Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is hypothesized to facilitate adaptive evolution by expanding proteomic diversity through an epigenetic approach. However, it is challenging to provide evidences to support this hypothesis at the whole editome level. In this study, we systematically characterized 2,114 A-to-I RNA editing sites in female and male brains of D. melanogaster, and nearly half of these sites had events evolutionarily conserved across Drosophila species. We detected strong signatures of positive selection on the nonsynonymous editing sites in Drosophila brains, and the beneficial editing sites were significantly enriched in genes related to chemical and electrical neurotransmission. The signal of adaptation was even more pronounced for the editing sites located in X chromosome or for those commonly observed across Drosophila species. We identified a set of gene candidates (termed “PSEB” genes) that had nonsynonymous editing events favored by natural selection. We presented evidence that editing preferentially increased mutation sequence space of evolutionarily conserved genes, which supported the adaptive evolution hypothesis of editing. We found prevalent nonsynonymous editing sites that were favored by natural selection in female and male adults from five strains of D. melanogaster. We showed that temperature played a more important role than gender effect in shaping the editing levels, although the effect of temperature is relatively weaker compared to that of species effect. We also explored the relevant factors that shape the selective patterns of the global editomes. Altogether we demonstrated that abundant nonsynonymous editing sites in Drosophila brains were adaptive and maintained by natural selection during evolution. Our results shed new light on the evolutionary principles and functional consequences of RNA editing. PMID:28282384
Liu, Huiquan; Wang, Qinhu; He, Yi; Chen, Lingfeng; Hao, Chaofeng; Jiang, Cong; Li, Yang; Dai, Yafeng; Kang, Zhensheng; Xu, Jin-Rong
Yeasts and filamentous fungi do not have adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) orthologs and are believed to lack A-to-I RNA editing, which is the most prevalent editing of mRNA in animals. However, during this study with the PUK1 (FGRRES_01058) pseudokinase gene important for sexual reproduction in Fusarium graminearum, we found that two tandem stop codons, UA1831GUA1834G, in its kinase domain were changed to UG1831GUG1834G by RNA editing in perithecia. To confirm A-to-I editing of PUK1 transcripts, strand-specific RNA-seq data were generated with RNA isolated from conidia, hyphae, and perithecia. PUK1 was almost specifically expressed in perithecia, and 90% of transcripts were edited to UG1831GUG1834G. Genome-wide analysis identified 26,056 perithecium-specific A-to-I editing sites. Unlike those in animals, 70.5% of A-to-I editing sites in F. graminearum occur in coding regions, and more than two-thirds of them result in amino acid changes, including editing of 69 PUK1-like pseudogenes with stop codons in ORFs. PUK1 orthologs and other pseudogenes also displayed stage-specific expression and editing in Neurospora crassa and F. verticillioides. Furthermore, F. graminearum differs from animals in the sequence preference and structure selectivity of A-to-I editing sites. Whereas A's embedded in RNA stems are targeted by ADARs, RNA editing in F. graminearum preferentially targets A's in hairpin loops, which is similar to the anticodon loop of tRNA targeted by adenosine deaminases acting on tRNA (ADATs). Overall, our results showed that A-to-I RNA editing occurs specifically during sexual reproduction and mainly in the coding regions in filamentous ascomycetes, involving adenosine deamination mechanisms distinct from metazoan ADARs. PMID:26934920
Jain, Rajeev; Jain, Anamika; Betsholtz, Christer; Giannarelli, Chiara; Kovacic, Jason C.; Ruusalepp, Arno; Skogsberg, Josefin; Hao, Ke; Schadt, Eric E.
RNA editing modifies transcripts and may alter their regulation or function. In humans, the most common modification is adenosine to inosine (A-to-I). We examined the global characteristics of RNA editing in 4,301 human tissue samples. More than 1.6 million A-to-I edits were identified in 62% of all protein-coding transcripts. mRNA recoding was extremely rare; only 11 novel recoding sites were uncovered. Thirty single nucleotide polymorphisms from genome-wide association studies were associated with RNA editing; one that influences type 2 diabetes (rs2028299) was associated with editing in ARPIN. Twenty-five genes, including LRP11 and PLIN5, had editing sites that were associated with plasma lipid levels. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic regulation of RNA editing and establish a rich catalogue for further exploration of this process. PMID:29527417
Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong; Liu, Huiquan
ABSTRACT ADAR mediated A-to-I RNA editing is thought to be unique to animals and occurs mainly in the non-coding regions. Recently filamentous fungi such as Fusarium graminearum were found to lack orthologs of animal ADARs but have stage-specific A-to-I editing during sexual reproduction. Unlike animals, majority of editing sites are in the coding regions and often result in missense and stop loss changes in fungi. Furthermore, whereas As in RNA stems are targeted by animal ADARs, RNA editing in fungi preferentially targets As in hairpin loops, implying that fungal RNA editing involves mechanisms related to editing of the anticodon loop by ADATs. Identification and characterization of fungal adenosine deaminases and their stage-specific co-factors may be helpful to understand the evolution of human ADARs. Fungi also can be used to study biological functions of missense and stop loss RNA editing events in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:27533598
Park, Eddie; Guo, Jiguang; Shen, Shihao; Demirdjian, Levon; Wu, Ying Nian; Lin, Lan; Xing, Yi
A-to-I RNA editing is an important step in RNA processing in which specific adenosines in some RNA molecules are post-transcriptionally modified to inosines. RNA editing has emerged as a widespread mechanism for generating transcriptome diversity. However, there remain significant knowledge gaps about the variation and function of RNA editing. In order to determine the influence of genetic variation on A-to-I RNA editing, we integrate genomic and transcriptomic data from 445 human lymphoblastoid cell lines by combining an RNA editing QTL (edQTL) analysis with an allele-specific RNA editing (ASED) analysis. We identify 1054 RNA editing events associated with cis genetic polymorphisms. Additionally, we find that a subset of these polymorphisms is linked to genome-wide association study signals of complex traits or diseases. Finally, compared to random cis polymorphisms, polymorphisms associated with RNA editing variation are located closer spatially to their respective editing sites and have a more pronounced impact on RNA secondary structure. Our study reveals widespread cis variation in RNA editing among genetically distinct individuals and sheds light on possible phenotypic consequences of such variation on complex traits and diseases.
Savva, Yiannis A; Laurent, Georges St; Reenan, Robert A
Adenosine (A)-to-inosine (I) RNA editing is a fundamental posttranscriptional modification that ensures the deamination of A-to-I in double-stranded (ds) RNA molecules. Intriguingly, the A-to-I RNA editing system is particularly active in the nervous system of higher eukaryotes, altering a plethora of noncoding and coding sequences. Abnormal RNA editing is highly associated with many neurological phenotypes and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying RNA editing-mediated pathogenesis still remain enigmatic and have attracted increasing attention from researchers. Over the last decade, methods available to perform genome-wide transcriptome analysis, have evolved rapidly. Within the RNA editing field researchers have adopted next-generation sequencing technologies to identify RNA-editing sites within genomes and to elucidate the underlying process. However, technical challenges associated with editing site discovery have hindered efforts to uncover comprehensive editing site datasets, resulting in the general perception that the collections of annotated editing sites represent only a small minority of the total number of sites in a given organism, tissue, or cell type of interest. Additionally to doubts about sensitivity, existing RNA-editing site lists often contain high percentages of false positives, leading to uncertainty about their validity and usefulness in downstream studies. An accurate investigation of A-to-I editing requires properly validated datasets of editing sites with demonstrated and transparent levels of sensitivity and specificity. Here, we describe a high signal-to-noise method for RNA-editing site detection using single-molecule sequencing (SMS). With this method, authentic RNA-editing sites may be differentiated from artifacts. Machine learning approaches provide a procedure to improve upon and experimentally validate sequencing outcomes through use of computationally predicted, iterative feedback loops
Hong, HuiQi; Lin, Jaymie Siqi; Chen, Leilei
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, the most prevalent mode of transcript modification in higher eukaryotes, is catalysed by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). A-to-I editing imposes an additional layer of gene regulation as it dictates various aspects of RNA metabolism, including RNA folding, processing, localization and degradation. Furthermore, editing events in exonic regions contribute to proteome diversity as translational machinery decodes inosine as guanosine. Although it has been demonstrated that dysregulated A-to-I editing contributes to various diseases, the precise regulatory mechanisms governing this critical cellular process have yet to be fully elucidated. However, integration of previous studies revealed that regulation of A-to-I editing is multifaceted, weaving an intricate network of auto- and transregulations, including the involvement of virus-originated factors like adenovirus-associated RNA. Taken together, it is apparent that tipping of any regulatory components will have profound effects on A-to-I editing, which in turn contributes to both normal and aberrant physiological conditions. A complete understanding of this intricate regulatory network may ultimately be translated into new therapeutic strategies against diseases driven by perturbed RNA editing events. Herein, we review the current state of knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms governing A-to-I editing and propose the role of other co-factors that may be involved in this complex regulatory process.
Sun, Jiangming; Singh, Pratibha; Bagge, Annika; Valtat, Bérengère; Vikman, Petter; Spégel, Peter; Mulder, Hindrik
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional alteration of RNA sequences that, via insertions, deletions or base substitutions, can affect protein structure as well as RNA and protein expression. Recently, it has been suggested that RNA editing may be more frequent than previously thought. A great impediment, however, to a deeper understanding of this process is the paramount sequencing effort that needs to be undertaken to identify RNA editing events. Here, we describe an in silico approach, based on machine learning, that ameliorates this problem. Using 41 nucleotide long DNA sequences, we show that novel A-to-I RNA editing events can be predicted from known A-to-I RNA editing events intra- and interspecies. The validity of the proposed method was verified in an independent experimental dataset. Using our approach, 203 202 putative A-to-I RNA editing events were predicted in the whole human genome. Out of these, 9% were previously reported. The remaining sites require further validation, e.g., by targeted deep sequencing. In conclusion, the approach described here is a useful tool to identify potential A-to-I RNA editing events without the requirement of extensive RNA sequencing. PMID:27764195
Peng, Xinxin; Xu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yumeng; Hawke, David H; Yu, Shuangxing; Han, Leng; Zhou, Zhicheng; Mojumdar, Kamalika; Jeong, Kang Jin; Labrie, Marilyne; Tsang, Yiu Huen; Zhang, Minying; Lu, Yiling; Hwu, Patrick; Scott, Kenneth L; Liang, Han; Mills, Gordon B
Adenosine (A) to inosine (I) RNA editing introduces many nucleotide changes in cancer transcriptomes. However, due to the complexity of post-transcriptional regulation, the contribution of RNA editing to proteomic diversity in human cancers remains unclear. Here, we performed an integrated analysis of TCGA genomic data and CPTAC proteomic data. Despite limited site diversity, we demonstrate that A-to-I RNA editing contributes to proteomic diversity in breast cancer through changes in amino acid sequences. We validate the presence of editing events at both RNA and protein levels. The edited COPA protein increases proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells in vitro. Our study suggests an important contribution of A-to-I RNA editing to protein diversity in cancer and highlights its translational potential. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adenosine (A) to inosine (I) RNA editing introduces many nucleotide changes in cancer transcriptomes. However, due to the complexity of post-transcriptional regulation, the contribution of RNA editing to proteomic diversity in human cancers remains unclear. Here, we performed an integrated analysis of TCGA genomic data and CPTAC proteomic data. Despite limited site diversity, we demonstrate that A-to-I RNA editing contributes to proteomic diversity in breast cancer through changes in amino acid sequences. We validate the presence of editing events at both RNA and protein levels.
Khermesh, Khen; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Barak, Michal; Annese, Anita; Wachtel, Chaim; Levanon, Erez Y.; Picardi, Ernesto; Eisenberg, Eli
Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, catalyzed by the ADAR enzyme family, acts on dsRNA structures within pre-mRNA molecules. Editing of the coding part of the mRNA may lead to recoding, amino acid substitution in the resulting protein, possibly modifying its biochemical and biophysical properties. Altered RNA editing patterns have been observed in various neurological pathologies. Here, we present a comprehensive study of recoding by RNA editing in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of irreversible dementia. We have used a targeted resequencing approach supplemented by a microfluidic-based high-throughput PCR coupled with next-generation sequencing to accurately quantify A-to-I RNA editing levels in a preselected set of target sites, mostly located within the coding sequence of synaptic genes. Overall, editing levels decreased in AD patients’ brain tissues, mainly in the hippocampus and to a lesser degree in the temporal and frontal lobes. Differential RNA editing levels were observed in 35 target sites within 22 genes. These results may shed light on a possible association between the neurodegenerative processes typical for AD and deficient RNA editing. PMID:26655226
Yao, Li; Wang, Heming; Song, Yuanyuan; Dai, Zhen; Yu, Hao; Yin, Ming; Wang, Dongxu; Yang, Xin; Wang, Jinlin; Wang, Tiedong; Cao, Nan; Zhu, Jimin; Shen, Xizhong; Song, Guangqi; Zhao, Yicheng
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing by adenosine deaminase acting on the RNA (ADAR) proteins is one of the most frequent modifications during post- and co-transcription. To facilitate the assignment of biological functions to specific editing sites, we designed an automatic online platform to annotate A-to-I RNA editing sites in pre-mRNA splicing signals, microRNAs (miRNAs) and miRNA target untranslated regions (3' UTRs) from human (Homo sapiens) high-throughput sequencing data and predict their effects based on large-scale bioinformatic analysis. After analysing plenty of previously reported RNA editing events and human normal tissues RNA high-seq data, >60 000 potentially effective RNA editing events on functional genes were found. The RNA Editing Plus platform is available for free at https://www.rnaeditplus.org/, and we believe our platform governing multiple optimized methods will improve further studies of A-to-I-induced editing post-transcriptional regulation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Duan, Yuange; Dou, Shengqian; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Changcheng; Wu, Mingming
Abstract The adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editomes have been systematically characterized in various metazoan species, and many editing sites were found in clusters. However, it remains unclear whether the clustered editing sites tend to be linked in the same RNA molecules or not. By adopting a method originally designed to detect linkage disequilibrium of DNA mutations, we examined the editomes of ten metazoan species and detected extensive linkage of editing in Drosophila and cephalopods. The prevalent linkages of editing in these two clades, many of which are conserved between closely related species and might be associated with the adaptive proteomic recoding, are maintained by natural selection at the cost of genome evolution. Nevertheless, in worms and humans, we only detected modest proportions of linked editing events, the majority of which were not conserved. Furthermore, the linkage of editing in coding regions of worms and humans might be overall deleterious, which drives the evolution of DNA sites to escape promiscuous editing. Altogether, our results suggest that the linkage landscape of A-to-I editing has evolved during metazoan evolution. This present study also suggests that linkage of editing should be considered in elucidating the functional consequences of RNA editing. PMID:29048557
Duan, Yuange; Dou, Shengqian; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Changcheng; Wu, Mingming; Lu, Jian
The adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editomes have been systematically characterized in various metazoan species, and many editing sites were found in clusters. However, it remains unclear whether the clustered editing sites tend to be linked in the same RNA molecules or not. By adopting a method originally designed to detect linkage disequilibrium of DNA mutations, we examined the editomes of ten metazoan species and detected extensive linkage of editing in Drosophila and cephalopods. The prevalent linkages of editing in these two clades, many of which are conserved between closely related species and might be associated with the adaptive proteomic recoding, are maintained by natural selection at the cost of genome evolution. Nevertheless, in worms and humans, we only detected modest proportions of linked editing events, the majority of which were not conserved. Furthermore, the linkage of editing in coding regions of worms and humans might be overall deleterious, which drives the evolution of DNA sites to escape promiscuous editing. Altogether, our results suggest that the linkage landscape of A-to-I editing has evolved during metazoan evolution. This present study also suggests that linkage of editing should be considered in elucidating the functional consequences of RNA editing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
One in every 88 children is diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), a set of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by social impairments, communication deficits, and repetitive behavior. ASDs have a substantial genetic component, but the specific cause of most cases remains unknown. Understanding gene-environment interactions underlying ASD is essential for improving early diagnosis and identifying critical targets for intervention and prevention. Towards this goal, we surveyed adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing in autistic brains. A-to-I editing is an epigenetic mechanism that fine-tunes synaptic function in response to environmental stimuli, shown to modulate complex behavior in animals. We used ultradeep sequencing to quantify A-to-I receding of candidate synaptic genes in postmortem cerebella from individuals with ASD and neurotypical controls. We found unexpectedly wide distributions of human A-to-I editing levels, whose extremes were consistently populated by individuals with ASD. We correlated A-to-I editing with isoform usage, identified clusters of correlated sites, and examined differential editing patterns. Importantly, we found that individuals with ASD commonly use a dysfunctional form of the editing enzyme ADARB1. We next profiled small RNAs thought to regulate A-to-I editing, which originate from one of the most commonly altered loci in ASD, 15q11. Deep targeted sequencing of SNORD115 and SNORD116 transcripts enabled their high-resolution detection in human brains, and revealed a strong gender bias underlying their expression. The consistent 2-fold upregulation of 15q11 small RNAs in male vs. female cerebella could be important in delineating the role of this locus in ASD, a male dominant disorder. Overall, these studies provide an accurate population-level view of small RNA and A-to-I editing in human cerebella, and suggest that A-to-I editing of synaptic genes may be informative for assessing the epigenetic risk for autism
Sakurai, Masayuki; Ueda, Hiroki; Yano, Takanori; Okada, Shunpei; Terajima, Hideki; Mitsuyama, Toutai; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kawabata, Hitomi; Suzuki, Tsutomu
Inosine is an abundant RNA modification in the human transcriptome and is essential for many biological processes in modulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the hydrolytic deamination of adenosines to inosines (A-to-I editing) in double-stranded regions. We previously established a biochemical method called “inosine chemical erasing” (ICE) to directly identify inosines on RNA strands with high reliability. Here, we have applied the ICE method combined with deep sequencing (ICE-seq) to conduct an unbiased genome-wide screening of A-to-I editing sites in the transcriptome of human adult brain. Taken together with the sites identified by the conventional ICE method, we mapped 19,791 novel sites and newly found 1258 edited mRNAs, including 66 novel sites in coding regions, 41 of which cause altered amino acid assignment. ICE-seq detected novel editing sites in various repeat elements as well as in short hairpins. Gene ontology analysis revealed that these edited mRNAs are associated with transcription, energy metabolism, and neurological disorders, providing new insights into various aspects of human brain functions. PMID:24407955
Shallev, Lea; Kopel, Eli; Feiglin, Ariel; Leichner, Gil S; Avni, Dror; Sidi, Yechezkel; Eisenberg, Eli; Barzilai, Aviv; Levanon, Erez Y; Greenberger, Shoshana
Recognition of dsRNA molecules activates the MDA5-MAVS pathway and plays a critical role in stimulating type-I interferon responses in psoriasis. However, the source of the dsRNA accumulation in psoriatic keratinocytes remains largely unknown. A-to-I RNA editing is a common co- or post-transcriptional modification that diversifies adenosine in dsRNA, and leads to unwinding of dsRNA structures. Thus, impaired RNA editing activity can result in an increased load of endogenous dsRNAs. Here we provide a transcriptome-wide analysis of RNA editing across dozens of psoriasis patients, and we demonstrate a global editing reduction in psoriatic lesions. In addition to the global alteration, we also detect editing changes in functional recoding sites located in the IGFBP7 , COPA , and FLNA genes. Accretion of dsRNA activates autoimmune responses, and therefore the results presented here, linking for the first time an autoimmune disease to reduction in global editing level, are relevant to a wide range of autoimmune diseases. © 2018 Shallev et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.
Goldstein, Boaz; Agranat-Tamir, Lily; Light, Dean; Ben-Naim Zgayer, Orna; Fishman, Alla; Lamm, Ayelet T.
A-to-I RNA editing is a conserved widespread phenomenon in which adenosine (A) is converted to inosine (I) by adenosine deaminases (ADARs) in double-stranded RNA regions, mainly noncoding. Mutations in ADAR enzymes in Caenorhabditis elegans cause defects in normal development but are not lethal as in human and mouse. Previous studies in C. elegans indicated competition between RNA interference (RNAi) and RNA editing mechanisms, based on the observation that worms that lack both mechanisms do not exhibit defects, in contrast to the developmental defects observed when only RNA editing is absent. To study the effects of RNA editing on gene expression and function, we established a novel screen that enabled us to identify thousands of RNA editing sites in nonrepetitive regions in the genome. These include dozens of genes that are edited at their 3′ UTR region. We found that these genes are mainly germline and neuronal genes, and that they are down-regulated in the absence of ADAR enzymes. Moreover, we discovered that almost half of these genes are edited in a developmental-specific manner, indicating that RNA editing is a highly regulated process. We found that many pseudogenes and other lncRNAs are also extensively down-regulated in the absence of ADARs in the embryo but not in the fourth larval (L4) stage. This down-regulation is not observed upon additional knockout of RNAi. Furthermore, levels of siRNAs aligned to pseudogenes in ADAR mutants are enhanced. Taken together, our results suggest a role for RNA editing in normal growth and development by regulating silencing via RNAi. PMID:28031250
Goldstein, Boaz; Agranat-Tamir, Lily; Light, Dean; Ben-Naim Zgayer, Orna; Fishman, Alla; Lamm, Ayelet T
A-to-I RNA editing is a conserved widespread phenomenon in which adenosine (A) is converted to inosine (I) by adenosine deaminases (ADARs) in double-stranded RNA regions, mainly noncoding. Mutations in ADAR enzymes in Caenorhabditis elegans cause defects in normal development but are not lethal as in human and mouse. Previous studies in C. elegans indicated competition between RNA interference (RNAi) and RNA editing mechanisms, based on the observation that worms that lack both mechanisms do not exhibit defects, in contrast to the developmental defects observed when only RNA editing is absent. To study the effects of RNA editing on gene expression and function, we established a novel screen that enabled us to identify thousands of RNA editing sites in nonrepetitive regions in the genome. These include dozens of genes that are edited at their 3' UTR region. We found that these genes are mainly germline and neuronal genes, and that they are down-regulated in the absence of ADAR enzymes. Moreover, we discovered that almost half of these genes are edited in a developmental-specific manner, indicating that RNA editing is a highly regulated process. We found that many pseudogenes and other lncRNAs are also extensively down-regulated in the absence of ADARs in the embryo but not in the fourth larval (L4) stage. This down-regulation is not observed upon additional knockout of RNAi. Furthermore, levels of siRNAs aligned to pseudogenes in ADAR mutants are enhanced. Taken together, our results suggest a role for RNA editing in normal growth and development by regulating silencing via RNAi. © 2017 Goldstein et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Li, Yang; Chen, Daipeng; Qi, Zhaomei; Wang, Qinhu; Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Cong; Xu, Jin-Rong
Although fungi lack adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing was reported recently in Fusarium graminearum during sexual reproduction. In this study, we profiled the A-to-I editing landscape and characterized its functional and adaptive properties in the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. A total of 40,677 A-to-I editing sites were identified, and approximately half of them displayed stage-specific editing or editing levels at different sexual stages. RNA-sequencing analysis with the Δstc-1 and Δsad-1 mutants confirmed A-to-I editing occurred before ascus development but became more prevalent during ascosporogenesis. Besides fungal-specific sequence and secondary structure preference, 63.5% of A-to-I editing sites were in the coding regions and 81.3% of them resulted in nonsynonymous recoding, resulting in a significant increase in the proteome complexity. Many genes involved in RNA silencing, DNA methylation, and histone modifications had extensive recoding, including sad-1, sms-3, qde-1, and dim-2. Fifty pseudogenes harbor premature stop codons that require A-to-I editing to encode full-length proteins. Unlike in humans, nonsynonymous editing events in N. crassa are generally beneficial and favored by positive selection. Almost half of the nonsynonymous editing sites in N. crassa are conserved and edited in Neurospora tetrasperma. Furthermore, hundreds of them are conserved in F. graminearum and had higher editing levels. Two unknown genes with editing sites conserved between Neurospora and Fusarium were experimentally shown to be important for ascosporogenesis. This study comprehensively analyzed A-to-I editing in N. crassa and showed that RNA editing is stage-specific and generally adaptive, and may be functionally related to repeat induced point mutation and meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA. PMID:28847945
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a widespread post-transcriptional mechanism, but its genomic landscape and clinical relevance in cancer have not been investigated systematically. We characterized the global A-to-I RNA editing profiles of 6,236 patient samples of 17 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas and revealed a striking diversity of altered RNA-editing patterns in tumors relative to normal tissues. We identified an appreciable number of clinically relevant editing events, many of which are in noncoding regions.
Zhu, Hu; Urban, Daniel J.; Blashka, Jared; McPheeters, Matthew T.; Kroeze, Wesley K.; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Overholser, James C.; Jurjus, George J.; Dieter, Lesa; Mahajan, Gouri J.; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Wang, Zefeng; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Roth, Bryan L.
A-to-I RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification of single nucleotides in RNA by adenosine deamination, which thereby diversifies the gene products encoded in the genome. Thousands of potential RNA editing sites have been identified by recent studies (e.g. see Li et al, Science 2009); however, only a handful of these sites have been independently confirmed. Here, we systematically and quantitatively examined 109 putative coding region A-to-I RNA editing sites in three sets of normal human brain samples by ultra-high-throughput sequencing (uHTS). Forty of 109 putative sites, including 25 previously confirmed sites, were validated as truly edited in our brain samples, suggesting an overestimation of A-to-I RNA editing in these putative sites by Li et al (2009). To evaluate RNA editing in human disease, we analyzed 29 of the confirmed sites in subjects with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia using uHTS. In striking contrast to many prior studies, we did not find significant alterations in the frequency of RNA editing at any of the editing sites in samples from these patients, including within the 5HT2C serotonin receptor (HTR2C). Our results indicate that uHTS is a fast, quantitative and high-throughput method to assess RNA editing in human physiology and disease and that many prior studies of RNA editing may overestimate both the extent and disease-related variability of RNA editing at the sites we examined in the human brain. PMID:22912834
Ben-Aroya, Shay; Levanon, Erez Y
RNA editing is a source of transcriptomic diversity, mainly in non-coding regions, and is found to be altered in cancer. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Peng et al. show that RNA editing events are manifested at the proteomic levels and are a source of cancer protein heterogeneity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Salehi, Abdolreza; Rivera, Rocío Melissa
RNA editing increases the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is the predominant type of RNA editing in mammals and it is catalyzed by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) family. Here, we used a largescale computational analysis of transcriptomic data from brain, heart, colon, lung, spleen, kidney, testes, skeletal muscle and liver, from three adult animals in order to identify RNA editing sites in bovine. We developed a computational pipeline and used a rigorous strategy to identify novel editing sites from RNA-Seq data in the absence of corresponding DNA sequence information. Our methods take into account sequencing errors, mapping bias, as well as biological replication to reduce the probability of obtaining a false-positive result. We conducted a detailed characterization of sequence and structural features related to novel candidate sites and found 1,600 novel canonical A-to-I editing sites in the nine bovine tissues analyzed. Results show that these sites 1) occur frequently in clusters and short interspersed nuclear elements (SINE) repeats, 2) have a preference for guanines depletion/enrichment in the flanking 5′/3′ nucleotide, 3) occur less often in coding sequences than other regions of the genome, and 4) have low evolutionary conservation. Further, we found that a positive correlation exists between expression of ADAR family members and tissue-specific RNA editing. Most of the genes with predicted A-to-I editing in each tissue were significantly enriched in biological terms relevant to the function of the corresponding tissue. Lastly, the results highlight the importance of the RNA editome in nervous system regulation. The present study extends the list of RNA editing sites in bovine and provides pipelines that may be used to investigate the editome in other organisms. PMID:29470549
Nakano, Masataka; Fukami, Tatsuki; Gotoh, Saki; Nakajima, Miki
Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) plays a key role in folate metabolism and is a target molecule of methotrexate. An increase in the cellular expression level of DHFR is one of the mechanisms of tumor resistance to methotrexate. The present study investigated the possibility that adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing, which causes nucleotide conversion by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, might modulate DHFR expression. In human breast adenocarcinoma-derived MCF-7 cells, 26 RNA editing sites were identified in the 3'-UTR of DHFR. Knockdown of ADAR1 decreased the RNA editing levels of DHFR and resulted in a decrease in the DHFR mRNA and protein levels, indicating that ADAR1 up-regulates DHFR expression. Using a computational analysis, miR-25-3p and miR-125a-3p were predicted to bind to the non-edited 3'-UTR of DHFR but not to the edited sequence. The decrease in DHFR expression by the knockdown of ADAR1 was restored by transfection of antisense oligonucleotides for these miRNAs, suggesting that RNA editing mediated up-regulation of DHFR requires the function of these miRNAs. Interestingly, we observed that the knockdown of ADAR1 decreased cell viability and increased the sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to methotrexate. ADAR1 expression levels and the RNA editing levels in the 3'-UTR of DHFR in breast cancer tissues were higher than those in adjacent normal tissues. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that ADAR1 positively regulates the expression of DHFR by editing the miR-25-3p and miR-125a-3p binding sites in the 3'-UTR of DHFR, enhancing cellular proliferation and resistance to methotrexate. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Wang, Yumeng; Xu, Xiaoyan; Yu, Shuangxing; Jeong, Kang Jin; Zhou, Zhicheng; Han, Leng; Tsang, Yiu Huen; Li, Jun; Chen, Hu; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Yuan, Yuan; Eterovic, A. Karina; Lu, Yiling; Sood, Anil K.; Scott, Kenneth L.; Mills, Gordon B.; Liang, Han
RNA editing, a widespread post-transcriptional mechanism, has emerged as a new player in cancer biology. Recent studies have reported key roles for individual miRNA editing events, but a comprehensive picture of miRNA editing in human cancers remains largely unexplored. Here, we systematically characterized the miRNA editing profiles of 8595 samples across 20 cancer types from miRNA sequencing data of The Cancer Genome Atlas and identified 19 adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing hotspots. We independently validated 15 of them by perturbation experiments in several cancer cell lines. These miRNA editing events show extensive correlations with key clinical variables (e.g., tumor subtype, disease stage, and patient survival time) and other molecular drivers. Focusing on the RNA editing hotspot in miR-200b, a key tumor metastasis suppressor, we found that the miR-200b editing level correlates with patient prognosis opposite to the pattern observed for the wild-type miR-200b expression. We further experimentally showed that, in contrast to wild-type miRNA, the edited miR-200b can promote cell invasion and migration through its impaired ability to inhibit ZEB1/ZEB2 and acquired concomitant ability to repress new targets, including LIFR, a well-characterized metastasis suppressor. Our study highlights the importance of miRNA editing in gene regulation and suggests its potential as a biomarker for cancer prognosis and therapy. PMID:28411194
Wang, Yumeng; Xu, Xiaoyan; Yu, Shuangxing; Jeong, Kang Jin; Zhou, Zhicheng; Han, Leng; Tsang, Yiu Huen; Li, Jun; Chen, Hu; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Yuan, Yuan; Eterovic, A Karina; Lu, Yiling; Sood, Anil K; Scott, Kenneth L; Mills, Gordon B; Liang, Han
RNA editing, a widespread post-transcriptional mechanism, has emerged as a new player in cancer biology. Recent studies have reported key roles for individual miRNA editing events, but a comprehensive picture of miRNA editing in human cancers remains largely unexplored. Here, we systematically characterized the miRNA editing profiles of 8595 samples across 20 cancer types from miRNA sequencing data of The Cancer Genome Atlas and identified 19 adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing hotspots. We independently validated 15 of them by perturbation experiments in several cancer cell lines. These miRNA editing events show extensive correlations with key clinical variables (e.g., tumor subtype, disease stage, and patient survival time) and other molecular drivers. Focusing on the RNA editing hotspot in miR-200b, a key tumor metastasis suppressor, we found that the miR-200b editing level correlates with patient prognosis opposite to the pattern observed for the wild-type miR-200b expression. We further experimentally showed that, in contrast to wild-type miRNA, the edited miR-200b can promote cell invasion and migration through its impaired ability to inhibit ZEB1/ZEB2 and acquired concomitant ability to repress new targets, including LIFR , a well-characterized metastasis suppressor. Our study highlights the importance of miRNA editing in gene regulation and suggests its potential as a biomarker for cancer prognosis and therapy. © 2017 Wang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Background Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA-editing is an essential post-transcriptional mechanism that occurs in numerous sites in the human transcriptome, mainly within Alu repeats. It has been shown to have consistent levels of editing across individuals in a few targets in the human brain and altered in several human pathologies. However, the variability across human individuals of editing levels in other tissues has not been studied so far. Results Here, we analyzed 32 skin samples, looking at A-to-I editing level in three genes within coding sequences and in the Alu repeats of six different genes. We observed highly consistent editing levels across different individuals as well as across tissues, not only in coding targets but, surprisingly, also in the non evolutionary conserved Alu repeats. Conclusions Our findings suggest that A-to-I RNA-editing of Alu elements is a tightly regulated process and, as such, might have been recruited in the course of primate evolution for post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. PMID:21029430
Solomon, Oz; Eyal, Eran; Amariglio, Ninette; Unger, Ron; Rechavi, Gidi
e23D, a database of A-to-I RNA editing sites from human, mouse and fly mapped to evolutionary related protein 3D structures, is presented. Genomic coordinates of A-to-I RNA editing sites are converted to protein coordinates and mapped onto 3D structures from PDB or theoretical models from ModBase. e23D allows visualization of the protein structure, modeling of recoding events and orientation of the editing with respect to nearby genomic functional sites from databases of disease causing mutations and genomic polymorphism. http://www.sheba-cancer.org.il/e23D CONTACT: email@example.com or Eran.Eyal@sheba.health.gov.il. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
O'Neil, Richard T; Wang, Xiaojing; Morabito, Michael V; Emeson, Ronald B
A-to-I RNA editing is an important process for generating molecular diversity in the brain through modification of transcripts encoding several proteins important for neuronal signaling. We investigated the relationships between the extent of editing at multiple substrate transcripts (5HT2C, MGLUR4, CADPS, GLUR2, GLUR4, and GABRA3) in brain tissue obtained from adult humans and rhesus macaques. Several patterns emerged from these studies revealing conservation of editing across primate species. Additionally, variability in the human population allows us to make novel inferences about the co-regulation of editing at different editing sites and even across different brain regions.
Picardi, Ernesto; Gallo, Angela; Galeano, Federica; Tomaselli, Sara; Pesole, Graziano
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process occurring in a wide range of organisms. In human brain, the A-to-I RNA editing, in which individual adenosine (A) bases in pre-mRNA are modified to yield inosine (I), is the most frequent event. Modulating gene expression, RNA editing is essential for cellular homeostasis. Indeed, its deregulation has been linked to several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. To date, many RNA editing sites have been identified by next generation sequencing technologies employing massive transcriptome sequencing together with whole genome or exome sequencing. While genome and transcriptome reads are not always available for single individuals, RNA-Seq data are widespread through public databases and represent a relevant source of yet unexplored RNA editing sites. In this context, we propose a simple computational strategy to identify genomic positions enriched in novel hypothetical RNA editing events by means of a new two-steps mapping procedure requiring only RNA-Seq data and no a priori knowledge of RNA editing characteristics and genomic reads. We assessed the suitability of our procedure by confirming A-to-I candidates using conventional Sanger sequencing and performing RNA-Seq as well as whole exome sequencing of human spinal cord tissue from a single individual. PMID:22957051
Bazak, Lily; Haviv, Ami; Barak, Michal; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Deng, Patricia; Zhang, Rui; Isaacs, Farren J; Rechavi, Gideon; Li, Jin Billy; Eisenberg, Eli; Levanon, Erez Y
RNA molecules transmit the information encoded in the genome and generally reflect its content. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing by ADAR proteins converts a genomically encoded adenosine into inosine. It is known that most RNA editing in human takes place in the primate-specific Alu sequences, but the extent of this phenomenon and its effect on transcriptome diversity are not yet clear. Here, we analyzed large-scale RNA-seq data and detected ∼1.6 million editing sites. As detection sensitivity increases with sequencing coverage, we performed ultradeep sequencing of selected Alu sequences and showed that the scope of editing is much larger than anticipated. We found that virtually all adenosines within Alu repeats that form double-stranded RNA undergo A-to-I editing, although most sites exhibit editing at only low levels (<1%). Moreover, using high coverage sequencing, we observed editing of transcripts resulting from residual antisense expression, doubling the number of edited sites in the human genome. Based on bioinformatic analyses and deep targeted sequencing, we estimate that there are over 100 million human Alu RNA editing sites, located in the majority of human genes. These findings set the stage for exploring how this primate-specific massive diversification of the transcriptome is utilized.
Hong, HuiQi; An, Omer; Chan, Tim H M; Ng, Vanessa H E; Kwok, Hui Si; Lin, Jaymie S; Qi, Lihua; Han, Jian; Tay, Daryl J T; Tang, Sze Jing; Yang, Henry; Song, Yangyang; Bellido Molias, Fernando; Tenen, Daniel G; Chen, Leilei
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing entails the enzymatic deamination of adenosines to inosines by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). Dysregulated A-to-I editing has been implicated in various diseases, including cancers. However, the precise factors governing the A-to-I editing and their physiopathological implications remain as a long-standing question. Herein, we unravel that DEAH box helicase 9 (DHX9), at least partially dependent of its helicase activity, functions as a bidirectional regulator of A-to-I editing in cancer cells. Intriguingly, the ADAR substrate specificity determines the opposing effects of DHX9 on editing as DHX9 silencing preferentially represses editing of ADAR1-specific substrates, whereas augments ADAR2-specific substrate editing. Analysis of 11 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) reveals a striking overexpression of DHX9 in tumors. Further, tumorigenicity studies demonstrate a helicase-dependent oncogenic role of DHX9 in cancer development. In sum, DHX9 constitutes a bidirectional regulatory mode in A-to-I editing, which is in part responsible for the dysregulated editome profile in cancer.
Aldinger, Carolin A; Leisinger, Anne-Katrin; Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A; Igloi, Gabor L
It is a prevalent concept that, in line with the Wobble Hypothesis, those tRNAs having an adenosine in the first position of the anticodon become modified to an inosine at this position. Sequencing the cDNA derived from the gene coding for cytoplasmic tRNA (Arg) ACG from several higher plants as well as mass spectrometric analysis of the isoacceptor has revealed that for this kingdom an unmodified A in the wobble position of the anticodon is the rule rather than the exception. In vitro translation shows that in the plant system the absence of inosine in the wobble position of tRNA (Arg) does not prevent decoding. This isoacceptor belongs to the class of tRNA that is imported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria of higher plants. Previous studies on the mitochondrial tRNA pool have demonstrated the existence of tRNA (Arg) ICG in this organelle. In moss the mitochondrial encoded distinct tRNA (Arg) ACG isoacceptor possesses the I34 modification. The implication is that for mitochondrial protein biosynthesis A-to-I editing is necessary and occurs by a mitochondrion-specific deaminase after import of the unmodified nuclear encoded tRNA (Arg) ACG.
Bajad, Prajakta; Jantsch, Michael F; Keegan, Liam; O'Connell, Mary
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are zinc-containing enzymes that deaminate adenosine bases to inosines within dsRNA regions in transcripts. In short, structured dsRNA hairpins individual adenosine bases may be targeted specifically and edited with up to one hundred percent efficiency, leading to the production of alternative protein variants. However, the majority of editing events occur within longer stretches of dsRNA formed by pairing of repetitive sequences. Here, many different adenosine bases are potential targets but editing efficiency is usually much lower. Recent work shows that ADAR-mediated RNA editing is also required to prevent aberrant activation of antiviral innate immune sensors that detect viral dsRNA in the cytoplasm. Missense mutations in the ADAR1 RNA editing enzyme cause a fatal auto-inflammatory disease, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) in affected children. In addition RNA editing by ADARs has been observed to increase in many cancers and also can contribute to vascular disease. Thus the role of RNA editing in the progression of various diseases can no longer be ignored. The ability of ADARs to alter the sequence of RNAs has also been used to artificially target model RNAs in vitro and in cells for RNA editing. Potentially this approach may be used to repair genetic defects and to alter genetic information at the RNA level. In this review we focus on the role of ADARs in disease development and progression and on their potential use to artificially modify RNAs in a targeted manner.
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA. This A-to-I editing occurs not only in protein-coding regions of mRNAs, but also frequently in non-coding regions that contain inverted Alu repeats. Editing of coding sequences can result in the expression of functionally altered proteins that are not encoded in the genome, whereas the significance of Alu editing remains largely unknown. Certain microRNA (miRNA) precursors are also edited, leading to reduced expression or altered function of mature miRNAs. Conversely, recent studies indicate that ADAR1 forms a complex with Dicer to promote miRNA processing, revealing a new function of ADAR1 in the regulation of RNA interference. PMID:26648264
Hung, Li-Yuan; Chen, Yen-Ju; Mai, Te-Lun; Chen, Chia-Ying; Yang, Min-Yu; Chiang, Tai-Wei; Wang, Yi-Da
Abstract Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is widespread across the kingdom Metazoa. However, for the lack of comprehensive analysis in nonmodel animals, the evolutionary history of A-to-I editing remains largely unexplored. Here, we detect high-confidence editing sites using clustering and conservation strategies based on RNA sequencing data alone, without using single-nucleotide polymorphism information or genome sequencing data from the same sample. We thereby unveil the first evolutionary landscape of A-to-I editing maps across 20 metazoan species (from worm to human), providing unprecedented evidence on how the editing mechanism gradually expands its territory and increases its influence along the history of evolution. Our result revealed that highly clustered and conserved editing sites tended to have a higher editing level and a higher magnitude of the ADAR motif. The ratio of the frequencies of nonsynonymous editing to that of synonymous editing remarkably increased with increasing the conservation level of A-to-I editing. These results thus suggest potentially functional benefit of highly clustered and conserved editing sites. In addition, spatiotemporal dynamics analyses reveal a conserved enrichment of editing and ADAR expression in the central nervous system throughout more than 300 Myr of divergent evolution in complex animals and the comparability of editing patterns between invertebrates and between vertebrates during development. This study provides evolutionary and dynamic aspects of A-to-I editome across metazoan species, expanding this important but understudied class of nongenomically encoded events for comprehensive characterization. PMID:29294013
Background Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is recognized as a cellular mechanism for generating both RNA and protein diversity. Inosine base pairs with cytidine during reverse transcription and therefore appears as guanosine during sequencing of cDNA. Current approaches of RNA editing identification largely depend on the comparison between transcriptomes and genomic DNA (gDNA) sequencing datasets from the same individuals, and it has been challenging to identify editing candidates from transcriptomes in the absence of gDNA information. Results We have developed a new strategy to accurately predict constitutive RNA editing sites from publicly available human RNA-seq datasets in the absence of relevant genomic sequences. Our approach establishes new parameters to increase the ability to map mismatches and to minimize sequencing/mapping errors and unreported genome variations. We identified 695 novel constitutive A-to-I editing sites that appear in clusters (named “editing boxes”) in multiple samples and which exhibit spatial and dynamic regulation across human tissues. Some of these editing boxes are enriched in non-repetitive regions lacking inverted repeat structures and contain an extremely high conversion frequency of As to Is. We validated a number of editing boxes in multiple human cell lines and confirmed that ADAR1 is responsible for the observed promiscuous editing events in non-repetitive regions, further expanding our knowledge of the catalytic substrate of A-to-I RNA editing by ADAR enzymes. Conclusions The approach we present here provides a novel way of identifying A-to-I RNA editing events by analyzing only RNA-seq datasets. This method has allowed us to gain new insights into RNA editing and should also aid in the identification of more constitutive A-to-I editing sites from additional transcriptomes. PMID:23537002
Pinto, Yishay; Buchumenski, Ilana
Abstract A-to-I RNA editing is an important post-transcriptional modification, known to be altered in tumors. It targets dozens of sites within miRNAs, some of which impact miRNA biogenesis and function, as well as many miRNA recognition sites. However, the full extent of the effect of editing on regulation by miRNAs and its behavior in human cancers is still unknown. Here we systematically characterized miRNA editing in 10 593 human samples across 32 cancer types and normal controls. We find that the majority of previously reported sites show little to no evidence for editing in this dataset, compile a list of 58 reliable miRNA editing sites, and study them across normal and cancer samples. Edited miRNA versions tend to suppress expression of known oncogenes, and, consistently, we observe a clear global tendency for hypo-editing in tumors, in strike contrast to the behavior for mRNA editing, allowing an accurate classification of normal/tumor samples based on their miRNA editing profile. In many cancers this profile correlates with patients' survival. Finally, thousands of miRNA binding sites are differentially edited in cancer. Our study thus establishes the important effect of RNA editing on miRNA-regulation in the tumor cell, with prospects for diagnostic and prognostic applications. PMID:29165639
Gu, Tongjun; Gatti, Daniel M.; Srivastava, Anuj; Snyder, Elizabeth M.; Raghupathy, Narayanan; Simecek, Petr; Svenson, Karen L.; Dotu, Ivan; Chuang, Jeffrey H.; Keller, Mark P.; Attie, Alan D.; Braun, Robert E.; Churchill, Gary A.
RNA editing refers to post-transcriptional processes that alter the base sequence of RNA. Recently, hundreds of new RNA editing targets have been reported. However, the mechanisms that determine the specificity and degree of editing are not well understood. We examined quantitative variation of site-specific editing in a genetically diverse multiparent population, Diversity Outbred mice, and mapped polymorphic loci that alter editing ratios globally for C-to-U editing and at specific sites for A-to-I editing. An allelic series in the C-to-U editing enzyme Apobec1 influences the editing efficiency of Apob and 58 additional C-to-U editing targets. We identified 49 A-to-I editing sites with polymorphisms in the edited transcript that alter editing efficiency. In contrast to the shared genetic control of C-to-U editing, most of the variable A-to-I editing sites were determined by local nucleotide polymorphisms in proximity to the editing site in the RNA secondary structure. Our results indicate that RNA editing is a quantitative trait subject to genetic variation and that evolutionary constraints have given rise to distinct genetic architectures in the two canonical types of RNA editing. PMID:26614740
Kong, Yimeng; Pan, Bohu; Chen, Longxian; Wang, Hongbing; Hao, Pei; Li, Xuan
The hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine (A-to-I editing) in precursor mRNA induces variable gene products at the post-transcription level. How and to what extent A-to-I RNA editing diversifies transcriptome is not fully characterized in the evolution, and very little is known about the selective constraints that drive the evolution of RNA editing events. Here we present a study on A-to-I RNA editing, by generating a global profile of A-to-I editing for a phylogeny of seven Drosophila species, a model system spanning an evolutionary timeframe of approximately 45 million years. Of totally 9281 editing events identified, 5150 (55.5%) are located in the coding sequences (CDS) of 2734 genes. Phylogenetic analysis places these genes into 1,526 homologous families, about 5% of total gene families in the fly lineages. Based on conservation of the editing sites, the editing events in CDS are categorized into three distinct types, representing events on singleton genes (type I), and events not conserved (type II) or conserved (type III) within multi-gene families. While both type I and II events are subject to purifying selection, notably type III events are positively selected, and highly enriched in the components and functions of the nervous system. The tissue profiles are documented for three editing types, and their critical roles are further implicated by their shifting patterns during holometabolous development and in post-mating response. In conclusion, three A-to-I RNA editing types are found to have distinct evolutionary dynamics. It appears that nervous system functions are mainly tested to determine if an A-to-I editing is beneficial for an organism. The coding plasticity enabled by A-to-I editing creates a new class of binary variations, which is a superior alternative to maintain heterozygosity of expressed genes in a diploid mating system. PMID:27467689
Hsiao, Yun-Hua Esther; Bahn, Jae Hoon; Yang, Yun; Lin, Xianzhi; Tran, Stephen; Yang, Ei-Wen; Quinones-Valdez, Giovanni
In eukaryotes, nascent RNA transcripts undergo an intricate series of RNA processing steps to achieve mRNA maturation. RNA editing and alternative splicing are two major RNA processing steps that can introduce significant modifications to the final gene products. By tackling these processes in isolation, recent studies have enabled substantial progress in understanding their global RNA targets and regulatory pathways. However, the interplay between individual steps of RNA processing, an essential aspect of gene regulation, remains poorly understood. By sequencing the RNA of different subcellular fractions, we examined the timing of adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing and its impact on alternative splicing. We observed that >95% A-to-I RNA editing events occurred in the chromatin-associated RNA prior to polyadenylation. We report about 500 editing sites in the 3′ acceptor sequences that can alter splicing of the associated exons. These exons are highly conserved during evolution and reside in genes with important cellular function. Furthermore, we identified a second class of exons whose splicing is likely modulated by RNA secondary structures that are recognized by the RNA editing machinery. The genome-wide analyses, supported by experimental validations, revealed remarkable interplay between RNA editing and splicing and expanded the repertoire of functional RNA editing sites. PMID:29724793
Hsiao, Yun-Hua Esther; Bahn, Jae Hoon; Yang, Yun; Lin, Xianzhi; Tran, Stephen; Yang, Ei-Wen; Quinones-Valdez, Giovanni; Xiao, Xinshu
In eukaryotes, nascent RNA transcripts undergo an intricate series of RNA processing steps to achieve mRNA maturation. RNA editing and alternative splicing are two major RNA processing steps that can introduce significant modifications to the final gene products. By tackling these processes in isolation, recent studies have enabled substantial progress in understanding their global RNA targets and regulatory pathways. However, the interplay between individual steps of RNA processing, an essential aspect of gene regulation, remains poorly understood. By sequencing the RNA of different subcellular fractions, we examined the timing of adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing and its impact on alternative splicing. We observed that >95% A-to-I RNA editing events occurred in the chromatin-associated RNA prior to polyadenylation. We report about 500 editing sites in the 3' acceptor sequences that can alter splicing of the associated exons. These exons are highly conserved during evolution and reside in genes with important cellular function. Furthermore, we identified a second class of exons whose splicing is likely modulated by RNA secondary structures that are recognized by the RNA editing machinery. The genome-wide analyses, supported by experimental validations, revealed remarkable interplay between RNA editing and splicing and expanded the repertoire of functional RNA editing sites. © 2018 Hsiao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Goldberg, Lior; Abutbul-Amitai, Mor; Paret, Gideon; Nevo-Caspi, Yael
A-to-I RNA editing, carried out by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, is an epigenetic phenomenon of posttranscriptional modifications on pre-mRNA. RNA editing in intronic sequences may influence alternative splicing of flanking exons. We have previously shown that conditions that induce editing result in elevated expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), preferentially the alternatively-spliced STAT3β isoform. Mechanisms regulating alternative splicing of STAT3 have not been elucidated. STAT3 undergoes A-to-I RNA editing in an intron residing in proximity to the alternatively spliced exon. We hypothesized that RNA editing plays a role in regulating alternative splicing toward STAT3β. In this study we extend our observation connecting RNA editing to the preferential induction of STAT3β expression. We study the involvement of ADAR1 in STAT3 editing and reveal the connection between editing and alternative splicing of STAT3. Deferoaxamine treatment caused the induction in STAT3 RNA editing and STAT3β expression. Silencing ADAR1 caused a decrease in STAT3 editing and expression with a preferential decrease in STAT3β. Cells transfected with a mutated minigene showed preferential splicing toward the STAT3β transcript. Editing in the STAT3 intron is performed by ADAR1 and affects STAT3 alternative splicing. These results suggest that RNA editing is one of the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of STAT3β.
Ramaswami, Gokul; Deng, Patricia; Zhang, Rui; Anna Carbone, Mary; Mackay, Trudy F C; Li, Jin Billy
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, catalysed by ADAR enzymes conserved in metazoans, plays an important role in neurological functions. Although the fine-tuning mechanism provided by A-to-I RNA editing is important, the underlying rules governing ADAR substrate recognition are not well understood. We apply a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approach to identify genetic variants associated with variability in RNA editing. With very accurate measurement of RNA editing levels at 789 sites in 131 Drosophila melanogaster strains, here we identify 545 editing QTLs (edQTLs) associated with differences in RNA editing. We demonstrate that many edQTLs can act through changes in the local secondary structure for edited dsRNAs. Furthermore, we find that edQTLs located outside of the edited dsRNA duplex are enriched in secondary structure, suggesting that distal dsRNA structure beyond the editing site duplex affects RNA editing efficiency. Our work will facilitate the understanding of the cis-regulatory code of RNA editing.
Cox, David B T; Gootenberg, Jonathan S; Abudayyeh, Omar O; Franklin, Brian; Kellner, Max J; Joung, Julia; Zhang, Feng
Nucleic acid editing holds promise for treating genetic disease, particularly at the RNA level, where disease-relevant sequences can be rescued to yield functional protein products. Type VI CRISPR-Cas systems contain the programmable single-effector RNA-guided ribonuclease Cas13. We profiled type VI systems in order to engineer a Cas13 ortholog capable of robust knockdown and demonstrated RNA editing by using catalytically inactive Cas13 (dCas13) to direct adenosine-to-inosine deaminase activity by ADAR2 (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA type 2) to transcripts in mammalian cells. This system, referred to as RNA Editing for Programmable A to I Replacement (REPAIR), which has no strict sequence constraints, can be used to edit full-length transcripts containing pathogenic mutations. We further engineered this system to create a high-specificity variant and minimized the system to facilitate viral delivery. REPAIR presents a promising RNA-editing platform with broad applicability for research, therapeutics, and biotechnology. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Cox, David B.T.; Gootenberg, Jonathan S.; Abudayyeh, Omar O.; Franklin, Brian; Kellner, Max J.; Joung, Julia; Zhang, Feng
Nucleic acid editing holds promise for treating genetic disease, particularly at the RNA level, where disease-relevant sequences can be rescued to yield functional protein products. Type VI CRISPR-Cas systems contain the programmable single-effector RNA-guided RNases Cas13. Here, we profile Type VI systems to engineer a Cas13 ortholog capable of robust knockdown and demonstrate RNA editing by using catalytically-inactive Cas13 (dCas13) to direct adenosine to inosine deaminase activity by ADAR2 to transcripts in mammalian cells. This system, referred to as RNA Editing for Programmable A to I Replacement (REPAIR), has no strict sequence constraints, can be used to edit full-length transcripts containing pathogenic mutations. We further engineer this system to create a high specificity variant, REPAIRv2, that is 919 times more specific than REPAIRv1 as well as minimize the system to ease viral delivery. REPAIR presents a promising RNA editing platform with broad applicability for research, therapeutics, and biotechnology. PMID:29070703
Tan, Meng How; Li, Qin; Shanmugam, Raghuvaran; Piskol, Robert; Kohler, Jennefer; Young, Amy N; Liu, Kaiwen Ivy; Zhang, Rui; Ramaswami, Gokul; Ariyoshi, Kentaro; Gupte, Ankita; Keegan, Liam P; George, Cyril X; Ramu, Avinash; Huang, Ni; Pollina, Elizabeth A; Leeman, Dena S; Rustighi, Alessandra; Goh, Y P Sharon; Chawla, Ajay; Del Sal, Giannino; Peltz, Gary; Brunet, Anne; Conrad, Donald F; Samuel, Charles E; O'Connell, Mary A; Walkley, Carl R; Nishikura, Kazuko; Li, Jin Billy
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a conserved post-transcriptional mechanism mediated by ADAR enzymes that diversifies the transcriptome by altering selected nucleotides in RNA molecules. Although many editing sites have recently been discovered, the extent to which most sites are edited and how the editing is regulated in different biological contexts are not fully understood. Here we report dynamic spatiotemporal patterns and new regulators of RNA editing, discovered through an extensive profiling of A-to-I RNA editing in 8,551 human samples (representing 53 body sites from 552 individuals) from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and in hundreds of other primate and mouse samples. We show that editing levels in non-repetitive coding regions vary more between tissues than editing levels in repetitive regions. Globally, ADAR1 is the primary editor of repetitive sites and ADAR2 is the primary editor of non-repetitive coding sites, whereas the catalytically inactive ADAR3 predominantly acts as an inhibitor of editing. Cross-species analysis of RNA editing in several tissues revealed that species, rather than tissue type, is the primary determinant of editing levels, suggesting stronger cis-directed regulation of RNA editing for most sites, although the small set of conserved coding sites is under stronger trans-regulation. In addition, we curated an extensive set of ADAR1 and ADAR2 targets and showed that many editing sites display distinct tissue-specific regulation by the ADAR enzymes in vivo. Further analysis of the GTEx data revealed several potential regulators of editing, such as AIMP2, which reduces editing in muscles by enhancing the degradation of the ADAR proteins. Collectively, our work provides insights into the complex cis- and trans-regulation of A-to-I editing.
Tan, Meng How; Li, Qin; Shanmugam, Raghuvaran; Piskol, Robert; Kohler, Jennefer; Young, Amy N.; Liu, Kaiwen Ivy; Zhang, Rui; Ramaswami, Gokul; Ariyoshi, Kentaro; Gupte, Ankita; Keegan, Liam P.; George, Cyril X.; Ramu, Avinash; Huang, Ni; Pollina, Elizabeth A.; Leeman, Dena S.; Rustighi, Alessandra; Sharon Goh, Y. P.; Chawla, Ajay; Del Sal, Giannino; Peltz, Gary; Brunet, Anne; Conrad, Donald F.; Samuel, Charles E.; O’Connell, Mary A.; Walkley, Carl R.; Nishikura, Kazuko; Li, Jin Billy
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a conserved post-transcriptional mechanism mediated by ADAR enzymes that diversifies the transcriptome by altering selected nucleotides in RNA molecules1. Although many editing sites have recently been discovered2–7, the extent to which most sites are edited and how the editing is regulated in different biological contexts are not fully understood8–10. Here we report dynamic spatiotemporal patterns and new regulators of RNA editing, discovered through an extensive profiling of A-to-I RNA editing in 8,551 human samples (representing 53 body sites from 552 individuals) from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and in hundreds of other primate and mouse samples. We show that editing levels in non-repetitive coding regions vary more between tissues than editing levels in repetitive regions. Globally, ADAR1 is the primary editor of repetitive sites and ADAR2 is the primary editor of non-repetitive coding sites, whereas the catalytically inactive ADAR3 predominantly acts as an inhibitor of editing. Cross-species analysis of RNA editing in several tissues revealed that species, rather than tissue type, is the primary determinant of editing levels, suggesting stronger cis-directed regulation of RNA editing for most sites, although the small set of conserved coding sites is under stronger trans-regulation. In addition, we curated an extensive set of ADAR1 and ADAR2 targets and showed that many editing sites display distinct tissue-specific regulation by the ADAR enzymes in vivo. Further analysis of the GTEx data revealed several potential regulators of editing, such as AIMP2, which reduces editing in muscles by enhancing the degradation of the ADAR proteins. Collectively, our work provides insights into the complex cis- and trans-regulation of A-to-I editing. PMID:29022589
Picardi, Ernesto; Regina, Teresa Maria Rosaria; Brennicke, Axel; Quagliariello, Carla
The RNA Editing Database (REDIdb) is an interactive, web-based database created and designed with the aim to allocate RNA editing events such as substitutions, insertions and deletions occurring in a wide range of organisms. The database contains both fully and partially sequenced DNA molecules for which editing information is available either by experimental inspection (in vitro) or by computational detection (in silico). Each record of REDIdb is organized in a specific flat-file containing a description of the main characteristics of the entry, a feature table with the editing events and related details and a sequence zone with both the genomic sequence and the corresponding edited transcript. REDIdb is a relational database in which the browsing and identification of editing sites has been simplified by means of two facilities to either graphically display genomic or cDNA sequences or to show the corresponding alignment. In both cases, all editing sites are highlighted in colour and their relative positions are detailed by mousing over. New editing positions can be directly submitted to REDIdb after a user-specific registration to obtain authorized secure access. This first version of REDIdb database stores 9964 editing events and can be freely queried at http://biologia.unical.it/py_script/search.html.
O'Hearn, Sean F.; Huang, Catherine E.; Hemann, Mike; Zhelonkina, Alevtina; Sollner-Webb, Barbara
Maturation of Trypanosoma brucei mitochondrial mRNA involves massive posttranscriptional insertion and deletion of uridine residues. This RNA editing utilizes an enzymatic complex with seven major proteins, band I through band VII. We here use RNA interference (RNAi) to examine the band II and band V proteins. Band II is found essential for viability; it is needed to maintain the normal structure of the editing complex and to retain the band V ligase protein. Previously, band III was found essential for certain activities, including maintenance of the editing complex and retention of the band IV ligase protein. Thus, band II and band V form a protein pair with features analogous to the band III/band IV ligase pair. Since band V is specific for U insertion and since band IV is needed for U deletion, their parallel organization suggests that the editing complex has a pseudosymmetry. However, unlike the essential band IV ligase, RNAi to band V has only a morphological but no growth rate effect, suggesting that it is stimulatory but nonessential. Indeed, in vitro analysis of band V RNAi cell extract demonstrates that band IV can seal U insertion when band V is lacking. Thus, band IV ligase is the first activity of the basic editing complex shown able to serve in both forms of editing. Our studies also indicate that the U insertional portion may be less central in the editing complex than the corresponding U deletional portion. PMID:14560033
Cui, Yalei; Huang, Tianzhi; Zhang, Xiaobo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) integrate with Argonaut (Ago) to create the RNA-induced silencing complex, and regulate gene expression by silencing target mRNAs. RNA editing of miRNA may affect miRNA processing, assembly of the Ago complex and target mRNA binding. However, the function of edited miRNA, assembled within the Ago complex, has not been extensively investigated. In this study, sequence analysis of the Ago complex of Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) revealed that host ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) catalysed A-to-I RNA editing of a viral miRNA (WSSV-miR-N12) at the +16 site. This editing of the non-seed sequence did not affect association of the edited miRNA with the Ago protein, but inhibited interaction between the miRNA and its target gene (wsv399). The WSSV early gene wsv399 inhibited WSSV infection. As a result, the RNA editing of miRNA caused virus latency. Our results highlight a novel example of miRNA editing in the miRNA-induced silencing complex. © 2015 The Authors.
Cui, Yalei; Huang, Tianzhi; Zhang, Xiaobo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) integrate with Argonaut (Ago) to create the RNA-induced silencing complex, and regulate gene expression by silencing target mRNAs. RNA editing of miRNA may affect miRNA processing, assembly of the Ago complex and target mRNA binding. However, the function of edited miRNA, assembled within the Ago complex, has not been extensively investigated. In this study, sequence analysis of the Ago complex of Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) revealed that host ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) catalysed A-to-I RNA editing of a viral miRNA (WSSV-miR-N12) at the +16 site. This editing of the non-seed sequence did not affect association of the edited miRNA with the Ago protein, but inhibited interaction between the miRNA and its target gene (wsv399). The WSSV early gene wsv399 inhibited WSSV infection. As a result, the RNA editing of miRNA caused virus latency. Our results highlight a novel example of miRNA editing in the miRNA-induced silencing complex. PMID:26674414
Wang, Qingde; Li, Xiaoni; Qi, Ruofan; Billiar, Timothy
RNA editing, particularly A-to-I RNA editing, has been shown to play an essential role in mammalian embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including skin pigmentation disorder, autoimmune and inflammatory tissue injury, neuron degeneration, and various malignancies. A-to-I RNA editing is carried out by a small group of enzymes, the adenosine deaminase acting on RNAs (ADARs). Only three members of this protein family, ADAR1-3, exist in mammalian cells. ADAR3 is a catalytically null enzyme and the most significant function of ADAR2 was found to be in editing on the neuron receptor GluR-B mRNA. ADAR1, however, has been shown to play more significant roles in biological and pathological conditions. Although there remains much that is not known about how ADAR1 regulates cellular function, recent findings point to regulation of the innate immune response as an important function of ADAR1. Without appropriate RNA editing by ADAR1, endogenous RNA transcripts stimulate cytosolic RNA sensing receptors and therefore activate the IFN-inducing signaling pathways. Overactivation of innate immune pathways can lead to tissue injury and dysfunction. However, obvious gaps in our knowledge persist as to how ADAR1 regulates innate immune responses through RNA editing. Here, we review critical findings from ADAR1 mechanistic studies focusing on its regulatory function in innate immune responses and identify some of the important unanswered questions in the field.
Hiesel, Rudolf; Wissinger, Bernd; Schuster, Wolfgang; Brennicke, Axel
Comparative sequence analysis of genomic and complementary DNA clones from several mitochondrial genes in the higher plant Oenothera revealed nucleotide sequence divergences between the genomic and the messenger RNA-derived sequences. These sequence alterations could be most easily explained by specific post-transcriptional nucleotide modifications. Most of the nucleotide exchanges in coding regions lead to altered codons in the mRNA that specify amino acids better conserved in evolution than those encoded by the genomic DNA. Several instances show that the genomic arginine codon CGG is edited in the mRNA to the tryptophan codon TGG in amino acid positions that are highly conserved as tryptophan in the homologous proteins of other species. This editing suggests that the standard genetic code is used in plant mitochondria and resolves the frequent coincidence of CGG codons and tryptophan in different plant species. The apparently frequent and non-species-specific equivalency of CGG and TGG codons in particular suggests that RNA editing is a common feature of all higher plant mitochondria.
Xu, Guixia; Zhang, Jianzhi
Impairment of RNA editing at a handful of coding sites causes severe disorders, prompting the view that coding RNA editing is highly advantageous. Recent genomic studies have expanded the list of human coding RNA editing sites by more than 100 times, raising the question of how common advantageous RNA editing is. Analyzing 1,783 human coding A-to-G editing sites, we show that both the frequency and level of RNA editing decrease as the importance of a site or gene increases; that during evolution, edited As are more likely than unedited As to be replaced with Gs but not with Ts or Cs; and that among nonsynonymously edited As, those that are evolutionarily least conserved exhibit the highest editing levels. These and other observations reveal the overall nonadaptive nature of coding RNA editing, despite the presence of a few sites in which editing is clearly beneficial. We propose that most observed coding RNA editing results from tolerable promiscuous targeting by RNA editing enzymes, the original physiological functions of which remain elusive. PMID:24567376
Picardi, Ernesto; Manzari, Caterina; Mastropasqua, Francesca; Aiello, Italia; D’Erchia, Anna Maria; Pesole, Graziano
Adenine to Inosine RNA editing is a widespread co- and post-transcriptional mechanism mediated by ADAR enzymes acting on double stranded RNA. It has a plethora of biological effects, appears to be particularly pervasive in humans with respect to other mammals, and is implicated in a number of diverse human pathologies. Here we present the first human inosinome atlas comprising 3,041,422 A-to-I events identified in six tissues from three healthy individuals. Matched directional total-RNA-Seq and whole genome sequence datasets were generated and analysed within a dedicated computational framework, also capable of detecting hyper-edited reads. Inosinome profiles are tissue specific and edited gene sets consistently show enrichment of genes involved in neurological disorders and cancer. Overall frequency of editing also varies, but is strongly correlated with ADAR expression levels. The inosinome database is available at: http://srv00.ibbe.cnr.it/editing/. PMID:26449202
Vu, Luyen Thi; Tsukahara, Toshifumi
Cytidine to uridine (C-to-U) editing is one type of substitutional RNA editing. It occurs in both mammals and plants. The molecular mechanism of C-to-U editing involves the hydrolytic deamination of a cytosine to a uracil base. C-to-U editing is mediated by RNA-specific cytidine deaminases and several complementation factors, which have not been completely identified. Here, we review recent findings related to the regulation and enzymatic basis of C-to-U RNA editing. More importantly, when C-to-U editing occurs in coding regions, it has the power to reprogram genetic information on the RNA level, therefore it has great potential for applications in transcript repair (diseases related to thymidine to cytidine (T>C) or adenosine to guanosine (A>G) point mutations). If it is possible to manipulate or mimic C-to-U editing, T>C or A>G genetic mutation-related diseases could be treated. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic site-directed RNA editing are two different approaches for mimicking C-to-U editing. For enzymatic site-directed RNA editing, C-to-U editing has not yet been successfully performed, and in theory, adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) editing involves the same strategy as C-to-U editing. Therefore, in this review, for applications in transcript repair, we will provide a detailed overview of enzymatic site-directed RNA editing, with a focus on A-to-I editing and non-enzymatic site-directed C-to-U editing.
Teichert, Ines; Dahlmann, Tim A.; Kück, Ulrich
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that modifies RNA molecules leading to transcript sequences that differ from their template DNA. A-to-I editing was found to be widely distributed in nuclear transcripts of metazoa, but was detected in fungi only recently in a study of the filamentous ascomycete Fusarium graminearum that revealed extensive A-to-I editing of mRNAs in sexual structures (fruiting bodies). Here, we searched for putative RNA editing events in RNA-seq data from Sordaria macrospora and Pyronema confluens, two distantly related filamentous ascomycetes, and in data from the Taphrinomycete Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Like F. graminearum, S. macrospora is a member of the Sordariomycetes, whereas P. confluens belongs to the early-diverging group of Pezizomycetes. We found extensive A-to-I editing in RNA-seq data from sexual mycelium from both filamentous ascomycetes, but not in vegetative structures. A-to-I editing was not detected in different stages of meiosis of S. pombe. A comparison of A-to-I editing in S. macrospora with F. graminearum and P. confluens, respectively, revealed little conservation of individual editing sites. An analysis of RNA-seq data from two sterile developmental mutants of S. macrospora showed that A-to-I editing is strongly reduced in these strains. Sequencing of cDNA fragments containing more than one editing site from P. confluens showed that at the beginning of sexual development, transcripts were incompletely edited or unedited, whereas in later stages transcripts were more extensively edited. Taken together, these data suggest that A-to-I RNA editing is an evolutionary conserved feature during fruiting body development in filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:28338982
Teichert, Ines; Dahlmann, Tim A; Kück, Ulrich; Nowrousian, Minou
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that modifies RNA molecules leading to transcript sequences that differ from their template DNA. A-to-I editing was found to be widely distributed in nuclear transcripts of metazoa, but was detected in fungi only recently in a study of the filamentous ascomycete Fusarium graminearum that revealed extensive A-to-I editing of mRNAs in sexual structures (fruiting bodies). Here, we searched for putative RNA editing events in RNA-seq data from Sordaria macrospora and Pyronema confluens, two distantly related filamentous ascomycetes, and in data from the Taphrinomycete Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Like F. graminearum, S. macrospora is a member of the Sordariomycetes, whereas P. confluens belongs to the early-diverging group of Pezizomycetes. We found extensive A-to-I editing in RNA-seq data from sexual mycelium from both filamentous ascomycetes, but not in vegetative structures. A-to-I editing was not detected in different stages of meiosis of S. pombe. A comparison of A-to-I editing in S. macrospora with F. graminearum and P. confluens, respectively, revealed little conservation of individual editing sites. An analysis of RNA-seq data from two sterile developmental mutants of S. macrospora showed that A-to-I editing is strongly reduced in these strains. Sequencing of cDNA fragments containing more than one editing site from P. confluens showed that at the beginning of sexual development, transcripts were incompletely edited or unedited, whereas in later stages transcripts were more extensively edited. Taken together, these data suggest that A-to-I RNA editing is an evolutionary conserved feature during fruiting body development in filamentous ascomycetes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Chen, Cai; Frankhouser, David; Bundschuh, Ralf
RNA editing describes the process in which individual or short stretches of nucleotides in a messenger or structural RNA are inserted, deleted, or substituted. A high level of RNA editing has been observed in the mitochondrial genome of Physarum polycephalum. The most frequent editing type in Physarum is the insertion of individual Cs. RNA editing is extremely accurate in Physarum; however, little is known about its mechanism. Here, we demonstrate how analyzing two organisms from the Myxomycetes, namely Physarum polycephalum and Didymium iridis, allows us to test hypotheses about the editing mechanism that can not be tested from a single organism alone. First, we show that using the recently determined full transcriptome information of Physarum dramatically improves the accuracy of computational editing site prediction in Didymium. We use this approach to predict genes in the mitochondrial genome of Didymium and identify six new edited genes as well as one new gene that appears unedited. Next we investigate sequence conservation in the vicinity of editing sites between the two organisms in order to identify sites that harbor the information for the location of editing sites based on increased conservation. Our results imply that the information contained within only nine or ten nucleotides on either side of the editing site (a distance previously suggested through experiments) is not enough to locate the editing sites. Finally, we show that the codon position bias in C insertional RNA editing of these two organisms is correlated with the selection pressure on the respective genes thereby directly testing an evolutionary theory on the origin of this codon bias. Beyond revealing interesting properties of insertional RNA editing in Myxomycetes, our work suggests possible approaches to be used when finding sequence motifs for any biological process fails. PMID:22383871
The central dogma of molecular Biology states that DNA is transcribed base by base into RNA which is in turn translated into proteins. However, some organisms edit their RNA before translation by inserting, deleting, or substituting individual or short stretches of bases. In many instances the mechanisms by which an organism recognizes the positions at which to edit or by which it performs the actual editing are unknown. One model system that stands out by its very high rate of on average one out of 25 bases being edited are the Myxomycetes, a class of slime molds. In this talk we will show how the computational methods and concepts from statistical Physics can be used to analyze DNA and protein sequence data to predict editing sites in these slime molds and to guide experiments that identified previously unknown types of editing as well as the complete set of editing events in the slime mold Physarum polycephalum.
Maas, S.; Rich, A.
RNA editing, the post-transcriptional alteration of a gene-encoded sequence, is a widespread phenomenon in eukaryotes. As a consequence of RNA editing, functionally distinct proteins can be produced from a single gene. The molecular mechanisms involved include single or multiple base insertions or deletions as well as base substitutions. In mammals, one type of substitutional RNA editing, characterized by site-specific base-modification, was shown to modulate important physiological processes. The underlying reaction mechanism of substitutional RNA editing involves hydrolytic deamination of cytosine or adenosine bases to uracil or inosine, respectively. Protein factors have been characterized that are able to induce RNA editing in vitro. A supergene family of RNA-dependent deaminases has emerged with the recent addition of adenosine deaminases specific for tRNA. Here we review the developments that have substantially increased our understanding of base-modification RNA editing over the past few years, with an emphasis on mechanistic differences, evolutionary aspects and the first insights into the regulation of editing activity.
The understanding of how genetic information is stored and expressed has advanced considerably since the "central dogma" asserted that genetic information flows from the nucleotide sequence of DNA to that of messenger RNA (mRNA) which in turn specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein. It was found that genetic information can be stored as RNA (e.g. in RNA viruses) and can flow from RNA to DNA by reverse transcriptase enzyme activity. In addition, some genes contain introns, nucleotide sequences that are removed from their RNA (by RNA splicing) and thus are not represented in the resultant protein. Furthermore, alternative splicing was found to produce variant proteins from a single gene. More recently, the study of trypanosome parasites revealed an unexpected and indeed counter-intuitive genetic complexity. Genetic information for a single protein can be dispersed among several (DNA) genes in these organisms. One of these genes specifies an encrypted precursor mRNA that is converted to a functional mRNA by a process called RNA editing that inserts and deletes uridylate nucleotides. The sequence of the edited mRNA is specified by multiple small RNAs, named guide RNAs, (gRNAs) each of which is encoded in a separate gene. Thus, edited mRNA sequences are assembled from multiple genes by the transfer of information from one type of RNA to another. The existence of editing was surprising but has stimulated the discovery of other types of RNA editing. The Stuart laboratory has been exploring RNA editing in trypanosomes from the time of its discovery. They found dramatic differences between the mitochondrial gene sequences and those of the corresponding mRNAs, which indicated editing by the insertion and deletion of uridylates. Some editing was modest; simply eliminating shifts in sequence register of minimally extending the protein coding sequence. However, editing of many mRNAs was startingly extensive. The RNA sequence was essentially entirely remodeled with its
Moreira, Sandrine; Valach, Matus; Aoulad-Aissa, Mohamed; Otto, Christian; Burger, Gertraud
Abstract Gene structure and expression in diplonemid mitochondria are unparalleled. Genes are fragmented in pieces (modules) that are separately transcribed, followed by the joining of module transcripts to contiguous RNAs. Some instances of unique uridine insertion RNA editing at module boundaries were noted, but the extent and potential occurrence of other editing types remained unknown. Comparative analysis of deep transcriptome and genome data from Diplonema papillatum mitochondria reveals ∼220 post-transcriptional insertions of uridines, but no insertions of other nucleotides nor deletions. In addition, we detect in total 114 substitutions of cytosine by uridine and adenosine by inosine, amassed into unusually compact clusters. Inosines in transcripts were confirmed experimentally. This is the first report of adenosine-to-inosine editing of mRNAs and ribosomal RNAs in mitochondria. In mRNAs, editing causes mostly amino-acid additions and non-synonymous substitutions; in ribosomal RNAs, it permits formation of canonical secondary structures. Two extensively edited transcripts were compared across four diplonemids. The pattern of uridine-insertion editing is strictly conserved, whereas substitution editing has diverged dramatically, but still rendering diplonemid proteins more similar to other eukaryotic orthologs. We posit that RNA editing not only compensates but also sustains, or even accelerates, ultra-rapid evolution of genome structure and sequence in diplonemid mitochondria. PMID:27001515
Nakano, Masataka; Fukami, Tatsuki; Gotoh, Saki; Takamiya, Masataka; Aoki, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Miki
Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is the most frequent type of post-transcriptional nucleotide conversion in humans, and it is catalyzed by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes. In this study we investigated the effect of RNA editing on human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression because the AhR transcript potentially forms double-stranded structures, which are targets of ADAR enzymes. In human hepatocellular carcinoma-derived Huh-7 cells, the ADAR1 knockdown reduced the RNA editing levels in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the AhR transcript and increased the AhR protein levels. The ADAR1 knockdown enhanced the ligand-mediated induction of CYP1A1, a gene downstream of AhR. We investigated the possibility that A-to-I RNA editing creates miRNA targeting sites in the AhR mRNA and found that the miR-378-dependent down-regulation of AhR was abolished by ADAR1 knockdown. These results indicated that the ADAR1-mediated down-regulation of AhR could be attributed to the creation of a miR-378 recognition site in the AhR 3'-UTR. The interindividual differences in the RNA editing levels within the AhR 3'-UTR in a panel of 32 human liver samples were relatively small, whereas the differences in ADAR1 expression were large (220-fold). In the human liver samples a significant inverse association was observed between the miR-378 and AhR protein levels, suggesting that the RNA-editing-dependent down-regulation of AhR by miR-378 contributes to the variability in the constitutive hepatic expression of AhR. In conclusion, this study uncovered for the first time that A-to-I RNA editing modulates the potency of xenobiotic metabolism in the human liver. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Keegan, Liam; Khan, Anzer; Vukic, Dragana; O'Connell, Mary
ADAR RNA editing enzymes ( a denosine d e a minases acting on R NA) that convert adenosine bases to inosines were first identified biochemically 30 years ago. Since then, studies on ADARs in genetic model organisms, and evolutionary comparisons between them, continue to reveal a surprising range of pleiotropic biological effects of ADARs. This review focuses on Drosophila melanogaster , which has a single Adar gene encoding a homolog of vertebrate ADAR2 that site-specifically edits hundreds of transcripts to change individual codons in ion channel subunits and membrane and cytoskeletal proteins. Drosophila ADAR is involved in the control of neuronal excitability and neurodegeneration and, intriguingly, in the control of neuronal plasticity and sleep. Drosophila ADAR also interacts strongly with RNA interference, a key antiviral defense mechanism in invertebrates. Recent crystal structures of human ADAR2 deaminase domain-RNA complexes help to interpret available information on Drosophila ADAR isoforms and on the evolution of ADARs from tRNA deaminase ADAT proteins. ADAR RNA editing is a paradigm for the now rapidly expanding range of RNA modifications in mRNAs and ncRNAs. Even with recent progress, much remains to be understood about these groundbreaking ADAR RNA modification systems. © 2017 Keegan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.
Shigeyasu, Kunitoshi; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Toden, Shusuke; Miyoshi, Jinsei; Toiyama, Yuji; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Takahashi, Naoki; Kusunoki, Masato; Takayama, Tetsuji; Yamada, Yasuhide; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Chen, Leilei; Goel, Ajay
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, a process mediated by adenosine deaminases that act on the RNA (ADAR) gene family, is a recently discovered epigenetic modification dysregulated in human cancers. However, the clinical significance and the functional role of RNA editing in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. We have systematically and comprehensively investigated the significance of the expression status of ADAR1 and of the RNA editing levels of antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1), one of the most frequently edited genes in cancers, in 392 colorectal tissues from multiple independent CRC patient cohorts. Both ADAR1 expression and AZIN1 RNA editing levels were significantly elevated in CRC tissues when compared with corresponding normal mucosa. High levels of AZIN1 RNA editing emerged as a prognostic factor for overall survival and disease-free survival and were an independent risk factor for lymph node and distant metastasis. Furthermore, elevated AZIN1 editing identified high-risk stage II CRC patients. Mechanistically, edited AZIN1 enhances stemness and appears to drive the metastatic processes. We have demonstrated that edited AZIN1 functions as an oncogene and a potential therapeutic target in CRC. Moreover, AZIN1 RNA editing status could be used as a clinically relevant prognostic indicator in CRC patients.
Picardi, Ernesto; D'Antonio, Mattia; Carrabino, Danilo; Castrignanò, Tiziana; Pesole, Graziano
ExpEdit is a web application for assessing RNA editing in human at known or user-specified sites supported by transcript data obtained by RNA-Seq experiments. Mapping data (in SAM/BAM format) or directly sequence reads [in FASTQ/short read archive (SRA) format] can be provided as input to carry out a comparative analysis against a large collection of known editing sites collected in DARNED database as well as other user-provided potentially edited positions. Results are shown as dynamic tables containing University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) links for a quick examination of the genomic context. ExpEdit is freely available on the web at http://www.caspur.it/ExpEdit/.
Ichinose, Mizuho; Sugita, Mamoru
RNA editing by cytidine (C) to uridine (U) conversions is widespread in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. In some plant taxa, “reverse” U-to-C editing also occurs. However, to date, no instance of RNA editing has yet been reported in green algae and the complex thalloid liverworts. RNA editing may have evolved in early land plants 450 million years ago. However, in some plant species, including the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, editing may have been lost during evolution. Most RNA editing events can restore the evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues in mRNAs or create translation start and stop codons. Therefore, RNA editing is an essential process to maintain genetic information at the RNA level. Individual RNA editing sites are recognized by plant-specific pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins that are encoded in the nuclear genome. These PPR proteins are characterized by repeat elements that bind specifically to RNA sequences upstream of target editing sites. In flowering plants, non-PPR proteins also participate in multiple RNA editing events as auxiliary factors. C-to-U editing can be explained by cytidine deamination. The proteins discovered to date are important factors for RNA editing but a bona fide RNA editing enzyme has yet to be identified. PMID:28025543
Madina, Bhaskara R.; Kumar, Vikas; Metz, Richard; Mooers, Blaine H.M.; Bundschuh, Ralf; Cruz-Reyes, Jorge
Mitochondrial mRNAs in kinetoplastids require extensive U-insertion/deletion editing that progresses 3′-to-5′ in small blocks, each directed by a guide RNA (gRNA), and exhibits substrate and developmental stage-specificity by unsolved mechanisms. Here, we address compositionally related factors, collectively known as the mitochondrial RNA-binding complex 1 (MRB1) or gRNA-binding complex (GRBC), that contain gRNA, have a dynamic protein composition, and transiently associate with several mitochondrial factors including RNA editing core complexes (RECC) and ribosomes. MRB1 controls editing by still unknown mechanisms. We performed the first next-generation sequencing study of native subcomplexes of MRB1, immunoselected via either RNA helicase 2 (REH2), that binds RNA and associates with unwinding activity, or MRB3010, that affects an early editing step. The particles contain either REH2 or MRB3010 but share the core GAP1 and other proteins detected by RNA photo-crosslinking. Analyses of the first editing blocks indicate an enrichment of several initiating gRNAs in the MRB3010-purified complex. Our data also indicate fast evolution of mRNA 3′ ends and strain-specific alternative 3′ editing within 3′ UTR or C-terminal protein-coding sequence that could impact mitochondrial physiology. Moreover, we found robust specific copurification of edited and pre-edited mRNAs, suggesting that these particles may bind both mRNA and gRNA editing substrates. We propose that multiple subcomplexes of MRB1 with different RNA/protein composition serve as a scaffold for specific assembly of editing substrates and RECC, thereby forming the editing holoenzyme. The MRB3010-subcomplex may promote early editing through its preferential recruitment of initiating gRNAs. PMID:24865612
Song, Chunzi; Sakurai, Masayuki; Shiromoto, Yusuke; Nishikura, Kazuko
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Among the three types of mammalian ADARs, ADAR1 has long been recognized as an essential enzyme for normal development. The interferon-inducible ADAR1p150 is involved in immune responses to both exogenous and endogenous triggers, whereas the functions of the constitutively expressed ADAR1p110 are variable. Recent findings that ADAR1 is involved in the recognition of self versus non-self dsRNA provide potential explanations for its links to hematopoiesis, type I interferonopathies, and viral infections. Editing in both coding and noncoding sequences results in diseases ranging from cancers to neurological abnormalities. Furthermore, editing of noncoding sequences, like microRNAs, can regulate protein expression, while editing of Alu sequences can affect translational efficiency and editing of proximal sequences. Novel identifications of long noncoding RNA and retrotransposons as editing targets further expand the effects of A-to-I editing. Besides editing, ADAR1 also interacts with other dsRNA-binding proteins in editing-independent manners. Elucidating the disease-specific patterns of editing and/or ADAR1 expression may be useful in making diagnoses and prognoses. In this review, we relate the mechanisms of ADAR1's actions to its pathological implications, and suggest possible mechanisms for the unexplained associations between ADAR1 and human diseases.
Song, Chunzi; Sakurai, Masayuki; Shiromoto, Yusuke; Nishikura, Kazuko
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Among the three types of mammalian ADARs, ADAR1 has long been recognized as an essential enzyme for normal development. The interferon-inducible ADAR1p150 is involved in immune responses to both exogenous and endogenous triggers, whereas the functions of the constitutively expressed ADAR1p110 are variable. Recent findings that ADAR1 is involved in the recognition of self versus non-self dsRNA provide potential explanations for its links to hematopoiesis, type I interferonopathies, and viral infections. Editing in both coding and noncoding sequences results in diseases ranging from cancers to neurological abnormalities. Furthermore, editing of noncoding sequences, like microRNAs, can regulate protein expression, while editing of Alu sequences can affect translational efficiency and editing of proximal sequences. Novel identifications of long noncoding RNA and retrotransposons as editing targets further expand the effects of A-to-I editing. Besides editing, ADAR1 also interacts with other dsRNA-binding proteins in editing-independent manners. Elucidating the disease-specific patterns of editing and/or ADAR1 expression may be useful in making diagnoses and prognoses. In this review, we relate the mechanisms of ADAR1′s actions to its pathological implications, and suggest possible mechanisms for the unexplained associations between ADAR1 and human diseases. PMID:27999332
Leung, S S; Koslowsky, D J
All guide RNAs (gRNAs) identified to date have defined 5' anchor sequences, guiding sequences and a non-encoded 3' uridylate tail. The 5' anchor is required for in vitro editing and is thought to be responsible for selection and binding to the pre-edited mRNA. Little is known, however, about how the gRNAs are used to direct RNA editing. Utilizing the photo-reactive crosslinking agent, azidophenacyl (APA), attached to the 5'- or 3'-terminus of the gRNA, we have begun to map the structural relationships between the different defined regions of the gRNA with the pre-edited mRNA. Analyses of crosslinked conjugates produced with a 5'-terminal APA group confirm that the anchor of the gRNA is correctly positioning the interacting molecules. 3' Crosslinks (X-linker placed at the 3'-end of a U10tail) have also been mapped for three different gRNA/mRNA pairs. In all cases, analyses indicate that the U-tail can interact with a range of nucleotides located upstream of the first edited site. It appears that the U-tail prefers purine-rich sites, close to the first few editing sites. These results suggest that the U-tail may act in concert with the anchor to melt out secondary structure in the mRNA in the immediate editing domain, possibly increasing the accessibility of the editing complex to the proper editing sites.
García-Andrade, Javier; Ramírez, Vicente; López, Ana; Vera, Pablo
Plant regulatory circuits coordinating nuclear and plastid gene expression have evolved in response to external stimuli. RNA editing is one of such control mechanisms. We determined the Arabidopsis nuclear-encoded homeodomain-containing protein OCP3 is incorporated into the chloroplast, and contributes to control over the extent of ndhB transcript editing. ndhB encodes the B subunit of the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH) involved in cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I. In ocp3 mutant strains, ndhB editing efficiency decays, CEF is impaired and disease resistance to fungal pathogens substantially enhanced, a process recapitulated in plants defective in editing plastid RNAs encoding NDH complex subunits due to mutations in previously described nuclear-encoded pentatricopeptide-related proteins (i.e. CRR21, CRR2). Furthermore, we observed that following a pathogenic challenge, wild type plants respond with editing inhibition of ndhB transcript. In parallel, rapid destabilization of the plastidial NDH complex is also observed in the plant following perception of a pathogenic cue. Therefore, NDH complex activity and plant immunity appear as interlinked processes. PMID:24204264
Daniel, Chammiran; Lagergren, Jens; Öhman, Marie
It has for a long time been known that repetitive elements, particularly Alu sequences in human, are edited by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA, ADAR, family. The functional interpretation of these events has been even more difficult than that of editing events in coding sequences, but today there is an emerging understanding of their downstream effects. A surprisingly large fraction of the human transcriptome contains inverted Alu repeats, often forming long double stranded structures in RNA transcripts, typically occurring in introns and UTRs of protein coding genes. Alu repeats are also common in other primates, and similar inverted repeats can frequently be found in non-primates, although the latter are less prone to duplex formation. In human, as many as 700,000 Alu elements have been identified as substrates for RNA editing, of which many are edited at several sites. In fact, recent advancements in transcriptome sequencing techniques and bioinformatics have revealed that the human editome comprises at least a hundred million adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) editing sites in Alu sequences. Although substantial additional efforts are required in order to map the editome, already present knowledge provides an excellent starting point for studying cis-regulation of editing. In this review, we will focus on editing of long stem loop structures in the human transcriptome and how it can effect gene expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.
Frésard, Laure; Leroux, Sophie; Roux, Pierre-François; Klopp, Christophe; Fabre, Stéphane; Esquerré, Diane; Dehais, Patrice; Djari, Anis; Gourichon, David; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Pitel, Frédérique
RNA editing results in a post-transcriptional nucleotide change in the RNA sequence that creates an alternative nucleotide not present in the DNA sequence. This leads to a diversification of transcription products with potential functional consequences. Two nucleotide substitutions are mainly described in animals, from adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) and from cytidine to uridine (C-to-U). This phenomenon is described in more details in mammals, notably since the availability of next generation sequencing technologies allowing whole genome screening of RNA-DNA differences. The number of studies recording RNA editing in other vertebrates like chicken is still limited. We chose to use high throughput sequencing technologies to search for RNA editing in chicken, and to extend the knowledge of its conservation among vertebrates. We performed sequencing of RNA and DNA from 8 embryos. Being aware of common pitfalls inherent to sequence analyses that lead to false positive discovery, we stringently filtered our datasets and found fewer than 40 reliable candidates. Conservation of particular sites of RNA editing was attested by the presence of 3 edited sites previously detected in mammals. We then characterized editing levels for selected candidates in several tissues and at different time points, from 4.5 days of embryonic development to adults, and observed a clear tissue-specificity and a gradual increase of editing level with time. By characterizing the RNA editing landscape in chicken, our results highlight the extent of evolutionary conservation of this phenomenon within vertebrates, attest to its tissue and stage specificity and provide support of the absence of non A-to-I events from the chicken transcriptome.
Frésard, Laure; Leroux, Sophie; Roux, Pierre-François; Klopp, Christophe; Fabre, Stéphane; Esquerré, Diane; Dehais, Patrice; Djari, Anis; Gourichon, David
RNA editing results in a post-transcriptional nucleotide change in the RNA sequence that creates an alternative nucleotide not present in the DNA sequence. This leads to a diversification of transcription products with potential functional consequences. Two nucleotide substitutions are mainly described in animals, from adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) and from cytidine to uridine (C-to-U). This phenomenon is described in more details in mammals, notably since the availability of next generation sequencing technologies allowing whole genome screening of RNA-DNA differences. The number of studies recording RNA editing in other vertebrates like chicken is still limited. We chose to use high throughput sequencing technologies to search for RNA editing in chicken, and to extend the knowledge of its conservation among vertebrates. We performed sequencing of RNA and DNA from 8 embryos. Being aware of common pitfalls inherent to sequence analyses that lead to false positive discovery, we stringently filtered our datasets and found fewer than 40 reliable candidates. Conservation of particular sites of RNA editing was attested by the presence of 3 edited sites previously detected in mammals. We then characterized editing levels for selected candidates in several tissues and at different time points, from 4.5 days of embryonic development to adults, and observed a clear tissue-specificity and a gradual increase of editing level with time. By characterizing the RNA editing landscape in chicken, our results highlight the extent of evolutionary conservation of this phenomenon within vertebrates, attest to its tissue and stage specificity and provide support of the absence of non A-to-I events from the chicken transcriptome. PMID:26024316
Xu, Jianyong; Lian, Wei; Jia, Yuning; Li, Lingyun; Huang, Zhong
The genome editing tool Cas9-gRNA (guide RNA) has been successfully applied in different cell types and organisms with high efficiency. However, more efforts need to be made to enhance both efficiency and specificity. In the current study, we optimized the guide RNA structure of Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) system to improve its genome editing efficiency. Comparing with the original functional structure of guide RNA, which is composed of crRNA and tracrRNA, the widely used chimeric gRNA has shorter crRNA and tracrRNA sequence. The deleted RNA sequence could form extra loop structure, which might enhance the stability of the guide RNA structure and subsequently the genome editing efficiency. Thus the genome editing efficiency of different forms of guide RNA was tested. And we found that the chimeric structure of gRNA with original full length of crRNA and tracrRNA showed higher genome editing efficiency than the conventional chimeric structure or other types of gRNA we tested. Therefore our data here uncovered the new type of gRNA structure with higher genome editing efficiency. PMID:29212218
Qi, Lihua; Song, Yangyang; Chan, Tim Hon Man; Yang, Henry; Lin, Chi Ho; Tay, Daryl Jin Tai; Hong, HuiQi; Tang, Sze Jing; Tan, Kar Tong; Huang, Xi Xiao; Lin, Jaymie Siqi; Ng, Vanessa Hui En; Maury, Julien Jean Pierre; Tenen, Daniel G; Chen, Leilei
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, catalyzed by Adenosine DeAminases acting on double-stranded RNA(dsRNA) (ADAR), occurs predominantly in the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of spliced mRNA. Here we uncover an unanticipated link between ADARs (ADAR1 and ADAR2) and the expression of target genes undergoing extensive 3'UTR editing. Using METTL7A (Methyltransferase Like 7A), a novel tumor suppressor gene with multiple editing sites at its 3'UTR, we demonstrate that its expression could be repressed by ADARs beyond their RNA editing and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding functions. ADARs interact with Dicer to augment the processing of pre-miR-27a to mature miR-27a. Consequently, mature miR-27a targets the METTL7A 3'UTR to repress its expression level. In sum, our study unveils that the extensive 3'UTR editing of METTL7A is merely a footprint of ADAR binding, and there are a subset of target genes that are equivalently regulated by ADAR1 and ADAR2 through their non-canonical RNA editing and dsRNA binding-independent functions, albeit maybe less common. The functional significance of ADARs is much more diverse than previously appreciated and this gene regulatory function of ADARs is most likely to be of high biological importance beyond the best-studied editing function. This non-editing side of ADARs opens another door to target cancer. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Qi, Lihua; Song, Yangyang; Chan, Tim Hon Man; Yang, Henry; Lin, Chi Ho; Tay, Daryl Jin Tai; Hong, HuiQi; Tang, Sze Jing; Tan, Kar Tong; Huang, Xi Xiao; Lin, Jaymie Siqi; Ng, Vanessa Hui En; Maury, Julien Jean Pierre
Abstract Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, catalyzed by Adenosine DeAminases acting on double-stranded RNA(dsRNA) (ADAR), occurs predominantly in the 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs) of spliced mRNA. Here we uncover an unanticipated link between ADARs (ADAR1 and ADAR2) and the expression of target genes undergoing extensive 3′UTR editing. Using METTL7A (Methyltransferase Like 7A), a novel tumor suppressor gene with multiple editing sites at its 3′UTR, we demonstrate that its expression could be repressed by ADARs beyond their RNA editing and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding functions. ADARs interact with Dicer to augment the processing of pre-miR-27a to mature miR-27a. Consequently, mature miR-27a targets the METTL7A 3′UTR to repress its expression level. In sum, our study unveils that the extensive 3′UTR editing of METTL7A is merely a footprint of ADAR binding, and there are a subset of target genes that are equivalently regulated by ADAR1 and ADAR2 through their non-canonical RNA editing and dsRNA binding-independent functions, albeit maybe less common. The functional significance of ADARs is much more diverse than previously appreciated and this gene regulatory function of ADARs is most likely to be of high biological importance beyond the best-studied editing function. This non-editing side of ADARs opens another door to target cancer. PMID:28985428
Mehedi, Masfique; Hoenen, Thomas; Robertson, Shelly; Ricklefs, Stacy; Dolan, Michael A; Taylor, Travis; Falzarano, Darryl; Ebihara, Hideki; Porcella, Stephen F; Feldmann, Heinz
Ebolavirus (EBOV), the causative agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever and a biosafety level 4 pathogen, increases its genome coding capacity by producing multiple transcripts encoding for structural and nonstructural glycoproteins from a single gene. This is achieved through RNA editing, during which non-template adenosine residues are incorporated into the EBOV mRNAs at an editing site encoding for 7 adenosine residues. However, the mechanism of EBOV RNA editing is currently not understood. In this study, we report for the first time that minigenomes containing the glycoprotein gene editing site can undergo RNA editing, thereby eliminating the requirement for a biosafety level 4 laboratory to study EBOV RNA editing. Using a newly developed dual-reporter minigenome, we have characterized the mechanism of EBOV RNA editing, and have identified cis-acting sequences that are required for editing, located between 9 nt upstream and 9 nt downstream of the editing site. Moreover, we show that a secondary structure in the upstream cis-acting sequence plays an important role in RNA editing. EBOV RNA editing is glycoprotein gene-specific, as a stretch encoding for 7 adenosine residues located in the viral polymerase gene did not serve as an editing site, most likely due to an absence of the necessary cis-acting sequences. Finally, the EBOV protein VP30 was identified as a trans-acting factor for RNA editing, constituting a novel function for this protein. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the RNA editing mechanism of EBOV, further understanding of which might result in novel intervention strategies against this viral pathogen.
Fossat, Nicolas; Tam, Patrick P L
Cytidine (C) to Uridine (U) RNA editing is a post-trancriptional modification that until recently was known to only affect Apolipoprotein b (Apob) RNA and minimally require 2 components of the C to U editosome, the deaminase APOBEC1 and the RNA-binding protein A1CF. Our latest work has identified a novel RNA-binding protein, RBM47, as a core component of the editosome, which can substitute A1CF for the editing of ApoB mRNA. In addition, new RNA species that are subjected to C to U editing have been identified. Here, we highlight these recent discoveries and discuss how they change our view of the composition of the C to U editing machinery and expand our knowledge of the functional attributes of C to U RNA editing.
Porath, Hagit T.; Barak, Michal; Pinto, Yishay; Wachtel, Chaim; Zilberberg, Alona; Lerer-Goldshtein, Tali; Efroni, Sol; Levanon, Erez Y.; Appelbaum, Lior
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequent inherited form of mental retardation. The cause for this X-linked disorder is the silencing of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene and the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (Fmrp). The RNA-binding protein Fmrp represses protein translation, particularly in synapses. In Drosophila, Fmrp interacts with the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (Adar) enzymes. Adar enzymes convert adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) and modify the sequence of RNA transcripts. Utilizing the fmr1 zebrafish mutant (fmr1-/-), we studied Fmrp-dependent neuronal circuit formation, behavior, and Adar-mediated RNA editing. By combining behavior analyses and live imaging of single axons and synapses, we showed hyperlocomotor activity, as well as increased axonal branching and synaptic density, in fmr1-/- larvae. We identified thousands of clustered RNA editing sites in the zebrafish transcriptome and showed that Fmrp biochemically interacts with the Adar2a protein. The expression levels of the adar genes and Adar2 protein increased in fmr1-/- zebrafish. Microfluidic-based multiplex PCR coupled with deep sequencing showed a mild increase in A-to-I RNA editing levels in evolutionarily conserved neuronal and synaptic Adar-targets in fmr1-/- larvae. These findings suggest that loss of Fmrp results in increased Adar-mediated RNA editing activity on target-specific RNAs, which, in turn, might alter neuronal circuit formation and behavior in FXS. PMID:26637167
Huang, Hua; Kapeli, Katannya; Jin, Wenhao; Wong, Yuk Peng; Arumugam, Thiruma Valavan; Koh, Joanne Huifen; Srimasorn, Sumitra; Mallilankaraman, Karthik; Chua, John Jia En; Yeo, Gene W; Soong, Tuck Wah
Adenosine DeAminases acting on RNA (ADAR) catalyzes adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) conversion within RNA duplex structures. While A-to-I editing is often dynamically regulated in a spatial-temporal manner, the mechanisms underlying its tissue-selective restriction remain elusive. We have previously reported that transcripts of voltage-gated calcium channel CaV1.3 are subject to brain-selective A-to-I RNA editing by ADAR2. Here, we show that editing of CaV1.3 mRNA is dependent on a 40 bp RNA duplex formed between exon 41 and an evolutionarily conserved editing site complementary sequence (ECS) located within the preceding intron. Heterologous expression of a mouse minigene that contained the ECS, intermediate intronic sequence and exon 41 with ADAR2 yielded robust editing. Interestingly, editing of CaV1.3 was potently inhibited by serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 9 (SRSF9). Mechanistically, the inhibitory effect of SRSF9 required direct RNA interaction. Selective down-regulation of SRSF9 in neurons provides a basis for the neuron-specific editing of CaV1.3 transcripts.
Doria, Margherita; Neri, Francesca; Gallo, Angela; Farace, Maria Giulia; Michienzi, Alessandro
Adenosine deaminases that act on dsRNA (ADARs) are enzymes that target double-stranded regions of RNA converting adenosines into inosines (A-to-I editing) thus contributing to genome complexity and fine regulation of gene expression. It has been described that a member of the ADAR family, ADAR1, can target viruses and affect their replication process. Here we report evidence showing that ADAR1 stimulates human immuno deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by using both editing-dependent and editing-independent mechanisms. We show that over-expression of ADAR1 in HIV-1 producer cells increases viral protein accumulation in an editing-independent manner. Moreover, HIV-1 virions generated in the presence of over-expressed ADAR1 but not an editing-inactive ADAR1 mutant are released more efficiently and display enhanced infectivity, as demonstrated by challenge assays performed with T cell lines and primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. Finally, we report that ADAR1 associates with HIV-1 RNAs and edits adenosines in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) and the Rev and Tat coding sequence. Overall these results suggest that HIV-1 has evolved mechanisms to take advantage of specific RNA editing activity of the host cell and disclose a stimulatory function of ADAR1 in the spread of HIV-1. PMID:19651874
Kang, Lin; Liu, Xiaoqiao; Gong, Zhoulin; Zheng, Hancheng; Wang, Jun; Li, Yingrui; Yang, Huanming; Hardwick, James; Dai, Hongyue; Poon, Ronnie T P; Lee, Nikki P; Mao, Mao; Peng, Zhiyu; Chen, Ronghua
We did whole-transcriptome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing on nine pairs of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors and matched adjacent tissues to identify RNA editing events. We identified mean 26,982 editing sites with mean 89.5% canonical A→G edits in each sample using an improved bioinformatics pipeline. The editing rate was significantly higher in tumors than adjacent normal tissues. Comparing the difference between tumor and normal tissues of each patient, we found 7 non-synonymous tissue specific editing events including 4 tumor-specific edits and 3 normal-specific edits in the coding region, as well as 292 edits varying in editing degree. The significant expression changes of 150 genes associated with RNA editing were found in tumors, with 3 of the 4 most significant genes being cancer related. Our results show that editing might be related to higher gene expression. These findings indicate that RNA editing modification may play an important role in the development of HCC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Levanon, Erez Y
Genome evolution is commonly viewed as a gradual process that is driven by random mutations that accumulate over time. However, DNA- and RNA-editing enzymes have been identified that can accelerate evolution by actively modifying the genomically encoded information. The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzymes, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBECs) are potent restriction factors that can inhibit retroelements by cytosine-to-uridine editing of retroelement DNA after reverse transcription. In some cases, a retroelement may successfully integrate into the genome despite being hypermutated. Such events introduce unique sequences into the genome and are thus a source of genomic innovation. adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) catalyze adenosine-to-inosine editing in double-stranded RNA, commonly formed by oppositely oriented retroelements. The RNA editing confers plasticity to the transcriptome by generating many transcript variants from a single genomic locus. If the editing produces a beneficial variant, the genome may maintain the locus that produces the RNA-edited transcript for its novel function. Here, we discuss how these two powerful editing mechanisms, which both target inserted retroelements, facilitate expedited genome evolution. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.
Fukuda, Masatora; Kurihara, Kei; Yamaguchi, Shota; Oyama, Yui; Deshimaru, Masanobu
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is an endogenous regulatory mechanism involved in various biological processes. Site-specific, editing-state–dependent degradation of target RNA may be a powerful tool both for analyzing the mechanism of RNA editing and for regulating biological processes. Previously, we designed an artificial hammerhead ribozyme (HHR) for selective, site-specific RNA cleavage dependent on the A-to-I RNA editing state. In the present work, we developed an improved strategy for constructing a trans-acting HHR that specifically cleaves target editing sites in the adenosine but not the inosine state. Specificity for unedited sites was achieved by utilizing a sequence encoding the intrinsic cleavage specificity of a natural HHR. We used in vitro selection methods in an HHR library to select for an extended HHR containing a tertiary stabilization motif that facilitates HHR folding into an active conformation. By using this method, we successfully constructed highly active HHRs with unedited-specific cleavage. Moreover, using HHR cleavage followed by direct sequencing, we demonstrated that this ribozyme could cleave serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C) mRNA extracted from mouse brain, depending on the site-specific editing state. This unedited-specific cleavage also enabled us to analyze the effect of editing state at the E and C sites on editing at other sites by using direct sequencing for the simultaneous quantification of the editing ratio at multiple sites. Our approach has the potential to elucidate the mechanism underlying the interdependencies of different editing states in substrate RNA with multiple editing sites. PMID:24448449
Keegan, Liam P; Brindle, James; Gallo, Angela; Leroy, Anne; Reenan, Robert A; O'Connell, Mary A
RNA editing increases during development in more than 20 transcripts encoding proteins involved in rapid synaptic neurotransmission in Drosophila central nervous system and muscle. Adar (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) mutant flies expressing only genome-encoded, unedited isoforms of ion-channel subunits are viable but show severe locomotion defects. The Adar transcript itself is edited in adult wild-type flies to generate an isoform with a serine to glycine substitution close to the ADAR active site. We show that editing restricts ADAR function since the edited isoform of ADAR is less active in vitro and in vivo than the genome-encoded, unedited isoform. Ubiquitous expression in embryos and larvae of an Adar transcript that is resistant to editing is lethal. Expression of this transcript in embryonic muscle is also lethal, with above-normal, adult-like levels of editing at sites in a transcript encoding a muscle voltage-gated calcium channel. PMID:15920480
Picardi, Ernesto; Regina, Teresa M R; Verbitskiy, Daniil; Brennicke, Axel; Quagliariello, Carla
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional molecular process whereby the information in a genetic message is modified from that in the corresponding DNA template by means of nucleotide substitutions, insertions and/or deletions. It occurs mostly in organelles by clade-specific diverse and unrelated biochemical mechanisms. RNA editing events have been annotated in primary databases as GenBank and at more sophisticated level in the specialized databases REDIdb, dbRES and EdRNA. At present, REDIdb is the only freely available database that focuses on the organellar RNA editing process and annotates each editing modification in its biological context. Here we present an updated and upgraded release of REDIdb with a web-interface refurbished with graphical and computational facilities that improve RNA editing investigations. Details of the REDIdb features and novelties are illustrated and compared to other RNA editing databases. REDIdb is freely queried at http://biologia.unical.it/py_script/REDIdb/. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.
Garrett, Sandra; Rosenthal, Joshua J.C.
To operate in the extreme cold, ion channels from psychrophiles must have evolved structural changes to compensate for their thermal environment. A reasonable assumption would be that the underlying adaptations lie within the encoding genes. Here we show that delayed rectifier K+ channel genes from an Antarctic and a tropical octopus encode channels that differ at only four positions and display very similar behavior when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. However, the transcribed mRNAs are extensively edited, creating functional diversity. One editing site, which recodes an isoleucine to a valine in the channel’s pore, greatly accelerates gating kinetics by destabilizing the open state. This site is extensively edited in both Antarctic and Arctic species, but mostly unedited in tropical species. Thus A-to-I RNA editing can respond to the physical environment. PMID:22223739
Choury, David; Araya, Alejandro
RNA editing is a process that modifies the information content of mitochondrial messenger RNAs in flowering plants changing specific cytosine residues into uridine. To gain insight into editing site recognition, we used electroporation to introduce engineered wheat (Triticum aestivum) or potato (Solanum tuberosum) mitochondrial cox2 genes, and an atp9-containing chimeric gene, into non-cognate mitochondria, and observed the efficiency of editing in these contexts. Both wheat and potato mitochondria were able to express "foreign" constructs, and their products were properly spliced. Seventeen and twelve editing sites are present in the coding regions of wheat and potato cox2 transcripts, respectively. Eight are common to both plants, whereas nine are specific to wheat, and four to potato. An analogous situation is found for the atp9 mRNA coding regions from these species. We found that both mitochondria were able to recognize sites that are already present as T at the genomic level, making RNA editing unnecessary for that specific residue in the cognate organelle. Our results demonstrate that non-cognate mitochondria are able to edit residues that are not edited in their own transcripts, and support the hypothesis that the same trans-acting factor may recognize several editing sites.
Liu, Tsunglin; Bundschuh, Ralf
RNA editing can be crucial for the expression of genetic information via inserting, deleting, or substituting a few nucleotides at specific positions in an RNA sequence. Within coding regions in an RNA sequence, editing usually occurs with a certain bias in choosing the positions of the editing sites. In the mitochondrial genes of Physarum polycephalum, many more editing events have been observed at the third codon position than at the first and second, while in some plant mitochondria the second codon position dominates. Here we propose an evolutionary model that explains this bias as the basis of selection at the protein level. The model predicts a distribution of the three positions rather close to the experimental observation in Physarum. This suggests that the codon position bias in Physarum is mainly a consequence of selection at the protein level.
Bundschuh, Ralf; Liu, Tsunglin
RNA editing can be crucial for the expression of genetic information via inserting, deleting, or substituting a few nucleotides at specific positions in an RNA sequence. Within coding regions in an RNA sequence, editing usually occurs with a certain bias in choosing the positions of the editing sites. In the mitochondrial genes of Physarum polycephalum, many more editing events have been observed at the third codon position than at the first and second, while in some plant mitochondria the second codon position dominates. Here we propose an evolutionary model that explains this bias as the basis of selection at the protein level. The model predicts a distribution of the three positions rather close to the experimental observation in Physarum. This suggests that the codon position bias in Physarum is mainly a consequence of selection at the protein level.
Fossat, Nicolas; Tourle, Karin; Radziewic, Tania; Barratt, Kristen; Liebhold, Doreen; Studdert, Joshua B; Power, Melinda; Jones, Vanessa; Loebel, David A F; Tam, Patrick P L
Cytidine (C) to Uridine (U) RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification that is accomplished by the deaminase APOBEC1 and its partnership with the RNA-binding protein A1CF. We identify and characterise here a novel RNA-binding protein, RBM47, that interacts with APOBEC1 and A1CF and is expressed in tissues where C to U RNA editing occurs. RBM47 can substitute for A1CF and is necessary and sufficient for APOBEC1-mediated editing in vitro. Editing is further impaired in Rbm47-deficient mutant mice. These findings suggest that RBM47 and APOBEC1 constitute the basic machinery for C to U RNA editing. © 2014 The Authors.
Simpson, Rachel M; Bruno, Andrew E; Chen, Runpu; Lott, Kaylen; Tylec, Brianna L; Bard, Jonathan E; Sun, Yijun; Buck, Michael J; Read, Laurie K
Uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing is an essential process in kinetoplastid parasites whereby mitochondrial mRNAs are modified through the specific insertion and deletion of uridines to generate functional open reading frames, many of which encode components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The roles of numerous non-enzymatic editing factors have remained opaque given the limitations of conventional methods to interrogate the order and mechanism by which editing progresses and thus roles of individual proteins. Here, we examined whole populations of partially edited sequences using high throughput sequencing and a novel bioinformatic platform, the Trypanosome RNA Editing Alignment Tool (TREAT), to elucidate the roles of three proteins in the RNA Editing Mediator Complex (REMC). We determined that the factors examined function in the progression of editing through a gRNA; however, they have distinct roles and REMC is likely heterogeneous in composition. We provide the first evidence that editing can proceed through numerous paths within a single gRNA and that non-linear modifications are essential, generating commonly observed junction regions. Our data support a model in which RNA editing is executed via multiple paths that necessitate successive re-modification of junction regions facilitated, in part, by the REMC variant containing TbRGG2 and MRB8180. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Grosche, Christopher; Funk, Helena T.; Maier, Uwe G.; Zauner, Stefan
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that can act upon transcripts from mitochondrial, nuclear, and chloroplast genomes. In chloroplasts, single-nucleotide conversions in mRNAs via RNA editing occur at different frequencies across the plant kingdom. These range from several hundred edited sites in some mosses and ferns to lower frequencies in seed plants and the complete lack of RNA editing in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Here, we report the sequence and edited sites of the chloroplast genome from the liverwort Pellia endiviifolia. The type and frequency of chloroplast RNA editing display a pattern highly similar to that in seed plants. Analyses of the C to U conversions and the genomic context in which the editing sites are embedded provide evidence in favor of the hypothesis that chloroplast RNA editing evolved to compensate mutations in the first land plants. PMID:23221608
Leong, Wai-Mun; Ripen, Adiratna Mat; Mirsafian, Hoda; Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin; Merican, Amir Feisal
High-depth next generation sequencing data provide valuable insights into the number and distribution of RNA editing events. Here, we report the RNA editing events at cellular level of human primary monocyte using high-depth whole genomic and transcriptomic sequencing data. We identified over a ten thousand putative RNA editing sites and 69% of the sites were A-to-I editing sites. The sites enriched in repetitive sequences and intronic regions. High-depth sequencing datasets revealed that 90% of the canonical sites were edited at lower frequencies (<0.7). Single and multiple human monocytes and brain tissues samples were analyzed through genome sequence independent approach. The later approach was observed to identify more editing sites. Monocytes was observed to contain more C-to-U editing sites compared to brain tissues. Our results establish comparable pipeline that can address current limitations as well as demonstrate the potential for highly sensitive detection of RNA editing events in single cell type. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Picardi, Ernesto; Pesole, Graziano
The reliable detection of RNA editing sites from massive sequencing data remains challenging and, although several methodologies have been proposed, no computational tools have been released to date. Here, we introduce REDItools a suite of python scripts to perform high-throughput investigation of RNA editing using next-generation sequencing data. REDItools are in python programming language and freely available at http://code.google.com/p/reditools/. email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Liscovitch, Noa; Bazak, Lily; Levanon, Erez Y; Chechik, Gal
A-to-I RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA is a post-transcriptional modification that is crucial for normal life and development in vertebrates. RNA editing has been shown to be very abundant in the human transcriptome, specifically at the primate-specific Alu elements. The functional role of this wide-spread effect is still not clear; it is believed that editing of transcripts is a mechanism for their down-regulation via processes such as nuclear retention or RNA degradation. Here we combine 2 neural gene expression datasets with genome-level editing information to examine the relation between the expression of ADAR genes with the expression of their target genes. Specifically, we computed the spatial correlation across structures of post-mortem human brains between ADAR and a large set of targets that were found to be edited in their Alu repeats. Surprisingly, we found that a large fraction of the edited genes are positively correlated with ADAR, opposing the assumption that editing would reduce expression. When considering the correlations between ADAR and its targets over development, 2 gene subsets emerge, positively correlated and negatively correlated with ADAR expression. Specifically, in embryonic time points, ADAR is positively correlated with many genes related to RNA processing and regulation of gene expression. These findings imply that the suggested mechanism of regulation of expression by editing is probably not a global one; ADAR expression does not have a genome wide effect reducing the expression of editing targets. It is possible, however, that RNA editing by ADAR in non-coding regions of the gene might be a part of a more complex expression regulation mechanism. PMID:25692240
Liscovitch, Noa; Bazak, Lily; Levanon, Erez Y; Chechik, Gal
A-to-I RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA is a post-transcriptional modification that is crucial for normal life and development in vertebrates. RNA editing has been shown to be very abundant in the human transcriptome, specifically at the primate-specific Alu elements. The functional role of this wide-spread effect is still not clear; it is believed that editing of transcripts is a mechanism for their down-regulation via processes such as nuclear retention or RNA degradation. Here we combine 2 neural gene expression datasets with genome-level editing information to examine the relation between the expression of ADAR genes with the expression of their target genes. Specifically, we computed the spatial correlation across structures of post-mortem human brains between ADAR and a large set of targets that were found to be edited in their Alu repeats. Surprisingly, we found that a large fraction of the edited genes are positively correlated with ADAR, opposing the assumption that editing would reduce expression. When considering the correlations between ADAR and its targets over development, 2 gene subsets emerge, positively correlated and negatively correlated with ADAR expression. Specifically, in embryonic time points, ADAR is positively correlated with many genes related to RNA processing and regulation of gene expression. These findings imply that the suggested mechanism of regulation of expression by editing is probably not a global one; ADAR expression does not have a genome wide effect reducing the expression of editing targets. It is possible, however, that RNA editing by ADAR in non-coding regions of the gene might be a part of a more complex expression regulation mechanism.
Wu, Shuangyang; Liu, Wanfei; Aljohi, Hasan Awad; Alromaih, Sarah A; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Lin, Qiang; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional or cotranscriptional process that changes the sequence of the precursor transcript by substitutions, insertions, or deletions. Almost all of the land plants undergo RNA editing in organelles (plastids and mitochondria). Although several software tools have been developed to identify RNA editing events, there has been a great challenge to distinguish true RNA editing events from genome variation, sequencing errors, and other factors. Here we introduce REDO, a comprehensive application tool for identifying RNA editing events in plant organelles based on variant call format files from RNA-sequencing data. REDO is a suite of Perl scripts that illustrate a bunch of attributes of RNA editing events in figures and tables. REDO can also detect RNA editing events in multiple samples simultaneously and identify the significant differential proportion of RNA editing loci. Comparing with similar tools, such as REDItools, REDO runs faster with higher accuracy, and more specificity at the cost of slightly lower sensitivity. Moreover, REDO annotates each RNA editing site in RNAs, whereas REDItools reports only possible RNA editing sites in genome, which need additional steps to obtain RNA editing profiles for RNAs. Overall, REDO can identify potential RNA editing sites easily and provide several functions such as detailed annotations, statistics, figures, and significantly differential proportion of RNA editing sites among different samples.
Zhang, Rui; Deng, Patricia; Jacobson, Dionna; Li, Jin Billy
Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing diversifies the transcriptome and promotes functional diversity, particularly in the brain. A plethora of editing sites has been recently identified; however, how they are selected and regulated and which are functionally important are largely unknown. Here we show the cis-regulation and stepwise selection of RNA editing during Drosophila evolution and pinpoint a large number of functional editing sites. We found that the establishment of editing and variation in editing levels across Drosophila species are largely explained and predicted by cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, editing events that arose early in the species tree tend to be more highly edited in clusters and enriched in slowly-evolved neuronal genes, thus suggesting that the main role of RNA editing is for fine-tuning neurological functions. While nonsynonymous editing events have been long recognized as playing a functional role, in addition to nonsynonymous editing sites, a large fraction of 3'UTR editing sites is evolutionarily constrained, highly edited, and thus likely functional. We find that these 3'UTR editing events can alter mRNA stability and affect miRNA binding and thus highlight the functional roles of noncoding RNA editing. Our work, through evolutionary analyses of RNA editing in Drosophila, uncovers novel insights of RNA editing regulation as well as its functions in both coding and non-coding regions.
Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing diversifies the transcriptome and promotes functional diversity, particularly in the brain. A plethora of editing sites has been recently identified; however, how they are selected and regulated and which are functionally important are largely unknown. Here we show the cis-regulation and stepwise selection of RNA editing during Drosophila evolution and pinpoint a large number of functional editing sites. We found that the establishment of editing and variation in editing levels across Drosophila species are largely explained and predicted by cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, editing events that arose early in the species tree tend to be more highly edited in clusters and enriched in slowly-evolved neuronal genes, thus suggesting that the main role of RNA editing is for fine-tuning neurological functions. While nonsynonymous editing events have been long recognized as playing a functional role, in addition to nonsynonymous editing sites, a large fraction of 3’UTR editing sites is evolutionarily constrained, highly edited, and thus likely functional. We find that these 3’UTR editing events can alter mRNA stability and affect miRNA binding and thus highlight the functional roles of noncoding RNA editing. Our work, through evolutionary analyses of RNA editing in Drosophila, uncovers novel insights of RNA editing regulation as well as its functions in both coding and non-coding regions. PMID:28166241
Freyer, Regina; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Kössel, Hans
RNA editing changes posttranscriptionally single nucleotides in chloroplast-encoded transcripts. Although much work has been done on mechanistic and functional aspects of plastid editing, little is known about evolutionary aspects of this RNA processing step. To gain a better understanding of the evolution of RNA editing in plastids, we have investigated the editing patterns in ndhB and rbcL transcripts from various species comprising all major groups of land plants. Our results indicate that RNA editing occurs in plastids of bryophytes, fern allies, true ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. Both editing frequencies and editing patterns show a remarkable degree of interspecies variation. Furthermore, we have found that neither plastid editing frequencies nor the editing pattern of a specific transcript correlate with the phylogenetic tree of the plant kingdom. The poor evolutionary conservation of editing sites among closely related species as well as the occurrence of single species-specific editing sites suggest that the differences in the editing patterns and editing frequencies are probably due both to independent loss and to gain of editing sites. In addition, our results indicate that RNA editing is a relatively ancient process that probably predates the evolution of land plants. This supposition is in good agreement with the phylogenetic data obtained for plant mitochondrial RNA editing, thus providing additional evidence for common evolutionary roots of the two plant organellar editing systems. PMID:9177209
Edera, Alejandro A; Gandini, Carolina L; Sanchez-Puerta, M Virginia
Our understanding of the dynamic and evolution of RNA editing in angiosperms is in part limited by the few editing sites identified to date. This study identified 10,217 editing sites from 17 diverse angiosperms. Our analyses confirmed the universality of certain features of RNA editing, and offer new evidence behind the loss of editing sites in angiosperms. RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that substitutes cytidines (C) for uridines (U) in organellar transcripts of angiosperms. These substitutions mostly take place in mitochondrial messenger RNAs at specific positions called editing sites. By means of publicly available RNA-seq data, this study identified 10,217 editing sites in mitochondrial protein-coding genes of 17 diverse angiosperms. Even though other types of mismatches were also identified, we did not find evidence of non-canonical editing processes. The results showed an uneven distribution of editing sites among species, genes, and codon positions. The analyses revealed that editing sites were conserved across angiosperms but there were some species-specific sites. Non-synonymous editing sites were particularly highly conserved (~ 80%) across the plant species and were efficiently edited (80% editing extent). In contrast, editing sites at third codon positions were poorly conserved (~ 30%) and only partially edited (~ 40% editing extent). We found that the loss of editing sites along angiosperm evolution is mainly occurring by replacing editing sites with thymidines, instead of a degradation of the editing recognition motif around editing sites. Consecutive and highly conserved editing sites had been replaced by thymidines as result of retroprocessing, by which edited transcripts are reverse transcribed to cDNA and then integrated into the genome by homologous recombination. This phenomenon was more pronounced in eudicots, and in the gene cox1. These results suggest that retroprocessing is a widespread driving force underlying the loss
Wang, Bingbing; Salavati, Reza; Heidmann, Stefan; Stuart, Kenneth
Current in vitro assays for RNA editing in kinetoplastids directly examine the products generated by incubation of pre-mRNA substrate with guide RNA (gRNA) and mitochondrial (mt) extract. RNA editing substrates that are modeled on hammerhead ribozymes were designed with catalytic cores that contained or lacked additional uridylates (Us). They proved to be sensitive reporters of editing activity when used for in vitro assays. A deletion editing substrate that is based on A6 pre-mRNA had no ribozyme activity, but its incubation with gRNA and mt extract resulted in its deletion editing and production of a catalytically active ribozyme. Hammerhead ribozymes are thus sensitive tools to assay in vitro RNA editing. PMID:11991648
Vallecillo-Viejo, Isabel C; Liscovitch-Brauer, Noa; Montiel-Gonzalez, Maria Fernanda; Eisenberg, Eli; Rosenthal, Joshua J C
Site-directed RNA editing (SDRE) is a general strategy for making targeted base changes in RNA molecules. Although the approach is relatively new, several groups, including our own, have been working on its development. The basic strategy has been to couple the catalytic domain of an adenosine (A) to inosine (I) RNA editing enzyme to a guide RNA that is used for targeting. Although highly efficient on-target editing has been reported, off-target events have not been rigorously quantified. In this report we target premature termination codons (PTCs) in messages encoding both a fluorescent reporter protein and the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein transiently transfected into human epithelial cells. We demonstrate that while on-target editing is efficient, off-target editing is extensive, both within the targeted message and across the entire transcriptome of the transfected cells. By redirecting the editing enzymes from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, off-target editing is reduced without compromising the on-target editing efficiency. The addition of the E488Q mutation to the editing enzymes, a common strategy for increasing on-target editing efficiency, causes a tremendous increase in off-target editing. These results underscore the need to reduce promiscuity in current approaches to SDRE.
Jiang, Qingfei; Crews, Leslie A.; Holm, Frida; Jamieson, Catriona H. M.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) can regenerate all facets of a tumour as a result of their stem cell-like capacity to self-renew, survive and become dormant in protective microenvironments. CSCs evolve during tumour progression in a manner that conforms to Charles Darwin’s principle of natural selection. Although somatic DNA mutations and epigenetic alterations promote evolution, post-transcriptional RNA modifications together with RNA binding protein activity (the ‘epitranscriptome’) might also contribute to clonal evolution through dynamic determination of RNA function and gene expression diversity in response to environmental stimuli. Deregulation of these epitranscriptomic events contributes to CSC generation and maintenance, which governs cancer progression and drug resistance. In this Review, we discuss the role of malignant RNA processing in CSC generation and maintenance, including mechanisms of RNA methylation, RNA editing and RNA splicing, and the functional consequences of their aberrant regulation in human malignancies. Finally, we highlight the potential of these events as novel CSC biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets. PMID:28416802
Fu, Li; Qin, Yan-Ru; Ming, Xiao-Yan; Zuo, Xian-Bo; Diao, Yu-Wen; Zhang, Li-Yi; Ai, Jiaoyu; Liu, Bei-Lei; Huang, Tu-Xiong; Cao, Ting-Ting; Tan, Bin-Bin; Xiang, Di; Zeng, Chui-Mian; Gong, Jing; Zhang, Qiangfeng; Dong, Sui-Sui; Chen, Juan; Liu, Haibo; Wu, Jian-Lin; Qi, Robert Z.; Xie, Dan; Wang, Li-Dong
Like many complex human diseases, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is known to cluster in families. Familial ESCC cases often show early onset and worse prognosis than the sporadic cases. However, the molecular genetic basis underlying the development of familial ESCC is mostly unknown. We reported that SLC22A3 is significantly down-regulated in nontumor esophageal tissues from patients with familial ESCC compared with tissues from patients with sporadic ESCCs. A-to-I RNA editing of the SLC22A3 gene results in its reduced expression in the nontumor esophageal tissues of familial ESCCs and is significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis. The RNA-editing enzyme ADAR2, a familial ESCC susceptibility gene identified by our post hoc genome-wide association study, is positively correlated with the editing level of SLC22A3. Moreover, functional studies showed that SLC22A3 is a metastasis suppressor in ESCC, and deregulation of SLC22A3 facilitates cell invasion and filopodia formation by reducing its direct association with α-actinin-4 (ACTN4), leading to the increased actin-binding activity of ACTN4 in normal esophageal cells. Collectively, we now show that A-to-I RNA editing of SLC22A3 contributes to the early development and progression of familial esophageal cancer in high-risk individuals. PMID:28533408
Jinek, Martin; East, Alexandra; Cheng, Aaron; Lin, Steven; Ma, Enbo; Doudna, Jennifer
Type II CRISPR immune systems in bacteria use a dual RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, Cas9, to cleave foreign DNA at specific sites. We show here that Cas9 assembles with hybrid guide RNAs in human cells and can induce the formation of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) at a site complementary to the guide RNA sequence in genomic DNA. This cleavage activity requires both Cas9 and the complementary binding of the guide RNA. Experiments using extracts from transfected cells show that RNA expression and/or assembly into Cas9 is the limiting factor for Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage. In addition, we find that extension of the RNA sequence at the 3′ end enhances DNA targeting activity in vivo. These results show that RNA-programmed genome editing is a facile strategy for introducing site-specific genetic changes in human cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00471.001 PMID:23386978
Sharma, Shraddha; Patnaik, Santosh K.; Thomas Taggart, R.; Kannisto, Eric D.; Enriquez, Sally M.; Gollnick, Paul; Baysal, Bora E.
The extent, regulation and enzymatic basis of RNA editing by cytidine deamination are incompletely understood. Here we show that transcripts of hundreds of genes undergo site-specific C>U RNA editing in macrophages during M1 polarization and in monocytes in response to hypoxia and interferons. This editing alters the amino acid sequences for scores of proteins, including many that are involved in pathogenesis of viral diseases. APOBEC3A, which is known to deaminate cytidines of single-stranded DNA and to inhibit viruses and retrotransposons, mediates this RNA editing. Amino acid residues of APOBEC3A that are known to be required for its DNA deamination and anti-retrotransposition activities were also found to affect its RNA deamination activity. Our study demonstrates the cellular RNA editing activity of a member of the APOBEC3 family of innate restriction factors and expands the understanding of C>U RNA editing in mammals. PMID:25898173
Stapleton, Mark; Carlson, Joseph W.; Celniker, Susan E.
Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the site-specific conversion of adenosine to inosine in primary mRNA transcripts. These re-coding events affect coding potential, splice-sites, and stability of mature mRNAs. ADAR is an essential gene and studies in mouse, C. elegans, and Drosophila suggest its primary function is to modify adult behavior by altering signaling components in the nervous system. By comparing the sequence of isogenic cDNAs to genomic DNA, we have identified and experimentally verified 27 new targets of Drosophila ADAR. Our analyses lead us to identify new classes of genes whose transcripts are targets of ADAR includingmore » components of the actin cytoskeleton, and genes involved in ion homeostasis and signal transduction. Our results indicate that editing in Drosophila increases the diversity of the proteome, and does so in a manner that has direct functional consequences on protein function.« less
Gumireddy, Kiranmai; Li, Anping; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Sakurai, Masayuki; Yan, Jinchun; Li, Yan; Xu, Hua; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Paul J.; Zhang, Lin; Showe, Louise C.; Nishikura, Kazuko; Huang, Qihong
Metastasis is a critical event affecting breast cancer patient survival. To identify molecules contributing to the metastatic process, we analysed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast cancer data and identified 41 genes whose expression is inversely correlated with survival. Here we show that GABAA receptor alpha3 (Gabra3), normally exclusively expressed in adult brain, is also expressed in breast cancer, with high expression of Gabra3 being inversely correlated with breast cancer survival. We demonstrate that Gabra3 activates the AKT pathway to promote breast cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Importantly, we find an A-to-I RNA-edited form of Gabra3 only in non-invasive breast cancers and show that edited Gabra3 suppresses breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. A-to-I-edited Gabra3 has reduced cell surface expression and suppresses the activation of AKT required for cell migration and invasion. Our study demonstrates a significant role for mRNA-edited Gabra3 in breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26869349
Gumireddy, Kiranmai; Li, Anping; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Sakurai, Masayuki; Yan, Jinchun; Li, Yan; Xu, Hua; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Paul J; Zhang, Lin; Showe, Louise C; Nishikura, Kazuko; Huang, Qihong
Metastasis is a critical event affecting breast cancer patient survival. To identify molecules contributing to the metastatic process, we analysed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast cancer data and identified 41 genes whose expression is inversely correlated with survival. Here we show that GABAA receptor alpha3 (Gabra3), normally exclusively expressed in adult brain, is also expressed in breast cancer, with high expression of Gabra3 being inversely correlated with breast cancer survival. We demonstrate that Gabra3 activates the AKT pathway to promote breast cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Importantly, we find an A-to-I RNA-edited form of Gabra3 only in non-invasive breast cancers and show that edited Gabra3 suppresses breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. A-to-I-edited Gabra3 has reduced cell surface expression and suppresses the activation of AKT required for cell migration and invasion. Our study demonstrates a significant role for mRNA-edited Gabra3 in breast cancer metastasis.
Di Narzo, Antonio Fabio; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Roussos, Panos; Hao, Ke; Hurd, Yasmin; Lewis, David A.; Sibille, Etienne; Siever, Larry J.; Koonin, Eugene; Dracheva, Stella
Editing of the pre-mRNA for the serotonin receptor 2C (5-HT2CR) by site-specific adenosine deamination (A-to-I pre-mRNA editing) substantially increases the functional plasticity of this key neurotransmitter receptor and is thought to contribute to homeostatic mechanisms in neurons. 5-HT2CR mRNA editing generates up to 24 different receptor isoforms. The extent of editing correlates with 5-HT2CR functional activity: more highly edited isoforms exhibit the least function. Altered 5-HT2CR editing has been reported in postmortem brains of suicide victims. We report a comparative analysis of the connections among 5-HT2CR editing, genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation in suicide victims, individuals with major depressive disorder and non-psychiatric controls. The results confirm previous findings of an overrepresentation of highly edited mRNA variants (which encode hypoactive 5-HT2CR receptors) in the brains of suicide victims. A large set of genes for which the expression level is associated with editing was detected. This signature set of editing-associated genes is significantly enriched for genes that are involved in synaptic transmission, genes that are preferentially expressed in neurons, and genes whose expression is correlated with the level of DNA methylation. Notably, we report that the link between 5-HT2CR editing and gene expression is disrupted in suicide victims. The results suggest that the postulated homeostatic function of 5-HT2CR editing is dysregulated in individuals who committed suicide. PMID:24781207
Di Narzo, Antonio Fabio; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Roussos, Panos; Hao, Ke; Hurd, Yasmin; Lewis, David A; Sibille, Etienne; Siever, Larry J; Koonin, Eugene; Dracheva, Stella
Editing of the pre-mRNA for the serotonin receptor 2C (5-HT2CR) by site-specific adenosine deamination (A-to-I pre-mRNA editing) substantially increases the functional plasticity of this key neurotransmitter receptor and is thought to contribute to homeostatic mechanisms in neurons. 5-HT2CR mRNA editing generates up to 24 different receptor isoforms. The extent of editing correlates with 5-HT2CR functional activity: more highly edited isoforms exhibit the least function. Altered 5-HT2CR editing has been reported in postmortem brains of suicide victims. We report a comparative analysis of the connections among 5-HT2CR editing, genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation in suicide victims, individuals with major depressive disorder and non-psychiatric controls. The results confirm previous findings of an overrepresentation of highly edited mRNA variants (which encode hypoactive 5-HT2CR receptors) in the brains of suicide victims. A large set of genes for which the expression level is associated with editing was detected. This signature set of editing-associated genes is significantly enriched for genes that are involved in synaptic transmission, genes that are preferentially expressed in neurons, and genes whose expression is correlated with the level of DNA methylation. Notably, we report that the link between 5-HT2CR editing and gene expression is disrupted in suicide victims. The results suggest that the postulated homeostatic function of 5-HT2CR editing is dysregulated in individuals who committed suicide. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Abad, Maria G; Long, Yicheng; Kinchen, R Dimitri; Schindel, Elinor T; Gray, Michael W; Jackman, Jane E
Mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA) 5'-editing was first described more than 20 years ago; however, the first candidates for 5'-editing enzymes were only recently identified in a eukaryotic microbe (protist), the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. In this organism, eight of 18 mt-tRNAs are predicted to be edited based on the presence of genomically encoded mismatched nucleotides in their aminoacyl-acceptor stem sequences. Here, we demonstrate that mt-tRNA 5'-editing occurs at all predicted sites in D. discoideum as evidenced by changes in the sequences of isolated mt-tRNAs compared with the expected sequences encoded by the mitochondrial genome. We also identify two previously unpredicted editing events in which G-U base pairs are edited in the absence of any other genomically encoded mismatches. A comparison of 5'-editing in D. discoideum with 5'-editing in another slime mold, Polysphondylium pallidum, suggests organism-specific idiosyncrasies in the treatment of U-G/G-U pairs. In vitro activities of putative D. discoideum editing enzymes are consistent with the observed editing reactions and suggest an overall lack of tRNA substrate specificity exhibited by the repair component of the editing enzyme. Although the presence of terminal mismatches in mt-tRNA sequences is highly predictive of the occurrence of mt-tRNA 5'-editing, the variability in treatment of U-G/G-U base pairs observed here indicates that direct experimental evidence of 5'-editing must be obtained to understand the complete spectrum of mt-tRNA editing events in any species. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Reed, Martha L.; Peeters, Nemo M.; Hanson, Maureen R.
Transcripts of typical dicot plant plastid genes undergo C→U RNA editing at approximately 30 locations, but there is no consensus sequence surrounding the C targets of editing. The cis-acting elements required for editing of the C located at tobacco rpoB editing site II were investigated by introducing translatable chimeric minigenes containing sequence –20 to +6 surrounding the C target of editing. When the –20 to +6 sequence specified by the homologous region present in the black pine chloroplast genome was incorporated, virtually no editing of the transcripts occurred in transgenic tobacco plastids. Nucleotides that differ between the black pine and tobacco sequence were tested for their role in C→U editing by designing chimeric genes containing one or more of these divergent nucleotides. Surprisingly, the divergent nucleotide that had the strongest negative effect on editing of the minigene transcript was located –20 nt 5′ to the C target of editing. Expression of transgene transcripts carrying the 27 nt sequence did not affect the editing extent of the endogenous rpoB transcripts, even though the chimeric transcripts were much more abundant than those of the endogenous gene. In plants carrying a 93 nt rpoB editing site sequence, transgene transcripts accumulated to a level three times greater than transgene transcripts in the plants carrying the 27 nt rpoB editing sites and resulted in editing of the endogenous transcripts from 100 to 50%. Both a lower affinity of the 27 nt site for a trans-acting factor and lower abundance of the transcript could explain why expression of minigene transcripts containing the 27 nt sequence did not affect endogenous editing. PMID:11266552
Allen, Thomas E.; Heidmann, Stefan; Reed, RoseMary; Myler, Peter J.; Göringer, H. Ulrich; Stuart, Kenneth D.
RNA editing in Trypanosoma brucei mitochondria produces mature mRNAs by a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that specifically insert or delete uridylates in association with a macromolecular complex. Using a mitochondrial fraction enriched for in vitro RNA editing activity, we produced several monoclonal antibodies that are specific for a 21-kDa guide RNA (gRNA) binding protein initially identified by UV cross-linking. Immunofluorescence studies localize the protein to the mitochondrion, with a preference for the kinetoplast. The antibodies cause a supershift of previously identified gRNA-specific ribonucleoprotein complexes and immunoprecipitate in vitro RNA editing activities that insert and delete uridylates. The immunoprecipitated material also contains gRNA-specific endoribonuclease, terminal uridylyltransferase, and RNA ligase activities as well as gRNA and both edited and unedited mRNA. The immunoprecipitate contains numerous proteins, of which the 21-kDa protein, a 90-kDa protein, and novel 55- and 16-kDa proteins can be UV cross-linked to gRNA. These studies indicate that the 21-kDa protein associates with the ribonucleoprotein complex (or complexes) that catalyze RNA editing. PMID:9742118
Malek, O; Lättig, K; Hiesel, R; Brennicke, A; Knoop, V
RNA editing has been observed to date in all groups of vascular plants, but not in bryophytes. Its occurrence was therefore assumed to correlate with the evolution of tracheophytes. To gain more insight into both the phylogeny of early land plants and the evolution of mitochondrial RNA editing we have investigated a number of vascular and non-vascular plant species. Contrary to the belief that editing is absent from bryophytes, here we report mitochondrial RNA editing in cox3 mRNA of the liverwort Pellia epiphylla, the mosses Tetraphis pellucida and Ceratodon purpureus and the hornwort Anthroceros crispulus. RNA editing in plants consequently predates the evolution of tracheophytes. Editing is also found in the eusporangiate ferns Ophioglossum petiolatum and Angiopteris palmiformis, the whisk fern Tmesipteris elongata and the gnetopsid Ephedra gerardiana, but was not detected in Gnetum gnemon.cox3 mRNA of the lycopsid Isoetes lacustris shows the highest frequency of RNA editing ever observed in a plant, with 39% of all cytidine residues converted to uridines. The frequency of RNA editing correlates with the genomic GC content rather than with the phylogenetic position of a species. Phylogenetic trees derived from the slowly evolving mitochondrial sequences find external support from the assessments of classical systematics. Images PMID:8635473
Palavicini, Juan Pablo; Correa-Rojas, Rodrigo A.; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.
A-to-I RNA editing is particularly common in coding regions of squid mRNAs. Previously, we isolated a squid editing enzyme (sqADAR2) that shows a unique structural feature when compared with other ADAR2 family members: an additional double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding domain (dsRBD). Alternative splicing includes or excludes this motif, generating a novel or a conventional variant termed sqADAR2a and sqADAR2b, respectively. The extra dsRBD of sqADAR2a increases its editing activity in vitro. We hypothesized that the high activity is due to an increase in the affinity of the enzyme for dsRNA. This may be important because protein-RNA interactions can be influenced by physical factors. We became particularly interested in analyzing the effects of salt on interactions between sqADAR2 and RNA because squid cells have a ∼3-fold higher ionic strength and proportionally more Cl− than vertebrate cells. To date, in vitro biochemical analyses of adenosine deamination have been conducted using vertebrate-like ionic strength buffers containing chloride as the major anion, although the vast majority of cellular anions are known to be organic. We found that squid-like salt conditions severely impair the binding affinity of conventional ADAR2s for dsRNA, leading to a decrease in nonspecific and site-specific editing activity. Inhibition of editing was mostly due to high Cl− levels and not to the high concentrations of K+, Na+, and organic anions like glutamate. Interestingly, the extra dsRBD in sqADAR2a conferred resistance to the high Cl− levels found in squid neurons. It does so by increasing the affinity of sqADAR2 for dsRNA by 30- or 100-fold in vertebrate-like or squid-like conditions, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis of squid ADAR2a showed that its increased affinity and editing activity are directly attributable to the RNA binding activity of the extra dsRBD. PMID:22457361
Mannion, Niamh M; Greenwood, Sam M; Young, Robert; Cox, Sarah; Brindle, James; Read, David; Nellåker, Christoffer; Vesely, Cornelia; Ponting, Chris P; McLaughlin, Paul J; Jantsch, Michael F; Dorin, Julia; Adams, Ian R; Scadden, A D J; Ohman, Marie; Keegan, Liam P; O'Connell, Mary A
The ADAR RNA-editing enzymes deaminate adenosine bases to inosines in cellular RNAs. Aberrant interferon expression occurs in patients in whom ADAR1 mutations cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) or dystonia arising from striatal neurodegeneration. Adar1 mutant mouse embryos show aberrant interferon induction and die by embryonic day E12.5. We demonstrate that Adar1 embryonic lethality is rescued to live birth in Adar1; Mavs double mutants in which the antiviral interferon induction response to cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is prevented. Aberrant immune responses in Adar1 mutant mouse embryo fibroblasts are dramatically reduced by restoring the expression of editing-active cytoplasmic ADARs. We propose that inosine in cellular RNA inhibits antiviral inflammatory and interferon responses by altering RLR interactions. Transfecting dsRNA oligonucleotides containing inosine-uracil base pairs into Adar1 mutant mouse embryo fibroblasts reduces the aberrant innate immune response. ADAR1 mutations causing AGS affect the activity of the interferon-inducible cytoplasmic isoform more severely than the nuclear isoform. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mannion, Niamh M.; Greenwood, Sam M.; Young, Robert; Cox, Sarah; Brindle, James; Read, David; Nellåker, Christoffer; Vesely, Cornelia; Ponting, Chris P.; McLaughlin, Paul J.; Jantsch, Michael F.; Dorin, Julia; Adams, Ian R.; Scadden, A.D.J.; Öhman, Marie; Keegan, Liam P.; O’Connell, Mary A.
Summary The ADAR RNA-editing enzymes deaminate adenosine bases to inosines in cellular RNAs. Aberrant interferon expression occurs in patients in whom ADAR1 mutations cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) or dystonia arising from striatal neurodegeneration. Adar1 mutant mouse embryos show aberrant interferon induction and die by embryonic day E12.5. We demonstrate that Adar1 embryonic lethality is rescued to live birth in Adar1; Mavs double mutants in which the antiviral interferon induction response to cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is prevented. Aberrant immune responses in Adar1 mutant mouse embryo fibroblasts are dramatically reduced by restoring the expression of editing-active cytoplasmic ADARs. We propose that inosine in cellular RNA inhibits antiviral inflammatory and interferon responses by altering RLR interactions. Transfecting dsRNA oligonucleotides containing inosine-uracil base pairs into Adar1 mutant mouse embryo fibroblasts reduces the aberrant innate immune response. ADAR1 mutations causing AGS affect the activity of the interferon-inducible cytoplasmic isoform more severely than the nuclear isoform. PMID:25456137
Ammerman, Michelle L; Presnyak, Vladimir; Fisk, John C; Foda, Bardees M; Read, Laurie K
TbRGG2 is an essential kinetoplastid RNA editing accessory factor that acts specifically on pan-edited RNAs. To understand the mechanism of TbRGG2 action, we undertook an in-depth analysis of edited RNA populations in TbRGG2 knockdown cells and an in vitro examination of the biochemical activities of the protein. We demonstrate that TbRGG2 down-regulation more severely impacts editing at the 5' ends of pan-edited RNAs than at their 3' ends. The initiation of editing is reduced to some extent in TbRGG2 knockdown cells. In addition, TbRGG2 plays a post-initiation role as editing becomes stalled in TbRGG2-depleted cells, resulting in an overall decrease in the 3' to 5' progression of editing. Detailed analyses of edited RNAs from wild-type and TbRGG2-depleted cells reveal that TbRGG2 facilitates progression of editing past intrinsic pause sites that often correspond to the 3' ends of cognate guide RNAs (gRNAs). In addition, noncanonically edited junction regions are either absent or significantly shortened in TbRGG2-depleted cells, consistent with impaired gRNA transitions. Sequence analysis further suggests that TbRGG2 facilitates complete utilization of certain gRNAs. In vitro RNA annealing and in vivo RNA unwinding assays demonstrate that TbRGG2 can modulate RNA-RNA interactions. Collectively, these data are consistent with a model in which TbRGG2 facilitates initiation and 3' to 5' progression of editing through its ability to affect gRNA utilization, both during the transition between specific gRNAs and during usage of certain gRNAs.
Ouyang, Zhangyi; Liu, Feng; Zhao, Chenghui; Ren, Chao; An, Gaole; Mei, Chuan; Bo, Xiaochen; Shu, Wenjie
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional RNA sequence alteration. Current methods have identified editing sites and facilitated research but require sufficient genomic annotations and prior-knowledge-based filtering steps, resulting in a cumbersome, time-consuming identification process. Moreover, these methods have limited generalizability and applicability in species with insufficient genomic annotations or in conditions of limited prior knowledge. We developed DeepRed, a deep learning-based method that identifies RNA editing from primitive RNA sequences without prior-knowledge-based filtering steps or genomic annotations. DeepRed achieved 98.1% and 97.9% area under the curve (AUC) in training and test sets, respectively. We further validated DeepRed using experimentally verified U87 cell RNA-seq data, achieving 97.9% positive predictive value (PPV). We demonstrated that DeepRed offers better prediction accuracy and computational efficiency than current methods with large-scale, mass RNA-seq data. We used DeepRed to assess the impact of multiple factors on editing identification with RNA-seq data from the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities and Sequencing Quality Control projects. We explored developmental RNA editing pattern changes during human early embryogenesis and evolutionary patterns in Drosophila species and the primate lineage using DeepRed. Our work illustrates DeepRed's state-of-the-art performance; it may decipher the hidden principles behind RNA editing, making editing detection convenient and effective.
Hodges, P E; Navaratnam, N; Greeve, J C; Scott, J
Human apolipoprotein (apo) B mRNA is edited in a tissue specific reaction, to convert glutamine codon 2153 (CAA) to a stop translation codon. The RNA editing product templates and hybridises as uridine, but the chemical nature of this reaction and the physical identity of the product are unknown. After editing in vitro of [32P] labelled RNA, we are able to demonstrate the production of uridine from cytidine; [alpha 32P] cytidine triphosphate incorporated into RNA gave rise to [32P] uridine monophosphate after editing in vitro, hydrolysis with nuclease P1 and thin layer chromatography using two separation systems. By cleaving the RNA into ribonuclease T1 fragments, we show that uridine is produced only at the authentic editing site and is produced in quantities that parallel an independent primer extension assay for editing. We conclude that apo B mRNA editing specifically creates a uridine from a cytidine. These observations are inconsistent with the incorporation of a uridine nucleotide by any polymerase, which would replace the alpha-phosphate and so rule out a model of endonucleolytic excision and repair as the mechanism for the production of uridine. Although transamination and transglycosylation remain to be formally excluded as reaction mechanisms our results argue strongly in favour of the apo B mRNA editing enzyme as a site-specific cytidine deaminase. Images PMID:2030940
Ammerman, Michelle L.; Presnyak, Vladimir; Fisk, John C.; Foda, Bardees M.; Read, Laurie K.
TbRGG2 is an essential kinetoplastid RNA editing accessory factor that acts specifically on pan-edited RNAs. To understand the mechanism of TbRGG2 action, we undertook an in-depth analysis of edited RNA populations in TbRGG2 knockdown cells and an in vitro examination of the biochemical activities of the protein. We demonstrate that TbRGG2 down-regulation more severely impacts editing at the 5′ ends of pan-edited RNAs than at their 3′ ends. The initiation of editing is reduced to some extent in TbRGG2 knockdown cells. In addition, TbRGG2 plays a post-initiation role as editing becomes stalled in TbRGG2-depleted cells, resulting in an overall decrease in the 3′ to 5′ progression of editing. Detailed analyses of edited RNAs from wild-type and TbRGG2-depleted cells reveal that TbRGG2 facilitates progression of editing past intrinsic pause sites that often correspond to the 3′ ends of cognate guide RNAs (gRNAs). In addition, noncanonically edited junction regions are either absent or significantly shortened in TbRGG2-depleted cells, consistent with impaired gRNA transitions. Sequence analysis further suggests that TbRGG2 facilitates complete utilization of certain gRNAs. In vitro RNA annealing and in vivo RNA unwinding assays demonstrate that TbRGG2 can modulate RNA–RNA interactions. Collectively, these data are consistent with a model in which TbRGG2 facilitates initiation and 3′ to 5′ progression of editing through its ability to affect gRNA utilization, both during the transition between specific gRNAs and during usage of certain gRNAs. PMID:20855539
Wang, Mengxing; Liu, Hui; Ge, Lingqiao; Xing, Guangwei; Wang, Meng; Weining, Song; Nie, Xiaojun
RNA editing is an important way to convert cytidine (C) to uridine (U) at specific sites within RNA molecules at a post-transcriptional level in the chloroplasts of higher plants. Although it has been systematically studied in many plants, little is known about RNA editing in the wheat D genome donor Aegilops tauschii L. Here, we investigated the chloroplast RNA editing of Ae. tauschii and compared it with other wheat relatives to trace the evolution of wheat. Through bioinformatics prediction, a total of 34 C-to-U editing sites were identified, 17 of which were validated using RT-PCR product sequencing. Furthermore, 60 sites were found by the RNA-Seq read mapping approach, 24 of which agreed with the prediction and six were validated experimentally. The editing sites were biased toward tCn or nCa trinucleotides and 5′-pyrimidines, which were consistent with the flanking bases of editing sites of other seed plants. Furthermore, the editing events could result in the alteration of the secondary structures and topologies of the corresponding proteins, suggesting that RNA editing might impact the function of target genes. Finally, comparative analysis found some evolutionarily conserved editing sites in wheat and two species-specific sites were also obtained. This study is the first to report on RNA editing in Aegilops tauschii L, which not only sheds light on the evolution of wheat from the point of view of RNA editing, but also lays a foundation for further studies to identify the mechanisms of C-to-U alterations. PMID:28042823
Zheng, Yun; Ji, Bo; Song, Renhua; Wang, Shengpeng; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xiaotuo; Chen, Kun; Li, Tianqing; Li, Jinyan
Various types of mutation and editing (M/E) events in microRNAs (miRNAs) can change the stabilities of pre-miRNAs and/or complementarities between miRNAs and their targets. Small RNA (sRNA) high-throughput sequencing (HTS) profiles can contain many mutated and edited miRNAs. Systematic detection of miRNA mutation and editing sites from the huge volume of sRNA HTS profiles is computationally difficult, as high sensitivity and low false positive rate (FPR) are both required. We propose a novel method (named MiRME) for an accurate and fast detection of miRNA M/E sites using a progressive sequence alignment approach which refines sensitivity and improves FPR step-by-step. From 70 sRNA HTS profiles with over 1.3 billion reads, MiRME has detected thousands of statistically significant M/E sites, including 3′-editing sites, 57 A-to-I editing sites (of which 32 are novel), as well as some putative non-canonical editing sites. We demonstrated that a few non-canonical editing sites were not resulted from mutations in genome by integrating the analysis of genome HTS profiles of two human cell lines, suggesting the existence of new editing types to further diversify the functions of miRNAs. Compared with six existing studies or methods, MiRME has shown much superior performance for the identification and visualization of the M/E sites of miRNAs from the ever-increasing sRNA HTS profiles. PMID:27229138
Background RNA editing by adenosine to inosine deamination is a widespread phenomenon, particularly frequent in the human transcriptome, largely due to the presence of inverted Alu repeats and their ability to form double-stranded structures – a requisite for ADAR editing. While several hundred thousand editing sites have been identified within these primate-specific repeats, the function of Alu-editing has yet to be elucidated. Results We show that inverted Alu repeats, expressed in the primate brain, can induce site-selective editing in cis on sites located several hundred nucleotides from the Alu elements. Furthermore, a computational analysis, based on available RNA-seq data, finds that site-selective editing occurs significantly closer to edited Alu elements than expected. These targets are poorly edited upon deletion of the editing inducers, as well as in homologous transcripts from organisms lacking Alus. Sequences surrounding sites near edited Alus in UTRs, have been subjected to a lesser extent of evolutionary selection than those far from edited Alus, indicating that their editing generally depends on cis-acting Alus. Interestingly, we find an enrichment of primate-specific editing within encoded sequence or the UTRs of zinc finger-containing transcription factors. Conclusions We propose a model whereby primate-specific editing is induced by adjacent Alu elements that function as recruitment elements for the ADAR editing enzymes. The enrichment of site-selective editing with potentially functional consequences on the expression of transcription factors indicates that editing contributes more profoundly to the transcriptomic regulation and repertoire in primates than previously thought. PMID:24485196
Heep, Madeleine; Mach, Pia; Reautschnig, Philipp; Wettengel, Jacqueline; Stafforst, Thorsten
Site-directed RNA editing is an approach to reprogram genetic information at the RNA level. We recently introduced a novel guideRNA that allows for the recruitment of human ADAR2 to manipulate genetic information. Here, we show that the current guideRNA design is already able to recruit another human deaminase, ADAR1, in both isoforms, p110 and p150. However, further optimization seems necessary as the current design is less efficient for ADAR1 isoforms. Furthermore, we describe hotspots at which the guideRNA itself is edited and show a way to circumvent this auto-editing without losing editing efficiency at the target. Both findings are important for the advancement of site-directed RNA editing as a tool in basic biology or as a platform for therapeutic editing.
Fiebig, Andreas; Stegemann, Sandra; Bock, Ralph
Chloroplast RNA editing proceeds by C-to-U transitions at highly specific sites. Here, we provide a phylogenetic analysis of RNA editing in a small plastid gene, petL, encoding subunit VI of the cytochrome b6f complex. Analyzing representatives from most major groups of seed plants, we find an unexpectedly high frequency and dynamics of RNA editing. High-frequency editing has previously been observed in plastid ndh genes, which are remarkable in that their mutational inactivation does not produce an obvious mutant phenotype. In order to test the idea that reduced functional constraints allow for more flexible evolution of RNA editing sites, we have created petL knockout plants by tobacco chloroplast transformation. We find that, in the higher plant tobacco, targeted inactivation of petL does not impair plant growth under a variety of conditions markedly contrasting the important role of petL in photosynthesis in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Together with a low number of editing sites in plastid genes that are essential to gene expression and photosynthetic activity, these data suggest that RNA editing sites may evolve more readily in those genes whose transitory loss of function can be tolerated. Accumulated evidence for this ‘relative neutrality hypothesis for the evolution of plastid editing sites’ is discussed. PMID:15240834
Jia, Hongge; Xu, Jin; Orbović, Vladimir; Zhang, Yunzeng; Wang, Nian
SaCas9/sgRNA, derived from Staphylococcus aureus, is an alternative system for genome editing to Streptococcus pyogenes SpCas9/sgRNA. The smaller SaCas9 recognizes a different protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence from SpCas9. SaCas9/sgRNA has been employed to edit the genomes of Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice. In this study, we aimed to test its potential in genome editing of citrus. Transient expression of SaCas9/sgRNA in Duncan grapefruit via Xcc-facilitated agroinfiltration showed it can successfully modify CsPDS and Cs2g12470. Subsequently, binary vector GFP-p1380N-SaCas9/35S-sgRNA1:AtU6-sgRNA2 was developed to edit two target sites of Cs7g03360 in transgenic Carrizo citrange. Twelve GFP-positive Carrizo transformants were successfully established, designated as #Cz1 to #Cz12. Based on targeted next generation sequencing results, the mutation rates for the two targets ranged from 15.55 to 39.13% for sgRNA1 and 49.01 to 79.67% for sgRNA2. Therefore, SaCas9/sgRNA can be used as an alternative tool to SpCas9/sgRNA for citrus genome editing. PMID:29312390
RNA editing is a rare post-transcriptional event that provides cells with an additional level of gene expression regulation. It has been implicated in various processes including adaptation, viral defence and RNA interference; however, its potential role as a mechanism in acclimatization has just recently been recognised. Here, we show that RNA editing occurs in 1.6% of all nuclear-encoded genes of Symbiodinium microadriaticum, a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals. All base-substitution edit types were present, and statistically significant motifs were associated with three edit types. Strikingly, a subset of genes exhibited condition-specific editing patterns in response to different stressors that resulted in significant increases of non-synonymous changes. We posit that this previously unrecognised mechanism extends this organism’s capability to respond to stress beyond what is encoded by the genome. This in turn may provide further acclimatization capacity to these organisms, and by extension, their coral hosts. PMID:28245292
Identification of single-nucleotide variants in RNA-seq data. Current version focuses on detection of RNA editing sites without requiring genome sequence data. New version is under development to separately identify RNA editing sites and genetic variants using RNA-seq data alone.
Xiao, Haijun; Xu, Yanghong; Ni, Chenzi; Zhang, Qiannan; Zhong, Feiya; Huang, Jishuai; Liu, Wei; Peng, Leilei; Zhu, Yingguo; Hu, Jun
In flowering plants, various RNA editing events occur in the mitochondria and chloroplasts as part of post-transcriptional processes. Although several pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins and multiple organellar RNA editing factors (MORFs) have been identified as RNA editing factors, the underlying mechanism of PPRs and the cooperation among these proteins are still obscure. Here, we identified a rice dual-localized PPR protein, OsPGL1. The loss of function of OsPGL1 resulted in defects in both chloroplast RNA editing of ndhD-878 and mitochondrial RNA editing of ccmFc-543, both of which could be restored in transgenic complementation lines. Despite synonymous editing of ccmFc-543, the loss of editing of ndhD-878 caused a failed conversion of serine to leucine, leading to chloroplast dysfunction and defects in the photosynthetic complex; the results of additional experiments demonstrated that OsPGL1 directly binds to both transcripts. Interactions between three OsMORFs (OsMORF2/8/9) and OsPGL1 both in vitro and in vivo were confirmed, implying that OsPGL1 functions in RNA editing via an editosome. These findings also suggested that OsMORFs assist with and contribute to a flexible PPR-RNA recognition model during RNA editing. These results indicate that, in cooperation with PPRs, OsPGL1 is required for RNA editing. In addition, our study provides new insights into the relationship between RNA editing and plant development.
Lo Giudice, Claudio; Pesole, Graziano; Picardi, Ernesto
RNA editing is an important epigenetic mechanism by which genome-encoded transcripts are modified by substitutions, insertions and/or deletions. It was first discovered in kinetoplastid protozoa followed by its reporting in a wide range of organisms. In plants, RNA editing occurs mostly by cytidine (C) to uridine (U) conversion in translated regions of organelle mRNAs and tends to modify affected codons restoring evolutionary conserved aminoacid residues. RNA editing has also been described in non-protein coding regions such as group II introns and structural RNAs. Despite its impact on organellar transcriptome and proteome complexity, current primary databases still do not provide a specific field for RNA editing events. To overcome these limitations, we developed REDIdb a specialized database for RNA editing modifications in plant organelles. Hereafter we describe its third release containing more than 26,000 events in a completely novel web interface to accommodate RNA editing in its genomics, biological and evolutionary context through whole genome maps and multiple sequence alignments. REDIdb is freely available at http://srv00.recas.ba.infn.it/redidb/index.html.
Mooers, Blaine H.M.; Singh, Amritanshu
Guide RNAs bind antiparallel to their target pre-mRNAs to form editing substrates in reaction cycles that insert or delete uridylates (Us) in most mitochondrial transcripts of trypanosomes. The 5′ end of each guide RNA has an anchor sequence that binds to the pre-mRNA by base-pair complementarity. The template sequence in the middle of the guide RNA directs the editing reactions. The 3′ ends of most guide RNAs have ∼15 contiguous Us that bind to the purine-rich unedited pre-mRNA upstream of the editing site. The resulting U-helix is rich in G·U wobble base pairs. To gain insights into the structure of the U-helix, we crystallized 8 bp of the U-helix in one editing substrate for the A6 mRNA of Trypanosoma brucei. The fragment provides three samples of the 5′-AGA-3′/5′-UUU-3′ base-pair triple. The fusion of two identical U-helices head-to-head promoted crystallization. We obtained X-ray diffraction data with a resolution limit of 1.37 Å. The U-helix had low and high twist angles before and after each G·U wobble base pair; this variation was partly due to shearing of the wobble base pairs as revealed in comparisons with a crystal structure of a 16-nt RNA with all Watson–Crick base pairs. Both crystal structures had wider major grooves at the junction between the poly(U) and polypurine tracts. This junction mimics the junction between the template helix and the U-helix in RNA-editing substrates and may be a site of major groove invasion by RNA editing proteins. PMID:21878548
Wang, Qiong; Hui, Haipeng; Guo, Zhendong; Zhang, Weina; Hu, Yaou; He, Tao; Tai, Yanhong; Peng, Peng; Wang, Li
Rho GTPase activating protein 26 (ARHGAP26) is a negative regulator of the Rho family that converts the small G proteins RhoA and Cdc42 to their inactive GDP-bound forms. It is essential for the CLIC/GEEC endocytic pathway, cell spreading, and muscle development. The present study shows that ARHGAP26 mRNA undergoes extensive A-to-I RNA editing in the 3' UTR that is specifically catalyzed by ADAR1. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of ARHGAP26 were decreased in cells in which ADAR1 was knocked down. Conversely, ADAR1 overexpression increased the abundance of ARHGAP26 mRNA and protein. In addition, we found that both miR-30b-3p and miR-573 target the ARHGAP26 gene and that RNA editing of ARHGAP26 mediated by ADAR1 abolished the repression of its expression by miR-30b-3p or miR-573. When ADAR1 was overexpressed, the reduced abundance of ARHGAP26 protein mediated by miR-30b-3p or miR-573 was rescued. Importantly, we also found that knocking down ADAR1 elevated RhoA activity, which was consistent with the reduced level of ARHGAP26. Conversely, when ADAR1 was overexpressed, the amount of RhoA-GTP decreased. The similar expression patterns of ARHGAP26 and ADAR1 in human tissue samples further confirmed our findings. Taken together, our results suggest that ADAR1 regulates the expression of ARHGAP26 through A-to-I RNA editing by disrupting the binding of miR-30b-3p and miR-573 within the 3' UTR of ARHGAP26. This study provides a novel insight into the mechanism by which ADAR1 and its RNA editing function regulate microRNA-mediated modulation of target genes.
He, Peng; Huang, Sheng; Xiao, Guanghui; Zhang, Yuzhou; Yu, Jianing
RNA editing is a posttranscriptional modification process that alters the RNA sequence so that it deviates from the genomic DNA sequence. RNA editing mainly occurs in chloroplasts and mitochondrial genomes, and the number of editing sites varies in terrestrial plants. Why and how RNA editing systems evolved remains a mystery. Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest seed plants and has an important evolutionary position. Determining the patterns and distribution of RNA editing in the ancient plant provides insights into the evolutionary trend of RNA editing, and helping us to further understand their biological significance. In this paper, we investigated 82 protein-coding genes in the chloroplast genome of G. biloba and identified 255 editing sites, which is the highest number of RNA editing events reported in a gymnosperm. All of the editing sites were C-to-U conversions, which mainly occurred in the second codon position, biased towards to the U_A context, and caused an increase in hydrophobic amino acids. RNA editing could change the secondary structures of 82 proteins, and create or eliminate a transmembrane region in five proteins as determined in silico. Finally, the evolutionary tendencies of RNA editing in different gene groups were estimated using the nonsynonymous-synonymous substitution rate selection mode. The G. biloba chloroplast genome possesses the highest number of RNA editing events reported so far in a seed plant. Most of the RNA editing sites can restore amino acid conservation, increase hydrophobicity, and even influence protein structures. Similar purifying selections constitute the dominant evolutionary force at the editing sites of essential genes, such as the psa, some psb and pet groups, and a positive selection occurred in the editing sites of nonessential genes, such as most ndh and a few psb genes.
Porath, Hagit T; Carmi, Shai; Levanon, Erez Y
Adenosine-to-inosine editing is one of the most frequent post-transcriptional modifications, manifested as A-to-G mismatches when comparing RNA sequences with their source DNA. Recently, a number of RNA-seq data sets have been screened for the presence of A-to-G editing, and hundreds of thousands of editing sites identified. Here we show that existing screens missed the majority of sites by ignoring reads with excessive ('hyper') editing that do not easily align to the genome. We show that careful alignment and examination of the unmapped reads in RNA-seq studies reveal numerous new sites, usually many more than originally discovered, and in precisely those regions that are most heavily edited. Specifically, we discover 327,096 new editing sites in the heavily studied Illumina Human BodyMap data and more than double the number of detected sites in several published screens. We also identify thousands of new sites in mouse, rat, opossum and fly. Our results establish that hyper-editing events account for the majority of editing sites.
Zhang, Jinyao; Chen, Zhaoli; Tang, Zefang; Huang, Jianbing; Hu, Xueda; He, Jie
In recent years, abnormal RNA editing has been shown to play an important role in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, as such abnormal editing is catalyzed by ADAR (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA). However, the regulatory mechanism of ADAR1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated ADAR1 expression and its association with RNA editing in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. RNA sequencing applied to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma clinical samples showed that ADAR1 expression was correlated with the expression of STAT1, STAT2, and IRF9. In vitro experiments showed that the abundance of ADAR1 protein was associated with the induced activation of the JAK/STAT pathway by type I interferon. RNA sequencing results showed that treatment with type I interferon caused an increase in the number and degree of RNA editing in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. In conclusion, the activation of the JAK/STAT pathway is a regulatory mechanism of ADAR1 expression and causes abnormal RNA editing profile in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. This mechanism may serve as a new target for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma therapy.
Athanasiadis, Alekos; Galeano, Federica; Locatelli, Franco; Bertini, Enrico; Zanni, Ginevra; Gallo, Angela
Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) encodes for a Rho-GTPase-activating protein, important for dendritic morphogenesis and synaptic function. Mutations in this gene have been identified in patients with X-linked intellectual disability associated with cerebellar hypoplasia. ADAR enzymes are responsible for A-to-I RNA editing, an essential post-transcriptional RNA modification contributing to transcriptome and proteome diversification. Specifically, ADAR2 activity is essential for brain development and function. Herein, we show that the OPHN1 transcript undergoes post-transcriptional modifications such as A-to-I RNA editing and alternative splicing in human brain and other tissues. We found that OPHN1 editing is detectable already at the 18th week of gestation in human brain with a boost of editing at weeks 20 to 33, concomitantly with OPHN1 expression increase and the appearance of a novel OPHN1 splicing isoform. Our results demonstrate that multiple post-transcriptional events occur on OPHN1, a gene playing an important role in brain function and development. PMID:24637888
Barresi, Sabina; Tomaselli, Sara; Athanasiadis, Alekos; Galeano, Federica; Locatelli, Franco; Bertini, Enrico; Zanni, Ginevra; Gallo, Angela
Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) encodes for a Rho-GTPase-activating protein, important for dendritic morphogenesis and synaptic function. Mutations in this gene have been identified in patients with X-linked intellectual disability associated with cerebellar hypoplasia. ADAR enzymes are responsible for A-to-I RNA editing, an essential post-transcriptional RNA modification contributing to transcriptome and proteome diversification. Specifically, ADAR2 activity is essential for brain development and function. Herein, we show that the OPHN1 transcript undergoes post-transcriptional modifications such as A-to-I RNA editing and alternative splicing in human brain and other tissues. We found that OPHN1 editing is detectable already at the 18th week of gestation in human brain with a boost of editing at weeks 20 to 33, concomitantly with OPHN1 expression increase and the appearance of a novel OPHN1 splicing isoform. Our results demonstrate that multiple post-transcriptional events occur on OPHN1, a gene playing an important role in brain function and development.
Brown, Roger B; Madrid, Nathaniel J; Suzuki, Hideaki; Ness, Scott A
RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) has become the standard method for unbiased analysis of gene expression but also provides access to more complex transcriptome features, including alternative RNA splicing, RNA editing, and even detection of fusion transcripts formed through chromosomal translocations. However, differences in library methods can adversely affect the ability to recover these different types of transcriptome data. For example, some methods have bias for one end of transcripts or rely on low-efficiency steps that limit the complexity of the resulting library, making detection of rare transcripts less likely. We tested several commonly used methods of RNA-seq library preparation and found vast differences in the detection of advanced transcriptome features, such as alternatively spliced isoforms and RNA editing sites. By comparing several different protocols available for the Ion Proton sequencer and by utilizing detailed bioinformatics analysis tools, we were able to develop an optimized random primer based RNA-seq technique that is reliable at uncovering rare transcript isoforms and RNA editing features, as well as fusion reads from oncogenic chromosome rearrangements. The combination of optimized libraries and rapid Ion Proton sequencing provides a powerful platform for the transcriptome analysis of research and clinical samples.
Kiani, Samira; Chavez, Alejandro; Tuttle, Marcelle; ...
Here we demonstrate that by altering the length of Cas9-associated guide RNA(gRNA) we were able to control Cas9 nuclease activity and simultaneously perform genome editing and transcriptional regulation with a single Cas9 protein. We exploited these principles to engineer mammalian synthetic circuits with combined transcriptional regulation and kill functions governed by a single multifunctional Cas9 protein.
Volchkova, Valentina A; Dolnik, Olga; Martinez, Mikel J; Reynard, Olivier; Volchkov, Viktor E
Synthesis of the surface glycoprotein GP of Ebola virus (EBOV) is dependent on transcriptional RNA editing, whereas direct expression of the GP gene results in synthesis of nonstructural secreted glycoprotein sGP. In this study, we investigate the role of RNA editing in the pathogenicity of EBOV using a guinea pig model and recombinant guinea pig-adapted EBOV containing mutations at the editing site, allowing expression of surface GP without the need for RNA editing, and also preventing synthesis of sGP. We demonstrate that the elimination of the editing site leads to EBOV attenuation in vivo, explained by lower virus spread caused by the higher virus cytotoxicity and, most likely, by an increased ability of the host defense systems to recognize and eliminate virus-infected cells. We also demonstrate that expression of sGP does not affect pathogenicity of EBOV in guinea pigs. In conclusion, data obtained indicate that downregulation of the level of surface GP expression through a mechanism of GP gene RNA editing plays an important role in the high pathogenicity of EBOV. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Cattenoz, Pierre B.; Taft, Ryan J.; Westhof, Eric; Mattick, John S.
Adenosine to inosine (A > I) RNA editing, which is catalyzed by the ADAR family of proteins, is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which transcriptomic diversity is generated. Indeed, a number of genome-wide analyses have shown that A > I editing is not limited to a few mRNAs, as originally thought, but occurs widely across the transcriptome, especially in the brain. Importantly, there is increasing evidence that A > I editing is essential for animal development and nervous system function. To more efficiently characterize the complete catalog of ADAR events in the mammalian transcriptome we developed a high-throughput protocol to identify A > I editing sites, which exploits the capacity of glyoxal to protect guanosine, but not inosine, from RNAse T1 treatment, thus facilitating extraction of RNA fragments with inosine bases at their termini for high-throughput sequencing. Using this method we identified 665 editing sites in mouse brain RNA, including most known sites and suite of novel sites that include nonsynonymous changes to protein-coding genes, hyperediting of genes known to regulate p53, and alterations to non-protein-coding RNAs. This method is applicable to any biological system for the de novo discovery of A > I editing sites, and avoids the complicated informatic and practical issues associated with editing site identification using traditional RNA sequencing data. This approach has the potential to substantially increase our understanding of the extent and function of RNA editing, and thereby to shed light on the role of transcriptional plasticity in evolution, development, and cognition. PMID:23264566
Rahdar, Meghdad; McMahon, Moira A; Prakash, Thazha P; Swayze, Eric E; Bennett, C Frank; Cleveland, Don W
Genome editing with the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 nuclease system is a powerful technology for manipulating genomes, including introduction of gene disruptions or corrections. Here we develop a chemically modified, 29-nucleotide synthetic CRISPR RNA (scrRNA), which in combination with unmodified transactivating crRNA (tracrRNA) is shown to functionally replace the natural guide RNA in the CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease system and to mediate efficient genome editing in human cells. Incorporation of rational chemical modifications known to protect against nuclease digestion and stabilize RNA-RNA interactions in the tracrRNA hybridization region of CRISPR RNA (crRNA) yields a scrRNA with enhanced activity compared with the unmodified crRNA and comparable gene disruption activity to the previously published single guide RNA. Taken together, these findings provide a platform for therapeutic applications, especially for nervous system disease, using successive application of cell-permeable, synthetic CRISPR RNAs to activate and then silence Cas9 nuclease activity.
Liddicoat, Brian J.; Hartner, Jochen C.; Piskol, Robert; Ramaswami, Gokul; Chalk, Alistair M.; Kingsley, Paul D.; Sankaran, Vijay G.; Wall, Meaghan; Purton, Louise E.; Seeburg, Peter H.; Palis, James; Orkin, Stuart H.; Lu, Jun; Li, Jin Billy; Walkley, Carl R.
Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosine residues to inosine in double-stranded RNA. In vivo, ADAR1 is essential for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem/progenitors. Whether other hematopoietic cell types also require ADAR1 has not been assessed. Using erythroid- and myeloid-restricted deletion of Adar1, we demonstrate that ADAR1 is dispensable for myelopoiesis but is essential for normal erythropoiesis. Adar1-deficient erythroid cells display a profound activation of innate immune signaling and high levels of cell death. No changes in microRNA levels were found in ADAR1-deficient erythroid cells. Using an editing-deficient allele, we demonstrate that RNA editing is the essential function of ADAR1 during erythropoiesis. Mapping of adenosine-to-inosine editing in purified erythroid cells identified clusters of hyperedited adenosines located in long 3’-untranslated regions of erythroid-specific transcripts and these are ADAR1-specific editing events. ADAR1-mediated RNA editing is essential for normal erythropoiesis. PMID:27373493
Islas-Osuna, María A; Silva-Moreno, Begonia; Caceres-Carrizosa, Nidia; García-Robles, Jesús M; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria M
Cytochrome b (COB), the central catalytic subunit of ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase, is a component of the transmembrane electron transfer chain that generates proton motive force. Some plant COB mRNAs are processed by RNA editing, which changes the gene coding sequence. This report presents the sequences of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) mitochondrial gene for apocytochrome b (cob), the edited mRNA and the deduced protein. Grapevine COB is 393 amino acids long and is 98% identical to homologs in rapeseed, Arabidopsis thaliana and Oenothera sp. Twenty-one C-U editing sites were identified in the grapevine cob mRNA, resulting in 20 amino acid changes. These changes increase the overall hydrophobicity of the protein and result in a more conserved protein. Molecular modeling of grapevine COB shows that residues changed by RNA editing fit the secondary structure characteristic of an integral membrane protein. This is the first complete mitochondrial gene reported for grapevine. Novel RNA editing sites were identified in grapevine cob, which have not been previously reported for other plants.
Mungpakdee, Sutada; Shinzato, Chuya; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Kawashima, Takeshi; Koyanagi, Ryo; Hisata, Kanako; Tanaka, Makiko; Goto, Hiroki; Fujie, Manabu; Lin, Senjie; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi
Genome sequencing of Symbiodinium minutum revealed that 95 of 109 plastid-associated genes have been transferred to the nuclear genome and subsequently expanded by gene duplication. Only 14 genes remain in plastids and occur as DNA minicircles. Each minicircle (1.8–3.3 kb) contains one gene and a conserved noncoding region containing putative promoters and RNA-binding sites. Nine types of RNA editing, including a novel G/U type, were discovered in minicircle transcripts but not in genes transferred to the nucleus. In contrast to DNA editing sites in dinoflagellate mitochondria, which tend to be highly conserved across all taxa, editing sites employed in DNA minicircles are highly variable from species to species. Editing is crucial for core photosystem protein function. It restores evolutionarily conserved amino acids and increases peptidyl hydropathy. It also increases protein plasticity necessary to initiate photosystem complex assembly. PMID:24881086
Wu, Dong-Dong; Ye, Ling-Qun; Li, Yan; Sun, Yan-Bo; Shao, Yi; Chen, Chunyan; Zhu, Zhu; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Yong E; Zhang, Ya-Ping
Next-generation RNA sequencing has been successfully used for identification of transcript assembly, evaluation of gene expression levels, and detection of post-transcriptional modifications. Despite these large-scale studies, additional comprehensive RNA-seq data from different subregions of the human brain are required to fully evaluate the evolutionary patterns experienced by the human brain transcriptome. Here, we provide a total of 6.5 billion RNA-seq reads from different subregions of the human brain. A significant correlation was observed between the levels of alternative splicing and RNA editing, which might be explained by a competition between the molecular machineries responsible for the splicing and editing of RNA. Young human protein-coding genes demonstrate biased expression to the neocortical and non-neocortical regions during evolution on the lineage leading to humans. We also found that a significantly greater number of young human protein-coding genes are expressed in the putamen, a tissue that was also observed to have the highest level of RNA-editing activity. The putamen, which previously received little attention, plays an important role in cognitive ability, and our data suggest a potential contribution of the putamen to human evolution. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.
Nimmich, Mitchell L.; Heidelberg, Laura S.; Fisher, Janet L.
RNA editing provides a post-transcriptional mechanism to increase structural heterogeneity of gene products. Recently, the α3 subunit of the GABAA receptors has been shown to undergo RNA editing. As a result, a highly conserved isoleucine residue in the third transmembrane domain is replaced with a methionine. To determine the effect of this structural change on receptor function, we compared the GABA sensitivity, pharmacological properties and macroscopic kinetics of recombinant receptors containing either the edited or unedited forms of the α3 subunit along with β3 and γ2L. Editing substantially altered the GABA sensitivity and deactivation rate of the receptors, with the unedited form showing a lower GABA EC50 and slower decay. Comparable effects were observed with a mutation at the homologous location in the α1 subunit, suggesting a common role for this site in regulation of channel gating. Except for the response to GABA, the pharmacological properties of the receptor were unaffected by editing, with similar enhancement by a variety of modulators. Since RNA editing of the α3 subunit increases through development, our findings suggest that GABAergic neurotransmission may be more effective early in development, with greater GABA sensitivity and slower decay rates conferred by the unedited α3 subunit. PMID:19367790
Tang, Yan-Dong; Guo, Jin-Chao; Wang, Tong-Yun; Zhao, Kuan; Liu, Ji-Ting; Gao, Jia-Cong; Tian, Zhi-Jun; An, Tong-Qing; Cai, Xue-Hui
Several groups have used CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) for DNA virus editing. In most cases, one single-guide RNA (sgRNA) is used, which produces inconsistencies in gene editing. In this study, we used a swine herpesvirus, pseudorabies virus, as a model to systematically explore the application of CRISPR/Cas9 in DNA virus editing. In our current report, we demonstrated that cotransfection of 2 sgRNAs and a viral genome resulted in significantly better knockout efficiency than the transfection-infection-based approach. This method could result in 100% knockout of ≤3500 bp of viral nonessential large fragments. Furthermore, knockin efficiency was significantly improved by using 2 sgRNAs and was also correlated with the number of background viruses. We also demonstrated that the background viruses were all 2-sgRNA-mediated knockout mutants. Finally, this study demonstrated that the efficacy of gene knockin is determined by the replicative kinetics of background viruses. We propose that CRISPR/Cas9 coupled with 2 sgRNAs creates a powerful tool for DNA virus editing and offers great potential for future applications.-Tang, Y.-D., Guo, J.-C., Wang, T.-Y., Zhao, K., Liu, J.-T., Gao, J.-C., Tian, Z.-J., An, T.-Q., Cai, X.-H. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated 2-sgRNA cleavage facilitates pseudorabies virus editing.
Gallo, Angela; Vukic, Dragana; Michalík, David; O'Connell, Mary A; Keegan, Liam P
We review the structures and functions of ADARs and their involvements in human diseases. ADAR1 is widely expressed, particularly in the myeloid component of the blood system, and plays a prominent role in promiscuous editing of long dsRNA. Missense mutations that change ADAR1 residues and reduce RNA editing activity cause Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome, a childhood encephalitis and interferonopathy that mimics viral infection and resembles an extreme form of Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus (SLE). In Adar1 mouse mutant models aberrant interferon expression is prevented by eliminating interferon activation signaling from cytoplasmic dsRNA sensors, indicating that unedited cytoplasmic dsRNA drives the immune induction. On the other hand, upregulation of ADAR1 with widespread promiscuous RNA editing is a prominent feature of many cancers and particular site-specific RNA editing events are also affected. ADAR2 is most highly expressed in brain and is primarily required for site-specific editing of CNS transcripts; recent findings indicate that ADAR2 editing is regulated by neuronal excitation for synaptic scaling of glutamate receptors. ADAR2 is also linked to the circadian clock and to sleep. Mutations in ADAR2 could contribute to excitability syndromes such as epilepsy, to seizures, to diseases involving neuronal plasticity defects, such as autism and Fragile-X Syndrome, to neurodegenerations such as ALS, or to astrocytomas or glioblastomas in which reduced ADAR2 activity is required for oncogenic cell behavior. The range of human disease associated with ADAR1 mutations may extend further to include other inflammatory conditions while ADAR2 mutations may affect psychiatric conditions.
Miyata, Y; Sugita, C; Maruyama, K; Sugita, M
RNA editing of cytidine (C) to uridine (U) transitions occurs in plastids and mitochondria of most land plants. In this study, we amplified and sequenced the group I intron-containing tRNA Leu gene, trnL-CAA, from Takakia lepidozioides, a moss. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the T. lepidozioides tRNA Leu gene consisted of a 35-bp 5' exon, a 469-bp group I intron and a 50-bp 3' exon. The intron was inserted between the first and second position of the tRNA Leu anticodon. In general, plastid tRNA Leu genes with a group I intron code for a TAA anticodon in most land plants. This strongly suggests that the first nucleotide of the CAA anticodon could be edited in T. lepidozioides plastids. To investigate this possibility, we analysed cDNAs derived from the trnL-CAA transcripts. We demonstrated that the first nucleotide C of the anticodon was edited to create a canonical UAA anticodon in T. lepidozioides plastids. cDNA sequencing analyses of the spliced or unspliced tRNA Leu transcripts revealed that, while the spliced tRNA was completely edited, editing in the unspliced tRNAs were only partial. This is the first experimental evidence that the anticodon editing of tRNA occurs before RNA splicing in plastids. This suggests that this editing is a prerequisite to splicing of pre-tRNA Leu.
Koo, Taeyoung; Kim, Jin-Soo
The rapid development of programmable nuclease-based genome editing technologies has enabled targeted gene disruption and correction both in vitro and in vivo This revolution opens up the possibility of precise genome editing at target genomic sites to modulate gene function in animals and plants. Among several programmable nucleases, the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) system has progressed remarkably in recent years, leading to its widespread use in research, medicine and biotechnology. In particular, CRISPR-Cas9 shows highly efficient gene editing activity for therapeutic purposes in systems ranging from patient stem cells to animal models. However, the development of therapeutic approaches and delivery methods remains a great challenge for biomedical applications. Herein, we review therapeutic applications that use the CRISPR-Cas9 system and discuss the possibilities and challenges ahead. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mannion, Niamh; Arieti, Fabiana; Gallo, Angela; Keegan, Liam P.; O’Connell, Mary A.
The ADAR proteins deaminate adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA which is one of the most abundant modifications present in mammalian RNA. Inosine can have a profound effect on the RNAs that are edited, not only changing the base-pairing properties, but can also result in recoding, as inosine behaves as if it were guanosine. In mammals there are three ADAR proteins and two ADAR-related proteins (ADAD) expressed. All have a very similar modular structure; however, both their expression and biological function differ significantly. Only two of the ADAR proteins have enzymatic activity. However, both ADAR and ADAD proteins possess the ability to bind double-strand RNA. Mutations in ADARs have been associated with many diseases ranging from cancer, innate immunity to neurological disorders. Here, we will discuss in detail the domain structure of mammalian ADARs, the effects of RNA editing, and the role of ADARs in human diseases. PMID:26437436
Li, Xianghua; Overton, Ian M.; Baines, Richard A.; Keegan, Liam P.; O’Connell, Mary A.
RNA editing by deamination of specific adenosine bases to inosines during pre-mRNA processing generates edited isoforms of proteins. Recoding RNA editing is more widespread in Drosophila than in vertebrates. Editing levels rise strongly at metamorphosis, and Adar5G1 null mutant flies lack editing events in hundreds of CNS transcripts; mutant flies have reduced viability, severely defective locomotion and age-dependent neurodegeneration. On the other hand, overexpressing an adult dADAR isoform with high enzymatic activity ubiquitously during larval and pupal stages is lethal. Advantage was taken of this to screen for genetic modifiers; Adar overexpression lethality is rescued by reduced dosage of the Rdl (Resistant to dieldrin), gene encoding a subunit of inhibitory GABA receptors. Reduced dosage of the Gad1 gene encoding the GABA synthetase also rescues Adar overexpression lethality. Drosophila Adar5G1 mutant phenotypes are ameliorated by feeding GABA modulators. We demonstrate that neuronal excitability is linked to dADAR expression levels in individual neurons; Adar-overexpressing larval motor neurons show reduced excitability whereas Adar5G1 null mutant or targeted Adar knockdown motor neurons exhibit increased excitability. GABA inhibitory signalling is impaired in human epileptic and autistic conditions, and vertebrate ADARs may have a relevant evolutionarily conserved control over neuronal excitability. PMID:24137011
Batzir, Nurit Assia; Tovin, Adi; Hendel, Ayal
Genome editing with engineered nucleases is a rapidly growing field thanks to transformative technologies that allow researchers to precisely alter genomes for numerous applications including basic research, biotechnology, and human gene therapy. The genome editing process relies on creating a site-specific DNA double-strand break (DSB) by engineered nucleases and then allowing the cell's repair machinery to repair the break such that precise changes are made to the DNA sequence. The recent development of CRISPR-Cas systems as easily accessible and programmable tools for genome editing accelerates the progress towards using genome editing as a new approach to human therapeutics. Here we review how genome editing using engineered nucleases works and how using different genome editing outcomes can be used as a tool set for treating human diseases. We then review the major challenges of therapeutic genome editing and we discuss how its potential enhancement through CRISPR guide RNA and Cas9 protein modifications could resolve some of these challenges. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.
Yang, Jie; Meng, Xiaodan; Pan, Jinchang; Jiang, Nan; Zhou, Chengwei; Wu, Zhenhua; Gong, Zhaohui
Cancer is characterized by multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations, including a higher prevalence of mutations of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressors. Mounting evidences have shown that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in the epigenetic regulation of cancer genes and their associated pathways. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated nuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system, a revolutionary genome-editing technology, has shed light on ncRNA-based cancer therapy. Here, we briefly introduce the classifications and mechanisms of CRISPR/Cas9 system. Importantly, we mainly focused on the applications of CRISPR/Cas9 system as a molecular tool for ncRNA (microRNA, long noncoding RNA and circular RNA, etc.) editing in human cancers, and the novel techniques that are based on CRISPR/Cas9 system. Additionally, the off-target effects and the corresponding solutions as well as the challenges toward CRISPR/Cas9 were also evaluated and discussed. Long- and short-ncRNAs have been employed as targets in precision oncology, and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ncRNA editing may provide an excellent way to cure cancer.
Rigden, Daniel J
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) are key players in the maintenance of the genetic code through correct pairing of amino acids with their cognate tRNA molecules. To this end, some AARSs, as well as seeking to recognize the correct amino acid during synthesis of aminoacyl-tRNA, enhance specificity through recognition of mischarged aminoacyl-tRNA molecules in a separate editing reaction. Recently, an editing domain, of uncertain provenance, idiosyncratic to some archaeal ThrRSs has been characterized. Here, sequence analyses and molecular modeling are reported that clearly show a relationship of the archaea-specific ThrRS editing domains with d-Tyr-tRNATyr deacylases (DTDs). The model enables the identification of the catalytic site and other substrate binding residues, as well as the proposal of a likely catalytic mechanism. Interestingly, typical DTD sequences, common in bacteria and eukaryotes, are entirely absent in archaea, consistent with an evolutionary scheme in which DTD was co-opted to serve as a ThrRS editing domain in archaea soon after their divergence from eukaryotes. A group of present-day archaebacteria contain a ThrRS obtained from a bacterium by horizontal gene transfer. In some of these cases a vestigial version of the original archaeal ThrRS, of potentially novel function, is maintained.
RIGDEN, DANIEL J.
Aminoacyl–tRNA synthetases (AARSs) are key players in the maintenance of the genetic code through correct pairing of amino acids with their cognate tRNA molecules. To this end, some AARSs, as well as seeking to recognize the correct amino acid during synthesis of aminoacyl–tRNA, enhance specificity through recognition of mischarged aminoacyl–tRNA molecules in a separate editing reaction. Recently, an editing domain, of uncertain provenance, idiosyncratic to some archaeal ThrRSs has been characterized. Here, sequence analyses and molecular modeling are reported that clearly show a relationship of the archaea-specific ThrRS editing domains with d-Tyr-tRNATyr deacylases (DTDs). The model enables the identification of the catalytic site and other substrate binding residues, as well as the proposal of a likely catalytic mechanism. Interestingly, typical DTD sequences, common in bacteria and eukaryotes, are entirely absent in archaea, consistent with an evolutionary scheme in which DTD was co-opted to serve as a ThrRS editing domain in archaea soon after their divergence from eukaryotes. A group of present-day archaebacteria contain a ThrRS obtained from a bacterium by horizontal gene transfer. In some of these cases a vestigial version of the original archaeal ThrRS, of potentially novel function, is maintained. PMID:15525705
Sun, Huihui; Li, Fanfan; Liu, Jie; Yang, Fayu; Zeng, Zhenhai; Lv, Xiujuan; Tu, Mengjun; Liu, Yeqing; Ge, Xianglian; Liu, Changbao; Zhao, Junzhao; Zhang, Zongduan; Qu, Jia; Song, Zongming; Gu, Feng
Cpf1 has been harnessed as a tool for genome manipulation in various species because of its simplicity and high efficiency. Our recent study demonstrated that FnCpf1 could be utilized for human genome editing with notable advantages for target sequence selection due to the flexibility of the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence. Multiplex genome editing provides a powerful tool for targeting members of multigene families, dissecting gene networks, modeling multigenic disorders in vivo, and applying gene therapy. However, there are no reports at present that show FnCpf1-mediated multiplex genome editing via a single customized CRISPR RNA (crRNA) array. In the present study, we utilize a single customized crRNA array to simultaneously target multiple genes in human cells. In addition, we also demonstrate that a single customized crRNA array to target multiple sites in one gene could be achieved. Collectively, FnCpf1, a powerful genome-editing tool for multiple genomic targets, can be harnessed for effective manipulation of the human genome. Copyright © 2018 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Yazu, Fumiko; Nakayama, Katsuhiro; Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Inaba, Takehito
Retrograde signalling from the plastid to the nucleus, also known as plastid signalling, plays a key role in coordinating nuclear gene expression with the functional state of plastids. Inhibitors that cause plastid dysfunction have been suggested to generate specific plastid signals related to their modes of action. However, the molecules involved in plastid signalling remain to be identified. Genetic studies indicate that the plastid-localized pentatricopeptide repeat protein GUN1 mediates signalling under several plastid signalling-related conditions. To elucidate further the nature of plastid signals, investigations were carried out to determine whether different plastid signal-inducing treatments had similar effects on plastids and on nuclear gene expression. It is demonstrated that norflurazon and lincomycin treatments and the plastid protein import2-2 (ppi2-2) mutation, which causes a defect in plastid protein import, all resulted in similar changes at the gene expression level. Furthermore, it was observed that these three treatments resulted in defective RNA editing in plastids. This defect in RNA editing was not a secondary effect of down-regulation of pentatricopeptide repeat protein gene expression in the nucleus. The results indicate that these three treatments, which are known to induce plastid signals, affect RNA editing in plastids, suggesting an unprecedented link between plastid signalling and RNA editing.
Wu, Baojun; Gaskell, Jill; Held, Benjamin W; Toapanta, Cristina; Vuong, Thu; Ahrendt, Steven; Lipzen, Anna; Zhang, Jiwei; Schilling, Jonathan S; Master, Emma; Grigoriev, Igor V; Blanchette, Robert A; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David S
Wood-decaying fungi tend to have characteristic substrate ranges that partly define their ecological niche. Fomitopsis pinicola is a brown rot species of Polyporales that is reported on 82 species of softwoods and 42 species of hardwoods. We analyzed gene expression levels and RNA editing profiles of F. pinicola from submerged cultures with ground wood powder (sampled at five days) or solid wood wafers (sampled at ten and thirty days), using aspen, pine, and spruce substrates (aspen was used only in submerged cultures). Fomitopsis pinicola expressed similar sets of wood-degrading enzymes typical of brown rot fungi across all culture conditions and timepoints. Nevertheless, differential gene expression and RNA editing were observed across all pairwise comparisons of substrates and timepoints. Genes exhibiting differential expression and RNA editing encode diverse enzymes with known or potential function in brown rot decay, including laccase, benzoquinone reductase, aryl alcohol oxidase, cytochrome P450s, and various glycoside hydrolases. There was no overlap between differentially expressed and differentially edited genes, suggesting that these may provide F. pinicola with independent mechanisms for responding to different conditions. Comparing transcriptomes from submerged cultures and wood wafers, we found that culture conditions had a greater impact on global expression profiles than substrate wood species. In contrast, the suites of genes subject to RNA editing were much less affected by culture conditions. These findings highlight the need for standardization of culture conditions in studies of gene expression in wood-decaying fungi. IMPORTANCE All species of wood-decaying fungi occur on a characteristic range of substrates (host plants), which may be broad or narrow. Understanding the mechanisms that allow fungi to grow on particular substrates is important for both fungal ecology and applied uses of different feedstocks in industrial processes. We grew the
Savva, Yiannis A.; Jepson, James E.C; Sahin, Asli; Sugden, Arthur U.; Dorsky, Jacquelyn S.; Alpert, Lauren; Lawrence, Charles; Reenan, Robert A.
Auto-regulatory feedback loops are a common molecular strategy used to optimize protein function. In Drosophila many mRNAs involved in neuro-transmission are re-coded at the RNA level by the RNA editing enzyme dADAR, leading to the incorporation of amino acids that are not directly encoded by the genome. dADAR also re-codes its own transcript, but the consequences of this auto-regulation in vivo are unclear. Here we show that hard-wiring or abolishing endogenous dADAR auto-regulation dramatically remodels the landscape of re-coding events in a site-specific manner. These molecular phenotypes correlate with altered localization of dADAR within the nuclear compartment. Furthermore, auto-editing exhibits sexually dimorphic patterns of spatial regulation and can be modified by abiotic environmental factors. Finally, we demonstrate that modifying dAdar auto-editing affects adaptive complex behaviors. Our results reveal the in vivo relevance of auto-regulatory control over post-transcriptional mRNA re-coding events in fine-tuning brain function and organismal behavior. PMID:22531175
Kramer, Marianne C; Anderson, Stephen J; Gregory, Brian D
During and after transcription, the fate of an RNA molecule is almost entirely directed by the cohorts of interacting RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). RBPs regulate all stages of the life cycle of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule, including splicing, polyadenylation, transport out of the nucleus, RNA stability, and translation. In addition to these functions, RBPs can function to modify or edit the sequences encoded by the RNA. While the sequence for each transcript is determined in the genome, by the time an RNA reaches its final fate, the sequence may have been edited, where one nucleotide is converted to another, or modified, where a chemical group, or sometimes others moieties, are covalently linked to a nucleotide base. These changes to the RNA sequence have major consequences on the function of the RNA. Additionally, variation in the levels of the RBPs that perform the editing or modification can drastically affect the fitness of an organism. Here, we review RBPs that are known to edit or modify RNA ribonucleotides, focusing on the RNA editing ability of the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins and the RBPs that modify adenosine to N 6 - methyladenosine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anadón, C; Guil, S; Simó-Riudalbas, L; Moutinho, C; Setien, F; Martínez-Cardús, A; Moran, S; Villanueva, A; Calaf, M; Vidal, A; Lazo, P A; Zondervan, I; Savola, S; Kohno, T; Yokota, J; Ribas de Pouplana, L; Esteller, M
The introduction of new therapies against particular genetic mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer is a promising avenue for improving patient survival, but the target population is small. There is a need to discover new potential actionable genetic lesions, to which end, non-conventional cancer pathways, such as RNA editing, are worth exploring. Herein we show that the adenosine-to-inosine editing enzyme ADAR1 undergoes gene amplification in non-small cancer cell lines and primary tumors in association with higher levels of the corresponding mRNA and protein. From a growth and invasion standpoint, the depletion of ADAR1 expression in amplified cells reduces their tumorigenic potential in cell culture and mouse models, whereas its overexpression has the opposite effects. From a functional perspective, ADAR1 overexpression enhances the editing frequencies of target transcripts such as NEIL1 and miR-381. In the clinical setting, patients with early-stage lung cancer, but harboring ADAR1 gene amplification, have poor outcomes. Overall, our results indicate a role for ADAR1 as a lung cancer oncogene undergoing gene amplification-associated activation that affects downstream RNA editing patterns and patient prognosis.
PETERS, NICK T.; ROHRBACH, JUSTIN A.; ZALEWSKI, BRIAN A.; BYRKETT, COLLEEN M.; VAUGHN, JACK C.
We have previously described an example of extensively A-to-G edited cDNA derived from adult heads of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. In that study, the source of the predicted antisense RNA pairing strand for template recognition by dADAR editase was not identified, and the biological significance of the observed hyperediting was not known. Here, we address each of these questions. 4f-rnp and sas-10 are closely adjacent X-linked genes located on opposite DNA strands that produce convergent transcripts. We show that developmentally regulated antisense sas-10 readthrough mRNA arises by activation of an upstream promoter P2 during the late embryo stage of fly development. The sas-10 readthrough transcripts pair with 4f-rnp mRNA to form double-stranded molecules, as indicated by A-to-G editing observed in both RNA strands. It would be predicted that perfect RNA duplexes would be targeted for modification/degradation by enzyme pathways that recognize double-stranded RNAs, leading to decline in 4f-rnp mRNA levels, and this is what we observe. The observation using quantitative RT-PCR that sas-10 readthrough and 4f-rnp transcript levels are inversely related suggests a role for the antisense RNA in posttranscriptional regulation of 4f-rnp gene expression during development. Potential molecular mechanisms that could lead to this result are discussed, one of which is targeted transcript degradation via the RNAi pathway. Insofar as the dADAR editase and RNAi pathways are known to be constitutive in this system, it is likely that control of antisense RNA transcription is the rate-limiting factor. The results provide insight into roles of naturally occurring antisense RNAs in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. PMID:12756328
Trontti, Kalevi; Väänänen, Juho; Sipilä, Tessa; Greco, Dario; Hovatta, Iiris
Diversity in the structure and expression of microRNAs, important regulators of gene expression, arises from SNPs, duplications followed by divergence, production of isomiRs, and RNA editing. Inbred mouse strains and crosses using them are important reference populations for genetic mapping, and as models of human disease. We determined the nature and extent of interstrain miRNA variation by (i) identifying miRNA SNPs in whole-genome sequence data from 36 strains, and (ii) examining miRNA editing and expression in hippocampus (Hpc) and frontal cortex (FCx) of six strains, to facilitate the study of miRNAs in neurobehavioral phenotypes. miRNA loci were strongly conserved among the 36 strains, but even the highly conserved seed region contained 16 SNPs. In contrast, we identified RNA editing in 58.9% of miRNAs, including 11 consistent editing events in the seed region. We confirmed the functional significance of three conserved edits in the miR-379/410 cluster, demonstrating that edited miRNAs gained novel target mRNAs not recognized by the unedited miRNAs. We found significant interstrain differences in miRNA and isomiR expression: Of 779 miRNAs expressed in Hpc and 719 in FCx, 262 were differentially expressed (190 in Hpc, 126 in FCx, 54 in both). We also identified 32 novel miRNA candidates using miRNA prediction tools. Our studies provide the first comprehensive analysis of SNP, isomiR, and RNA editing variation in miRNA loci across inbred mouse strains, and a detailed catalog of expressed miRNAs in Hpc and FCx in six commonly used strains. These findings will facilitate the molecular analysis of neurological and behavioral phenotypes in this model organism. © 2018 Trontti et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.
Rayon-Estrada, Violeta; Harjanto, Dewi; Hamilton, Claire E; Berchiche, Yamina A; Gantman, Emily Conn; Sakmar, Thomas P; Bulloch, Karen; Gagnidze, Khatuna; Harroch, Sheila; McEwen, Bruce S; Papavasiliou, F Nina
Epitranscriptomics refers to posttranscriptional alterations on an mRNA sequence that are dynamic and reproducible, and affect gene expression in a similar way to epigenetic modifications. However, the functional relevance of those modifications for the transcript, the cell, and the organism remain poorly understood. Here, we focus on RNA editing and show that Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-1 (APOBEC1), together with its cofactor RBM47, mediates robust editing in different tissues. The majority of editing events alter the sequence of the 3'UTR of targeted transcripts, and we focus on one cell type (monocytes) and on a small set of highly edited transcripts within it to show that editing alters gene expression by modulating translation (but not RNA stability or localization). We further show that specific cellular processes (phagocytosis and transendothelial migration) are enriched for transcripts that are targets of editing and that editing alters their function. Finally, we survey bone marrow progenitors and demonstrate that common monocyte progenitor cells express high levels of APOBEC1 and are susceptible to loss of the editing enzyme. Overall, APOBEC1-mediated transcriptome diversification is required for the fine-tuning of protein expression in monocytes, suggesting an epitranscriptomic mechanism for the proper maintenance of homeostasis in innate immune cells. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Li, Zhongsen; Liu, Zhan-Bin; Xing, Aiqiu; Moon, Bryan P.; Koellhoffer, Jessica P.; Huang, Lingxia; Ward, R. Timothy; Clifton, Elizabeth; Falco, S. Carl; Cigan, A. Mark
Recently discovered bacteria and archaea adaptive immune system consisting of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) endonuclease has been explored in targeted genome editing in different species. Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9-guide RNA (gRNA) was successfully applied to generate targeted mutagenesis, gene integration, and gene editing in soybean (Glycine max). Two genomic sites, DD20 and DD43 on chromosome 4, were mutagenized with frequencies of 59% and 76%, respectively. Sequencing randomly selected transgenic events confirmed that the genome modifications were specific to the Cas9-gRNA cleavage sites and consisted of small deletions or insertions. Targeted gene integrations through homology-directed recombination were detected by border-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis for both sites at callus stage, and one DD43 homology-directed recombination event was transmitted to T1 generation. T1 progenies of the integration event segregated according to Mendelian laws and clean homozygous T1 plants with the donor gene precisely inserted at the DD43 target site were obtained. The Cas9-gRNA system was also successfully applied to make a directed P178S mutation of acetolactate synthase1 gene through in planta gene editing. PMID:26294043
Uchida, Hitoshi; Matsumura, Shinji; Okada, Shunpei; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Minami, Toshiaki; Ito, Seiji
Transcriptional and post-translational regulations are important in peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, but little is known about the role of post-transcriptional modification. Our objective was to determine the possible effect of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, which catalyze post-transcriptional RNA editing, in tactile allodynia, a hallmark of neuropathic pain. Seven days after L5 spinal nerve transection (SNT) in adult mice, we found an increase in ADAR2 expression and a decrease in ADAR3 expression in the injured, but not in the uninjured, dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). These changes were accompanied by elevated levels of editing at the D site of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) 2C receptor (5-HT 2C R), at the I/V site of coatomer protein complex subunit α (COPA), and at the R/G site of AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 in the injured DRG. Compared to Adar2 +/+ /Gria2 R/R littermate controls, Adar2 -/- /Gria2 R/R mice completely lacked the increased editing of 5-HT 2C R, COPA, and GluA2 transcripts in the injured DRG and showed attenuated tactile allodynia after SNT. Furthermore, the antidepressant fluoxetine inhibited neuropathic allodynia after injury and reduced the COPA I/V site editing in the injured DRG. These findings suggest that ADAR2 is a mediator of injury-induced tactile allodynia and thus a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathic pain.-Uchida, H., Matsumura, S., Okada, S., Suzuki, T., Minami, T., Ito, S. RNA editing enzyme ADAR2 is a mediator of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. © FASEB.
Mungpakdee, Sutada; Shinzato, Chuya; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Kawashima, Takeshi; Koyanagi, Ryo; Hisata, Kanako; Tanaka, Makiko; Goto, Hiroki; Fujie, Manabu; Lin, Senjie; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi
Genome sequencing of Symbiodinium minutum revealed that 95 of 109 plastid-associated genes have been transferred to the nuclear genome and subsequently expanded by gene duplication. Only 14 genes remain in plastids and occur as DNA minicircles. Each minicircle (1.8-3.3 kb) contains one gene and a conserved noncoding region containing putative promoters and RNA-binding sites. Nine types of RNA editing, including a novel G/U type, were discovered in minicircle transcripts but not in genes transferred to the nucleus. In contrast to DNA editing sites in dinoflagellate mitochondria, which tend to be highly conserved across all taxa, editing sites employed in DNA minicircles are highly variable from species to species. Editing is crucial for core photosystem protein function. It restores evolutionarily conserved amino acids and increases peptidyl hydropathy. It also increases protein plasticity necessary to initiate photosystem complex assembly. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Farboud, Behnom; Meyer, Barbara J.
Success with genome editing by the RNA-programmed nuclease Cas9 has been limited by the inability to predict effective guide RNAs and DNA target sites. Not all guide RNAs have been successful, and even those that were, varied widely in their efficacy. Here we describe and validate a strategy for Caenorhabditis elegans that reliably achieved a high frequency of genome editing for all targets tested in vivo. The key innovation was to design guide RNAs with a GG motif at the 3′ end of their target-specific sequences. All guides designed using this simple principle induced a high frequency of targeted mutagenesis via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and a high frequency of precise DNA integration from exogenous DNA templates via homology-directed repair (HDR). Related guide RNAs having the GG motif shifted by only three nucleotides showed severely reduced or no genome editing. We also combined the 3′ GG guide improvement with a co-CRISPR/co-conversion approach. For this co-conversion scheme, animals were only screened for genome editing at designated targets if they exhibited a dominant phenotype caused by Cas9-dependent editing of an unrelated target. Combining the two strategies further enhanced the ease of mutant recovery, thereby providing a powerful means to obtain desired genetic changes in an otherwise unaltered genome. PMID:25695951
Grassi, Luigi; Leoni, Guido; Tramontano, Anna
When an RNA editing event occurs within a coding sequence it can lead to a different encoded amino acid. The biological significance of these events remains an open question: they can modulate protein functionality, increase the complexity of transcriptomes or arise from a loose specificity of the involved enzymes. We analysed the editing events in coding regions that produce or not a change in the encoded amino acid (nonsynonymous and synonymous events, respectively) in D. melanogaster and in H. sapiens and compared them with the appropriate random models. Interestingly, our results show that the phenomenon has rather different characteristics in the two organisms. For example, we confirm the observation that editing events occur more frequently in non-coding than in coding regions, and report that this effect is much more evident in H. sapiens. Additionally, in this latter organism, editing events tend to affect less conserved residues. The less frequently occurring editing events in Drosophila tend to avoid drastic amino acid changes. Interestingly, we find that, in Drosophila, changes from less frequently used codons to more frequently used ones are favoured, while this is not the case in H. sapiens.
Kehler, James; Greco, Marianna; Martino, Valentina; Pachiappan, Manickam; Yokoe, Hiroko; Chen, Alice; Yang, Miranda; Auerbach, Jonathan; Jessee, Joel; Gotte, Martin; Milanesi, Luciano; Albertini, Alberto; Bellipanni, Gianfranco; Zucchi, Ileana; Reinbold, Rolland A; Giordano, Antonio
Cellular reprogramming by epigenomic remodeling of chromatin holds great promise in the field of human regenerative medicine. As an example, human-induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) obtained by reprograming of patient somatic cells are sufficiently similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and can generate all cell types of the human body. Clinical use of iPSCs is dependent on methods that do not utilize genome altering transgenic technologies that are potentially unsafe and ethically unacceptable. Transient delivery of exogenous RNA into cells provides a safer reprogramming system to transgenic approaches that rely on exogenous DNA or viral vectors. RNA reprogramming may prove to be more suitable for clinical applications and provide stable starting cell lines for gene-editing, isolation, and characterization of patient iPSC lines. The introduction and rapid evolution of CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing systems has provided a readily accessible research tool to perform functional human genetic experiments. Similar to RNA reprogramming, transient delivery of mRNA encoding Cas9 in combination with guide RNA sequences to target specific points in the genome eliminates the risk of potential integration of Cas9 plasmid constructs. We present optimized RNA-based laboratory procedure for making and editing iPSCs. In the near-term these two powerful technologies are being harnessed to dissect mechanisms of human development and disease in vitro, supporting both basic, and translational research. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1262-1269, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Kumar, Jitesh; Alok, Anshu; Tuli, Rakesh
The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system has been used as an efficient tool for genome editing. We report the application of CRISPR-Cas-mediated genome editing to wheat (Triticum aestivum), the most important food crop plant with a very large and complex genome. The mutations were targeted in the inositol oxygenase (inox) and phytoene desaturase (pds) genes using cell suspension culture of wheat and in the pds gene in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. The expression of chimeric guide RNAs (cgRNA) targeting single and multiple sites resulted in indel mutations in all the tested samples. The expression of Cas9 or sgRNA alone did not cause any mutation. The expression of duplex cgRNA with Cas9 targeting two sites in the same gene resulted in deletion of DNA fragment between the targeted sequences. Multiplexing the cgRNA could target two genes at one time. Target specificity analysis of cgRNA showed that mismatches at the 3' end of the target site abolished the cleavage activity completely. The mismatches at the 5' end reduced cleavage, suggesting that the off target effects can be abolished in vivo by selecting target sites with unique sequences at 3' end. This approach provides a powerful method for genome engineering in plants.
Sharma, Shraddha; Patnaik, Santosh K; Kemer, Zeynep; Baysal, Bora E
APOBEC3A cytidine deaminase induces site-specific C-to-U RNA editing of hundreds of genes in monocytes exposed to hypoxia and/or interferons and in pro-inflammatory macrophages. To examine the impact of APOBEC3A overexpression, we transiently expressed APOBEC3A in HEK293T cell line and performed RNA sequencing. APOBEC3A overexpression induces C-to-U editing at more than 4,200 sites in transcripts of 3,078 genes resulting in protein recoding of 1,110 genes. We validate recoding RNA editing of genes associated with breast cancer, hematologic neoplasms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease and primary pulmonary hypertension. These results highlight the fundamental impact of APOBEC3A overexpression on human transcriptome by widespread RNA editing.
Xiong, Jie; Tao, Tao; Luo, Zhi; Yan, Shuaigang; Liu, Yi; Yu, Xinqiao; Liu, Guolan; Xia, Hui; Luo, Lijun
RNA editing of mitochondrial gene transcripts plays a central role during plant development and evolutionary adaptation. RNA editing has previously been reported to differ between the rice cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line and its maintainer line, which has been suggested as a cause for their different performances under environmental stress. To specifically test this hypothesis, a wild abortive (WA) CMS line (Huhan-1A) and its maintainer line (Huhan-1B) were utilized to investigate performances in response to oxidative stress, as well as RNA editing efficiencies on transcripts of six selected mitochondrial genes. Compared to the maintainer line, Huhan-1A represented both lower plant height and total antioxidant capacity, possessed higher total soluble protein and chlorophyll contents, accumulated less H2O2 content on the 3rd day after treatment (DAT), and exhibited higher survival ratio after re-watering. Furthermore, a total of 90 editing sites were detected on transcripts of six mitochondrial genes (atp9, nad2, nad7, nad9, ccmB, and ccmC) in both Huhan-1A and Huhan-1B on the 0, 1st, and 3rd DAT. Forty-eight sites were furthermore determined as stress-responsive sites (SRS). Generally, in response to oxidative stress, SRS in Huhan-1A increased the resulting editing efficiencies, while SRS in Huhan-1B decreased the resulting editing efficiencies. In addition, 33 and 22 sites at ccmB and ccmC were differentially edited between Huhan-1A and Huhan-1B, respectively, on the 0, 1st, and 3rd DAT. Editing efficiencies of ccmB and ccmC were generally lower in Huhan-1A (ccmB, 37.3–47.8%; ccmC, 41.2–52.3%) than those in Huhan-1B (ccmB, 82.6–86.5%; ccmC, 81.0–82.9%). Deficiencies of RNA editing in Huhan-1A at ccmB and ccmC could lead to the loss of transmembrane domains in their protein structures. Consequently, differences in RNA editing at ccmB and ccmC between the WA-CMS line and its maintainer line partially explained their different performances under stress
Matsumoto, Yusuke; Ohta, Keisuke; Kolakofsky, Daniel; Nishio, Machiko
The unusual ability of a human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) nucleoprotein point mutation (NP Q202A ) to strongly enhance minigenome replication was found to depend on the absence of a functional, internal element of the bipartite replication promoter (CRII). This point mutation allows relatively robust CRII-minus minigenome replication in a CRII-independent manner, under conditions in which NP wt is essentially inactive. The nature of the amino acid at position 202 apparently controls whether viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp) can, or cannot, initiate RNA synthesis in a CRII-independent manner. By repressing genome synthesis when vRdRp cannot correctly interact with CRII, gln 202 of N, the only residue of the RNA-binding groove that contacts a nucleotide base in the N-RNA, acts as a gatekeeper for wild-type (CRII-dependent) RNA synthesis. This ensures that only hexamer-length genomes are replicated, and that the critical hexamer phase of the cis -acting mRNA editing sequence is maintained. © 2018 Matsumoto et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.
Gifford, Robert J.; Rhee, Soo-Yon; Eriksson, Nicolas; Liu, Tommy F.; Kiuchi, Mark; Das, Amar K.; Shafer, Robert W.
Design Promiscuous guanine (G) to adenine (A) substitutions catalysed by apolipoprotein B RNA-editing catalytic component (APOBEC) enzymes are observed in a proportion of HIV-1 sequences in vivo and can introduce artifacts into some genetic analyses. The potential impact of undetected lethal editing on genotypic estimation of transmitted drug resistance was assessed. Methods Classifiers of lethal, APOBEC-mediated editing were developed by analysis of lentiviral pol gene sequence variation and evaluated using control sets of HIV-1 sequences. The potential impact of sequence editing on genotypic estimation of drug resistance was assessed in sets of sequences obtained from 77 studies of 25 or more therapy-naive individuals, using mixture modelling approaches to determine the maximum likelihood classification of sequences as lethally edited as opposed to viable. Results Analysis of 6437 protease and reverse transcriptase sequences from therapy-naive individuals using a novel classifier of lethal, APOBEC3G-mediated sequence editing, the polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G)-mediated defectives (A3GD) index’, detected lethal editing in association with spurious ‘transmitted drug resistance’ in nearly 3% of proviral sequences obtained from whole blood and 0.2% of samples obtained from plasma. Conclusion Screening for lethally edited sequences in datasets containing a proportion of proviral DNA, such as those likely to be obtained for epidemiological surveillance of transmitted drug resistance in the developing world, can eliminate rare but potentially significant errors in genotypic estimation of transmitted drug resistance. PMID:18356601
Lyddon, Rebecca; Navarrett, Scott; Dracheva, Stella
Dysfunction of glutamate neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and one mechanism by which glutamate signalling can be altered is through RNA editing of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the editing status of iGluRs in the human prefrontal cortex, determine whether iGluR editing is associated with psychiatric disease or suicide and evaluate a potential association between editing and alternative splicing in the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) iGluR subunits' pre-mRNA. We studied specimens derived from patients with antemortem diagnoses of bipolar disorder (n = 31) or schizophrenia (n = 34) who died by suicide or other causes, and from psychiatrically healthy controls (n = 34) who died from causes other than suicide. The RNA editing at all 8 editing sites within AMPA (GluA2-4 subunits) and kainate (GluK1-2 subunits) iGluRs was analyzed using a novel real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. No differences in editing were detected among schizophrenia, bipolar or control groups or between suicide completers and patients who died from causes other than suicide. The editing efficiency was significantly higher in the flop than in the flip splicoforms of GluA3-4 AMPA subunits (all p < 0.001). The study is limited by the near absence of specimens from medicationnaive psychiatric patients and considerable variation in medication regimens among individuals, both of which introduce considerable uncertainty into the analysis of potential medication effects. We found that iGluR RNA editing status was not associated with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or suicide. Differences in editing between flip and flop splicoforms suggest that glutamate sensitivity of receptors containing GluA3 and/or GluA4 flop subunits is moderated as a result of increased editing.
Dai, Li; Liu, Xue-Chen; Ye, Sen; Li, Hua-Wei; Chen, Dian-Fu; Yu, Xiao-Jian; Huang, Xue-Ting; Zhang, Li; Yang, Fan; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun
The most widespread type of RNA editing, conversion of adenosine to inosine (A→I), is catalyzed by two members of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family, ADAR1 and ADAR2. These enzymes edit transcripts for neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels during adaption to changes in the physical environment. In the primitive crustacean Artemia, when maternal adults are exposed to unfavorable conditions, they release diapause embryos to withstand harsh environments. The aim of the current study was therefore to elucidate the role of ADAR of Artemia diapause embryos in resistance to stress. Here, we identified Artemia ADAR (Ar-ADAR), which harbors a putative nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and two double-stranded RNA-binding motifs (dsRBMs) in the amino-terminal region and an adenosine deaminase (AD) domain in the carboxyl-terminal region. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that Ar-ADAR is expressed abundantly in post-diapause embryos. Artemia (n = 200, three replicates) were tested under basal and stress conditions. We found that Ar-ADAR was significantly induced in response to the stresses of salinity and heat-shock. Furthermore, in vivo knockdown of Ar-ADAR (n = 100, three replicates) by RNA interference induced formation of pseudo-diapause embryos, which lack resistance to the stresses and exhibit high levels of apoptosis. These results indicate that Ar-ADAR contributes to resistance to stress in Artemia diapause embryos.
A Novel RNA Editing Sensor Tool and a Specific Agonist Determine Neuronal Protein Expression of RNA-Edited Glycine Receptors and Identify a Genomic APOBEC1 Dimorphism as a New Genetic Risk Factor of Epilepsy
Kankowski, Svenja; Förstera, Benjamin; Winkelmann, Aline; Knauff, Pina; Wanker, Erich E.; You, Xintian A.; Semtner, Marcus; Hetsch, Florian; Meier, Jochen C.
C-to-U RNA editing of glycine receptors (GlyR) can play an important role in disease progression of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) as it may contribute in a neuron type-specific way to neuropsychiatric symptoms of the disease. It is therefore necessary to develop tools that allow identification of neuron types that express RNA-edited GlyR protein. In this study, we identify NH4 as agonist of C-to-U RNA edited GlyRs. Furthermore, we generated a new molecular C-to-U RNA editing sensor tool that detects Apobec-1- dependent RNA editing in HEPG2 cells and rat primary hippocampal neurons. Using this sensor combined with NH4 application, we were able to identify C-to-U RNA editing-competent neurons and expression of C-to-U RNA-edited GlyR protein in neurons. Bioinformatic analysis of 1,000 Genome Project Phase 3 allele frequencies coding for human Apobec-1 80M and 80I variants showed differences between populations, and the results revealed a preference of the 80I variant to generate RNA-edited GlyR protein. Finally, we established a new PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) approach to profile mRNA expression with regard to the genetic APOBEC1 dimorphism of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (iTLE) and found that the patients fall into two groups. Patients with expression of the Apobec-1 80I variant mostly suffered from simple or complex partial seizures, whereas patients with 80M expression exhibited secondarily generalized seizure activity. Thus, our method allows the characterization of Apobec-1 80M and 80l variants in the brain and provides a new way to epidemiologically and semiologically classify iTLE according to the two different APOBEC1 alleles. Together, these results demonstrate Apobec-1-dependent expression of RNA-edited GlyR protein in neurons and identify the APOBEC1 80I/M-coding alleles as new genetic risk factors for iTLE patients. PMID:29375302
Akbarian, S.; Smith, M. A.; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)
Animal studies and cell culture experiments demonstrated that posttranscriptional editing of the transcript of the GluR-2 gene, resulting in substitution of an arginine for glutamine in the second transmembrane region (TM II) of the expressed protein, is associated with a reduction in Ca2+ permeability of the receptor channel. Thus, disturbances in GluR-2 RNA editing with alteration of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis could lead to neuronal dysfunction and even neuronal degeneration. The present study determined the proportions of edited and unedited GluR-2 RNA in the prefrontal cortex of brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease, in the striatum of brains from patients with Huntington's disease, and in the same areas of brains from age-matched schizophrenics and controls, by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, restriction endonuclease digestion, gel electrophoresis and scintillation radiometry. In the prefrontal cortex of controls, < 0.1% of all GluR-2 RNA molecules were unedited and > 99.9% were edited; in the prefrontal cortex both of schizophrenics and of Alzheimer's patients approximately 1.0% of all GluR-2 RNA molecules were unedited and 99% were edited. In the striatum of controls and of schizophrenics, approximately 0.5% of GluR-2 RNA molecules were unedited and 99.5% were edited; in the striatum of Huntington's patients nearly 5.0% of GluR-2 RNA was unedited. In the prefrontal white matter of controls, approximately 7.0% of GluR-2 RNA was unedited. In the normal human prefrontal cortex and striatum, the large majority of GluR-2 RNA molecules contains a CGG codon for arginine in the TMII coding region; this implies that the corresponding AMPA receptors have a low Ca2+ permeability, as previously demonstrated for the rat brain. The process of GluR-2 RNA editing is compromised in a region-specific manner in schizophrenia, in Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's Chorea although in each of these disorders there is still a large excess of
Hirosawa, Moe; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Parr, Callum J. C.; Hayashi, Karin; Kashida, Shunnichi; Hotta, Akitsu; Woltjen, Knut
Abstract The CRISPR–Cas9 system is a powerful genome-editing tool useful in a variety of biotechnology and biomedical applications. Here we developed a synthetic RNA-based, microRNA (miRNA)-responsive CRISPR–Cas9 system (miR-Cas9 switch) in which the genome editing activity of Cas9 can be modulated through endogenous miRNA signatures in mammalian cells. We created miR-Cas9 switches by using a miRNA-complementary sequence in the 5΄-UTR of mRNA encoding Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9. The miR-21-Cas9 or miR-302-Cas9 switches selectively and efficiently responded to miR-21-5p in HeLa cells or miR-302a-5p in human induced pluripotent stem cells, and post-transcriptionally attenuated the Cas9 activity only in the target cells. Moreover, the miR-Cas9 switches could differentially control the genome editing by sensing endogenous miRNA activities within a heterogeneous cell population. Our miR-Cas9 switch system provides a promising framework for cell-type selective genome editing and cell engineering based on intracellular miRNA information. PMID:28525578
Hirosawa, Moe; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Parr, Callum J C; Hayashi, Karin; Kashida, Shunnichi; Hotta, Akitsu; Woltjen, Knut; Saito, Hirohide
The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a powerful genome-editing tool useful in a variety of biotechnology and biomedical applications. Here we developed a synthetic RNA-based, microRNA (miRNA)-responsive CRISPR-Cas9 system (miR-Cas9 switch) in which the genome editing activity of Cas9 can be modulated through endogenous miRNA signatures in mammalian cells. We created miR-Cas9 switches by using a miRNA-complementary sequence in the 5΄-UTR of mRNA encoding Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9. The miR-21-Cas9 or miR-302-Cas9 switches selectively and efficiently responded to miR-21-5p in HeLa cells or miR-302a-5p in human induced pluripotent stem cells, and post-transcriptionally attenuated the Cas9 activity only in the target cells. Moreover, the miR-Cas9 switches could differentially control the genome editing by sensing endogenous miRNA activities within a heterogeneous cell population. Our miR-Cas9 switch system provides a promising framework for cell-type selective genome editing and cell engineering based on intracellular miRNA information. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Song, Youngzee; Zhou, Huihao; Vo, My-Nuong; Shi, Yi; Nawaz, Mir Hussain; Vargas-Rodriguez, Oscar; Diedrich, Jolene K; Yates, John R; Kishi, Shuji; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Schimmel, Paul
Hundreds of non-proteinogenic (np) amino acids (AA) are found in plants and can in principle enter human protein synthesis through foods. While aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) editing potentially provides a mechanism to reject np AAs, some have pathological associations. Co-crystal structures show that vegetable-sourced azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (Aze), a dual mimic of proline and alanine, is activated by both human prolyl- and alanyl-tRNA synthetases. However, it inserts into proteins as proline, with toxic consequences in vivo. Thus, dual mimicry increases odds for mistranslation through evasion of one but not both tRNA synthetase editing systems.
Recognition of RNA Editing Sites Is Directed by Unique Proteins in Chloroplasts: Biochemical Identification of cis-Acting Elements and trans-Acting Factors Involved in RNA Editing in Tobacco and Pea Chloroplasts
Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Obokata, Junichi; Sugiura, Masahiro
RNA editing in higher-plant chloroplasts involves C-to-U conversions at specific sites. Although in vivo analyses have been performed, little is known about the biochemical aspects of chloroplast editing reactions. Here we improved our original in vitro system and devised a procedure for preparing active chloroplast extracts not only from tobacco plants but also from pea plants. Using our tobacco in vitro system, cis-acting elements were defined for psbE and petB mRNAs. Distinct proteins were found to bind specifically to each cis-element, a 56-kDa protein to the psbE site and a 70-kDa species to the petB site. Pea chloroplasts lack the corresponding editing site in psbE since T is already present in the DNA. Parallel in vitro analyses with tobacco and pea extracts revealed that the pea plant has no editing activity for psbE mRNAs and lacks the 56-kDa protein, whereas petB mRNAs are edited and the 70-kDa protein is also present. Therefore, coevolution of an editing site and its cognate trans-factor was demonstrated biochemically in psbE mRNA editing between tobacco and pea plants. PMID:12215530
Soundararajan, Ramani; Stearns, Timothy M.; Griswold, Anthony J.; Mehta, Arpit; Czachor, Alexander; Fukumoto, Jutaro; Lockey, Richard F.; King, Benjamin L.; Kolliputi, Narasaiah
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification of RNA. The majority of these changes result from adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyzing the conversion of adenosine residues to inosine in double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). Massively parallel sequencing has enabled the identification of RNA editing sites in human transcriptomes. In this study, we sequenced DNA and RNA from human lungs and identified RNA editing sites with high confidence via a computational pipeline utilizing stringent analysis thresholds. We identified a total of 3,447 editing sites that overlapped in three human lung samples, and with 50% of these sites having canonical A-to-G base changes. Approximately 27% of the edited sites overlapped with Alu repeats, and showed A-to-G clustering (>3 clusters in 100 bp). The majority of edited sites mapped to either 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) or introns close to splice sites; whereas, only few sites were in exons resulting in non-synonymous amino acid changes. Interestingly, we identified 652 A-to-G editing events in the 3′ UTR of 205 target genes that mapped to 932 potential miRNA target binding sites. Several of these miRNA edited sites were validated in silico. Additionally, we validated several A-to-G edited sites by Sanger sequencing. Altogether, our study suggests a role for RNA editing in miRNA-mediated gene regulation and splicing in human lungs. In this study, we have generated a RNA editome of human lung tissue that can be compared with other RNA editomes across different lung tissues to delineate a role for RNA editing in normal and diseased states. PMID:26486088
Soundararajan, Ramani; Stearns, Timothy M; Griswold, Anthony L; Mehta, Arpit; Czachor, Alexander; Fukumoto, Jutaro; Lockey, Richard F; King, Benjamin L; Kolliputi, Narasaiah
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification of RNA. The majority of these changes result from adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyzing the conversion of adenosine residues to inosine in double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). Massively parallel sequencing has enabled the identification of RNA editing sites in human transcriptomes. In this study, we sequenced DNA and RNA from human lungs and identified RNA editing sites with high confidence via a computational pipeline utilizing stringent analysis thresholds. We identified a total of 3,447 editing sites that overlapped in three human lung samples, and with 50% of these sites having canonical A-to-G base changes. Approximately 27% of the edited sites overlapped with Alu repeats, and showed A-to-G clustering (>3 clusters in 100 bp). The majority of edited sites mapped to either 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) or introns close to splice sites; whereas, only few sites were in exons resulting in non-synonymous amino acid changes. Interestingly, we identified 652 A-to-G editing events in the 3' UTR of 205 target genes that mapped to 932 potential miRNA target binding sites. Several of these miRNA edited sites were validated in silico. Additionally, we validated several A-to-G edited sites by Sanger sequencing. Altogether, our study suggests a role for RNA editing in miRNA-mediated gene regulation and splicing in human lungs. In this study, we have generated a RNA editome of human lung tissue that can be compared with other RNA editomes across different lung tissues to delineate a role for RNA editing in normal and diseased states.
Doetschman, Thomas; Georgieva, Teodora
Genetic engineering of model organisms and cultured cells has for decades provided important insights into the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular development and disease. In the past few years the development of several nuclease systems has broadened the range of model/cell systems that can be engineered. Of these, the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) system has become the favorite for its ease of application. Here we will review this RNA-guided nuclease system for gene editing with respect to its usefulness for cardiovascular studies and with an eye toward potential therapy. Studies on its off-target activity, along with approaches to minimize this activity will be given. The advantages of gene editing versus gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, including the breadth of species and cell types to which it is applicable, will be discussed. We will also cover its use in iPSC for research and possible therapeutic purposes; and we will review its use in muscular dystrophy studies where considerable progress has been made toward dystrophin correction in mice. The CRISPR/Ca9s system is also being used for high-throughput screening of genes, gene regulatory regions, and long noncoding RNAs. In addition, the CRISPR system is being used for nongene-editing purposes such as activation and inhibition of gene expression, as well as for fluorescence tagging of chromosomal regions and individual mRNAs to track their cellular location. Finally, an approach to circumvent the inability of post-mitotic cells to support homologous recombination-based gene editing will be presented. In conclusion, applications of the CRISPR/Cas system are expanding at a breath-taking pace and are revolutionizing approaches to gain a better understanding of human diseases. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Hackett, Justin B; Lu, Yan
In land plants, plastid and mitochondrial RNAs are subject to post-transcriptional C-to-U RNA editing. T-DNA insertions in the ORGANELLE RNA RECOGNITION MOTIF PROTEIN6 gene resulted in reduced photosystem II (PSII) activity and smaller plant and leaf sizes. Exon coverage analysis of the ORRM6 gene showed that orrm6-1 and orrm6-2 are loss-of-function mutants. Compared to other ORRM proteins, ORRM6 affects a relative small number of RNA editing sites. Sanger sequencing of reverse transcription-PCR products of plastid transcripts revealed 2 plastid RNA editing sites that are substantially affected in the orrm6 mutants: psbF-C77 and accD-C794. The psbF gene encodes the β subunit of cytochrome b 559 , an essential component of PSII. The accD gene encodes the β subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a protein required in plastid fatty acid biosynthesis. Whole-transcriptome RNA-seq demonstrated that editing at psbF-C77 is nearly absent and the editing extent at accD-C794 was significantly reduced. Gene set enrichment pathway analysis showed that expression of multiple gene sets involved in photosynthesis, especially photosynthetic electron transport, is significantly upregulated in both orrm6 mutants. The upregulation could be a mechanism to compensate for the reduced PSII electron transport rate in the orrm6 mutants. These results further demonstrated that Organelle RNA Recognition Motif protein ORRM6 is required in editing of specific RNAs in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plastid.
van der Kwast, Reginald V C T; van Ingen, Eva; Parma, Laura; Peters, Hendrika A B; Quax, Paul H A; Nossent, A Yaël
Adenosine-to-inosine editing of microRNAs has the potential to cause a shift in target site selection. 2'-O-ribose-methylation of adenosine residues, however, has been shown to inhibit adenosine-to-inosine editing. To investigate whether angiomiR miR487b is subject to adenosine-to-inosine editing or 2'-O-ribose-methylation during neovascularization. Complementary DNA was prepared from C57BL/6-mice subjected to hindlimb ischemia. Using Sanger sequencing and endonuclease digestion, we identified and validated adenosine-to-inosine editing of the miR487b seed sequence. In the gastrocnemius muscle, pri-miR487b editing increased from 6.7±0.4% before to 11.7±1.6% ( P =0.02) 1 day after ischemia. Edited pri-miR487b is processed into a novel microRNA, edited miR487b, which is also upregulated after ischemia. We confirmed editing of miR487b in multiple human primary vascular cell types. Short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown demonstrated that editing is adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 and 2 dependent. Using reverse-transcription at low dNTP concentrations followed by quantitative-PCR, we found that the same adenosine residue is methylated in mice and human primary cells. In the murine gastrocnemius, the estimated methylation fraction increased from 32.8±14% before to 53.6±12% 1 day after ischemia. Short interfering RNA knockdown confirmed that methylation is fibrillarin dependent. Although we could not confirm that methylation directly inhibits editing, we do show that adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 and 2 and fibrillarin negatively influence each other's expression. Using multiple luciferase reporter gene assays, we could demonstrate that editing results in a complete switch of target site selection. In human primary cells, we confirmed the shift in miR487b targeting after editing, resulting in a edited miR487b targetome that is enriched for multiple proangiogenic pathways. Furthermore, overexpression of edited miR487b, but not wild-type miR487b, stimulates
Shin, Jongoh; Lee, Namil; Cho, Suhyung; Cho, Byung-Kwan
Recent advances in the CRISPR/Cas9 system have dramatically facilitated genome engineering in various cell systems. Among the protocols, the direct delivery of the Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex into cells is an efficient approach to increase genome editing efficiency. This method uses purified Cas9 protein and in vitro transcribed sgRNA to edit the target gene without vector DNA. We have applied the RNP complex to CHO cell engineering to obtain desirable phenotypes and to reduce unintended insertional mutagenesis and off-target effects. Here, we describe our routine methods for RNP complex-mediated gene deletion including the protocols to prepare the purified Cas9 protein and the in vitro transcribed sgRNA. Subsequently, we also describe a protocol to confirm the edited genomic positions using the T7E1 enzymatic assay and next-generation sequencing.
Gasiunas, Giedrius; Siksnys, Virginijus
Tailor-made nucleases for precise genome modification, such as zinc finger or TALE nucleases, currently represent the state-of-the-art for genome editing. These nucleases combine a programmable protein module which guides the enzyme to the target site with a nuclease domain which cuts DNA at the addressed site. Reprogramming of these nucleases to cut genomes at specific locations requires major protein engineering efforts. RNA-guided DNA endonuclease Cas9 of the type II (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) CRISPR-Cas system uses CRISPR RNA (crRNA) as a guide to locate the DNA target and the Cas9 protein to cut DNA. Easy programmability of the Cas9 endonuclease using customizable RNAs brings unprecedented flexibility and versatility for targeted genome modification. We highlight the potential of the Cas9 RNA-guided DNA endonuclease as a novel tool for genome surgery, and discuss possible constraints and future prospects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paupard M-C; O'Connell, M A; Gerber, A P; Zukin, R S
To date, two structurally related RNA-editing enzymes with adenosine deaminase activity have been identified in mammalian tissue: ADAR1 and ADAR2 [Bass B. I. et al. (1997) RNA 3, 947-949]. In rodents, ADAR2 undergoes alternative RNA splicing, giving rise to two splice variants that differ by the presence or absence of a 10-amino-acid insert in the carboxy-terminal catalytic domain. However, the physiological significance of the splicing and its regional and developmental regulation are as yet unknown. The present study examined spatial and temporal patterns of ADAR2 gene transcripts within specific neuronal populations of rat brain. The two rodent ADAR2 isoforms were expressed at comparable levels at all ages examined. rADAR2 messenger RNA expression was first detectable in the thalamic nuclei formation at embryonic day E19. The rADAR2b insert and rADAR2a splice probes produced images similar to that of the rADAR2 pan probe. At birth, rADAR2a messenger RNA splice variants were abundantly expressed in the thalamic nuclei. No signal for any probe was detectable in other brain regions, including neocortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum at this stage of development. During the first week of postnatal life, rADAR2 messenger RNA expression (detected with the pan probe) increased gradually in several brain regions, with low expression detected at postnatal day P7 in the olfactory bulb, inferior colliculus, and within the pyramidal and granule cell layers of the hippocampus. Hybridization patterns of the rADAR2a variant probe reached peak expression at about the second week of life, while peak expression of the rADAR2b probe was reached at about the third week of life. At the end of the first week of life (P7), expression of both splice variants was strongest in the thalamic nuclei. By P14, rADAR2 messenger RNA expression was more consolidated in the deeper structures, including the thalamic nuclei and the granule cell layer of the cerebellum. By P21, maximal levels
Picardi, Ernesto; Quagliariello, Carla
In plant mitochondria, the post-transcriptional RNA editing process converts C to U at a number of specific sites of the mRNA sequence and usually restores phylogenetically conserved codons and the encoded amino acid residues. Sites undergoing RNA editing evolve at a higher rate than sites not modified by the process. As a result, editing sites strongly affect the evolution of plant mitochondrial genomes, representing an important source of sequence variability and potentially informative characters. To date no clear and convincing evidence has established whether or not editing sites really affect the topology of reconstructed phylogenetic trees. For this reason, we investigated here the effect of RNA editing on the tree building process of twenty different plant mitochondrial gene sequences and by means of computer simulations. Based on our simulation study we suggest that the editing 'noise' in tree topology inference is mainly manifested at the cDNA level. In particular, editing sites tend to confuse tree topologies when artificial genomic and cDNA sequences are generated shorter than 500 bp and with an editing percentage higher than 5.0%. Similar results have been also obtained with genuine plant mitochondrial genes. In this latter instance, indeed, the topology incongruence increases when the editing percentage goes up from about 3.0 to 14.0%. However, when the average gene length is higher than 1,000 bp (rps3, matR and atp1) no differences in the comparison between inferred genomic and cDNA topologies could be detected. Our findings by the here reported in silico and in vivo computer simulation system seem to strongly suggest that editing sites contribute in the generation of misleading phylogenetic trees if the analyzed mitochondrial gene sequence is highly edited (higher than 3.0%) and reduced in length (shorter than 500 bp). In the current lack of direct experimental evidence the results presented here encourage, thus, the use of genomic mitochondrial
Sun, Yongmei; Li, Xing; Wu, Di; Pan, Qi; Ji, Yuefeng; Ren, Hong; Ding, Keyue
RNA editing is one of the post- or co-transcriptional processes that can lead to amino acid substitutions in protein sequences, alternative pre-mRNA splicing, and changes in gene expression levels. Although several methods have been suggested to identify RNA editing sites, there remains challenges to be addressed in distinguishing true RNA editing sites from its counterparts on genome and technical artifacts. In addition, there lacks a software framework to identify and visualize potential RNA editing sites. Here, we presented a software - 'RED' (RNA Editing sites Detector) - for the identification of RNA editing sites by integrating multiple rule-based and statistical filters. The potential RNA editing sites can be visualized at the genome and the site levels by graphical user interface (GUI). To improve performance, we used MySQL database management system (DBMS) for high-throughput data storage and query. We demonstrated the validity and utility of RED by identifying the presence and absence of C→U RNA-editing sites experimentally validated, in comparison with REDItools, a command line tool to perform high-throughput investigation of RNA editing. In an analysis of a sample data-set with 28 experimentally validated C→U RNA editing sites, RED had sensitivity and specificity of 0.64 and 0.5. In comparison, REDItools had a better sensitivity (0.75) but similar specificity (0.5). RED is an easy-to-use, platform-independent Java-based software, and can be applied to RNA-seq data without or with DNA sequencing data. The package is freely available under the GPLv3 license at http://github.com/REDetector/RED or https://sourceforge.net/projects/redetector.
Sun, Yongmei; Li, Xing; Wu, Di; Pan, Qi; Ji, Yuefeng; Ren, Hong; Ding, Keyue
RNA editing is one of the post- or co-transcriptional processes that can lead to amino acid substitutions in protein sequences, alternative pre-mRNA splicing, and changes in gene expression levels. Although several methods have been suggested to identify RNA editing sites, there remains challenges to be addressed in distinguishing true RNA editing sites from its counterparts on genome and technical artifacts. In addition, there lacks a software framework to identify and visualize potential RNA editing sites. Here, we presented a software − ‘RED’ (RNA Editing sites Detector) − for the identification of RNA editing sites by integrating multiple rule-based and statistical filters. The potential RNA editing sites can be visualized at the genome and the site levels by graphical user interface (GUI). To improve performance, we used MySQL database management system (DBMS) for high-throughput data storage and query. We demonstrated the validity and utility of RED by identifying the presence and absence of C→U RNA-editing sites experimentally validated, in comparison with REDItools, a command line tool to perform high-throughput investigation of RNA editing. In an analysis of a sample data-set with 28 experimentally validated C→U RNA editing sites, RED had sensitivity and specificity of 0.64 and 0.5. In comparison, REDItools had a better sensitivity (0.75) but similar specificity (0.5). RED is an easy-to-use, platform-independent Java-based software, and can be applied to RNA-seq data without or with DNA sequencing data. The package is freely available under the GPLv3 license at http://github.com/REDetector/RED or https://sourceforge.net/projects/redetector. PMID:26930599
Wang, Zupeng; Wang, Shuaibin; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Qiong; Li, Li; Zhong, Caihong; Liu, Yifei; Huang, Hongwen
Kiwifruit is an important fruit crop; however, technologies for its functional genomic and molecular improvement are limited. The clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system has been successfully applied to genetic improvement in many crops, but its editing capability is variable depending on the different combinations of the synthetic guide RNA (sgRNA) and Cas9 protein expression devices. Optimizing conditions for its use within a particular species is therefore needed to achieve highly efficient genome editing. In this study, we developed a new cloning strategy for generating paired-sgRNA/Cas9 vectors containing four sgRNAs targeting the kiwifruit phytoene desaturase gene (AcPDS). Comparing to the previous method of paired-sgRNA cloning, our strategy only requires the synthesis of two gRNA-containing primers which largely reduces the cost. We further compared efficiencies of paired-sgRNA/Cas9 vectors containing different sgRNA expression devices, including both the polycistronic tRNA-sgRNA cassette (PTG) and the traditional CRISPR expression cassette. We found the mutagenesis frequency of the PTG/Cas9 system was 10-fold higher than that of the CRISPR/Cas9 system, coinciding with the relative expressions of sgRNAs in two different expression cassettes. In particular, we identified large chromosomal fragment deletions induced by the paired-sgRNAs of the PTG/Cas9 system. Finally, as expected, we found both systems can successfully induce the albino phenotype of kiwifruit plantlets regenerated from the G418-resistance callus lines. We conclude that the PTG/Cas9 system is a more powerful system than the traditional CRISPR/Cas9 system for kiwifruit genome editing, which provides valuable clues for optimizing CRISPR/Cas9 editing system in other plants. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons
Roux, Pierre-François; Frésard, Laure; Boutin, Morgane; Leroux, Sophie; Klopp, Christophe; Djari, Anis; Esquerré, Diane; Martin, Pascal G P; Zerjal, Tatiana; Gourichon, David; Pitel, Frédérique; Lagarrigue, Sandrine
RNA editing is a posttranscriptional process leading to differences between genomic DNA and transcript sequences, potentially enhancing transcriptome diversity. With recent advances in high-throughput sequencing, many efforts have been made to describe mRNA editing at the transcriptome scale, especially in mammals, yielding contradictory conclusions regarding the extent of this phenomenon. We show, by detailed description of the 25 studies focusing so far on mRNA editing at the whole-transcriptome scale, that systematic sequencing artifacts are considered in most studies whereas biological replication is often neglected and multi-alignment not properly evaluated, which ultimately impairs the legitimacy of results. We recently developed a rigorous strategy to identify mRNA editing using mRNA and genomic DNA sequencing, taking into account sequencing and mapping artifacts, and biological replicates. We applied this method to screen for mRNA editing in liver and white adipose tissue from eight chickens and confirm the small extent of mRNA recoding in this species. Among the 25 unique edited sites identified, three events were previously described in mammals, attesting that this phenomenon is conserved throughout evolution. Deeper investigations on five sites revealed the impact of tissular context, genotype, age, feeding conditions, and sex on mRNA editing levels. More specifically, this analysis highlighted that the editing level at the site located on COG3 was strongly regulated by four of these factors. By comprehensively characterizing the mRNA editing landscape in chickens, our results highlight how this phenomenon is limited and suggest regulation of editing levels by various genetic and environmental factors. Copyright © 2016 Roux et al.
Roux, Pierre-François; Frésard, Laure; Boutin, Morgane; Leroux, Sophie; Klopp, Christophe; Djari, Anis; Esquerré, Diane; Martin, Pascal GP; Zerjal, Tatiana; Gourichon, David; Pitel, Frédérique; Lagarrigue, Sandrine
RNA editing is a posttranscriptional process leading to differences between genomic DNA and transcript sequences, potentially enhancing transcriptome diversity. With recent advances in high-throughput sequencing, many efforts have been made to describe mRNA editing at the transcriptome scale, especially in mammals, yielding contradictory conclusions regarding the extent of this phenomenon. We show, by detailed description of the 25 studies focusing so far on mRNA editing at the whole-transcriptome scale, that systematic sequencing artifacts are considered in most studies whereas biological replication is often neglected and multi-alignment not properly evaluated, which ultimately impairs the legitimacy of results. We recently developed a rigorous strategy to identify mRNA editing using mRNA and genomic DNA sequencing, taking into account sequencing and mapping artifacts, and biological replicates. We applied this method to screen for mRNA editing in liver and white adipose tissue from eight chickens and confirm the small extent of mRNA recoding in this species. Among the 25 unique edited sites identified, three events were previously described in mammals, attesting that this phenomenon is conserved throughout evolution. Deeper investigations on five sites revealed the impact of tissular context, genotype, age, feeding conditions, and sex on mRNA editing levels. More specifically, this analysis highlighted that the editing level at the site located on COG3 was strongly regulated by four of these factors. By comprehensively characterizing the mRNA editing landscape in chickens, our results highlight how this phenomenon is limited and suggest regulation of editing levels by various genetic and environmental factors. PMID:26637431
Bi, Yanwei; Sun, Le; Gao, Dandan; Ding, Chen; Li, Zhihua; Li, Yadong; Cun, Wei; Li, Qihan
A facile and efficient method for the precise editing of large viral genomes is required for the selection of attenuated vaccine strains and the construction of gene therapy vectors. The type II prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas)) RNA-guided nuclease system can be introduced into host cells during viral replication. The CRISPR-Cas9 system robustly stimulates targeted double-stranded breaks in the genomes of DNA viruses, where the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR) pathways can be exploited to introduce site-specific indels or insert heterologous genes with high frequency. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9 can specifically inhibit the replication of the original virus, thereby significantly increasing the abundance of the recombinant virus among progeny virus. As a result, purified recombinant virus can be obtained with only a single round of selection. In this study, we used recombinant adenovirus and type I herpes simplex virus as examples to demonstrate that the CRISPR-Cas9 system is a valuable tool for editing the genomes of large DNA viruses.
Gao, Dandan; Ding, Chen; Li, Zhihua; Li, Yadong; Cun, Wei; Li, Qihan
A facile and efficient method for the precise editing of large viral genomes is required for the selection of attenuated vaccine strains and the construction of gene therapy vectors. The type II prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas)) RNA-guided nuclease system can be introduced into host cells during viral replication. The CRISPR-Cas9 system robustly stimulates targeted double-stranded breaks in the genomes of DNA viruses, where the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR) pathways can be exploited to introduce site-specific indels or insert heterologous genes with high frequency. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9 can specifically inhibit the replication of the original virus, thereby significantly increasing the abundance of the recombinant virus among progeny virus. As a result, purified recombinant virus can be obtained with only a single round of selection. In this study, we used recombinant adenovirus and type I herpes simplex virus as examples to demonstrate that the CRISPR-Cas9 system is a valuable tool for editing the genomes of large DNA viruses. PMID:24788700
Maslov, D A; Hollar, L; Haghighat, P; Nawathean, P
Maxicircle molecules of kDNA in several isolates of Phytomonas were detected by hybridization with the 12S rRNA gene probe from Leishmania tarentolae. The estimated size of maxicircles is isolate-specific and varies from 27 to 36 kb. Fully edited and polyadenylated mRNA for kinetoplast-encoded ribosomal protein S12 (RPS12) was found in the steady-state kinetoplast RNA isolated from Phytomonas serpens strain 1G. Two minicircles (1.45 kb) from this strain were also sequenced. Each minicircle contains two 120 bp conserved regions positioned 180 degrees apart, a region enriched with G and T bases and a variable region. One minicircle encodes a gRNA for the first block of editing of RPSl2 mRNA, and the other encodes a gRNA with unknown function. A gRNA gene for the second block of RPSl2 was found on a minicircle sequenced previously. On each minicircle, a gRNA gene is located in the variable region in a similar position and orientation with respect to the conserved regions.
Puca, Annibale; Solovieff, Nadia; Kojima, Toshio; Wang, Meng C.; Melista, Efthymia; Meltzer, Micah; Fischer, Sylvia E. J.; Andersen, Stacy; Hartley, Stephen H.; Sedgewick, Amanda; Arai, Yasumichi; Bergman, Aviv; Barzilai, Nir; Terry, Dellara F.; Riva, Alberto; Anselmi, Chiara Viviani; Malovini, Alberto; Kitamoto, Aya; Sawabe, Motoji; Arai, Tomio; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Steinberg, Martin H.; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Atzmon, Gil; Ruvkun, Gary; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Perls, Thomas T.
Background The strong familiality of living to extreme ages suggests that human longevity is genetically regulated. The majority of genes found thus far to be associated with longevity primarily function in lipoprotein metabolism and insulin/IGF-1 signaling. There are likely many more genetic modifiers of human longevity that remain to be discovered. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we first show that 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RNA editing genes ADARB1 and ADARB2 are associated with extreme old age in a U.S. based study of centenarians, the New England Centenarian Study. We describe replications of these findings in three independently conducted centenarian studies with different genetic backgrounds (Italian, Ashkenazi Jewish and Japanese) that collectively support an association of ADARB1 and ADARB2 with longevity. Some SNPs in ADARB2 replicate consistently in the four populations and suggest a strong effect that is independent of the different genetic backgrounds and environments. To evaluate the functional association of these genes with lifespan, we demonstrate that inactivation of their orthologues adr-1 and adr-2 in C. elegans reduces median survival by 50%. We further demonstrate that inactivation of the argonaute gene, rde-1, a critical regulator of RNA interference, completely restores lifespan to normal levels in the context of adr-1 and adr-2 loss of function. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that RNA editors may be an important regulator of aging in humans and that, when evaluated in C. elegans, this pathway may interact with the RNA interference machinery to regulate lifespan. PMID:20011587
Zheng, Xiaomei; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Jibin; Kun, Zhang; Ma, Yanhe
U6 promoters have been used for single guide RNA (sgRNA) transcription in the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas9) genome editing system. However, no available U6 promoters have been identified in Aspergillus niger, which is an important industrial platform for organic acid and protein production. Two CRISPR/Cas9 systems established in A. niger have recourse to the RNA polymerase II promoter or in vitro transcription for sgRNA synthesis, but these approaches generally increase cloning efforts and genetic manipulation. The validation of functional RNA polymerase II promoters is therefore an urgent need for A. niger . Here, we developed a novel CRISPR/Cas9 system in A. niger for sgRNA expression, based on one endogenous U6 promoter and two heterologous U6 promoters. The three tested U6 promoters enabled sgRNA transcription and the disruption of the polyketide synthase albA gene in A. niger . Furthermore, this system enabled highly efficient gene insertion at the targeted genome loci in A. niger using donor DNAs with homologous arms as short as 40-bp. This study demonstrated that both heterologous and endogenous U6 promoters were functional for sgRNA expression in A. niger . Based on this result, a novel and simple CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox was established in A. niger, that will benefit future gene functional analysis and genome editing.
Meier, Jochen C; Henneberger, Christian; Melnick, Igor; Racca, Claudia; Harvey, Robert J; Heinemann, Uwe; Schmieden, Volker; Grantyn, Rosemarie
The function of supramedullary glycine receptors (GlyRs) is still unclear. Using Wistar rat collicular slices, we demonstrate GlyR-mediated inhibition of spike discharge elicited by low glycine (10 microM). Searching for the molecular basis of this phenomenon, we identified a new GlyR isoform. GlyR alpha3(P185L), a result of cytidine 554 deamination, confers high glycine sensitivity (EC50 approximately 5 microM) to neurons and thereby promotes the generation of sustained chloride conductances associated with tonic inhibition. The level of GlyR alpha3-C554U RNA editing is sensitive to experimentally induced brain lesion, inhibition of cytidine deamination by zebularine and inhibition of mRNA transcription by actinomycin D, but not to blockade of protein synthesis by cycloheximide. Conditional regulation of GlyR alpha3(P185L) is thus likely to be part of a post-transcriptional adaptive mechanism in neurons with enhanced excitability.
Shih, Ko-Nien; Chuang, Ya-Ting; Liu, Hsuan; Lo, Szecheng J
During its life cycle, hepatitis D virus (HDV) produces two forms of delta antigen (HDAg), small delta antigen (SDAg) and large delta antigen (LDAg), which differ in their C-terminal 19 amino acids. Host enzymes termed ADARs (adenosine deaminases that act on double-stranded RNA) are required for LDAg production. These enzymes change the stop codon (UAG) of SDAg to a tryptophan codon (UGG). However, the temporal and spatial regulation of HDV RNA editing is largely unknown. In this study, we constructed three GFP fusion proteins containing different lengths of SDAg and characterized their cellular localization and effects on HDV replication. One of these fusion proteins, designated D(1-88)-GFP, inhibited LDAg but not SDAg production, suggesting that D(1-88)-GFP inhibits HDV RNA editing. Two experiments further supported this supposition: (i). RT-PCR analysis combined with NcoI restriction enzyme digestion revealed that HDV RNA editing was reduced by 42% in HeLa-D(1-88)-GFP when compared with HeLa cells; and (ii). the ratio of SDAg/LDAg production from the reporter RNAs was reduced in cells co-transfected with ADAR-expressing and reporter plasmids in the presence of D(1-88)-GFP. Double fluorescence microscopy found that D(1-88)-GFP was either associated with SC-35 or was adjacent to PML (premyelocytic leukaemia antigen) at nuclear speckles, but D(1-88)-GFP was not co-localized with ADAR, which was mainly located in the nucleolus. In situ hybridization showing co-localization of HDV RNA with D(1-88)-GFP at nuclear speckles suggested that HDV RNA editing might occur in the nuclear speckles and require other nuclear factor(s), in addition to ADAR.
Qi, Weiwei; Zhu, Tong; Tian, Zhongrui; Li, Chaobin; Zhang, Wei; Song, Rentao
CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing strategy has been applied to a variety of species and the tRNA-processing system has been used to compact multiple gRNAs into one synthetic gene for manipulating multiple genes in rice. We optimized and introduced the multiplex gene editing strategy based on the tRNA-processing system into maize. Maize glycine-tRNA was selected to design multiple tRNA-gRNA units for the simultaneous production of numerous gRNAs under the control of one maize U6 promoter. We designed three gRNAs for simplex editing and three multiple tRNA-gRNA units for multiplex editing. The results indicate that this system not only increased the number of targeted sites but also enhanced mutagenesis efficiency in maize. Additionally, we propose an advanced sequence selection of gRNA spacers for relatively more efficient and accurate chromosomal fragment deletion, which is important for complete abolishment of gene function especially long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Our results also indicated that up to four tRNA-gRNA units in one expression cassette design can still work in maize. The examples reported here demonstrate the utility of the tRNA-processing system-based strategy as an efficient multiplex genome editing tool to enhance maize genetic research and breeding.
Hackler, Elizabeth A; Airey, David C; Shannon, Caitlin C; Sodhi, Monsheel S; Sanders-Bush, Elaine
Post-transcriptional RNA editing of the G-protein coupled 5-hydroxytryptamine-2C (5-HT(2C)) receptor predicts an array of 24 receptor isoforms, some of which are characterized by reduced constitutive activity and potency to initiate intracellular signaling. The amygdala is integral to anxiety, fear, and related psychiatric diseases. Activation of 5-HT(2C) receptors within the amygdala is anxiogenic. Here, we describe the RNA editing profiles from amygdala of two inbred mouse strains (BALB/cJ and DBA/2J) known to be more anxious than a third (C57BL/6J). We confirmed the strain anxiety differences using light<-->dark exploration, and we discovered that BALB/cJ and DBA/2J are each characterized by a higher functioning RNA editing profile than C57BL/6J. BALB/cJ and DBA/2J exhibit a roughly two-fold reduction in C site editing, and a corresponding two-fold reduction in the edited isoform VSV. C57BL/6J is characterized by a relative decrease in the unedited highly functional isoform INI. We estimated the heritability of editing at the C site to be approximately 40%. By sequencing genomic DNA, we found complete conservation between C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, DBA/2J and 37 other inbred strains for the RNA edited region of Htr2c, suggesting Htr2c DNA sequence does not influence variation in Htr2c RNA editing between inbred strains of mice. We did, however, discover that serotonin turnover is reduced in BALB/cJ and DBA/2J, consistent with emerging evidence that synaptic serotonin levels regulate RNA editing. These results encourage further study of the causes and consequences of 5-HT(2C) receptor RNA editing in the amygdala of mice.
Ng, Henry; Dean, Neta
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat system with CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) has emerged as a versatile tool for genome editing in Candida albicans . Mounting evidence from other model systems suggests that the intracellular levels of single guide RNA (sgRNA) limit the efficiency of Cas9-dependent DNA cleavage. Here, we tested this idea and describe a new means of sgRNA delivery that improves previously described methods by ~10-fold. The efficiency of Cas9/sgRNA-dependent cleavage and repair of a single-copy yeast enhanced monomeric red fluorescent protein ( RFP ) gene was measured as a function of various parameters that are hypothesized to affect sgRNA accumulation, including transcriptional and posttranscriptional processing. We analyzed different promoters ( SNR52 , ADH1 , and tRNA ), as well as different posttranscriptional RNA processing schemes that serve to generate or stabilize mature sgRNA with precise 5' and 3' ends. We compared the effects of flanking sgRNA with self-cleaving ribozymes or by tRNA, which is processed by endogenous RNases. These studies demonstrated that sgRNA flanked by a 5' tRNA and transcribed by a strong RNA polymerase II ADH1 promoter increased Cas9-dependent RFP mutations by 10-fold. Examination of double-strand-break (DSB) repair in strains hemizygous for RFP demonstrated that both homology-directed and nonhomologous end-joining pathways were used to repair breaks. Together, these results support the model that gRNA expression can be rate limiting for efficient CRISPR/Cas mutagenesis in C. albicans . IMPORTANCE Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen. An understanding of fungal virulence factors has been slow because C. albicans is genetically intractable. The recent development of CRISPR/Cas in C. albicans (V. K. Vyas, M. I. Barrasa, G. R. Fink, Sci Adv 1:e1500248, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500248) has the potential to circumvent this problem. However, as
Hein, Anke; Knoop, Volker
C-to-U RNA editing in mitochondria and chloroplasts and the nuclear-encoded, RNA-binding PPR proteins acting as editing factors present a wide field of co-evolution between the different genetic systems in a plant cell. Recent studies on chloroplast editing factors RARE1 and CRR28 addressing one or two chloroplast editing sites, respectively, found them strictly conserved among 65 flowering plants as long as one of their RNA editing targets remained present. Extending the earlier sampling to 117 angiosperms with high-quality genome or transcriptome data, we find more evidence confirming previous conclusions but now also identify cases for expected evolutionary transition states such as retention of RARE1 despite loss of its editing target or the degeneration of CRR28 truncating its carboxyterminal DYW domain. The extended angiosperm set was now used to explore CLB19, an "E+"-type PPR editing factor targeting two chloroplast editing sites, rpoAeU200SF and clpPeU559HY, in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found CLB19 consistently conserved if one of the two targets was retained and three independent losses of CLB19 after elimination of both targets. The Ericales show independent regains of the ancestrally lost clpPeU559HY editing, further explaining why multiple-target editing factors are lost much more rarely than single target factors like RARE1. The retention of CLB19 despite loss of both editing targets in some Ericaceae, Apocynaceae and in Camptotheca (Nyssaceae) likely represents evolutionary transitions. However, the retention of CLB19 after a phylogenetic deep loss in the Poaceae rather suggests a yet unrecognized further editing target, for which we suggest editing event ndhAeU473SL. Extending the scope of studies on plant organelle RNA editing to further taxa and additional nuclear cofactors reveals expected evolutionary transitions, strikingly different evolutionary dynamics for multiple-target editing factors like CLB19 and CRR28 and suggests additional functions
Zheng, Xiaomei; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Kun; Cairns, Timothy C; Meyer, Vera; Sun, Jibin; Ma, Yanhe
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a revolutionary genome editing tool. However, in eukaryotes, search and optimization of a suitable promoter for guide RNA expression is a significant technical challenge. Here we used the industrially important fungus, Aspergillus niger, to demonstrate that the 5S rRNA gene, which is both highly conserved and efficiently expressed in eukaryotes, can be used as a guide RNA promoter. The gene editing system was established with 100% rates of precision gene modifications among dozens of transformants using short (40-bp) homologous donor DNA. This system was also applicable for generation of designer chromosomes, as evidenced by deletion of a 48 kb gene cluster required for biosynthesis of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1. Moreover, this system also facilitated simultaneous mutagenesis of multiple genes in A. niger. We anticipate that the use of the 5S rRNA gene as guide RNA promoter can broadly be applied for engineering highly efficient eukaryotic CRISPR/Cas9 toolkits. Additionally, the system reported here will enable development of designer chromosomes in model and industrially important fungi.
Yamamoto, Haruki; Kusumi, Junko; Yamakawa, Hisanori; Fujita, Yuichi
Dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) is a key enzyme to produce chlorophyll in the dark. Among photosynthetic eukaryotes, all three subunits chlL, chlN, and chlB are encoded by plastid genomes. In some gymnosperms, two codons of chlB mRNA are changed by RNA editing to codons encoding evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues. However, the effect of these substitutions on DPOR activity remains unknown. We first prepared cyanobacterial ChlB variants with amino acid substitution(s) to mimic ChlB translated from pre-edited mRNA. Their activities were evaluated by measuring chlorophyll content of dark-grown transformants of a chlB-lacking mutant of the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya boryana that was complemented with pre-edited mimic chlB variants. The chlorophyll content of the transformant cells expressing the ChlB variant from the fully pre-edited mRNA was only one-fourth of the control cells. Co-purification experiments of ChlB with Strep-ChlN suggested that a stable complex with ChlN is greatly impaired in the substituted ChlB variant. We then confirmed that RNA editing efficiency was markedly greater in the dark than in the light in cotyledons of the black pine Pinus thunbergii. These results indicate that RNA editing on chlB mRNA is important to maintain appropriate DPOR activity in black pine chloroplasts.
Boussardon, Clément; Avon, Alexandra; Kindgren, Peter; Bond, Charles S; Challenor, Michael; Lurin, Claire; Small, Ian
In flowering plants, RNA editing involves deamination of specific cytidines to uridines in both mitochondrial and chloroplast transcripts. Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins and multiple organellar RNA editing factor (MORF) proteins have been shown to be involved in RNA editing but none have been shown to possess cytidine deaminase activity. The DYW domain of some PPR proteins contains a highly conserved signature resembling the zinc-binding active site motif of known nucleotide deaminases. We modified these highly conserved amino acids in the DYW motif of DYW1, an editing factor required for editing of the ndhD-1 site in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. We demonstrate that several amino acids of this signature motif are required for RNA editing in vivo and for zinc binding in vitro. We conclude that the DYW domain of DYW1 has features in common with cytidine deaminases, reinforcing the hypothesis that this domain forms part of the active enzyme that carries out RNA editing in plants. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.
Filippini, Alice; Bonini, Daniela; Lacoux, Caroline; Zingariello, Maria; Sancillo, Laura; Bosisio, Daniela; Salvi, Valentina; Mingardi, Jessica; La Via, Luca; Zalfa, Francesca; Bagni, Claudia
ABSTRACT The fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, is due to the absence of FMRP, a protein regulating RNA metabolism. Recently, an unexpected function of FMRP in modulating the activity of Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes has been reported both in Drosophila and Zebrafish. ADARs are RNA-binding proteins that increase transcriptional complexity through a post-transcriptional mechanism called RNA editing. To evaluate the ADAR2-FMRP interaction in mammals we analyzed several RNA editing re-coding sites in the fmr1 knockout (KO) mice. Ex vivo and in vitro analysis revealed that absence of FMRP leads to an increase in the editing levels of brain specific mRNAs, indicating that FMRP might act as an inhibitor of editing activity. Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA) in mouse primary cortical neurons and in non-neuronal cells revealed that ADAR2 and FMRP co-localize in the nucleus. The ADAR2-FMRP co-localization was further observed by double-immunogold Electron Microscopy (EM) in the hippocampus. Moreover, ADAR2-FMRP interaction appeared to be RNA independent. Because changes in the editing pattern are associated with neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, we propose that the increased editing observed in the fmr1-KO mice might contribute to the FXS molecular phenotypes. PMID:28640668
Suresh, Bharathi; Ramakrishna, Suresh; Kim, Hyongbum
The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) system represents an efficient tool for genome editing. It consists of two components: the Cas9 protein and a guide RNA. To date, delivery of these two components has been achieved using either plasmid or viral vectors or direct delivery of protein and RNA. Plasmid- and virus-free direct delivery of Cas9 protein and guide RNA has several advantages over the conventional plasmid-mediated approach. Direct delivery results in shorter exposure time at the cellular level, which in turn leads to lower toxicity and fewer off-target mutations with reduced host immune responses, whereas plasmid- or viral vector-mediated delivery can result in uncontrolled integration of the vector sequence into the host genome and unwanted immune responses. Cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), a peptide that has an intrinsic ability to translocate across cell membranes, has been adopted as a means of achieving efficient Cas9 protein and guide RNA delivery. We developed a method for treating human cell lines with CPP-conjugated recombinant Cas9 protein and CPP-complexed guide RNAs that leads to endogenous gene disruption. Here we describe a protocol for preparing an efficient CPP-conjugated recombinant Cas9 protein and CPP-complexed guide RNAs, as well as treatment methods to achieve safe genome editing in human cell lines.
Permuth, Jennifer B; Reid, Brett; Earp, Madalene; Chen, Y Ann; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Chen, Zhihua; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Lambrechts, Diether; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Van Niewenhuyse, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten; Odunsi, Kunle; Goodman, Marc T; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Wilkens, Lynne R; Thompson, Pamela J; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia; Butzow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa; Leminen, Arto; Modugno, Francesmary; Edwards, Robert P; Ness, Roberta B; Kelley, Joseph; Heitz, Florian; Karlan, Beth; Lester, Jenny; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan; Giles, Graham; Hildebrandt, Michelle; Liang, Dong; Lu, Karen H; Wu, Xifeng; Levine, Douglas A; Bisogna, Maria; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Tworoger, Shelley S; Poole, Elizabeth M; Bandera, Elisa V; Fridley, Brooke; Cunningham, Julie; Winham, Stacey J; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Bjorge, Line; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon; Pejovic, Tanja; Moffitt, Melissa; Le, Nhu; Cook, Linda S; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Kelemen, Linda E; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A; Lissowska, Jolanta; Yang, Hanna; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Pharoah, Paul D P; Song, Honglin; Campbell, Ian; Eccles, Diana; McNeish, Iain; Whittemore, Alice; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph; Phelan, Catherine M; Risch, Harvey; Narod, Steven; McLaughlin, John; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon; Ramus, Susan J; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Wu, Anna H; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Cheng, Jin Q; Goode, Ellen L; Sellers, Thomas A
RNA editing in mammals is a form of post-transcriptional modification in which adenosine is converted to inosine by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) family of enzymes. Based on evidence of altered ADAR expression in epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC), we hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADAR genes modify EOC susceptibility, potentially by altering ovarian tissue gene expression. Using directly genotyped and imputed data from 10,891 invasive EOC cases and 21,693 controls, we evaluated the associations of 5,303 SNPs in ADAD1, ADAR, ADAR2, ADAR3, and SND1. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), with adjustment for European ancestry. We conducted gene-level analyses using the Admixture Maximum Likelihood (AML) test and the Sequence-Kernel Association test for common and rare variants (SKAT-CR). Association analysis revealed top risk-associated SNP rs77027562 (OR (95% CI)= 1.39 (1.17-1.64), P=1.0x10-4) in ADAR3 and rs185455523 in SND1 (OR (95% CI)= 0.68 (0.56-0.83), P=2.0x10-4). When restricting to serous histology (n=6,500), the magnitude of association strengthened for rs185455523 (OR=0.60, P=1.0x10-4). Gene-level analyses revealed that variation in ADAR was associated (P<0.05) with EOC susceptibility, with PAML=0.022 and PSKAT-CR=0.020. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in EOC tissue revealed significant associations (P<0.05) with ADAR expression for several SNPs in ADAR, including rs1127313 (G/A), a SNP in the 3' untranslated region. In summary, germline variation involving RNA editing genes may influence EOC susceptibility, warranting further investigation of inherited and acquired alterations affecting RNA editing.
Permuth, Jennifer B.; Reid, Brett; Earp, Madalene; Chen, Y. Ann; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Chen, Zhihua; Group, AOCS Study; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Lambrechts, Diether; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Niewenhuyse, Els Van; Vergote, Ignace; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten; Odunsi, Kunle; Goodman, Marc T.; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia; Butzow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa; Leminen, Arto; Modugno, Francesmary; Edwards, Robert P.; Ness, Roberta B.; Kelley, Joseph; Heitz, Florian; Karlan, Beth; Lester, Jenny; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Jensen, Allan; Giles, Graham; Hildebrandt, Michelle; Liang, Dong; Lu, Karen H.; Wu, Xifeng; Levine, Douglas A.; Bisogna, Maria; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel W.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Fridley, Brooke; Cunningham, Julie; Winham, Stacey J.; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Bjorge, Line; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon; Pejovic, Tanja; Moffitt, Melissa; Le, Nhu; Cook, Linda S.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Kelemen, Linda E.; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Yang, Hanna; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Song, Honglin; Campbell, Ian; Eccles, Diana; McNeish, Iain; Whittemore, Alice; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph; Phelan, Catherine M.; Risch, Harvey; Narod, Steven; McLaughlin, John; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon; Ramus, Susan J.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Wu, Anna H.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Cheng, Jin Q.; Goode, Ellen L.; Sellers, Thomas A.
RNA editing in mammals is a form of post-transcriptional modification in which adenosine is converted to inosine by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) family of enzymes. Based on evidence of altered ADAR expression in epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC), we hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADAR genes modify EOC susceptibility, potentially by altering ovarian tissue gene expression. Using directly genotyped and imputed data from 10,891 invasive EOC cases and 21,693 controls, we evaluated the associations of 5,303 SNPs in ADAD1, ADAR, ADAR2, ADAR3, and SND1. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), with adjustment for European ancestry. We conducted gene-level analyses using the Admixture Maximum Likelihood (AML) test and the Sequence-Kernel Association test for common and rare variants (SKAT-CR). Association analysis revealed top risk-associated SNP rs77027562 (OR (95% CI)= 1.39 (1.17-1.64), P=1.0×10−4) in ADAR3 and rs185455523 in SND1 (OR (95% CI)= 0.68 (0.56-0.83), P=2.0×10−4). When restricting to serous histology (n=6,500), the magnitude of association strengthened for rs185455523 (OR=0.60, P=1.0×10−4). Gene-level analyses revealed that variation in ADAR was associated (P<0.05) with EOC susceptibility, with PAML=0.022 and PSKAT-CR=0.020. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in EOC tissue revealed significant associations (P<0.05) with ADAR expression for several SNPs in ADAR, including rs1127313 (G/A), a SNP in the 3′ untranslated region. In summary, germline variation involving RNA editing genes may influence EOC susceptibility, warranting further investigation of inherited and acquired alterations affecting RNA editing. PMID:27911851
Hayes, Michael L; Giang, Karolyn; Berhane, Beniam; Mulligan, R Michael
Many transcripts expressed from plant organelle genomes are modified by C-to-U RNA editing. Nuclear encoded pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are required as RNA binding specificity determinants in the RNA editing mechanism. Bioinformatic analysis has shown that most of the Arabidopsis PPR proteins necessary for RNA editing events include a C-terminal portion that shares structural characteristics with a superfamily of deaminases. The DYW deaminase domain includes a highly conserved zinc binding motif that shares characteristics with cytidine deaminases. The Arabidopsis PPR genes, ELI1 and DOT4, both have DYW deaminase domains and are required for single RNA editing events in chloroplasts. The ELI1 DYW deaminase domain was expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and was shown to bind two zinc atoms per polypeptide. Thus, the DYW deaminase domain binds a zinc metal ion, as expected for a cytidine deaminase, and is potentially the catalytic component of an editing complex. Genetic complementation experiments demonstrate that large portions of the DYW deaminase domain of ELI1 may be eliminated, but the truncated genes retain the ability to restore editing site conversion in a mutant plant. These results suggest that the catalytic activity can be supplied in trans by uncharacterized protein(s) of the editosome.
Church, George M.; Esvelt, Kevin; Mali, Prashant
Methods of modulating expression of a target nucleic acid in a cell are provided including use of multiple orthogonal Cas9 proteins to simultaneously and independently regulate corresponding genes or simultaneously and independently edit corresponding genes.
Vu, Luyen T; Nguyen, Thanh T K; Alam, Shafiul; Sakamoto, Takashi; Fujimoto, Kenzo; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Tsukahara, Toshifumi
Using the transition from cytosine of BFP (blue fluorescent protein) gene to uridine of GFP (green fluorescent protein) gene at position 199 as a model, we successfully controlled photochemical RNA editing to effect site-directed deamination of cytidine (C) to uridine (U). Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing 5'-carboxyvinyl-2'-deoxyuridine ((CV) U) were used for reversible photoligation, and single-stranded 100-nt BFP DNA and in vitro-transcribed full-length BFP mRNA were the targets. Photo-cross-linking with the responsive ODNs was performed using UV (366 nm) irradiation, which was followed by heat treatment, and the cross-linked nucleotide was cleaved through photosplitting (UV, 312 nm). The products were analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and fluorescence measurements. Western blotting and fluorescence-analysis results revealed that in vitro-translated proteins were synthesized from mRNAs after site-directed RNA editing. We detected substantial amounts of the target-base-substituted fragment using RFLP and observed highly reproducible spectra of the transition-GFP signal using fluorescence spectroscopy, which indicated protein stability. ODNc restored approximately 10% of the C-to-U transition. Thus, we successfully used non-enzymatic site-directed deamination for genetic restoration in vitro. In the near future, in vivo studies that include cultured cells and model animals will be conducted to treat genetic disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Thomas, Sean; Martinez, L L Isadora Trejo; Westenberger, Scott J; Sturm, Nancy R
The structurally complex network of minicircles and maxicircles comprising the mitochondrial DNA of kinetoplastids mirrors the complexity of the RNA editing process that is required for faithful expression of encrypted maxicircle genes. Although a few of the guide RNAs that direct this editing process have been discovered on maxicircles, guide RNAs are mostly found on the minicircles. The nuclear and maxicircle genomes have been sequenced and assembled for Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, however the complement of 1.4-kb minicircles, carrying four guide RNA genes per molecule in this parasite, has been less thoroughly characterised. Fifty-four CL Brener and 53 Esmeraldo strain minicircle sequence reads were extracted from T. cruzi whole genome shotgun sequencing data. With these sequences and all published T. cruzi minicircle sequences, 108 unique guide RNAs from all known T. cruzi minicircle sequences and two guide RNAs from the CL Brener maxicircle were predicted using a local alignment algorithm and mapped onto predicted or experimentally determined sequences of edited maxicircle open reading frames. For half of the sequences no statistically significant guide RNA could be assigned. Likely positions of these unidentified gRNAs in T. cruzi minicircle sequences are estimated using a simple Hidden Markov Model. With the local alignment predictions as a standard, the HMM had an ~85% chance of correctly identifying at least 20 nucleotides of guide RNA from a given minicircle sequence. Inter-minicircle recombination was documented. Variable regions contain species-specific areas of distinct nucleotide preference. Two maxicircle guide RNA genes were found. The identification of new minicircle sequences and the further characterization of all published minicircles are presented, including the first observation of recombination between minicircles. Extrapolation suggests a level of 4% recombinants in the population, supporting a relatively high
Iqbal, Emil S; Dods, Kara K; Hartman, Matthew C T
The ability to incorporate non-canonical amino acids (ncAA) using translation offers researchers the ability to extend the functionality of proteins and peptides for many applications including synthetic biology, biophysical and structural studies, and discovery of novel ligands. Here we describe the high promiscuity of an editing-deficient valine-tRNA synthetase (ValRS T222P). Using this enzyme, we demonstrate ribosomal translation of 11 ncAAs including those with novel side chains, α,α-disubstitutions, and cyclic β-amino acids.
Picardi, Ernesto; Quagliariello, Carla
EdiPy is an online resource appropriately designed to simulate the evolution of plant mitochondrial genes in a biologically realistic fashion. EdiPy takes into account the presence of sites subjected to RNA editing and provides multiple artificial alignments corresponding to both genomic and cDNA sequences. Each artificial data set can successively be submitted to main and widespread evolutionary and phylogenetic software packages such as PAUP, Phyml, PAML and Phylip. As an online bioinformatic resource, EdiPy is available at the following web page: http://biologia.unical.it/py_script/index.html.
Sarkar, Jaya; Poruri, Kiranmai; Boniecki, Michal T.; McTavish, Katherine K.; Martinis, Susan A.
The yeast mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase (ymLeuRS) performs dual essential roles in group I intron splicing and protein synthesis. A specific LeuRS domain called CP1 is responsible for clearing noncognate amino acids that are misactivated during aminoacylation. The ymLeuRS CP1 domain also plays a critical role in splicing. Herein, the ymLeuRS CP1 domain was isolated from the full-length enzyme and was active in RNA splicing in vitro. Unlike its Escherichia coli LeuRS CP1 domain counterpart, it failed to significantly hydrolyze misaminoacylated tRNALeu. In addition and in stark contrast to the yeast domain, the editing-active E. coli LeuRS CP1 domain failed to recapitulate the splicing activity of the full-length E. coli enzyme. Although LeuRS-dependent splicing activity is rooted in an ancient adaptation for its aminoacylation activity, these results suggest that the ymLeuRS has functionally diverged to confer a robust splicing activity. This adaptation could have come at some expense to the protein's housekeeping role in aminoacylation and editing. PMID:22383526
Foda, Bardees M.; Downey, Kurtis M.; Fisk, John C.
Efficient editing of Trypanosoma brucei mitochondrial RNAs involves the actions of multiple accessory factors. T. brucei RGG2 (TbRGG2) is an essential protein crucial for initiation and 3′-to-5′ progression of editing. TbRGG2 comprises an N-terminal G-rich region containing GWG and RG repeats and a C-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM)-containing domain. Here, we perform in vitro and in vivo separation-of-function studies to interrogate the mechanism of TbRGG2 action in RNA editing. TbRGG2 preferentially binds preedited mRNA in vitro with high affinity attributable to its G-rich region. RNA-annealing and -melting activities are separable, carried out primarily by the G-rich and RRM domains, respectively. In vivo, the G-rich domain partially complements TbRGG2 knockdown, but the RRM domain is also required. Notably, TbRGG2's RNA-melting activity is dispensable for RNA editing in vivo. Interactions between TbRGG2 and MRB1 complex proteins are mediated by both G-rich and RRM-containing domains, depending on the binding partner. Overall, our results are consistent with a model in which the high-affinity RNA binding and RNA-annealing activities of the G-rich domain are essential for RNA editing in vivo. The RRM domain may have key functions involving interactions with the MRB1 complex and/or regulation of the activities of the G-rich domain. PMID:22798390
Chung, Christina Z; Seidl, Lauren E; Mann, Mitchell R; Heinemann, Ilka U
The regulation of active microRNAs (miRNAs) and maturation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that are competent for translation is a crucial point in the control of all cellular processes, with established roles in development and differentiation. Terminal nucleotidyltransferases (TNTases) are potent regulators of RNA metabolism. TNTases promote the addition of single or multiple nucleotides to an RNA transcript that can rapidly alter transcript stability. The well-known polyadenylation promotes transcript stability while the newly discovered but ubiquitious 3'-end polyuridylation marks RNA for degradation. Monoadenylation and uridylation are essential control mechanisms balancing mRNA and miRNA homeostasis. This review discusses the multiple functions of non-canonical TNTases, focusing on their substrate range, biological functions, and evolution. TNTases directly control mRNA and miRNA levels, with diverse roles in transcriptome stabilization, maturation, silencing, or degradation. We will summarize the current state of knowledge on non-canonical nucleotidyltransferases and their function in regulating miRNA and mRNA metabolism. We will review the discovery of uridylation as an RNA degradation pathway and discuss the evolution of nucleotidyltransferases along with their use in RNA labeling and future applications as therapeutic targets. The biochemically and evolutionarily highly related adenylyl- and uridylyltransferases play antagonizing roles in the cell. In general, RNA adenylation promotes stability, while uridylation marks RNA for degradation. Uridylyltransferases evolved from adenylyltransferases in multiple independent evolutionary events by the insertion of a histidine residue into the active site, altering nucleotide, but not RNA specificity. Understanding the mechanisms regulating RNA stability in the cell and controlling the transcriptome is essential for efforts aiming to influence cellular fate. Selectively enhancing or reducing RNA stability allows for
Fu, Cheng-Jie; Sheikh, Sanea; Miao, Wei; Andersson, Siv G E; Baldauf, Sandra L
Discoba (Excavata) is an ancient group of eukaryotes with great morphological and ecological diversity. Unlike the other major divisions of Discoba (Jakobida and Euglenozoa), little is known about the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Heterolobosea. We have assembled a complete mtDNA genome from the aggregating heterolobosean amoeba, Acrasis kona, which consists of a single circular highly AT-rich (83.3%) molecule of 51.5 kb. Unexpectedly, A. kona mtDNA is missing roughly 40% of the protein-coding genes and nearly half of the transfer RNAs found in the only other sequenced heterolobosean mtDNAs, those of Naegleria spp. Instead, over a quarter of A. kona mtDNA consists of novel open reading frames. Eleven of the 16 protein-coding genes missing from A. kona mtDNA were identified in its nuclear DNA and polyA RNA, and phylogenetic analyses indicate that at least 10 of these 11 putative nuclear-encoded mitochondrial (NcMt) proteins arose by direct transfer from the mitochondrion. Acrasis kona mtDNA also employs C-to-U type RNA editing, and 12 homologs of DYW-type pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins implicated in plant organellar RNA editing are found in A. kona nuclear DNA. A mapping of mitochondrial gene content onto a consensus phylogeny reveals a sporadic pattern of relative stasis and rampant gene loss in Discoba. Rampant loss occurred independently in the unique common lineage leading to Heterolobosea + Tsukubamonadida and later in the unique lineage leading to Acrasis. Meanwhile, mtDNA gene content appears to be remarkably stable in the Acrasis sister lineage leading to Naegleria and in their distant relatives Jakobida. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Mooers, Blaine H. M.
Using direct methods starting from random phases, the crystal structure of a 32-base-pair RNA (675 non-H RNA atoms in the asymmetric unit) was determined using only the native diffraction data (resolution limit 1.05 Å) and the computer program SIR2014. The almost three helical turns of the RNA in the asymmetric unit introduced partial or imperfect translational pseudosymmetry (TPS) that modulated the intensities when averaged by the lMiller indices but still escaped automated detection. Almost six times as many random phase sets had to be tested on average to reach a correct structure compared with a similar-sized RNA hairpin (27 nucleotides,more » 580 non-H RNA atoms) without TPS. Lastly, more sensitive methods are needed for the automated detection of partial TPS.« less
Mooers, Blaine H. M.
Using direct methods starting from random phases, the crystal structure of a 32-base-pair RNA (675 non-H RNA atoms in the asymmetric unit) was determined using only the native diffraction data (resolution limit 1.05 Å) and the computer program SIR2014. The almost three helical turns of the RNA in the asymmetric unit introduced partial or imperfect translational pseudosymmetry (TPS) that modulated the intensities when averaged by the lMiller indices but still escaped automated detection. Almost six times as many random phase sets had to be tested on average to reach a correct structure compared with a similar-sized RNA hairpin (27 nucleotides,more » 580 non-H RNA atoms) without TPS. Lastly, more sensitive methods are needed for the automated detection of partial TPS.« less
Penn, Andrew C.; Balik, Ales; Greger, Ingo H.
Adenosine-to-Inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a post-transcriptional mechanism, evolved to diversify the transcriptome in metazoa. In addition to wide-spread editing in non-coding regions protein recoding by RNA editing allows for fine tuning of protein function. Functional consequences are only known for some editing sites and the combinatorial effect between multiple sites (functional epistasis) is currently unclear. Similarly, the interplay between RNA editing and splicing, which impacts on post-transcriptional gene regulation, has not been resolved. Here, we describe a versatile antisense approach, which will aid resolving these open questions. We have developed and characterized morpholino oligos targeting the most efficiently edited site—the AMPA receptor GluA2 Q/R site. We show that inhibition of editing closely correlates with intronic editing efficiency, which is linked to splicing efficiency. In addition to providing a versatile tool our data underscore the unique efficiency of a physiologically pivotal editing site. PMID:23172291
Xu, Yanhua; Leng, Junhong; Xue, Fang; Dong, Ruiqian
Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecologic cancers. The role of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide-like protein-3G (APCBEC-3G) in cervical cancer has yet to be elucidated. This study intends to explore the effect ofAPCBEC-3G on cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion. In vitro, the cervical cancer cell line Hela was transfected by APCBEC-3G plasmid. The mRNA and protein expression levels of APCBEC-3G were detected by Real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. Cervical cancer cell proliferation was determined by MTT. Transwell assay was applied to measure the effect of APCBEC-3G on cell invasion. APCBEC-3G mRNA and protein increased significantly after transfection (P<0.05) and cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasive ability were decreased significantly (P<0.05). APOBEC-3G serves as a suppressor of cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Our research provides theoretical basis for further investigationAPOBEC-3G effect in cervical cancer occurrence and development. PMID:26722417
Xu, Yanhua; Leng, Junhong; Xue, Fang; Dong, Ruiqian
Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecologic cancers. The role of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide-like protein-3G (APCBEC-3G) in cervical cancer has yet to be elucidated. This study intends to explore the effect of APCBEC-3G on cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion. In vitro, the cervical cancer cell line Hela was transfected by APCBEC-3G plasmid. The mRNA and protein expression levels of APCBEC-3G were detected by Real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. Cervical cancer cell proliferation was determined by MTT. Transwell assay was applied to measure the effect of APCBEC-3G on cell invasion. APCBEC-3G mRNA and protein increased significantly after transfection (P<0.05) and cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasive ability were decreased significantly (P<0.05). APOBEC-3G serves as a suppressor of cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Our research provides theoretical basis for further investigation APOBEC-3G effect in cervical cancer occurrence and development.
Wong, Richard G; Kazane, Katelynn; Maslov, Dmitri A; Rogers, Kestrel; Aphasizhev, Ruslan; Simpson, Larry
We studied the intramitochondrial localization of several multiprotein complexes involved in U-insertion/deletion RNA editing in trypanosome mitochondria. The editing complexes are located in one or two antipodal nodes adjacent to the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) disk, which are distinct from but associated with the minicircle catenation nodes. In some cases the proteins are in a bilateral sheet configuration. We also found that mitoribosomes have a nodal configuration. This type of organization is consistent with evidence for protein and RNA interactions of multiple editing complexes to form an ~40S editosome and also an interaction of editosomes with mitochondrial ribosomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.
Juergens, Hannes; Varela, Javier A; Gorter de Vries, Arthur R; Perli, Thomas; Gast, Veronica J M; Gyurchev, Nikola Y; Rajkumar, Arun S; Mans, Robert; Pronk, Jack T; Morrissey, John P; Daran, Jean-Marc G
While CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing has transformed yeast research, current plasmids and cassettes for Cas9 and guide-RNA expression are species specific. CRISPR tools that function in multiple yeast species could contribute to the intensifying research on non-conventional yeasts. A plasmid carrying a pangenomic origin of replication and two constitutive expression cassettes for Cas9 and ribozyme-flanked gRNAs was constructed. Its functionality was tested by analyzing inactivation of the ADE2 gene in four yeast species. In two Kluyveromyces species, near-perfect targeting (≥96%) and homologous repair (HR) were observed in at least 24% of transformants. In two Ogataea species, Ade- mutants were not observed directly after transformation, but prolonged incubation of transformed cells resulted in targeting efficiencies of 9% to 63% mediated by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). In an Ogataea parapolymorpha ku80 mutant, deletion of OpADE2 mediated by HR was achieved, albeit at low efficiencies (<1%). Furthermore the expression of a dual polycistronic gRNA array enabled simultaneous interruption of OpADE2 and OpYNR1 demonstrating flexibility of ribozyme-flanked gRNA design for multiplexing. While prevalence of NHEJ prevented HR-mediated editing in Ogataea, such targeted editing was possible in Kluyveromyces. This broad-host-range CRISPR/gRNA system may contribute to exploration of Cas9-mediated genome editing in other Saccharomycotina yeasts.
Tang, Yi; Wang, Pin; Van Deventer, James A.; Link, A. James; Tirrell, David A.
A leucine analog containing a ketone has been incorporated into proteins in E. coli. Only E. coli strains overexpressing an editing-deficient leucyl-tRNA synthetase were capable of synthesizing proteins with the aliphatic ketone amino acid. Modification of ketone-containing proteins under mild conditions has been demonstrated. PMID:19670197
Pelet, T; Curran, J; Kolakofsky, D
The P gene of bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (bPIV3) contains two downstream overlapping ORFs, called V and D. By comparison with the mRNA editing sites of other paramyxoviruses, two editing sites were predicted for bPIV3; site a to express the D protein, and site b to express the V protein. Examination of the bPIV3 mRNAs, however, indicates that site b is non-functional whereas site a operates frequently. Insertions at site a give rise to both V and D protein mRNAs, because a very broad distribution of Gs is added when insertions occur. This broad distribution is very different from the editing sites of Sendai virus or SV5, where predominantly one form of edited mRNA containing either a one or two G insertion respectively is created, to access the single overlapping ORF of these viruses. A model is proposed to explain how paramyxoviruses control the range of G insertions on that fraction of the mRNAs where insertions occur. The bPIV3 P gene is unique as far as we know, in that a sizeable portion of the gene expresses all 3 reading frames as protein. bPIV3 apparently does this from a single editing site by removing the constraints which control the number of slippage rounds which take place. Images PMID:1846805
Mendoza, Brian J; Trinh, Cong T
Genetic diversity of non-model organisms offers a repertoire of unique phenotypic features for exploration and cultivation for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering applications. To realize this enormous potential, it is critical to have an efficient genome editing tool for rapid strain engineering of these organisms to perform novel programmed functions. To accommodate the use of CRISPR/Cas systems for genome editing across organisms, we have developed a novel method, named CRISPR Associated Software for Pathway Engineering and Research (CASPER), for identifying on- and off-targets with enhanced predictability coupled with an analysis of non-unique (repeated) targets to assist in editing any organism with various endonucleases. Utilizing CASPER, we demonstrated a modest 2.4% and significant 30.2% improvement (F-test, P < 0.05) over the conventional methods for predicting on- and off-target activities, respectively. Further we used CASPER to develop novel applications in genome editing: multitargeting analysis (i.e. simultaneous multiple-site modification on a target genome with a sole guide-RNA requirement) and multispecies population analysis (i.e. guide-RNA design for genome editing across a consortium of organisms). Our analysis on a selection of industrially relevant organisms revealed a number of non-unique target sites associated with genes and transposable elements that can be used as potential sites for multitargeting. The analysis also identified shared and unshared targets that enable genome editing of single or multiple genomes in a consortium of interest. We envision CASPER as a useful platform to enhance the precise CRISPR genome editing for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology applications. https://github.com/TrinhLab/CASPER. email@example.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
de Solis, Christopher A.; Ho, Anthony; Holehonnur, Roopashri; Ploski, Jonathan E.
The RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease, from the type II prokaryotic Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) adaptive immune system, has been adapted and utilized by scientists to edit the genomes of eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the development of a viral mediated CRISPR/Cas9 system that can be rendered inducible utilizing doxycycline (Dox) and can be delivered to cells in vitro and in vivo utilizing adeno-associated virus (AAV). Specifically, we developed an inducible gRNA (gRNAi) AAV vector that is designed to express the gRNA from a H1/TO promoter. This AAV vector is also designed to express the Tet repressor (TetR) to regulate the expression of the gRNAi in a Dox dependent manner. We show that H1/TO promoters of varying length and a U6/TO promoter can edit DNA with similar efficiency in vitro, in a Dox dependent manner. We also demonstrate that our inducible gRNAi vector can be used to edit the genomes of neurons in vivo within the mouse brain in a Dox dependent manner. Genome editing can be induced in vivo with this system by supplying animals Dox containing food for as little as 1 day. This system might be cross compatible with many existing S. pyogenes Cas9 systems (i.e., Cas9 mouse, CRISPRi, etc.), and therefore it likely can be used to render these systems inducible as well. PMID:27587996
Hu, Peinan; Zhao, Xueying; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Weiming; Zu, Yao
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has been proven to be an efficient and precise genome editing technology in various organisms. However, the gene editing efficiencies of Cas9 proteins with a nuclear localization signal (NLS) fused to different termini and Cas9 mRNA have not been systematically compared. Here, we compared the ability of Cas9 proteins with NLS fused to the N-, C-, or both the N- and C-termini and N-NLS-Cas9-NLS-C mRNA to target two sites in the tyr gene and two sites in the gol gene related to pigmentation in zebrafish. Phenotypic analysis revealed that all types of Cas9 led to hypopigmentation in similar proportions of injected embryos. Genome analysis by T7 Endonuclease I (T7E1) assays demonstrated that all types of Cas9 similarly induced mutagenesis in four target sites. Sequencing results further confirmed that a high frequency of indels occurred in the target sites ( tyr1 > 66%, tyr2 > 73%, gol1 > 50%, and gol2 > 35%), as well as various types (more than six) of indel mutations observed in all four types of Cas9-injected embryos. Furthermore, all types of Cas9 showed efficient targeted mutagenesis on multiplex genome editing, resulting in multiple phenotypes simultaneously. Collectively, we conclude that various NLS-fused Cas9 proteins and Cas9 mRNAs have similar genome editing efficiencies on targeting single or multiple genes, suggesting that the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing is highly dependent on guide RNAs (gRNAs) and gene loci. These findings may help to simplify the selection of Cas9 for gene editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Copyright © 2018 Hu et al.
Hu, Peinan; Zhao, Xueying; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Weiming; Zu, Yao
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has been proven to be an efficient and precise genome editing technology in various organisms. However, the gene editing efficiencies of Cas9 proteins with a nuclear localization signal (NLS) fused to different termini and Cas9 mRNA have not been systematically compared. Here, we compared the ability of Cas9 proteins with NLS fused to the N-, C-, or both the N- and C-termini and N-NLS-Cas9-NLS-C mRNA to target two sites in the tyr gene and two sites in the gol gene related to pigmentation in zebrafish. Phenotypic analysis revealed that all types of Cas9 led to hypopigmentation in similar proportions of injected embryos. Genome analysis by T7 Endonuclease I (T7E1) assays demonstrated that all types of Cas9 similarly induced mutagenesis in four target sites. Sequencing results further confirmed that a high frequency of indels occurred in the target sites (tyr1 > 66%, tyr2 > 73%, gol1 > 50%, and gol2 > 35%), as well as various types (more than six) of indel mutations observed in all four types of Cas9-injected embryos. Furthermore, all types of Cas9 showed efficient targeted mutagenesis on multiplex genome editing, resulting in multiple phenotypes simultaneously. Collectively, we conclude that various NLS-fused Cas9 proteins and Cas9 mRNAs have similar genome editing efficiencies on targeting single or multiple genes, suggesting that the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing is highly dependent on guide RNAs (gRNAs) and gene loci. These findings may help to simplify the selection of Cas9 for gene editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. PMID:29295818
He, Yubing; Wang, Rongchen; Dai, Xinhua; Zhao, Yunde
CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology has been used to successfully edit numerous genes in various organisms including plants. There are still two major challenges in using CRISPR/Cas9 technology for gene editing in plants. First, there are very limited choices of promoters that are suitable for in vivo production of single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs), which is complementary to the target sequence and which guides Cas9 to generate double-strand breaks at the target site. It is especially difficult to produce sgRNA molecules with temporal and spatial precision. Second, there is a lack of efficient methods for identifying plants that (1) contain heritable and stable mutations generated by CRISPR/Cas9, and (2) no longer harbor the CRISPR/Cas9 construct and other transgenes. In this chapter, we describe the development of a ribozyme-based strategy that enables the production of sgRNA molecules from any chosen promoter. More importantly, the ribozyme-based technology makes it feasible to produce sgRNAs with temporal and spatial precision, greatly expanding the scope and applications of CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We also developed a fluorescence-based technology that allows us to efficiently and reliably isolate Cas9-free stable Arabidopsis mutants. Thus, we provide effective protocols to overcome two important obstacles in using CRISPR/Cas9 for editing genes in plants. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhu, Qiang; Dugardeyn, Jasper; Zhang, Chunyi; Mühlenbock, Per; Eastmond, Peter J; Valcke, Roland; De Coninck, Barbara; Oden, Sevgi; Karampelias, Michael; Cammue, Bruno P A; Prinsen, Els; Van Der Straeten, Dominique
Recently, we reported that the novel mitochondrial RNA editing factor SLO2 is essential for mitochondrial electron transport, and vital for plant growth through regulation of carbon and energy metabolism. Here, we show that mutation in SLO2 causes hypersensitivity to ABA and insensitivity to ethylene, suggesting a link with stress responses. Indeed, slo2 mutants are hypersensitive to salt and osmotic stress during the germination stage, while adult plants show increased drought and salt tolerance. Moreover, slo2 mutants are more susceptible to Botrytis cinerea infection. An increased expression of nuclear-encoded stress-responsive genes, as well as mitochondrial-encoded NAD genes of complex I and genes of the alternative respiratory pathway, was observed in slo2 mutants, further enhanced by ABA treatment. In addition, H2O2 accumulation and altered amino acid levels were recorded in slo2 mutants. We conclude that SLO2 is required for plant sensitivity to ABA, ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress. Although two stress-related RNA editing factors were reported very recently, this study demonstrates a unique role of SLO2, and further supports a link between mitochondrial RNA editing events and stress response.
Doe, Christine M; Relkovic, Dinko; Garfield, Alastair S; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Theobald, David E H; Humby, Trevor; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Isles, Anthony R
The Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) genetic interval contains several brain-expressed small nucleolar (sno)RNA species that are subject to genomic imprinting. In vitro studies have shown that one of these snoRNA molecules, h/mbii-52, negatively regulates editing and alternative splicing of the serotonin 2C receptor (5htr2c) pre-RNA. However, the functional consequences of loss of h/mbii-52 and subsequent increased post-transcriptional modification of 5htr2c are unknown. 5HT2CRs are important in controlling aspects of cognition and the cessation of feeding, and disruption of their function may underlie some of the psychiatric and feeding abnormalities seen in PWS. In a mouse model for PWS lacking expression of mbii-52 (PWS-IC+/-), we show an increase in editing, but not alternative splicing, of the 5htr2c pre-RNA. This change in post-transcriptional modification is associated with alterations in a number of 5HT2CR-related behaviours, including impulsive responding, locomotor activity and reactivity to palatable foodstuffs. In a non-5HT2CR-related behaviour, marble burying, loss of mbii-52 was without effect. The specificity of the behavioural effects to changes in 5HT2CR function was further confirmed using drug challenges. These data illustrate, for the first time, the physiological consequences of altered RNA editing of 5htr2c linked to mbii-52 loss that may underlie specific aspects of the complex PWS phenotype and point to an important functional role for this imprinted snoRNA.
de Santana Lopes, Amanda; Pacheco, Túlio Gomes; do Nascimento Vieira, Leila; Guerra, Miguel Pedro; Nodari, Rubens Onofre; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Rogalski, Marcelo
Crambe abyssinica is an important oilseed crop that accumulates high levels of erucic acid, which is being recognized as a potential oil platform for several industrial purposes. It belongs to the family Brassicaceae, assigned within the tribe Brassiceae. Both family and tribe have been the subject of several phylogenetic studies, but the relationship between some lineages and genera remains unclear. Here, we report the complete sequencing and characterization of the C. abyssinica plastome. Plastome structure, gene order, and gene content of C. abyssinica are similar to other species of the family Brassicaceae. The only exception is the rps16 gene, which is absent in many genera within the family Brassicaceae, but seems to be functional in the tribe Brassiceae, including C. abyssinica. However, the analysis of gene divergence shows that the rps16 is the most divergent gene in C. abyssinica and within the tribe Brassiceae. In addition, species of the tribe Brassiceae also show similar SSR loci distribution, with some regions containing a high number of SSRs, which are located mainly at the single copy regions. Six hotspots of nucleotide divergence among Brassiceae species were located in the single copy regions by sliding window analysis. Brassicaceae phylogenomic analysis, based on the complete plastomes of 72 taxa, resulted in a well-supported and well-resolved tree. The genus Crambe is positioned within the Brassiceae clade together with the genera Brassica, Raphanus, Sinapis, Cakile, Orychophragmus and Sinalliaria. Moreover, we report several losses and gains of RNA editing sites that occurred in plastomes of Brassiceae species during evolution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Wolfs, Jason M; Hamilton, Thomas A; Lant, Jeremy T; Laforet, Marcon; Zhang, Jenny; Salemi, Louisa M; Gloor, Gregory B; Schild-Poulter, Caroline; Edgell, David R
The CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease is commonly used to make gene knockouts. The blunt DNA ends generated by cleavage can be efficiently ligated by the classical nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway (c-NHEJ), regenerating the target site. This repair creates a cycle of cleavage, ligation, and target site regeneration that persists until sufficient modification of the DNA break by alternative NHEJ prevents further Cas9 cutting, generating a heterogeneous population of insertions and deletions typical of gene knockouts. Here, we develop a strategy to escape this cycle and bias events toward defined length deletions by creating an RNA-guided dual active site nuclease that generates two noncompatible DNA breaks at a target site, effectively deleting the majority of the target site such that it cannot be regenerated. The TevCas9 nuclease, a fusion of the I-TevI nuclease domain to Cas9, functions robustly in HEK293 cells and generates 33- to 36-bp deletions at frequencies up to 40%. Deep sequencing revealed minimal processing of TevCas9 products, consistent with protection of the DNA ends from exonucleolytic degradation and repair by the c-NHEJ pathway. Directed evolution experiments identified I-TevI variants with broadened targeting range, making TevCas9 an easy-to-use reagent. Our results highlight how the sequence-tolerant cleavage properties of the I-TevI homing endonuclease can be harnessed to enhance Cas9 applications, circumventing the cleavage and ligation cycle and biasing genome-editing events toward defined length deletions.
Cho, Charles J; Jung, Jaeeun; Jiang, Lushang; Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Dae-Soo; Kim, Byung Sik; Kim, Hee Sung; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Song, Ho-June; Hwang, Sung Wook; Park, Yangsoon; Jung, Min Kyo; Pack, Chan Gi; Myung, Seung-Jae; Chang, Suhwan
Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is known to mediate deamination of adenosine-to-inosine through binding to double-stranded RNA, the phenomenon known as RNA editing. Currently, the function of ADAR1 in gastric cancer is unclear. This study was aimed at investigating RNA editing-dependent and editing-independent functions of ADAR1 in gastric cancer, especially focusing on its influence on editing of 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) and subsequent changes in expression of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) as well as microRNAs (miRNAs). RNA-sequencing and small RNA-sequencing were performed on AGS and MKN-45 cells with a stable ADAR1 knockdown. Changed frequencies of editing and mRNA and miRNA expression were then identified by bioinformatic analyses. Targets of RNA editing were further validated in patients' samples. In the Alu region of both gastric cell lines, editing was most commonly of the A-to-I type in 3'-UTR or intron. mRNA and protein levels of PHACTR4 increased in ADAR1 knockdown cells, because of the loss of seed sequences in 3'-UTR of PHACTR4 mRNA that are required for miRNA-196a-3p binding. Immunohistochemical analyses of tumor and paired normal samples from 16 gastric cancer patients showed that ADAR1 expression was higher in tumors than in normal tissues and inversely correlated with PHACTR4 staining. On the other hand, decreased miRNA-148a-3p expression in ADAR1 knockdown cells led to increased mRNA and protein expression of NFYA, demonstrating ADAR1's editing-independent function. ADAR1 regulates post-transcriptional gene expression in gastric cancer through both RNA editing-dependent and editing-independent mechanisms.
Aizawa, Hitoshi; Hideyama, Takuto; Yamashita, Takenari; Kimura, Takashi; Suzuki, Naoki; Aoki, Masashi; Kwak, Shin
Mutations in the fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene can cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and FUS gene mutations have been reported in sporadic ALS patients with basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. Deficiency of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2), an enzyme that specifically catalyzes GluA2 Q/R site-editing, has been reported in considerable proportions of spinal motor neurons of the majority of sporadic ALS patients. We describe the relationship between GluA2 Q/R site-editing efficiency and FUS-positive inclusions in a patient with FUS(P525L). A 24-year-old woman with ALS presented with basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, significantly reduced GluA2 Q/R site-editing efficiency in the spinal motor neurons, and markedly decreased ADAR2 mRNA levels. Neuropathologic examination showed that not all spinal motor neurons expressed ADAR2 and revealed FUS-positive cytoplasmic inclusions in motor neurons irrespective of ADAR2 immunoreactivity. There were no phosphorylated transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43)-positive inclusions, indicating that there was no tight correlation between ADAR2 deficiency and TDP-43 deposition. ADAR2 deficiency can occur in ALS patients with a FUS(P525L) mutation and is unrelated to the presence of FUS-positive inclusions. FUS-associated ALS may share neurodegenerative characteristics with classical sporadic ALS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huang, Jialing; Liang, Zhihui; Yang, Bin; Tian, Heng; Ma, Jin; Zhang, Hui
The apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G or A3G) and its fellow cytidine deaminase family members are potent restrictive factors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and many other retroviruses. A3G interacts with a vast spectrum of RNA-binding proteins and is located in processing bodies and stress granules. However, its cellular function remains to be further clarified. Using a luciferase reporter gene and green fluorescent protein reporter gene, we demonstrate that A3G and other APOBEC family members can counteract the inhibition of protein synthesis by various microRNAs (miRNAs) such as mir-10b, mir-16, mir-25, and let-7a. A3G could also enhance the expression level of miRNA-targeted mRNA. Further, A3G facilitated the association of microRNA-targeted mRNA with polysomes rather than with processing bodies. Intriguingly, experiments with a C288A/C291A A3G mutant indicated that this function of A3G is separable from its cytidine deaminase activity. Our findings suggest that the major cellular function of A3G, in addition to inhibiting the mobility of retrotransposons and replication of endogenous retroviruses, is most likely to prevent the decay of miRNA-targeted mRNA in processing bodies.
Ashwal-Fluss, Reut; Pandey, Varun; Levanon, Erez Y.; Kadener, Sebastian
In Drosophila, A-to-I editing is prevalent in the brain, and mutations in the editing enzyme ADAR correlate with specific behavioral defects. Here we demonstrate a role for ADAR in behavioral temperature adaptation in Drosophila. Although there is a higher level of editing at lower temperatures, at 29°C more sites are edited. These sites are less evolutionarily conserved, more disperse, less likely to be involved in secondary structures, and more likely to be located in exons. Interestingly, hypomorph mutants for ADAR display a weaker transcriptional response to temperature changes than wild-type flies and a highly abnormal behavioral response upon temperature increase. In sum, our data shows that ADAR is essential for proper temperature adaptation, a key behavior trait that is essential for survival of flies in the wild. Moreover, our results suggest a more general role of ADAR in regulating RNA secondary structures in vivo. PMID:28746393
Wang, Peng; Zhang, Lingmin; Xie, Yangzhouyun; Wang, Nuoxin; Tang, Rongbing; Zheng, Wenfu; Jiang, Xingyu
The type II bacterial clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein) system (CRISPR-Cas9) is a powerful toolbox for gene-editing, however, the nonviral delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 to cells or tissues remains a key challenge. This paper reports a strategy to deliver Cas9 protein and single guide RNA (sgRNA) plasmid by a nanocarrier with a core of gold nanoclusters (GNs) and a shell of lipids. By modifying the GNs with HIV-1-transactivator of transcription peptide, the cargo (Cas9/sgRNA) can be delivered into cell nuclei. This strategy is utilized to treat melanoma by designing sgRNA targeting Polo-like kinase-1 ( Plk1 ) of the tumor. The nanoparticle (polyethylene glycol-lipid/GNs/Cas9 protein/sgPlk1 plasmid, LGCP) leads to >70% down-regulation of Plk1 protein expression of A375 cells in vitro. Moreover, the LGCP suppresses melanoma progress by 75% on mice. Thus, this strategy can deliver protein-nucleic acid hybrid agents for gene therapy.
Darnell, James E., Jr.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…
McDermott, Suzanne M; Carnes, Jason; Stuart, Kenneth
KREPB5 is an essential component of ∼ 20S editosomes in Trypanosoma brucei which contains a degenerate, noncatalytic RNase III domain. To explore the function of this protein, we used a novel approach to make and screen numerous conditional null T. brucei bloodstream form cell lines that express randomly mutagenized KREPB5 alleles. We identified nine single amino acid substitutions that could not complement the conditional loss of wild-type KREPB5. Seven of these were within the RNase III domain, and two were in the C-terminal region that has no homology to known motifs. Exclusive expression of these mutated KREPB5 alleles in the absence of wild-type allele expression resulted in growth inhibition, the loss of ∼ 20S editosomes, and inhibition of RNA editing in BF cells. Eight of these mutations were lethal in bloodstream form parasites but not in procyclic-form parasites, showing that multiple domains function in a life cycle-dependent manner. Amino acid changes at a substantial number of positions, including up to 7 per allele, allowed complementation and thus did not block KREPB5 function. Hence, the degenerate RNase III domain and a newly identified domain are critical for KREPB5 function and have differential effects between the life cycle stages of T. brucei that differentially edit mRNAs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
McDermott, Suzanne M.; Carnes, Jason
KREPB5 is an essential component of ∼20S editosomes in Trypanosoma brucei which contains a degenerate, noncatalytic RNase III domain. To explore the function of this protein, we used a novel approach to make and screen numerous conditional null T. brucei bloodstream form cell lines that express randomly mutagenized KREPB5 alleles. We identified nine single amino acid substitutions that could not complement the conditional loss of wild-type KREPB5. Seven of these were within the RNase III domain, and two were in the C-terminal region that has no homology to known motifs. Exclusive expression of these mutated KREPB5 alleles in the absence of wild-type allele expression resulted in growth inhibition, the loss of ∼20S editosomes, and inhibition of RNA editing in BF cells. Eight of these mutations were lethal in bloodstream form parasites but not in procyclic-form parasites, showing that multiple domains function in a life cycle-dependent manner. Amino acid changes at a substantial number of positions, including up to 7 per allele, allowed complementation and thus did not block KREPB5 function. Hence, the degenerate RNase III domain and a newly identified domain are critical for KREPB5 function and have differential effects between the life cycle stages of T. brucei that differentially edit mRNAs. PMID:26370513
Biasin, Mara; Piacentini, Luca; Lo Caputo, Sergio; Kanari, Yasuyoshi; Magri, Giuliana; Trabattoni, Daria; Naddeo, Valentina; Lopalco, Lucia; Clivio, Alberto; Cesana, Eugenio; Fasano, Francesca; Bergamaschi, Cristina; Mazzotta, Francesco; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Clerici, Mario
Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G), a human cytidine deaminase, is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication. To explore a possible role of this protein in modulating in vivo susceptibility to HIV infection, we analyzed APOBEC3G expression in HIV-exposed seronegative individuals, HIV-seropositive patients, and healthy control subjects. The results showed that the expression of APOBEC3G is significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)--mainly CD14(+) cells--and in cervical tissues of HIV-exposed seronegative individuals. Higher APOBEC3G expression correlated with a reduced susceptibility of PBMCs to in vitro infection with the HIV-1(Ba-L) R5 strain. APOBEC3G could be important in modulating in vivo susceptibility to sexually transmitted HIV infection.
Schuster, W; Brennicke, A
An intact gene for the ribosomal protein S19 (rps19) is absent from Oenothera mitochondria. The conserved rps19 reading frame found in the mitochondrial genome is interrupted by a termination codon. This rps19 pseudogene is cotranscribed with the downstream rps3 gene and is edited on both sides of the translational stop. Editing, however, changes the amino acid sequence at positions that were well conserved before editing. Other strange editings create translational stops in open reading frames coding for functional proteins. In coxI and rps3 mRNAs CGA codons are edited to UGA stop codons only five and three codons, respectively, downstream to the initiation codon. These aberrant editings in essential open reading frames and in the rps19 pseudogene appear to have been shifted to these positions from other editing sites. These observations suggest a requirement for a continuous evolutionary constraint on the editing specificities in plant mitochondria. Images PMID:1762921
Zhuo, Chuanjun; Hou, Weihong; Hu, Lirong; Lin, Chongguang; Chen, Ce; Lin, Xiaodong
Schizophrenia is a genetically related mental illness, in which the majority of genetic alterations occur in the non-coding regions of the human genome. In the past decade, a growing number of regulatory non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified to be strongly associated with schizophrenia. However, the studies of these ncRNAs in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the reverting of their genetic defects in restoration of the normal phenotype have been hampered by insufficient technology to manipulate these ncRNA genes effectively as well as a lack of appropriate animal models. Most recently, a revolutionary gene editing technology known as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9; CRISPR/Cas9) has been developed that enable researchers to overcome these challenges. In this review article, we mainly focus on the schizophrenia-related ncRNAs and the use of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing on the non-coding regions of the genomic DNA in proving causal relationship between the genetic defects and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We subsequently discuss the potential of translating this advanced technology into a clinical therapy for schizophrenia, although the CRISPR/Cas9 technology is currently still in its infancy and immature to put into use in the treatment of diseases. Furthermore, we suggest strategies to accelerate the pace from the bench to the bedside. This review describes the application of the powerful and feasible CRISPR/Cas9 technology to manipulate schizophrenia-associated ncRNA genes. This technology could help researchers tackle this complex health problem and perhaps other genetically related mental disorders due to the overlapping genetic alterations of schizophrenia with other mental illnesses. PMID:28217082
Banaszak, Lauren G; Giudice, Valentina; Zhao, Xin; Wu, Zhijie; Gao, Shouguo; Hosokawa, Kohei; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Townsley, Danielle M; Gutierrez-Rodrigues, Fernanda; Fernandez Ibanez, Maria Del Pilar; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Young, Neal S
DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) mediates de novo DNA methylation. Mutations in DNMT3A are associated with hematological malignancies, most frequently acute myeloid leukemia. DNMT3A mutations are hypothesized to establish a pre-leukemic state, rendering cells vulnerable to secondary oncogenic mutations and malignant transformation. However, the mechanisms by which DNMT3A mutations contribute to leukemogenesis are not well-defined. Here, we successfully created four DNMT3A-mutated K562 cell lines with frameshift mutations resulting in truncated DNMT3A proteins. DNMT3A-mutated cell lines exhibited significantly impaired growth and increased apoptotic activity compared to wild-type (WT) cells. Consistent with previous studies, DNMT3A-mutated cells displayed impaired differentiation capacity. RNA-seq was used to compare transcriptomes of DNMT3A-mutated and WT cells; DNMT3A ablation resulted in downregulation of genes involved in spliceosome function, causing dysfunction of RNA splicing. Unexpectedly, we observed DNMT3A-mutated cells to exhibit marked genomic instability and an impaired DNA damage response compared to WT. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated DNMT3A-mutated K562 cells may be used to model effects of DNMT3A mutations in human cells. Our findings implicate aberrant splicing and induction of genomic instability as potential mechanisms by which DNMT3A mutations might predispose to malignancy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Peng, Zong-Gen; Zhao, Zhi-Yun; Li, Yan-Ping; Wang, Yu-Ping; Hao, Lan-Hu; Fan, Bo; Li, Yu-Huan; Wang, Yue-Ming; Shan, Yong-Qiang; Han, Yan-Xing; Zhu, Yan-Ping; Li, Jian-Rui; You, Xue-Fu; Li, Zhuo-Rong; Jiang, Jian-Dong
Host cellular factor apolipoprotein B messenger RNA (mRNA)-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (hA3G) is a cytidine deaminase that inhibits a group of viruses including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). In the continuation of our research on hA3G, we found that hA3G stabilizing compounds significantly inhibited hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Therefore, this study investigated the role of hA3G in HCV replication. Introduction of external hA3G into HCV-infected Huh7.5 human hepatocytes inhibited HCV replication; knockdown of endogenous hA3G enhanced HCV replication. Exogenous HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif) decreased intracellular hA3G and therefore enhanced HCV proliferation, suggesting that the presence of Vif might be an explanation for the HIV-1/HCV coinfection often observed in HIV-1(+) individuals. Treatment of the HCV-infected Huh7.5 cells with RN-5 or IMB-26, two known hA3G stabilizing compounds, increased intracellular hA3G and accordingly inhibited HCV replication. The compounds inhibit HCV through increasing the level of hA3G incorporated into HCV particles, but not through inhibiting HCV enzymes. However, G/A hypermutation in the HCV genome were not detected, suggesting a new antiviral mechanism of hA3G in HCV, different from that in HIV-1. Stabilization of hA3G by RN-5 was safe in vivo. hA3G appears to be a cellular restrict factor against HCV and could be a potential target for drug discovery. 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Ejima, Tomohiko; Hirota, Mayuko; Mizukami, Tamio; Otsuka, Masami; Fujita, Mikako
Human apoplipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) 3G (A3G) is an antiviral protein that blocks HIV-1 replication. However, the antiviral activity of A3G is overcome by the HIV-1 protein Vif. This inhibitory function of Vif is related to its ability to degrade A3G in the proteasome. This finding prompted us to examine the activities of 4-(dimethylamino)-2,6-bis[(N-(2-[(2-nitrophenyl)dithio]ethyl)amino)methyl]pyridine (SN-2) and SN-3. We found that 5 µM SN-2 increases the expression of A3G to a level much higher than that observed in the absence of Vif, without affecting the level of Vif expression. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 increased the level of both A3G and Vif expression. These results demonstrate that A3G is ubiquitinated and degraded in the proteasome by a factor other than Vif, and that SN-2 selectively inhibits these processes. Furthermore, 5 µM SN-2 significantly inhibited the MAGI cell infectivity of wild-type HIV-1. These findings may contribute to the development of a novel anti-HIV-1 drug.
The apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G or APOBEC3G) and its fellow cytidine deaminase family members are potent restrictive factors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and many other retroviruses. However, the cellular function of APOBEC3G remains to be further clarified. It has been reported that APOBEC3s can restrict the mobility of endogenous retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons, suggesting that they can maintain stability in host genomes. However, APOBEC3G is normally cytoplasmic. Further studies have demonstrated that it is associated with an RNase-sensitive high molecular mass (HMM) and located in processing bodies (P-bodies) of replicating T-cells, indicating that the major cellular function of APOBEC3G seems to be related to P-body-related RNA processing and metabolism. As the function of P-body is closely related to miRNA activity, APOBEC3G could affect the miRNA function. Recent studies have demonstrated that APOBEC3G and its family members counteract miRNA-mediated repression of protein translation. Further, APOBEC3G enhances the association of miRNA-targeted mRNA with polysomes, and facilitates the dissociation of miRNA-targeted mRNA from P-bodies. As such, APOBEC3G regulate the activity of cellular miRNAs. Whether this function is related to its potent antiviral activity remains to be further determined.
Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Shih, Arthur Chun-Chieh; Wang, Daryi; Wu, Yu-Wei; Liu, Shu-Mei; Chou, The-Yuan
The mtDNA of Cycas taitungensis is a circular molecule of 414,903 bp, making it 2- to 6-fold larger than the known mtDNAs of charophytes and bryophytes, but similar to the average of 7 elucidated angiosperm mtDNAs. It is characterized by abundant RNA editing sites (1,084), more than twice the number found in the angiosperm mtDNAs. The A + T content of Cycas mtDNA is 53.1%, the lowest among known land plants. About 5% of the Cycas mtDNA is composed of a novel family of mobile elements, which we designated as "Bpu sequences." They share a consensus sequence of 36 bp with 2 terminal direct repeats (AAGG) and a recognition site for the Bpu 10I restriction endonuclease (CCTGAAGC). Comparison of the Cycas mtDNA with other plant mtDNAs revealed many new insights into the biology and evolution of land plant mtDNAs. For example, the noncoding sequences in mtDNAs have drastically expanded as land plants have evolved, with abrupt increases appearing in the bryophytes, and then in the seed plants. As a result, the genomic organizations of seed plant mtDNAs are much less compact than in other plants. Also, the Cycas mtDNA appears to have been exempted from the frequent gene loss observed in angiosperm mtDNAs. Similar to the angiosperms, the 3 Cycas genes nad1, nad2, and nad5 are disrupted by 5 group II intron squences, which have brought the genes into trans-splicing arrangements. The evolutionary origin and invasion/duplication mechanism of the Bpu sequences in Cycas mtDNA are hypothesized and discussed.
Hale, S P; Schimmel, P
Potential errors in decoding genetic information are corrected by tRNA-dependent amino acid recognition processes manifested through editing reactions. One example is the rejection of difficult-to-discriminate misactivated amino acids by tRNA synthetases through hydrolytic reactions. Although several crystal structures of tRNA synthetases and synthetase-tRNA complexes exist, none of them have provided insight into the editing reactions. Other work suggested that editing required active amino acid acceptor hydroxyl groups at the 3' end of a tRNA effector. We describe here the isolation of a DNA aptamer that specifically induced hydrolysis of a misactivated amino acid bound to a tRNA synthetase. The aptamer had no effect on the stability of the correctly activated amino acid and was almost as efficient as the tRNA for inducing editing activity. The aptamer has no sequence similarity to that of the tRNA effector and cannot be folded into a tRNA-like structure. These and additional data show that active acceptor hydroxyl groups in a tRNA effector and a tRNA-like structure are not essential for editing. Thus, specific bases in a nucleic acid effector trigger the editing response. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8610114
Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Hashem, Abeer; Bae, Hanhong
Genome editing tools have the potential to change the genomic architecture of a genome at precise locations, with desired accuracy. These tools have been efficiently used for trait discovery and for the generation of plants with high crop yields and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Due to complex genomic architecture, it is challenging to edit all of the genes/genomes using a particular genome editing tool. Therefore, to overcome this challenging task, several genome editing tools have been developed to facilitate efficient genome editing. Some of the major genome editing tools used to edit plant genomes are: Homologous recombination (HR), zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), pentatricopeptide repeat proteins (PPRs), the CRISPR/Cas9 system, RNA interference (RNAi), cisgenesis, and intragenesis. In addition, site-directed sequence editing and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis have the potential to edit the genome at the single-nucleotide level. Recently, adenine base editors (ABEs) have been developed to mutate A-T base pairs to G-C base pairs. ABEs use deoxyadeninedeaminase (TadA) with catalytically impaired Cas9 nickase to mutate A-T base pairs to G-C base pairs. PMID:29257124
Svarovskaia, Evguenia S; Xu, Hongzhan; Mbisa, Jean L; Barr, Rebekah; Gorelick, Robert J; Ono, Akira; Freed, Eric O; Hu, Wei-Shau; Pathak, Vinay K
Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) is a host cytidine deaminase that is packaged into virions and confers resistance to retroviral infection. APOBEC3G deaminates deoxycytidines in minus strand DNA to deoxyuridines, resulting in G to A hypermutation and viral inactivation. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion infectivity factor counteracts the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G by inducing its proteosomal degradation and preventing virion incorporation. To elucidate the mechanism of viral suppression by APOBEC3G, we developed a sensitive cytidine deamination assay and analyzed APOBEC3G virion incorporation in a series of HIV-1 deletion mutants. Virus-like particles derived from constructs in which pol, env, and most of gag were deleted still contained high levels of cytidine deaminase activity; in addition, coimmunoprecipitation of APOBEC3G and HIV-1 Gag in the presence and absence of RNase A indicated that the two proteins do not interact directly but form an RNase-sensitive complex. Viral particles lacking HIV-1 genomic RNA which were generated from the gag-pol expression constructs pC-Help and pSYNGP packaged APOBEC3G at 30-40% of the wild-type level, indicating that interactions with viral RNA are not necessary for incorporation. In addition, viral particles produced from an nucleocapsid zinc finger mutant contained approximately 1% of the viral genomic RNA but approximately 30% of the cytidine deaminase activity. The reduction in APOBEC3G incorporation was equivalent to the reduction in the total RNA present in the nucleocapsid mutant virions. These results indicate that interactions with viral proteins or viral genomic RNA are not essential for APOBEC3G incorporation and suggest that APOBEC3G interactions with viral and nonviral RNAs that are packaged into viral particles are sufficient for APOBEC3G virion incorporation.
Evolution of a pseudogene: exclusive survival of a functional mitochondrial nad7 gene supports Haplomitrium as the earliest liverwort lineage and proposes a secondary loss of RNA editing in Marchantiidae.
Groth-Malonek, Milena; Wahrmund, Ute; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Knoop, Volker
Gene transfer from the mitochondrion into the nucleus is a corollary of the endosymbiont hypothesis. The frequent and independent transfer of genes for mitochondrial ribosomal proteins is well documented with many examples in angiosperms, whereas transfer of genes for components of the respiratory chain is a rarity. A notable exception is the nad7 gene, encoding subunit 7 of complex I, in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, which resides as a full-length, intron-carrying and transcribed, but nonspliced pseudogene in the chondriome, whereas its functional counterpart is nuclear encoded. To elucidate the patterns of pseudogene degeneration, we have investigated the mitochondrial nad7 locus in 12 other liverworts of broad phylogenetic distribution. We find that the mitochondrial nad7 gene is nonfunctional in 11 of them. However, the modes of pseudogene degeneration vary: whereas point mutations, accompanied by single-nucleotide indels, predominantly introduce stop codons into the reading frame in marchantiid liverworts, larger indels introduce frameshifts in the simple thalloid and leafy jungermanniid taxa. Most notably, however, the mitochondrial nad7 reading frame appears to be intact in the isolated liverwort genus Haplomitrium. Its functional expression is shown by cDNA analysis identifying typical RNA-editing events to reconstitute conserved codon identities and also confirming functional splicing of the 2 liverwort-specific group II introns. We interpret our results 1) to indicate the presence of a functional mitochondrial nad7 gene in the earliest land plants and strongly supporting a basal placement of Haplomitrium among the liverworts, 2) to indicate different modes of pseudogene degeneration and chondriome evolution in the later branching liverwort clades, 3) to suggest a surprisingly long maintenance of a nonfunctional gene in the presumed oldest group of land plants, and 4) to support the model of a secondary loss of RNA-editing activity in marchantiid
Flannery, Maura C., Ed.
The high points of the story of RNA are presented. The functions of RNA within the cell, how these functions are carried out, and how they evolved are described. The topics of splicing, self-splicing, RNA editing, transcription and translation, and antisense RNA are discussed. (KR)
Deffit, Sarah N; Yee, Brian A; Manning, Aidan C; Rajendren, Suba; Vadlamani, Pranathi; Wheeler, Emily C; Domissy, Alain; Washburn, Michael C
ADAR proteins alter gene expression both by catalyzing adenosine (A) to inosine (I) RNA editing and binding to regulatory elements in target RNAs. Loss of ADARs affects neuronal function in all animals studied to date. Caenorhabditis elegans lacking ADARs exhibit reduced chemotaxis, but the targets responsible for this phenotype remain unknown. To identify critical neural ADAR targets in C. elegans, we performed an unbiased assessment of the effects of ADR-2, the only A-to-I editing enzyme in C. elegans, on the neural transcriptome. Development and implementation of publicly available software, SAILOR, identified 7361 A-to-I editing events across the neural transcriptome. Intersecting the neural editome with adr-2 associated gene expression changes, revealed an edited mRNA, clec-41, whose neural expression is dependent on deamination. Restoring clec-41 expression in adr-2 deficient neural cells rescued the chemotaxis defect, providing the first evidence that neuronal phenotypes of ADAR mutants can be caused by altered gene expression. PMID:28925356
Genome editing harnesses programmable nucleases to cut and paste genetic information in a targeted manner in living cells and organisms. Here, I review the development of programmable nucleases, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), TAL (transcription-activator-like) effector nucleases (TALENs) and CRISPR (cluster of regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) RNA-guided endonucleases (RGENs). I specifically highlight the key advances that set the foundation for the rapid and widespread implementation of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing approaches that has revolutionized the field.
HIV-1 Vif can directly inhibit apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G-mediated cytidine deamination by using a single amino acid interaction and without protein degradation.
Santa-Marta, Mariana; da Silva, Frederico Aires; Fonseca, Ana Margarida; Goncalves, Joao
The human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G), also known as CEM-15, is a host-cell factor involved in innate resistance to retroviral infection. HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein was shown to protect the virus from APOBEC3G-mediated viral cDNA hypermutation. The mechanism proposed for protection of the virus by HIV-1 Vif is mediated by APOBEC3G degradation through ubiquitination and the proteasomal pathway. Here we show that in Escherichia coli the APOBEC3G-induced cytidine deamination is inhibited by expression of Vif without depletion of deaminase. Moreover, inhibition of deaminase-mediated bacterial hypermutation is dependent on a single amino acid substitution D128K that renders APOBEC3G resistant to Vif inhibition. This single amino acid was elegantly proven by other authors to determine species-specific sensitivity. Our results show that in bacteria this single amino acid substitution controls Vif-dependent blocking of APOBEC3G that is dependent on a strong protein interaction. The C-terminal region of Vif is responsible for this strong protein-protein interaction. In conclusion, our experiments suggest a complement to the model of Vif-induced degradation of APOBEC3G by bringing to relevance that deaminase inhibition can also result from a direct interaction with Vif protein.
Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Velasco, Riccardo; Kim, Jin-Soo; Viola, Roberto
Direct delivery of purified Cas9 protein with guide RNA into plant cells, as opposed to plasmid-mediated delivery, displays high efficiency and reduced off-target effects. Following regeneration from edited cells, the ensuing plant is also likely to bypass genetically modified organism (GMO) legislation as the genome editing complex is degraded in the recipient cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reisz, Karel; Millar, Gavin
Film editing is discussed from the point of view, not only of the person in the cutting room, but also of the person who has responsibility for the final film. Part I outlines the history of editing from the silent film to 1953. It discusses the practice of editing for action, dialogue, comedy, and montage sequences, as well as in documentaries,…
Watanabe, Takahito; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro
Hemimetabolous, or incompletely metamorphosing, insects are phylogenetically basal and include many beneficial and deleterious species. The cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, is an emerging model for hemimetabolous insects, based on the success of RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene-functional analyses and transgenic technology. Taking advantage of genome editing technologies in this species would greatly promote functional genomics studies. Genome editing has proven to be an effective method for site-specific genome manipulation in various species. Here, we describe a protocol for genome editing including gene knockout and gene knockin in G. bimaculatus for functional genomics studies.
The DNA serves as a stable information storage medium and every protein which is needed by the cell is produced from this blueprint via an RNA intermediate code. More recently it was found that an abundance of various RNA elements cooperate in a variety of steps and substeps as regulatory and catalytic units with multiple competencies to act on RNA transcripts. Natural genome editing on one side is the competent agent-driven generation and integration of meaningful DNA nucleotide sequences into pre-existing genomic content arrangements, and the ability to (re-)combine and (re-)regulate them according to context-dependent (i.e. adaptational) purposes of the host organism. Natural genome editing on the other side designates the integration of all RNA activities acting on RNA transcripts without altering DNA-encoded genes. If we take the genetic code seriously as a natural code, there must be agents that are competent to act on this code because no natural code codes itself as no natural language speaks itself. As code editing agents, viral and subviral agents have been suggested because there are several indicators that demonstrate viruses competent in both RNA and DNA natural genome editing.
Radwan, Mohamed O; Sonoda, Sachiko; Ejima, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Ayumi; Koga, Ryoko; Okamoto, Yoshinari; Fujita, Mikako; Otsuka, Masami
Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G, A3G), is a human anti-virus restriction protein which works deaminase-dependently and -independently. A3G is known to be ubiquitinated by HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein, leading to proteasomal degradation. A3G contains two zinc ions at the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal domain. Four lysine residues, K(297), K(301), K(303), and K(334), are known to be required for Vif-mediated A3G ubiquitination and degradation. Previously, we reported compound SN-1, a zinc chelator that increases steady-state expression level of A3G in the presence of Vif. In this study, we prepared Biotin-SN-1, a biotinylated derivative of SN-1, to study the SN-1-A3G interaction. A pull-down assay revealed that Biotin-SN-1 bound A3G. A zinc-abstraction experiment indicated that SN-1 binds to the zinc site of A3G. We carried out a SN-1-A3G docking study using molecular operating environment. The calculations revealed that SN-1 binds to the C-terminal domain through Zn(2+), H(216), P(247), C(288), and Y(315). Notably, SN-1-binding covers the H(257), E(259), C(288), and C(291) residues that participate in zinc-mediated deamination, and the ubiquitination regions of A3G. The binding of SN-1 presumably perturbs the secondary structure between C(288) and Y(315), leading to less efficient ubiquitination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bai, Xiaoxia; Tian, Ting; Wang, Peng; Yang, Xiaofu; Wang, Zhengping; Dong, Minyue
Approximately 5% of newborns were infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) via intrauterine transmission and this is the main reason for high prevalence of HBV in endemic regions. However, the mechanisms by which intrauterine transmission is avoided in most cases remain elusive and placental natural anti-microbial factors may play a role in the prevention of HBV intrauterine transmission. The expression levels of human β-defensin-3 (HBD-3), apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3G (A3G) and mannose binding lectin (MBL) were determined in the placenta of 30 HBV-seronegative pregnant women (controls), 7 HBV-seropositive pregnant women with infants infected via intrauterine transmission (infected group) and 30 HBV-seropositive pregnant women with non-infected infants (non-infected group). The expression of HBD-3, A3G, and MBL of placental trophoblast cell line Swan71 was determined after exposed to HBV. There were significant differences in placental HBD-3 and A3G levels among three groups, but the expression of MBL did not significantly differ. The expressions of HBD-3 and A3G were higher in non-infected group than controls and infected group, but not significantly different between infected group and controls. The exposure to HBV increased significantly the expression of HBD-3, A3G, and MBL by Swan 71. It may be concluded HBV up-regulates HBD-3 and A3G expression in vivo and in vitro in placental trophoblast and lack of this up-regulation is possibly associated with intrauterine transmission of HBV. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary; Blasingame, Don; Batson, Larry; Ipock, Dan; Carroll, Charles; Friesen, Wade; Fleming, Glenn
This publication contains both a teacher edition and a student edition of materials for a foundation course in an electrical wiring program. The course introduces basic concepts and skills that are prerequisites to residential wiring and commercial and industrial wiring courses. The contents of the materials are tied to measurable and observable…
Joerschke, John D.; Eichhorn, Lane
This complete teacher edition of a diesel technology course consists of introductory pages, teacher pages, and the student edition. The introductory pages provide these tools: training and competency profile; National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation Crosswalk; instructional/task analysis; basic skills icons and classifications; basic…
Smreker, Gene; Calvert, King
This second edition contains teacher and student guides for 14 units of instruction in major appliance repair. Each unit in the teacher edition includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities, answers to assignment sheets, answers to the written test, written test, a unit evaluation form, teacher…
Vanburen, R.; Buehler, M. F.
The editorial process is analyzed, and five levels of edit are identified. These levels represent cumulative combinations of nine types of edit: Coordination, Policy, Integrity, Screening, Copy Clarification, Format, Mechanical Style, Language, and Substantive. The levels and types of edit, although developed for specific use with external reports at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, cover the general range of technical editing, especially as it applies to an in-house technical publications organization. Each type of edit is set forth in terms of groups of actions to be performed by editor. The edit-level concept has enhanced understanding and communication among editors, authors, and publications managers concerning the specific editorial work to be done on each manuscript. It has also proved useful as a management tool for estimating and monitoring cost.
Gandica, Y; Carvalho, J; Sampaio Dos Aidos, F
A model for the probabilistic function followed in editing Wikipedia is presented and compared with simulations and real data. It is argued that the probability of editing is proportional to the editor's number of previous edits (preferential attachment), to the editor's fitness, and to an aging factor. Using these simple ingredients, it is possible to reproduce the results obtained for Wikipedia editing dynamics for a collection of single pages as well as the averaged results. Using a stochastic process framework, a recursive equation was obtained for the average of the number of edits per editor that seems to describe the editing behavior in Wikipedia.
Gandica, Y.; Carvalho, J.; Sampaio dos Aidos, F.
A model for the probabilistic function followed in editing Wikipedia is presented and compared with simulations and real data. It is argued that the probability of editing is proportional to the editor's number of previous edits (preferential attachment), to the editor's fitness, and to an aging factor. Using these simple ingredients, it is possible to reproduce the results obtained for Wikipedia editing dynamics for a collection of single pages as well as the averaged results. Using a stochastic process framework, a recursive equation was obtained for the average of the number of edits per editor that seems to describe the editing behavior in Wikipedia.
DeWitt, Mark A; Corn, Jacob E; Carroll, Dana
The CRISPR-Cas genome editing system is very powerful. The format of the CRISPR reagents and the means of delivery are often important factors in targeting efficiency. Delivery of recombinant Cas9 protein and guide RNA (gRNA) as a preformed ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex has recently emerged as a powerful and general approach to genome editing. Here we outline methods to produce and deliver Cas9 RNPs. A donor DNA carrying desired sequence changes can also be included to program precise sequence introduction or replacement. RNP delivery limits exposure to genome editing reagents, reduces off-target events, drives high rates of homology-dependent repair, and can be applied to embryos to rapidly generate animal models. RNP delivery thus minimizes some of the pitfalls of alternative editing modalities and is rapidly being adopted by the genome editing community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clark, Joseph; Punjya, Niraj; Sebastiano, Vittorio; Bao, Gang; Porteus, Matthew H
SUMMARY Targeted genome editing with engineered nucleases has transformed the ability to introduce precise sequence modifications at almost any site within the genome. A major obstacle to probing the efficiency and consequences of genome editing is that no existing method enables the frequency of different editing events to be simultaneously measured across a cell population at any endogenous genomic locus. We have developed a novel method for quantifying individual genome editing outcomes at any site of interest using single molecule real time (SMRT) DNA sequencing. We show that this approach can be applied at various loci, using multiple engineered nuclease platforms including TALENs, RNA guided endonucleases (CRISPR/Cas9), and ZFNs, and in different cell lines to identify conditions and strategies in which the desired engineering outcome has occurred. This approach facilitates the evaluation of new gene editing technologies and permits sensitive quantification of editing outcomes in almost every experimental system used. PMID:24685129
Shim, Gayong; Kim, Dongyoon; Park, Gyu Thae; Jin, Hyerim; Suh, Soo-Kyung; Oh, Yu-Kyoung
Gene-editing technology is an emerging therapeutic modality for manipulating the eukaryotic genome by using target-sequence-specific engineered nucleases. Because of the exceptional advantages that gene-editing technology offers in facilitating the accurate correction of sequences in a genome, gene editing-based therapy is being aggressively developed as a next-generation therapeutic approach to treat a wide range of diseases. However, strategies for precise engineering and delivery of gene-editing nucleases, including zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nuclease, and CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated nuclease Cas9), present major obstacles to the development of gene-editing therapies, as with other gene-targeting therapeutics. Currently, viral and non-viral vectors are being studied for the delivery of these nucleases into cells in the form of DNA, mRNA, or proteins. Clinical trials are already ongoing, and in vivo studies are actively investigating the applicability of CRISPR/Cas9 techniques. However, the concept of correcting the genome poses major concerns from a regulatory perspective, especially in terms of safety. This review addresses current research trends and delivery strategies for gene editing-based therapeutics in non-clinical and clinical settings and considers the associated regulatory issues.
Shim, Gayong; Kim, Dongyoon; Park, Gyu Thae; Jin, Hyerim; Suh, Soo-Kyung; Oh, Yu-Kyoung
Gene-editing technology is an emerging therapeutic modality for manipulating the eukaryotic genome by using target-sequence-specific engineered nucleases. Because of the exceptional advantages that gene-editing technology offers in facilitating the accurate correction of sequences in a genome, gene editing-based therapy is being aggressively developed as a next-generation therapeutic approach to treat a wide range of diseases. However, strategies for precise engineering and delivery of gene-editing nucleases, including zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nuclease, and CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated nuclease Cas9), present major obstacles to the development of gene-editing therapies, as with other gene-targeting therapeutics. Currently, viral and non-viral vectors are being studied for the delivery of these nucleases into cells in the form of DNA, mRNA, or proteins. Clinical trials are already ongoing, and in vivo studies are actively investigating the applicability of CRISPR/Cas9 techniques. However, the concept of correcting the genome poses major concerns from a regulatory perspective, especially in terms of safety. This review addresses current research trends and delivery strategies for gene editing-based therapeutics in non-clinical and clinical settings and considers the associated regulatory issues. PMID:28392568
Georg, J; Honsel, A; Voss, B; Rennenberg, H; Hess, W R
Based on computational prediction of RNA secondary structures, a long antisense RNA (asRNA) was found in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis, Nicotiana tabacum and poplar, which occurs in two to three major transcripts. Mapping of primary 5' ends, northern hybridizations and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) experiments demonstrated that these transcripts originate from a promoter that is typical for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase and are over their full length in antisense orientation to the gene ndhB and therefore were designated asRNA_ndhB. The asRNA_ndhB transcripts predominantly accumulate in young leaves and at physiological growth temperatures. Two nucleotide positions in the mRNA that are subject to C-to-U RNA editing and which were previously found to be sensitive to elevated temperatures are covered by asRNA_ndhB. Nevertheless, the correlation between the accumulation of asRNA_ndhB and RNA editing appeared weak in a temperature shift experiment. With asRNA_ndhB, we describe the first asRNA of plant chloroplasts that covers RNA editing sites, as well as a group II intron splice acceptor site, and that is under developmental control, raising the possibility that long asRNAs could be involved in RNA maturation or the control of RNA stability.
Monica Adams, head librarian at Robinson Secondary in Fairfax country, Virginia, states that librarians should have the technical knowledge to support projects related to digital video editing. The process of digital video editing and the cables, storage issues and the computer system with software is described.
Yin, Hao; Song, Chun-Qing; Suresh, Sneha; Kwan, Suet-Yan; Wu, Qiongqiong; Walsh, Stephen; Ding, Junmei; Bogorad, Roman L; Zhu, Lihua Julie; Wolfe, Scot A; Koteliansky, Victor; Xue, Wen; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G
CRISPR–Cas9 is a versatile RNA-guided genome editing tool. Here we demonstrate that partial replacement of RNA nucleotides with DNA nucleotides in CRISPR RNA (crRNA) enables efficient gene editing in human cells. This strategy of partial DNA replacement retains on-target activity when used with both crRNA and sgRNA, as well as with multiple guide sequences. Partial DNA replacement also works for crRNA of Cpf1, another CRISPR system. We find that partial DNA replacement in the guide sequence significantly reduces off-target genome editing through focused analysis of off-target cleavage, measurement of mismatch tolerance and genome-wide profiling of off-target sites. Using the structure of the Cas9–sgRNA complex as a guide, the majority of the 3′ end of crRNA can be replaced with DNA nucleotide, and the 5 - and 3′-DNA-replaced crRNA enables efficient genome editing. Cas9 guided by a DNA–RNA chimera may provide a generalized strategy to reduce both the cost and the off-target genome editing in human cells. PMID:29377001
The teacher and student editions of this book introduce students to the subject of anthropology and the subfields into which it is divided. Students learn about the beginnings of anthropology as an outgrowth of the curiosity stimulated by the Age of Exploration and how it grew into the basic field it is today. Students examine the origins and…
Bannikov, A V; Lavrov, A V
The discovery of CRISPR/Cas9 brought a hope for having an efficient, reliable, and readily available tool for genome editing. CRISPR/Cas9 is certainly easy to use, while its efficiency and reliability remain the focus of studies. The review describes the general principles of the organization and function of Cas nucleases and a number of important issues to be considered while planning genome editing experiments with CRISPR/Cas9. The issues include evaluation of the efficiency and specificity for Cas9, sgRNA selection, Cas9 variants designed artificially, and use of homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining in DNA editing.
He, Xiubin; Gu, Feng
Breakthroughs of genome-editing in recent years have paved the way to develop new therapeutic strategies. These genome-editing tools mainly include Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas-based RNA-guided DNA endonucleases. However, off-target effects are still the major issue in genome editing, and limit the application in gene therapy. Here, we summarized the cause and compared different detection methods of off-targets.
Harrison, Patrick T; Hart, Stephen
What is the topic of this review? This review summarizes the development of gene editing from early proof-of-concept studies in the 1980s to contemporary programmable and RNA-guided nucleases, which enable rapid and precise alteration of DNA sequences of almost any living cell. What advances does it highlight? With an average of one clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) Cas9 paper published every 4 h in 2017, this review cannot highlight all new developments, but a number of key improvements, including increases in efficiency, a range of new options to reduce off-target effects and plans for CRISPR to enter clinical trials in 2018, are discussed. Genome editing enables precise changes to be made in the genome of living cells. The technique was originally developed in the 1980s but largely limited to use in mice. The discovery that a targeted double-stranded break at a unique site in the genome, close to the site to be changed, could substantially increase the efficiency of editing raised the possibility of using the technique in a broader range of animal models and, potentially, human cells. But the challenge was to identify reagents that could create targeted breaks at a unique genomic location with minimal off-target effects. In 2005, the demonstration that programmable zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) could perform this task led to a number of proof-of-concept studies, but a limitation was the ease with which effective ZFNs could be produced. In 2009, the development of TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) increased the specificity of gene editing and the ease of design and production. However, it was not until 2013 and the development of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) Cas9/guide RNA that gene editing became a research tool that any laboratory could use. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.
Long, Chengzu; Amoasii, Leonela; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.
IMPORTANCE Muscle weakness, the most common symptom of neuromuscular disease, may result from muscle dysfunction or may be caused indirectly by neuronal and neuromuscular junction abnormalities. To date, more than 780 monogenic neuromuscular diseases, linked to 417 different genes, have been identified in humans. Genome-editing methods, especially the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)–Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) system, hold clinical potential for curing many monogenic disorders, including neuromuscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. OBJECTIVES To provide an overview of genome-editing approaches; to summarize published reports on the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of current genome-editing methods as they relate to the potential correction of monogenic neuromuscular diseases; and to highlight scientific and clinical opportunities and obstacles toward permanent correction of disease-causing mutations responsible for monogenic neuromuscular diseases by genome editing. EVIDENCE REVIEW PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for articles published from June 30, 1989, through June 9, 2016, using the following keywords: genome editing, CRISPR-Cas9, neuromuscular disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, andmyotonic dystrophy type 1. The following sources were reviewed: 341 articles describing different approaches to edit mammalian genomes; 330 articles describing CRISPR-Cas9–mediated genome editing in cell culture lines (in vitro) and animal models (in vivo); 16 websites used to generate single-guide RNA; 4 websites for off-target effects; and 382 articles describing viral and nonviral delivery systems. Articles describing neuromuscular diseases, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and myotonic dystrophy type 1
Covelo-Molares, Helena; Bartosovic, Marek; Vanacova, Stepanka
Eukaryotic RNA can carry more than 100 different types of chemical modifications. Early studies have been focused on modifications of highly abundant RNA, such as ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA, but recent technical advances have made it possible to also study messenger RNA (mRNA). Subsequently, mRNA modifications, namely methylation, have emerged as key players in eukaryotic gene expression regulation. The most abundant and widely studied internal mRNA modification is N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A), but the list of mRNA chemical modifications continues to grow as fast as interest in this field. Over the past decade, transcriptome-wide studies combined with advanced biochemistry and the discovery of methylation writers, readers, and erasers revealed roles for mRNA methylation in the regulation of nearly every aspect of the mRNA life cycle and in diverse cellular, developmental, and disease processes. Although large parts of mRNA function are linked to its cytoplasmic stability and regulation of its translation, a number of studies have begun to provide evidence for methylation-regulated nuclear processes. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in RNA methylation research and highlight how these new findings have contributed to our understanding of methylation-dependent RNA processing in the nucleus. This article is categorized under: RNA Processing > RNA Editing and Modification RNA Processing > Splicing Regulation/Alternative Splicing RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > Protein-RNA Interactions: Functional Implications. © 2018 The Authors. WIREs RNA published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Krishan, K; Kanchan, T; Singh, B; Baryah, N; Puri, S
This communication is regarding the recent editing of the genome of the human embryo with CRISPR/Cas9 which generated a debate amongst the biological scientists around the world. Editing human germline genes may act as godsend in some serious genetic and other disorders as the genes related to these disorders can be replaced effectively. The scientists are in dilemma whether the human germline gene modification is a boon or bane for the human society. Though editing human germline genes may be an answer to many serious genetic disorders however; it may have unpredictable effects on future generations. The ethical issues regarding the germline editing need further discussion which may have implications on human race and on-going human evolution. Thus, the researchers need to be doubly cautious and some stringent regulations should be framed regarding the various aspects of germ line gene modifications and any potential conflict with nature for future outcome.
A research article about a technique for gene editing known as CRISPR-Cas9. The technique has made it much easier and faster for cancer researchers to study mutations and test new therapeutic targets.
Chen, Xiaoyu; Gonçalves, Manuel A F V
Genome editing based on sequence-specific designer nucleases, also known as programmable nucleases, seeks to modify in a targeted and precise manner the genetic information content of living cells. Delivering into cells designer nucleases alone or together with donor DNA templates, which serve as surrogate homologous recombination (HR) substrates, can result in gene knockouts or gene knock-ins, respectively. As engineered replication-defective viruses, viral vectors are having an increasingly important role as delivery vehicles for donor DNA templates and designer nucleases, namely, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 (CRISPR−Cas9) nucleases, also known as RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs). We review this dual role played by engineered viral particles on genome editing while focusing on their main scaffolds, consisting of lentiviruses, adeno-associated viruses, and adenoviruses. In addition, the coverage of the growing body of research on the repurposing of viral vectors as delivery systems for genome editing tools is complemented with information regarding their main characteristics, pros, and cons. Finally, this information is framed by a concise description of the chief principles, tools, and applications of the genome editing field as a whole. PMID:26336974
Salsman, Jayme; Dellaire, Graham
With the introduction of precision genome editing using CRISPR-Cas9 technology, we have entered a new era of genetic engineering and gene therapy. With RNA-guided endonucleases, such as Cas9, it is possible to engineer DNA double strand breaks (DSB) at specific genomic loci. DSB repair by the error-prone non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway can disrupt a target gene by generating insertions and deletions. Alternatively, Cas9-mediated DSBs can be repaired by homology-directed repair (HDR) using an homologous DNA repair template, thus allowing precise gene editing by incorporating genetic changes into the repair template. HDR can introduce gene sequences for protein epitope tags, delete genes, make point mutations, or alter enhancer and promoter activities. In anticipation of adapting this technology for gene therapy in human somatic cells, much focus has been placed on increasing the fidelity of CRISPR-Cas9 and increasing HDR efficiency to improve precision genome editing. In this review, we will discuss applications of CRISPR technology for gene inactivation and genome editing with a focus on approaches to enhancing CRISPR-Cas9-mediated HDR for the generation of cell and animal models, and conclude with a discussion of recent advances and challenges towards the application of this technology for gene therapy in humans.
Chen, Xiaoyu; Gonçalves, Manuel A F V
Genome editing based on sequence-specific designer nucleases, also known as programmable nucleases, seeks to modify in a targeted and precise manner the genetic information content of living cells. Delivering into cells designer nucleases alone or together with donor DNA templates, which serve as surrogate homologous recombination (HR) substrates, can result in gene knockouts or gene knock-ins, respectively. As engineered replication-defective viruses, viral vectors are having an increasingly important role as delivery vehicles for donor DNA templates and designer nucleases, namely, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) nucleases, also known as RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs). We review this dual role played by engineered viral particles on genome editing while focusing on their main scaffolds, consisting of lentiviruses, adeno-associated viruses, and adenoviruses. In addition, the coverage of the growing body of research on the repurposing of viral vectors as delivery systems for genome editing tools is complemented with information regarding their main characteristics, pros, and cons. Finally, this information is framed by a concise description of the chief principles, tools, and applications of the genome editing field as a whole.
Klinger, Christen M; Paoli, Lucas; Newby, Robert J; Wang, Matthew Yu-Wei; Carroll, Hyrum D; Leblond, Jeffrey D; Howe, Christopher J; Dacks, Joel B; Bowler, Chris; Cahoon, Aubery Bruce; Dorrell, Richard G
Abstract Dinoflagellates are a group of unicellular protists with immense ecological and evolutionary significance and cell biological diversity. Of the photosynthetic dinoflagellates, the majority possess a plastid containing the pigment peridinin, whereas some lineages have replaced this plastid by serial endosymbiosis with plastids of distinct evolutionary affiliations, including a fucoxanthin pigment-containing plastid of haptophyte origin. Previous studies have described the presence of widespread substitutional RNA editing in peridinin and fucoxanthin plastid genes. Because reports of this process have been limited to manual assessment of individual lineages, global trends concerning this RNA editing and its effect on the biological function of the plastid are largely unknown. Using novel bioinformatic methods, we examine the dynamics and evolution of RNA editing over a large multispecies data set of dinoflagellates, including novel sequence data from the peridinin dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula and the fucoxanthin dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi. We demonstrate that while most individual RNA editing events in dinoflagellate plastids are restricted to single species, global patterns, and functional consequences of editing are broadly conserved. We find that editing is biased toward specific codon positions and regions of genes, and generally corrects otherwise deleterious changes in the genome prior to translation, though this effect is more prevalent in peridinin than fucoxanthin lineages. Our results support a model for promiscuous editing application subsequently shaped by purifying selection, and suggest the presence of an underlying editing mechanism transferred from the peridinin-containing ancestor into fucoxanthin plastids postendosymbiosis, with remarkably conserved functional consequences in the new lineage. PMID:29617800
Cooper, Caitlin A; Challagulla, Arjun; Jenkins, Kristie A; Wise, Terry G; O'Neil, Terri E; Morris, Kirsten R; Tizard, Mark L; Doran, Timothy J
Generating transgenic and gene edited mammals involves in vitro manipulation of oocytes or single cell embryos. Due to the comparative inaccessibility of avian oocytes and single cell embryos, novel protocols have been developed to produce transgenic and gene edited birds. While these protocols are relatively efficient, they involve two generation intervals before reaching complete somatic and germline expressing transgenic or gene edited birds. Most of this work has been done with chickens, and many protocols require in vitro culturing of primordial germ cells (PGCs). However, for many other bird species no methodology for long term culture of PGCs exists. Developing methodologies to produce germline transgenic or gene edited birds in the first generation would save significant amounts of time and resource. Furthermore, developing protocols that can be readily adapted to a wide variety of avian species would open up new research opportunities. Here we report a method using sperm as a delivery mechanism for gene editing vectors which we call sperm transfection assisted gene editing (STAGE). We have successfully used this method to generate GFP knockout embryos and chickens, as well as generate embryos with mutations in the doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1) gene using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The efficiency of the method varies from as low as 0% to as high as 26% with multiple factors such as CRISPR guide efficiency and mRNA stability likely impacting the outcome. This straightforward methodology could simplify gene editing in many bird species including those for which no methodology currently exists.
Li, Qiye; Wang, Zongji; Lian, Jinmin; Schiøtt, Morten; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Yanyan; Nygaard, Sanne; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhou, Yang; Deng, Yuan; Zhang, Wenwei; Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Zhang, Guojie
Eusocial insects have evolved the capacity to generate adults with distinct morphological, reproductive and behavioural phenotypes from the same genome. Recent studies suggest that RNA editing might enhance the diversity of gene products at the post-transcriptional level, particularly to induce functional changes in the nervous system. Using head samples from the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior, we compare RNA editomes across eusocial castes, identifying ca. 11,000 RNA editing sites in gynes, large workers and small workers. Those editing sites map to 800 genes functionally enriched for neurotransmission, circadian rhythm, temperature response, RNA splicing and carboxylic acid biosynthesis. Most A. echinatior editing sites are species specific, but 8–23% are conserved across ant subfamilies and likely to have been important for the evolution of eusociality in ants. The level of editing varies for the same site between castes, suggesting that RNA editing might be a general mechanism that shapes caste behaviour in ants. PMID:25266559
Yang, Xin-Zhuang; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Fang, Huaying; Liu, Chu-Jun; Shi, Mingming; Ye, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Yong E.; Deng, Minghua; Zhang, Xiuqin; Li, Chuan-Yun
Understanding of the RNA editing process has been broadened considerably by the next generation sequencing technology; however, several issues regarding this regulatory step remain unresolved – the strategies to accurately delineate the editome, the mechanism by which its profile is maintained, and its evolutionary and functional relevance. Here we report an accurate and quantitative profile of the RNA editome for rhesus macaque, a close relative of human. By combining genome and transcriptome sequencing of multiple tissues from the same animal, we identified 31,250 editing sites, of which 99.8% are A-to-G transitions. We verified 96.6% of editing sites in coding regions and 97.5% of randomly selected sites in non-coding regions, as well as the corresponding levels of editing by multiple independent means, demonstrating the feasibility of our experimental paradigm. Several lines of evidence supported the notion that the adenosine deamination is associated with the macaque editome – A-to-G editing sites were flanked by sequences with the attributes of ADAR substrates, and both the sequence context and the expression profile of ADARs are relevant factors in determining the quantitative variance of RNA editing across different sites and tissue types. In support of the functional relevance of some of these editing sites, substitution valley of decreased divergence was detected around the editing site, suggesting the evolutionary constraint in maintaining some of these editing substrates with their double-stranded structure. These findings thus complement the “continuous probing” model that postulates tinkering-based origination of a small proportion of functional editing sites. In conclusion, the macaque editome reported here highlights RNA editing as a widespread functional regulation in primate evolution, and provides an informative framework for further understanding RNA editing in human. PMID:24722121
Goldfarb, Katherine C.; Cech, Thomas R.
MRP RNA is an abundant, essential noncoding RNA whose functions have been proposed in yeast but are incompletely understood in humans. Mutations in the genomic locus for MRP RNA cause pleiotropic human diseases, including cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH). Here we applied CRISPR–Cas9 genome editing to disrupt the endogenous human MRP RNA locus, thereby attaining what has eluded RNAi and RNase H experiments: elimination of MRP RNA in the majority of cells. The resulting accumulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursor—analyzed by RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), Northern blots, and RNA sequencing—implicates MRP RNA in pre-rRNA processing. Amelioration of pre-rRNA imbalance is achieved through rescue of MRP RNA levels by ectopic expression. Furthermore, affinity-purified MRP ribonucleoprotein (RNP) from HeLa cells cleaves the human pre-rRNA in vitro at at least one site used in cells, while RNP isolated from cells with CRISPR-edited MRP loci loses this activity, and ectopic MRP RNA expression restores cleavage activity. Thus, a role for RNase MRP in human pre-rRNA processing is established. As demonstrated here, targeted CRISPR disruption is a valuable tool for functional studies of essential noncoding RNAs that are resistant to RNAi and RNase H-based degradation. PMID:28115465
Goldfarb, Katherine C; Cech, Thomas R
MRP RNA is an abundant, essential noncoding RNA whose functions have been proposed in yeast but are incompletely understood in humans. Mutations in the genomic locus for MRP RNA cause pleiotropic human diseases, including cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH). Here we applied CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to disrupt the endogenous human MRP RNA locus, thereby attaining what has eluded RNAi and RNase H experiments: elimination of MRP RNA in the majority of cells. The resulting accumulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursor-analyzed by RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), Northern blots, and RNA sequencing-implicates MRP RNA in pre-rRNA processing. Amelioration of pre-rRNA imbalance is achieved through rescue of MRP RNA levels by ectopic expression. Furthermore, affinity-purified MRP ribonucleoprotein (RNP) from HeLa cells cleaves the human pre-rRNA in vitro at at least one site used in cells, while RNP isolated from cells with CRISPR-edited MRP loci loses this activity, and ectopic MRP RNA expression restores cleavage activity. Thus, a role for RNase MRP in human pre-rRNA processing is established. As demonstrated here, targeted CRISPR disruption is a valuable tool for functional studies of essential noncoding RNAs that are resistant to RNAi and RNase H-based degradation. © 2017 Goldfarb and Cech; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Ormond, Kelly E; Mortlock, Douglas P; Scholes, Derek T; Bombard, Yvonne; Brody, Lawrence C; Faucett, W Andrew; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Hercher, Laura; Isasi, Rosario; Middleton, Anna; Musunuru, Kiran; Shriner, Daniel; Virani, Alice; Young, Caroline E
With CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome-editing technologies, successful somatic and germline genome editing are becoming feasible. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in March 2017. The workgroup included representatives from the UK Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, International Genetic Epidemiology Society, and US National Society of Genetic Counselors. These groups, as well as the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics, British Society for Genetic Medicine, Human Genetics Society of Australasia, Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia, and Southern African Society for Human Genetics, endorsed the final statement. The statement includes the following positions. (1) At this time, given the nature and number of unanswered scientific, ethical, and policy questions, it is inappropriate to perform germline gene editing that culminates in human pregnancy. (2) Currently, there is no reason to prohibit in vitro germline genome editing on human embryos and gametes, with appropriate oversight and consent from donors, to facilitate research on the possible future clinical applications of gene editing. There should be no prohibition on making public funds available to support this research. (3) Future clinical application of human germline genome editing should not proceed unless, at a minimum, there is (a) a compelling medical rationale, (b) an evidence base that supports its clinical use, (c) an ethical justification, and (d) a transparent public process to solicit and incorporate stakeholder input. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.
Mansouri, Maysam; Ehsaei, Zahra; Taylor, Verdon; Berger, Philipp
Genome editing in eukaryotes became easier in the last years with the development of nucleases that induce double strand breaks in DNA at user-defined sites. CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing is currently one of the most powerful strategies. In the easiest case, a nuclease (e.g. Cas9) and a target defining guide RNA (gRNA) are transferred into a target cell. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair of the DNA break following Cas9 cleavage can lead to inactivation of the target gene. Specific repair or insertion of DNA with Homology Directed Repair (HDR) needs the simultaneous delivery of a repair template. Recombinant Lentivirus or Adenovirus genomes have enough capacity for a nuclease coding sequence and the gRNA but are usually too small to also carry large targeting constructs. We recently showed that a baculovirus-based multigene expression system (MultiPrime) can be used for genome editing in primary cells since it possesses the necessary capacity to carry the nuclease and gRNA expression constructs and the HDR targeting sequences. Here we present new Acceptor plasmids for MultiPrime that allow simplified cloning of baculoviruses for genome editing and we show their functionality in primary cells with limited life span and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ahmad, Freed; Mahboob, Shahid; Gulzar, Tahsin; Din, Salah U; Hanif, Tanzeela; Ahmad, Hifza; Afzal, Muhammad
The prediction of RNA structure is useful for understanding evolution for both in silico and in vitro studies. Physical methods like NMR studies to predict RNA secondary structure are expensive and difficult. Computational RNA secondary structure prediction is easier. Comparative sequence analysis provides the best solution. But secondary structure prediction of a single RNA sequence is challenging. RNA-SSPT is a tool that computationally predicts secondary structure of a single RNA sequence. Most of the RNA secondary structure prediction tools do not allow pseudoknots in the structure or are unable to locate them. Nussinov dynamic programming algorithm has been implemented in RNA-SSPT. The current studies shows only energetically most favorable secondary structure is required and the algorithm modification is also available that produces base pairs to lower the total free energy of the secondary structure. For visualization of RNA secondary structure, NAVIEW in C language is used and modified in C# for tool requirement. RNA-SSPT is built in C# using Dot Net 2.0 in Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 Professional edition. The accuracy of RNA-SSPT is tested in terms of Sensitivity and Positive Predicted Value. It is a tool which serves both secondary structure prediction and secondary structure visualization purposes.
Ahmad, Freed; Mahboob, Shahid; Gulzar, Tahsin; din, Salah U; Hanif, Tanzeela; Ahmad, Hifza; Afzal, Muhammad
The prediction of RNA structure is useful for understanding evolution for both in silico and in vitro studies. Physical methods like NMR studies to predict RNA secondary structure are expensive and difficult. Computational RNA secondary structure prediction is easier. Comparative sequence analysis provides the best solution. But secondary structure prediction of a single RNA sequence is challenging. RNA-SSPT is a tool that computationally predicts secondary structure of a single RNA sequence. Most of the RNA secondary structure prediction tools do not allow pseudoknots in the structure or are unable to locate them. Nussinov dynamic programming algorithm has been implemented in RNA-SSPT. The current studies shows only energetically most favorable secondary structure is required and the algorithm modification is also available that produces base pairs to lower the total free energy of the secondary structure. For visualization of RNA secondary structure, NAVIEW in C language is used and modified in C# for tool requirement. RNA-SSPT is built in C# using Dot Net 2.0 in Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 Professional edition. The accuracy of RNA-SSPT is tested in terms of Sensitivity and Positive Predicted Value. It is a tool which serves both secondary structure prediction and secondary structure visualization purposes. PMID:24250115
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.
This third edition bibliography lists books and teaching aids related to aeronautics and space. Aeronautics titles are limited to aerospace-related research subjects, and books on astronomy to those directly related to space exploration. Also listed are pertinent references like pamphlets, films, film strips, booklets, charts, pictures,…
This second edition of Behaviour Recovery puts emphasis on teaching behaviour concerning children with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). These children have many factors in their lives that affect their behaviour over which schools have limited control. This book acknowledges the challenge and explores the practical realities, options and…
HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.
REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…
Lingeman, Emily; Jeans, Chris; Corn, Jacob E
CRISPR-Cas systems have been harnessed as modular genome editing reagents for functional genomics and show promise to cure genetic diseases. Directed by a guide RNA, a Cas effector introduces a double stranded break in DNA and host cell DNA repair leads to the introduction of errors (e.g., to knockout a gene) or a programmed change. Introduction of a Cas effector and guide RNA as a purified Cas ribonucleoprotein complex (CasRNP) has recently emerged as a powerful approach to alter cell types and organisms. Not only does CasRNP editing exhibit increased efficacy and specificity, it avoids optimization and iteration of species-specific factors such as codon usage, promoters, and terminators. CasRNP editing has been rapidly adopted for research use in many contexts and is quickly becoming a popular method to edit primary cells for therapeutic application. This article describes how to make a Cas9 RNP and outlines its use for gene editing in human cells. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Paix, Alexandre; Folkmann, Andrew; Seydoux, Geraldine
The ability to introduce targeted edits in the genome of model organisms is revolutionizing the field of genetics. State-of-the-art methods for precision genome editing use RNA-guided endonucleases to create double-strand breaks (DSBs) and DNA templates containing the edits to repair the DSBs. Following this strategy, we have developed a protocol to create precise edits in the C. elegans genome. The protocol takes advantage of two innovations to improve editing efficiency: direct injection of CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes and use of linear DNAs with short homology arms as repair templates. The protocol requires no cloning or selection, and can be used to generate base and gene-size edits in just 4days. Point mutations, insertions, deletions and gene replacements can all be created using the same experimental pipeline. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Romay, Gustavo; Bragard, Claude
Plant–virus interactions based-studies have contributed to increase our understanding on plant resistance mechanisms, providing new tools for crop improvement. In the last two decades, RNA interference, a post-transcriptional gene silencing approach, has been used to induce antiviral defenses in plants with the help of genetic engineering technologies. More recently, the new genome editing systems (GES) are revolutionizing the scope of tools available to confer virus resistance in plants. The most explored GES are zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 endonuclease. GES are engineered to target and introduce mutations, which can be deleterious, via double-strand breaks at specific DNA sequences by the error-prone non-homologous recombination end-joining pathway. Although GES have been engineered to target DNA, recent discoveries of GES targeting ssRNA molecules, including virus genomes, pave the way for further studies programming plant defense against RNA viruses. Most of plant virus species have an RNA genome and at least 784 species have positive ssRNA. Here, we provide a summary of the latest progress in plant antiviral defenses mediated by GES. In addition, we also discuss briefly the GES perspectives in light of the rebooted debate on genetic modified organisms (GMOs) and the current regulatory frame for agricultural products involving the use of such engineering technologies. PMID:28167937
Zhang, Jian-Hua; Adikaram, Poorni; Pandey, Mritunjay; Genis, Allison; Simonds, William F.
ABSTRACT CRISPR (Clustered Regularly-Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-Cas9 (CRISPR associated protein 9) has rapidly become the most promising genome editing tool with great potential to revolutionize medicine. Through guidance of a 20 nucleotide RNA (gRNA), CRISPR-Cas9 finds and cuts target protospacer DNA precisely 3 base pairs upstream of a PAM (Protospacer Adjacent Motif). The broken DNA ends are repaired by either NHEJ (Non-Homologous End Joining) resulting in small indels, or by HDR (Homology Directed Repair) for precise gene or nucleotide replacement. Theoretically, CRISPR-Cas9 could be used to modify any genomic sequences, thereby providing a simple, easy, and cost effective means of genome wide gene editing. However, the off-target activity of CRISPR-Cas9 that cuts DNA sites with imperfect matches with gRNA have been of significant concern because clinical applications require 100% accuracy. Additionally, CRISPR-Cas9 has unpredictable efficiency among different DNA target sites and the PAM requirements greatly restrict its genome editing frequency. A large number of efforts have been made to address these impeding issues, but much more is needed to fully realize the medical potential of CRISPR-Cas9. In this article, we summarize the existing problems and current advances of the CRISPR-Cas9 technology and provide perspectives for the ultimate perfection of Cas9-mediated genome editing. PMID:27340770
Zhang, Jian-Hua; Adikaram, Poorni; Pandey, Mritunjay; Genis, Allison; Simonds, William F
CRISPR (Clustered Regularly-Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-Cas9 (CRISPR associated protein 9) has rapidly become the most promising genome editing tool with great potential to revolutionize medicine. Through guidance of a 20 nucleotide RNA (gRNA), CRISPR-Cas9 finds and cuts target protospacer DNA precisely 3 base pairs upstream of a PAM (Protospacer Adjacent Motif). The broken DNA ends are repaired by either NHEJ (Non-Homologous End Joining) resulting in small indels, or by HDR (Homology Directed Repair) for precise gene or nucleotide replacement. Theoretically, CRISPR-Cas9 could be used to modify any genomic sequences, thereby providing a simple, easy, and cost effective means of genome wide gene editing. However, the off-target activity of CRISPR-Cas9 that cuts DNA sites with imperfect matches with gRNA have been of significant concern because clinical applications require 100% accuracy. Additionally, CRISPR-Cas9 has unpredictable efficiency among different DNA target sites and the PAM requirements greatly restrict its genome editing frequency. A large number of efforts have been made to address these impeding issues, but much more is needed to fully realize the medical potential of CRISPR-Cas9. In this article, we summarize the existing problems and current advances of the CRISPR-Cas9 technology and provide perspectives for the ultimate perfection of Cas9-mediated genome editing.
Schlecht, Leslie E.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)
This is a proposal for a general use system based, on the SGI IRIS workstation platform, for recording computer animation to videotape. In addition, this system would provide features for simple editing and enhancement. Described here are a list of requirements for the system, and a proposed configuration including the SGI VideoLab Integrator, VideoMedia VLAN animation controller and the Pioneer rewritable laserdisc recorder.
Liu, Zhen; Cai, Yijun; Sun, Qiang
Gene-modified monkey models would be particularly valuable in biomedical and neuroscience research. Virus-based transgenic and programmable nucleases-based site-specific gene editing methods (TALEN, CRISPR-cas9) enable the generation of gene-modified monkeys with gain or loss of function of specific genes. Here, we describe the generation of transgenic and knock-out (KO) monkeys with high efficiency by lentivirus and programmable nucleases.
Khatodia, Surender; Bhatotia, Kirti; Passricha, Nishat; Khurana, S. M. P.; Tuteja, Narendra
The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats associated Cas9/sgRNA system is a novel targeted genome-editing technique derived from bacterial immune system. It is an inexpensive, easy, most user friendly and rapidly adopted genome editing tool transforming to revolutionary paradigm. This technique enables precise genomic modifications in many different organisms and tissues. Cas9 protein is an RNA guided endonuclease utilized for creating targeted double-stranded breaks with only a short RNA sequence to confer recognition of the target in animals and plants. Development of genetically edited (GE) crops similar to those developed by conventional or mutation breeding using this potential technique makes it a promising and extremely versatile tool for providing sustainable productive agriculture for better feeding of rapidly growing population in a changing climate. The emerging areas of research for the genome editing in plants include interrogating gene function, rewiring the regulatory signaling networks and sgRNA library for high-throughput loss-of-function screening. In this review, we have described the broad applicability of the Cas9 nuclease mediated targeted plant genome editing for development of designer crops. The regulatory uncertainty and social acceptance of plant breeding by Cas9 genome editing have also been described. With this powerful and innovative technique the designer GE non-GM plants could further advance climate resilient and sustainable agriculture in the future and maximizing yield by combating abiotic and biotic stresses. PMID:27148329
Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.
RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.
Schuster, W; Unseld, M; Wissinger, B; Brennicke, A
The gene encoding ribosomal protein S14 (rps14) in Oenothera mitochondria is located upstream of the cytochrome b gene (cob). Sequence analysis of independently derived cDNA clones covering the entire rps14 coding region shows two nucleotides edited from the genomic DNA to the mRNA derived sequences by C to U modifications. A third editing event occurs four nucleotides upstream of the AUG initiation codon and improves a potential ribosome binding site. A CGG codon specifying arginine in a position conserved in evolution between chloroplasts and E. coli as a UGG tryptophan codon is not edited in any of the cDNAs analysed. An inverted repeat 3' of an unidentified open reading frame is located upstream of the rps14 gene. The inverted repeat sequence is highly conserved at analogous regions in other Oenothera mitochondrial loci. Images PMID:2326162
Stone, Daniel; Niyonzima, Nixon
Engineered endonucleases such as homing endonucleases (HEs), zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), Tal-effector nucleases (TALENS) and the RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs or CRISPR/Cas9) can target specific DNA sequences for cleavage, and are proving to be valuable tools for gene editing. Recently engineered endonucleases have shown great promise as therapeutics for the treatment of genetic disease and infectious pathogens. In this review, we discuss recent efforts to use the HE, ZFN, TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing platforms as antiviral therapeutics. We also discuss the obstacles facing gene-editing antiviral therapeutics as they are tested in animal models of disease and transition towards human application. PMID:27272125
Savić, Nataša; Schwank, Gerald
Targeted nucleases are widely used as tools for genome editing. Two years ago the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 nuclease was used for the first time, and since then has largely revolutionized the field. The tremendous success of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tool is powered by the ease design principle of the guide RNA that targets Cas9 to the desired DNA locus, and by the high specificity and efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9-generated DNA breaks. Several studies recently used CRISPR/Cas9 to successfully modulate disease-causing alleles in vivo in animal models and ex vivo in somatic and induced pluripotent stem cells, raising hope for therapeutic genome editing in the clinics. In this review, we will summarize and discuss such preclinical CRISPR/Cas9 gene therapy reports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ohiri, Joyce C; McNally, Elizabeth M
With an increasing understanding of genetic defects leading to cardiomyopathy, focus is shifting to correcting these underlying genetic defects. One approach involves treating mutant RNA through antisense oligonucleotides; the first drug has received regulatory approval to treat specific mutations associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Gene editing is being evaluated in the preclinical setting. For inherited cardiomyopathies, genetic correction strategies require tight specificity for the mutant allele. Gene-editing methods are being tested to create deletions that may be useful to restore protein expression by through the bypass of mutations that restore protein production. Site-specific gene editing, which is required to correct many point mutations, is a less efficient process than inducing deletions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The book treats the basic fundamentals of compressible flow and gas dynamics using a wide breadth of topical coverage. It emphasizes the clear, logical development of basic theory and applies theory to real engineering systems. New in this edition is a complete changeover from English units to SI units. New charts for computing flows containing conical shock waves and expanded tables for isentropic flow and normal shocks are featured. The text emphasizes one dimensional and internal flow, and contains: improved illustrations; many new homework problems; examples and problems involving current applications; and new Mollier diagrams for computing real gas effects.
Cheng, Wei-Chung; Chung, I-Fang; Huang, Tse-Shun; Chang, Shih-Ting; Sun, Hsing-Jen; Tsai, Cheng-Fong; Liang, Muh-Lii; Wong, Tai-Tong; Wang, Hsei-Wei
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs ∼22 nt in length that are involved in the regulation of a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Advances in high-throughput small RNA sequencing (smRNA-seq), one of the next-generation sequencing applications, have reshaped the miRNA research landscape. In this study, we established an integrative database, the YM500 (http://ngs.ym.edu.tw/ym500/), containing analysis pipelines and analysis results for 609 human and mice smRNA-seq results, including public data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and some private sources. YM500 collects analysis results for miRNA quantification, for isomiR identification (incl. RNA editing), for arm switching discovery, and, more importantly, for novel miRNA predictions. Wetlab validation on >100 miRNAs confirmed high correlation between miRNA profiling and RT-qPCR results (R = 0.84). This database allows researchers to search these four different types of analysis results via our interactive web interface. YM500 allows researchers to define the criteria of isomiRs, and also integrates the information of dbSNP to help researchers distinguish isomiRs from SNPs. A user-friendly interface is provided to integrate miRNA-related information and existing evidence from hundreds of sequencing datasets. The identified novel miRNAs and isomiRs hold the potential for both basic research and biotech applications. PMID:23203880
Hsiao, Kuei-Yang; Sun, H Sunny; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq
A growing body of evidence indicates that circular RNAs are not simply a side product of splicing but a new class of noncoding RNAs in higher eukaryotes. The progression for the studies of circular RNAs is accelerated by combination of several advanced technologies such as next generation sequencing, gene silencing (small interfering RNAs) and editing (CRISPR/Cas9). More and more studies showed that dysregulated expression of circular RNAs plays critical roles during the development of several human diseases. Herein, we review the current advance of circular RNAs for their biosynthesis, molecular functions, and implications in human diseases. Impact statement The accumulating evidence indicate that circular RNA (circRNA) is a novel class of noncoding RNA with diverse molecular functions. Our review summarizes the current hypotheses for the models of circRNA biosynthesis including the direct interaction between upstream and downstream introns and lariat-driven circularization. In addition, molecular functions such as a decoy of microRNA (miRNA) termed miRNA sponge, transcriptional regulator, and protein-like modulator are also discussed. Finally, we reviewed the potential roles of circRNAs in neural system, cardiovascular system as well as cancers. These should provide insightful information for studying the regulation and functions of circRNA in other model of human diseases.
Natural disaster loss is on the rise, and the vulnerability of the human and physical environment to the violent forces of nature is increasing. In many parts of the world, disasters caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, drought, wildfires, intense windstorms, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions have caused the loss of human lives, injury, homelessness, and the destruction of economic and social infrastructure. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the occurrence, severity, and intensity of disasters, culminating with the devastating tsunami of 26 December 2004 in South East Asia.Natural hazards are often unexpected or uncontrollable natural events of varying magnitude. Understanding their mechanisms and assessing their distribution in time and space are necessary for refining risk mitigation measures. This second edition of Natural Hazards, (following a first edition published in 1991 by Cambridge University Press), written by Edward Bryant, associate dean of science at Wollongong University, Australia, grapples with this crucial issue, aspects of hazard prediction, and other issues. The book presents a comprehensive analysis of different categories of hazards of climatic and geological origin.
Malina, Abba; Cameron, Christopher J F; Robert, Francis; Blanchette, Mathieu; Dostie, Josée; Pelletier, Jerry
In CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, the underlying principles for selecting guide RNA (gRNA) sequences that would ensure for efficient target site modification remain poorly understood. Here we show that target sites harbouring multiple protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) are refractory to Cas9-mediated repair in situ. Thus we refine which substrates should be avoided in gRNA design, implicating PAM density as a novel sequence-specific feature that inhibits in vivo Cas9-driven DNA modification.
This report assumes a familiarity with the GIFT and MAGIC computer codes. The EDIT-COMGEOM code is a FORTRAN computer code. The EDIT-COMGEOM code...converts the target description data which was used in the MAGIC computer code to the target description data which can be used in the GIFT computer code
National Coordinating Council on Drug Education, Washington, DC.
This second edition updates and expands a 1971 evaluation of films and audiovisuals related to drug education performed by the National Coordinating Council on Drug Education. Materials in this edition are evaluated both for accuracy and effectiveness as a communications tool. They are separated into two sections--films and other audiovisuals…
Long, Chengzu; Amoasii, Leonela; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N
Muscle weakness, the most common symptom of neuromuscular disease, may result from muscle dysfunction or may be caused indirectly by neuronal and neuromuscular junction abnormalities. To date, more than 780 monogenic neuromuscular diseases, linked to 417 different genes, have been identified in humans. Genome-editing methods, especially the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) system, hold clinical potential for curing many monogenic disorders, including neuromuscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. To provide an overview of genome-editing approaches; to summarize published reports on the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of current genome-editing methods as they relate to the potential correction of monogenic neuromuscular diseases; and to highlight scientific and clinical opportunities and obstacles toward permanent correction of disease-causing mutations responsible for monogenic neuromuscular diseases by genome editing. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for articles published from June 30, 1989, through June 9, 2016, using the following keywords: genome editing, CRISPR-Cas9, neuromuscular disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. The following sources were reviewed: 341 articles describing different approaches to edit mammalian genomes; 330 articles describing CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing in cell culture lines (in vitro) and animal models (in vivo); 16 websites used to generate single-guide RNA; 4 websites for off-target effects; and 382 articles describing viral and nonviral delivery systems. Articles describing neuromuscular diseases, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and myotonic dystrophy type 1, were also reviewed. Multiple proof
This teacher and student edition, the first in a series of instructional materials on graphic communication, consists of orientation information, teacher pages, and student worksheets. The teacher edition contains these introductory pages: use of this publication; training and competency profile; PrintED crosswalk; instructional/task analysis;…
Bushey, Vicki; Hildebrand, Bob; Hildebrand, Dinah; Johnson, Dave; Sikes, John; Tahah, Ann; Walker, Susan; Zielsdorf, Lani
These teacher and student editions provide instructional materials for an introduction to surgical technology course. Introductory materials in the teacher edition include information on use, instructional/task analysis, academic and workplace skill classifications and definitions, related academic and workplace skill list, and crosswalk to…
This package contains teacher and student editions of a residential and light commercial heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) course of study. The teacher edition contains information on the following: using the publication; national competencies; competency profile; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, equipment, and…
Multistate Academic and Vocational Curriculum Consortium, Stillwater, OK.
This publication contains both a teacher edition and a student edition of materials for a course in graphic arts that covers the process camera, stripping, and platemaking. The course introduces basic concepts and skills necessary for entry-level employment in a graphic communication occupation. The contents of the materials are tied to measurable…
Knapp, John; Harper, Eddie
This Oklahoma curriculum guide, which includes a teacher edition, a student edition, and a student workbook, provides three units for a course on oxyacetylene welding, oxyfuel cutting, and cutting done with alternative fuels such as MAPP, propane, and natural gas. The three units are: "Oxyacetylene Welding"; "Oxyfuel Cutting";…
Fortney, Clarence; Gregory, Mike; New, Larry
Teacher and student editions and a student workbook for fundamentals of welding comprise the first of six in a series of competency-based instructional materials for welding programs. Introductory pages in the teacher edition are training and competency profile, instructional/task analysis, basic skills icons and classifications, basic skills…
Nye, Christopher J.
It takes confidence to title a smallish book merely “Volcanoes” because of the impliction that the myriad facets of volcanism—chemistry, physics, geology, meteorology, hazard mitigation, and more—have been identified and addressed to some nontrivial level of detail. Robert and Barbara Decker have visited these different facets seamlessly in Volcanoes, Third Edition. The seamlessness comes from a broad overarching, interdisciplinary, professional understanding of volcanism combined with an exceptionally smooth translation of scientific jargon into plain language.The result is a book which will be informative to a very broad audience, from reasonably educated nongeologists (my mother loves it) to geology undergraduates through professional volcanologists. I bet that even the most senior professional volcanologists will learn at least a few things from this book and will find at least a few provocative discussions of subjects they know.
Domingo, E.; Holland, J.J.; Ahlquist, P.
This book contains the proceedings on RNA genetics: RNA-directed virus replication Volume 1. Topics covered include: Replication of the poliovirus genome; Influenza viral RNA transcription and replication; and Relication of the reoviridal: Information derived from gene cloning and expression.
Eckenfelder, W.W.; Malina, J.F.; Patterson, J.W.
A series of ten books offered in conjunction with Water Quality International, the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC). Volume 1, Activated Sludge Process, Design and Control, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 2, Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 3, Toxicity Reduction, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 4, Municipal Sewage Sludge Management, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 5, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants for Biological Nutrient Removal, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 6, Dynamics and Control of the Activated Sludge Process, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 7: Design of Anaerobic Processes formore » the Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 8, Groundwater Remediation, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 9, Nonpoint Pollution and Urban Stormwater Management, 1st edition, 1995: Volume 10, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, 1st edition, 1998.« less
Gu, Feng; Gao, Caixia
Genome editing technology, as an innovative biotechnology, has been widely used for editing the genome from model organisms, animals, plants and microbes. CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing technology shows its great value and potential in the dissection of functional genomics, improved breeding and genetic disease treatment. In the present special issue, the principle and application of genome editing techniques has been summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of the current genome editing technology and future prospects would also be highlighted.
Special Operations Forces Reference Manual Fourth Edition The JSOU Press MacDill AFB, Florida June 2015 Prepared by Joint Special Operations...other national and international security decision-makers, both military and civilian, through teaching, outreach, and research in the science and art...Luke First Edition, June 2005 (Revised July 2006) Second Edition, August 2008 Third Edition, September 2011 Fourth Edition, June 2015 This work was
Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identifymore » similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses.« less
Yuen, Kit-San; Chan, Chi-Ping; Wong, Nok-Hei Mickey; Ho, Chau-Ha; Ho, Ting-Hin; Lei, Ting; Deng, Wen; Tsao, Sai Wah; Chen, Honglin; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan
The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated 9) system is a highly efficient and powerful tool for RNA-guided editing of the cellular genome. Whether CRISPR/Cas9 can also cleave the genome of DNA viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which undergo episomal replication in human cells, remains to be established. Here, we reported on CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the EBV genome in human cells. Two guide RNAs (gRNAs) were used to direct a targeted deletion of 558 bp in the promoter region of BART (BamHI A rightward transcript) which encodes viral microRNAs (miRNAs). Targeted editing was achieved in several human epithelial cell lines latently infected with EBV, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma C666-1 cells. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the EBV genome was efficient. A recombinant virus with the desired deletion was obtained after puromycin selection of cells expressing Cas9 and gRNAs. No off-target cleavage was found by deep sequencing. The loss of BART miRNA expression and activity was verified, supporting the BART promoter as the major promoter of BART RNA. Although CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the multicopy episome of EBV in infected HEK293 cells was mostly incomplete, viruses could be recovered and introduced into other cells at low m.o.i. Recombinant viruses with an edited genome could be further isolated through single-cell sorting. Finally, a DsRed selectable marker was successfully introduced into the EBV genome during the course of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing. Taken together, our work provided not only the first genetic evidence that the BART promoter drives the expression of the BART transcript, but also a new and efficient method for targeted editing of EBV genome in human cells. © 2015 The Authors.
Komusiewicz, Christian; Uhlmann, Johannes
Given an undirected graph G and a nonnegative integer k, the NP-hard Cluster Editing problem asks whether G can be transformed into a disjoint union of cliques by applying at most k edge modifications. In the field of parameterized algorithmics, Cluster Editing has almost exclusively been studied parameterized by the solution size k. Contrastingly, in many real-world instances it can be observed that the parameter k is not really small. This observation motivates our investigation of parameterizations of Cluster Editing different from the solution size k. Our results are as follows. Cluster Editing is fixed-parameter tractable with respect to the parameter "size of a minimum cluster vertex deletion set of G", a typically much smaller parameter than k. Cluster Editing remains NP-hard on graphs with maximum degree six. A restricted but practically relevant version of Cluster Editing is fixed-parameter tractable with respect to the combined parameter "number of clusters in the target graph" and "maximum number of modified edges incident to any vertex in G". Many of our results also transfer to the NP-hard Cluster Deletion problem, where only edge deletions are allowed.
Rother, Magdalena; Milanowska, Kaja; Puton, Tomasz; Jeleniewicz, Jaroslaw; Rother, Kristian; Bujnicki, Janusz M
The diverse functional roles of non-coding RNA molecules are determined by their underlying structure. ModeRNA server is an online tool for RNA 3D structure modeling by the comparative approach, based on a template RNA structure and a user-defined target-template sequence alignment. It offers an option to search for potential templates, given the target sequence. The server also provides tools for analyzing, editing and formatting of RNA structure files. It facilitates the use of the ModeRNA software and offers new options in comparison to the standalone program. ModeRNA server was implemented using the Python language and the Django web framework. It is freely available at http://iimcb.genesilico.pl/modernaserver. email@example.com.
Xiang, Guanghai; Zhang, Xingying; An, Chenrui; Cheng, Chen; Wang, Haoyi
Zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) are the most commonly used genome editing tools. Previous studies demonstrated that hypothermia treatment increased the mutation rates induced by ZFNs and TALENs in mammalian cells. Here, we characterize the effect of different culture temperatures on CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing and find that the genome editing efficiency of CRISPR-Cas9 is significantly hampered by hypothermia treatment, unlike ZFN and TALEN. In addition, hyperthermia culture condition enhances genome editing by CRISPR-Cas9 in some cell lines, due to the higher enzyme activity and sgRNA expression level at higher temperature. Our study has implications on CRISPR-Cas9 applications in a broad spectrum of species, many of which do not live at 37°C. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jiang, Yu; Qian, Fenghui; Yang, Junjie; Liu, Yingmiao; Dong, Feng; Xu, Chongmao; Sun, Bingbing; Chen, Biao; Xu, Xiaoshu; Li, Yan; Wang, Renxiao; Yang, Sheng
Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial metabolite producer that is difficult to genetically engineer. Although the Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp) CRISPR-Cas9 system has been adapted for genome editing of multiple bacteria, it cannot be introduced into C. glutamicum. Here we report a Francisella novicida (Fn) CRISPR-Cpf1-based genome-editing method for C. glutamicum. CRISPR-Cpf1, combined with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering, precisely introduces small changes into the bacterial genome at efficiencies of 86–100%. Large gene deletions and insertions are also obtained using an all-in-one plasmid consisting of FnCpf1, CRISPR RNA, and homologous arms. The two CRISPR-Cpf1-assisted systems enable N iterative rounds of genome editing in 3N+4 or 3N+2 days. A proof-of-concept, codon saturation mutagenesis at G149 of γ-glutamyl kinase relieves L-proline inhibition using Cpf1-assisted ssDNA recombineering. Thus, CRISPR-Cpf1-based genome editing provides a highly efficient tool for genetic engineering of Corynebacterium and other bacteria that cannot utilize the Sp CRISPR-Cas9 system. PMID:28469274
Manjunath, N.; Yi, Guohua; Dang, Ying; Shankar, Premlata
Despite the great success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in ameliorating the course of HIV infection, alternative therapeutic approaches are being pursued because of practical problems associated with life-long therapy. The eradication of HIV in the so-called “Berlin patient” who received a bone marrow transplant from a CCR5-negative donor has rekindled interest in genome engineering strategies to achieve the same effect. Precise gene editing within the cells is now a realistic possibility with recent advances in understanding the DNA repair mechanisms, DNA interaction with transcription factors and bacterial defense mechanisms. Within the past few years, four novel technologies have emerged that can be engineered for recognition of specific DNA target sequences to enable site-specific gene editing: Homing Endonuclease, ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 system. The most recent CRISPR/Cas9 system uses a short stretch of complementary RNA bound to Cas9 nuclease to recognize and cleave target DNA, as opposed to the previous technologies that use DNA binding motifs of either zinc finger proteins or transcription activator-like effector molecules fused to an endonuclease to mediate sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Unlike RNA interference, which requires the continued presence of effector moieties to maintain gene silencing, the newer technologies allow permanent disruption of the targeted gene after a single treatment. Here, we review the applications, limitations and future prospects of novel gene-editing strategies for use as HIV therapy. PMID:24284874
Zhu, Linjiang; Li, Qi
Genome editing is defined as highly-effective and precise modification of cellular genome in a large scale. In recent years, such genome-editing methods have been rapidly developed in the field of industrial strain improvement. The quickly-updating methods thoroughly change the old mode of inefficient genetic modification, which is "one modification, one selection marker, and one target site". Highly-effective modification mode in genome editing have been developed including simultaneous modification of multiplex genes, highly-effective insertion, replacement, and deletion of target genes in the genome scale, cut-paste of a large DNA fragment. These new tools for microbial genome editing will certainly be applied widely, and increase the efficiency of industrial strain improvement, and promote the revolution of traditional fermentation industry and rapid development of novel industrial biotechnology like production of biofuel and biomaterial. The technological principle of these genome-editing methods and their applications were summarized in this review, which can benefit engineering and construction of industrial microorganism.
Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Ousterout, David G; Gersbach, Charles A
New technologies have recently emerged that enable targeted editing of genomes in diverse systems. This includes precise manipulation of gene sequences in their natural chromosomal context and addition of transgenes to specific genomic loci. This progress has been facilitated by advances in engineering targeted nucleases with programmable, site-specific DNA-binding domains, including zinc finger proteins and transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs). Recent improvements have enhanced nuclease performance, accelerated nuclease assembly, and lowered the cost of genome editing. These advances are driving new approaches to many areas of biotechnology, including biopharmaceutical production, agriculture, creation of transgenic organisms and cell lines, and studies of genome structure, regulation, and function. Genome editing is also being investigated in preclinical and clinical gene therapies for many diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baisden, W. Troy
Understanding the links among global biogeochemical cycles, ecology, hydrology and climate demands a knowledge base that has traditionally been considered soil science. However, for soil science to play a role in this understanding, geologists, hydrologists, ecologists, climatologists, and many others must have a fundamental understanding of soil science. Do introductory soil science texts speak to this audience?To address this question, I reviewed the fifth edition of a textbook that set out in its original edition to accomplish just this goal—to be the introductory soil science text for students outside the discipline of soil science. As such, Singer and Munns' Soils:An Introduction must be compared to The Nature and Properties of Soils by N.C. Brady and R.R. Weil, a standard text directly descended from a first edition published in 1922.
Schuster, W; Wissinger, B; Unseld, M; Brennicke, A
A number of cytosines are altered to be recognized as uridines in transcripts of the nad3 locus in mitochondria of the higher plant Oenothera. Such nucleotide modifications can be found at 16 different sites within the nad3 coding region. Most of these alterations in the mRNA sequence change codon identities to specify amino acids better conserved in evolution. Individual cDNA clones differ in their degree of editing at five nucleotide positions, three of which are silent, while two lead to codon alterations specifying different amino acids. None of the cDNA clones analysed is maximally edited at all possible sites, suggesting slow processing or lowered stringency of editing at these nucleotides. Differentially edited transcripts could be editing intermediates or could code for differing polypeptides. Two edited nucleotides in an open reading frame located upstream of nad3 change two amino acids in the deduced polypeptide. Part of the well-conserved ribosomal protein gene rps12 also encoded downstream of nad3 in other plants, is lost in Oenothera mitochondria by recombination events. The functional rps12 protein must be imported from the cytoplasm since the deleted sequences of this gene are not found in the Oenothera mitochondrial genome. The pseudogene sequence is not edited at any nucleotide position. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:1688531
Sakurai, Takayuki; Kamiyoshi, Akiko; Kawate, Hisaka; Mori, Chie; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanaka, Megumu; Uetake, Ryuichi; Sato, Masahiro; Shindo, Takayuki
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of editing multiple genes through one-step zygote injection. The preexisting method is largely based on the co-injection of Cas9 DNA (or mRNA) and guide RNAs (gRNAs); however, it is unclear how many genes can be simultaneously edited by this method, and a reliable means to generate transgenic (Tg) animals with multiple gene editing has yet to be developed. Here, we employed non-inheritable maternal Cas9 (maCas9) protein derived from Tg mice with systemic Cas9 overexpression (Cas9 mice). The maCas9 protein in zygotes derived from mating or in vitro fertilization of Tg/+ oocytes and +/+ sperm could successfully edit the target genome. The efficiency of such maCas9-based genome editing was comparable to that of zygote microinjection-based genome editing widely used at present. Furthermore, we demonstrated a novel approach to create "Cas9 transgene-free" gene-modified mice using non-Tg (+/+) zygotes carrying maCas9. The maCas9 protein in mouse zygotes edited nine target loci simultaneously after injection with nine different gRNAs alone. Cas9 mouse-derived zygotes have the potential to facilitate the creation of genetically modified animals carrying the Cas9 transgene, enabling repeatable genome engineering and the production of Cas9 transgene-free mice.
Kim, Suin; Park, Sungjoon; Hale, Scott A; Kim, Sooyoung; Byun, Jeongmin; Oh, Alice H
Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary) languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language.
Hale, Scott A.; Kim, Sooyoung; Byun, Jeongmin; Oh, Alice H.
Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary) languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language. PMID:27171158
Kaspi, Antony; El-Osta, Assam
Genomic alignment of small RNA (smRNA) sequences such as microRNAs poses considerable challenges due to their short length (∼21 nucleotides [nt]) as well as the large size and complexity of plant and animal genomes. While several tools have been developed for high-throughput mapping of longer mRNA-seq reads (>30 nt), there are few that are specifically designed for mapping of smRNA reads including microRNAs. The accuracy of these mappers has not been systematically determined in the case of smRNA-seq. In addition, it is unknown whether these aligners accurately map smRNA reads containing sequence errors and polymorphisms. By using simulated read sets, we determine the alignment sensitivity and accuracy of 16 short-read mappers and quantify their robustness to mismatches, indels, and nontemplated nucleotide additions. These were explored in the context of a plant genome (Oryza sativa, ∼500 Mbp) and a mammalian genome (Homo sapiens, ∼3.1 Gbp). Analysis of simulated and real smRNA-seq data demonstrates that mapper selection impacts differential expression results and interpretation. These results will inform on best practice for smRNA mapping and enable more accurate smRNA detection and quantification of expression and RNA editing. PMID:27284164
Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John
Handbook of Ecotoxicology, Second Edition focuses on toxic substances and how they affect ecosystems worldwide. It presents methods for quantifying and measuring ecotoxicological effects in the field and in the lab, as well as methods for estimating, predicting, and modeling in ecotoxicology studies. Completely revised and updated with 18 new chapters, this second edition includes contributions from over 75 international experts. Also, a Technical Review Board reviewed all manuscripts for accuracy and currency. This authoritative work is the definitive reference for students, researchers, consultants, and other professionals in the environmental sciences, toxicology, chemistry, biology, and ecology - in academia, industry, and government.
Fortney, Clarence; And Others
This second edition of the shielded metal arc pipe welding curriculum guide presents both basic and advanced pipe welding skills. All specifications for procedure and welder qualification are presented according to national standards. The standards also include the test position for both groove and fillet pipe welding. The guide contains three…
Teacher and student editions of Civil Technology Applications are one in a series of competency-based instructional materials for drafting and civil technology programs. It includes the technical content and tasks necessary for a student to be employed as a drafter or civil technician in a civil engineering firm. Introductory pages in the teacher…
This publication consists of instructional materials to provide secondary and postsecondary students with skills useful in pursuing a career in the diesel industry. Introductory materials in the teacher edition include information on use of the publication, competency profile, instructional/task analysis, related academic and workplace skills…
This packet contains teacher and student editions on the topic of equipment systems, intended for the preparation of power product equipment technicians. This publication contains seven units: (1) principles of power transmission; (2) mechanical drive systems; (3) principles of fluid power; (4) hydraulic and pneumatic drive systems; (5) wheel and…
Harper, Eddie; Knapp, John
This packet of instructional materials for a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and plasma arc cutting course is comprised of a teacher edition, student edition, and student workbook. The teacher edition consists of introductory pages and teacher pages. Introductory pages include training and competency profile, state duty/task crosswalk,…
Knapp, John; Harper, Eddie
This packet, containing a teacher's edition, a student edition, and a student workbook, introduces students to high deposition welding and processes for "shielding" a weld. In addition to general information, the teacher edition consists of introductory pages and teacher pages, as well as unit information that corresponds to the…
Ju, Xing-Da; Xu, Jing; Sun, Zhong Sheng
The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas (CRISPR-associated protein) system, a prokaryotic RNA-based adaptive immune system against viral infection, is emerging as a powerful genome editing tool in broad research areas. To further improve and expand its functionality, various CRISPR delivery strategies have been tested and optimized, and key CRISPR system components such as Cas protein have been engineered with different purposes. Benefiting from more in-depth understanding and further development of CRISPR, versatile CRISPR-based platforms for genome editing have been rapidly developed to advance investigations in biology and biomedicine. In biological research area, CRISPR has been widely adopted in both fundamental and applied research fields, such as genomic and epigenomic modification, genome-wide screening, cell and animal research, agriculture transforming, livestock breeding, food manufacture, industrial biotechnology, and gene drives in disease agents control. In biomedical research area, CRISPR has also shown its extensive applicability in the establishment of animal models for genetic disorders, generation of tissue donors, implementation of antimicrobial and antiviral studies, identification and assessment of new drugs, and even treatment for clinical diseases. However, there are still several problems to consider, and the biggest concerns are the off-target effects and ethical issues of this technology. In this prospect article, after highlighting recent development of CRISPR systems, we outline different applications and current limitations of CRISPR in biological and biomedical investigation. Finally, we provide a perspective on future development and potential risks of this multifunctional technology. J. Cell. Biochem. 119: 52-61, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gerdes, Kenn; Wagner, E Gerhart H
Recent genomic analyses revealed a surprisingly large number of toxin-antitoxin loci in free-living prokaryotes. The antitoxins are proteins or antisense RNAs that counteract the toxins. Two antisense RNA-regulated toxin-antitoxin gene families, hok/sok and ldr, are unrelated sequence-wise but have strikingly similar properties at the level of gene and RNA organization. Recently, two SOS-induced toxins were found to be regulated by RNA antitoxins. One such toxin, SymE, exhibits similarity with MazE antitoxin and, surprisingly, inhibits translation. Thus, it is possible that an ancestral antitoxin gene evolved into the present toxin gene (symE) whose translation is repressed by an RNA antitoxin (SymR).
It is generally believed that an RNA World existed at an early stage in the history of life. During this early period, RNA molecules are seen to be potentially involved in both catalysis and the storage of genetic information. It is widely believed that this RNA World was extensive and therefore a sophisticated nucleic acid replication machinery would presumably predate the translation machinery which would not be needed until later stages in the development of life. This view of an extended RNA World is not necessarily correct. From the point of view of exobiology, the difference in these two views mainly affects the significance of studies of the extent of catalysis possible by RNA- In either case, the origin of the translation machinery and the principles of RNA evolution remain central problems in exobiology. Translation presents several interrelated themes of inquiry for exobiology. First, it is essential, for understanding the very origin of life, how peptides and eventually proteins might have come to be made on the early Earth in a template directed manner. Second, it is necessary to understand how a machinery of similar complexity to that found in the ribosomes of modem organisms came to exist by the time of the last common ancestor (as detected by 16S RRNA sequence studies). Third, the RNAs that comprise the ribosome are themselves likely of very early origin and studies of their history may be very informative about the nature of the RNA World. Moreover, studies of these RNAs will contribute to a better understanding of the potential roles of RNA in early evolution.
Wang, Haifeng; La Russa, Marie; Qi, Lei S
The Cas9 protein (CRISPR-associated protein 9), derived from type II CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) bacterial immune systems, is emerging as a powerful tool for engineering the genome in diverse organisms. As an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, Cas9 can be easily programmed to target new sites by altering its guide RNA sequence, and its development as a tool has made sequence-specific gene editing several magnitudes easier. The nuclease-deactivated form of Cas9 further provides a versatile RNA-guided DNA-targeting platform for regulating and imaging the genome, as well as for rewriting the epigenetic status, all in a sequence-specific manner. With all of these advances, we have just begun to explore the possible applications of Cas9 in biomedical research and therapeutics. In this review, we describe the current models of Cas9 function and the structural and biochemical studies that support it. We focus on the applications of Cas9 for genome editing, regulation, and imaging, discuss other possible applications and some technical considerations, and highlight the many advantages that CRISPR/Cas9 technology offers.
Green, J C; Hu, J S
This minireview summarizes recent advancements using the clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats-associated nuclease systems (CRISPR-Cas) derived from prokaryotes to breed plants resistant to DNA and RNA viruses. The CRISPR-Cas system represents a powerful tool able to edit and insert novel traits into plants precisely at chosen loci offering enormous advantages to classical breeding. Approaches to engineering plant virus resistance in both transgenic and non-transgenic plants are discussed. Iterations of the CRISPR-Cas system, FnCas9 and C2c2 capable of editing RNA in eukaryotic cells offer a particular advantage for providing resistance to RNA viruses which represent the great majority of known plant viruses. Scientists have obtained conflicting results using gene silencing technology to produce transgenic plants resistant to geminiviruses. CRISPR-Cas systems engineered in plants to target geminiviruses have consistently reduced virus accumulation providing increased resistance to virus infection. CRISPR-Cas may provide novel and reliable approaches to control geminiviruses and other ssDNA viruses such as Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV).
Banerjee, Ayan; Vest, Katherine E; Pavlath, Grace K; Corbett, Anita H
The polyadenylate binding protein 1 (PABPN1) is a ubiquitously expressed RNA binding protein vital for multiple steps in RNA metabolism. Although PABPN1 plays a critical role in the regulation of RNA processing, mutation of the gene encoding this ubiquitously expressed RNA binding protein causes a specific form of muscular dystrophy termed oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Despite the tissue-specific pathology that occurs in this disease, only recently have studies of PABPN1 begun to explore the role of this protein in skeletal muscle. We have used co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify proteins that interact with PABPN1 in mouse skeletal muscles. Among the interacting proteins we identified Matrin 3 (MATR3) as a novel protein interactor of PABPN1. The MATR3 gene is mutated in a form of distal myopathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We demonstrate, that like PABPN1, MATR3 is critical for myogenesis. Furthermore, MATR3 controls critical aspects of RNA processing including alternative polyadenylation and intron retention. We provide evidence that MATR3 also binds and regulates the levels of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Neat1 and together with PABPN1 is required for normal paraspeckle function. We demonstrate that PABPN1 and MATR3 are required for paraspeckles, as well as for adenosine to inosine (A to I) RNA editing of Ctn RNA in muscle cells. We provide a functional link between PABPN1 and MATR3 through regulation of a common lncRNA target with downstream impact on paraspeckle morphology and function. We extend our analysis to a mouse model of OPMD and demonstrate altered paraspeckle morphology in the presence of endogenous levels of alanine-expanded PABPN1. In this study, we report protein-binding partners of PABPN1, which could provide insight into novel functions of PABPN1 in skeletal muscle and identify proteins that could be sequestered with alanine-expanded PABPN1 in the nuclear aggregates found in OPMD. © The Author
Banerjee, Ayan; Vest, Katherine E.
Abstract The polyadenylate binding protein 1 (PABPN1) is a ubiquitously expressed RNA binding protein vital for multiple steps in RNA metabolism. Although PABPN1 plays a critical role in the regulation of RNA processing, mutation of the gene encoding this ubiquitously expressed RNA binding protein causes a specific form of muscular dystrophy termed oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Despite the tissue-specific pathology that occurs in this disease, only recently have studies of PABPN1 begun to explore the role of this protein in skeletal muscle. We have used co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify proteins that interact with PABPN1 in mouse skeletal muscles. Among the interacting proteins we identified Matrin 3 (MATR3) as a novel protein interactor of PABPN1. The MATR3 gene is mutated in a form of distal myopathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We demonstrate, that like PABPN1, MATR3 is critical for myogenesis. Furthermore, MATR3 controls critical aspects of RNA processing including alternative polyadenylation and intron retention. We provide evidence that MATR3 also binds and regulates the levels of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Neat1 and together with PABPN1 is required for normal paraspeckle function. We demonstrate that PABPN1 and MATR3 are required for paraspeckles, as well as for adenosine to inosine (A to I) RNA editing of Ctn RNA in muscle cells. We provide a functional link between PABPN1 and MATR3 through regulation of a common lncRNA target with downstream impact on paraspeckle morphology and function. We extend our analysis to a mouse model of OPMD and demonstrate altered paraspeckle morphology in the presence of endogenous levels of alanine-expanded PABPN1. In this study, we report protein-binding partners of PABPN1, which could provide insight into novel functions of PABPN1 in skeletal muscle and identify proteins that could be sequestered with alanine-expanded PABPN1 in the nuclear aggregates found in OPMD. PMID
Buehler, M. F.
The levels-of-edit concept, which can be used to specify the amount of editorial effort involved in the preparation of a manuscript for publication, is discussed. Nine types of editing are identified and described. These include coordination edit (preparing estimates, gathering cost data, monitoring production processes), policy edit, integrity edit (making sure that parts of a publication match in a physical or numerical sense), screening edit (ensuring that the quality of camera-ready copy is sufficient for external publication), copy clarification edit, format edit, mechanical style edit, language edit, and substantive edit (reviewing the manuscript for content coherence, emphasis, subordination and parallelism). These functions are grouped into five levels of edit. An edit-level number is assigned to each manuscript, providing a quantitative and qualitative indicator of the editing to be done which is clearly understood by authors, managers, and editors alike. In addition, clear boundaries are drawn between normal and extraordinary editing tasks. Individual organizations will group various edits in different ways to reflect their needs and priorities; the essential element of the system is unambiguous definition and coding of the types and amount of work to be done.
Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Singh, Bahadur
Editing human germline genes may act as boon in some genetic and other disorders. Recent editing of the genome of the human embryo with the CRISPR/Cas9 editing tool generated a debate amongst top scientists of the world for the ethical considerations regarding its effect on the future generations. It needs to be seen as to what transformation human gene editing brings to humankind in the times to come.
LeBlanc, Jason; Weil, Jason; Beemon, Karen
After reverse transcription of the retroviral RNA genome and integration of the DNA provirus into the host genome, host machinery is used for viral gene expression along with viral proteins and RNA regulatory elements. Here, we discuss co-transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of retroviral gene expression, comparing simple and complex retroviruses. Cellular RNA polymerase II synthesizes full-length viral primary RNA transcripts that are capped and polyadenylated. All retroviruses generate a singly spliced env mRNA from this primary transcript, which encodes the viral glycoproteins. In addition, complex viral RNAs are alternatively spliced to generate accessory proteins, such as Rev, which is involved in posttranscriptional regulation of HIV-1 RNA. Importantly, the splicing of all retroviruses is incomplete; they must maintain and export a fraction of their primary RNA transcripts. This unspliced RNA functions both as the major mRNA for Gag and Pol proteins and as the packaged genomic RNA. Different retroviruses export their unspliced viral RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by either Tap-dependent or Rev/CRM1-dependent routes. Translation of the unspliced mRNA involves frame-shifting or termination codon suppression so that the Gag proteins, which make up the capsid, are expressed more abundantly than the Pol proteins, which are the viral enzymes. After the viral polyproteins assemble into viral particles and bud from the cell membrane, a viral encoded protease cleaves them. Some retroviruses have evolved mechanisms to protect their unspliced RNA from decay by nonsense-mediated RNA decay and to prevent genome editing by the cellular APOBEC deaminases. PMID:23754689
Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.
"Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition," the second volume in the paperback version of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd Edition," consists of Part III of the handbook ("Strategies of Inquiry"). "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition" presents the major tactics--historically, the research methods--that…
Koshy, Valsa, Ed.; Murray, Jean, Ed.
Now in a fully updated second edition, "Unlocking Mathematics Teaching" is a comprehensive guide to teaching mathematics in the primary school. Combining theory and practice, selected experts outline the current context of mathematics education. They suggest strategies, activities and examples to help develop readers understanding and confidence…
Christensen, Herbert E., Ed.; And Others
The second edition of the Toxic Substances List, containing some 13,000 entries, is prepared annually by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. The purpose of the List is to identify all known toxic substances but not to quantitate the hazard. The List…
In a fully revised, updated, and expanded second edition, this informative clinical resource and text presents Froma Walsh's family resilience framework for intervention and prevention with clients dealing with adversity. Drawing on extensive research and clinical experience, the author describes key processes in resilience for practitioners to…
Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...
New Media Consortium, 2005
This second edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series…
New Media Consortium, 2006
This third edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on ongoing discussions…
New Media Consortium, 2007
This fourth edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on ongoing…
Honig, Bill; Diamond, Linda; Gutlohn, Linda
The "Teaching Reading Sourcebook, Second Edition" is a comprehensive reference about reading instruction. Organized according to the elements of explicit instruction (what? why? when? and how?), the "Sourcebook" includes both a research-informed knowledge base and practical sample lesson models. It teaches the key elements of an effective reading…
Designed to save the user time and packaged in a compact size which lies flat, this book is easy to consult while revising and editing a written draft. The book's "main menu," just inside the front cover, displays the contents as briefly and simply as possible. Each of the 12 sections in the book's main menu leads the user to a tabbed…
New Media Consortium, 2004
This first edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" details findings of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series of interviews…
Lovitt, Thomas C.
Like its two predecessors, "Preventing School Dropouts" [C1991] and "Preventing School Failure" [C2000], this third edition is a book about teaching. Although primarily written for teachers, tutors and parents may also find this book helpful. It is a collection of carefully selected teaching techniques aimed at helping young adults learn important…
Bryde, John F.
Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian…
Thompson, David C.; Crampton, Faith E.; Wood, R. Craig
In the new edition of this essential, all-inclusive text, the authors provide more important research for future principals and others enrolled in graduate-level school finance courses. Written in a style that is highly readable, the book offers strong connections to real-world experiences. Readers get both a broad overview of funding concepts and…
Ding, Yuduan; Li, Hong; Chen, Ling-Ling; Xie, Kabin
The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) system is a versatile tool for genome engineering that uses a guide RNA (gRNA) to target Cas9 to a specific sequence. This simple RNA-guided genome-editing technology has become a revolutionary tool in biology and has many innovative applications in different fields. In this review, we briefly introduce the Cas9-mediated genome-editing method, summarize the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and discuss their implications for plant research. To date, targeted gene knockout using the Cas9/gRNA system has been established in many plant species, and the targeting efficiency and capacity of Cas9 has been improved by optimizing its expression and that of its gRNA. The CRISPR/Cas9 system can also be used for sequence-specific mutagenesis/integration and transcriptional control of target genes. We also discuss off-target effects and the constraint that the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) puts on CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering. To address these problems, a number of bioinformatic tools are available to help design specific gRNAs, and new Cas9 variants and orthologs with high fidelity and alternative PAM specificities have been engineered. Owing to these recent efforts, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is becoming a revolutionary and flexible tool for genome engineering. Adoption of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in plant research would enable the investigation of plant biology at an unprecedented depth and create innovative applications in precise crop breeding.
Ding, Yuduan; Li, Hong; Chen, Ling-Ling; Xie, Kabin
The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) system is a versatile tool for genome engineering that uses a guide RNA (gRNA) to target Cas9 to a specific sequence. This simple RNA-guided genome-editing technology has become a revolutionary tool in biology and has many innovative applications in different fields. In this review, we briefly introduce the Cas9-mediated genome-editing method, summarize the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and discuss their implications for plant research. To date, targeted gene knockout using the Cas9/gRNA system has been established in many plant species, and the targeting efficiency and capacity of Cas9 has been improved by optimizing its expression and that of its gRNA. The CRISPR/Cas9 system can also be used for sequence-specific mutagenesis/integration and transcriptional control of target genes. We also discuss off-target effects and the constraint that the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) puts on CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering. To address these problems, a number of bioinformatic tools are available to help design specific gRNAs, and new Cas9 variants and orthologs with high fidelity and alternative PAM specificities have been engineered. Owing to these recent efforts, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is becoming a revolutionary and flexible tool for genome engineering. Adoption of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in plant research would enable the investigation of plant biology at an unprecedented depth and create innovative applications in precise crop breeding. PMID:27252719
Dwivedi, Shweta; Kruparani, Shobha P; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan
Threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) faces a crucial double-discrimination problem during the translation of genetic code. Most ThrRSs from the archaeal kingdom possess a unique editing domain that differs from those of eubacteria and eukaryotes. In order to understand the structural basis of the editing mechanism in archaea, the editing module of ThrRS from Pyrococcus abyssi comprising of the first 183 amino-acid residues was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3(1(2))21, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit.
Germain, Arnaud; Hotto, Amber M; Barkan, Alice; Stern, David B
Plastids were derived through endosymbiosis from a cyanobacterial ancestor, whose uptake was followed by massive gene transfer to the nucleus, resulting in the compact size and modest coding capacity of the extant plastid genome. Plastid gene expression is essential for plant development, but depends on nucleus-encoded proteins recruited from cyanobacterial or host-cell origins. The plastid genome is heavily transcribed from numerous promoters, giving posttranscriptional events a critical role in determining the quantity and sizes of accumulating RNA species. The major events reviewed here are RNA editing, which restores protein conservation or creates correct open reading frames by converting C residues to U, RNA splicing, which occurs both in cis and trans, and RNA cleavage, which relies on a variety of exoribonucleases and endoribonucleases. Because the RNases have little sequence specificity, they are collectively able to remove extraneous RNAs whose ends are not protected by RNA secondary structures or sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Other plastid RBPs, largely members of the helical-repeat superfamily, confer specificity to editing and splicing reactions. The enzymes that catalyze RNA processing are also the main actors in RNA decay, implying that these antagonistic roles are optimally balanced. We place the actions of RBPs and RNases in the context of a recent proteomic analysis that identifies components of the plastid nucleoid, a protein-DNA complex with multiple roles in gene expression. These results suggest that sublocalization and/or concentration gradients of plastid proteins could underpin the regulation of RNA maturation and degradation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hegge, Jorrit W; Swarts, Daan C; van der Oost, John
Argonaute proteins constitute a highly diverse family of nucleic acid-guided proteins. They were first discovered in eukaryotes as key proteins in RNA interference systems, but homologous prokaryotic Argonaute proteins (pAgos) have also been found in archaea and bacteria. In this Progress article, we focus on long pAgo variants, a class of pAgos that are involved in nucleic acid-guided host defence against invading nucleic acids, and discuss the potential of pAgos in genome editing.
Li, Chia-Lung; Yang, Wei-Zen; Shi, Zhonghao; Yuan, Hanna S
Tudor staphylococcal nuclease (TSN) is an evolutionarily conserved ribonuclease in eukaryotes that is composed of five staphylococcal nuclease-like domains (SN1-SN5) and a Tudor domain. TSN degrades hyper-edited double-stranded RNA, including primary miRNA precursors containing multiple I•U and U•I pairs, and mature miRNA during miRNA decay. However, how TSN binds and degrades its RNA substrates remains unclear. Here, we show that the C. elegans TSN (cTSN) is a monomeric Ca 2+ -dependent ribonuclease, cleaving RNA chains at the 5'-side of the phosphodiester linkage to produce degraded fragments with 5'-hydroxyl and 3'-phosphate ends. cTSN degrades single-stranded RNA and double-stranded RNA containing mismatched base pairs, but is not restricted to those containing multiple I•U and U•I pairs. cTSN has at least two catalytic active sites located in the SN1 and SN3 domains, since mutations of the putative Ca 2+ -binding residues in these two domains strongly impaired its ribonuclease activity. We further show by small-angle X-ray scattering that rice osTSN has a flexible two-lobed structure with open to closed conformations, indicating that TSN may change its conformation upon RNA binding. We conclude that TSN is a structure-specific ribonuclease targeting not only single-stranded RNA, but also unstructured regions of double-stranded RNA. This study provides the molecular basis for how TSN cooperates with RNA editing to eliminate duplex RNA in cell defense, and how TSN selects and degrades RNA during microRNA decay. © 2018 Li et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.
Yamamoto, Takashi; Sakamoto, Naoaki
Genome editing with programmable site-specific nucleases is an emerging technology that enables the manipulation of targeted genes in many organisms and cell lines. Since the development of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in 2012, genome editing has rapidly become an indispensable technology for all life science researchers, applicable in various fields. In this seminar, we will introduce the basics of genome editing and focus on the recent development of genome editing tools and technologies for the modification of various organisms and discuss future directions of the genome editing research field, from basic to medical applications.
Miller, Roger; Scarberry, Terry; Tesch, Carl; Kellum, Mary
These teacher and student editions on steering and suspension are part of the diesel mechanics series of instructional materials. The series aligns with the medium/heavy duty truck task list developed by the National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation and used by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence in the…
Teacher and student editions of this document are one in a series of competency-based instructional materials for diesel technology programs. The series aligns with the medium/heavy diesel duty truck task list used by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence in the certification of medium/heavy duty truck technicians. Introductory…
Gao, Ruimin; Feyissa, Biruk A; Croft, Mana; Hannoufa, Abdelali
The CRISPR/Cas9 technique was successfully used to edit the genome of the obligatory outcrossing plant species Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa). RNA-guided genome engineering using Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology enables a variety of applications in plants. Successful application and validation of the CRISPR technique in a multiplex genome, such as that of M. sativa (alfalfa) will ultimately lead to major advances in the improvement of this crop. We used CRISPR/Cas9 technique to mutate squamosa promoter binding protein like 9 (SPL9) gene in alfalfa. Because of the complex features of the alfalfa genome, we first used droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for high-throughput screening of large populations of CRISPR-modified plants. Based on the results of genome editing rates obtained from the ddPCR screening, plants with relatively high rates were subjected to further analysis by restriction enzyme digestion/PCR amplification analyses. PCR products encompassing the respective small guided RNA target locus were then sub-cloned and sequenced to verify genome editing. In summary, we successfully applied the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to edit the SPL9 gene in a multiplex genome, providing some insights into opportunities to apply this technology in future alfalfa breeding. The overall efficiency in the polyploid alfalfa genome was lower compared to other less-complex plant genomes. Further refinement of the CRISPR technology system will thus be required for more efficient genome editing in this plant.
Malina, Abba; Cameron, Christopher J. F.; Robert, Francis; Blanchette, Mathieu; Dostie, Josée; Pelletier, Jerry
In CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, the underlying principles for selecting guide RNA (gRNA) sequences that would ensure for efficient target site modification remain poorly understood. Here we show that target sites harbouring multiple protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) are refractory to Cas9-mediated repair in situ. Thus we refine which substrates should be avoided in gRNA design, implicating PAM density as a novel sequence-specific feature that inhibits in vivo Cas9-driven DNA modification. PMID:26644285
Liu, Jiao; Wang, Yu; Lu, Yujiao; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Jibin; Ma, Yanhe
Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial workhorse and advanced genetic engineering tools are urgently demanded. Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) have revolutionized the field of genome engineering. The CRISPR/Cas9 system that utilizes NGG as protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and has good targeting specificity can be developed into a powerful tool for efficient and precise genome editing of C. glutamicum. Herein, we developed a versatile CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing toolbox for C. glutamicum. Cas9 and gRNA expression cassettes were reconstituted to combat Cas9 toxicity and facilitate effective termination of gRNA transcription. Co-transformation of Cas9 and gRNA expression plasmids was exploited to overcome high-frequency mutation of cas9, allowing not only highly efficient gene deletion and insertion with plasmid-borne editing templates (efficiencies up to 60.0 and 62.5%, respectively) but also simple and time-saving operation. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ssDNA recombineering was developed to precisely introduce small modifications and single-nucleotide changes into the genome of C. glutamicum with efficiencies over 80.0%. Notably, double-locus editing was also achieved in C. glutamicum. This toolbox works well in several C. glutamicum strains including the widely-used strains ATCC 13032 and ATCC 13869. In this study, we developed a CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox that could facilitate markerless gene deletion, gene insertion, precise base editing, and double-locus editing in C. glutamicum. The CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox holds promise for accelerating the engineering of C. glutamicum and advancing its application in the production of biochemicals and biofuels.
Tong, Yaojun; Robertsen, Helene Lunde; Blin, Kai; Weber, Tilmann; Lee, Sang Yup
Bacteria of the order Actinomycetales are one of the most important sources of bioactive natural products, which are the source of many drugs. However, many of them still lack efficient genome editing methods, some strains even cannot be manipulated at all. This restricts systematic metabolic engineering approaches for boosting known and discovering novel natural products. In order to facilitate the genome editing for actinomycetes, we developed a CRISPR-Cas9 toolkit with high efficiency for actinomyces genome editing. This basic toolkit includes a software for spacer (sgRNA) identification, a system for in-frame gene/gene cluster knockout, a system for gene loss-of-function study, a system for generating a random size deletion library, and a system for gene knockdown. For the latter, a uracil-specific excision reagent (USER) cloning technology was adapted to simplify the CRISPR vector construction process. The application of this toolkit was successfully demonstrated by perturbation of genomes of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces collinus Tü 365. The CRISPR-Cas9 toolkit and related protocol described here can be widely used for metabolic engineering of actinomycetes.
Bandyopadhyay, Anindya; Mazumdar, Shamik; Yin, Xiaojia; Quick, William Paul
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system is a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that has the ability to identify specific locations on the bacteriophage (phage) genome to create breaks in it, and internalize the phage genome fragments in its own genome as CRISPR arrays for memory-dependent resistance. Although CRISPR has been used in the dairy industry for a long time, it recently gained importance in the field of genome editing because of its ability to precisely target locations in a genome. This system has further been modified to locate and target any region of a genome of choice due to modifications in the components of the system. By changing the nucleotide sequence of the 20-nucleotide target sequence in the guide RNA, targeting any location is possible. It has found an application in the modification of plant genomes with its ability to generate mutations and insertions, thus helping to create new varieties of plants. With the ability to introduce specific sequences into the plant genome after cleavage by the CRISPR system and subsequent DNA repair through homology-directed repair (HDR), CRISPR ensures that genome editing can be successfully applied in plants, thus generating stronger and more improved traits. Also, the use of the CRISPR editing system can generate plants that are transgene-free and have mutations that are stably inherited, thus helping to circumvent current GMO regulations.
Schott, Juliane W; Morgan, Michael; Galla, Melanie; Schambach, Axel
Use of RNA is an increasingly popular method to transiently deliver genetic information for cell manipulation in basic research and clinical therapy. In these settings, viral and nonviral RNA platforms are employed for delivery of small interfering RNA and protein-coding mRNA. Technological advances allowing RNA modification for increased stability, improved translation and reduced immunogenicity have led to increased use of nonviral synthetic RNA, which is delivered in naked form or upon formulation. Alternatively, highly efficient viral entry pathways are exploited to transfer genes of interest as RNA incorporated into viral particles. Current viral RNA transfer technologies are derived from Retroviruses, nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses or positive-stranded Alpha- and Flaviviruses. In retroviral particles, the genes of interest can either be incorporated directly into the viral RNA genome or as nonviral RNA. Nonsegmented negative-strand virus-, Alpha- and Flavivirus-derived vectors support prolonged expression windows through replication of viral RNA encoding genes of interest. Mixed technologies combining viral and nonviral components are also available. RNA transfer is ideal for all settings that do not require permanent transgene expression and excludes potentially detrimental DNA integration into the target cell genome. Thus, RNA-based technologies are successfully applied for reprogramming, transdifferentiation, gene editing, vaccination, tumor therapy, and gene therapy. PMID:27377044
Bajan, Sarah; Hutvagner, Gyorgy
The majority of human protein-coding genes are predicted to be targets of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. The widespread influence of miRNAs is illustrated by their essential roles in all biological processes. Regulated miRNA expression is essential for maintaining cellular differentiation; therefore alterations in miRNA expression patterns are associated with several diseases, including various cancers. High-throughput sequencing technologies revealed low level expressing miRNA isoforms, termed isomiRs. IsomiRs may differ in sequence, length, target preference and expression patterns from their parental miRNA and can arise from differences in miRNA biosynthesis, RNA editing, or SNPs inherent to the miRNA gene. The association between isomiR expression and disease progression is largely unknown. Misregulated miRNA expression is thought to contribute to the formation and/or progression of cancer. However, due to the diversity of targeted transcripts, miRNAs can function as both tumor-suppressor genes and oncogenes as defined by cellular context. Despite this, miRNA profiling studies concluded that the differential expression of particular miRNAs in diseased tissue could aid the diagnosis and treatment of some cancers. PMID:25069508
Cheong, Taek-Chin; Compagno, Mara; Chiarle, Roberto
Applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit the genome have widely expanded to include DNA gene knock-out, deletions, chromosomal rearrangements, RNA editing and genome-wide screenings. Here we show the application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to edit the mouse and human immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. By delivering Cas9 and guide-RNA (gRNA) with retro- or lenti-virus to IgM(+) mouse B cells and hybridomas, we induce class-switch recombination (CSR) of the IgH chain to the desired subclass. Similarly, we induce CSR in all human B cell lines tested with high efficiency to targeted IgH subclass. Finally, we engineer mouse hybridomas to secrete Fab' fragments instead of the whole Ig. Our results indicate that Ig genes in mouse and human cells can be edited to obtain any desired IgH switching helpful to study the biology of normal and lymphoma B cells. We also propose applications that could transform the technology of antibody production.
Canver, Matthew C; Haeussler, Maximilian; Bauer, Daniel E; Orkin, Stuart H; Sanjana, Neville E; Shalem, Ophir; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Zhang, Feng; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Pinello, Luca
CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) genome-editing experiments offer enormous potential for the evaluation of genomic loci using arrayed single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) or pooled sgRNA libraries. Numerous computational tools are available to help design sgRNAs with optimal on-target efficiency and minimal off-target potential. In addition, computational tools have been developed to analyze deep-sequencing data resulting from genome-editing experiments. However, these tools are typically developed in isolation and oftentimes are not readily translatable into laboratory-based experiments. Here, we present a protocol that describes in detail both the computational and benchtop implementation of an arrayed and/or pooled CRISPR genome-editing experiment. This protocol provides instructions for sgRNA design with CRISPOR (computational tool for the design, evaluation, and cloning of sgRNA sequences), experimental implementation, and analysis of the resulting high-throughput sequencing data with CRISPResso (computational tool for analysis of genome-editing outcomes from deep-sequencing data). This protocol allows for design and execution of arrayed and pooled CRISPR experiments in 4-5 weeks by non-experts, as well as computational data analysis that can be performed in 1-2 d by both computational and noncomputational biologists alike using web-based and/or command-line versions.
Daer, René M; Cutts, Josh P; Brafman, David A; Haynes, Karmella A
In order to efficiently edit eukaryotic genomes, it is critical to test the impact of chromatin dynamics on CRISPR/Cas9 function and develop strategies to adapt the system to eukaryotic contexts. So far, research has extensively characterized the relationship between the CRISPR endonuclease Cas9 and the composition of the RNA-DNA duplex that mediates the system's precision. Evidence suggests that chromatin modifications and DNA packaging can block eukaryotic genome editing by custom-built DNA endonucleases like Cas9; however, the underlying mechanism of Cas9 inhibition is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that closed, gene-silencing-associated chromatin is a mechanism for the interference of Cas9-mediated DNA editing. Our assays use a transgenic cell line with a drug-inducible switch to control chromatin states (open and closed) at a single genomic locus. We show that closed chromatin inhibits binding and editing at specific target sites and that artificial reversal of the silenced state restores editing efficiency. These results provide new insights to improve Cas9-mediated editing in human and other mammalian cells.
Wang, M; Glass, Z A; Xu, Q
Manipulating the genetic makeup of mammalian cells using programmable nuclease-based genome-editing technology has recently evolved into a powerful avenue that holds great potential for treating genetic disorders. There are four types of genome-editing nucleases, including meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases and clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat-associated nucleases such as Cas9. These nucleases have been harnessed to introduce precise and specific changes of the genome sequence at virtually any genome locus of interest. The therapeutic relevance of these genome-editing technologies, however, is challenged by the safe and efficient delivery of nuclease into targeted cells. Herein, we summarize recent advances that have been made on non-viral delivery of genome-editing nucleases. In particular, we focus on non-viral delivery of Cas9/sgRNA ribonucleoproteins for genome editing. In addition, the future direction for developing non-viral delivery of programmable nucleases for genome editing is discussed.
Martin, B. R.; Shaw, G.
Particle Physics, Second Edition is a concise and lucid account of the fundamental constituents of matter. The standard model of particle physics is developed carefully and systematically, without heavy mathematical formalism, to make this stimulating subject accessible to undergraduate students. Throughout, the emphasis is on the interpretation of experimental data in terms of the basic properties of quarks and leptons, and extensive use is made of symmetry principles and Feynman diagrams, which are introduced early in the book. The Second Edition brings the book fully up to date, including the discovery of the top quark and the search for the Higgs boson. A final short chapter is devoted to the continuing search for new physics beyond the standard model. Particle Physics, Second Edition features: * A carefully structured and written text to help students understand this exciting and demanding subject. * Many worked examples and problems to aid student learning. Hints for solving the problems are given in an Appendix. * Optional "starred" sections and appendices, containing more specialised and advanced material for the more ambitious reader.
Li, Bin; Zhang, Xinfu; Dong, Yizhou
Messenger RNA (mRNA) has become a promising class of drugs for diverse therapeutic applications in the past few years. A series of clinical trials are ongoing or will be initiated in the near future for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Currently, mRNA-based therapeutics mainly focuses on ex vivo transfection and local administration in clinical studies. Efficient and safe delivery of therapeutically relevant mRNAs remains one of the major challenges for their broad applications in humans. Thus, effective delivery systems are urgently needed to overcome this limitation. In recent years, numerous nanoscale biomaterials have been constructed for mRNA delivery in order to protect mRNA from extracellular degradation and facilitate endosomal escape after cellular uptake. Nanoscale platforms have expanded the feasibility of mRNA-based therapeutics, and enabled its potential applications to protein replacement therapy, cancer immunotherapy, therapeutic vaccines, regenerative medicine, and genome editing. This review focuses on recent advances, challenges, and future directions in nanoscale platforms designed for mRNA delivery, including lipid and lipid-derived nanoparticles, polymer-based nanoparticles, protein derivatives mRNA complexes, and other types of nanomaterials. This article is categorized under: Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Lipid-Based Structures Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Nucleic Acid-Based Structures. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nandal, Anjali; Mallon, Barbara; Telugu, Bhanu P
Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells can self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types of the body. The pluripotent cells are thus coveted for research in regenerative medicine and are currently in clinical trials for eye diseases, diabetes, heart diseases, and other disorders. The potential to differentiate into specialized cell types coupled with the recent advances in genome editing technologies including the CRISPR/Cas system have provided additional opportunities for tailoring the genome of iPSC for varied applications including disease modeling, gene therapy, and biasing pathways of differentiation, to name a few. Among the available editing technologies, the CRISPR/Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes has emerged as a tool of choice for site-specific editing of the eukaryotic genome. The CRISPRs are easily accessible, inexpensive, and highly efficient in engineering targeted edits. The system requires a Cas9 nuclease and a guide sequence (20-mer) specific to the genomic target abutting a 3-nucleotide "NGG" protospacer-adjacent-motif (PAM) for targeting Cas9 to the desired genomic locus, alongside a universal Cas9 binding tracer RNA (together called single guide RNA or sgRNA). Here we present a step-by-step protocol for efficient generation of feeder-independent and footprint-free iPSC and describe methodologies for genome editing of iPSC using the Cas9 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. The genome editing protocol is effective and can be easily multiplexed by pre-complexing sgRNAs for more than one target with the Cas9 protein and simultaneously delivering into the cells. Finally, we describe a simplified approach for identification and characterization of iPSCs with desired edits. Taken together, the outlined strategies are expected to streamline generation and editing of iPSC for manifold applications.
Dever, Daniel P; Porteus, Matthew H
Since the discovery two decades ago that programmable endonucleases can be engineered to modify human cells at single nucleotide resolution, the concept of genome editing was born. Now these technologies are being applied to therapeutically relevant cell types, including hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which possess the power to repopulate an entire blood and immune system. The purpose of this review is to discuss the changing landscape of genome editing in hematopoietic stem cells (GE-HSC) from the discovery stage to the preclinical stage, with the imminent goal of clinical translation for the treatment of serious genetic diseases of the blood and immune system. With the discovery that the RNA-programmable (sgRNA) clustered regularly interspace short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 nuclease (Cas9/sgRNA) systems can be easily used to precisely modify the human genome in 2012, a genome-editing revolution of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) has bloomed. We have observed that over the last 2 years, academic institutions and small biotech companies are developing HSC-based Cas9/sgRNA genome-editing curative strategies to treat monogenic disorders, including β-hemoglobinopathies and primary immunodeficiencies. We will focus on recent publications (within the past 2 years) that employ different genome-editing strategies to 'hijack' the cell's endogenous double-strand repair pathways to confer a disease-specific therapeutic advantage. The number of genome-editing strategies in HSCs that could offer therapeutic potential for diseases of the blood and immune system have dramatically risen over the past 2 years. The HSC-based genome-editing field is primed to enter clinical trials in the subsequent years. We will summarize the major advancements for the development of novel autologous GE-HSC cell and gene therapy strategies for hematopoietic diseases that are candidates for curative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
Yang, Chang-Ching; Chen, Yi-Tung; Chang, Yi-Feng; Liu, Hsuan; Kuo, Yu-Ping; Shih, Chieh-Tien; Liao, Wei-Chao; Chen, Hui-Wen; Tsai, Wen-Sy; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming
Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing constitutes a crucial component of the cellular transcriptome and critically underpins organism survival and development. While recent high-throughput approaches have provided comprehensive documentation of the RNA editome, its functional output remains mostly unresolved, particularly for events in the non-coding regions. Gene ontology analysis of the known RNA editing targets unveiled a preponderance of genes related to apoptosis regulation, among which proto-oncogenes XIAP and MDM2 encode two the most abundantly edited transcripts. To further decode this potential functional connection, here we showed that the main RNA editor ADAR1 directly targets this 3' UTR editing of XIAP and MDM2, and further exerts a negative regulation on the expression of their protein products. This post-transcriptional silencing role was mediated via the inverted Alu elements in the 3' UTR but independent of alteration in transcript stability or miRNA targeting. Rather, we discovered that ADAR1 competes transcript occupancy with the RNA shuttling factor STAU1 to facilitate nuclear retention of the XIAP and MDM2 mRNAs. As a consequence, ADAR1 may acquire functionality in part by conferring spatial distribution and translation efficiency of the target transcripts. Finally, abrogation of ADAR1 expression or catalytic activity elicited a XIAP-dependent suppression of apoptotic response, whereas ectopic expression reversed this protective effect on cell death. Together, our results extended the known functions of ADAR1 and RNA editing to the critical fine-tuning of the intracellular apoptotic signaling and also provided mechanistic explanation for ADAR1's roles in development and tumorigenesis.
Kennedy, Edward M.; Bogerd, Hal P.; Kornepati, Anand V. R.; Kang, Dong; Ghoshal, Delta; Marshall, Joy B.; Poling, Brigid C.; Tsai, Kevin; Gokhale, Nandan S.; Horner, Stacy M.; Cullen, Bryan R.
Summary Covalent addition of a methyl group to the adenosine N6 (m6A) is an evolutionarily conserved and common RNA modification that is thought to modulate several aspects of RNA metabolism. While the presence of multiple m6A editing sites on diverse viral RNAs was reported starting almost 40 years ago, how m6A editing affects virus replication has remained unclear. Here, we used photo-crosslinking-assisted m6A sequencing techniques to precisely map several m6A editing sites on the HIV-1 genome and report that they cluster in the HIV-1 3’ untranslated region (3'UTR). Viral 3'UTR m6A sites or analogous cellular m6A sites strongly enhanced mRNA expression in cis by recruiting the cellular YTHDF m6A “reader” proteins. Reducing YTHDF expression inhibited, while YTHDF overexpression enhanced, HIV-1 protein and RNA expression, and virus replication in CD4+ T cells. These data identify m6A editing, and the resultant recruitment of YTHDF proteins, as major positive regulators of HIV-1 mRNA expression. PMID:27117054
Pohl, C; Kiel, J A K W; Driessen, A J M; Bovenberg, R A L; Nygård, Y
CRISPR/Cas9 based systems have emerged as versatile platforms for precision genome editing in a wide range of organisms. Here we have developed powerful CRISPR/Cas9 tools for marker-based and marker-free genome modifications in Penicillium chrysogenum, a model filamentous fungus and industrially relevant cell factory. The developed CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox is highly flexible and allows editing of new targets with minimal cloning efforts. The Cas9 protein and the sgRNA can be either delivered during transformation, as preassembled CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) or expressed from an AMA1 based plasmid within the cell. The direct delivery of the Cas9 protein with in vitro synthesized sgRNA to the cells allows for a transient method for genome engineering that may rapidly be applicable for other filamentous fungi. The expression of Cas9 from an AMA1 based vector was shown to be highly efficient for marker-free gene deletions.
Khalili, Kamel; Gordon, Jennifer; Cosentino, Laura; Hu, Wenhui
Current therapy for controlling HIV-1 infection and preventing AIDS progression has profoundly decreased viral replication in cells susceptible to HIV-1 infection, but it does not eliminate the low level of viral replication in latently infected cells which contain integrated copies of HIV-1 proviral DNA. There is an urgent need for the development of HIV-1 genome eradication strategies that will lead to a permanent or “sterile” cure of HIV-1/AIDS. In the past few years, novel nuclease-initiated genome editing tools have been developing rapidly, including ZFNs, TALENs, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These surgical knives, which can excise any genome, provide a great opportunity to eradicate the HIV-1 genome by targeting highly conserved regions of the HIV-1 long terminal repeats or essential viral genes. Given the time consuming and costly engineering of target-specific ZFNs and TALENs, the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 technology has emerged as a simpler and more versatile technology to allow permanent removal of integrated HIV-1 proviral DNA in eukaryotic cells, and hopefully animal models or human patients. The major unmet challenges of this approach at present include inefficient nuclease gene delivery, potential off-target cleavage, and cell-specific genome targeting. Nanoparticle or lentivirus-mediated delivery of next generation Cas9 technologies including nickase or RNA-guided FokI nuclease (RFN) will further improve the potential for genome editing to become a promising approach for curing HIV-1/AIDS. PMID:25716921
Liu, Yali; Liu, Li; Zhan, Yonghao; Zhuang, Chengle; Lin, Junhao; Chen, Mingwei; Li, Jianfa; Cai, Zhiming; Huang, Weiren; Zhang, Yong
CRISPR-Cas9 system uses a guide RNA which functions in conjunction with Cas9 proteins to target a DNA and cleaves double-strand DNA. This phenomenon raises a question whether an artificial small RNA (asRNA), composed of a Dicer–binding RNA element and an antisense RNA, could also be used to induce Dicer to process and degrade a specific RNA. If so, we could develop a new method which is named DICERi for gene silencing or RNA editing. To prove the feasibility of asRNA, we selected MALAT-1 as target and used Hela and MDA-MB-231 cells as experimental models. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the introduction of asRNA decreased the relative expression level of target gene significantly. Next, we analyzed cell proliferation using CCK-8 and EdU staining assays, and then cell migration using wound scratch and Transwell invasion assays. We found that cell proliferation and cell migration were both suppressed remarkably after asRNA was expressed in Hela and MDA-MB-231 cells. Cell apoptosis was also detected through Hoechst staining and ELISA assays and the data indicated that he numbers of apoptotic cell in experimental groups significantly increased compared with negative controls. In order to prove that the gene silencing effects were caused by Dicer, we co-transfected shRNA silencing Dicer and asRNA. The relative expression levels of Dicer and MALAT-1 were both detected and the results indicated that when the cleavage role of Dicer was silenced, the relative expression level of MALAT-1 was not affected after the introduction of asRNA. All the above results demonstrated that these devices directed by Dicer effectively excised target RNA and repressed the target genes, thus causing phenotypic changes. Our works adds a new dimension to gene regulating technologies and may have broad applications in construction of gene circuits. PMID:27231846
Xu, Wen; Liu, Yuchen; Liu, Yali; Liu, Li; Zhan, Yonghao; Zhuang, Chengle; Lin, Junhao; Chen, Mingwei; Li, Jianfa; Cai, Zhiming; Huang, Weiren; Zhang, Yong
CRISPR-Cas9 system uses a guide RNA which functions in conjunction with Cas9 proteins to target a DNA and cleaves double-strand DNA. This phenomenon raises a question whether an artificial small RNA (asRNA), composed of a Dicer-binding RNA element and an antisense RNA, could also be used to induce Dicer to process and degrade a specific RNA. If so, we could develop a new method which is named DICERi for gene silencing or RNA editing. To prove the feasibility of asRNA, we selected MALAT-1 as target and used Hela and MDA-MB-231 cells as experimental models. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the introduction of asRNA decreased the relative expression level of target gene significantly. Next, we analyzed cell proliferation using CCK-8 and EdU staining assays, and then cell migration using wound scratch and Transwell invasion assays. We found that cell proliferation and cell migration were both suppressed remarkably after asRNA was expressed in Hela and MDA-MB-231 cells. Cell apoptosis was also detected through Hoechst staining and ELISA assays and the data indicated that he numbers of apoptotic cell in experimental groups significantly increased compared with negative controls. In order to prove that the gene silencing effects were caused by Dicer, we co-transfected shRNA silencing Dicer and asRNA. The relative expression levels of Dicer and MALAT-1 were both detected and the results indicated that when the cleavage role of Dicer was silenced, the relative expression level of MALAT-1 was not affected after the introduction of asRNA. All the above results demonstrated that these devices directed by Dicer effectively excised target RNA and repressed the target genes, thus causing phenotypic changes. Our works adds a new dimension to gene regulating technologies and may have broad applications in construction of gene circuits.
Dang, Ying; Jia, Gengxiang; Choi, Jennie; Ma, Hongming; Anaya, Edgar; Ye, Chunting; Shankar, Premlata; Wu, Haoquan
Single-guide RNA (sgRNA) is one of the two key components of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 genome-editing system. The current commonly used sgRNA structure has a shortened duplex compared with the native bacterial CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-transactivating crRNA (tracrRNA) duplex and contains a continuous sequence of thymines, which is the pause signal for RNA polymerase III and thus could potentially reduce transcription efficiency. Here, we systematically investigate the effect of these two elements on knockout efficiency and showed that modifying the sgRNA structure by extending the duplex length and mutating the fourth thymine of the continuous sequence of thymines to cytosine or guanine significantly, and sometimes dramatically, improves knockout efficiency in cells. In addition, the optimized sgRNA structure also significantly increases the efficiency of more challenging genome-editing procedures, such as gene deletion, which is important for inducing a loss of function in non-coding genes. By a systematic investigation of sgRNA structure we find that extending the duplex by approximately 5 bp combined with mutating the continuous sequence of thymines at position 4 to cytosine or guanine significantly increases gene knockout efficiency in CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing experiments.
Peng, Rongxue; Lin, Guigao; Li, Jinming
Recently, a novel technique named the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas)9 system has been rapidly developed. This genome editing tool has improved our ability tremendously with respect to exploring the pathogenesis of diseases and correcting disease mutations, as well as phenotypes. With a short guide RNA, Cas9 can be precisely directed to target sites, and functions as an endonuclease to efficiently produce breaks in DNA double strands. Over the past 30 years, CRISPR has evolved from the 'curious sequences of unknown biological function' into a promising genome editing tool. As a result of the incessant development in the CRISPR/Cas9 system, Cas9 co-expressed with custom guide RNAs has been successfully used in a variety of cells and organisms. This genome editing technology can also be applied to synthetic biology, functional genomic screening, transcriptional modulation and gene therapy. However, although CRISPR/Cas9 has a broad range of action in science, there are several aspects that affect its efficiency and specificity, including Cas9 activity, target site selection and short guide RNA design, delivery methods, off-target effects and the incidence of homology-directed repair. In the present review, we highlight the factors that affect the utilization of CRISPR/Cas9, as well as possible strategies for handling any problems. Addressing these issues will allow us to take better advantage of this technique. In addition, we also review the history and rapid development of the CRISPR/Cas system from the time of its initial discovery in 2012. © 2015 FEBS.
Bentley, David L.
Maturation of mRNA precursors often occurs simultaneously with their synthesis by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). The co-transcriptional nature of mRNA processing has permitted the evolution of coupling mechanisms that coordinate transcription with mRNA capping, splicing, editing and 3′ end formation. Recent experiments using sophisticated new methods for analysis of nascent RNA have provided important insights into the relative amount of co-transcriptional and post-transcriptional processing, the relationship between mRNA elongation and processing, and the role of the Pol II carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) in regulating these processes. PMID:24514444
Richardson, Aaron O; Rice, Danny W; Young, Gregory J; Alverson, Andrew J; Palmer, Jeffrey D
The mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants vary greatly in size, gene content, gene order, mutation rate and level of RNA editing. However, the narrow phylogenetic breadth of available genomic data has limited our ability to reconstruct these traits in the ancestral flowering plant and, therefore, to infer subsequent patterns of evolution across angiosperms. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of Liriodendron tulipifera, the first from outside the monocots or eudicots. This 553,721 bp mitochondrial genome has evolved remarkably slowly in virtually all respects, with an extraordinarily low genome-wide silent substitution rate, retention of genes frequently lost in other angiosperm lineages, and conservation of ancestral gene clusters. The mitochondrial protein genes in Liriodendron are the most heavily edited of any angiosperm characterized to date. Most of these sites are also edited in various other lineages, which allowed us to polarize losses of editing sites in other parts of the angiosperm phylogeny. Finally, we added comprehensive gene sequence data for two other magnoliids, Magnolia stellata and the more distantly related Calycanthus floridus, to measure rates of sequence evolution in Liriodendron with greater accuracy. The Magnolia genome has evolved at an even lower rate, revealing a roughly 5,000-fold range of synonymous-site divergence among angiosperms whose mitochondrial gene space has been comprehensively sequenced. Using Liriodendron as a guide, we estimate that the ancestral flowering plant mitochondrial genome contained 41 protein genes, 14 tRNA genes of mitochondrial origin, as many as 7 tRNA genes of chloroplast origin, >700 sites of RNA editing, and some 14 colinear gene clusters. Many of these gene clusters, genes and RNA editing sites have been variously lost in different lineages over the course of the ensuing ∽200 million years of angiosperm evolution.
This Ninth Edition, like its predecessors, will serve as the textbook for the Government Contract Law taught at the School of Systems and Logistics...drawn from Government Contract Law -Cases, 1987 edition, for a rounded approach to the subject. This edition of the text includes coverage of the...Government Contract Law complements the Federal Acquisition Regulation and provides a preventive law treatment for contracting personnel. While it may
Seligmann, Hervé; Raoult, Didier
We examine the hypothesis that de novo template-free RNAs still form spontaneously, as they did at the origins of life, invade modern genomes, contribute new genetic material. Previously, analyses of RNA secondary structures suggested that some RNAs resembling ancestral (t)RNAs formed recently de novo, other parasitic sequences cluster with rRNAs. Here positive control analyses of additional RNA secondary structures confirm ancestral and de novo statuses of RNA grouped according to secondary structure. Viroids with branched stems resemble de novo RNAs, rod-shaped viroids resemble rRNA secondary structures, independently of GC contents. 5′ UTR leading regions of West Nile and Dengue flavivirid viruses resemble de novo and rRNA structures, respectively. An RNA homologous with Megavirus, Dengue and West Nile genomes, copperhead snake microsatellites and levant cotton repeats, not templated by Mimivirus' genome, persists throughout Mimivirus' infection. Its secondary structure clusters with candidate de novo RNAs. The saltatory phyletic distribution and secondary structure of Mimivirus' peculiar RNA suggest occasional template-free polymerization of this sequence, rather than noncanonical transcriptions (swinger polymerization, posttranscriptional editing). PMID:29449833
Hilander, Taru; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Konovalova, Svetlana; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Euro, Liliya; Chilov, Dmitri; Poutanen, Matti; Chihade, Joseph
Abstract Accuracy of protein synthesis is enabled by the selection of amino acids for tRNA charging by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs), and further enhanced by the proofreading functions of some of these enzymes for eliminating tRNAs mischarged with noncognate amino acids. Mouse models of editing-defective cytoplasmic alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) have previously demonstrated the importance of proofreading for cytoplasmic protein synthesis, with embryonic lethal and progressive neurodegeneration phenotypes. Mammalian mitochondria import their own set of nuclear-encoded ARSs for translating critical polypeptides of the oxidative phosphorylation system, but the importance of editing by the mitochondrial ARSs for mitochondrial proteostasis has not been known. We demonstrate here that the human mitochondrial AlaRS is capable of editing mischarged tRNAs in vitro, and that loss of the proofreading activity causes embryonic lethality in mice. These results indicate that tRNA proofreading is essential in mammalian mitochondria, and cannot be overcome by other quality control mechanisms. PMID:29228266
Zhang, Kai; Raboanatahiry, Nadia; Zhu, Bin; Li, Maoteng
Genome editing technology (GET) is a versatile approach that has progressed rapidly as a mechanism to alter the genotype and phenotype of organisms. However, conventional genome modification using GET cannot satisfy current demand for high-efficiency and site-directed mutagenesis, retrofitting of artificial nucleases has developed into a new avenue within this field. Based on mechanisms to recognize target genes, newly-developed GETs can generally be subdivided into three cleavage systems, protein-dependent DNA cleavage systems (i.e., zinc-finger nucleases, ZFN, and transcription activator-like effector nucleases, TALEN), RNA-dependent DNA cleavage systems (i.e., clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated proteins, CRISPR-Cas9, CRISPR-Cpf1, and CRISPR-C2c1), and RNA-dependent RNA cleavage systems (i.e., RNA interference, RNAi, and CRISPR-C2c2). All these techniques can lead to double-stranded (DSB) or single-stranded breaks (SSB), and result in either random mutations via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or targeted mutation via homologous recombination (HR). Thus, site-directed mutagenesis can be induced via targeted gene knock-out, knock-in, or replacement to modify specific characteristics including morphology-modification, resistance-enhancement, and physiological mechanism-improvement along with plant growth and development. In this paper, an non-comprehensive review on the development of different GETs as applied to plants is presented. PMID:28261237
Robles-Kelly, Antonio; Hancock, Edwin R
This paper is concerned with computing graph edit distance. One of the criticisms that can be leveled at existing methods for computing graph edit distance is that they lack some of the formality and rigor of the computation of string edit distance. Hence, our aim is to convert graphs to string sequences so that string matching techniques can be used. To do this, we use a graph spectral seriation method to convert the adjacency matrix into a string or sequence order. We show how the serial ordering can be established using the leading eigenvector of the graph adjacency matrix. We pose the problem of graph-matching as a maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) alignment of the seriation sequences for pairs of graphs. This treatment leads to an expression in which the edit cost is the negative logarithm of the a posteriori sequence alignment probability. We compute the edit distance by finding the sequence of string edit operations which minimizes the cost of the path traversing the edit lattice. The edit costs are determined by the components of the leading eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix and by the edge densities of the graphs being matched. We demonstrate the utility of the edit distance on a number of graph clustering problems.
Lux, Christopher T; Scharenberg, Andrew M
Therapeutic gene editing is significant for medical advancement. Safety is intricately linked to the specificity of the editing tools used to cut at precise genomic targets. Improvements can be achieved by thoughtful design of nucleases and repair templates, analysis of off-target editing, and careful utilization of viral vectors. Advancements in DNA repair mechanisms and development of new generations of tools improve targeting of specific sequences while minimizing risks. It is important to plot a safe course for future clinical trials. This article reviews safety and specificity for therapeutic gene editing to spur dialogue and advancement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In August 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Division and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service signed an Interagency Agreement to begin a single-edition joint mapping program. This agreement established the coordination for producing and maintaining single-edition primary series topographic maps for quadrangles containing National Forest System lands. The joint mapping program saves money by eliminating duplication of effort by the agencies and results in a more frequent revision cycle for quadrangles containing national forests. Maps are revised on the basis of jointly developed standards and contain normal features mapped by the USGS, as well as additional features required for efficient management of National Forest System lands. Single-edition maps look slightly different but meet the content, accuracy, and quality criteria of other USGS products. The Forest Service is responsible for the land management of more than 191 million acres of land throughout the continental United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico, including 155 national forests and 20 national grasslands. These areas make up the National Forest System lands and comprise more than 10,600 of the 56,000 primary series 7.5-minute quadrangle maps (15-minute in Alaska) covering the United States. The Forest Service has assumed responsibility for maintaining these maps, and the USGS remains responsible for printing and distributing them. Before the agreement, both agencies published similar maps of the same areas. The maps were used for different purposes, but had comparable types of features that were revised at different times. Now, the two products have been combined into one so that the revision cycle is stabilized and only one agency revises the maps, thus increasing the number of current maps available for National Forest System lands. This agreement has improved service to the public by requiring that the agencies share the same maps and that the maps meet a
Masse, Roger E.
At New Mexico State University, technical communication teachers have developed a course to teach editing processes to graduate students who take the advanced workshop in technical and professional communication. In this seminar group, students work on writing processes; editing processes; written, edited, and tested products; and oral processes…
Basila, Megan; Kelley, Melissa L.
Since its initial application in mammalian cells, CRISPR-Cas9 has rapidly become a preferred method for genome engineering experiments. The Cas9 nuclease is targeted to genomic DNA using guide RNAs (gRNA), either as the native dual RNA system consisting of a DNA-targeting CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and a trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA), or as a chimeric single guide RNA (sgRNA). Entirely DNA-free CRISPR-Cas9 systems using either Cas9 protein or Cas9 mRNA and chemically synthesized gRNAs allow for transient expression of CRISPR-Cas9 components, thereby reducing the potential for off-targeting, which is a significant advantage in therapeutic applications. In addition, the use of synthetic gRNA allows for the incorporation of chemical modifications for enhanced properties including improved stability. Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of chemically modified gRNAs, but have focused on one pattern with multiple modifications in co-electroporation with Cas9 mRNA or multiple modifications and patterns with Cas9 plasmid lipid co-transfections. Here we present gene editing results using a series of chemically modified synthetic sgRNA molecules and chemically modified crRNA:tracrRNA molecules in both electroporation and lipid transfection assessing indel formation and/or phenotypic gene knockout. We show that while modifications are required for co-electroporation with Cas9 mRNA, some modification patterns of the gRNA are toxic to cells compared to the unmodified gRNA and most modification patterns do not significantly improve gene editing efficiency. We also present modification patterns of the gRNA that can modestly improve Cas9 gene editing efficiency when co-transfected with Cas9 mRNA or Cas9 protein (> 1.5-fold difference). These results indicate that for certain applications, including those relevant to primary cells, the incorporation of some, but not all chemical modification patterns on synthetic crRNA:tracrRNA or sgRNA can be beneficial to CRISPR-Cas9 gene
Basila, Megan; Kelley, Melissa L; Smith, Anja van Brabant
Since its initial application in mammalian cells, CRISPR-Cas9 has rapidly become a preferred method for genome engineering experiments. The Cas9 nuclease is targeted to genomic DNA using guide RNAs (gRNA), either as the native dual RNA system consisting of a DNA-targeting CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and a trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA), or as a chimeric single guide RNA (sgRNA). Entirely DNA-free CRISPR-Cas9 systems using either Cas9 protein or Cas9 mRNA and chemically synthesized gRNAs allow for transient expression of CRISPR-Cas9 components, thereby reducing the potential for off-targeting, which is a significant advantage in therapeutic applications. In addition, the use of synthetic gRNA allows for the incorporation of chemical modifications for enhanced properties including improved stability. Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of chemically modified gRNAs, but have focused on one pattern with multiple modifications in co-electroporation with Cas9 mRNA or multiple modifications and patterns with Cas9 plasmid lipid co-transfections. Here we present gene editing results using a series of chemically modified synthetic sgRNA molecules and chemically modified crRNA:tracrRNA molecules in both electroporation and lipid transfection assessing indel formation and/or phenotypic gene knockout. We show that while modifications are required for co-electroporation with Cas9 mRNA, some modification patterns of the gRNA are toxic to cells compared to the unmodified gRNA and most modification patterns do not significantly improve gene editing efficiency. We also present modification patterns of the gRNA that can modestly improve Cas9 gene editing efficiency when co-transfected with Cas9 mRNA or Cas9 protein (> 1.5-fold difference). These results indicate that for certain applications, including those relevant to primary cells, the incorporation of some, but not all chemical modification patterns on synthetic crRNA:tracrRNA or sgRNA can be beneficial to CRISPR-Cas9 gene
Ferreira, Raphael; Skrekas, Christos; Nielsen, Jens; David, Florian
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technology has greatly accelerated the field of strain engineering. However, insufficient efforts have been made toward developing robust multiplexing tools in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we exploit the RNA processing capacity of the bacterial endoribonuclease Csy4 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to generate multiple gRNAs from a single transcript for genome editing and gene interference applications in S. cerevisiae. In regards to genome editing, we performed a quadruple deletion of FAA1, FAA4, POX1 and TES1 reaching 96% efficiency out of 24 colonies tested. Then, we used this system to efficiently transcriptionally regulate the three genes, OLE1, HMG1 and ACS1. Thus, we demonstrate that multiplexed genome editing and gene regulation can be performed in a fast and effective manner using Csy4.
POCKET STATISTICS is published by the NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (NASA). Included in each edition is Administrative and Organizational information, summaries of Space Flight Activity including the NASA Major Launch Record, Aeronautics and Space Transportation and NASA Procurement, Financial and Workforce data. The NASA Major Launch Record includes all launches of Scout class and larger vehicles. Vehicle and spacecraft development flights are also included in the Major Launch Record. Shuttle missions are counted as one launch and one payload, where free flying payloads are not involved. All Satellites deployed from the cargo bay of the Shuttle and placed in a separate orbit or trajectory are counted as an additional payload.
Hashimi, Hassan; Zíková, Alena; Panigrahi, Aswini K.; Stuart, Kenneth D.; Lukeš, Julius
The uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing of kinetoplastid mitochondrial transcripts is performed by complex machinery involving a number of proteins and multiple protein complexes. Here we describe the effect of silencing of TbRGG1 gene by RNA interference on RNA editing in procyclic stage of Trypanosoma brucei. TbRGG1 is an essential protein for cell growth, the absence of which results in an overall decline of edited mRNAs, while the levels of never-edited RNAs remain unaltered. Repression of TbRGG1 expression has no effect on the 20S editosome and MRP1/2 complex. TAP-tag purification of TbRGG1 coisolated a novel multiprotein complex, and its association was further verified by TAP-tag analyses of two other components of the complex. TbRGG1 interaction with this complex appears to be mediated by RNA. Our results suggest that the TbRGG1 protein functions in stabilizing edited RNAs or editing efficiency and that the associated novel complex may have a role in mitochondrial RNA metabolism. We provisionally name it putative mitochondrial RNA-binding complex 1 (put-MRB complex 1). PMID:18369185
Raikwar, Sudhanshu P; Thangavel, Ramasamy; Dubova, Iuliia; Selvakumar, Govindhasamy Pushpavathi; Ahmed, Mohammad Ejaz; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Zaheer, Smita A; Iyer, Shankar S; Zaheer, Asgar
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating, progressive neurodegenerative disorder that leads to severe cognitive impairment in elderly patients. Chronic neuroinflammation plays an important role in the AD pathogenesis. Glia maturation factor (GMF), a proinflammatory molecule discovered in our laboratory, is significantly upregulated in various regions of AD brains. We have previously reported that GMF is predominantly expressed in the reactive glial cells surrounding the amyloid plaques (APs) in the mouse and human AD brain. Microglia are the major source of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines including GMF. Recently clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) based genome editing has been recognized to study the functions of genes that are implicated in various diseases. Here, we investigated if CRISPR-Cas9-mediated GMF gene editing leads to inhibition of GMF expression and suppression of microglial activation. Confocal microscopy of murine BV2 microglial cell line transduced with an adeno-associated virus (AAV) coexpressing Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) Cas9 and a GMF-specific guide RNA (GMF-sgRNA) revealed few cells expressing SaCas9 while lacking GMF expression, thereby confirming successful GMF gene editing. To further improve GMF gene editing efficiency, we developed lentiviral vectors (LVs) expressing either Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp) Cas9 or GMF-sgRNAs. BV2 cells cotransduced with LVs expressing SpCas9 and GMF-sgRNAs revealed reduced GMF expression and the presence of indels in the exons 2 and 3 of the GMF coding sequence. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of GMF-edited cells led to reduced microglial activation as shown by reduced p38 MAPK phosphorylation. We believe that targeted in vivo GMF gene editing has a significant potential for developing a unique and novel AD therapy.
Zhou, Junhui; Wang, Guoming; Liu, Zhongchi
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system is an effective genome editing tool for plant and animal genomes. However, there are still few reports on the successful application of CRISPR-Cas9 to horticultural plants, especially with regard to germ-line transmission of targeted mutations. Here, we report high-efficiency genome editing in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca and its successful application to mutate the auxin biosynthesis gene TAA1 and auxin response factor 8 (ARF8). In our CRISPR system, the Arabidopsis U6 promoter AtU6-26 and the wild strawberry U6 promoter FveU6-2 were each used to drive the expression of sgRNA, and both promoters were shown to lead to high-efficiency genome editing in strawberry. To test germ-line transmission of the edited mutations and new mutations induced in the next generation, the progeny of the primary (T0) transgenic plants carrying the CRISPR construct was analysed. New mutations were detected in the progeny plants at a high efficiency, including large deletions between the two PAM sites. Further, T1 plants harbouring arf8 homozygous knockout mutations grew considerably faster than wild-type plants. The results indicate that our CRISPR vectors can be used to edit the wild strawberry genome at a high efficiency and that both sgRNA design and appropriate U6 promoters contribute to the success of genomic editing. Our results open up exciting opportunities for engineering strawberry and related horticultural crops to improve traits of economic importance. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shinkuma, Satoru; Guo, Zongyou; Christiano, Angela M
Genome editing with engineered site-specific endonucleases involves nonhomologous end-joining, leading to reading frame disruption. The approach is applicable to dominant negative disorders, which can be treated simply by knocking out the mutant allele, while leaving the normal allele intact. We applied this strategy to dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DDEB), which is caused by a dominant negative mutation in the COL7A1 gene encoding type VII collagen (COL7). We performed genome editing with TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 targeting the mutation, c.8068_8084delinsGA. We then cotransfected Cas9 and guide RNA expression vectors expressed with GFP and DsRed, respectively, into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from DDEB fibroblasts. After sorting, 90% of the iPSCs were edited, and we selected four gene-edited iPSC lines for further study. These iPSCs were differentiated into keratinocytes and fibroblasts secreting COL7. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed gene-edited COL7 with frameshift mutations degraded at the protein level. In addition, we confirmed that the gene-edited truncated COL7 could neither associate with normal COL7 nor undergo triple helix formation. Our data establish the feasibility of mutation site-specific genome editing in dominant negative disorders.
Mounting evidence has called into question our understanding of the role that the central dogma of molecular biology plays in human pathology. The conventional view that elucidating the mechanisms for translating genes into proteins can account for a panoply of diseases has proven incomplete. Landmark studies point to epigenetics as a missing piece of the puzzle. However, technological limitations have hindered the study of specific roles for histone post-translational modifications, DNA modifications, and non-coding RNAs in regulation of the epigenome and chromatin structure. This feature highlights CRISPR systems, including CRISPR-Cas9, as novel tools for targeted epigenome editing. It summarizes recent developments in the field, including integration of optogenetic and functional genomic approaches to explore new therapeutic opportunities, and underscores the importance of mitigating current limitations in the field. This comprehensive, analytical assessment identifies current research gaps, forecasts future research opportunities, and argues that as epigenome editing technologies mature, overcoming critical challenges in delivery, specificity, and fidelity should clear the path to bring these technologies into the clinic. PMID:28018139
Mounting evidence has called into question our understanding of the role that the central dogma of molecular biology plays in human pathology. The conventional view that elucidating the mechanisms for translating genes into proteins can account for a panoply of diseases has proven incomplete. Landmark studies point to epigenetics as a missing piece of the puzzle. However, technological limitations have hindered the study of specific roles for histone post-translational modifications, DNA modifications, and non-coding RNAs in regulation of the epigenome and chromatin structure. This feature highlights CRISPR systems, including CRISPR-Cas9, as novel tools for targeted epigenome editing. It summarizes recent developments in the field, including integration of optogenetic and functional genomic approaches to explore new therapeutic opportunities, and underscores the importance of mitigating current limitations in the field. This comprehensive, analytical assessment identifies current research gaps, forecasts future research opportunities, and argues that as epigenome editing technologies mature, overcoming critical challenges in delivery, specificity, and fidelity should clear the path to bring these technologies into the clinic.
Danhart, Eric M.; Bakhtina, Marina; Cantara, William A.; Kuzmishin, Alexandra B.; Ma, Xiao; Sanford, Brianne L.; Vargas-Rodriguez, Oscar; Košutić, Marija; Goto, Yuki; Suga, Hiroaki; Nakanishi, Kotaro; Micura, Ronald; Musier-Forsyth, Karin
Molecular sieves ensure proper pairing of tRNAs and amino acids during aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, thereby avoiding detrimental effects of mistranslation on cell growth and viability. Mischarging errors are often corrected through the activity of specialized editing domains present in some aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases or via single-domain trans-editing proteins. ProXp-ala is a ubiquitous trans-editing enzyme that edits Ala-tRNAPro, the product of Ala mischarging by prolyl-tRNA synthetase, although the structural basis for discrimination between correctly charged Pro-tRNAPro and mischarged Ala-tRNAAla is unclear. Deacylation assays using substrate analogs reveal that size discrimination is only one component of selectivity. We used NMR spectroscopy and sequence conservation to guide extensive site-directed mutagenesis of Caulobacter crescentus ProXp-ala, along with binding and deacylation assays to map specificity determinants. Chemical shift perturbations induced by an uncharged tRNAPro acceptor stem mimic, microhelixPro, or a nonhydrolyzable mischarged Ala-microhelixPro substrate analog identified residues important for binding and deacylation. Backbone 15N NMR relaxation experiments revealed dynamics for a helix flanking the substrate binding site in free ProXp-ala, likely reflecting sampling of open and closed conformations. Dynamics persist on binding to the uncharged microhelix, but are attenuated when the stably mischarged analog is bound. Computational docking and molecular dynamics simulations provide structural context for these findings and predict a role for the substrate primary α-amine group in substrate recognition. Overall, our results illuminate strategies used by a trans-editing domain to ensure acceptance of only mischarged Ala-tRNAPro, including conformational selection by a dynamic helix, size-based exclusion, and optimal positioning of substrate chemical groups. PMID:28768811
Torres, Manon; Becquet, Denis; Franc, Jean-Louis; François-Bellan, Anne-Marie
The circadian clock drives daily rhythms of multiple physiological processes, allowing organisms to anticipate and adjust to periodic changes in environmental conditions. These physiological rhythms are associated with robust oscillations in the expression of at least 30% of expressed genes. While the ability for the endogenous timekeeping system to generate a 24-hr cycle is a cell-autonomous mechanism based on negative autoregulatory feedback loops of transcription and translation involving core-clock genes and their protein products, it is now increasingly evident that additional mechanisms also govern the circadian oscillations of clock-controlled genes. Such mechanisms can take place post-transcriptionally during the course of the RNA life cycle. It has been shown that many steps during RNA processing are regulated in a circadian manner, thus contributing to circadian gene expression. These steps include mRNA capping, alternative splicing, changes in splicing efficiency, and changes in RNA stability controlled by the tail length of polyadenylation or the use of alternative polyadenylation sites. RNA transport can also follow a circadian pattern, with a circadian nuclear retention driven by rhythmic expression within the nucleus of particular bodies (the paraspeckles) and circadian export to the cytoplasm driven by rhythmic proteins acting like cargo. Finally, RNA degradation may also follow a circadian pattern through the rhythmic involvement of miRNAs. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the post-transcriptional circadian mechanisms known to play a prominent role in shaping circadian gene expression in mammals. This article is categorized under: RNA Processing > Splicing Regulation/Alternative Splicing RNA Processing > RNA Editing and Modification RNA Export and Localization > Nuclear Export/Import. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Swarts, Daan C; Jinek, Martin
Cas9 and Cas12a are multidomain CRISPR-associated nucleases that can be programmed with a guide RNA to bind and cleave complementary DNA targets. The guide RNA sequence can be varied, making these effector enzymes versatile tools for genome editing and gene regulation applications. While Cas9 is currently the best-characterized and most widely used nuclease for such purposes, Cas12a (previously named Cpf1) has recently emerged as an alternative for Cas9. Cas9 and Cas12a have distinct evolutionary origins and exhibit different structural architectures, resulting in distinct molecular mechanisms. Here we compare the structural and mechanistic features that distinguish Cas9 and Cas12a, and describe how these features modulate their activity. We discuss implications for genome editing, and how they may influence the choice of Cas9 or Cas12a for specific applications. Finally, we review recent studies in which Cas12a has been utilized as a genome editing tool. This article is categorized under: RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > Protein-RNA Interactions: Functional Implications Regulatory RNAs/RNAi/Riboswitches > Biogenesis of Effector Small RNAs RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > RNA-Protein Complexes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jensen, Kristopher Torp; Fløe, Lasse; Petersen, Trine Skov; Huang, Jinrong; Xu, Fengping; Bolund, Lars; Luo, Yonglun; Lin, Lin
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) systems have emerged as the method of choice for genome editing, but large variations in on-target efficiencies continue to limit their applicability. Here, we investigate the effect of chromatin accessibility on Cas9-mediated gene editing efficiency for 20 gRNAs targeting 10 genomic loci in HEK293T cells using both SpCas9 and the eSpCas9(1.1) variant. Our study indicates that gene editing is more efficient in euchromatin than in heterochromatin, and we validate this finding in HeLa cells a