x m(-3). The composition of aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of sampled restaurants was obviously different. The percentages of C1-C3 were above 40% in the exhaust from Chinese style restaurants. Fast food might emit more C4-C9 aldehydes and ketones compounds. From the current situation of existing aldehydes and ketones compounds control, the removal efficiency of high voltage electrostatic purifiers widely used in Beijing is limited.

  8. Engineering ..beta..-Oxidation in Yarrowia lipolytica for Methyl Ketone Production

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez i Nogue, Violeta; Ramirez, Kelsey J; Singer, Christine

    Medium- and long-chain methyl ketones are fatty acid-derived compounds that can be used as biofuel blending agents, flavors and fragrances. However, their large-scale production from sustainable feedstocks is currently limited due to the lack of robust microbial biocatalysts. The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising biorefinery platform strain for the production of methyl ketones from renewable lignocellulosic biomass due to its natively high flux towards fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we report the metabolic engineering of Y. lipolytica to produce long- and very long-chain methyl ketones. Truncation of peroxisomal ..beta..-oxidation by chromosomal deletion of pot1 resulted in themore » biosynthesis of saturated, mono-, and diunsaturated methyl ketones in the C13-C23 range. Additional overexpression and peroxisomal targeting of a heterologous bacterial methyl ketone biosynthesis pathway yielded an initial titer of 151.5 mg/L of saturated methyl ketones. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the cultures were found to substantially impact cell morphology and methyl ketone biosynthesis. Bioreactor cultivation under optimized conditions resulted in a titer of 314.8 mg/L of total methyl ketones, representing more than a 6000-fold increase over the parental strain. This work highlights the potential of Y. lipolytica to serve as chassis organism for the biosynthesis of acyl-thioester derived long- and very long-chain methyl ketones.« less

  9. Ketone Bodies and Exercise Performance: The Next Magic Bullet or Merely Hype?

    PubMed

    Pinckaers, Philippe J M; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Bailey, David; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-03-01

    Elite athletes and coaches are in a constant search for training methods and nutritional strategies to support training and recovery efforts that may ultimately maximize athletes' performance. Recently, there has been a re-emerging interest in the role of ketone bodies in exercise metabolism, with considerable media speculation about ketone body supplements being routinely used by professional cyclists. Ketone bodies can serve as an important energy substrate under certain conditions, such as starvation, and can modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Dietary strategies to increase endogenous ketone body availability (i.e., a ketogenic diet) require a diet high in lipids and low in carbohydrates for ~4 days to induce nutritional ketosis. However, a high fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet may impair exercise performance via reducing the capacity to utilize carbohydrate, which forms a key fuel source for skeletal muscle during intense endurance-type exercise. Recently, ketone body supplements (ketone salts and esters) have emerged and may be used to rapidly increase ketone body availability, without the need to first adapt to a ketogenic diet. However, the extent to which ketone bodies regulate skeletal muscle bioenergetics and substrate metabolism during prolonged endurance-type exercise of varying intensity and duration remains unknown. Therefore, at present there are no data available to suggest that ingestion of ketone bodies during exercise improves athletes' performance under conditions where evidence-based nutritional strategies are applied appropriately.

  10. Gallium (III) triflate catalyzed efficient Strecker reaction of ketones and their fluorinated analogs

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, G. K. Surya; Mathew, Thomas; Panja, Chiradeep; Alconcel, Steevens; Vaghoo, Habiba; Do, Clement; Olah, George A.

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of α-aminonitriles and their fluorinated analogs has been carried out in high yield and purity by the Strecker reaction from the corresponding ketones and amines with trimethylsilyl cyanide using gallium triflate in dichloromethane. Monofluoro-, difluro-, or trifluoromethyl groups can be incorporated into the α-aminonitrile product by varying the nature of the fluorinated ketones. Study with various fluorinated and nonfluorinated ketones reveals that the choice of proper catalyst and the solvent system (suitable metal triflates as a catalyst and dichloromethane as a solvent) plays the key role in the direct Strecker reactions of ketones. PMID:17360416

  11. Engineering β-oxidation in Yarrowia lipolytica for methyl ketone production.

    PubMed

    Hanko, Erik K R; Denby, Charles M; Sànchez I Nogué, Violeta; Lin, Weiyin; Ramirez, Kelsey J; Singer, Christine A; Beckham, Gregg T; Keasling, Jay D

    2018-05-28

    Medium- and long-chain methyl ketones are fatty acid-derived compounds that can be used as biofuel blending agents, flavors and fragrances. However, their large-scale production from sustainable feedstocks is currently limited due to the lack of robust microbial biocatalysts. The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising biorefinery platform strain for the production of methyl ketones from renewable lignocellulosic biomass due to its natively high flux towards fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we report the metabolic engineering of Y. lipolytica to produce long- and very long-chain methyl ketones. Truncation of peroxisomal β-oxidation by chromosomal deletion of pot1 resulted in the biosynthesis of saturated, mono-, and diunsaturated methyl ketones in the C 13 -C 23 range. Additional overexpression and peroxisomal targeting of a heterologous bacterial methyl ketone biosynthesis pathway yielded an initial titer of 151.5 mg/L of saturated methyl ketones. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the cultures were found to substantially impact cell morphology and methyl ketone biosynthesis. Bioreactor cultivation under optimized conditions resulted in a titer of 314.8 mg/L of total methyl ketones, representing more than a 6000-fold increase over the parental strain. This work highlights the potential of Y. lipolytica to serve as chassis organism for the biosynthesis of acyl-thioester derived long- and very long-chain methyl ketones. Copyright © 2018 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of Conserved Moieties in Metabolic Networks by Graph Theoretical Analysis of Atom Transition Networks

    PubMed Central

    Haraldsdóttir, Hulda S.; Fleming, Ronan M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Conserved moieties are groups of atoms that remain intact in all reactions of a metabolic network. Identification of conserved moieties gives insight into the structure and function of metabolic networks and facilitates metabolic modelling. All moiety conservation relations can be represented as nonnegative integer vectors in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix corresponding to a biochemical network. Algorithms exist to compute such vectors based only on reaction stoichiometry but their computational complexity has limited their application to relatively small metabolic networks. Moreover, the vectors returned by existing algorithms do not, in general, represent conservation of a specific moiety with a defined atomic structure. Here, we show that identification of conserved moieties requires data on reaction atom mappings in addition to stoichiometry. We present a novel method to identify conserved moieties in metabolic networks by graph theoretical analysis of their underlying atom transition networks. Our method returns the exact group of atoms belonging to each conserved moiety as well as the corresponding vector in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix. It can be implemented as a pipeline of polynomial time algorithms. Our implementation completes in under five minutes on a metabolic network with more than 4,000 mass balanced reactions. The scalability of the method enables extension of existing applications for moiety conservation relations to genome-scale metabolic networks. We also give examples of new applications made possible by elucidating the atomic structure of conserved moieties. PMID:27870845

  13. Identification of Conserved Moieties in Metabolic Networks by Graph Theoretical Analysis of Atom Transition Networks.

    PubMed

    Haraldsdóttir, Hulda S; Fleming, Ronan M T

    2016-11-01

    Conserved moieties are groups of atoms that remain intact in all reactions of a metabolic network. Identification of conserved moieties gives insight into the structure and function of metabolic networks and facilitates metabolic modelling. All moiety conservation relations can be represented as nonnegative integer vectors in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix corresponding to a biochemical network. Algorithms exist to compute such vectors based only on reaction stoichiometry but their computational complexity has limited their application to relatively small metabolic networks. Moreover, the vectors returned by existing algorithms do not, in general, represent conservation of a specific moiety with a defined atomic structure. Here, we show that identification of conserved moieties requires data on reaction atom mappings in addition to stoichiometry. We present a novel method to identify conserved moieties in metabolic networks by graph theoretical analysis of their underlying atom transition networks. Our method returns the exact group of atoms belonging to each conserved moiety as well as the corresponding vector in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix. It can be implemented as a pipeline of polynomial time algorithms. Our implementation completes in under five minutes on a metabolic network with more than 4,000 mass balanced reactions. The scalability of the method enables extension of existing applications for moiety conservation relations to genome-scale metabolic networks. We also give examples of new applications made possible by elucidating the atomic structure of conserved moieties.

  14. Aqueous-Phase Acetic Acid Ketonization over Monoclinic Zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Qiuxia; Lopez-Ruiz, Juan A.; Cooper, Alan R.

    The effect of aqueous phase on the acetic acid ketonization over monoclinic zirconia has been investigated using first-principles based density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To capture the aqueous phase chemistry over the solid zirconia catalyst surface, the aqueous phase is represented by 111 explicit water molecules with a liquid water density of 0.93 g/cm3 and the monoclinic zirconia is modeled by the most stable surface structure . The dynamic nature of aqueous phase/ interface was studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, indicating that nearly half of the surface Zr sites are occupied by either adsorbed water molecules or hydroxylmore » groups at 550 K. DFT calculations show that the adsorption process of acetic acid from the liquid water phase to the surface is nearly thermodynamically neutral with a Gibbs free energy of -2.3 kJ/mol although the adsorption strength of acetic acid on the surface in aqueous phase is much stronger than in vapor phase. Therefore it is expected that the adsorption of acetic acid will dramatically affects aqueous phase ketonization reactivity over the monoclinic zirconia catalyst. Using the same ketonization mechanism via the β-keto acid intermediate, we have compared acetic acid ketonization to acetone in both vapor and aqueous phases. Our DFT calculation results show although the rate-determining step of the β-keto acid formation via the C-C coupling is not pronouncedly affected, the presence of liquid water molecules will dramatically affect dehydrogenation and hydrogenation steps via proton transfer mechanism. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE)’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. Computing time and advanced catalyst characterization use was granted by a user proposal at the William R. Wiley

  15. Optical activities of steroid ketones - Elucidation of the octant rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatanaka, Masashi; Sayama, Daisuke; Miyasaka, Makoto

    2018-07-01

    Theoretical calculations of optical activities in steroid ketones are presented by using modern semi-empirical PM7 wavefunctions. Both circular dichroism (CD) and specific rotation, which is proportional to optical rotation dispersion (ORD), are well simulated, and signs of the Cotton effect at the most long-wavelength region are fully in accordance with the experimental results. The good accordance is related to the octant rule, which is deduced within the framework of the perturbation theory. Our treatment is promising to predict the signs of the Cotton effect of large molecules, and thus, the absolute configurations can also be grasped without demanding procedures.

  16. Blue Light Emitting Polyphenylene Dendrimers with Bipolar Charge Transport Moieties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang; Auer-Berger, Manuel; Gehrig, Dominik W; Blom, Paul W M; Baumgarten, Martin; Schollmeyer, Dieter; List-Kratochvil, E J W; Müllen, Klaus

    2016-10-20

    Two light-emitting polyphenylene dendrimers with both hole and electron transporting moieties were synthesized and characterized. Both molecules exhibited pure blue emission solely from the pyrene core and efficient surface-to-core energy transfers when characterized in a nonpolar environment. In particular, the carbazole- and oxadiazole-functionalized dendrimer ( D1 ) manifested a pure blue emission from the pyrene core without showing intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) in environments with increasing polarity. On the other hand, the triphenylamine- and oxadiazole-functionalized one ( D2 ) displayed notable ICT with dual emission from both the core and an ICT state in highly polar solvents. D1 , in a three-layer organic light emitting diode (OLED) by solution processing gave a pure blue emission with Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage 1931 CIE xy = (0.16, 0.12), a peak current efficiency of 0.21 cd/A and a peak luminance of 2700 cd/m². This represents the first reported pure blue dendrimer emitter with bipolar charge transport and surface-to-core energy transfer in OLEDs.

  17. Activation of Acetone and Other Simple Ketones in Anaerobic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Heider, Johann; Schühle, Karola; Frey, Jasmin; Schink, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Acetone and other ketones are activated for subsequent degradation through carboxylation by many nitrate-reducing, phototrophic, and obligately aerobic bacteria. Acetone carboxylation leads to acetoacetate, which is subsequently activated to a thioester and degraded via thiolysis. Two different types of acetone carboxylases have been described, which require either 2 or 4 ATP equivalents as an energy supply for the carboxylation reaction. Both enzymes appear to combine acetone enolphosphate with carbonic phosphate to form acetoacetate. A similar but more complex enzyme is known to carboxylate the aromatic ketone acetophenone, a metabolic intermediate in anaerobic ethylbenzene metabolism in denitrifying bacteria, with simultaneous hydrolysis of 2 ATP to 2 ADP. Obligately anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria activate acetone to a four-carbon compound as well, but via a different process than bicarbonate- or CO2-dependent carboxylation. The present evidence indicates that either carbon monoxide or a formyl residue is used as a cosubstrate, and that the overall ATP expenditure of this pathway is substantially lower than in the known acetone carboxylase reactions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Leptin controls ketone body utilization in hypothalamic neuron.

    PubMed

    Narishima, Ryota; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Shinya; Yoshida, Saki; Tanaka, Shinya; Fukui, Tetsuya

    2011-03-03

    Leptin is an appetite-controlling peptide secreted from adipose tissue. Previously, we showed that the gene expression of acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase (AACS), the ketone body-utilizing enzyme for lipid synthesis, was suppressed by leptin deficiency-induced obesity in white adipose tissue. In this study, to clarify the effects of leptin on ketone body utilization in the central nervous system, we examined the effects of leptin signaling on AACS expression. In situ hybridization analysis of ob/ob and db/db mice revealed that AACS mRNA level was reduced by leptin deficiency in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) in hypothalamus but not in other brain regions. Moreover, AACS mRNA level was increased by leptin treatment both in primary cultured neural cells and in N41 neural-like cells. In N41 cells, AACS level was decreased by AMPK inducer but increased by AMPK inhibitor. These results suggest that the up-regulation of AACS expression by leptin is due to the suppression of AMPK activity via neural leptin signaling and that the deficiency of this regulation may be responsible for neurological disorders in central appetite control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ketone bodies protection against HIV-1 Tat-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hui, Liang; Chen, Xuesong; Bhatt, Dhaval; Geiger, Nicholas H; Rosenberger, Thad A; Haughey, Norman J; Masino, Susan A; Geiger, Jonathan D

    2012-07-01

    HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a syndrome that ranges clinically from subtle neuropsychological impairments to profoundly disabling HIV-associated dementia. Not only is the pathogenesis of HAND unclear, but also effective treatments are unavailable. The HIV-1 transactivator of transcription protein (HIV-1 Tat) is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of HAND, in part, because of its well-characterized ability to directly excite neurons and cause neurotoxicity. Consistent with previous findings from others, we demonstrate here that HIV-1 Tat induced neurotoxicity, increased intracellular calcium, and disrupted a variety of mitochondria functions, such as reducing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing levels of reactive oxygen species, and decreasing bioenergetic efficiency. Of therapeutic importance, we show that treatment of cultured neurons with ketone bodies normalized HIV-1 Tat induced changes in levels of intracellular calcium, mitochondrial function, and neuronal cell death. Ketone bodies are normally produced in the body and serve as alternative energy substrates in tissues including brain and can cross the blood-brain barrier. Ketogenic strategies have been used clinically for treatment of neurological disorders and our current results suggest that similar strategies may also provide clinical benefits in the treatment of HAND. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. Selective hydrosilylation of alkynes and ketones: contrasting reactivity between cationic 3-iminophosphine palladium and nickel complexes.

    PubMed

    Tafazolian, Hosein; Yoxtheimer, Robert; Thakuri, Rajendr S; Schmidt, Joseph A R

    2017-04-19

    The catalytic hydrosilylation of alkynes and ketones has been explored utilizing palladium- and nickel(allyl) complexes supported by 3-iminophosphine ligands. Palladium and nickel demonstrated distinctly different reactivity profiles, with palladium proving very effective for the hydrosilylation of electron-deficient alkynes, while nickel excelled with ketones and internal alkynes. Additionally, in many cases, regioselective hydrosilylation was observed.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10413 - Fluorinated dialkyl ketone (generic) (P-10-135).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) (P-10-135). 721.10413 Section 721.10413 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10413 Fluorinated dialkyl ketone (generic) (P-10-135). (a) Chemical... as fluorinated dialkyl ketone (PMN P-10-135) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (generic) (P-11-338). 721.10417 Section 721.10417 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10413 - Fluorinated dialkyl ketone (generic) (P-10-135).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) (P-10-135). 721.10413 Section 721.10413 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10413 Fluorinated dialkyl ketone (generic) (P-10-135). (a) Chemical... as fluorinated dialkyl ketone (PMN P-10-135) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10413 - Fluorinated dialkyl ketone (generic) (P-10-135).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) (P-10-135). 721.10413 Section 721.10413 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10413 Fluorinated dialkyl ketone (generic) (P-10-135). (a) Chemical... as fluorinated dialkyl ketone (PMN P-10-135) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (generic) (P-11-338). 721.10417 Section 721.10417 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (generic) (P-11-338). 721.10417 Section 721.10417 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. Asymmetric Direct 1,2-Addition of Aryl Grignard Reagents to Aryl Alkyl Ketones.

    PubMed

    Osakama, Kazuki; Nakajima, Makoto

    2016-01-15

    The enantioselective addition of Grignard reagents to ketones was promoted by a BINOL derivative bearing alkyl chains at the 3,3'-positions. This is the first asymmetric direct aryl Grignard addition to ketones reported to date. A variety of tertiary diaryl alcohols could be obtained in high yields and enantioselectivities without using any other metal source.

  8. Enantioselective Reduction of Ketones and Imines Catalyzed by (CN-Box)Re(V)-Oxo Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Nolin, Kristine A.; Ahn, Richard W.; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Kennedy-Smith, Joshua J.

    2012-01-01

    The development and application of chiral, non-racemic Re(V)-oxo complexes to the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones is described. In addition to the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones, we report the application of these complexes to (1) a tandem Meyer-Schuster rearrangement/reduction to access enantioenriched allylic alcohols and (2) the enantioselective reduction of imines. PMID:20623567

  9. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  10. Ketones Prevent Oxidative Impairment of Hippocampal Synaptic Integrity through KATP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Young; Abdelwahab, Mohammed G.; Lee, Soo Han; O’Neill, Derek; Thompson, Roger J.; Duff, Henry J.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Rho, Jong M.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary and metabolic therapies are increasingly being considered for a variety of neurological disorders, based in part on growing evidence for the neuroprotective properties of the ketogenic diet (KD) and ketones. Earlier, we demonstrated that ketones afford hippocampal synaptic protection against exogenous oxidative stress, but the mechanisms underlying these actions remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that ketones may modulate neuronal firing through interactions with ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. Here, we used a combination of electrophysiological, pharmacological, and biochemical assays to determine whether hippocampal synaptic protection by ketones is a consequence of KATP channel activation. Ketones dose-dependently reversed oxidative impairment of hippocampal synaptic integrity, neuronal viability, and bioenergetic capacity, and this action was mirrored by the KATP channel activator diazoxide. Inhibition of KATP channels reversed ketone-evoked hippocampal protection, and genetic ablation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel subunit Kir6.2, a critical component of KATP channels, partially negated the synaptic protection afforded by ketones. This partial protection was completely reversed by co-application of the KATP blocker, 5-hydoxydecanoate (5HD). We conclude that, under conditions of oxidative injury, ketones induce synaptic protection in part through activation of KATP channels. PMID:25848768

  11. Identification of Conserved Moieties in Metabolic Networks by Graph Theoretical Analysis of Atom Transition Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Haraldsdóttir, Hulda S.; Fleming, Ronan M. T.

    Conserved moieties are groups of atoms that remain intact in all reactions of a metabolic network. Identification of conserved moieties gives insight into the structure and function of metabolic networks and facilitates metabolic modelling. All moiety conservation relations can be represented as nonnegative integer vectors in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix corresponding to a biochemical network. Algorithms exist to compute such vectors based only on reaction stoichiometry but their computational complexity has limited their application to relatively small metabolic networks. Moreover, the vectors returned by existing algorithms do not, in general, represent conservation of a specific moietymore » with a defined atomic structure. Here, we show that identification of conserved moieties requires data on reaction atom mappings in addition to stoichiometry. We present a novel method to identify conserved moieties in metabolic networks by graph theoretical analysis of their underlying atom transition networks. Our method returns the exact group of atoms belonging to each conserved moiety as well as the corresponding vector in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix. It can be implemented as a pipeline of polynomial time algorithms. Our implementation completes in under five minutes on a metabolic network with more than 4,000 mass balanced reactions. The scalability of the method enables extension of existing applications for moiety conservation relations to genome-scale metabolic networks. Finally, we also give examples of new applications made possible by elucidating the atomic structure of conserved moieties.« less

  12. Identification of Conserved Moieties in Metabolic Networks by Graph Theoretical Analysis of Atom Transition Networks

    DOE PAGES

    Haraldsdóttir, Hulda S.; Fleming, Ronan M. T.

    2016-11-21

    Conserved moieties are groups of atoms that remain intact in all reactions of a metabolic network. Identification of conserved moieties gives insight into the structure and function of metabolic networks and facilitates metabolic modelling. All moiety conservation relations can be represented as nonnegative integer vectors in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix corresponding to a biochemical network. Algorithms exist to compute such vectors based only on reaction stoichiometry but their computational complexity has limited their application to relatively small metabolic networks. Moreover, the vectors returned by existing algorithms do not, in general, represent conservation of a specific moietymore » with a defined atomic structure. Here, we show that identification of conserved moieties requires data on reaction atom mappings in addition to stoichiometry. We present a novel method to identify conserved moieties in metabolic networks by graph theoretical analysis of their underlying atom transition networks. Our method returns the exact group of atoms belonging to each conserved moiety as well as the corresponding vector in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix. It can be implemented as a pipeline of polynomial time algorithms. Our implementation completes in under five minutes on a metabolic network with more than 4,000 mass balanced reactions. The scalability of the method enables extension of existing applications for moiety conservation relations to genome-scale metabolic networks. Finally, we also give examples of new applications made possible by elucidating the atomic structure of conserved moieties.« less

  13. Multi-dimensional roles of ketone bodies in fuel metabolism, signaling, and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Puchalska, Patrycja; Crawford, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Ketone body metabolism is a central node in physiological homeostasis. In this review, we discuss how ketones serve discrete fine-tuning metabolic roles that optimize organ and organism performance in varying nutrient states, and protect from inflammation and injury in multiple organ systems. Traditionally viewed as metabolic substrates enlisted only in carbohydrate restriction, recent observations underscore the importance of ketone bodies as vital metabolic and signaling mediators when carbohydrates are abundant. Complementing a repertoire of known therapeutic options for diseases of the nervous system, prospective roles for ketone bodies in cancer have arisen, as have intriguing protective roles in heart and liver, opening therapeutic options in obesity-related and cardiovascular disease. Controversies in ketone metabolism and signaling are discussed to reconcile classical dogma with contemporary observations. PMID:28178565

  14. Value of point-of-care ketones in assessing dehydration and acidosis in children with gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jason A; Waltzman, Mark; Monuteaux, Michael C; Bachur, Richard G

    2013-11-01

    Children with gastroenteritis often develop dehydration with metabolic acidosis. Serum ketones are frequently elevated in this population. The goal was to determine the relationship between initial serum ketone concentration and both the degree of dehydration and the magnitude of acidosis. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective trial of crystalloid administration for rapid rehydration. Children 6 months to 6 years of age with gastroenteritis and dehydration were enrolled. A point-of-care serum ketone (beta-hydroxybutyrate) concentration was obtained at the time of study enrollment. The relationship between initial serum ketone concentration and a prospectively assigned and previously validated clinical dehydration score, and serum bicarbonate concentration, was analyzed. A total of 188 patients were enrolled. The median serum ketone concentration was elevated at 3.1 mmol/L (interquartile range [IQR] = 1.2 to 4.6 mmol/L), and the median dehydration score was consistent with moderate dehydration. A significant positive relationship was found between serum ketone concentration and the clinical dehydration score (Spearman's rho = 0.22, p = 0.003). Patients with moderate dehydration had a higher median serum ketone concentration than those with mild dehydration (3.6 mmol/L vs. 1.4 mmol/L, p = 0.007). Additionally, the serum ketone concentration was inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate concentration (ρ = -0.26, p < 0.001). Children with gastroenteritis and dehydration have elevated serum ketone concentrations that correlate with both degree of dehydration and magnitude of metabolic acidosis. Point-of-care serum ketone measurement may be a useful tool to inform management decisions at the point of triage or in the initial evaluation of children with gastroenteritis and dehydration. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  15. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from... Designations, Source Category List § 63.61 Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, 2-Butanone) (CAS Number 78-93-3) is deleted from the list...

  16. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from... Designations, Source Category List § 63.61 Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, 2-Butanone) (CAS Number 78-93-3) is deleted from the list...

  17. Aryl Ketone Synthesis via Tandem Orthoplatinated Triarylphosphite-Catalyzed Addition Reactions of Arylboronic Acids with Aldehydes Followed by Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yuan-Xi; Hu, Qiao-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Tandem orthoplatinated triarylphosphite-catalyzed addition reactions of arylboronic acids with aldehydes followed by oxidation to yield aryl ketones is described. 3-Pentanone was identified as a suitable oxidant for the tandem aryl ketone formation reaction. By using microwave energy, aryl ketones were obtained in high yields with the catalyst loading as low as 0.01%. PMID:20849092

  18. The Microwave Spectrum of Methyl Vinyl Ketone Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, David S.; Shirar, Amanda J.; Williams, Owen L.; Dian, Brian C.

    2011-06-01

    A chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer was used to record the rotational spectrum of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK, 3-butene-2-one) from 6 to 18.9 GHz. Two stable conformations were identified: the previously documented antiperiplanar (ap) conformer and synperiplanar (sp), which is reported for the first time in this microwave study. Methyl torsional analysis with XIAM resulted in V3 barrier heights of 433.8(1) and 376.6(2) Cm-1 for ap- and sp-MVK, respectively. Heavy atom isotopic species were detected in natural abundance allowing bond lengths and angles of the molecular frames to be calculated through Kraitchman analysis. A comparison with ab initio calculations is included.

  19. Synthesis of ketones from biomass-derived feedstock.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qinglei; Hou, Minqiang; Liu, Huizhen; Song, Jinliang; Han, Buxing

    2017-01-31

    Cyclohexanone and its derivatives are very important chemicals, which are currently produced mainly by oxidation of cyclohexane or alkylcyclohexane, hydrogenation of phenols, and alkylation of cyclohexanone. Here we report that bromide salt-modified Pd/C in H 2 O/CH 2 Cl 2 can efficiently catalyse the transformation of aromatic ethers, which can be derived from biomass, to cyclohexanone and its derivatives via hydrogenation and hydrolysis processes. The yield of cyclohexanone from anisole can reach 96%, and the yields of cyclohexanone derivatives produced from the aromatic ethers, which can be extracted from plants or derived from lignin, are also satisfactory. Detailed study shows that the Pd, bromide salt and H 2 O/CH 2 Cl 2 work cooperatively to promote the desired reaction and inhibit the side reaction. Thus high yields of desired products can be obtained. This work opens the way for production of ketones from aromatic ethers that can be derived from biomass.

  20. Spectroscopic properties of a perfluorinated ketone for PLIF applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arnab; Gustavsson, Jonas P. R.; Segal, Corin

    2011-11-01

    This work identifies the fluorescence characteristics of a perfluorinated ketone, 2-trifluoromethyl-1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nonafluoro-3-pentanone, further referred to as fluoroketone. This compound is suitable for use with the third harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser for quantitative concentration measurements, as it exhibits strong emission even for relatively low excitation and has a near-linear response of fluorescence intensity with concentration. This makes it suitable for a broad range of fluorescence applications. The absorption cross-section of 3.81 × 10-19 cm2 was found to be constant for a temperature range of 293-441 K and a pressure range of 1-18 atm. A calibration line has been generated that relates the concentration of gaseous and liquid fluoroketone with its absorption coefficient.

  1. Biaxial deformation behaviour of poly-ether-ether-ketone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Josh; Menary, Gary; Martin, Peter

    2018-05-01

    The biaxial tensile properties of thin poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) films are presented. Investigation into the biaxial mechanical behaviour of PEEK films will provide a preliminary insight into the anticipated stress/strain response, and potential suitability, to the possible fabrication of thin walled parts through stretch blow moulding and thermoforming processes - with the multi-axial state of strain imposed onto the heated thermoplastic sheet representative of the expected strain history experienced during these material forming processes. Following identification of the prospective forming temperature window, the biaxial mechanical behaviour of the material is characterized under differing modes of deformation, at a nominal strain rate of 1 s-1. The temperature dependence is outlined within - with an appreciable increase in flow behaviour correlated with specimen temperature exceeding its glass transition temperature (Tg).

  2. Regulation of Ketone Body Metabolism and the Role of PPARα

    PubMed Central

    Grabacka, Maja; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Dean, Matthew; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Ketogenesis and ketolysis are central metabolic processes activated during the response to fasting. Ketogenesis is regulated in multiple stages, and a nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) is one of the key transcription factors taking part in this regulation. PPARα is an important element in the metabolic network, where it participates in signaling driven by the main nutrient sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) and induces hormonal mediators, such as fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). This work describes the regulation of ketogenesis and ketolysis in normal and malignant cells and briefly summarizes the positive effects of ketone bodies in various neuropathologic conditions. PMID:27983603

  3. Electron impact ionization of cycloalkanes, aldehydes, and ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com

    The theoretical calculations of electron impact total ionization cross section for cycloalkane, aldehyde, and ketone group molecules are undertaken from ionization threshold to 2 keV. The present calculations are based on the spherical complex optical potential formalism and complex scattering potential ionization contribution method. The results of most of the targets studied compare fairly well with the recent measurements, wherever available and the cross sections for many targets are predicted for the first time. The correlation between the peak of ionization cross sections with number of target electrons and target parameters is also reported. It was found that the crossmore » sections at their maximum depend linearly with the number of target electrons and with other target parameters, confirming the consistency of the values reported here.« less

  4. Biomarkers, ketone bodies, and the prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    VanItallie, Theodore B

    2015-03-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (spAD) has three successive phases: preclinical, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. Individuals in the preclinical phase are cognitively normal. Diagnosis of preclinical spAD requires evidence of pathologic brain changes provided by established biomarkers. Histopathologic features of spAD include (i) extra-cellular cerebral amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles that embody hyperphosphorylated tau; and (ii) neuronal and synaptic loss. Amyloid-PET brain scans conducted during spAD's preclinical phase have disclosed abnormal accumulations of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in cognitively normal, high-risk individuals. However, this measure correlates poorly with changes in cognitive status. In contrast, MRI measures of brain atrophy consistently parallel cognitive deterioration. By the time dementia appears, amyloid deposition has already slowed or ceased. When a new treatment offers promise of arresting or delaying progression of preclinical spAD, its effectiveness must be inferred from intervention-correlated changes in biomarkers. Herein, differing tenets of the amyloid cascade hypothesis (ACH) and the mitochondrial cascade hypothesis (MCH) are compared. Adoption of the ACH suggests therapeutic research continue to focus on aspects of the amyloid pathways. Adoption of the MCH suggests research emphasis be placed on restoration and stabilization of mitochondrial function. Ketone ester (KE)-induced elevation of plasma ketone body (KB) levels improves mitochondrial metabolism and prevents or delays progression of AD-like pathologic changes in several AD animal models. Thus, as a first step, it is imperative to determine whether KE-caused hyperketonemia can bring about favorable changes in biomarkers of AD pathology in individuals who are in an early stage of AD's preclinical phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonlinear optical moiety-doped polymers with improved optical properties for photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Hwan K.; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Hyuek J.; Kang, K. H.; Won, Yong Hyub; Jeon, Eunsuk S.; Wu, Jeong W.

    1994-05-01

    An electro-optic polymer guest-host system has been constructed and demonstrated. The polymer host is a polyimide (PIQ2200) and the guest chromophores are dimethyl (or diethyl) amino alkyl sulfone stilbenes. The alkylated-NLO moieties as guest chromophores have been modified, yielding new alkylated-NLO moieties. The higher content of alkylated-NLO moieties, compared to unmodified NLO moieties, was doped into a polyimide host system due to the improved solubility of new alkylated-NLO moieties. To the 40 wt%, the new alkylated- NLO moiety has been completely dissolved in the preliminary experiment, leading to the increase of refractive index by 0.0016. These polyimide-based guest-host systems exhibited a significant improvement in the thermal stability at high temperatures exceeding 250 degree(s)C. The electro-optic coefficient reported in the present study is 13 pm/V for the 40 wt% DASS-6- doped polymer system poled at the 135 V/micrometers . However, further increase up to 25 pm/V may easily be achieved by increasing the amount of guest moieties and/or the intensity of the poling field. This work presents new materials for photonic switching devices with low operating voltage.

  6. KETONES INHIBIT MITOCHONDRIAL PRODUCTION OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES PRODUCTION FOLLOWING GLUTAMATE EXCITOTOXICITY BY INCREASING NADH OXIDATION

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Marwan; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Davis, Laurie; Kim, Do Young; Rho, Jong M.

    2007-01-01

    Dietary protocols that increase serum levels of ketones, such as calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet, offer robust protection against a multitude of acute and chronic neurological diseases. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Previous studies have suggested that the ketogenic diet may reduce free radical levels in the brain. Thus, one possibility is that ketones may mediate neuroprotection through antioxidant activity. In the present study, we examined the effects of the ketones β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate on acutely dissociated rat neocortical neurons subjected to glutamate excitotoxicity using cellular electrophysiological and single-cell fluorescence imaging techniques. Further, we explored the effects of ketones on acutely isolated mitochondria exposed to high levels of calcium. A combination of β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate (1 mM each) decreased neuronal death and prevented changes in neuronal membrane properties induced by 10 μM glutamate. Ketones also significantly decreased mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species and the associated excitotoxic changes by increasing NADH oxidation in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, but did not affect levels of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione. In conclusion, we demonstrate that ketones reduce glutamate-induced free radical formation by increasing the NAD+/NADH ratio and enhancing mitochondrial respiration in neocortical neurons. This mechanism may, in part, contribute to the neuroprotective activity of ketones by restoring normal bioenergetic function in the face of oxidative stress. PMID:17240074

  7. Ru (III) Catalyzed Oxidation of Aliphatic Ketones by N-Bromosuccinimide in Aqueous Acetic Acid: A Kinetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Giridhar Reddy, P.; Ramesh, K.; Shylaja, S.; Rajanna, K. C.; Kandlikar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Kinetics of Ru (III) catalyzed oxidation of aliphatic ketones such as acetone, ethyl methyl ketone, diethyl ketone, iso-butylmethyl ketone by N-bromosuccinimide in the presence of Hg(II) acetate have been studied in aqueous acid medium. The order of [N-bromosuccinimide] was found to be zero both in catalyzed as well as uncatalyzed reactions. However, the order of [ketone] changed from unity to a fractional one in the presence of Ru (III). On the basis of kinetic features, the probable mechanisms are discussed and individual rate parameters evaluated. PMID:22654610

  8. Enantioselective synthesis of 2,2-disubstituted terminal epoxides via catalytic asymmetric Corey-Chaykovsky epoxidation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Sone, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Akitake; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2012-02-07

    Catalytic asymmetric Corey-Chaykovsky epoxidation of various ketones with dimethyloxosulfonium methylide using a heterobimetallic La-Li(3)-BINOL complex (LLB) is described. The reaction proceeded smoothly at room temperature in the presence of achiral phosphine oxide additives, and 2,2-disubstituted terminal epoxides were obtained in high enantioselectivity (97%-91% ee) and yield ( > 99%-88%) from a broad range of methyl ketones with 1-5 mol% catalyst loading. Enantioselectivity was strongly dependent on the steric hindrance, and other ketones, such as ethyl ketones and propyl ketones resulted in slightly lower enantioselectivity (88%-67% ee).

  9. Ketone supplementation decreases tumor cell viability and prolongs survival of mice with metastatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Poff, AM; Ari, C; Arnold, P; Seyfried, TN; D’Agostino, DP

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells express an abnormal metabolism characterized by increased glucose consumption owing to genetic mutations and mitochondrial dysfunction. Previous studies indicate that unlike healthy tissues, cancer cells are unable to effectively use ketone bodies for energy. Furthermore, ketones inhibit the proliferation and viability of cultured tumor cells. As the Warburg effect is especially prominent in metastatic cells, we hypothesized that dietary ketone supplementation would inhibit metastatic cancer progression in vivo. Proliferation and viability were measured in the highly metastatic VM-M3 cells cultured in the presence and absence of β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB). Adult male inbred VM mice were implanted subcutaneously with firefly luciferase-tagged syngeneic VM-M3 cells. Mice were fed a standard diet supplemented with either 1,3-butanediol (BD) or a ketone ester (KE), which are metabolized to the ketone bodies βHB and acetoacetate. Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. Survival time, tumor growth rate, blood glucose, blood βHB and body weight were measured throughout the survival study. Ketone supplementation decreased proliferation and viability of the VM-M3 cells grown in vitro, even in the presence of high glucose. Dietary ketone supplementation with BD and KE prolonged survival in VM-M3 mice with systemic metastatic cancer by 51 and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05). Ketone administration elicited anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo independent of glucose levels or calorie restriction. The use of supplemental ketone precursors as a cancer treatment should be further investigated in animal models to determine potential for future clinical use. PMID:24615175

  10. Phosphine-catalyzed cycloadditions of allenic ketones: new substrates for nucleophilic catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Debra J; Sidda, Rachel L; Reamer, Robert A

    2007-02-02

    A range of phosphine-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions of allenic ketones have been studied, extending the scope of these processes from the more widely used 2,3-butadienoates to allow access to a number of synthetically useful products. Reaction of allenyl methyl ketone 4 with exo-enones afforded spirocyclic compounds in good regioselectivity and promising enantioselectivity via a [2 + 3] cycloaddtion. Aromatic allenyl ketones undergo a phosphine-promoted dimerization to afford functionalized pyrans, leading to a formal [2 + 4] Diels-Alder product, but did not react in the [2 + 3] cycloaddition. The results from other reactions that had found utility with 2,3-butadienoates are also reported.

  11. Synthesis of α-Halo-α,α-Difluoromethyl Ketones by a Trifluoroacetate Release/Halogenation Protocol

    PubMed Central

    John, Jinu P.; Colby, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Three series of α-halo-α,α-difluoromethyl ketones are prepared from highly α-fluorinated gem-diols by exploiting the facile release of trifluoroacetate, followed by immediate trapping of the liberated α,α-difluoroenolate with an electrophilic chlorine, bromine, or iodine source. The products are typically isolated in good yields, even in the case of sensitive, α-iodo-α,α-difluoromethyl ketones. Also, we demonstrate that an α-iodo-α,α-difluoromethyl ketone will participate in a copper-promoted reaction to forge a new carbon–carbon bond. PMID:21995668

  12. Iridium-Catalyzed Diastereoselective and Enantioselective Allylic Substitutions with Acyclic α-Alkoxy Ketones

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Xingyu; Chen, Wenyong; Hartwig, John F.

    2016-04-01

    The asymmetric alkylation of acyclic ketones is a longstanding challenge in organic synthesis. Here, are the diastereoselective and enantioselective allylic substitutions with acyclic α-alkoxy ketones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex to form products with contiguous stereogenic centers derived from the nucleophile and electrophile. These reactions occur between allyl methyl carbonates and unstabilized copper(I) enolates generated in situ from acyclic α-alkoxy ketones. The resulting products can be readily converted into enantioenriched tertiary alcohols and tetrahydrofuran derivatives without erosion of enantiomeric purity.

  13. Iridium-Catalyzed Diastereoselective and Enantioselective Allylic Substitutions with Acyclic α-Alkoxy Ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xingyu; Chen, Wenyong; Hartwig, John F.

    The asymmetric alkylation of acyclic ketones is a longstanding challenge in organic synthesis. Here, are the diastereoselective and enantioselective allylic substitutions with acyclic α-alkoxy ketones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex to form products with contiguous stereogenic centers derived from the nucleophile and electrophile. These reactions occur between allyl methyl carbonates and unstabilized copper(I) enolates generated in situ from acyclic α-alkoxy ketones. The resulting products can be readily converted into enantioenriched tertiary alcohols and tetrahydrofuran derivatives without erosion of enantiomeric purity.

  14. Membrane anchoring γ-secretase modulators with terpene-derived moieties.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Eva Christine; Göring, Stefan; Ogorek, Isabella; Weggen, Sascha; Schmidt, Boris

    2013-07-01

    Modulation of γ-secretase activity is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Herein we report on the synthesis of carprofen- and tocopherol-derived small-molecule modulators carrying terpene moieties as lipophilic membrane anchors. Additionally, these modulators are equipped with an acidic moiety, which contributes to the desired modulatory effect on the γ-secretase with decreased formation of Aβ42 and increased Aβ38 production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Attachment of second harmonic-active moiety to molecules for detection of molecules at interfaces

    DOEpatents

    Salafsky, Joshua S.; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    2005-10-11

    This invention provides methods of detecting molecules at an interface, which comprise labeling the molecules with a second harmonic-active moiety and detecting the labeled molecules at the interface using a surface selective technique. The invention also provides methods for detecting a molecule in a medium and for determining the orientation of a molecular species within a planar surface using a second harmonic-active moiety and a surface selective technique.

  16. Cooperative catalysis by tertiary amino-thioureas: mechanism and basis for enantioselectivity of ketone cyanosilylation.

    PubMed

    Zuend, Stephan J; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2007-12-26

    The mechanism of the enantioselective cyanosilylation of ketones catalyzed by tertiary amino-thiourea derivatives was investigated using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. The kinetic analysis is consistent with a cooperative mechanism in which both the thiourea and the tertiary amine of the catalyst are involved productively in the rate-limiting cyanide addition step. Density functional theory calculations were used to distinguish between mechanisms involving thiourea activation of ketone or of cyanide in the enantioselectivity-determining step. The strong correlation obtained between experimental and calculated ee's for a range of substrates and catalysts provides support for the most favorable calculated transition structures involving amine-bound HCN adding to thiourea-bound ketone. The calculations suggest that enantioselectivity arises from direct interactions between the ketone substrate and the amino-acid derived portion of the catalyst. On the basis of this insight, more enantioselective catalysts with broader substrate scope were prepared and evaluated experimentally.

  17. Ultraviolet-induced surface grafting of octafluoropentyl methacrylate on polyether ether ketone for inducing antibiofilm properties.

    PubMed

    Amdjadi, Parisa; Nojehdehian, Hanieh; Najafi, Farhood; Ghasemi, Amir; Seifi, Massoud; Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Fahimipour, Farahnaz; Tayebi, Lobat

    2017-07-01

    Since octafluoropentyl methacrylate is an antifouling polymer, surface modification of polyether ether ketone with octafluoropentyl methacrylate is a practical approach to obtaining anti-biofilm biocompatible devices. In the current study, the surface treatment of polyether ether ketone by the use of ultraviolet irradiation, so as to graft (octafluoropentyl methacrylate) polymer chains, was initially implemented and then investigated. The Fourier-transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra corroborated the appearance of new signals associated with the fluoroacrylate group. Thermogravimetric curves indicated enhanced asymmetry in the polymer structure due to the introduction of the said new groups. Measuring the peak area in differential scanning calorimetry experiments also showed additional bond formation. Static water contact angle measurements indicated a change in wettability to the more hydrophobic surface. The polyether ether ketone-octafluoropentyl methacrylate surface greatly reduced the protein adsorption. This efficient method can modulate and tune the surface properties of polyether ether ketone according to specific applications.

  18. Bedside ketone determination in diabetic children with hyperglycemia and ketosis in the acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Ham, Melissa R; Okada, Pamela; White, Perrin C

    2004-03-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus marked by characteristic biochemical derangements. Diagnosis and management involve frequent evaluation of these biochemical parameters. Reliable bedside equivalents for these laboratory studies may help reduce the time to treatment and reduce costs. We evaluated the precision and bias of a bedside serum ketone meter in the acute care setting. Serum ketone results using the Precision Xtra glucometer/ketone meter (Abbott Laboratories, MediSense Products Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) correlated strongly with the Children's Medical Center of Dallas' laboratory values within the meter's value range. Meter ketone values steadily decreased during the treatment of DKA as pH and CO(2) levels increased and acidosis resolved. Therefore, the meter may be useful in monitoring therapy for DKA. This meter may also prove useful in identifying patients at risk for DKA in physicians' offices or at home.

  19. Enantioselective Reduction of Ketones Catalyzed by Rare-Earth Metals Complexed with Phenoxy Modified Chiral Prolinols.

    PubMed

    Song, Peng; Lu, Chengrong; Fei, Zenghui; Zhao, Bei; Yao, Yingming

    2018-06-01

    Enantioselective reduction of ketones and α,β-unsaturated ketones by pinacolborane (HBpin) has been well-established by using chiral rare-earth metal catalysts with phenoxy modified prolinols. A number of highly optically active alcohols were obtained from reduction of simple ketones catalyzed by ytterbium complex 1 [L 4 Yb(L 4 H)] (H 2 L 4 = ( S)-2- tert-butyl-6-((2-(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)phenol). Moreover, α,β-unsaturated ketones were selectively reduced to a wide range of chiral allylic alcohols with excellent yields, high enantioselectivity, and complete chemoselectivity, catalyzed by a single component chiral ytterbium complex 2 [L 1 Yb(L 1 H)] (H 2 L 1 = ( S)-2,4-di- tert-butyl-6-((2-(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)phenol).

  20. Involvement of brain ketone bodies and the noradrenergic pathway in diabetic hyperphagia in rats.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Kinuyo; Kinoshita, Mika; Yamada, Shunji; Imamura, Takuya; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Tsukamura, Hiroko; Maeda, Kei-Ichiro

    2011-03-01

    Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes leads to hyperphagia and severe ketosis. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that ketone bodies act on the hindbrain as a starvation signal to induce diabetic hyperphagia. Injection of an inhibitor of monocarboxylate transporter 1, a ketone body transporter, into the fourth ventricle normalized the increase in food intake in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Blockade of catecholamine synthesis in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) also restored food intake to normal levels in diabetic animals. On the other hand, hindbrain injection of the ketone body induced feeding, hyperglycemia, and fatty acid mobilization via increased sympathetic activity and also norepinephrine release in the PVN. This result provides evidence that hyperphagia in STZ-induced type 1 diabetes is signaled by a ketone body sensed in the hindbrain, and mediated by noradrenergic inputs to the PVN.

  1. Compound-Specific Carbon Isotope Compositions of Aldehydes and Ketones in the Tagish Lake Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simkus, D. N.; Aponte, J. C.; Hilts, R. W.; Elsila, J. E.; Herd, C. D. K.

    2016-08-01

    Aldehydes and ketones detected in the Tagish Lake meteorite are highly depleted in 13C, indicating that they are unlikely relic Strecker synthesis precursors. Potential sources for these compounds and the effects of aqueous alteration are discussed.

  2. Tandem nucleophilic addition-Oppenauer oxidation of aromatic aldehydes to aryl ketones with triorganoaluminium reagents.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Yang, Yanshou; Hügel, Helmut M; Du, Zhengyin; Wang, Kehu; Huang, Danfeng; Hu, Yulai

    2013-07-21

    In the presence of pinacolone, the in situ prepared triorganoaluminium reagents reacted with aromatic aldehydes to give ketones in moderate to high yield. We propose that the products are formed via a tandem organoaluminium reagents addition-Oppenauer oxidation sequence.

  3. Photochemical studies on aromatic γ,δ-epoxy ketones: efficient synthesis of benzocyclobutanones and indanones.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yutian; Yang, Chao; Gui, Weijun; Liu, Yang; Xia, Wujiong

    2012-04-11

    Irradiation of terminal aromatic γ,δ-epoxy ketones with a 450 W UV lamp led to Norrish type II cyclization/semi-pinacol rearrangement cascade reaction which formed the benzocyclobutanones containing a full-carbon quaternary center, whereas irradiation of substituted aromatic γ,δ-epoxy ketones led to the indanones through a photochemical epoxy rearrangement and 1,5-biradicals cyclization tandem reaction. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  4. Enantioselective synthesis of chiral oxazolines from unactivated ketones and isocyanoacetate esters by synergistic silver/organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pardo, Pablo; Blay, Gonzalo; Muñoz, M Carmen; Pedro, José R; Sanz-Marco, Amparo; Vila, Carlos

    2018-03-15

    A multicatalytic approach that combines a bifunctional Brønsted base-squaramide organocatalyst and Ag + as Lewis acid has been applied in the reaction of unactivated ketones with tert-butyl isocyanoacetate to give chiral oxazolines bearing a quaternary stereocenter. The formal [3+2] cycloaddition provided high yields of the corresponding cis-oxazolines with good diastereoselectivity and excellent enantioselectivity, being applied to aryl-alkyl and alkyl-alkyl ketones.

  5. Highly enantioselective alpha-aminoxylation of aldehydes and ketones with a polymer-supported organocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Font, Daniel; Bastero, Amaia; Sayalero, Sonia; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2007-05-10

    The first catalytic enantioselective alpha-aminoxylation of aldehydes and ketones using an insoluble, polymer-supported organocatalyst (1) derived from trans-4-hydroxyproline is reported (ee: 96-99%). Reaction rates in the aminoxylation of cyclic ketones with 1 are higher than those reported with l-proline. The insoluble nature of 1 simplifies workup conditions and allows catalyst recycling without an apparent decrease in enantioselectivity or yield.

  6. Sources and concentrations of aldehydes and ketones in indoor environments in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, D.R.; Gardiner, D.

    1989-01-01

    Individual aldehydes and ketones can be separated, identified and quantitatively estimated by trapping the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives and analysis by HPLC. Appropriate methods and detection limits are reported. Many sources of formaldehyde have been identified by this means and some are found to emit other aldehydes and ketones. The application of this method to determine the concentration of these compounds in the atmospheres of buildings is described and the results compared with those obtained using chromotropic acid or MBTH.

  7. Metabolism of ketone bodies during exercise and training: physiological basis for exogenous supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Mark; Cogan, Karl E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focused on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone and β‐hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are oxidised as a fuel source during exercise, are markedly elevated during the post‐exercise recovery period, and the ability to utilise ketone bodies is higher in exercise‐trained skeletal muscle. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies can alter fuel selection through attenuating glucose utilisation in peripheral tissues, anti‐lipolytic effects on adipose tissue, and attenuation of proteolysis in skeletal muscle. Moreover, ketone bodies can act as signalling metabolites, with βHB acting as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, an important regulator of the adaptive response to exercise in skeletal muscle. Recent development of ketone esters facilitates acute ingestion of βHB that results in nutritional ketosis without necessitating restrictive dietary practices. Initial reports suggest this strategy alters the metabolic response to exercise and improves exercise performance, while other lines of evidence suggest roles in recovery from exercise. The present review focuses on the physiology of ketone bodies during and after exercise and in response to training, with specific interest in exploring the physiological basis for exogenous ketone supplementation and potential benefits for performance and recovery in athletes. PMID:27861911

  8. Efficient Domino Hydroformylation/Benzoin Condensation: Highly Selective Synthesis of α-Hydroxy Ketones.

    PubMed

    Dong, Kaiwu; Sang, Rui; Soule, Jean-Francois; Bruneau, Christian; Franke, Robert; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2015-12-07

    An improved domino hydroformylation/benzoin condensation to give α-hydroxy ketones has been developed. Easily available olefins are smoothly converted into the corresponding α-hydroxy ketones in high yields with excellent regioselectivities. Key to success is the use of a specific catalytic system consisting of a rhodium/phosphine complex and the CO2 adduct of an N-heterocyclic carbene. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Photoredox Activation for the Direct β-Arylation of Ketones and Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Pirnot, Michael T.; Rankic, Danica A.; Martin, David B. C.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2013-01-01

    The direct β-activation of saturated aldehydes and ketones has long been an elusive transformation. We found that photoredox catalysis in combination with organocatalysis can lead to the transient generation of 5π-electron β-enaminyl radicals from ketones and aldehydes that rapidly couple with cyano-substituted aryl rings at the carbonyl β-position. This mode of activation is suitable for a broad range of carbonyl β-functionalization reactions and is amenable to enantioselective catalysis. PMID:23539600

  10. Preparation of unsymmetrical ketones from tosylhydrazones and aromatic aldehydes via formyl C-H bond insertion.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Daniel M; Blakemore, David C; Ley, Steven V

    2014-06-06

    Preparation of ketones by insertion of diazo compounds into the formyl C-H bond of an aldehyde is an attractive procedure, but use of structurally diverse diazo compounds is hampered by preparation and safety issues. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of unsymmetrical ketones from bench-stable tosylhydrazones and aryl aldehydes is reported. The procedure can be performed in one pot from the parent carbonyl compound and needs only a base, with no additional promoters being required.

  11. Efficient palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of ketones and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaohu; Liu, Delong; Xie, Fang; Liu, Yangang; Zhang, Wanbin

    2011-03-21

    Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of ketones, via enamines generated in situ as nucleophiles, were carried out smoothly with chiral metallocene-based P,N-ligands. Under the same conditions, however, reactions of aldehydes could hardly be observed. Subsequently, this obstacle was resolved by using chiral metallocene-based P,P-ligands. Both ketones and aldehydes afforded excellent enantioselectivities with up to 98% ee and 94% ee, respectively.

  12. Direct conversion of alcohols to α-chloro aldehydes and α-chloro ketones.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yuanyuan; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Studer, Armido

    2014-09-19

    Direct conversion of primary and secondary alcohols into the corresponding α-chloro aldehydes and α-chloro ketones using trichloroisocyanuric acid, serving both as stoichiometric oxidant and α-halogenating reagent, is reported. For primary alcohols, TEMPO has to be added as an oxidation catalyst, and for the transformation of secondary alcohols (TEMPO-free protocol), MeOH as an additive is essential to promote chlorination of the intermediary ketones.

  13. Photoredox activation for the direct β-arylation of ketones and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Pirnot, Michael T; Rankic, Danica A; Martin, David B C; MacMillan, David W C

    2013-03-29

    The direct β-activation of saturated aldehydes and ketones has long been an elusive transformation. We found that photoredox catalysis in combination with organocatalysis can lead to the transient generation of 5π-electron β-enaminyl radicals from ketones and aldehydes that rapidly couple with cyano-substituted aryl rings at the carbonyl β-position. This mode of activation is suitable for a broad range of carbonyl β-functionalization reactions and is amenable to enantioselective catalysis.

  14. N-Triflylthiophosphoramide Catalyzed Enantioselective Mukaiyama Aldol Reaction of Aldehydes with Silyl Enol Ethers of Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Cheol Hong; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    The first Brønsted acid catalyzed asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reaction of aldehydes using silyl enol ethers of ketones as nucleophiles has been reported. A variety of aldehydes and silyl enol ethers of ketones afforded the aldol products in excellent yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities. Mechanistic studies revealed that the actual catalyst may be changed from the silylated Brønsted acid to Brønsted acid itself depending on the reaction temperature. PMID:20465277

  15. N-triflylthiophosphoramide catalyzed enantioselective Mukaiyama aldol reaction of aldehydes with silyl enol ethers of ketones.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Cheol Hong; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2010-06-04

    The first Brønsted acid catalyzed asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reaction of aldehydes using silyl enol ethers of ketones as nucleophiles has been reported. A variety of aldehydes and silyl enol ethers of ketones afforded the aldol products in excellent yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities. Mechanistic studies revealed that the actual catalyst may be changed from the silylated Brønsted acid to the Brønsted acid itself depending on the reaction temperature.

  16. Study of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of synthetic benzyl bromides, ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Shakhatreh, Muhamad Ali K; Al-Smadi, Mousa L; Khabour, Omar F; Shuaibu, Fatima A; Hussein, Emad I; Alzoubi, Karem H

    2016-01-01

    Several applications of chalcones and their derivatives encouraged researchers to increase their synthesis as an alternative for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial and fungal infections. In the present study, chalcone derivatives were synthesized through cross aldol condensation reaction between 4-( N , N -dimethylamino)benzaldehyde and multiarm aromatic ketones. The multiarm aromatic ketones were synthesized through nucleophilic substitution reaction between 4-hydroxy acetophenone and benzyl bromides. The benzyl bromides, multiarm aromatic ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives were evaluated for their activities against eleven clinical pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and three pathogenic fungi by the disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the microbroth dilution technique. The results of the present study demonstrated that benzyl bromide derivatives have strong antibacterial and antifungal properties as compared to synthetic chalcone derivatives and ketones. Benzyl bromides (1a and 1c) showed high ester activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi but moderate activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, these compounds may be considered as good antibacterial and antifungal drug discovery. However, substituted ketones (2a-b) as well as chalcone derivatives (3a-c) showed no activity against all the tested strains except for ketone (2c), which showed moderate activity against Candida albicans .

  17. Study of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of synthetic benzyl bromides, ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Shakhatreh, Muhamad Ali K; Al-Smadi, Mousa L; Khabour, Omar F; Shuaibu, Fatima A; Hussein, Emad I; Alzoubi, Karem H

    2016-01-01

    Several applications of chalcones and their derivatives encouraged researchers to increase their synthesis as an alternative for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial and fungal infections. In the present study, chalcone derivatives were synthesized through cross aldol condensation reaction between 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzaldehyde and multiarm aromatic ketones. The multiarm aromatic ketones were synthesized through nucleophilic substitution reaction between 4-hydroxy acetophenone and benzyl bromides. The benzyl bromides, multiarm aromatic ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives were evaluated for their activities against eleven clinical pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and three pathogenic fungi by the disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the microbroth dilution technique. The results of the present study demonstrated that benzyl bromide derivatives have strong antibacterial and antifungal properties as compared to synthetic chalcone derivatives and ketones. Benzyl bromides (1a and 1c) showed high ester activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi but moderate activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, these compounds may be considered as good antibacterial and antifungal drug discovery. However, substituted ketones (2a–b) as well as chalcone derivatives (3a–c) showed no activity against all the tested strains except for ketone (2c), which showed moderate activity against Candida albicans. PMID:27877017

  18. The contribution of ketone bodies to basal and activity-dependent neuronal oxidation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Golam MI; Jiang, Lihong; Rothman, Douglas L; Behar, Kevin L

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of ketone bodies to replace glucose in support of neuronal function is unresolved. Here, we determined the contributions of glucose and ketone bodies to neocortical oxidative metabolism over a large range of brain activity in rats fasted 36 hours and infused intravenously with [2,4-13C2]-D-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Three animal groups and conditions were studied: awake ex vivo, pentobarbital-induced isoelectricity ex vivo, and halothane-anesthetized in vivo, the latter data reanalyzed from a recent study. Rates of neuronal acetyl-CoA oxidation from ketone bodies (VacCoA-kbN) and pyruvate (VpdhN), and the glutamate-glutamine cycle (Vcyc) were determined by metabolic modeling of 13C label trapped in major brain amino acid pools. VacCoA-kbN increased gradually with increasing activity, as compared with the steeper change in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate (VtcaN), supporting a decreasing percentage of neuronal ketone oxidation: ∼100% (isoelectricity), 56% (halothane anesthesia), 36% (awake) with the BHB plasma levels achieved in our experiments (6 to 13 mM). In awake animals ketone oxidation reached saturation for blood levels >17 mM, accounting for 62% of neuronal substrate oxidation, the remainder (38%) provided by glucose. We conclude that ketone bodies present at sufficient concentration to saturate metabolism provides full support of basal (housekeeping) energy needs and up to approximately half of the activity-dependent oxidative needs of neurons. PMID:24780902

  19. Ketones block amyloid entry and improve cognition in an Alzheimer's model.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun Xiang; Maalouf, Marwan; Han, Pengcheng; Zhao, Minglei; Gao, Ming; Dharshaun, Turner; Ryan, Christopher; Whitelegge, Julian; Wu, Jie; Eisenberg, David; Reiman, Eric M; Schweizer, Felix E; Shi, Jiong

    2016-03-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is responsible for 60%-80% of dementia cases, and the most opportune time for preventive intervention is in the earliest stage of its preclinical phase. As traditional mitochondrial energy substrates, ketone bodies (ketones, for short), beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate, have been reported to provide symptomatic improvement and disease-modifying activity in epilepsy and neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, ketones are thought as more than just metabolites and also as endogenous factors protecting against AD. In this study, we discovered a novel neuroprotective mechanism of ketones in which they blocked amyloid-β 42, a pathologic hallmark protein of AD, entry into neurons. The suppression of intracellular amyloid-β 42 accumulation rescued mitochondrial complex I activity, reduced oxidative stress, and improved synaptic plasticity. Most importantly, we show that peripheral administration of ketones significantly reduced amyloid burden and greatly improved learning and memory ability in a symptomatic mouse model of AD. These observations provide us insights to understand and to establish a novel therapeutic use of ketones in AD prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The contribution of ketone bodies to basal and activity-dependent neuronal oxidation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Golam M I; Jiang, Lihong; Rothman, Douglas L; Behar, Kevin L

    2014-07-01

    The capacity of ketone bodies to replace glucose in support of neuronal function is unresolved. Here, we determined the contributions of glucose and ketone bodies to neocortical oxidative metabolism over a large range of brain activity in rats fasted 36 hours and infused intravenously with [2,4-(13)C₂]-D-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Three animal groups and conditions were studied: awake ex vivo, pentobarbital-induced isoelectricity ex vivo, and halothane-anesthetized in vivo, the latter data reanalyzed from a recent study. Rates of neuronal acetyl-CoA oxidation from ketone bodies (V(acCoA-kbN)) and pyruvate (V(pdhN)), and the glutamate-glutamine cycle (V(cyc)) were determined by metabolic modeling of (13)C label trapped in major brain amino acid pools. V(acCoA-kbN) increased gradually with increasing activity, as compared with the steeper change in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate (V(tcaN)), supporting a decreasing percentage of neuronal ketone oxidation: ∼100% (isoelectricity), 56% (halothane anesthesia), 36% (awake) with the BHB plasma levels achieved in our experiments (6 to 13 mM). In awake animals ketone oxidation reached saturation for blood levels >17 mM, accounting for 62% of neuronal substrate oxidation, the remainder (38%) provided by glucose. We conclude that ketone bodies present at sufficient concentration to saturate metabolism provides full support of basal (housekeeping) energy needs and up to approximately half of the activity-dependent oxidative needs of neurons.

  1. Modified in vivo comet assay detects the genotoxic potential of 14-hydroxycodeinone, an α,β-unsaturated ketone in oxycodone.

    PubMed

    Pant, Kamala; Roden, Nicholas; Zhang, Charles; Bruce, Shannon; Wood, Craig; Pendino, Kimberly

    2015-12-01

    14-Hydroxycodeinone (14-HC) is an α,β-unsaturated ketone impurity found in oxycodone drug substance and has a structural alert for genotoxicity. 14-HC was tested in a combined Modified and Standard Comet Assay to determine if the slight decrease in % Tail DNA noted in a previously conducted Standard Comet Assay with 14-HC could be magnified to clarify if the response was due to cross-linking activity. One limitation of the Standard Comet Assay is that DNA cross-links cannot be reliably detected. However, under certain modified testing conditions, DNA cross-links and chemical moieties that elicit such cross-links can be elucidated. One such modification involves the induction of additional breakages of DNA strands by gamma or X-ray irradiation. To determine if 14-HC is a DNA crosslinker in vivo, a Modified Comet Assay was conducted using X-ray irradiation as the modification to visualize crosslinking activity. In this assay, 14-HC was administered orally to mice up to 320 mg/kg/day. Results showed a statistically significant reduction in percent tail DNA in duodenal cells at 320 mg/kg/day, with a nonstatistically significant but dose-related reduction in percent tail DNA also observed at the mid dose of 160 mg/kg/day. Similar decreases were not observed in cells from the liver or stomach, and no increases in percent tail DNA were noted for any tissue in the concomitantly conducted Standard Comet Assay. Taken together, 14-HC was identified as a cross-linking agent in the duodenum in the Modified Comet Assay. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Thermotolerant cyclamen with reduced acrolein and methyl vinyl ketone

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Hiroomi; Hirashima, Keita; Matsuda, Osamu; Ikegami, Hidetoshi; Winkelmann, Traud; Nakahara, Takao; Iba, Koh

    2012-01-01

    Reduced levels of trienoic fatty acids (TAs) in chloroplast membranes induce thermotolerance in several plant species, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. TA peroxidation in plant cell membranes generates cytotoxic, TA-derived compounds containing α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups. The relationship between low TA levels and the amounts of cytotoxic TA-derived compounds was examined using thermotolerant transgenic cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum Mill.) with low TA contents. Changes in the levels of the cytotoxic TA-derived acrolein (ACR), methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), (E)-2-hexenal, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and malondialdehyde were analysed in the leaf tissues of wild-type (WT) and thermotolerant transgenic cyclamen under heat stress. Levels of ACR and MVK in the WT increased in parallel with the occurrence of heat-induced tissue damage, whereas no such changes were observed in the thermotolerant transgenic lines. Furthermore, exogenous ACR and MVK infiltrated into leaves to concentrations similar to those observed in heat-stressed WT leaves caused similar disease symptoms. These results suggest that thermotolerance in transgenic cyclamen depends on reduced production rates of ACR and MVK under heat stress, due to the low level of TAs in these plants. PMID:22511805

  3. Local deformation behavior of surface porous polyether-ether-ketone.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nathan T; Torstrick, F Brennan; Safranski, David L; Guldberg, Robert E; Gall, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Surface porous polyether-ether-ketone has the ability to maintain the tensile monotonic and cyclic strength necessary for many load bearing orthopedic applications while providing a surface that facilitates bone ingrowth; however, the relevant deformation behavior of the pore architecture in response to various loading conditions is not yet fully characterized or understood. The focus of this study was to examine the compressive and wear behavior of the surface porous architecture using micro Computed Tomography (micro CT). Pore architectures of various depths (~0.5-2.5mm) and pore sizes (212-508µm) were manufactured using a melt extrusion and porogen leaching process. Compression testing revealed that the pore architecture deforms in the typical three staged linear elastic, plastic, and densification stages characteristic of porous materials. The experimental moduli and yield strengths decreased as the porosity increased but there was no difference in properties between pore sizes. The porous architecture maintained a high degree of porosity available for bone-ingrowth at all strains. Surface porous samples showed no increase in wear rate compared to injection molded samples, with slight pore densification accompanying wear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tai, D.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water samples were developed. Concentrations in the milligram-per-liter range were determined by injecting an aqueous sample into the analysis system through an injection port, trapping the organics on Tenax-GC at room temperature, and thermally desorbing the organics into a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector for analysis. Concentrations in the microgram-per-liter range were determined by sweeping the headspace vapors over a water sample at 50C, trapping on Tenax-GC, and thermally desorbing the organics into the gas chromatograph. The precision for two operators of the milligram-per-liter concentration procedure, expressed as the coefficient of variation, was generally less than 2 percent for concentrations ranging from 16 to 160 milligrams per liter. The precision from two operators of the microgram-per-liter concentration procedure was between 2 and 4 percent for concentrations of 20 and 60 micrograms per liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Ketone bodies are protective against oxidative stress in neocortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Young; Davis, Laurie M; Sullivan, Patrick G; Maalouf, Marwan; Simeone, Timothy A; van Brederode, Johannes; Rho, Jong M

    2007-06-01

    Ketone bodies (KB) have been shown to prevent neurodegeneration in models of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. One possibility is that KB may exert antioxidant activity. In the current study, we explored the effects of KB on rat neocortical neurons exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or diamide - a thiol oxidant and activator of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT). We found that: (i) KB completely blocked large inward currents induced by either H(2)O(2) or diamide; (ii) KB significantly decreased the number of propidium iodide-labeled cells in neocortical slices after exposure to H(2)O(2) or diamide; (iii) KB significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in dissociated neurons and in isolated neocortical mitochondria; (iv) the electrophysiological effects of KB in neurons exposed to H(2)O(2) or diamide were mimicked by bongkrekic acid and cyclosporin A, known inhibitors of mPT, as well as by catalase and DL - dithiothreitol, known antioxidants; (v) diamide alone did not significantly alter basal ROS levels in neurons, supporting previous studies indicating that diamide-induced neuronal injury may be mediated by mPT opening; and (vi) KB significantly increased the threshold for calcium-induced mPT in isolated mitochondria. Taken together, our data suggest that KB may prevent mPT and oxidative injury in neocortical neurons, most likely by decreasing mitochondrial ROS production.

  6. Biosynthesis of the nargenicin A1 pyrrole moiety from Nocardia sp. CS682.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Sushila; Aryal, Niraj; Bhattarai, Saurabh; Koju, Dinesh; Lamichhane, Janardan; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2012-01-01

    A number of structurally diverse natural products harboring pyrrole moieties possess a wide range of biological activities. Studies on biosynthesis of pyrrole ring have shown that pyrrole moieties are derived from L-proline. Nargenicin A(1), a saturated alicyclic polyketide from Nocardia sp. CS682, is a pyrrole-2-carboxylate ester of nodusmicin. We cloned and identified a set of four genes from Nocardia sp. CS682 that show sequence similarity to the respective genes involved in the biosynthesis of the pyrrole moieties of pyoluteorin in Pseudomonas fluorescens, clorobiocin in Streptomyces roseochromogenes subsp. Oscitans, coumermycin A(1) in Streptomyces rishiriensis, one of the pyrrole rings of undecylprodigiosin in Streptomyces coelicolor, and leupyrrins in Sorangium cellulosum. These genes were designated as ngnN4, ngnN5, ngnN3, and ngnN2. In this study, we presented the evidences that the pyrrole moiety of nargenicin A(1) was also derived from L-proline by the coordinated action of three proteins, NgnN4 (proline adenyltransferase), NgnN5 (proline carrier protein), and NgnN3 (flavine-dependent acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenases). Biosynthesis of pyrrole moiety in nargenicin A(1) is initiated by NgnN4 that catalyzes ATP-dependent activation of L-proline into L-prolyl-AMP, and the latter is transferred to NgnN5 to create prolyl-S-peptidyl carrier protein (PCP). Later, NgnN3 catalyzes the two-step oxidation of prolyl-S-PCP into pyrrole-2-carboxylate. Thus, this study presents another example of a pyrrole moiety biosynthetic pathway that uses a set of three genes to convert L-proline into pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid moiety.

  7. Comparison of benzil and trifluoromethyl ketone (TFK)-mediated carboxylesterase inhibition using classical and 3D-quantitative structure–activity relationship analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Wadkins, Randy M.; Potter, Philip M.; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2009-01-01

    Carboxylesterases are enzymes that hydrolyze a broad suite of endogenous and exogenous ester-containing compounds to the corresponding alcohol and carboxylic acid. These enzymes metabolize a number of therapeutics including the anti-tumor agent CPT-11, the anti-viral drug oseltamivir, and the anti-thrombogenic agent clopidogrel as well as many agrochemicals. In addition, carboxylesterases are involved in lipid homeostasis, including cholesterol metabolism and transport with a proposed role in the development of atherosclerosis. Several different scaffolds capable of inhibiting carboxylesterases have been reported, including organophosphates, carbamates, trifluoromethyl ketone-containing structures (TFKs), and aromatic ethane-1,2-diones. Of these varied groups, only the 1,2-diones evidence carboxylesterase isoform-selectivity, which is an important characteristic for therapeutic application and probing biological mechanisms. This study constructed a series of classical and 3D-QSAR models to examine the physiochemical parameters involved in the observed selectivity of three mammalian carboxylesterases: human intestinal carboxylesterase (hiCE), human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1), and rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE). CoMFA-based models for the benzil-analogs described 88%, 95% and 76% of observed activity for hiCE, hCE1 and rCE, respectively. For TFK-containing compounds, two distinct models were constructed using either the ketone or gem-diol form of the inhibitor. For all three enzymes, the CoMFA ketone models comprised more biological activity than the corresponding gem-diol models; however the differences were small with described activity for all models ranging from 85–98%. A comprehensive model incorporating both benzil and TFK structures described 92%, 85% and 87% of observed activity for hiCE, hCE1 and rCE, respectively. Both classical and 3D-QSAR analysis showed that the observed isoform-selectivity with the benzil-analogs could be described by the volume

  8. Comparison of benzil and trifluoromethyl ketone (TFK)-mediated carboxylesterase inhibition using classical and 3D-quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis.

    PubMed

    Harada, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Wadkins, Randy M; Potter, Philip M; Wheelock, Craig E

    2009-01-01

    Carboxylesterases are enzymes that hydrolyze a broad suite of endogenous and exogenous ester-containing compounds to the corresponding alcohol and carboxylic acid. These enzymes metabolize a number of therapeutics including the anti-tumor agent CPT-11, the anti-viral drug oseltamivir, and the anti-thrombogenic agent clopidogrel as well as many agrochemicals. In addition, carboxylesterases are involved in lipid homeostasis, including cholesterol metabolism and transport with a proposed role in the development of atherosclerosis. Several different scaffolds capable of inhibiting carboxylesterases have been reported, including organophosphates, carbamates, trifluoromethyl ketone-containing structures (TFKs), and aromatic ethane-1,2-diones. Of these varied groups, only the 1,2-diones evidence carboxylesterase isoform-selectivity, which is an important characteristic for therapeutic application and probing biological mechanisms. This study constructed a series of classical and 3D-QSAR models to examine the physiochemical parameters involved in the observed selectivity of three mammalian carboxylesterases: human intestinal carboxylesterase (hiCE), human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1), and rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE). CoMFA-based models for the benzil-analogs described 88%, 95% and 76% of observed activity for hiCE, hCE1 and rCE, respectively. For TFK-containing compounds, two distinct models were constructed using either the ketone or gem-diol form of the inhibitor. For all three enzymes, the CoMFA ketone models comprised more biological activity than the corresponding gem-diol models; however the differences were small with described activity for all models ranging from 85-98%. A comprehensive model incorporating both benzil and TFK structures described 92%, 85% and 87% of observed activity for hiCE, hCE1 and rCE, respectively. Both classical and 3D-QSAR analysis showed that the observed isoform-selectivity with the benzil-analogs could be described by the volume parameter

  9. Interaction of gabaergic ketones with model membranes: A molecular dynamics and experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Virginia; Sánchez-Borzone, Mariela E; García, Daniel A

    2018-08-01

    γ-Aminobutyric-acid receptor (GABA A -R), a membrane intrinsic protein, is activated by GABA and modulated by a wide variety of recognized drugs. GABA A -R is also target for several insecticides which act by recognition of a non-competitive blocking site. Mentha oil is rich in several ketones with established activity against various insects/pests. Considering that mint ketones are highly lipophilic, their action mechanism could involve, at least in part, a non-specific receptor modulation by interacting with the surrounding lipids. In the present work, we studied in detail the effect on membranes of five cyclic ketones present in mint plants, with demonstrated insecticide and gabaergic activity. Particularly, we have explored their effect on the organization and dynamics of the membrane, by using Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulation studies in a bilayer model of DPPC. We performed free diffusion MD and obtained spatially resolved free energy profiles of ketones partition into bilayers based on umbrella sampling. The most favored location of ketones in the membrane corresponded to the lower region of the carbonyl groups. Both hydrocarbon chains were slightly affected by the presence of ketones, presenting an ordering effect for the methylene groups closer to the carbonyl. MD simulations results were also contrasted with experimental data from fluorescence anisotropy studies which evaluate changes in membrane fluidity. In agreement, these assays indicated that the presence of ketones between lipid molecules induced an enhancement of the intermolecular interaction, increasing the molecular order throughout the bilayer thickness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Ketone Ester Drink Increases Postexercise Muscle Glycogen Synthesis in Humans.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, David A; Cox, Peter J; Kirk, Tom; Stradling, Huw; Impey, Samuel G; Clarke, Kieran

    2017-09-01

    Physical endurance can be limited by muscle glycogen stores, in that glycogen depletion markedly reduces external work. During carbohydrate restriction, the liver synthesizes the ketone bodies, D-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate from fatty acids. In animals and in the presence of glucose, D-β-hydroxybutyrate promotes insulin secretion and increases glycogen synthesis. Here we determined whether a dietary ketone ester, combined with plentiful glucose, can increase postexercise glycogen synthesis in human skeletal muscle. After an interval-based glycogen depletion exercise protocol, 12 well-trained male athletes completed a randomized, three-arm, blinded crossover recovery study that consisted of consumption of either a taste-matched, zero-calorie control or a ketone monoester drink, followed by a 10-mM glucose clamp or saline infusion for 2 h. The three postexercise conditions were control drink then saline infusion, control drink then hyperglycemic clamp, or ketone ester drink then hyperglycemic clamp. Skeletal muscle glycogen content was determined in muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis taken before and after the 2-h clamps. The ketone ester drink increased blood D-β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations to a maximum of 5.3 versus 0.7 mM for the control drink (P < 0.0001). During the 2-h glucose clamps, insulin levels were twofold higher (31 vs 16 mU·L, P < 0.01) and glucose uptake 32% faster (1.66 vs 1.26 g·kg, P < 0.001). The ketone drink increased by 61 g, the total glucose infused for 2 h, from 197 to 258 g, and muscle glycogen was 50% higher (246 vs 164 mmol glycosyl units per kilogram dry weight, P < 0.05) than after the control drink. In the presence of constant high glucose concentrations, a ketone ester drink increased endogenous insulin levels, glucose uptake, and muscle glycogen synthesis.

  11. Antioxidant capacity contributes to protection of ketone bodies against oxidative damage induced during hypoglycemic conditions.

    PubMed

    Haces, María L; Hernández-Fonseca, Karla; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Montiel, Teresa; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Massieu, Lourdes

    2008-05-01

    Ketone bodies play a key role in mammalian energy metabolism during the suckling period. Normally ketone bodies' blood concentration during adulthood is very low, although it can rise during starvation, an exogenous infusion or a ketogenic diet. Whenever ketone bodies' levels increase, their oxidation in the brain rises. For this reason they have been used as protective molecules against refractory epilepsy and in experimental models of ischemia and excitotoxicity. The mechanisms underlying the protective effect of these compounds are not completely understood. Here, we studied a possible antioxidant capacity of ketone bodies and whether it contributes to the protection against oxidative damage induced during hypoglycemia. We report for the first time the scavenging capacity of the ketone bodies, acetoacetate (AcAc) and both the physiological and non-physiological isomers of beta-hydroxybutyrate (D- and L-BHB, respectively), for diverse reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxyl radicals (.OH) were effectively scavenged by D- and L-BHB. In addition, the three ketone bodies were able to reduce cell death and ROS production induced by the glycolysis inhibitor, iodoacetate (IOA), while only D-BHB and AcAc prevented neuronal ATP decline. Finally, in an in vivo model of insulin-induced hypoglycemia, the administration of D- or L-BHB, but not of AcAc, was able to prevent the hypoglycemia-induced increase in lipid peroxidation in the rat hippocampus. Our data suggest that the antioxidant capacity contributes to protection of ketone bodies against oxidative damage in in vitro and in vivo models associated with free radical production and energy impairment.

  12. Hyperpolarized ketone body metabolism in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jack J; Ball, Daniel R; Lau, Angus Z; Tyler, Damian J

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the use of 13 C-labelled acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate as novel hyperpolarized substrates in the study of cardiac metabolism. [1- 13 C]Acetoacetate was synthesized by catalysed hydrolysis, and both it and [1- 13 C]β-hydroxybutyrate were hyperpolarized by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Their metabolism was studied in isolated, perfused rat hearts. Hyperpolarized [1- 13 C]acetoacetate metabolism was also studied in the in vivo rat heart in the fed and fasted states. Hyperpolarization of [1- 13 C]acetoacetate and [1- 13 C]β-hydroxybutyrate provided liquid state polarizations of 8 ± 2% and 3 ± 1%, respectively. The hyperpolarized T 1 values for the two substrates were 28 ± 3 s (acetoacetate) and 20 ± 1 s (β-hydroxybutyrate). Multiple downstream metabolites were observed within the perfused heart, including acetylcarnitine, citrate and glutamate. In the in vivo heart, an increase in acetylcarnitine production from acetoacetate was observed in the fed state, as well as a potential reduction in glutamate. In this work, methods for the generation of hyperpolarized [1- 13 C]acetoacetate and [1- 13 C]β-hydroxybutyrate were investigated, and their metabolism was assessed in both isolated, perfused rat hearts and in the in vivo rat heart. These preliminary investigations show that DNP can be used as an effective in vivo probe of ketone body metabolism in the heart. © 2018 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Versatile Alkylation of (Hetero)Aryl Iodides with Ketones via β-C(sp3)-H Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ru-Yi; Liu, Luo-Yan; Park, Han Seul; Hong, Kai; Wu, Yongwei; Senanayake, Chris H; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2017-11-15

    We report Pd(II)-catalyzed β-C(sp 3 )-H (hetero)arylation of a variety of ketones using a commercially available 2,2-dimethyl aminooxyacetic acid auxiliary. Facile installation and removal of the auxiliary as well as its superior scope for both ketones and (hetero)aryl iodides overcome the significant limitations of the previously reported β-C(sp 3 )-H arylation of ketones. The ready availability of ketones renders this reaction a broadly useful method for alkyl-(hetero)aryl coupling involving both primary and secondary alkyls.

  14. Dihydrogenphosphate recognition: Assistance from the acidic OH moiety of the anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Rituraj; Pathak, Nibedan; Choudhury, Samarjit; Borah, Suchibrata; Mahanta, Sanjeev Pran

    2017-11-01

    The binding affinity of the acidic hydrogen i.e. OH moiety of dihydrogenphosphate was investigated with receptors having competent H-bond donor and H-bond acceptor component. Three derivatives of 2, 3-dipyrrol-2‧-ylquinoxaline substituted with H-bond acceptor moiety at pyrrole α- positions were synthesized and their dihydrogenphosphate affinity was studied. All the three receptors shows general affinity towards fluoride, acetate and cyanide ions in DMSO solution. Interestingly, formyl substitution at both the pyrrole α-positions of 2, 3-dipyrrol-2‧-ylquinoxaline leads to binding of H2PO4-. 1H-NMR study rules out the involvement of the H-bond donor unit of the receptor in the biding event and reveals that the binding occurs predominantly via the Osbnd H⋯O interaction between the acidic OH moiety of the anion and the Cdbnd O of the formyl group of the receptor.

  15. Ferricyanide-based analysis of aqueous lignin suspension revealed sequestration of water-soluble lignin moieties

    DOE PAGES

    Joshua, C. J.; Simmons, B. A.; Singer, S. W.

    2016-06-02

    This study describes the application of a ferricyanide-based assay as a simple and inexpensive assay for rapid analysis of aqueous lignin samples. The assay measures the formation of Prussian blue from the redox reaction between a mixture of potassium ferricyanide and ferric chloride, and phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin or lignin-derived phenolic moieties. This study revealed that soluble lignin moieties exhibited stronger ferricyanide reactivity than insoluble aggregates. The soluble lignin moieties exhibited higher ferricyanide reactivity because of increased access of the phenolic hydroxyl groups to the ferricyanide reagents. Ferricyanide reactivity of soluble lignin moieties correlated inversely with the molecular weightmore » distributions of the molecules, probably due to the involvement of phenolic hydroxyl groups in bond formation. The insoluble lignin aggregates exhibited low ferricyanide reactivity due to sequestration of the phenolic hydroxyl groups within the solid matrix. The study also highlighted the sequestration of polydispersed water-soluble lignin moieties by insoluble aggregates. The sequestered moieties were released by treatment with 0.01 M NaOH at 37 °C for 180 min. The redox assay was effective on different types of lignin extracts such as Klason lignin from switchgrass, ionic-liquid derived lignin from Eucalyptus and alkali lignin extracts. The assay generated a distinct profile for each lignin sample that was highly reproducible. The assay was also used to monitor consumption of syringic acid by Sphingobium sp. SYK-6. The simplicity and reproducibility of this assay makes it an excellent and versatile tool for qualitative and semi-quantitative characterization and comparative profiling of aqueous lignin samples.« less

  16. Ferricyanide-based analysis of aqueous lignin suspension revealed sequestration of water-soluble lignin moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Joshua, C. J.; Simmons, B. A.; Singer, S. W.

    This study describes the application of a ferricyanide-based assay as a simple and inexpensive assay for rapid analysis of aqueous lignin samples. The assay measures the formation of Prussian blue from the redox reaction between a mixture of potassium ferricyanide and ferric chloride, and phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin or lignin-derived phenolic moieties. This study revealed that soluble lignin moieties exhibited stronger ferricyanide reactivity than insoluble aggregates. The soluble lignin moieties exhibited higher ferricyanide reactivity because of increased access of the phenolic hydroxyl groups to the ferricyanide reagents. Ferricyanide reactivity of soluble lignin moieties correlated inversely with the molecular weightmore » distributions of the molecules, probably due to the involvement of phenolic hydroxyl groups in bond formation. The insoluble lignin aggregates exhibited low ferricyanide reactivity due to sequestration of the phenolic hydroxyl groups within the solid matrix. The study also highlighted the sequestration of polydispersed water-soluble lignin moieties by insoluble aggregates. The sequestered moieties were released by treatment with 0.01 M NaOH at 37 °C for 180 min. The redox assay was effective on different types of lignin extracts such as Klason lignin from switchgrass, ionic-liquid derived lignin from Eucalyptus and alkali lignin extracts. The assay generated a distinct profile for each lignin sample that was highly reproducible. The assay was also used to monitor consumption of syringic acid by Sphingobium sp. SYK-6. The simplicity and reproducibility of this assay makes it an excellent and versatile tool for qualitative and semi-quantitative characterization and comparative profiling of aqueous lignin samples.« less

  17. Isolation and Characterization of a Toxic Moiety of Low Molecular Weight from Clostridium botulinum Type A

    PubMed Central

    Gerwing, Julia; Dolman, Claude E.; Bains, Hardial S.

    1965-01-01

    Gerwing, Julia (The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada), Claude E. Dolman, and Hardial S. Bains. Isolation and characterization of a toxic moiety of low molecular weight from Clostridium botulinum type A. J. Bacteriol. 89:1383–1386. 1965.—A toxic moiety of low molecular weight has been isolated from a type A strain of Clostridium botulinum, by a method involving ammonium sulfate precipitation and elution through diethylaminoethyl cellulose at pH 5.6. By means of electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation, the toxic substance was shown to be homogeneous; a molecular weight of 12,200 was calculated. Images PMID:14293025

  18. Fluorescent Sensing of Guanine and Guanosine Monophosphate with Conjugated Receptors Incorporating Aniline and Naphthyridine Moieties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-Hung; Phang, Riping; Fang, Jim-Min

    2016-04-15

    Ethyne-linked naphthyridine-aniline conjugated molecules are selective sensors of decylguanine in dichloromethane and guanosine monophosphate in water (Kass = 16,000 M(-1)). The 2-acetamido-1,8-naphthyridine moiety binds with guanine in a DAA-ADD triply hydrogen-bonded motif. The aniline moiety enhances an electron-donating effect, and the substituent is tuned to attain extra hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking, and electrostatic interactions. The proposed binding modes are supported by a Job plot, ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, UV-vis, and fluorescence spectral analyses.

  19. Nile Red Detection of Bacterial Hydrocarbons and Ketones in a High-Throughput Format

    PubMed Central

    Pinzon, Neissa M.; Aukema, Kelly G.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT A method for use in high-throughput screening of bacteria for the production of long-chain hydrocarbons and ketones by monitoring fluorescent light emission in the presence of Nile red is described. Nile red has previously been used to screen for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and fatty acid esters, but this is the first report of screening for recombinant bacteria making hydrocarbons or ketones. The microtiter plate assay was evaluated using wild-type and recombinant strains of Shewanella oneidensis and Escherichia coli expressing the enzyme OleA, previously shown to initiate hydrocarbon biosynthesis. The strains expressing exogenous Stenotrophomonas maltophilia oleA, with increased levels of ketone production as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were distinguished with Nile red fluorescence. Confocal microscopy images of S. oneidensis oleA-expressing strains stained with Nile red were consistent with a membrane localization of the ketones. This differed from Nile red staining of bacterial PHB or algal lipid droplets that showed intracellular inclusion bodies. These results demonstrated the applicability of Nile red in a high-throughput technique for the detection of bacterial hydrocarbons and ketones. PMID:21712420

  20. Electronic Interactions of Michler's Ketone with DNA Bases in Synthetic Hairpins.

    PubMed

    Jalilov, Almaz S; Young, Ryan M; Eaton, Samuel W; Wasielewski, Michael R; Lewis, Frederick D

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism and dynamics of photoinduced electron transfer in two families of DNA hairpins possessing Michler's ketone linkers have been investigated by means of steady state and time-resolved transient absorption and emission spectroscopies. The excited state behavior of the diol linker employed in hairpin synthesis is similar to that of Michler's ketone in methanol solution. Hairpins possessing only a Michler's ketone linker undergo fast singlet state charge separation and charge recombination with an adjacent purine base, attributed to well-stacked ground state conformations, and intersystem crossing to the triplet state, attributed to poorly stacked ground state conformations. The failure of the triplet to undergo electron transfer reactions on the 7 ns time scale of our measurements is attributed to the low triplet energy and reduction potential of the twisted triplet state. Hairpins possessing both a Michler's ketone linker and a perylenediimide base surrogate separated by four base pairs undergo photoinduced hole transport from the diimide to Michler's ketone upon excitation of the diimide. The efficiency of hole transport is dependent upon the sequence of the intervening purine bases. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  1. Low dielectric fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketone) film and coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, Patrick E. (Inventor); Tullos, Gordon L. (Inventor); St.clair, Anne K. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention relates to film and coating materials prepared from novel fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketones). A fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketone) is prepared by reacting a bisphenol with 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2,2-bis 4-(4-halobenzoyl) phenyl propane (wherein halo is fluoro or chloro), which is a novel monomer formed as the reaction product of halobenzene (wherein halo is fluoro or chloro) and 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2,2-bis (p-chloro formyl phenyl) propane. Especially beneficial results of this invention are that films and coating materials prepared from the novel fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketone) are essentially optically transparent/colorless and have a lower dielectric constant than otherwise comparable, commercially available poly(phenylene ether ketones). Moreover, unlike the otherwise comparable commercially available materials, the novel fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketones) of the present invention can be solution cast or sprayed to produce the films and coatings. Furthermore, the long term thermal stability of the polymers of the present invention is superior to that of the commercially available materials.

  2. Uptake of aldehydes and ketones at typical indoor concentrations by houseplants.

    PubMed

    Tani, Akira; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2009-11-01

    The uptake rates of low-molecular weight aldehydes and ketones by peace lily (Spathiphyllum clevelandii) and golden pothos (Epipremnum aureum) leaves at typical indoor ambient concentrations (10(1)-10(2) ppbv) were determined. The C3-C6 aldehydes and C4-C6 ketones were taken up by the plant leaves, but the C3 ketone acetone was not. The uptake rate normalized to the ambient concentration C(a) ranged from 7 to 19 mmol m(-2) s(-1) and from 2 to 7 mmol m(-2) s(-1) for the aldehydes and ketones, respectively. Longer-term fumigation results revealed that the total uptake amounts were 30-100 times as much as the amounts dissolved in the leaf, suggesting that volatile organic carbons are metabolized in the leaf and/or translocated through the petiole. The ratio of the intercellular concentration to the external (ambient) concentration (C(i)/C(a)) was significantly lower for most aldehydes than for most ketones. In particular, a linear unsaturated aldehyde, crotonaldehyde, had a C(i)/C(a) ratio of approximately 0, probably because of its highest solubility in water.

  3. Graft-crosslinked copolymers based on poly(arylene ether ketone)-gc-sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) for PEMFC applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Hu, Zhaoxia; Luo, Linqiang; Chen, Shanshan; Liu, Jianmei; Chen, Shouwen; Wang, Lianjun

    2011-07-15

    Novel poly(arylene ether ketone) polymers with fluorophenyl pendants and phenoxide-terminated wholly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) oligomers are prepared via Ni(0)-catalyzed and nucleophilic polymerization, respectively, and subsequently used as starting materials to obtain graft-crosslinked membranes as polymer electrolyte membranes. The phenoxide-terminated sulfonated moieties are introduced as hydrophilic parts as well as crosslinking units. The chemical structure and morphology of the obtained membranes are confirmed by (1) H NMR and tapping-mode AFM. The properties required for fuel cell applications, including water uptake and dimensional change, as well as proton conductivity, are investigated. AFM results show a clear nanoscale phase-separation microstructure of the obtained membranes. The membranes show good dimensional stability and reasonably high proton conductivities under 30-90% relative humidity. The anisotropic proton conductivity ratios (σ(formula see text) ) of the membranes in water are in the range 0.65-0.92, and increase with an increase in hydrophilic block length. The results indicate that the graft-crosslinked membranes are promising candidates for applications as polymer electrolyte membranes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Efficient Hydrogenation of Ketones and Aldehydes Catalyzed by Well-Defined Iron(II) PNP Pincer Complexes: Evidence for an Insertion Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared and structurally characterized a new class of Fe(II) PNP pincer hydride complexes [Fe(PNP-iPr)(H)(CO)(L)]n (L = Br–, CH3CN, pyridine, PMe3, SCN–, CO, BH4–; n = 0, +1) based on the 2,6-diaminopyridine scaffold where the PiPr2 moieties of the PNP ligand are connected to the pyridine ring via NH and/or NMe spacers. Complexes [Fe(PNP-iPr)(H)(CO)(L)]n with labile ligands (L = Br–, CH3CN, BH4–) and NH spacers are efficient catalysts for the hydrogenation of both ketones and aldehydes to alcohols under mild conditions, while those containing inert ligands (L = pyridine, PMe3, SCN–, CO) are catalytically inactive. Interestingly, complex [Fe(PNPMe-iPr)(H)(CO)(Br)], featuring NMe spacers, is an efficient catalyst for the chemoselective hydrogenation of aldehydes. The first type of complexes involves deprotonation of the PNP ligand as well as heterolytic dihydrogen cleavage via metal-alkoxide cooperation, but no reversible aromatization/deprotonation of the PNP ligand. In the case of the N-methylated complex the mechanism remains unclear, but obviously does not allow bifunctional activation of dihydrogen. The experimental results complemented by DFT calculations strongly support an insertion of the C=O bond of the carbonyl compound into the Fe–H bond. PMID:27642211

  5. Blood Ketones: Measurement, Interpretation, Limitations, and Utility in the Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    Dhatariya, Ketan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remains a common medical emergency. Over the last few years, new national guidelines have changed the focus in managing the condition from being glucose-centered to ketone-centered. With the advent of advancing technology and the increasing use of hand-held, point-of-care ketone meters, greater emphasis is placed on making treatment decisions based on these readings. Furthermore, recent warnings about euglycemic DKA occurring in people with diabetes using sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors urge clinicians to inform their patients of this condition and possible testing options. This review describes the reasons for a change in treating DKA, and outlines the benefits and limitations of using ketone readings, in particular highlighting the difference between urine and capillary readings. PMID:28278308

  6. Field validation of the dnph method for aldehydes and ketones. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, G.S.; Steger, J.L.

    1996-04-01

    A stationary source emission test method for selected aldehydes and ketones has been validated. The method employs a sampling train with impingers containing 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to derivatize the analytes. The resulting hydrazones are recovered and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Nine analytes were studied; the method was validated for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, acetophenone and isophorone. Acrolein, menthyl ethyl ketone, menthyl isobutyl ketone, and quinone did not meet the validation criteria. The study employed the validation techniques described in EPA method 301, which uses train spiking to determine bias, and collocated sampling trains to determine precision. The studies were carriedmore » out at a plywood veneer dryer and a polyester manufacturing plant.« less

  7. A Green Approach for Allylations of Aldehydes and Ketones: Combining Allylborate, Mechanochemistry and Lanthanide Catalyst.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Viviane P; Oliveira, Cristiane K; de Souza, Thiago M; Menezes, Paulo H; Alves, Severino; Longo, Ricardo L; Malvestiti, Ivani

    2016-11-16

    Secondary and tertiary alcohols synthesized via allylation of aldehydes and ketones are important compounds in bioactive natural products and industry, including pharmaceuticals. Development of a mechanochemical method using potassium allyltrifluoroborate salt and water, to successfully perform the allylation of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds is reported for the first time. By controlling the grinding parameters, the methodology can be selective, namely, very efficient for aldehydes and ineffective for ketones, but by employing lanthanide catalysts, the reactions with ketones can become practically quantitative. The catalyzed reactions can also be performed under mild aqueous stirring conditions. Considering the allylation agent and its by-products, aqueous media, energy efficiency and use of catalyst, the methodology meets most of the green chemistry principles.

  8. Can a Non-Chiral Object Be Made of Two Identical Chiral Moieties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMarechal, Jean Francois

    2008-01-01

    Several pedagogical objects can be used to discuss chirality. Here, we use the cut of an apple to show that the association of identical chiral moieties can form a non-chiral object. Octahedral chirality is used to find situations equivalent to the cut of the apple. (Contains 5 figures.)

  9. A survey of cyclic replacements for the central diamide moiety of inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Dhar, T G Murali; Liu, Chunjian; Pitts, William J; Guo, Junquing; Watterson, Scott H; Gu, Henry; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Barrish, Joel C; Hollenbaugh, Diane; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-11-04

    A series of heterocyclic replacements for the central diamide moiety of 1, a potent small molecule inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) were explored The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs), derived from in vitro studies, for these new series of inhibitors is given.

  10. Fluoride-induced modulation of ionic transport in asymmetric nanopores functionalized with "caged" fluorescein moieties.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mubarak; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Ramirez, Patricio; Nasir, Saima; Cervera, Javier; Niemeyer, Christof M; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2016-04-28

    We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a nanofluidic fluoride sensing device based on a single conical pore functionalized with "caged" fluorescein moieties. The nanopore functionalization is based on an amine-terminated fluorescein whose phenolic hydroxyl groups are protected with tert-butyldiphenylsilyl (TBDPS) moieties. The protected fluorescein (Fcn-TBDPS-NH2) molecules are then immobilized on the nanopore surface via carbodiimide coupling chemistry. Exposure to fluoride ions removes the uncharged TBDPS moieties due to the fluoride-promoted cleavage of the silicon-oxygen bond, leading to the generation of negatively charged groups on the fluorescein moieties immobilized onto the pore surface. The asymmetrical distribution of these groups along the conical nanopore leads to the electrical rectification observed in the current-voltage (I-V) curve. On the contrary, other halides and anions are not able to induce any significant ionic rectification in the asymmetric pore. In each case, the success of the chemical functionalization and deprotection reactions is monitored through the changes observed in the I-V curves before and after the specified reaction step. The theoretical results based on the Nernst-Planck and Poisson equations further demonstrate the validity of an experimental approach to fluoride-induced modulation of nanopore current rectification behaviour.

  11. Arsenic moiety in gallium arsenide is responsible for neuronal apoptosis and behavioral alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Flora, Swaran J S; Bhatt, Kapil; Mehta, Ashish

    2009-10-15

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), an intermetallic semiconductor finds widespread applications in high frequency microwave and millimeter wave, and ultra fast supercomputers. Extensive use of GaAs has led to increased exposure to humans working in semiconductor industry. GaAs has the ability to dissociate into its constitutive moieties at physiological pH and might be responsible for the oxidative stress. The present study was aimed at evaluating, the principle moiety (Ga or As) in GaAs to cause neurological dysfunction based on its ability to cause apoptosis, in vivo and in vitro and if this neuronal dysfunction translated to neurobehavioral changes in chronically exposed rats. Result indicated that arsenic moiety in GaAs was mainly responsible for causing oxidative stress via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation, both in vitro and in vivo. Increased ROS further caused apoptosis via mitochondrial driven pathway. Effects of oxidative stress were also confirmed based on alterations in antioxidant enzymes, GPx, GST and SOD in rat brain. We noted that ROS induced oxidative stress caused changes in the brain neurotransmitter levels, Acetylcholinesterase and nitric oxide synthase, leading to loss of memory and learning in rats. The study demonstrates for the first time that the slow release of arsenic moiety from GaAs is mainly responsible for oxidative stress induced apoptosis in neuronal cells causing behavioral changes.

  12. Thiamin biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Origin of carbon-2 of the thiazole moiety.

    PubMed Central

    White, R L; Spenser, I D

    1979-01-01

    Radioactivity from [2-14C]glycine enters C-2 of the thiazole moiety of thiamin and no other site, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strains A.T.C.C. 24903 and 39916, H.J. Bunker). Radioactivity from L-[Me-14C]methionine or from DL-[2-14C]tyrosine does not enter thiamin. PMID:384994

  13. Engineering E. coli for simultaneous glucose–xylose utilization during methyl ketone production

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xi; Goh, Ee-Been; Beller, Harry R.

    Previously, we developed an E. coli strain that overproduces medium-chain methyl ketones for potential use as diesel fuel blending agents or as flavors and fragrances. To date, the strain's performance has been optimized during growth with glucose. However, lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates also contain a substantial portion of hemicellulose-derived xylose, which is typically the second most abundant sugar after glucose. Commercialization of the methyl ketone-producing technology would benefit from the increased efficiency resulting from simultaneous, rather than the native sequential (diauxic), utilization of glucose and xylose. In this study, genetic manipulations were performed to alleviate carbon catabolite repression in our mostmore » efficient methyl ket one-producing strain. A strain engineered for constitutive expression of xylF and xylA (involved in xylose transport and metabolism) showed synchronized glucose and xylose consumption rates. However, this newly acquired capability came at the expense of methyl ketone titer, which decreased fivefold. Further efforts were made to improve methyl ketone production in this strain, and we found that two strategies were effective at enhancing methyl ketone titer: (1) chromosomal deletion of pgi (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) to increase intracellular NADPH supply and (2) downregulation of CRP (cAMP receptor protein) expression by replacement of the native RBS with an RBS chosen based upon mutant library screening results. Combining these strategies resulted in the most favorable overall phenotypes for simultaneous glucose-xylose consumption without compromising methyl ketone titer at both 1 and 2% total sugar concentrations in shake flasks. This work demonstrated a strategy for engineering simultaneous utilization of C 6 and C 5 sugars in E. coli without sacrificing production of fatty acid-derived compounds.« less

  14. Engineering E. coli for simultaneous glucose–xylose utilization during methyl ketone production

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xi; Goh, Ee-Been; Beller, Harry R.

    2018-01-27

    Previously, we developed an E. coli strain that overproduces medium-chain methyl ketones for potential use as diesel fuel blending agents or as flavors and fragrances. To date, the strain's performance has been optimized during growth with glucose. However, lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates also contain a substantial portion of hemicellulose-derived xylose, which is typically the second most abundant sugar after glucose. Commercialization of the methyl ketone-producing technology would benefit from the increased efficiency resulting from simultaneous, rather than the native sequential (diauxic), utilization of glucose and xylose. In this study, genetic manipulations were performed to alleviate carbon catabolite repression in our mostmore » efficient methyl ket one-producing strain. A strain engineered for constitutive expression of xylF and xylA (involved in xylose transport and metabolism) showed synchronized glucose and xylose consumption rates. However, this newly acquired capability came at the expense of methyl ketone titer, which decreased fivefold. Further efforts were made to improve methyl ketone production in this strain, and we found that two strategies were effective at enhancing methyl ketone titer: (1) chromosomal deletion of pgi (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) to increase intracellular NADPH supply and (2) downregulation of CRP (cAMP receptor protein) expression by replacement of the native RBS with an RBS chosen based upon mutant library screening results. Combining these strategies resulted in the most favorable overall phenotypes for simultaneous glucose-xylose consumption without compromising methyl ketone titer at both 1 and 2% total sugar concentrations in shake flasks. This work demonstrated a strategy for engineering simultaneous utilization of C 6 and C 5 sugars in E. coli without sacrificing production of fatty acid-derived compounds.« less

  15. [Effect of phenolic ketones on ethanol fermentation and cellular lipid composition of Pichia stipitis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinlong; Cheng, Yichao; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Junjun; Chen, Tingting; Xu, Yong; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Lignin degradation products are toxic to microorganisms, which is one of the bottlenecks for fuel ethanol production. We studied the effects of phenolic ketones (4-hydroxyacetophenone, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-acetophenone) derived from lignin degradation on ethanol fermentation of xylose and cellular lipid composition of Pichia stipitis NLP31. Ethanol and the cellular fatty acid of yeast were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results indicate that phenolic ketones negatively affected ethanol fermentation of yeast and the lower molecular weight phenolic ketone compound was more toxic. When the concentration of 4-hydroxyacetophenone was 1.5 g/L, at fermentation of 24 h, the xylose utilization ratio, ethanol yield and ethanol concentration decreased by 42.47%, 5.30% and 9.76 g/L, respectively, compared to the control. When phenolic ketones were in the medium, the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA) of yeast cells was improved. When 1.5 g/L of three aforementioned phenolic ketones was added to the fermentation medium, the UFA/SFA ratio of yeast cells increased to 3.03, 3.06 and 3.61, respectively, compared to 2.58 of the control, which increased cell membrane fluidity and instability. Therefore, phenolic ketones can reduce the yeast growth, increase the UFA/SFA ratio of yeast and lower ethanol productivity. Effectively reduce or remove the content of lignin degradation products is the key to improve lignocellulose biorefinery.

  16. Successful adaptation to ketosis by mice with tissue-specific deficiency of ketone body oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, David G.; Schugar, Rebecca C.; Wentz, Anna E.; André d'Avignon, D.

    2013-01-01

    During states of low carbohydrate intake, mammalian ketone body metabolism transfers energy substrates originally derived from fatty acyl chains within the liver to extrahepatic organs. We previously demonstrated that the mitochondrial enzyme coenzyme A (CoA) transferase [succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT), encoded by nuclear Oxct1] is required for oxidation of ketone bodies and that germline SCOT-knockout (KO) mice die within 48 h of birth because of hyperketonemic hypoglycemia. Here, we use novel transgenic and tissue-specific SCOT-KO mice to demonstrate that ketone bodies do not serve an obligate energetic role within highly ketolytic tissues during the ketogenic neonatal period or during starvation in the adult. Although transgene-mediated restoration of myocardial CoA transferase in germline SCOT-KO mice is insufficient to prevent lethal hyperketonemic hypoglycemia in the neonatal period, mice lacking CoA transferase selectively within neurons, cardiomyocytes, or skeletal myocytes are all viable as neonates. Like germline SCOT-KO neonatal mice, neonatal mice with neuronal CoA transferase deficiency exhibit increased cerebral glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and, while these neonatal mice exhibit modest hyperketonemia, they do not develop hypoglycemia. As adults, tissue-specific SCOT-KO mice tolerate starvation, exhibiting only modestly increased hyperketonemia. Finally, metabolic analysis of adult germline Oxct1+/− mice demonstrates that global diminution of ketone body oxidation yields hyperketonemia, but hypoglycemia emerges only during a protracted state of low carbohydrate intake. Together, these data suggest that, at the tissue level, ketone bodies are not a required energy substrate in the newborn period or during starvation, but rather that integrated ketone body metabolism mediates adaptation to ketogenic nutrient states. PMID:23233542

  17. Successful adaptation to ketosis by mice with tissue-specific deficiency of ketone body oxidation.

    PubMed

    Cotter, David G; Schugar, Rebecca C; Wentz, Anna E; d'Avignon, D André; Crawford, Peter A

    2013-02-15

    During states of low carbohydrate intake, mammalian ketone body metabolism transfers energy substrates originally derived from fatty acyl chains within the liver to extrahepatic organs. We previously demonstrated that the mitochondrial enzyme coenzyme A (CoA) transferase [succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT), encoded by nuclear Oxct1] is required for oxidation of ketone bodies and that germline SCOT-knockout (KO) mice die within 48 h of birth because of hyperketonemic hypoglycemia. Here, we use novel transgenic and tissue-specific SCOT-KO mice to demonstrate that ketone bodies do not serve an obligate energetic role within highly ketolytic tissues during the ketogenic neonatal period or during starvation in the adult. Although transgene-mediated restoration of myocardial CoA transferase in germline SCOT-KO mice is insufficient to prevent lethal hyperketonemic hypoglycemia in the neonatal period, mice lacking CoA transferase selectively within neurons, cardiomyocytes, or skeletal myocytes are all viable as neonates. Like germline SCOT-KO neonatal mice, neonatal mice with neuronal CoA transferase deficiency exhibit increased cerebral glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and, while these neonatal mice exhibit modest hyperketonemia, they do not develop hypoglycemia. As adults, tissue-specific SCOT-KO mice tolerate starvation, exhibiting only modestly increased hyperketonemia. Finally, metabolic analysis of adult germline Oxct1(+/-) mice demonstrates that global diminution of ketone body oxidation yields hyperketonemia, but hypoglycemia emerges only during a protracted state of low carbohydrate intake. Together, these data suggest that, at the tissue level, ketone bodies are not a required energy substrate in the newborn period or during starvation, but rather that integrated ketone body metabolism mediates adaptation to ketogenic nutrient states.

  18. Photochemical Production of Aldehydes and Ketones from Petroleum Films on Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarr, M. A.; Rebet, K.; Monin, L.; Bastian, G.

    2016-02-01

    While numerous reports have demonstrated that sunlight results in oxygenation of petroleum in environmental systems, few details are available regarding the specific mechanisms of these reactions. Previous studies have not been able to identify specific chemicals formed when oil is subjected to photochemical transformation. In this study, we have utilized several petroleum samples to investigate the formation of aldehyde and ketone photoproducts. These samples included oil from the MC252 well (source of the Deepwater Horizon spill), surrogate oil provided by BP to represent the MC252 oil, and residual fuel oil (NIST 2717a). Thin films of oil ( 100 μm) were placed over water and irradiated with a solar simulator for the equivalent of 1.5-12 days. After irradiation, the water was carefully separated from the oil and derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, a selective derivatization agent for aldehydes and ketones. The derivatized material was then analyzed by HPLC. Additional analysis by electrospray MS was also performed, and absorbance and fluorescence spectra of the underivatized aqueous phase were recorded. For all oils, exposure to sunlight resulted in release of aldehydes and ketones to the aqueous phase. The amount of released photoproducts was proportional to the length of solar exposure, but no production was seen for dark controls. Despite some similarities, the pattern of product formation varied from oil to oil. Addition of dispersant (Corexit 9500a or 9527a) resulted in larger amounts of aldehydes and ketones detected in the aqueous phase after solar irradiation of the oil. Electrospray mass spectrometry was utilized in an attempt to provide structural information about the aldehydes and ketones formed. Results of this study demonstrate that aldehydes and ketones are important photoproducts resulting from solar irradiation of oil on water. These products will affect the transport and bioavailability of oil spilled in aquatic systems.

  19. Organocatalytic Enantioselective Protonation for Photoreduction of Activated Ketones and Ketimines Induced by Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lu; Bai, Xiangbin; Ye, Xinyi; Zhao, Xiaowei; Tan, Choon-Hong; Jiang, Zhiyong

    2017-10-23

    The first catalytic asymmetric photoreduction of 1,2-diketones and α-keto ketimines under visible light irradiation is reported. A transition-metal-free synergistic catalysis platform harnessing dicyanopyrazine-derived chromophore (DPZ) as the photoredox catalyst and a non-covalent chiral organocatalyst is effective for these transformations. With the flexible use of a chiral Brønsted acid or base in H + transfer interchange to control the elusive enantioselective protonation, a variety of chiral α-hydroxy ketones and α-amino ketones were obtained with high yields and enantioselectivities. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. General and mild Ni(0)-catalyzed α-arylation of ketones using aryl chlorides.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Salas, José A; Marelli, Enrico; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-03-02

    A general methodology for the α-arylation of ketones using a nickel catalyst has been developed. The new well-defined [Ni(IPr*)(cin)Cl] (1 c) pre-catalyst showed great efficiency for this transformation, allowing the coupling of a wide range of ketones, including acetophenone derivatives, with various functionalised aryl chlorides. This cinnamyl-based Ni-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex has demonstrated a different behaviour to previously reported NHC-Ni catalysts. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest a Ni(0)/Ni(II) catalytic cycle to be at play. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative coupling: From ketone and diamine to pyrazine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kun; Huang, Zhiliang; Qi, Xiaotian; Li, Yingzi; Zhang, Guanghui; Liu, Chao; Yi, Hong; Meng, Lingkui; Bunel, Emilio E.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Pao, Chih-Wen; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Lan, Yu; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-01-01

    Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative C–H/N–H coupling between simple ketones and diamines was developed toward the synthesis of a variety of pyrazines. Various substituted ketones were compatible for this transformation. Preliminary mechanistic investigations indicated that radical species were involved. X-ray absorption fine structure experiments elucidated that the Cu(II) species 5 coordinated by two N atoms at a distance of 2.04 Å and two O atoms at a shorter distance of 1.98 Å was a reactive one for this aerobic oxidative coupling reaction. Density functional theory calculations suggested that the intramolecular coupling of cationic radicals was favorable in this transformation. PMID:26601302

  2. One-pot synthesis of β-acetamido ketones using boric acid at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Karimi-Jaberi, Zahed; Mohammadi, Korosh

    2012-01-01

    β-acetamido ketones were synthesized in excellent yields through one-pot condensation reaction of aldehydes, acetophenones, acetyl chloride, and acetonitrile in the presence of boric acid as a solid heterogeneous catalyst at room temperature. It is the first successful report of boric acid that has been used as solid acid catalyst for the preparation of β-acetamido ketones. The remarkable advantages offered by this method are green catalyst, mild reaction conditions, simple procedure, short reaction times, and good-to-excellent yields of products.

  3. Formation of intermediate products during the resonance stepwise polarization of dibenzyl ketone and benzil molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Polevoi, A.V.; Matyuk, V.M.; Grigor'eva, G.A.

    1987-07-01

    The processes resulting in the intramolecular redistribution of energy in electronically excited S/sub ..pi pi..*/ states of dibenzyl ketone and benzil molecules have been investigated by laser mass spectrometry. The decisive role of dissociation under the conditions of the resonance stepwise photoionization of these molecules upon excitation by radiation with lambda = 266 nm has been demonstrated. The ionization potentials of the molecules and the appearance potentials of fragment ions from dibenzyl ketone and benzil have been determined on the basis of an analysis of photoionization efficiency curves.

  4. Bicyclic tetrapeptide histone deacetylase inhibitors with methoxymethyl ketone and boronic acid zinc-binding groups.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nurul; Islam, Md Shahidul; Hoque, Md Ashraful; Kato, Tamaki; Nishino, Norikazu; Ito, Akihiro; Yoshida, Minoru

    2014-12-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a class of potential therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Bicyclic tetrapeptides equipped with methoxymethyl ketone and boronic acid as zinc-binding group were designed and synthesized. The inhibitory activities of these compounds were evaluated against HDAC enzymes. The cell-free and cell-based assay data showed that both potency and selectivity changed with the change in zinc-binding group. Boronic acid-based compound showed poor activity whereas methoxymethyl ketone-based compound displayed impressive activity in both cell-free and cell-based conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. One-Pot Synthesis of β-Acetamido Ketones Using Boric Acid at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Jaberi, Zahed; Mohammadi, Korosh

    2012-01-01

    β-acetamido ketones were synthesized in excellent yields through one-pot condensation reaction of aldehydes, acetophenones, acetyl chloride, and acetonitrile in the presence of boric acid as a solid heterogeneous catalyst at room temperature. It is the first successful report of boric acid that has been used as solid acid catalyst for the preparation of β-acetamido ketones. The remarkable advantages offered by this method are green catalyst, mild reaction conditions, simple procedure, short reaction times, and good-to-excellent yields of products. PMID:22666168

  6. Organocatalytic C-H bond arylation of aldehydes to bis-heteroaryl ketones.

    PubMed

    Toh, Qiao Yan; McNally, Andrew; Vera, Silvia; Erdmann, Nico; Gaunt, Matthew J

    2013-03-13

    An organocatalytic aldehyde C-H bond arylation process for the synthesis of complex heteroaryl ketones has been developed. By exploiting the inherent electrophilicity of diaryliodonium salts, we have found that a commercial N-heterocyclic carbene catalyst promotes the union of heteroaryl aldehydes and these heteroaromatic electrophile equivalents in good yields. This straightforward catalytic protocol offers access to ketones bearing a diverse array of arene and heteroarene substituents that can subsequently be converted into molecules displaying structural motifs commonly found in medicinal agents.

  7. A nickel catalyst for the addition of organoboronate esters to ketones and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Bouffard, Jean; Itami, Kenichiro

    2009-10-01

    A Ni(cod)(2)/IPr catalyst promotes the intermolecular 1,2-addition of arylboronate esters to unactivated aldehydes and ketones. Diaryl, alkyl aryl, and dialkyl ketones show good reactivity under mild reaction conditions (< or = 80 degrees C, nonpolar solvents, no strong base or acid additives). A dramatic ligand effect favors either carbonyl addition (IPr) or C-OR cross-coupling (PCy(3)) with aryl ether substrates. A Ni(0)/Ni(II) catalytic cycle initiated by the oxidative cyclization of the carbonyl substrate is proposed.

  8. Two-carbon homologation of aldehydes and ketones to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Petroski, Richard J; Vermillion, Karl; Cossé, Allard A

    2011-06-17

    Phosphonate reagents were developed for the two-carbon homologation of aldehydes or ketones to unbranched- or methyl-branched α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. The phosphonate reagents, diethyl methylformyl-2-phosphonate dimethylhydrazone and diethyl ethylformyl-2-phosphonate dimethylhydrazone, contained a protected aldehyde group instead of the usual ester group. A homologation cycle entailed condensation of the reagent with the starting aldehyde, followed by removal of the dimethylhydrazone protective group with a biphasic mixture of 1 M HCl and petroleum ether. This robust two-step process worked with a variety of aldehydes and ketones. Overall isolated yields of unsaturated aldehyde products ranged from 71% to 86% after the condensation and deprotection steps.

  9. Nile Red Detection of Bacterial Hydrocarbons and Ketones in a High-Throughput Format

    SciTech Connect

    Pinzon, NM; Aukema, KG; Gralnick, JA

    A method for use in high-throughput screening of bacteria for the production of long-chain hydrocarbons and ketones by monitoring fluorescent light emission in the presence of Nile red is described. Nile red has previously been used to screen for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and fatty acid esters, but this is the first report of screening for recombinant bacteria making hydrocarbons or ketones. The microtiter plate assay was evaluated using wild-type and recombinant strains of Shewanella oneidensis and Escherichia coli expressing the enzyme OleA, previously shown to initiate hydrocarbon biosynthesis. The strains expressing exogenous Stenotrophomonas maltophilia oleA, with increased levels of ketone productionmore » as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were distinguished with Nile red fluorescence. Confocal microscopy images of S. oneidensis oleA-expressing strains stained with Nile red were consistent with a membrane localization of the ketones. This differed from Nile red staining of bacterial PHB or algal lipid droplets that showed intracellular inclusion bodies. These results demonstrated the applicability of Nile red in a high-throughput technique for the detection of bacterial hydrocarbons and ketones. IMPORTANCE In recent years, there has been renewed interest in advanced biofuel sources such as bacterial hydrocarbon production. Previous studies used solvent extraction of bacterial cultures followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and quantify ketones and hydrocarbons (Beller HR, Goh EB, Keasling JD, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 1212-1223, 2010; Sukovich DJ, Seffernick JL, Richman JE, Gralnick JA, Wackett LP, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 3850-3862, 2010). While these analyses are powerful and accurate, their labor-intensive nature makes them intractable to high-throughput screening; therefore, methods for rapid identification of bacterial strains that are overproducing hydrocarbons are needed. The use of high

  10. n-BuLi as a highly efficient precatalyst for hydrophosphonylation of aldehydes and unactivated ketones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengwei; Zhang, Yu; Qian, Qinqin; Yuan, Dan; Yao, Yingming

    2014-12-05

    It was found for the first time that organic alkali metal compounds serve as highly efficient precatalysts for the hydrophosphonylation reactions of aldehydes and unactivated ketones with dialkyl phosphite under mild conditions. For ketone substrates, a reversible reaction was observed, and the influence of catalyst loading and reaction temperature on the reaction equilibrium was studied in detail. Overall, the hydrophosphonylation reactions catalyzed by 0.1 mol % n-BuLi were completed within 5 min for a broad range of substrates and generated a series of α-hydroxy phosphonates in high yields.

  11. Silica gel promotes reductions of aldehydes and ketones by N-heterocyclic carbene boranes.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Tsuyoshi; Curran, Dennis P

    2012-09-07

    N-Heterocyclic carbene boranes (NHC-boranes) such as 1,3-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidine trihydridoborane (diMe-Imd-BH(3)) serve as practical hydride donors for the reduction of aldehydes and ketones in the presence of silica gel. Primary and secondary alcohols are formed in good yields under ambient conditions. Aldehydes are selectively reduced in the presence of ketones. One, two, or even all three of the boron hydrides can be transferred. The process is attractive because all the components are stable and easy to handle and because both the reaction and isolation procedures are convenient.

  12. A novel microreactor approach for analysis of ketones and aldehydes in breath.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao-An; Li, Mingxiao; Biswas, Souvik; Nantz, Michael H; Higashi, Richard M

    2011-11-21

    We report a fabricated microreactor with thousands of micropillars in channels. Each micropillar surface is chemically functionalized to selectively preconcentrate gaseous ketones and aldehydes of exhaled breath and to enhance ultra-trace, rapid analysis by direct-infusion Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS). The micropillar reactive coating contains the quaternary ammonium aminooxy salt 2-(aminooxy)ethyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium iodide (ATM) for capturing trace carbonyl VOCs by means of an oximation reaction. We demonstrate the utility of this approach for detection of C(1) to C(12) aldehydes and ketones in exhaled breath, but the approach is applicable to any gaseous sample.

  13. The morphology and treatment of coexisting ureteropelvic junction obstruction in lower moiety of duplex kidney.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Liujuan; Ma, Rui; Wu, Rongde

    2016-10-01

    Duplex kidney is a common congenital anomaly of the urinary tract, while ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) in lower unit of duplex kidney is rare. Surgical treatment can be challenging in such cases. The aim was to report our experience in managements of UPJO in lower moiety of duplex kidney. Among the pediatric patients with duplex system from 2007 to 2013, 7 children were diagnosed with UPJO in lower moiety. Their medical records were retrospectively analyzed, mainly focused on anatomic aspects and operation details. The lower pole UPJO associated with incomplete duplex systems were identified in 6 patients on the left side and 1 on the right side. Median patient age at surgery was 11 months (range 6-84 months). Prenatal hydronephrosis was detected in 4 patients, and 3 had intermittent abdominal pain. Hydronephrosis, thin parenchyma and presence of UPJO in lower moiety could be shown on computed tomography urogram (CTU). The ureters were fused in a "Y" shape without any dilation. Based on the length between UPJO to the confluence in retrograde ureteropyelography, patients were classified into group 1 (5 cases,≤3 cm) and group 2 (2 cases, >3 cm). In group 1, surgical procedure involved end-to-side pyeloureterostomy of the lower pelvis to the ureteral confluence in 4 cases and laparoscopic pyeloureterostomy in one case. The two patients in group 2 underwent laparoscopic pyeloplasty of lower moiety. In all of these patients hydronephrosis gradually improved and no complications were detected during follow-up. UPJO in a duplex kidney requires careful evaluation and treatment should be individualized. Ureteropyeloanastomosis is a feasible treatment for duplex kidneys associated to a functioning lower moiety with UPJO. With the technical improvements in laparoscopic pyeloplasty, this procedure can be performed using laparoscopy. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ketonization of Model Pyrolysis Oil Solutions in a Plug Flow Reactor over a Composite Oxide of Fe, Ce, and Al

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The stabilization and upgrading of pyrolysis oil requires the neutralization of the acidic components of the oil. The conversion of small organic acids, particularly acetic acid, to ketones is one approach to addressing the instability of the oils caused by low pH. In the ketonization reaction, acet...

  15. Cs₂CO₃-Initiated Trifluoro-Methylation of Chalcones and Ketones for Practical Synthesis of Trifluoromethylated Tertiary Silyl Ethers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Cheng; Bai, Xing-Feng; Lv, Ji-Yuan; Cui, Yu-Ming; Cao, Jian; Zheng, Zhan-Jiang; Xu, Li-Wen

    2017-05-18

    It was found that 1,2-trifluoromethylation reactions of ketones, enones, and aldehydes were easily accomplished using the Prakash reagent in the presence of catalytic amounts of cesium carbonate, which represents an experimentally convenient, atom-economic process for this anionic trifluoromethylation of non-enolisable aldehydes and ketones.

  16. Comparative performance assessment of point-of-care testing devices for measuring glucose and ketones at the patient bedside.

    PubMed

    Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Kaczmarek, Ewa; Guerra, Elena; Mastrantonio, Fabrizio; Lucarelli, Fausto; Valgimigli, Francesco; Mosca, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Point-of-care (POC) testing devices for monitoring glucose and ketones can play a key role in the management of dysglycemia in hospitalized diabetes patients. The accuracy of glucose devices can be influenced by biochemical changes that commonly occur in critically ill hospital patients and by the medication prescribed. Little is known about the influence of these factors on ketone POC measurements. The aim of this study was to assess the analytical performance of POC hospital whole-blood glucose and ketone meters and the extent of glucose interference factors on the design and accuracy of ketone results. StatStrip glucose/ketone, Optium FreeStyle glucose/ketone, and Accu-Chek Performa glucose were also assessed and results compared to a central laboratory reference method. The analytical evaluation was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocols for precision, linearity, method comparison, and interference. The interferences assessed included acetoacetate, acetaminophen, ascorbic acid, galactose, maltose, uric acid, and sodium. The accuracies of both Optium ketone and glucose measurements were significantly influenced by varying levels of hematocrit and ascorbic acid. StatStrip ketone and glucose measurements were unaffected by the interferences tested with exception of ascorbic acid, which reduced the higher level ketone value. The accuracy of Accu-Chek glucose measurements was affected by hematocrit, by ascorbic acid, and significantly by galactose. The method correlation assessment indicated differences between the meters in compliance to ISO 15197 and CLSI 12-A3 performance criteria. Combined POC glucose/ketone methods are now available. The use of these devices in a hospital setting requires careful consideration with regard to the selection of instruments not sensitive to hematocrit variation and presence of interfering substances. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Introduction of an Aliphatic Ketone into Recombinant Proteins in a Bacterial Strain that Overexpresses an Editing-Impaired Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yi; Wang, Pin; Van Deventer, James A.; Link, A. James; Tirrell, David A.

    2011-01-01

    A leucine analog containing a ketone has been incorporated into proteins in E. coli. Only E. coli strains overexpressing an editing-deficient leucyl-tRNA synthetase were capable of synthesizing proteins with the aliphatic ketone amino acid. Modification of ketone-containing proteins under mild conditions has been demonstrated. PMID:19670197

  18. Two pathways for pyrrole formation in coumermycin A(1) biosynthesis: the central pyrrole moiety is formed from L-threonine.

    PubMed

    Siebenberg, Stefanie; Burkard, Nadja; Knuplesch, Anna; Gust, Bertolt; Grond, Stephanie; Heide, Lutz

    2011-11-25

    Coumermycin A(1) is an aminocoumarin antibiotic produced by Streptomyces rishiriensis. It contains three pyrrole rings, that is, two terminal 5-methyl-pyrrole-2-carboxyl moieties and a central 3-methylpyrrole-2,4-dicarboxylic acid moiety. The biosynthesis of the terminal pyrrole moieties has been elucidated previously. However, the biosynthetic precursors of the central pyrrole moiety have remained unknown, and none of the genes or enzymes involved in its formation has been identified. We now show that five genes, contained in a contiguous 4.7 kb region within the coumermycin biosynthetic gene cluster, are required for the biosynthesis of this central pyrrole moiety. Each of these genes was deleted individually, resulting in a strong reduction or an abolishment of coumermycin production. External feeding of the central pyrrole moiety restored coumermycin production. One of these genes shows similarity to L-threonine kinase genes. Feeding of [U-(13)C,(15) N]L-threonine and (13)C NMR analysis of the resulting compound unequivocally proved that threonine was incorporated intact into the central pyrrole (19 % enrichment) to provide the heterocyclic nitrogen as well as four of the seven carbons of this moiety. Therefore, this pyrrole is formed via a new, hitherto unknown biosynthetic pathway. A hypothesis for the reaction sequence leading to the central pyrrole moiety of coumermycin A(1) is presented. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Ketone isosteres of 2-N-acetamidosugars as substrates for metabolic cell surface engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Howard C.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2000-08-22

    Novel chemical reactivity can be engendered on cell surfaces by the metabolic incorporation of unnatural sugars into cell surface glycoconjuagtes. 2-N-Acetamido sugars such as GalNAc and GlcNAc are abundant components of cell surface glycoconjugates, and hence attractive targets for metabolic cell surface engineering. Here we report (1) the synthesis of isosteric analogs bearing a ketone group in place of the N-acetamido group, and (2) evaluation of their metabolic incorporation into mammalian cell surface glycans. A ketone isostere of GalNAc was metabolized by CHO cells through the salvage pathway and delivered to O-linked glycoproteins on the cell surface. Its residence atmore » the core position of O-linked glycans is suggested by studies with a-benzyl GalNAc, an inhibitor of O-linked oligosaccharide extension. A mutant CHO cell line lacking endogenous UDP-GalNAc demonstrated enhanced metabolism of the GalNAc analog, suggesting that competition with native intermediates might limits enzymatic transformation in mammalian cells. A ketone isostere of GlcNAc could not be detected on CHO or human cell surfaces after incubation. Thus, the enzymes in the GlcNAc salvage pathway might be less permissive of unnatural substrates than those comprising the GalNAc salvage pathway. Alternatively, high levels of endogenous GlcNAc derivatives might compete with the ketone isostere and prevent its incorporation into oligosaccharides.« less

  20. Fe-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization of Aryl Allenyl Ketones: Access to 3-Arylidene-indan-1-ones.

    PubMed

    Teske, Johannes; Plietker, Bernd

    2018-04-20

    A cycloisomerization of aryl allenyl ketones to 3-arylidene-indan-1-ones using a cationic Fe-complex as a catalyst is reported. The catalyst opens a synthetically interesting reaction pathway to this surprisingly underrepresented class of indanones that are not accessible using alternative catalytic systems.

  1. How Cinchona Alkaloid-Derived Primary Amines Control Asymmetric Electrophilic Fluorination of Cyclic Ketones

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The origin of selectivity in the α-fluorination of cyclic ketones catalyzed by cinchona alkaloid-derived primary amines is determined with density functional calculations. The chair preference of a seven-membered ring at the fluorine transfer transition state is key in determining the sense and level of enantiofacial selectivity. PMID:24967514

  2. Efficient hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived ketones over bifunctional Pt-polyoxometalate catalyst.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Mshari A; Kozhevnikova, Elena F; Kozhevnikov, Ivan V

    2012-07-21

    Acidic heteropoly salt Cs(2.5)H(0.5)PW(12)O(40) doped with Pt nanoparticles is a highly active and selective catalyst for one-step hydrogenation of methyl isobutyl and diisobutyl ketones to the corresponding alkanes in the gas phase at 100 °C with 97-99% yield via metal-acid bifunctional catalysis.

  3. Syntheses of calix[4]pyrroles by amberlyst-15 catalyzed cyclocondensations of pyrrole with selected ketones.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Shive Murat Singh; Garg, Bhaskar; Bisht, Tanuja

    2007-11-09

    A facile and efficient protocol is reported for the synthesis of calix[4]pyrroles and N-confused calix[4]pyrroles in moderate to excellent yields by reaction of dialkyl or cycloalkyl ketones with pyrrole catalyzed by reusable Amberlyst(TM)-15 under eco-friendly conditions.

  4. Benzofuran ketone dosage-dependent rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in a caprine model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to determine the dosage of benzofuran ketone compounds (tremetone, 3-hydroxytremetone, dehydrotremetone, and 3-oxyangeloyltremetone) and the duration of exposure to these compounds required to produce clinical signs and the associated pathological changes of rayles ...

  5. Unlocking the chemotherapeutic potential of beta-aminovinyl ketones and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Hatem M; Bagley, Mark C

    2009-07-01

    The role of beta-aminovinyl ketones as synthetic intermediates has been well categorised, but recent developments have shown an interesting array of applications and new chemotherapeutic potential, both in the preparation of biologically active heterocycles and as pharmacophores in their own right.Medicinal chemists are accustomed to using the products of Knoevenagel-type condensations as auxiliaries for the synthesis of N-containing heteroaromatic compounds. One such example of these chemical building blocks are beta-aminovinyl ketones-valuable synthetic intermediates that have been used in the preparation of pyridines, pyrimidines, pyrazoles, and many other heterocyclic motifs. This review highlights their recent use in the synthesis of biologically active targets as part of drug discovery programmes and in natural product synthesis. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that the enaminone motif may serve as a therapeutic pharmacophore in its own right. This review highlights the range of biological responses that beta-aminovinyl ketones elicit, including as antitumour, antibacterial, and anticonvulsant agents. Thus, with a broad spectrum of biological properties and as versatile chemical intermediates, it is clear that beta-aminovinyl ketones offer great potential in the search for new chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. Novel crosslinked membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for direct methanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuanqin; Zieren, Shelley; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2011-07-14

    Novel covalently crosslinked membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and carboxylated polysulfone exhibit much lower methanol crossover and better performance in direct methanol fuel cells at 65 °C in 1 and 2 M methanol solutions compared to Nafion 115 membranes.

  7. Synthesis of Trifluoromethylthiolated Alkenes and Ketones by Decarboxylative Functionalization of Cinnamic Acids.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shen; Huang, Yangen; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2016-10-20

    A tunable decarboxylative trifluoromethylthiolation of cinnamic acids with AgSCF 3 was developed to afford trifluoromethylthiolated alkenes or ketones by using transition metal-mediated conditions. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Synthesis and insect antifeedant activities of some substituted styryl 3,4-dichlorophenyl ketones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirunarayanan, G.; Surya, S.; Srinivasan, S.; Vanangamudi, G.; Sathiyendiran, V.

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen substituted styryl 3,4-dichlorophenyl ketones [ (2E)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-phenyl-2-propen-1-ones] were synthesized using eco-friendly benign stereoselective crossed-aldol reaction. They are characterized by their analytical, infrared, NMR and mass spectral data. The insect antifeedant activities of these chalcones were evaluated using Caster semilooper and Achoea janata L.

  9. Using solubility and Henry`s law constant data for ketones in water

    SciTech Connect

    Yaws, C.L.; Sheth, S.D.; Han, M.

    When a chemical spill occurs in water, the extent of chemical contamination is determined by the chemical`s solubility in the water. If contaminated water comes into contact with air, such as in a pond or a storage vessel, the contaminant`s emissions into the air can be determined based upon Henry`s law constant for that particular constituent. A high Henry`s law constant value translates into a greater emissions level. The engineering design and operation of strippers to remove contaminants from water require data for both water solubility and Henry`s law constant. A new correlation developed by researchers at Lamar University providesmore » reliable values down to very, very low concentrations for the solubility of ketones in water. The correlation is based on the boiling point temperature of the ketone and can be used for engineering studies involving health, safety and environmental considerations. Results for water solubility and Henry`s law constant are provided here for a wide variety of ketones. Representative values are about 249,000 parts per million (ppm) per weight (wt) for methyl ethyl ketone (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}O) and 360 ppm/wt for 5-nonanone (C{sub 9}H{sub 18}O).« less

  10. Electrosynthesis of enaminones directly from methyl ketones and amines with nitromethane as a carbon source.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Zhang, Zhenlei; Qian, Peng; Zha, Zhenggen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-07-14

    An efficient and mechanistically different method for the electrosynthesis of enaminone directly from methyl ketones, amines and nitromethane was developed. This transition-metal-free method proceeded at room temperature to give a wide array of enaminones in one step, utilizing nitromethane as the carbon source.

  11. Asymmetric hydrogenation of aromatic ketones by new recyclable ionic tagged ferrocene-ruthenium catalyst system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Di; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Dai, Li; Tang, Li-Wei; Zhang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    Newly developed ferrocene-oxazoline-phosphine ligands containing quaternary ammonium ionic groups exhibited excellent catalytic performance for the ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogenation of aromatic ketonic substrates to give chiral secondary alcohols with high levels of conversions and enantioselectivities. Simple manipulation process, water tolerance, high activity and good recyclable property make this catalysis practical and appealing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis of a ketone analog of biotin via the intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction

    PubMed Central

    McNeill, Eric; Chen, Irwin; Ting, Alice Y.

    2008-01-01

    We report an improved synthesis of 5-(5-oxohexahydrocyclopenta[c]thiophen-1-yl)pentanoic acid (ketone biotin, 1) based on the intramolecular Pauson-Khand cyclization. The synthesis proceeds in 8 steps and in 2.7% overall yield from cyclohexene. PMID:16986958

  13. Synthesis of a ketone analogue of biotin via the intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Eric; Chen, Irwin; Ting, Alice Y

    2006-09-28

    We report an improved synthesis of 5-(5-oxohexahydrocyclopenta[c]thiophen-1-yl)pentanoic acid (ketone biotin, 1) based on the intramolecular Pauson-Khand cyclization. The synthesis proceeds in eight steps and in 2.7% overall yield from cyclohexene.

  14. Synthesis of 2-Ethenylcyclopropyl Aryl Ketones via Intramolecular SN2-like Displacement of an Ester.

    PubMed

    Jung, Michael E; Sun, Daniel L; Dwight, Timothy A; Yu, Peiyuan; Li, Wei; Houk, K N

    2016-10-07

    The efficient synthesis of trans-2-ethenylcyclopropyl aryl ketones via an intramolecular S N 2-like displacement of an allylic ester is reported. A novel 1,5-acyl shift process is also observed that contributes to the product mixture. Theoretical calculations provide a rationale for the observed product ratio.

  15. Regulation of hypothalamic neuronal sensing and food intake by ketone bodies and fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Miziorko, Henri M; Levin, Barry E

    2014-04-01

    Metabolic sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) alter their activity when ambient levels of metabolic substrates, such as glucose and fatty acids (FA), change. To assess the relationship between a high-fat diet (HFD; 60%) intake on feeding and serum and VMH FA levels, rats were trained to eat a low-fat diet (LFD; 13.5%) or an HFD in 3 h/day and were monitored with VMH FA microdialysis. Despite having higher serum levels, HFD rats had lower VMH FA levels but ate less from 3 to 6 h of refeeding than did LFD rats. However, VMH β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) and VMH-to-serum β-OHB ratio levels were higher in HFD rats during the first 1 h of refeeding, suggesting that VMH astrocyte ketone production mediated their reduced intake. In fact, using calcium imaging in dissociated VMH neurons showed that ketone bodies overrode normal FA sensing, primarily by exciting neurons that were activated or inhibited by oleic acid. Importantly, bilateral inhibition of VMH ketone production with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase inhibitor reversed the 3- to 6-h HFD-induced inhibition of intake but had no effect in LFD-fed rats. These data suggest that a restricted HFD intake regimen inhibits caloric intake as a consequence of FA-induced VMH ketone body production by astrocytes.

  16. Lauric Acid Stimulates Ketone Body Production in the KT-5 Astrocyte Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Yudai; Takagi, Tetsuo; Inai, Makoto; Nishimura, Shuhei; Urashima, Shogo; Honda, Kazumitsu; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Terada, Shin

    2016-08-01

    Coconut oil has recently attracted considerable attention as a potential Alzheimer's disease therapy because it contains large amounts of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and its consumption is thought to stimulate hepatic ketogenesis, supplying an alternative energy source for brains with impaired glucose metabolism. In this study, we first reevaluated the responses of plasma ketone bodies to oral administration of coconut oil to rats. We found that the coconut oil-induced increase in plasma ketone body concentration was negligible and did not significantly differ from that observed after high-oleic sunflower oil administration. In contrast, the administration of coconut oil substantially increased the plasma free fatty acid concentration and lauric acid content, which is the major MCFA in coconut oil. Next, to elucidate whether lauric acid can activate ketogenesis in astrocytes with the capacity to generate ketone bodies from fatty acids, we treated the KT-5 astrocyte cell line with 50 and 100 μM lauric acid for 4 h. The lauric acid treatments increased the total ketone body concentration in the cell culture supernatant to a greater extent than oleic acid, suggesting that lauric acid can directly and potently activate ketogenesis in KT-5 astrocytes. These results suggest that coconut oil intake may improve brain health by directly activating ketogenesis in astrocytes and thereby by providing fuel to neighboring neurons.

  17. Regulation of Hypothalamic Neuronal Sensing and Food Intake by Ketone Bodies and Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A.; Miziorko, Henri M.; Levin, Barry E.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) alter their activity when ambient levels of metabolic substrates, such as glucose and fatty acids (FA), change. To assess the relationship between a high-fat diet (HFD; 60%) intake on feeding and serum and VMH FA levels, rats were trained to eat a low-fat diet (LFD; 13.5%) or an HFD in 3 h/day and were monitored with VMH FA microdialysis. Despite having higher serum levels, HFD rats had lower VMH FA levels but ate less from 3 to 6 h of refeeding than did LFD rats. However, VMH β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) and VMH-to-serum β-OHB ratio levels were higher in HFD rats during the first 1 h of refeeding, suggesting that VMH astrocyte ketone production mediated their reduced intake. In fact, using calcium imaging in dissociated VMH neurons showed that ketone bodies overrode normal FA sensing, primarily by exciting neurons that were activated or inhibited by oleic acid. Importantly, bilateral inhibition of VMH ketone production with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase inhibitor reversed the 3- to 6-h HFD-induced inhibition of intake but had no effect in LFD-fed rats. These data suggest that a restricted HFD intake regimen inhibits caloric intake as a consequence of FA-induced VMH ketone body production by astrocytes. PMID:24379353

  18. Highly Enantioselective Three-Component Direct Mannich Reactions of Unfunctionalized Ketones Catalyzed by Bifunctional Organocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qunsheng; Zhao, John Cong-Gui

    2013-01-01

    A highly stereoselective three-component direct Mannich reaction between aromatic aldehydes, p-toluenesulfonamide, and unfunctionalized ketones was achieved through an enolate mechanism for the first time with a bifunctional quinidine thiourea catalyst. The corresponding N-tosylated β-aminoketones were obtained in high yields and excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities (up to >99:1 dr and >99% ee). PMID:23343472

  19. Difluoromethyl 2-pyridyl sulfone: a new gem-difluoroolefination reagent for aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanchuan; Huang, Weizhou; Zhu, Lingui; Hu, Jinbo

    2010-04-02

    Difluoromethyl 2-pyridyl sulfone, a previously unknown compound, was found to act as a novel and efficient gem-difluoroolefination reagent for both aldehydes and ketones. It was found that the fluorinated sulfinate intermediate in the reaction is relatively stable, which can be observed by (19)F NMR and trapped with CH(3)I.

  20. Analysis of carbonaceous biomarkers with the Mars Organic Analyzer microchip capillary electrophoresis system: aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Stockton, Amanda M; Tjin, Caroline Chandra; Huang, Grace L; Benhabib, Merwan; Chiesl, Thomas N; Mathies, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    A microchip CE method is developed for the analysis of two oxidized forms of carbon, aldehydes and ketones, with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA). Fluorescent derivitization is achieved in ∼ 15 min by hydrazone formation with Cascade Blue hydrazide in 30 mM borate pH 5-6. The microchip CE separation and analysis method is optimized via separation in 30 mM borate buffer, pH 9.5, at 20°C. A carbonyl standard consisting of ten aldehydes and ketones found in extraterrestrial matter is successfully separated; the resulting LOD depends on the reactivity of the compound and range from 70 pM for formaldehyde to 2 μM for benzophenone. To explore the utility of this method for analyzing complex samples, analyses of several fermented beverages are conducted, identifying ten aldehydes and ketones ranging from 30 nM to 5 mM. A Martian regolith simulant sample, consisting of a basalt matrix spiked with soluble ions and acetone, is designed and analyzed, but acetone is found to have a limited detectable lifetime under simulant Martian conditions. This work establishes the capability of the MOA for studying aldehydes and ketones, a critical class of oxidized organic molecules of interest in planetary and in terrestrial environmental and health studies. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Synthesis of functionalized chromenes from Meldrum's acid, 4-hydroxycoumarin, and ketones or aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Sabbaghan, Maryam; Yavari, Issa; Hossaini, Zinatossadat

    2010-11-01

    An efficient synthesis of 4-alkyl-4-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H,5H-pyrano[3,2-c]chromene-2,5-dione or 4-aryl-3,4-dihydro-2H,5H-pyrano[3,2-c]chromene-2,5-diones via reaction 4-hydroxycoumarin with Meldrum's acid and ketones or aldehydes is described.

  2. Determination of hydride affinities of various aldehydes and ketones in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xi; Mei, Lian-Rui

    2011-05-06

    The hydride affinities of 21 typical aldehydes and ketones in acetonitrile were determined by using an experimental method, which is valuable for chemists choosing suitable reducing agents to reduce them. The focus of this paper is to introduce a very facile experimental method, which can be used to determine the hydride affinities of various carbonyl compounds in solution.

  3. Highly efficient and direct heterocyclization of dipyridyl ketone to N,N-bidentate ligands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Dyers, Leon Jr; Mason, Richard Jr; Amoyaw, Prince; Bu, Xiu R.

    2005-01-01

    [reaction: see text] Reaction of various aromatic aldehydes with 2,2'-dipyridyl ketone and ammonium acetate in hot acetic acid provides ready access to a series of substituted 1-pyridylimidazo[1,5-a]pyridines, a class of ligands possessing an N,N-bidentate feature, in good yields.

  4. Emission of volatile aldehydes and ketones from wood pellets under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Arshadi, Mehrdad; Geladi, Paul; Gref, Rolf; Fjällström, Pär

    2009-11-01

    Different qualities of biofuel pellets were made from pine and spruce sawdust according to an industrial experimental design. The fatty/resin acid compositions were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for both newly produced pellets and those after 2 and 4 weeks of storage. The aldehydes/ketones compositions were determined by high performance liquid chromatography at 0, 2, and 4 weeks. The designs were analyzed for the response variables: total fatty/resin acids and total aldehydes/ketones. The design showed a strong correlation between the pine fraction in the pellets and the fatty/resin acid content but the influence decreased over storage time. The amount of fatty/resin acids decreased approximately 40% during 4 weeks. The influence of drying temperature on the aldehyde/ketone emission of fresh pellets was also shown. The amounts of emitted aldehydes/ketones generally decreased by 45% during storage as a consequence of fatty/resin acid oxidation. The matrices of individual concentrations were subjected to multivariate data analysis. This showed clustering of the different experimental runs and demonstrated the important mechanism of fatty/resin acid conversion.

  5. Stability of proton-bound clusters of alkyl alcohols, aldehydes and ketones in Ion Mobility Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Campos, Natividad; Garrido-Delgado, Rocío; Martínez-Haya, Bruno; Eiceman, Gary A; Arce, Lourdes

    2018-08-01

    Significant substances in emerging applications of ion mobility spectrometry such as breath analysis for clinical diagnostics and headspace analysis for food purity include low molar mass alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and esters which produce mobility spectra containing protonated monomers and proton-bound dimers. Spectra for all n- alcohols, aldehydes and ketones from carbon number three to eight exhibited protonated monomers and proton-bound dimers with ion drift times of 6.5-13.3 ms at ambient pressure and from 35° to 80 °C in nitrogen. Only n-alcohols from 1-pentanol to 1-octanol produced proton-bound trimers which were sufficiently stable to be observed at these temperatures and drift times of 12.8-16.3 ms. Polar functional groups were protected in compact structures in ab initio models for proton-bound dimers of alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. Only alcohols formed a V-shaped arrangement for proton-bound trimers strengthening ion stability and lifetime. In contrast, models for proton-bound trimers of aldehydes and ketones showed association of the third neutral through weak, non-specific, long-range interactions consistent with ion dissociation in the ion mobility drift tube before arriving at the detector. Collision cross sections derived from reduced mobility coefficients in nitrogen gas atmosphere support the predicted ion structures and approximate degrees of hydration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. N-heterocyclic carbene catalysed asymmetric cross-benzoin reactions of heteroaromatic aldehydes with trifluoromethyl ketones.

    PubMed

    Enders, Dieter; Grossmann, André; Fronert, Jeanne; Raabe, Gerhard

    2010-09-14

    A new triazolium salt derived N-heterocyclic carbene catalyses an asymmetric cross-benzoin-type reaction of heteroaromatic aldehydes and various trifluoromethyl ketones in good to excellent yields (69-96%) and moderate to good enantioselectivities (ee = 39-85%). Up to 99% ee can be achieved by recrystallisation.

  7. Two-Carbon Homologation of Ketones to 3-Methyl Unsaturated Aldehydes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The usual scheme of two-carbon homologation of ketones to 3-methyl unsaturated aldehydes by Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons condensations with phosphonate esters, such as triethyl-2-phosphonoacetate, involves three steps. The phosphonate condensation step results in extension of the carbon chain by two carb...

  8. Two-carbon homologation of aldehydes and ketones to a,ß-unsaturated aldehydes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphonate reagents were developed for the two-carbon homologation of aldehydes or ketones to unbranched- or methyl-branched a,ß-unsaturated aldehydes. The phosphonate reagents, diethyl methylformyl-2-phosphonate dimethylhydrazone and diethyl ethylformyl-2-phosphonate dimethylhydrazone, contained a...

  9. Poor adherence to ketone testing in patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, still common, and preventable complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D) associated with increased health care costs, morbidity, and mortality. Clinical recommendations advise self-monitoring of ketones in people with T1D during hyperglycemia and illness to allow ...

  10. Effects of Insecticidal Ketones Present in Mint Plants on GABAA Receptor from Mammalian Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Borzone, Mariela Eugenia; Marin, Leticia Delgado; García, Daniel Asmed

    2017-01-01

    Background: The genus Mentha, an important member of the Lamiaceae family, is represented by many species commonly known as mint. The insecticidal activity of Mentha oil and its main components has been tested and established against various insects/pests. Among these, the ketone monoterpenes that are most common in different Mentha species demonstrated insect toxicity, with pulegone being the most active, followed by carvone and menthone. Considering that the GABAA receptor (GABAA-R) is one of the main insecticide targets on neurons, and that pulegone would modulate the insect GABA system, it may be expected that the insecticidal properties of Mentha ketones are mediated by their interaction with this receptor. Objective: In order to discern the pharmacological actions of these products when used as insecticides on mammalian organisms, we evaluated the pharmacologic activity of ketones, commonly present in Mentha plants, on native GABAA-R from rats. Materials and Methods: Determination of ketones effects on allosterically enhanced benzodiazepine binding, using primary cultures of cortical neurons, which express functional receptors and MTT assay to evaluate their cell toxicity. Results: Our results seem to indicate that ketone components of Mentha, with proven repellent or insecticide activity, were able to behave as GABAA-R negative allosteric modulators in murine cells and consequently could exhibit convulsant activity in mammalians. Only pulegone at the highest assayed concentration (2 mM) showed a significant reduction in cell viability after exposure for 24 hr. Conclusion: The present results strongly suggest that the ketone components of Mentha are able to exhibit convulsant activity in mammalian organisms, but functional assays and in vivo experiments would be necessary to corroborate this proposed action. SUMMARY The pharmacological activity of insecticide ketones, commonly present in Mentha plants, was evaluated on native GABAA receptor from mammalian

  11. Regulation of glucose and ketone-body metabolism in brain of anaesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Ruderman, Neil B.; Ross, Peter S.; Berger, Michael; Goodman, Michael N.

    1974-01-01

    1. The effects of starvation and diabetes on brain fuel metabolism were examined by measuring arteriovenous differences for glucose, lactate, acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate across the brains of anaesthetized fed, starved and diabetic rats. 2. In fed animals glucose represented the sole oxidative fuel of the brain. 3. After 48h of starvation, ketone-body concentrations were about 2mm and ketone-body uptake accounted for 25% of the calculated O2 consumption: the arteriovenous difference for glucose was not diminished, but lactate release was increased, suggesting inhibition of pyruvate oxidation. 4. In severe diabetic ketosis, induced by either streptozotocin or phlorrhizin (total blood ketone bodies >7mm), the uptake of ketone bodies was further increased and accounted for 45% of the brain's oxidative metabolism, and the arteriovenous difference for glucose was decreased by one-third. The arteriovenous difference for lactate was increased significantly in the phlorrhizin-treated rats. 5. Infusion of 3-hydroxybutyrate into starved rats caused marked increases in the arteriovenous differences for lactate and both ketone bodies. 6. To study the mechanisms of these changes, steady-state concentrations of intermediates and co-factors of the glycolytic pathway were determined in freeze-blown brain. 7. Starved rats had increased concentrations of acetyl-CoA. 8. Rats with diabetic ketosis had increased concentrations of fructose 6-phosphate and decreased concentrations of fructose 1,6-diphosphate, indicating an inhibition of phosphofructokinase. 9. The concentrations of acetyl-CoA, glycogen and citrate, a potent inhibitor of phosphofructokinase, were increased in the streptozotocin-treated rats. 10. The data suggest that cerebral glucose uptake is decreased in diabetic ketoacidosis owing to inhibition of phosphofructokinase as a result of the increase in brain citrate. 11. The inhibition of brain pyruvate oxidation in starvation and diabetes can be related to the

  12. Antiproliferative activity and SARs of caffeic acid esters with mono-substituted phenylethanols moiety.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Yang, Fengzhi; Zhang, Man; Lam, Celine; Qiao, Yixue; Xiao, Jia; Zhang, Dongdong; Ge, Yuxuan; Fu, Lei; Xie, Dongsheng

    2017-01-15

    A series of CAPE derivatives with mono-substituted phenylethanols moiety were synthesized and evaluated by MTT assay on growth of 4 human cancer cell lines (Hela, DU-145, MCF-7 and ECA-109). The substituent effects on the antiproliferative activity were systematically investigated for the first time. It was found that electron-donating and hydrophobic substituents at 2'-position of phenylethanol moiety could significantly enhance CAPE's antiproliferative activity. 2'-Propoxyl derivative, as a novel caffeic acid ester, exhibited exquisite potency (IC 50 =0.4±0.02 & 0.6±0.03μM against Hela and DU-145 respectively). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel immobilization of a quaternary ammonium moiety on keratin fibers for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan; Cai, Jackie Y; Liu, Xin; Church, Jeffrey S; Wang, Lijing

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for immobilizing a quaternary ammonium moiety on a keratinous substrate for enhanced medical applications. The method involves the generation of thiols by controlled reduction of cystine disulfide bonds in the keratin, followed by reaction with [2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride through thiol-ene click chemistry. The modified substrate was characterized with Raman and infrared spectroscopy, and assessed for its antibacterial efficacy and other performance changes. The results have demonstrated that the quaternary ammonium moiety has been effectively attached onto the keratin structure, and the resultant keratin substrate exhibits a multifunctional effect including antibacterial and antistatic properties, improved liquid moisture management property, improved dyeability and a non-leaching characteristic of the treated substrate. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis and anticholinesterase activity of coumarin-3-carboxamides bearing tryptamine moiety.

    PubMed

    Ghanei-Nasab, Samaneh; Khoobi, Mehdi; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Marjani, Azam; Moradi, Alireza; Nadri, Hamid; Emami, Saeed; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas

    2016-10-04

    A number of N-(2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamides were synthesized and tested against AChE and BuChE. The in vitro assessment of the synthesized compounds 4a-o revealed that most of them had significant activity toward AChE. The SAR study demonstrated that the introduction of benzyloxy moiety on the 7-position of coumarin scaffold can improve the anti-AChE activity. The best result was obtained with 7-(4-fluorobenzyl)oxy moiety in the case of compound 4o, displaying IC50 value of 0.16 μM. Based on the docking study of AChE, the prototype compound 4o was laid across the active site and occupied both peripheral anionic site (PAS) and catalytic anionic site (CAS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Statistical mechanical model of gas adsorption in porous crystals with dynamic moieties.

    PubMed

    Simon, Cory M; Braun, Efrem; Carraro, Carlo; Smit, Berend

    2017-01-17

    Some nanoporous, crystalline materials possess dynamic constituents, for example, rotatable moieties. These moieties can undergo a conformation change in response to the adsorption of guest molecules, which qualitatively impacts adsorption behavior. We pose and solve a statistical mechanical model of gas adsorption in a porous crystal whose cages share a common ligand that can adopt two distinct rotational conformations. Guest molecules incentivize the ligands to adopt a different rotational configuration than maintained in the empty host. Our model captures inflections, steps, and hysteresis that can arise in the adsorption isotherm as a signature of the rotating ligands. The insights disclosed by our simple model contribute a more intimate understanding of the response and consequence of rotating ligands integrated into porous materials to harness them for gas storage and separations, chemical sensing, drug delivery, catalysis, and nanoscale devices. Particularly, our model reveals design strategies to exploit these moving constituents and engineer improved adsorbents with intrinsic thermal management for pressure-swing adsorption processes.

  16. Hexamethonium-type allosteric modulators of the muscarinic receptors bearing lateral dibenzazepine moieties.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Tränkle, C; Mohr, K; Holzgrabe, U

    2001-04-01

    Alkane-bisammonium compounds carrying lateral phthalimido substituents are known to have a high affinity for the allosteric binding site of the acetylcholine M2 receptor. The purpose of this study was to replace the lateral phthalimido moieties with rigid tricyclic skeletons of a large volume in order to learn more about the function of the lateral heterocycles. In addition, methyl groups were introduced into the lateral connecting chains. Allosteric inhibition of the dissociation of [3H]N-methylscopolamine from the M2 receptors in porcine cardiac homogenates served to indicate binding of the test compounds to the allosteric site. The phthalimido groups could be replaced with dibenzazepine moieties without any loss in potency. Interestingly, the additional methyl group in the lateral spacer seems to have a significant influence on the allosteric behaviour.

  17. Effects of iron-containing minerals on hydrothermal reactions of ketones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ziming; Gould, Ian R.; Williams, Lynda B.; Hartnett, Hilairy E.; Shock, Everett L.

    2018-02-01

    Hydrothermal organic transformations occurring in geochemical processes are influenced by the surrounding environments including rocks and minerals. This work is focused on the effects of five common minerals on reactions of a model ketone substrate, dibenzylketone (DBK), in an experimental hydrothermal system. Ketones play a central role in many hydrothermal organic functional group transformations, such as those converting hydrocarbons to oxygenated compounds; however, how these minerals control the hydrothermal chemistry of ketones is poorly understood. Under the hydrothermal conditions of 300 °C and 70 MPa for up to 168 h, we observed that, while quartz (SiO2) and corundum (Al2O3) had no detectable effect on the hydrothermal reactions of DBK, iron-containing minerals, such as hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), and troilite (synthetic FeS), accelerated the reaction of DBK by up to an order of magnitude. We observed that fragmentation products, such as toluene and bibenzyl, dominated in the presence of hematite or magnetite, while use of troilite gave primarily the reduction products, e.g., 1, 3-diphenyl-propane and 1, 3-diphenyl-2-propanol. The roles of the three iron minerals in these transformations were further explored by (1) control experiments with various mineral surface areas, (2) measuring H2 in hydrothermal solutions, and (3) determining hydrogen balance among the organic products. These results suggest the reactions catalyzed by iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) are promoted mainly by the mineral surfaces, whereas the sulfide mineral (troilite) facilitated the reduction of ketone in the reaction solution. Therefore, this work not only provides a useful chemical approach to study and uncover complicated hydrothermal organic-mineral interactions, but also fosters a mechanistic understanding of ketone reactions in the deep carbon cycle.

  18. Oligofluorenes as polymeric model compounds for providing insight into the triplets of ketone and ketylimine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Robert, Patricia; Bolduc, Andréanne; Skene, W G

    2012-09-20

    A series of oligofluorenes ranging between one and three repeating units were prepared as structurally well-defined representative models of polyfluorenes. The photophysics of the oligofluorene models were investigated both by laser flash photolysis and steady-state fluorescence. The effects of the ketone and ketylimine functional groups in the 9-position on the photophysical properties, notably the triplet quantum yield (Φ(TT)) by intersystem crossing and the absolute fluorescence quantum yields (Φ(fl)), were investigated. The singlet depletion method was used to determine both the Φ(TT) and molar absorption coefficients of the observed triplets (ε(TT)). Meanwhile, the absolute Φ(fl) were determined using an integrating sphere. It was found that both the ketone and ketylimine substituents and the degree of oligomerization contributed to quenching the oligofluorene fluorescence. For example, the Φ(fl) was quenched 5-fold with the ketylimine and ketone substituents for the bifluorenyl derivatives compared to their corresponding 9,9-dihexyl bifluorenyl counterparts. Meanwhile, the Φ(fl) quenching increased 14 times with the trifluorenyl ketone and ketylimine derivatives. Measured Φ(TT) values ranged between 22 and 43% for the difluorenyl derivatives with ε(TT) on the order of 13 000 cm(-1) M(-1). The Φ(TT) decreased to <10% concomitant with doubling of the ε(TT) when the degree of oligomerization was increased to 3. A new fluorescence emission at 545 nm formed at low temperatures for the ketone and ketylimine oligofluorene derivatives. The emission intensity was dependent on the temperature, and it disappeared at room temperature.

  19. Fatty acid-induced astrocyte ketone production and the control of food intake

    PubMed Central

    Le Foll, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are major worldwide public health issues today. A relationship between total fat intake and obesity has been found. In addition, the mechanisms of long-term and excessive high-fat diet (HFD) intake in the development of obesity still need to be elucidated. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a major site involved in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis where “metabolic sensing neurons” integrate metabolic signals from the periphery. Among these signals, fatty acids (FA) modulate the activity of VMH neurons using the FA translocator/CD36, which plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. During low-fat diet (LFD) intake, FA are oxidized by VMH astrocytes to fuel their ongoing metabolic needs. However, HFD intake causes VMH astrocytes to use FA to generate ketone bodies. We postulate that these astrocyte-derived ketone bodies are exported to neurons where they produce excess ATP and reactive oxygen species, which override CD36-mediated FA sensing and act as a signal to decrease short-term food intake. On a HFD, VMH astrocyte-produced ketones reduce elevated caloric intake to LFD levels after 3 days in rats genetically predisposed to resist (DR) diet-induced obesity (DIO), but not leptin-resistant DIO rats. This suggests that, while VMH ketone production on a HFD can contribute to protection from obesity, the inherent leptin resistance overrides this inhibitory action of ketone bodies on food intake. Thus, astrocytes and neurons form a tight metabolic unit that is able to monitor circulating nutrients to alter food intake and energy homeostasis. PMID:27122369

  20. Fatty acid-induced astrocyte ketone production and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Christelle; Levin, Barry E

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are major worldwide public health issues today. A relationship between total fat intake and obesity has been found. In addition, the mechanisms of long-term and excessive high-fat diet (HFD) intake in the development of obesity still need to be elucidated. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a major site involved in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis where "metabolic sensing neurons" integrate metabolic signals from the periphery. Among these signals, fatty acids (FA) modulate the activity of VMH neurons using the FA translocator/CD36, which plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. During low-fat diet (LFD) intake, FA are oxidized by VMH astrocytes to fuel their ongoing metabolic needs. However, HFD intake causes VMH astrocytes to use FA to generate ketone bodies. We postulate that these astrocyte-derived ketone bodies are exported to neurons where they produce excess ATP and reactive oxygen species, which override CD36-mediated FA sensing and act as a signal to decrease short-term food intake. On a HFD, VMH astrocyte-produced ketones reduce elevated caloric intake to LFD levels after 3 days in rats genetically predisposed to resist (DR) diet-induced obesity (DIO), but not leptin-resistant DIO rats. This suggests that, while VMH ketone production on a HFD can contribute to protection from obesity, the inherent leptin resistance overrides this inhibitory action of ketone bodies on food intake. Thus, astrocytes and neurons form a tight metabolic unit that is able to monitor circulating nutrients to alter food intake and energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Potential Role for a Carbohydrate Moiety in Anti-Candida Activity of Human Oral Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Chad; Leigh, Janet; Swoboda, Rolf; Ozenci, Hatice; Fidel, Paul L.

    2001-01-01

    Candida albicans is both a commensal and a pathogen at the oral mucosa. Although an intricate network of host defense mechanisms are expected for protection against oropharyngeal candidiasis, anti-Candida host defense mechanisms at the oral mucosa are poorly understood. Our laboratory recently showed that primary epithelial cells from human oral mucosa, as well as an oral epithelial cell line, inhibit the growth of blastoconidia and/or hyphal phases of several Candida species in vitro with a requirement for cell contact and with no demonstrable role for soluble factors. In the present study, we show that oral epithelial cell-mediated anti-Candida activity is resistant to gamma-irradiation and is not mediated by phagocytosis, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide oxidative inhibitory pathways or by nonoxidative components such as soluble defensin and calprotectin peptides. In contrast, epithelial cell-mediated anti-Candida activity was sensitive to heat, paraformaldehyde fixation, and detergents, but these treatments were accompanied by a significant loss in epithelial cell viability. Treatments that removed existing membrane protein or lipid moieties in the presence or absence of protein synthesis inhibitors had no effect on epithelial cell inhibitory activity. In contrast, the epithelial cell-mediated anti-Candida activity was abrogated after treatment of the epithelial cells with periodic acid, suggesting a role for carbohydrates. Adherence of C. albicans to oral epithelial cells was unaffected, indicating that the carbohydrate moiety is exclusively associated with the growth inhibition activity. Subsequent studies that evaluated specific membrane carbohydrate moieties, however, showed no role for sulfated polysaccharides, sialic acid residues, or glucose- and mannose-containing carbohydrates. These results suggest that oral epithelial cell-mediated anti-Candida activity occurs exclusively with viable epithelial cells through contact with C. albicans by

  2. Et3B-mediated radical-polar crossover reaction for single-step coupling of O,Te-acetal, α,β-unsaturated ketones, and aldehydes/ketones.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Daigo; Urabe, Daisuke; Nagatomo, Masanori; Inoue, Masayuki

    2013-10-04

    Et3B-mediated three-component coupling reactions between O,Te-acetal, α,β-unsaturated ketones, and aldehydes/ketones were developed. Et3B promoted the generation of the potently reactive bridgehead radical from the O,Te-acetal of the trioxaadamantane structure and converted the α-carbonyl radical of the resultant two-component adduct to the boron enolate, which then underwent a stereoselective aldol reaction with the aldehyde/ketone. This powerful, yet mild, radical-polar crossover reaction efficiently connected the hindered linkages between the three units and selectively introduced three new stereocenters.

  3. Polymeric media comprising polybenzimidazoles N-substituted with organic-inorganic hybrid moiety

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterson, Eric S [Idaho Falls, ID; Wertsching, Alan K [Idaho Falls, ID; Orme, Christopher J [Shelley, ID; Luther, Thomas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Michael G [Pocatello, ID

    2009-12-15

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be included in a separator medium. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2-- where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The separatory medium may exhibit an H.sub.2, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.3, or CO.sub.2 gas permeability greater than the gas permeability of a comparable separatory medium comprising the PBI compound without substitution. The separatory medium may further include an electronically conductive medium and/or ionically conductive medium. The separatory medium may be used as a membrane (semi-permeable, permeable, and non-permeable), a barrier, an ion exhcange media, a filter, a gas chromatography coating (such as stationary phase coating in affinity chromatography), etc.

  4. Identifying all moiety conservation laws in genome-scale metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Andrea; De Martino, Daniele; Mulet, Roberto; Pagnani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The stoichiometry of a metabolic network gives rise to a set of conservation laws for the aggregate level of specific pools of metabolites, which, on one hand, pose dynamical constraints that cross-link the variations of metabolite concentrations and, on the other, provide key insight into a cell's metabolic production capabilities. When the conserved quantity identifies with a chemical moiety, extracting all such conservation laws from the stoichiometry amounts to finding all non-negative integer solutions of a linear system, a programming problem known to be NP-hard. We present an efficient strategy to compute the complete set of integer conservation laws of a genome-scale stoichiometric matrix, also providing a certificate for correctness and maximality of the solution. Our method is deployed for the analysis of moiety conservation relationships in two large-scale reconstructions of the metabolism of the bacterium E. coli, in six tissue-specific human metabolic networks, and, finally, in the human reactome as a whole, revealing that bacterial metabolism could be evolutionarily designed to cover broader production spectra than human metabolism. Convergence to the full set of moiety conservation laws in each case is achieved in extremely reduced computing times. In addition, we uncover a scaling relation that links the size of the independent pool basis to the number of metabolites, for which we present an analytical explanation.

  5. Incorporating perylene moiety into poly(phenothiazine-co-bithiophene) backbone for higher charge transport.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weihua; Ke, Lin; Chen, Zhi-Kuan

    2008-03-27

    Low band gap pi-conjugated polymers composed of phenothiazine, bithiophene, and perylene moieties were prepared in high yields by using a palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction. The polymers were characterized by NMR, gel permeation chromatography, and elemental analysis. The characterizations revealed that high-molecular weight (weight-average molecular weight up to 42,400 g/mol) polymers were thermally stable with a decomposition temperature in the region of 338-354 degrees C and their glass transition temperatures (Tg) ranging from 124 to 136 degrees C. All polymers demonstrated broad optical absorption in the region of 300-550 nm with efficient blue-green light emission. The absorption was broadened further (for ca. 50 nm) when the perylene moiety was incorporated. Cyclic voltammograms displayed that the p- and n-doping processes of all the polymers were partially reversible and that electrochemical band gaps were as low as -2.30 eV with the incorporation of a perylene moiety. The hole mobility of polymers was evaluated by using the space-charge-limited current model with a device structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer/Ca. The results show that the incorporation of perylene is beneficial for improving the hole mobility of the conjugated polymers.

  6. Detection of Ketones by a Novel Technology: Dipolar Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (DP-PTR-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yue; Zhang, Qiangling; Zhou, Wenzhao; Zou, Xue; Wang, Hongmei; Huang, Chaoqun; Shen, Chengyin; Chu, Yannan

    2017-05-01

    Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has played an important role in the field of real-time monitoring of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) due to its advantages such as low limit of detection (LOD) and fast time response. Recently, a new technology of proton extraction reaction mass spectrometry (PER-MS) with negative ions OH- as the reagent ions has also been presented, which can be applied to the detection of VOCs and even inorganic compounds. In this work, we combined the functions of PTR-MS and PER-MS in one instrument, thereby developing a novel technology called dipolar proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (DP-PTR-MS). The selection of PTR-MS mode and PER-MS mode was achieved in DP-PTR-MS using only water vapor in the ion source and switching the polarity. In this experiment, ketones (denoted by M) were selected as analytes. The ketone (molecular weight denoted by m) was ionized as protonated ketone [M + H]+ [mass-to-charge ratio ( m/z) m + 1] in PTR-MS mode and deprotonated ketone [M - H]- ( m/z m - 1) in PER-MS mode. By comparing the m/z value of the product ions in the two modes, the molecular weight of the ketone can be positively identified as m. Results showed that whether it is a single ketone sample or a mixed sample of eight kinds of ketones, the molecular weights can be detected with DP-PTR-MS. The newly developed DP-PTR-MS not only maintains the original advantages of PTR-MS and PER-MS in sensitive and rapid detection of ketones, but also can estimate molecular weight of ketones.

  7. Taming Radical Pairs in Nanocrystalline Ketones: Photochemical Syn-thesis of Compounds with Vicinal Stereogenic All-Carbon Quaternary Centers.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Jordan J; Perez-Estrada, Salvador; Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A

    2018-05-29

    Here we describe the use of crystalline ketones to control the fate of the radical pair intermediates generated in the Norrish type I photodecarbonylation reaction to render it a powerful tool in the challenging synthesis of sterically congested carbon-carbon bonds. This methodology makes the synthetically more accessible hexasusbtituted ketones as ideal synthons for the construction of adjacent, all-carbon substituted, stereogenic quaternary stereocenters. We describe here the structural and thermochemical parameters required of the starting ketone in order to react in the solid state. Finally, the scope and scalability of the reaction and its application in the total synthesis of two natural products is described.

  8. Sequential Aldol Condensation – Transition Metal-Catalyzed Addition Reactions of Aldehydes, Methyl Ketones and Arylboronic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yuan-Xi; Xing, Chun-Hui; Israel, Matthew; Hu, Qiao-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Sequential aldol condensation of aldehydes with methyl ketones followed by transition metal-catalyzed addition reactions of arylboronic acids to form β-substituted ketones is described. By using the 1,1′-spirobiindane-7,7′-diol (SPINOL)-based phosphite, an asymmetric version of this type of sequential reaction, with up to 92% ee, was also realized. Our study provided an efficient method to access β-substituted ketones and might lead to the development of other sequential/tandem reactions with transition metal-catalyzed addition reactions as the key step. PMID:21417359

  9. Sequential aldol condensation-transition metal-catalyzed addition reactions of aldehydes, methyl ketones, and arylboronic acids.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yuan-Xi; Xing, Chun-Hui; Israel, Matthew; Hu, Qiao-Sheng

    2011-04-15

    Sequential aldol condensation of aldehydes with methyl ketones followed by transition metal-catalyzed addition reactions of arylboronic acids to form β-substituted ketones is described. By using the 1,1'-spirobiindane-7,7'-diol (SPINOL)-based phosphite, an asymmetric version of this type of sequential reaction, with up to 92% ee, was also realized. Our study provided an efficient method to access β-substituted ketones and might lead to the development of other sequential/tandem reactions with transition metal-catalyzed addition reactions as the key step. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Syn/anti isomerization of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones in the determination of airborne unsymmetrical aldehydes and ketones using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivation.

    PubMed

    Binding, N; Müller, W; Witting, U

    1996-10-01

    Aldehydes and ketones readily react with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) to form the corresponding hydrazones. This reaction has been frequently used for the quantification of airborne carbonyl compounds. Since unsymmetrical aldehydes and ketones are known to form isomeric 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones (syn/ anti-isomers), the influence of isomerization on the practicability and accuracy of the 2,4-DNPH-method using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid sorbent samplers has been studied with three ketones (methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isopropyl ketone (MIPK), and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK)). With all three ketones the reaction with 2,4-DNPH resulted in mixtures of the isomeric hydrazones which were separated by HPLC and GC and identified by mass spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The isomers show similar chromatographic behaviour in HPLC as well as in GC, thus leading to problems in quantification and interpretation of chromatographic results.

  11. Gas-film coefficients for the volatilization of ketones from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Volatilization is a significant process in determining the fate of many organic compounds in streams and rivers. Quantifying this process requires knowledge of the mass-transfer coefficient from water, which is a function of the gas-film and liquid-film coefficients. The gas-film coefficient can be determined by measuring the flux for the volatilization of pure organic liquids. Volatilization fluxes for acetone, 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, 3-pentanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, and 2-octanone were measured in the laboratory over a range of temperatures. Gas-film coefficients were then calculated from these fluxes and from vapor pressure data from the literature. An equation was developed for predicting the volatilization flux of pure liquid ketones as a function of vapor pressure and molecular weight. Large deviations were found for acetone, and these were attributed to the possibility that acetone may be hydrogen bonded. A second equation for predicting the flux as a function of molecular weight and temperature resulted in large deviations for 4methyl-2-pentanone. These deviations were attributed to the branched structure of this ketone. Four factors based on the theory of volatilization and relating the volatilization flux or rate to the vapor pressure, molecular weight, temperature, and molecular diffusion coefficient were not constant as suggested by the literature. The factors generally increased with molecular weight and with temperature. Values for acetone corresponded to ketones with a larger molecular weight, and the acetone factors showed the greatest dependence on temperature. Both of these results are characteristic of compounds that are hydrogen bonded. Relations from the literature commonly used for describing the dependence of the gas-film coefficient on molecular weight and molecular diffusion coefficient were not applicable to the ketone gas-film coefficients. The dependence on molecular weight and molecular diffusion coefficient was in

  12. Ca(OH)2-Catalyzed Condensation of Aldehydes with Methyl ketones in Dilute Aqueous Ethanol: A Comprehensive Access to α,β-Unsaturated Ketones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lei; Han, Mengting; Luan, Jie; Xu, Lin; Ding, Yuanhua; Xu, Qing

    2016-07-01

    Cheap, abundant but seldom-employed Ca(OH)2 was found to be an excellent low-loading (5-10 mol%) catalyst for Claisen-Schmidt condensation of aldehydes with methyl ketones under mild conditions. It was interesting that dilute aqueous ethanol (20 v/v%) was unexpectedly discovered to be the optimal solvent. The reaction was scalable at least to 100 mmol and calcium could be precipitated by CO2 and removed by filtration. Evaporation of solvent directly afforded the product in the excellent 96% yield with high purity, as confirmed by its 1H NMR spectrum.

  13. Raspberry ketone protects rats fed high-fat diets against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Meng, Xianjun; Zhang, Fengqing

    2012-05-01

    The protective effect of raspberry ketone against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was tested by using a high-fat diet-induced NASH model, and its mechanism was explored. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats with a 1:1 male to female ratio were randomly divided into five groups: the normal control (NC) group (n=8) fed normal diet for 8 weeks, the model control (MC) group (n=8) fed high-fat diet (82% standard diet, 8.3% yolk powder, 9.0% lard, 0.5% cholesterol, and 0.2% sodium taurocholate), and the raspberry ketone low-dose (0.5%) (RKL) group (n=8), the raspberry ketone middle-dose (1%) (RKM) group (n=8), and the raspberry ketone high-dose (2%) (RKH) group (n=8) fed high-fat diet for 4 weeks. After 8 weeks of experiment, all the rats were sacrificed, and blood lipid parameters (total cholesterol [TC], triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]), liver function parameters (serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), leptin (LEP), free fatty acid (FFA), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), blood glucose (GLU), and insulin (INS) with calculated INS resistance index (IRI) and INS-sensitive index (ISI) were measured in rats. Therefore, we determined the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α activity in liver homogenate and the levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponection (APN), superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde (MDA). The liver tissues of rats in each group were imaged by electron microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin as the staining agent. The levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, ALP, GLU, INS, IRI, FFA, LEP, TNF-α, MDA, and hs-CRP of MC rats were significantly increased (P<.05, P<.01). Therefore, the levels of HDL-C, ISI, PPAR-α, LDLR, and APN were significantly decreased (P<.05, P<.01). Compared with the MC group, each parameter in the RKL, RKM, and RKH groups was

  14. Raspberry Ketone Protects Rats Fed High-Fat Diets Against Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Zhang, Fengqing

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The protective effect of raspberry ketone against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was tested by using a high-fat diet-induced NASH model, and its mechanism was explored. Forty Sprague–Dawley rats with a 1:1 male to female ratio were randomly divided into five groups: the normal control (NC) group (n=8) fed normal diet for 8 weeks, the model control (MC) group (n=8) fed high-fat diet (82% standard diet, 8.3% yolk powder, 9.0% lard, 0.5% cholesterol, and 0.2% sodium taurocholate), and the raspberry ketone low-dose (0.5%) (RKL) group (n=8), the raspberry ketone middle-dose (1%) (RKM) group (n=8), and the raspberry ketone high-dose (2%) (RKH) group (n=8) fed high-fat diet for 4 weeks. After 8 weeks of experiment, all the rats were sacrificed, and blood lipid parameters (total cholesterol [TC], triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]), liver function parameters (serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), leptin (LEP), free fatty acid (FFA), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), blood glucose (GLU), and insulin (INS) with calculated INS resistance index (IRI) and INS-sensitive index (ISI) were measured in rats. Therefore, we determined the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α activity in liver homogenate and the levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponection (APN), superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde (MDA). The liver tissues of rats in each group were imaged by electron microscopy with hematoxylin–eosin as the staining agent. The levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, ALP, GLU, INS, IRI, FFA, LEP, TNF-α, MDA, and hs-CRP of MC rats were significantly increased (P<.05, P<.01). Therefore, the levels of HDL-C, ISI, PPAR-α, LDLR, and APN were significantly decreased (P<.05, P<.01). Compared with the MC group, each parameter in the RKL, RKM, and

  15. A reactive and sensitive diffusion sampler for the determination of aldehydes and ketones in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Hasegawa, Shuji

    We developed a diffusive sampling device (DSD-carbonyl) for organic carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones) which is suitable for collection and analysis of low concentration levels. This sampling device is composed of three parts, an exposure part made of a porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PPTFE) tube, an analysis part made of polypropylene (PP) tubing and an absorbent part made of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) coated silica gel (DNPH-silica). Aldehydes and ketones diffuse to the DSD-carbonyl through PPTFE-tube by the mechanism of molecular diffusion and react specifically with DNPH to form a stable DNPH-derivatives. Collection is controlled by moving the absorbent from the exposure part to the analysis part by changing the posture of the DSD-carbonyl. DNPH-derivatives were eluted from an analysis part of DSD-carbonyl with acetonitrile directly and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The advantages of the DSD-carbonyl are the following: (1) The DSD-carbonyl can be used in a wide range of concentration of aldehydes and ketones in atmosphere, as the DSD-carbonyl exposure part has a variable diffusion area, (2) DNPH-derivatives are eluted from DNPH-silica without contamination of air. (3) The sampler can be applied to active sampling by connecting it with a pump. The limit of detection (LOD) for concentrations of major aldehydes and ketones ranged from 0.072 to 0.13 ppb, and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) ranged from 0.24 to 0.42 ppb. The coefficient variation (CV) for concentrations of major aldehydes and ketones ranged from 2.5 to 3.0% in laboratory air. The DSD-carbonyl method and active sampling method (US EPA method IP-6A) showed a good correlation (formaldehyde, r2=0.995). The uptake rates for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone were estimated as 0.078, 0.062 and 0.079 nmol ppb -1 h -1, respectively. It is possible to estimate atmospheric aldehydes and ketones at parts per billion (ppb), with high sensitivity and precision, by

  16. Lanthanum Tricyanide-Catalyzed Acyl Silane-Ketone Benzoin Additions and Kinetic Resolution of Resultant α-Silyloxyketones

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, James C.

    2010-01-01

    We report the full account of our efforts on the lanthanum tricyanide-catalyzed acyl silane-ketone benzoin reaction. The reaction exhibits a wide scope in both acyl silane (aryl, alkyl) and ketone (aryl-alkyl, alkyl-alkyl, aryl-aryl, alkenyl-alkyl, alkynyl-alkyl) coupling partners. The diastereoselectivity of the reaction has been examined in both cyclic and acyclic systems. Cyclohexanones give products arising from equatorial attack by the acyl silane. The diastereoselectivity of acyl silane addition to acyclic α-hydroxy ketones can be controlled by varying the protecting group to obtain either Felkin-Ahn or chelation control. The resultant α-silyloxyketone products can be resolved with selectivity factors from 10 to 15 by subjecting racemic ketone benzoin products to CBS reduction. PMID:20392127

  17. Lanthanum tricyanide-catalyzed acyl silane-ketone benzoin additions and kinetic resolution of resultant alpha-silyloxyketones.

    PubMed

    Tarr, James C; Johnson, Jeffrey S

    2010-05-21

    We report the full account of our efforts on the lanthanum tricyanide-catalyzed acyl silane-ketone benzoin reaction. The reaction exhibits a wide scope in both acyl silane (aryl, alkyl) and ketone (aryl-alkyl, alkyl-alkyl, aryl-aryl, alkenyl-alkyl, alkynyl-alkyl) coupling partners. The diastereoselectivity of the reaction has been examined in both cyclic and acyclic systems. Cyclohexanones give products arising from equatorial attack by the acyl silane. The diastereoselectivity of acyl silane addition to acyclic alpha-hydroxy ketones can be controlled by varying the protecting group to obtain either Felkin-Ahn or chelation control. The resultant alpha-silyloxyketone products can be resolved with selectivity factors from 10 to 15 by subjecting racemic ketone benzoin products to CBS reduction.

  18. Effect of carbonates/phosphates as nucleophilic catalysts in dimethylformamide for efficient cyanosilylation of aldehydes and ketones

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, G. K. Surya; Vaghoo, Habiba; Panja, Chiradeep; Surampudi, Vijayalakshmi; Kultyshev, Roman; Mathew, Thomas; Olah, George A.

    2007-01-01

    Cyanosilylation of aldehydes and aliphatic ketones can be carried out in dimethylformamide even without the use of any catalyst. In the presence of nucleophilic catalysts such as carbonate and phosphate salts, the reaction rate is significantly enhanced. PMID:17360603

  19. Selective synthesis of secondary amines by Pt nanowire catalyzed reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones with ammonia.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fenqiang; Hu, Lei; Lu, Shuanglong; Cao, Xueqin; Gu, Hongwei

    2012-10-07

    The process of the reductive amination of aldehydes or ketones in the presence of ammonia using unsupported ultra-thin Pt nanowires has been developed. This catalytic system shows high activity and selectivity under mild reaction conditions.

  20. Electrical properties of binary mixtures of amino silicone oil and methyl iso butyl ketone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, K. N.; Rana, V. A.; Vankar, H. P.

    2018-05-01

    The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function of the binary mixtures of the methyl iso butyl ketone and amino silicone oil in the frequency range 100 Hz to 2 MHz were measured using precision LCR meter at 305.15 K. The electrical properties such as electrical modulus M*(ω), electrical conductivity σ*(ω) and complex impedance Z*(ω) were calculated using the dielectric function ɛ*(ω). The ionic polarization relaxation time (Τσ) and D.C. conductivity (σdc) were also calculated using electrical properties. The ionic behavior of methyl iso butyl ketone and non-ionic behavior of amino silicone oil are also explained. The electrical parameters are used to gain information about the effect of concentration variation of components of the mixtures on the electrical properties.

  1. Chemoselective synthesis of ketones and ketimines by addition of organometallic reagents to secondary amides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechara, William S.; Pelletier, Guillaume; Charette, André B.

    2012-03-01

    The development of efficient and selective transformations is crucial in synthetic chemistry as it opens new possibilities in the total synthesis of complex molecules. Applying such reactions to the synthesis of ketones is of great importance, as this motif serves as a synthetic handle for the elaboration of numerous organic functionalities. In this context, we report a general and chemoselective method based on an activation/addition sequence on secondary amides allowing the controlled isolation of structurally diverse ketones and ketimines. The generation of a highly electrophilic imidoyl triflate intermediate was found to be pivotal in the observed exceptional functional group tolerance, allowing the facile addition of readily available Grignard and diorganozinc reagents to amides, and avoiding commonly observed over-addition or reduction side reactions. The methodology has been applied to the formal synthesis of analogues of the antineoplastic agent Bexarotene and to the rapid and efficient synthesis of unsymmetrical diketones in a one-pot procedure.

  2. The inverse problem of brain energetics: ketone bodies as alternative substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvetti, D.; Occhipinti, R.; Somersalo, E.

    2008-07-01

    Little is known about brain energy metabolism under ketosis, although there is evidence that ketone bodies have a neuroprotective role in several neurological disorders. We investigate the inverse problem of estimating reaction fluxes and transport rates in the different cellular compartments of the brain, when the data amounts to a few measured arterial venous concentration differences. By using a recently developed methodology to perform Bayesian Flux Balance Analysis and a new five compartment model of the astrocyte-glutamatergic neuron cellular complex, we are able to identify the preferred biochemical pathways during shortage of glucose and in the presence of ketone bodies in the arterial blood. The analysis is performed in a minimally biased way, therefore revealing the potential of this methodology for hypothesis testing.

  3. Caffeine intake increases plasma ketones: an acute metabolic study in humans.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, Camille; St-Pierre, Valérie; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; Hennebelle, Marie; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Cunnane, Stephen C

    2017-04-01

    Brain glucose uptake declines during aging and is significantly impaired in Alzheimer's disease. Ketones are the main alternative brain fuel to glucose so they represent a potential approach to compensate for the brain glucose reduction. Caffeine is of interest as a potential ketogenic agent owing to its actions on lipolysis and lipid oxidation but whether it is ketogenic in humans is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the acute ketogenic effect of 2 doses of caffeine (2.5; 5.0 mg/kg) in 10 healthy adults. Caffeine given at breakfast significantly stimulated ketone production in a dose-dependent manner (+88%; +116%) and also raised plasma free fatty acids. Whether caffeine has long-term ketogenic effects or could enhance the ketogenic effect of medium chain triglycerides remains to be determined.

  4. The synthesis and analysis of lignin-bound Hibbert ketone structures in technical lignins.

    PubMed

    Miles-Barrett, Daniel M; Neal, Andrew R; Hand, Calum; Montgomery, James R D; Panovic, Isabella; Ojo, O Stephen; Lancefield, Christopher S; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Lebl, Tomas; Westwood, Nicholas J

    2016-10-25

    Understanding the structure of technical lignins resulting from acid-catalysed treatment of lignocellulosic biomass is important for their future applications. Here we report an investigation into the fate of lignin under acidic aqueous organosolv conditions. In particular we examine in detail the formation and reactivity of non-native Hibbert ketone structures found in isolated organosolv lignins from both Douglas fir and beech woods. Through the use of model compounds combined with HSQC, HMBC and HSQC-TOCSY NMR experiments we demonstrate that, depending on the lignin source, both S and G lignin-bound Hibbert ketone units can be present. We also show that these units can serve as a source of novel mono-aromatic compounds following an additional lignin depolymerisation reaction.

  5. Metal-free trifluoromethylation of aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yupu; Si, Tuda; Yang, Ming-Hsiu; Altman, Ryan A

    2014-08-01

    The ability to convert simple and common substrates into fluoroalkyl derivatives under mild conditions remains an important goal for medicinal and agricultural chemists. One representative example of a desirable transformation involves the conversion of aromatic and heteroaromatic ketones and aldehydes into aryl and heteroaryl β,β,β-trifluoroethylarenes and -heteroarenes. The traditional approach for this net transformation involves stoichiometric metals and/or multistep reaction sequences that consume excessive time, material, and labor resources while providing low yields of products. To complement these traditional strategies, we report a one-pot metal-free decarboxylative procedure for accessing β,β,β-trifluoroethylarenes and -heteroarenes from readily available ketones and aldehydes. This method features several benefits, including ease of operation, readily available reagents, mild reaction conditions, high functional-group compatibility, and scalability.

  6. Metal-Free Trifluoromethylation of Aromatic and Heteroaromatic Aldehydes and Ketones

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ability to convert simple and common substrates into fluoroalkyl derivatives under mild conditions remains an important goal for medicinal and agricultural chemists. One representative example of a desirable transformation involves the conversion of aromatic and heteroaromatic ketones and aldehydes into aryl and heteroaryl β,β,β-trifluoroethylarenes and -heteroarenes. The traditional approach for this net transformation involves stoichiometric metals and/or multistep reaction sequences that consume excessive time, material, and labor resources while providing low yields of products. To complement these traditional strategies, we report a one-pot metal-free decarboxylative procedure for accessing β,β,β-trifluoroethylarenes and -heteroarenes from readily available ketones and aldehydes. This method features several benefits, including ease of operation, readily available reagents, mild reaction conditions, high functional-group compatibility, and scalability. PMID:25001876

  7. Benzoyl radicals from (hetero)aromatic aldehydes. Decatungstate photocatalyzed synthesis of substituted aromatic ketones.

    PubMed

    Ravelli, Davide; Zema, Michele; Mella, Mariella; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Albini, Angelo

    2010-09-21

    Benzoyl radicals are generated directly from (hetero)aromatic aldehydes upon tetrabutylammonium decatungstate ((n-Bu(4)N)(4)W(10)O(32)), TBADT) photocatalysis under mild conditions. In the presence of alpha,beta-unsaturated esters, ketones and nitriles radical conjugate addition ensues and gives the corresponding beta-functionalized aryl alkyl ketones in moderate to good yields (stereoselectively in the case of 3-methylene-2-norbornanone). Due to the mild reaction conditions the presence of various functional groups on the aromatic ring is tolerated (e.g. methyl, methoxy, chloro). The method can be applied to hetero-aromatic aldehydes whether electron-rich (e.g. thiophene-2-carbaldehyde) or electron-poor (e.g. pyridine-3-carbaldehyde).

  8. Polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits made of polyether ether ketone tubing with a 0.25 mm opening resulting in an improved separation performance in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2016-05-01

    Tiny polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits have been prepared by modified catalytic sulfonation of the inner surface of polyether ether tubing (1.6 mm od, 0.25 mm id) followed by modified formation of organic monolith and cutting of the tubing into slices. The frit was placed below the central hole of the column outlet union and supported by a combination of a silica capillary (0.365 mm od, 0.05 mm id) and a polyether ether ketone sleeve (1.6 mm od, 0.38 mm id) tightened with a nut and a ferrule when the column was packed to prevent sinking of the frit element into the union hole (0.25 mm opening) otherwise. The column packed this way with the frits investigated in this study has shown better separation performance owing to the reduced frit volume in comparison to the column packed with a commercial stainless-steel screen frit. This study establishes the strategy of disposable microcolumns in which cheap disposable frits are used whenever the column is re-packed to yield columns of even better chromatographic performance than the columns with commercial frits. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Diastereo- and enantioselective iridium-catalyzed allylation of cyclic ketone enolates: synergetic effect of ligands and barium enolates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenyong; Chen, Ming; Hartwig, John F

    2014-11-12

    We report asymmetric allylic alkylation of barium enolates of cyclic ketones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex containing a phosphoramidite ligand derived from (R)-1-(2-naphthyl)ethylamine. The reaction products contain adjacent quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. This process demonstrates that unstabilized cyclic ketone enolates can undergo diastereo- and enantioselective Ir-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions with the proper choice of enolate countercation. The products of these reactions can be conveniently transformed to various useful polycarbocyclic structures.

  10. Pyrrolidine-mediated direct preparation of (e)-monoarylidene derivatives of homo- and heterocyclic ketones with various aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Fengtian; Sun, Hongbao; Liu, Jie; Xie, Yongmei; Xiang, Mingli

    2014-02-12

    An efficient method for the facile synthesis of (E)-monoarylidene derivatives of homo- and heterocyclic ketones with various aldehydes in the presence of a pyrrolidine organocatalyst has been achieved. A range of α,β-unsaturated ketones were obtained in moderate to high yields (up to 99%). Unlike the Claisen-Schmidt condensation process, the formation of undesired bisarylidene byproducts is not observed. The possible reaction mechanism suggests that the reaction proceeds via a Mannich-elimination sequence.

  11. Diastereo- and enantioselective iridium-catalyzed allylation of cyclic ketone enolates: Synergetic effect of ligands and barium enolates

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Wenyong; Chen, Ming; Hartwig, John F.

    2014-10-22

    Here, we report asymmetric allylic alkylation of barium enolates of cyclic ketones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex containing a phosphoramidite ligand derived from ( R)-1-(2-naphthyl)ethylamine. The reaction products contain adjacent quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. This process demonstrates that unstabilized cyclic ketone enolates can undergo diastereo- and enantioselective Ir-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions with the proper choice of enolate countercation. The products of these reactions can be conveniently transformed to various useful polycarbocyclic structures.

  12. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Jyoti; Vasani, Naresh; Lopez, Harry O.; Sederoff, Heike W.

    2017-01-01

    With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt.) was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0) and myristate (C14:0) were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0), from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production. PMID:28212406

  13. A computational study suggests that replacing PEG with PMOZ may increase exposure of hydrophobic targeting moiety.

    PubMed

    Magarkar, Aniket; Róg, Tomasz; Bunker, Alex

    2017-05-30

    In a previous study we showed that the cause of failure of a new, proposed, targeting ligand, the AETP moiety, when attached to a PEGylated liposome, was occlusion by the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) layer due to its hydrophobic nature, given that PEG is not entirely hydrophilic. At the time we proposed that possible replacement with a more hydrophilic protective polymer could alleviate this problem. In this study we have used computational molecular dynamics modelling, using a model with all atom resolution, to suggest that a specific alternative protective polymer, poly(2-methyloxazoline) (PMOZ), would perform exactly this function. Our results show that when PEG is replaced by PMOZ the relative exposure to the solvent of AETP is increased to a level even greater than that we found in previous simulations for the RGD peptide, a targeting moiety that has previously been used successfully in PEGylated liposome based therapies. While the AETP moiety itself is no longer under consideration, the results of this computational study have broader significance: the use of PMOZ as an alternative polymer coating to PEG could be efficacious in the context of more hydrophobic targeting ligands. In addition to PMOZ we studied another polyoxazoline, poly(2-ethyloxazoline) (PEOZ), that has also been mooted as a possible alternate protective polymer. It was also found that the RDG peptide occlusion was significantly greater for the case of both oxazolines as opposed to PEG and that, unlike PEG, neither oxazoline entered the membrane. As far as we are aware this is the first time that polyoxazolines have been studied using molecular dynamics simulation with all atom resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhaohui; Wu, Qian; Dalal, Jyoti; Vasani, Naresh; Lopez, Harry O; Sederoff, Heike W; Qu, Rongda

    2017-01-01

    With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt.) was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0) and myristate (C14:0) were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0), from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production.

  15. Iridium Catalysts with f-Amphox Ligands: Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Simple Ketones.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weilong; Liu, Shaodong; Duan, Meng; Tan, Xuefeng; Chen, Caiyou; Xie, Yun; Lan, Yu; Dong, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Xumu

    2016-06-17

    A series of modular and rich electronic tridentate ferrocene aminophosphoxazoline ligands (f-amphox) have been successfully developed and used in iridium-catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation of simple ketones to afford corresponding enantiomerically enriched alcohols under mild conditions with superb activities and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 1 000 000 TON, almost all products up to >99% ee, full conversion). The resulting chiral alcohols and their derivatives are important intermediates in pharmaceuticals.

  16. Enantioselective, Organocatalytic Reduction of Ketones using Bifunctional Thiourea-Amine Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Li, De Run; He, Anyu; Falck, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    Prochiral ketones are reduced to enantioenriched, secondary alcohols using catecholborane and a family of air-stable, bifunctional thiourea-amine organocatalysts. Asymmetric induction is proposed to arise from the in situ complexation between the borane and chiral thiourea-amine organocatalyst resulting in a stereochemically biased boronate-amine complex. The hydride in the complex is endowed with enhanced nucleophilicity while the thiourea concomitantly embraces and activates the carbonyl. PMID:20334398

  17. Lewis acid catalysis and ligand exchange in the asymmetric binaphthol-catalyzed propargylation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Matthew N; Goodman, Jonathan M

    2013-09-06

    1,1'-Bi-2-naphthol (BINOL)-derived catalysts catalyze the asymmetric propargylation of ketones. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the reaction proceeds via a closed six-membered transition structure (TS) in which the chiral catalyst undergoes an exchange process with the original cyclic boronate ligand. This leads to a Lewis acid type activation mode, not a Brønsted acid process, which accurately predicts the stereochemical outcome observed experimentally.

  18. Acyclic Ketones in the Defensive Secretion of a “Daddy Longlegs” (Leiobunum vittatum)

    PubMed Central

    Meinwald, J.; Kluge, A. F.; Carrel, J. E.; Eisner, T.

    1971-01-01

    The defensive secretion of the “daddy longlegs” Leiobunum vittatum was analyzed and found to contain the acyclic ketones 4-methylheptan-3-one and E-4,6-dimethyl-6-octen-3-one as its major organic components. Although 4-methylheptan-3-one has been found previously as an alarm substance in certain ant genera, the second component, whose structure is confirmed by synthesis, is new. PMID:5283937

  19. Acyclic ketones in the defensive secretion of a "daddy longlegs" (Leiobunum vittatum).

    PubMed

    Meinwald, J; Kluge, A F; Carrel, J E; Eisner, T

    1971-07-01

    The defensive secretion of the "daddy longlegs" Leiobunum vittatum was analyzed and found to contain the acyclic ketones 4-methylheptan-3-one and E-4,6-dimethyl-6-octen-3-one as its major organic components. Although 4-methylheptan-3-one has been found previously as an alarm substance in certain ant genera, the second component, whose structure is confirmed by synthesis, is new.

  20. Dual palladium- and proline-catalyzed allylic alkylation of enolizable ketones and aldehydes with allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Usui, Ippei; Schmidt, Stefan; Breit, Bernhard

    2009-03-19

    The dual Pd/proline-catalyzed alpha-allylation reaction of a variety of enolizable ketones and aldehydes with allylic alcohols is described. In this reaction, the choice of a large-bite angle ligand Xantphos and proline as the organocatalyst was essential for generation of the crucial pi-allyl Pd intermediate from allylic alcohol, followed by nucleophilic attack of the enamine formed in situ from the corresponding enolizable carbonyl substrate and proline.

  1. Synthesis of azines in solid state: reactivity of solid hydrazine with aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeongno; Lee, Kyu Hyung; Cho, Jaeheung; Nam, Wonwoo; Hur, Nam Hwi

    2011-12-16

    Highly conjugated azines were prepared by solid state grinding of solid hydrazine and carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes and ketones, using a mortar and a pestle. Complete conversion to the azine product is generally achieved at room temperature within 24 h, without using solvents or additives. The solid-state reactions afford azines as the sole products with greater than 97% yield, producing only water and carbon dioxide as waste.

  2. The allylation reactions of aromatic aldehydes and ketones with tin dichloride in water.

    PubMed

    Bian, Yan-Jiang; Xue, Wei-Li; Yu, Xu-Guang

    2010-01-01

    The allylation reactions of aromatic aldehydes and ketones were carried out in 31-86% yield using SnCl(2)-H(2)O system under ultrasound irradiation at r.t. for 5h. The reactions in the same system gave homoallyl alcohols in 21-84% yield with stirring at r.t. for 24h. Compared with traditional stirring methods, ultrasonic irradiation is more convenient and efficient.

  3. Gas phase heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of alkanes to aliphatic ketones and/or other oxygenates

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Manhua; Wang, Xiang; Yeom, Younghoon

    A catalyst, its method of preparation and its use for producing aliphatic ketones by subjecting alkanes C.sub.3 to C.sub.9 to a gas phase catalytic oxidation in the presence of air or oxygen, and, optionally, steam and/or one or more diluting gases. The catalyst comprises a catalytically active mixed metal oxide phase and a suitable support material onto and/or into which the active catalytic phase id dispersed.

  4. Doubly Vinylogous Aldol Reaction of Furoate Esters with Aldehydes and Ketones.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, William T; Sammakia, Tarek

    2017-01-06

    The use of bulky Lewis acids, aluminum tris(2,6-diphenylphenoxide) (ATPH) and aluminum tris(2,6-di-2-naphthylphenoxide) (ATNP), in the doubly vinylogous aldol reaction between methyl-5-methyl-2-furoate and aldehydes or ketones is described. These reactions proceed smoothly and in high yields with both enolizable and non-enolizable substrates. This C-C bond-forming reaction enables a new bond construction for the synthesis of functionalized furans.

  5. Highly efficient Cu(I)-catalyzed oxidation of alcohols to ketones and aldehydes with diaziridinone.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingguang; Zhao, Baoguo; Shi, Yian

    2013-03-01

    A novel and efficient Cu(I)-catalyzed oxidation of alcohols has been achieved with di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as the oxidant under mild conditions. A wide variety of primary and secondary alcohols with various functional groups can be oxidized to aldehydes and ketones in high yields. The reaction proceeds under neutral conditions making it compatible with acid- or base-sensitive substrates, and it is amenable to gram scale.

  6. Highly Efficient Cu(I)-Catalyzed Oxidation of Alcohols to Ketones and Aldehydes with Diaziridinone

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingguang; Zhao, Baoguo

    2013-01-01

    A novel and efficient Cu(I)-catalyzed oxidation of alcohols has been achieved with di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as oxidant under mild conditions. A wide variety of primary and secondary alcohols with various functional groups can be oxidized to aldehydes and ketones in high yields. The reaction proceeds under neutral conditions making it compatible with acid or base-sensitive substrates, and it is amenable to gram scale. PMID:23413952

  7. Copper-catalyst-controlled site-selective allenylation of ketones and aldehydes with propargyl boronates.

    PubMed

    Fandrick, Keith R; Ogikubo, Junichi; Fandrick, Daniel R; Patel, Nitinchandra D; Saha, Jaideep; Lee, Heewon; Ma, Shengli; Grinberg, Nelu; Busacca, Carl A; Senanayake, Chris H

    2013-03-15

    A practical and highly site-selective copper-PhBPE-catalyst-controlled allenylation with propargyl boronates has been developed. The methodology has shown to be tolerant of diverse ketones and aldehydes providing the allenyl adducts in high selectivity. The BPE ligand and boronate substituents were shown to direct the site selectivity for which either propargyl or allenyl adducts can be acquired in high selectivity. A model is proposed that explains the origin of the site selectivity.

  8. Gas phase heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of alkanes to aliphatic ketones and/or other oxygenates

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Manhua; Wang, Xiang; Yeom, Younghoon

    A catalyst, its method of preparation and its use for producing aliphatic ketones by subjecting alkanes C.sub.3 to C.sub.9 to a gas phase catalytic oxidation in the presence of air or oxygen, and, optionally, steam and/or one or more diluting gases. The catalyst comprises a catalytically active mixed metal oxide phase and a suitable support material onto and/or into which the active catalytic phase is dispersed.

  9. NSAID-derived γ-secretase modulation requires an acidic moiety on the carbazole scaffold.

    PubMed

    Zall, Andrea; Kieser, Daniel; Höttecke, Nicole; Naumann, Eva C; Thomaszewski, Binia; Schneider, Katrin; Steinbacher, Dirk T; Schubenel, Robert; Masur, Stefan; Baumann, Karlheinz; Schmidt, Boris

    2011-08-15

    Modulation of γ-secretase activity holds potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Most NSAID-derived γ-secretase modulators feature a carboxylic acid, which may impair blood-brain barrier permeation. The structure activity relationship of 33 carbazoles featuring diverse carboxylic acid isosteres or metabolic precursors thereof was established in a cellular amyloid secretion assay. The modulatory activity was observed for acidic moieties and metabolically labile esters only, which supports our hypothesis of an acid-lysine interaction to be relevant for this type of γ-secretase modulators. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel methyl indolinone-6-carboxylates containing an indole moiety as angiokinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Qin, Mingze; Tian, Ye; Sun, Xiaoqing; Yu, Simiao; Xia, Juanjuan; Gong, Ping; Zhang, Haotian; Zhao, Yanfang

    2017-10-20

    A novel series of methyl indolinone-6-carboxylates bearing an indole moiety were identified as potent angiokinase inhibitors. The most active compound, A8, potently targeted the kinase activities of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 2 and 3, and platelet-derived growth factor receptors α and β, with IC 50 values in the nanomolar range. In addition, A8 effectively suppressed the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and HT-29 and MCF-7 cancer cells, by inducing apoptosis. Compound A8 is thus a promising candidate for further investigation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Intervalence transfer of ferrocene moieties adsorbed on electrode surfaces by a conjugated linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Brown, Lauren E.; Konopelski, Joseph P.; Chen, Shaowei

    2009-03-01

    Effective intervalence transfer occurred between the metal centers of ferrocene moieties that were adsorbed onto a ruthenium thin film surface by ruthenium-carbene π bonds, a direct verification of Hush's four-decade-old prediction. Electrochemical measurements showed two pairs of voltammetric peaks where the separation of the formal potentials suggested a Class II behavior. Additionally, the potential spacing increased with increasing ferrocene surface coverage, most probably as a consequence of the enhanced contribution from through-space electronic interactions between the metal centers. In contrast, the incorporation of a sp 3 carbon spacer into the ferrocene-ruthenium linkage led to the diminishment of interfacial electronic communication.

  12. Bilaterally obstructed ureteropelvic junction of the upper moieties in a complete duplex collecting system.

    PubMed

    Latayan, Michael Jonathan R; Dator, Jose Dante P; Torres, Carlos Ramon N

    2008-02-01

    Maternal ultrasound is a routine examination in prenatal evaluation. The number of fetal abnormalities detected has been increasing, and includes fetal hydronephrosis which is secondary to ureteropelvic junction obstruction in 80% of cases. We report a case of a 1-year-old female infant with hydronephrosis prenatally detected by ultrasound. After close postnatal follow-up and diagnosis, she eventually underwent a definitive reconstructive procedure. This is the first reported case of a bilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction of the upper moieties of a duplex collecting system.

  13. Donor-π-Acceptor Polymer with Alternating Triarylborane and Triphenylamine Moieties.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Jäkle, Frieder

    2010-05-12

    A luminescent main chain donor-π-acceptor-type polymer (4) was prepared via organometallic polycondensation reaction followed by post modification. With both electron-rich amine and electron-deficient borane moieties embedded in the main chain, 4 exhibits an interesting ambipolar character: it can be reduced and oxidized electrochemically at moderate potentials and shows a strong solvatochromic effect in the emission spectra. Complexation studies show that 4 selectively binds to fluoride and cyanide; quantitative titration with cyanide reveals a two-step binding process. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. DIBALH mediated reduction of the acetal moiety on perhydrofuro[2,3-b]pyran derivatives.

    PubMed

    Marco-Contelles, J; Ruiz-Caro, J

    2001-09-21

    The reaction of DIBALH with bis(heteroannulated)-pyranosides containing the perhydrofuro[2,3-b]pyran moiety is described. The hydride attack at the anomeric carbon (C-9a) resulted in the exclusive tetrahydrofuran ring opening. The selectivity of this reaction has been evaluated as other benzylidene acetals built on these substrates remain practically or partially unaltered in these conditions depending on the steric volume of the O-protecting group located at C-4 (TBDMS vs. Me). This protocol can be considered as a new entry for the synthesis of chiral and highly functionalized cyclopentanes.

  15. Addition of CF3 across unsaturated moieties: a powerful functionalization tool

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, the efficient introduction of trifluoromethyl groups in organic molecules has become a major research focus. This review highlights the recent developments enabling the incorporation of CF3 groups across unsaturated moieties, preferentially alkenes, and the mechanistic scenarios governing these transformations. We have specially focused on methods involving the simultaneous formation of C–CF3 and C–C or C–heteroatom bonds by formal addition reactions across π-systems, as such difunctionalization processes hold valuable synthetic potential. PMID:24789472

  16. Synthesis of new simplified hemiasterlin derivatives with α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety.

    PubMed

    The, Chinh Pham; Thi, Tuyet Anh Dang; Hoang, Thi Phuong; Ngo, Quoc Anh; Doan, Duy Tien; Thi, Thu Ha Nguyen; Thi, Tham Pham; Thi, Thu Ha Vu; Jean, M; van de Weghe, P; Van, Tuyen Nguyen

    2014-05-15

    In this Letter, we report a convenient and efficient method for the synthesis of new simplified derivatives of hemiasterlin in which the α,α-dimethylbenzylic moiety A is replaced by α,β-unsaturated aryl groups as Michael acceptor. Most of these derivatives have a strong cytotoxic activity on three human tumor cell lines (KB, Hep-G2 and MCF7). Analogs 17b and 17f showed a high cytotoxicity against KB and Hep-G2 cancer cell lines comparable to paclitaxel and ellipticine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry - Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sund, James B.; Causey, Corey P.; Wolter, Scott D.; Parker, Charles B.; Stoner, Brian R.; Toone, Eric J.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2014-05-01

    The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen-oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  18. Role of VMH ketone bodies in adjusting caloric intake to increased dietary fat content in DIO and DR rats.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Miziorko, Henry M; Levin, Barry E

    2015-05-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential role of astrocyte-derived ketone bodies in regulating the early changes in caloric intake of diet induced-obese (DIO) versus diet-resistant (DR) rats fed a 31.5% fat high-energy (HE) diet. After 3 days on chow or HE diet, DR and DIO rats were assessed for their ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) ketone bodies levels and neuronal ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) sensing using microdialysis coupled to continuous food intake monitoring and calcium imaging in dissociated neurons, respectively. DIO rats ate more than DR rats over 3 days of HE diet intake. On day 3 of HE diet intake, DR rats reduced their caloric intake while DIO rats remained hyperphagic. Local VMH astrocyte ketone bodies production was similar between DR and DIO rats during the first 6 h after dark onset feeding but inhibiting VMH ketone body production in DR rats on day 3 transiently returned their intake of HE diet to the level of DIO rats consuming HE diet. In addition, dissociated VMN neurons from DIO and DR rats were equally sensitive to the largely excitatory effects of β-hydroxybutyrate. Thus while DR rats respond to increased VMH ketone levels by decreasing their intake after 3 days of HE diet, this is not the case of DIO rats. These data suggest that DIO inherent leptin resistance prevents ketone bodies inhibitory action on food intake.

  19. New Measurements of Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) Photolysis Rates and Their Relevance to Global Oxidative Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, J.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Mellouki, A.; Fischer, E. V.; Kukui, A.; Véronique, D.; Ait-helal, W.; Leglise, J.; Ren, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is one of the most abundant ketones in the atmosphere. MEK can be emitted directly into the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural sources, and it is also formed during the gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). MEK is lost via reaction with OH, photolysis and deposition to the surface. Similar to the other atmospheric ketones, the photolysis of MEK may represent a source of HOx (OH + HO2) radicals in the upper troposphere. The degradation of MEK also leads to the atmospheric formation of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde. This work presents a new analysis of the temperature dependence of MEK photolysis cross-sections and a quantification of MEK photolysis rates under surface pressures using the CNRS HELIOS outdoor atmospheric chamber (Chambre de simulation atmosphérique à irradiation naturelle d'Orléans; http://www.era-orleans.org/ERA-TOOLS/helios-project.html). Additionally, we use the GEOS-Chem 3-D CTM (version 10-01, www.geos-chem.org) to investigate the impact of these newly measured rates and cross-sections on the global distribution and seasonality of MEK, as well as its importance to the tropospheric oxidative capacity.

  20. Diplogelasinospora grovesii IMI 171018 immobilized in polyurethane foam. An efficient biocatalyst for stereoselective reduction of ketones.

    PubMed

    Quezada, M A; Carballeira, J D; Sinisterra, J V

    2012-05-01

    Diplogelasinospora grovesii has been reported as a very active biocatalyst in the reduction of ketones. Along the text, the properties of this filamentous fungus as an immobilized catalyst are described. For this purpose, several immobilization supports as agar and polyurethane foam were tested. Experimental assays were also performed to test different co-substrates for the regeneration of the required enzyme cofactor. The fungus immobilized in polyurethane foam lead to the most stable and active catalyst. This derivative, using i-PrOH as co-substrate, could be reused at least 18 times without appreciable activity loss (>90% activity remains). Kinetic runs experiments shown that the reduction of cyclohexanone, selected as model substrate, followed a pseudo-first kinetic order and that the rate controlling step was the mass transfer through the cell wall. The deactivation kinetic constants were also determined. The reduction of different chiral ketones showed that the ketone reductase activity followed the Prelog's rule. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Highly productive CNN pincer ruthenium catalysts for the asymmetric reduction of alkyl aryl ketones.

    PubMed

    Baratta, Walter; Chelucci, Giorgio; Magnolia, Santo; Siega, Katia; Rigo, Pierluigi

    2009-01-01

    Chiral pincer ruthenium complexes of formula [RuCl(CNN)(Josiphos)] (2-7; Josiphos = 1-[1-(dicyclohexylphosphano)ethyl]-2-(diarylphosphano)ferrocene) have been prepared by treating [RuCl(2)(PPh(3))(3)] with (S,R)-Josiphos diphosphanes and 1-substituted-1-(6-arylpyridin-2-yl)methanamines (HCNN; substituent = H (1 a), Me (1 b), and tBu (1 c)) with NEt(3). By using 1 b and 1 c as a racemic mixture, complexes 4-7 were obtained through a diastereoselective synthesis promoted by acetic acid. These pincer complexes, which display correctly matched chiral PP and CNN ligands, are remarkably active catalysts for the asymmetric reduction of alkyl aryl ketones in basic alcohol media by both transfer hydrogenation (TH) and hydrogenation (HY), achieving enantioselectivities of up to 99 %. In 2-propanol, the enantioselective TH of ketones was accomplished by using a catalyst loading as low as 0.002 mol % and afforded a turnover frequency (TOF) of 10(5)-10(6) h(-1) (60 and 82 degrees C). In methanol/ethanol mixtures, the CNN pincer complexes catalyzed the asymmetric HY of ketones with H(2) (5 atm) at 0.01 mol % relative to the complex with a TOF of approximately 10(4) h(-1) at 40 degrees C.

  2. A rational approach to predict and modulate stereolability of chiral alpha substituted ketones.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Roberto; Costi, Roberta; Di Santo, Roberto; Gasparrini, Francesco; La Torre, Francesco; Pierini, Marco; Siani, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    An effective strategy to assess and modulate the stereolability of chiral alpha substituted ketones (C alpha SKs) is presented. The tendency of C alpha SKs to retain or change their configuration in water is analyzed as a function of thermodynamic proton-release attitude of alpha asymmetric atoms inside the structures by linear Brønsted correlations. A molecular modeling procedure was developed to analyze and suggest chemical modifications of C alpha SKs in view to obtain the desired grade of stereochemical stability. The approach was employed to predict the tendency to enantiomerize in water of two ketones (1 and 2) endowed with inhibitory activity against monoamine oxidases (MAOs) and the results were confirmed by experimental kinetics measurements performed in organic medium. As a demonstration of practical potentialities of the approach, four new structures, conceived as simple chemical modifications of 1 and 2, were designed to improve/reduce the stereostability grade of the starting anti-MAO ketones. The possibility to extend easily the procedure to other classes of C-H acids appears of interest.

  3. An Unconventional Redox Cross Claisen Condensation-Aromatization of 4-Hydroxyprolines with Ketones.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mi; Sun, Rengwei; Li, Hao; Yu, Xinhong; Wang, Wei

    2017-08-18

    Reaction of α-amino acids, particularly prolines and their derivatives with carbonyl compounds via decarboxylative redox process, is a viable strategy for synthesis of structurally diverse nitrogen centered heterocyclics. In these processes, the decarboxylation is the essential driving force for the processes. The realization of the redox process without decarboxylation may offer an opportunity to explore new reactions. Herein, we report the discovery of an unprecedented redox Claisen-type condensation aromatization cascade reaction of 4-substituted 4-hydroxyproline and its esters with unreactive ketones. We found that the use of propionic acid as a catalyst and a co-solvent can change the reaction course. The commonly observed redox decarboxylation and aldol condensation reactions are significantly minimized. Moreover, unreactive ketones can effectively participate in the Claisen condensation reaction. The new reactivity enables a redox cyclization via an unconventional Claisen-type condensation reaction of in situ formed enamine intermediates from ketone precursors with 4-substituted 4-hydroxyproline and its esters as electrophilic acylation partners. Under the reaction conditions, the cascade process proceeds highly regio- and stereoselectively to afford highly synthetically and biologically valued cis-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizin-1-ones with a broad substrate scope in efficient 'one-pot' operation, whereas such structures generally require multiple steps.

  4. Composition of secondary alcohols, ketones, alkanediols, and ketols in Arabidopsis thaliana cuticular waxes

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Miao; Jetter, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    Arabidopsis wax components containing secondary functional groups were examined (i) to test the biosynthetic relationship between secondary alcohols and ketols and (ii) to determine the regiospecificity and substrate preference of the enzyme involved in ketol biosynthesis. The stem wax of Arabidopsis wild type contained homologous series of C27 to C31 secondary alcohols (2.4 μg cm−2) and C28 to C30 ketones (6.0 μg cm−2) dominated by C29 homologues. In addition, compound classes containing two secondary functional groups were identified as C29 diols (∼0.05 μg cm−2) and ketols (∼0.16 μg cm−2). All four compound classes showed characteristic isomer distributions, with functional groups located between C-14 and C-16. In the mah1 mutant stem wax, diols and ketols could not be detected, while the amounts of secondary alcohols and ketones were drastically reduced. In two MAH1-overexpressing lines, equal amounts of C29 and C31 secondary alcohols were detected. Based on the comparison of homologue and isomer compositions between the different genotypes, it can be concluded that biosynthetic pathways lead from alkanes to secondary alcohols, and via ketones or diols to ketols. It seems plausible that MAH1 is the hydroxylase enzyme involved in all these conversions in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:19346242

  5. The neuroprotective properties of calorie restriction, the ketogenic diet, and ketone bodies.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Marwan; Rho, Jong M; Mattson, Mark P

    2009-03-01

    Both calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet possess broad therapeutic potential in various clinical settings and in various animal models of neurological disease. Following calorie restriction or consumption of a ketogenic diet, there is notable improvement in mitochondrial function, a decrease in the expression of apoptotic and inflammatory mediators and an increase in the activity of neurotrophic factors. However, despite these intriguing observations, it is not yet clear which of these mechanisms account for the observed neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, limited compliance and concern for adverse effects hamper efforts at broader clinical application. Recent research aimed at identifying compounds that can reproduce, at least partially, the neuroprotective effects of the diets with less demanding changes to food intake suggests that ketone bodies might represent an appropriate candidate. Ketone bodies protect neurons against multiple types of neuronal injury and are associated with mitochondrial effects similar to those described during calorie restriction or ketogenic diet treatment. The present review summarizes the neuroprotective effects of calorie restriction, of the ketogenic diet and of ketone bodies, and compares their putative mechanisms of action.

  6. The collective therapeutic potential of cerebral ketone metabolism in traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Mayumi L.; Matsumoto, Joyce H.

    2014-01-01

    The postinjury period of glucose metabolic depression is accompanied by adenosine triphosphate decreases, increased flux of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway, free radical production, activation of poly-ADP ribose polymerase via DNA damage, and inhibition of glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase (a key glycolytic enzyme) via depletion of the cytosolic NAD pool. Under these post-brain injury conditions of impaired glycolytic metabolism, glucose becomes a less favorable energy substrate. Ketone bodies are the only known natural alternative substrate to glucose for cerebral energy metabolism. While it has been demonstrated that other fuels (pyruvate, lactate, and acetyl-L-carnitine) can be metabolized by the brain, ketones are the only endogenous fuel that can contribute significantly to cerebral metabolism. Preclinical studies employing both pre- and postinjury implementation of the ketogenic diet have demonstrated improved structural and functional outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) models, mild TBI/concussion models, and spinal cord injury. Further clinical studies are required to determine the optimal method to induce cerebral ketone metabolism in the postinjury brain, and to validate the neuroprotective benefits of ketogenic therapy in humans. PMID:24721741

  7. The collective therapeutic potential of cerebral ketone metabolism in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Prins, Mayumi L; Matsumoto, Joyce H

    2014-12-01

    The postinjury period of glucose metabolic depression is accompanied by adenosine triphosphate decreases, increased flux of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway, free radical production, activation of poly-ADP ribose polymerase via DNA damage, and inhibition of glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase (a key glycolytic enzyme) via depletion of the cytosolic NAD pool. Under these post-brain injury conditions of impaired glycolytic metabolism, glucose becomes a less favorable energy substrate. Ketone bodies are the only known natural alternative substrate to glucose for cerebral energy metabolism. While it has been demonstrated that other fuels (pyruvate, lactate, and acetyl-L-carnitine) can be metabolized by the brain, ketones are the only endogenous fuel that can contribute significantly to cerebral metabolism. Preclinical studies employing both pre- and postinjury implementation of the ketogenic diet have demonstrated improved structural and functional outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) models, mild TBI/concussion models, and spinal cord injury. Further clinical studies are required to determine the optimal method to induce cerebral ketone metabolism in the postinjury brain, and to validate the neuroprotective benefits of ketogenic therapy in humans. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. A new way to produce hyperketonemia: use of ketone ester in a case of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Newport, Mary T; VanItallie, Theodore B; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; King, Michael Todd; Veech, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Providing ketone bodies to the brain can bypass metabolic blocks to glucose utilization and improve function in energy-starved neurons. For this, plasma ketones must be elevated well above the ≤ 0.2 mM default concentrations normally prevalent. Limitations of dietary methods currently used to produce therapeutic hyperketonemia have stimulated the search for better approaches. Described herein is a new way to produce therapeutic hyperketonemia, entailing prolonged oral administration of a potent ketogenic agent--ketone monoester (KME)--to a patient with Alzheimer's disease dementia and a pretreatment Mini-Mental State Examination score of 12. The patient improved markedly in mood, affect, self-care, and cognitive and daily activity performance. The KME was well tolerated throughout the 20-month treatment period. Cognitive performance tracked plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, with noticeable improvements in conversation and interaction at the higher levels, compared with predose levels. KME-induced hyperketonemia is robust, convenient, and safe, and the ester can be taken as an oral supplement without changing the habitual diet. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Ketone bodies do not directly alter excitatory or inhibitory hippocampal synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Thio, L L; Wong, M; Yamada, K A

    2000-01-25

    To determine the effect of the ketone bodies beta-hydroxybutyrate (betaHB) and acetoacetate (AA) on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the mammalian CNS. The ketogenic diet is presumed to be an effective anticonvulsant regimen for some children with medically intractable seizures. However, its mechanism of action remains a mystery. According to one hypothesis, ketone bodies have anticonvulsant properties. The authors examined the effect of betaHB and AA on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal-entorhinal cortex slices and cultured hippocampal neurons. In cultured neurons, their effect was also directly assayed on postsynaptic receptor properties. Finally, their ability to prevent spontaneous seizures was determined in a hippocampal-entorhinal cortex slice model. betaHB and AA did not alter synaptic transmission in these models. The anticonvulsant properties of the ketogenic diet do not result from a direct effect of ketone bodies on the primary voltage and ligand gated ion channels mediating excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmission in the hippocampus.

  10. Drude polarizable force field for aliphatic ketones and aldehydes, and their associated acyclic carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Meagan C.; Aytenfisu, Asaminew H.; Lin, Fang-Yu; He, Xibing; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2017-04-01

    The majority of computer simulations exploring biomolecular function employ Class I additive force fields (FF), which do not treat polarization explicitly. Accordingly, much effort has been made into developing models that go beyond the additive approximation. Development and optimization of the Drude polarizable FF has yielded parameters for selected lipids, proteins, DNA and a limited number of carbohydrates. The work presented here details parametrization of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones (viz. acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butaryaldehyde, isobutaryaldehyde, acetone, and butanone) as well as their associated acyclic sugars ( d-allose and d-psicose). LJ parameters are optimized targeting experimental heats of vaporization and molecular volumes, while the electrostatic parameters are optimized targeting QM water interactions, dipole moments, and molecular polarizabilities. Bonded parameters are targeted to both QM and crystal survey values, with the models for ketones and aldehydes shown to be in good agreement with QM and experimental target data. The reported heats of vaporization and molecular volumes represent a compromise between the studied model compounds. Simulations of the model compounds show an increase in the magnitude and the fluctuations of the dipole moments in moving from gas phase to condensed phases, which is a phenomenon that the additive FF is intrinsically unable to reproduce. The result is a polarizable model for aliphatic ketones and aldehydes including the acyclic sugars d-allose and d-psicose, thereby extending the available biomolecules in the Drude polarizable FF.

  11. Drude polarizable force field for aliphatic ketones and aldehydes, and their associated acyclic carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Small, Meagan C; Aytenfisu, Asaminew H; Lin, Fang-Yu; He, Xibing; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2017-04-01

    The majority of computer simulations exploring biomolecular function employ Class I additive force fields (FF), which do not treat polarization explicitly. Accordingly, much effort has been made into developing models that go beyond the additive approximation. Development and optimization of the Drude polarizable FF has yielded parameters for selected lipids, proteins, DNA and a limited number of carbohydrates. The work presented here details parametrization of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones (viz. acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butaryaldehyde, isobutaryaldehyde, acetone, and butanone) as well as their associated acyclic sugars (D-allose and D-psicose). LJ parameters are optimized targeting experimental heats of vaporization and molecular volumes, while the electrostatic parameters are optimized targeting QM water interactions, dipole moments, and molecular polarizabilities. Bonded parameters are targeted to both QM and crystal survey values, with the models for ketones and aldehydes shown to be in good agreement with QM and experimental target data. The reported heats of vaporization and molecular volumes represent a compromise between the studied model compounds. Simulations of the model compounds show an increase in the magnitude and the fluctuations of the dipole moments in moving from gas phase to condensed phases, which is a phenomenon that the additive FF is intrinsically unable to reproduce. The result is a polarizable model for aliphatic ketones and aldehydes including the acyclic sugars D-allose and D-psicose, thereby extending the available biomolecules in the Drude polarizable FF.

  12. Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation and Hydrogen Production in the Ketonization of Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Lina M; Renz, Michael; Corma, Avelino

    2016-09-08

    Aldehydes possess relatively high chemical energy, which is the driving force for disproportionation reactions such as Cannizzaro and Tishchenko reactions. Generally, this energy is wasted if aldehydes are transformed into carboxylic acids with a sacrificial oxidant. Here, we describe a cascade reaction in which the surplus energy of the transformation is liberated as molecular hydrogen for the oxidation of heptanal to heptanoic acid by water, and the carboxylic acid is transformed into potentially industrially relevant symmetrical ketones by ketonic decarboxylation. The cascade reaction is catalyzed by monoclinic zirconium oxide (m-ZrO2 ). The reaction mechanism has been studied through cross-coupling experiments between different aldehydes and acids, and the final symmetrical ketones are formed by a reaction pathway that involves the previously formed carboxylic acids. Isotopic studies indicate that the carboxylic acid can be formed by a hydride shift from the adsorbed aldehyde on the metal oxide surface in the absence of noble metals. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Integrated quantification and identification of aldehydes and ketones in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Siegel, David; Meinema, Anne C; Permentier, Hjalmar; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Bischoff, Rainer

    2014-05-20

    The identification of unknown compounds remains to be a bottleneck of mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics screening experiments. Here, we present a novel approach which facilitates the identification and quantification of analytes containing aldehyde and ketone groups in biological samples by adding chemical information to MS data. Our strategy is based on rapid autosampler-in-needle-derivatization with p-toluenesulfonylhydrazine (TSH). The resulting TSH-hydrazones are separated by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and detected by electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight (ESI-QqTOF) mass spectrometry using a SWATH (Sequential Window Acquisition of all Theoretical Fragment-Ion Spectra) data-independent high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) approach. Derivatization makes small, poorly ionizable or retained analytes amenable to reversed phase chromatography and electrospray ionization in both polarities. Negatively charged TSH-hydrazone ions furthermore show a simple and predictable fragmentation pattern upon collision induced dissociation, which enables the chemo-selective screening for unknown aldehydes and ketones via a signature fragment ion (m/z 155.0172). By means of SWATH, targeted and nontargeted application scenarios of the suggested derivatization route are enabled in the frame of a single UHPLC-ESI-QqTOF-HR-MS workflow. The method's ability to simultaneously quantify and identify molecules containing aldehyde and ketone groups is demonstrated using 61 target analytes from various compound classes and a (13)C labeled yeast matrix. The identification of unknowns in biological samples is detailed using the example of indole-3-acetaldehyde.

  14. Drude Polarizable Force Field for Aliphatic Ketones and Aldehydes, and their Associated Acyclic Carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Small, Meagan C.; Aytenfisu, Asaminew H.; Lin, Fang-Yu; He, Xibing; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of computer simulations exploring biomolecular function employ Class I additive force fields (FF), which do not treat polarization explicitly. Accordingly, much effort has been made into developing models that go beyond the additive approximation. Development and optimization of the Drude polarizable FF has yielded parameters for selected lipids, proteins, DNA and a limited number of carbohydrates. The work presented here details parametrization of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones (viz. acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butaryaldehyde, isobutaryaldehyde, acetone, and butanone) as well as their associated acyclic sugars (D-allose and D-psicose). LJ parameters are optimized targeting experimental heats of vaporization and molecular volumes, while the electrostatic parameters are optimized targeting QM water interactions, dipole moments, and molecular polarizabilities. Bonded parameters are targeted to both QM and crystal survey values, with the models for ketones and aldehydes shown to be in good agreement with QM and experimental target data. The reported heats of vaporization and molecular volumes represent a compromise between the studied model compounds. Simulations of the model compounds show an increase in the magnitude and the fluctuations of the dipole moments in moving from gas phase to condensed phases, which is a phenomenon that the additive FF is intrinsically unable to reproduce. The result is a polarizable model for aliphatic ketones and aldehydes including the acyclic sugars D-allose and D-psicose, thereby extending the available biomolecules in the Drude polarizable FF. PMID:28190218

  15. Enhanced Proton Conductivity of Sulfonated Hybrid Poly(arylene ether ketone) Membranes by Incorporating an Amino-Sulfo Bifunctionalized Metal-Organic Framework for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Ru, Chunyu; Li, Zhenhua; Zhao, Chengji; Duan, Yuting; Zhuang, Zhuang; Bu, Fanzhe; Na, Hui

    2018-03-07

    Novel side-chain-type sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) (SNF-PAEK) containing naphthalene and fluorine moieties on the main chain was prepared in this work, and a new amino-sulfo-bifunctionalized metal-organic framework (MNS, short for MIL-101-NH 2 -SO 3 H) was synthesized via a hydrothermal technology and postmodification. Then, MNS was incorporated into a SNF-PAEK matrix as an inorganic nanofiller to prepare a series of organic-inorganic hybrid membranes (MNS@SNF-PAEK-XX). The mechanical property, methanol resistance, electrochemistry, and other properties of MNS@SNF-PAEK-XX hybrid membranes were characterized in detail. We found that the mechanical strength and methanol resistances of these hybrid membranes were improved by the formation of an ionic cross-linking structure between -NH 2 of MNS and -SO 3 H on the side chain of SNF-PAEK. Particularly, the proton conductivity of these hybrid membranes increased obviously after the addition of MNS. MNS@SNF-PAEK-3% exhibited the proton conductivity of 0.192 S·cm -1 , which was much higher than those of the pristine membrane (0.145 S·cm -1 ) and recast Nafion (0.134 S·cm -1 ) at 80 °C. This result indicated that bifunctionalized MNS rearranged the microstructure of hybrid membranes, which could accelerate the transfer of protons. The hybrid membrane (MNS@SNF-PAEK-3%) showed a better direct methanol fuel cell performance with a higher peak power density of 125.7 mW/cm 2 at 80 °C and a higher open-circuit voltage (0.839 V) than the pristine membrane.

  16. Statistical mechanical model of gas adsorption in porous crystals with dynamic moieties

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Efrem; Carraro, Carlo; Smit, Berend

    2017-01-01

    Some nanoporous, crystalline materials possess dynamic constituents, for example, rotatable moieties. These moieties can undergo a conformation change in response to the adsorption of guest molecules, which qualitatively impacts adsorption behavior. We pose and solve a statistical mechanical model of gas adsorption in a porous crystal whose cages share a common ligand that can adopt two distinct rotational conformations. Guest molecules incentivize the ligands to adopt a different rotational configuration than maintained in the empty host. Our model captures inflections, steps, and hysteresis that can arise in the adsorption isotherm as a signature of the rotating ligands. The insights disclosed by our simple model contribute a more intimate understanding of the response and consequence of rotating ligands integrated into porous materials to harness them for gas storage and separations, chemical sensing, drug delivery, catalysis, and nanoscale devices. Particularly, our model reveals design strategies to exploit these moving constituents and engineer improved adsorbents with intrinsic thermal management for pressure-swing adsorption processes. PMID:28049851

  17. Design, synthesis, and antiviral activity of novel rutin derivatives containing 1, 4-pentadien-3-one moiety.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu; Ding, Yan; Xie, Dandan; Hu, Deyu; Li, Pei; Li, Xiangyang; Xue, Wei; Jin, Linhong; Song, Baoan

    2015-03-06

    Rutin (compound 5) and some compounds (compounds 1-4 and 6) were isolated from Artemisia princeps Pamp (A. princeps Pamp.) and a series of novel rutin derivatives containing 1,4-pentadien-3-one moiety were designed and synthesized. The target compounds were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C NMR), and ESI-MS. Bioassay results indicated that some of the compounds showed good to excellent antiviral activities against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) at 500 μg/mL in vivo. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of the compound 7r against CMV was 394.78 μg/mL, which was better than that of Ningnanmycin (432.22 μg/mL). These results indicated that novel rutin derivatives containing 1,4-pentadien-3-one moiety can effectively control CMV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies toward understanding the SAR around the sulfoximine moiety of the sap-feeding insecticide sulfoxaflor.

    PubMed

    Buysse, Ann M; Nugent, Benjamin M; Wang, Nick X; Benko, Zoltan; Breaux, Nneka; Rogers, Richard; Zhu, Yuanming

    2017-04-01

    The discovery of sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active) stemmed from a novel scaffold-based approach toward identifying bioactive molecules. It exhibits broad-spectrum control of many sap-feeding insect pests, including aphids, whiteflies, hoppers and Lygus. Systematic modifications of the substituents flanking each side of the sulfoximine moiety were carried out to determine whether these changes would improve potency. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies showed that, with respect to the methylene linker, both mono- and disubstitution with alkyl groups of varying sizes as well as cyclic analogs exhibited excellent control of cotton aphids. However, against green peach aphids a decrease in activity was observed with substituents larger than ethyl as well as larger cycloalkyl groups. At the terminal tail there appeared to be a narrow steric tolerance as well, with linear groups or small rings more active against green peach aphids than bulkier groups. A novel series of compounds exploring the substituents flanking the sulfoximine moiety of sulfoxaflor were prepared and tested for bioactivity against cotton aphids and green peach aphids. SAR studies indicated that a decrease in green peach aphid potency was observed at the methylene linker as well as at the terminal tail with bulkier substituents. A quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of the compounds revealed significant correlation of activity with two molecular descriptors, vol (volume of a molecule) and GCUT_SMR_3 (molar refractivity). This predictive model helps to explain the observed activity with the various substituents. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Surface modified liposomes by mannosylated conjugates anchored via the adamantyl moiety in the lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Stimac, Adela; Segota, Suzana; Dutour Sikirić, Maja; Ribić, Rosana; Frkanec, Leo; Svetličić, Vesna; Tomić, Srđanka; Vranešić, Branka; Frkanec, Ruža

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to encapsulate mannosylated 1-aminoadamantane and mannosylated adamantyltripeptides, namely [(2R)-N-(adamant-1-yl)-3-(α,β-d-mannopyranosyloxy)-2-methylpropanamide and (2R)-N-[3-(α-d-mannopyranosyloxy)-2-methylpropanoyl]-d,l-(adamant-2-yl)glycyl-l-alanyl-d-isoglutamine] in liposomes. The characterization of liposomes, size and surface morphology was performed using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results have revealed that the encapsulation of examined compounds changes the size and surface of liposomes. After the concanavalin A (ConA) was added to the liposome preparation, increase in liposome size and their aggregation has been observed. The enlargement of liposomes was ascribed to the specific binding of the ConA to the mannose present on the surface of the prepared liposomes. Thus, it has been shown that the adamantyl moiety from mannosylated 1-aminoadamantane and mannosylated adamantyltripeptides can be used as an anchor in the lipid bilayer for carbohydrate moiety exposed on the liposome surface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Exogenous Ketone Supplements Reduce Anxiety-Related Behavior in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ari, Csilla; Kovács, Zsolt; Juhasz, Gabor; Murdun, Cem; Goldhagen, Craig R.; Koutnik, Andrew P.; Poff, Angela M.; Kesl, Shannon L.; D’Agostino, Dominic P.

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional ketosis has been proven effective for seizure disorders and other neurological disorders. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of ketone supplementation on anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We tested exogenous ketone supplements added to food and fed chronically for 83 days in SPD rats and administered sub-chronically for 7 days in both rat models by daily intragastric gavage bolus followed by assessment of anxiety measures on elevated plus maze (EPM). The groups included standard diet (SD) or SD + ketone supplementation. Low-dose ketone ester (LKE; 1,3-butanediol-acetoacetate diester, ~10 g/kg/day, LKE), high dose ketone ester (HKE; ~25 g/kg/day, HKE), beta-hydroxybutyrate-mineral salt (βHB-S; ~25 g/kg/day, KS) and βHB-S + medium chain triglyceride (MCT; ~25 g/kg/day, KSMCT) were used as ketone supplementation for chronic administration. To extend our results, exogenous ketone supplements were also tested sub-chronically on SPD rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 5 g/kg/day) and on WAG/Rij rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 2.5 g/kg/day). At the end of treatments behavioral data collection was conducted manually by a blinded observer and with a video-tracking system, after which blood βHB and glucose levels were measured. Ketone supplementation reduced anxiety on EPM as measured by less entries to closed arms (sub-chronic KE and KS: SPD rats and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats), more time spent in open arms (sub-chronic KE: SPD and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats; chronic KSMCT: SPD rats), more distance traveled in open arms (chronic KS and KSMCT: SPD rats) and by delayed latency to entrance to closed arms (chronic KSMCT: SPD rats), when compared to control. Our data indicates that chronic and sub-chronic ketone supplementation not only elevated blood βHB levels in both animal models, but reduced anxiety-related behavior. We conclude that ketone supplementation may represent a promising anxiolytic strategy through a

  1. Highly stereoselective three-component reactions of phenylselenomagnesium bromide, acetylenic sulfones, and saturated aldehydes/ketones or alpha,beta-unsaturated enals or enones.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xian; Xie, Meihua

    2002-12-13

    beta-Phenylseleno-alpha-tolylsulfonyl-substituted alkenes were synthesized via the three-component conjugate-nucleophilic addition of acetylenic sulfones, phenylselenomagnesium bromide, and carbonyl compounds, such as aldehydes, aliphatic ketones, or alpha,beta-unsaturated enals or enones. The reaction is highly regio- and stereoselective with moderate to good yields. Functionalized allylic alcohols were obtained in the case of aldehydes and aliphatic ketones. In the case of alpha,beta-unsaturated enones, functionalized allylic alcohols or functionalized gamma,delta-unsaturated ketones were obtained, depending on the structures of the ketones.

  2. Transformation of ranitidine during water chlorination and ozonation: Moiety-specific reaction kinetics and elimination efficiency of NDMA formation potential.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Dahee; Kim, Jisoo; Shin, Jaedon; Hidayat, Zahra Ramadhany; Na, Soyoung; Lee, Yunho

    2016-11-15

    Ranitidine can produce high yields of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) upon chloramination and its presence in water resources is a concern for water utilities using chloramine disinfection. This study assessed the efficiency of water chlorination and ozonation in transforming ranitidine and eliminating its NDMA formation potential (NDMA-FP) by determining moiety-specific reaction kinetics, stoichiometric factors, and elimination levels in real water matrices. Despite the fact that chlorine reacts rapidly with the acetamidine and thioether moieties of ranitidine (k>10(8)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7), the NDMA-FP decreases significantly only when chlorine reacts with the less reactive tertiary amine (k=3×10(3)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7) or furan moiety (k=81M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7). Ozone reacts rapidly with all four moieties of ranitidine (k=1.5×10(5)-1.6×10(6)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7) and its reaction with the tertiary amine or furan moiety leads to complete elimination of the NDMA-FP. Treatments of ranitidine-spiked real water samples have shown that ozonation can efficiently deactivate ranitidine in water and wastewater treatment, while chlorination can be efficient for water containing low concentration of ammonia. This result can be applied to the other structurally similar, potent NDMA precursors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Difference of carboxybetaine and oligo(ethylene glycol) moieties in altering hydrophobic interactions: a molecular simulation study.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qing; White, Andrew D; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2014-01-09

    Polycarboxybetaine and poly(ethylene glycol) materials resist nonspecific protein adsorption but differ in influencing biological functions such as enzymatic activity. To investigate this difference, we studied the influence of carboxybetaine and oligo(ethylene glycol) moieties on hydrophobic interactions using molecular simulations. We employed a model system composed of two non-polar plates and studied the potential of mean force of plate-plate association in carboxybetaine, (ethylene glycol)4, and (ethylene glycol)2 solutions using well-tempered metadynamics simulations. Water, trimethylamine N-oxide, and urea solutions were used as reference systems. We analyzed the variation of the potential of mean force in various solutions to study how carboxybetaine and oligo(ethylene glycol) moieties influence the hydrophobic interactions. To study the origin of their influence, we analyzed the normalized distributions of moieties and water molecules using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results showed that oligo(ethylene glycol) moieties repel water molecules away from the non-polar plates and weaken the hydrophobic interactions. Carboxybetaine moieties do not repel water molecules away from the plates and therefore do not influence the hydrophobic interactions.

  4. Poly(vinyl Chloride) Photostabilization in the Presence of Schiff Bases Containing a Thiadiazole Moiety.

    PubMed

    Shaalan, Naser; Laftah, Nawres; El-Hiti, Gamal A; Alotaibi, Mohammad Hayal; Muslih, Raad; Ahmed, Dina S; Yousif, Emad

    2018-04-15

    Five Schiff bases containing a thiadiazole moiety have been used as poly(vinyl chloride) photostabilizers at low concentrations. The efficiency of Schiff bases as photostabilizers was investigated using various techniques, for example, the changes in poly(vinyl chloride) infrared spectra, molecular weight, chain scission quantum yield, and surface morphology were monitored upon irradiation with an ultraviolet light. Evidently, all the additives used inhibited poly(vinyl chloride) photodegradation at a significant level. The most efficient Schiff base exhibited a high level of aromaticity and contained a hydroxyl group. It seems possible that such photostabilization could be due to the direct absorption of ultraviolet radiation by the additives. In addition, Schiff bases could act as radical scavengers and proton transfer facilitators to stabilize the polymeric materials.

  5. A novel diarylheptanoid-bearing sesquiterpene moiety from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum.

    PubMed

    Wei, Na; Zhou, Zhonglin; Wei, Qing; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Junqing; Wu, Lixiang; Dai, Shuiping; Li, Youbin

    2016-10-01

    A new diarylheptanoid analogue-bearing sesquiterpene moiety, named Alpinisin A, was isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance. The new structure was determined by various spectroscopic techniques (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), (13)C-attached proton test ((13)C-APT), heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), (1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy ((1)H-(1)HCOSY), nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS). The compound was tested for cytotoxic activity in vitro against human tumour cell lines (gastric carcinoma cell -7901 (SGC-7901), Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) and Caski), which showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 levels of 11.42, 15.14 and 14.78 μM, respectively. The novel chemical structure characterised with a diarylheptanoid linked to a chain-like sesquiterpenoid should be highlighted.

  6. Renal pelvis urothelial carcinoma of the upper moiety in complete right renal duplex: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiran; Yu, Quanfeng; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Ranlu; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) originated from renal pelvis is the common tumor of the urinary system, however, neoplasia of the renal pelvis in duplex kidneys is extremely rare, especially in the complete renal and ureteral duplex cases. We present the first case of renal pelvis UC of the upper moiety in a complete right renal duplex. This male patient has bilateral complete renal and ureteral duplex. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of renal pelvis UC in a complete renal duplex system. After this experience we feel that the diagnosis of renal pelvis UC in duplex kidneys is not so easy, and once the diagnosis is determined, the whole renal duplex units and bladder cuff or ectopic orifice should be excised radically.

  7. Nitric oxide donor beta2-agonists: furoxan derivatives containing the fenoterol moiety and related furazans.

    PubMed

    Buonsanti, M Federica; Bertinaria, Massimo; Stilo, Antonella Di; Cena, Clara; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2007-10-04

    The structure of fenoterol, a beta2-adrenoceptor agonist used in therapy, has been joined with furoxan NO-donor moieties to give new NO-donor beta2-agonists. The furazan analogues, devoid of the property to release NO, were also synthesized for comparison. All the compounds retained beta2-agonistic activity at micromolar or submicromolar concentration when tested on guinea pig tracheal rings precontracted with carbachol. Among the furoxan derivatives, the NO contribution to trachea relaxation was evident with product 15b at micromolar concentrations. All the new NO-donor hybrids were able to dilate rat aortic strips precontracted with phenylephrine. Both furoxan and furazan derivatives displayed antioxidant activity greater than that of fenoterol.

  8. SAR studies directed toward the pyridine moiety of the sap-feeding insecticide sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active).

    PubMed

    Loso, Michael R; Benko, Zoltan; Buysse, Ann; Johnson, Timothy C; Nugent, Benjamin M; Rogers, Richard B; Sparks, Thomas C; Wang, Nick X; Watson, Gerald B; Zhu, Yuanming

    2016-02-01

    Sap-feeding insect pests constitute a major insect pest complex that includes a range of aphids, whiteflies, planthoppers and other insect species. Sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active), a new sulfoximine class insecticide, targets sap-feeding insect pests including those resistant to many other classes of insecticides. A structure activity relationship (SAR) investigation of the sulfoximine insecticides revealed the importance of a 3-pyridyl ring and a methyl substituent on the methylene bridge linking the pyridine and the sulfoximine moiety to achieving strong Myzus persicae activity. A more in depth QSAR investigation of pyridine ring substituents revealed a strong correlation with the calculated logoctanol/water partition coefficient (SlogP). Model development resulted in a highly predictive model for a set of 18 sulfoximines including sulfoxaflor. The model is consistent with and helps explain the highly optimized pyridine substitution pattern for sulfoxaflor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The lipid moiety of brincidofovir is required for in vitro antiviral activity against Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Laura K; Flint, Mike; Dyall, Julie; Albariño, César; Olinger, Gene G; Foster, Scott; Sethna, Phiroze; Hensley, Lisa E; Nichol, Stuart T; Lanier, E Randall; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2016-01-01

    Brincidofovir (BCV) is the 3-hexadecyloxy-1-propanol (HDP) lipid conjugate of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir (CDV). BCV has established broad-spectrum activity against double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses; however, its activity against RNA viruses has been less thoroughly evaluated. Here, we report that BCV inhibited infection of Ebola virus in multiple human cell lines. Unlike the mechanism of action for BCV against cytomegalovirus and other dsDNA viruses, phosphorylation of CDV to the diphosphate form appeared unnecessary. Instead, antiviral activity required the lipid moiety and in vitro activity against EBOV was observed for several HDP-nucleotide conjugates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Peripheral Hole Acceptor Moieties on an Organic Dye Improve Dye‐Sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan; Gabrielsson, Erik; Lohse, Peter William; Yang, Wenxing; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of charge transfer dynamics in dye‐sensitized solar cells is of fundamental interest and the control of these dynamics is a key factor for developing more efficient solar cell devices. One possibility for attenuating losses through recombination between injected electrons and oxidized dye molecules is to move the positive charge further away from the metal oxide surface. For this purpose, a metal‐free dye named E6 is developed, in which the chromophore core is tethered to two external triphenylamine (TPA) units. After photoinduced electron injection into TiO2, the remaining hole is rapidly transferred to a peripheral TPA unit. Electron–hole recombination is slowed down by 30% compared to a reference dye without peripheral TPA units. Furthermore, it is found that the added TPA moieties improve the electron blocking effect of the dye, retarding recombination of electrons from TiO2 to the cobalt‐based electrolyte. PMID:27722076

  11. Hydrotropic polymer micelles containing acrylic acid moieties for oral delivery of paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungwon; Kim, Ji Young; Huh, Kang Moo; Acharya, Ghanshyam; Park, Kinam

    2008-01-01

    Hydrotropic polymers (HPs) and their micelles have been recently developed as vehicles for delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs, such as paclitaxel (PTX), by oral administration. The release of PTX from HP micelles, however, was slow and it took more than a day for complete release of the loaded PTX. Since the gastrointestinal (GI) transit time is known to be only several hours, pH-sensitive HP micelles were prepared for fast release of the loaded PTX responding to pH changes along the GI tract. Acrylic acid (AA) was introduced, as a release modulator, into HPs by copolymerization with 4-(2-vinylbenzyloxy)-N,N-(diethylnicotinamide) (VBODENA). The AA content was varied from 0% to 50 % (in the molar ratio to VBODENA). HPs spontaneously produced micelles in water, and their critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) ranged from 31 μg/mL to 86 μg/mL. Fluorescence probe study using pyrene showed that blank HP micelles possessed a good pH-sensitivity, which was clearly observed at relatively high AA contents and pH > 6. The pH sensitivity also affected the PTX loading property. Above pH 5, the PTX loading content and loading efficiency in HP micelles were significantly reduced. Although this may be primarily due to the AA moieties, other factors may include PTX degradation and polymer aggregation. The PTX release from HP micelles with more than 20% (mol) AA contents was completed within 12 h in a simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, pH=6.5). The HP micelles without any AA moiety showed very slow release profiles. In the simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH=1.6), severe degradation of the released PTX was observed. The pH-dependent release of PTX from HP micelles can be used to increase the bioavailability of PTX upon oral delivery. PMID:18672013

  12. Mesoporous silicas with covalently immobilized β-cyclodextrin moieties: synthesis, structure, and sorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roik, Nadiia V.; Belyakova, Lyudmila A.; Trofymchuk, Iryna M.; Dziazko, Marina O.; Oranska, Olena I.

    2017-09-01

    Mesoporous silicas with chemically attached macrocyclic moieties were successfully prepared by sol-gel condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate and β-cyclodextrin-silane in the presence of a structure-directing agent. Introduction of β-cyclodextrin groups into the silica framework was confirmed by the results of IR spectral, thermogravimetric, and quantitative chemical analysis of surface compounds. The porous structure of the obtained materials was characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. It was found that the composition of the reaction mixture used in β-cyclodextrin-silane synthesis significantly affects the structural parameters of the resulting silicas. The increase in (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane as well as the coupling agent content in relation to β-cyclodextrin leads ultimately to the lowering or complete loss of hexagonal arrangement of pore channels in the synthesized materials. Formation of hexagonally ordered mesoporous structure was observed at molar composition of the mixture 0.049 TEOS:0.001 β-CD-silane:0.007 CTMAB:0.27 NH4OH:7.2 H2O and equimolar ratio of components in β-CD-silane synthesis. The sorption of alizarin yellow on starting silica and synthesized materials with chemically attached β-cyclodextrin moieties was studied in phosphate buffer solutions with pH 7.0. Experimental results of the dye equilibrium sorption were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. It was proved that the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model is the most appropriate for fitting the equilibrium sorption of alizarin yellow on parent silica with hexagonally arranged mesoporous structure as well as on modified one with chemically immobilized β-cyclodextrin groups. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Can ketones compensate for deteriorating brain glucose uptake during aging? Implications for the risk and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; St-Pierre, Valérie; Vandenberghe, Camille; Pierotti, Tyler; Fortier, Mélanie; Croteau, Etienne; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    Brain glucose uptake is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A key question is whether cognitive decline can be delayed if this brain energy defect is at least partly corrected or bypassed early in the disease. The principal ketones (also called ketone bodies), β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, are the brain's main physiological alternative fuel to glucose. Three studies in mild-to-moderate AD have shown that, unlike with glucose, brain ketone uptake is not different from that in healthy age-matched controls. Published clinical trials demonstrate that increasing ketone availability to the brain via moderate nutritional ketosis has a modest beneficial effect on cognitive outcomes in mild-to-moderate AD and in mild cognitive impairment. Nutritional ketosis can be safely achieved by a high-fat ketogenic diet, by supplements providing 20-70 g/day of medium-chain triglycerides containing the eight- and ten-carbon fatty acids octanoate and decanoate, or by ketone esters. Given the acute dependence of the brain on its energy supply, it seems reasonable that the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at AD mandates consideration of how the underlying problem of deteriorating brain fuel supply can be corrected or delayed. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Ketone esters increase brown fat in mice and overcome insulin resistance in other tissues in the rat.

    PubMed

    Veech, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is classically activated by sympathetic nervous stimulation resulting from exposure to cold. Feeding a high-fat diet also induces development of brown fat, but is decreased by caloric restriction. Blood ketone bodies, which function as alternative energy substrates to glucose, are increased during caloric restriction. Here we discuss the unexpected observation that feeding an ester of ketone bodies to the mouse, which increases blood ketone body concentrations, results in an activation of brown fat. The mechanism of this activation of brown fat is similar to that occurring from cold exposure in that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) levels are increased as are levels of the transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein, which is also increased by ketone ester feeding. Other effects of feeding ketone esters, in addition to their ability to induce brown fat, are discussed such as their ability to overcome certain aspects of insulin resistance and to ameliorate the accumulation of amyloid and phosphorylated tau protein in brain, and improve cognitive function, in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Raspberry ketone in food supplements--High intake, few toxicity data--A cause for safety concern?

    PubMed

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Hallas-Møller, Torben; Pilegaard, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) is marketed on the Internet as a food supplement. The recommended intake is between 100 and 1400 mg per day. The substance is naturally occurring in raspberries (up to 4.3 mg/kg) and is used as a flavouring substance. Toxicological studies on raspberry ketone are limited to acute and subchronic studies in rats. When the lowest recommended daily dose of raspberry ketone (100 mg) as a food supplement is consumed, it is 56 times the established threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) of 1800 μg/day for Class 1 substances. The margin of safety (MOS) based on a NOAEL of 280 mg/kg bw/day for lower weight gain in rats is 165 at 100 mg and 12 at 1400 mg. The recommended doses are a concern taking into account the TTC and MOS. Investigations of raspberry ketone in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models indicated potential cardiotoxic effects and potential effects on reproduction/development. Taking into account the high intake via supplements, the compound's toxic potential should be clarified with further experimental studies. In UK the pure compound is regarded as novel food requiring authorisation prior to marketing but raspberry ketone is not withdrawn from Internet sites from this country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mitoketoscins: Novel mitochondrial inhibitors for targeting ketone metabolism in cancer stem cells (CSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Ozsvari, Bela; Sotgia, Federica; Simmons, Katie; Trowbridge, Rachel; Foster, Richard; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have now well-established that epithelial cancer cells can utilize ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate and aceto-acetate) as mitochondrial fuels, to actively promote tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. The two critical metabolic enzymes implicated in this process are OXCT1 and ACAT1, which are both mitochondrial proteins. Importantly, over-expression of OXCT1 or ACAT1 in human breast cancer cells is sufficient to genetically drive tumorigenesis and/or lung metastasis, validating that they indeed behave as metabolic “tumor promoters”. Here, we decided to target these two enzymes, which give cancer cells the ability to recycle ketone bodies into Acetyl-CoA and, therefore, to produce increased ATP. Briefly, we used computational chemistry (in silico drug design) to select a sub-set of potentially promising compounds that spatially fit within the active site of these enzymes, based on their known 3D crystal structures. These libraries of compounds were then phenotypically screened for their effects on total cellular ATP levels. Positive hits were further validated by metabolic flux analysis. Our results indicated that four of these compounds effectively inhibited mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Two of these compounds also induced a reactive glycolytic phenotype in cancer cells. Most importantly, using the mammosphere assay, we showed that these compounds can be used to functionally inhibit cancer stem cell (CSC) activity and propagation. Finally, our molecular modeling studies directly show how these novel compounds are predicted to bind to the active catalytic sites of OXCT1 and ACAT1, within their Coenzyme A binding site. As such, we speculate that these mitochondrial inhibitors are partially mimicking the structure of Coenzyme A. Thus, we conclude that OXCT1 and ACAT1 are important new therapeutic targets for further drug development and optimization. We propose that this new class of drugs should be termed “mitoketoscins”, to reflect

  17. The interconversion and disposal of ketone bodies in untreated and injured post-absorptive rats

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Roger N.

    1973-01-01

    [3-14C]Acetoacetate and β-hydroxy[3-14C]butyrate were used to investigate the kinetics of ketone body metabolism in rats 3h after bilateral hind-limb ischaemia and in controls, both groups being in the post-absorptive state and in a 20°C environment. Calculations were carried out as described by Heath & Barton (1973) and the following conclusions were reached. 1. In both injured and control rats, the rates of irreversible disposal (extrahepatic utilization) of β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate were proportional within experimental error to their blood concentrations up to at least 0.4mm (the maximum found in these rats), implying that they were determined, via these concentrations, by the rates of production by the liver. 2. Conversion of blood β-hydroxybutyrate into blood acetoacetate took place mainly in the liver, but the reverse process occurred mainly in extrahepatic tissues. 3. The `metabolic clearance rate' (the volume of blood which, if completely cleared of substrate in unit time, would give a disposal rate equal to that in the whole animal) was calculated for β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. Comparison with the cardiac output showed that in control rats the proportion of circulating β-hydroxybutyrate extracted was lower than that of acetoacetate, clearance of which appeared almost complete. After injury both metabolic clearance rates decreased, probably because of the lower cardiac output. 4. After injury, because the average blood concentrations of ketone bodies, especially acetoacetate, were higher, the mean total rate of disposal also increased. Assuming complete oxidation, the mean contribution of ketone bodies to the whole body O2 consumption rose from 7 to 15%. PMID:4798577

  18. The interconversion and disposal of ketone bodies in untreated and injured post-absorptive rats.

    PubMed

    Barton, R N

    1973-11-01

    [3-(14)C]Acetoacetate and beta-hydroxy[3-(14)C]butyrate were used to investigate the kinetics of ketone body metabolism in rats 3h after bilateral hind-limb ischaemia and in controls, both groups being in the post-absorptive state and in a 20 degrees C environment. Calculations were carried out as described by Heath & Barton (1973) and the following conclusions were reached. 1. In both injured and control rats, the rates of irreversible disposal (extrahepatic utilization) of beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate were proportional within experimental error to their blood concentrations up to at least 0.4mm (the maximum found in these rats), implying that they were determined, via these concentrations, by the rates of production by the liver. 2. Conversion of blood beta-hydroxybutyrate into blood acetoacetate took place mainly in the liver, but the reverse process occurred mainly in extrahepatic tissues. 3. The ;metabolic clearance rate' (the volume of blood which, if completely cleared of substrate in unit time, would give a disposal rate equal to that in the whole animal) was calculated for beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. Comparison with the cardiac output showed that in control rats the proportion of circulating beta-hydroxybutyrate extracted was lower than that of acetoacetate, clearance of which appeared almost complete. After injury both metabolic clearance rates decreased, probably because of the lower cardiac output. 4. After injury, because the average blood concentrations of ketone bodies, especially acetoacetate, were higher, the mean total rate of disposal also increased. Assuming complete oxidation, the mean contribution of ketone bodies to the whole body O(2) consumption rose from 7 to 15%.

  19. Steam Reforming of Acetic Acid over Co-Supported Catalysts: Coupling Ketonization for Greater Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen D.; Spies, Kurt A.; Mei, Donghai

    We report on the markedly improved stability of a novel 2-bed catalytic system, as compared to a conventional 1-bed steam reforming catalyst, for the production of H2 from acetic acid. The 2-bed catalytic system comprises of i) a basic oxide ketonization catalyst for the conversion of acetic acid to acetone, and a ii) Co-based steam reforming catalyst, both catalytic beds placed in sequence within the same unit operation. Steam reforming catalysts are particularly prone to catalytic deactivation when steam reforming acetic acid, used here as a model compound for the aqueous fraction of bio-oil. Catalysts comprising MgAl2O4, ZnO, CeO2, andmore » activated carbon (AC) both with and without Co-addition were evaluated for conversion of acetic acid and acetone, its ketonization product, in the presence of steam. It was found that over the bare oxide support only ketonization activity was observed and coke deposition was minimal. With addition of Co to the oxide support steam reforming activity was facilitated and coke deposition was significantly increased. Acetone steam reforming over the same Co-supported catalysts demonstrated more stable performance and with less coke deposition than with acetic acid feedstock. DFT analysis suggests that over Co surface CHxCOO species are more favorably formed from acetic acid versus acetone. These CHxCOO species are strongly bound to the Co catalyst surface and could explain the higher propensity for coke formation from acetic acid. Based on these findings, in order to enhance stability of the steam reforming catalyst a dual-bed (2-bed) catalyst system was implemented. Comparing the 2-bed and 1-bed (Co-supported catalyst only) systems under otherwise identical reaction conditions the 2-bed demonstrated significantly improved stability and coke deposition was decreased by a factor of 4.« less

  20. STIMULATION OF TARSAL RECEPTORS OF THE BLOWFLY BY ALIPHATIC ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, L. E.; Dethier, V. G.

    1949-01-01

    Rejection of eight aldehydes, eight ketones, five secondary alcohols, and 3-pentanol has been studied in the blowfly Phormia regina Meigen. The data agree with results previously reported for normal alcohols and several series of glycols in showing a logarithmic increase in stimulating effect with increasing chain length. The order of increasing effectiveness among the different species of compounds thus far investigated is the following: polyglycols, diols, secondary alcohols, iso-alcohols, normal alcohols, ketones, iso-aldehydes, normal aldehydes. Curves relating the logarithms of threshold concentration to the logarithms of chain length for diols, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones show inflections in the 3 to 6 carbon range. Above and below the region of inflection the curves are nearly rectilinear. The slopes for the upper limbs (smaller molecules) are of the order of –2; for the lower limbs, about –10. Comparisons of the threshold data with numerical values for molecular weights, molecular areas and volumes, oil-water distribution coefficients, activity coefficients, standard free energies, vapor pressures, boiling points, melting points, dipole moments, dielectric constants, and degree of association are discussed briefly, and it is concluded that none of the comparisons serves to bring the data from the several series and from the two portions of each series into a single homogeneous system. A qualitative comparison with water solubilities shows fewer discrepancies. It is suggested that the existence of a combination of aqueous and lipoid phases at the receptor surface would fit best with what is presently known about the relationship between chemical structure and stimulating effect in contact chemoreception. In this hypothesis the smaller and more highly water-soluble compounds are envisaged as gaining access to the receptors partly through the aqueous phase, the larger molecules predominantly through the lipoid phase. PMID:18114559

  1. Bottromycin derivatives: efficient chemical modifications of the ester moiety and evaluation of anti-MRSA and anti-VRE activities.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Ichioka, Maki; Hirose, Tomoyasu; Nagai, Kenichiro; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Matsui, Hidehiro; Hanaki, Hideaki; Masuma, Rokuro; Takahashi, Yoko; Omura, Satoshi; Sunazuka, Toshiaki

    2010-10-15

    Novel bottromycin derivatives were synthesized from bottromycin A(2) via a hydrazide derivative as a common intermediate. Seventeen derivatives were subjected to in vitro evaluation against drug-resistant gram-positive bacteria. Some compounds showed potent anti-MRSA and anti-VRE activity, as did bottromycin A(2). Notably, a propyl ketone derivative exhibited good antibacterial activity with excellent metabolite stability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Additional conformer observed in the microwave spectrum of methyl vinyl ketone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, David S.; Shirar, Amanda J.; Williams, Owen L.; Dian, Brian C.

    2011-05-01

    A chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer was used to record the rotational spectrum of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK, 3-butene-2-one). Two stable conformations were identified: the previously documented antiperiplanar (ap) conformer and synperiplanar (sp), which is reported for the first time in this microwave study. Methyl torsional analysis resulted in V3 barrier heights of 433.8(1) and 376.6(2) cm-1 for ap- and sp-MVK, respectively. Heavy atom isotopic species of both conformers were detected in natural abundance allowing bond lengths and angles of the molecular frames to be calculated through Kraitchman analysis. A comparison with ab initio calculations is included.

  3. Near Infrared Spectroscopic Identification of Alkyl Aromatic Esters and Phenyl Ketones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelyubov, D. V.; Vazhenin, D. A.; Kudriavtsev, A. A.; Buzolina, A. Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Bands characterizing the content of carbon atoms in alkyl (7177-7205 cm-1) and phenyl structural fragments (9175-9192 cm-1) in organic molecules were revealed by studying the near infrared spectra of such compounds. The optical density at the maxima of these absorption bands was shown to depend strongly on the fraction of carbon atoms in the corresponding fragments. The developed models proved to be adequate for determining the fraction of carbon atoms in alkyl aromatic esters and phenyl ketones. The feasibility of modeling the molecular structure of alkyl aromatic esters using regression models was demonstrated for the product of the condensation of oleic acid and benzyl alcohol.

  4. Accelerated simulations of aromatic polymers: application to polyether ether ketone (PEEK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, Richard J.; Spencer, James S.; Mostofi, Arash A.; Sutton, Adrian P.

    2014-10-01

    For aromatic polymers, the out-of-plane oscillations of aromatic groups limit the maximum accessible time step in a molecular dynamics simulation. We present a systematic approach to removing such high-frequency oscillations from planar groups along aromatic polymer backbones, while preserving the dynamical properties of the system. We consider, as an example, the industrially important polymer, polyether ether ketone (PEEK), and show that this coarse graining technique maintains excellent agreement with the fully flexible all-atom and all-atom rigid bond models whilst allowing the time step to increase fivefold to 5 fs.

  5. Highly Enantioselective Rhodium-Catalyzed Addition of Arylboroxines to Simple Aryl Ketones: Efficient Synthesis of Escitalopram.

    PubMed

    Huang, Linwei; Zhu, Jinbin; Jiao, Guangjun; Wang, Zheng; Yu, Xingxin; Deng, Wei-Ping; Tang, Wenjun

    2016-03-24

    Highly enantioselective additions of arylboroxines to simple aryl ketones have been achieved for the first time with a Rh/(R,R,R,R)-WingPhos catalyst, thus providing a range of chiral diaryl alkyl carbinols with excellent ee values and yields. (R,R,R,R)-WingPhos has been proven to be crucial for the high reactivity and enantioselectivity. The method has enabled a new, concise, and enantioselective synthesis of the antidepressant drug escitalopram. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Investigation of microstructural changes in polyetherether-ketone films at cryogenic temperatures by positron lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; St.clair, Terry L.; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    1991-01-01

    Microstructural changes in Polyetherether-ketone (PEEK) films were investigated in the temperature ranges of 23 to -196 C, using Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy (PLS) technique. It was determined that the total free volume decreases by about 46 percent in amorphous PEEK samples and about 36 percent in semicrystalline PEEK samples when they are cooled down from room temperature to liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature. If this trend in reduction in free volume with decreasing temperature continues, as expected, it is surmised that PEEK will be able to withstand cooling down to liquid hydrogen (LH2) temperature without any detrimental effect on its diffusivity for liquid hydrogen.

  7. Simple one-pot conversion of aldehydes and ketones to enals.

    PubMed

    Valenta, Petr; Drucker, Natalie A; Bode, Jeffrey W; Walsh, Patrick J

    2009-05-21

    A simple and efficient method to convert aldehydes into alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes with a two-carbon homologation is presented. Hydroboration of ethoxy acetylene with BH(3).SMe(2) generates tris(ethoxyvinyl) borane. Transmetalation with diethylzinc, addition to aldehydes or ketones, and acidic workup affords enals. When the addition is quenched with anilinium hydrochloride, 1,2-dithioglycol, or acetic anhydride, the unsaturated imine, dithiolane, or 1,1-diacetate is isolated in high yield. These transformations can be performed in a one-pot procedure.

  8. Hydrosilylation of aldehydes and ketones catalyzed by hydrido iron complexes bearing imine ligands.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhenyu; Sun, Hongjian; Wang, Lin; Li, Xiaoyan

    2014-08-14

    Two new hydrido iron complexes (2 and 4) were synthesized by the reactions of (4-methoxyphenyl)phenylketimine ((4-MeOPh)PhC=NH) with Fe(PMe3)4 or FeMe2(PMe3)4. The molecular structures of complexes 2 and 4 were confirmed by X-ray single crystal diffraction. Using hydrido iron complexes (1-4) as catalysts, the hydrosilylations of aldehydes and ketones were investigated. The four complexes were effective catalysts for this reduction reaction. Complex 1 among them is the best catalyst.

  9. A Simple One-pot Conversion of Aldehydes and Ketones to Enals

    PubMed Central

    Valenta, Petr; Drucker, Natalie A.; Bode, Jeffrey W.; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    A simple and efficient method to convert aldehydes into α,β-unsaturated aldehydes with a two-carbon homologation is presented. Hydroboration of ethoxy acetylene with BH3•SMe2 generates tris(ethoxyvinyl) borane. Transmetallation with diethylzinc, addition to aldehydes or ketones, and acidic workup affords enals. When the addition is quenched with anilinium hydrochloride, 1,2-dithioglycol, or acetic anhydride the unsaturated imine, dithiolane, or 1,1-diacetate is isolated in high yield. These transformations can be performed in a one-pot procedure. PMID:19419211

  10. A ketogenic diet increases transport and oxidation of ketone bodies in RG2 and 9L gliomas without affecting tumor growth.

    PubMed

    De Feyter, Henk M; Behar, Kevin L; Rao, Jyotsna U; Madden-Hennessey, Kirby; Ip, Kevan L; Hyder, Fahmeed; Drewes, Lester R; Geschwind, Jean-François; de Graaf, Robin A; Rothman, Douglas L

    2016-08-01

    The dependence of tumor cells, particularly those originating in the brain, on glucose is the target of the ketogenic diet, which creates a plasma nutrient profile similar to fasting: increased levels of ketone bodies and reduced plasma glucose concentrations. The use of ketogenic diets has been of particular interest for therapy in brain tumors, which reportedly lack the ability to oxidize ketone bodies and therefore would be starved during ketosis. Because studies assessing the tumors' ability to oxidize ketone bodies are lacking, we investigated in vivo the extent of ketone body oxidation in 2 rodent glioma models. Ketone body oxidation was studied using (13)C MR spectroscopy in combination with infusion of a (13)C-labeled ketone body (beta-hydroxybutyrate) in RG2 and 9L glioma models. The level of ketone body oxidation was compared with nontumorous cortical brain tissue. The level of (13)C-beta-hydroxybutyrate oxidation in 2 rat glioma models was similar to that of contralateral brain. In addition, when glioma-bearing animals were fed a ketogenic diet, the ketone body monocarboxylate transporter was upregulated, facilitating uptake and oxidation of ketone bodies in the gliomas. These results demonstrate that rat gliomas can oxidize ketone bodies and indicate upregulation of ketone body transport when fed a ketogenic diet. Our findings contradict the hypothesis that brain tumors are metabolically inflexible and show the need for additional research on the use of ketogenic diets as therapy targeting brain tumor metabolism. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Mechanistic Insights on the Hydrogenation of α,β-Unsaturated Ketones and Aldehydes to Unsaturated Alcohols over Metal Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Ide, Matthew S.; Hao, Bing; Neurock, Matthew

    The selective hydrogenation of unsaturated ketones (methyl vinyl ketone and benzalacetone) and unsaturated aldehydes (crotonaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde) was carried out with H₂ at 2 bar absolute over Pd/C, Pt/C, Ru/C, Au/C, Au/TiO₂, or Au/Fe₂O₃ catalysts in ethanol or water solvent at 333 K. Comparison of the turnover frequencies revealed Pd/C to be the most active hydrogenation catalyst, but the catalyst failed to produce unsaturated alcohols, indicating hydrogenation of the C=C bond was highly preferred over the C=O bond on Pd. The Pt and Ru catalysts were able to produce unsaturated alcohols from unsaturated aldehydes, but not from unsaturated ketones. Althoughmore » Au/ Fe₂O₃ was able to partially hydrogenate unsaturated ketones to unsaturated alcohols, the overall hydrogenation rate over gold was the lowest of all of the metals examined. First-principles density functional theory calculations were therefore used to explore the reactivity trends of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and benzalacetone (BA) hydrogenation over model Pt(111) and Ru(0001) surfaces. The observed selectivity over these metals is likely controlled by the significantly higher activation barriers to hydrogenate the C=O bond compared with those required to hydrogenate the C=C bond. Both the unsaturated alcohol and the saturated ketone, which are the primary reaction products, are strongly bound to Ru and can react further to the saturated alcohol. The lower calculated barriers for the hydrogenation steps over Pt compared with Ru account for the higher observed turnover frequencies for the hydrogenation of MVK and BA over Pt. The presence of a phenyl substituent α to the C=C bond in BA increased the barrier for C=C hydrogenation over those associated with the C=C bond in MVK; however, the increase in barriers with phenyl substitution was not adequate to reverse the selectivity trend.« less

  12. Highly selective condensation of biomass-derived methyl ketones as a source of aviation fuel.

    PubMed

    Sacia, Eric R; Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Deaner, Matthew H; Goulas, Konstantinos A; Toste, F Dean; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-05-22

    Aviation fuel (i.e., jet fuel) requires a mixture of C9 -C16 hydrocarbons having both a high energy density and a low freezing point. While jet fuel is currently produced from petroleum, increasing concern with the release of CO2 into the atmosphere from the combustion of petroleum-based fuels has led to policy changes mandating the inclusion of biomass-based fuels into the fuel pool. Here we report a novel way to produce a mixture of branched cyclohexane derivatives in very high yield (>94 %) that match or exceed many required properties of jet fuel. As starting materials, we use a mixture of n-alkyl methyl ketones and their derivatives obtained from biomass. These synthons are condensed into trimers via base-catalyzed aldol condensation and Michael addition. Hydrodeoxygenation of these products yields mixtures of C12 -C21 branched, cyclic alkanes. Using models for predicting the carbon number distribution obtained from a mixture of n-alkyl methyl ketones and for predicting the boiling point distribution of the final mixture of cyclic alkanes, we show that it is possible to define the mixture of synthons that will closely reproduce the distillation curve of traditional jet fuel. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Rise and Fall: Poly(phenyl vinyl ketone) Photopolymerization and Photodegradation under Visible and UV Radiation.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Jennifer A; Allegrezza, Michael L; Konkolewicz, Dominik

    2017-07-01

    Vinyl ketone polymers, including phenyl vinyl ketone (PVK), are an important class of polymers due to their ability to degrade upon irradiation with ultraviolet light which makes them useful for a variety of applications. However, traditional radical methods for synthesizing PVK polymers give rise to poor control or are unable to produce block copolymers. This work uses reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) and photochemistry to polymerize PVK. When visible blue radiation of 440 ± 10 nm is used as the light source for the photopolymerization, rapid polymerization and well-defined polymers are created. This RAFT method uses PVK as both monomer and radical initiator, exciting the PVK mono-mer by 440 ± 10 nm irradiation to avoid the use of an additional radical initiator. Once the poly-mer is synthesized, it is stable against degradation by blue light (440 ± 10 nm), but upon exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (310 ± 20 nm) significant decrease in molecular weight is observed. The degradation is observed for all poly(PVK) materials synthesized. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Organic monolith frits encased in polyether ether ketone tubing with improved durability for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2015-09-01

    This study introduces a preparation method for polymer-encased monolith frits with improved durability for liquid chromatography columns. The inner surface of the polyether ether ketone tubing is pretreated with sulfuric acid in the presence of catalysts (vanadium oxide and sodium sulfate). The tubing was rinsed with water and acetone, flushed with nitrogen, and treated with glycidyl methacrylate. After washing, the monolith reaction mixture composed of lauryl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, initiator, and porogenic solvent was filled in the tubing and subjected to in situ polymerization. The tubing was cut into thin slices and used as frits for microcolumns. To check their durability, the frit slices were placed in a vial and a heavy impact was applied on the vial by a vortex mixer for various periods. The frits made in the presence of catalysts were found to be more durable than those made without catalysts. Furthermore, when the monolith-incorporated tubing was used as a chromatography column, the column prepared in the presence of catalysts resulted in a better separation efficiency. The separation performance of the columns installed with the polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits was comparable to that of the columns installed with the commercial stainless-steel screen frits. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The failure of poly (ether ether ketone) in high speed contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, B. J.; Stuart, B. H.; Sebastian, S.; Tweedale, P. J.

    1993-04-01

    The paper describes an experimental study, with an associated analysis incorporating supplementary data, of the anti-boundary lubricating action of an alkane-aliphatic carboxylic acid lubricant system in a poly (ether ether ketone)-mild steel contact. The experiments involve progressively increasing the load in a contact formed between a polymer plate and a rotating steel shaft and estimating the frictional work dissipated. Scuffing is identified when a rapid increase in frictional work is noted at a characteristic normal load. It is shown that the additive induces premature scuffing. Subsidiary data is provided using Raman spectroscopy and hardness probes, and confirms that certain additives such as decanoic acid and dodecylamine will induce surface plasticization in poly (ether ether ketone). The trends in the frictional data have been interpreted using the adhesive model of friction in conjunction with temperature-dependent interfacial theology and bulk mechanical property data. It is proposed that the scuffing process is induced prematurely as a consequence of excessive additive-induced subsurface plasticization. Restricted surface plasticization in this system provides an enhanced self-lubricating capacity.

  16. Ketonization of levulinic acid and γ-valerolactone to hydrocarbon fuel precursors

    DOE PAGES

    Lilga, Michael A.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Auberry, Deanna L.; ...

    2017-06-21

    We studied a new process for direct conversion of either levulinic acid (LA) or γ-valerolactone (GVL) to hydrocarbon fuel precursors. The process involves passing an aqueous solution of LA or GVL containing a reducing agent, such as ethylene glycol or formic acid, over a ketonization catalyst at 380–400 °C and atmospheric pressure to form a biphasic liquid product. The organic phase is significantly oligomerized and deoxygenated and comprises a complex mixture of open-chain alkanes and olefins, aromatics, and low concentrations of ketones, alcohols, ethers, and carboxylates or lactones. Carbon content in the aqueous phase decreases with decreasing feed rate; themore » aqueous phase can be reprocessed through the same catalyst to form additional organic oils to improve carbon yield. Catalysts are readily regenerated to restore initial activity. Furthermore, the process might be valuable in converting cellulosics to biorenewable gasoline, jet, and diesel fuels as a means to decrease petroleum use and decrease greenhouse gas emissions.« less

  17. Improved cerebral energetics and ketone body metabolism in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jens V; Christensen, Sofie K; Nissen, Jakob D

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming evident that type 2 diabetes mellitus is affecting brain energy metabolism. The importance of alternative substrates for the brain in type 2 diabetes mellitus is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ketone bodies are relevant candidates to compensate for cerebral glucose hypometabolism and unravel the functionality of cerebral mitochondria in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acutely isolated cerebral cortical and hippocampal slices of db/db mice were incubated in media containing [U-13C]glucose, [1,2-13C]acetate or [U-13C]β-hydroxybutyrate and tissue extracts were analysed by mass spectrometry. Oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis of brain mitochondria of db/db mice were assessed by Seahorse XFe96 and luciferin-luciferase assay, respectively. Glucose hypometabolism was observed for both cerebral cortical and hippocampal slices of db/db mice. Significant increased metabolism of [1,2-13C]acetate and [U-13C]β-hydroxybutyrate was observed for hippocampal slices of db/db mice. Furthermore, brain mitochondria of db/db mice exhibited elevated oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis rate. This study provides evidence of several changes in brain energy metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The increased hippocampal ketone body utilization and improved mitochondrial function in db/db mice, may act as adaptive mechanisms in order to maintain cerebral energetics during hampered glucose metabolism. PMID:28058963

  18. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora

    2015-07-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The mechanism of enantioselective ketone reduction with Noyori and Noyori–Ikariya bifunctional catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Dub, Pavel A.; Gordon, John C.

    2016-03-21

    The catalytic hydrogenation of prochiral ketones with second and third-row transition metal complexes bearing chelating chiral ligands containing at least one N–H functionality has achieved unparalleled performance, delivering, in the best cases, chiral alcohols with up to 99.9% ee using extremely small catalyst loadings (~10 -5 mol%). Hence the efficacy of this reaction has closely approached that of natural enzymatic systems and the reaction itself has become one of the most efficient artificial catalytic reactions developed to date. This paper describes the current level of understanding of the mechanism of enantioselective hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation of aromatic ketones with pioneeringmore » prototypes of bifunctional catalysts, the Noyori and Noyori–Ikariya complexes. Finally, analysis presented herein expands the concept of “metal–ligand cooperation”, redefines the term “cooperative ligand” and introduces “H –/H + outer-sphere hydrogenation” as a novel paradigm in outer-sphere hydrogenation.« less

  20. Strigolactone analogs derived from ketones using a working model for germination stimulants as a blueprint.

    PubMed

    Mwakaboko, Alinanuswe S; Zwanenburg, Binne

    2011-04-01

    Strigolactones are important signaling compounds in the plant kingdom. Here we focus on their germination stimulatory effect on seeds of the parasitic weeds Striga and Orobanche spp. and more particularly on the design and synthesis of new active strigolactone analogs derived from simple cyclic ketones. New analogs derived from 1-indanone, 1-tetralone, cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone and a series of substituted cyclohexanones (including carvone and pulegone) are prepared by formylation of the ketones with ethyl formate followed by coupling with a halo butenolide. Both enantiomers of the analog derived from 1-tetralone have been prepared by employing a homochiral synthon for the coupling reaction. For three other strigolactone analogs the antipodes have been obtained by chromatography on a chiral column. All analogs have an appreciable germinating activity towards seeds of Striga hermomonthica and Orobanche crenata and O. cernua. Stereoisomers having the same configuration at the D-ring as in naturally occurring strigol have a higher stimulatory effect than the corresponding antipodes. The analogs obtained from 1-indanone and 1-tetralone have an activity comparable with that of the well known stimulant GR 24. Analogs derived from 2-phenyl-cylohexanone, carvone and pulegone also have a good germinating response. The results show that the working model for designing new bioactive strigolactones is applicable.

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of mixtures involving ketones and aldehydes by a direct bubble pressure calculation.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Lachet, Véronique; Boutin, Anne

    2010-07-08

    Ketone and aldehyde molecules are involved in a large variety of industrial applications. Because they are mainly present mixed with other compounds, the prediction of phase equilibrium of mixtures involving these classes of molecules is of first interest particularly to design and optimize separation processes. The main goal of this work is to propose a transferable force field for ketones and aldehydes that allows accurate molecular simulations of not only pure compounds but also complex mixtures. The proposed force field is based on the anisotropic united-atoms AUA4 potential developed for hydrocarbons, and it introduces only one new atom, the carbonyl oxygen. The Lennard-Jones parameters of this oxygen atom have been adjusted on saturated thermodynamic properties of both acetone and acetaldehyde. To simulate mixtures, Monte Carlo simulations are carried out in a specific pseudoensemble which allows a direct calculation of the bubble pressure. For polar mixtures involved in this study, we show that this approach is an interesting alternative to classical calculations in the isothermal-isobaric Gibbs ensemble. The pressure-composition diagrams of polar + polar and polar + nonpolar binary mixtures are well reproduced. Mutual solubilities as well as azeotrope location, if present, are accurately predicted without any empirical binary interaction parameters or readjustment. Such result highlights the transferability of the proposed force field, which is an essential feature toward the simulation of complex oxygenated mixtures of industrial interest.

  2. Resonance stabilization effects on ketone autoxidation: Isomer-specific cyclic ether and ketohydroperoxide formation in the low-temperature (400–625 K) oxidation of diethyl ketone

    DOE PAGES

    Scheer, Adam M.; Eskola, Arkke J.; Osborn, David L.; ...

    2016-10-11

    Here, the pulsed photolytic chlorine-initiated oxidation of diethyl ketone [DEK; (CH 3CH 2) 2C=O], 2,2,4,4- d 4-DEK [ d 4-DEK; (CH 3CD 2) 2C=O], and 1,1,1,5,5,5-d 6-DEK [ d 6-DEK; (CD 3CH 2) 2C=O] is studied at 8 torr and 1–2 atm and from 400–625 K. Cl atoms produced by laser photolysis react with diethyl ketone to form either primary (3-pentan-on-1-yl, R P) or secondary (3-pentan-on-2-yl, R S) radicals, which in turn react with O 2. Multiplexed time-of-flight mass spectrometry, coupled to either a hydrogen discharge lamp or tunable synchrotron photoionizing radiation, is used to detect products as a functionmore » of mass, time, and photon energy. At 8 torr, the nature of the chain propagating cyclic ether + OH channel changes as a function of temperature. At 450 K, the production of OH is mainly in conjunction with formation of 2,4-dimethyloxetan-3-one, resulting from reaction of the resonance-stabilized secondary R S with O 2. In contrast, at 550 K and 8 torr, 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-one, originating from oxidation of the primary radical (RP), is observed as the dominant cyclic ether product. Formation of both of these cyclic ether production channels proceeds via a resonance-stabilized hydroperoxy alkyl (QOOH) intermediate. Little or no ketohydroperoxide (KHP) is observed under the low-pressure conditions. At higher O 2 concentrations and higher pressures (1–2 atm), a strong KHP signal appears as the temperature is increased above 450 K. Definitive isomeric identification from measurements on the deuterated DEK isotopologues indicates the favored pathway produces a γ-KHP via resonance-stabilized alkyl, QOOH, and HOOPOOH radicals. Time-resolved measurements reveal the KHP formation becomes faster and signal more intense upon increasing temperature from 450 to 575 K before intensity drops significantly at 625 K. The KHP time profile also shows a peak followed by a gradual depletion for the extent of experiment. Several tertiary products exhibit a slow

  3. Synthesis of substituted isoquinolines utilizing palladium-catalyzed α-arylation of ketones

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe, Timothy J.; Pilgrim, Ben S.; Jones, Geraint R.; Bassuto, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of sequential palladium-catalyzed α-arylation and cyclization reactions provides a general approach to an array of isoquinolines and their corresponding N-oxides. This methodology allows the convergent combination of readily available precursors in a regioselective manner and in excellent overall yields. This powerful route to polysubstituted isoquinolines, which is not limited to electron rich moieties, also allows rapid access to analogues of biologically active compounds. PMID:22753504

  4. Alcohol, Aldehyde, and Ketone Liberation and Intracellular Cargo Release through Peroxide-Mediated α-Boryl Ether Fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Ramsey D; Naro, Yuta; Deiters, Alexander; Floreancig, Paul E

    2016-10-12

    α-Boryl ethers, carbonates, and acetals, readily prepared from the corresponding alcohols that are accessed through ketone diboration, react rapidly with hydrogen peroxide to release alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones through the collapse of hemiacetal intermediates. Experiments with α-boryl acetals containing a latent fluorophore clearly demonstrate that cargo can be released inside cells in the presence of exogenous or endogenous hydrogen peroxide. These experiments show that this protocol can be used for drug activation in an oxidative environment without generating toxic byproducts.

  5. Manganese-catalyzed selective oxidation of aliphatic C-H groups and secondary alcohols to ketones with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia Jia; Unjaroen, Duenpen; Mecozzi, Francesco; Harvey, Emma C; Saisaha, Pattama; Pijper, Dirk; de Boer, Johannes W; Alsters, Paul; Feringa, Ben L; Browne, Wesley R

    2013-09-01

    An efficient and simple method for selective oxidation of secondary alcohols and oxidation of alkanes to ketones is reported. An in situ prepared catalyst is employed based on manganese(II) salts, pyridine-2-carboxylic acid, and butanedione, which provides good-to-excellent conversions and yields with high turnover numbers (up to 10 000) with H2 O2 as oxidant at ambient temperatures. In substrates bearing multiple alcohol groups, secondary alcohols are converted to ketones selectively and, in general, benzyl C-H oxidation proceeds in preference to aliphatic C-H oxidation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Synthesis of 2-acyl-1,4-diketones via the diacylation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N.S.; Yu, S.; Kabalka, G.W.

    1998-08-17

    The first example of a diacylation of the carbon-carbon double bond in {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated ketones is described. The reaction of acylcyanocuprate reagents with {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated ketones, followed by C-acylation, produces 2-acyl-1,4-diketones in good yields (50--89%). The 1,4-addition of organocuprate reagents to conjugated enones, followed by trapping of the enolate intermediates with various electrophiles, is one of the most useful synthetic reactions. However, to the best of the authors` knowledge, 1,4-acylation followed by trapping of the enolate intermediates with acid chloride has not been reported.

  7. γ-Sultam-cored N,N-ligands in the ruthenium(ii)-catalyzed asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of aryl ketones.

    PubMed

    Rast, Slavko; Modec, Barbara; Stephan, Michel; Mohar, Barbara

    2016-02-14

    The synthesis of new enantiopure syn- and anti-3-(α-aminobenzyl)-benzo-γ-sultam ligands 6 and their application in the ruthenium(ii)-catalyzed asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) of ketones using formic acid/triethylamine is described. In particular, benzo-fused cyclic ketones afforded excellent enantioselectivities in reasonable time employing a low loading of the syn ligand-containing catalyst. A never-before-seen dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) during reduction of a γ-keto carboxylic ester (S7) derivative of 1-indanone is realized leading as well to excellent induction.

  8. Direct asymmetric aldol reaction of aryl ketones with aryl aldehydes catalyzed by chiral BINOL-derived zincate catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Da, Chao-Shan; Xiao, Yu-Hua; Li, Xiao; Su, Ya-Ning

    2008-09-19

    Direct asymmetric aldol reaction of aryl ketones with aryl aldehydes catalyzed by chiral metal complex is reported for the first time herein. Two novel semicrown chiral ligands 1a and 1b were synthesized from (S)- and (R)-BINOL, respectively, and then employed to catalyze the direct asymmetric aldol addition of aryl ketones to aryl aldehydes. Introduced with 2.0 equiv of diethylzinc, 1b had higher enantioselectivity than 1a. Up to 97% yield and up to 80% enantioselectivity were achieved.

  9. Spithioneines A and B, Two New Bohemamine Derivatives Possessing Ergothioneine Moiety from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces spinoverrucosus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Spithioneines A and B (1 and 2), two new bohemamine-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids possessing an unusual ergothioneine moiety, were isolated from a marine-derived Streptomyces spinoverrucosus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, CD spectra, and chemical degradation and synthesis. Compounds 1 and 2 are rare natural products that incorporate the amino acid ergothioneine. PMID:26024315

  10. Inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase: SARs about the N-[3-Methoxy-4-(5-oxazolyl)phenyl moiety.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Edwin J; Watterson, Scott H; Guo, Junqing; Pitts, William J; Murali Dhar, T G; Shen, Zhongqi; Chen, Ping; Gu, Henry H; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Cheney, Daniel L; Townsend, Robert M; Hollenbaugh, Diane L

    2003-06-16

    The first reported structure-activity relationships (SARs) about the N-[3-methoxy-4-(5-oxazolyl)phenyl moiety for a series of recently disclosed inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitors are described. The syntheses and in vitro inhibitory values for IMPDH II, and T-cell proliferation (for select analogues) are given.

  11. Synthesis, biological activity and molecular modeling study of new Schiff bases incorporated with indole moiety.

    PubMed

    Halawa, Ahmed H; El-Gilil, Shimaa Mohamed Abd; Bedair, Ahmed H; Shaaban, Mohamed; Frese, Marcel; Sewald, Norbert; Eliwa, Essam M; El-Agrody, Ahmed M

    2017-10-26

    A new series of heterocyclic Schiff bases 2-9 containing indole moiety were synthesized by facile and efficient condensation of indole-3/2/5-carboxaldehyde (1a/1b/1c) with different aromatic and heterocyclic primary amines using conventional and/or microwave irradiation methods. The structures of the obtained compounds were assigned by sophisticated spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques (1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and MS). The synthesized compounds were screened for their cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities. In vitro cytotoxicity screening revealed that compound 5 exhibited moderate activity against KB-3-1 cell line (IC50=57.7 μM) while 5-indolylimino derivative 7 indicated close to the activity (IC50=19.6 μM) in comparison with the positive control (+)-Griseofulvin (IC50=19.2 μM), while the tested compounds 5, 6b, 7 and 9 revealed good or moderate antibacterial activity. In addition, molecular docking study of Schiff bases 2-9 was performed by Molecular Operating Environment (MOE 2014.09) program on the matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) (Protein Data Bank (PDB) ID: 1MNC) in an attempt to explore their mode of action as anticancer drugs.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methyl Salicylate Derivatives Bearing Piperazine Moiety.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingfen; Yin, Yong; Wang, Lisheng; Liang, Pengyun; Li, Menghua; Liu, Xu; Wu, Lichuan; Yang, Hua

    2016-11-23

    In this study, a new series of 16 methyl salicylate derivatives bearing a piperazine moiety were synthesized and characterized. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of target compounds were investigated against xylol-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The results showed that all synthesized compounds exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities. Especially, the anti-inflammatory activities of compounds M15 and M16 were higher than that of aspirin and even equal to that of indomethacin at the same dose. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity activities and anti-inflammatory activities of four target compounds were performed in RAW264.7 macrophages, and compound M16 was found to significantly inhibit the release of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, compound M16 was found to attenuate LPS induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 up-regulation. The current preliminary study may provide information for the development of new and safe anti-inflammatory agents.

  13. Multi-responsible chameleon molecule with chiral naphthyl and azobenzene moieties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Yoon; Lee, Sang-A; Park, Minwook; Choi, Yu-Jin; Kang, Shin-Woong; Jeong, Kwang-Un

    2015-04-21

    A photochromic chiral molecule with azobenzene mesogens and a (R)-configuration naphthyl moiety (abbreviated as NCA2M) was specifically designed and synthesized for the demonstration of chameleon-like color changes responding to multitudinous external stimuli, such as temperature, light and electric field. The basic phase transition behaviors of NCA2M were first studied by the combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM). Based on the structure-sensitive X-ray diffraction results obtained at different temperatures, it was comprehended that the NCA2M molecule exhibited the tilted version of highly ordered smectic crystal phase with 5.45 nm layer thickness. Chiral nematic (N*) liquid crystals (LC) with helical superstructures were formed by doping the NCA2M photochromic chiral molecule in an achiral nematic (N) LC medium. By controlling the helical pitch length of N*-LC with respect to temperature, light and electric field, the wavelength of selectively reflected light from the N* photonic crystal was finely tuned. The light-induced color change of N*-LC film was the most efficient method for covering the whole visible region from blue to green and to red, which allowed us to fabricate remote-controllable photo-responsive devices.

  14. Synthesis and Bioactivity Evaluation of N-Arylsulfonylindole Analogs Bearing a Rhodanine Moiety as Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Ming-Xia; Li, Song-Hui; Peng, Jiao-Yang; Guo, Ting-Ting; Xu, Wen-Hui; Xiong, Shao-Feng; Deng, Xian-Qing

    2017-06-14

    Due to the rapidly growing bacterial resistance to antibiotics and the scarcity of novel agents under development, bacterial infections are still a pressing global problem, making new types of antibacterial agents, which are effective both alone and in combination with traditional antibiotics, urgently needed. In this paper, seven series of N -arylsulfonylindole analogs 5 - 11 bearing rhodanine moieties were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for antibacterial activity. According to the in vitro antimicrobial results, half of the synthesized compounds showed potent inhibition against four Gram-positive bacteria, with MIC values in the range of 0.5-8 µg/mL. For multidrug-resistant strains, compounds 6a and 6c were the most potent, with MIC values of 0.5 µg/mL, having comparable activity to gatifloxacin, moxiflocaxin and norfloxacin and being 128-fold more potent than oxacillin (MIC = 64 µg/mL) and 64-fold more active than penicillin (MIC = 32 µg/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 .

  15. Terminal Sugar Moiety Determines Immunomodulatory Properties of Poly(propyleneimine) Glycodendrimers.

    PubMed

    Gorzkiewicz, Michał; Sztandera, Krzysztof; Jatczak-Pawlik, Izabela; Zinke, Robin; Appelhans, Dietmar; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara; Pulaski, Łukasz

    2018-05-14

    Poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers fully surface-modified with disaccharide moieties (maltose, cellobiose, and lactose) designed to mimic natural lectin receptor ligands were tested for their bioactivity in two myeloid cell lines: THP-1 and HL-60. Depending on the sugar modification, we observed variable activation of NF-κB, AP-1, and NF-AT signaling pathways: lactose-coated dendrimers had the strongest impact on marker gene expression and most signaling events with the notable exception of NF-κB activation in THP-1 cells. The two cell lines showed an overall similar pattern of transcription factor and gene expression activation upon treatment with glycodendrimers, suggesting the involvement of galectin and C-type lectin receptor types. An important result of this action was the overexpression of CD40 and IL8 genes, potentially leading to an activated, proinflammatory phenotype in the monocyte/macrophage cell lineage. These pharmacodynamic characteristics of glycodendrimers need to be taken into account during their pharmaceutical applications both in drug delivery and direct immunomodulation.

  16. Discovery of novel scaffolds for γ-secretase modulators without an arylimidazole moiety.

    PubMed

    Sekioka, Ryuichi; Honjo, Eriko; Honda, Shugo; Fuji, Hideyoshi; Akashiba, Hiroki; Mitani, Yasuyuki; Yamasaki, Shingo

    2018-01-15

    Gamma-secretase modulators (GSMs) selectively inhibit the production of amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42) and may therefore be useful in the management of Alzheimer's disease. Most heterocyclic GSMs that are not derived from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs contain an arylimidazole moiety that potentially inhibits cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. Here, we discovered imidazopyridine derivatives that represent a new class of scaffold for GSMs, which do not have a strongly basic end group such as arylimidazole. High-throughput screening identified 2-methyl-8-[(2-methylbenzyl)oxy]-3-(pyridin-4-yl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (3a), which inhibited the cellular production of Aβ42 (IC 50  = 7.1 µM) without changing total production of Aβ. Structural optimization of this series of compounds identified 5-[8-(benzyloxy)-2-methylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl]-2-ethylisoindolin-1-one (3m) as a potent inhibitor of Aβ42 (IC 50  = 0.39 µM) but not CYP3A4. Further, 3m demonstrated a sustained pharmacokinetic profile in mice and sufficiently penetrated the brain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Incorporating fluorinated moieties in fully conjugated donor-acceptor block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngmin; Wang, Qing; Gomez, Enrique D.

    Fully conjugated donor-acceptor block copolymers are promising candidates for photovoltaics due to their ability to microphase separate at length scales commensurate with exciton diffusion lengths. These materials can also serve as model systems to study the relationship between molecular structure, microstructure, and optoelectronic properties of conjugated polymers. The development of new donor-acceptor block copolymers relies on the manipulation of the chemical structure to fine tune properties and improve overall performance when employed in photovoltaic devices. To this end, we have demonstrated the incorporation of fluorinated moieties in conjugated block copolymers. The introduction of fluorine, a strong electron withdrawing element, is known to influence phase separation and the bandgap, and as a result, optoelectronic properties. Fluorine was introduced to the acceptor block of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)-block-poly((9,9-bis(2-octyl)fluorene-2,7-diyl)-alt-(4,7-di(thiophene-2-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-5 ',5?-diyl) (P3HT- b-PFTBT). PFTBTs were prepared with di-fluorinated and mono-fluorinated TBT. We find that fluorination impacts the bandgap, morphology and performance in devices.

  18. Measurement of the abundance of choline and the distribution of choline-containing moieties in meat.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Erin D; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Richard, Caroline; Bruce, Heather L; Jacobs, René L; Field, Catherine J; Curtis, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies identify meat as a major source of choline; however, the most comprehensive reference for food choline content, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database for dietary choline, does not include values for meats of importance in some regions. In this work, the total choline and choline-containing moieties of 20 samples of meat were analyzed by LC-MS/MS; 16 samples analyzed are absent from the USDA database and 4 samples included for comparison. Average total choline for one serving (75 g) was 50 ± 12 mg, which was 82.6% ± 5.5% phosphatidylcholine. There was general agreement between total choline levels in the meats analyzed in this work and USDA values. A strong negative correlation (r = -0.777, p < 0.001) between total choline and fat content was found. This research added choline composition data to a food group that is a major source of choline and ultimately this data will assist in obtaining more accurate estimates of dietary choline.

  19. Total choline and choline-containing moieties of commercially available pulses.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Erin D; Kosik, Sarah J; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Jacobs, René L; Curtis, Jonathan M; Field, Catherine J

    2014-06-01

    Estimating dietary choline intake can be challenging due to missing foods in the current United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database. The objectives of the study were to quantify the choline-containing moieties and the total choline content of a variety of pulses available in North America and use the expanded compositional database to determine the potential contribution of pulses to dietary choline intake. Commonly consumed pulses (n = 32) were analyzed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC LC-MS/MS) and compared to the current USDA database. Cooking was found to reduce the relative percent from free choline and increased the contribution of phosphatidylcholine to total choline for most pulses (P < 0.05). Using the expanded database to estimate choline content of recipes using pulses as meat alternatives, resulted in a different estimation of choline content per serving (±30%), compared to the USDA database. These results suggest that when pulses are a large part of a meal or diet, the use of accurate food composition data should be used.

  20. Coumarin derivatives bearing benzoheterocycle moiety: synthesis, cholinesterase inhibitory, and docking simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Hirbod, Kimia; Jalili-baleh, Leili; Nadri, Hamid; ebrahimi, Seyed esmaeil Sadat; Moradi, Alireza; Pakseresht, Bahar; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas; Khoobi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): To investigate the efficiency of a novel series of coumarin derivatives bearing benzoheterocycle moiety as novel cholinesterase inhibitors. Materials and Methods: Different 7-hydroxycoumarin derivatives were synthesized via Pechmann or Knoevenagel condensation and conjugated to different benzoheterocycle (8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-mercaptobenzoxazole or 2-mercaptobenzimidazole) using dibromoalkanes 3a-m: Final compounds were evaluated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) by Ellman’s method. Kinetic study of AChE inhibition and ligand-protein docking simulation were also carried out for the most potent compound 3b. Results: Some of the compounds revealed potent and selective activity against AChE. Compound 3b containing the quinoline group showed the best activity with an IC50 value of 8.80 μM against AChE. Kinetic study of AChE inhibition revealed the mixed-type inhibition of the enzyme by compound 3b. Ligand-protein docking simulation also showed that the flexibility of the hydrophobic five carbons linker allows the quinoline ring to form π-π interaction with Trp279 in the PAS. Conclusion: We suggest these synthesized compounds could become potential leads for AChE inhibition and prevention of AD symptoms. PMID:28868119

  1. Modification of the lipid moiety of the enterobacterial common antigen by the "Pseudomonas factor".

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, H M; Neter, E; Mayer, H

    1983-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a factor (PF) which affects the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA); resulting in failure of the antigen to modify erythrocytes for hemagglutination by ECA antibodies. In the present study the nature of PF was determined. Pronase treatment abolished its activity, indicating the protein nature of PF. PF-treated ECA no longer coated erythrocytes but still reacted with ECA antibodies in immunoelectrophoresis tests with monospecific antiserum to ECA, although differences were noted between the precipitation patterns of PF-treated and untreated ECA. Therefore, PF does not significantly affect the antigenic determinant of ECA but rather affects its lipid carrier, an L-glycerophosphatide. Accordingly, differences in the sugar chain could not be detected by high-voltage paper electrophoretic examinations of partial hydrolysates of PF-treated and untreated ECA. PF liberates all fatty acids from ECA, similarly to commercial lipases, as evidenced by the liberation of unsubstituted glycerol upon HF degradation at 0 degrees C of PF-treated ECA. The lipase activity of PF is indicated also by the observation that a strain of P. aeruginosa with reduced lipase production and an exolipase-negative strain affect ECA either less or not at all. We conclude that PF is a lipase acting on the lipid moiety of ECA, which is responsible for the coating of erythrocytes, but not significantly on the serological determinant, the amino sugar chain. Images PMID:6404831

  2. Small endogenous molecules as moiety to improve targeting of CNS drugs.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Giannola, Libero Italo

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of novel neuro-therapeutic agents is to effectively overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which acts as a 'working dynamic barrier'. The core problem in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is failed delivery of potential medicines due to their inadequate permeation rate. Areas covered: The present review gives a summary of endogenous moieties used in synthesizing prodrugs, derivatives and bioisosteric drugs appositely designed to structurally resemble physiological molecular entities able to be passively absorbed or carried by specific carrier proteins expressed at BBB level. In particular, this overview focuses on aminoacidic, glycosyl, purinergic, ureic and acidic fragments derivatives, most of which can take advantage from BBB carrier-mediated transporters, where passive diffusion is not permitted. Expert opinion: In the authors' perspective, further progress in this field could expedite successful translation of new chemical entities into clinical trials. Careful rationalization of the linkage between endogenous molecular structures and putative transporters binding sites could allow to useful work-flows and libraries for synthesizing new BBB-crossing therapeutic substances and/or multifunctional drugs for treatments of central disorders.

  3. Interaction between total body gamma-irradiation and choline deficiency triggers immediate modulation of choline and choline-containing moieties.

    PubMed

    Batra, Vipen; Kislay, Binita; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul Asir

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of 60Co-gamma (γ) radiation on acute phase modulation, if any, of choline and choline-containing moieties in choline-deficient subjects. Corresponding results could provide information that might be useful in the management of adverse effects of γ-radiation. Male Swiss mice maintained on a choline-sufficient diet (CSD) and choline-free diet (CFD) based on AIN-93M formula, were subjected to whole body γ-irradiation (2-6 Gy). Liver, serum and brain samples from each group were then tested for: (i) Alterations in choline and choline-containing moieties such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyeline (SM); and (ii) modulation of choline profile modulating enzymes such as phospholipase D (PLD) and total sphingomyelinase (t-SMase). Liver and brain samples were also subjected to histo-pathological examinations. No significant changes were observed in folate, choline, choline-containing moieties and choline-modulating enzymes in choline-sufficient mice. In contrast, interaction between cytotoxic effects of γ-radiation and choline deficiency modulated choline and choline-containing moieties. Feeding CFD reduced hepatic concentrations of choline, PC and SM whereas PLD and t-SMase activities were significantly raised. The decrease in liver choline and choline-containing moieties was accompanied by an increase in blood choline concentration. Despite choline deficiency, the level of choline and acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransfease (ChAT) significantly increased in the brain. We propose that choline deprivation and γ-radiation interact to modulate choline reserves of hepatic tissue, which might release choline to blood. Our studies also clearly showed that interaction between choline deficiency and γ-radiation might substantially enhance liver adipogenesis.

  4. A Cu(I)-Catalyzed C-H α-Amination of Aryl Ketones. Direct Synthesis of Imidazolinones

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baoguo; Du, Haifeng; Shi, Yian

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an α-amination process of aryl ketones using CuCl as catalyst and di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as the nitrogen source. A variety of imidazolinone derivatives are prepared in moderate yields under mild conditions. A possible catalytic cycle is proposed for this reaction. PMID:19402696

  5. A Conversion of Methyl Ketones into Acetylenes: A Project for a Problem-Oriented or Microscale Organic Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Orlando, Steven C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a process for producing terminal or internal alkynes from ketones. Recommends using the experiment to aid in understanding acid-base strength, enolate anion chemistry, reaction at carbon versus oxygen, use of polar aprotic solvents, and elimination and nucleophilic substitution reactions. (ML)

  6. Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot ("Daucus carota") Bits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravia, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David

    2006-01-01

    The use of biocatalysis and biotransformations are important tools in green chemistry. The enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot ("Daucus carota") as the reducing agent is presented. The experiment introduces an example of a green chemistry procedure that can be tailored to fit in a regular laboratory session.…

  7. Trail Pheromones: Responses of the Texas Leafcutting Ant, Atta texana to Select Halo- and Cyanopyrrole-2-Aldehydes, Ketones, and Esters

    Treesearch

    P. E. Sonnet; John C. Moser

    1973-01-01

    Several halo- and cyanopyrroles related to the trail pheromone of Atta texana (Buckley), were prepared and tested by a faster and more sensitive bioassay that was previously available. Responsiveness of the ants in descending order to these compounds, based on the substituent in the number two position, is: esters, methyl ketones, aldehydes. Slight...

  8. Extraction of vanadium into isobutyl methyl ketone1 1 Publication authorized by the Director, U.S. Geological Survey.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Purdy, W.C.

    1969-01-01

    Because of its advantages in atomic-absorption spectroscopy, isobutyl methyl ketone was chosen as organic solvent for an extraction study on vanadium. Of eight chelating agents which were evaluated for completeness of extraction, ease of use, working pH range, and freedom from interference, cupferron was judged best. ?? 1969.

  9. Electron Impact Ion Fragmentation Pathways of Peracetylated C-glycoside Ketones Derived from Cyclic 1,3-diketones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Monosaccharide C-glycoside ketones have been prepared by aqueous-based Knoevenagel condensation of isotopically-labeled and unlabeled aldoses with cyclic diketones, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione (dimedone) and 1,3-cyclohexanedione (1,3-CHD). The reaction products and their corresponding acetyla...

  10. A FACILE ONE-POT SYNTHESIS OF β-KETO SULFONES FROM KETONES UNDER SOLVENT-FREE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An easy solvent-free method is described for the conversion of ketones into β-keto sulfones in high yields that involves in situ generation of α-tosyloxyketones followed by nucleophilic substitution with sodium arene sulfinate in presence of tetra-butylammonium bromide at ...

  11. ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED EPOXIDATION OF OLEFINS AND A,B-UNSATURATED KETONES OVER HYDROTALCITES USING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An efficient ultrasound-assisted epoxidation of olefins and a,B-unsaturated ketones over hydrotacite catalysts in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and acetonitrile is described. This general and selective protocol is relatively fast and is applicable to a wide variety of substra...

  12. SN-EXCHANGED HYDROTALCITES AS CATALYSTS FOR CLEAN AND SELECTIVE BAEYER-VILLIGER OXIDATION OF KETONES USING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Sn-doped hydrotalcite (Sn/HT) catalyst prepared by ion-exchange is found to be an active and selective catalyst for the liquid phase Baeyer-Villiger (BV) oxidation of cyclic ketones in acetonitrile using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidant. Different reaction perameters such as...

  13. Cross ketonization of Cuphea sp. oil with acetic acid over a composite oxide of Fe, Ce, and Al

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate the viability of the cross ketonization reaction with the triacylglycerol from Cuphea sp. and acetic acid in a fixed-bed plug-flow reactor. The seed oil from Cuphea sp. contains up to 71% decanoic acid and the reaction of this fatty acid residue with ac...

  14. The depolarizing action of GABA in cultured hippocampal neurons is not due to the absence of ketone bodies.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Kim, Jimok; Alger, Bradley E; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2011-01-01

    Two recent reports propose that the depolarizing action of GABA in the immature brain is an artifact of in vitro preparations in which glucose is the only energy source. The authors argue that this does not mimic the physiological environment because the suckling rats use ketone bodies and pyruvate as major sources of metabolic energy. Here, we show that availability of physiologically relevant levels of ketone bodies has no impact on the excitatory action of GABA in immature cultured hippocampal neurons. Addition of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), the primary ketone body in the neonate rat, affected neither intracellular calcium elevation nor membrane depolarizations induced by the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol, when assessed with calcium imaging or perforated patch-clamp recording, respectively. These results confirm that the addition of ketone bodies to the extracellular environment to mimic conditions in the neonatal brain does not reverse the chloride gradient and therefore render GABA hyperpolarizing. Our data are consistent with the existence of a genuine "developmental switch" mechanism in which GABA goes from having a predominantly excitatory role in immature cells to a predominantly inhibitory one in adults.

  15. Chemoselective formation of unsymmetrically substituted ethers from catalytic reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones with alcohols in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kalutharage, Nishantha; Yi, Chae S

    2015-04-03

    A well-defined cationic Ru-H complex catalyzes reductive etherification of aldehydes and ketones with alcohols. The catalytic method employs environmentally benign water as the solvent and cheaply available molecular hydrogen as the reducing agent to afford unsymmetrical ethers in a highly chemoselective manner.

  16. Direct asymmetric aldol reactions between aldehydes and ketones catalyzed by L-tryptophan in the presence of water.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhaoqin; Yang, Hui; Han, Xiao; Luo, Jie; Wong, Ming Wah; Lu, Yixin

    2010-03-21

    Primary amino acids and their derivatives were investigated as catalysts for the direct asymmetric aldol reactions between ketones and aldehydes in the presence of water, and L-tryptophan was shown to be the best catalyst. Solvent effects, substrate scope and the influence of water on the reactions were investigated. Quantum chemical calculations were performed to understand the origin of the observed stereoselectivity.

  17. ADVANCED EMISSIONS SPECIATION METHODOLOGIES FOR THE AUTO/OIL AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM - II. ALDEHYDES, KETONES, AND ALCOHOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical methods for determining individual aldehyde, ketone, and alcohol emissions from gasoline-, methanol-, and variable-fueled vehicles are described. These methods were used in the Auto/Oil Air quality Improvement Research Program to provide emission data for comparison of...

  18. Efficient Three-Component Strecker Reaction of Aldehydes/Ketones via NHC-Amidate Palladium(II) Complex Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Jarusiewicz, Jamie; Choe, Yvonne; Yoo, Kyung Soo; Park, Chan Pil

    2009-01-01

    A simple and efficient one-pot three-component method has been developed for the synthesis of α-aminonitriles. This Strecker reaction is applicable for aldehydes and ketones with aliphatic or aromatic amines and trimethyl siliyl cyanide in the presence of a palladium Lewis aid catalyst in dichloromethane solvent at room temperature. PMID:19265413

  19. Dielectric and conformational studies of hydrogen bonded 2-ethoxyethanol and ethyl methyl ketone system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattebahadur, Kanchan. L.; Deshmukh, S. D.; Mohod, A. G.; Undre, P. B.; Patil, S. S.; Khirade, P. W.

    2018-05-01

    The Dielectric constant, density and refractive index of binary mixture of 2-ethoxy ethanol (2-EE) with ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) including those of the pure liquids were measured for 11 concentrations at 25°C temperature. The experimental data is used to calculate the Excess molar volume, Excess dielectric constant, Kirkwood correlation factor and Bruggemann factor. The excess parameters results were fitted to the Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation to derive its fitting coefficient. The Kirkwood correlation factor of the mixture has been discussed to yield information about solute solvent interaction. The Bruggeman plot shows a deviation from linearity. The FT-IR spectra of pure and their binary mixtures are also studied.

  20. Preparation and tribological behaviors of poly (ether ether ketone) nanocomposite films containing graphene oxide nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hao-Jie; Li, Na; Yang, Jin; Min, Chun-Ying; Zhang, Zhao-zhu

    2013-02-01

    The composite films of poly (ether ether ketone) (PEEK) filled with different proportions of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared by the cast method. The tribological behaviors of the composite films under boundary lubrication (water and liquid paraffin oil lubrication) were investigated and compared with that under dry sliding on an UMT-2 friction and wear machine, by running a steel sphere against the composite films. The results were as follows: GO nanosheets as the filler greatly improve the wear resistance of PEEK under boundary lubrication, though the composites show a different dependence of wear resistance on the filler content. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy performed to analyze the wear scar surfaces after friction confirmed that the outstanding lubrication performance of GO could be attributed to their small size and extremely thin laminated structure, which allow the GO to easily enter the contact area, thereby preventing the rough surfaces from coming into direct contact.

  1. Mechanical Properties Optimization of Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone via Fused Deposition Modeling.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaohu; Zeng, Zhi; Peng, Bei; Yan, Shuo; Ke, Wenchao

    2018-01-30

    Compared to the common selective laser sintering (SLS) manufacturing method, fused deposition modeling (FDM) seems to be an economical and efficient three-dimensional (3D) printing method for high temperature polymer materials in medical applications. In this work, a customized FDM system was developed for polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) materials printing. The effects of printing speed, layer thickness, printing temperature and filling ratio on tensile properties were analyzed by the orthogonal test of four factors and three levels. Optimal tensile properties of the PEEK specimens were observed at a printing speed of 60 mm/s, layer thickness of 0.2 mm, temperature of 370 °C and filling ratio of 40%. Furthermore, the impact and bending tests were conducted under optimized conditions and the results demonstrated that the printed PEEK specimens have appropriate mechanical properties.

  2. Fatigue data for polyether ether ketone (PEEK) under fully-reversed cyclic loading

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Rakish; Simsiriwong, Jutima; Shamsaei, Nima

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the data obtained from the uniaxial fully-reversed fatigue experiments conducted on polyether ether ketone (PEEK), a semi-crystalline thermoplastic, are presented. The tests were performed in either strain-controlled or load-controlled mode under various levels of loading. The data are categorized into four subsets according to the type of tests, including (1) strain-controlled fatigue tests with adjusted frequency to obtain the nominal temperature rise of the specimen surface, (2) strain-controlled fatigue tests with various frequencies, (3) load-controlled fatigue tests without step loadings, and (4) load-controlled fatigue tests with step loadings. Accompanied data for each test include the fatigue life, the maximum (peak) and minimum (valley) stress–strain responses for each cycle, and the hysteresis stress–strain responses for each collected cycle in a logarithmic increment. A brief description of the experimental method is also given. PMID:26937465

  3. Fatigue data for polyether ether ketone (PEEK) under fully-reversed cyclic loading.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Rakish; Simsiriwong, Jutima; Shamsaei, Nima

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the data obtained from the uniaxial fully-reversed fatigue experiments conducted on polyether ether ketone (PEEK), a semi-crystalline thermoplastic, are presented. The tests were performed in either strain-controlled or load-controlled mode under various levels of loading. The data are categorized into four subsets according to the type of tests, including (1) strain-controlled fatigue tests with adjusted frequency to obtain the nominal temperature rise of the specimen surface, (2) strain-controlled fatigue tests with various frequencies, (3) load-controlled fatigue tests without step loadings, and (4) load-controlled fatigue tests with step loadings. Accompanied data for each test include the fatigue life, the maximum (peak) and minimum (valley) stress-strain responses for each cycle, and the hysteresis stress-strain responses for each collected cycle in a logarithmic increment. A brief description of the experimental method is also given.

  4. Repairing a Facial Cleft by Polyether-Ether-Ketone Implant Combined With Titanium Mesh.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuan; Tang, Weiwei; Li, Zhengkang

    2018-05-15

    The Tessier Number 4 cleft is one of the rarest, most complex craniofacial anomalies that presents difficulties in surgical treatment. In this article, we report a case of simultaneous facial depression, eye displacement, and medial canthus deformity. In this case, the maxillary bony defect was reconstructed using computer-assisted design computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD-CAM) polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) material, and the orbital floor defect was repaired with AO prefabricated titanium mesh. Additionally, the medial canthus was modified with canthopexy and a single Z-plasty flap. Owing to its relative rarity and varied clinical presentations, no definitive operative methods have been accepted for Tessier No. 4 facial cleft. This study presents the combination of CAD-CAM manufactured PEEK material and titanium mesh as an alternative approach for reconstructing the bony defect of Tessier No. 4 facial clefts.

  5. Dielectric properties of binary mixtures of methyl iso butyl ketone and amino silicone oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, K. N.; Rana, V. A.; Trivedi, C. M.; Vankar, H. P.

    2017-05-01

    Dielectric permittivity ɛ*(ω) = ɛ' - jɛ″ of the binary mixtures of the methyl iso butyl ketone and amino silicone oil in the frequency range 100 Hz to 2 MHz were measured using precision LCR meter at 305.15 K. Relative complex permittivity spectra in the frequency range 100 Hz to 2 MHz, of the mixture solutions of varying concentrations is reported. Determined values of the permittivity at optical frequency of all the samples are also reported. The dielectric parameters are used to gain information about the effect of concentration variation of components of the mixtures on the dielectric properties. It also provides the information about electrode polarization phenomena taking place under the low frequency A.C. electric field.

  6. Production of Primary Amines by Reductive Amination of Biomass-Derived Aldehydes/Ketones.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guanfeng; Wang, Aiqin; Li, Lin; Xu, Gang; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Tao

    2017-03-06

    Transformation of biomass into valuable nitrogen-containing compounds is highly desired, yet limited success has been achieved. Here we report an efficient catalyst system, partially reduced Ru/ZrO 2 , which could catalyze the reductive amination of a variety of biomass-derived aldehydes/ketones in aqueous ammonia. With this approach, a spectrum of renewable primary amines was produced in good to excellent yields. Moreover, we have demonstrated a two-step approach for production of ethanolamine, a large-market nitrogen-containing chemical, from lignocellulose in an overall yield of 10 %. Extensive characterizations showed that Ru/ZrO 2 -containing multivalence Ru association species worked as a bifunctional catalyst, with RuO 2 as acidic promoter to facilitate the activation of carbonyl groups and Ru as active sites for the subsequent imine hydrogenation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Expeditious diastereoselective synthesis of elaborated ketones via remote Csp3-H functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Wei; Lorente, Adriana; Gómez-Bengoa, Enrique; Nevado, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The quest for selective C-H functionalization reactions, able to provide new strategic opportunities for the rapid assembly of molecular complexity, represents a major focus of the chemical community. Examples of non-directed, remote Csp3-H activation to forge complex carbon frameworks remain scarce due to the kinetic stability and thus intrinsic challenge associated to the chemo-, regio- and stereoselective functionalization of aliphatic C-H bonds. Here we describe a radical-mediated, directing-group-free regioselective 1,5-hydrogen transfer of unactivated Csp3-H bonds followed by a second Csp2-H functionalization to produce, with exquisite stereoselectivity, a variety of elaborated fused ketones. This study demonstrates that aliphatic acids can be strategically harnessed as 1,2-diradical synthons and that secondary aliphatic C-H bonds can be engaged in stereoselective C-C bond-forming reactions, highlighting the potential of this protocol for target-oriented natural product and pharmaceutical synthesis.

  8. General and highly α-regioselective zinc-mediated prenylation of aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Ming; Jin, Hai-Shan; Wan, Li-Jing; Zhang, Li-Ming

    2011-03-18

    A simple, efficient, and general α-prenylation approach for the synthesis of a variety of α-prenylated alcohols has been successfully developed. A wide range of α-prenylated alcohol derivatives could be obtained in good yields by highly α-regioselective zinc-mediated prenylation of various aldehydes and ketones with prenyl bromide at 120 °C in HMPA. By simply altering the reaciton solvent and temperature, the method allows the achievement of a highly notable opposite regiocontrol, providing the expected regiochemical product. The method provides a convenient route for the direct α-prenylation of carbonyl compounds in a highly α-regioselective manner using a cheap and convenient mediator. Two possible pathways are proposed to account for the formation of these synthetically difficult-to-obtain molecules.

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Is a Lectin That Binds Monoglucosylated Oligosaccharides but Not Protein Moieties of Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Labriola, Carlos; Cazzulo, Juan J.; Parodi, Armando J.

    1999-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that belongs to an early branch in evolution. Although it lacks several features of the pathway of protein N-glycosylation and oligosaccharide processing present in the endoplasmic reticulum of higher eukaryotes, it displays UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase and glucosidase II activities. It is herewith reported that this protozoan also expresses a calreticulin-like molecule, the third component of the quality control of glycoprotein folding. No calnexin-encoding gene was detected. Recombinant T. cruzi calreticulin specifically recognized free monoglucosylated high-mannose-type oligosaccharides. Addition of anti-calreticulin serum to extracts obtained from cells pulse–chased with [35S]Met plus [35S]Cys immunoprecipitated two proteins that were identified as calreticulin and the lysosomal proteinase cruzipain (a major soluble glycoprotein). The latter but not the former protein disappeared from immunoprecipitates upon chasing cells. Contrary to what happens in mammalian cells, addition of the glucosidase II inhibitor 1-deoxynojirimycin promoted calreticulin–cruzipain interaction. This result is consistent with the known pathway of protein N-glycosylation and oligosaccharide processing occurring in T. cruzi. A treatment of the calreticulin-cruzipain complexes with endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H either before or after addition of anti-calreticulin serum completely disrupted calreticulin–cruzipain interaction. In addition, mature monoglucosylated but not unglucosylated cruzipain isolated from lysosomes was found to interact with recombinant calreticulin. It was concluded that the quality control of glycoprotein folding appeared early in evolution, and that T. cruzi calreticulin binds monoglucosylated oligosaccharides but not the protein moiety of cruzipain. Furthermore, evidence is presented indicating that glucosyltransferase glucosylated cruzipain at its last folding stages. PMID:10233151

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin is a lectin that binds monoglucosylated oligosaccharides but not protein moieties of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Labriola, C; Cazzulo, J J; Parodi, A J

    1999-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that belongs to an early branch in evolution. Although it lacks several features of the pathway of protein N-glycosylation and oligosaccharide processing present in the endoplasmic reticulum of higher eukaryotes, it displays UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase and glucosidase II activities. It is herewith reported that this protozoan also expresses a calreticulin-like molecule, the third component of the quality control of glycoprotein folding. No calnexin-encoding gene was detected. Recombinant T. cruzi calreticulin specifically recognized free monoglucosylated high-mannose-type oligosaccharides. Addition of anti-calreticulin serum to extracts obtained from cells pulse-chased with [35S]Met plus [35S]Cys immunoprecipitated two proteins that were identified as calreticulin and the lysosomal proteinase cruzipain (a major soluble glycoprotein). The latter but not the former protein disappeared from immunoprecipitates upon chasing cells. Contrary to what happens in mammalian cells, addition of the glucosidase II inhibitor 1-deoxynojirimycin promoted calreticulin-cruzipain interaction. This result is consistent with the known pathway of protein N-glycosylation and oligosaccharide processing occurring in T. cruzi. A treatment of the calreticulin-cruzipain complexes with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H either before or after addition of anti-calreticulin serum completely disrupted calreticulin-cruzipain interaction. In addition, mature monoglucosylated but not unglucosylated cruzipain isolated from lysosomes was found to interact with recombinant calreticulin. It was concluded that the quality control of glycoprotein folding appeared early in evolution, and that T. cruzi calreticulin binds monoglucosylated oligosaccharides but not the protein moiety of cruzipain. Furthermore, evidence is presented indicating that glucosyltransferase glucosylated cruzipain at its last folding stages.

  11. Electrical memory characteristics of a nondoped pi-conjugated polymer bearing carbazole moieties.

    PubMed

    Park, Samdae; Lee, Taek Joon; Kim, Dong Min; Kim, Jin Chul; Kim, Kyungtae; Kwon, Wonsang; Ko, Yong-Gi; Choi, Heungyeal; Chang, Taihyun; Ree, Moonhor

    2010-08-19

    Poly[bis(9H-carbazole-9-ethyl)dipropargylmalonate] (PCzDPM) is a novel pi-conjugated polymer bearing carbazole moieties that has been synthesized by polymerization of bis(9H-carbazole-9-ethyl)dipropargylmalonate with the aid of molybdenum chloride solution as the catalyst. This polymer is thermally stable up to 255 degrees C under a nitrogen atmosphere and 230 degrees C in air ambient; its glass-transition temperature is 147 or 128 degrees C, depending on the polymer chain conformation (helical or planar structure). The charge-transport characteristics of PCzDPM in nanometer-scaled thin films were studied as a function of temperature and film thickness. PCzDPM films with a thickness of 15-30 nm were found to exhibit very stable dynamic random access memory (DRAM) characteristics without polarity. Furthermore, the polymer films retain DRAM characteristics up to 180 degrees C. The ON-state current is dominated by Ohmic conduction, and the OFF-state current appears to undergo a transition from Ohmic to space-charge-limited conduction with a shallow-trap distribution. The ON/OFF switching of the devices is mainly governed by filament formation. The filament formation mechanism for the switching process is supported by the metallic properties of the PCzDPM film, which result in the temperature dependence of the ON-state current. In addition, the structure of this pi-conjugated polymer was found to vary with its thermal history; this change in structure can affect filament formation in the polymer film.

  12. Trialkylamine Derivatives Containing a Triazole Moiety as Promising Ergosterol Biosynthesis Inhibitor: Design, Synthesis, and Antifungal Activity.

    PubMed

    Sui, Guoqing; Zhang, Wen; Zhou, Kun; Li, Yulin; Zhang, Bingyu; Xu, Dan; Zou, Yong; Zhou, Wenming

    2017-01-01

    As a part of our continuing research on amine derivative antifungal agents, 19 novel target compounds containing 1,2,4-triazole and tertiary amine moieties were designed and synthesized, and their in vitro antifungal activities against six phytopathogenic fungi (Magnaporthe grisea, Alternaria solani, Fusarium solani, Curvularia lunata, A. alternata, F. graminearum) were assayed. All target compounds were elucidated by means of 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, high resolution (HR)-MS, and IR analysis. The results showed that most of the derivatives exhibited obvious activity against each of the fungi at 50 µg/mL. Among them, compounds 7f, l, and o displayed excellent activity against A. solani with median effective concentration values (EC 50 ) of 2.88, 8.20, and 1.92 µg/mL. 7o in particular was superior to tebuconazole (EC 50 =2.03 µg/mL), a commercial fungicide. Furthermore, compounds 7j, k, and m also showed good activity against F. graminearum with EC 50 values of 11.60, 5.14, and 16.24 µg/mL, and the value of 7k was extremely close to that of tebuconazole (EC 50 =3.13 µg/mL). The preliminary analysis of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) demonstrated that combination of the active structure of 1,2,4-triazole with the tertiary amine group containing benzene rings effectively increased the antifungal activities. Generally, introducing halogen atoms obviously improved activities against most of the test fungi to varying degrees, while the presence of OMe decreased the activities. Thus, the results strongly indicate that the newly synthesized derivatives should be lead compounds for the development of novel antifungal agents for the effective control of phytopathogenic fungi.

  13. Analysis of the Binding Moiety Mediating the Interaction between Monocarboxylate Transporters and Carbonic Anhydrase II*

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Sina Ibne; Dietz, Steffen; Heidtmann, Hella; Boone, Christopher D.; McKenna, Robert; Deitmer, Joachim W.; Becker, Holger M.

    2015-01-01

    Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) mediate the exchange of high energy metabolites like lactate between different cells and tissues. We have reported previously that carbonic anhydrase II augments transport activity of MCT1 and MCT4 by a noncatalytic mechanism, while leaving transport activity of MCT2 unaltered. In the present study, we combined electrophysiological measurements in Xenopus oocytes and pulldown experiments to analyze the direct interaction between carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4, respectively. Transport activity of MCT2-WT, which lacks a putative CAII-binding site, is not augmented by CAII. However, introduction of a CAII-binding site into the C terminus of MCT2 resulted in CAII-mediated facilitation of MCT2 transport activity. Interestingly, introduction of three glutamic acid residues alone was not sufficient to establish a direct interaction between MCT2 and CAII, but the cluster had to be arranged in a fashion that allowed access to the binding moiety in CAII. We further demonstrate that functional interaction between MCT4 and CAII requires direct binding of the enzyme to the acidic cluster 431EEE in the C terminus of MCT4 in a similar fashion as previously shown for binding of CAII to the cluster 489EEE in the C terminus of MCT1. In CAII, binding to MCT1 and MCT4 is mediated by a histidine residue at position 64. Taken together, our results suggest that facilitation of MCT transport activity by CAII requires direct binding between histidine 64 in CAII and a cluster of glutamic acid residues in the C terminus of the transporter that has to be positioned in surroundings that allow access to CAII. PMID:25561737

  14. Persistence assessment of cyclohexyl- and norbornyl-derived ketones and their degradation products in different OECD screening tests.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, M; van Ginkel, C G; Boschung, A; Miffon, F; Fantini, P; Tissot, E; Baroux, L; Merle, P; Chaintreau, A

    2015-07-01

    The persistence of synthetic cyclohexyl- and norbornyl-derived ketones was assessed by using OECD 301F and 301D biodegradation tests. While cyclohexyl-derived ketones either reached or came close to the pass level (60%) after 60 d, the corresponding norbornyl derivatives yielded significantly less biodegradation (<40%). By analyzing extracts at 60 d, the key degradation products of four norbornyl derivatives were identified. Consistently, 2-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane carboxylic acid was found as a principal degradation product with minor quantities of bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one and 2-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane acetic acid. When the three degradation products were re-synthesized and tested individually for biodegradability, the former two were found to be ultimately biodegradable after 60 d in OECD 301D tests, thus proving non-persistence. Similarly, 2-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane acetic acid was found to be degraded significantly, albeit with long lag phases exceeding 60 d in the case of freshwater inoculum, then ultimately reaching the pass level. On the other hand, norbornyl ketones were still only partially biodegradable in the same test. We conclude that despite the potential for ultimate biodegradation of norbornyl-derived ketones, current screening tests yield an incomplete picture of their biodegradability, particularly when applying strict OECD criteria. The appearance of long lag phases when re-testing norbornyl ketone degradation products underlines the importance of extending tests to well beyond 28 and even 60 d in the case of freshwater inocula. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Facile Rearrangement of 3-Oxoalkyl Radicals is Evident in Low-Temperature Gas-Phase Oxidation of Ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Scheer, Adam M.; Welz, Oliver; Sasaki, Darryl Y.

    The pulsed photolytic chlorine-initiated oxidation of methyl-tert-butyl ketone (MTbuK), di-tert-butyl ketone (DTbuK), and a series of partially deuterated diethyl ketones (DEK) is studied in the gas phase at 8 Torr and 550–650 K. Products are monitored as a function of reaction time, mass, and photoionization energy using multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry with tunable synchrotron ionizing radiation. The results establish that the primary 3-oxoalkyl radicals of those ketones, formed by abstraction of a hydrogen atom from the carbon atom in γ-position relative to the carbonyl oxygen, undergo a rapid rearrangement resulting in an effective 1,2-acyl group migration, similar to that inmore » a Dowd–Beckwith ring expansion. Without this rearrangement, peroxy radicals derived from MTbuK and DTbuK cannot undergo HO2 elimination to yield a closed-shell unsaturated hydrocarbon coproduct. However, not only are these coproducts observed, but they represent the dominant oxidation channels of these ketones under the conditions of this study. For MTbuK and DTbuK, the rearrangement yields a more stable tertiary radical, which provides the thermodynamic driving force for this reaction. Even in the absence of such a driving force in the oxidation of partially deuterated DEK, the 1,2-acyl group migration is observed. Quantum chemical (CBS-QB3) calculations show the barrier for gas-phase rearrangement to be on the order of 10 kcal mol–1. The MTbuK oxidation experiments also show several minor channels, including β-scission of the initial radicals and cyclic ether formation.« less

  16. Ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate blocks the NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Yun-Hee; Nguyen, Kim Y.; Grant, Ryan W.; Goldberg, Emily L.; Bodogai, Monica; Kim, Dongin; D'Agostino, Dominic; Planavsky, Noah; Lupfer, Christopher; Kanneganti, Thirumala D.; Kang, Seokwon; Horvath, Tamas L.; Fahmy, Tarek M.; Crawford, Peter A.; Biragyn, Arya; Alnemri, Emad; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2015-01-01

    Ketone bodies , β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate support mammalian survival during states of energy deficit by serving as alternative source of ATP1. BHB levels are elevated during starvation, high-intensity exercise or by the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet2. Prolonged caloric restriction or fasting reduces inflammation as immune system adapts to low glucose supply and energy metabolism switches towards mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis and ketolysis2-6. However, role of ketones bodies in regulation of innate immune response is unknown. We report that BHB, but neither acetoacetate nor structurally-related short chain fatty acids, butyrate and acetate, suppresses activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to several structurally unrelated NLRP3 activators, without impacting NLRC4, AIM2 or non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome activation. Mechanistically, BHB inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome by preventing K+ efflux and reducing ASC oligomerization and speck formation. The inhibitory effects of BHB on NLRP3 were not dependent on chirality or classical starvation regulated mechanisms like AMPK, reactive oxygen species (ROS), autophagy or glycolytic inhibition. BHB blocked NLRP3 inflammasome without undergoing oxidation in TCA cycle, independently of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), Sirt2, receptor Gpr109a and inhibition of NLRP3 did not correlate with magnitude of histone acetylation in macrophages. BHB reduced the NLRP3 inflammasome mediated IL-1β and IL-18 production in human monocytes. In vivo, BHB attenuates caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in mouse models of NLRP3-mediated diseases like Muckle-Wells Syndrome (MWS), Familial Cold Autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS) and urate crystal induce body cavity inflammation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of caloric restriction or ketogenic diets may be mechanistically linked to BHB-mediated inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and point to the potential

  17. CNN pincer ruthenium catalysts for hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation of ketones: experimental and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Baratta, Walter; Baldino, Salvatore; Calhorda, Maria José; Costa, Paulo J; Esposito, Gennaro; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Magnolia, Santo; Mealli, Carlo; Messaoudi, Abdelatif; Mason, Sax A; Veiros, Luis F

    2014-10-13

    Reaction of [RuCl(CNN)(dppb)] (1-Cl) (HCNN=2-aminomethyl-6-(4-methylphenyl)pyridine; dppb=Ph2 P(CH2 )4 PPh2 ) with NaOCH2 CF3 leads to the amine-alkoxide [Ru(CNN)(OCH2 CF3 )(dppb)] (1-OCH2 CF3 ), whose neutron diffraction study reveals a short RuO⋅⋅⋅HN bond length. Treatment of 1-Cl with NaOEt and EtOH affords the alkoxide [Ru(CNN)(OEt)(dppb)]⋅(EtOH)n (1-OEt⋅n EtOH), which equilibrates with the hydride [RuH(CNN)(dppb)] (1-H) and acetaldehyde. Compound 1-OEt⋅n EtOH reacts reversibly with H2 leading to 1-H and EtOH through dihydrogen splitting. NMR spectroscopic studies on 1-OEt⋅n EtOH and 1-H reveal hydrogen bond interactions and exchange processes. The chloride 1-Cl catalyzes the hydrogenation (5 atm of H2 ) of ketones to alcohols (turnover frequency (TOF) up to 6.5×10(4) h(-1) , 40 °C). DFT calculations were performed on the reaction of [RuH(CNN')(dmpb)] (2-H) (HCNN'=2-aminomethyl-6-(phenyl)pyridine; dmpb=Me2 P(CH2 )4 PMe2 ) with acetone and with one molecule of 2-propanol, in alcohol, with the alkoxide complex being the most stable species. In the first step, the Ru-hydride transfers one hydrogen atom to the carbon of the ketone, whereas the second hydrogen transfer from NH2 is mediated by the alcohol and leads to the key "amide" intermediate. Regeneration of the hydride complex may occur by reaction with 2-propanol or with H2 ; both pathways have low barriers and are alcohol assisted. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Craniofacial reconstruction using patient-specific implants polyether ether ketone with computer-assisted planning.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Oscar J; Lalezarzadeh, Frank; Dayan, Erez; Shin, Joseph; Buchbinder, Daniel; Smith, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Reconstruction of bony craniofacial defects requires precise understanding of the anatomic relationships. The ideal reconstructive technique should be fast as well as economical, with minimal donor-site morbidity, and provide a lasting and aesthetically pleasing result. There are some circumstances in which a patient's own tissue is not sufficient to reconstruct defects. The development of sophisticated software has facilitated the manufacturing of patient-specific implants (PSIs). The aim of this study was to analyze the utility of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) PSIs for craniofacial reconstruction. We performed a retrospective chart review from July 2009 to July 2013 in patients who underwent craniofacial reconstruction using PEEK-PSIs using a virtual process based on computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. A total of 6 patients were identified. The mean age was 46 years (16-68 y). Operative indications included cancer (n = 4), congenital deformities (n = 1), and infection (n = 1). The mean surgical time was 3.7 hours and the mean hospital stay was 1.5 days. The mean surface area of the defect was 93.4 ± 43.26 cm(2), the mean implant cost was $8493 ± $837.95, and the mean time required to manufacture the implants was 2 weeks. No major or minor complications were seen during the 4-year follow-up. We found PEEK implants to be useful in the reconstruction of complex calvarial defects, demonstrating a low complication rate, good outcomes, and high patient satisfaction in this small series of patients. Polyether ether ketone implants show promising potential and warrant further study to better establish the role of this technology in cranial reconstruction.

  19. Clinical utility of Abbott Precision Xceed Pro® ketone meter in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hoi-Ying Elsie; Agus, Michael; Kellogg, Mark D

    2011-11-01

    Diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) often rely on the measurement of urine ketones along with blood glucose, anion gap, and pH. These values, however, do not reliably reflect the severity of ketoacidosis. The Abbott Precision Xceed Pro® meter is an FDA-approved device that quantitatively measures β-hydroxybutyrate (BOH) in whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether the ketone meter meets the analytical criteria to aid DKA diagnosis and management in the hospital. 54 heparinized venous whole blood BOH concentrations from 27 diabetic patients were measured by the Abbott meter, and compared with the plasma BOH concentrations measured with Stanbio reagent (reference method). Measurements were done in the hospital central laboratory. Of the 54 pairs of specimens analyzed, 17 pairs displayed a difference of >15% between the two methods. Nearly all discrepant points occurred when BOH >5 mmol/L (reference method). Linearity evaluation revealed that the meter is not linear from 0.0 to 8.0 mmol/L, contrary to the claim by the manufacturer. Further, we identified acetoacetate, a metabolite commonly present in DKA patients, as a potential interfering substance for the meter BOH measurement. BOH measurements by the Abbott meter up to 3 mmol/L correlate well with the reference method, but become discrepant above that point. While this characteristic may be useful in the diagnosis of DKA, it may not allow clinicians to serially follow the response to therapy in hospitalized DKA patients with BOH values greater than 5 mmol/L (reference method). © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. One- and two-photon photosensitized singlet oxygen production: characterization of aromatic ketones as sensitizer standards.

    PubMed

    Arnbjerg, Jacob; Paterson, Martin J; Nielsen, Christian B; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Christiansen, Ove; Ogilby, Peter R

    2007-07-05

    Singlet molecular oxygen, O2(a1Deltag), can be efficiently produced in a photosensitized process using either one- or two-photon irradiation. The aromatic ketone 1-phenalenone (PN) is an established one-photon singlet oxygen sensitizer with many desirable attributes for use as a standard. In the present work, photophysical properties of two other aromatic ketones, pyrene-1,6-dione (PD) and benzo[cd]pyren-5-one (BP), are reported and compared to those of PN. Both PD and BP sensitize the production of singlet oxygen with near unit quantum efficiency in a nonpolar (toluene) and a polar (acetonitrile) solvent. With their more extensive pi networks, the one-photon absorption spectra for PD and BP extend out to longer wavelengths than that for PN, thus providing increased flexibility for sensitizer excitation over the range approximately 300-520 nm. Moreover, PD and BP have much larger two-photon absorption cross sections than PN over the range 655-840 nm which, in turn, results in amounts of singlet oxygen that are readily detected in optical experiments. One- and two-photon absorption spectra of PD and BP obtained using high-level calculations model the salient features of the experimental data well. In particular, the ramifications of molecular symmetry are clearly reflected in both the experimental and calculated spectra. The use of PD and BP as standards for both the one- and two-photon photosensitized production of singlet oxygen is expected to facilitate the development of new sensitizers for application in singlet-oxygen-based imaging experiments.

  1. A Ketone Ester Diet Increases Brain Malonyl-CoA and Uncoupling Proteins 4 and 5 while Decreasing Food Intake in the Normal Wistar Rat*

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Pawlosky, Robert; Markis, William; King, M. Todd; Bergman, Christian; Srivastava, Shireesh; Murray, Andrew; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Three groups of male Wistar rats were pair fed NIH-31 diets for 14 days to which were added 30% of calories as corn starch, palm oil, or R-3-hydroxybutyrate-R-1,3-butanediol monoester (3HB-BD ester). On the 14th day, animal brains were removed by freeze-blowing, and brain metabolites measured. Animals fed the ketone ester diet had elevated mean blood ketone bodies of 3.5 mm and lowered plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin. Despite the decreased plasma leptin, feeding the ketone ester diet ad lib decreased voluntary food intake 2-fold for 6 days while brain malonyl-CoA was increased by about 25% in ketone-fed group but not in the palm oil fed group. Unlike the acute effects of ketone body metabolism in the perfused working heart, there was no increased reduction in brain free mitochondrial [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio nor in the free energy of ATP hydrolysis, which was compatible with the observed 1.5-fold increase in brain uncoupling proteins 4 and 5. Feeding ketone ester or palm oil supplemented diets decreased brain l-glutamate by 15–20% and GABA by about 34% supporting the view that fatty acids as well as ketone bodies can be metabolized by the brain. PMID:20529850

  2. A ketone ester diet increases brain malonyl-CoA and Uncoupling proteins 4 and 5 while decreasing food intake in the normal Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Pawlosky, Robert; Markis, William; King, M Todd; Bergman, Christian; Srivastava, Shireesh; Murray, Andrew; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L

    2010-08-20

    Three groups of male Wistar rats were pair fed NIH-31 diets for 14 days to which were added 30% of calories as corn starch, palm oil, or R-3-hydroxybutyrate-R-1,3-butanediol monoester (3HB-BD ester). On the 14th day, animal brains were removed by freeze-blowing, and brain metabolites measured. Animals fed the ketone ester diet had elevated mean blood ketone bodies of 3.5 mm and lowered plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin. Despite the decreased plasma leptin, feeding the ketone ester diet ad lib decreased voluntary food intake 2-fold for 6 days while brain malonyl-CoA was increased by about 25% in ketone-fed group but not in the palm oil fed group. Unlike the acute effects of ketone body metabolism in the perfused working heart, there was no increased reduction in brain free mitochondrial [NAD(+)]/[NADH] ratio nor in the free energy of ATP hydrolysis, which was compatible with the observed 1.5-fold increase in brain uncoupling proteins 4 and 5. Feeding ketone ester or palm oil supplemented diets decreased brain L-glutamate by 15-20% and GABA by about 34% supporting the view that fatty acids as well as ketone bodies can be metabolized by the brain.

  3. Duplex and triplex formation of mixed pyrimidine oligonucleotides with stacking of phenyl-triazole moieties in the major groove.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Nicolai Krog; Døssing, Holger; Jensen, Frank; Vester, Birte; Nielsen, Poul

    2011-08-05

    5-(1-Phenyl-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-2'-deoxycytidine was synthesized from a modified CuAAC protocol and incorporated into mixed pyrimidine oligonucleotide sequences together with the corresponding 5-(1-phenyl-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-2'-deoxyuridine. With consecutive incorporations of the two modified nucleosides, improved duplex formation with a complementary RNA and improved triplex formation with a complementary DNA duplex were observed. The improvement is due to π-π stacking of the phenyl-triazole moieties in the major groove. The strongest stacking and most pronounced positive influence on thermal stability was found in between the uridine analogues or with the cytidine analogue placed in the 3' direction to the uridine analogue. Modeling indicated a different orientation of the phenyl-triazole moieties in the major groove to account for the difference between the two nucleotides. The modified oligonucleotides were all found to be significantly stabilized toward nucleolytic degration.

  4. From ketones to esters by a Cu-catalyzed highly selective C(CO)-C(alkyl) bond cleavage: aerobic oxidation and oxygenation with air.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xinyao; Zou, Miancheng; Song, Song; Tang, Conghui; Yuan, Yizhi; Jiao, Ning

    2014-10-22

    The Cu-catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterification of simple ketones via C-C bond cleavage has been developed. Varieties of common ketones, even inactive aryl long-chain alkyl ketones, are selectively converted into esters. The reaction tolerates a wide range of alcohols, including primary and secondary alcohols, chiral alcohols with retention of the configuration, electron-deficient phenols, as well as various natural alcohols. The usage of inexpensive copper catalyst, broad substrate scope, and neutral and open air conditions make this protocol very practical. (18)O labeling experiments reveal that oxygenation occurs during this transformation. Preliminary mechanism studies indicate that two novel pathways are mainly involved in this process.

  5. Catalytic Activity of Thiolate-Bridged Diruthenium Complexes Bearing Pendent Ether Moieties in the Oxidation of Molecular Dihydrogen.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Masahiro; Sakata, Ken; Kikuchi, Shoma; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Ando, Masaki; Nakajima, Kazunari; Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-23

    Thiolate-bridged diruthenium complexes bearing pendent ethers have been found to work as effective catalysts toward the oxidation of molecular dihydrogen into protons and electrons in water. The pendent ether moiety in the complex plays an important role to facilitate the proton transfer between the metal center and the external proton acceptor. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Reactions of nitroxides 15. Cinnamates bearing a nitroxyl moiety synthesized using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction

    PubMed Central

    Huras, Bogumiła

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cinnamic acid derivatives bearing a nitroxyl moiety (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-4-piperidyl 3-E-aryl acrylates) were synthesized in 30–100% yield using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction between 4-acryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl and iodobenzene derivatives in the presence of palladium(II) acetate coordinated with a tri(o-tolyl)phosphine ligand immobilized in a polyurea matrix. PMID:26199672

  7. Conformation-Based Design and Synthesis of Apratoxin A Mimetics Modified at the α,β-Unsaturated Thiazoline Moiety.

    PubMed

    Onda, Yuichi; Masuda, Yuichi; Yoshida, Masahito; Doi, Takayuki

    2017-08-10

    We have demonstrated design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of apratoxin A mimetics. In the first generation, the moCys moiety was replaced with seven simple amino acids as their 3D structures can be similar to that of apratoxin A. Apratoxins M1-M7 were synthesized using solid-phase peptide synthesis and solution-phase macrolactamization. Apratoxin M7, which contains a piperidinecarboxylic acid moiety, exhibited potent cytotoxicity against HCT-116 cells. In the second generation, substitution of each amino acid residue in the tripeptide Tyr(Me)-MeAla-MeIle moiety in apratoxin M7 led to the development of the highly potent apratoxin M16 possessing biphenylalanine (Bph) instead of Tyr(Me), which exhibited an IC 50 value of 1.1 nM against HCT-116 cells. Moreover, compared to apratoxin A, apratoxin M16 exhibited a similarly high level of growth inhibitory activity against various cancer cell lines. The results indicate that apratoxin M16 could be a potential candidate as an anticancer agent.

  8. TRPA1-dependent reversible opening of tight junction by natural compounds with an α,β-unsaturated moiety and capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Yusuke; Yamasaki, Youhei; Sasaki-Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Ida-Koga, Noriko; Kamisuki, Shinji; Sugawara, Fumio; Nagumo, Yoko; Usui, Takeo

    2018-02-02

    The delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules runs into difficulties such as penetration of the cell membrane lipid bilayer. Our prior experiment demonstrated that capsaicin induces the reversible opening of tight junctions (TJs) and enhances the delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules through a paracellular route. Herein, we screened paracellular permeability enhancers other than capsaicin. As TJ opening by capsaicin is associated with Ca 2+ influx, we first screened the compounds that induce Ca 2+ influx in layered MDCK II cells, and then we determined the compounds' abilities to open TJs. Our results identified several natural compounds with α,β-unsaturated moiety. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis and the results of pretreatment with reducing reagent DTT suggested the importance of α,β-unsaturated moiety. We also examined the underlying mechanisms, and our findings suggest that the actin reorganization seen in capsaicin treatment is important for the reversibility of TJ opening. Furthermore, our analyses revealed that TRPA1 is involved in the Ca 2+ influx and TJ permeability increase not only by an α,β-unsaturated compound but also by capsaicin. Our results indicate that the α,β-unsaturated moiety can be a potent pharmacophore for TJ opening.

  9. Replacing the acetyl linkage in aspirin with choline and magnesium moieties reduces the occurrence of gastric mucosal injury.

    PubMed

    Danesh, B J; Nelson, L M; Russell, R I; Docherty, C

    1987-02-01

    The acetyl moiety in aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid: ASA) is considered to play a major part in the pathogenesis of ASA-induced mucosal injury. At equivalent salicylate doses and pH values, the induction of acute gastric mucosal haemorrhagic erosions in rats by ASA and choline magnesium trisalicylate (CMT), a new non-acetylated salicylate, with and without the potentiating damaging effect of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) were compared. Test solutions were administered by per oral intubation to five groups of fasting Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24). Gastric mucosa were examined after 4 hours and mucosal injury assessed by a lesion-scoring system. The incidence and severity (median lesion scores with quartiles) of the lesions were 83% and 13 (7:20) respectively for ASA (128 mg kg-1) compared with 17% and 0 (0:0) for CMT (128 mg kg-1) (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.001). TDCA increased mucosal damage to 100% and 29 (20:34) for ASA compared with 30% and 0 (0:4) for CMT (P less than 0.001) and P less than 0.001). Serum salicylate levels (median values of 1.4 for ASA and 1.5 mmol litre-1 for CMT) were not significantly different. It is concluded that replacing the acetyl moiety in ASA with choline and magnesium moieties reduces the ASA-induced mucosal injury, without affecting blood salicylate concentrations.

  10. A molecular hybrid polyoxometalate-organometallic moieties and its relevance to supercapacitors in physiological electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnathambi, Selvaraj; Ammam, Malika

    2015-06-01

    Supercapacitors operating in physiological electrolytes are of great relevance for both their environmentally friendly aspect as well as the possibility to be employed for powering implantable microelectronic devices using directly biological fluids as electrolytes. Polyoxometalate (POMs) have been proven to be useful for supercapacitors in acidic media. However, in neutral pH, POMs are usually not stable. One relevant alternative is to stabilize POMs by pairing them with organic moieties to form hybrids. In this study, we combined K6P2Mo18O62·12H2O (P2Mo18) with Ru(bpy)3Cl2.6H2O (Ru(bpy)). The synthesis was carried out with and without the mild reducing agent KI. The hybrids were characterized by CHN analysis, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and cyclic voltammetry. CHN elemental analysis revealed that one mole [P2Mo18O62]6- is paired with 3 mol [Ru(bpy)3]2+ to form [Ru(bpy)3]3PMo18O62·nH2O. With KI present, [P2Mo18O62]6- is linked to 3.33 mol to yield [Ru(bpy)3]3.33PMo18O62·mH2O. Excess of Ru(bpy) in [Ru(bpy)3]3.33PMo18O62·mH2O was further confirmed by TEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and cyclic voltammetry. In turn, hybrid composition is found to strongly influence the supercapacitor behavior. The hybrid rich in Ru(bpy) is found to perform better for supercapacitors in physiological electrolytes. 125 F g-1 and 68 F g-1 are the capacitance values obtained with [Ru(bpy)3]3.33PMo18O62·mH2O and [Ru(bpy)3]3PMo18O62·nH2O, respectively. In terms of specific energy densities, 3.5 Wh kg-1 and 2 Wh kg-1 were obtained for both hybrid simultaneously. The difference in supercapacitor performance between both hybrids is also noticed in impedance spectroscopy which showed that [Ru(bpy)3]3.33PMo18O62·mH2O has lower electron transfer resistance if compared to [Ru(bpy)3]3PMo18O62·nH2O. Finally, if compared of parent K6P2Mo18O62·12H2O, the stability of both hybrids is found to be highly improved.

  11. Characterisation of the Native Lipid Moiety of Echinococcus granulosus Antigen B

    PubMed Central

    Obal, Gonzalo; Ramos, Ana Lía; Silva, Valeria; Lima, Analía; Batthyany, Carlos; Bessio, María Inés; Ferreira, Fernando; Salinas, Gustavo; Ferreira, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    Antigen B (EgAgB) is the most abundant and immunogenic antigen produced by the larval stage (metacestode) of Echinococcus granulosus. It is a lipoprotein, the structure and function of which have not been completely elucidated. EgAgB apolipoprotein components have been well characterised; they share homology with a group of hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) present exclusively in cestode organisms, and consist of different isoforms of 8-kDa proteins encoded by a polymorphic multigene family comprising five subfamilies (EgAgB1 to EgAgB5). In vitro studies have shown that EgAgB apolipoproteins are capable of binding fatty acids. However, the identity of the native lipid components of EgAgB remains unknown. The present work was aimed at characterising the lipid ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo. EgAgB was purified to homogeneity from hydatid cyst fluid and its lipid fraction was extracted using chloroform∶methanol mixtures. This fraction constituted approximately 40–50% of EgAgB total mass. High-performance thin layer chromatography revealed that the native lipid moiety of EgAgB consists of a variety of neutral (mainly triacylglycerides, sterols and sterol esters) and polar (mainly phosphatidylcholine) lipids. Gas-liquid chromatography analysis showed that 16∶0, 18∶0 and 18∶1(n-9) are the most abundant fatty acids in EgAgB. Furthermore, size exclusion chromatography coupled to light scattering demonstrated that EgAgB comprises a population of particles heterogeneous in size, with an average molecular mass of 229 kDa. Our results provide the first direct evidence of the nature of the hydrophobic ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo and indicate that the structure and composition of EgAgB lipoprotein particles are more complex than previously thought, resembling high density plasma lipoproteins. Results are discussed considering what is known on lipid metabolism in cestodes, and taken into account the Echinococcus spp. genomic information regarding both lipid

  12. Ketones and lactate increase cancer cell “stemness”, driving recurrence, metastasis and poor clinical outcome in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Lin, Zhao; Pavlides, Stephanos; Wang, Chengwang; Flomenberg, Neal; Knudsen, Erik S; Howell, Anthony; Pestell, Richard G

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we showed that high-energy metabolites (lactate and ketones) “fuel” tumor growth and experimental metastasis in an in vivo xenograft model, most likely by driving oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in breast cancer cells. To mechanistically understand how these metabolites affect tumor cell behavior, here we used genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Human breast cancer cells (MCF7) were cultured with lactate or ketones, and then subjected to transcriptional analysis (exon-array). Interestingly, our results show that treatment with these high-energy metabolites increases the transcriptional expression of gene profiles normally associated with “stemness”, including genes upregulated in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Similarly, we observe that lactate and ketones promote the growth of bonafide ES cells, providing functional validation. The lactate- and ketone-induced “gene signatures” were able to predict poor clinical outcome (including recurrence and metastasis) in human breast cancer patients. Taken together, our results are consistent with the idea that lactate and ketone utilization in cancer cells promotes the “cancer stem cell” phenotype, resulting in significant decreases in patient survival. One possible mechanism by which high-energy metabolites might induce stemness is by increasing the pool of Acetyl-CoA, leading to increased histone acetylation and elevated gene expression. Thus, our results mechanistically imply that clinical outcome in breast cancer could simply be determined by epigenetics and energy metabolism, rather than by the accumulation of specific “classical” gene mutations. We also suggest that high-risk cancer patients (identified by the lactate/ketone gene signatures) could be treated with new therapeutics that target oxidative mitochondrial metabolism, such as the anti-oxidant and “mitochondrial poison” metformin. Finally, we propose that this new approach to personalized cancer medicine be termed

  13. Influence of the amino acid moiety on deconjugation of bile acid amidates by cholylglycine hydrolase or human fecal cultures.

    PubMed

    Huijghebaert, S M; Hofmann, A F

    1986-07-01

    The influence of the chemical structure of the amino acid (or amino acid analogue) moiety of a number of synthetic cholyl amidates on deconjugation by cholylglycine hydrolase from Clostridium perfringens was studied in vitro at pH 5.4. Conjugates with alkyl homologues of glycine were hydrolyzed more slowly as the number of methylene units increased (cholylglycine greater than cholyl-beta-alanine greater than cholyl-gamma-aminobutyrate). In contrast, for conjugates with the alkyl homologues of taurine, cholylaminopropane sulfonate was hydrolyzed slightly faster than cholyltaurine, whereas cholylaminomethane sulfonate was hydrolyzed much more slowly. When glycine was replaced by other neutral alpha-amino acids, rates of hydrolysis decreased with increasing steric hindrance near the amide bond (cholyl-L-alpha-alanine much much greater than cholyl-L-leucine much greater than cholyl-L-valine greater than cholyl-L-tyrosine much greater than cholyl-D-valine). Conjugation with acidic or basic amino acids also greatly reduced the rates of hydrolysis, as cholyl-L-aspartate, cholyl-L-cysteate, cholyl-L-lysine, and cholyl-L-histidine were all hydrolyzed at a rate less than one-tenth that of cholylglycine. Methyl esterification of the carboxylic group of the amino acid moiety reduced the hydrolysis, but such substrates (cholylglycine methyl ester and cholyl-beta-alanine methyl ester) were completely hydrolyzed after overnight incubation with excess of enzyme. In contrast, cholyl-cholamine was not hydrolyzed at all, suggesting that a negative charge at the end of the side chain is required for optimal hydrolysis. Despite the lack of specificity for the amino acid moiety, a bile salt moiety was required, as the cholylglycine hydrolase did not display general carboxypeptidase activity for other non-bile acid substrates containing a terminal amide bond: hippuryl-L-phenylalanine and hippuryl-L-arginine, as well as oleyltaurine and oleylglycine, were not hydrolyzed. Fecal bacterial

  14. Aliphatic C-C Bond Cleavage in α-Hydroxy Ketones by a Dioxygen-Derived Nucleophilic Iron-Oxygen Oxidant.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Shrabanti; Rahaman, Rubina; Chatterjee, Sayanti; Paine, Tapan K

    2017-03-17

    A nucleophilic iron-oxygen oxidant, formed in situ in the reaction between an iron(II)-benzilate complex and O 2 , oxidatively cleaves the aliphatic C-C bonds of α-hydroxy ketones. In the cleavage reaction, α-hydroxy ketones without any α-C-H bond afford a 1:1 mixture of carboxylic acid and ketone. Isotope labeling studies established that one of the oxygen atoms from dioxygen is incorporated into the carboxylic acid product. Furthermore, the iron(II) complex cleaves an aliphatic C-C bond of 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone affording androstenedione and acetic acid. The O 2 -dependent aliphatic C-C bond cleavage of α-hydroxy ketones containing no α-C-H bond bears similarity to the lyase activity of the heme enzyme, cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A modified Girard derivatizing reagent for universal profiling and trace analysis of aldehydes and ketones by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David W

    2007-01-01

    4-Hydrazino-N,N,N-trimethyl-4-oxobutanaminium iodide (HTMOB) is a modified Girard derivatizing reagent synthesized to improve the sensitivity of analysis of aldehydes and ketones with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with Girard T reagent the measured signal intensity increase is between 3.3 times (succinylacetone) and 7.0 times (17-hydroxyprogesterone). HTMOB is a universal profiling reagent for aldehydes and ketones. A neutral loss of 59 Da scan detects all aldehydes and ketones from acetone to corticosteroids. Applications described include the profiling of ketones, ketoacids and ketodiacids in the urine of children with ketosis and the profiling of long-chain aldehydes incorporated in plasma plasmalogens. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Immobilization of Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 for efficient asymmetric reduction of ketones and biocatalyst recycling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Lou, Wen-Yong; Li, Ying; Wu, Hong; Zong, Min-Hua; Smith, Thomas J; Chen, Xin-De

    2012-09-04

    The bacterium Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 is a promising whole-cell biocatalyst with exclusive anti-Prelog stereoselectivity for the reduction of prochiral ketones that can be used to make valuable chiral alcohols such as (R)-4-(trimethylsilyl)-3-butyn-2-ol. Although it has promising catalytic properties, its stability and reusability are relatively poor compared to other biocatalysts. Hence, we explored various materials for immobilizing the active cells, in order to improve the operational stability of biocatalyst. It was found that Ca-alginate give the best immobilized biocatalyst, which was then coated with chitosan to further improve its mechanical strength and swelling-resistance properties. Conditions were optimized for formation of reusable immobilized beads which can be used for repeated batch asymmetric reduction of 4'-chloroacetophenone. The optimized immobilized biocatalyst was very promising, with a specific activity of 85% that of the free-cell biocatalyst (34.66 μmol/min/g dw of cells for immobilized catalyst vs 40.54 μmol/min/g for free cells in the asymmetric reduction of 4'-chloroacetophenone). The immobilized cells showed better thermal stability, pH stability, solvent tolerance and storability compared with free cells. After 25 cycles reaction, the immobilized beads still retained >50% catalytic activity, which was 3.5 times higher than degree of retention of activity by free cells reused in a similar way. The cells could be recultured in the beads to regain full activity and perform a further 25 cycles of the reduction reaction. The external mass transfer resistances were negligible as deduced from Damkohler modulus Da < <1, and internal mass transfer restriction affected the reduction action but was not the principal rate-controlling step according to effectiveness factors η < 1 and Thiele modulus 0.3<∅ <1. Ca-alginate coated with chitosan is a highly effective material for immobilization of Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 cells for

  17. Immobilization of Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 for efficient asymmetric reduction of ketones and biocatalyst recycling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The bacterium Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 is a promising whole-cell biocatalyst with exclusive anti-Prelog stereoselectivity for the reduction of prochiral ketones that can be used to make valuable chiral alcohols such as (R)-4-(trimethylsilyl)-3-butyn-2-ol. Although it has promising catalytic properties, its stability and reusability are relatively poor compared to other biocatalysts. Hence, we explored various materials for immobilizing the active cells, in order to improve the operational stability of biocatalyst. Results It was found that Ca-alginate give the best immobilized biocatalyst, which was then coated with chitosan to further improve its mechanical strength and swelling-resistance properties. Conditions were optimized for formation of reusable immobilized beads which can be used for repeated batch asymmetric reduction of 4′-chloroacetophenone. The optimized immobilized biocatalyst was very promising, with a specific activity of 85% that of the free-cell biocatalyst (34.66 μmol/min/g dw of cells for immobilized catalyst vs 40.54 μmol/min/g for free cells in the asymmetric reduction of 4′-chloroacetophenone). The immobilized cells showed better thermal stability, pH stability, solvent tolerance and storability compared with free cells. After 25 cycles reaction, the immobilized beads still retained >50% catalytic activity, which was 3.5 times higher than degree of retention of activity by free cells reused in a similar way. The cells could be recultured in the beads to regain full activity and perform a further 25 cycles of the reduction reaction. The external mass transfer resistances were negligible as deduced from Damkohler modulus Da < <1, and internal mass transfer restriction affected the reduction action but was not the principal rate-controlling step according to effectiveness factors η < 1 and Thiele modulus 0.3<∅ <1. Conclusions Ca-alginate coated with chitosan is a highly effective material for immobilization of

  18. Carbene-catalysed reductive coupling of nitrobenzyl bromides and activated ketones or imines via single-electron-transfer process

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Yuhuang; Proctor, Rupert S. J.; Zhang, Yuexia; Webster, Richard D.; Yang, Song; Song, Baoan; Chi, Yonggui Robin

    2016-01-01

    Benzyl bromides and related molecules are among the most common substrates in organic synthesis. They are typically used as electrophiles in nucleophilic substitution reactions. These molecules can also be activated via single-electron-transfer (SET) process for radical reactions. Representative recent progress includes α-carbon benzylation of ketones and aldehydes via photoredox catalysis. Here we disclose the generation of (nitro)benzyl radicals via N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalysis under reductive conditions. The radical intermediates generated via NHC catalysis undergo formal 1,2-addition with ketones to eventually afford tertiary alcohol products. The overall process constitutes a formal polarity-inversion of benzyl bromide, allowing a direct coupling of two initially electrophilic carbons. Our study provides a new carbene-catalysed reaction mode that should enable unconventional transformation of (nitro)benzyl bromides under mild organocatalytic conditions. PMID:27671606

  19. Ketimine modifications as a route to novel amorphous and derived semicrystalline poly(arylene ether ketone) homo- and copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohanty, D. K.; Lowery, R. C.; Lyle, G. D.; Mcgrath, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    A series of amine terminal amorphous poly(arylene ether ketone) oligomers of controlled molecular weights (2-15 K) were synthesized. These oligomers have been found to undergo 'self-crosslinking' reactions upon heating above 220 C, via the reaction of the terminal amine groups with the in-chain keto carbonyl functionalities. The resulting networks are ductile, chemically resistant, and nonporous. The networks obtained via generated ketimine functionality were characterized by solid state NMR. They have also been found to be remarkably stable toward hydrolysis. Ketimine functional bishalide monomers have also been synthesized. Such monomers have been utilized to synthesize a wide variety of amorphous poly(arylene ether) ketimine polymers. A high molecular weight hydroquinone functional poly(arylene ether) ketimine has been acid treated to regenerate a poly(arylene ether ketone) backbone in solution. This novel procedure thus allows for the synthesis of important matrix resins under relatively mild conditions.

  20. Asymmetric reduction of ketones with catecholborane using 2,6-BODOL complexes of titanium(IV) as catalysts.

    PubMed

    Sarvary, I; Almqvist, F; Frejd, T

    2001-05-18

    Reductions performed with Ti(IV) complexes of ligands based on bicyclo[2.2.2]octane diols 5 and 6 are effective catalysts in the reduction of prochiral ketones to optically active alcohols, with catecholborane as the reducing agent. Methyl ketones are favored and enantiomeric excesses (ee) of < or =98% have been achieved with acetophenone as the substrate. Several other substrates were tested, among them 2-octanone, which gave 2-octanol in 87% ee. Further details of the method were examined, for example, temperature, solvent composition, amount of molecular sieves (4 A), and catecholborane quality, as well as the sensitivity of the ligands towards acids. NMR spectroscopic methods were used to gain some insight into the complexes formed between the ligands and [Ti(OiPr)4]. A dimeric structure is proposed for the pre-catalyst.

  1. Catalyzed formation of α,β-unsaturated ketones or aldehydes from propargylic acetates by a recoverable and recyclable nanocluster catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Man-Bo; Tian, Shi-Kai; Wu, Zhikun

    2014-05-01

    An active, recoverable, and recyclable nanocluster catalyst, Au25(SR)18-, has been developed to catalyze the formation of α,β-unsaturated ketones or aldehydes from propargylic acetates. The catalytic process has been proposed to be initialized by an SN2' addition of OH-. Moreover, a dramatic solvent effect was observed, for which a rational explanation was provided.An active, recoverable, and recyclable nanocluster catalyst, Au25(SR)18-, has been developed to catalyze the formation of α,β-unsaturated ketones or aldehydes from propargylic acetates. The catalytic process has been proposed to be initialized by an SN2' addition of OH-. Moreover, a dramatic solvent effect was observed, for which a rational explanation was provided. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, UV-Vis spectra and fluorescence spectra of catalysts, characterization data, and copies of MS spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00658e

  2. Bioreduction of α,β-unsaturated ketones and aldehydes by non-conventional yeast (NCY) whole-cells.

    PubMed

    Goretti, Marta; Ponzoni, Chiara; Caselli, Elisa; Marchegiani, Elisabetta; Cramarossa, Maria Rita; Turchetti, Benedetta; Forti, Luca; Buzzini, Pietro

    2011-03-01

    The bioreduction of α,β-unsaturated ketones (ketoisophorone, 2-methyl- and 3-methyl-cyclopentenone) and aldehydes [(S)-(-)-perillaldehyde and α-methyl-cinnamaldehyde] by 23 "non-conventional" yeasts (NCYs) belonging to 21 species of the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Hanseniaspora, Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces, Lindnera, Nakaseomyces, Vanderwaltozyma, and Wickerhamomyces was reported. The results highlight the potential of NCYs as whole-cell biocatalysts for selective biotransformation of electron-poor alkenes. A few NCYs exhibited extremely high (>90%) or even total ketoisophorone and 2-methyl-cyclopentenone bioconversion yields via asymmetric reduction of the conjugated CC bond catalyzed by enoate reductases. Catalytic efficiency declined after switching from ketones to aldehydes. High chemoselectivity due to low competing carbonyl reductases was also sometimes observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental verification, and domain definition, of structural alerts for protein binding: epoxides, lactones, nitroso, nitros, aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Nelms, M D; Cronin, M T D; Schultz, T W; Enoch, S J

    2013-01-01

    This study outlines how a combination of in chemico and Tetrahymena pyriformis data can be used to define the applicability domain of selected structural alerts within the profilers of the OECD QSAR Toolbox. Thirty-three chemicals were profiled using the OECD and OASIS profilers, enabling the applicability domain of six structural alerts to be defined, the alerts being: epoxides, lactones, nitrosos, nitros, aldehydes and ketones. Analysis of the experimental data showed the applicability domains for the epoxide, nitroso, aldehyde and ketone structural alerts to be well defined. In contrast, the data showed the applicability domains for the lactone and nitro structural alerts needed modifying. The accurate definition of the applicability domain for structural alerts within in silico profilers is important due to their use in the chemical category in predictive and regulatory toxicology. This study highlights the importance of utilizing multiple profilers in category formation.

  4. Studies of Azetidin-2-one as a Reactive Enolate Synthon of β-Alanine for Condensations with Aldehydes and Ketones.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Donnell, Andrew F; Kammler, David C; Ward, Sarah A; Taylor, Levin

    2016-11-04

    Studies describe formation of the lithium enolate of N-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)azetidin-2-one (1) and characterization of representative aldol reactions with aldehydes and ketones. Diastereoselectivity features the production of anti-aldol adducts from α,β-unsaturated ketones and α-branched aliphatic aldehydes. The stereoselectivity is rationalized via closed, six-membered transition-state arrangements leading to the formation of Felkin-Anh and anti-Felkin products. Examples illustrate the direct incorporation of monocyclic β-lactams into a variety of molecular architectures. The utility of 1 as an enolate synthon of homoglycine (β-alanine) is illustrated by the efficient synthesis of novel β-amino acid derivatives, including complex 4-hydroxy-2-pyridinones.

  5. Carbene-catalysed reductive coupling of nitrobenzyl bromides and activated ketones or imines via single-electron-transfer process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Yuhuang; Proctor, Rupert S. J.; Zhang, Yuexia; Webster, Richard D.; Yang, Song; Song, Baoan; Chi, Yonggui Robin

    2016-09-01

    Benzyl bromides and related molecules are among the most common substrates in organic synthesis. They are typically used as electrophiles in nucleophilic substitution reactions. These molecules can also be activated via single-electron-transfer (SET) process for radical reactions. Representative recent progress includes α-carbon benzylation of ketones and aldehydes via photoredox catalysis. Here we disclose the generation of (nitro)benzyl radicals via N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalysis under reductive conditions. The radical intermediates generated via NHC catalysis undergo formal 1,2-addition with ketones to eventually afford tertiary alcohol products. The overall process constitutes a formal polarity-inversion of benzyl bromide, allowing a direct coupling of two initially electrophilic carbons. Our study provides a new carbene-catalysed reaction mode that should enable unconventional transformation of (nitro)benzyl bromides under mild organocatalytic conditions.

  6. The effect of RO3201195 and a pyrazolyl ketone P38 MAPK inhibitor library on the proliferation of Werner syndrome cells.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Mark C; Dwyer, Jessica E; Baashen, Mohammed; Dix, Matthew C; Murziani, Paola G S; Rokicki, Michal J; Kipling, David; Davis, Terence

    2016-01-21

    Microwave-assisted synthesis of the pyrazolyl ketone p38 MAPK inhibitor RO3201195 in 7 steps and 15% overall yield, and the comparison of its effect upon the proliferation of Werner Syndrome cells with a library of pyrazolyl ketones, strengthens the evidence that p38 MAPK inhibition plays a critical role in modulating premature cellular senescence in this progeroid syndrome and the reversal of accelerated ageing observed in vitro on treatment with SB203580.

  7. Allyl transfer to aldehydes and ketones by Brønsted acid activation of allyl and crotyl 1,3,2-dioxazaborolidines.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Maureen K; Rychnovsky, Scott D

    2010-11-05

    Alkyl dioxazaborolidines are air-stable and often crystalline organoboranes. A variety of Brønsted acids activate allyl dioxazaborolidines to generate reactive allyl-transfer reagents in situ. These reagents add to aldehydes and ketones to generate the corresponding alcohols in good yields under mild conditions. The E- and Z-crotyl reagents react diastereoselectively with aldehydes and ketones to produce anti and syn adducts, respectively, a result consistent with a cyclic transition state (type I mechanism).

  8. Allyl Transfer to Aldehydes and Ketones by Brønsted Acid Activation of Allyl and Crotyl 1,3,2-Dioxazaborolidines

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Maureen K.; Rychnovsky, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    Alkyl dioxazaborolidines are air-stable and often crystalline organoboranes. A variety of Brønsted acids activate allyl dioxazaborolidines to generate reactive allyl-transfer reagents in situ. These reagents add to aldehydes and ketones to generate the corresponding alcohols in good yields under mild conditions. The E- and Z-crotyl reagents react diastereoselectively with aldehydes and ketones to produce anti and syn adducts, respectively, a result consistent with a cyclic transition state (Type I mechanism). PMID:20942379

  9. Solvent-free synthesis of C10 and C11 branched alkanes from furfural and methyl isobutyl ketone.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinfan; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Cong, Yu; Zhang, Tao

    2013-07-01

    Our best results jet: C10 and C11 branched alkanes, with low freezing points, are synthesized through the aldol condensation of furfural and methyl isobutyl ketone from lignocellulose, which is then followed by hydrodeoxygenation. These jet-fuel-range alkanes are obtained in high overall yields (≈90%) under solvent-free conditions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Copper-catalyzed transformation of ketones to amides via C(CO)-C(alkyl) bond cleavage directed by picolinamide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haojie; Zhou, Xiaoqiang; Zhan, Zhenzhen; Wei, Daidong; Shi, Chong; Liu, Xingxing; Huang, Guosheng

    2017-09-13

    Copper catalyzed chemoselective cleavage of the C(CO)-C(alkyl) bond leading to C-N bond formation with chelation assistance of N-containing directing groups is described. Inexpensive Cu(ii)-acetate serves as a convenient catalyst for this transformation. This method highlights the emerging strategy to transform unactivated alkyl ketones into amides in organic synthesis and provides a new strategy for C-C bond cleavage.

  11. Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative synthesis of α-ketoamides from methyl ketones, amines and NIS at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Wei, Ying; Lin, Shaoxia; Liang, Fushun; Liu, Pengjun

    2012-12-14

    A simple, efficient and practical copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative synthesis of α-ketoamides from aryl methyl ketones, aliphatic amines and N-iodosuccinimide (NIS) has been developed. The one-pot reaction may proceed smoothly at room temperature in the open air. The possible mechanism for the formation of α-ketoamides was proposed. Molecular oxygen in air functions as both an oxidant and an oxygen source.

  12. Cerebral utilization of glucose, ketone bodies and oxygen in starving infant rats and the effect of intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Dahlquist, G

    1976-10-01

    Cerebral arteriovenous differences of acetoacetate, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, lactate and oxygen and brain DNA content was measured at 20 days of age in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) rats and normal littermates after 48 and 72 h of starvation. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with labeled microspheres in other comparable groups of IUGR and control rats. CBF was similar in IUGR and normal littermates (0.57+/-0.09 and 0.58+/-0.10 ml/min respectively). After 48 h of starvation, arterial glucose was significantly lower in IUGR than control animals but the arterial concentrations of ketone bodies were similar. After 48 h of starvation, cerebral arteriovenous difference of beta-hydroxybutyrate was significantly higher in control than IUGR rats also when expressed per mg brain DNA as was the fractional uptake of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate. After 72 h of starvation, arterial concentrations of ketone bodies were significantly lower in IUGR rats than controls but the fractional uptake of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate was increased compared to IUGR rats starved for 48 h. The average percentage of calculated total substrate uptake (mumol/min) accounted for by ketone bodies increased in control animals from 31.1% after 48 h of starvation to 41.0% after 72 h of starvation. In IUGR rats these percentage values were 26.5 and 25.7 respectively. After 72 h of starvation the fraction of total cerebral uptake of substrates accounted for by ketone bodies was significantly higher in control that IUGR rats. As total cerebral uptake of substrates was similar between IUGR and control animals it is concluded that IUGR rats are more dependent on glucose as a substrate for the brain during starvation.

  13. Comparison of breath gases, including acetone, with blood glucose and blood ketones in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Blaikie, Tom P J; Edge, Julie A; Hancock, Gus; Lunn, Daniel; Megson, Clare; Peverall, Rob; Richmond, Graham; Ritchie, Grant A D; Taylor, David

    2014-11-25

    Previous studies have suggested that breath gases may be related to simultaneous blood glucose and blood ketone levels in adults with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. The aims of this study were to investigate these relationships in children and young people with type 1 diabetes in order to assess the efficacy of a simple breath test as a non-invasive means of diabetes management. Gases were collected in breath bags and measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose and ketone levels taken at the same time on a single visit to a routine hospital clinic in 113 subjects (59 male, age 7 years 11 months-18 years 3 months) with type 1 diabetes. The patients were well-controlled with relatively low concentrations of the blood ketone measured (β hydroxybutyrate, 0-0.4 mmol l(-1)). Breath acetone levels were found to increase with blood β hydroxybutyrate levels and a significant relationship was found between the two (Spearman's rank correlation ρ = 0.364, p < 10(-4)). A weak positive relationship was found between blood glucose and breath acetone (ρ = 0.16, p = 0.1), but led to the conclusion that single breath measurements of acetone do not provide a good measure of blood glucose levels in this cohort. This result suggests a potential to develop breath gas analysis to provide an alternative to blood testing for ketone measurement, for example to assist with the management of type 1 diabetes.

  14. From a remarkable manifestation of polar effects in a radical fragmentation to the convergent synthesis of highly functionalized ketones.

    PubMed

    Debien, Laurent; Zard, Samir Z

    2013-03-13

    A new radical addition/C-C bond fragmentation process is reported. Vinyl carbinols derived from 2-methyl-2-phenylpropanal react with radicals generated from xanthates to give the corresponding ketones. The radical cleavage reaction proceeds under mild conditions, in good to high yield, and in the presence of the unprotected carbinol. Highly functionalized 1,5-diketones and pyridines are readily available using this approach.

  15. Triple Nucleophilic Attack of Nitromethane on (2-Iminoaryl)divinyl Ketones: A Domino Synthetic Strategy for Hexahydrophenanthridinones.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chengjie; Li, Yifei; Xu, Qi; Pan, Ling; Liu, Qun; Xu, Xianxiu

    2018-02-02

    A novel domino reaction of (2-iminoaryl)divinyl ketones with nitromethane was developed for the efficient synthesis of hexahydrophenanthridin-9(5H)-ones. The reaction proceeded smoothly from readily available starting materials under mild reaction conditions to construct three new bonds and two rings with high diastereoselectivities in good to excellent yields in a single step. A mechanism is proposed, involving a stepwise double Michael addition/aza-Henry reaction cascade, and in this transformation, nitromethane acts as a trinucleophile.

  16. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Gabriele D; Brucker, Daniel P; Bähr, Oliver; Harter, Patrick N; Hattingen, Elke; Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Steinbach, Joachim P; Rieger, Johannes

    2011-07-26

    Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2), 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1) and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic agents that efficiently target non-oxidative pathways.

  17. The AMP-activated protein kinase is involved in the regulation of ketone body production by astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, C; Woods, A; de Ceballos, M L; Carling, D; Guzmán, M

    1999-10-01

    The possible role of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a highly conserved stress-activated kinase, in the regulation of ketone body production by astrocytes was studied. AMPK activity in rat cortical astrocytes was three times higher than in rat cortical neurons. AMPK in astrocytes was shown to be functionally active. Thus, incubation of astrocytes with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR), a cell-permeable activator of AMPK, stimulated both ketogenesis from palmitate and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I. This was concomitant to a decrease of intracellular malonyl-CoA levels and an inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase/fatty acid synthesis and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase/cholesterol synthesis. Moreover, in microdialysis experiments AICAR was shown to stimulate brain ketogenesis markedly. The effect of chemical hypoxia on AMPK and the ketogenic pathway was studied subsequently. Incubation of astrocytes with azide led to a remarkable drop of fatty acid beta-oxidation. However, activation of AMPK during hypoxia compensated the depression of beta-oxidation, thereby sustaining ketone body production. This effect seemed to rely on the cascade hypoxia --> increase of the AMP/ATP ratio --> AMPK stimulation --> acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition --> decrease of malonyl-CoA concentration --> carnitine palmitoyltransferase I deinhibition --> enhanced ketogenesis. Furthermore, incubation of neurons with azide blunted lactate oxidation, but not 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation. Results show that (a) AMPK plays an active role in the regulation of ketone body production by astrocytes, and (b) ketone bodies produced by astrocytes during hypoxia might be a substrate for neuronal oxidative metabolism.

  18. A dehydrogenative cross-coupling reaction between aromatic aldehydes or ketones and dialkyl H-phosphonates for formyl or acylphenylphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xing-Fen; Wu, Qing-Lai; He, Jian-Shi; Huang, Zhi-Zhen

    2015-04-21

    A novel DCC reaction between aromatic aldehydes or ketones and H-phosphonates has been developed for the synthesis of p-formyl or p-acylphenylphosphonates. The synthetic method has excellent para regioselectivities, good yields, and broad substrate scopes and is more benign to the environment. The DCC reaction also tolerates many functional groups, and results in a series of new p-formyl and p-acylphenylphosphonates, which should be important building blocks for the synthesis of versatile arylphosphonate derivatives.

  19. Gold-catalyzed three-component annulation: efficient synthesis of highly functionalized dihydropyrazoles from alkynes, hydrazines, and aldehydes or ketones.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yamato; Naoe, Saori; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; Ohno, Hiroaki

    2012-01-06

    Polysubstituted dihydropyrazoles were directly obtained by a gold-catalyzed three-component annulation. This reaction consists of a Mannich-type coupling of alkynes with N,N'-disubstituted hydrazines and aldehydes/ketones followed by intramolecular hydroamination. Cascade cyclization using 1,2-dialkynylbenzene derivatives as the alkyne component was also performed producing fused tricyclic dihydropyrazoles in good yields. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Synthesis of sterically hindered enamides via a Ti-mediated condensation of amides with aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Genovino, Julien; Lagu, Bharat; Wang, Yaping; Touré, B Barry

    2012-07-07

    The first TiCl(4)-mediated condensation of secondary amides with aldehydes and ketones has been achieved. The reaction proceeds at room temperature and is complete within 5 h in most cases. The optimized procedure used 5 equiv of an amine base hinting that the in situ activation of both the amide and the Lewis acid is required. The reaction affords polysubstituted (E)-enamides.