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Sample records for a-to-i rna editing

  1. Adaptation of A-to-I RNA editing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuange; Dou, Shengqian; Luo, Shiqi; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is hypothesized to facilitate adaptive evolution by expanding proteomic diversity through an epigenetic approach. However, it is challenging to provide evidences to support this hypothesis at the whole editome level. In this study, we systematically characterized 2,114 A-to-I RNA editing sites in female and male brains of D. melanogaster, and nearly half of these sites had events evolutionarily conserved across Drosophila species. We detected strong signatures of positive selection on the nonsynonymous editing sites in Drosophila brains, and the beneficial editing sites were significantly enriched in genes related to chemical and electrical neurotransmission. The signal of adaptation was even more pronounced for the editing sites located in X chromosome or for those commonly observed across Drosophila species. We identified a set of gene candidates (termed "PSEB" genes) that had nonsynonymous editing events favored by natural selection. We presented evidence that editing preferentially increased mutation sequence space of evolutionarily conserved genes, which supported the adaptive evolution hypothesis of editing. We found prevalent nonsynonymous editing sites that were favored by natural selection in female and male adults from five strains of D. melanogaster. We showed that temperature played a more important role than gender effect in shaping the editing levels, although the effect of temperature is relatively weaker compared to that of species effect. We also explored the relevant factors that shape the selective patterns of the global editomes. Altogether we demonstrated that abundant nonsynonymous editing sites in Drosophila brains were adaptive and maintained by natural selection during evolution. Our results shed new light on the evolutionary principles and functional consequences of RNA editing.

  2. Adaptation of A-to-I RNA editing in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is hypothesized to facilitate adaptive evolution by expanding proteomic diversity through an epigenetic approach. However, it is challenging to provide evidences to support this hypothesis at the whole editome level. In this study, we systematically characterized 2,114 A-to-I RNA editing sites in female and male brains of D. melanogaster, and nearly half of these sites had events evolutionarily conserved across Drosophila species. We detected strong signatures of positive selection on the nonsynonymous editing sites in Drosophila brains, and the beneficial editing sites were significantly enriched in genes related to chemical and electrical neurotransmission. The signal of adaptation was even more pronounced for the editing sites located in X chromosome or for those commonly observed across Drosophila species. We identified a set of gene candidates (termed “PSEB” genes) that had nonsynonymous editing events favored by natural selection. We presented evidence that editing preferentially increased mutation sequence space of evolutionarily conserved genes, which supported the adaptive evolution hypothesis of editing. We found prevalent nonsynonymous editing sites that were favored by natural selection in female and male adults from five strains of D. melanogaster. We showed that temperature played a more important role than gender effect in shaping the editing levels, although the effect of temperature is relatively weaker compared to that of species effect. We also explored the relevant factors that shape the selective patterns of the global editomes. Altogether we demonstrated that abundant nonsynonymous editing sites in Drosophila brains were adaptive and maintained by natural selection during evolution. Our results shed new light on the evolutionary principles and functional consequences of RNA editing. PMID:28282384

  3. Altered A-to-I RNA Editing in Human Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Rachel; Ziskind, Anna; Nahor, Irit; Safran, Michal; Osenberg, Sivan; Sherf, Ofra; Rechavi, Gideon; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Post-transcriptional events play an important role in human development. The question arises as to whether Adenosine to Inosine RNA editing, catalyzed by the ADAR (Adenosine Deaminase acting on RNA) enzymes, differs in human embryogenesis and in adulthood. We tested the editing of various target genes in coding (FLNA, BLCAP, CYFIP2) and non-coding sequences at their Alu elements (BRCA1, CARD11, RBBP9, MDM4, FNACC), as well as the transcriptional levels of the ADAR1 enzymes. This analysis was performed on five fetal and adult human tissues: brain, heart, liver, kidney, and spleen, as well as on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which represent the blastocyst stage in early human development. Our results show substantially greater editing activity for most adult tissue samples relative to fetal ones, in six of the eight genes tested. To test the effect of reduced A-to-I RNA editing activity in early human development we used human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a model and tried to generate hESC clones that overexpress the ADAR1–p110 isoform. We were unable to achieve overexpression of ADAR1–p110 by either transfection or lentiviral infection, though we easily generated hESC clones that expressed the GFP transgene and overexpressed ADAR1-p110 in 293T cells and in primary human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Moreover, in contrast to the expected overexpression of ADAR1-p110 protein following its introduction into hESCs, the expression levels of this protein decreased dramatically 24–48 hr post infection. Similar results were obtained when we tried to overexpress ADAR1-p110 in pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells. This suggests that ADAR1 protein is substantially regulated in undifferentiated pluripotent hESCs. Overall, our data suggest that A-to-I RNA editing plays a critical role during early human development. PMID:22859999

  4. Altered A-to-I RNA editing in human embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shtrichman, Ronit; Germanguz, Igal; Mandel, Rachel; Ziskind, Anna; Nahor, Irit; Safran, Michal; Osenberg, Sivan; Sherf, Ofra; Rechavi, Gideon; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Post-transcriptional events play an important role in human development. The question arises as to whether Adenosine to Inosine RNA editing, catalyzed by the ADAR (Adenosine Deaminase acting on RNA) enzymes, differs in human embryogenesis and in adulthood. We tested the editing of various target genes in coding (FLNA, BLCAP, CYFIP2) and non-coding sequences at their Alu elements (BRCA1, CARD11, RBBP9, MDM4, FNACC), as well as the transcriptional levels of the ADAR1 enzymes. This analysis was performed on five fetal and adult human tissues: brain, heart, liver, kidney, and spleen, as well as on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which represent the blastocyst stage in early human development. Our results show substantially greater editing activity for most adult tissue samples relative to fetal ones, in six of the eight genes tested. To test the effect of reduced A-to-I RNA editing activity in early human development we used human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a model and tried to generate hESC clones that overexpress the ADAR1-p110 isoform. We were unable to achieve overexpression of ADAR1-p110 by either transfection or lentiviral infection, though we easily generated hESC clones that expressed the GFP transgene and overexpressed ADAR1-p110 in 293T cells and in primary human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Moreover, in contrast to the expected overexpression of ADAR1-p110 protein following its introduction into hESCs, the expression levels of this protein decreased dramatically 24-48 hr post infection. Similar results were obtained when we tried to overexpress ADAR1-p110 in pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells. This suggests that ADAR1 protein is substantially regulated in undifferentiated pluripotent hESCs. Overall, our data suggest that A-to-I RNA editing plays a critical role during early human development.

  5. A Role for A-to-I RNA Editing in Temperature Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Sandra C.; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.

    2014-01-01

    A-to-I RNA editing can recode mRNAs, giving organisms the option to express diverse, functionally distinct protein isoforms. Here, we propose that RNA editing is inherently geared for temperature adaptation because it tends to recode to smaller, less stabilizing amino acids. Studies on how editing affects protein function support this idea. PMID:23223630

  6. Genome-wide A-to-I RNA editing in fungi independent of ADAR enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiquan; Wang, Qinhu; He, Yi; Chen, Lingfeng; Hao, Chaofeng; Jiang, Cong; Li, Yang; Dai, Yafeng; Kang, Zhensheng; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Yeasts and filamentous fungi do not have adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) orthologs and are believed to lack A-to-I RNA editing, which is the most prevalent editing of mRNA in animals. However, during this study with the PUK1 (FGRRES_01058) pseudokinase gene important for sexual reproduction in Fusarium graminearum, we found that two tandem stop codons, UA1831GUA1834G, in its kinase domain were changed to UG1831GUG1834G by RNA editing in perithecia. To confirm A-to-I editing of PUK1 transcripts, strand-specific RNA-seq data were generated with RNA isolated from conidia, hyphae, and perithecia. PUK1 was almost specifically expressed in perithecia, and 90% of transcripts were edited to UG1831GUG1834G. Genome-wide analysis identified 26,056 perithecium-specific A-to-I editing sites. Unlike those in animals, 70.5% of A-to-I editing sites in F. graminearum occur in coding regions, and more than two-thirds of them result in amino acid changes, including editing of 69 PUK1-like pseudogenes with stop codons in ORFs. PUK1 orthologs and other pseudogenes also displayed stage-specific expression and editing in Neurospora crassa and F. verticillioides. Furthermore, F. graminearum differs from animals in the sequence preference and structure selectivity of A-to-I editing sites. Whereas A's embedded in RNA stems are targeted by ADARs, RNA editing in F. graminearum preferentially targets A's in hairpin loops, which is similar to the anticodon loop of tRNA targeted by adenosine deaminases acting on tRNA (ADATs). Overall, our results showed that A-to-I RNA editing occurs specifically during sexual reproduction and mainly in the coding regions in filamentous ascomycetes, involving adenosine deamination mechanisms distinct from metazoan ADARs. PMID:26934920

  7. Regulatory factors governing adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Hong, HuiQi; Lin, Jaymie Siqi; Chen, Leilei

    2015-03-31

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, the most prevalent mode of transcript modification in higher eukaryotes, is catalysed by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). A-to-I editing imposes an additional layer of gene regulation as it dictates various aspects of RNA metabolism, including RNA folding, processing, localization and degradation. Furthermore, editing events in exonic regions contribute to proteome diversity as translational machinery decodes inosine as guanosine. Although it has been demonstrated that dysregulated A-to-I editing contributes to various diseases, the precise regulatory mechanisms governing this critical cellular process have yet to be fully elucidated. However, integration of previous studies revealed that regulation of A-to-I editing is multifaceted, weaving an intricate network of auto- and transregulations, including the involvement of virus-originated factors like adenovirus-associated RNA. Taken together, it is apparent that tipping of any regulatory components will have profound effects on A-to-I editing, which in turn contributes to both normal and aberrant physiological conditions. A complete understanding of this intricate regulatory network may ultimately be translated into new therapeutic strategies against diseases driven by perturbed RNA editing events. Herein, we review the current state of knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms governing A-to-I editing and propose the role of other co-factors that may be involved in this complex regulatory process.

  8. Accurate identification of A-to-I RNA editing in human by transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Li, Gang; Greer, Christopher; Peng, Guangdun; Xiao, Xinshu

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing enhances the diversity of gene products at the post-transcriptional level. Approaches for genome-wide identification of RNA editing face two main challenges: separating true editing sites from false discoveries and accurate estimation of editing levels. We developed an approach to analyze transcriptome sequencing data (RNA-seq) for global identification of RNA editing in cells for which whole-genome sequencing data are available. We applied the method to analyze RNA-seq data of a human glioblastoma cell line, U87MG. Around 10,000 DNA-RNA differences were identified, the majority being putative A-to-I editing sites. These predicted A-to-I events were associated with a low false-discovery rate (∼5%). Moreover, the estimated editing levels from RNA-seq correlated well with those based on traditional clonal sequencing. Our results further facilitated unbiased characterization of the sequence and evolutionary features flanking predicted A-to-I editing sites and discovery of a conserved RNA structural motif that may be functionally relevant to editing. Genes with predicted A-to-I editing were significantly enriched with those known to be involved in cancer, supporting the potential importance of cancer-specific RNA editing. A similar profile of DNA-RNA differences as in U87MG was predicted for another RNA-seq data set obtained from primary breast cancer samples. Remarkably, significant overlap exists between the putative editing sites of the two transcriptomes despite their difference in cell type, cancer type, and genomic backgrounds. Our approach enabled de novo identification of the RNA editome, which sets the stage for further mechanistic studies of this important step of post-transcriptional regulation.

  9. Construction of a guide-RNA for site-directed RNA mutagenesis utilising intracellular A-to-I RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Masatora; Umeno, Hiromitsu; Nose, Kanako; Nishitarumizu, Azusa; Noguchi, Ryoma; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-02

    As an alternative to DNA mutagenesis, RNA mutagenesis can potentially become a powerful gene-regulation method for fundamental research and applied life sciences. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing alters genetic information at the transcript level and is an important biological process that is commonly conserved in metazoans. Therefore, a versatile RNA-mutagenesis method can be achieved by utilising the intracellular RNA-editing mechanism. Here, we report novel guide RNAs capable of inducing A-to-I mutations by guiding the editing enzyme, human adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR). These guide RNAs successfully introduced A-to-I mutations into the target-site, which was determined by the reprogrammable antisense region. In ADAR2-over expressing cells, site-directed RNA editing could also be performed by simply introducing the guide RNA. Our guide RNA framework provides basic insights into establishing a generally applicable RNA-mutagenesis method.

  10. Construction of a guide-RNA for site-directed RNA mutagenesis utilising intracellular A-to-I RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Masatora; Umeno, Hiromitsu; Nose, Kanako; Nishitarumizu, Azusa; Noguchi, Ryoma; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    As an alternative to DNA mutagenesis, RNA mutagenesis can potentially become a powerful gene-regulation method for fundamental research and applied life sciences. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing alters genetic information at the transcript level and is an important biological process that is commonly conserved in metazoans. Therefore, a versatile RNA-mutagenesis method can be achieved by utilising the intracellular RNA-editing mechanism. Here, we report novel guide RNAs capable of inducing A-to-I mutations by guiding the editing enzyme, human adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR). These guide RNAs successfully introduced A-to-I mutations into the target-site, which was determined by the reprogrammable antisense region. In ADAR2-over expressing cells, site-directed RNA editing could also be performed by simply introducing the guide RNA. Our guide RNA framework provides basic insights into establishing a generally applicable RNA-mutagenesis method. PMID:28148949

  11. Discriminative Prediction of A-To-I RNA Editing Events from DNA Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiangming; Singh, Pratibha; Bagge, Annika; Valtat, Bérengère; Vikman, Petter; Spégel, Peter; Mulder, Hindrik

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional alteration of RNA sequences that, via insertions, deletions or base substitutions, can affect protein structure as well as RNA and protein expression. Recently, it has been suggested that RNA editing may be more frequent than previously thought. A great impediment, however, to a deeper understanding of this process is the paramount sequencing effort that needs to be undertaken to identify RNA editing events. Here, we describe an in silico approach, based on machine learning, that ameliorates this problem. Using 41 nucleotide long DNA sequences, we show that novel A-to-I RNA editing events can be predicted from known A-to-I RNA editing events intra- and interspecies. The validity of the proposed method was verified in an independent experimental dataset. Using our approach, 203 202 putative A-to-I RNA editing events were predicted in the whole human genome. Out of these, 9% were previously reported. The remaining sites require further validation, e.g., by targeted deep sequencing. In conclusion, the approach described here is a useful tool to identify potential A-to-I RNA editing events without the requirement of extensive RNA sequencing. PMID:27764195

  12. Reduced levels of protein recoding by A-to-I RNA editing in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Khermesh, Khen; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Barak, Michal; Annese, Anita; Wachtel, Chaim; Levanon, Erez Y.; Picardi, Ernesto; Eisenberg, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, catalyzed by the ADAR enzyme family, acts on dsRNA structures within pre-mRNA molecules. Editing of the coding part of the mRNA may lead to recoding, amino acid substitution in the resulting protein, possibly modifying its biochemical and biophysical properties. Altered RNA editing patterns have been observed in various neurological pathologies. Here, we present a comprehensive study of recoding by RNA editing in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of irreversible dementia. We have used a targeted resequencing approach supplemented by a microfluidic-based high-throughput PCR coupled with next-generation sequencing to accurately quantify A-to-I RNA editing levels in a preselected set of target sites, mostly located within the coding sequence of synaptic genes. Overall, editing levels decreased in AD patients’ brain tissues, mainly in the hippocampus and to a lesser degree in the temporal and frontal lobes. Differential RNA editing levels were observed in 35 target sites within 22 genes. These results may shed light on a possible association between the neurodegenerative processes typical for AD and deficient RNA editing. PMID:26655226

  13. A-to-I editing challenger or ally to the microRNA process.

    PubMed

    Ohman, M

    2007-10-01

    Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) modification by the ADAR (adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA) enzymes perform the most common type of RNA editing in metazoans. ADARs use double stranded RNA as substrates but allow interruptions of bulges and loops in the structure. It is well known that these enzymes can use messenger RNA as targets for A-to-I editing and thereby recode the transcript. Both ADAR1 and ADAR2 have been proven to be able to also target short double stranded RNA molecules of the same size as a microRNA. However, it is not until recently shown that A-to-I editing occurs in microRNAs and its precursors. Since the editing activity is found both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm there are several steps during the microRNA maturation pathway that can be targeted for modification. This review will give an overview of what is known today about the interactions between the endogenous RNA interference process and RNA editing. It will also give some insight into the power of A-to-I modification in its ability to increase the variety of microRNA gene silencing.

  14. REDIportal: a comprehensive database of A-to-I RNA editing events in humans

    PubMed Central

    Picardi, Ernesto; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Lo Giudice, Claudio; Pesole, Graziano

    2017-01-01

    RNA editing by A-to-I deamination is the prominent co-/post-transcriptional modification in humans. It is carried out by ADAR enzymes and contributes to both transcriptomic and proteomic expansion. RNA editing has pivotal cellular effects and its deregulation has been linked to a variety of human disorders including neurological and neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Despite its biological relevance, many physiological and functional aspects of RNA editing are yet elusive. Here, we present REDIportal, available online at http://srv00.recas.ba.infn.it/atlas/, the largest and comprehensive collection of RNA editing in humans including more than 4.5 millions of A-to-I events detected in 55 body sites from thousands of RNAseq experiments. REDIportal embeds RADAR database and represents the first editing resource designed to answer functional questions, enabling the inspection and browsing of editing levels in a variety of human samples, tissues and body sites. In contrast with previous RNA editing databases, REDIportal comprises its own browser (JBrowse) that allows users to explore A-to-I changes in their genomic context, empathizing repetitive elements in which RNA editing is prominent. PMID:27587585

  15. Deciphering the functions and regulation of brain-enriched A-to-I RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin Billy; Church, George M

    2013-11-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, in which genomically encoded adenosine is changed to inosine in RNA, is catalyzed by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR). This fine-tuning mechanism is critical during normal development and diseases, particularly in relation to brain functions. A-to-I RNA editing has also been hypothesized to be a driving force in human brain evolution. A large number of RNA editing sites have recently been identified, mostly as a result of the development of deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. Deciphering the functional consequences of RNA editing events is challenging, but emerging genome engineering approaches may expedite new discoveries. To understand how RNA editing is dynamically regulated, it is imperative to construct a spatiotemporal atlas at the species, tissue and cell levels. Future studies will need to identify the cis and trans regulatory factors that drive the selectivity and frequency of RNA editing. We anticipate that recent technological advancements will aid researchers in acquiring a much deeper understanding of the functions and regulation of RNA editing.

  16. Trans and cis factors affecting A-to-I RNA editing efficiency of a noncoding editing target in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Michael C; Hundley, Heather A

    2016-05-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing by ADARs affects thousands of adenosines in an organism's transcriptome. However, adenosines are not edited at equal levels nor do these editing levels correlate well with ADAR expression levels. Therefore, additional mechanisms are utilized by the cell to dictate the editing efficiency at a given adenosine. To examine cis-and trans-acting factors that regulate A-to-I editing levels specifically in neural cells, we utilized the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans We demonstrate that a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein, ADR-1, inhibits editing in neurons, which is largely masked when examining editing levels from whole animals. Furthermore, expression of ADR-1 and mRNA expression of the editing target can act synergistically to regulate editing efficiency. In addition, we identify a dsRNA region within the Y75B8A.83' UTR that acts as acis-regulatory element by enhancing ADR-2 editing efficiency. Together, this work identifies mechanisms that regulate editing efficiency of noncoding A-to-I editing sites, which comprise the largest class of ADAR targets. © 2016 Washburn and Hundley; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  17. Screening of human SNP database identifies recoding sites of A-to-I RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Gommans, Willemijn M.; Tatalias, Nicholas E.; Sie, Christina P.; Dupuis, Dylan; Vendetti, Nicholas; Smith, Lauren; Kaushal, Rikhi; Maas, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are DNA sequence variations that can affect the expression or function of genes. As a result, they may lead to phenotypic differences between individuals, such as susceptibility to disease, response to medications, and disease progression. Millions of SNPs have been mapped within the human genome providing a rich resource for genetic variation studies. Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing also leads to the production of RNA and protein sequence variants, but it acts on the level of primary gene transcripts. Sequence variations due to RNA editing may be misannotated as SNPs when relying solely on expressed sequence data instead of genomic material. In this study, we screened the human SNP database for potential cases of A-to-I RNA editing that cause amino acid changes in the encoded protein. Our search strategy applies five molecular features to score candidate sites. It identifies all previously known cases of editing present in the SNP database and successfully uncovers novel, bona fide targets of adenosine deamination editing. Our approach sets the stage for effective and comprehensive genome-wide screens for A-to-I editing targets. PMID:18772245

  18. Small RNA and A-to-I Editing in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eran, Alal

    One in every 88 children is diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), a set of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by social impairments, communication deficits, and repetitive behavior. ASDs have a substantial genetic component, but the specific cause of most cases remains unknown. Understanding gene-environment interactions underlying ASD is essential for improving early diagnosis and identifying critical targets for intervention and prevention. Towards this goal, we surveyed adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing in autistic brains. A-to-I editing is an epigenetic mechanism that fine-tunes synaptic function in response to environmental stimuli, shown to modulate complex behavior in animals. We used ultradeep sequencing to quantify A-to-I receding of candidate synaptic genes in postmortem cerebella from individuals with ASD and neurotypical controls. We found unexpectedly wide distributions of human A-to-I editing levels, whose extremes were consistently populated by individuals with ASD. We correlated A-to-I editing with isoform usage, identified clusters of correlated sites, and examined differential editing patterns. Importantly, we found that individuals with ASD commonly use a dysfunctional form of the editing enzyme ADARB1. We next profiled small RNAs thought to regulate A-to-I editing, which originate from one of the most commonly altered loci in ASD, 15q11. Deep targeted sequencing of SNORD115 and SNORD116 transcripts enabled their high-resolution detection in human brains, and revealed a strong gender bias underlying their expression. The consistent 2-fold upregulation of 15q11 small RNAs in male vs. female cerebella could be important in delineating the role of this locus in ASD, a male dominant disorder. Overall, these studies provide an accurate population-level view of small RNA and A-to-I editing in human cerebella, and suggest that A-to-I editing of synaptic genes may be informative for assessing the epigenetic risk for autism

  19. Principles Governing A-to-I RNA Editing in the Breast Cancer Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Debora; Gacquer, David; Rothé, Françoise; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frederick; Brown, David; Kheddoumi, Naima; Shlien, Adam; Konopka, Tomasz; Salgado, Roberto; Larsimont, Denis; Polyak, Kornelia; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Desmedt, Christine; Piccart, Martine; Abramowicz, Marc; Campbell, Peter J; Sotiriou, Christos; Detours, Vincent

    2015-10-13

    Little is known about how RNA editing operates in cancer. Transcriptome analysis of 68 normal and cancerous breast tissues revealed that the editing enzyme ADAR acts uniformly, on the same loci, across tissues. In controlled ADAR expression experiments, the editing frequency increased at all loci with ADAR expression levels according to the logistic model. Loci-specific "editabilities," i.e., propensities to be edited by ADAR, were quantifiable by fitting the logistic function to dose-response data. The editing frequency was increased in tumor cells in comparison to normal controls. Type I interferon response and ADAR DNA copy number together explained 53% of ADAR expression variance in breast cancers. ADAR silencing using small hairpin RNA lentivirus transduction in breast cancer cell lines led to less cell proliferation and more apoptosis. A-to-I editing is a pervasive, yet reproducible, source of variation that is globally controlled by 1q amplification and inflammation, both of which are highly prevalent among human cancers.

  20. Massive A-to-I RNA editing is common across the Metazoa and correlates with dsRNA abundance.

    PubMed

    Porath, Hagit T; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Eisenberg, Eli; Levanon, Erez Y

    2017-10-02

    Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification catalyzed by the ADAR (adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA) enzymes, which are ubiquitously expressed among metazoans. Technical requirements have limited systematic mapping of editing sites to a small number of organisms. Thus, the extent of editing across the metazoan lineage is largely unknown. Here, we apply a computational procedure to search for RNA-sequencing reads containing clusters of editing sites in 21 diverse organisms. Clusters of editing sites are abundant in repetitive genomic regions that putatively form double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) structures and are rarely seen in coding regions. The method reveals a considerable variation in hyper-editing levels across species, which is partly explained by differences in the potential of sequences to form dsRNA structures and the variability of ADAR proteins. Several commonly used model animals exhibit low editing levels and editing levels in primates is not exceptionally high, as previously suggested. Editing by ADARs is highly prevalent across the Metazoa, mostly targeting dsRNA structures formed by genomic repeats. The degree to which the transcriptome of a given species undergoes hyper-editing is governed by the repertoire of repeats in the underlying genome. The strong association of RNA editing with the long dsRNA regions originating from non-coding repetitive elements is contrasted by the almost non-existing signal seen in coding regions. Hyper-edited regions are rarely expressed in a non-edited form. These results support the notion that the main role of ADAR is to suppress the cellular response to endogenous dsRNA structures.

  1. Abnormalities in A-to-I RNA editing patterns in CNS injuries correlate with dynamic changes in cell type composition

    PubMed Central

    Gal-Mark, Nurit; Shallev, Lea; Sweetat, Sahar; Barak, Michal; Billy Li, Jin; Levanon, Erez Y.; Eisenberg, Eli; Behar, Oded

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine to Inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a co- or post-transcriptional mechanism that modifies genomically encoded nucleotides at the RNA level. A-to-I RNA editing is abundant in the brain, and altered editing levels have been reported in various neurological pathologies and following spinal cord injury (SCI). The prevailing concept is that the RNA editing process itself is dysregulated by brain pathologies. Here we analyzed recent RNA-seq data, and found that, except for few mammalian conserved editing sites, editing is significantly higher in neurons than in other cell populations of the brain. We studied A-to-I RNA editing in stab wound injury (SWI) and SCI models and showed that the apparent under-editing observed after injury correlates with an approximately 20% reduction in the relative density of neurons, due to cell death and immune cell infiltration that may account for the observed under-editing. Studies of neuronal and astrocyte cultures and a computational analysis of SCI RNA-seq data further supported the possibility that a reduction in neuronal density is responsible for alterations in the tissue-wide editing patterns upon injury. Thus, our data suggest that the case for a mechanistic linkage between A-to-I RNA editing and brain pathologies should be revisited. PMID:28266523

  2. Abnormalities in A-to-I RNA editing patterns in CNS injuries correlate with dynamic changes in cell type composition.

    PubMed

    Gal-Mark, Nurit; Shallev, Lea; Sweetat, Sahar; Barak, Michal; Billy Li, Jin; Levanon, Erez Y; Eisenberg, Eli; Behar, Oded

    2017-03-07

    Adenosine to Inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a co- or post-transcriptional mechanism that modifies genomically encoded nucleotides at the RNA level. A-to-I RNA editing is abundant in the brain, and altered editing levels have been reported in various neurological pathologies and following spinal cord injury (SCI). The prevailing concept is that the RNA editing process itself is dysregulated by brain pathologies. Here we analyzed recent RNA-seq data, and found that, except for few mammalian conserved editing sites, editing is significantly higher in neurons than in other cell populations of the brain. We studied A-to-I RNA editing in stab wound injury (SWI) and SCI models and showed that the apparent under-editing observed after injury correlates with an approximately 20% reduction in the relative density of neurons, due to cell death and immune cell infiltration that may account for the observed under-editing. Studies of neuronal and astrocyte cultures and a computational analysis of SCI RNA-seq data further supported the possibility that a reduction in neuronal density is responsible for alterations in the tissue-wide editing patterns upon injury. Thus, our data suggest that the case for a mechanistic linkage between A-to-I RNA editing and brain pathologies should be revisited.

  3. A-to-I RNA editing is developmentally regulated and generally adaptive for sexual reproduction in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiquan; Li, Yang; Chen, Daipeng; Qi, Zhaomei; Wang, Qinhu; Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Cong; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2017-09-12

    Although fungi lack adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing was reported recently in Fusarium graminearum during sexual reproduction. In this study, we profiled the A-to-I editing landscape and characterized its functional and adaptive properties in the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa A total of 40,677 A-to-I editing sites were identified, and approximately half of them displayed stage-specific editing or editing levels at different sexual stages. RNA-sequencing analysis with the Δstc-1 and Δsad-1 mutants confirmed A-to-I editing occurred before ascus development but became more prevalent during ascosporogenesis. Besides fungal-specific sequence and secondary structure preference, 63.5% of A-to-I editing sites were in the coding regions and 81.3% of them resulted in nonsynonymous recoding, resulting in a significant increase in the proteome complexity. Many genes involved in RNA silencing, DNA methylation, and histone modifications had extensive recoding, including sad-1, sms-3, qde-1, and dim-2. Fifty pseudogenes harbor premature stop codons that require A-to-I editing to encode full-length proteins. Unlike in humans, nonsynonymous editing events in N. crassa are generally beneficial and favored by positive selection. Almost half of the nonsynonymous editing sites in N. crassa are conserved and edited in Neurospora tetrasperma Furthermore, hundreds of them are conserved in F. graminearum and had higher editing levels. Two unknown genes with editing sites conserved between Neurospora and Fusarium were experimentally shown to be important for ascosporogenesis. This study comprehensively analyzed A-to-I editing in N. crassa and showed that RNA editing is stage-specific and generally adaptive, and may be functionally related to repeat induced point mutation and meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA.

  4. A-to-I RNA editing promotes developmental stage-specific gene and lncRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Boaz; Agranat-Tamir, Lily; Light, Dean; Ben-Naim Zgayer, Orna; Fishman, Alla; Lamm, Ayelet T

    2017-03-01

    A-to-I RNA editing is a conserved widespread phenomenon in which adenosine (A) is converted to inosine (I) by adenosine deaminases (ADARs) in double-stranded RNA regions, mainly noncoding. Mutations in ADAR enzymes in Caenorhabditis elegans cause defects in normal development but are not lethal as in human and mouse. Previous studies in C. elegans indicated competition between RNA interference (RNAi) and RNA editing mechanisms, based on the observation that worms that lack both mechanisms do not exhibit defects, in contrast to the developmental defects observed when only RNA editing is absent. To study the effects of RNA editing on gene expression and function, we established a novel screen that enabled us to identify thousands of RNA editing sites in nonrepetitive regions in the genome. These include dozens of genes that are edited at their 3' UTR region. We found that these genes are mainly germline and neuronal genes, and that they are down-regulated in the absence of ADAR enzymes. Moreover, we discovered that almost half of these genes are edited in a developmental-specific manner, indicating that RNA editing is a highly regulated process. We found that many pseudogenes and other lncRNAs are also extensively down-regulated in the absence of ADARs in the embryo but not in the fourth larval (L4) stage. This down-regulation is not observed upon additional knockout of RNAi. Furthermore, levels of siRNAs aligned to pseudogenes in ADAR mutants are enhanced. Taken together, our results suggest a role for RNA editing in normal growth and development by regulating silencing via RNAi.

  5. A-to-I RNA editing promotes developmental stage–specific gene and lncRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Boaz; Agranat-Tamir, Lily; Light, Dean; Ben-Naim Zgayer, Orna; Fishman, Alla; Lamm, Ayelet T.

    2017-01-01

    A-to-I RNA editing is a conserved widespread phenomenon in which adenosine (A) is converted to inosine (I) by adenosine deaminases (ADARs) in double-stranded RNA regions, mainly noncoding. Mutations in ADAR enzymes in Caenorhabditis elegans cause defects in normal development but are not lethal as in human and mouse. Previous studies in C. elegans indicated competition between RNA interference (RNAi) and RNA editing mechanisms, based on the observation that worms that lack both mechanisms do not exhibit defects, in contrast to the developmental defects observed when only RNA editing is absent. To study the effects of RNA editing on gene expression and function, we established a novel screen that enabled us to identify thousands of RNA editing sites in nonrepetitive regions in the genome. These include dozens of genes that are edited at their 3′ UTR region. We found that these genes are mainly germline and neuronal genes, and that they are down-regulated in the absence of ADAR enzymes. Moreover, we discovered that almost half of these genes are edited in a developmental-specific manner, indicating that RNA editing is a highly regulated process. We found that many pseudogenes and other lncRNAs are also extensively down-regulated in the absence of ADARs in the embryo but not in the fourth larval (L4) stage. This down-regulation is not observed upon additional knockout of RNAi. Furthermore, levels of siRNAs aligned to pseudogenes in ADAR mutants are enhanced. Taken together, our results suggest a role for RNA editing in normal growth and development by regulating silencing via RNAi. PMID:28031250

  6. The Genomic Landscape and Clinical Relevance of A-to-I RNA Editing in Human Cancers | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a widespread post-transcriptional mechanism, but its genomic landscape and clinical relevance in cancer have not been investigated systematically. We characterized the global A-to-I RNA editing profiles of 6,236 patient samples of 17 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas and revealed a striking diversity of altered RNA-editing patterns in tumors relative to normal tissues. We identified an appreciable number of clinically relevant editing events, many of which are in noncoding regions.

  7. A-to-I RNA editing and cancer: from pathology to basic science.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Angela; Galardi, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    In eukaryotes mRNA transcripts are extensively processed by different post-transcriptional events such as alternative splicing and RNA editing in order to generate many different mRNAs from the same gene, increasing the transcriptome and then the proteome. The most frequent RNA editing mechanism in mammals involves the conversion of specific adenosines into inosines by the ADAR family of enzymes. This editing event can change both the sequence and the secondary structure of RNA molecules, with important consequences on both the final proteins and regulatory RNAs. Alteration in RNA editing has been connected to numerous human pathologies and recent studies have demonstrated its importance in tumor progression.

  8. Systematic characterization of A-to-I RNA editing hotspots in microRNAs across human cancers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yumeng; Xu, Xiaoyan; Yu, Shuangxing; Kang, Kang Jin; Zhou, Zhicheng; Han, Leng; Tsang, Yiu Huen; Li, Jun; Chen, Hu; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Yuan, Yuan; Eterovic, A Karina; Lu, Yiling; Sood, Anil K; Scott, Kenneth L; Mills, Gordon B; Liang, Han

    2017-04-14

    RNA editing, a widespread posttranscriptional mechanism, has emerged as a new player in cancer biology. Recent studies have reported key roles for individual miRNA editing events, but a comprehensive picture of miRNA editing in human cancers remains largely unexplored. Here we systematically characterized the miRNA editing profiles of 8,595 samples across 20 cancer types from miRNA sequencing data of The Cancer Genome Atlas and identified 19 adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing hotspots. We independently validated 15 of them by perturbation experiments in several cancer cell lines. These miRNA editing events show extensive correlations with key clinical variables (e.g., tumor subtype, disease stage and patient survival time) and other molecular drivers. Focusing on the RNA editing hotspot in miR-200b, a key tumor metastasis suppressor, we found that the miR-200b editing level correlates with patient prognosis opposite to that pattern for the wild-type miR-200b expression. We further experimentally demonstrated that in contrast to wild-type miRNA, the edited miR-200b can promote cell invasion and migration through its impaired ability to inhibit ZEB1/ZEB2 and acquired concomitant ability to repress new targets including LIFR, a well-characterized metastasis suppressor. Our study highlights the importance of miRNA editing in gene regulation and suggests its potential as biomarkers for cancer prognosis and therapy.

  9. Transcript Diversification in the Nervous System: A to I RNA Editing in CNS Function and Disease Development

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Aamira; Jantsch, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA converts adenosines to inosines in coding and non-coding regions of mRNAs. Inosines are interpreted as guanosines and hence, this type of editing can change codons, alter splice patterns, or influence the fate of an RNA. A to I editing is most abundant in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, targets for this type of nucleotide modification frequently encode receptors and channels. In many cases, the editing-induced amino acid exchanges alter the properties of the receptors and channels. Consistently, changes in editing patterns are frequently found associated with diseases of the CNS. In this review we describe the mechanisms of RNA editing and focus on target mRNAs of editing that are functionally relevant to normal and aberrant CNS activity. PMID:22787438

  10. A-to-I RNA Editing: Effects on Proteins Key to Neural Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Joshua J.C.; Seeburg, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    RNA editing by adenosine deamination is a process used to diversify the proteome. The expression of ADARs, the editing enzymes, is ubiquitous among true metazoans, and so adenosine deamination is thought to be universal. By changing codons at the level of mRNA, protein function can be altered, perhaps in response to physiological demand. Although the number of editing sites identified in recent years has been rising exponentially, their effects on protein function, in general, are less well understood. This review assesses the state of the field and highlights particular cases where the biophysical alterations and functional effects caused by RNA editing have been studied in detail. PMID:22578495

  11. Alu sequences in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells display high levels of A-to-I RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Osenberg, Sivan; Paz Yaacov, Nurit; Safran, Michal; Moshkovitz, Sharon; Shtrichman, Ronit; Sherf, Ofra; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Keshet, Gilmor; Amariglio, Ninette; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Rechavi, Gideon

    2010-06-21

    Adenosine to Inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a site-specific modification of RNA transcripts, catalyzed by members of the ADAR (Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA) protein family. RNA editing occurs in human RNA in thousands of different sites. Some of the sites are located in protein-coding regions but the majority is found in non-coding regions, such as 3'UTRs, 5'UTRs and introns - mainly in Alu elements. While editing is found in all tissues, the highest levels of editing are found in the brain. It was shown that editing levels within protein-coding regions are increased during embryogenesis and after birth and that RNA editing is crucial for organism viability as well as for normal development. In this study we characterized the A-to-I RNA editing phenomenon during neuronal and spontaneous differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We identified high editing levels of Alu repetitive elements in hESCs and demonstrated a global decrease in editing levels of non-coding Alu sites when hESCs are differentiating, particularly into the neural lineage. Using RNA interference, we showed that the elevated editing levels of Alu elements in undifferentiated hESCs are highly dependent on ADAR1. DNA microarray analysis showed that ADAR1 knockdown has a global effect on gene expression in hESCs and leads to a significant increase in RNA expression levels of genes involved in differentiation and development processes, including neurogenesis. Taken together, we speculate that A-to-I editing of Alu sequences plays a role in the regulation of hESC early differentiation decisions.

  12. A-to-I RNA Editing Up-regulates Human Dihydrofolate Reductase in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masataka; Fukami, Tatsuki; Gotoh, Saki; Nakajima, Miki

    2017-03-24

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) plays a key role in folate metabolism and is a target molecule of methotrexate. An increase in the cellular expression level of DHFR is one of the mechanisms of tumor resistance to methotrexate. The present study investigated the possibility that adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing, which causes nucleotide conversion by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, might modulate DHFR expression. In human breast adenocarcinoma-derived MCF-7 cells, 26 RNA editing sites were identified in the 3'-UTR of DHFR. Knockdown of ADAR1 decreased the RNA editing levels of DHFR and resulted in a decrease in the DHFR mRNA and protein levels, indicating that ADAR1 up-regulates DHFR expression. Using a computational analysis, miR-25-3p and miR-125a-3p were predicted to bind to the non-edited 3'-UTR of DHFR but not to the edited sequence. The decrease in DHFR expression by the knockdown of ADAR1 was restored by transfection of antisense oligonucleotides for these miRNAs, suggesting that RNA editing mediated up-regulation of DHFR requires the function of these miRNAs. Interestingly, we observed that the knockdown of ADAR1 decreased cell viability and increased the sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to methotrexate. ADAR1 expression levels and the RNA editing levels in the 3'-UTR of DHFR in breast cancer tissues were higher than those in adjacent normal tissues. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that ADAR1 positively regulates the expression of DHFR by editing the miR-25-3p and miR-125a-3p binding sites in the 3'-UTR of DHFR, enhancing cellular proliferation and resistance to methotrexate.

  13. A Fluorescent Adenosine Analogue as a Substrate for an A-to-I RNA Editing Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Rena A; Shin, Dongwon; Sinkeldam, Renatus W; Phelps, Kelly J; Fin, Andrea; Tantillo, Dean J; Tor, Yitzhak; Beal, Peter A

    2015-07-20

    Adenosine to inosine RNA editing catalyzed by ADAR enzymes is common in humans, and altered editing is associated with disease. Experiments using substrate RNAs with adenosine analogues at editing sites are useful for defining features of the ADAR reaction mechanism. The reactivity of ADAR2 was evaluated with RNA containing the emissive adenosine analogue thieno[3,4-d]-6-aminopyrimidine ((th)A). This nucleoside was incorporated into a mimic of the glutamate receptor B (GluR B) mRNA R/G editing site. We found that (th)A is recognized by AMV reverse transcriptase as A, and is deaminated rapidly by human ADAR2 to give (th)I. Importantly, ADAR reaction progress can be monitored by following the deamination-induced change in fluorescence of the (th)A-modified RNA. The observed high (th)A reactivity adds to our understanding of the structural features that are necessary for an efficient hADAR2 reaction. Furthermore, the new fluorescent assay is expected to accelerate mechanistic studies of ADARs.

  14. Comparative analysis of A-to-I editing in human and non-human primate brains reveals conserved patterns and context-dependent regulation of RNA editing.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Richard T; Wang, Xiaojing; Morabito, Michael V; Emeson, Ronald B

    2017-04-06

    A-to-I RNA editing is an important process for generating molecular diversity in the brain through modification of transcripts encoding several proteins important for neuronal signaling. We investigated the relationships between the extent of editing at multiple substrate transcripts (5HT2C, MGLUR4, CADPS, GLUR2, GLUR4, and GABRA3) in brain tissue obtained from adult humans and rhesus macaques. Several patterns emerged from these studies revealing conservation of editing across primate species. Additionally, variability in the human population allows us to make novel inferences about the co-regulation of editing at different editing sites and even across different brain regions.

  15. A Novel Computational Strategy to Identify A-to-I RNA Editing Sites by RNA-Seq Data: De Novo Detection in Human Spinal Cord Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Picardi, Ernesto; Gallo, Angela; Galeano, Federica; Tomaselli, Sara; Pesole, Graziano

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process occurring in a wide range of organisms. In human brain, the A-to-I RNA editing, in which individual adenosine (A) bases in pre-mRNA are modified to yield inosine (I), is the most frequent event. Modulating gene expression, RNA editing is essential for cellular homeostasis. Indeed, its deregulation has been linked to several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. To date, many RNA editing sites have been identified by next generation sequencing technologies employing massive transcriptome sequencing together with whole genome or exome sequencing. While genome and transcriptome reads are not always available for single individuals, RNA-Seq data are widespread through public databases and represent a relevant source of yet unexplored RNA editing sites. In this context, we propose a simple computational strategy to identify genomic positions enriched in novel hypothetical RNA editing events by means of a new two-steps mapping procedure requiring only RNA-Seq data and no a priori knowledge of RNA editing characteristics and genomic reads. We assessed the suitability of our procedure by confirming A-to-I candidates using conventional Sanger sequencing and performing RNA-Seq as well as whole exome sequencing of human spinal cord tissue from a single individual. PMID:22957051

  16. A-to-I RNA Editing: Current Knowledge Sources and Computational Approaches with Special Emphasis on Non-Coding RNA Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Nigita, Giovanni; Veneziano, Dario; Ferro, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    RNA editing is a dynamic mechanism for gene regulation attained through the alteration of the sequence of primary RNA transcripts. A-to-I (adenosine-to-inosine) RNA editing, which is catalyzed by members of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family of enzymes, is the most common post-transcriptional modification in humans. The ADARs bind double-stranded regions and deaminate adenosine (A) into inosine (I), which in turn is interpreted by the translation and splicing machineries as guanosine (G). In recent years, this modification has been discovered to occur not only in coding RNAs but also in non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), such as microRNAs, small interfering RNAs, transfer RNAs, and long non-coding RNAs. This may have several consequences, such as the creation or disruption of microRNA/mRNA binding sites, and thus affect the biogenesis, stability, and target recognition properties of ncRNAs. The malfunction of the editing machinery is not surprisingly associated with various human diseases, such as neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and carcinogenic diseases. Despite the enormous efforts made so far, the real biological function of this phenomenon, as well as the features of the ADAR substrate, in particular in non-coding RNAs, has still not been fully understood. In this work, we focus on the current knowledge of RNA editing on ncRNA molecules and provide a few examples of computational approaches to elucidate its biological function. PMID:25859542

  17. A-to-I RNA editing occurs at over a hundred million genomic sites, located in a majority of human genes.

    PubMed

    Bazak, Lily; Haviv, Ami; Barak, Michal; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Deng, Patricia; Zhang, Rui; Isaacs, Farren J; Rechavi, Gideon; Li, Jin Billy; Eisenberg, Eli; Levanon, Erez Y

    2014-03-01

    RNA molecules transmit the information encoded in the genome and generally reflect its content. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing by ADAR proteins converts a genomically encoded adenosine into inosine. It is known that most RNA editing in human takes place in the primate-specific Alu sequences, but the extent of this phenomenon and its effect on transcriptome diversity are not yet clear. Here, we analyzed large-scale RNA-seq data and detected ∼1.6 million editing sites. As detection sensitivity increases with sequencing coverage, we performed ultradeep sequencing of selected Alu sequences and showed that the scope of editing is much larger than anticipated. We found that virtually all adenosines within Alu repeats that form double-stranded RNA undergo A-to-I editing, although most sites exhibit editing at only low levels (<1%). Moreover, using high coverage sequencing, we observed editing of transcripts resulting from residual antisense expression, doubling the number of edited sites in the human genome. Based on bioinformatic analyses and deep targeted sequencing, we estimate that there are over 100 million human Alu RNA editing sites, located in the majority of human genes. These findings set the stage for exploring how this primate-specific massive diversification of the transcriptome is utilized.

  18. The majority of transcripts in the squid nervous system are extensively recoded by A-to-I RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Alon, Shahar; Garrett, Sandra C; Levanon, Erez Y; Olson, Sara; Graveley, Brenton R; Rosenthal, Joshua J C; Eisenberg, Eli

    2015-01-01

    RNA editing by adenosine deamination alters genetic information from the genomic blueprint. When it recodes mRNAs, it gives organisms the option to express diverse, functionally distinct, protein isoforms. All eumetazoans, from cnidarians to humans, express RNA editing enzymes. However, transcriptome-wide screens have only uncovered about 25 transcripts harboring conserved recoding RNA editing sites in mammals and several hundred recoding sites in Drosophila. These studies on few established models have led to the general assumption that recoding by RNA editing is extremely rare. Here we employ a novel bioinformatic approach with extensive validation to show that the squid Doryteuthis pealeii recodes proteins by RNA editing to an unprecedented extent. We identify 57,108 recoding sites in the nervous system, affecting the majority of the proteins studied. Recoding is tissue-dependent, and enriched in genes with neuronal and cytoskeletal functions, suggesting it plays an important role in brain physiology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05198.001 PMID:25569156

  19. Region-specific alterations of A-to-I RNA editing of serotonin 2c receptor in the cortex of suicides with major depression

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann, D; van der Laan, S; Underwood, M D; Salvetat, N; Cavarec, L; Vincent, L; Molina, F; Mann, J J; Arango, V; Pujol, J F

    2016-01-01

    Brain region-specific abnormalities in serotonergic transmission appear to underlie suicidal behavior. Alterations of RNA editing on the serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C) pre-mRNA in the brain of suicides produce transcripts that attenuate 5-HT2CR signaling by impairing intracellular G-protein coupling and subsequent intracellular signal transduction. In brain, the distribution of RNA-editing enzymes catalyzing deamination (A-to-I modification) shows regional variation, including within the cerebral cortex. We tested the hypothesis that altered pre-mRNA 5-HT2CR receptor editing in suicide is region-specific. To this end, we investigated the complete 5-HT2CR mRNA-editing profile in two architectonically distinct cortical areas involved in mood regulation and decision-making in a clinically well-characterized cohort of age- and sex-matched non-psychiatric drug-free controls and depressed suicides. By using an original biochemical detection method, that is, capillary electrophoresis single-stranded conformational polymorphism (CE-SSCP), we corroborated the 5-HT2CR mRNA-editing profile previously described in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9 (BA9)). Editing of 5-HT2CR mRNA displayed clear regional difference when comparing dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9) and anterior cingulate cortex (BA24). Compared with non-psychiatric control individuals, alterations of editing levels of 5-HT2CR mRNA were detected in both cortical areas of depressed suicides. A marked increase in editing on 5-HT2CR was especially observed in the anterior cingulate cortex in suicides, implicating this cortical area in suicide risk. The results suggest that region-specific changes in RNA editing of 5-HT2CR mRNA and deficient receptor function likely contribute to the etiology of major depressive disorder or suicide. PMID:27576167

  20. ADARs: allies or enemies? The importance of A-to-I RNA editing in human disease: from cancer to HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Angela; Locatelli, Franco

    2012-02-01

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are enzymes that convert adenosine (A) to inosine (I) in nuclear-encoded RNAs and viral RNAs. The activity of ADARs has been demonstrated to be essential in mammals and serves to fine-tune different proteins and modulate many molecular pathways. Recent findings have shown that ADAR activity is altered in many pathological tissues. Moreover, it has been shown that modulation of RNA editing is important for cell proliferation and migration, and has a protective effect on ischaemic insults. This review summarises available recent knowledge on A-to-I RNA editing and ADAR enzymes, with particular attention given to the emerging role played by these enzymes in cancer, some infectious diseases and immune-mediated disorders.

  1. The dsRBP and inactive editor ADR-1 utilizes dsRNA binding to regulate A-to-I RNA editing across the C. elegans transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Michael C; Kakaradov, Boyko; Sundararaman, Balaji; Wheeler, Emily; Hoon, Shawn; Yeo, Gene W; Hundley, Heather A

    2014-02-27

    Inadequate adenosine-to-inosine editing of noncoding regions occurs in disease but is often uncorrelated with ADAR levels, underscoring the need to study deaminase-independent control of editing. C. elegans have two ADAR proteins, ADR-2 and the theoretically catalytically inactive ADR-1. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing of wild-type and adr mutant worms, we expand the repertoire of C. elegans edited transcripts over 5-fold and confirm that ADR-2 is the only active deaminase in vivo. Despite lacking deaminase function, ADR-1 affects editing of over 60 adenosines within the 3' UTRs of 16 different mRNAs. Furthermore, ADR-1 interacts directly with ADR-2 substrates, even in the absence of ADR-2, and mutations within its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding domains abolish both binding and editing regulation. We conclude that ADR-1 acts as a major regulator of editing by binding ADR-2 substrates in vivo. These results raise the possibility that other dsRNA binding proteins, including the inactive human ADARs, regulate RNA editing through deaminase-independent mechanisms.

  2. The absence of A-to-I editing in the anticodon of plant cytoplasmic tRNA (Arg) ACG demands a relaxation of the wobble decoding rules.

    PubMed

    Aldinger, Carolin A; Leisinger, Anne-Katrin; Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A; Igloi, Gabor L

    2012-10-01

    It is a prevalent concept that, in line with the Wobble Hypothesis, those tRNAs having an adenosine in the first position of the anticodon become modified to an inosine at this position. Sequencing the cDNA derived from the gene coding for cytoplasmic tRNA (Arg) ACG from several higher plants as well as mass spectrometric analysis of the isoacceptor has revealed that for this kingdom an unmodified A in the wobble position of the anticodon is the rule rather than the exception. In vitro translation shows that in the plant system the absence of inosine in the wobble position of tRNA (Arg) does not prevent decoding. This isoacceptor belongs to the class of tRNA that is imported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria of higher plants. Previous studies on the mitochondrial tRNA pool have demonstrated the existence of tRNA (Arg) ICG in this organelle. In moss the mitochondrial encoded distinct tRNA (Arg) ACG isoacceptor possesses the I34 modification. The implication is that for mitochondrial protein biosynthesis A-to-I editing is necessary and occurs by a mitochondrion-specific deaminase after import of the unmodified nuclear encoded tRNA (Arg) ACG.

  3. A to I editing in disease is not fake news.

    PubMed

    Bajad, Prajakta; Jantsch, Michael F; Keegan, Liam; O'Connell, Mary

    2017-03-27

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are zinc-containing enzymes that deaminate adenosine bases to inosines within dsRNA regions in transcripts. In short, structured dsRNA hairpins individual adenosine bases may be targeted specifically and edited with up to one hundred percent efficiency, leading to the production of alternative protein variants. However, the majority of editing events occur within longer stretches of dsRNA formed by pairing of repetitive sequences. Here, many different adenosine bases are potential targets but editing efficiency is usually much lower. Recent work shows that ADAR-mediated RNA editing is also required to prevent aberrant activation of antiviral innate immune sensors that detect viral dsRNA in the cytoplasm. Missense mutations in the ADAR1 RNA editing enzyme cause a fatal auto-inflammatory disease, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) in affected children. In addition RNA editing by ADARs has been observed to increase in many cancers and also can contribute to vascular disease. Thus the role of RNA editing in the progression of various diseases can no longer be ignored. The ability of ADARs to alter the sequence of RNAs has also been used to artificially target model RNAs in vitro and in cells for RNA editing. Potentially this approach may be used to repair genetic defects and to alter genetic information at the RNA level. In this review we focus on the role of ADARs in disease development and progression and on their potential use to artificially modify RNAs in a targeted manner.

  4. A-to-I editing of coding and non-coding RNAs by ADARs

    PubMed Central

    Nishikura, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA. This A-to-I editing occurs not only in protein-coding regions of mRNAs, but also frequently in non-coding regions that contain inverted Alu repeats. Editing of coding sequences can result in the expression of functionally altered proteins that are not encoded in the genome, whereas the significance of Alu editing remains largely unknown. Certain microRNA (miRNA) precursors are also edited, leading to reduced expression or altered function of mature miRNAs. Conversely, recent studies indicate that ADAR1 forms a complex with Dicer to promote miRNA processing, revealing a new function of ADAR1 in the regulation of RNA interference. PMID:26648264

  5. The Landscape of A-to-I RNA Editome Is Shaped by Both Positive and Purifying Selection

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yimeng; Pan, Bohu; Chen, Longxian; Wang, Hongbing; Hao, Pei; Li, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    The hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine (A-to-I editing) in precursor mRNA induces variable gene products at the post-transcription level. How and to what extent A-to-I RNA editing diversifies transcriptome is not fully characterized in the evolution, and very little is known about the selective constraints that drive the evolution of RNA editing events. Here we present a study on A-to-I RNA editing, by generating a global profile of A-to-I editing for a phylogeny of seven Drosophila species, a model system spanning an evolutionary timeframe of approximately 45 million years. Of totally 9281 editing events identified, 5150 (55.5%) are located in the coding sequences (CDS) of 2734 genes. Phylogenetic analysis places these genes into 1,526 homologous families, about 5% of total gene families in the fly lineages. Based on conservation of the editing sites, the editing events in CDS are categorized into three distinct types, representing events on singleton genes (type I), and events not conserved (type II) or conserved (type III) within multi-gene families. While both type I and II events are subject to purifying selection, notably type III events are positively selected, and highly enriched in the components and functions of the nervous system. The tissue profiles are documented for three editing types, and their critical roles are further implicated by their shifting patterns during holometabolous development and in post-mating response. In conclusion, three A-to-I RNA editing types are found to have distinct evolutionary dynamics. It appears that nervous system functions are mainly tested to determine if an A-to-I editing is beneficial for an organism. The coding plasticity enabled by A-to-I editing creates a new class of binary variations, which is a superior alternative to maintain heterozygosity of expressed genes in a diploid mating system. PMID:27467689

  6. Genetic Architectures of Quantitative Variation in RNA Editing Pathways.

    PubMed

    Gu, Tongjun; Gatti, Daniel M; Srivastava, Anuj; Snyder, Elizabeth M; Raghupathy, Narayanan; Simecek, Petr; Svenson, Karen L; Dotu, Ivan; Chuang, Jeffrey H; Keller, Mark P; Attie, Alan D; Braun, Robert E; Churchill, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    RNA editing refers to post-transcriptional processes that alter the base sequence of RNA. Recently, hundreds of new RNA editing targets have been reported. However, the mechanisms that determine the specificity and degree of editing are not well understood. We examined quantitative variation of site-specific editing in a genetically diverse multiparent population, Diversity Outbred mice, and mapped polymorphic loci that alter editing ratios globally for C-to-U editing and at specific sites for A-to-I editing. An allelic series in the C-to-U editing enzyme Apobec1 influences the editing efficiency of Apob and 58 additional C-to-U editing targets. We identified 49 A-to-I editing sites with polymorphisms in the edited transcript that alter editing efficiency. In contrast to the shared genetic control of C-to-U editing, most of the variable A-to-I editing sites were determined by local nucleotide polymorphisms in proximity to the editing site in the RNA secondary structure. Our results indicate that RNA editing is a quantitative trait subject to genetic variation and that evolutionary constraints have given rise to distinct genetic architectures in the two canonical types of RNA editing. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. Genetic Architectures of Quantitative Variation in RNA Editing Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Tongjun; Gatti, Daniel M.; Srivastava, Anuj; Snyder, Elizabeth M.; Raghupathy, Narayanan; Simecek, Petr; Svenson, Karen L.; Dotu, Ivan; Chuang, Jeffrey H.; Keller, Mark P.; Attie, Alan D.; Braun, Robert E.; Churchill, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing refers to post-transcriptional processes that alter the base sequence of RNA. Recently, hundreds of new RNA editing targets have been reported. However, the mechanisms that determine the specificity and degree of editing are not well understood. We examined quantitative variation of site-specific editing in a genetically diverse multiparent population, Diversity Outbred mice, and mapped polymorphic loci that alter editing ratios globally for C-to-U editing and at specific sites for A-to-I editing. An allelic series in the C-to-U editing enzyme Apobec1 influences the editing efficiency of Apob and 58 additional C-to-U editing targets. We identified 49 A-to-I editing sites with polymorphisms in the edited transcript that alter editing efficiency. In contrast to the shared genetic control of C-to-U editing, most of the variable A-to-I editing sites were determined by local nucleotide polymorphisms in proximity to the editing site in the RNA secondary structure. Our results indicate that RNA editing is a quantitative trait subject to genetic variation and that evolutionary constraints have given rise to distinct genetic architectures in the two canonical types of RNA editing. PMID:26614740

  8. NASCENT-SEQ INDICATES WIDESPREAD COTRANSCRIPTIONAL RNA EDITING IN DROSOPHILA

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Joseph; Menet, Jerome S.; Rosbash, Michael

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The RNA editing enzyme ADAR chemically modifies adenosine (A) to inosine (I), which is interpreted by the ribosome as a guanosine. Here we assess cotranscriptional A-to-I editing in Drosophila, by isolating nascent RNA from adult fly heads and subjecting samples to high throughput sequencing. There are a large number of edited sites within nascent exons. Nascent RNA from an ADAR null mutant strain was also sequenced, indicating that almost all A-to-I events require ADAR. Moreover, mRNA editing levels correlate with editing levels within the cognate nascent RNA sequence, indicating that the extent of editing is set cotranscriptionally. Surprisingly, the nascent data also identify an excess of intronic over exonic editing sites. These intronic sites occur preferentially within introns that are poorly spliced cotranscriptionally, suggesting a link between editing and splicing. We conclude that ADAR-mediated editing is more widespread than previously indicated and largely occurs cotranscriptionally. PMID:22658416

  9. Comparative RNA editing in autistic and neurotypical cerebella.

    PubMed

    Eran, A; Li, J B; Vatalaro, K; McCarthy, J; Rahimov, F; Collins, C; Markianos, K; Margulies, D M; Brown, E N; Calvo, S E; Kohane, I S; Kunkel, L M

    2013-09-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a neurodevelopmentally regulated epigenetic modification shown to modulate complex behavior in animals. Little is known about human A-to-I editing, but it is thought to constitute one of many molecular mechanisms connecting environmental stimuli and behavioral outputs. Thus, comprehensive exploration of A-to-I RNA editing in human brains may shed light on gene-environment interactions underlying complex behavior in health and disease. Synaptic function is a main target of A-to-I editing, which can selectively recode key amino acids in synaptic genes, directly altering synaptic strength and duration in response to environmental signals. Here, we performed a high-resolution survey of synaptic A-to-I RNA editing in a human population, and examined how it varies in autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder in which synaptic abnormalities are a common finding. Using ultra-deep (>1000 × ) sequencing, we quantified the levels of A-to-I editing of 10 synaptic genes in postmortem cerebella from 14 neurotypical and 11 autistic individuals. A high dynamic range of editing levels was detected across individuals and editing sites, from 99.6% to below detection limits. In most sites, the extreme ends of the population editing distributions were individuals with autism. Editing was correlated with isoform usage, clusters of correlated sites were identified, and differential editing patterns examined. Finally, a dysfunctional form of the editing enzyme adenosine deaminase acting on RNA B1 was found more commonly in postmortem cerebella from individuals with autism. These results provide a population-level, high-resolution view of A-to-I RNA editing in human cerebella and suggest that A-to-I editing of synaptic genes may be informative for assessing the epigenetic risk for autism.

  10. Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA, RNA Editing, and Interferon Action

    PubMed Central

    George, Cyril X.; Gan, Zhenji; Liu, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze adenosine (A) to inosine (I) editing of RNA that possesses double-stranded (ds) structure. A-to-I RNA editing results in nucleotide substitution, because I is recognized as G instead of A both by ribosomes and by RNA polymerases. A-to-I substitution can also cause dsRNA destabilization, as I:U mismatch base pairs are less stable than A:U base pairs. Three mammalian ADAR genes are known, of which two encode active deaminases (ADAR1 and ADAR2). Alternative promoters together with alternative splicing give rise to two protein size forms of ADAR1: an interferon-inducible ADAR1-p150 deaminase that binds dsRNA and Z-DNA, and a constitutively expressed ADAR1-p110 deaminase. ADAR2, like ADAR1-p110, is constitutively expressed and binds dsRNA. A-to-I editing occurs with both viral and cellular RNAs, and affects a broad range of biological processes. These include virus growth and persistence, apoptosis and embryogenesis, neurotransmitter receptor and ion channel function, pancreatic cell function, and post-transcriptional gene regulation by microRNAs. Biochemical processes that provide a framework for understanding the physiologic changes following ADAR-catalyzed A-to-I ( = G) editing events include mRNA translation by changing codons and hence the amino acid sequence of proteins; pre-mRNA splicing by altering splice site recognition sequences; RNA stability by changing sequences involved in nuclease recognition; genetic stability in the case of RNA virus genomes by changing sequences during viral RNA replication; and RNA-structure-dependent activities such as microRNA production or targeting or protein–RNA interactions. PMID:21182352

  11. Alternative Splicing of STAT3 Is Affected by RNA Editing.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lior; Abutbul-Amitai, Mor; Paret, Gideon; Nevo-Caspi, Yael

    2017-03-09

    A-to-I RNA editing, carried out by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, is an epigenetic phenomenon of posttranscriptional modifications on pre-mRNA. RNA editing in intronic sequences may influence alternative splicing of flanking exons. We have previously shown that conditions that induce editing result in elevated expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), preferentially the alternatively-spliced STAT3β isoform. Mechanisms regulating alternative splicing of STAT3 have not been elucidated. STAT3 undergoes A-to-I RNA editing in an intron residing in proximity to the alternatively spliced exon. We hypothesized that RNA editing plays a role in regulating alternative splicing toward STAT3β. In this study we extend our observation connecting RNA editing to the preferential induction of STAT3β expression. We study the involvement of ADAR1 in STAT3 editing and reveal the connection between editing and alternative splicing of STAT3. Deferoaxamine treatment caused the induction in STAT3 RNA editing and STAT3β expression. Silencing ADAR1 caused a decrease in STAT3 editing and expression with a preferential decrease in STAT3β. Cells transfected with a mutated minigene showed preferential splicing toward the STAT3β transcript. Editing in the STAT3 intron is performed by ADAR1 and affects STAT3 alternative splicing. These results suggest that RNA editing is one of the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of STAT3β.

  12. A strategy for developing a hammerhead ribozyme for selective RNA cleavage depending on substitutional RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Masatora; Kurihara, Kei; Tanaka, Yasuyoshi; Deshimaru, Masanobu

    2012-01-01

    Substitutional RNA editing plays a crucial role in the regulation of biological processes. Cleavage of target RNA that depends on the specific site of substitutional RNA editing is a useful tool for analyzing and regulating intracellular processes related to RNA editing. Hammerhead ribozymes have been utilized as small catalytic RNAs for cleaving target RNA at a specific site and may be used for RNA-editing-specific RNA cleavage. Here we reveal a design strategy for a hammerhead ribozyme that specifically recognizes adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) and cytosine to uracil (C-to-U) substitutional RNA-editing sites and cleaves target RNA. Because the hammerhead ribozyme cleaves one base upstream of the target-editing site, the base that pairs with the target-editing site was utilized for recognition. RNA-editing-specific ribozymes were designed such that the recognition base paired only with the edited base. These ribozymes showed A-to-I and C-to-U editing-specific cleavage activity against synthetic serotonin receptor 2C and apolipoprotein B mRNA fragments in vitro, respectively. Additionally, the ribozyme designed for recognizing A-to-I RNA editing at the Q/R site on filamin A (FLNA) showed editing-specific cleavage activity against physiologically edited FLNA mRNA extracted from cells. We demonstrated that our strategy is effective for cleaving target RNA in an editing-dependent manner. The data in this study provided an experimental basis for the RNA-editing-dependent degradation of specific target RNA in vivo. PMID:22798264

  13. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) transcript: A-to-I editing events in normal and cancerous human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Malka; Gilead, Leon; Markel, Gal; Nemlich, Yael; Feiler, Yulia; Enk, Claes David; Denichenko, Polina; Karni, Rotem; Ingber, Arieh

    2013-08-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common malignancies in caucasians worldwide. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) was suggested to function as a tumor suppressor gene in several cancers, and to play a role in the proliferation of keratinocytes. A-to-I RNA editing is a post-transcriptional mechanism frequently used to expand and diversify transcriptome and proteome repertoire in eukaryotic cells. A-to-I RNA editing can alter codons, substitute amino acids and affect protein sequence, structure, and function. Two editing sites were identified within the IGFBP7 transcript. To evaluate the expression and editing of IGFBP7 mRNA in NMSC compared to normal epidermis. We examined the expression and mRNA editing level of IGFBP7 in 22 basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 15 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 18 normal epidermis samples that were surgically removed from patients by the Mohs Micrographic Surgery procedure. We studied the effect of IGFBP7 editing on an immortalized HaCaT keratinocyte cell model. IGFBP7 mRNA is over expressed in BCC and SCC compared to normal epidermis. Moreover, the IGFBP7 transcript is highly edited in normal epidermis, but its editing is significantly reduced in BCC and SCC. The edited form of IGFBP7 can inhibit proliferation and induce senescence in cultured keratinocytes. This study describes for the first time A-to-I editing in the coding sequence of a tumor suppressor gene in humans, and suggests that IGFBP7 editing serves as a fine-tuning mechanism to maintain the equilibrium between proliferation and senescence in normal skin.

  14. Biological significance of RNA editing in cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Fei, Yongjun; Page, Michael

    2012-09-01

    RNA editing is one of the post-transcriptional RNA processes. RNA editing generates RNA and protein diversity in eukaryotes and results in specific amino acid substitutions, deletions, and changes in gene expression levels. Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing represents the most important class of editing in human and affects function of many genes. The importance of balancing RNA modification levels across time and space is becoming increasingly evident. In this review, we overview the biological significance of RNA editing including RNA editing in tumorigenesis, RNA editing in neuronal tissues, RNA editing as a regulator of gene expression, and RNA editing in dsRNA-mediated gene silencing, which may increase our understanding of RNA biology.

  15. REDIdb: the RNA editing database.

    PubMed

    Picardi, Ernesto; Regina, Teresa Maria Rosaria; Brennicke, Axel; Quagliariello, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The RNA Editing Database (REDIdb) is an interactive, web-based database created and designed with the aim to allocate RNA editing events such as substitutions, insertions and deletions occurring in a wide range of organisms. The database contains both fully and partially sequenced DNA molecules for which editing information is available either by experimental inspection (in vitro) or by computational detection (in silico). Each record of REDIdb is organized in a specific flat-file containing a description of the main characteristics of the entry, a feature table with the editing events and related details and a sequence zone with both the genomic sequence and the corresponding edited transcript. REDIdb is a relational database in which the browsing and identification of editing sites has been simplified by means of two facilities to either graphically display genomic or cDNA sequences or to show the corresponding alignment. In both cases, all editing sites are highlighted in colour and their relative positions are detailed by mousing over. New editing positions can be directly submitted to REDIdb after a user-specific registration to obtain authorized secure access. This first version of REDIdb database stores 9964 editing events and can be freely queried at http://biologia.unical.it/py_script/search.html.

  16. Adenosine-to-Inosine RNA Editing in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Gatsiou, Aikaterini; Vlachogiannis, Nikolaos; Lunella, Federica Francesca; Sachse, Marco; Stellos, Konstantinos

    2017-09-26

    Adenosine deamination in transcriptome results in the formation of inosine, a process that is called A-to-I RNA editing. Adenosine deamination is one of the more than 140 described RNA modifications. A-to-I RNA editing is catalyzed by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes and is essential for life. Recent Advances: Accumulating evidence supports a critical role of RNA editing in all aspects of RNA metabolism, including mRNA stability, splicing, nuclear export, and localization, as well as in recoding of proteins. These advances have significantly enhanced the understanding of mechanisms involved in development and in homeostasis. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that RNA editing may be critically involved in cancer, aging, neurological, autoimmune, or cardiovascular diseases. This review summarizes recent and significant achievements in the field of A-to-I RNA editing and discusses the importance and translational value of this RNA modification for gene expression, cellular, and organ function, as well as for disease development. Elucidation of the exact RNA editing-dependent mechanisms in a single-nucleotide level may pave the path toward the development of novel therapeutic strategies focusing on modulation of ADAR function in the disease context. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  17. Altered adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Paz, Nurit; Levanon, Erez Y; Amariglio, Ninette; Heimberger, Amy B; Ram, Zvi; Constantini, Shlomi; Barbash, Zohar S; Adamsky, Konstantin; Safran, Michal; Hirschberg, Avi; Krupsky, Meir; Ben-Dov, Issachar; Cazacu, Simona; Mikkelsen, Tom; Brodie, Chaya; Eisenberg, Eli; Rechavi, Gideon

    2007-11-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing was recently shown to be abundant in the human transcriptome, affecting thousands of genes. Employing a bioinformatic approach, we identified significant global hypoediting of Alu repetitive elements in brain, prostate, lung, kidney, and testis tumors. Experimental validation confirmed this finding, showing significantly reduced editing in Alu sequences within MED13 transcripts in brain tissues. Looking at editing of specific recoding and noncoding sites, including in cancer-related genes, a more complex picture emerged, with a gene-specific editing pattern in tumors vs. normal tissues. Additionally, we found reduced RNA levels of all three editing mediating enzymes, ADAR, ADARB1, and ADARB2, in brain tumors. The reduction of ADARB2 correlated with the grade of malignancy of glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive of brain tumors, displaying a 99% decrease in ADARB2 RNA levels. Consistently, overexpression of ADAR and ADARB1 in the U87 glioblastoma multiforme cell line resulted in decreased proliferation rate, suggesting that reduced A-to-I editing in brain tumors is involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Altered epigenetic control was recently shown to play a central role in oncogenesis. We suggest that A-to-I RNA editing may serve as an additional epigenetic mechanism relevant to cancer development and progression.

  18. RNA Editing, ADAR1, and the Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingde; Li, Xiaoni; Qi, Ruofan; Billiar, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    RNA editing, particularly A-to-I RNA editing, has been shown to play an essential role in mammalian embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including skin pigmentation disorder, autoimmune and inflammatory tissue injury, neuron degeneration, and various malignancies. A-to-I RNA editing is carried out by a small group of enzymes, the adenosine deaminase acting on RNAs (ADARs). Only three members of this protein family, ADAR1–3, exist in mammalian cells. ADAR3 is a catalytically null enzyme and the most significant function of ADAR2 was found to be in editing on the neuron receptor GluR-B mRNA. ADAR1, however, has been shown to play more significant roles in biological and pathological conditions. Although there remains much that is not known about how ADAR1 regulates cellular function, recent findings point to regulation of the innate immune response as an important function of ADAR1. Without appropriate RNA editing by ADAR1, endogenous RNA transcripts stimulate cytosolic RNA sensing receptors and therefore activate the IFN-inducing signaling pathways. Overactivation of innate immune pathways can lead to tissue injury and dysfunction. However, obvious gaps in our knowledge persist as to how ADAR1 regulates innate immune responses through RNA editing. Here, we review critical findings from ADAR1 mechanistic studies focusing on its regulatory function in innate immune responses and identify some of the important unanswered questions in the field. PMID:28106799

  19. Investigating RNA editing factors from trypanosome mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Aphasizheva, Inna; Zhang, Liye; Aphasizhev, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial U-insertion/deletion mRNA editing is carried out by two principal multiprotein assemblies, enzymatic RNA editing core (RECC) and RNA editing substrate binding (RESC) complexes, and a plethora of auxiliary factors. An integral part of mitochondrial gene expression, editing receives inputs from primary mRNA and gRNA precursor processing pathways, and generates substrates for mRNA polyadenylation and translation. Although nearly all RECC-embedded enzymes have been implicated in specific editing reactions, the majority of proteins that populate the RESC are also essential for generating edited mRNAs. However, lack of recognizable motifs in RESC subunits limits the prowess of bioinformatics in guiding biochemical experiments and elucidating their specific biological functions. In this chapter, we describe a generic workflow for investigating mitochondrial mRNA editing in Trypanosoma brucei and focus on several methods that proved instrumental is assigning definitive functions to editing factors lacking known signature sequences. PMID:27020893

  20. RNA Editing in Plant Mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesel, Rudolf; Wissinger, Bernd; Schuster, Wolfgang; Brennicke, Axel

    1989-12-01

    Comparative sequence analysis of genomic and complementary DNA clones from several mitochondrial genes in the higher plant Oenothera revealed nucleotide sequence divergences between the genomic and the messenger RNA-derived sequences. These sequence alterations could be most easily explained by specific post-transcriptional nucleotide modifications. Most of the nucleotide exchanges in coding regions lead to altered codons in the mRNA that specify amino acids better conserved in evolution than those encoded by the genomic DNA. Several instances show that the genomic arginine codon CGG is edited in the mRNA to the tryptophan codon TGG in amino acid positions that are highly conserved as tryptophan in the homologous proteins of other species. This editing suggests that the standard genetic code is used in plant mitochondria and resolves the frequent coincidence of CGG codons and tryptophan in different plant species. The apparently frequent and non-species-specific equivalency of CGG and TGG codons in particular suggests that RNA editing is a common feature of all higher plant mitochondria.

  1. RNA editing in plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hiesel, R; Wissinger, B; Schuster, W; Brennicke, A

    1989-12-22

    Comparative sequence analysis of genomic and complementary DNA clones from several mitochondrial genes in the higher plant Oenothera revealed nucleotide sequence divergences between the genomic and the messenger RNA-derived sequences. These sequence alterations could be most easily explained by specific post-transcriptional nucleotide modifications. Most of the nucleotide exchanges in coding regions lead to altered codons in the mRNA that specify amino acids better conserved in evolution than those encoded by the genomic DNA. Several instances show that the genomic arginine codon CGG is edited in the mRNA to the tryptophan codon TGG in amino acid positions that are highly conserved as tryptophan in the homologous proteins of other species. This editing suggests that the standard genetic code is used in plant mitochondria and resolves the frequent coincidence of CGG codons and tryptophan in different plant species. The apparently frequent and non-species-specific equivalency of CGG and TGG codons in particular suggests that RNA editing is a common feature of all higher plant mitochondria.

  2. RNA-editing enzymes ADAR1 and ADAR2 coordinately regulate the editing and expression of Ctn RNA.

    PubMed

    Anantharaman, Aparna; Gholamalamdari, Omid; Khan, Abid; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Jantsch, Michael F; Hartner, Jochen C; Gorospe, Myriam; Prasanth, Supriya G; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V

    2017-09-01

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are proteins that catalyse widespread A-to-I editing within RNA sequences. We recently reported that ADAR2 edits and stabilizes nuclear-retained Cat2 transcribed nuclear RNA (Ctn RNA). Here, we report that ADAR1 coordinates with ADAR2 to regulate editing and stability of Ctn RNA. We observe an RNA-dependent interaction between ADAR1 and ADAR2. Furthermore, ADAR1 negatively regulates interaction of Ctn RNA with RNA-destabilizing proteins. We also show that breast cancer (BC) cells display elevated ADAR1 but not ADAR2 levels, compared to nontumourigenic cells. Additionally, BC patients with elevated levels of ADAR1 show low survival. Our findings provide insights into overlapping substrate preferences of ADARs and potential involvement of ADAR1 in BC. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  3. Human coding RNA editing is generally nonadaptive

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guixia; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of RNA editing at a handful of coding sites causes severe disorders, prompting the view that coding RNA editing is highly advantageous. Recent genomic studies have expanded the list of human coding RNA editing sites by more than 100 times, raising the question of how common advantageous RNA editing is. Analyzing 1,783 human coding A-to-G editing sites, we show that both the frequency and level of RNA editing decrease as the importance of a site or gene increases; that during evolution, edited As are more likely than unedited As to be replaced with Gs but not with Ts or Cs; and that among nonsynonymously edited As, those that are evolutionarily least conserved exhibit the highest editing levels. These and other observations reveal the overall nonadaptive nature of coding RNA editing, despite the presence of a few sites in which editing is clearly beneficial. We propose that most observed coding RNA editing results from tolerable promiscuous targeting by RNA editing enzymes, the original physiological functions of which remain elusive. PMID:24567376

  4. A structural determinant required for RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Nan; Yang, Yun; Sachsenmaier, Nora; Muggenhumer, Dominik; Bi, Jingpei; Waldsich, Christina; Jantsch, Michael F.; Jin, Yongfeng

    2011-01-01

    RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNAs (ADARs) can be both specific and non-specific, depending on the substrate. Specific editing of particular adenosines may depend on the overall sequence and structural context. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying these preferences are not fully understood. Here, we show that duplex structures mimicking an editing site in the Gabra3 pre-mRNA unexpectedly fail to support RNA editing at the Gabra3 I/M site, although phylogenetic analysis suggest an evolutionarily conserved duplex structure essential for efficient RNA editing. These unusual results led us to revisit the structural requirement for this editing by mutagenesis analysis. In vivo nuclear injection experiments of mutated editing substrates demonstrate that a non-conserved structure is a determinant for editing. This structure contains bulges either on the same or the strand opposing the edited adenosine. The position of these bulges and the distance to the edited base regulate editing. Moreover, elevated folding temperature can lead to a switch in RNA editing suggesting an RNA structural change. Our results indicate the importance of RNA tertiary structure in determining RNA editing. PMID:21427087

  5. Profiling RNA editing in human tissues: towards the inosinome Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Picardi, Ernesto; Manzari, Caterina; Mastropasqua, Francesca; Aiello, Italia; D’Erchia, Anna Maria; Pesole, Graziano

    2015-01-01

    Adenine to Inosine RNA editing is a widespread co- and post-transcriptional mechanism mediated by ADAR enzymes acting on double stranded RNA. It has a plethora of biological effects, appears to be particularly pervasive in humans with respect to other mammals, and is implicated in a number of diverse human pathologies. Here we present the first human inosinome atlas comprising 3,041,422 A-to-I events identified in six tissues from three healthy individuals. Matched directional total-RNA-Seq and whole genome sequence datasets were generated and analysed within a dedicated computational framework, also capable of detecting hyper-edited reads. Inosinome profiles are tissue specific and edited gene sets consistently show enrichment of genes involved in neurological disorders and cancer. Overall frequency of editing also varies, but is strongly correlated with ADAR expression levels. The inosinome database is available at: http://srv00.ibbe.cnr.it/editing/. PMID:26449202

  6. The evolution of chloroplast RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Tillich, Michael; Lehwark, Pascal; Morton, Brian R; Maier, Uwe G

    2006-10-01

    RNA editing alters the nucleotide sequence of an RNA molecule so that it deviates from the sequence of its DNA template. Different RNA-editing systems are found in the major eukaryotic lineages, and these systems are thought to have evolved independently. In this study, we provide a detailed analysis of data on C-to-U editing sites in land plant chloroplasts and propose a model for the evolution of RNA editing in land plants. First, our data suggest that the limited RNA-editing system of seed plants and the much more extensive systems found in hornworts and ferns are of monophyletic origin. Further, although some eukaryotic editing systems appear to have evolved to regulate gene expression, or at least are now involved in gene regulation, there is no evidence that RNA editing plays a role in gene regulation in land plant chloroplasts. Instead, our results suggest that land plant chloroplast C-to-U RNA editing originated as a mechanism to generate variation at the RNA level, which could complement variation at the DNA level. Under this model, many of the original sites, particularly in seed plants, have been subsequently lost due to mutation at the DNA level, and the function of extant sites is merely to conserve certain codons. This is the first comprehensive model for the evolution of the chloroplast RNA-editing system of land plants and may also be applicable to the evolution of RNA editing in plant mitochondria.

  7. RNA editing in RHOQ promotes invasion potential in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Sae-Won; Kim, Hwang-Phill; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Jeong, Eun-Goo; Lee, Won-Chul; Kim, Keon Young; Park, Sang Youn; Lee, Dae-Won; Won, Jae-Kyung; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo; Park, Jae-Gahb; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Jong-Il; Kim, Tae-You

    2014-04-07

    RNA editing can increase RNA sequence variation without altering the DNA sequence. By comparing whole-genome and transcriptome sequence data of a rectal cancer, we found novel tumor-associated increase of RNA editing in ras homologue family member Q (RHOQ) transcripts. The adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing results in substitution of asparagine with serine at residue 136. We observed a higher level of the RHOQ RNA editing in tumor compared with normal tissue in colorectal cancer (CRC). The degree of RNA editing was associated with RhoQ protein activity in CRC cancer cell lines. RhoQ N136S amino acid substitution increased RhoQ activity, actin cytoskeletal reorganization, and invasion potential. KRAS mutation further increased the invasion potential of RhoQ N136S in vitro. Among CRC patients, recurrence was more frequently observed in patients with tumors having edited RHOQ transcripts and mutations in the KRAS gene. In summary, we show that RNA editing is another mechanism of sequence alteration that contributes to CRC progression.

  8. RNA editing during sexual development occurs in distantly related filamentous ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Ines; Dahlmann, Tim; Kück, Ulrich; Nowrousian, Minou

    2017-03-09

    RNA editing is a posttranscriptional process that modifies RNA molecules leading to transcript sequences that differ from their template DNA. A-to-I editing was found to be widely distributed in nuclear transcripts of metazoa, but was detected in fungi only recently in a study of the filamentous ascomycete Fusarium graminearum that revealed extensive A-to-I editing of mRNAs in sexual structures (fruiting bodies). Here, we searched for putative RNA editing events in RNA-seq data from Sordaria macrospora and Pyronema confluens, two distantly related filamentous ascomycetes, and in data from the Taphrinomycete Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Like F. graminearum, S. macrospora is a member of the Sordariomycetes, whereas P. confluens belongs to the early-diverging group of Pezizomycetes. We found extensive A-to-I editing in RNA-seq data from sexual mycelium from both filamentous ascomycetes, but not in vegetative structures. A-to-I editing was not detected in different stages of meiosis of S. pombe. A comparison of A-to-I editing in S. macrospora with F. graminearum and P. confluens, respectively, revealed little conservation of individual editing sites. An analysis of RNA-seq data from two sterile developmental mutants of S. macrospora showed that A-to-I editing is strongly reduced in these strains. Sequencing of cDNA fragments containing more than one editing site from P. confluens showed that at the beginning of sexual development, transcripts were incompletely edited or unedited, whereas in later stages transcripts were more extensively edited. Taken together, these data suggest that A-to-I RNA editing is an evolutionary conserved feature during fruiting body development in filamentous ascomycetes.

  9. RNA Editing During Sexual Development Occurs in Distantly Related Filamentous Ascomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Teichert, Ines; Dahlmann, Tim A.; Kück, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that modifies RNA molecules leading to transcript sequences that differ from their template DNA. A-to-I editing was found to be widely distributed in nuclear transcripts of metazoa, but was detected in fungi only recently in a study of the filamentous ascomycete Fusarium graminearum that revealed extensive A-to-I editing of mRNAs in sexual structures (fruiting bodies). Here, we searched for putative RNA editing events in RNA-seq data from Sordaria macrospora and Pyronema confluens, two distantly related filamentous ascomycetes, and in data from the Taphrinomycete Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Like F. graminearum, S. macrospora is a member of the Sordariomycetes, whereas P. confluens belongs to the early-diverging group of Pezizomycetes. We found extensive A-to-I editing in RNA-seq data from sexual mycelium from both filamentous ascomycetes, but not in vegetative structures. A-to-I editing was not detected in different stages of meiosis of S. pombe. A comparison of A-to-I editing in S. macrospora with F. graminearum and P. confluens, respectively, revealed little conservation of individual editing sites. An analysis of RNA-seq data from two sterile developmental mutants of S. macrospora showed that A-to-I editing is strongly reduced in these strains. Sequencing of cDNA fragments containing more than one editing site from P. confluens showed that at the beginning of sexual development, transcripts were incompletely edited or unedited, whereas in later stages transcripts were more extensively edited. Taken together, these data suggest that A-to-I RNA editing is an evolutionary conserved feature during fruiting body development in filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:28338982

  10. Single cell transcriptomics reveals specific RNA editing signatures in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Picardi, Ernesto; Horner, David Stephen; Pesole, Graziano

    2017-03-03

    While RNA editing by A-to-I deamination is a requisite for neuronal function in humans, it is under investigated in single cells. Here we fill this gap by analysing RNA editing profiles of single cells from the brain cortex of living human subjects. We show that RNA editing levels per cell are bimodally distributed and distinguish between major brain cell types thus providing new insights into neuronal dynamics.

  11. RNA editing and drug discovery for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Hsuan; Tseng, Chao-Neng; Tang, Jen-Yang; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Liang, Shih-Shin; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2013-01-01

    RNA editing is vital to provide the RNA and protein complexity to regulate the gene expression. Correct RNA editing maintains the cell function and organism development. Imbalance of the RNA editing machinery may lead to diseases and cancers. Recently, RNA editing has been recognized as a target for drug discovery although few studies targeting RNA editing for disease and cancer therapy were reported in the field of natural products. Therefore, RNA editing may be a potential target for therapeutic natural products. In this review, we provide a literature overview of the biological functions of RNA editing on gene expression, diseases, cancers, and drugs. The bioinformatics resources of RNA editing were also summarized.

  12. Comparison of Insertional RNA Editing in Myxomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cai; Frankhouser, David; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing describes the process in which individual or short stretches of nucleotides in a messenger or structural RNA are inserted, deleted, or substituted. A high level of RNA editing has been observed in the mitochondrial genome of Physarum polycephalum. The most frequent editing type in Physarum is the insertion of individual Cs. RNA editing is extremely accurate in Physarum; however, little is known about its mechanism. Here, we demonstrate how analyzing two organisms from the Myxomycetes, namely Physarum polycephalum and Didymium iridis, allows us to test hypotheses about the editing mechanism that can not be tested from a single organism alone. First, we show that using the recently determined full transcriptome information of Physarum dramatically improves the accuracy of computational editing site prediction in Didymium. We use this approach to predict genes in the mitochondrial genome of Didymium and identify six new edited genes as well as one new gene that appears unedited. Next we investigate sequence conservation in the vicinity of editing sites between the two organisms in order to identify sites that harbor the information for the location of editing sites based on increased conservation. Our results imply that the information contained within only nine or ten nucleotides on either side of the editing site (a distance previously suggested through experiments) is not enough to locate the editing sites. Finally, we show that the codon position bias in C insertional RNA editing of these two organisms is correlated with the selection pressure on the respective genes thereby directly testing an evolutionary theory on the origin of this codon bias. Beyond revealing interesting properties of insertional RNA editing in Myxomycetes, our work suggests possible approaches to be used when finding sequence motifs for any biological process fails. PMID:22383871

  13. Comparison of insertional RNA editing in Myxomycetes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cai; Frankhouser, David; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing describes the process in which individual or short stretches of nucleotides in a messenger or structural RNA are inserted, deleted, or substituted. A high level of RNA editing has been observed in the mitochondrial genome of Physarum polycephalum. The most frequent editing type in Physarum is the insertion of individual Cs. RNA editing is extremely accurate in Physarum; however, little is known about its mechanism. Here, we demonstrate how analyzing two organisms from the Myxomycetes, namely Physarum polycephalum and Didymium iridis, allows us to test hypotheses about the editing mechanism that can not be tested from a single organism alone. First, we show that using the recently determined full transcriptome information of Physarum dramatically improves the accuracy of computational editing site prediction in Didymium. We use this approach to predict genes in the mitochondrial genome of Didymium and identify six new edited genes as well as one new gene that appears unedited. Next we investigate sequence conservation in the vicinity of editing sites between the two organisms in order to identify sites that harbor the information for the location of editing sites based on increased conservation. Our results imply that the information contained within only nine or ten nucleotides on either side of the editing site (a distance previously suggested through experiments) is not enough to locate the editing sites. Finally, we show that the codon position bias in C insertional RNA editing of these two organisms is correlated with the selection pressure on the respective genes thereby directly testing an evolutionary theory on the origin of this codon bias. Beyond revealing interesting properties of insertional RNA editing in Myxomycetes, our work suggests possible approaches to be used when finding sequence motifs for any biological process fails.

  14. RNA editing in human cancer: review.

    PubMed

    Skarda, Jozef; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon

    2009-08-01

    In eukaryotes mRNA transcripts are extensively processed by different post-transcriptional events such as alternative splicing and RNA editing in order to generate many different mRNAs from the same gene, increasing the transcriptome and then the proteome diversity. The most frequent RNA editing mechanism in mammals involves the conversion of specific adenosines into inosines by the ADAR family of enzymes. This editing event can alter the sequence and the secondary structure of RNA molecules, with consequences for final proteins and regulatory RNAs. Alteration in RNA editing has been connected to tumor progression and many other important human diseases. Analysis of many editing sites in various cancer types is expected to provide new diagnostic and prognostic markers and might contribute to early detection of cancer, the monitoring of response to therapy, and to the detection of minimal residual disease.

  15. Statistical Physics Approaches to RNA Editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundschuh, Ralf

    2012-02-01

    The central dogma of molecular Biology states that DNA is transcribed base by base into RNA which is in turn translated into proteins. However, some organisms edit their RNA before translation by inserting, deleting, or substituting individual or short stretches of bases. In many instances the mechanisms by which an organism recognizes the positions at which to edit or by which it performs the actual editing are unknown. One model system that stands out by its very high rate of on average one out of 25 bases being edited are the Myxomycetes, a class of slime molds. In this talk we will show how the computational methods and concepts from statistical Physics can be used to analyze DNA and protein sequence data to predict editing sites in these slime molds and to guide experiments that identified previously unknown types of editing as well as the complete set of editing events in the slime mold Physarum polycephalum.

  16. RNA editing of the Drosophila para Na(+) channel transcript. Evolutionary conservation and developmental regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, C J; Palladino, M J; Ganetzky, B; Reenan, R A

    2000-01-01

    Post-transcriptional editing of pre-mRNAs through the action of dsRNA adenosine deaminases results in the modification of particular adenosine (A) residues to inosine (I), which can alter the coding potential of the modified transcripts. We describe here three sites in the para transcript, which encodes the major voltage-activated Na(+) channel polypeptide in Drosophila, where RNA editing occurs. The occurrence of RNA editing at the three sites was found to be developmentally regulated. Editing at two of these sites was also conserved across species between the D. melanogaster and D. virilis. In each case, a highly conserved region was found in the intron downstream of the editing site and this region was shown to be complementary to the region of the exonic editing site. Thus, editing at these sites would appear to involve a mechanism whereby the edited exon forms a base-paired secondary structure with the distant conserved noncoding sequences located in adjacent downstream introns, similar to the mechanism shown for A-to-I RNA editing of mammalian glutamate receptor subunits (GluRs). For the third site, neither RNA editing nor the predicted RNA secondary structures were evolutionarily conserved. Transcripts from transgenic Drosophila expressing a minimal editing site construct for this site were shown to faithfully undergo RNA editing. These results demonstrate that Na(+) channel diversity in Drosophila is increased by RNA editing via a mechanism analogous to that described for transcripts encoding mammalian GluRs. PMID:10880477

  17. Changing genetic information through RNA editing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, S.; Rich, A.

    2000-01-01

    RNA editing, the post-transcriptional alteration of a gene-encoded sequence, is a widespread phenomenon in eukaryotes. As a consequence of RNA editing, functionally distinct proteins can be produced from a single gene. The molecular mechanisms involved include single or multiple base insertions or deletions as well as base substitutions. In mammals, one type of substitutional RNA editing, characterized by site-specific base-modification, was shown to modulate important physiological processes. The underlying reaction mechanism of substitutional RNA editing involves hydrolytic deamination of cytosine or adenosine bases to uracil or inosine, respectively. Protein factors have been characterized that are able to induce RNA editing in vitro. A supergene family of RNA-dependent deaminases has emerged with the recent addition of adenosine deaminases specific for tRNA. Here we review the developments that have substantially increased our understanding of base-modification RNA editing over the past few years, with an emphasis on mechanistic differences, evolutionary aspects and the first insights into the regulation of editing activity.

  18. Changing genetic information through RNA editing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, S.; Rich, A.

    2000-01-01

    RNA editing, the post-transcriptional alteration of a gene-encoded sequence, is a widespread phenomenon in eukaryotes. As a consequence of RNA editing, functionally distinct proteins can be produced from a single gene. The molecular mechanisms involved include single or multiple base insertions or deletions as well as base substitutions. In mammals, one type of substitutional RNA editing, characterized by site-specific base-modification, was shown to modulate important physiological processes. The underlying reaction mechanism of substitutional RNA editing involves hydrolytic deamination of cytosine or adenosine bases to uracil or inosine, respectively. Protein factors have been characterized that are able to induce RNA editing in vitro. A supergene family of RNA-dependent deaminases has emerged with the recent addition of adenosine deaminases specific for tRNA. Here we review the developments that have substantially increased our understanding of base-modification RNA editing over the past few years, with an emphasis on mechanistic differences, evolutionary aspects and the first insights into the regulation of editing activity.

  19. RNA editing in bacteria recodes multiple proteins and regulates an evolutionarily conserved toxin-antitoxin system.

    PubMed

    Bar-Yaacov, Dan; Mordret, Ernest; Towers, Ruth; Biniashvili, Tammy; Soyris, Clara; Schwartz, Schraga; Dahan, Orna; Pilpel, Yitzhak

    2017-10-01

    Adenosine (A) to inosine (I) RNA editing is widespread in eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, however, A-to-I RNA editing was only reported to occur in tRNAs but not in protein-coding genes. By comparing DNA and RNA sequences of Escherichia coli, we show for the first time that A-to-I editing occurs also in prokaryotic mRNAs and has the potential to affect the translated proteins and cell physiology. We found 15 novel A-to-I editing events, of which 12 occurred within known protein-coding genes where they always recode a tyrosine (TAC) into a cysteine (TGC) codon. Furthermore, we identified the tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase (tadA) as the editing enzyme of all these editing sites, thus making it the first identified RNA editing enzyme that modifies both tRNAs and mRNAs. Interestingly, several of the editing targets are self-killing toxins that belong to evolutionarily conserved toxin-antitoxin pairs. We focused on hokB, a toxin that confers antibiotic tolerance by growth inhibition, as it demonstrated the highest level of such mRNA editing. We identified a correlated mutation pattern between the edited and a DNA hard-coded Cys residue positions in the toxin and demonstrated that RNA editing occurs in hokB in two additional bacterial species. Thus, not only the toxin is evolutionarily conserved but also the editing itself within the toxin is. Finally, we found that RNA editing in hokB increases as a function of cell density and enhances its toxicity. Our work thus demonstrates the occurrence, regulation, and functional consequences of RNA editing in bacteria. © 2017 Bar-Yaacov et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. Are substitution rates and RNA editing correlated?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that, in seed plants, involves a cytosine to uracil change in messenger RNA, causing the translated protein to differ from that predicted by the DNA sequence. RNA editing occurs extensively in plant mitochondria, but large differences in editing frequencies are found in some groups. The underlying processes responsible for the distribution of edited sites are largely unknown, but gene function, substitution rate, and gene conversion have been proposed to influence editing frequencies. Results We studied five mitochondrial genes in the monocot order Alismatales, all showing marked differences in editing frequencies among taxa. A general tendency to lose edited sites was observed in all taxa, but this tendency was particularly strong in two clades, with most of the edited sites lost in parallel in two different areas of the phylogeny. This pattern is observed in at least four of the five genes analyzed. Except in the groups that show an unusually low editing frequency, the rate of C-to-T changes in edited sites was not significantly higher that in non-edited 3rd codon positions. This may indicate that selection is not actively removing edited sites in nine of the 12 families of the core Alismatales. In all genes but ccmB, a significant correlation was found between frequency of change in edited sites and synonymous substitution rate. In general, taxa with higher substitution rates tend to have fewer edited sites, as indicated by the phylogenetically independent correlation analyses. The elimination of edited sites in groups that lack or have reduced levels of editing could be a result of gene conversion involving a cDNA copy (retroprocessing). If so, this phenomenon could be relatively common in the Alismatales, and may have affected some groups recurrently. Indirect evidence of retroprocessing without a necessary correlation with substitution rate was found mostly in families Alismataceae and Hydrocharitaceae

  1. Altered RNA editing in 3′ UTR perturbs microRNA-mediated regulation of oncogenes and tumor-suppressors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liye; Yang, Chih-Sheng; Varelas, Xaralabos; Monti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing is a molecular event that alters specific nucleotides in RNA post-transcriptionally. RNA editing has the potential to impact a variety of cellular processes and is implicated in diseases such as cancer. Yet, the precise mechanisms by which RNA editing controls cellular processes are poorly understood. Here, we characterize sequences altered by RNA editing in patient samples from lymphoma, neuroblastoma and head and neck cancers. We show that A-to-I RNA editing sites are highly conserved across samples of the same tissue type and that most editing sites identified in tumors are also detectable in normal tissues. Next, we identify the significant changes in editing levels of known sites between tumor and paired “normal” tissues across 14 cancer types (627 pairs) from The Cancer Genome Atlas project and show that the complexity of RNA editing regulation cannot be captured by the activity of ADAR family genes alone. Our pan-cancer analysis confirms previous results on individual tumor types and suggests that changes of RNA editing levels in coding and 3′UTR regions could be a general mechanism to promote tumor growth. We also propose a model explaining how altered RNA editing levels affect microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of oncogenes and tumor-suppressors. PMID:26980570

  2. Altered RNA editing in 3' UTR perturbs microRNA-mediated regulation of oncogenes and tumor-suppressors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liye; Yang, Chih-Sheng; Varelas, Xaralabos; Monti, Stefano

    2016-03-16

    RNA editing is a molecular event that alters specific nucleotides in RNA post-transcriptionally. RNA editing has the potential to impact a variety of cellular processes and is implicated in diseases such as cancer. Yet, the precise mechanisms by which RNA editing controls cellular processes are poorly understood. Here, we characterize sequences altered by RNA editing in patient samples from lymphoma, neuroblastoma and head and neck cancers. We show that A-to-I RNA editing sites are highly conserved across samples of the same tissue type and that most editing sites identified in tumors are also detectable in normal tissues. Next, we identify the significant changes in editing levels of known sites between tumor and paired "normal" tissues across 14 cancer types (627 pairs) from The Cancer Genome Atlas project and show that the complexity of RNA editing regulation cannot be captured by the activity of ADAR family genes alone. Our pan-cancer analysis confirms previous results on individual tumor types and suggests that changes of RNA editing levels in coding and 3'UTR regions could be a general mechanism to promote tumor growth. We also propose a model explaining how altered RNA editing levels affect microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of oncogenes and tumor-suppressors.

  3. Novel modes of RNA editing in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Sandrine; Valach, Matus; Aoulad-Aissa, Mohamed; Otto, Christian; Burger, Gertraud

    2016-01-01

    Gene structure and expression in diplonemid mitochondria are unparalleled. Genes are fragmented in pieces (modules) that are separately transcribed, followed by the joining of module transcripts to contiguous RNAs. Some instances of unique uridine insertion RNA editing at module boundaries were noted, but the extent and potential occurrence of other editing types remained unknown. Comparative analysis of deep transcriptome and genome data from Diplonema papillatum mitochondria reveals ∼220 post-transcriptional insertions of uridines, but no insertions of other nucleotides nor deletions. In addition, we detect in total 114 substitutions of cytosine by uridine and adenosine by inosine, amassed into unusually compact clusters. Inosines in transcripts were confirmed experimentally. This is the first report of adenosine-to-inosine editing of mRNAs and ribosomal RNAs in mitochondria. In mRNAs, editing causes mostly amino-acid additions and non-synonymous substitutions; in ribosomal RNAs, it permits formation of canonical secondary structures. Two extensively edited transcripts were compared across four diplonemids. The pattern of uridine-insertion editing is strictly conserved, whereas substitution editing has diverged dramatically, but still rendering diplonemid proteins more similar to other eukaryotic orthologs. We posit that RNA editing not only compensates but also sustains, or even accelerates, ultra-rapid evolution of genome structure and sequence in diplonemid mitochondria. PMID:27001515

  4. Novel modes of RNA editing in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Sandrine; Valach, Matus; Aoulad-Aissa, Mohamed; Otto, Christian; Burger, Gertraud

    2016-06-02

    Gene structure and expression in diplonemid mitochondria are unparalleled. Genes are fragmented in pieces (modules) that are separately transcribed, followed by the joining of module transcripts to contiguous RNAs. Some instances of unique uridine insertion RNA editing at module boundaries were noted, but the extent and potential occurrence of other editing types remained unknown. Comparative analysis of deep transcriptome and genome data from Diplonema papillatum mitochondria reveals ∼220 post-transcriptional insertions of uridines, but no insertions of other nucleotides nor deletions. In addition, we detect in total 114 substitutions of cytosine by uridine and adenosine by inosine, amassed into unusually compact clusters. Inosines in transcripts were confirmed experimentally. This is the first report of adenosine-to-inosine editing of mRNAs and ribosomal RNAs in mitochondria. In mRNAs, editing causes mostly amino-acid additions and non-synonymous substitutions; in ribosomal RNAs, it permits formation of canonical secondary structures. Two extensively edited transcripts were compared across four diplonemids. The pattern of uridine-insertion editing is strictly conserved, whereas substitution editing has diverged dramatically, but still rendering diplonemid proteins more similar to other eukaryotic orthologs. We posit that RNA editing not only compensates but also sustains, or even accelerates, ultra-rapid evolution of genome structure and sequence in diplonemid mitochondria. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing meets cancer.

    PubMed

    Dominissini, Dan; Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Sharon; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon

    2011-11-01

    The role of epigenetics in tumor onset and progression has been extensively addressed. Discoveries in the last decade completely changed our view on RNA. We now realize that its diversity lies at the base of biological complexity. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing emerges a central generator of transcriptome diversity and regulation in higher eukaryotes. It is the posttranscriptional deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA catalyzed by enzymes of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family. Thought at first to be restricted to coding regions of only a few genes, recent bioinformatic analyses fueled by high-throughput sequencing revealed that it is a widespread modification affecting mostly non-coding repetitive elements in thousands of genes. The rise in scope is accompanied by discovery of a growing repertoire of functions based on differential decoding of inosine by the various cellular machineries: when recognized as guanosine, it can lead to protein recoding, alternative splicing or altered microRNA specificity; when recognized by inosine-binding proteins, it can result in nuclear retention of the transcript or its degradation. An imbalance in expression of ADAR enzymes with consequent editing dysregulation is a characteristic of human cancers. These alterations may be responsible for activating proto-oncogenes or inactivating tumor suppressors. While unlikely to be an early initiating 'hit', editing dysregulation seems to contribute to tumor progression and thus should be considered a 'driver mutation'. In this review, we examine the contribution of A-to-I RNA editing to carcinogenesis.

  6. Protein recoding by ADAR1-mediated RNA editing is not essential for normal development and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Heraud-Farlow, Jacki E; Chalk, Alistair M; Linder, Sandra E; Li, Qin; Taylor, Scott; White, Joshua M; Pang, Lokman; Liddicoat, Brian J; Gupte, Ankita; Li, Jin Billy; Walkley, Carl R

    2017-09-05

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing of dsRNA by ADAR proteins is a pervasive epitranscriptome feature. Tens of thousands of A-to-I editing events are defined in the mouse, yet the functional impact of most is unknown. Editing causing protein recoding is the essential function of ADAR2, but an essential role for recoding by ADAR1 has not been demonstrated. ADAR1 has been proposed to have editing-dependent and editing-independent functions. The relative contribution of these in vivo has not been clearly defined. A critical function of ADAR1 is editing of endogenous RNA to prevent activation of the dsRNA sensor MDA5 (Ifih1). Outside of this, how ADAR1 editing contributes to normal development and homeostasis is uncertain. We describe the consequences of ADAR1 editing deficiency on murine homeostasis. Adar1 (E861A/E861A) Ifih1 (-/-) mice are strikingly normal, including their lifespan. There is a mild, non-pathogenic innate immune activation signature in the Adar1 (E861A/E861A) Ifih1 (-/-) mice. Assessing A-to-I editing across adult tissues demonstrates that outside of the brain, ADAR1 performs the majority of editing and that ADAR2 cannot compensate in its absence. Direct comparison of the Adar1 (-/-) and Adar1 (E861A/E861A) alleles demonstrates a high degree of concordance on both Ifih1 (+/+) and Ifih1 (-/-) backgrounds, suggesting no substantial contribution from ADAR1 editing-independent functions. These analyses demonstrate that the lifetime absence of ADAR1-editing is well tolerated in the absence of MDA5. We conclude that protein recoding arising from ADAR1-mediated editing is not essential for organismal homeostasis. Additionally, the phenotypes associated with loss of ADAR1 are the result of RNA editing and MDA5-dependent functions.

  7. RNA editing of non-coding RNA and its role in gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Chammiran; Lagergren, Jens; Öhman, Marie

    2015-10-01

    It has for a long time been known that repetitive elements, particularly Alu sequences in human, are edited by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA, ADAR, family. The functional interpretation of these events has been even more difficult than that of editing events in coding sequences, but today there is an emerging understanding of their downstream effects. A surprisingly large fraction of the human transcriptome contains inverted Alu repeats, often forming long double stranded structures in RNA transcripts, typically occurring in introns and UTRs of protein coding genes. Alu repeats are also common in other primates, and similar inverted repeats can frequently be found in non-primates, although the latter are less prone to duplex formation. In human, as many as 700,000 Alu elements have been identified as substrates for RNA editing, of which many are edited at several sites. In fact, recent advancements in transcriptome sequencing techniques and bioinformatics have revealed that the human editome comprises at least a hundred million adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) editing sites in Alu sequences. Although substantial additional efforts are required in order to map the editome, already present knowledge provides an excellent starting point for studying cis-regulation of editing. In this review, we will focus on editing of long stem loop structures in the human transcriptome and how it can effect gene expression.

  8. Splicing variants of ADAR2 and ADAR2-mediated RNA editing in glioma.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; Zhao, Xingli; Li, Zhaohui; Wei, Jun; Tian, Yu

    2016-08-01

    The roles of alternative splicing and RNA editing in gene regulation and transcriptome diversity are well documented. Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are responsible for adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing and exemplify the complex association between RNA editing and alternative splicing. The self-editing activity of ADAR2, which acts on its own pre-mRNA, leads to its alternative splicing. Alternative splicing occurs independently at nine splicing sites on ADAR2 pre-mRNA, generating numerous alternative splicing variants with various catalytic activities. A-to-I RNA editing is important in a range of physiological processes in humans and is associated with several diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, mood disorders, epilepsy and glioma. Reduced editing at the glutamine/arginine site of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 in glioma, without any alteration in ADAR2 expression, is a notable phenomenon. Several studies have tried to explain this alteration in the catalytic activity of ADAR2; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present review summarizes the relevant literature and shares experimental results concerning ADAR2 alternative splicing. In particular, the present review demonstrates that shifts in the relative abundance of the active and inactive splicing variants of ADAR2 may reduce the ADAR2 editing activity in glioma. Dominant expression of ADAR2 splicing variant with low enzyme activity causes reduced RNA editing of GluA2 subunit at the glutamine/arginine site in glioma.

  9. ADAR RNA editing below the backbone.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Liam; Khan, Anzer; Vukic, Dragana; O'Connell, Mary

    2017-09-01

    ADAR RNA editing enzymes (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA) that convert adenosine bases to inosines were first identified biochemically 30 years ago. Since then, studies on ADARs in genetic model organisms, and evolutionary comparisons between them, continue to reveal a surprising range of pleiotropic biological effects of ADARs. This review focuses on Drosophila melanogaster, which has a single Adar gene encoding a homolog of vertebrate ADAR2 that site-specifically edits hundreds of transcripts to change individual codons in ion channel subunits and membrane and cytoskeletal proteins. Drosophila ADAR is involved in the control of neuronal excitability and neurodegeneration and, intriguingly, in the control of neuronal plasticity and sleep. Drosophila ADAR also interacts strongly with RNA interference, a key antiviral defense mechanism in invertebrates. Recent crystal structures of human ADAR2 deaminase domain-RNA complexes help to interpret available information on Drosophila ADAR isoforms and on the evolution of ADARs from tRNA deaminase ADAT proteins. ADAR RNA editing is a paradigm for the now rapidly expanding range of RNA modifications in mRNAs and ncRNAs. Even with recent progress, much remains to be understood about these groundbreaking ADAR RNA modification systems. © 2017 Keegan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  10. RNA Editing and Its Molecular Mechanism in Plant Organelles.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Mizuho; Sugita, Mamoru

    2016-12-23

    RNA editing by cytidine (C) to uridine (U) conversions is widespread in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. In some plant taxa, "reverse" U-to-C editing also occurs. However, to date, no instance of RNA editing has yet been reported in green algae and the complex thalloid liverworts. RNA editing may have evolved in early land plants 450 million years ago. However, in some plant species, including the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, editing may have been lost during evolution. Most RNA editing events can restore the evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues in mRNAs or create translation start and stop codons. Therefore, RNA editing is an essential process to maintain genetic information at the RNA level. Individual RNA editing sites are recognized by plant-specific pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins that are encoded in the nuclear genome. These PPR proteins are characterized by repeat elements that bind specifically to RNA sequences upstream of target editing sites. In flowering plants, non-PPR proteins also participate in multiple RNA editing events as auxiliary factors. C-to-U editing can be explained by cytidine deamination. The proteins discovered to date are important factors for RNA editing but a bona fide RNA editing enzyme has yet to be identified.

  11. RNA Editing and Its Molecular Mechanism in Plant Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Ichinose, Mizuho; Sugita, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing by cytidine (C) to uridine (U) conversions is widespread in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. In some plant taxa, “reverse” U-to-C editing also occurs. However, to date, no instance of RNA editing has yet been reported in green algae and the complex thalloid liverworts. RNA editing may have evolved in early land plants 450 million years ago. However, in some plant species, including the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, editing may have been lost during evolution. Most RNA editing events can restore the evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues in mRNAs or create translation start and stop codons. Therefore, RNA editing is an essential process to maintain genetic information at the RNA level. Individual RNA editing sites are recognized by plant-specific pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins that are encoded in the nuclear genome. These PPR proteins are characterized by repeat elements that bind specifically to RNA sequences upstream of target editing sites. In flowering plants, non-PPR proteins also participate in multiple RNA editing events as auxiliary factors. C-to-U editing can be explained by cytidine deamination. The proteins discovered to date are important factors for RNA editing but a bona fide RNA editing enzyme has yet to be identified. PMID:28025543

  12. Elevated RNA Editing Activity Is a Major Contributor to Transcriptomic Diversity in Tumors.

    PubMed

    Paz-Yaacov, Nurit; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Porath, Hagit T; Danan-Gotthold, Miri; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Eisenberg, Eli; Levanon, Erez Y

    2015-10-13

    Genomic mutations in key genes are known to drive tumorigenesis and have been the focus of much attention in recent years. However, genetic content also may change farther downstream. RNA editing alters the mRNA sequence from its genomic blueprint in a dynamic and flexible way. A few isolated cases of editing alterations in cancer have been reported previously. Here, we provide a transcriptome-wide characterization of RNA editing across hundreds of cancer samples from multiple cancer tissues, and we show that A-to-I editing and the enzymes mediating this modification are significantly altered, usually elevated, in most cancer types. Increased editing activity is found to be associated with patient survival. As is the case with somatic mutations in DNA, most of these newly introduced RNA mutations are likely passengers, but a few may serve as drivers that may be novel candidates for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.

  13. Evidence for large diversity in the human transcriptome created by Alu RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Barak, Michal; Levanon, Erez Y; Eisenberg, Eli; Paz, Nurit; Rechavi, Gideon; Church, George M; Mehr, Ramit

    2009-11-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing alters the original genomic content of the human transcriptome and is essential for maintenance of normal life in mammals. A-to-I editing in Alu repeats is abundant in the human genome, with many thousands of expressed Alu sequences undergoing editing. Little is known so far about the contribution of Alu editing to transcriptome complexity. Transcripts derived from a single edited Alu sequence can be edited in multiple sites, and thus could theoretically generate a large number of different transcripts. Here we explored whether the combinatorial potential nature of edited Alu sequences is actually fulfilled in the human transcriptome. We analyzed datasets of editing sites and performed an analysis of a detailed transcript set of one edited Alu sequence. We found that editing appears at many more sites than detected by earlier genomic screens. To a large extent, editing of different sites within the same transcript is only weakly correlated. Thus, rather than finding a few versions of each transcript, a large number of edited variants arise, resulting in immense transcript diversity that eclipses alternative splicing as mechanism of transcriptome diversity, although with less impact on the proteome.

  14. Functions of the RNA Editing Enzyme ADAR1 and Their Relevance to Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chunzi; Sakurai, Masayuki; Shiromoto, Yusuke; Nishikura, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Among the three types of mammalian ADARs, ADAR1 has long been recognized as an essential enzyme for normal development. The interferon-inducible ADAR1p150 is involved in immune responses to both exogenous and endogenous triggers, whereas the functions of the constitutively expressed ADAR1p110 are variable. Recent findings that ADAR1 is involved in the recognition of self versus non-self dsRNA provide potential explanations for its links to hematopoiesis, type I interferonopathies, and viral infections. Editing in both coding and noncoding sequences results in diseases ranging from cancers to neurological abnormalities. Furthermore, editing of noncoding sequences, like microRNAs, can regulate protein expression, while editing of Alu sequences can affect translational efficiency and editing of proximal sequences. Novel identifications of long noncoding RNA and retrotransposons as editing targets further expand the effects of A-to-I editing. Besides editing, ADAR1 also interacts with other dsRNA-binding proteins in editing-independent manners. Elucidating the disease-specific patterns of editing and/or ADAR1 expression may be useful in making diagnoses and prognoses. In this review, we relate the mechanisms of ADAR1′s actions to its pathological implications, and suggest possible mechanisms for the unexplained associations between ADAR1 and human diseases. PMID:27999332

  15. RNA editing generates cellular subsets with diverse sequence within populations

    PubMed Central

    Harjanto, Dewi; Papamarkou, Theodore; Oates, Chris J.; Rayon-Estrada, Violeta; Papavasiliou, F. Nina; Papavasiliou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing is a mutational mechanism that specifically alters the nucleotide content in transcribed RNA. However, editing rates vary widely, and could result from equivalent editing amongst individual cells, or represent an average of variable editing within a population. Here we present a hierarchical Bayesian model that quantifies the variance of editing rates at specific sites using RNA-seq data from both single cells, and a cognate bulk sample to distinguish between these two possibilities. The model predicts high variance for specific edited sites in murine macrophages and dendritic cells, findings that we validated experimentally by using targeted amplification of specific editable transcripts from single cells. The model also predicts changes in variance in editing rates for specific sites in dendritic cells during the course of LPS stimulation. Our data demonstrate substantial variance in editing signatures amongst single cells, supporting the notion that RNA editing generates diversity within cellular populations. PMID:27418407

  16. Native mitochondrial RNA-binding complexes in kinetoplastid RNA editing differ in guide RNA composition.

    PubMed

    Madina, Bhaskara R; Kumar, Vikas; Metz, Richard; Mooers, Blaine H M; Bundschuh, Ralf; Cruz-Reyes, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial mRNAs in kinetoplastids require extensive U-insertion/deletion editing that progresses 3'-to-5' in small blocks, each directed by a guide RNA (gRNA), and exhibits substrate and developmental stage-specificity by unsolved mechanisms. Here, we address compositionally related factors, collectively known as the mitochondrial RNA-binding complex 1 (MRB1) or gRNA-binding complex (GRBC), that contain gRNA, have a dynamic protein composition, and transiently associate with several mitochondrial factors including RNA editing core complexes (RECC) and ribosomes. MRB1 controls editing by still unknown mechanisms. We performed the first next-generation sequencing study of native subcomplexes of MRB1, immunoselected via either RNA helicase 2 (REH2), that binds RNA and associates with unwinding activity, or MRB3010, that affects an early editing step. The particles contain either REH2 or MRB3010 but share the core GAP1 and other proteins detected by RNA photo-crosslinking. Analyses of the first editing blocks indicate an enrichment of several initiating gRNAs in the MRB3010-purified complex. Our data also indicate fast evolution of mRNA 3' ends and strain-specific alternative 3' editing within 3' UTR or C-terminal protein-coding sequence that could impact mitochondrial physiology. Moreover, we found robust specific copurification of edited and pre-edited mRNAs, suggesting that these particles may bind both mRNA and gRNA editing substrates. We propose that multiple subcomplexes of MRB1 with different RNA/protein composition serve as a scaffold for specific assembly of editing substrates and RECC, thereby forming the editing holoenzyme. The MRB3010-subcomplex may promote early editing through its preferential recruitment of initiating gRNAs. © 2014 Madina et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  17. Native mitochondrial RNA-binding complexes in kinetoplastid RNA editing differ in guide RNA composition

    PubMed Central

    Madina, Bhaskara R.; Kumar, Vikas; Metz, Richard; Mooers, Blaine H.M.; Bundschuh, Ralf; Cruz-Reyes, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial mRNAs in kinetoplastids require extensive U-insertion/deletion editing that progresses 3′-to-5′ in small blocks, each directed by a guide RNA (gRNA), and exhibits substrate and developmental stage-specificity by unsolved mechanisms. Here, we address compositionally related factors, collectively known as the mitochondrial RNA-binding complex 1 (MRB1) or gRNA-binding complex (GRBC), that contain gRNA, have a dynamic protein composition, and transiently associate with several mitochondrial factors including RNA editing core complexes (RECC) and ribosomes. MRB1 controls editing by still unknown mechanisms. We performed the first next-generation sequencing study of native subcomplexes of MRB1, immunoselected via either RNA helicase 2 (REH2), that binds RNA and associates with unwinding activity, or MRB3010, that affects an early editing step. The particles contain either REH2 or MRB3010 but share the core GAP1 and other proteins detected by RNA photo-crosslinking. Analyses of the first editing blocks indicate an enrichment of several initiating gRNAs in the MRB3010-purified complex. Our data also indicate fast evolution of mRNA 3′ ends and strain-specific alternative 3′ editing within 3′ UTR or C-terminal protein-coding sequence that could impact mitochondrial physiology. Moreover, we found robust specific copurification of edited and pre-edited mRNAs, suggesting that these particles may bind both mRNA and gRNA editing substrates. We propose that multiple subcomplexes of MRB1 with different RNA/protein composition serve as a scaffold for specific assembly of editing substrates and RECC, thereby forming the editing holoenzyme. The MRB3010-subcomplex may promote early editing through its preferential recruitment of initiating gRNAs. PMID:24865612

  18. Mediated Plastid RNA Editing in Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    García-Andrade, Javier; Ramírez, Vicente; López, Ana; Vera, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Plant regulatory circuits coordinating nuclear and plastid gene expression have evolved in response to external stimuli. RNA editing is one of such control mechanisms. We determined the Arabidopsis nuclear-encoded homeodomain-containing protein OCP3 is incorporated into the chloroplast, and contributes to control over the extent of ndhB transcript editing. ndhB encodes the B subunit of the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH) involved in cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I. In ocp3 mutant strains, ndhB editing efficiency decays, CEF is impaired and disease resistance to fungal pathogens substantially enhanced, a process recapitulated in plants defective in editing plastid RNAs encoding NDH complex subunits due to mutations in previously described nuclear-encoded pentatricopeptide-related proteins (i.e. CRR21, CRR2). Furthermore, we observed that following a pathogenic challenge, wild type plants respond with editing inhibition of ndhB transcript. In parallel, rapid destabilization of the plastidial NDH complex is also observed in the plant following perception of a pathogenic cue. Therefore, NDH complex activity and plant immunity appear as interlinked processes. PMID:24204264

  19. The absence of A-to-I editing in the anticodon of plant cytoplasmic tRNAArgACG demands a relaxation of the wobble decoding rules

    PubMed Central

    Aldinger, Carolin A.; Leisinger, Anne-Katrin; Gaston, Kirk W.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Igloi, Gabor L.

    2012-01-01

    It is a prevalent concept that, in line with the Wobble Hypothesis, those tRNAs having an adenosine in the first position of the anticodon become modified to an inosine at this position. Sequencing the cDNA derived from the gene coding for cytoplasmic tRNAArgACG from several higher plants as well as mass spectrometric analysis of the isoacceptor has revealed that for this kingdom an unmodified A in the wobble position of the anticodon is the rule rather than the exception. In vitro translation shows that in the plant system the absence of inosine in the wobble position of tRNAArg does not prevent decoding. This isoacceptor belongs to the class of tRNA that is imported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria of higher plants. Previous studies on the mitochondrial tRNA pool have demonstrated the existence of tRNAArgICG in this organelle. In moss the mitochondrial encoded distinct tRNAArgACG isoacceptor possesses the I34 modification. The implication is that for mitochondrial protein biosynthesis A-to-I editing is necessary and occurs by a mitochondrion-specific deaminase after import of the unmodified nuclear encoded tRNAArgACG. PMID:22922796

  20. Characterizing of functional human coding RNA editing from evolutionary, structural, and dynamic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Oz; Bazak, Lily; Levanon, Erez Y; Amariglio, Ninette; Unger, Ron; Rechavi, Gideon; Eyal, Eran

    2014-11-01

    A-to-I RNA editing has been recently shown to be a widespread phenomenon with millions of sites spread in the human transcriptome. However, only few are known to be located in coding sequences and modify the amino acid sequence of the protein product. Here, we used high-throughput data, variant prediction tools, and protein structural information in order to find structural and functional preferences for coding RNA editing. We show that RNA editing has a unique pattern of amino acid changes characterized by enriched stop-to-tryptophan changes, positive-to-neutral and neutral-to-positive charge changes. RNA editing tends to have stronger structural effect than equivalent A-to-G SNPs but weaker effect than random A-to-G mutagenesis events. Sites edited at low level tend to be located at conserved positions with stronger predicted deleterious effect on proteins comparing to sites edited at high frequencies. Lowly edited sites tend to destabilize the protein structure and affect amino acids with larger number of intra-molecular contacts. Still, some highly edited sites are predicted also to prominently affect structure and tend to be located at critical positions of the protein matrix and are likely to be functionally important. Using our pipeline, we identify and discuss several novel putative functional coding changing editing sites in the genes COPA (I164V), GIPC1 (T62A), ZN358 (K382R), and CCNI (R75G).

  1. Hippocampus-specific deficiency in RNA editing of GluA2 in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gaisler-Salomon, Inna; Kravitz, Efrat; Feiler, Yulia; Safran, Michal; Biegon, Anat; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon

    2014-08-01

    Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a base recoding process within precursor messenger RNA, catalyzed by members of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family. A notable example occurs at the Q/R site of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid glutamate receptor subunit GluA2. Abnormally, low editing at this site leads to excessive calcium influx and cell death. We studied hippocampus and caudate samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched healthy controls, using direct sequencing and a high accuracy primer-extension technique to assess RNA editing at the Q/R GluA2 site. Both techniques revealed lower, more variable RNA editing in AD, specific to the hippocampus and the GluA2 site. Deficient editing also characterized the hippocampus of apolipoprotein ε4 allele carriers, regardless of clinical diagnosis. In AD, messenger RNA expression of neuronal markers was decreased in the hippocampus, and expression of the Q/R-site editing enzyme ADAR2 was decreased in caudate. These findings provide a link between neurodegenerative processes and deficient RNA editing of the GluA2 Q/R site, and may contribute to both diagnosis and treatment of AD.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of differential RNA editing in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Prashant Kumar; Bagnati, Marta; Delahaye-Duriez, Andree; Ko, Jeong-Hun; Rotival, Maxime; Langley, Sarah R; Shkura, Kirill; Mazzuferi, Manuela; Danis, Bénédicte; van Eyll, Jonathan; Foerch, Patrik; Behmoaras, Jacques; Kaminski, Rafal M; Petretto, Enrico; Johnson, Michael R

    2017-03-01

    The recoding of genetic information through RNA editing contributes to proteomic diversity, but the extent and significance of RNA editing in disease is poorly understood. In particular, few studies have investigated the relationship between RNA editing and disease at a genome-wide level. Here, we developed a framework for the genome-wide detection of RNA sites that are differentially edited in disease. Using RNA-sequencing data from 100 hippocampi from mice with epilepsy (pilocarpine-temporal lobe epilepsy model) and 100 healthy control hippocampi, we identified 256 RNA sites (overlapping with 87 genes) that were significantly differentially edited between epileptic cases and controls. The degree of differential RNA editing in epileptic mice correlated with frequency of seizures, and the set of genes differentially RNA-edited between case and control mice were enriched for functional terms highly relevant to epilepsy, including "neuron projection" and "seizures." Genes with differential RNA editing were preferentially enriched for genes with a genetic association to epilepsy. Indeed, we found that they are significantly enriched for genes that harbor nonsynonymous de novo mutations in patients with epileptic encephalopathy and for common susceptibility variants associated with generalized epilepsy. These analyses reveal a functional convergence between genes that are differentially RNA-edited in acquired symptomatic epilepsy and those that contribute risk for genetic epilepsy. Taken together, our results suggest a potential role for RNA editing in the epileptic hippocampus in the occurrence and severity of epileptic seizures.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of differential RNA editing in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Prashant Kumar; Bagnati, Marta; Delahaye-Duriez, Andree; Ko, Jeong-Hun; Rotival, Maxime; Langley, Sarah R.; Shkura, Kirill; Mazzuferi, Manuela; Danis, Bénédicte; van Eyll, Jonathan; Foerch, Patrik; Behmoaras, Jacques; Kaminski, Rafal M.; Petretto, Enrico; Johnson, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    The recoding of genetic information through RNA editing contributes to proteomic diversity, but the extent and significance of RNA editing in disease is poorly understood. In particular, few studies have investigated the relationship between RNA editing and disease at a genome-wide level. Here, we developed a framework for the genome-wide detection of RNA sites that are differentially edited in disease. Using RNA-sequencing data from 100 hippocampi from mice with epilepsy (pilocarpine–temporal lobe epilepsy model) and 100 healthy control hippocampi, we identified 256 RNA sites (overlapping with 87 genes) that were significantly differentially edited between epileptic cases and controls. The degree of differential RNA editing in epileptic mice correlated with frequency of seizures, and the set of genes differentially RNA-edited between case and control mice were enriched for functional terms highly relevant to epilepsy, including “neuron projection” and “seizures.” Genes with differential RNA editing were preferentially enriched for genes with a genetic association to epilepsy. Indeed, we found that they are significantly enriched for genes that harbor nonsynonymous de novo mutations in patients with epileptic encephalopathy and for common susceptibility variants associated with generalized epilepsy. These analyses reveal a functional convergence between genes that are differentially RNA-edited in acquired symptomatic epilepsy and those that contribute risk for genetic epilepsy. Taken together, our results suggest a potential role for RNA editing in the epileptic hippocampus in the occurrence and severity of epileptic seizures. PMID:28250018

  4. Genome-Wide Characterization of RNA Editing in Chicken Embryos Reveals Common Features among Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Frésard, Laure; Leroux, Sophie; Roux, Pierre-François; Klopp, Christophe; Fabre, Stéphane; Esquerré, Diane; Dehais, Patrice; Djari, Anis; Gourichon, David

    2015-01-01

    RNA editing results in a post-transcriptional nucleotide change in the RNA sequence that creates an alternative nucleotide not present in the DNA sequence. This leads to a diversification of transcription products with potential functional consequences. Two nucleotide substitutions are mainly described in animals, from adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) and from cytidine to uridine (C-to-U). This phenomenon is described in more details in mammals, notably since the availability of next generation sequencing technologies allowing whole genome screening of RNA-DNA differences. The number of studies recording RNA editing in other vertebrates like chicken is still limited. We chose to use high throughput sequencing technologies to search for RNA editing in chicken, and to extend the knowledge of its conservation among vertebrates. We performed sequencing of RNA and DNA from 8 embryos. Being aware of common pitfalls inherent to sequence analyses that lead to false positive discovery, we stringently filtered our datasets and found fewer than 40 reliable candidates. Conservation of particular sites of RNA editing was attested by the presence of 3 edited sites previously detected in mammals. We then characterized editing levels for selected candidates in several tissues and at different time points, from 4.5 days of embryonic development to adults, and observed a clear tissue-specificity and a gradual increase of editing level with time. By characterizing the RNA editing landscape in chicken, our results highlight the extent of evolutionary conservation of this phenomenon within vertebrates, attest to its tissue and stage specificity and provide support of the absence of non A-to-I events from the chicken transcriptome. PMID:26024316

  5. Genome-Wide Characterization of RNA Editing in Chicken Embryos Reveals Common Features among Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Frésard, Laure; Leroux, Sophie; Roux, Pierre-François; Klopp, Christophe; Fabre, Stéphane; Esquerré, Diane; Dehais, Patrice; Djari, Anis; Gourichon, David; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Pitel, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    RNA editing results in a post-transcriptional nucleotide change in the RNA sequence that creates an alternative nucleotide not present in the DNA sequence. This leads to a diversification of transcription products with potential functional consequences. Two nucleotide substitutions are mainly described in animals, from adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) and from cytidine to uridine (C-to-U). This phenomenon is described in more details in mammals, notably since the availability of next generation sequencing technologies allowing whole genome screening of RNA-DNA differences. The number of studies recording RNA editing in other vertebrates like chicken is still limited. We chose to use high throughput sequencing technologies to search for RNA editing in chicken, and to extend the knowledge of its conservation among vertebrates. We performed sequencing of RNA and DNA from 8 embryos. Being aware of common pitfalls inherent to sequence analyses that lead to false positive discovery, we stringently filtered our datasets and found fewer than 40 reliable candidates. Conservation of particular sites of RNA editing was attested by the presence of 3 edited sites previously detected in mammals. We then characterized editing levels for selected candidates in several tissues and at different time points, from 4.5 days of embryonic development to adults, and observed a clear tissue-specificity and a gradual increase of editing level with time. By characterizing the RNA editing landscape in chicken, our results highlight the extent of evolutionary conservation of this phenomenon within vertebrates, attest to its tissue and stage specificity and provide support of the absence of non A-to-I events from the chicken transcriptome.

  6. The impact of mRNA structure on guide RNA targeting in kinetoplastid RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Reifur, Larissa; Yu, Laura E; Cruz-Reyes, Jorge; Vanhartesvelt, Michelle; Koslowsky, Donna J

    2010-08-17

    Mitochondrial mRNA editing in Trypanosoma brucei requires the specific interaction of a guide RNA with its cognate mRNA. Hundreds of gRNAs are involved in the editing process, each needing to target their specific editing domain within the target message. We hypothesized that the structure surrounding the mRNA target may be a limiting factor and involved in the regulation process. In this study, we selected four mRNAs with distinct target structures and investigated how sequence and structure affected efficient gRNA targeting. Two of the mRNAs, including the ATPase subunit 6 and ND7-550 (5' end of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 7) that have open, accessible anchor binding sites show very efficient gRNA targeting. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicate that the cognate gRNA for ND7-550 had 10-fold higher affinity for its mRNA than the A6 pair. Surface plasmon resonance studies indicate that the difference in affinity was due to a four-fold faster association rate. As expected, mRNAs with considerable structure surrounding the anchor binding sites were less accessible and had very low affinity for their cognate gRNAs. In vitro editing assays indicate that efficient pairing is crucial for gRNA directed cleavage. However, only the A6 substrate showed gRNA-directed cleavage at the correct editing site. This suggests that different gRNA/mRNA pairs may require different "sets" of accessory factors for efficient editing. By characterizing a number of different gRNA/mRNA interactions, we may be able to define a "bank" of RNA editing substrates with different putative chaperone and other co-factor requirements. This will allow the more efficient identification and characterization of transcript specific RNA editing accessory proteins.

  7. Functions and Regulation of RNA Editing by ADAR Deaminases

    PubMed Central

    Nishikura, Kazuko

    2010-01-01

    One type of RNA editing converts adenosines to inosines (A→I editing) in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) substrates. A→I RNA editing is mediated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes. A→I RNA editing of protein-coding sequences of a limited number of mammalian genes results in recoding and subsequent alterations of their functions. However, A→I RNA editing most frequently targets repetitive RNA sequences located within introns and 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs). Although the biological significance of noncoding RNA editing remains largely unknown, several possibilities, including its role in the control of endogenous short interfering RNAs (esiRNAs), have been proposed. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that the biogenesis and functions of certain microRNAs (miRNAs) are regulated by the editing of their precursors. Here, I review the recent findings that indicate new functions for A→I editing in the regulation of noncoding RNAs and for interactions between RNA editing and RNA interference mechanisms. PMID:20192758

  8. RNA editing by ADAR2 is metabolically regulated in pancreatic islets and beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhenji; Zhao, Liyun; Yang, Liu; Huang, Ping; Zhao, Feng; Li, Wenjun; Liu, Yong

    2006-11-03

    RNA editing via the conversion of adenosine (A) to inosine (I) is catalyzed by two major families of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs), ADAR1 and ADAR2. This genetic recoding process is known to play essential roles in the brain, due in part to changes in functional activities of edited neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Little is known, however, about the physiological regulation and function of A to I RNA editing in peripheral tissues and other biological processes. Here, we report that both ADAR1 and ADAR2 are expressed in the murine pancreatic islets, and ADAR2 is primarily localized in the islet endocrine cells. In contrast to ADAR1, ADAR2 transcripts in the pancreatic islets exhibit a nearly 2-fold increase in insulin-resistant mice chronically fed a high fat diet. Concurrent with this diet-induced metabolic stress, RNA editing in the islets is dramatically enhanced for the RNA transcripts encoding the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit B. Moreover, ADAR2 protein expression is repressed in the islets under fuel deficiency condition during fasting, and this repression can be completely reversed by refeeding. We also show that, specifically in pancreatic beta-cell lines, not only the expression of ADAR2 but also the glutamate receptor subunit B editing and ADAR2 self-editing are markedly augmented in response to glucose at the physiological concentration for insulin secretion stimulation. Thus, RNA editing by ADAR2 in pancreatic islets and beta-cells is metabolically regulated by nutritional and energy status, suggesting that A to I RNA editing is most likely involved in the modulation of pancreatic islet and beta-cell function.

  9. The role of RNA editing in dynamic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, L. M.; Huang, C. F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a computational methodology based on Genetic Algorithms with Genotype Editing (GAE) for investigating the role of RNA editing in dynamic environments. This model is constructed based on several genetic editing characteristics that are gleaned from the RNA editing system as observed in several organisms. We have previously expanded the traditional Genetic Algorithm (GA) with artificial editing mechanisms (Rocha, 1995, 1997), and studied the benefits of including straightforward Genotype Editing in GA for several machine learning problems (Huang and Rocha, 2003, 2004). We show that the incorporation of genotype editing provides a means for artificial agents with genetic descriptions to gain greater phenotypic plasticity. Artificial agents use genotype edition to their advantage by linking it to environmental context. The ability to link changes in the environment with editing parameters gives organisms an adaptive advantage as genotype expression can become contextually regulated. The study of this RNA editing model in changing environments has shed some light into the evolutionary implications of RNA editing. We expect that our methodology will both facilitate determining the evolutionary role of RNA editing in biology, and advance the current state of research in Evolutionary Computation and Artificial Life.

  10. RNA editing in plants: Machinery and flexibility of site recognition.

    PubMed

    Shikanai, Toshiharu

    2015-09-01

    In plants, RNA editing is a process that deaminates specific cytidines (C) to uridines (U). PLS subfamily members of PPR proteins function in site recognition of the target C. In silico analysis has predicted the code used for PPR motif-nucleotide interaction, and the crystal structure of a protein-RNA complex supports this model. Despite progress in understanding the RNA-binding mechanism of PPR proteins, some of the flexibility of RNA recognition observed in trans-factors of RNA editing has not been fully explained. It is probably necessary to consider another unknown mechanism, and this consideration is related to the question of how PPR proteins have managed the creation of RNA editing sites during evolution. This question may be related to the mystery of the biological function of RNA editing in plants. MORF/RIP family members are required for RNA editing at multiple editing sites and are components of the RNA editosome in plants. The DYW domain has been a strong candidate for the C deaminase activity required for C-to-U conversion in RNA editing. So far, the activity of this enzyme has not been detected in recombinant DYW proteins, and several puzzling experimental results need to be explained to support the model. It is still difficult to resolve the entire image of the editosome in RNA editing in plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Systematic identification and characterization of RNA editing in prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Mo, Fan; Wyatt, Alexander W; Sun, Yue; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; McConeghy, Brian J; Wu, Chunxiao; Wang, Yuzhuo; Gleave, Martin E; Volik, Stanislav V; Collins, Colin C

    2014-01-01

    RNA editing modifies the sequence of primary transcripts, potentially resulting in profound effects to RNA structure and protein-coding sequence. Recent analyses of RNA sequence data are beginning to provide insights into the distribution of RNA editing across the entire transcriptome, but there are few published matched whole genome and transcriptome sequence datasets, and designing accurate bioinformatics methodology has proven highly challenging. To further characterize the RNA editome, we analyzed 16 paired DNA-RNA sequence libraries from prostate tumor specimens, employing a comprehensive strategy to rescue low coverage sites and minimize false positives. We identified over a hundred thousand putative RNA editing events, a third of which were recurrent in two or more samples, and systematically characterized their type and distribution across the genome. Within genes the majority of events affect non-coding regions such as introns and untranslated regions (UTRs), but 546 genes had RNA editing events predicted to result in deleterious amino acid alterations. Finally, we report a potential association between RNA editing of microRNA binding sites within 3' UTRs and increased transcript expression. These results provide a systematic characterization of the landscape of RNA editing in low coverage sequence data from prostate tumor specimens. We demonstrate further evidence for RNA editing as an important regulatory mechanism and suggest that the RNA editome should be further studied in cancer.

  12. RBP16 stimulates trypanosome RNA editing in vitro at an early step in the editing reaction

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa M.; Halbig, Kari; Cruz-Reyes, Jorge; Read, Laurie K.

    2006-01-01

    RBP16 is an abundant RNA binding protein from Trypanosoma brucei mitochondria that affects both RNA editing and stability. We report here experiments aimed at elucidating the mechanism of RBP16 function in RNA editing. In in vitro RNA editing assays, recombinant RBP16 is able to significantly stimulate insertion editing of both CYb and A6 pre-mRNAs. Enhancement of in vitro editing activity occurs at, or prior to, the step of pre-mRNA cleavage, as evidenced by increased accumulation of pre-mRNA 3′ cleavage products in the presence of RBP16. Mutated RBP16 that is severely compromised in cold shock domain (CSD)-mediated RNA binding was able to enhance editing to levels comparable to the wild-type protein in some assays at the highest RBP16 levels tested. However, at low RBP16 concentrations or in assays with native, oligo(U)-tail-bearing gRNAs, editing stimulation by mutant RBP16 was somewhat compromised. Together, these results indicate that both the N-terminal CSD and C-terminal RGG RNA binding domains of RBP16 are required for maximal editing stimulation. Finally, the relaxed specificity of RBP16 for stimulation of both CYb and A6 editing in vitro implicates additional specificity factors that account for the strict CYb specificity of RBP16 action in editing in vivo. Our results constitute the first report of any putative RNA editing accessory factor eliciting an effect on editing in vitro. Overall, these results support a novel accessory role for RBP16 in U insertion editing. PMID:16691000

  13. RBP16 stimulates trypanosome RNA editing in vitro at an early step in the editing reaction.

    PubMed

    Miller, Melissa M; Halbig, Kari; Cruz-Reyes, Jorge; Read, Laurie K

    2006-07-01

    RBP16 is an abundant RNA binding protein from Trypanosoma brucei mitochondria that affects both RNA editing and stability. We report here experiments aimed at elucidating the mechanism of RBP16 function in RNA editing. In in vitro RNA editing assays, recombinant RBP16 is able to significantly stimulate insertion editing of both CYb and A6 pre-mRNAs. Enhancement of in vitro editing activity occurs at, or prior to, the step of pre-mRNA cleavage, as evidenced by increased accumulation of pre-mRNA 3' cleavage products in the presence of RBP16. Mutated RBP16 that is severely compromised in cold shock domain (CSD)-mediated RNA binding was able to enhance editing to levels comparable to the wild-type protein in some assays at the highest RBP16 levels tested. However, at low RBP16 concentrations or in assays with native, oligo(U)-tail-bearing gRNAs, editing stimulation by mutant RBP16 was somewhat compromised. Together, these results indicate that both the N-terminal CSD and C-terminal RGG RNA binding domains of RBP16 are required for maximal editing stimulation. Finally, the relaxed specificity of RBP16 for stimulation of both CYb and A6 editing in vitro implicates additional specificity factors that account for the strict CYb specificity of RBP16 action in editing in vivo. Our results constitute the first report of any putative RNA editing accessory factor eliciting an effect on editing in vitro. Overall, these results support a novel accessory role for RBP16 in U insertion editing.

  14. Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing mediated by ADARs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yan-Ru; Qiao, Jun-Jing; Chan, Tim Hon Man; Zhu, Ying-Hui; Li, Fang-Fang; Liu, Haibo; Fei, Jing; Li, Yan; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Chen, Leilei

    2014-02-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the major histologic form of esophageal cancer, is a heterogeneous tumor displaying a complex variety of genetic and epigenetic changes. Aberrant RNA editing of adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I), as it is catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR), represents a common posttranscriptional modification in certain human diseases. In this study, we investigated the status and role of ADARs and altered A-to-I RNA editing in ESCC tumorigenesis. Among the three ADAR enzymes expressed in human cells, only ADAR1 was overexpressed in primary ESCC tumors. ADAR1 overexpression was due to gene amplification. Patients with ESCC with tumoral overexpression of ADAR1 displayed a poor prognosis. In vitro and in vivo functional assays established that ADAR1 functions as an oncogene during ESCC progression. Differential expression of ADAR1 resulted in altered gene-specific editing activities, as reflected by hyperediting of FLNB and AZIN1 messages in primary ESCC. Notably, the edited form of AZIN1 conferred a gain-of-function phenotype associated with aggressive tumor behavior. Our findings reveal that altered gene-specific A-to-I editing events mediated by ADAR1 drive the development of ESCC, with potential implications in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of this disease.

  15. Fmrp Interacts with Adar and Regulates RNA Editing, Synaptic Density and Locomotor Activity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Porath, Hagit T.; Barak, Michal; Pinto, Yishay; Wachtel, Chaim; Zilberberg, Alona; Lerer-Goldshtein, Tali; Efroni, Sol; Levanon, Erez Y.; Appelbaum, Lior

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequent inherited form of mental retardation. The cause for this X-linked disorder is the silencing of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene and the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (Fmrp). The RNA-binding protein Fmrp represses protein translation, particularly in synapses. In Drosophila, Fmrp interacts with the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (Adar) enzymes. Adar enzymes convert adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) and modify the sequence of RNA transcripts. Utilizing the fmr1 zebrafish mutant (fmr1-/-), we studied Fmrp-dependent neuronal circuit formation, behavior, and Adar-mediated RNA editing. By combining behavior analyses and live imaging of single axons and synapses, we showed hyperlocomotor activity, as well as increased axonal branching and synaptic density, in fmr1-/- larvae. We identified thousands of clustered RNA editing sites in the zebrafish transcriptome and showed that Fmrp biochemically interacts with the Adar2a protein. The expression levels of the adar genes and Adar2 protein increased in fmr1-/- zebrafish. Microfluidic-based multiplex PCR coupled with deep sequencing showed a mild increase in A-to-I RNA editing levels in evolutionarily conserved neuronal and synaptic Adar-targets in fmr1-/- larvae. These findings suggest that loss of Fmrp results in increased Adar-mediated RNA editing activity on target-specific RNAs, which, in turn, might alter neuronal circuit formation and behavior in FXS. PMID:26637167

  16. RNA editing of androgen receptor gene transcripts in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Harryl D; Jasavala, Rohini J; Hinkson, Izumi; Fitzgerald, Latricia D; Trimmer, James S; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Wright, Michael E

    2008-10-31

    Reactivation of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway represents a critical step in the growth and survival of androgen-independent (AI) prostate cancer (CaP). In this study we show the DU145 and PC3 AI human CaP cell lines respond to androgens and require AR expression for optimal proliferation in vitro. Interestingly, AR gene transcripts in DU145 and PC3 cells harbored a large number of single base pair nucleotide transitions that resulted in missense mutations in selected AR codons. The most notable lesion detected in AR gene transcripts included the oncogenic codon 877T-->A gain-of-function mutation. Surprisingly, AR gene transcript nucleotide transitions were not genome-encoded substitutions, but instead the mutations co-localized to putative A-to-I, U-to-C, C-to-U, and G-to-A RNA editing sites, suggesting the lesions were mediated through RNA editing mechanisms. Higher levels of mRNA encoding the A-to-I RNA editing enzymes ADAR1 and ADARB1 were observed in DU145 and PC3 cells relative to the androgen-responsive LNCaP and 22Rv1 human CaP cell lines, which correlated with higher levels of AR gene transcript A-to-I editing detected in DU145 and PC3 cells. Our results suggest that AR gene transcripts are targeted by different RNA editing enzymes in DU145 and PC3 cells. Thus RNA editing of AR gene transcripts may contribute to the etiology of hormone-refractory phenotypes in advanced stage AI CaP.

  17. The emerging role of RNA editing in plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT All true metazoans modify their RNAs by converting specific adenosine residues to inosine. Because inosine binds to cytosine, it is a biological mimic for guanosine. This subtle change, termed RNA editing, can have diverse effects on various RNA-mediated cellular pathways, including RNA interference, innate immunity, retrotransposon defense and messenger RNA recoding. Because RNA editing can be regulated, it is an ideal tool for increasing genetic diversity, adaptation and environmental acclimation. This review will cover the following themes related to RNA editing: (1) how it is used to modify different cellular RNAs, (2) how frequently it is used by different organisms to recode mRNA, (3) how specific recoding events regulate protein function, (4) how it is used in adaptation and (5) emerging evidence that it can be used for acclimation. Organismal biologists with an interest in adaptation and acclimation, but with little knowledge of RNA editing, are the intended audience. PMID:26085659

  18. Genome-wide identification of RNA editing in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lin; Liu, Xiaoqiao; Gong, Zhoulin; Zheng, Hancheng; Wang, Jun; Li, Yingrui; Yang, Huanming; Hardwick, James; Dai, Hongyue; Poon, Ronnie T P; Lee, Nikki P; Mao, Mao; Peng, Zhiyu; Chen, Ronghua

    2015-02-01

    We did whole-transcriptome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing on nine pairs of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors and matched adjacent tissues to identify RNA editing events. We identified mean 26,982 editing sites with mean 89.5% canonical A→G edits in each sample using an improved bioinformatics pipeline. The editing rate was significantly higher in tumors than adjacent normal tissues. Comparing the difference between tumor and normal tissues of each patient, we found 7 non-synonymous tissue specific editing events including 4 tumor-specific edits and 3 normal-specific edits in the coding region, as well as 292 edits varying in editing degree. The significant expression changes of 150 genes associated with RNA editing were found in tumors, with 3 of the 4 most significant genes being cancer related. Our results show that editing might be related to higher gene expression. These findings indicate that RNA editing modification may play an important role in the development of HCC.

  19. RNA Editing by Adenosine Deaminases That Act on RNA

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Brenda L.

    2007-01-01

    ADARs are RNA editing enzymes that target double-stranded regions of nuclear-encoded RNA and viral RNA. These enzymes are particularly abundant in the nervous system, where they diversify the information encoded in the genome, for example, by altering codons in mRNAs. The functions of ADARs in known substrates suggest that the enzymes serve to fine-tune and optimize many biological pathways, in ways that we are only starting to imagine. ADARs are also interesting in regard to the remarkable double-stranded structures of their substrates and how enzyme specificity is achieved with little regard to sequence. This review summarizes ongoing investigations of the enzyme family and their substrates, focusing on biological function as well as biochemical mechanism. PMID:12045112

  20. Putative impact of RNA editing on drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Decher, Niels; Netter, Michael F; Streit, Anne K

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all organisms use RNA editing as a powerful post-transcriptional mechanism to recode genomic information and to increase functional protein diversity. The enzymatic editing of pre-mRNA by ADARs and CDARs is known to change the functional properties of neuronal receptors and ion channels regulating cellular excitability. However, RNA editing is also an important mechanism for genes expressed outside the brain. The fact that RNA editing breaks the 'one gene encodes one protein' hypothesis is daunting for scientists and a probable drawback for drug development, as scientists might search for drugs targeting the 'wrong' protein. This possible difficulty for drug discovery and development became more evident from recent publications, describing that RNA editing events have profound impact on the pharmacology of some common drug targets. These recent studies highlight that RNA editing can cause massive discrepancies between the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology. Here, we review the putative impact of RNA editing on drug discovery, as RNA editing has to be considered before using high-throughput screens, rational drug design or choosing the right model organism for target validation.

  1. Nucleotide specificity of the RNA editing reaction in pea chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuki; Mulligan, R Michael

    2005-12-01

    A sensitive in vitro editing assay for the pea chloroplast petB editing site has been developed and utilized to study the mechanism of C-to-U editing in chloroplast extracts. The in vitro editing assay was characterized by several criteria including: linearity with extract amount; linearity over time; dependence on assay components; and specificity of editing site conversion. The increase in the extent C-to-U conversion of the petB editing site was nearly linear with the amount chloroplast protein extract added, although the reaction appeared to decline in rate after approximately 30 min. The assay was tested for the importance of various assay components, and the omission of protease inhibitor and ATP was shown to dramatically reduce the extent of the editing reaction. Sequence analysis of cDNA clones obtained after an in vitro editing reaction demonstrated that 12 of 17 (71%) clones were edited, and that no other nucleotide changes in these cDNAs were detected. Thus, the fidelity and specificity of the in vitro editing system appears to be excellent, and this system should be suitable to study both mechanism of the editing reaction and editing site selection. The in vitro editing reaction was strongly stimulated by the addition of ATP, and all four NTPs and dNTPs stimulated the editing reaction except for rGTP, which had no effect. Thus, the nucleotide specificity of the editing reaction is broad, and is similar in this respect to the mitochondrial editing system. Most enzyme or processes specifically utilize ATP or GTP for phosphorylation and the ability to substitute other NTPs and dNTPs is unusual. RNA helicases have a similar broad nucleotide specificity and this may reflect the involvement of an RNA helicase in plant organelle editing.

  2. Improved design of hammerhead ribozyme for selective digestion of target RNA through recognition of site-specific adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Masatora; Kurihara, Kei; Yamaguchi, Shota; Oyama, Yui; Deshimaru, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is an endogenous regulatory mechanism involved in various biological processes. Site-specific, editing-state–dependent degradation of target RNA may be a powerful tool both for analyzing the mechanism of RNA editing and for regulating biological processes. Previously, we designed an artificial hammerhead ribozyme (HHR) for selective, site-specific RNA cleavage dependent on the A-to-I RNA editing state. In the present work, we developed an improved strategy for constructing a trans-acting HHR that specifically cleaves target editing sites in the adenosine but not the inosine state. Specificity for unedited sites was achieved by utilizing a sequence encoding the intrinsic cleavage specificity of a natural HHR. We used in vitro selection methods in an HHR library to select for an extended HHR containing a tertiary stabilization motif that facilitates HHR folding into an active conformation. By using this method, we successfully constructed highly active HHRs with unedited-specific cleavage. Moreover, using HHR cleavage followed by direct sequencing, we demonstrated that this ribozyme could cleave serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C) mRNA extracted from mouse brain, depending on the site-specific editing state. This unedited-specific cleavage also enabled us to analyze the effect of editing state at the E and C sites on editing at other sites by using direct sequencing for the simultaneous quantification of the editing ratio at multiple sites. Our approach has the potential to elucidate the mechanism underlying the interdependencies of different editing states in substrate RNA with multiple editing sites. PMID:24448449

  3. Improved design of hammerhead ribozyme for selective digestion of target RNA through recognition of site-specific adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Masatora; Kurihara, Kei; Yamaguchi, Shota; Oyama, Yui; Deshimaru, Masanobu

    2014-03-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is an endogenous regulatory mechanism involved in various biological processes. Site-specific, editing-state-dependent degradation of target RNA may be a powerful tool both for analyzing the mechanism of RNA editing and for regulating biological processes. Previously, we designed an artificial hammerhead ribozyme (HHR) for selective, site-specific RNA cleavage dependent on the A-to-I RNA editing state. In the present work, we developed an improved strategy for constructing a trans-acting HHR that specifically cleaves target editing sites in the adenosine but not the inosine state. Specificity for unedited sites was achieved by utilizing a sequence encoding the intrinsic cleavage specificity of a natural HHR. We used in vitro selection methods in an HHR library to select for an extended HHR containing a tertiary stabilization motif that facilitates HHR folding into an active conformation. By using this method, we successfully constructed highly active HHRs with unedited-specific cleavage. Moreover, using HHR cleavage followed by direct sequencing, we demonstrated that this ribozyme could cleave serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C) mRNA extracted from mouse brain, depending on the site-specific editing state. This unedited-specific cleavage also enabled us to analyze the effect of editing state at the E and C sites on editing at other sites by using direct sequencing for the simultaneous quantification of the editing ratio at multiple sites. Our approach has the potential to elucidate the mechanism underlying the interdependencies of different editing states in substrate RNA with multiple editing sites.

  4. RNA editing regulates transposon-mediated heterochromatic gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Savva, Yiannis A; Jepson, James E C; Chang, Yao-Jen; Whitaker, Rachel; Jones, Brian C; St Laurent, Georges; Tackett, Michael R; Kapranov, Philipp; Jiang, Nan; Du, Guyu; Helfand, Stephen L; Reenan, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Heterochromatin formation drives epigenetic mechanisms associated with silenced gene expression. Repressive heterochromatin is established through the RNA interference pathway, triggered by double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that can be modified via RNA editing. However, the biological consequences of such modifications remain enigmatic. Here we show that RNA editing regulates heterochromatic gene silencing in Drosophila. We utilize the binding activity of an RNA-editing enzyme to visualize the in vivo production of a long dsRNA trigger mediated by Hoppel transposable elements. Using homologous recombination, we delete this trigger, dramatically altering heterochromatic gene silencing and chromatin architecture. Furthermore, we show that the trigger RNA is edited and that dADAR serves as a key regulator of chromatin state. Additionally, dADAR auto-editing generates a natural suppressor of gene silencing. Lastly, systemic differences in RNA editing activity generates interindividual variation in silencing state within a population. Our data reveal a global role for RNA editing in regulating gene expression.

  5. DNA and RNA editing of retrotransposons accelerate mammalian genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Levanon, Erez Y

    2015-04-01

    Genome evolution is commonly viewed as a gradual process that is driven by random mutations that accumulate over time. However, DNA- and RNA-editing enzymes have been identified that can accelerate evolution by actively modifying the genomically encoded information. The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzymes, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBECs) are potent restriction factors that can inhibit retroelements by cytosine-to-uridine editing of retroelement DNA after reverse transcription. In some cases, a retroelement may successfully integrate into the genome despite being hypermutated. Such events introduce unique sequences into the genome and are thus a source of genomic innovation. adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) catalyze adenosine-to-inosine editing in double-stranded RNA, commonly formed by oppositely oriented retroelements. The RNA editing confers plasticity to the transcriptome by generating many transcript variants from a single genomic locus. If the editing produces a beneficial variant, the genome may maintain the locus that produces the RNA-edited transcript for its novel function. Here, we discuss how these two powerful editing mechanisms, which both target inserted retroelements, facilitate expedited genome evolution.

  6. RNA Editing-Systemic Relevance and Clue to Disease Mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Meier, Jochen C; Kankowski, Svenja; Krestel, Heinz; Hetsch, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies led to the identification of a plethora of different genes and several hundreds of amino acid recoding edited positions. Changes in editing rates of some of these positions were associated with diseases such as atherosclerosis, myopathy, epilepsy, major depression disorder, schizophrenia and other mental disorders as well as cancer and brain tumors. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on that front and presents glycine receptor C-to-U RNA editing as a first example of disease-associated increased RNA editing that includes assessment of disease mechanisms of the corresponding gene product in an animal model.

  7. The neurofibromatosis type I messenger RNA undergoes base-modification RNA editing.

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, G R; Cappione, A J; Sowden, M; Metheny, L J; Smith, H C

    1996-01-01

    A functional mooring sequence, known to be required for apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA editing, exists in the mRNA encoding the neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) tumor suppressor. Editing of NF1 mRNA modifies cytidine in an arginine codon (CGA) at nucleotide 2914 to a uridine (UGA), creating an in frame translation stop codon. NF1 editing occurs in normal tissue but was several-fold higher in tumors. In vitro editing and transfection assays demonstrated that apoB and NF1 RNA editing will take place in both neural tumor and hepatoma cells. Unlike apoB, NF1 editing did not demonstrate dependence on rate-limiting quantities of APOBEC-1 (the apoB editing catalytic subunit) suggesting that different trans-acting factors may be involved in the two editing processes. PMID:8602361

  8. Tuning of RNA editing by ADAR is required in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, Liam P; Brindle, James; Gallo, Angela; Leroy, Anne; Reenan, Robert A; O'Connell, Mary A

    2005-01-01

    RNA editing increases during development in more than 20 transcripts encoding proteins involved in rapid synaptic neurotransmission in Drosophila central nervous system and muscle. Adar (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) mutant flies expressing only genome-encoded, unedited isoforms of ion-channel subunits are viable but show severe locomotion defects. The Adar transcript itself is edited in adult wild-type flies to generate an isoform with a serine to glycine substitution close to the ADAR active site. We show that editing restricts ADAR function since the edited isoform of ADAR is less active in vitro and in vivo than the genome-encoded, unedited isoform. Ubiquitous expression in embryos and larvae of an Adar transcript that is resistant to editing is lethal. Expression of this transcript in embryonic muscle is also lethal, with above-normal, adult-like levels of editing at sites in a transcript encoding a muscle voltage-gated calcium channel. PMID:15920480

  9. RNA editing independently occurs at three mir-376a-1 sites and may compromise the stability of the microRNA hairpin.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Alicia; Hartasánchez, Diego A; Brasó-Vives, Marina; Garcia-Ramallo, Eva; Lopez-Valenzuela, Maria; Baena, Neus; Guitart, Miriam; Fernández-Bellon, Hugo; Kondova, Ivanela; Bontrop, Ronald; Kawahara, Yukio; Espinosa-Parrilla, Yolanda

    2017-09-10

    RNA editing is being recognized as an important post-transcriptional mechanism that may have crucial roles in introducing genetic variation and phenotypic diversity. Despite microRNA editing recurrence, defining its biological relevance is still under extended debate. To better understand microRNA editing function and regulation we performed an exhaustive characterization of the A-to-I site-specific patterns in mir-376a-1, a mammalian microRNA which RNA editing is involved in the regulation of development and in disease. Thorough an integrative approach based on high-throughput small RNA sequencing, Sanger sequencing and computer simulations we explored mir-376a-1 editing in samples from various individuals and primate species including human placenta and macaque, gorilla, chimpanzee and human brain cortex. We observed that mir-376a-1 editing is a common phenomenon in the mature and primary microRNA molecules and it is more frequently detected in brain than in placenta. Primary mir-376a-1 is edited at three positions, -1, +4 and +44. Editing frequency estimations and in silico simulations indicated that editing was not equally recurrent along the three mir-376a-1 sites, nevertheless no epistatic interactions among them were observed. Particularly, the +4 site, located in the seed region of the mature miR-376a-5p, reached the highest editing frequency in all samples. Secondary structure predictions revealed that the +4 position was the one that conferred the highest stability to the mir-376a-1 hairpin. We suggest that molecular stability might partially explain the editing recurrence observed in certain microRNAs and that editing events conferring new functional regulatory roles in particular tissues and species could have been conserved along evolution, as it might be the case of mir-376a-1 in primate brain cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. RNA editing, epitranscriptomics, and processing in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Witkin, Keren L; Hanlon, Sean E; Strasburger, Jennifer A; Coffin, John M; Jaffrey, Samie R; Howcroft, T Kevin; Dedon, Peter C; Steitz, Joan A; Daschner, Phil J; Read-Connole, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome is extensively and dynamically regulated by a network of RNA modifying factors. RNA editing enzymes APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like) and ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific) irreversibly recode primary RNA sequences, whereas newly described methylases (writers) and de-methylases (erasers) dynamically alter RNA molecules in response to environmental conditions. RNA modifications can affect RNA splicing, nuclear-cytoplasmic transport, translation, and regulation of gene expression by RNA interference. In addition, tRNA base modifications, processing, and regulated cleavage have been shown to alter global patterns of mRNA translation in response to cellular stress pathways. Recent studies, some of which were discussed at this workshop, have rekindled interest in the emerging roles of RNA modifications in health and disease. On September 10th, 2014, the Division of Cancer Biology, NCI sponsored a workshop to explore the role of epitranscriptomic RNA modifications and tRNA processing in cancer progression. The workshop attendees spanned a scientific range including chemists, virologists, and RNA and cancer biologists. The goal of the workshop was to explore the interrelationships between RNA editing, epitranscriptomics, and RNA processing and the enzymatic pathways that regulate these activities in cancer initiation and progression. At the conclusion of the workshop, a general discussion focused on defining the major challenges and opportunities in this field, as well as identifying the tools, technologies, resources and community efforts required to accelerate research in this emerging area.

  11. RNA Editing Underlies Temperature Adaptation in K+ Channels from Polar Octopuses

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Sandra; Rosenthal, Joshua J.C.

    2014-01-01

    To operate in the extreme cold, ion channels from psychrophiles must have evolved structural changes to compensate for their thermal environment. A reasonable assumption would be that the underlying adaptations lie within the encoding genes. Here we show that delayed rectifier K+ channel genes from an Antarctic and a tropical octopus encode channels that differ at only four positions and display very similar behavior when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. However, the transcribed mRNAs are extensively edited, creating functional diversity. One editing site, which recodes an isoleucine to a valine in the channel’s pore, greatly accelerates gating kinetics by destabilizing the open state. This site is extensively edited in both Antarctic and Arctic species, but mostly unedited in tropical species. Thus A-to-I RNA editing can respond to the physical environment. PMID:22223739

  12. Ebola Virus GP Gene Polyadenylation Versus RNA Editing.

    PubMed

    Volchkova, Valentina A; Vorac, Jaroslav; Repiquet-Paire, Laurie; Lawrence, Philip; Volchkov, Viktor E

    2015-10-01

    Synthesis of Ebola virus (EBOV) surface glycoprotein (GP) is dependent on transcriptional RNA editing. Northern blot analysis of EBOV-infected cells using GP-gene-specific probes reveals that, in addition to full-length GP messenger RNAs (mRNAs), a shorter RNA is also synthesized, representing >40% of the total amount of GP mRNA. Sequence analysis demonstrates that this RNA is a truncated version of the full-length GP mRNA that is polyadenylated at the editing site and thus lacks a stop codon. An absence of detectable levels of protein synthesis in cellulo is consistent with the existence of tight regulation of the translation of such mRNA. However, nonstop GP mRNA was shown to be only slightly less stable than the same mRNA containing a stop codon, against the general belief in nonstop decay mechanisms aimed at detecting and destroying mRNAs lacking a stop codon. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the editing site indeed serves as a cryptic transcription termination/polyadenylation site, which rarely also functions to edit GP mRNA for expression of surface GP. This new data suggest that the downregulation of surface GP expression is even more dramatic than previously thought, reinforcing the importance of the GP gene editing site for EBOV replication and pathogenicity.

  13. REDIdb: an upgraded bioinformatics resource for organellar RNA editing sites.

    PubMed

    Picardi, Ernesto; Regina, Teresa M R; Verbitskiy, Daniil; Brennicke, Axel; Quagliariello, Carla

    2011-03-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional molecular process whereby the information in a genetic message is modified from that in the corresponding DNA template by means of nucleotide substitutions, insertions and/or deletions. It occurs mostly in organelles by clade-specific diverse and unrelated biochemical mechanisms. RNA editing events have been annotated in primary databases as GenBank and at more sophisticated level in the specialized databases REDIdb, dbRES and EdRNA. At present, REDIdb is the only freely available database that focuses on the organellar RNA editing process and annotates each editing modification in its biological context. Here we present an updated and upgraded release of REDIdb with a web-interface refurbished with graphical and computational facilities that improve RNA editing investigations. Details of the REDIdb features and novelties are illustrated and compared to other RNA editing databases. REDIdb is freely queried at http://biologia.unical.it/py_script/REDIdb/. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  14. A model for codon position bias in RNA editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundschuh, Ralf; Liu, Tsunglin

    2006-03-01

    RNA editing can be crucial for the expression of genetic information via inserting, deleting, or substituting a few nucleotides at specific positions in an RNA sequence. Within coding regions in an RNA sequence, editing usually occurs with a certain bias in choosing the positions of the editing sites. In the mitochondrial genes of Physarum polycephalum, many more editing events have been observed at the third codon position than at the first and second, while in some plant mitochondria the second codon position dominates. Here we propose an evolutionary model that explains this bias as the basis of selection at the protein level. The model predicts a distribution of the three positions rather close to the experimental observation in Physarum. This suggests that the codon position bias in Physarum is mainly a consequence of selection at the protein level.

  15. Model for Codon Position Bias in RNA Editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tsunglin; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2005-08-01

    RNA editing can be crucial for the expression of genetic information via inserting, deleting, or substituting a few nucleotides at specific positions in an RNA sequence. Within coding regions in an RNA sequence, editing usually occurs with a certain bias in choosing the positions of the editing sites. In the mitochondrial genes of Physarum polycephalum, many more editing events have been observed at the third codon position than at the first and second, while in some plant mitochondria the second codon position dominates. Here we propose an evolutionary model that explains this bias as the basis of selection at the protein level. The model predicts a distribution of the three positions rather close to the experimental observation in Physarum. This suggests that the codon position bias in Physarum is mainly a consequence of selection at the protein level.

  16. The Chloroplast Genome of Pellia endiviifolia: Gene Content, RNA-Editing Pattern, and the Origin of Chloroplast Editing

    PubMed Central

    Grosche, Christopher; Funk, Helena T.; Maier, Uwe G.; Zauner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that can act upon transcripts from mitochondrial, nuclear, and chloroplast genomes. In chloroplasts, single-nucleotide conversions in mRNAs via RNA editing occur at different frequencies across the plant kingdom. These range from several hundred edited sites in some mosses and ferns to lower frequencies in seed plants and the complete lack of RNA editing in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Here, we report the sequence and edited sites of the chloroplast genome from the liverwort Pellia endiviifolia. The type and frequency of chloroplast RNA editing display a pattern highly similar to that in seed plants. Analyses of the C to U conversions and the genomic context in which the editing sites are embedded provide evidence in favor of the hypothesis that chloroplast RNA editing evolved to compensate mutations in the first land plants. PMID:23221608

  17. The chloroplast genome of Pellia endiviifolia: gene content, RNA-editing pattern, and the origin of chloroplast editing.

    PubMed

    Grosche, Christopher; Funk, Helena T; Maier, Uwe G; Zauner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that can act upon transcripts from mitochondrial, nuclear, and chloroplast genomes. In chloroplasts, single-nucleotide conversions in mRNAs via RNA editing occur at different frequencies across the plant kingdom. These range from several hundred edited sites in some mosses and ferns to lower frequencies in seed plants and the complete lack of RNA editing in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Here, we report the sequence and edited sites of the chloroplast genome from the liverwort Pellia endiviifolia. The type and frequency of chloroplast RNA editing display a pattern highly similar to that in seed plants. Analyses of the C to U conversions and the genomic context in which the editing sites are embedded provide evidence in favor of the hypothesis that chloroplast RNA editing evolved to compensate mutations in the first land plants.

  18. Evolution of four types of RNA editing in myxomycetes.

    PubMed

    Horton, T L; Landweber, L F

    2000-10-01

    The myxomycete Physarum polycephalum requires extensive RNA editing to create functional mitochondrial transcripts. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (col) transcript exhibits a combination of editing forms not found together in any other eukaryotic RNA: 66 insertions of ribonucleotides (59 Cs, a single U, and three mixed dinucleotides) as well as base conversion of four Cs to Us (Gott et al., J Biol Chem, 1993, 268:25483-25486). Through a phylogenetic survey of col DNA genes and RNA transcripts in representative myxomycetes, we have decoupled the four types of editing in this lineage. Some myxomycetes share insertional editing with P. polycephalum, yet lack C--> U conversion, consistent with previous reports of separation of insertional and base conversion editing in P. polycephalum extracts (Visomirski-Robic & Gott, RNA, 1995, 3:821-837). Most remarkably, we detect unique evolutionary histories of the three different types of insertional editing, though these have been indistinguishable in vitro. For example, Clastoderma debaryanum exhibits insertions of Us, but not Cs or dinucleotides.

  19. Evolution of four types of RNA editing in myxomycetes.

    PubMed Central

    Horton, T L; Landweber, L F

    2000-01-01

    The myxomycete Physarum polycephalum requires extensive RNA editing to create functional mitochondrial transcripts. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (col) transcript exhibits a combination of editing forms not found together in any other eukaryotic RNA: 66 insertions of ribonucleotides (59 Cs, a single U, and three mixed dinucleotides) as well as base conversion of four Cs to Us (Gott et al., J Biol Chem, 1993, 268:25483-25486). Through a phylogenetic survey of col DNA genes and RNA transcripts in representative myxomycetes, we have decoupled the four types of editing in this lineage. Some myxomycetes share insertional editing with P. polycephalum, yet lack C--> U conversion, consistent with previous reports of separation of insertional and base conversion editing in P. polycephalum extracts (Visomirski-Robic & Gott, RNA, 1995, 3:821-837). Most remarkably, we detect unique evolutionary histories of the three different types of insertional editing, though these have been indistinguishable in vitro. For example, Clastoderma debaryanum exhibits insertions of Us, but not Cs or dinucleotides. PMID:11073211

  20. Salt stress affects mRNA editing in soybean chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Nureyev F; Fonseca, Guilherme C da; Kulcheski, Franceli R; Margis, Rogério

    2017-03-02

    Soybean, a crop known by its economic and nutritional importance, has been the subject of several studies that assess the impact and the effective plant responses to abiotic stresses. Salt stress is one of the main environmental stresses and negatively impacts crop growth and yield. In this work, the RNA editing process in the chloroplast of soybean plants was evaluated in response to a salt stress. Bioinformatics approach using sRNA and mRNA libraries were employed to detect specific sites showing differences in editing efficiency. RT-qPCR was used to measure editing efficiency at selected sites. We observed that transcripts of NDHA, NDHB, RPS14 and RPS16 genes presented differences in coverage and editing rates between control and salt-treated libraries. RT-qPCR assays demonstrated an increase in editing efficiency of selected genes. The salt stress enhanced the RNA editing process in transcripts, indicating responses to components of the electron transfer chain, photosystem and translation complexes. These increases can be a response to keep the homeostasis of chloroplast protein functions in response to salt stress.

  1. PREPACT 2.0: Predicting C-to-U and U-to-C RNA Editing in Organelle Genome Sequences with Multiple References and Curated RNA Editing Annotation.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Henning; Knoop, Volker

    2013-01-01

    RNA editing is vast in some genetic systems, with up to thousands of targeted C-to-U and U-to-C substitutions in mitochondria and chloroplasts of certain plants. Efficient prognoses of RNA editing in organelle genomes will help to reveal overlooked cases of editing. We present PREPACT 2.0 (http://www.prepact.de) with numerous enhancements of our previously developed Plant RNA Editing Prediction & Analysis Computer Tool. Reference organelle transcriptomes for editing prediction have been extended and reorganized to include 19 curated mitochondrial and 13 chloroplast genomes, now allowing to distinguish RNA editing sites from "pre-edited" sites. Queries may be run against multiple references and a new "commons" function identifies and highlights orthologous candidate editing sites congruently predicted by multiple references. Enhancements to the BLASTX mode in PREPACT 2.0 allow querying of complete novel organelle genomes within a few minutes, identifying protein genes and candidate RNA editing sites simultaneously without prior user analyses.

  2. Positive correlation between ADAR expression and its targets suggests a complex regulation mediated by RNA editing in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Liscovitch, Noa; Bazak, Lily; Levanon, Erez Y; Chechik, Gal

    2014-01-01

    A-to-I RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA is a post-transcriptional modification that is crucial for normal life and development in vertebrates. RNA editing has been shown to be very abundant in the human transcriptome, specifically at the primate-specific Alu elements. The functional role of this wide-spread effect is still not clear; it is believed that editing of transcripts is a mechanism for their down-regulation via processes such as nuclear retention or RNA degradation. Here we combine 2 neural gene expression datasets with genome-level editing information to examine the relation between the expression of ADAR genes with the expression of their target genes. Specifically, we computed the spatial correlation across structures of post-mortem human brains between ADAR and a large set of targets that were found to be edited in their Alu repeats. Surprisingly, we found that a large fraction of the edited genes are positively correlated with ADAR, opposing the assumption that editing would reduce expression. When considering the correlations between ADAR and its targets over development, 2 gene subsets emerge, positively correlated and negatively correlated with ADAR expression. Specifically, in embryonic time points, ADAR is positively correlated with many genes related to RNA processing and regulation of gene expression. These findings imply that the suggested mechanism of regulation of expression by editing is probably not a global one; ADAR expression does not have a genome wide effect reducing the expression of editing targets. It is possible, however, that RNA editing by ADAR in non-coding regions of the gene might be a part of a more complex expression regulation mechanism.

  3. Positive correlation between ADAR expression and its targets suggests a complex regulation mediated by RNA editing in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Liscovitch, Noa; Bazak, Lily; Levanon, Erez Y; Chechik, Gal

    2014-01-01

    A-to-I RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA is a post-transcriptional modification that is crucial for normal life and development in vertebrates. RNA editing has been shown to be very abundant in the human transcriptome, specifically at the primate-specific Alu elements. The functional role of this wide-spread effect is still not clear; it is believed that editing of transcripts is a mechanism for their down-regulation via processes such as nuclear retention or RNA degradation. Here we combine 2 neural gene expression datasets with genome-level editing information to examine the relation between the expression of ADAR genes with the expression of their target genes. Specifically, we computed the spatial correlation across structures of post-mortem human brains between ADAR and a large set of targets that were found to be edited in their Alu repeats. Surprisingly, we found that a large fraction of the edited genes are positively correlated with ADAR, opposing the assumption that editing would reduce expression. When considering the correlations between ADAR and its targets over development, 2 gene subsets emerge, positively correlated and negatively correlated with ADAR expression. Specifically, in embryonic time points, ADAR is positively correlated with many genes related to RNA processing and regulation of gene expression. These findings imply that the suggested mechanism of regulation of expression by editing is probably not a global one; ADAR expression does not have a genome wide effect reducing the expression of editing targets. It is possible, however, that RNA editing by ADAR in non-coding regions of the gene might be a part of a more complex expression regulation mechanism. PMID:25692240

  4. Reovirus-mediated induction of ADAR1 (p150) minimally alters RNA editing patterns in discrete brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Jennifer L.; Morabito, Michael V.; Martinez, Charles R.; Gilbert, James A.; Ferrick, Elizabeth A.; Ayers, Gregory D.; Chappell, James D.; Dermody, Terence S.; Emeson, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    Transcripts encoding ADAR1, a double-stranded, RNA-specific adenosine deaminase involved in the adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing of mammalian RNAs, can be alternatively spliced to produce an interferon-inducible protein isoform (p150) that is up-regulated in both cell culture and in vivo model systems in response to pathogen or interferon stimulation. In contrast to other tissues, p150 is expressed at extremely low levels in the brain and it is unclear what role, if any, this isoform may play in the innate immune response of the central nervous system (CNS) or whether the extent of editing for RNA substrates critical for CNS function is affected by its induction. To investigate the expression of ADAR1 isoforms in response to viral infection and subsequent alterations in A-to-I editing profiles for endogenous ADAR targets, we used a neuro-tropic strain of reovirus to infect neonatal mice and quantify A-to-I editing in discrete brain regions using a multiplexed, high-throughput sequencing strategy. While intracranial injection of reovirus resulted in a widespread increase in the expression of ADAR1 (p150) in multiple brain regions and peripheral organs, significant changes in site-specific A-to-I conversion were quite limited, suggesting that steady-state levels of p150 expression are not a primary determinant for modulating the extent of editing for numerous ADAR targets in vivo. PMID:24906008

  5. RNA editing in plant mitochondria: 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michael W

    2009-12-01

    In 1989, three laboratories (in Canada, France and Germany) independently and simultaneously reported the discovery of C-to-U RNA editing in plant mitochondria (1-3). To mark the 20th anniversary of this finding, the leaders of the three research teams have written personal essays describing the events leading up to the discovery in each of their laboratories. These essays are intended not only to capture historical facts but also to illustrate unexpected convergence in the process of scientific discovery, with different groups coming to the same conclusion, often very close together in time, drawing on different types of evidence and via sometimes quite different hypotheses and approaches. Essential background information pertaining to RNA editing in general and RNA editing in plant organelles in particular is provided in this overview. (c) 2009 IUBMB

  6. Evolution of RNA editing sites in the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA of the Myxomycota.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Uma; Barsamian, Arpi; Miller, Dennis L

    2007-01-01

    Because of their unique and unprecedented character, it is often difficult to imagine how and why the different, diverse types of RNA editing have evolved. Information about the evolution of a particular RNA editing system can be obtained by comparing RNA editing characteristics in contemporary organisms whose phylogenetic relationships are known so that editing patterns in ancestral organisms can be inferred. This information can then be used to build models of the origins, constraints, variability, and mechanisms of RNA editing. As an example of the types of information that can be obtained from these analyses, we describe how we have used cDNA, covariation, and phylogenetic analyses to study the evolution of the variation in RNA editing site location in the core region of the small subunit rRNA gene in the mtDNA of seven myxomycetes, including Physarum polycephalum. We find that the unique type of insertional RNA editing present in mitochondria of P. polycephalum is also present in the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU) rRNA of the other six myxomycetes. As in Physarum, this editing predominantly consists of cytidine insertions, but also includes uridine insertions and certain dinucleotide insertions such that any of the four canonical ribonucleotides can be inserted. Although the characteristics of RNA editing in these organisms are the same as in Physarum, the location of the insertion sites varies among the seven organisms relative to the conserved primary sequence and secondary structure of the rRNA. Nucleotide insertions have been identified at 29 different sites within this core region of the rRNA, but no one organism has more than 10 of these insertion sites, suggesting that editing sites have been created and/or eliminated since the divergence of these organisms. To determine the order in which editing sites have been created or eliminated, the sequences of the mitochondrial SSU rRNA have been aligned and this alignment has been used to produce

  7. Using REDItools to Detect RNA Editing Events in NGS Datasets.

    PubMed

    Picardi, Ernesto; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Montalvo, Antonio; Pesole, Graziano

    2015-03-09

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional/co-transcriptional molecular phenomenon whereby a genetic message is modified from the corresponding DNA template by means of substitutions, insertions, and/or deletions. It occurs in a variety of organisms and different cellular locations through evolutionally and biochemically unrelated proteins. RNA editing has a plethora of biological effects including the modulation of alternative splicing and fine-tuning of gene expression. RNA editing events by base substitutions can be detected on a genomic scale by NGS technologies through the REDItools package, an ad hoc suite of Python scripts to study RNA editing using RNA-Seq and DNA-Seq data or RNA-Seq data alone. REDItools implement effective filters to minimize biases due to sequencing errors, mapping errors, and SNPs. The package is freely available at Google Code repository (http://code.google.com/p/reditools/) and released under the MIT license. In the present unit we show three basic protocols corresponding to three main REDItools scripts.

  8. Evolutionary analysis reveals regulatory and functional landscape of coding and non-coding RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Dionna

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing diversifies the transcriptome and promotes functional diversity, particularly in the brain. A plethora of editing sites has been recently identified; however, how they are selected and regulated and which are functionally important are largely unknown. Here we show the cis-regulation and stepwise selection of RNA editing during Drosophila evolution and pinpoint a large number of functional editing sites. We found that the establishment of editing and variation in editing levels across Drosophila species are largely explained and predicted by cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, editing events that arose early in the species tree tend to be more highly edited in clusters and enriched in slowly-evolved neuronal genes, thus suggesting that the main role of RNA editing is for fine-tuning neurological functions. While nonsynonymous editing events have been long recognized as playing a functional role, in addition to nonsynonymous editing sites, a large fraction of 3’UTR editing sites is evolutionarily constrained, highly edited, and thus likely functional. We find that these 3’UTR editing events can alter mRNA stability and affect miRNA binding and thus highlight the functional roles of noncoding RNA editing. Our work, through evolutionary analyses of RNA editing in Drosophila, uncovers novel insights of RNA editing regulation as well as its functions in both coding and non-coding regions. PMID:28166241

  9. Evolutionary analysis reveals regulatory and functional landscape of coding and non-coding RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Deng, Patricia; Jacobson, Dionna; Li, Jin Billy

    2017-02-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing diversifies the transcriptome and promotes functional diversity, particularly in the brain. A plethora of editing sites has been recently identified; however, how they are selected and regulated and which are functionally important are largely unknown. Here we show the cis-regulation and stepwise selection of RNA editing during Drosophila evolution and pinpoint a large number of functional editing sites. We found that the establishment of editing and variation in editing levels across Drosophila species are largely explained and predicted by cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, editing events that arose early in the species tree tend to be more highly edited in clusters and enriched in slowly-evolved neuronal genes, thus suggesting that the main role of RNA editing is for fine-tuning neurological functions. While nonsynonymous editing events have been long recognized as playing a functional role, in addition to nonsynonymous editing sites, a large fraction of 3'UTR editing sites is evolutionarily constrained, highly edited, and thus likely functional. We find that these 3'UTR editing events can alter mRNA stability and affect miRNA binding and thus highlight the functional roles of noncoding RNA editing. Our work, through evolutionary analyses of RNA editing in Drosophila, uncovers novel insights of RNA editing regulation as well as its functions in both coding and non-coding regions.

  10. Noncoding regions of C. elegans mRNA undergo selective adenosine to inosine deamination and contain a small number of editing sites per transcript.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Emily C; Washburn, Michael C; Major, Francois; Rusch, Douglas B; Hundley, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    ADARs (Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA) "edit" RNA by converting adenosines to inosines within double-stranded regions. The primary targets of ADARs are long duplexes present within noncoding regions of mRNAs, such as introns and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). Because adenosine and inosine have different base-pairing properties, editing within these regions can alter splicing and recognition by small RNAs. However, despite numerous studies identifying multiple editing sites in these genomic regions, little is known about the extent to which editing sites co-occur on individual transcripts or the functional output of these combinatorial editing events. To begin to address these questions, we performed an ultra-deep sequencing analysis of 4 Caenorhabditis elegans 3' UTRs that are known ADAR targets. Synchronous editing events were determined for the long duplexes in vivo. Furthermore, the validity of each editing event was confirmed by sequencing the same regions of mRNA from worms that lack A-to-I editing. This analysis identified a large number of editing sites that can occur within each 3' UTR, but interestingly, each individual transcript contained only a small fraction of these A-to-I editing events. In addition, editing patterns were not random, indicating that an editing event can affect the efficiency of editing at subsequent adenosines. Furthermore, we identified specific sites that can be both positively and negatively correlated with additional sites leading to mutually exclusive editing patterns. These results suggest that editing in noncoding regions is selective and hyper-editing of cellular RNAs is rare.

  11. RNA catalyst as a reporter for screening drugs against RNA editing in trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, Houtan; Mehta, Vaibhav; Salavati, Reza

    2014-07-22

    Substantial progress has been made in determining the mechanism of mitochondrial RNA editing in trypanosomes. Similarly, considerable progress has been made in identifying the components of the editosome complex that catalyze RNA editing. However, it is still not clear how those proteins work together. Chemical compounds obtained from a high-throughput screen against the editosome may block or affect one or more steps in the editing cycle. Therefore, the identification of new chemical compounds will generate valuable molecular probes for dissecting the editosome function and assembly. In previous studies, in vitro editing assays were carried out using radio-labeled RNA. These assays are time consuming, inefficient and unsuitable for high-throughput purposes. Here, a homogenous fluorescence-based "mix and measure" hammerhead ribozyme in vitro reporter assay to monitor RNA editing, is presented. Only as a consequence of RNA editing of the hammerhead ribozyme a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) oligoribonucleotide substrate undergoes cleavage. This in turn results in separation of the fluorophore from the quencher thereby producing a signal. In contrast, when the editosome function is inhibited, the fluorescence signal will be quenched. This is a highly sensitive and simple assay that should be generally applicable to monitor in vitro RNA editing or high throughput screening of chemicals that can inhibit the editosome function.

  12. Occurrence of plastid RNA editing in all major lineages of land plants

    PubMed Central

    Freyer, Regina; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Kössel, Hans

    1997-01-01

    RNA editing changes posttranscriptionally single nucleotides in chloroplast-encoded transcripts. Although much work has been done on mechanistic and functional aspects of plastid editing, little is known about evolutionary aspects of this RNA processing step. To gain a better understanding of the evolution of RNA editing in plastids, we have investigated the editing patterns in ndhB and rbcL transcripts from various species comprising all major groups of land plants. Our results indicate that RNA editing occurs in plastids of bryophytes, fern allies, true ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. Both editing frequencies and editing patterns show a remarkable degree of interspecies variation. Furthermore, we have found that neither plastid editing frequencies nor the editing pattern of a specific transcript correlate with the phylogenetic tree of the plant kingdom. The poor evolutionary conservation of editing sites among closely related species as well as the occurrence of single species-specific editing sites suggest that the differences in the editing patterns and editing frequencies are probably due both to independent loss and to gain of editing sites. In addition, our results indicate that RNA editing is a relatively ancient process that probably predates the evolution of land plants. This supposition is in good agreement with the phylogenetic data obtained for plant mitochondrial RNA editing, thus providing additional evidence for common evolutionary roots of the two plant organellar editing systems. PMID:9177209

  13. Group II intron RNA catalysis of progressive nucleotide insertion: a model for RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Mueller, M W; Hetzer, M; Schweyen, R J

    1993-08-20

    The self-splicing bl1 intron lariat from mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyzed the insertion of nucleotidyl monomers derived from the 3' end of a donor RNA into an acceptor RNA in a 3' to 5' direction in vitro. In this catalyzed reaction, the site specificity provided by intermolecular base pair interactions, the formation of chimeric intermediates, the polarity of the nucleotidyl insertion, and its reversibility all resemble such properties in previously proposed models of RNA editing in kinetoplastid mitochondria. These results suggest that RNA editing occurs by way of a concerted, two-step transesterification mechanism and that RNA splicing and RNA editing might be prebiotically related mechanisms; possibly, both evolved from a primordial demand for self-replication.

  14. Whole plastid transcriptomes reveal abundant RNA editing sites and differential editing status in Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. formosana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting-Chieh; Liu, Yu-Chang; Wang, Xuewen; Wu, Chi-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Hao; Chang, Ching-Chun

    2017-09-16

    RNA editing is a process of post-transcriptional level of gene regulation by nucleotide modification. Previously, the chloroplast DNA of Taiwan endemic moth orchid, P. aphrodite subsp. formosana was determined, and 44 RNA editing sites were identified from 24 plastid protein-coding transcripts of leaf tissue via RT-PCR and then conventional Sanger sequencing. However, the RNA editing status of whole-plastid transcripts in leaf and other distinct tissue types in moth orchids has not been addressed. To sensitively and extensively examine the plastid RNA editing status of moth orchid, RNA-Seq was used to investigate the editing status of whole-plastid transcripts from leaf and floral tissues by mapping the sequence reads to the corresponding cpDNA template. With the threshold of at least 5% C-to-U or U-to-C conversion events observed in sequence reads considered as RNA editing sites. In total, 137 edits with 126 C-to-U and 11 U-to-C conversions, including 93 newly discovered edits, were identified in plastid transcripts, representing an average of 0.09% of the nucleotides examined in moth orchid. Overall, 110 and 106 edits were present in leaf and floral tissues, respectively, with 79 edits in common. As well, 79 edits were involved in protein-coding transcripts, and the 58 nucleotide conversions caused the non-synonymous substitution. At least 32 edits showed significant (≧20%) differential editing between leaf and floral tissues. Finally, RNA editing in trnM is required for the formation of a standard clover-leaf structure. We identified 137 edits in plastid transcripts of moth orchid, the highest number reported so far in monocots. The consequence of RNA editing in protein-coding transcripts mainly cause the amino acid change and tend to increase the hydrophobicity as well as conservation among plant phylogeny. RNA editing occurred in non-protein-coding transcripts such as tRNA, introns and untranslated regulatory regions could affect the formation and stability

  15. Comprehensive High-Resolution Analysis of the Role of an Arabidopsis Gene Family in RNA Editing

    PubMed Central

    Bentolila, Stéphane; Oh, Julyun; Hanson, Maureen R.; Bukowski, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In flowering plants, mitochondrial and chloroplast mRNAs are edited by C-to-U base modification. In plant organelles, RNA editing appears to be generally a correcting mechanism that restores the proper function of the encoded product. Members of the Arabidopsis RNA editing-Interacting Protein (RIP) family have been recently shown to be essential components of the plant editing machinery. We report the use of a strand- and transcript-specific RNA-seq method (STS-PCRseq) to explore the effect of mutation or silencing of every RIP gene on plant organelle editing. We confirm RIP1 to be a major editing factor that controls the editing extent of 75% of the mitochondrial sites and 20% of the plastid C targets of editing. The quantitative nature of RNA sequencing allows the precise determination of overlapping effects of RIP factors on RNA editing. Over 85% of the sites under the influence of RIP3 and RIP8, two moderately important mitochondrial factors, are also controlled by RIP1. Previously uncharacterized RIP family members were found to have only a slight effect on RNA editing. The preferential location of editing sites controlled by RIP7 on some transcripts suggests an RNA metabolism function for this factor other than editing. In addition to a complete characterization of the RIP factors for their effect on RNA editing, our study highlights the potential of RNA-seq for studying plant organelle editing. Unlike previous attempts to use RNA-seq to analyze RNA editing extent, our methodology focuses on sequencing of organelle cDNAs corresponding to known transcripts. As a result, the depth of coverage of each editing site reaches unprecedented values, assuring a reliable measurement of editing extent and the detection of numerous new sites. This strategy can be applied to the study of RNA editing in any organism. PMID:23818871

  16. Comprehensive high-resolution analysis of the role of an Arabidopsis gene family in RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Bentolila, Stéphane; Oh, Julyun; Hanson, Maureen R; Bukowski, Robert

    2013-06-01

    In flowering plants, mitochondrial and chloroplast mRNAs are edited by C-to-U base modification. In plant organelles, RNA editing appears to be generally a correcting mechanism that restores the proper function of the encoded product. Members of the Arabidopsis RNA editing-Interacting Protein (RIP) family have been recently shown to be essential components of the plant editing machinery. We report the use of a strand- and transcript-specific RNA-seq method (STS-PCRseq) to explore the effect of mutation or silencing of every RIP gene on plant organelle editing. We confirm RIP1 to be a major editing factor that controls the editing extent of 75% of the mitochondrial sites and 20% of the plastid C targets of editing. The quantitative nature of RNA sequencing allows the precise determination of overlapping effects of RIP factors on RNA editing. Over 85% of the sites under the influence of RIP3 and RIP8, two moderately important mitochondrial factors, are also controlled by RIP1. Previously uncharacterized RIP family members were found to have only a slight effect on RNA editing. The preferential location of editing sites controlled by RIP7 on some transcripts suggests an RNA metabolism function for this factor other than editing. In addition to a complete characterization of the RIP factors for their effect on RNA editing, our study highlights the potential of RNA-seq for studying plant organelle editing. Unlike previous attempts to use RNA-seq to analyze RNA editing extent, our methodology focuses on sequencing of organelle cDNAs corresponding to known transcripts. As a result, the depth of coverage of each editing site reaches unprecedented values, assuring a reliable measurement of editing extent and the detection of numerous new sites. This strategy can be applied to the study of RNA editing in any organism.

  17. Genome annotation in the presence of insertional RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Beargie, Christina; Liu, Tsunglin; Corriveau, Mark; Lee, Ha Youn; Gott, Jonatha; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Insertional RNA editing renders gene prediction very difficult compared to organisms without such RNA editing. A case in point is the mitochondrial genome of Physarum polycephalum in which only about one-third of the number of genes that are to be expected given its length are annotated. Thus, gene prediction methods that explicitly take into account insertional editing are needed for successful annotation of such genomes. Results: We annotate the mitochondrial genome of P.polycephalum using several different approaches for gene prediction in organisms with insertional RNA editing. We computationally validate our annotations by comparing the results from different methods against each other and as proof of concept experimentally validate two of the newly predicted genes. We more than double the number of annotated putative genes in this organism and find several intriguing candidate genes that are not expected in a mitochondrial genome. Availability: The C source code of the programs described here are available upon request from the corresponding author. Contact: bundschuh@mps.ohio-state.edu PMID:18819938

  18. RNA-programmed genome editing in human cells.

    PubMed

    Jinek, Martin; East, Alexandra; Cheng, Aaron; Lin, Steven; Ma, Enbo; Doudna, Jennifer

    2013-01-29

    Type II CRISPR immune systems in bacteria use a dual RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, Cas9, to cleave foreign DNA at specific sites. We show here that Cas9 assembles with hybrid guide RNAs in human cells and can induce the formation of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) at a site complementary to the guide RNA sequence in genomic DNA. This cleavage activity requires both Cas9 and the complementary binding of the guide RNA. Experiments using extracts from transfected cells show that RNA expression and/or assembly into Cas9 is the limiting factor for Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage. In addition, we find that extension of the RNA sequence at the 3' end enhances DNA targeting activity in vivo. These results show that RNA-programmed genome editing is a facile strategy for introducing site-specific genetic changes in human cells.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00471.001.

  19. Variable Frequency of Plastid RNA Editing among Ferns and Repeated Loss of Uridine-to-Cytidine Editing from Vascular Plants

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenhu; Grewe, Felix; Mower, Jeffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    The distinct distribution and abundance of C-to-U and U-to-C RNA editing among land plants suggest that these two processes originated and evolve independently, but the paucity of information from several key lineages limits our understanding of their evolution. To examine the evolutionary diversity of RNA editing among ferns, we sequenced the plastid transcriptomes from two early diverging species, Ophioglossum californicum and Psilotum nudum. Using a relaxed automated approach to minimize false negatives combined with manual inspection to eliminate false positives, we identified 297 C-to-U and three U-to-C edit sites in the O. californicum plastid transcriptome but only 27 C-to-U and no U-to-C edit sites in the P. nudum plastid transcriptome. A broader comparison of editing content with the leptosporangiate fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and the hornwort Anthoceros formosae uncovered large variance in the abundance of plastid editing, indicating that the frequency and type of RNA editing is highly labile in ferns. Edit sites that increase protein conservation among species are more abundant and more efficiently edited than silent and non-conservative sites, suggesting that selection maintains functionally important editing. The absence of U-to-C editing from P. nudum plastid transcripts and other vascular plants demonstrates that U-to-C editing loss is a recurrent phenomenon in vascular plant evolution. PMID:25568947

  20. Variable frequency of plastid RNA editing among ferns and repeated loss of uridine-to-cytidine editing from vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenhu; Grewe, Felix; Mower, Jeffrey P

    2015-01-01

    The distinct distribution and abundance of C-to-U and U-to-C RNA editing among land plants suggest that these two processes originated and evolve independently, but the paucity of information from several key lineages limits our understanding of their evolution. To examine the evolutionary diversity of RNA editing among ferns, we sequenced the plastid transcriptomes from two early diverging species, Ophioglossum californicum and Psilotum nudum. Using a relaxed automated approach to minimize false negatives combined with manual inspection to eliminate false positives, we identified 297 C-to-U and three U-to-C edit sites in the O. californicum plastid transcriptome but only 27 C-to-U and no U-to-C edit sites in the P. nudum plastid transcriptome. A broader comparison of editing content with the leptosporangiate fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and the hornwort Anthoceros formosae uncovered large variance in the abundance of plastid editing, indicating that the frequency and type of RNA editing is highly labile in ferns. Edit sites that increase protein conservation among species are more abundant and more efficiently edited than silent and non-conservative sites, suggesting that selection maintains functionally important editing. The absence of U-to-C editing from P. nudum plastid transcripts and other vascular plants demonstrates that U-to-C editing loss is a recurrent phenomenon in vascular plant evolution.

  1. ADAR2-mediated editing of miR-214 and miR-122 precursor and antisense RNA transcripts in liver cancers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Hsin; Chen, Chao-Hung; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Li, Chiao-Ling; Wu, Yi-Jinn; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Chen, Pei-Jer; Yeh, Shiou-Hwei

    2013-01-01

    A growing list of microRNAs (miRNAs) show aberrant expression patterns in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the regulatory mechanisms largely remain unclear. RNA editing catalyzed by members of the adenosine deaminase acting on the RNA (ADAR) family could target the miRNA precursors and affect the biogenesis process. Therefore, we investigate whether RNA editing could be one mechanism contributing to the deregulation of specific miRNAs in HCC. By overexpression of individual ADARs in hepatoma cells, RNA editing on the precursors of 16 miRNAs frequently deregulated in HCC was screened by a sensitive high-resolution melting platform. The results identified RNA precursors of miR-214 and miR-122 as potential targets edited by ADAR2. A subset of HCC showing elevated ADAR2 verified the major editings identified in ARAR2 overexpressed hepatoma cells, either with A-to-I or U-to-C changes. The unusual U-to-C editing at specific residues was demonstrated as being attributed to the A-to-I editing on the RNA transcripts complementary to the pri-miRNAs. The editing event caused a decrease of the RNA transcript complementary to pri-miR-214, which led to the decrease of pri-miR-214 and miR-214 and resulted in the increased protein level of its novel target gene Rab15. In conclusion, the current study discovered ADAR2-mediated editing of the complementary antisense transcripts as a novel mechanism for regulating the biogenesis of specific miRNAs during hepatocarcinogenesis.

  2. Reverse U-to-C editing exceeds C-to-U RNA editing in some ferns - a monilophyte-wide comparison of chloroplast and mitochondrial RNA editing suggests independent evolution of the two processes in both organelles.

    PubMed

    Knie, Nils; Grewe, Felix; Fischer, Simon; Knoop, Volker

    2016-06-21

    RNA editing by C-to-U conversions is nearly omnipresent in land plant chloroplasts and mitochondria, where it mainly serves to reconstitute conserved codon identities in the organelle mRNAs. Reverse U-to-C RNA editing in contrast appears to be restricted to hornworts, some lycophytes, and ferns (monilophytes). A well-resolved monilophyte phylogeny has recently emerged and now allows to trace the side-by-side evolution of both types of pyrimidine exchange editing in the two endosymbiotic organelles. Our study of RNA editing in four selected mitochondrial genes show a wide spectrum of divergent RNA editing frequencies including a dominance of U-to-C over the canonical C-to-U editing in some taxa like the order Schizaeales. We find that silent RNA editing leaving encoded amino acids unchanged is highly biased with more than ten-fold amounts of silent C-to-U over U-to-C edits. In full contrast to flowering plants, RNA editing frequencies are low in early-branching monilophyte lineages but increase in later emerging clades. Moreover, while editing rates in the two organelles are usually correlated, we observe uncoupled evolution of editing frequencies in fern mitochondria and chloroplasts. Most mitochondrial RNA editing sites are shared between the recently emerging fern orders whereas chloroplast editing sites are mostly clade-specific. Finally, we observe that chloroplast RNA editing appears to be completely absent in horsetails (Equisetales), the sister clade of all other monilophytes. C-to-U and U-to-C RNA editing in fern chloroplasts and mitochondria follow disinct evolutionary pathways that are surprisingly different from what has previously been found in flowering plants. The results call for careful differentiation of the two types of RNA editing in the two endosymbiotic organelles in comparative evolutionary studies.

  3. A hammerhead ribozyme substrate and reporter for in vitro kinetoplastid RNA editing.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingbing; Salavati, Reza; Heidmann, Stefan; Stuart, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Current in vitro assays for RNA editing in kinetoplastids directly examine the products generated by incubation of pre-mRNA substrate with guide RNA (gRNA) and mitochondrial (mt) extract. RNA editing substrates that are modeled on hammerhead ribozymes were designed with catalytic cores that contained or lacked additional uridylates (Us). They proved to be sensitive reporters of editing activity when used for in vitro assays. A deletion editing substrate that is based on A6 pre-mRNA had no ribozyme activity, but its incubation with gRNA and mt extract resulted in its deletion editing and production of a catalytically active ribozyme. Hammerhead ribozymes are thus sensitive tools to assay in vitro RNA editing. PMID:11991648

  4. RNA editing in plant mitochondria—connecting RNA target sequences and acting proteins.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Mizuki; Verbitskiy, Daniil; Zehrmann, Anja; Härtel, Barbara; Bayer-Császár, Eszter; Glass, Franziska; Brennicke, Axel

    2014-11-01

    RNA editing changes several hundred cytidines to uridines in the mRNAs of mitochondria in flowering plants. The target cytidines are identified by a subtype of PPR proteins characterized by tandem modules which each binds with a specific upstream nucleotide. Recent progress in correlating repeat structures with nucleotide identities allows to predict and identify target sites in mitochondrial RNAs. Additional proteins have been found to play a role in RNA editing; their precise function still needs to be elucidated. The enzymatic activity performing the C to U reaction may reside in the C-terminal DYW extensions of the PPR proteins; however, this still needs to be proven. Here we update recent progress in understanding RNA editing in flowering plant mitochondria.

  5. Attenuated adenosine-to-inosine editing of microRNA-376a* promotes invasiveness of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Yukti; Tay, Felix Chang; Lam, Dang Hoang; Sandanaraj, Edwin; Tang, Carol; Ang, Beng-Ti; Wang, Shu

    2012-11-01

    In the human brain, microRNAs (miRNAs) from the microRNA-376 (miR-376) cluster undergo programmed "seed" sequence modifications by adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing. Emerging evidence suggests a link between impaired A-to-I editing and cancer, particularly in high-grade gliomas. We hypothesized that disruption of A-to-I editing alters expression of genes regulating glioma tumor phenotypes. By sequencing the miR-376 cluster, we show that the overall miRNA editing frequencies were reduced in human gliomas. Specifically in high-grade gliomas, miR-376a* accumulated entirely in an unedited form. Clinically, a significant correlation was found between accumulation of unedited miR-376a* and the extent of invasive tumor spread as measured by magnetic resonance imaging of patient brains. Using both in vitro and orthotopic xenograft mouse models, we demonstrated that the unedited miR-376a* promoted glioma cell migration and invasion, while the edited miR-376a* suppressed these features. The effects of the unedited miR-376a* were mediated by its sequence-dependent ability to target RAP2A and concomitant inability to target AMFR. Thus, the tumor-dependent introduction of a single base difference in the miR-376a* sequence dramatically alters the selection of its target genes and redirects its function from inhibiting to promoting glioma cell invasion. These findings uncover a new mechanism of miRNA deregulation and identify unedited miR-376a* as a potential therapeutic target in glioblastoma cells.

  6. Spatio-temporal profiling of Filamin A RNA-editing reveals ADAR preferences and high editing levels outside neuronal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Stulić, Maja; Jantsch, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    RNA editing by ADARs can change the coding potential of protein-coding mRNAs. So far, this type of RNA editing has mainly been shown to affect RNAs expressed in the nervous system with much lower editing levels being observed in other tissues. The actin crosslinking proteins filamin α and filamin β are widely expressed in most tissues. The mRNAs encoding either protein are edited at the same position leading to a conserved Q to R exchange in both proteins. Using bar-coded next generation sequencing, we show that editing of filamin α is most abundant in the gastrointestinal tract and only to a lesser extent in the nervous system. Using knockout mice, we show that ADARB1 (ADAR2) is responsible for the majority of FLNA editing, while ADAR1 can edit filamin α mRNA in some tissues quite efficiently. Interestingly, editing levels of filamin α and β do not follow the same trend across tissues, suggesting a substrate-specific regulation of editing. PMID:24025532

  7. Naturally Occurring Isoleucyl-tRNA Synthetase without tRNA-dependent Pre-transfer Editing*

    PubMed Central

    Cvetesic, Nevena; Dulic, Morana; Bilus, Mirna; Sostaric, Nikolina; Lenhard, Boris; Gruic-Sovulj, Ita

    2016-01-01

    Isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) is unusual among aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in having a tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing activity. Alongside the typical bacterial IleRS (such as Escherichia coli IleRS), some bacteria also have the enzymes (eukaryote-like) that cluster with eukaryotic IleRSs and exhibit low sensitivity to the antibiotic mupirocin. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ileS1 and ileS2 genes of contemporary bacteria are the descendants of genes that might have arisen by an ancient duplication event before the separation of bacteria and archaea. We present the analysis of evolutionary constraints of the synthetic and editing reactions in eukaryotic/eukaryote-like IleRSs, which share a common origin but diverged through adaptation to different cell environments. The enzyme from the yeast cytosol exhibits tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing analogous to E. coli IleRS. This argues for the presence of this proofreading in the common ancestor of both IleRS types and an ancient origin of the synthetic site-based quality control step. Yet surprisingly, the eukaryote-like enzyme from Streptomyces griseus IleRS lacks this capacity; at the same time, its synthetic site displays the 103-fold drop in sensitivity to antibiotic mupirocin relative to the yeast enzyme. The discovery that pre-transfer editing is optional in IleRSs lends support to the notion that the conserved post-transfer editing domain is the main checkpoint in these enzymes. We substantiated this by showing that under error-prone conditions S. griseus IleRS is able to rescue the growth of an E. coli lacking functional IleRS, providing the first evidence that tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing in IleRS is not essential for cell viability. PMID:26921320

  8. RNA editing in Drosophila melanogaster: New targets and functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Joseph W.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA [adenosine deaminase, RNA specific (ADAR)] catalyze the site-specific conversion of adenosine to inosine in primary mRNA transcripts. These re-coding events affect coding potential, splice sites, and stability of mature mRNAs. ADAR is an essential gene, and studies in mouse, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila suggest that its primary function is to modify adult behavior by altering signaling components in the nervous system. By comparing the sequence of isogenic cDNAs to genomic DNA, we have identified and experimentally verified 27 new targets of Drosophila ADAR. Our analyses led us to identify new classes of genes whose transcripts are targets of ADAR, including components of the actin cytoskeleton and genes involved in ion homeostasis and signal transduction. Our results indicate that editing in Drosophila increases the diversity of the proteome, and does so in a manner that has direct functional consequences on protein function. PMID:17018572

  9. RED-ML: a novel, effective RNA editing detection method based on machine learning.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Heng; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qiye; Lei, Mengyue; Xu, Liqin; Wu, Liang; Wang, Zongji; Ren, Shancheng; Li, Wangsheng; Xia, Min; Lu, Lihua; Lu, Haorong; Hou, Yong; Zhu, Shida; Liu, Xin; Sun, Yinghao; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Wu, Kui; Xu, Xun; Lee, Leo J

    2017-05-01

    With the advancement of second generation sequencing techniques, our ability to detect and quantify RNA editing on a global scale has been vastly improved. As a result, RNA editing is now being studied under a growing number of biological conditions so that its biochemical mechanisms and functional roles can be further understood. However, a major barrier that prevents RNA editing from being a routine RNA-seq analysis, similar to gene expression and splicing analysis, for example, is the lack of user-friendly and effective computational tools. Based on years of experience of analyzing RNA editing using diverse RNA-seq datasets, we have developed a software tool, RED-ML: RNA Editing Detection based on Machine learning (pronounced as "red ML"). The input to RED-ML can be as simple as a single BAM file, while it can also take advantage of matched genomic variant information when available. The output not only contains detected RNA editing sites, but also a confidence score to facilitate downstream filtering. We have carefully designed validation experiments and performed extensive comparison and analysis to show the efficiency and effectiveness of RED-ML under different conditions, and it can accurately detect novel RNA editing sites without relying on curated RNA editing databases. We have also made this tool freely available via GitHub . We have developed a highly accurate, speedy and general-purpose tool for RNA editing detection using RNA-seq data. With the availability of RED-ML, it is now possible to conveniently make RNA editing a routine analysis of RNA-seq. We believe this can greatly benefit the RNA editing research community and has profound impact to accelerate our understanding of this intriguing posttranscriptional modification process. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. APOBEC3A cytidine deaminase induces RNA editing in monocytes and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shraddha; Patnaik, Santosh K.; Thomas Taggart, R.; Kannisto, Eric D.; Enriquez, Sally M.; Gollnick, Paul; Baysal, Bora E.

    2015-01-01

    The extent, regulation and enzymatic basis of RNA editing by cytidine deamination are incompletely understood. Here we show that transcripts of hundreds of genes undergo site-specific C>U RNA editing in macrophages during M1 polarization and in monocytes in response to hypoxia and interferons. This editing alters the amino acid sequences for scores of proteins, including many that are involved in pathogenesis of viral diseases. APOBEC3A, which is known to deaminate cytidines of single-stranded DNA and to inhibit viruses and retrotransposons, mediates this RNA editing. Amino acid residues of APOBEC3A that are known to be required for its DNA deamination and anti-retrotransposition activities were also found to affect its RNA deamination activity. Our study demonstrates the cellular RNA editing activity of a member of the APOBEC3 family of innate restriction factors and expands the understanding of C>U RNA editing in mammals. PMID:25898173

  11. APOBEC3A cytidine deaminase induces RNA editing in monocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shraddha; Patnaik, Santosh K; Taggart, R Thomas; Kannisto, Eric D; Enriquez, Sally M; Gollnick, Paul; Baysal, Bora E

    2015-04-21

    The extent, regulation and enzymatic basis of RNA editing by cytidine deamination are incompletely understood. Here we show that transcripts of hundreds of genes undergo site-specific C>U RNA editing in macrophages during M1 polarization and in monocytes in response to hypoxia and interferons. This editing alters the amino acid sequences for scores of proteins, including many that are involved in pathogenesis of viral diseases. APOBEC3A, which is known to deaminate cytidines of single-stranded DNA and to inhibit viruses and retrotransposons, mediates this RNA editing. Amino acid residues of APOBEC3A that are known to be required for its DNA deamination and anti-retrotransposition activities were also found to affect its RNA deamination activity. Our study demonstrates the cellular RNA editing activity of a member of the APOBEC3 family of innate restriction factors and expands the understanding of C>U RNA editing in mammals.

  12. The mRNA-edited form of GABRA3 suppresses GABRA3-mediated Akt activation and breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Gumireddy, Kiranmai; Li, Anping; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Sakurai, Masayuki; Yan, Jinchun; Li, Yan; Xu, Hua; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Paul J; Zhang, Lin; Showe, Louise C; Nishikura, Kazuko; Huang, Qihong

    2016-02-12

    Metastasis is a critical event affecting breast cancer patient survival. To identify molecules contributing to the metastatic process, we analysed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast cancer data and identified 41 genes whose expression is inversely correlated with survival. Here we show that GABAA receptor alpha3 (Gabra3), normally exclusively expressed in adult brain, is also expressed in breast cancer, with high expression of Gabra3 being inversely correlated with breast cancer survival. We demonstrate that Gabra3 activates the AKT pathway to promote breast cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Importantly, we find an A-to-I RNA-edited form of Gabra3 only in non-invasive breast cancers and show that edited Gabra3 suppresses breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. A-to-I-edited Gabra3 has reduced cell surface expression and suppresses the activation of AKT required for cell migration and invasion. Our study demonstrates a significant role for mRNA-edited Gabra3 in breast cancer metastasis.

  13. The mRNA-edited form of GABRA3 suppresses GABRA3-mediated Akt activation and breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gumireddy, Kiranmai; Li, Anping; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Sakurai, Masayuki; Yan, Jinchun; Li, Yan; Xu, Hua; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Paul J.; Zhang, Lin; Showe, Louise C.; Nishikura, Kazuko; Huang, Qihong

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is a critical event affecting breast cancer patient survival. To identify molecules contributing to the metastatic process, we analysed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast cancer data and identified 41 genes whose expression is inversely correlated with survival. Here we show that GABAA receptor alpha3 (Gabra3), normally exclusively expressed in adult brain, is also expressed in breast cancer, with high expression of Gabra3 being inversely correlated with breast cancer survival. We demonstrate that Gabra3 activates the AKT pathway to promote breast cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Importantly, we find an A-to-I RNA-edited form of Gabra3 only in non-invasive breast cancers and show that edited Gabra3 suppresses breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. A-to-I-edited Gabra3 has reduced cell surface expression and suppresses the activation of AKT required for cell migration and invasion. Our study demonstrates a significant role for mRNA-edited Gabra3 in breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26869349

  14. A unique gene expression signature associated with serotonin 2C receptor RNA editing in the prefrontal cortex and altered in suicide.

    PubMed

    Di Narzo, Antonio Fabio; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Roussos, Panos; Hao, Ke; Hurd, Yasmin; Lewis, David A; Sibille, Etienne; Siever, Larry J; Koonin, Eugene; Dracheva, Stella

    2014-09-15

    Editing of the pre-mRNA for the serotonin receptor 2C (5-HT2CR) by site-specific adenosine deamination (A-to-I pre-mRNA editing) substantially increases the functional plasticity of this key neurotransmitter receptor and is thought to contribute to homeostatic mechanisms in neurons. 5-HT2CR mRNA editing generates up to 24 different receptor isoforms. The extent of editing correlates with 5-HT2CR functional activity: more highly edited isoforms exhibit the least function. Altered 5-HT2CR editing has been reported in postmortem brains of suicide victims. We report a comparative analysis of the connections among 5-HT2CR editing, genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation in suicide victims, individuals with major depressive disorder and non-psychiatric controls. The results confirm previous findings of an overrepresentation of highly edited mRNA variants (which encode hypoactive 5-HT2CR receptors) in the brains of suicide victims. A large set of genes for which the expression level is associated with editing was detected. This signature set of editing-associated genes is significantly enriched for genes that are involved in synaptic transmission, genes that are preferentially expressed in neurons, and genes whose expression is correlated with the level of DNA methylation. Notably, we report that the link between 5-HT2CR editing and gene expression is disrupted in suicide victims. The results suggest that the postulated homeostatic function of 5-HT2CR editing is dysregulated in individuals who committed suicide.

  15. A unique gene expression signature associated with serotonin 2C receptor RNA editing in the prefrontal cortex and altered in suicide

    PubMed Central

    Di Narzo, Antonio Fabio; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Roussos, Panos; Hao, Ke; Hurd, Yasmin; Lewis, David A.; Sibille, Etienne; Siever, Larry J.; Koonin, Eugene; Dracheva, Stella

    2014-01-01

    Editing of the pre-mRNA for the serotonin receptor 2C (5-HT2CR) by site-specific adenosine deamination (A-to-I pre-mRNA editing) substantially increases the functional plasticity of this key neurotransmitter receptor and is thought to contribute to homeostatic mechanisms in neurons. 5-HT2CR mRNA editing generates up to 24 different receptor isoforms. The extent of editing correlates with 5-HT2CR functional activity: more highly edited isoforms exhibit the least function. Altered 5-HT2CR editing has been reported in postmortem brains of suicide victims. We report a comparative analysis of the connections among 5-HT2CR editing, genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation in suicide victims, individuals with major depressive disorder and non-psychiatric controls. The results confirm previous findings of an overrepresentation of highly edited mRNA variants (which encode hypoactive 5-HT2CR receptors) in the brains of suicide victims. A large set of genes for which the expression level is associated with editing was detected. This signature set of editing-associated genes is significantly enriched for genes that are involved in synaptic transmission, genes that are preferentially expressed in neurons, and genes whose expression is correlated with the level of DNA methylation. Notably, we report that the link between 5-HT2CR editing and gene expression is disrupted in suicide victims. The results suggest that the postulated homeostatic function of 5-HT2CR editing is dysregulated in individuals who committed suicide. PMID:24781207

  16. Trans-splicing and RNA editing of LSU rRNA in Diplonema mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Valach, Matus; Moreira, Sandrine; Kiethega, Georgette N.; Burger, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) often display reduced size and deviant secondary structure, and sometimes are fragmented, as are their corresponding genes. Here we report a mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mt-LSU rRNA) with unprecedented features. In the protist Diplonema, the rnl gene is split into two pieces (modules 1 and 2, 534- and 352-nt long) that are encoded by distinct mitochondrial chromosomes, yet the rRNA is continuous. To reconstruct the post-transcriptional maturation pathway of this rRNA, we have catalogued transcript intermediates by deep RNA sequencing and RT-PCR. Gene modules are transcribed separately. Subsequently, transcripts are end-processed, the module-1 transcript is polyuridylated and the module-2 transcript is polyadenylated. The two modules are joined via trans-splicing that retains at the junction ∼26 uridines, resulting in an extent of insertion RNA editing not observed before in any system. The A-tail of trans-spliced molecules is shorter than that of mono-module 2, and completely absent from mitoribosome-associated mt-LSU rRNA. We also characterize putative antisense transcripts. Antisense-mono-modules corroborate bi-directional transcription of chromosomes. Antisense-mt-LSU rRNA, if functional, has the potential of guiding concomitantly trans-splicing and editing of this rRNA. Together, these findings open a window on the investigation of complex regulatory networks that orchestrate multiple and biochemically diverse post-transcriptional events. PMID:24259427

  17. PREPACT 2.0: Predicting C-to-U and U-to-C RNA Editing in Organelle Genome Sequences with Multiple References and Curated RNA Editing Annotation

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Henning; Knoop, Volker

    2013-01-01

    RNA editing is vast in some genetic systems, with up to thousands of targeted C-to-U and U-to-C substitutions in mitochondria and chloroplasts of certain plants. Efficient prognoses of RNA editing in organelle genomes will help to reveal overlooked cases of editing. We present PREPACT 2.0 (http://www.prepact.de) with numerous enhancements of our previously developed Plant RNA Editing Prediction & Analysis Computer Tool. Reference organelle transcriptomes for editing prediction have been extended and reorganized to include 19 curated mitochondrial and 13 chloroplast genomes, now allowing to distinguish RNA editing sites from “pre-edited” sites. Queries may be run against multiple references and a new “commons” function identifies and highlights orthologous candidate editing sites congruently predicted by multiple references. Enhancements to the BLASTX mode in PREPACT 2.0 allow querying of complete novel organelle genomes within a few minutes, identifying protein genes and candidate RNA editing sites simultaneously without prior user analyses. PMID:23362369

  18. A new Ebola virus nonstructural glycoprotein expressed through RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Mehedi, Masfique; Falzarano, Darryl; Seebach, Jochen; Hu, Xiaojie; Carpenter, Michael S; Schnittler, Hans-Joachim; Feldmann, Heinz

    2011-06-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV), an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus, causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. The EBOV glycoprotein (GP) gene encodes the nonstructural soluble glycoprotein (sGP) but also produces the transmembrane glycoprotein (GP₁,₂) through transcriptional editing. A third GP gene product, a small soluble glycoprotein (ssGP), has long been postulated to be produced also as a result of transcriptional editing. To identify and characterize the expression of this new EBOV protein, we first analyzed the relative ratio of GP gene-derived transcripts produced during infection in vitro (in Vero E6 cells or Huh7 cells) and in vivo (in mice). The average percentages of transcripts encoding sGP, GP₁,₂, and ssGP were approximately 70, 25, and 5%, respectively, indicating that ssGP transcripts are indeed produced via transcriptional editing. N-terminal sequence similarity with sGP, the absence of distinguishing antibodies, and the abundance of sGP made it difficult to identify ssGP through conventional methodology. Optimized 2-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis analyses finally verified the expression and secretion of ssGP in tissue culture during EBOV infection. Biochemical analysis of recombinant ssGP characterized this protein as a disulfide-linked homodimer that was exclusively N glycosylated. In conclusion, we have identified and characterized a new EBOV nonstructural glycoprotein, which is expressed as a result of transcriptional editing of the GP gene. While ssGP appears to share similar structural properties with sGP, it does not appear to have the same anti-inflammatory function on endothelial cells as sGP.

  19. RNA editing in Drosophila melanogaster: new targets and functionalconsequences

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, Mark; Carlson, Joseph W.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2006-09-05

    Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the site-specific conversion of adenosine to inosine in primary mRNA transcripts. These re-coding events affect coding potential, splice-sites, and stability of mature mRNAs. ADAR is an essential gene and studies in mouse, C. elegans, and Drosophila suggest its primary function is to modify adult behavior by altering signaling components in the nervous system. By comparing the sequence of isogenic cDNAs to genomic DNA, we have identified and experimentally verified 27 new targets of Drosophila ADAR. Our analyses lead us to identify new classes of genes whose transcripts are targets of ADAR including components of the actin cytoskeleton, and genes involved in ion homeostasis and signal transduction. Our results indicate that editing in Drosophila increases the diversity of the proteome, and does so in a manner that has direct functional consequences on protein function.

  20. Abundant and selective RNA-editing events in the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingjie; Luo, Hongmei; Zhang, Xin; Song, Jingyuan; Sun, Chao; Ji, Aijia; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Shilin

    2014-04-01

    RNA editing is a widespread, post-transcriptional molecular phenomenon that diversifies hereditary information across various organisms. However, little is known about genome-scale RNA editing in fungi. In this study, we screened for fungal RNA editing sites at the genomic level in Ganoderma lucidum, a valuable medicinal fungus. On the basis of our pipeline that predicted the editing sites from genomic and transcriptomic data, a total of 8906 possible RNA-editing sites were identified within the G. lucidum genome, including the exon and intron sequences and the 5'-/3'-untranslated regions of 2991 genes and the intergenic regions. The major editing types included C-to-U, A-to-G, G-to-A, and U-to-C conversions. Four putative RNA-editing enzymes were identified, including three adenosine deaminases acting on transfer RNA and a deoxycytidylate deaminase. The genes containing RNA-editing sites were functionally classified by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment and gene ontology analysis. The key functional groupings enriched for RNA-editing sites included laccase genes involved in lignin degradation, key enzymes involved in triterpenoid biosynthesis, and transcription factors. A total of 97 putative editing sites were randomly selected and validated by using PCR and Sanger sequencing. We presented an accurate and large-scale identification of RNA-editing events in G. lucidum, providing global and quantitative cataloging of RNA editing in the fungal genome. This study will shed light on the role of transcriptional plasticity in the growth and development of G. lucidum, as well as its adaptation to the environment and the regulation of valuable secondary metabolite pathways.

  1. Mitochondrial tRNA 5′-Editing in Dictyostelium discoideum and Polysphondylium pallidum*

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Maria G.; Long, Yicheng; Kinchen, R. Dimitri; Schindel, Elinor T.; Gray, Michael W.; Jackman, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA) 5′-editing was first described more than 20 years ago; however, the first candidates for 5′-editing enzymes were only recently identified in a eukaryotic microbe (protist), the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. In this organism, eight of 18 mt-tRNAs are predicted to be edited based on the presence of genomically encoded mismatched nucleotides in their aminoacyl-acceptor stem sequences. Here, we demonstrate that mt-tRNA 5′-editing occurs at all predicted sites in D. discoideum as evidenced by changes in the sequences of isolated mt-tRNAs compared with the expected sequences encoded by the mitochondrial genome. We also identify two previously unpredicted editing events in which G-U base pairs are edited in the absence of any other genomically encoded mismatches. A comparison of 5′-editing in D. discoideum with 5′-editing in another slime mold, Polysphondylium pallidum, suggests organism-specific idiosyncrasies in the treatment of U-G/G-U pairs. In vitro activities of putative D. discoideum editing enzymes are consistent with the observed editing reactions and suggest an overall lack of tRNA substrate specificity exhibited by the repair component of the editing enzyme. Although the presence of terminal mismatches in mt-tRNA sequences is highly predictive of the occurrence of mt-tRNA 5′-editing, the variability in treatment of U-G/G-U base pairs observed here indicates that direct experimental evidence of 5′-editing must be obtained to understand the complete spectrum of mt-tRNA editing events in any species. PMID:24737330

  2. RNA-d2: a computer program for editing and display of RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Perochon-Dorisse, J; Chetouani, F; Aurel, S; Iscolo, N; Michot, B

    1995-02-01

    RNA-d2 is a user-friendly program developed for interactively generating aesthetic and non-overlapping drawings of RNA secondary structures. It designed so that the drawings can be edited in a very natural and intuitive way, in order to emphasize structural homologies between several molecules, as well as the foldings themselves to update the base-pair sets according to new data. The program automatically produces a polygonal display in which the unpaired nucleotides are regularly positioned on circles and the stems harmoniously distributed on their periphery. RNA secondary structures can be encoded via the keyboard, but the program also automatically draws output files from thermodynamic prediction programs. The user interacts directly on different screen displays according to the editing functions. Rotation/translation of any subdomain and deletion of stems are performed on a coloured backbone view to make easier the identification of structural features, whereas addition of new base-pairings and numbering manipulation are realized on a complete polygonal view. Each modification is displayed in real time on the screen. When the display is obscured by numerous overlaps despite the colour code of the backbone view, an automatic function progressively straightens the subdomains which are highly compacted by very dissymmetric internal loops. RNA-d2 allows easy untangling and editing of RNA molecules > 1000 nucleotides long.

  3. microRNA editing in seed region aligns with cellular changes in hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Nigita, Giovanni; Acunzo, Mario; Romano, Giulia; Veneziano, Dario; Laganà, Alessandro; Vitiello, Marika; Wernicke, Dorothee; Ferro, Alfredo; Croce, Carlo M

    2016-07-27

    RNA editing is a finely tuned, dynamic mechanism for post-transcriptional gene regulation that has been thoroughly investigated in the last decade. Nevertheless, RNA editing in non-coding RNA, such as microRNA (miRNA), have caused great debate and have called for deeper investigation. Until recently, in fact, inadequate methodologies and experimental contexts have been unable to provide detailed insights for further elucidation of RNA editing affecting miRNAs, especially in cancer.In this work, we leverage on recent innovative bioinformatics approaches applied to a more informative experimental context in order to analyze the variations in miRNA seed region editing activity during a time course of a hypoxia-exposed breast cancer cell line. By investigating its behavior in a dynamic context, we found that miRNA editing events in the seed region are not depended on miRNA expression, unprecedentedly providing insights on the targetome shifts derived from these modifications. This reveals that miRNA editing acts under the influence of environmentally induced stimuli.Our results show a miRNA editing activity trend aligning with cellular pathways closely associated to hypoxia, such as the VEGF and PI3K/Akt pathways, providing important novel insights on this poorly elucidated phenomenon.

  4. Two RNA recognition motif-containing proteins are plant mitochondrial editing factors

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaowen; Hanson, Maureen R.; Bentolila, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional C-to-U RNA editing occurs in plant plastid and mitochondrial transcripts. Members of the Arabidopsis RNA-editing factor interacting protein (RIP) family and ORRM1 (Organelle RNA Recognition Motif-containing protein 1) have been recently characterized as essential components of the chloroplast RNA editing apparatus. ORRM1 belongs to a distinct clade of RNA Recognition Motif (RRM)-containing proteins, most of which are predicted to be organelle-targeted. Here we report the identification of two proteins, ORRM2 (organelle RRM protein 2) and ORRM3 (organelle RRM protein 3), as the first members of the ORRM clade to be identified as mitochondrial editing factors. Transient silencing of ORRM2 and ORRM3 resulted in reduced editing efficiency at ∼6% of the mitochondrial C targets. In addition to an RRM domain at the N terminus, ORRM3 carries a glycine-rich domain at the C terminus. The N-terminal RRM domain by itself provides the editing activity of ORRM3. In yeast-two hybrid assays, ORRM3 interacts with RIP1, ORRM2 and with itself. Transient silencing of ORRM2 in the orrm3 mutant further impairs the editing activity at sites controlled by both ORRM2 and ORRM3. Identification of the effect of ORRM2 and ORRM3 on RNA editing reveals a previously undescribed role of RRM-containing proteins as mitochondrial RNA editing factors. PMID:25800738

  5. Rewriting the information in DNA: RNA editing in kinetoplastids and myxomycetes.

    PubMed

    Horton, Tamara L; Landweber, Laura F

    2002-12-01

    RNA editing has a major impact on the genes and genomes that it modifies. Editing by insertion, deletion and base conversion exists in nuclear, mitochondrial and viral genomes throughout the eukaryotic lineage. Editing was first discovered in kinetoplastids, and recent work has resulted in the characterization of some components of the editing machinery. Two proteins with ligase activity have been identified in Trypanosoma brucei, and other proteins in the editosome complex are yielding to the probe of research. A second group of protists, myxomycetes, are unique in their use of four different types of editing within a single transcript. Phylogenetic analysis of editing in representative myxomycetes revealed a different history of the four types of editing in this lineage. Development of a soluble in vitro editing system has provided further support for the co-transcriptional nature of editing in Physarum polycephalum, and will certainly provide future opportunities for understanding this mysterious process.

  6. How do ADARs bind RNA? New protein-RNA structures illuminate substrate recognition by the RNA editing ADARs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Justin M; Beal, Peter A

    2017-04-01

    Deamination of adenosine in RNA to form inosine has wide ranging consequences on RNA function including amino acid substitution to give proteins not encoded in the genome. What determines which adenosines in an mRNA are subject to this modification reaction? The answer lies in an understanding of the mechanism and substrate recognition properties of adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs). Our recent publication of X-ray crystal structures of the human ADAR2 deaminase domain bound to RNA editing substrates shed considerable light on how the catalytic domains of these enzymes bind RNA and promote adenosine deamination. Here we review in detail the deaminase domain-RNA contact surfaces and present models of how full length ADARs, bearing double stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) and deaminase domains, could process naturally occurring substrate RNAs.

  7. Native Variants of the MRB1 Complex Exhibit Specialized Functions in Kinetoplastid RNA Editing.

    PubMed

    Madina, Bhaskara R; Kumar, Vikas; Mooers, Blaine H M; Cruz-Reyes, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation and survival of Trypanosoma brucei requires editing of mitochondrial mRNA by uridylate (U) insertion and deletion. Hundreds of small guide RNAs (gRNAs) direct the mRNA editing at over 3,000 sites. RNA editing is controlled during the life cycle but the regulation of substrate and stage specificity remains unknown. Editing progresses in the 3' to 5' direction along the pre-mRNA in blocks, each targeted by a unique gRNA. A critical editing factor is the mitochondrial RNA binding complex 1 (MRB1) that binds gRNA and transiently interacts with the catalytic RNA editing core complex (RECC). MRB1 is a large and dynamic complex that appears to be comprised of distinct but related subcomplexes (termed here MRBs). MRBs seem to share a 'core' complex of proteins but differ in the composition of the 'variable' proteins. Since some proteins associate transiently the MRBs remain imprecisely defined. MRB1 controls editing by unknown mechanisms, and the functional relevance of the different MRBs is unclear. We previously identified two distinct MRBs, and showed that they carry mRNAs that undergo editing. We proposed that editing takes place in the MRBs because MRBs stably associate with mRNA and gRNA but only transiently interact with RECC, which is RNA free. Here, we identify the first specialized functions in MRBs: 1) 3010-MRB is a major scaffold for RNA editing, and 2) REH2-MRB contains a critical trans-acting RNA helicase (REH2) that affects multiple steps of editing function in 3010-MRB. These trans effects of the REH2 include loading of unedited mRNA and editing in the first block and in subsequent blocks as editing progresses. REH2 binds its own MRB via RNA, and conserved domains in REH2 were critical for REH2 to associate with the RNA and protein components of its MRB. Importantly, REH2 associates with a ~30 kDa RNA-binding protein in a novel ~15S subcomplex in RNA-depleted mitochondria. We use these new results to update our model of MRB function and

  8. Parallel Evolution and Lineage-Specific Expansion of RNA Editing in Ctenophores.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Andrea B; Sanford, Rachel S; Yoshida, Masa-aki; Moroz, Leonid L

    2015-12-01

    RNA editing is a process of targeted alterations of nucleotides in all types of RNA molecules (e.g., rRNA, tRNA, mRNA, and miRNA). As a result, the transcriptional output differs from its genomic DNA template. RNA editing can be defined both by biochemical mechanisms and by enzymes that perform these reactions. There are high levels of RNA editing detected in the mammalian nervous system, suggesting that nervous systems use this mechanism to increase protein diversity, because the post-transcription modifications lead to new gene products with novel functions. By re-annotating the ctenophore genomes, we found that the number of predicted RNA-editing enzymes is comparable to the numbers in mammals, but much greater than in other non-bilaterian basal metazoans. However, the overall molecular diversity of RNA-editing enzymes in ctenophores is lower, suggesting a possible "compensation" by an expansion of the ADAT1-like subfamily in this lineage. In two genera of ctenophores, Pleurobrachia and Mnemiopsis, there are high levels of expression for RNA-editing enzymes in their aboral organs, the integrative center involved in control of locomotion and geotaxis. This finding supports the hypothesis that RNA editing is correlated with the complexity of tissues and behaviors. Smaller numbers of RNA-editing enzymes in Porifera and Placozoa also correlates with the primary absence of neural and muscular systems in these lineages. In ctenophores, the expansion of the RNA-editing machinery can also provide mechanisms that support the remarkable capacity for regeneration in these animals. In summary, despite their compact genomes, a wide variety of epigenomic mechanisms employed by ctenophores and other non-bilaterian basal metazoans can provide novel insights into the evolutionary origins of biological novelties. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please

  9. Parallel Evolution and Lineage-Specific Expansion of RNA Editing in Ctenophores

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Andrea B.; Sanford, Rachel S.; Yoshida, Masa-aki; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2015-01-01

    RNA editing is a process of targeted alterations of nucleotides in all types of RNA molecules (e.g., rRNA, tRNA, mRNA, and miRNA). As a result, the transcriptional output differs from its genomic DNA template. RNA editing can be defined both by biochemical mechanisms and by enzymes that perform these reactions. There are high levels of RNA editing detected in the mammalian nervous system, suggesting that nervous systems use this mechanism to increase protein diversity, because the post-transcription modifications lead to new gene products with novel functions. By re-annotating the ctenophore genomes, we found that the number of predicted RNA-editing enzymes is comparable to the numbers in mammals, but much greater than in other non-bilaterian basal metazoans. However, the overall molecular diversity of RNA-editing enzymes in ctenophores is lower, suggesting a possible “compensation” by an expansion of the ADAT1-like subfamily in this lineage. In two genera of ctenophores, Pleurobrachia and Mnemiopsis, there are high levels of expression for RNA-editing enzymes in their aboral organs, the integrative center involved in control of locomotion and geotaxis. This finding supports the hypothesis that RNA editing is correlated with the complexity of tissues and behaviors. Smaller numbers of RNA-editing enzymes in Porifera and Placozoa also correlates with the primary absence of neural and muscular systems in these lineages. In ctenophores, the expansion of the RNA-editing machinery can also provide mechanisms that support the remarkable capacity for regeneration in these animals. In summary, despite their compact genomes, a wide variety of epigenomic mechanisms employed by ctenophores and other non-bilaterian basal metazoans can provide novel insights into the evolutionary origins of biological novelties. PMID:26089435

  10. TbRGG2 facilitates kinetoplastid RNA editing initiation and progression past intrinsic pause sites.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Michelle L; Presnyak, Vladimir; Fisk, John C; Foda, Bardees M; Read, Laurie K

    2010-11-01

    TbRGG2 is an essential kinetoplastid RNA editing accessory factor that acts specifically on pan-edited RNAs. To understand the mechanism of TbRGG2 action, we undertook an in-depth analysis of edited RNA populations in TbRGG2 knockdown cells and an in vitro examination of the biochemical activities of the protein. We demonstrate that TbRGG2 down-regulation more severely impacts editing at the 5' ends of pan-edited RNAs than at their 3' ends. The initiation of editing is reduced to some extent in TbRGG2 knockdown cells. In addition, TbRGG2 plays a post-initiation role as editing becomes stalled in TbRGG2-depleted cells, resulting in an overall decrease in the 3' to 5' progression of editing. Detailed analyses of edited RNAs from wild-type and TbRGG2-depleted cells reveal that TbRGG2 facilitates progression of editing past intrinsic pause sites that often correspond to the 3' ends of cognate guide RNAs (gRNAs). In addition, noncanonically edited junction regions are either absent or significantly shortened in TbRGG2-depleted cells, consistent with impaired gRNA transitions. Sequence analysis further suggests that TbRGG2 facilitates complete utilization of certain gRNAs. In vitro RNA annealing and in vivo RNA unwinding assays demonstrate that TbRGG2 can modulate RNA-RNA interactions. Collectively, these data are consistent with a model in which TbRGG2 facilitates initiation and 3' to 5' progression of editing through its ability to affect gRNA utilization, both during the transition between specific gRNAs and during usage of certain gRNAs.

  11. RNA editing in bryophytes and a molecular phylogeny of land plants.

    PubMed Central

    Malek, O; Lättig, K; Hiesel, R; Brennicke, A; Knoop, V

    1996-01-01

    RNA editing has been observed to date in all groups of vascular plants, but not in bryophytes. Its occurrence was therefore assumed to correlate with the evolution of tracheophytes. To gain more insight into both the phylogeny of early land plants and the evolution of mitochondrial RNA editing we have investigated a number of vascular and non-vascular plant species. Contrary to the belief that editing is absent from bryophytes, here we report mitochondrial RNA editing in cox3 mRNA of the liverwort Pellia epiphylla, the mosses Tetraphis pellucida and Ceratodon purpureus and the hornwort Anthroceros crispulus. RNA editing in plants consequently predates the evolution of tracheophytes. Editing is also found in the eusporangiate ferns Ophioglossum petiolatum and Angiopteris palmiformis, the whisk fern Tmesipteris elongata and the gnetopsid Ephedra gerardiana, but was not detected in Gnetum gnemon.cox3 mRNA of the lycopsid Isoetes lacustris shows the highest frequency of RNA editing ever observed in a plant, with 39% of all cytidine residues converted to uridines. The frequency of RNA editing correlates with the genomic GC content rather than with the phylogenetic position of a species. Phylogenetic trees derived from the slowly evolving mitochondrial sequences find external support from the assessments of classical systematics. Images PMID:8635473

  12. Extra Double-stranded RNA Binding Domain (dsRBD) in a Squid RNA Editing Enzyme Confers Resistance to High Salt Environment*

    PubMed Central

    Palavicini, Juan Pablo; Correa-Rojas, Rodrigo A.; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.

    2012-01-01

    A-to-I RNA editing is particularly common in coding regions of squid mRNAs. Previously, we isolated a squid editing enzyme (sqADAR2) that shows a unique structural feature when compared with other ADAR2 family members: an additional double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding domain (dsRBD). Alternative splicing includes or excludes this motif, generating a novel or a conventional variant termed sqADAR2a and sqADAR2b, respectively. The extra dsRBD of sqADAR2a increases its editing activity in vitro. We hypothesized that the high activity is due to an increase in the affinity of the enzyme for dsRNA. This may be important because protein-RNA interactions can be influenced by physical factors. We became particularly interested in analyzing the effects of salt on interactions between sqADAR2 and RNA because squid cells have a ∼3-fold higher ionic strength and proportionally more Cl− than vertebrate cells. To date, in vitro biochemical analyses of adenosine deamination have been conducted using vertebrate-like ionic strength buffers containing chloride as the major anion, although the vast majority of cellular anions are known to be organic. We found that squid-like salt conditions severely impair the binding affinity of conventional ADAR2s for dsRNA, leading to a decrease in nonspecific and site-specific editing activity. Inhibition of editing was mostly due to high Cl− levels and not to the high concentrations of K+, Na+, and organic anions like glutamate. Interestingly, the extra dsRBD in sqADAR2a conferred resistance to the high Cl− levels found in squid neurons. It does so by increasing the affinity of sqADAR2 for dsRNA by 30- or 100-fold in vertebrate-like or squid-like conditions, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis of squid ADAR2a showed that its increased affinity and editing activity are directly attributable to the RNA binding activity of the extra dsRBD. PMID:22457361

  13. Extra double-stranded RNA binding domain (dsRBD) in a squid RNA editing enzyme confers resistance to high salt environment.

    PubMed

    Palavicini, Juan Pablo; Correa-Rojas, Rodrigo A; Rosenthal, Joshua J C

    2012-05-18

    A-to-I RNA editing is particularly common in coding regions of squid mRNAs. Previously, we isolated a squid editing enzyme (sqADAR2) that shows a unique structural feature when compared with other ADAR2 family members: an additional double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding domain (dsRBD). Alternative splicing includes or excludes this motif, generating a novel or a conventional variant termed sqADAR2a and sqADAR2b, respectively. The extra dsRBD of sqADAR2a increases its editing activity in vitro. We hypothesized that the high activity is due to an increase in the affinity of the enzyme for dsRNA. This may be important because protein-RNA interactions can be influenced by physical factors. We became particularly interested in analyzing the effects of salt on interactions between sqADAR2 and RNA because squid cells have a ∼3-fold higher ionic strength and proportionally more Cl(-) than vertebrate cells. To date, in vitro biochemical analyses of adenosine deamination have been conducted using vertebrate-like ionic strength buffers containing chloride as the major anion, although the vast majority of cellular anions are known to be organic. We found that squid-like salt conditions severely impair the binding affinity of conventional ADAR2s for dsRNA, leading to a decrease in nonspecific and site-specific editing activity. Inhibition of editing was mostly due to high Cl(-) levels and not to the high concentrations of K(+), Na(+), and organic anions like glutamate. Interestingly, the extra dsRBD in sqADAR2a conferred resistance to the high Cl(-) levels found in squid neurons. It does so by increasing the affinity of sqADAR2 for dsRNA by 30- or 100-fold in vertebrate-like or squid-like conditions, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis of squid ADAR2a showed that its increased affinity and editing activity are directly attributable to the RNA binding activity of the extra dsRBD.

  14. Accurate detection for a wide range of mutation and editing sites of microRNAs from small RNA high-throughput sequencing profiles

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yun; Ji, Bo; Song, Renhua; Wang, Shengpeng; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xiaotuo; Chen, Kun; Li, Tianqing; Li, Jinyan

    2016-01-01

    Various types of mutation and editing (M/E) events in microRNAs (miRNAs) can change the stabilities of pre-miRNAs and/or complementarities between miRNAs and their targets. Small RNA (sRNA) high-throughput sequencing (HTS) profiles can contain many mutated and edited miRNAs. Systematic detection of miRNA mutation and editing sites from the huge volume of sRNA HTS profiles is computationally difficult, as high sensitivity and low false positive rate (FPR) are both required. We propose a novel method (named MiRME) for an accurate and fast detection of miRNA M/E sites using a progressive sequence alignment approach which refines sensitivity and improves FPR step-by-step. From 70 sRNA HTS profiles with over 1.3 billion reads, MiRME has detected thousands of statistically significant M/E sites, including 3′-editing sites, 57 A-to-I editing sites (of which 32 are novel), as well as some putative non-canonical editing sites. We demonstrated that a few non-canonical editing sites were not resulted from mutations in genome by integrating the analysis of genome HTS profiles of two human cell lines, suggesting the existence of new editing types to further diversify the functions of miRNAs. Compared with six existing studies or methods, MiRME has shown much superior performance for the identification and visualization of the M/E sites of miRNAs from the ever-increasing sRNA HTS profiles. PMID:27229138

  15. TbRGG2 facilitates kinetoplastid RNA editing initiation and progression past intrinsic pause sites

    PubMed Central

    Ammerman, Michelle L.; Presnyak, Vladimir; Fisk, John C.; Foda, Bardees M.; Read, Laurie K.

    2010-01-01

    TbRGG2 is an essential kinetoplastid RNA editing accessory factor that acts specifically on pan-edited RNAs. To understand the mechanism of TbRGG2 action, we undertook an in-depth analysis of edited RNA populations in TbRGG2 knockdown cells and an in vitro examination of the biochemical activities of the protein. We demonstrate that TbRGG2 down-regulation more severely impacts editing at the 5′ ends of pan-edited RNAs than at their 3′ ends. The initiation of editing is reduced to some extent in TbRGG2 knockdown cells. In addition, TbRGG2 plays a post-initiation role as editing becomes stalled in TbRGG2-depleted cells, resulting in an overall decrease in the 3′ to 5′ progression of editing. Detailed analyses of edited RNAs from wild-type and TbRGG2-depleted cells reveal that TbRGG2 facilitates progression of editing past intrinsic pause sites that often correspond to the 3′ ends of cognate guide RNAs (gRNAs). In addition, noncanonically edited junction regions are either absent or significantly shortened in TbRGG2-depleted cells, consistent with impaired gRNA transitions. Sequence analysis further suggests that TbRGG2 facilitates complete utilization of certain gRNAs. In vitro RNA annealing and in vivo RNA unwinding assays demonstrate that TbRGG2 can modulate RNA–RNA interactions. Collectively, these data are consistent with a model in which TbRGG2 facilitates initiation and 3′ to 5′ progression of editing through its ability to affect gRNA utilization, both during the transition between specific gRNAs and during usage of certain gRNAs. PMID:20855539

  16. Alu elements shape the primate transcriptome by cis-regulation of RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background RNA editing by adenosine to inosine deamination is a widespread phenomenon, particularly frequent in the human transcriptome, largely due to the presence of inverted Alu repeats and their ability to form double-stranded structures – a requisite for ADAR editing. While several hundred thousand editing sites have been identified within these primate-specific repeats, the function of Alu-editing has yet to be elucidated. Results We show that inverted Alu repeats, expressed in the primate brain, can induce site-selective editing in cis on sites located several hundred nucleotides from the Alu elements. Furthermore, a computational analysis, based on available RNA-seq data, finds that site-selective editing occurs significantly closer to edited Alu elements than expected. These targets are poorly edited upon deletion of the editing inducers, as well as in homologous transcripts from organisms lacking Alus. Sequences surrounding sites near edited Alus in UTRs, have been subjected to a lesser extent of evolutionary selection than those far from edited Alus, indicating that their editing generally depends on cis-acting Alus. Interestingly, we find an enrichment of primate-specific editing within encoded sequence or the UTRs of zinc finger-containing transcription factors. Conclusions We propose a model whereby primate-specific editing is induced by adjacent Alu elements that function as recruitment elements for the ADAR editing enzymes. The enrichment of site-selective editing with potentially functional consequences on the expression of transcription factors indicates that editing contributes more profoundly to the transcriptomic regulation and repertoire in primates than previously thought. PMID:24485196

  17. RNA editing sites exist in protein-coding genes in the chloroplast genome of Cycas taitungensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyan; Deng, Likun; Jiang, Yuan; Lu, Ping; Yu, Jianing

    2011-12-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that results in modifications of ribonucleotides at specific locations. In land plants editing can occur in both mitochondria and chloroplasts and most commonly involves C-to-U changes, especially in seed plants. Using prediction and experimental determination, we investigated RNA editing in 40 protein-coding genes from the chloroplast genome of Cycas taitungensis. A total of 85 editing sites were identified in 25 transcripts. Comparison analysis of the published editotypes of these 25 transcripts in eight species showed that RNA editing events gradually disappear during plant evolution. The editing in the first and third codon position disappeared quicker than that in the second codon position. ndh genes have the highest editing frequency while serine and proline codons were more frequently edited than the codons of other amino acids. These results imply that retained RNA editing sites have imbalanced distribution in genes and most of them may function by changing protein structure or interaction. Mitochondrion protein-coding genes have three times the editing sites compared with chloroplast genes of Cycas, most likely due to slower evolution speed.

  18. Identification and Analysis of RNA Editing Sites in the Chloroplast Transcripts of Aegilops tauschii L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengxing; Liu, Hui; Ge, Lingqiao; Xing, Guangwei; Wang, Meng; Weining, Song; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-12-30

    RNA editing is an important way to convert cytidine (C) to uridine (U) at specific sites within RNA molecules at a post-transcriptional level in the chloroplasts of higher plants. Although it has been systematically studied in many plants, little is known about RNA editing in the wheat D genome donor Aegilops tauschii L. Here, we investigated the chloroplast RNA editing of Ae. tauschii and compared it with other wheat relatives to trace the evolution of wheat. Through bioinformatics prediction, a total of 34 C-to-U editing sites were identified, 17 of which were validated using RT-PCR product sequencing. Furthermore, 60 sites were found by the RNA-Seq read mapping approach, 24 of which agreed with the prediction and six were validated experimentally. The editing sites were biased toward tCn or nCa trinucleotides and 5'-pyrimidines, which were consistent with the flanking bases of editing sites of other seed plants. Furthermore, the editing events could result in the alteration of the secondary structures and topologies of the corresponding proteins, suggesting that RNA editing might impact the function of target genes. Finally, comparative analysis found some evolutionarily conserved editing sites in wheat and two species-specific sites were also obtained. This study is the first to report on RNA editing in Aegilops tauschii L, which not only sheds light on the evolution of wheat from the point of view of RNA editing, but also lays a foundation for further studies to identify the mechanisms of C-to-U alterations.

  19. Identification and Analysis of RNA Editing Sites in the Chloroplast Transcripts of Aegilops tauschii L.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengxing; Liu, Hui; Ge, Lingqiao; Xing, Guangwei; Wang, Meng; Weining, Song; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing is an important way to convert cytidine (C) to uridine (U) at specific sites within RNA molecules at a post-transcriptional level in the chloroplasts of higher plants. Although it has been systematically studied in many plants, little is known about RNA editing in the wheat D genome donor Aegilops tauschii L. Here, we investigated the chloroplast RNA editing of Ae. tauschii and compared it with other wheat relatives to trace the evolution of wheat. Through bioinformatics prediction, a total of 34 C-to-U editing sites were identified, 17 of which were validated using RT-PCR product sequencing. Furthermore, 60 sites were found by the RNA-Seq read mapping approach, 24 of which agreed with the prediction and six were validated experimentally. The editing sites were biased toward tCn or nCa trinucleotides and 5′-pyrimidines, which were consistent with the flanking bases of editing sites of other seed plants. Furthermore, the editing events could result in the alteration of the secondary structures and topologies of the corresponding proteins, suggesting that RNA editing might impact the function of target genes. Finally, comparative analysis found some evolutionarily conserved editing sites in wheat and two species-specific sites were also obtained. This study is the first to report on RNA editing in Aegilops tauschii L, which not only sheds light on the evolution of wheat from the point of view of RNA editing, but also lays a foundation for further studies to identify the mechanisms of C-to-U alterations. PMID:28042823

  20. Adenosine Deaminase That Acts on RNA 3 (ADAR3) Binding to Glutamate Receptor Subunit B Pre-mRNA Inhibits RNA Editing in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Eimile; Anderson, Ashley; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron; Hundley, Heather A

    2017-03-10

    RNA editing is a cellular process that precisely alters nucleotide sequences, thus regulating gene expression and generating protein diversity. Over 60% of human transcripts undergo adenosine to inosine RNA editing, and editing is required for normal development and proper neuronal function of animals. Editing of one adenosine in the transcript encoding the glutamate receptor subunit B, glutamate receptor ionotropic AMPA 2 (GRIA2), modifies a codon, replacing the genomically encoded glutamine (Q) with arginine (R); thus this editing site is referred to as the Q/R site. Editing at the Q/R site of GRIA2 is essential, and reduced editing of GRIA2 transcripts has been observed in patients suffering from glioblastoma. In glioblastoma, incorporation of unedited GRIA2 subunits leads to a calcium-permeable glutamate receptor, which can promote cell migration and tumor invasion. In this study, we identify adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA 3 (ADAR3) as an important regulator of Q/R site editing, investigate its mode of action, and detect elevated ADAR3 expression in glioblastoma tumors compared with adjacent brain tissue. Overexpression of ADAR3 in astrocyte and astrocytoma cell lines inhibits RNA editing at the Q/R site of GRIA2 Furthermore, the double-stranded RNA binding domains of ADAR3 are required for repression of RNA editing. As the Q/R site of GRIA2 is specifically edited by ADAR2, we suggest that ADAR3 directly competes with ADAR2 for binding to GRIA2 transcript, inhibiting RNA editing, as evidenced by the direct binding of ADAR3 to the GRIA2 pre-mRNA. Finally, we provide evidence that both ADAR2 and ADAR3 expression contributes to the relative level of GRIA2 editing in tumors from patients suffering from glioblastoma. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Frequent chloroplast RNA editing in early-branching flowering plants: pilot studies on angiosperm-wide coexistence of editing sites and their nuclear specificity factors.

    PubMed

    Hein, Anke; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Knoop, Volker

    2016-01-25

    RNA editing by cytidine-to-uridine conversions is an essential step of RNA maturation in plant organelles. Some 30-50 sites of C-to-U RNA editing exist in chloroplasts of flowering plant models like Arabidopsis, rice or tobacco. We now predicted significantly more RNA editing in chloroplasts of early-branching angiosperm genera like Amborella, Calycanthus, Ceratophyllum, Chloranthus, Illicium, Liriodendron, Magnolia, Nuphar and Zingiber. Nuclear-encoded RNA-binding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are key editing factors expected to coevolve with their cognate RNA editing sites in the organelles. With an extensive chloroplast transcriptome study we identified 138 sites of RNA editing in Amborella trichopoda, approximately the 3- to 4-fold of cp editing in Arabidopsis thaliana or Oryza sativa. Selected cDNA studies in the other early-branching flowering plant taxa furthermore reveal a high diversity of early angiosperm RNA editomes. Many of the now identified editing sites in Amborella have orthologues in ferns, lycophytes or hornworts. We investigated the evolution of CRR28 and RARE1, two known Arabidopsis RNA editing factors responsible for cp editing events ndhBeU467PL, ndhDeU878SL and accDeU794SL, respectively, all of which we now found conserved in Amborella. In a phylogenetically wide sampling of 65 angiosperm genomes we find evidence for only one single loss of CRR28 in chickpea but several independent losses of RARE1, perfectly congruent with the presence of their cognate editing sites in the respective cpDNAs. Chloroplast RNA editing is much more abundant in early-branching than in widely investigated model flowering plants. RNA editing specificity factors can be traced back for more than 120 million years of angiosperm evolution and show highly divergent patterns of evolutionary losses, matching the presence of their target editing events.

  2. Reprogramming, Circular Reasoning and Self versus Non-self: One-Stop Shopping with RNA Editing

    PubMed Central

    Savva, Yiannis A.; Rezaei, Ali; St. Laurent, Georges; Reenan, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription of genetic information from archival DNA into RNA molecule working copies is vital for proper cellular function and is highly accurate. In turn, RNAs serve structural, enzymatic, and regulatory roles, as well as being informational templates for the ribosomal translation of proteins. Following RNA synthesis, maturing of RNA molecules occurs through various RNA processing events. One component of the collection of processes involving RNA species, broadly defined as RNA metabolism, is the RNA-editing pathway and is found in all animals. Acting specifically on RNA substrates with double-stranded character, RNA editing has been shown to regulate a plethora of genomic outputs, including gene recoding, RNA splicing, biogenesis and targeting actions of microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, and global gene expression. Recent evidence suggests that RNA modifications mediated via RNA editing influence the biogenesis of circular RNAs and safeguard against aberrant innate immune responses generated to endogenous RNA sources. These novel roles have the potential to contribute new insights into molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenesis mediated by mishandling of double-stranded RNA. Here, we discuss recent advances in the field, which highlight novel roles associated with the RNA-editing process and emphasize their importance during cellular RNA metabolism. In addition, we highlight the relevance of these newly discovered roles in the context of neurological disorders and the more general concept of innate recognition of self versus non-self. PMID:27458478

  3. Reprogramming, Circular Reasoning and Self versus Non-self: One-Stop Shopping with RNA Editing.

    PubMed

    Savva, Yiannis A; Rezaei, Ali; St Laurent, Georges; Reenan, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Transcription of genetic information from archival DNA into RNA molecule working copies is vital for proper cellular function and is highly accurate. In turn, RNAs serve structural, enzymatic, and regulatory roles, as well as being informational templates for the ribosomal translation of proteins. Following RNA synthesis, maturing of RNA molecules occurs through various RNA processing events. One component of the collection of processes involving RNA species, broadly defined as RNA metabolism, is the RNA-editing pathway and is found in all animals. Acting specifically on RNA substrates with double-stranded character, RNA editing has been shown to regulate a plethora of genomic outputs, including gene recoding, RNA splicing, biogenesis and targeting actions of microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, and global gene expression. Recent evidence suggests that RNA modifications mediated via RNA editing influence the biogenesis of circular RNAs and safeguard against aberrant innate immune responses generated to endogenous RNA sources. These novel roles have the potential to contribute new insights into molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenesis mediated by mishandling of double-stranded RNA. Here, we discuss recent advances in the field, which highlight novel roles associated with the RNA-editing process and emphasize their importance during cellular RNA metabolism. In addition, we highlight the relevance of these newly discovered roles in the context of neurological disorders and the more general concept of innate recognition of self versus non-self.

  4. Molecular Evidence of RNA Editing in Bombyx Chemosensory Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Ning; Bu, Xun; Liu, Yan Yan; Yang, Xue; Liu, Guo Xia; Fan, Zhong Xue; Bi, Yu Ping; Yang, Lian Qun; Lou, Qi Nian; Rajashekar, Balaji; Leppik, Getter; Kasvandik, Sergo; Picimbon, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are small scavenger proteins that are mainly known as transporters of pheromone/odor molecules at the periphery of sensory neurons in the insect antennae and in the producing cells from the moth female pheromone gland. Sequencing cDNAs of RNA encoding CSPs in the antennae, legs, head, pheromone gland and wings from five single individual adult females of the silkworm moth Bombyx mori showed that they differed from genomic sequences by subtle nucleotide replacement (RDD). Both intronless and intronic CSP genes expressed RDDs, although in different rates. Most interestingly, in our study the degree of RDDs in CSP genes were found to be tissue-specific. The proportion of CSP-RDDs was found to be significantly much higher in the pheromone gland. In addition, Western blot analysis of proteins in different tissues showed existence of multiple CSP protein variant chains particularly found in the pheromone gland. Peptide sequencing demonstrated the occurrence of a pleiad of protein variants for most of all BmorCSPs from the pheromone gland. Our findings show that RNA editing is an important feature in the expression of CSPs and that a high variety of RDDs is found to expand drastically thus altering the repertoire of CSP proteins in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:24551045

  5. Applying Human ADAR1p110 and ADAR1p150 for Site-Directed RNA Editing-G/C Substitution Stabilizes GuideRNAs against Editing.

    PubMed

    Heep, Madeleine; Mach, Pia; Reautschnig, Philipp; Wettengel, Jacqueline; Stafforst, Thorsten

    2017-01-14

    Site-directed RNA editing is an approach to reprogram genetic information at the RNA level. We recently introduced a novel guideRNA that allows for the recruitment of human ADAR2 to manipulate genetic information. Here, we show that the current guideRNA design is already able to recruit another human deaminase, ADAR1, in both isoforms, p110 and p150. However, further optimization seems necessary as the current design is less efficient for ADAR1 isoforms. Furthermore, we describe hotspots at which the guideRNA itself is edited and show a way to circumvent this auto-editing without losing editing efficiency at the target. Both findings are important for the advancement of site-directed RNA editing as a tool in basic biology or as a platform for therapeutic editing.

  6. Identification of Symmetrical RNA Editing Events in the Mitochondria of Salvia miltiorrhiza by Strand-specific RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Chen, Haimei; Shao, Junjie; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Kai; Liu, Chang

    2017-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is one of the most widely-used medicinal plants. Here, we systematically analyzed the RNA editing events in its mitochondria. We developed a pipeline using REDItools to predict RNA editing events from stand-specific RNA-Seq data. The predictions were validated using reverse transcription, RT-PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing experiments. Putative sequences motifs were characterized. Comparative analyses were carried out between S. miltiorrhiza, Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. We discovered 1123 editing sites, including 225 “C to U” sites in the protein-coding regions. Fourteen of sixteen (87.5%) sites were validated. Three putative DNA motifs were identified around the predicted sites. The nucleotides on both strands at 115 of the 225 sites had undergone RNA editing, which we called symmetrical RNA editing (SRE). Four of six these SRE sites (66.7%) were experimentally confirmed. Re-examination of strand-specific RNA-Seq data from A. thaliana and O. sativa identified 327 and 369 SRE sites respectively. 78, 20 and 13 SRE sites were found to be conserved among A. thaliana, O. sativa and S. miltiorrhiza respectively. This study provides a comprehensive picture of RNA editing events in the mitochondrial genome of S. miltiorrhiza. We identified SREs for the first time, which may represent a universal phenomenon. PMID:28186130

  7. Identification of Symmetrical RNA Editing Events in the Mitochondria of Salvia miltiorrhiza by Strand-specific RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Chen, Haimei; Shao, Junjie; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Kai; Liu, Chang

    2017-02-10

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is one of the most widely-used medicinal plants. Here, we systematically analyzed the RNA editing events in its mitochondria. We developed a pipeline using REDItools to predict RNA editing events from stand-specific RNA-Seq data. The predictions were validated using reverse transcription, RT-PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing experiments. Putative sequences motifs were characterized. Comparative analyses were carried out between S. miltiorrhiza, Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. We discovered 1123 editing sites, including 225 "C to U" sites in the protein-coding regions. Fourteen of sixteen (87.5%) sites were validated. Three putative DNA motifs were identified around the predicted sites. The nucleotides on both strands at 115 of the 225 sites had undergone RNA editing, which we called symmetrical RNA editing (SRE). Four of six these SRE sites (66.7%) were experimentally confirmed. Re-examination of strand-specific RNA-Seq data from A. thaliana and O. sativa identified 327 and 369 SRE sites respectively. 78, 20 and 13 SRE sites were found to be conserved among A. thaliana, O. sativa and S. miltiorrhiza respectively. This study provides a comprehensive picture of RNA editing events in the mitochondrial genome of S. miltiorrhiza. We identified SREs for the first time, which may represent a universal phenomenon.

  8. MORF9 increases the RNA-binding activity of PLS-type pentatricopeptide repeat protein in plastid RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junjie; Zhang, Qunxia; Guan, Zeyuan; Wang, Qiang; Li, Li; Ruan, Fengying; Lin, Rongcheng; Zou, Tingting; Yin, Ping

    2017-04-10

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that modifies the genetic information on RNA molecules. In flowering plants, RNA editing usually alters cytidine to uridine in plastids and mitochondria. The PLS-type pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein and the multiple organellar RNA editing factor (MORF, also known as RNA editing factor interacting protein (RIP)) are two types of key trans-acting factors involved in this process. However, how they cooperate with one another remains unclear. Here, we have characterized the interactions between a designer PLS-type PPR protein (PLS)3PPR and MORF9, and found that RNA-binding activity of (PLS)3PPR is drastically increased on MORF9 binding. We also determined the crystal structures of (PLS)3PPR, MORF9 and the (PLS)3PPR-MORF9 complex. MORF9 binding induces significant compressed conformational changes of (PLS)3PPR, revealing the molecular mechanisms by which MORF9-bound (PLS)3PPR has increased RNA-binding activity. Similarly, increased RNA-binding activity is observed for the natural PLS-type PPR protein, LPA66, in the presence of MORF9. These findings significantly expand our understanding of MORF function in plant organellar RNA editing.

  9. Charge Reduction and Thermodynamic Stabilization of Substrate RNAs Inhibit RNA Editing

    PubMed Central

    Leeder, W.-Matthias; Reuss, Andreas J.; Brecht, Michael; Kratz, Katja; Wachtveitl, Josef; Göringer, H. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    African trypanosomes cause a parasitic disease known as sleeping sickness. Mitochondrial transcript maturation in these organisms requires a RNA editing reaction that is characterized by the insertion and deletion of U-nucleotides into otherwise non-functional mRNAs. Editing represents an ideal target for a parasite-specific therapeutic intervention since the reaction cycle is absent in the infected host. In addition, editing relies on a macromolecular protein complex, the editosome, that only exists in the parasite. Therefore, all attempts to search for editing interfering compounds have been focused on molecules that bind to proteins of the editing machinery. However, in analogy to other RNA-driven biochemical pathways it should be possible to stall the reaction by targeting its substrate RNAs. Here we demonstrate inhibition of editing by specific aminoglycosides. The molecules bind into the major groove of the gRNA/pre-mRNA editing substrates thereby causing a stabilization of the RNA molecules through charge compensation and an increase in stacking. The data shed light on mechanistic details of the editing process and identify critical parameters for the development of new trypanocidal compounds. PMID:25742417

  10. Assembly and Function of the RNA Editing Complex in Trypanosoma brucei Requires Band III Protein

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Catherine E.; O'Hearn, Sean F.; Sollner-Webb, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Trypanosome RNA editing, the posttranscriptional insertion and deletion of U residues in mitochondrial transcripts, is catalyzed by a protein complex containing seven distinct proteins. In this study, we cloned the gene for band III, a 555-amino-acid protein with two separate zinc finger motifs. We prepared antibodies that showed band III protein cofractionates with the previously characterized band IV protein throughout the purification of the editing complex and is not found free or in other protein associations; therefore, it is a true constituent of the editing complex. Double-stranded RNA interference efficiently depleted band III protein and demonstrated that band III expression is essential for growth of procyclic trypanosomes and for RNA editing. These depleted cell extracts were deficient specifically in guide RNA-directed endonuclease cleavage at both U deletion and U insertion sites and in the activity of the band IV ligase, but they retained the 3′-U-exonuclease and terminal-U-transferase activities as well as band V ligase of the editing complex. Loss of band III protein also resulted in almost complete loss of the band IV ligase protein and altered sedimentation of the band V ligase. These data indicate that band III is either the RNA editing endonuclease or a factor critical for cleavage activity in the editing complex. They also demonstrate that band III is required for proper assembly of the editing complex. PMID:11940676

  11. Hijacking an RNA-editing enzyme to identify cell-specific targets of RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Aoife C; Rahman, Reazur; Jin, Hua; Shen, James L; Fieldsend, Allegra; Luo, Weifei; Rosbash, Michael

    2016-01-01

    RNA transcripts are bound and regulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Current methods for identifying in vivo targets of a RBP are imperfect and not amenable to examining small numbers of cells. To address these issues, we developed TRIBE (Targets of RNA-binding proteins Identified By Editing), a technique that couples an RBP to the catalytic domain of the Drosophila RNA editing enzyme ADAR and expresses the fusion protein in vivo. RBP targets are marked with novel RNA editing events and identified by sequencing RNA. We have used TRIBE to identify the targets of three RBPs (Hrp48, dFMR1 and NonA). TRIBE compares favorably to other methods, including CLIP, and we have identified RBP targets from as little as 150 specific fly neurons. TRIBE can be performed without an antibody and in small numbers of specific cells. PMID:27040499

  12. In vitro RNA editing in pea mitochondria requires NTP or dNTP, suggesting involvement of an RNA helicase.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Mizuki; Brennicke, Axel

    2003-11-28

    To analyze the biochemical parameters of RNA editing in plant mitochondria and to eventually characterize the enzymes involved we developed a novel in vitro system. The high sensitivity of the mismatch-specific thymine glycosylase is exploited to facilitate reliable quantitative evaluation of the in vitro RNA editing products. A pea mitochondrial lysate correctly processes a C to U editing site in the cognate atp9 template. Reaction conditions were determined for a number of parameters, which allow first conclusions on the proteins involved. The apparent tolerance against specific Zn2+ chelators argues against the involvement of a cytidine deaminase enzyme, the theoretically most straightforward catalysator of the deamination reaction. Participation of a transaminase was investigated by testing potential amino group receptors, but none of these increased the RNA editing reaction. Most notable is the requirement of the RNA editing activity for NTPs. Any NTP or dNTP can substitute for ATP to the optimal concentration of 15 mm. This observation suggests the participation of an RNA helicase in the predicted RNA editing protein complex of plant mitochondria.

  13. Condition-specific RNA editing in the coral symbiont Symbiodinium microadriaticum.

    PubMed

    Liew, Yi Jin; Li, Yong; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Voolstra, Christian R; Aranda, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    RNA editing is a rare post-transcriptional event that provides cells with an additional level of gene expression regulation. It has been implicated in various processes including adaptation, viral defence and RNA interference; however, its potential role as a mechanism in acclimatization has just recently been recognised. Here, we show that RNA editing occurs in 1.6% of all nuclear-encoded genes of Symbiodinium microadriaticum, a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals. All base-substitution edit types were present, and statistically significant motifs were associated with three edit types. Strikingly, a subset of genes exhibited condition-specific editing patterns in response to different stressors that resulted in significant increases of non-synonymous changes. We posit that this previously unrecognised mechanism extends this organism's capability to respond to stress beyond what is encoded by the genome. This in turn may provide further acclimatization capacity to these organisms, and by extension, their coral hosts.

  14. Condition-specific RNA editing in the coral symbiont Symbiodinium microadriaticum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong

    2017-01-01

    RNA editing is a rare post-transcriptional event that provides cells with an additional level of gene expression regulation. It has been implicated in various processes including adaptation, viral defence and RNA interference; however, its potential role as a mechanism in acclimatization has just recently been recognised. Here, we show that RNA editing occurs in 1.6% of all nuclear-encoded genes of Symbiodinium microadriaticum, a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals. All base-substitution edit types were present, and statistically significant motifs were associated with three edit types. Strikingly, a subset of genes exhibited condition-specific editing patterns in response to different stressors that resulted in significant increases of non-synonymous changes. We posit that this previously unrecognised mechanism extends this organism’s capability to respond to stress beyond what is encoded by the genome. This in turn may provide further acclimatization capacity to these organisms, and by extension, their coral hosts. PMID:28245292

  15. Evidence for RNA editing in mitochondria of all major groups of land plants except the Bryophyta.

    PubMed Central

    Hiesel, R; Combettes, B; Brennicke, A

    1994-01-01

    RNA editing has been documented in mitochondria of higher plants, notably dicots and monocots. To determine the distribution of mitochondrial RNA editing in the plant kingdom, we have now undertaken a survey of evolutionarily distant plants. RNA editing occurs in all major groups of land plants except the Bryophyta, suggesting that this process is an ancient trait that was established before the radiation of kormophyte plants. No editing is observed in representatives of the green algae, suggesting that editing arose in early land plants after the split of the Bryophyta or has been lost selectively in both algae and mosses. In ferns several U-->C changes are observed, one of which eliminates a genomically encoded UAA termination codon and creates a functional open reading frame. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8290575

  16. Two forms of RNA editing are required for tRNA maturation in Physarum mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Gott, Jonatha M.; Somerlot, Benjamin H.; Gray, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of Physarum polycephalum encodes five tRNAs, four of which are edited by nucleotide insertion. Two of these tRNAs, tRNAmet1 and tRNAmet2, contain predicted mismatches at the beginning (proximal end) of the acceptor stem. In addition, the putative 5′ end of tRNAmet2 overlaps the 3′ end of a small, abundant, noncoding RNA, which we term ppoRNA. These anomalies led us to hypothesize that these two Physarum mitochondrial tRNAs undergo additional editing events. Here, we show that tRNAmet1 and tRNAmet2 each has a nonencoded G at its 5′ end. In contrast to the other nucleotides that are added to Physarum mitochondrial RNAs, these extra G residues are likely added post-transcriptionally based on (1) the absence of added G in precursor transcripts containing inserted C and AA residues, (2) the presence of potential intermediates characteristic of 5′ replacement editing, and (3) preferential incorporation of GTP into tRNA molecules under conditions that do not support transcription. This is the first report of both post-transcriptional nucleotide insertions and the addition of single Gs in P. polycephalum mitochondrial transcripts. We postulate that tRNAmet1 and tRNAmet2 are acted upon by an activity similar to that present in the mitochondria of certain other amoebozoons and chytrid fungi, suggesting that enzymes that repair the 5′ end of tRNAs may be widespread. PMID:20106952

  17. Chloroplast RNA editing going extreme: more than 3400 events of C-to-U editing in the chloroplast transcriptome of the lycophyte Selaginella uncinata.

    PubMed

    Oldenkott, Bastian; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Tsuji-Tsukinoki, Sumika; Knie, Nils; Knoop, Volker

    2014-10-01

    RNA editing in chloroplasts and mitochondria of land plants differs significantly in abundance. For example, some 200-500 sites of cytidine-to-uridine RNA editing exist in flowering plant mitochondria as opposed to only 30-50 such C-to-U editing events in their chloroplasts. In contrast, we predicted significantly more chloroplast RNA editing for the protein-coding genes in the available complete plastome sequences of two species of the spike moss genus Selaginella (Lycopodiophyta). To evaluate these predictions we investigated the Selaginella uncinata chloroplast transcriptome. Our exhaustive cDNA studies identified the extraordinary number of 3415 RNA-editing events, exclusively of the C-to-U type, in the 74 mRNAs encoding intact reading frames in the S. uncinata chloroplast. We find the overwhelming majority (61%) of the 428 silent editing events leaving codon meanings unaltered directly neighboring other editing events, possibly suggesting a sterically more flexible RNA-editing deaminase activity in Selaginella. No evidence of RNA editing was found for tRNAs or rRNAs but we identified a total of 74 editing sites in cDNA sequences of four group II introns (petBi6g2, petDi8g2, ycf3i124g2, and ycf3i354g2) retained in partially matured transcripts, which strongly contribute to improved base-pairing in the intron secondary structures as a likely prerequisite for their splicing.

  18. Chloroplast RNA editing going extreme: more than 3400 events of C-to-U editing in the chloroplast transcriptome of the lycophyte Selaginella uncinata

    PubMed Central

    Oldenkott, Bastian; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Tsuji-Tsukinoki, Sumika; Knie, Nils

    2014-01-01

    RNA editing in chloroplasts and mitochondria of land plants differs significantly in abundance. For example, some 200–500 sites of cytidine-to-uridine RNA editing exist in flowering plant mitochondria as opposed to only 30–50 such C-to-U editing events in their chloroplasts. In contrast, we predicted significantly more chloroplast RNA editing for the protein-coding genes in the available complete plastome sequences of two species of the spike moss genus Selaginella (Lycopodiophyta). To evaluate these predictions we investigated the Selaginella uncinata chloroplast transcriptome. Our exhaustive cDNA studies identified the extraordinary number of 3415 RNA-editing events, exclusively of the C-to-U type, in the 74 mRNAs encoding intact reading frames in the S. uncinata chloroplast. We find the overwhelming majority (61%) of the 428 silent editing events leaving codon meanings unaltered directly neighboring other editing events, possibly suggesting a sterically more flexible RNA-editing deaminase activity in Selaginella. No evidence of RNA editing was found for tRNAs or rRNAs but we identified a total of 74 editing sites in cDNA sequences of four group II introns (petBi6g2, petDi8g2, ycf3i124g2, and ycf3i354g2) retained in partially matured transcripts, which strongly contribute to improved base-pairing in the intron secondary structures as a likely prerequisite for their splicing. PMID:25142065

  19. RNA editing and mitochondrial genomic organization in the cryptobiid kinetoplastid protozoan Trypanoplasma borreli.

    PubMed Central

    Maslov, D A; Simpson, L

    1994-01-01

    The bodonids and cryptobiids represent an early diverged sister group to the trypanosomatids among the kinetoplastid protozoa. The trypanosome type of uridine insertion-deletion RNA editing was found to occur in the cryptobiid fish parasite Trypanoplasma borreli. A pan-edited ribosomal protein, S12, and a novel 3'- and 5'-edited cytochrome b, in addition to an unedited cytochrome oxidase III gene and an apparently unedited 12S rRNA gene, were found in a 6-kb fragment of the 80- to 90-kb mitochondrial genome. The gene order differs from that in trypanosomatids, as does the organization of putative guide RNA genes; guide RNA-like molecules are transcribed from tandemly repeated 1-kb sequences organized in 200- and 170-kb molecules instead of minicircles. The presence of pan-editing in this lineage is consistent with an ancient evolutionary origin of this process. Images PMID:7969154

  20. Differential regulation of Arabidopsis plastid gene expression and RNA editing in non-photosynthetic tissues.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ching-Chih; Lee, Chih-Jen; Chung, Yi-Ting; Sung, Tzu-Ying; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2013-07-01

    RNA editing is one of the post-transcriptional processes that commonly occur in plant plastids and mitochondria. In Arabidopsis, 34 C-to-U RNA editing events, affecting transcripts of 18 plastid genes, have been identified. Here, we examined the editing and expression of these transcripts in different organs, and in green and non-green seedlings (etiolated, cia5-2, ispF and ispG albino mutants, lincomycin-, and norflurazon-treated). The editing efficiency of Arabidopsis plastid transcripts varies from site to site, and may be specifically regulated in different tissues. Steady state levels of plastid transcripts are low or undetectable in etiolated seedlings, but most editing sites are edited with efficiencies similar to those observed in green seedlings. By contrast, the editing of some sites is completely lost or significantly reduced in other non-green tissues; for instance, the editing of ndhB-149, ndhB-1255, and ndhD-2 is completely lost in roots and in lincomycin-treated seedlings. The editing of ndhD-2 is also completely lost in albino mutants and norflurazon-treated seedlings. However, matK-640 is completely edited, and accD-794, atpF-92, psbE-214, psbF-77, psbZ-50, and rps14-50 are completely or highly edited in both green and non-green tissues. In addition, the expression of nucleus-encoded RNA polymerase dependent transcripts is specifically induced by lincomycin, and the splicing of ndhB transcripts is significantly reduced in the albino mutants and inhibitor-treated seedlings. Our results indicate that plastid gene expression, and the splicing and editing of plastid transcripts are specifically and differentially regulated in various types of non-green tissues.

  1. Loss of matK RNA editing in seed plant chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Tillich, Michael; Le Sy, Vinh; Schulerowitz, Katrin; von Haeseler, Arndt; Maier, Uwe G; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background RNA editing in chloroplasts of angiosperms proceeds by C-to-U conversions at specific sites. Nuclear-encoded factors are required for the recognition of cis-elements located immediately upstream of editing sites. The ensemble of editing sites in a chloroplast genome differs widely between species, and editing sites are thought to evolve rapidly. However, large-scale analyses of the evolution of individual editing sites have not yet been undertaken. Results Here, we analyzed the evolution of two chloroplast editing sites, matK-2 and matK-3, for which DNA sequences from thousands of angiosperm species are available. Both sites are found in most major taxa, including deep-branching families such as the nymphaeaceae. However, 36 isolated taxa scattered across the entire tree lack a C at one of the two matK editing sites. Tests of several exemplary species from this in silico analysis of matK processing unexpectedly revealed that one of the two sites remain unedited in almost half of all species examined. A comparison of sequences between editors and non-editors showed that specific nucleotides co-evolve with the C at the matK editing sites, suggesting that these nucleotides are critical for editing-site recognition. Conclusion (i) Both matK editing sites were present in the common ancestor of all angiosperms and have been independently lost multiple times during angiosperm evolution. (ii) The editing activities corresponding to matK-2 and matK-3 are unstable. (iii) A small number of third-codon positions in the vicinity of editing sites are selectively constrained independent of the presence of the editing site, most likely because of interacting RNA-binding proteins. PMID:19678945

  2. In vitro RNA editing in plant mitochondria does not require added energy.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Mizuki; Verbitskiy, Daniil; van der Merwe, Johannes A; Zehrmann, Anja; Plessmann, Uwe; Urlaub, Henning; Brennicke, Axel

    2007-06-12

    RNA editing in flowering plant mitochondria is investigated by in vitro assays. These cauliflower mitochondrial lysates require added NTP or dNTP. We have now resolved the reason for this requirement to be the inhibition of the RNA binding activity of the glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH). Both GDH1 and GDH2 were identified in RNA-protein cross-links. The inhibition of in vitro RNA editing by GDH is confirmed by the ability of the GDH-specific herbicide phosphinothricin to substitute for NTP. NADH and NADPH, but not NAD or NADP, can also replace NTP, suggesting that the NAD(P)H-binding-pocket configuration of the GDH contacts the RNA. RNA editing in plant mitochondria is thus intrinsically independent of added energy in the form of NTP.

  3. Origin, evolution, and mechanism of 5′ tRNA editing in chytridiomycete fungi

    PubMed Central

    LAFOREST, MARIE-JOSÉE; BULLERWELL, CHARLES E.; FORGET, LISE; LANG, B. FRANZ

    2004-01-01

    5′ tRNA editing has been demonstrated to occur in the mitochondria of the distantly related rhizopod amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the chytridiomycete fungus Spizellomyces punctatus. In these organisms, canonical tRNA structures are restored by removing mismatched nucleotides at the first three 5′ positions and replacing them with nucleotides capable of forming Watson–Crick base pairs with their 3′ counterparts. This form of editing seems likely to occur in members of Amoebozoa other than A. castellanii, as well as in members of Heterolobosea. Evidence for 5′ tRNA editing has not been found to date, however, in any other fungus including the deeply branching chytridiomycete Allomyces macrogynus. We predicted that a similar form of tRNA editing would occur in members of the chytridiomycete order Monoblepharidales based on the analysis of complete mitochondrial tRNA complements. This prediction was confirmed by analysis of tRNA sequences using a tRNA circularization/ RT-PCR-based approach. The presence of partially and completely unedited tRNAs in members of the Monoblepharidales suggests the involvement of a 5′-to-3′ exonuclease rather than an endonuclease in removing the three 5′ nucleotides from a tRNA substrate. Surprisingly, analysis of the mtDNA of the chytridiomycete Rhizophydium brooksianum, which branches as a sister group to S. punctatus in molecular phylogenies, did not suggest the presence of editing. This prediction was also confirmed experimentally. The absence of tRNA editing in R. brooksianum raises the possibility that 5′ tRNA editing may have evolved twice independently within Chytridiomycota, once in the lineage leading to S. punctatus and once in the lineage leading to the Monoblepharidales. PMID:15247432

  4. Gene Loss and Error-Prone RNA Editing in the Mitochondrion of Perkinsela, an Endosymbiotic Kinetoplastid.

    PubMed

    David, Vojtěch; Flegontov, Pavel; Gerasimov, Evgeny; Tanifuji, Goro; Hashimi, Hassan; Logacheva, Maria D; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Onodera, Naoko T; Gray, Michael W; Archibald, John M; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-12-01

    Perkinsela is an enigmatic early-branching kinetoplastid protist that lives as an obligate endosymbiont inside Paramoeba (Amoebozoa). We have sequenced the highly reduced mitochondrial genome of Perkinsela, which possesses only six protein-coding genes (cox1, cox2, cox3, cob, atp6, and rps12), despite the fact that the organelle itself contains more DNA than is present in either the host or endosymbiont nuclear genomes. An in silico analysis of two Perkinsela strains showed that mitochondrial RNA editing and processing machineries typical of kinetoplastid flagellates are generally conserved, and all mitochondrial transcripts undergo U-insertion/deletion editing. Canonical kinetoplastid mitochondrial ribosomes are also present. We have developed software tools for accurate and exhaustive mapping of transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) reads with extensive U-insertions/deletions, which allows detailed investigation of RNA editing via deep sequencing. With these methods, we show that up to 50% of reads for a given edited region contain errors of the editing system or, less likely, correspond to alternatively edited transcripts. Uridine insertion/deletion-type RNA editing, which occurs in the mitochondrion of kinetoplastid protists, has been well-studied in the model parasite genera Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and Crithidia. Perkinsela provides a unique opportunity to broaden our knowledge of RNA editing machinery from an evolutionary perspective, as it represents the earliest kinetoplastid branch and is an obligatory endosymbiont with extensive reductive trends. Interestingly, up to 50% of mitochondrial transcripts in Perkinsela contain errors. Our study was complemented by use of newly developed software designed for accurate mapping of extensively edited RNA-seq reads obtained by deep sequencing. Copyright © 2015 David et al.

  5. ADAR1 regulates ARHGAP26 gene expression through RNA editing by disrupting miR-30b-3p and miR-573 binding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Hui, Haipeng; Guo, Zhendong; Zhang, Weina; Hu, Yaou; He, Tao; Tai, Yanhong; Peng, Peng; Wang, Li

    2013-11-01

    Rho GTPase activating protein 26 (ARHGAP26) is a negative regulator of the Rho family that converts the small G proteins RhoA and Cdc42 to their inactive GDP-bound forms. It is essential for the CLIC/GEEC endocytic pathway, cell spreading, and muscle development. The present study shows that ARHGAP26 mRNA undergoes extensive A-to-I RNA editing in the 3' UTR that is specifically catalyzed by ADAR1. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of ARHGAP26 were decreased in cells in which ADAR1 was knocked down. Conversely, ADAR1 overexpression increased the abundance of ARHGAP26 mRNA and protein. In addition, we found that both miR-30b-3p and miR-573 target the ARHGAP26 gene and that RNA editing of ARHGAP26 mediated by ADAR1 abolished the repression of its expression by miR-30b-3p or miR-573. When ADAR1 was overexpressed, the reduced abundance of ARHGAP26 protein mediated by miR-30b-3p or miR-573 was rescued. Importantly, we also found that knocking down ADAR1 elevated RhoA activity, which was consistent with the reduced level of ARHGAP26. Conversely, when ADAR1 was overexpressed, the amount of RhoA-GTP decreased. The similar expression patterns of ARHGAP26 and ADAR1 in human tissue samples further confirmed our findings. Taken together, our results suggest that ADAR1 regulates the expression of ARHGAP26 through A-to-I RNA editing by disrupting the binding of miR-30b-3p and miR-573 within the 3' UTR of ARHGAP26. This study provides a novel insight into the mechanism by which ADAR1 and its RNA editing function regulate microRNA-mediated modulation of target genes.

  6. Abundant RNA editing sites of chloroplast protein-coding genes in Ginkgo biloba and an evolutionary pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Peng; Huang, Sheng; Xiao, Guanghui; Zhang, Yuzhou; Yu, Jianing

    2016-12-01

    RNA editing is a posttranscriptional modification process that alters the RNA sequence so that it deviates from the genomic DNA sequence. RNA editing mainly occurs in chloroplasts and mitochondrial genomes, and the number of editing sites varies in terrestrial plants. Why and how RNA editing systems evolved remains a mystery. Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest seed plants and has an important evolutionary position. Determining the patterns and distribution of RNA editing in the ancient plant provides insights into the evolutionary trend of RNA editing, and helping us to further understand their biological significance. In this paper, we investigated 82 protein-coding genes in the chloroplast genome of G. biloba and identified 255 editing sites, which is the highest number of RNA editing events reported in a gymnosperm. All of the editing sites were C-to-U conversions, which mainly occurred in the second codon position, biased towards to the U_A context, and caused an increase in hydrophobic amino acids. RNA editing could change the secondary structures of 82 proteins, and create or eliminate a transmembrane region in five proteins as determined in silico. Finally, the evolutionary tendencies of RNA editing in different gene groups were estimated using the nonsynonymous-synonymous substitution rate selection mode. The G. biloba chloroplast genome possesses the highest number of RNA editing events reported so far in a seed plant. Most of the RNA editing sites can restore amino acid conservation, increase hydrophobicity, and even influence protein structures. Similar purifying selections constitute the dominant evolutionary force at the editing sites of essential genes, such as the psa, some psb and pet groups, and a positive selection occurred in the editing sites of nonessential genes, such as most ndh and a few psb genes.

  7. Mutations underlying Episodic Ataxia type-1 antagonize Kv1.1 RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Ferrick-Kiddie, Elizabeth A.; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.; Ayers, Gregory D.; Emeson, Ronald B.

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in transcripts encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1 converts an isoleucine to valine codon for amino acid 400, speeding channel recovery from inactivation. Numerous Kv1.1 mutations have been associated with the human disorder Episodic Ataxia Type-1 (EA1), characterized by stress-induced ataxia, myokymia, and increased prevalence of seizures. Three EA1 mutations, V404I, I407M, and V408A, are located within the RNA duplex structure required for RNA editing. Each mutation decreased RNA editing both in vitro and using an in vivo mouse model bearing the V408A allele. Editing of transcripts encoding mutant channels affects numerous biophysical properties including channel opening, closing, and inactivation. Thus EA1 symptoms could be influenced not only by the direct effects of the mutations on channel properties, but also by their influence on RNA editing. These studies provide the first evidence that mutations associated with human genetic disorders can affect cis-regulatory elements to alter RNA editing. PMID:28216637

  8. Mutations underlying Episodic Ataxia type-1 antagonize Kv1.1 RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Ferrick-Kiddie, Elizabeth A; Rosenthal, Joshua J C; Ayers, Gregory D; Emeson, Ronald B

    2017-02-20

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in transcripts encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1 converts an isoleucine to valine codon for amino acid 400, speeding channel recovery from inactivation. Numerous Kv1.1 mutations have been associated with the human disorder Episodic Ataxia Type-1 (EA1), characterized by stress-induced ataxia, myokymia, and increased prevalence of seizures. Three EA1 mutations, V404I, I407M, and V408A, are located within the RNA duplex structure required for RNA editing. Each mutation decreased RNA editing both in vitro and using an in vivo mouse model bearing the V408A allele. Editing of transcripts encoding mutant channels affects numerous biophysical properties including channel opening, closing, and inactivation. Thus EA1 symptoms could be influenced not only by the direct effects of the mutations on channel properties, but also by their influence on RNA editing. These studies provide the first evidence that mutations associated with human genetic disorders can affect cis-regulatory elements to alter RNA editing.

  9. Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1), a Gene Involved in X-Linked Intellectual Disability, Undergoes RNA Editing and Alternative Splicing during Human Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiadis, Alekos; Galeano, Federica; Locatelli, Franco; Bertini, Enrico; Zanni, Ginevra; Gallo, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) encodes for a Rho-GTPase-activating protein, important for dendritic morphogenesis and synaptic function. Mutations in this gene have been identified in patients with X-linked intellectual disability associated with cerebellar hypoplasia. ADAR enzymes are responsible for A-to-I RNA editing, an essential post-transcriptional RNA modification contributing to transcriptome and proteome diversification. Specifically, ADAR2 activity is essential for brain development and function. Herein, we show that the OPHN1 transcript undergoes post-transcriptional modifications such as A-to-I RNA editing and alternative splicing in human brain and other tissues. We found that OPHN1 editing is detectable already at the 18th week of gestation in human brain with a boost of editing at weeks 20 to 33, concomitantly with OPHN1 expression increase and the appearance of a novel OPHN1 splicing isoform. Our results demonstrate that multiple post-transcriptional events occur on OPHN1, a gene playing an important role in brain function and development. PMID:24637888

  10. RNA editing in six mitochondrial ribosomal protein genes of Didymium iridis.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Peter G; Silliker, Margaret E

    2010-06-01

    Similarity searches with Didymium iridis mitochondrial genomic DNA identified six possible ribosomal protein-coding regions, however, each region contained stop codons that would need to be removed by RNA editing to produce functional transcripts. RT-PCR was used to amplify these regions from total RNA for cloning and sequencing. Six functional transcripts were verified for the following ribosomal protein genes: rpS12, rpS7, rpL2, rpS19, rpS3, and rpL16. The editing events observed, such as single C and U nucleotide insertions and a dinucleotide insertion, were consistent with previously observed editing patterns seen in D. iridis. Additionally, a new form of insertional editing, a single A insertion, was observed in a conserved region of the rpL16 gene. While the majority of codons created by editing specify hydrophobic amino acids, a greater proportion of the codons created in these hydrophilic ribosomal proteins called for positively charged amino acids in comparison to the previously characterized hydrophobic respiratory protein genes. This first report of edited soluble mitochondrial ribosomal proteins in myxomycetes expands upon the RNA editing patterns previously seen; there was: a greater proportion of created codons specifying positively charged amino acids, a shift in the codon position edited, and the insertion of single A nucleotides.

  11. An extra double-stranded RNA binding domain confers high activity to a squid RNA editing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Palavicini, Juan Pablo; O'Connell, Mary A; Rosenthal, Joshua J C

    2009-06-01

    RNA editing by adenosine deamination is particularly prevalent in the squid nervous system. We hypothesized that the squid editing enzyme might contain structural differences that help explain this phenomenon. As a first step, a squid adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA (sqADAR2a) cDNA and the gene that encodes it were cloned from the giant axon system. PCR and RNase protection assays showed that a splice variant of this clone (sqADAR2b) was also expressed in this tissue. Both versions are homologous to the vertebrate ADAR2 family. sqADAR2b encodes a conventional ADAR2 family member with an evolutionarily conserved deaminase domain and two double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBD). sqADAR2a differs from sqADAR2b by containing an optional exon that encodes an "extra" dsRBD. Both splice variants are expressed at comparable levels and are extensively edited, each in a unique pattern. Recombinant sqADAR2a and sqADAR2b, produced in Pichia pastoris, are both active on duplex RNA. Using a standard 48-h protein induction, both sqADAR2a and sqADAR2b exhibit promiscuous self-editing; however, this activity is particularly robust for sqADAR2a. By decreasing the induction time to 16 h, self-editing was mostly eliminated. We next tested the ability of sqADAR2a and sqADAR2b to edit two K+ channel mRNAs in vitro. Both substrates are known to be edited in squid. For each mRNA, sqADAR2a edited many more sites than sqADAR2b. These data suggest that the "extra" dsRBD confers high activity on sqADAR2a.

  12. An extra double-stranded RNA binding domain confers high activity to a squid RNA editing enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Palavicini, Juan Pablo; O'connell, Mary A.; Rosenthal, Joshua J.C.

    2009-01-01

    RNA editing by adenosine deamination is particularly prevalent in the squid nervous system. We hypothesized that the squid editing enzyme might contain structural differences that help explain this phenomenon. As a first step, a squid adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA (sqADAR2a) cDNA and the gene that encodes it were cloned from the giant axon system. PCR and RNase protection assays showed that a splice variant of this clone (sqADAR2b) was also expressed in this tissue. Both versions are homologous to the vertebrate ADAR2 family. sqADAR2b encodes a conventional ADAR2 family member with an evolutionarily conserved deaminase domain and two double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBD). sqADAR2a differs from sqADAR2b by containing an optional exon that encodes an “extra” dsRBD. Both splice variants are expressed at comparable levels and are extensively edited, each in a unique pattern. Recombinant sqADAR2a and sqADAR2b, produced in Pichia pastoris, are both active on duplex RNA. Using a standard 48-h protein induction, both sqADAR2a and sqADAR2b exhibit promiscuous self-editing; however, this activity is particularly robust for sqADAR2a. By decreasing the induction time to 16 h, self-editing was mostly eliminated. We next tested the ability of sqADAR2a and sqADAR2b to edit two K+ channel mRNAs in vitro. Both substrates are known to be edited in squid. For each mRNA, sqADAR2a edited many more sites than sqADAR2b. These data suggest that the “extra” dsRBD confers high activity on sqADAR2a. PMID:19390115

  13. The crystal structure of an oligo(U):pre-mRNA duplex from a trypanosome RNA editing substrate

    PubMed Central

    Mooers, Blaine H.M.; Singh, Amritanshu

    2011-01-01

    Guide RNAs bind antiparallel to their target pre-mRNAs to form editing substrates in reaction cycles that insert or delete uridylates (Us) in most mitochondrial transcripts of trypanosomes. The 5′ end of each guide RNA has an anchor sequence that binds to the pre-mRNA by base-pair complementarity. The template sequence in the middle of the guide RNA directs the editing reactions. The 3′ ends of most guide RNAs have ∼15 contiguous Us that bind to the purine-rich unedited pre-mRNA upstream of the editing site. The resulting U-helix is rich in G·U wobble base pairs. To gain insights into the structure of the U-helix, we crystallized 8 bp of the U-helix in one editing substrate for the A6 mRNA of Trypanosoma brucei. The fragment provides three samples of the 5′-AGA-3′/5′-UUU-3′ base-pair triple. The fusion of two identical U-helices head-to-head promoted crystallization. We obtained X-ray diffraction data with a resolution limit of 1.37 Å. The U-helix had low and high twist angles before and after each G·U wobble base pair; this variation was partly due to shearing of the wobble base pairs as revealed in comparisons with a crystal structure of a 16-nt RNA with all Watson–Crick base pairs. Both crystal structures had wider major grooves at the junction between the poly(U) and polypurine tracts. This junction mimics the junction between the template helix and the U-helix in RNA-editing substrates and may be a site of major groove invasion by RNA editing proteins. PMID:21878548

  14. The crystal structure of an oligo(U):pre-mRNA duplex from a trypanosome RNA editing substrate.

    PubMed

    Mooers, Blaine H M; Singh, Amritanshu

    2011-10-01

    Guide RNAs bind antiparallel to their target pre-mRNAs to form editing substrates in reaction cycles that insert or delete uridylates (Us) in most mitochondrial transcripts of trypanosomes. The 5' end of each guide RNA has an anchor sequence that binds to the pre-mRNA by base-pair complementarity. The template sequence in the middle of the guide RNA directs the editing reactions. The 3' ends of most guide RNAs have ∼15 contiguous Us that bind to the purine-rich unedited pre-mRNA upstream of the editing site. The resulting U-helix is rich in G·U wobble base pairs. To gain insights into the structure of the U-helix, we crystallized 8 bp of the U-helix in one editing substrate for the A6 mRNA of Trypanosoma brucei. The fragment provides three samples of the 5'-AGA-3'/5'-UUU-3' base-pair triple. The fusion of two identical U-helices head-to-head promoted crystallization. We obtained X-ray diffraction data with a resolution limit of 1.37 Å. The U-helix had low and high twist angles before and after each G·U wobble base pair; this variation was partly due to shearing of the wobble base pairs as revealed in comparisons with a crystal structure of a 16-nt RNA with all Watson-Crick base pairs. Both crystal structures had wider major grooves at the junction between the poly(U) and polypurine tracts. This junction mimics the junction between the template helix and the U-helix in RNA-editing substrates and may be a site of major groove invasion by RNA editing proteins.

  15. Extensive Mitochondrial mRNA Editing and Unusual Mitochondrial Genome Organization in Calcaronean Sponges.

    PubMed

    Lavrov, Dennis V; Adamski, Marcin; Chevaldonné, Pierre; Adamska, Maja

    2016-01-11

    One of the unusual features of DNA-containing organelles in general and mitochondria in particular is the frequent occurrence of RNA editing [1]. The term "RNA editing" refers to a variety of mechanistically unrelated biochemical processes that alter RNA sequence during or after transcription [2]. The editing can be insertional, deletional, or substitutional and has been found in all major types of RNAs [3, 4]. Although mitochondrial mRNA editing is widespread in some eukaryotic lineages [5-7], it is rare in animals, with reported cases limited both in their scope and in phylogenetic distribution [8-11] (see also [12]). While analyzing genomic data from calcaronean sponges Sycon ciliatum and Leucosolenia complicata, we were perplexed by the lack of recognizable mitochondrial coding sequences. Comparison of genomic and transcriptomic data from these species revealed the presence of mitochondrial cryptogenes whose transcripts undergo extensive editing. This editing consisted of single or double uridylate (U) insertions in pre-existing short poly(U) tracts. Subsequent analysis revealed the presence of similar editing in Sycon coactum and the loss of editing in Petrobiona massiliana, a hypercalcified calcaronean sponge. In addition, mitochondrial genomes of at least some calcaronean sponges were found to have a highly unusual architecture, with nearly all genes located on individual and likely linear chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial coding sequences revealed accelerated rates of sequence evolution in this group. The latter observation presents a challenge for the mutational-hazard hypothesis [13], which posits that mRNA editing should not occur in lineages with an elevated mutation rate.

  16. Translation of the edited mRNA for cytochrome b in trypanosome mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, Anton; Berry, Edward A.; Maslov, Dmitri A.

    2000-02-01

    The type of RNA editing found in the kinetoplast-mitochondria of trypanosomes and related protozoa, involving uridylate insertions and deletions, creates translatable messenger RNAs (mRNAs) out of nonsense pre-edited RNAs by correcting encoded defects that vary from simple frameshifts to large ''cryptic'' regions. However, any evidence for translation of these mRNAs in the kinetoplast has been missing for decades. We identified a kinetoplast-encoded protein, apocytochrome b, whose mRNA is edited in the 5' region. The determined amino-terminal sequence of the protein coincides with the predicted sequence derived from the edited region, demonstrating that the cognate apocytochrome b mRNA is translated into a functional protein. This finding represents the first direct evidence for a functional translation system in the kinetoplasts.

  17. The double-domain cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G is a cellular site-specific RNA editing enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shraddha; Patnaik, Santosh K.; Taggart, Robert T.; Baysal, Bora E.

    2016-01-01

    APOBEC3G is a cytidine deaminase with two homologous domains and restricts retroelements and HIV-1. APOBEC3G deaminates single-stranded DNAs via its C-terminal domain, whereas the N-terminal domain is considered non-catalytic. Although APOBEC3G is known to bind RNAs, APOBEC3G-mediated RNA editing has not been observed. We recently discovered RNA editing by the single-domain enzyme APOBEC3A in innate immune cells. To determine if APOBEC3G is capable of RNA editing, we transiently expressed APOBEC3G in the HEK293T cell line and performed transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing. We show that APOBEC3G causes site-specific C-to-U editing of mRNAs from over 600 genes. The edited cytidines are often flanked by inverted repeats, but are largely distinct from those deaminated by APOBEC3A. We verified protein-recoding RNA editing of selected genes including several that are known to be involved in HIV-1 infectivity. APOBEC3G co-purifies with highly edited mRNA substrates. We find that conserved catalytic residues in both cytidine deaminase domains are required for RNA editing. Our findings demonstrate the novel RNA editing function of APOBEC3G and suggest a role for the N-terminal domain in RNA editing. PMID:27974822

  18. The double-domain cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G is a cellular site-specific RNA editing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shraddha; Patnaik, Santosh K; Taggart, Robert T; Baysal, Bora E

    2016-12-15

    APOBEC3G is a cytidine deaminase with two homologous domains and restricts retroelements and HIV-1. APOBEC3G deaminates single-stranded DNAs via its C-terminal domain, whereas the N-terminal domain is considered non-catalytic. Although APOBEC3G is known to bind RNAs, APOBEC3G-mediated RNA editing has not been observed. We recently discovered RNA editing by the single-domain enzyme APOBEC3A in innate immune cells. To determine if APOBEC3G is capable of RNA editing, we transiently expressed APOBEC3G in the HEK293T cell line and performed transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing. We show that APOBEC3G causes site-specific C-to-U editing of mRNAs from over 600 genes. The edited cytidines are often flanked by inverted repeats, but are largely distinct from those deaminated by APOBEC3A. We verified protein-recoding RNA editing of selected genes including several that are known to be involved in HIV-1 infectivity. APOBEC3G co-purifies with highly edited mRNA substrates. We find that conserved catalytic residues in both cytidine deaminase domains are required for RNA editing. Our findings demonstrate the novel RNA editing function of APOBEC3G and suggest a role for the N-terminal domain in RNA editing.

  19. RNA editing is absent in a single mitochondrial gene of Didymium iridis.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Peter G; Silliker, Margaret E

    2010-01-01

    An open reading frame (ORF) was found in the mitochondrial genome of the Pan2-16 strain of Didymium iridis that showed high similarity to the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (nad3) gene in other organisms. So far all other typical mitochondrial genes identified in this organism require RNA editing to generate ORFs capable of directing protein synthesis. The D. iridis sequence was compared to the putative nad3 gene in the related myxomycete Physarum polycephalum, which would require editing. Based on this comparison, editing sites could be predicted for the P. polycelphalum gene that would result in the synthesis of a highly conserved ND3 protein between the two organisms. To determine the editing status of the nad3 gene in other D. iridis strains, PCR was used to amplify this region from eight other independent isolates of the A1 Central American interbreeding series. In each case a 378 base pair ORF was detected by PCR amplification and sequencing. Three patterns of sequence variation were observed; however all base substitutions were in the third codon position and silent with respect to the amino acids encoded. The distribution of the sequence variants was mapped geographically. The requirement for RNA editing in all other typical mitochondrial genes of D. iridis and P. polycephalum and the presence of RNA editing in the nad3 gene of P. polycephalum suggest that the D. iridis nad3 gene might have been edited at one time. We propose that the D. iridis nad3 gene may have lost the requirement for RNA editing by reverse transcription of an edited transcript that subsequently was inserted into the genome.

  20. Transcriptome-wide identification of A > I RNA editing sites by inosine specific cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Cattenoz, Pierre B.; Taft, Ryan J.; Westhof, Eric; Mattick, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine to inosine (A > I) RNA editing, which is catalyzed by the ADAR family of proteins, is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which transcriptomic diversity is generated. Indeed, a number of genome-wide analyses have shown that A > I editing is not limited to a few mRNAs, as originally thought, but occurs widely across the transcriptome, especially in the brain. Importantly, there is increasing evidence that A > I editing is essential for animal development and nervous system function. To more efficiently characterize the complete catalog of ADAR events in the mammalian transcriptome we developed a high-throughput protocol to identify A > I editing sites, which exploits the capacity of glyoxal to protect guanosine, but not inosine, from RNAse T1 treatment, thus facilitating extraction of RNA fragments with inosine bases at their termini for high-throughput sequencing. Using this method we identified 665 editing sites in mouse brain RNA, including most known sites and suite of novel sites that include nonsynonymous changes to protein-coding genes, hyperediting of genes known to regulate p53, and alterations to non-protein-coding RNAs. This method is applicable to any biological system for the de novo discovery of A > I editing sites, and avoids the complicated informatic and practical issues associated with editing site identification using traditional RNA sequencing data. This approach has the potential to substantially increase our understanding of the extent and function of RNA editing, and thereby to shed light on the role of transcriptional plasticity in evolution, development, and cognition. PMID:23264566

  1. RNA Editing of the GP Gene of Ebola Virus is an Important Pathogenicity Factor.

    PubMed

    Volchkova, Valentina A; Dolnik, Olga; Martinez, Mikel J; Reynard, Olivier; Volchkov, Viktor E

    2015-10-01

    Synthesis of the surface glycoprotein GP of Ebola virus (EBOV) is dependent on transcriptional RNA editing, whereas direct expression of the GP gene results in synthesis of nonstructural secreted glycoprotein sGP. In this study, we investigate the role of RNA editing in the pathogenicity of EBOV using a guinea pig model and recombinant guinea pig-adapted EBOV containing mutations at the editing site, allowing expression of surface GP without the need for RNA editing, and also preventing synthesis of sGP. We demonstrate that the elimination of the editing site leads to EBOV attenuation in vivo, explained by lower virus spread caused by the higher virus cytotoxicity and, most likely, by an increased ability of the host defense systems to recognize and eliminate virus-infected cells. We also demonstrate that expression of sGP does not affect pathogenicity of EBOV in guinea pigs. In conclusion, data obtained indicate that downregulation of the level of surface GP expression through a mechanism of GP gene RNA editing plays an important role in the high pathogenicity of EBOV.

  2. Analysis of reptilian APOBEC1 suggests that RNA editing may not be its ancestral function.

    PubMed

    Severi, Francesco; Chicca, Andrea; Conticello, Silvestro G

    2011-03-01

    The Activation Induced Deaminase (AID)/APOBEC family of deaminases targeting nucleic acids arose at the beginning of the vertebrate radiation and further expanded in mammals. Following an analysis of the available genomic data, we report the identification of the APOBEC5, a novel group of paralogues in tetrapods. Moreover, we find bona fide homologues of Apolipoprotein B Editing Complex 1 (APOBEC1) in the genomes of anole lizard and zebra finch, thus implying its appearance prior to the divergence of the amniotes. apolipoprotein B editing complex 1 (APOBEC1), in contrast with other AID/APOBECs acting on DNA, is an RNA-editing enzyme that targets the transcript of Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), thereby causing the translation of a truncated form of the protein. 3'RACE experiments reveal a lizard APOBEC1-like molecule lacking a C-terminal region important for mammalian ApoB RNA editing. This observation pairs with the finding that lizard ApoB is not deaminated at the region corresponding to the mammalian site of editing. Similar to mammalian APOBEC1, the lizard protein is able to deaminate DNA in bacteria and shows a conserved mutational context. Although not precluding the possibility that lizard APOBEC1 acts on unknown mRNA targets, these findings suggest that its ability to target DNA predates its role in RNA editing.

  3. Cas9 gRNA engineering for genome editing, activation and repression

    DOE PAGES

    Kiani, Samira; Chavez, Alejandro; Tuttle, Marcelle; ...

    2015-09-07

    Here we demonstrate that by altering the length of Cas9-associated guide RNA(gRNA) we were able to control Cas9 nuclease activity and simultaneously perform genome editing and transcriptional regulation with a single Cas9 protein. We exploited these principles to engineer mammalian synthetic circuits with combined transcriptional regulation and kill functions governed by a single multifunctional Cas9 protein.

  4. Cas9 gRNA engineering for genome editing, activation and repression.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Samira; Chavez, Alejandro; Tuttle, Marcelle; Hall, Richard N; Chari, Raj; Ter-Ovanesyan, Dmitry; Qian, Jason; Pruitt, Benjamin W; Beal, Jacob; Vora, Suhani; Buchthal, Joanna; Kowal, Emma J K; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Collins, James J; Weiss, Ron; Church, George

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate that by altering the length of Cas9-associated guide RNA (gRNA) we were able to control Cas9 nuclease activity and simultaneously perform genome editing and transcriptional regulation with a single Cas9 protein. We exploited these principles to engineer mammalian synthetic circuits with combined transcriptional regulation and kill functions governed by a single multifunctional Cas9 protein.

  5. Structural studies of a double-stranded RNA from trypanosome RNA editing by small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Criswell, Angela; Mooers, Blaine H M

    2015-01-01

    We used small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to evaluate the solution structure of a double-stranded RNA with 32 base pairs. We wanted to compare the solution structure to the crystal structure to assess the impact of the crystal lattice on the overall conformation of the RNA. The RNA was designed to self-anneal and form a head-to-head fusion of two identical mRNA/oligo(U) tail domains (the U-helix) from a trypanosome RNA editing substrate formed by the annealing of a guide RNA to a pre-edited mRNA. This substrate is from the U insertion/deletion RNA editing system of trypanosomes. Each strand in the fusion RNA had 16 purines from the pre-mRNA followed by 16 uracils (Us) from the U-tail at the 3' end of the guide RNA. The strands were designed to form a double helix with blunt ends, but each strand had the potential to form hairpins and single-stranded RNA helices. Hairpins could form by the 3' oligouridylate tract folding back to hybridize with the 5' oligopurine tract and forming an intervening loop. Single-stranded helices could form by the stacking of bases in the polypurine tract. Some of the 16 Us 3' to the polypurine tract may have been unstacked and in random coils. Our SAXS studies showed that the RNA formed a mix of single-stranded structures in the absence of MgCl2. In the presence of MgCl2 at concentrations similar to those in the crystal, the solution structure was consistent with the double-stranded, blunt-ended structure, in agreement with the crystal structure. Here we describe the preparation of RNA samples, data collection with an in-house SAXS instrument designed for biological samples, and the processing and modeling of the scattering data.

  6. Developmental and age-related changes in apolipoprotein B mRNA editing in mice.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, K; Kitagawa, K; Kogishi, K; Takeda, T

    1992-12-01

    Apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA is modified by a post-transcriptional editing reaction (C to U) changing a glutamine (CAA) to a translational stop codon (UAA) and producing apoB-48 mRNA in mammalian liver and intestine. Developmental and age-related changes in apoB mRNA editing were studied using two mouse strains with different aging processes (SAM-R/1 with a normal aging process and SAM-P/1 with an accelerated aging process). During growth of both strains, the proportion of unedited (apoB-100) mRNA decreased from 80% in the fetal liver at the 17th day of gestation to 30% in the liver of mature 2-month-old mice. Age-associated increase in the proportion of hepatic apoB-100 mRNA was observed from the age of 18 months in the SAM-R/1 strain. In the SAM-P/1 strain, apoB-100 mRNA in the liver continued to increase from the age of 10 months to death. The profiles of developmental and age-related changes in the proportion of two serum apoB isoproteins (apoB-100 and apoB-48) followed the extent of hepatic apoB mRNA editing. Age-related changes in the extent of apoB mRNA editing in the small intestine were not observed in either strain. A slight expression of apoB was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the kidney, stomach, and colon, and age-associated change in the extent of editing was observed in the kidney. These correlated changes in apoB mRNA editing and serum apoB proteins suggest that RNA editing may be one mechanism involved in the regulation of lipoprotein biogenesis in biological development and in senescent mice. An age-associated decrease in the extent of hepatic apoB mRNA editing and increases of the proportion of serum apoB-100 protein were observed in senescent mice.

  7. Optimized approach for Ion Proton RNA sequencing reveals details of RNA splicing and editing features of the transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Brown, Roger B; Madrid, Nathaniel J; Suzuki, Hideaki; Ness, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) has become the standard method for unbiased analysis of gene expression but also provides access to more complex transcriptome features, including alternative RNA splicing, RNA editing, and even detection of fusion transcripts formed through chromosomal translocations. However, differences in library methods can adversely affect the ability to recover these different types of transcriptome data. For example, some methods have bias for one end of transcripts or rely on low-efficiency steps that limit the complexity of the resulting library, making detection of rare transcripts less likely. We tested several commonly used methods of RNA-seq library preparation and found vast differences in the detection of advanced transcriptome features, such as alternatively spliced isoforms and RNA editing sites. By comparing several different protocols available for the Ion Proton sequencer and by utilizing detailed bioinformatics analysis tools, we were able to develop an optimized random primer based RNA-seq technique that is reliable at uncovering rare transcript isoforms and RNA editing features, as well as fusion reads from oncogenic chromosome rearrangements. The combination of optimized libraries and rapid Ion Proton sequencing provides a powerful platform for the transcriptome analysis of research and clinical samples.

  8. Proofreading in vivo: Editing of homocysteine by methionyl-tRNA synthetase in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubowski, H. )

    1990-06-01

    Previous in vitro studies have established a pre-transfer proofreading mechanism for editing of homocysteine by bacterial methionyl-, isoleucyl-, and valyl-tRNA synthetases. The unusual feature of the editing is the formation of a distinct compound, homocysteine thiolactone. Now, two-dimensional TLC analysis of 35S-labeled amino acids extracted from cultures of the bacterium Escherichia coli reveals that the thiolactone is also synthesized in vivo. In E. coli, the thiolactone is made from homocysteine in a reaction catalyzed by methionyl-tRNA synthetase. One molecule of homocysteine is edited as thiolactone per 109 molecules of methionine incorporated into protein in vivo. These results not only directly demonstrate that the adenylate proofreading pathway for rejection of misactivated homocysteine operates in vivo in E. coli but, in general, establish the importance of error-editing mechanisms in living cells.

  9. Massive gene transfer and extensive RNA editing of a symbiotic dinoflagellate plastid genome.

    PubMed

    Mungpakdee, Sutada; Shinzato, Chuya; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Kawashima, Takeshi; Koyanagi, Ryo; Hisata, Kanako; Tanaka, Makiko; Goto, Hiroki; Fujie, Manabu; Lin, Senjie; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi

    2014-05-31

    Genome sequencing of Symbiodinium minutum revealed that 95 of 109 plastid-associated genes have been transferred to the nuclear genome and subsequently expanded by gene duplication. Only 14 genes remain in plastids and occur as DNA minicircles. Each minicircle (1.8-3.3 kb) contains one gene and a conserved noncoding region containing putative promoters and RNA-binding sites. Nine types of RNA editing, including a novel G/U type, were discovered in minicircle transcripts but not in genes transferred to the nucleus. In contrast to DNA editing sites in dinoflagellate mitochondria, which tend to be highly conserved across all taxa, editing sites employed in DNA minicircles are highly variable from species to species. Editing is crucial for core photosystem protein function. It restores evolutionarily conserved amino acids and increases peptidyl hydropathy. It also increases protein plasticity necessary to initiate photosystem complex assembly.

  10. Massive Gene Transfer and Extensive RNA Editing of a Symbiotic Dinoflagellate Plastid Genome

    PubMed Central

    Mungpakdee, Sutada; Shinzato, Chuya; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Kawashima, Takeshi; Koyanagi, Ryo; Hisata, Kanako; Tanaka, Makiko; Goto, Hiroki; Fujie, Manabu; Lin, Senjie; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequencing of Symbiodinium minutum revealed that 95 of 109 plastid-associated genes have been transferred to the nuclear genome and subsequently expanded by gene duplication. Only 14 genes remain in plastids and occur as DNA minicircles. Each minicircle (1.8–3.3 kb) contains one gene and a conserved noncoding region containing putative promoters and RNA-binding sites. Nine types of RNA editing, including a novel G/U type, were discovered in minicircle transcripts but not in genes transferred to the nucleus. In contrast to DNA editing sites in dinoflagellate mitochondria, which tend to be highly conserved across all taxa, editing sites employed in DNA minicircles are highly variable from species to species. Editing is crucial for core photosystem protein function. It restores evolutionarily conserved amino acids and increases peptidyl hydropathy. It also increases protein plasticity necessary to initiate photosystem complex assembly. PMID:24881086

  11. Proofreading in vivo: editing of homocysteine by methionyl-tRNA synthetase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, H

    1990-01-01

    Previous in vitro studies have established a pre-transfer proofreading mechanism for editing of homocysteine by bacterial methionyl-, isoleucyl-, and valyl-tRNA synthetases. The unusual feature of the editing is the formation of a distinct compound, homocysteine thiolactone. Now, two-dimensional TLC analysis of 35S-labeled amino acids extracted from cultures of the bacterium Escherichia coli reveals that the thiolactone is also synthesized in vivo. In E. coli, the thiolactone is made from homocysteine in a reaction catalyzed by methionyl-tRNA synthetase. One molecule of homocysteine is edited as thiolactone per 109 molecules of methionine incorporated into protein in vivo. These results not only directly demonstrate that the adenylate proofreading pathway for rejection of misactivated homocysteine operates in vivo in E. coli but, in general, establish the importance of error-editing mechanisms in living cells. Images PMID:2191291

  12. A zinc finger motif-containing protein is essential for chloroplast RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Shi, Xiaowen; Friso, Giulia; Van Wijk, Klaas; Bentolila, Stephane; Hanson, Maureen R

    2015-03-01

    C-to-U editing of transcripts in plant organelles is carried out by small (<400 kD) protein complexes called editosomes. Recognition of the proper C target for editing is mediated by pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) containing proteins that recognize cis-elements. Members of two additional gene families, the RIP/MORF and ORRM families, have each been found to be required for editing of particular sets of Cs in mitochondria and/or chloroplasts. By co-immunoprecipitation of the chloroplast editing factor ORRM1, followed by mass spectrometry, we have now identified a member of the RanBP2 type zinc fingers (pFAM00641) protein family that is required for editing of 14 sites in chloroplasts and affects editing efficiency of another 16 chloroplast C targets. In yeast two-hybrid assays, OZ1 (Organelle Zinc finger 1) interacts with PPR site recognition factors whose cognate sites are affected when OZ1 is mutated. No interaction of OZ1 with the chloroplast editing factors RIP2 and RIP9 was detected; however, OZ1 interacts with ORRM1, which binds to RIP proteins, allowing us to build a model for the chloroplast RNA editosome. The RNA editosomes that act upon most chloroplast C targets are likely to contain a PPR protein recognition factor, either RIP2 or RIP9, ORRM1, and OZ1. The organelle zinc finger editing factor family (OZ) contains 4 members in Arabidopsis, three that are predicted to be targeted to chloroplasts and one to mitochondria. With the identification of OZ1, there are now 4 nuclear-encoded protein families known to be essential for plant organelle RNA editing.

  13. A Zinc Finger Motif-Containing Protein Is Essential for Chloroplast RNA Editing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Shi, Xiaowen; Friso, Giulia; Van Wijk, Klaas; Bentolila, Stephane; Hanson, Maureen R.

    2015-01-01

    C-to-U editing of transcripts in plant organelles is carried out by small (<400 kD) protein complexes called editosomes. Recognition of the proper C target for editing is mediated by pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) containing proteins that recognize cis-elements. Members of two additional gene families, the RIP/MORF and ORRM families, have each been found to be required for editing of particular sets of Cs in mitochondria and/or chloroplasts. By co-immunoprecipitation of the chloroplast editing factor ORRM1, followed by mass spectrometry, we have now identified a member of the RanBP2 type zinc fingers (pFAM00641) protein family that is required for editing of 14 sites in chloroplasts and affects editing efficiency of another 16 chloroplast C targets. In yeast two-hybrid assays, OZ1 (Organelle Zinc finger 1) interacts with PPR site recognition factors whose cognate sites are affected when OZ1 is mutated. No interaction of OZ1 with the chloroplast editing factors RIP2 and RIP9 was detected; however, OZ1 interacts with ORRM1, which binds to RIP proteins, allowing us to build a model for the chloroplast RNA editosome. The RNA editosomes that act upon most chloroplast C targets are likely to contain a PPR protein recognition factor, either RIP2 or RIP9, ORRM1, and OZ1. The organelle zinc finger editing factor family (OZ) contains 4 members in Arabidopsis, three that are predicted to be targeted to chloroplasts and one to mitochondria. With the identification of OZ1, there are now 4 nuclear-encoded protein families known to be essential for plant organelle RNA editing. PMID:25768119

  14. Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing by ADAR1 is essential for normal murine erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Liddicoat, Brian J; Hartner, Jochen C; Piskol, Robert; Ramaswami, Gokul; Chalk, Alistair M; Kingsley, Paul D; Sankaran, Vijay G; Wall, Meaghan; Purton, Louise E; Seeburg, Peter H; Palis, James; Orkin, Stuart H; Lu, Jun; Li, Jin Billy; Walkley, Carl R

    2016-10-01

    Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosine residues to inosine in double-stranded RNA. In vivo, ADAR1 is essential for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem/progenitors. Whether other hematopoietic cell types also require ADAR1 has not been assessed. Using erythroid- and myeloid-restricted deletion of Adar1, we demonstrate that ADAR1 is dispensable for myelopoiesis but is essential for normal erythropoiesis. Adar1-deficient erythroid cells display a profound activation of innate immune signaling and high levels of cell death. No changes in microRNA levels were found in ADAR1-deficient erythroid cells. Using an editing-deficient allele, we demonstrate that RNA editing is the essential function of ADAR1 during erythropoiesis. Mapping of adenosine-to-inosine editing in purified erythroid cells identified clusters of hyperedited adenosines located in long 3'-untranslated regions of erythroid-specific transcripts and these are ADAR1-specific editing events. ADAR1-mediated RNA editing is essential for normal erythropoiesis. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypoxia-inducible C-to-U coding RNA editing downregulates SDHB in monocytes

    PubMed Central

    De Jong, Kitty; Liu, Biao; Wang, Jianmin; Patnaik, Santosh K.; Wallace, Paul K.; Taggart, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. RNA editing is a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism that can alter the coding sequences of certain genes in response to physiological demands. We previously identified C-to-U RNA editing (C136U, R46X) which inactivates a small fraction of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; mitochondrial complex II) subunit B gene (SDHB) mRNAs in normal steady-state peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). SDH is a heterotetrameric tumor suppressor complex which when mutated causes paraganglioma tumors that are characterized by constitutive activation of hypoxia inducible pathways. Here, we studied regulation, extent and cell type origin of SDHB RNA editing. Methods. We used short-term cultured PBMCs obtained from random healthy platelet donors, performed monocyte enrichment by cold aggregation, employed a novel allele-specific quantitative PCR method, flow cytometry, immunologic cell separation, gene expression microarray, database analysis and high-throughput RNA sequencing. Results. While the editing rate is low in uncultured monocyte-enriched PBMCs (average rate 2.0%, range 0.4%–6.3%, n = 42), it is markedly upregulated upon exposure to 1% oxygen tension (average rate 18.2%, range 2.8%–49.4%, n = 14) and during normoxic macrophage differentiation in the presence of serum (average rate 10.1%, range 2.7%–18.8%, n = 17). The normoxic induction of SDHB RNA editing was associated with the development of dense adherent aggregates of monocytes in culture. CD14-positive monocyte isolation increased the percentages of C136U transcripts by 1.25-fold in normoxic cultures (n = 5) and 1.68-fold in hypoxic cultures (n = 4). CD14-negative lymphocytes showed no evidence of SDHB editing. The SDHB genomic DNA remained wild-type during increased RNA editing. Microarray analysis showed expression changes in wound healing and immune response pathway genes as the editing rate increased in normoxic cultures. High-throughput sequencing of SDHB and SDHD transcripts confirmed the

  16. Hypoxia-inducible C-to-U coding RNA editing downregulates SDHB in monocytes.

    PubMed

    Baysal, Bora E; De Jong, Kitty; Liu, Biao; Wang, Jianmin; Patnaik, Santosh K; Wallace, Paul K; Taggart, Robert T

    2013-01-01

    Background. RNA editing is a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism that can alter the coding sequences of certain genes in response to physiological demands. We previously identified C-to-U RNA editing (C136U, R46X) which inactivates a small fraction of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; mitochondrial complex II) subunit B gene (SDHB) mRNAs in normal steady-state peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). SDH is a heterotetrameric tumor suppressor complex which when mutated causes paraganglioma tumors that are characterized by constitutive activation of hypoxia inducible pathways. Here, we studied regulation, extent and cell type origin of SDHB RNA editing. Methods. We used short-term cultured PBMCs obtained from random healthy platelet donors, performed monocyte enrichment by cold aggregation, employed a novel allele-specific quantitative PCR method, flow cytometry, immunologic cell separation, gene expression microarray, database analysis and high-throughput RNA sequencing. Results. While the editing rate is low in uncultured monocyte-enriched PBMCs (average rate 2.0%, range 0.4%-6.3%, n = 42), it is markedly upregulated upon exposure to 1% oxygen tension (average rate 18.2%, range 2.8%-49.4%, n = 14) and during normoxic macrophage differentiation in the presence of serum (average rate 10.1%, range 2.7%-18.8%, n = 17). The normoxic induction of SDHB RNA editing was associated with the development of dense adherent aggregates of monocytes in culture. CD14-positive monocyte isolation increased the percentages of C136U transcripts by 1.25-fold in normoxic cultures (n = 5) and 1.68-fold in hypoxic cultures (n = 4). CD14-negative lymphocytes showed no evidence of SDHB editing. The SDHB genomic DNA remained wild-type during increased RNA editing. Microarray analysis showed expression changes in wound healing and immune response pathway genes as the editing rate increased in normoxic cultures. High-throughput sequencing of SDHB and SDHD transcripts confirmed the

  17. Conjugation and Evaluation of Triazole‐Linked Single Guide RNA for CRISPR‐Cas9 Gene Editing

    PubMed Central

    He, Kaizhang; Chou, Eldon T.; Begay, Shawn; Anderson, Emily M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The CRISPR‐Cas9 gene editing system requires Cas9 endonuclease and guide RNAs (either the natural dual RNA consisting of crRNA and tracrRNA or a chimeric single guide RNA) that direct site‐specific double‐stranded DNA cleavage. This communication describes a click ligation approach that uses alkyne–azide cycloaddition to generate a triazole‐linked single guide RNA (sgRNA). The conjugated sgRNA shows efficient and comparable genome editing activity to natural dual RNA and unmodified sgRNA constructs. PMID:27441384

  18. RNA-guided genome editing in plants using a CRISPR-Cas system.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kabin; Yang, Yinong

    2013-11-01

    Precise and straightforward methods to edit the plant genome are much needed for functional genomics and crop improvement. Recently, RNA-guided genome editing using bacterial Type II cluster regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated nuclease (Cas) is emerging as an efficient tool for genome editing in microbial and animal systems. Here, we report the genome editing and targeted gene mutation in plants via the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Three guide RNAs (gRNAs) with a 20-22-nt seed region were designed to pair with distinct rice genomic sites which are followed by the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM). The engineered gRNAs were shown to direct the Cas9 nuclease for precise cleavage at the desired sites and introduce mutation (insertion or deletion) by error-prone non-homologous end joining DNA repairing. By analyzing the RNA-guided genome-editing events, the mutation efficiency at these target sites was estimated to be 3-8%. In addition, the off-target effect of an engineered gRNA-Cas9 was found on an imperfectly paired genomic site, but it had lower genome-editing efficiency than the perfectly matched site. Further analysis suggests that mismatch position between gRNA seed and target DNA is an important determinant of the gRNA-Cas9 targeting specificity, and specific gRNAs could be designed to target more than 90% of rice genes. Our results demonstrate that the CRISPR-Cas system can be exploited as a powerful tool for gene targeting and precise genome editing in plants.

  19. Synthetic CRISPR RNA-Cas9-guided genome editing in human cells.

    PubMed

    Rahdar, Meghdad; McMahon, Moira A; Prakash, Thazha P; Swayze, Eric E; Bennett, C Frank; Cleveland, Don W

    2015-12-22

    Genome editing with the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 nuclease system is a powerful technology for manipulating genomes, including introduction of gene disruptions or corrections. Here we develop a chemically modified, 29-nucleotide synthetic CRISPR RNA (scrRNA), which in combination with unmodified transactivating crRNA (tracrRNA) is shown to functionally replace the natural guide RNA in the CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease system and to mediate efficient genome editing in human cells. Incorporation of rational chemical modifications known to protect against nuclease digestion and stabilize RNA-RNA interactions in the tracrRNA hybridization region of CRISPR RNA (crRNA) yields a scrRNA with enhanced activity compared with the unmodified crRNA and comparable gene disruption activity to the previously published single guide RNA. Taken together, these findings provide a platform for therapeutic applications, especially for nervous system disease, using successive application of cell-permeable, synthetic CRISPR RNAs to activate and then silence Cas9 nuclease activity.

  20. Targeted gene disruption identifies three PPR-DYW proteins involved in RNA editing for five editing sites of the moss mitochondrial transcripts.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Shotaro; Ichinose, Mizuho; Tasaki, Eiji; Aoki, Yoshiaki; Komura, Yoshihiro; Sugita, Mamoru

    2010-11-01

    In plant organelles, RNA editing frequently occurs in many transcripts, but little is known about its molecular mechanism. Eleven RNA editing sites are present in the moss Physcomitrella patens mitochondria. Recently PpPPR_71, one member of 10 DYW-subclass pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR-DYW) proteins, has been identified as a site-specific recognition factor for RNA editing in the mitochondrial transcript. In this study, we disrupted three genes encoding a PPR-DYW protein-PpPPR_56, PpPPR_77, and PpPPR_91-to investigate whether they are involved in RNA editing. Transient expression of an N-terminal amino acid sequence fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) suggests that the three PPR-DYW proteins are targeted to mitochondria. Disruption of each gene by homologous recombination revealed that PpPPR_56 was involved in RNA editing at the nad3 and nad4 sites, PpPPR_77 at the cox2 and cox3 sites, and PpPPR_91 at the nad5-2 site in the mitochondrial transcripts. The nucleotide sequences surrounding the two editing sites targeted by a single PPR-DYW protein share 42 to 56% of their identities. Thus, moss PPR-DYW proteins seem to be site-specific factors for RNA editing in mitochondrial transcripts.

  1. In vitro RNA editing-like activity in a mitochondrial extract from Leishmania tarentolae.

    PubMed Central

    Frech, G C; Bakalara, N; Simpson, L; Simpson, A M

    1995-01-01

    A mitochondrial extract from Leishmania tarentolae directs the incorporation of uridylate (U) residues within the pre-edited domain of synthetic cytochrome b (CYb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 7 mRNA. This has several characteristics of an in vitro RNA editing activity, but no direct evidence for involvement of guide RNAs was obtained. Inhibition by micrococcal nuclease suggests a requirement for some type of endogenous RNA. The limitation of internal U-incorporation to the pre-edited region in the CYb mRNA and the inhibition by deletion or substitution of both mRNA anchor sequences for CYb gRNA-I and -II could be consistent either with a gRNA-mediated process or a secondary structure-mediated process. A low level of incorporation of [alpha-32P]CTP occurs at the same sites as UTP. Internal U-incorporation activity is selectively inhibited by heterologous RNAs, suggesting an involvement of low affinity RNA-binding proteins which can be competed by the added RNA. Images PMID:7828590

  2. ADAR RNA editing in human disease; more to it than meets the I.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Angela; Vukic, Dragana; Michalík, David; O'Connell, Mary A; Keegan, Liam P

    2017-09-14

    We review the structures and functions of ADARs and their involvements in human diseases. ADAR1 is widely expressed, particularly in the myeloid component of the blood system, and plays a prominent role in promiscuous editing of long dsRNA. Missense mutations that change ADAR1 residues and reduce RNA editing activity cause Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome, a childhood encephalitis and interferonopathy that mimics viral infection and resembles an extreme form of Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus (SLE). In Adar1 mouse mutant models aberrant interferon expression is prevented by eliminating interferon activation signaling from cytoplasmic dsRNA sensors, indicating that unedited cytoplasmic dsRNA drives the immune induction. On the other hand, upregulation of ADAR1 with widespread promiscuous RNA editing is a prominent feature of many cancers and particular site-specific RNA editing events are also affected. ADAR2 is most highly expressed in brain and is primarily required for site-specific editing of CNS transcripts; recent findings indicate that ADAR2 editing is regulated by neuronal excitation for synaptic scaling of glutamate receptors. ADAR2 is also linked to the circadian clock and to sleep. Mutations in ADAR2 could contribute to excitability syndromes such as epilepsy, to seizures, to diseases involving neuronal plasticity defects, such as autism and Fragile-X Syndrome, to neurodegenerations such as ALS, or to astrocytomas or glioblastomas in which reduced ADAR2 activity is required for oncogenic cell behavior. The range of human disease associated with ADAR1 mutations may extend further to include other inflammatory conditions while ADAR2 mutations may affect psychiatric conditions.

  3. The expression of apoB mRNA editing factors is not the sole determinant for the induction of editing in differentiating Caco-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, Chad A.; Smith, Harold C.

    2010-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA is edited at cytidine 6666 in the enterocytes lining the small intestine of all mammals; converting a CAA codon to a UAA stop codon. The conversion is {approx}80% efficient in this tissue and leads to the expression of the truncated protein, ApoB48, essential for secretion of dietary lipid as chylomicrons. Caco-2 cell raft cultures have been used as an in vitro model for the induction of editing activity during human small intestinal cell differentiation. This induction of apoB mRNA editing has been ascribed to the expression of APOBEC-1. In agreement our data demonstrated differentiation-dependent induction of expression of the editing enzyme APOBEC-1 and in addition we show alternative splicing of the essential auxiliary factor ACF. However, transfection of these editing factors in undifferentiated proliferating Caco-2 cells was not sufficient to induce robust apoB mRNA editing activity. Only differentiation of Caco-2 cells could induce more physiological like levels of apoB mRNA editing. The data suggested that additional regulatory mechanism(s) were induced by differentiation that controlled the functional activity of editing factors.

  4. Synthetic CRISPR RNA-Cas9–guided genome editing in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Rahdar, Meghdad; McMahon, Moira A.; Prakash, Thazha P.; Swayze, Eric E.; Bennett, C. Frank; Cleveland, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Genome editing with the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 nuclease system is a powerful technology for manipulating genomes, including introduction of gene disruptions or corrections. Here we develop a chemically modified, 29-nucleotide synthetic CRISPR RNA (scrRNA), which in combination with unmodified transactivating crRNA (tracrRNA) is shown to functionally replace the natural guide RNA in the CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease system and to mediate efficient genome editing in human cells. Incorporation of rational chemical modifications known to protect against nuclease digestion and stabilize RNA–RNA interactions in the tracrRNA hybridization region of CRISPR RNA (crRNA) yields a scrRNA with enhanced activity compared with the unmodified crRNA and comparable gene disruption activity to the previously published single guide RNA. Taken together, these findings provide a platform for therapeutic applications, especially for nervous system disease, using successive application of cell-permeable, synthetic CRISPR RNAs to activate and then silence Cas9 nuclease activity. PMID:26589814

  5. Purification and characterization of a human RNA adenosine deaminase for glutamate receptor B pre-mRNA editing.

    PubMed

    Yang, J H; Sklar, P; Axel, R; Maniatis, T

    1997-04-29

    The glutamate receptor subunit B (GluR-B) pre-mRNA is edited at two adenosine residues, resulting in amino acid changes that alter the electrophysiologic properties of the glutamate receptor. Previous studies showed that these amino acid changes are due to adenosine to inosine conversions in two codons resulting from adenosine deamination. Here, we describe the purification and characterization of an activity from human HeLa cells that efficiently and accurately edits GluR-B pre-mRNA at both of these sites. The purified activity contains a human homolog of the recently reported rat RED1 (rRED1) protein, a member of the family of double-stranded RNA-dependent deaminase proteins. Recombinant human RED1 (hRED1), but not recombinant dsRAD, another member of the family, efficiently edits both the Q/R and R/G sites of GluR-B RNA. We conclude that the GluR-B editing activity present in HeLa cell extracts and the recombinant hRED1 protein are indistinguishable.

  6. Inositol hexakisphosphate is bound in the ADAR2 core and required for RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Macbeth, Mark R; Schubert, Heidi L; Vandemark, Andrew P; Lingam, Arunth T; Hill, Christopher P; Bass, Brenda L

    2005-09-02

    We report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human ADAR2, an RNA editing enzyme, at 1.7 angstrom resolution. The structure reveals a zinc ion in the active site and suggests how the substrate adenosine is recognized. Unexpectedly, inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is buried within the enzyme core, contributing to the protein fold. Although there are no reports that adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) require a cofactor, we show that IP6 is required for activity. Amino acids that coordinate IP6 in the crystal structure are conserved in some adenosine deaminases that act on transfer RNA (tRNA) (ADATs), related enzymes that edit tRNA. Indeed, IP6 is also essential for in vivo and in vitro deamination of adenosine 37 of tRNAala by ADAT1.

  7. A potential role for NF1 mRNA editing in the pathogenesis of NF1 tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Cappione, A J; French, B L; Skuse, G R

    1997-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is a common disorder that predisposes to neoplasia in tissues derived from the embryonic neural crest. The NF1 gene encodes a tumor suppressor that most likely acts through the interaction of its GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-related domain (GRD) with the product of the ras protooncogene. We have previously identified a site in the NF1 mRNA, within the first half of the NF1 GRD, which undergoes base-modification editing. Editing at that site changes a C to a U, thereby introducing an in-frame stop codon. NF1 RNA editing has been detected in all cell types studied, to date. In order to investigate the role played by editing in NF1 tumorigenesis, we analyzed RNA from 19 NF1 and 4 non-NF1 tumors. We observed varying levels of NF1 mRNA editing in different tumors, with a higher range of editing levels in more malignant tumors (e.g., neurofibrosarcomas) compared to benign tumors (cutaneous neurofibromas). Plexiform neurofibromas have an intermediate range of levels of NF1 mRNA editing. We also compared tumor and nontumor tissues from several NF1 individuals, to determine the extent of variability present in the constitutional levels of NF1 mRNA editing and to determine whether higher levels are present in tumors. The constitutional levels of NF1 mRNA editing varied slightly but were consistent with the levels observed in non-NF1 individuals. In every case, there was a greater level of NF1 mRNA editing in the tumor than in the nontumor tissue from the same patient. These results suggest that inappropriately high levels of NF1 mRNA editing does play a role in NF1 tumorigenesis and that editing may result in the functional equivalent of biallelic inactivation of the NF1 tumor suppressor. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9012403

  8. A potential role for NF1 mRNA editing in the pathogenesis of NF1 tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cappione, A.J.; French, B.L.; Skuse, G.R.

    1997-02-01

    Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is a common disorder that predisposes to neoplasia in tissues derived from the embryonic neural crest. The NF1 gene encodes a tumor suppressor that most likely acts through the interaction of its GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-related domain (GRD) with the product of the ras protooncogene. We have previously identified a site in the NF1 mRNA, within the first half of the NF1 GRD, which undergoes base-modification editing. Editing at that site changes a C to a U, thereby introducing an in-frame stop codon. NF1 RNA editing has been detected in all cell types studied, to date. In order to investigate the role played by editing in NF1 tumorigenesis, we analyzed RNA from 19 NF1 and 4 non-NF1 tumors. We observed varying levels of NF1 mRNA editing in different tumors, with a higher range of editing levels in more malignant tumors (e.g., neurofibrosarcomas) compared to benign tumors (cutaneous neurofibromas). Plexiform neurofibromas have an intermediate range of levels of NF1 mRNA editing. We also compared tumor and nontumor tissues from several NF1 individuals, to determine the extent of variability present in the constitutional levels of NF1 mRNA editing and to determine whether higher levels are present in tumors. The constitutional levels of NF1 mRNA editing varied slightly but were consistent with the levels observed in non-NF1 individuals. In every case, there was a greater level of NF1 mRNA editing in the tumor than in the nontumor tissue from the same patient. These results suggest that inappropriately high levels of NF1 mRNA editing does play a role in NF1 tumorigenesis and that editing may result in the functional equivalent of biallelic inactivation of the NF1 tumor suppressor. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Integrative analyses of RNA editing, alternative splicing, and expression of young genes in human brain transcriptome by deep RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Ye, Ling-Qun; Li, Yan; Sun, Yan-Bo; Shao, Yi; Chen, Chunyan; Zhu, Zhu; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Yong E; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Next-generation RNA sequencing has been successfully used for identification of transcript assembly, evaluation of gene expression levels, and detection of post-transcriptional modifications. Despite these large-scale studies, additional comprehensive RNA-seq data from different subregions of the human brain are required to fully evaluate the evolutionary patterns experienced by the human brain transcriptome. Here, we provide a total of 6.5 billion RNA-seq reads from different subregions of the human brain. A significant correlation was observed between the levels of alternative splicing and RNA editing, which might be explained by a competition between the molecular machineries responsible for the splicing and editing of RNA. Young human protein-coding genes demonstrate biased expression to the neocortical and non-neocortical regions during evolution on the lineage leading to humans. We also found that a significantly greater number of young human protein-coding genes are expressed in the putamen, a tissue that was also observed to have the highest level of RNA-editing activity. The putamen, which previously received little attention, plays an important role in cognitive ability, and our data suggest a potential contribution of the putamen to human evolution. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Therapeutic applications of CRISPR RNA-guided genome editing.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development of programmable nuclease-based genome editing technologies has enabled targeted gene disruption and correction both in vitro and in vivo This revolution opens up the possibility of precise genome editing at target genomic sites to modulate gene function in animals and plants. Among several programmable nucleases, the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) system has progressed remarkably in recent years, leading to its widespread use in research, medicine and biotechnology. In particular, CRISPR-Cas9 shows highly efficient gene editing activity for therapeutic purposes in systems ranging from patient stem cells to animal models. However, the development of therapeutic approaches and delivery methods remains a great challenge for biomedical applications. Herein, we review therapeutic applications that use the CRISPR-Cas9 system and discuss the possibilities and challenges ahead. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Therapeutic Genome Editing and its Potential Enhancement through CRISPR Guide RNA and Cas9 Modifications.

    PubMed

    Batzir, Nurit Assia; Tovin, Adi; Hendel, Ayal

    2017-06-01

    Genome editing with engineered nucleases is a rapidly growing field thanks to transformative technologies that allow researchers to precisely alter genomes for numerous applications including basic research, biotechnology, and human gene therapy. The genome editing process relies on creating a site-specific DNA double-strand break (DSB) by engineered nucleases and then allowing the cell's repair machinery to repair the break such that precise changes are made to the DNA sequence. The recent development of CRISPR-Cas systems as easily accessible and programmable tools for genome editing accelerates the progress towards using genome editing as a new approach to human therapeutics. Here we review how genome editing using engineered nucleases works and how using different genome editing outcomes can be used as a tool set for treating human diseases. We then review the major challenges of therapeutic genome editing and we discuss how its potential enhancement through CRISPR guide RNA and Cas9 protein modifications could resolve some of these challenges. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  12. RNA editing underlies temperature adaptation in K+ channels from polar octopuses.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Sandra; Rosenthal, Joshua J C

    2012-02-17

    To operate in the extreme cold, ion channels from psychrophiles must have evolved structural changes to compensate for their thermal environment. A reasonable assumption would be that the underlying adaptations lie within the encoding genes. Here, we show that delayed rectifier K(+) channel genes from an Antarctic and a tropical octopus encode channels that differ at only four positions and display very similar behavior when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. However, the transcribed messenger RNAs are extensively edited, creating functional diversity. One editing site, which recodes an isoleucine to a valine in the channel's pore, greatly accelerates gating kinetics by destabilizing the open state. This site is extensively edited in both Antarctic and Arctic species, but mostly unedited in tropical species. Thus adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing can respond to the physical environment.

  13. The ADAR RNA editing enzyme controls neuronal excitability in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianghua; Overton, Ian M.; Baines, Richard A.; Keegan, Liam P.; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    RNA editing by deamination of specific adenosine bases to inosines during pre-mRNA processing generates edited isoforms of proteins. Recoding RNA editing is more widespread in Drosophila than in vertebrates. Editing levels rise strongly at metamorphosis, and Adar5G1 null mutant flies lack editing events in hundreds of CNS transcripts; mutant flies have reduced viability, severely defective locomotion and age-dependent neurodegeneration. On the other hand, overexpressing an adult dADAR isoform with high enzymatic activity ubiquitously during larval and pupal stages is lethal. Advantage was taken of this to screen for genetic modifiers; Adar overexpression lethality is rescued by reduced dosage of the Rdl (Resistant to dieldrin), gene encoding a subunit of inhibitory GABA receptors. Reduced dosage of the Gad1 gene encoding the GABA synthetase also rescues Adar overexpression lethality. Drosophila Adar5G1 mutant phenotypes are ameliorated by feeding GABA modulators. We demonstrate that neuronal excitability is linked to dADAR expression levels in individual neurons; Adar-overexpressing larval motor neurons show reduced excitability whereas Adar5G1 null mutant or targeted Adar knockdown motor neurons exhibit increased excitability. GABA inhibitory signalling is impaired in human epileptic and autistic conditions, and vertebrate ADARs may have a relevant evolutionarily conserved control over neuronal excitability. PMID:24137011

  14. Deep Transcriptome Sequencing of Two Green Algae, Chara vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Provides No Evidence of Organellar RNA Editing

    PubMed Central

    Cahoon, A. Bruce; Nauss, John A.; Stanley, Conner D.; Qureshi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Nearly all land plants post-transcriptionally modify specific nucleotides within RNAs, a process known as RNA editing. This adaptation allows the correction of deleterious mutations within the asexually reproducing and presumably non-recombinant chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. There are no reports of RNA editing in any of the green algae so this phenomenon is presumed to have originated in embryophytes either after the invasion of land or in the now extinct algal ancestor of all land plants. This was challenged when a recent in silico screen for RNA edit sites based on genomic sequence homology predicted edit sites in the green alga Chara vulgaris, a multicellular alga found within the Streptophyta clade and one of the closest extant algal relatives of land plants. In this study, the organelle transcriptomes of C. vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were deep sequenced for a comprehensive assessment of RNA editing. Initial analyses based solely on sequence comparisons suggested potential edit sites in both species, but subsequent high-resolution melt analysis, RNase H-dependent PCR (rhPCR), and Sanger sequencing of DNA and complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from each of the putative edit sites revealed them to be either single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or spurious deep sequencing results. The lack of RNA editing in these two lineages is consistent with the current hypothesis that RNA editing evolved after embryophytes split from its ancestral algal lineage. PMID:28230734

  15. New Insights into the Biological Role of Mammalian ADARs; the RNA Editing Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mannion, Niamh; Arieti, Fabiana; Gallo, Angela; Keegan, Liam P.; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    The ADAR proteins deaminate adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA which is one of the most abundant modifications present in mammalian RNA. Inosine can have a profound effect on the RNAs that are edited, not only changing the base-pairing properties, but can also result in recoding, as inosine behaves as if it were guanosine. In mammals there are three ADAR proteins and two ADAR-related proteins (ADAD) expressed. All have a very similar modular structure; however, both their expression and biological function differ significantly. Only two of the ADAR proteins have enzymatic activity. However, both ADAR and ADAD proteins possess the ability to bind double-strand RNA. Mutations in ADARs have been associated with many diseases ranging from cancer, innate immunity to neurological disorders. Here, we will discuss in detail the domain structure of mammalian ADARs, the effects of RNA editing, and the role of ADARs in human diseases. PMID:26437436

  16. New variants of CRISPR RNA guided genome editing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Murovec, Jana; Pirc, Žan; Yang, Bing

    2017-04-01

    CRISPR-mediated genome editing using the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 enzyme is revolutionizing life science by providing new, precise, facile and high throughput tools for genetic modification by the specific targeting of double-strand breaks in the genome of hosts. Plant biotechnologists have extensively used the S. pyogenes Cas9-based system since its inception in 2013. However, there are still some limitations to its even broader usage in plants. Major restrictions, especially in agricultural biotechnology, are the currently unclear regulatory status of plants modified with CRISPR/Cas9 and the lack of suitable delivery methods for some plant species. Solutions to these limitations could come in the form of new variants of genome editing enzymes that have recently been discovered and have already proved comparable to or even better in performance than S. pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 in terms of precision and ease of delivery in mammal cells. Although some of them have already been tested in plants, most of them are less well known in the plant science community. In this review, we describe the following new enzyme systems engineered for genome editing, transcriptional regulation and cellular imaging -NDASH- C2c2 from L. shahii; Cas9 from F. novicida, S. aureus, S. thermophiles, N. meningitidis; Cpf1 from F. novicida, Acidaminococcus and Lachnospiraceae; nickase, split, enhanced and other Cas9 variants from S. pyogenes; catalytically inactive SpCas9 linked to various nuclease or gene-regulating domains -NDASH- with an emphasis on their advantages in comparison to the broadly used SpCas9. In addition, we discuss new possibilities they offer in plant biotechnology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Apolipoprotein B RNA editing enzyme-deficient mice are viable despite alterations in lipoprotein metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, J R; Pászty, C; Stevens, M E; Hughes, S D; Forte, T; Scott, J; Rubin, E M

    1996-01-01

    RNA editing in the nucleus of higher eukaryotes results in subtle changes to the RNA sequence, with the ability to effect dramatic changes in biological function. The first example to be described and among the best characterized, is the cytidine-to-uridine editing of apolipoprotein B (apo-B) RNA. The editing of apo-B RNA is mediated by a novel cytidine deaminase, apobec-1, which has acquired the ability to bind RNA. The stop translation codon generated by the editing of apo-B RNA truncates the full-length apo-B100 to form apo-B48. The recent observations of tumor formation in Apobec-1 transgenic animals, together with the fact that Apobec-1 is expressed in numerous tissues lacking apo-B, raises the issue of whether this enzyme is essential for a variety of posttranscriptional editing events. To directly test this, mice were created with a null mutation in Apobec-1 using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Mice, homozygous for this mutation, were viable and made apo-B100 but not apo-B48. The null animals were fertile, and a variety of histological, behavioral, and morphological analyses revealed no phenotype other than abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism, which included an increased low density lipoprotein fraction and a reduction in high density lipoprotein cholesterol. These studies demonstrate that neither apobec-1 nor apo-B48 is essential for viability and suggest that the major role of apobec-1 may be confined to the modulation of lipid transport. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8692961

  18. ADAR1-Mediated RNA Editing, A Novel Mechanism Controlling Phenotypic Modulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Fei, Jia; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Jia-Ning; Dong, Kun; Chen, Shi-You

    2016-07-22

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic modulation is characterized by the downregulation of SMC contractile genes. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB, a well-known stimulator of SMC phenotypic modulation, downregulates SMC genes via posttranscriptional regulation. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. To establish RNA editing as a novel mechanism controlling SMC phenotypic modulation. Precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNA) of SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle α-actin were accumulated while their mature mRNAs were downregulated during SMC phenotypic modulation, suggesting an abnormal splicing of the pre-mRNAs. The abnormal splicing resulted from SMC marker pre-mRNA editing that was facilitated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1), an enzyme converting adenosines to inosines (A→I editing) in RNA sequences. ADAR1 expression inversely correlated with SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle α-actin levels; knockdown of ADAR1 restored SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle α-actin expression in phenotypically modulated SMC, and editase domain mutation diminished the ADAR1-mediated abnormal splicing of SMC marker pre-mRNAs. Moreover, the abnormal splicing/editing of SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle α-actin pre-mRNAs occurred during injury-induced vascular remodeling. Importantly, heterozygous knockout of ADAR1 dramatically inhibited injury-induced neointima formation and restored SMC marker expression, demonstrating a critical role of ADAR1 in SMC phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling in vivo. Our results unraveled a novel molecular mechanism, that is, pre-mRNA editing, governing SMC phenotypic modulation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Cas9 gRNA engineering for genome editing, activation and repression

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Samira; Chavez, Alejandro; Tuttle, Marcelle; Hall, Richard N; Chari, Raj; Ter-Ovanesyan, Dmitry; Qian, Jason; Pruitt, Benjamin W; Beal, Jacob; Vora, Suhani; Buchthal, Joanna; Kowal, Emma J K; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Collins, James J; Weiss, Ron; Church, George

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that by altering the length of Cas9-associated guide RNA(gRNA) we were able to control Cas9 nuclease activity and simultaneously perform genome editing and transcriptional regulation with a single Cas9 protein. We exploited these principles to engineer mammalian synthetic circuits with combined transcriptional regulation and kill functions governed by a single multifunctional Cas9 protein. PMID:26344044

  20. Extensive and evolutionarily persistent mitochondrial tRNA editing in Velvet Worms (phylum Onychophora).

    PubMed

    Segovia, Romulo; Pett, Walker; Trewick, Steve; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2011-10-01

    Mitochondrial genomes of onychophorans (velvet worms) present an interesting problem: Some previous studies reported them lacking several transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, whereas others found that all their tRNA genes were present but severely reduced. To resolve this discrepancy, we determined complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the onychophorans Oroperipatus sp. and Peripatoides sympatrica as well as cDNA sequences from 14 and 10 of their tRNAs, respectively. We show that tRNA genes in these genomes are indeed highly reduced and encode truncated molecules, which are restored to more conventional structures by extensive tRNA editing. During this editing process, up to 34 nucleotides are added to the tRNA sequences encoded in Oroperipatus sp. mtDNA, rebuilding the aminoacyl acceptor stem, the TΨC arm, and in some extreme cases, the variable arm and even a part of the anticodon stem. The editing is less extreme in P. sympatrica in which at least a part of the TΨC arm is always encoded in mtDNA. When the entire TΨC arm is added de novo in Oroperipatus sp., the sequence of this arm is either identical or similar among different tRNA species, yet the sequences show substantial variation for each tRNA. These observations suggest that the arm is rebuilt, at least in part, by a template-independent mechanism and argue against the alternative possibility that tRNA genes or their parts are imported from the nucleus. By contrast, the 3' end of the aminoacyl acceptor stem is likely restored by a template-dependent mechanism. The extreme tRNA editing reported here has been preserved for >140 My as it was found in both extant families of onychophorans. Furthermore, a similar type of tRNA editing may be present in several other groups of arthropods, which show a high degree of tRNA gene reduction in their mtDNA.

  1. Site-specific factor involved in the editing of the psbL mRNA in tobacco plastids.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, S; Carrer, H; Maliga, P

    1995-01-01

    In tobacco plastids, functional psbL mRNA is created by editing an ACG codon to an AUG translation initiation codon. To determine if editing may occur in a chimeric mRNA, the N-terminal part of psbL containing the editing site was translationally fused with the aadA and kan bacterial genes. The chimeric constructs were introduced into the tobacco plastid genome by targeted gene insertion. Editing of the chimeric mRNAs indicated that the 98 nt fragment spanning the psbL editing site contains all cis information required for editing. Expression of the chimeric gene transcripts led to a significant decrease in the editing efficiency of the endogenous psbL mRNA. However, the efficiency of editing in the transplastomic lines was unchanged for four sites in the rpoB and ndhB mRNAs. Reduced efficiency of psbL editing, but not of the other four sites, in the transplastomic lines indicates depletion of psbL-specific editing factor(s). This finding implicates the involvement of site-specific factors in editing of plastid mRNAs in higher plants. Images PMID:7796820

  2. The longest mitochondrial RNA editing PPR protein MEF12 in Arabidopsis thaliana requires the full-length E domain

    PubMed Central

    Härtel, Barbara; Zehrmann, Anja; Verbitskiy, Daniil; Takenaka, Mizuki

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial RNA editing factor 12 (MEF12) was identified in a screen for editing defects of a chemically mutated plant population in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MEF12 editing protein is required for the C to U change of nucleotide nad5-374. The MEF12 polypeptide is characterized by an exceptionally long stretch of 25 pentatricopeptide repeats (PPR) and a C-terminal extension domain. Editing is lost in mutant plants with a stop codon in the extending element. A T-DNA insertion substituting the 10 C-terminal amino acids of the extension domain reduces RNA editing to about 20% at the target site in a mutant plant. These results support the importance of the full-length extension module for functional RNA editing in plant mitochondria. PMID:23845994

  3. Epigenome Editing of Potato by Grafting Using Transgenic Tobacco as siRNA Donor

    PubMed Central

    Hojo, Hatsune; Harada, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    In plants, it is possible to induce heritable transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) via RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) using artificially synthesized small RNA (siRNA) homologous to the 5'-flanking region of the target gene. As the siRNA signal with a specific RNA determinant moves through plasmodesmata and sieve elements, we attempted to induce TGS of a transgene and an endogenous gene of potato (Solanum tuberosum) rootstock by grafting using siRNA produced in a tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) scion. Our results provide evidence that this system can induce TGS of target genes in tubers formed on potato rootstock. The TGS is maintained in the progeny tubers lacking the transported siRNAs. Our findings reveal that epigenome editing using mobile RNA has the potential to allow breeding of artificial sport cultivars in vegetative propagation crops. PMID:27564864

  4. Multiple PPR protein interactions are involved in the RNA editing system in Arabidopsis mitochondria and plastids.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Colás, Nuria; Zhu, Qiang; Takenaka, Mizuki; De Rybel, Bert; Weijers, Dolf; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-08-15

    Recent identification of several different types of RNA editing factors in plant organelles suggests complex RNA editosomes within which each factor has a different task. However, the precise protein interactions between the different editing factors are still poorly understood. In this paper, we show that the E(+)-type pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein SLO2, which lacks a C-terminal cytidine deaminase-like DYW domain, interacts in vivo with the DYW-type PPR protein DYW2 and the P-type PPR protein NUWA in mitochondria, and that the latter enhances the interaction of the former ones. These results may reflect a protein scaffold or complex stabilization role of NUWA between E(+)-type PPR and DYW2 proteins. Interestingly, DYW2 and NUWA also interact in chloroplasts, and DYW2-GFP overexpressing lines show broad editing defects in both organelles, with predominant specificity for sites edited by E(+)-type PPR proteins. The latter suggests a coordinated regulation of organellar multiple site editing through DYW2, which probably provides the deaminase activity to E(+) editosomes.

  5. Electroporation of DNA into Physarum polycephalum Mitochondria: Effects on Transcription and RNA Editing in Isolated Organelles.

    PubMed

    Gott, Jonatha M; Naegele, Gregory M; Howell, Scott J

    2016-12-14

    Mitochondrial RNAs in the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum contain nucleotides that are not encoded in the mitochondrial genes from which they are transcribed. These site-specific changes are quite extensive, comprising ~4% of the residues within mRNAs and ~2% of rRNAs and tRNAs. These "extra" nucleotides are added co-transcriptionally, but the means by which this is accomplished have not been elucidated. The cox1 mRNA also contains four sites of C to U changes, which occur post-transcriptionally, most likely via targeted deamination. The currently available in vitro systems for studying P. polycephalum editing are limited in that the template is the entire ~63,000 bp mitochondrial genome. This presents a significant challenge when trying to define the signals that specify editing sites. In an attempt to overcome this issue, a method for introducing DNA into isolated P. polycephalum mitochondria via electroporation has been developed. Exogenous DNA is expressed, but the transcripts synthesized from these templates are not edited under the conditions tested. However, transcripts derived from the mitochondrial genome are accurately edited after electroporation, indicating that the editing machinery is still functional. These findings suggest that this method may ultimately provide a feasible approach to elucidating editing signals.

  6. Electroporation of DNA into Physarum polycephalum Mitochondria: Effects on Transcription and RNA Editing in Isolated Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Gott, Jonatha M.; Naegele, Gregory M.; Howell, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial RNAs in the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum contain nucleotides that are not encoded in the mitochondrial genes from which they are transcribed. These site-specific changes are quite extensive, comprising ~4% of the residues within mRNAs and ~2% of rRNAs and tRNAs. These “extra” nucleotides are added co-transcriptionally, but the means by which this is accomplished have not been elucidated. The cox1 mRNA also contains four sites of C to U changes, which occur post-transcriptionally, most likely via targeted deamination. The currently available in vitro systems for studying P. polycephalum editing are limited in that the template is the entire ~63,000 bp mitochondrial genome. This presents a significant challenge when trying to define the signals that specify editing sites. In an attempt to overcome this issue, a method for introducing DNA into isolated P. polycephalum mitochondria via electroporation has been developed. Exogenous DNA is expressed, but the transcripts synthesized from these templates are not edited under the conditions tested. However, transcripts derived from the mitochondrial genome are accurately edited after electroporation, indicating that the editing machinery is still functional. These findings suggest that this method may ultimately provide a feasible approach to elucidating editing signals. PMID:27983641

  7. Functional Impact of RNA editing and ADARs on regulation of gene expression: perspectives from deep sequencing studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsuan; Ma, Chung-Pei; Chen, Yi-Tung; Schuyler, Scott C; Chang, Kai-Ping; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Cells regulate gene expression at multiple levels leading to a balance between robustness and complexity within their proteome. One core molecular step contributing to this important balance during metazoan gene expression is RNA editing, such as the co-transcriptional recoding of RNA transcripts catalyzed by the adenosine deaminse acting on RNA (ADAR) family of enzymes. Understanding of the adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing process has been broadened considerably by the next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, which allows for in-depth demarcation of an RNA editome at nucleotide resolution. However, critical issues remain unresolved with regard to how RNA editing cooperates with other transcript-associated events to underpin regulated gene expression. Here we review the growing body of evidence, provided by recent NGS-based studies, that links RNA editing to other mechanisms of post-transcriptional RNA processing and gene expression regulation including alternative splicing, transcript stability and localization, and the biogenesis and function of microRNAs (miRNAs). We also discuss the possibility that systematic integration of NGS data may be employed to establish the rules of an "RNA editing code", which may give us new insights into the functional consequences of RNA editing.

  8. Nuclear DYW-type PPR gene families diversify with increasing RNA editing frequencies in liverwort and moss mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Rüdinger, Mareike; Volkmar, Ute; Lenz, Henning; Groth-Malonek, Milena; Knoop, Volker

    2012-02-01

    RNA editing in mitochondria and chloroplasts of land plants alters transcript sequences by site-specific conversions of cytidines into uridines. RNA editing frequencies vary extremely between land plant clades, ranging from zero in some liverworts to more than 2,000 sites in lycophytes. Unique pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins with variable domain extension (E/E+/DYW) have recently been identified as specific editing site recognition factors in model plants. The distinctive functions of these PPR protein domain additions have remained unclear, although deaminase function has been proposed for the DYW domain. To shed light on diversity of RNA editing and DYW proteins at the origin of land plant evolution, we investigated editing patterns of the mitochondrial nad5, nad4, and nad2 genes in a wide sampling of more than 100 liverworts and mosses using the recently developed PREPACT program (www.prepact.de) and exemplarily confirmed predicted RNA editing sites in selected taxa. Extreme variability in RNA editing frequency is seen both in liverworts and mosses. Only few editings exist in the liverwort Lejeunea cavifolia or the moss Pogonatum urnigerum whereas up to 20% of cytidines are edited in the liverwort Haplomitrium mnioides or the moss Takakia lepidozioides. Interestingly, the latter are taxa that branch very early within their respective clades. Amplicons targeting the E/E+/DYW domains and subsequent random clone sequencing show DYW domains among bryophytes to be highly conserved in comparison with their angiosperm counterparts and to correlate well with RNA editing frequencies regarding their diversities. We propose that DYW proteins are the key players of RNA editing at the origin of land plants.

  9. The SLO1 PPR protein is required for RNA editing at multiple sites with similar upstream sequences in Arabidopsis mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Sung, Tzu-Ying; Tseng, Ching-Chih; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2010-08-01

    In Arabidopsis, RNA editing changes more than 500 cytidines to uridines in mitochondrial transcripts. The editing enzyme and co-factors involved in these processes are largely unknown. We have identified a nuclear gene SLOW GROWTH1 (SLO1) encoding an E motif-containing pentatricopeptide repeat protein that is required for RNA editing of nad4 and nad9 in Arabidopsis mitochondria. The SLO1 protein is localized to the mitochondrion, and its absence gives rise to small plants with slow growth and delayed development. A survey of approximately 500 mitochondrial RNA editing sites in Arabidopsis reveals that the editing of two sites, nad4-449 and nad9-328, is abolished in the slo1 mutants. Sequence comparison in the upstream (from -1 to -15 bp) of nad4-449 and nad9-328 editing sites shows that nine of the 15 nucleotides are identical. In addition to RNA editing, we used RNA gel blot analysis to compare the abundance and banding patterns of mitochondrial transcripts between the wild type and slo1 mutants. Of the 79 genes and open reading frames examined, steady-state levels of 56 mitochondrial transcripts are increased in the slo1 mutants. These results suggest that the SLO1 protein may indirectly regulate plant growth and development via affecting mitochondrial RNA editing and gene expression.

  10. Molecular cloning of cDNA for double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase, a candidate enzyme for nuclear RNA editing.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, U; Wang, Y; Sanford, T; Zeng, Y; Nishikura, K

    1994-01-01

    We have cloned human cDNA encoding double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (DRADA). DRADA is a ubiquitous nuclear enzyme that converts multiple adenosines to inosines in double-helical RNA substrates without apparent sequence specificity. The A --> I conversion activity of the protein encoded by the cloned cDNA was confirmed by recombinant expression in insect cells. Use of the cloned DNA as a molecular probe documented sequence conservation across mammals and detected a single transcript of 7 kb in RNA of all human tissues analyzed. The deduced primary structure of human DRADA revealed a bipartite nuclear localization signal, three repeats of a double-stranded RNA binding motif, and the presence of sequences conserved in the catalytic center of other deaminases, including a cytidine deaminase involved in the RNA editing of apolipoprotein B. These structural properties are consistent with the enzymatic signature of DRADA, and strengthen the hypothesis that DRADA carries out the RNA editing of transcripts encoding glutamate-gated ion channels in brain. Images PMID:7972084

  11. Gene amplification-associated overexpression of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 enhances human lung tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Anadón, C; Guil, S; Simó-Riudalbas, L; Moutinho, C; Setien, F; Martínez-Cardús, A; Moran, S; Villanueva, A; Calaf, M; Vidal, A; Lazo, P A; Zondervan, I; Savola, S; Kohno, T; Yokota, J; de Pouplana, L R; Esteller, M

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of new therapies against particular genetic mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer is a promising avenue for improving patient survival, but the target population is small. There is a need to discover new potential actionable genetic lesions, to which end, non-conventional cancer pathways, such as RNA editing, are worth exploring. Herein we show that the adenosine-to-inosine editing enzyme ADAR1 undergoes gene amplification in non-small cancer cell lines and primary tumors in association with higher levels of the corresponding mRNA and protein. From a growth and invasion standpoint, the depletion of ADAR1 expression in amplified cells reduces their tumorigenic potential in cell culture and mouse models, whereas its overexpression has the opposite effects. From a functional perspective, ADAR1 overexpression enhances the editing frequencies of target transcripts such as NEIL1 and miR-381. In the clinical setting, patients with early-stage lung cancer, but harboring ADAR1 gene amplification, have poor outcomes. Overall, our results indicate a role for ADAR1 as a lung cancer oncogene undergoing gene amplification-associated activation that affects downstream RNA editing patterns and patient prognosis. PMID:26640150

  12. Gene amplification-associated overexpression of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 enhances human lung tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Anadón, C; Guil, S; Simó-Riudalbas, L; Moutinho, C; Setien, F; Martínez-Cardús, A; Moran, S; Villanueva, A; Calaf, M; Vidal, A; Lazo, P A; Zondervan, I; Savola, S; Kohno, T; Yokota, J; de Pouplana, L R; Esteller, M

    2016-08-18

    The introduction of new therapies against particular genetic mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer is a promising avenue for improving patient survival, but the target population is small. There is a need to discover new potential actionable genetic lesions, to which end, non-conventional cancer pathways, such as RNA editing, are worth exploring. Herein we show that the adenosine-to-inosine editing enzyme ADAR1 undergoes gene amplification in non-small cancer cell lines and primary tumors in association with higher levels of the corresponding mRNA and protein. From a growth and invasion standpoint, the depletion of ADAR1 expression in amplified cells reduces their tumorigenic potential in cell culture and mouse models, whereas its overexpression has the opposite effects. From a functional perspective, ADAR1 overexpression enhances the editing frequencies of target transcripts such as NEIL1 and miR-381. In the clinical setting, patients with early-stage lung cancer, but harboring ADAR1 gene amplification, have poor outcomes. Overall, our results indicate a role for ADAR1 as a lung cancer oncogene undergoing gene amplification-associated activation that affects downstream RNA editing patterns and patient prognosis.

  13. Two tyrosine residues outside the editing active site in Giardia lamblia leucyl-tRNA synthetase are essential for the post-transfer editing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Long; Wang, En-Duo

    2009-08-28

    Leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) is responsible for the Leu-tRNA(Leu) synthesis. The connective peptide 1 (CP1) domain inserted into the Rossmann nucleotide binding fold possesses editing active site to hydrolyze the mischarged tRNA(Leu) with noncognate amino acid, then to ensure high fidelity of protein synthesis. A few co-crystal structures of LeuRS with tRNA(Leu) in different conformations revealed that tRNA(Leu) 3' end shuttled between synthetic and editing active sites dynamically with direct and specific interaction with the CP1 domain. Here, we reported that Y515 and Y520 outside the editing active site of CP1 domain of Giardia lamblia LeuRS (GlLeuRS) are crucial for post-transfer editing by influencing the binding affinity with mischarged tRNA(Leu). Mutations on Y515 and Y520 also decreased tRNA(Leu) charging activity to various extents but had no effect on leucine activation. Our results gave some biochemical knowledge about interaction of tRNA(Leu) 3' end with the CP1 domain in archaeal/eukaryotic LeuRS.

  14. Auto-Regulatory RNA Editing Fine-Tunes mRNA Re-Coding and Complex Behaviour in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Savva, Yiannis A.; Jepson, James E.C; Sahin, Asli; Sugden, Arthur U.; Dorsky, Jacquelyn S.; Alpert, Lauren; Lawrence, Charles; Reenan, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Auto-regulatory feedback loops are a common molecular strategy used to optimize protein function. In Drosophila many mRNAs involved in neuro-transmission are re-coded at the RNA level by the RNA editing enzyme dADAR, leading to the incorporation of amino acids that are not directly encoded by the genome. dADAR also re-codes its own transcript, but the consequences of this auto-regulation in vivo are unclear. Here we show that hard-wiring or abolishing endogenous dADAR auto-regulation dramatically remodels the landscape of re-coding events in a site-specific manner. These molecular phenotypes correlate with altered localization of dADAR within the nuclear compartment. Furthermore, auto-editing exhibits sexually dimorphic patterns of spatial regulation and can be modified by abiotic environmental factors. Finally, we demonstrate that modifying dAdar auto-editing affects adaptive complex behaviors. Our results reveal the in vivo relevance of auto-regulatory control over post-transcriptional mRNA re-coding events in fine-tuning brain function and organismal behavior. PMID:22531175

  15. DEAH-RHA helicase•Znf cofactor systems in kinetoplastid RNA editing and evolutionarily distant RNA processes

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Reyes, Jorge; Mooers, Blaine H.M.; Abu-Adas, Zakaria; Kumar, Vikas; Gulati, Shelly

    2016-01-01

    Multi-zinc finger proteins are an emerging class of cofactors in DEAH-RHA RNA helicases across highly divergent eukaryotic lineages. DEAH-RHA helicase•zinc finger cofactor partnerships predate the split of kinetoplastid protozoa, which include several human pathogens, from other eukaryotic lineages 100–400 Ma. Despite a long evolutionary history, the prototypical DEAH-RHA domains remain highly conserved. This short review focuses on a recently identified DEAH-RHA helicase•zinc finger cofactor system in kinetoplastid RNA editing, and its potential functional parallels with analogous systems in embryogenesis control in nematodes and antivirus protection in humans. PMID:27540585

  16. RNA Editing TUTase 1: structural foundation of substrate recognition, complex interactions and drug targeting

    PubMed Central

    Rajappa-Titu, Lional; Suematsu, Takuma; Munoz-Tello, Paola; Long, Marius; Demir, Özlem; Cheng, Kevin J.; Stagno, Jason R.; Luecke, Hartmut; Amaro, Rommie E.; Aphasizheva, Inna; Aphasizhev, Ruslan; Thore, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Terminal uridyltransferases (TUTases) execute 3′ RNA uridylation across protists, fungi, metazoan and plant species. Uridylation plays a particularly prominent role in RNA processing pathways of kinetoplastid protists typified by the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, Trypanosoma brucei. In mitochondria of this pathogen, most mRNAs are internally modified by U-insertion/deletion editing while guide RNAs and rRNAs are U-tailed. The founding member of TUTase family, RNA editing TUTase 1 (RET1), functions as a subunit of the 3′ processome in uridylation of gRNA precursors and mature guide RNAs. Along with KPAP1 poly(A) polymerase, RET1 also participates in mRNA translational activation. RET1 is divergent from human TUTases and is essential for parasite viability in the mammalian host and the insect vector. Given its robust in vitro activity, RET1 represents an attractive target for trypanocide development. Here, we report high-resolution crystal structures of the RET1 catalytic core alone and in complex with UTP analogs. These structures reveal a tight docking of the conserved nucleotidyl transferase bi-domain module with a RET1-specific C2H2 zinc finger and RNA recognition (RRM) domains. Furthermore, we define RET1 region required for incorporation into the 3′ processome, determinants for RNA binding, subunit oligomerization and processive UTP incorporation, and predict druggable pockets. PMID:27744351

  17. An Organelle RNA Recognition Motif Protein Is Required for Photosystem II Subunit psbF Transcript Editing1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Meriah K.

    2017-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in ORGANELLE RNA RECOGNITION MOTIF PROTEIN6 (ORRM6) result in the near absence of RNA editing of psbF-C77 and the reduction in accD-C794 editing in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The orrm6 mutants have decreased levels of photosystem II (PSII) proteins, especially PsbF, lower PSII activity, pale green pigmentation, smaller leaf and plant sizes, and retarded growth. Stable expression of ORRM6 rescues the orrm6 editing defects and mutant phenotype. Unlike ORRM1, the other known ORRM plastid editing factor, ORRM6, does not contain RNA editing interacting protein/multiple organellar RNA editing factor (RIP/MORF) boxes, which are required for ORRM1 to interact with site-specific pentatricopeptide repeat protein editing factors. ORRM6 interacts with RIP1/MORF8, RIP2/MORF2, and RIP9/MORF9, known components of RNA editosomes. While some plastid RRM proteins are involved in other forms of RNA processing and translation, the primary function of ORRM6 is evidently to mediate psbF-C77 editing, like the essential site-specific pentatricopeptide repeat protein LOW PSII ACCUMULATION66. Stable expression in the orrm6 mutants of a nucleus-encoded, plastid-targeted PsbF protein from a psbF gene carrying a T at nucleotide 77 significantly increases leaf and plant sizes, chlorophyll content, and PSII activity. These transformants demonstrate that plastid RNA editing can be bypassed through the expression of nucleus-encoded, edited forms of plastid genes. PMID:28213559

  18. An Organelle RNA Recognition Motif Protein Is Required for Photosystem II Subunit psbF Transcript Editing.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Justin B; Shi, Xiaowen; Kobylarz, Amy T; Lucas, Meriah K; Wessendorf, Ryan L; Hines, Kevin M; Bentolila, Stephane; Hanson, Maureen R; Lu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in ORGANELLE RNA RECOGNITION MOTIF PROTEIN6 (ORRM6) result in the near absence of RNA editing of psbF-C77 and the reduction in accD-C794 editing in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The orrm6 mutants have decreased levels of photosystem II (PSII) proteins, especially PsbF, lower PSII activity, pale green pigmentation, smaller leaf and plant sizes, and retarded growth. Stable expression of ORRM6 rescues the orrm6 editing defects and mutant phenotype. Unlike ORRM1, the other known ORRM plastid editing factor, ORRM6, does not contain RNA editing interacting protein/multiple organellar RNA editing factor (RIP/MORF) boxes, which are required for ORRM1 to interact with site-specific pentatricopeptide repeat protein editing factors. ORRM6 interacts with RIP1/MORF8, RIP2/MORF2, and RIP9/MORF9, known components of RNA editosomes. While some plastid RRM proteins are involved in other forms of RNA processing and translation, the primary function of ORRM6 is evidently to mediate psbF-C77 editing, like the essential site-specific pentatricopeptide repeat protein LOW PSII ACCUMULATION66. Stable expression in the orrm6 mutants of a nucleus-encoded, plastid-targeted PsbF protein from a psbF gene carrying a T at nucleotide 77 significantly increases leaf and plant sizes, chlorophyll content, and PSII activity. These transformants demonstrate that plastid RNA editing can be bypassed through the expression of nucleus-encoded, edited forms of plastid genes.

  19. Highly efficient RNA-guided base editing in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoungmi; Ryu, Seuk-Min; Kim, Sang-Tae; Baek, Gayoung; Kim, Daesik; Lim, Kayeong; Chung, Eugene; Kim, Sunghyun; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2017-02-27

    Base editors (BEs) composed of a cytidine deaminase fused to CRISPR-Cas9 convert cytidine to uridine, leading to single-base-pair substitutions in eukaryotic cells. We delivered BE mRNA or ribonucleoproteins targeting the Dmd or Tyr gene via electroporation or microinjection into mouse zygotes. F0 mice showed nonsense mutations with an efficiency of 44-57% and allelic frequencies of up to 100%, demonstrating an efficient method to generate mice with targeted point mutations.

  20. Cas9-Guide RNA Directed Genome Editing in Soybean[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongsen; Liu, Zhan-Bin; Xing, Aiqiu; Moon, Bryan P.; Koellhoffer, Jessica P.; Huang, Lingxia; Ward, R. Timothy; Clifton, Elizabeth; Falco, S. Carl; Cigan, A. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Recently discovered bacteria and archaea adaptive immune system consisting of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) endonuclease has been explored in targeted genome editing in different species. Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9-guide RNA (gRNA) was successfully applied to generate targeted mutagenesis, gene integration, and gene editing in soybean (Glycine max). Two genomic sites, DD20 and DD43 on chromosome 4, were mutagenized with frequencies of 59% and 76%, respectively. Sequencing randomly selected transgenic events confirmed that the genome modifications were specific to the Cas9-gRNA cleavage sites and consisted of small deletions or insertions. Targeted gene integrations through homology-directed recombination were detected by border-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis for both sites at callus stage, and one DD43 homology-directed recombination event was transmitted to T1 generation. T1 progenies of the integration event segregated according to Mendelian laws and clean homozygous T1 plants with the donor gene precisely inserted at the DD43 target site were obtained. The Cas9-gRNA system was also successfully applied to make a directed P178S mutation of acetolactate synthase1 gene through in planta gene editing. PMID:26294043

  1. Mutational analysis of Trypanosoma brucei RNA editing ligase reveals regions critical for interaction with KREPA2.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vaibhav; Sen, Rajashree; Moshiri, Houtan; Salavati, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The Trypanosoma brucei parasite causes the vector-borne disease African sleeping sickness. Mitochondrial mRNAs of T. brucei undergo posttranscriptional RNA editing to make mature, functional mRNAs. The final step of this process is catalyzed by the essential ligase, T. brucei RNA Editing Ligase 1 (TbREL1) and the closely related T. brucei RNA Editing Ligase 2 (TbREL2). While other ligases such as T7 DNA ligase have both a catalytic and an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB)-fold domain, T. brucei RNA editing ligases contain only the catalytic domain. The OB-fold domain, which is required for interaction with the substrate RNA, is provided in trans by KREPA2 (for TbREL1) and KREPA1 (for TbREL2). KREPA2 enhancement of TbREL1 ligase activity is presumed to occur via an OB-fold-mediated increase in substrate specificity and catalysis. We characterized the interaction between TbREL1 and KREPA2 in vitro using full-length, truncated, and point-mutated ligases. As previously shown, our data indicate strong, specific stimulation of TbREL1 catalytic activity by KREPA2. We narrowed the region of contact to the final 59 C-terminal residues of TbREL1. Specifically, the TbREL1 C-terminal KWKE (441-444) sequence appear to coordinate the KREPA2-mediated enhancement of TbREL1 activities. N-terminal residues F206, T264 and Y275 are crucial for the overall activity of TbREL1, particularly for F206, a mutation of this residue also disrupts KREPA2 interaction. Thus, we have identified the critical TbREL1 regions and amino acids that mediate the KREPA2 interaction.

  2. Porphobilinogen deaminase HEMC interacts with the PPR-protein AtECB2 for chloroplast RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Yu, Qing-Bo; Li, Zi-Ran; Ye, Lin-Shan; Xu, Ling; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2017-08-29

    The pentatricopeptide repeat-DYW protein AtECB2 affects plastid RNA editing at seven sites, including accD-794, accD-1568, ndhF-290, ndhG-50, petL-5, rpoA-200 and rpoC1-488. To understand the mechanism of its involvement in RNA editing, a transgenic line was constructed with AtECB2 fused to a 4xMYC tag that could complement the atecb2 phenotype. RNA immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that AtECB2 is associated with the transcripts of accD, ndhF, ndhG and petL. Co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry experiments showed that multiple organelle RNA editing factor 2 (MORF2) and porphobilinogen deaminase HEMC are associated with AtECB2. Biochemical analysis showed that AtECB2 directly interacts with HEMC through its E domain, while HEMC interacts with MORF8/RIP1. Deletion analysis showed that the E domain is essential for RNA editing. The hemc-1 mutant showed an albino and seedling-lethal phenotype. Of the seven editing sites affected in atecb2, the editing of accD-794 and ndhF-290 was also reduced in hemc-1. RNA immunoprecipitation analysis suggested that HEMC is associated with the editing sites of ndhF transcripts. These results showed that both HEMC and multiple organellar RNA editing factor (MORF) proteins are associated with AtECB2 for RNA editing in plastids. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. RNA editing differently affects protein-coding genes in D. melanogaster and H. sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Luigi; Leoni, Guido; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When an RNA editing event occurs within a coding sequence it can lead to a different encoded amino acid. The biological significance of these events remains an open question: they can modulate protein functionality, increase the complexity of transcriptomes or arise from a loose specificity of the involved enzymes. We analysed the editing events in coding regions that produce or not a change in the encoded amino acid (nonsynonymous and synonymous events, respectively) in D. melanogaster and in H. sapiens and compared them with the appropriate random models. Interestingly, our results show that the phenomenon has rather different characteristics in the two organisms. For example, we confirm the observation that editing events occur more frequently in non-coding than in coding regions, and report that this effect is much more evident in H. sapiens. Additionally, in this latter organism, editing events tend to affect less conserved residues. The less frequently occurring editing events in Drosophila tend to avoid drastic amino acid changes. Interestingly, we find that, in Drosophila, changes from less frequently used codons to more frequently used ones are favoured, while this is not the case in H. sapiens. PMID:26169954

  4. RNA editing differently affects protein-coding genes in D. melanogaster and H. sapiens.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Luigi; Leoni, Guido; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-07-14

    When an RNA editing event occurs within a coding sequence it can lead to a different encoded amino acid. The biological significance of these events remains an open question: they can modulate protein functionality, increase the complexity of transcriptomes or arise from a loose specificity of the involved enzymes. We analysed the editing events in coding regions that produce or not a change in the encoded amino acid (nonsynonymous and synonymous events, respectively) in D. melanogaster and in H. sapiens and compared them with the appropriate random models. Interestingly, our results show that the phenomenon has rather different characteristics in the two organisms. For example, we confirm the observation that editing events occur more frequently in non-coding than in coding regions, and report that this effect is much more evident in H. sapiens. Additionally, in this latter organism, editing events tend to affect less conserved residues. The less frequently occurring editing events in Drosophila tend to avoid drastic amino acid changes. Interestingly, we find that, in Drosophila, changes from less frequently used codons to more frequently used ones are favoured, while this is not the case in H. sapiens.

  5. Dramatic enhancement of genome editing by CRISPR/Cas9 through improved guide RNA design.

    PubMed

    Farboud, Behnom; Meyer, Barbara J

    2015-04-01

    Success with genome editing by the RNA-programmed nuclease Cas9 has been limited by the inability to predict effective guide RNAs and DNA target sites. Not all guide RNAs have been successful, and even those that were, varied widely in their efficacy. Here we describe and validate a strategy for Caenorhabditis elegans that reliably achieved a high frequency of genome editing for all targets tested in vivo. The key innovation was to design guide RNAs with a GG motif at the 3' end of their target-specific sequences. All guides designed using this simple principle induced a high frequency of targeted mutagenesis via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and a high frequency of precise DNA integration from exogenous DNA templates via homology-directed repair (HDR). Related guide RNAs having the GG motif shifted by only three nucleotides showed severely reduced or no genome editing. We also combined the 3' GG guide improvement with a co-CRISPR/co-conversion approach. For this co-conversion scheme, animals were only screened for genome editing at designated targets if they exhibited a dominant phenotype caused by Cas9-dependent editing of an unrelated target. Combining the two strategies further enhanced the ease of mutant recovery, thereby providing a powerful means to obtain desired genetic changes in an otherwise unaltered genome.

  6. RNA editing enzyme ADAR2 is a mediator of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Hitoshi; Matsumura, Shinji; Okada, Shunpei; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Minami, Toshiaki; Ito, Seiji

    2017-01-26

    Transcriptional and post-translational regulations are important in peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, but little is known about the role of post-transcriptional modification. Our objective was to determine the possible effect of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, which catalyze post-transcriptional RNA editing, in tactile allodynia, a hallmark of neuropathic pain. Seven days after L5 spinal nerve transection (SNT) in adult mice, we found an increase in ADAR2 expression and a decrease in ADAR3 expression in the injured, but not in the uninjured, dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). These changes were accompanied by elevated levels of editing at the D site of the serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR), at the I/V site of coatomer protein complex subunit α (COPA), and at the R/G site of AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 in the injured DRG. Compared to Adar2(+/+)/Gria2(R/R) littermate controls, Adar2(-/-)/Gria2(R/R) mice completely lacked the increased editing of 5-HT2CR, COPA, and GluA2 transcripts in the injured DRG and showed attenuated tactile allodynia after SNT. Furthermore, the antidepressant fluoxetine inhibited neuropathic allodynia after injury and reduced the COPA I/V site editing in the injured DRG. These findings suggest that ADAR2 is a mediator of injury-induced tactile allodynia and thus a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathic pain.-Uchida, H., Matsumura, S., Okada, S., Suzuki, T., Minami, T., Ito, S. RNA editing enzyme ADAR2 is a mediator of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury.

  7. Mice with altered serotonin 2C receptor RNA editing display characteristics of Prader-Willi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morabito, Michael V.; Abbas, Atheir I.; Hood, Jennifer L.; Kesterson, Robert A.; Jacobs, Michelle M.; Kump, David S.; Hachey, David L.; Roth, Bryan L.; Emeson, Ronald B.

    2010-01-01

    RNA transcripts encoding the 2C-subtype of serotonin (5HT2C) receptor undergo up to five adenosine-to-inosine editing events to encode twenty-four protein isoforms. To examine the effects of altered 5HT2C editing in vivo, we generated mutant mice solely expressing the fully-edited (VGV) isoform of the receptor. Mutant animals present phenotypic characteristics of Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) including a failure to thrive, decreased somatic growth, neonatal muscular hypotonia, and reduced food consumption followed by post-weaning hyperphagia. Though previous studies have identified alterations in both 5HT2C receptor expression and 5HT2C-mediated behaviors in both PWS patients and mouse models of this disorder, to our knowledge the 5HT2C gene is the first locus outside the PWS imprinted region in which mutations can phenocopy numerous aspects of this syndrome. These results not only strengthen the link between the molecular etiology of PWS and altered 5HT2C expression, but also demonstrate the importance of normal patterns of 5HT2C RNA editing in vivo. PMID:20394819

  8. Requirement of the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR2 for normal physiology in mice.

    PubMed

    Horsch, Marion; Seeburg, Peter H; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Garrett, Lilian; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Higuchi, Miyoko; Hölter, Sabine M; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Schrewe, Anja; Adamski, Jerzy; Busch, Dirk H; Esposito, Irene; Graw, Jochen; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Mempel, Martin; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Beckers, Johannes

    2011-05-27

    ADAR2, an RNA editing enzyme that converts specific adenosines to inosines in certain pre-mRNAs, often leading to amino acid substitutions in the encoded proteins, is mainly expressed in brain. Of all ADAR2-mediated edits, a single one in the pre-mRNA of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 is essential for survival. Hence, early postnatal death of mice lacking ADAR2 is averted when the critical edit is engineered into both GluA2 encoding Gria2 alleles. Adar2(-/-)/Gria2(R/R) mice display normal appearance and life span, but the general phenotypic effects of global lack of ADAR2 have remained unexplored. Here we have employed the Adar2(-/-)/Gria2(R/R) mouse line, and Gria2(R/R) mice as controls, to study the phenotypic consequences of loss of all ADAR2-mediated edits except the critical one in GluA2. Our extended phenotypic analysis covering ∼320 parameters identified significant changes related to absence of ADAR2 in behavior, hearing ability, allergy parameters and transcript profiles of brain.

  9. Requirement of the RNA-editing Enzyme ADAR2 for Normal Physiology in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Horsch, Marion; Seeburg, Peter H.; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Garrett, Lilian; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Higuchi, Miyoko; Hölter, Sabine M.; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Schrewe, Anja; Adamski, Jerzy; Busch, Dirk H.; Esposito, Irene; Graw, Jochen; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Mempel, Martin; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Beckers, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    ADAR2, an RNA editing enzyme that converts specific adenosines to inosines in certain pre-mRNAs, often leading to amino acid substitutions in the encoded proteins, is mainly expressed in brain. Of all ADAR2-mediated edits, a single one in the pre-mRNA of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 is essential for survival. Hence, early postnatal death of mice lacking ADAR2 is averted when the critical edit is engineered into both GluA2 encoding Gria2 alleles. Adar2−/−/Gria2R/R mice display normal appearance and life span, but the general phenotypic effects of global lack of ADAR2 have remained unexplored. Here we have employed the Adar2−/−/Gria2R/R mouse line, and Gria2R/R mice as controls, to study the phenotypic consequences of loss of all ADAR2-mediated edits except the critical one in GluA2. Our extended phenotypic analysis covering ∼320 parameters identified significant changes related to absence of ADAR2 in behavior, hearing ability, allergy parameters and transcript profiles of brain. PMID:21467037

  10. Alternative pathways for editing non-cognate amino acids by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, H; Fersht, A R

    1981-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the editing mechanisms of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase operate by two alternative pathways: pre-transfer, by hydrolysis of the non-cognate aminoacyl adenylate; post-transfer, by hydrolysis of the mischarged tRNA. The methionyl-tRNA synthetases from Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus and isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase from E. coli, for example, are shown to reject misactivated homocysteine rapidly by the pre-transfer route. A novel feature of this reaction is that homocysteine thiolactone is formed by the facile cyclisation of the homocysteinyl adenylate. Valyl-tRNA synthetases, on the other hand, reject the more readily activated non-cognate amino acids by primarily the post-transfer route. The features governing the choice of pathway are discussed. PMID:7024910

  11. APOBEC1 complementation factor (A1CF) is dispensable for C-to-U RNA editing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Elizabeth M; McCarty, Christopher; Mehalow, Adrienne; Svenson, Karen L; Murray, Stephen A; Korstanje, Ron; Braun, Robert E

    2017-04-01

    Editing of the human and murine ApoB mRNA by APOBEC1, the catalytic enzyme of the protein complex that catalyzes C-to-U RNA editing, creates an internal stop codon within the APOB coding sequence, generating two protein isoforms. It has been long held that APOBEC1-mediated editing activity is dependent on the RNA binding protein A1CF. The function of A1CF in adult tissues has not been reported because a previously reported null allele displays embryonic lethality. This work aimed to address the function of A1CF in adult mouse tissues using a conditional A1cf allele. Unexpectedly, A1cf-null mice were viable and fertile with modest defects in hematopoietic, immune, and metabolic parameters. C-to-U RNA editing was quantified for multiple targets, including ApoB, in the small intestine and liver. In all cases, no changes in RNA editing efficiency were observed. Blood plasma analysis demonstrated a male-specific increase in solute concentration and increased cellularity in the glomeruli of male A1cf-null mice. Urine analysis showed a reduction in solute concentration, suggesting abnormal water homeostasis and possible kidney abnormalities exclusive to the male. Computational identification of kidney C-to-U editing sites from polyadenylated RNA-sequencing identified a number of editing sites exclusive to the kidney. However, molecular analysis of kidney C-to-U editing showed no changes in editing efficiency with A1CF loss. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that A1CF does not act as the APOBEC1 complementation factor in vivo under normal physiological conditions and suggests new roles for A1CF, specifically within the male adult kidney. © 2017 Snyder et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  12. Transient overexpression of exogenous APOBEC3A causes C-to-U RNA editing of thousands of genes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shraddha; Patnaik, Santosh K; Kemer, Zeynep; Baysal, Bora E

    2016-05-05

    APOBEC3A cytidine deaminase induces site-specific C-to-U RNA editing of hundreds of genes in monocytes exposed to hypoxia and/or interferons and in pro-inflammatory macrophages. To examine the impact of APOBEC3A overexpression, we transiently expressed APOBEC3A in HEK293T cell line and performed RNA sequencing. APOBEC3A overexpression induces C-to-U editing at more than 4,200 sites in transcripts of 3,078 genes resulting in protein recoding of 1,110 genes. We validate recoding RNA editing of genes associated with breast cancer, hematologic neoplasms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease and primary pulmonary hypertension. These results highlight the fundamental impact of APOBEC3A overexpression on human transcriptome by widespread RNA editing.

  13. From End to End: tRNA Editing at 5'- and 3'-Terminal Positions

    PubMed Central

    Betat, Heike; Long, Yicheng; Jackman, Jane E.; Mörl, Mario

    2014-01-01

    During maturation, tRNA molecules undergo a series of individual processing steps, ranging from exo- and endonucleolytic trimming reactions at their 5'- and 3'-ends, specific base modifications and intron removal to the addition of the conserved 3'-terminal CCA sequence. Especially in mitochondria, this plethora of processing steps is completed by various editing events, where base identities at internal positions are changed and/or nucleotides at 5'- and 3'-ends are replaced or incorporated. In this review, we will focus predominantly on the latter reactions, where a growing number of cases indicate that these editing events represent a rather frequent and widespread phenomenon. While the mechanistic basis for 5'- and 3'-end editing differs dramatically, both reactions represent an absolute requirement for generating a functional tRNA. Current in vivo and in vitro model systems support a scenario in which these highly specific maturation reactions might have evolved out of ancient promiscuous RNA polymerization or quality control systems. PMID:25535083

  14. Dimeric CRISPR RNA-guided FokI nucleases for highly specific genome editing.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shengdar Q; Wyvekens, Nicolas; Khayter, Cyd; Foden, Jennifer A; Thapar, Vishal; Reyon, Deepak; Goodwin, Mathew J; Aryee, Martin J; Joung, J Keith

    2014-06-01

    Monomeric CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for targeted genome editing but can induce unwanted off-target mutations with high frequencies. Here we describe dimeric RNA-guided FokI nucleases (RFNs) that can recognize extended sequences and edit endogenous genes with high efficiencies in human cells. RFN cleavage activity depends strictly on the binding of two guide RNAs (gRNAs) to DNA with a defined spacing and orientation substantially reducing the likelihood that a suitable target site will occur more than once in the genome and therefore improving specificities relative to wild-type Cas9 monomers. RFNs guided by a single gRNA generally induce lower levels of unwanted mutations than matched monomeric Cas9 nickases. In addition, we describe a simple method for expressing multiple gRNAs bearing any 5' end nucleotide, which gives dimeric RFNs a broad targeting range. RFNs combine the ease of RNA-based targeting with the specificity enhancement inherent to dimerization and are likely to be useful in applications that require highly precise genome editing.

  15. Modulation of dADAR-dependent RNA editing by the Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein.

    PubMed

    Bhogal, Balpreet; Jepson, James E; Savva, Yiannis A; Pepper, Anita S-R; Reenan, Robert A; Jongens, Thomas A

    2011-10-30

    Loss of FMR1 gene function results in fragile X syndrome, the most common heritable form of intellectual disability. The protein encoded by this locus (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein that is thought to primarily act as a translational regulator; however, recent studies have implicated FMRP in other mechanisms of gene regulation. We found that the Drosophila fragile X homolog (dFMR1) biochemically interacted with the adenosine-to-inosine RNA-editing enzyme dADAR. Adar and Fmr1 mutant larvae exhibited distinct morphological neuromuscular junction (NMJ) defects. Epistasis experiments based on these phenotypic differences revealed that Adar acts downstream of Fmr1 and that dFMR1 modulates dADAR activity. Furthermore, sequence analyses revealed that a loss or overexpression of dFMR1 affects editing efficiency on certain dADAR targets with defined roles in synaptic transmission. These results link dFMR1 with the RNA-editing pathway and suggest that proper NMJ synaptic architecture requires modulation of dADAR activity by dFMR1.

  16. RNA-guided genome editing for target gene mutations in wheat.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Kumar, Jitesh; Alok, Anshu; Tuli, Rakesh

    2013-12-09

    The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system has been used as an efficient tool for genome editing. We report the application of CRISPR-Cas-mediated genome editing to wheat (Triticum aestivum), the most important food crop plant with a very large and complex genome. The mutations were targeted in the inositol oxygenase (inox) and phytoene desaturase (pds) genes using cell suspension culture of wheat and in the pds gene in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. The expression of chimeric guide RNAs (cgRNA) targeting single and multiple sites resulted in indel mutations in all the tested samples. The expression of Cas9 or sgRNA alone did not cause any mutation. The expression of duplex cgRNA with Cas9 targeting two sites in the same gene resulted in deletion of DNA fragment between the targeted sequences. Multiplexing the cgRNA could target two genes at one time. Target specificity analysis of cgRNA showed that mismatches at the 3' end of the target site abolished the cleavage activity completely. The mismatches at the 5' end reduced cleavage, suggesting that the off target effects can be abolished in vivo by selecting target sites with unique sequences at 3' end. This approach provides a powerful method for genome engineering in plants.

  17. A Single Zinc Ion Is Sufficient for an Active Trypanosoma brucei tRNA Editing Deaminase*

    PubMed Central

    Spears, Jessica L.; Rubio, Mary Anne T.; Gaston, Kirk W.; Wywial, Ewa; Strikoudis, Alexandros; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Papavasiliou, F. Nina; Alfonzo, Juan D.

    2011-01-01

    Editing of adenosine (A) to inosine (I) at the first anticodon position in tRNA is catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on tRNA (ADATs). This essential reaction in bacteria and eukarya permits a single tRNA to decode multiple codons. Bacterial ADATa is a homodimer with two bound essential Zn2+. The ADATa crystal structure revealed residues important for substrate binding and catalysis; however, such high resolution structural information is not available for eukaryotic tRNA deaminases. Despite significant sequence similarity among deaminases, we continue to uncover unexpected functional differences between Trypanosoma brucei ADAT2/3 (TbADAT2/3) and its bacterial counterpart. Previously, we demonstrated that TbADAT2/3 is unique in catalyzing two different deamination reactions. Here we show by kinetic analyses and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry that wild type TbADAT2/3 coordinates two Zn2+ per heterodimer, but unlike any other tRNA deaminase, mutation of one of the key Zn2+-coordinating cysteines in TbADAT2 yields a functional enzyme with a single-bound zinc. These data suggest that, at least, TbADAT3 may play a role in catalysis via direct coordination of the catalytic Zn2+. These observations raise the possibility of an unusual Zn2+ coordination interface with important implications for the function and evolution of editing deaminases. PMID:21507956

  18. Adenosine to Inosine editing frequency controlled by splicing efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Licht, Konstantin; Kapoor, Utkarsh; Mayrhofer, Elisa; Jantsch, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing and adenosine to inosine (A to I) RNA-editing are major factors leading to co- and post-transcriptional modification of genetic information. Both, A to I editing and splicing occur in the nucleus. As editing sites are frequently defined by exon–intron basepairing, mRNA splicing efficiency should affect editing levels. Moreover, splicing rates affect nuclear retention and will therefore also influence the exposure of pre-mRNAs to the editing-competent nuclear environment. Here, we systematically test the influence of splice rates on RNA-editing using reporter genes but also endogenous substrates. We demonstrate for the first time that the extent of editing is controlled by splicing kinetics when editing is guided by intronic elements. In contrast, editing sites that are exclusively defined by exonic structures are almost unaffected by the splicing efficiency of nearby introns. In addition, we show that editing levels in pre- and mature mRNAs do not match. This phenomenon can in part be explained by the editing state of an RNA influencing its splicing rate but also by the binding of the editing enzyme ADAR that interferes with splicing. PMID:27112566

  19. APOBEC1 complementation factor (A1CF) is dispensable for C-to-U RNA editing in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Elizabeth M.; McCarty, Christopher; Mehalow, Adrienne; Svenson, Karen L.; Murray, Stephen A.; Korstanje, Ron; Braun, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Editing of the human and murine ApoB mRNA by APOBEC1, the catalytic enzyme of the protein complex that catalyzes C-to-U RNA editing, creates an internal stop codon within the APOB coding sequence, generating two protein isoforms. It has been long held that APOBEC1-mediated editing activity is dependent on the RNA binding protein A1CF. The function of A1CF in adult tissues has not been reported because a previously reported null allele displays embryonic lethality. This work aimed to address the function of A1CF in adult mouse tissues using a conditional A1cf allele. Unexpectedly, A1cf-null mice were viable and fertile with modest defects in hematopoietic, immune, and metabolic parameters. C-to-U RNA editing was quantified for multiple targets, including ApoB, in the small intestine and liver. In all cases, no changes in RNA editing efficiency were observed. Blood plasma analysis demonstrated a male-specific increase in solute concentration and increased cellularity in the glomeruli of male A1cf-null mice. Urine analysis showed a reduction in solute concentration, suggesting abnormal water homeostasis and possible kidney abnormalities exclusive to the male. Computational identification of kidney C-to-U editing sites from polyadenylated RNA-sequencing identified a number of editing sites exclusive to the kidney. However, molecular analysis of kidney C-to-U editing showed no changes in editing efficiency with A1CF loss. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that A1CF does not act as the APOBEC1 complementation factor in vivo under normal physiological conditions and suggests new roles for A1CF, specifically within the male adult kidney. PMID:28069890

  20. RNA-dependent DNA endonuclease Cas9 of the CRISPR system: Holy Grail of genome editing?

    PubMed

    Gasiunas, Giedrius; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2013-11-01

    Tailor-made nucleases for precise genome modification, such as zinc finger or TALE nucleases, currently represent the state-of-the-art for genome editing. These nucleases combine a programmable protein module which guides the enzyme to the target site with a nuclease domain which cuts DNA at the addressed site. Reprogramming of these nucleases to cut genomes at specific locations requires major protein engineering efforts. RNA-guided DNA endonuclease Cas9 of the type II (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) CRISPR-Cas system uses CRISPR RNA (crRNA) as a guide to locate the DNA target and the Cas9 protein to cut DNA. Easy programmability of the Cas9 endonuclease using customizable RNAs brings unprecedented flexibility and versatility for targeted genome modification. We highlight the potential of the Cas9 RNA-guided DNA endonuclease as a novel tool for genome surgery, and discuss possible constraints and future prospects.

  1. Organellar RNA editing and plant-specific extensions of pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in jungermanniid but not in marchantiid liverworts.

    PubMed

    Rüdinger, Mareike; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Knoop, Volker

    2008-07-01

    The pyrimidine exchange type of RNA editing in land plant (embryophyte) organelles has largely remained an enigma with respect to its biochemical mechanisms, the underlying specificities, and its raison d'être. Apparently arising with the earliest embryophytes, RNA editing is conspicuously absent in one clade of liverworts, the complex thalloid Marchantiidae. Several lines of evidence suggest that the large gene family of organelle-targeted RNA-binding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins plays a fundamental role in the sequence-specific editing of organelle transcripts. We here describe the identification of PPR protein genes with plant-specific carboxyterminal (C-terminal) sequence signatures (E, E+, and DYW domains) in ferns, lycopodiophytes, mosses, hornworts, and jungermanniid liverworts, one subclass of the basal most clade of embryophytes, on DNA and cDNA level. In contrast, we were unable to identify these genes in a wide sampling of marchantiid liverworts (including the phylogenetic basal genus Blasia)--taxa for which no RNA editing is observed in the organelle transcripts. On the other hand, we found significant diversity of this type of PPR proteins also in Haplomitrium, a genus with an extremely high rate of RNA editing and a phylogenetic placement basal to all other liverworts. Although the presence of modularly extended PPR proteins correlates well with organelle RNA editing, the now apparent complete loss of an entire gene family from one clade of embryophytes, the marchantiid liverworts, remains puzzling.

  2. The structure of the C-terminal domain of the largest editosome interaction protein and its role in promoting RNA binding by RNA-editing ligase L2.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Jun; Budiarto, Tanya; Wu, Meiting; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Hol, Wim G J

    2012-08-01

    Trypanosomatids, such as the sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei, contain a ∼ 20S RNA-editing complex, also called the editosome, which is required for U-insertion/deletion editing of mitochondrial mRNAs. The editosome contains a core of 12 proteins including the large interaction protein A1, the small interaction protein A6, and the editing RNA ligase L2. Using biochemical and structural data, we identified distinct domains of T. brucei A1 which specifically recognize A6 and L2. We provide evidence that an N-terminal domain of A1 interacts with the C-terminal domain of L2. The C-terminal domain of A1 appears to be required for the interaction with A6 and also plays a key role in RNA binding by the RNA-editing ligase L2 in trans. Three crystal structures of the C-terminal domain of A1 have been elucidated, each in complex with a nanobody as a crystallization chaperone. These structures permitted the identification of putative dsRNA recognition sites. Mutational analysis of conserved residues of the C-terminal domain identified Arg703, Arg731 and Arg734 as key requirements for RNA binding. The data show that the editing RNA ligase activity is modulated by a novel mechanism, i.e. by the trans-acting RNA binding C-terminal domain of A1.

  3. Complete characterization of the edited transcriptome of the mitochondrion of Physarum polycephalum using deep sequencing of RNA

    PubMed Central

    Bundschuh, R.; Altmüller, J.; Becker, C.; Nürnberg, P.; Gott, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    RNAs transcribed from the mitochondrial genome of Physarum polycephalum are heavily edited. The most prevalent editing event is the insertion of single Cs, with Us and dinucleotides also added at specific sites. The existence of insertional editing makes gene identification difficult and localization of editing sites has relied upon characterization of individual cDNAs. We have now determined the complete mitochondrial transcriptome of Physarum using Illumina deep sequencing of purified mitochondrial RNA. We report the first instances of A and G insertions and sites of partial and extragenic editing in Physarum mitochondrial RNAs, as well as an additional 772 C, U and dinucleotide insertions. The notable lack of antisense RNAs in our non-size selected, directional library argues strongly against an RNA-guided editing mechanism. Also of interest are our findings that sites of C to U changes are unedited at a significantly higher frequency than insertional editing sites and that substitutional editing of neighboring sites appears to be coupled. Finally, in addition to the characterization of RNAs from 17 predicted genes, our data identified nine new mitochondrial genes, four of which encode proteins that do not resemble other proteins in the database. Curiously, one of the latter mRNAs contains no editing sites. PMID:21478163

  4. Complete characterization of the edited transcriptome of the mitochondrion of Physarum polycephalum using deep sequencing of RNA.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, R; Altmüller, J; Becker, C; Nürnberg, P; Gott, J M

    2011-08-01

    RNAs transcribed from the mitochondrial genome of Physarum polycephalum are heavily edited. The most prevalent editing event is the insertion of single Cs, with Us and dinucleotides also added at specific sites. The existence of insertional editing makes gene identification difficult and localization of editing sites has relied upon characterization of individual cDNAs. We have now determined the complete mitochondrial transcriptome of Physarum using Illumina deep sequencing of purified mitochondrial RNA. We report the first instances of A and G insertions and sites of partial and extragenic editing in Physarum mitochondrial RNAs, as well as an additional 772 C, U and dinucleotide insertions. The notable lack of antisense RNAs in our non-size selected, directional library argues strongly against an RNA-guided editing mechanism. Also of interest are our findings that sites of C to U changes are unedited at a significantly higher frequency than insertional editing sites and that substitutional editing of neighboring sites appears to be coupled. Finally, in addition to the characterization of RNAs from 17 predicted genes, our data identified nine new mitochondrial genes, four of which encode proteins that do not resemble other proteins in the database. Curiously, one of the latter mRNAs contains no editing sites.

  5. Multiple G-quartet structures in pre-edited mRNAs suggest evolutionary driving force for RNA editing in trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Leeder, W.-Matthias; Hummel, Niklas F. C.; Göringer, H. Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcript maturation in African trypanosomes requires a U-nucleotide specific RNA editing reaction. In its most extreme form hundreds of U’s are inserted into and deleted from primary transcripts to generate functional mRNAs. Unfortunately, both origin and biological role of the process have remained enigmatic. Here we report a so far unrecognized structural feature of pre-edited mRNAs. We demonstrate that the cryptic pre-mRNAs contain numerous clustered G-nt, which fold into G-quadruplex (GQ) structures. We identified 27 GQ’s in the different pre-mRNAs and demonstrate a positive correlation between the steady state abundance of guide (g)RNAs and the sequence position of GQ-elements. We postulate that the driving force for selecting G-rich sequences lies in the formation of DNA/RNA hybrid G-quadruplex (HQ) structures between the pre-edited transcripts and the non-template strands of mitochondrial DNA. HQ’s are transcription termination/replication initiation sites and thus guarantee an unperturbed replication of the mt-genome. This is of special importance in the insect-stage of the parasite. In the transcription-on state, the identified GQ’s require editing as a GQ-resolving activity indicating a link between replication, transcription and RNA editing. We propose that the different processes have coevolved and suggest the parasite life-cycle and the single mitochondrion as evolutionary driving forces. PMID:27436151

  6. RNA Recognition Motif-Containing Protein ORRM4 Broadly Affects Mitochondrial RNA Editing and Impacts Plant Development and Flowering1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Plant RNA editosomes modify cytidines (C) to uridines (U) at specific sites in plastid and mitochondrial transcripts. Members of the RNA-editing factor interacting protein (RIP) family and Organelle RNA Recognition Motif-containing (ORRM) family are essential components of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) editosome. ORRM2 and ORRM3 have been recently identified as minor mitochondrial editing factors whose silencing reduces editing efficiency at ∼6% of the mitochondrial C targets. Here we report the identification of ORRM4 (for organelle RRM protein 4) as a novel, major mitochondrial editing factor that controls ∼44% of the mitochondrial editing sites. C-to-U conversion is reduced, but not eliminated completely, at the affected sites. The orrm4 mutant exhibits slower growth and delayed flowering time. ORRM4 affects editing in a site-specific way, though orrm4 mutation affects editing of the entire transcript of certain genes. ORRM4 contains an RRM domain at the N terminus and a Gly-rich domain at the C terminus. The RRM domain provides the editing activity of ORRM4, whereas the Gly-rich domain is required for its interaction with ORRM3 and with itself. The presence of ORRM4 in the editosome is further supported by its interaction with RIP1 in a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. The identification of ORRM4 as a major mitochondrial editing factor further expands our knowledge of the composition of the RNA editosome and reveals that adequate mitochondrial editing is necessary for normal plant development. PMID:26578708

  7. Using RNA-Seq SNP data to reveal potential causal mutations related to pig production traits and RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montes, A M; Fernández, A; Pérez-Montarelo, D; Alves, E; Benítez, R M; Nuñez, Y; Óvilo, C; Ibañez-Escriche, N; Folch, J M; Fernández, A I

    2017-04-01

    RNA-Seq technology is widely used in quantitative gene expression studies and identification of non-annotated transcripts. However this technology also can be used for polymorphism detection and RNA editing in transcribed regions in an efficient and cost-effective way. This study used SNP data from an RNA-Seq assay to identify genes and mutations underlying production trait variations in an experimental pig population. The hypothalamic and hepatic transcriptomes of nine extreme animals for growth and fatness from an (Iberian × Landrace) × Landrace backcross were analyzed by RNA-Seq methodology, and SNP calling was conducted. More than 125 000 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were identified in each tissue, and 78% were considered to be potential SNPs, those SNVs segregating in the context of this study. Potential informative SNPs were detected by considering those showing a homozygous or heterozygous genotype in one extreme group and the alternative genotype in the other group. In this way, 4396 and 1862 informative SNPs were detected in hypothalamus and liver respectively. Out of the 32 SNPs selected for validation, 25 (80%) were confirmed as actual SNPs. Association analyses for growth, fatness and premium cut yields with 19 selected SNPs were carried out, and four potential causal genes (RETSAT, COPA, RNMT and PALMD) were identified. Interestingly, new RNA editing modifications were detected and validated for the NR3C1:g.102797 (ss1985401074) and ACSM2B:g.13374 (ss1985401075) positions and for the COG3:g3.4525 (ss1985401087) modification previously identified across vertebrates, which could lead to phenotypic variation and should be further investigated.

  8. Noncoding RNAs and RNA editing in brain development, functional diversification, and neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Mehler, Mark F; Mattick, John S

    2007-07-01

    The progressive maturation and functional plasticity of the nervous system in health and disease involve a dynamic interplay between the transcriptome and the environment. There is a growing awareness that the previously unexplored molecular and functional interface mediating these complex gene-environmental interactions, particularly in brain, may encompass a sophisticated RNA regulatory network involving the twin processes of RNA editing and multifaceted actions of numerous subclasses of non-protein-coding RNAs. The mature nervous system encompasses a wide range of cell types and interconnections. Long-term changes in the strength of synaptic connections are thought to underlie memory retrieval, formation, stabilization, and effector functions. The evolving nervous system involves numerous developmental transitions, such as neurulation, neural tube patterning, neural stem cell expansion and maintenance, lineage elaboration, differentiation, axonal path finding, and synaptogenesis. Although the molecular bases for these processes are largely unknown, RNA-based epigenetic mechanisms appear to be essential for orchestrating these precise and versatile biological phenomena and in defining the etiology of a spectrum of neurological diseases. The concerted modulation of RNA editing and the selective expression of non-protein-coding RNAs during seminal as well as continuous state transitions may comprise the plastic molecular code needed to couple the intrinsic malleability of neural network connections to evolving environmental influences to establish diverse forms of short- and long-term memory, context-specific behavioral responses, and sophisticated cognitive capacities.

  9. RNA-directed gene editing specifically eradicates latent and prevents new HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenhui; Kaminski, Rafal; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yonggang; Cosentino, Laura; Li, Fang; Luo, Biao; Alvarez-Carbonell, David; Garcia-Mesa, Yoelvis; Karn, Jonathan; Mo, Xianming; Khalili, Kamel

    2014-08-05

    AIDS remains incurable due to the permanent integration of HIV-1 into the host genome, imparting risk of viral reactivation even after antiretroviral therapy. New strategies are needed to ablate the viral genome from latently infected cells, because current methods are too inefficient and prone to adverse off-target effects. To eliminate the integrated HIV-1 genome, we used the Cas9/guide RNA (gRNA) system, in single and multiplex configurations. We identified highly specific targets within the HIV-1 LTR U3 region that were efficiently edited by Cas9/gRNA, inactivating viral gene expression and replication in latently infected microglial, promonocytic, and T cells. Cas9/gRNAs caused neither genotoxicity nor off-target editing to the host cells, and completely excised a 9,709-bp fragment of integrated proviral DNA that spanned from its 5' to 3' LTRs. Furthermore, the presence of multiplex gRNAs within Cas9-expressing cells prevented HIV-1 infection. Our results suggest that Cas9/gRNA can be engineered to provide a specific, efficacious prophylactic and therapeutic approach against AIDS.

  10. The RNA-editing deaminase ADAR is involved in stress resistance of Artemia diapause embryos.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li; Liu, Xue-Chen; Ye, Sen; Li, Hua-Wei; Chen, Dian-Fu; Yu, Xiao-Jian; Huang, Xue-Ting; Zhang, Li; Yang, Fan; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2016-11-01

    The most widespread type of RNA editing, conversion of adenosine to inosine (A→I), is catalyzed by two members of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family, ADAR1 and ADAR2. These enzymes edit transcripts for neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels during adaption to changes in the physical environment. In the primitive crustacean Artemia, when maternal adults are exposed to unfavorable conditions, they release diapause embryos to withstand harsh environments. The aim of the current study was therefore to elucidate the role of ADAR of Artemia diapause embryos in resistance to stress. Here, we identified Artemia ADAR (Ar-ADAR), which harbors a putative nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and two double-stranded RNA-binding motifs (dsRBMs) in the amino-terminal region and an adenosine deaminase (AD) domain in the carboxyl-terminal region. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that Ar-ADAR is expressed abundantly in post-diapause embryos. Artemia (n = 200, three replicates) were tested under basal and stress conditions. We found that Ar-ADAR was significantly induced in response to the stresses of salinity and heat-shock. Furthermore, in vivo knockdown of Ar-ADAR (n = 100, three replicates) by RNA interference induced formation of pseudo-diapause embryos, which lack resistance to the stresses and exhibit high levels of apoptosis. These results indicate that Ar-ADAR contributes to resistance to stress in Artemia diapause embryos.

  11. Genome Editing Reveals Glioblastoma Addiction to MicroRNA-10b.

    PubMed

    El Fatimy, Rachid; Subramanian, Shruthi; Uhlmann, Erik J; Krichevsky, Anna M

    2017-02-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) brain tumor remains among the most lethal and incurable human diseases. Oncogenic microRNA-10b (miR-10b) is strongly and universally upregulated in GBM, and its inhibition by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) reduces the growth of heterogeneous glioma cells; therefore, miR-10b represents a unique therapeutic target for GBM. Here we explored the effects of miR-10b gene editing on GBM. Using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system, we investigated effects of miR-10b gene editing on the growth of cultured human glioma cells, tumor-initiating stem-like cells, and mouse GBM xenografts, as well as the oncogene-induced transformation of normal astrocytes. We show that GBM is strictly "addicted" to miR-10b and that miR-10b gene ablation is lethal for glioma cell cultures and established intracranial tumors. miR-10b loss-of-function mutations lead to the death of glioma, but not other cancer cell lines. We have not detected escaped proliferative clones of GBM cells edited in the miR-10b locus. Finally, neoplastic transformation of normal astrocytes was abolished by the miR-10b-editing vectors. This study demonstrates the feasibility of gene editing for brain tumors in vivo and suggests virus-mediated miR-10b gene ablation as a promising therapeutic approach that permanently eliminates the key regulator essential for tumor growth and survival.

  12. Editing for an AMPA receptor subunit RNA in prefrontal cortex and striatum in Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and schizophrenia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbarian, S.; Smith, M. A.; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Animal studies and cell culture experiments demonstrated that posttranscriptional editing of the transcript of the GluR-2 gene, resulting in substitution of an arginine for glutamine in the second transmembrane region (TM II) of the expressed protein, is associated with a reduction in Ca2+ permeability of the receptor channel. Thus, disturbances in GluR-2 RNA editing with alteration of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis could lead to neuronal dysfunction and even neuronal degeneration. The present study determined the proportions of edited and unedited GluR-2 RNA in the prefrontal cortex of brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease, in the striatum of brains from patients with Huntington's disease, and in the same areas of brains from age-matched schizophrenics and controls, by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, restriction endonuclease digestion, gel electrophoresis and scintillation radiometry. In the prefrontal cortex of controls, < 0.1% of all GluR-2 RNA molecules were unedited and > 99.9% were edited; in the prefrontal cortex both of schizophrenics and of Alzheimer's patients approximately 1.0% of all GluR-2 RNA molecules were unedited and 99% were edited. In the striatum of controls and of schizophrenics, approximately 0.5% of GluR-2 RNA molecules were unedited and 99.5% were edited; in the striatum of Huntington's patients nearly 5.0% of GluR-2 RNA was unedited. In the prefrontal white matter of controls, approximately 7.0% of GluR-2 RNA was unedited. In the normal human prefrontal cortex and striatum, the large majority of GluR-2 RNA molecules contains a CGG codon for arginine in the TMII coding region; this implies that the corresponding AMPA receptors have a low Ca2+ permeability, as previously demonstrated for the rat brain. The process of GluR-2 RNA editing is compromised in a region-specific manner in schizophrenia, in Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's Chorea although in each of these disorders there is still a large excess of

  13. Editing for an AMPA receptor subunit RNA in prefrontal cortex and striatum in Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and schizophrenia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbarian, S.; Smith, M. A.; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Animal studies and cell culture experiments demonstrated that posttranscriptional editing of the transcript of the GluR-2 gene, resulting in substitution of an arginine for glutamine in the second transmembrane region (TM II) of the expressed protein, is associated with a reduction in Ca2+ permeability of the receptor channel. Thus, disturbances in GluR-2 RNA editing with alteration of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis could lead to neuronal dysfunction and even neuronal degeneration. The present study determined the proportions of edited and unedited GluR-2 RNA in the prefrontal cortex of brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease, in the striatum of brains from patients with Huntington's disease, and in the same areas of brains from age-matched schizophrenics and controls, by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, restriction endonuclease digestion, gel electrophoresis and scintillation radiometry. In the prefrontal cortex of controls, < 0.1% of all GluR-2 RNA molecules were unedited and > 99.9% were edited; in the prefrontal cortex both of schizophrenics and of Alzheimer's patients approximately 1.0% of all GluR-2 RNA molecules were unedited and 99% were edited. In the striatum of controls and of schizophrenics, approximately 0.5% of GluR-2 RNA molecules were unedited and 99.5% were edited; in the striatum of Huntington's patients nearly 5.0% of GluR-2 RNA was unedited. In the prefrontal white matter of controls, approximately 7.0% of GluR-2 RNA was unedited. In the normal human prefrontal cortex and striatum, the large majority of GluR-2 RNA molecules contains a CGG codon for arginine in the TMII coding region; this implies that the corresponding AMPA receptors have a low Ca2+ permeability, as previously demonstrated for the rat brain. The process of GluR-2 RNA editing is compromised in a region-specific manner in schizophrenia, in Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's Chorea although in each of these disorders there is still a large excess of

  14. Chemical modification of nucleotide bases and mRNA editing depend on hexamer or nucleoprotein phase in Sendai virus nucleocapsids.

    PubMed Central

    Iseni, Frédéric; Baudin, Florence; Garcin, Dominique; Marq, Jean-Baptiste; Ruigrok, Rob W H; Kolakofsky, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The minus-strand genome of Sendai virus is an assembly of the nucleocapsid protein (N) and RNA, in which each N subunit is associated with precisely 6 nt. Only genomes that are a multiple of 6 nt long replicate efficiently or are found naturally, and their replication promoters contain sequence elements with hexamer repeats. Paramyxoviruses that are governed by this hexamer rule also edit their P gene mRNA during its synthesis, by G insertions, via a controlled form of viral RNA polymerase "stuttering" (pseudo-templated transcription). This stuttering is directed by a cis-acting sequence (3' UNN UUUUUU CCC), whose hexamer phase is conserved within each virus group. To determine whether the hexamer phase of a given nucleotide sequence within nucleocapsids affected its sensitivity to chemical modification, and whether hexamer phase of the mRNA editing site was important for the editing process, we prepared a matched set of viruses in which a model editing site was displaced 1 nt at a time relative to the genome ends. The relative abilities of these Sendai viruses to edit their mRNAs in cell culture infections were examined, and the ability of DMS to chemically modify the nucleotides of this cis-acting signal within resting viral nucleocapsids was also studied. Cytidines at hexamer phases 1 and 6 were the most accessible to chemical modification, whereas mRNA editing was most extensive when the stutter-site C was in positions 2 to 5. Apparently, the N subunit imprints the nucleotide sequence it is associated with, and affects both the initiation of viral RNA synthesis and mRNA editing. The N-subunit assembly thus appears to superimpose another code upon the genetic code. PMID:12212849

  15. Applying Human ADAR1p110 and ADAR1p150 for Site-Directed RNA Editing—G/C Substitution Stabilizes GuideRNAs against Editing

    PubMed Central

    Heep, Madeleine; Mach, Pia; Reautschnig, Philipp; Wettengel, Jacqueline; Stafforst, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    Site-directed RNA editing is an approach to reprogram genetic information at the RNA level. We recently introduced a novel guideRNA that allows for the recruitment of human ADAR2 to manipulate genetic information. Here, we show that the current guideRNA design is already able to recruit another human deaminase, ADAR1, in both isoforms, p110 and p150. However, further optimization seems necessary as the current design is less efficient for ADAR1 isoforms. Furthermore, we describe hotspots at which the guideRNA itself is edited and show a way to circumvent this auto-editing without losing editing efficiency at the target. Both findings are important for the advancement of site-directed RNA editing as a tool in basic biology or as a platform for therapeutic editing. PMID:28098820

  16. A new mechanism of post-transfer editing by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: catalysis of hydrolytic reaction by bacterial-type prolyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Boyarshin, Konstantin S; Priss, Anastasia E; Rayevskiy, Alexsey V; Ilchenko, Mykola M; Dubey, Igor Ya; Kriklivyi, Ivan A; Yaremchuk, Anna D; Tukalo, Michael A

    2017-02-01

    Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases are enzymes that specifically attach amino acids to cognate tRNAs for use in the ribosomal stage of translation. For many aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, the required level of amino acid specificity is achieved either by specific hydrolysis of misactivated aminoacyl-adenylate intermediate (pre-transfer editing) or by hydrolysis of the mischarged aminoacyl-tRNA (post-transfer editing). To investigate the mechanism of post-transfer editing of alanine by prolyl-tRNA synthetase from the pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus faecalis, we used molecular modeling, molecular dynamic simulations, quantum mechanical (QM) calculations, site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme, and tRNA modification. The results support a new tRNA-assisted mechanism of hydrolysis of misacylated Ala-tRNA(Pro). The most important functional element of this catalytic mechanism is the 2'-OH group of the terminal adenosine 76 of Ala-tRNA(Pro), which forms an intramolecular hydrogen bond with the carbonyl group of the alanine residue, strongly facilitating hydrolysis. Hydrolysis was shown by QM methods to proceed via a general acid-base catalysis mechanism involving two functionally distinct water molecules. The transition state of the reaction was identified. Amino acid residues of the editing active site participate in the coordination of substrate and both attacking and assisting water molecules, performing the proton transfer to the 3'-O atom of A76.

  17. Structural Studies of Trypanosoma brucei RNA Editing Ligases and Their Binding Partner Proteins.

    PubMed

    Shaneh, Alireza; Purisima, Enrico O; Salavati, Reza; Sulea, Traian

    2016-04-26

    To study the mechanism of ligating nicked RNA strands, we conducted molecular dynamics simulations of Trypanosoma brucei RNA editing ligases L1 and L2 complexed with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) fragments. In each resulting model, a Mg(2+) ion coordinates the 5'-PO4 of the nicked nucleotide and the 3'-OH of the terminal nucleotide for a nucleophilic reaction consistent with the postulated step 3 chemistry of the ligation mechanism. Moreover, coordination of the 3'-OH to the Mg(2+) ion may lower its pKa, thereby rendering it a more effective nucleophile as an oxyanion. Thus, Mg(2+) may play a twofold role: bringing the reactants into the proximity of each other and activating the nucleophile. We also conducted solvated interaction energy calculations to explore whether ligation specificities can be correlated to ligase-dsRNA binding affinity changes. The calculated dsRNA binding affinities are stronger for both L1 and L2 when the terminal nucleotide is changed from cytosine to guanine, in line with their experimentally measured ligation specificities. Because the ligation mechanism is also influenced by interactions of the ligase with partner proteins from the editosome subcomplex, we also modeled the structure of the RNA-bound L2 in complex with the oligonucleotide binding (OB) domain of largest editosome interacting protein A1. The resulting L2-dsRNA-A1 model, which is consistent with mutagenesis and binding data recorded to date, provides the first atomic-level glimpse of plausible interactions around the RNA ligation site in the presence of an OB domain presented in-trans to a nucleic acid ligase.

  18. Site-directed RNA editing by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR1) for correction of the genetic code in gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Azad, T A; Bhakta, S; Tsukahara, T

    2017-10-06

    Site-directed RNA editing is an important technique for correcting gene sequences and ultimately tuning protein function. In this study, we engineered the deaminase domain of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR1) and the MS2 system to target specific adenosines, with the goal of correcting G-to-A mutations at the RNA level. For this purpose, the ADAR1 deaminase domain was fused downstream of the RNA-binding protein MS2, which has affinity for the MS2 RNA. To direct editing to specific targets, we designed guide RNAs complementary to target RNAs. The guide RNAs directed the ADAR1 deaminase to the desired editing site, where it converted adenosine to inosine. To provide proof of principle, we used an allele of EGFP bearing a mutation at the 58th amino acid (TGG), encoding Trp, into an amber (TAG) or ochre (TAA) stop codon. In HEK-293 cells, our system could convert stop codons to read-through codons, thereby turning on fluorescence. We confirmed the specificity of editing at the DNA level by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and sequencing, and at the protein level by western blotting. The editing efficiency of this enzyme system was ~5%. We believe that this system could be used to treat genetic diseases resulting from G-to-A point mutations.Gene Therapy accepted article preview online, 06 October 2017. doi:10.1038/gt.2017.90.

  19. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulation study of archaeal leucyl-tRNA synthetase in complex with different mischarged tRNA in editing conformation.

    PubMed

    Rayevsky, A V; Sharifi, M; Tukalo, M A

    2017-09-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play important roles in maintaining the accuracy of protein synthesis. Some aaRSs accomplish this via editing mechanisms, among which leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) edits non-cognate amino acid norvaline mainly by post-transfer editing. However, the molecular basis for this pathway for eukaryotic and archaeal LeuRS remain unclear. In this study, a complex of archaeal P. horikoshii LeuRS (PhLeuRS) with misacylated tRNA(Leu) was modeled wherever tRNA's acceptor stem was oriented directly into the editing site. To understand the distinctive features of organization we reconstructed a complex of PhLeuRS with tRNA and visualize post-transfer editing interactions mode by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies. To study molecular basis for substrate selectivity by PhLeuRS's editing site we utilized MD simulation of the entire LeuRS complexes using a diverse charged form of tRNAs, namely norvalyl-tRNA(Leu) and isoleucyl-tRNA(Leu). In general, the editing site organization of LeuRS from P.horikoshii has much in common with bacterial LeuRS. The MD simulation results revealed that the post-transfer editing substrate norvalyl-A76, binds more strongly than isoleucyl-A76. Moreover, the branched side chain of isoleucine prevents water molecules from being closer and hence the hydrolysis reaction slows significantly. To investigate a possible mechanism of the post-transfer editing reaction, by PhLeuRS we have determined that two water molecules (the attacking and assisting water molecules) are localized near the carbonyl group of the amino acid to be cleaved off. These water molecules approach the substrate from the opposite side to that observed for Thermus thermophilus LeuRS (TtLeuRS). Based on the results obtained, it was suggested that the post-transfer editing mechanism of PhLeuRS differs from that of prokaryotic TtLeuRS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. RNA over-editing of BLCAP contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis identified by whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xueda; Wan, Shengqing; Ou, Ying; Zhou, Boping; Zhu, Jialou; Yi, Xin; Guan, Yanfang; Jia, Wenlong; Liu, Xing; Wang, Qiudao; Qi, Yao; Yuan, Qing; Huang, Wanqiu; Liao, Weijia; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Qinghua; Xiao, Huasheng; Chen, Xinchun; Huang, Jian

    2015-02-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, although the treatment of this disease has changed little in recent decades because most of the genetic events that initiate this disease remain unknown. To better understand HCC pathogenesis at the molecular level and to uncover novel tumor-initiating events, we integrated RNA-seq and DNA-seq data derived from two pairs of HCC tissues. We found that BLCAP is novel editing gene in HCC and has over-editing expression in 40.1% HCCs compared to adjacent liver tissues. We then used RNA interference and gene transfection to assess the roles of BLCAP RNA editing in tumor proliferation. Our results showed that compared to the wild-type BLCAP gene, the RNA-edited BLCAP gene may stably promote cell proliferation (including cell growth, colony formation in vitro, and tumorigenicity in vivo) by enhancing the phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, and MDM2 and inhibiting the phosphorylation of TP53. Our current results suggest that the RNA over-editing of BLCAP gene may serve as a novel potential driver in advanced HCC through activating AKT/mTOR signal pathway.

  1. Sequence elements critical for efficient RNA editing of a tobacco chloroplast transcript in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Michael L.; Reed, Martha L.; Hegeman, Carla E.; Hanson, Maureen R.

    2006-01-01

    In tobacco chloroplast transcripts 34 nt are efficiently edited to U. No common consensus region is present around all editing sites; however, sites can be grouped in clusters that share short common sequences. Transgene transcripts carrying either the wild-type −31/+22 or −31/+60 sequence near NTrpoB C473, an editing site within tobacco rpoB transcripts, or three different mutated sequences, were all highly edited in vivo. Endogenous transcripts of rpoB, psbL and rps14, all of which contain common sequences S1, S2 and S3 5′ to NTrpoB C473, NTpsbL C2 and NTrps14 C80, were less edited in transgenic plants that over-express transcripts from NTrpoB C473 transgenes. Extent of reduction of endogenous editing differed between transgenic lines expressing mutated −31/+22 regions, depending on the abundance of the transgene transcripts. The −20/−5 sequence contains critical 5′ sequence elements. Synthetic RNA templates with alterations within this 5′ region were less efficiently edited in vitro than wild-type templates, by either tobacco or maize chloroplast extracts. The tobacco chloroplast extract supports both RNA editing and processing of 3′ transcript termini. We conclude that within the −20/−5 region, sequences common to editing sites in the transcripts of rpoB, psbL and rps14 are critical for efficient NTrpoB C473 editing. PMID:16893957

  2. Detection of canonical A-to-G editing events at 3' UTRs and microRNA target sites in human lungs using next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Soundararajan, Ramani; Stearns, Timothy M; Griswold, Anthony L; Mehta, Arpit; Czachor, Alexander; Fukumoto, Jutaro; Lockey, Richard F; King, Benjamin L; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2015-11-03

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification of RNA. The majority of these changes result from adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyzing the conversion of adenosine residues to inosine in double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). Massively parallel sequencing has enabled the identification of RNA editing sites in human transcriptomes. In this study, we sequenced DNA and RNA from human lungs and identified RNA editing sites with high confidence via a computational pipeline utilizing stringent analysis thresholds. We identified a total of 3,447 editing sites that overlapped in three human lung samples, and with 50% of these sites having canonical A-to-G base changes. Approximately 27% of the edited sites overlapped with Alu repeats, and showed A-to-G clustering (>3 clusters in 100 bp). The majority of edited sites mapped to either 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) or introns close to splice sites; whereas, only few sites were in exons resulting in non-synonymous amino acid changes. Interestingly, we identified 652 A-to-G editing events in the 3' UTR of 205 target genes that mapped to 932 potential miRNA target binding sites. Several of these miRNA edited sites were validated in silico. Additionally, we validated several A-to-G edited sites by Sanger sequencing. Altogether, our study suggests a role for RNA editing in miRNA-mediated gene regulation and splicing in human lungs. In this study, we have generated a RNA editome of human lung tissue that can be compared with other RNA editomes across different lung tissues to delineate a role for RNA editing in normal and diseased states.

  3. Detection of canonical A-to-G editing events at 3′ UTRs and microRNA target sites in human lungs using next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Ramani; Stearns, Timothy M.; Griswold, Anthony J.; Mehta, Arpit; Czachor, Alexander; Fukumoto, Jutaro; Lockey, Richard F.; King, Benjamin L.; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2015-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification of RNA. The majority of these changes result from adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyzing the conversion of adenosine residues to inosine in double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). Massively parallel sequencing has enabled the identification of RNA editing sites in human transcriptomes. In this study, we sequenced DNA and RNA from human lungs and identified RNA editing sites with high confidence via a computational pipeline utilizing stringent analysis thresholds. We identified a total of 3,447 editing sites that overlapped in three human lung samples, and with 50% of these sites having canonical A-to-G base changes. Approximately 27% of the edited sites overlapped with Alu repeats, and showed A-to-G clustering (>3 clusters in 100 bp). The majority of edited sites mapped to either 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) or introns close to splice sites; whereas, only few sites were in exons resulting in non-synonymous amino acid changes. Interestingly, we identified 652 A-to-G editing events in the 3′ UTR of 205 target genes that mapped to 932 potential miRNA target binding sites. Several of these miRNA edited sites were validated in silico. Additionally, we validated several A-to-G edited sites by Sanger sequencing. Altogether, our study suggests a role for RNA editing in miRNA-mediated gene regulation and splicing in human lungs. In this study, we have generated a RNA editome of human lung tissue that can be compared with other RNA editomes across different lung tissues to delineate a role for RNA editing in normal and diseased states. PMID:26486088

  4. Tad1p, a yeast tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase, is related to the mammalian pre-mRNA editing enzymes ADAR1 and ADAR2.

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, A; Grosjean, H; Melcher, T; Keller, W

    1998-01-01

    We have identified an RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (termed Tad1p/scADAT1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that selectively converts adenosine at position 37 of eukaryotic tRNAAla to inosine. The activity of purified recombinant Tad1p depends on the conformation of its tRNA substrate and the enzyme was found to be inactive on all other types of RNA tested. Mutant strains in which the TAD1 gene is disrupted are viable but lack Tad1p enzyme activity and their tRNAAla is not modified at position A37. Transformation of the mutant cells with the TAD1 gene restored enzyme activity. Tad1p has significant sequence similarity with the mammalian editing enzymes which act on specific precursor-mRNAs and on long double-stranded RNA. These findings suggest an evolutionary link between pre-mRNA editing and tRNA modification. PMID:9707437

  5. Genome-wide identification and characterization of tissue-specific RNA editing events in D. melanogaster and their potential role in regulating alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Mazloomian, Alborz; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2015-01-01

    RNA editing is a widespread mechanism that plays a crucial role in diversifying gene products. Its abundance and importance in regulating cellular processes were revealed using new sequencing technologies. The majority of these editing events, however, cannot be associated with regulatory mechanisms. We use tissue-specific high-throughput libraries of D. melanogaster to study RNA editing. We introduce an analysis pipeline that utilises large input data and explicitly captures ADAR's requirement for double-stranded regions. It combines probabilistic and deterministic filters and can identify RNA editing events with a low estimated false positive rate. Analyzing ten different tissue types, we predict 2879 editing sites and provide their detailed characterization. Our analysis pipeline accurately distinguishes genuine editing sites from SNPs and sequencing and mapping artifacts. Our editing sites are 3 times more likely to occur in exons with multiple splicing acceptor/donor sites than in exons with unique splice sites (p-value < 2.10(-15)). Furthermore, we identify 244 edited regions where RNA editing and alternative splicing are likely to influence each other. For 96 out of these 244 regions, we find evolutionary evidence for conserved RNA secondary-structures near splice sites suggesting a potential regulatory mechanism where RNA editing may alter splicing patterns via changes in local RNA structure.

  6. Gene Editing With CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-Directed Nuclease.

    PubMed

    Doetschman, Thomas; Georgieva, Teodora

    2017-03-03

    Genetic engineering of model organisms and cultured cells has for decades provided important insights into the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular development and disease. In the past few years the development of several nuclease systems has broadened the range of model/cell systems that can be engineered. Of these, the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) system has become the favorite for its ease of application. Here we will review this RNA-guided nuclease system for gene editing with respect to its usefulness for cardiovascular studies and with an eye toward potential therapy. Studies on its off-target activity, along with approaches to minimize this activity will be given. The advantages of gene editing versus gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, including the breadth of species and cell types to which it is applicable, will be discussed. We will also cover its use in iPSC for research and possible therapeutic purposes; and we will review its use in muscular dystrophy studies where considerable progress has been made toward dystrophin correction in mice. The CRISPR/Ca9s system is also being used for high-throughput screening of genes, gene regulatory regions, and long noncoding RNAs. In addition, the CRISPR system is being used for nongene-editing purposes such as activation and inhibition of gene expression, as well as for fluorescence tagging of chromosomal regions and individual mRNAs to track their cellular location. Finally, an approach to circumvent the inability of post-mitotic cells to support homologous recombination-based gene editing will be presented. In conclusion, applications of the CRISPR/Cas system are expanding at a breath-taking pace and are revolutionizing approaches to gain a better understanding of human diseases. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Universality of mitochondrial RNA editing in cytochrome-c oxidase subunit I (coxI) among the land plants.

    PubMed

    Sper-Whitis, G L; Moody, J L; Vaughn, J C

    1996-07-17

    Plant mitochondrial pre-mRNAs often undergo C-to-U conversions, a phenomenon termed RNA editing. The molecular source of specificity and phylogenetic depth of the editing machinery remain to be determined. We amplified coxI gene fragments via the polymerase chain reaction from a diversity of taxa within the land plants, and sequenced each. Alignment and comparison of 25 homologous coxI gene sequences with those from plant species having known RNA editing sites which restore amino acid sequence consensus was used to infer sites of C-to-U conversions. Our results, derived using the comparative approach, imply that the plant mitochondrial editing machinery extends throughout vascular plant phylogeny, and also that this phenomenon is present in every major branch of the (non-vascular) Bryophyta: liverworts (Hepaticae), hornworts (Anthocerotae), and mosses (Musci). These results have important consequences for our thoughts on the evolutionary history of the plant RNA editing process, as they imply that editing is older than was previously believed.

  8. Regulation of Na+/K+ ATPase Transport Velocity by RNA Editing

    PubMed Central

    Colina, Claudia; Palavicini, Juan Pablo; Srikumar, Deepa; Holmgren, Miguel; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Because firing properties and metabolic rates vary widely, neurons require different transport rates from their Na+/K+ pumps in order to maintain ion homeostasis. In this study we show that Na+/K+ pump activity is tightly regulated by a novel process, RNA editing. Three codons within the squid Na+/K+ ATPase gene can be recoded at the RNA level, and the efficiency of conversion for each varies dramatically, and independently, between tissues. At one site, a highly conserved isoleucine in the seventh transmembrane span can be converted to a valine, a change that shifts the pump's intrinsic voltage dependence. Mechanistically, the removal of a single methyl group specifically targets the process of Na+ release to the extracellular solution, causing a higher turnover rate at the resting membrane potential. PMID:21124885

  9. [CRISPR/Cas: a novel way of RNA-guided genome editing].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Kun-Ling; Shan, Qi-Wei; Wang, Yan-Peng; Liang, Zhen; Gao, Cai-Xia

    2013-11-01

    Bacteria and archaea have evolved an adaptive immune system, known as type II prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system, which uses short RNA to direct the degradation of target sequences present in invading viral and plasmid DNAs. Recent advances in CRISPR/Cas system provide an improved method for genome editing, showing robust and specific RNA-guided endonuclease activity at targeted endogenous genomic loci. It is the latest technology to modify genome DNA specifically and effectively following zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and TALE nucleases (TALENs). Compared with ZFNs and TALENs, CRISPR/Cas is much simpler and easier to engineer. This review summarizes recent progress, and discusses the prospects of CRISPR/Cas system, with an emphasis on its structure, principle, applications and potential challenges.

  10. RNA editing of 10 Didymium iridis mitochondrial genes and comparison with the homologous genes in Physarum polycephalum

    PubMed Central

    Traphagen, Stephen J.; Dimarco, Michael J.; Silliker, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    Regions of the Didymium iridis mitochondrial genome were identified with similarity to typical mitochondrial genes; however, these regions contained numerous stop codons. We used RT-PCR and DNA sequencing to determine whether, through RNA editing, these regions were transcribed into mRNAs that could encode functional proteins. Ten putative gene regions were examined: atp1, atp6, atp8, atp9, cox1, cox2, cytb, nad4L, nad6, and nad7. The cDNA sequences of each gene could encode a functional mitochondrial protein that was highly conserved compared with homologous genes. The type of editing events and editing sequence features were very similar to those observed in the homologous genes of Physarum polycephalum, though the actual editing locations showed a variable degree of conservation. Edited sites were compared with encoded sites in D. iridis and P. polycephalum for all 10 genes. Edited sequence for a portion of the cox1 gene was available for six myxomycetes, which, when compared, showed a high degree of conservation at the protein level. Different types of editing events showed varying degrees of site conservation with C-to-U base changes being the least conserved. Several aspects of single C insertion editing events led to the preferential creation of hydrophobic amino acid codons that may help to minimize adverse effects on the resulting protein structure. PMID:20159952

  11. RNA editing of 10 Didymium iridis mitochondrial genes and comparison with the homologous genes in Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Traphagen, Stephen J; Dimarco, Michael J; Silliker, Margaret E

    2010-04-01

    Regions of the Didymium iridis mitochondrial genome were identified with similarity to typical mitochondrial genes; however, these regions contained numerous stop codons. We used RT-PCR and DNA sequencing to determine whether, through RNA editing, these regions were transcribed into mRNAs that could encode functional proteins. Ten putative gene regions were examined: atp1, atp6, atp8, atp9, cox1, cox2, cytb, nad4L, nad6, and nad7. The cDNA sequences of each gene could encode a functional mitochondrial protein that was highly conserved compared with homologous genes. The type of editing events and editing sequence features were very similar to those observed in the homologous genes of Physarum polycephalum, though the actual editing locations showed a variable degree of conservation. Edited sites were compared with encoded sites in D. iridis and P. polycephalum for all 10 genes. Edited sequence for a portion of the cox1 gene was available for six myxomycetes, which, when compared, showed a high degree of conservation at the protein level. Different types of editing events showed varying degrees of site conservation with C-to-U base changes being the least conserved. Several aspects of single C insertion editing events led to the preferential creation of hydrophobic amino acid codons that may help to minimize adverse effects on the resulting protein structure.

  12. Metabolomic and Lipidomic Profiling Identifies The Role of the RNA Editing Pathway in Endometrial Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Altadill, Tatiana; Dowdy, Tyrone M; Gill, Kirandeep; Reques, Armando; Menon, Smrithi S; Moiola, Cristian P; Lopez-Gil, Carlos; Coll, Eva; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Cabrera, Silvia; Garcia, Angel; Reventos, Jaume; Byers, Stephen W; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Cheema, Amrita K; Colas, Eva

    2017-08-18

    Endometrial cancer (EC) remains the most common malignancy of the genital tract among women in developed countries. Although much research has been performed at genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic level, there is still a significant gap in the metabolomic studies of EC. In order to gain insights into altered metabolic pathways in the onset and progression of EC carcinogenesis, we used high resolution mass spectrometry to characterize the metabolomic and lipidomic profile of 39 human EC and 17 healthy endometrial tissue samples. Several pathways including lipids, Kynurenine pathway, endocannabinoids signaling pathway and the RNA editing pathway were found to be dysregulated in EC. The dysregulation of the RNA editing pathway was further investigated in an independent set of 183 human EC tissues and matched controls, using orthogonal approaches. We found that ADAR2 is overexpressed in EC and that the increase in expression positively correlates with the aggressiveness of the tumor. Furthermore, silencing of ADAR2 in three EC cell lines resulted in a decreased proliferation rate, increased apoptosis, and reduced migration capabilities in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest that ADAR2 functions as an oncogene in endometrial carcinogenesis and could be a potential target for improving EC treatment strategies.

  13. Two DYW subclass PPR proteins are involved in RNA editing of ccmFc and atp9 transcripts in the moss Physcomitrella patens: first complete set of PPR editing factors in plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Mizuho; Sugita, Chieko; Yagi, Yusuke; Nakamura, Takahiro; Sugita, Mamoru

    2013-11-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens has 11 RNA editing sites in mitochondrial transcripts. We previously identified six DYW subclass pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins as RNA editing factors for nine out of 11 sites. In this study, we identified two novel DYW subclass PPR proteins, PpPPR_65 and PpPPR_98, as RNA editing factors. Disruption of the PpPPR_65 gene resulted in a complete loss of RNA editing at two neighboring sites, ccmFc-C103 and ccmFc-C122, in the mitochondrial ccmFc transcript. To confirm this result, we further generated PpPPR_65 knockdown (KD) mutants by an inducible RNA interference (RNAi) system. The generated RNAi lines displayed reduced levels of RNA editing at both ccmFc-C103 and ccmFc-C122 sites. Next, we characterized the function of PpPPR_98 by constructing a KD mutant of PpPPR_98 expression. The KD mutant showed a 30% reduction in the level of atp9-C92 editing. When PpPPR_98 cDNA was introduced into the KD mutant, RNA editing levels were restored to the wild-type level. This indicates that PpPPR_98 is an editing factor for the atp9-C92 site. The recombinant PpPPR_98 protein bound to the upstream sequence of the editing site that was created by splicing of atp9 transcript. This suggests that atp9 RNA editing occurs after splicing of atp9 transcript. Our present and previous data provide the first evidence that all 11 known editing events require at least eight DYW subclass PPR proteins in the moss mitochondria.

  14. An essential role of KREPB4 in RNA editing and structural integrity of the editosome in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Babbarwal, Vinod Kumar; Fleck, Michele; Ernst, Nancy Lewis; Schnaufer, Achim; Stuart, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    RNA editing in the sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei remodels mitochondrial transcripts by the addition and deletion of uridylates as specified by guide RNAs. Editing is catalyzed by at least three distinct ∼20S multiprotein editosomes, all of which contain KREPB4, a protein with RNase III and Pumilio motifs. RNAi repression of KREPB4 expression in procyclic forms (PFs) strongly inhibited growth and in vivo RNA editing, greatly diminished the abundance of 20S editosomes, reduced cellular levels of editosome proteins, and generated ∼5–10S editosome subcomplexes. Editing TUTase, exoUase, and RNA ligase activities were largely shifted from ∼20S to ∼5–10S fractions of cellular lysates. Insertion and deletion endonuclease activities in ∼20S fractions were strongly reduced upon KREPB4 repression but were not detected in the 5–10S subcomplex fraction. Abundance of MRP1 and RBP16 proteins, which appear to be involved in RNA processing but are not components of the 20S editosome, was unaltered upon KREPB4 repression. These data suggest that KREPB4 is important for the structural integrity of ∼20S editosomes, editing endonuclease activity, and the viability of PF T. brucei cells. PMID:17369311

  15. Whole-Transcriptome RNA-seq, Gene Set Enrichment Pathway Analysis, and Exon Coverage Analysis of Two Plastid RNA Editing Mutants.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Justin B; Lu, Yan

    2017-04-07

    In land plants, plastid and mitochondrial RNAs are subject to post-transcriptional C-to-U RNA editing. T-DNA insertions in the ORGANELLE RNA RECOGNITION MOTIF PROTEIN6 gene resulted in reduced photosystem II (PSII) activity and smaller plant and leaf sizes. Exon coverage analysis of the ORRM6 gene showed that orrm6-1 and orrm6-2 are loss-of-function mutants. Compared to other ORRM proteins, ORRM6 affects a relative small number of RNA editing sites. Sanger sequencing of reverse transcription-PCR products of plastid transcripts revealed two plastid RNA editing sites that are substantially affected in the orrm6 mutants: psbF-C77 and accD-C794. The psbF gene encodes the beta subunit of cytochrome b559, an essential component of PSII. The accD gene encodes the beta subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a protein required in plastid fatty acid biosynthesis. Whole-transcriptome RNA-seq demonstrated that editing at psbF-C77 is nearly absent and the editing extent at accD-C794 was significantly reduced. Gene set enrichment pathway analysis showed that expression of multiple gene sets involved in photosynthesis, especially photosynthetic electron transport, is significantly up-regulated in both orrm6 mutants. The up-regulation could be a mechanism to compensate for the reduced PSII electron transport rate in the orrm6 mutants. These results further demonstrated that Organelle RNA Recognition Motif protein ORRM6 is required in editing of specific RNAs in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plastid.

  16. Extensive RNA editing of U to C in addition to C to U substitution in the rbcL transcripts of hornwort chloroplasts and the origin of RNA editing in green plants.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, K; Iinuma, H; Masuzawa, T; Uedal, K

    1996-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced a portion of chloroplast DNA from the hornwort Anthoceros formosae. A nucleotide sequence of 7556 bp contained structures similar to those of ndhK, ndhC, trnV, trnM, atpE, atpB, rbcL, trnR and accD. The arrangement of these was the same as that of other chloroplast DNA. However, two nonsense codons were located within the putative coding region of rbcL, although they were used as putative termination codons of the genes. RNA was extensively edited in the transcripts of rbcL when cDNA sequences were analyzed. The unusual nonsense codons of TGA and TAA became CGA and CAA respectively. These are examples of U to C type RNA editing, which was never been found before in chloroplast mRNA. In general, 13 Cs of genomic DNA were found as Ts in the cDNA sequence and seven Ts were found as Cs. This is the first finding of RNA editing on the transcripts of rbcL and also in bryophytes. This event had been thought to arise in land plants after the split of bryophytes. The origin of RNA editing is discussed in relation to the landing of green plants. PMID:8604330

  17. The Extent of mRNA Editing Is Limited in Chicken Liver and Adipose, but Impacted by Tissular Context, Genotype, Age, and Feeding as Exemplified with a Conserved Edited Site in COG3

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Pierre-François; Frésard, Laure; Boutin, Morgane; Leroux, Sophie; Klopp, Christophe; Djari, Anis; Esquerré, Diane; Martin, Pascal GP; Zerjal, Tatiana; Gourichon, David; Pitel, Frédérique; Lagarrigue, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    RNA editing is a posttranscriptional process leading to differences between genomic DNA and transcript sequences, potentially enhancing transcriptome diversity. With recent advances in high-throughput sequencing, many efforts have been made to describe mRNA editing at the transcriptome scale, especially in mammals, yielding contradictory conclusions regarding the extent of this phenomenon. We show, by detailed description of the 25 studies focusing so far on mRNA editing at the whole-transcriptome scale, that systematic sequencing artifacts are considered in most studies whereas biological replication is often neglected and multi-alignment not properly evaluated, which ultimately impairs the legitimacy of results. We recently developed a rigorous strategy to identify mRNA editing using mRNA and genomic DNA sequencing, taking into account sequencing and mapping artifacts, and biological replicates. We applied this method to screen for mRNA editing in liver and white adipose tissue from eight chickens and confirm the small extent of mRNA recoding in this species. Among the 25 unique edited sites identified, three events were previously described in mammals, attesting that this phenomenon is conserved throughout evolution. Deeper investigations on five sites revealed the impact of tissular context, genotype, age, feeding conditions, and sex on mRNA editing levels. More specifically, this analysis highlighted that the editing level at the site located on COG3 was strongly regulated by four of these factors. By comprehensively characterizing the mRNA editing landscape in chickens, our results highlight how this phenomenon is limited and suggest regulation of editing levels by various genetic and environmental factors. PMID:26637431

  18. The Extent of mRNA Editing Is Limited in Chicken Liver and Adipose, but Impacted by Tissular Context, Genotype, Age, and Feeding as Exemplified with a Conserved Edited Site in COG3.

    PubMed

    Roux, Pierre-François; Frésard, Laure; Boutin, Morgane; Leroux, Sophie; Klopp, Christophe; Djari, Anis; Esquerré, Diane; Martin, Pascal G P; Zerjal, Tatiana; Gourichon, David; Pitel, Frédérique; Lagarrigue, Sandrine

    2015-12-04

    RNA editing is a posttranscriptional process leading to differences between genomic DNA and transcript sequences, potentially enhancing transcriptome diversity. With recent advances in high-throughput sequencing, many efforts have been made to describe mRNA editing at the transcriptome scale, especially in mammals, yielding contradictory conclusions regarding the extent of this phenomenon. We show, by detailed description of the 25 studies focusing so far on mRNA editing at the whole-transcriptome scale, that systematic sequencing artifacts are considered in most studies whereas biological replication is often neglected and multi-alignment not properly evaluated, which ultimately impairs the legitimacy of results. We recently developed a rigorous strategy to identify mRNA editing using mRNA and genomic DNA sequencing, taking into account sequencing and mapping artifacts, and biological replicates. We applied this method to screen for mRNA editing in liver and white adipose tissue from eight chickens and confirm the small extent of mRNA recoding in this species. Among the 25 unique edited sites identified, three events were previously described in mammals, attesting that this phenomenon is conserved throughout evolution. Deeper investigations on five sites revealed the impact of tissular context, genotype, age, feeding conditions, and sex on mRNA editing levels. More specifically, this analysis highlighted that the editing level at the site located on COG3 was strongly regulated by four of these factors. By comprehensively characterizing the mRNA editing landscape in chickens, our results highlight how this phenomenon is limited and suggest regulation of editing levels by various genetic and environmental factors.

  19. Identification of Widespread Ultra-Edited Human RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Carmi, Shai; Borukhov, Itamar; Levanon, Erez Y.

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine modification of RNA molecules (A-to-I RNA editing) is an important mechanism that increases transciptome diversity. It occurs when a genomically encoded adenosine (A) is converted to an inosine (I) by ADAR proteins. Sequencing reactions read inosine as guanosine (G); therefore, current methods to detect A-to-I editing sites align RNA sequences to their corresponding DNA regions and identify A-to-G mismatches. However, such methods perform poorly on RNAs that underwent extensive editing (“ultra”-editing), as the large number of mismatches obscures the genomic origin of these RNAs. Therefore, only a few anecdotal ultra-edited RNAs have been discovered so far. Here we introduce and apply a novel computational method to identify ultra-edited RNAs. We detected 760 ESTs containing 15,646 editing sites (more than 20 sites per EST, on average), of which 13,668 are novel. Ultra-edited RNAs exhibit the known sequence motif of ADARs and tend to localize in sense strand Alu elements. Compared to sites of mild editing, ultra-editing occurs primarily in Alu-rich regions, where potential base pairing with neighboring, inverted Alus creates particularly long double-stranded RNA structures. Ultra-editing sites are underrepresented in old Alu subfamilies, tend to be non-conserved, and avoid exons, suggesting that ultra-editing is usually deleterious. A possible biological function of ultra-editing could be mediated by non-canonical splicing and cleavage of the RNA near the editing sites. PMID:22028664

  20. Differential Binding of Mitochondrial Transcripts by MRB8170 and MRB4160 Regulates Distinct Editing Fates of Mitochondrial mRNA in Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sameer; Müller-McNicoll, Michaela; David, Vojtěch; Zarnack, Kathi; Ule, Jernej; Hashimi, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A dozen mRNAs are edited by multiple insertions and/or deletions of uridine residues in the mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei. Several protein complexes have been implicated in performing this type of RNA editing, including the mitochondrial RNA-binding complex 1 (MRB1). Two paralogous novel RNA-binding proteins, MRB8170 and MRB4160, are loosely associated with the core MRB1 complex. Their roles in RNA editing and effects on target mRNAs are so far not well understood. In this study, individual-nucleotide-resolution UV-cross-linking and affinity purification (iCLAP) revealed a preferential binding of both proteins to mitochondrial mRNAs, which was positively correlated with their extent of editing. Integrating additional in vivo and in vitro data, we propose that binding of MRB8170 and/or MRB4160 onto pre-mRNA marks it for the initiation of editing and that initial binding of both proteins may facilitate the recruitment of other components of the RNA editing/processing machinery to ensure efficient editing. Surprisingly, MRB8170 also binds never-edited mRNAs, suggesting that at least this paralog has an additional role outside RNA editing to shape the mitochondrial transcriptome. PMID:28143982

  1. RNA editing by T7 RNA polymerase bypasses InDel mutations causing unexpected phenotypic changes

    PubMed Central

    Wons, Ewa; Furmanek-Blaszk, Beata; Sektas, Marian

    2015-01-01

    DNA-dependent T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) is the most powerful tool for both gene expression and in vitro transcription. By using a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach we have analyzed the polymorphism of a T7 RNAP-generated mRNA pool of the mboIIM2 gene. We find that the enzyme displays a relatively high level of template-dependent transcriptional infidelity. The nucleotide misincorporations and multiple insertions in A/T-rich tracts of homopolymers in mRNA (0.20 and 0.089%, respectively) cause epigenetic effects with significant impact on gene expression that is disproportionally high to their frequency of appearance. The sequence-dependent rescue of single and even double InDel frameshifting mutants and wild-type phenotype recovery is observed as a result. As a consequence, a heterogeneous pool of functional and non-functional proteins of almost the same molecular mass is produced where the proteins are indistinguishable from each other upon ordinary analysis. We suggest that transcriptional infidelity as a general feature of the most effective RNAPs may serve to repair and/or modify a protein function, thus increasing the repertoire of phenotypic variants, which in turn has a high evolutionary potential. PMID:25824942

  2. RED: A Java-MySQL Software for Identifying and Visualizing RNA Editing Sites Using Rule-Based and Statistical Filters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongmei; Li, Xing; Wu, Di; Pan, Qi; Ji, Yuefeng; Ren, Hong; Ding, Keyue

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing is one of the post- or co-transcriptional processes that can lead to amino acid substitutions in protein sequences, alternative pre-mRNA splicing, and changes in gene expression levels. Although several methods have been suggested to identify RNA editing sites, there remains challenges to be addressed in distinguishing true RNA editing sites from its counterparts on genome and technical artifacts. In addition, there lacks a software framework to identify and visualize potential RNA editing sites. Here, we presented a software - 'RED' (RNA Editing sites Detector) - for the identification of RNA editing sites by integrating multiple rule-based and statistical filters. The potential RNA editing sites can be visualized at the genome and the site levels by graphical user interface (GUI). To improve performance, we used MySQL database management system (DBMS) for high-throughput data storage and query. We demonstrated the validity and utility of RED by identifying the presence and absence of C→U RNA-editing sites experimentally validated, in comparison with REDItools, a command line tool to perform high-throughput investigation of RNA editing. In an analysis of a sample data-set with 28 experimentally validated C→U RNA editing sites, RED had sensitivity and specificity of 0.64 and 0.5. In comparison, REDItools had a better sensitivity (0.75) but similar specificity (0.5). RED is an easy-to-use, platform-independent Java-based software, and can be applied to RNA-seq data without or with DNA sequencing data. The package is freely available under the GPLv3 license at http://github.com/REDetector/RED or https://sourceforge.net/projects/redetector.

  3. RED: A Java-MySQL Software for Identifying and Visualizing RNA Editing Sites Using Rule-Based and Statistical Filters

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongmei; Li, Xing; Wu, Di; Pan, Qi; Ji, Yuefeng; Ren, Hong; Ding, Keyue

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing is one of the post- or co-transcriptional processes that can lead to amino acid substitutions in protein sequences, alternative pre-mRNA splicing, and changes in gene expression levels. Although several methods have been suggested to identify RNA editing sites, there remains challenges to be addressed in distinguishing true RNA editing sites from its counterparts on genome and technical artifacts. In addition, there lacks a software framework to identify and visualize potential RNA editing sites. Here, we presented a software − ‘RED’ (RNA Editing sites Detector) − for the identification of RNA editing sites by integrating multiple rule-based and statistical filters. The potential RNA editing sites can be visualized at the genome and the site levels by graphical user interface (GUI). To improve performance, we used MySQL database management system (DBMS) for high-throughput data storage and query. We demonstrated the validity and utility of RED by identifying the presence and absence of C→U RNA-editing sites experimentally validated, in comparison with REDItools, a command line tool to perform high-throughput investigation of RNA editing. In an analysis of a sample data-set with 28 experimentally validated C→U RNA editing sites, RED had sensitivity and specificity of 0.64 and 0.5. In comparison, REDItools had a better sensitivity (0.75) but similar specificity (0.5). RED is an easy-to-use, platform-independent Java-based software, and can be applied to RNA-seq data without or with DNA sequencing data. The package is freely available under the GPLv3 license at http://github.com/REDetector/RED or https://sourceforge.net/projects/redetector. PMID:26930599

  4. Efficient and transgene-free genome editing in wheat through transient expression of CRISPR/Cas9 DNA or RNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Zong, Yuan; Wang, Yanpeng; Liu, Jinxing; Chen, Kunling; Qiu, Jin-Long; Gao, Caixia

    2016-01-01

    Editing plant genomes is technically challenging in hard-to-transform plants and usually involves transgenic intermediates, which causes regulatory concerns. Here we report two simple and efficient genome-editing methods in which plants are regenerated from callus cells transiently expressing CRISPR/Cas9 introduced as DNA or RNA. This transient expression-based genome-editing system is highly efficient and specific for producing transgene-free and homozygous wheat mutants in the T0 generation. We demonstrate our protocol to edit genes in hexaploid bread wheat and tetraploid durum wheat, and show that we are able to generate mutants with no detectable transgenes. Our methods may be applicable to other plant species, thus offering the potential to accelerate basic and applied plant genome-engineering research. PMID:27558837

  5. Growing Slowly 1 locus encodes a PLS-type PPR protein required for RNA editing and plant development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Tingting; Chen, Dan; Wu, Jian; Huang, Xiaorong; Wang, Yifan; Tang, Keli; Li, Jiayang; Sun, Mengxiang; Peng, Xiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Most pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are involved in organelle post-transcriptional processes, including RNA editing. The PPR proteins include the PLS subfamily, containing characteristic triplets of P, L, and S motifs; however, their editing mechanisms and roles in developmental processes are not fully understood. In this study, we isolated the Arabidopsis thaliana Growing slowly 1 (AtGRS1) gene and showed that it functions in RNA editing and plant development. Arabidopsis null mutants of grs1 exhibit slow growth and sterility. Further analysis showed that cell division activity was reduced dramatically in the roots of grs1 plants. We determined that GRS1 is a nuclear-encoded mitochondria-localized PPR protein, and is a member of the PLS subfamily. GRS1 is responsible for the RNA editing at four specific sites of four mitochondrial mRNAs: nad1-265, nad4L-55, nad6-103, and rps4-377. The first three of these mRNAs encode for the subunits of complex I of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. Thus, the activity of complex I is strongly reduced in grs1. Changes in RPS4 editing in grs1 plants affect mitochondrial ribosome biogenesis. Expression of the alternative respiratory pathway and the abscisic acid response gene ABI5 were up-regulated in grs1 mutant plants. Genetic analysis revealed that ABI5 is involved in the short root phenotype of grs1. Taken together, our results indicate that AtGRS1 regulates plant development by controlling RNA editing in Arabidopsis. PMID:27670716

  6. Affect-related behaviors in mice misexpressing the RNA editing enzyme ADAR2.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minati; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2009-06-22

    Misediting of the serotonin (5HT) 2C receptor (5HT(2C)R) has been implicated in both depression and anxiety. The adenosine deaminases that act on double stranded RNAs (ADARs) are reported to modify the 5HT(2C)R by RNA editing. Transgenic mice misexpressing the RNA editing enzyme ADAR2 show an adult onset obese phenotype due to chronic hyperphagia, but little more than this is known about the behavior of these animals. The present experiments examined whether affect-associated behaviors are also altered in ADAR2 transgenic mice. Age- and weight-matched transgenic mice misexpressing ADAR2 were tested for signs of behavioral despair with the forced swim (FST) and tail suspension (TST) tests, and for anxiety by evaluating spontaneous exploration in a novel environment and by elevated plus maze performance. Plasma corticosterone was also determined by radioimmunoassay. Transgenic mice of both sexes displayed indications of increased behavioral despair on first exposures to the TST and the FST. Behavioral despair persisted in ADAR2 mice in that it was also observed in the FST in tests administered 24 h and 1 week following the initial TST and FST. ADAR2 transgenic mice also displayed behaviors associated with anxiety as indicated by decreased entry into the open arms in an elevated plus maze test. Both sexes of ADAR2 transgenic mice displayed elevated plasma corticosterone. Taken together, the results suggest that ADAR2 transgenic mice represent a novel rodent model of endogenous behavioral despair and anxiety accompanied by elevated hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis activity.

  7. Targeted Mutagenesis, Precise Gene Editing, and Site-Specific Gene Insertion in Maize Using Cas9 and Guide RNA.

    PubMed

    Svitashev, Sergei; Young, Joshua K; Schwartz, Christine; Gao, Huirong; Falco, S Carl; Cigan, A Mark

    2015-10-01

    Targeted mutagenesis, editing of endogenous maize (Zea mays) genes, and site-specific insertion of a trait gene using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas)-guide RNA technology are reported in maize. DNA vectors expressing maize codon-optimized Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 endonuclease and single guide RNAs were cointroduced with or without DNA repair templates into maize immature embryos by biolistic transformation targeting five different genomic regions: upstream of the liguleless1 (LIG1) gene, male fertility genes (Ms26 and Ms45), and acetolactate synthase (ALS) genes (ALS1 and ALS2). Mutations were subsequently identified at all sites targeted, and plants containing biallelic multiplex mutations at LIG1, Ms26, and Ms45 were recovered. Biolistic delivery of guide RNAs (as RNA molecules) directly into immature embryo cells containing preintegrated Cas9 also resulted in targeted mutations. Editing the ALS2 gene using either single-stranded oligonucleotides or double-stranded DNA vectors as repair templates yielded chlorsulfuron-resistant plants. Double-strand breaks generated by RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease also stimulated insertion of a trait gene at a site near LIG1 by homology-directed repair. Progeny showed expected Mendelian segregation of mutations, edits, and targeted gene insertions. The examples reported in this study demonstrate the utility of Cas9-guide RNA technology as a plant genome editing tool to enhance plant breeding and crop research needed to meet growing agriculture demands of the future.

  8. Leucyl-tRNA synthetase editing domain functions as a molecular rheostat to control codon ambiguity in Mycoplasma pathogens.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Palencia, Andrés; Lukk, Tiit; Li, Zhi; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida A; Cusack, Stephen; Martinis, Susan A; Boniecki, Michal T

    2013-03-05

    Mycoplasma leucyl-tRNA synthetases (LeuRSs) have been identified in which the connective polypeptide 1 (CP1) amino acid editing domain that clears mischarged tRNAs are missing (Mycoplasma mobile) or highly degenerate (Mycoplasma synoviae). Thus, these enzymes rely on a clearance pathway called pretransfer editing, which hydrolyzes misactivated aminoacyl-adenylate intermediate via a nebulous mechanism that has been controversial for decades. Even as the sole fidelity pathway for clearing amino acid selection errors in the pathogenic M. mobile, pretransfer editing is not robust enough to completely block mischarging of tRNA(Leu), resulting in codon ambiguity and statistical proteins. A high-resolution X-ray crystal structure shows that M. mobile LeuRS structurally overlaps with other LeuRS cores. However, when CP1 domains from different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and origins were fused to this common LeuRS core, surprisingly, pretransfer editing was enhanced. It is hypothesized that the CP1 domain evolved as a molecular rheostat to balance multiple functions. These include distal control of specificity and enzyme activity in the ancient canonical core, as well as providing a separate hydrolytic active site for clearing mischarged tRNA.

  9. A method to convert mRNA into a gRNA library for CRISPR/Cas9 editing of any organism

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspersed palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) system is a powerful tool for genome editing that can be used to construct a guide RNA (gRNA) library for genetic screening. For gRNA design, one must know the sequence of the 20-mer flanking the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), which seriously impedes experimentally making gRNA. I describe a method to construct a gRNA library via molecular biology techniques without relying on bioinformatics. Briefly, one synthesizes complementary DNA from the mRNA sequence using a semi-random primer containing a PAM complementary sequence and then cuts out the 20-mer adjacent to the PAM using type IIS and type III restriction enzymes to create a gRNA library. The described approach does not require prior knowledge about the target DNA sequences, making it applicable to any species. PMID:27574704

  10. A survey of PPR proteins identifies DYW domains like those of land plant RNA editing factors in diverse eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Lenz, Henning; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Gott, Jonatha M; Knoop, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The pentatricopeptide repeat modules of PPR proteins are key to their sequence-specific binding to RNAs. Gene families encoding PPR proteins are greatly expanded in land plants where hundreds of them participate in RNA maturation, mainly in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Many plant PPR proteins contain additional carboxyterminal domains and have been identified as essential factors for specific events of C-to-U RNA editing, which is abundant in the two endosymbiotic plant organelles. Among those carboxyterminal domain additions to plant PPR proteins, the so-called DYW domain is particularly interesting given its similarity to cytidine deaminases. The frequency of organelle C-to-U RNA editing and the diversity of DYW-type PPR proteins correlate well in plants and both were recently identified outside of land plants, in the protist Naegleria gruberi. Here we present a systematic survey of PPR protein genes and report on the identification of additional DYW-type PPR proteins in the protists Acanthamoeba castellanii, Malawimonas jakobiformis, and Physarum polycephalum. Moreover, DYW domains were also found in basal branches of multi-cellular lineages outside of land plants, including the alga Nitella flexilis and the rotifers Adineta ricciae and Philodina roseola. Intriguingly, the well-characterized and curious patterns of mitochondrial RNA editing in the slime mold Physarum also include examples of C-to-U changes. Finally, we identify candidate sites for mitochondrial RNA editing in Malawimonas, further supporting a link between DYW-type PPR proteins and C-to-U editing, which may have remained hitherto unnoticed in additional eukaryote lineages. PMID:23899506

  11. A survey of PPR proteins identifies DYW domains like those of land plant RNA editing factors in diverse eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Lenz, Henning; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Gott, Jonatha M; Knoop, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The pentatricopeptide repeat modules of PPR proteins are key to their sequence-specific binding to RNAs. Gene families encoding PPR proteins are greatly expanded in land plants where hundreds of them participate in RNA maturation, mainly in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Many plant PPR proteins contain additional carboxyterminal domains and have been identified as essential factors for specific events of C-to-U RNA editing, which is abundant in the two endosymbiotic plant organelles. Among those carboxyterminal domain additions to plant PPR proteins, the so-called DYW domain is particularly interesting given its similarity to cytidine deaminases. The frequency of organelle C-to-U RNA editing and the diversity of DYW-type PPR proteins correlate well in plants and both were recently identified outside of land plants, in the protist Naegleria gruberi. Here we present a systematic survey of PPR protein genes and report on the identification of additional DYW-type PPR proteins in the protists Acanthamoeba castellanii, Malawimonas jakobiformis, and Physarum polycephalum. Moreover, DYW domains were also found in basal branches of multi-cellular lineages outside of land plants, including the alga Nitella flexilis and the rotifers Adineta ricciae and Philodina roseola. Intriguingly, the well-characterized and curious patterns of mitochondrial RNA editing in the slime mold Physarum also include examples of C-to-U changes. Finally, we identify candidate sites for mitochondrial RNA editing in Malawimonas, further supporting a link between DYW-type PPR proteins and C-to-U editing, which may have remained hitherto unnoticed in additional eukaryote lineages.

  12. Analysis of Human mRNAs With the Reference Genome Sequence Reveals Potential Errors, Polymorphisms, and RNA Editing

    PubMed Central

    Furey, Terrence S.; Diekhans, Mark; Lu, Yontao; Graves, Tina A.; Oddy, Lachlan; Randall-Maher, Jennifer; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Wilson, Richard K.; Haussler, David

    2004-01-01

    The NCBI Reference Sequence (RefSeq) project and the NIH Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) together define a set of ∼30,000 nonredundant human mRNA sequences with identified coding regions representing 17,000 distinct loci. These high-quality mRNA sequences allow for the identification of transcribed regions in the human genome sequence, and many researchers accept them as the correct representation of each defined gene sequence. Computational comparison of these mRNA sequences and the recently published essentially finished human genome sequence reveals several thousand undocumented nonsynonymous substitution and frame shift discrepancies between the two resources. Additional analysis is undertaken to verify that the euchromatic human genome is sufficiently complete—containing nearly the whole mRNA collection, thus allowing for a comprehensive analysis to be undertaken. Many of the discrepancies will prove to be genuine polymorphisms in the human population, somatic cell genomic variants, or examples of RNA editing. It is observed that the genome sequence variant has significant additional support from other mRNAs and ESTs, almost four times more often than does the mRNA variant, suggesting that the genome sequence is more accurate. In ∼15% of these cases, there is substantial support for both variants, suggestive of an undocumented polymorphism. An initial screening against a 24-individual genomic DNA diversity panel verified 60% of a small set of potential single nucleotide polymorphisms from which successful results could be obtained. We also find statistical evidence that a few of these discrepancies are due to RNA editing. Overall, these results suggest that the mRNA collections may contain a substantial number of errors. For current and future mRNA collections, it may be prudent to fully reconcile each genome sequence discrepancy, classifying each as a polymorphism, site of RNA editing or somatic cell variation, or genome sequence error. PMID:15489323

  13. RNA Editing Genes Associated with Extreme Old Age in Humans and with Lifespan in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Puca, Annibale; Solovieff, Nadia; Kojima, Toshio; Wang, Meng C.; Melista, Efthymia; Meltzer, Micah; Fischer, Sylvia E. J.; Andersen, Stacy; Hartley, Stephen H.; Sedgewick, Amanda; Arai, Yasumichi; Bergman, Aviv; Barzilai, Nir; Terry, Dellara F.; Riva, Alberto; Anselmi, Chiara Viviani; Malovini, Alberto; Kitamoto, Aya; Sawabe, Motoji; Arai, Tomio; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Steinberg, Martin H.; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Atzmon, Gil; Ruvkun, Gary; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Perls, Thomas T.

    2009-01-01

    Background The strong familiality of living to extreme ages suggests that human longevity is genetically regulated. The majority of genes found thus far to be associated with longevity primarily function in lipoprotein metabolism and insulin/IGF-1 signaling. There are likely many more genetic modifiers of human longevity that remain to be discovered. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we first show that 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RNA editing genes ADARB1 and ADARB2 are associated with extreme old age in a U.S. based study of centenarians, the New England Centenarian Study. We describe replications of these findings in three independently conducted centenarian studies with different genetic backgrounds (Italian, Ashkenazi Jewish and Japanese) that collectively support an association of ADARB1 and ADARB2 with longevity. Some SNPs in ADARB2 replicate consistently in the four populations and suggest a strong effect that is independent of the different genetic backgrounds and environments. To evaluate the functional association of these genes with lifespan, we demonstrate that inactivation of their orthologues adr-1 and adr-2 in C. elegans reduces median survival by 50%. We further demonstrate that inactivation of the argonaute gene, rde-1, a critical regulator of RNA interference, completely restores lifespan to normal levels in the context of adr-1 and adr-2 loss of function. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that RNA editors may be an important regulator of aging in humans and that, when evaluated in C. elegans, this pathway may interact with the RNA interference machinery to regulate lifespan. PMID:20011587

  14. A unique transcriptome: 1782 positions of RNA editing alter 1406 codon identities in mitochondrial mRNAs of the lycophyte Isoetes engelmannii

    PubMed Central

    Grewe, Felix; Herres, Stefan; Viehöver, Prisca; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Weisshaar, Bernd; Knoop, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the mitochondrial DNA of Isoetes engelmannii as a first representative of the lycophytes recently revealed very small introns and indications for extremely frequent RNA editing. To analyze functionality of intron splicing and the extent of RNA editing in I. engelmannii, we performed a comprehensive analysis of its mitochondrial transcriptome. All 30 groups I and II introns were found to be correctly removed, showing that intron size reduction does not impede splicing. We find that mRNA editing affects 1782 sites, which lead to a total of 1406 changes in codon meanings. This includes the removal of stop codons from 23 of the 25 mitochondrial protein encoding genes. Comprehensive sequence analysis of multiple cDNAs per locus allowed classification of partially edited sites as either inefficiently edited but relevant or as non-specifically edited at mostly low frequencies. Abundant RNA editing was also found to affect tRNAs in hitherto unseen frequency, taking place at 41 positions in tRNA-precursors, including the first identification of U-to-C exchanges in two tRNA species. We finally investigated the four group II introns of the nad7 gene and could identify 27 sites of editing, most of which improve base pairing for proper secondary structure formation. PMID:21138958

  15. A novel type of RNA editing occurs in the mitochondrial tRNAs of the centipede Lithobius forficatus

    PubMed Central

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    We determined the complete mtDNA sequence of the centipede Lithobius forficatus and found that only one of the 22 inferred tRNA genes encodes a fully paired aminoacyl acceptor stem. The other 21 genes encode tRNAs with up to five mismatches in these stems, and some of these overlap extensively with the downstream genes. Because a well-paired acceptor stem is required for proper tRNA functioning, RNA editing in the products of these genes was suspected. We investigated this hypothesis by studying cDNA sequences from eight tRNAs and found the editing of up to 5 nt at their 3′ ends. This editing appears to occur by a novel mechanism with the 5′ end of the acceptor stem being used as a template for the de novo synthesis of the 3′ end, presumably by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In addition, unusual secondary structures for several tRNAs were found, including those lacking a TΨC (T) or a dihydrouridine (D) arm, and having an unusual number of base pairs in the acceptor or anticodon stems. PMID:11095730

  16. PPR protein PDM1/SEL1 is involved in RNA editing and splicing of plastid genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Dao; Cui, Yong-Lan; Huang, Chao; Yin, Qian-Qian; Qin, Xue-Mei; Xu, Te; He, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zi-Ran; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2015-12-01

    After transcription, most chloroplast precursor RNAs undergo further post-transcriptional processing including cleavage, editing, and splicing. Previous investigation has shown that the cleavage of the rpoA transcript and most editing sites, including accD-1, are defective in the knockout mutant of PDM1/SEL1, a PLS-type PPR protein, and that PDM1 is associated with the rpoA transcript. In this work, we found that the splicing of group II introns in trnK and ndhA is also affected in pdm1. Co-immunoprecipitation mass spectrometry experiments were performed to identify proteins that are associated with PDM1. We obtained 126 non-redundant proteins, of which MORF9 was reported to be involved in RNA editing in chloroplast. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that PDM1 interacts directly with MORF9, MORF2, and MORF8. RNA immunoprecipitation showed that PDM1 associates with the transcripts of trnK and ndhA, as well as accD-1, suggesting that PDM1 is involved in RNA editing and splicing. Therefore, PDM1 is an important protein for post-transcriptional regulation in chloroplast.

  17. Two complementary enzymes for threonylation of tRNA in crenarchaeota: crystal structure of Aeropyrum pernix threonyl-tRNA synthetase lacking a cis-editing domain.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Satoru; Juan, Ella Czarina Magat; Sato, Yoshiteru; Miyashita, Yu-Ichiro; Hoque, Md Mominul; Suzuki, Kaoru; Sagara, Tsubasa; Tsunoda, Masaru; Sekiguchi, Takeshi; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine; Moras, Dino; Takénaka, Akio

    2009-11-27

    In protein synthesis, threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) must recognize threonine (Thr) from the 20 kinds of amino acids and the cognate tRNA(Thr) from different tRNAs in order to generate Thr-tRNA(Thr). In general, an organism possesses one kind of gene corresponding to ThrRS. However, it has been recently found that some organisms have two different genes for ThrRS in the genome, suggesting that their proteins ThrRS-1 and ThrRS-2 function separately and complement each other in the threonylation of tRNA(Thr), one for catalysis and the other for trans-editing of misacylated Ser-tRNA(Thr). In order to clarify their three-dimensional structures, we performed X-ray analyses of two putatively assigned ThrRSs from Aeropyrum pernix (ApThrRS-1 and ApThrRS-2). These proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and crystallized. The crystal structure of ApThrRS-1 has been successfully determined at 2.3 A resolution. ApThrRS-1 is a dimeric enzyme composed of two identical subunits, each containing two domains for the catalytic reaction and for anticodon binding. The essential editing domain is completely missing as expected. These structural features reveal that ThrRS-1 catalyzes only the aminoacylation of the cognate tRNA, suggesting the necessity of the second enzyme ThrRS-2 for trans-editing. Since the N-terminal sequence of ApThrRS-2 is similar to the sequence of the editing domain of ThrRS from Pyrococcus abyssi, ApThrRS-2 has been expected to catalyze deaminoacylation of a misacylated serine moiety at the CCA terminus.

  18. Serotonin 2C receptor as a superhero: diversities and talents in the RNA universe for editing, variant, small RNA and other expected functional RNAs.

    PubMed

    Tohda, Michihisa

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin 2C receptor subtype (5-HT2C) has a unique profession and continues to provide exciting and critical new information. The 5-HT2C is modulated at the RNA level by several mechanisms, including editing, short variant generation, and small RNAs. Recently, these phenomena, which had been demonstrated individually, were shown to be associated with each other. At present, many reports provide information about the influence of RNA regulation on receptor protein activities and expression, which was thought to be the final functional product. However, complicated behavior at the RNA stage allows us to imagine that the RNA itself has functional roles in the RNA universe. The 5-HT2C RNA may play several roles. This review will outline previous 5-HT2C studies and prospects for future studies.

  19. Down-Regulation of the RNA Editing Enzyme ADAR2 Contributes to RGC Death in a Mouse Model of Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ai Ling; Carroll, Reed C.; Nawy, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) associated with characteristic axon degeneration in the optic nerve. Excitotoxic damage due to increased Ca2+ influx, possibly through NMDA-type glutamate receptors, has been proposed to be a cause of RGC dysfunction and death in glaucoma. Recent work has found that expression of another potentially critical receptor, the Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptor (CP-AMPAR), is elevated during various pathological conditions (including ALS and ischemia), resulting in increased neuronal death. Here we test the hypothesis that CP-AMPARs contribute to RGC death due to elevated Ca2+ influx in glaucoma. AMPA receptors are impermeable to Ca2+ if the tetrameric receptor contains a GluA2 subunit that has undergone Q/R RNA editing at a site in the pore region. The activity of ADAR2, the enzyme responsible for this RNA editing, generally ensures that the vast majority of GluA2 proteins are edited. Here, we demonstrate that ADAR2 levels decrease in a mouse model of glaucoma in which IOP is chronically elevated. Furthermore, using an in vitro model of RGCs, we find that knockdown of ADAR2 using siRNA increased the accumulation of Co2+ in response to glutamate, and decreased the rectification index of AMPA currents detected electrophysiologically, indicating an increased Ca2+ permeability through AMPARs. The RGCs in primary culture also exhibited increased excitotoxic cell death following knock down of ADAR2. Furthermore, cell death was reversed by NASPM, a specific blocker for CP-AMPARs. Together, our data suggest that chronically elevated IOP in adult mice reduces expression of the ADAR2 enzyme, and the loss of ADAR2 editing and subsequent disruption of GluA2 RNA editing might potentially play a role in promoting RGC neuronal death as observed in glaucoma. PMID:24608178

  20. High-efficiency CRISPR/Cas9 multiplex gene editing using the glycine tRNA-processing system-based strategy in maize.

    PubMed

    Qi, Weiwei; Zhu, Tong; Tian, Zhongrui; Li, Chaobin; Zhang, Wei; Song, Rentao

    2016-08-11

    CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing strategy has been applied to a variety of species and the tRNA-processing system has been used to compact multiple gRNAs into one synthetic gene for manipulating multiple genes in rice. We optimized and introduced the multiplex gene editing strategy based on the tRNA-processing system into maize. Maize glycine-tRNA was selected to design multiple tRNA-gRNA units for the simultaneous production of numerous gRNAs under the control of one maize U6 promoter. We designed three gRNAs for simplex editing and three multiple tRNA-gRNA units for multiplex editing. The results indicate that this system not only increased the number of targeted sites but also enhanced mutagenesis efficiency in maize. Additionally, we propose an advanced sequence selection of gRNA spacers for relatively more efficient and accurate chromosomal fragment deletion, which is important for complete abolishment of gene function especially long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Our results also indicated that up to four tRNA-gRNA units in one expression cassette design can still work in maize. The examples reported here demonstrate the utility of the tRNA-processing system-based strategy as an efficient multiplex genome editing tool to enhance maize genetic research and breeding.

  1. A geminivirus-based guide RNA delivery system for CRISPR/Cas9 mediated plant genome editing.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kangquan; Han, Ting; Liu, Guang; Chen, Tianyuan; Wang, Ying; Yu, Alice Yunzi L; Liu, Yule

    2015-10-09

    CRISPR/Cas has emerged as potent genome editing technology and has successfully been applied in many organisms, including several plant species. However, delivery of genome editing reagents remains a challenge in plants. Here, we report a virus-based guide RNA (gRNA) delivery system for CRISPR/Cas9 mediated plant genome editing (VIGE) that can be used to precisely target genome locations and cause mutations. VIGE is performed by using a modified Cabbage Leaf Curl virus (CaLCuV) vector to express gRNAs in stable transgenic plants expressing Cas9. DNA sequencing confirmed VIGE of endogenous NbPDS3 and NbIspH genes in non-inoculated leaves because CaLCuV can infect plants systemically. Moreover, VIGE of NbPDS3 and NbIspH in newly developed leaves caused photo-bleached phenotype. These results demonstrate that geminivirus-based VIGE could be a powerful tool in plant genome editing.

  2. RNA editing modulates the binding of drugs and highly unsaturated fatty acids to the open pore of Kv potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Decher, Niels; Streit, Anne K; Rapedius, Markus; Netter, Michael F; Marzian, Stefanie; Ehling, Petra; Schlichthörl, Günter; Craan, Tobias; Renigunta, Vijay; Köhler, Annemarie; Dodel, Richard C; Navarro-Polanco, Ricardo A; Preisig-Müller, Regina; Klebe, Gerhard; Budde, Thomas; Baukrowitz, Thomas; Daut, Jürgen

    2010-07-07

    The time course of inactivation of voltage-activated potassium (Kv) channels is an important determinant of the firing rate of neurons. In many Kv channels highly unsaturated lipids as arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and anandamide can induce fast inactivation. We found that these lipids interact with hydrophobic residues lining the inner cavity of the pore. We analysed the effects of these lipids on Kv1.1 current kinetics and their competition with intracellular tetraethylammonium and Kvbeta subunits. Our data suggest that inactivation most likely represents occlusion of the permeation pathway, similar to drugs that produce 'open-channel block'. Open-channel block by drugs and lipids was strongly reduced in Kv1.1 channels whose amino acid sequence was altered by RNA editing in the pore cavity, and in Kv1.x heteromeric channels containing edited Kv1.1 subunits. We show that differential editing of Kv1.1 channels in different regions of the brain can profoundly alter the pharmacology of Kv1.x channels. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding of lipid-induced inactivation and establish RNA editing as a mechanism to induce drug and lipid resistance in Kv channels.

  3. Novel Naphthalene-Based Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei RNA Editing Ligase 1

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Robert V.; Landon, Melissa; Schnaufer, Achim; Amaro, Rommie E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Neglected tropical diseases, including diseases caused by trypanosomatid parasites such as Trypanosoma brucei, cost tens of millions of disability-adjusted life-years annually. As the current treatments for African trypanosomiasis and other similar infections are limited, new therapeutics are urgently needed. RNA Editing Ligase 1 (REL1), a protein unique to trypanosomes and other kinetoplastids, was identified recently as a potential drug target. Methodology/Principal Findings Motivated by the urgent need for novel trypanocidal therapeutics, we use an ensemble-based virtual-screening approach to discover new naphthalene-based TbREL1 inhibitors. The predicted binding modes of the active compounds are evaluated within the context of the flexible receptor model and combined with computational fragment mapping to determine the most likely binding mechanisms. Ultimately, four new low-micromolar inhibitors are presented. Three of the four compounds may bind to a newly revealed cleft that represents a putative druggable site not evident in any crystal structure. Conclusions/Significance Pending additional optimization, the compounds presented here may serve as precursors for future novel therapies useful in the fight against several trypanosomatid pathogens, including human African trypanosomiasis, a devastating disease that afflicts the vulnerable patient populations of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:20808768

  4. The roles of phospholipase C activation and alternative ADAR1 and ADAR2 pre-mRNA splicing in modulating serotonin 2C-receptor editing in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Schmauss, Claudia; Zimnisky, Ross; Mehta, Mukti; Shapiro, Lauren P.

    2010-01-01

    The serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR), a Gq-protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptor, exists in multiple isoforms that result from RNA editing of five exonic adenosines that are converted to inosines. In the adult brain, editing of 5-HT2C pre-mRNA exhibits remarkable plasticity in response to environmental and neurochemical stimuli. Here, we investigated two potential mechanisms underlying these plastic changes in adult 5-HT2CR editing phenotypes in vivo: activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and alternative splicing of pre-mRNA encoding the editing enzymes ADAR1 and ADAR2. Studies on two inbred strains of mice (C57Bl/6 and Balb/c) revealed that sustained stimulation of PLC—a downstream effector of activated Gαq protein—increased editing of forebrain neocortical 5-HT2C pre-mRNA at two sites known to be targeted by ADAR2. Moreover, changes in relative expression of the alternatively spliced “a” and “b” mRNA isoforms of ADAR1 and ADAR2 also correlate with changes in 5-HT2CR editing. The site-specific changes in 5-HT2CR editing detected in mice with different “a” over “b” ADAR mRNA isoform ratios only partially overlap with those evoked by sustained PLC activation and are best explained by the increased editing efficiency of ADAR1. Thus, activation of PLC and alternative splicing of ADAR pre-mRNA have both overlapping and specific roles in modulating 5-HT2CR editing phenotypes. PMID:20651031

  5. The role of binding domains for dsRNA and Z-DNA in the in vivo editing of minimal substrates by ADAR1

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Alan; Rich, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    RNA editing changes the read-out of genetic information, increasing the number of different protein products that can be made from a single gene. One form involves the deamination of adenosine to form inosine, which is subsequently translated as guanosine. The reaction requires a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) substrate and is catalyzed by the adenosine deaminase that act on dsRNA (ADAR) family of enzymes. These enzymes possess dsRNA-binding domains (DRBM) and a catalytic domain. ADAR1 so far has been found only in vertebrates and is characterized by two Z-DNA-binding motifs, the biological function of which remains unknown. Here the role of the various functional domains of ADAR1 in determining the editing efficiency and specificity of ADAR1 is examined in cell-based assays. A variety of dsRNA substrates was tested. It was found that a 15-bp dsRNA stem with a single base mismatch was sufficient for editing. The particular adenosine modified could be varied by changing the position of the mismatch. Editing efficiency could be increased by placing multiple pyrimidines 5′ to the edited adenosine. With longer substrates, editing efficiency also increased and was partly due to the use of DRBMs. Additional editing sites were also observed that clustered on the complementary strand 11–15 bp from the first. An unexpected finding was that the DRBMs are not necessary for the editing of the shorter 15-bp substrates. However, mutation of the Z-DNA-binding domains of ADAR1 decreased the efficiency with which such a substrate was edited. PMID:11593027

  6. RNA editing events in mitochondrial genes by ultra-deep sequencing methods: a comparison of cytoplasmic male sterile, fertile and restored genotypes in cotton.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Yu, Jiwen; Ness, Scott A; O'Connell, Mary A; Zhang, Jinfa

    2013-09-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait resulting in failure to produce functional pollen and is widely used in the production of hybrid seed. Improper RNA editing is implicated as the molecular basis for some CMS systems. However, the mechanism of CMS in cotton is unknown. This study compared RNA editing events in eight mitochondrial genes (atp1, 4, 6, 8, 9, and cox1, 2, 3) among three lines (maintainer B, CMS A, and restorer R). These events were quantified by ultra-deep sequencing of mitochondrial transcripts and sequencing of cloned versions of these genes as cDNAs. A comparison of genomic PCR and RT-PCR products detected 72 editing sites in coding sequences in the eight genes and four partial editing sites in the 3'-untranslated region of atp6. The most frequent alteration (61.4 %) resulted in changes of hydrophilic amino acids to hydrophobic amino acids and the most common alteration was proline (P) to leucine (L) (26.7 %). In atp6, RNA editing created a stop codon from a glutamine in the genomic sequence. Statistical analysis of the frequencies of RNA editing events detected differences between mtDNA genes, but no differences between cotton cytoplasms that could account for the CMS phenotype or restoration. This study represents the first work to use next-generation sequencing to identify RNA editing positions and efficiency, and possible association with CMS and restoration in plants.

  7. Sendai virus, an RNA virus with no risk of genomic integration, delivers CRISPR/Cas9 for efficient gene editing.

    PubMed

    Park, Arnold; Hong, Patrick; Won, Sohui T; Thibault, Patricia A; Vigant, Frederic; Oguntuyo, Kasopefoluwa Y; Taft, Justin D; Lee, Benhur

    2016-01-01

    The advent of RNA-guided endonuclease (RGEN)-mediated gene editing, specifically via CRISPR/Cas9, has spurred intensive efforts to improve the efficiency of both RGEN delivery and targeted mutagenesis. The major viral vectors in use for delivery of Cas9 and its associated guide RNA, lentiviral and adeno-associated viral systems, have the potential for undesired random integration into the host genome. Here, we repurpose Sendai virus, an RNA virus with no viral DNA phase and that replicates solely in the cytoplasm, as a delivery system for efficient Cas9-mediated gene editing. The high efficiency of Sendai virus infection resulted in high rates of on-target mutagenesis in cell lines (75-98% at various endogenous and transgenic loci) and primary human monocytes (88% at the ccr5 locus) in the absence of any selection. In conjunction with extensive former work on Sendai virus as a promising gene therapy vector that can infect a wide range of cell types including hematopoietic stem cells, this proof-of-concept study opens the door to using Sendai virus as well as other related paramyxoviruses as versatile and efficient tools for gene editing.

  8. Sendai virus, an RNA virus with no risk of genomic integration, delivers CRISPR/Cas9 for efficient gene editing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Arnold; Hong, Patrick; Won, Sohui T; Thibault, Patricia A; Vigant, Frederic; Oguntuyo, Kasopefoluwa Y; Taft, Justin D; Lee, Benhur

    2016-01-01

    The advent of RNA-guided endonuclease (RGEN)-mediated gene editing, specifically via CRISPR/Cas9, has spurred intensive efforts to improve the efficiency of both RGEN delivery and targeted mutagenesis. The major viral vectors in use for delivery of Cas9 and its associated guide RNA, lentiviral and adeno-associated viral systems, have the potential for undesired random integration into the host genome. Here, we repurpose Sendai virus, an RNA virus with no viral DNA phase and that replicates solely in the cytoplasm, as a delivery system for efficient Cas9-mediated gene editing. The high efficiency of Sendai virus infection resulted in high rates of on-target mutagenesis in cell lines (75–98% at various endogenous and transgenic loci) and primary human monocytes (88% at the ccr5 locus) in the absence of any selection. In conjunction with extensive former work on Sendai virus as a promising gene therapy vector that can infect a wide range of cell types including hematopoietic stem cells, this proof-of-concept study opens the door to using Sendai virus as well as other related paramyxoviruses as versatile and efficient tools for gene editing. PMID:27606350

  9. Editing of glutamate receptor B subunit ion channel RNAs by four alternatively spliced DRADA2 double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminases.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, F; Chen, C X; Carter, K C; Nishikura, K

    1997-01-01

    Double-stranded (ds) RNA-specific adenosine deaminase converts adenosine residues into inosines in dsRNA and edits transcripts of certain cellular and viral genes such as glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits and hepatitis delta antigen. The first member of this type of deaminase, DRADA1, has been recently cloned based on the amino acid sequence information derived from biochemically purified proteins. Our search for DRADA1-like genes through expressed sequence tag databases led to the cloning of the second member of this class of enzyme, DRADA2, which has a high degree of sequence homology to DRADA1 yet exhibits a distinctive RNA editing site selectivity. There are four differentially spliced isoforms of human DRADA2. These different isoforms of recombinant DRADA2 proteins, including one which is a human homolog of the recently reported rat RED1, were analyzed in vitro for their GluR B subunit (GluR-B) RNA editing site selectivity. As originally reported for rat RED1, the DRADA2a and -2b isoforms edit GluR-B RNA efficiently at the so-called Q/R site, whereas DRADA1 barely edits this site. In contrast, the R/G site of GluR-B RNA was edited efficiently by the DRADA2a and -2b isoforms as well as DRADA1. Isoforms DRADA2c and -2d, which have a distinctive truncated shorter C-terminal structure, displayed weak adenosine-to-inosine conversion activity but no editing activity tested at three known sites of GluR-B RNA. The possible role of these DRADA2c and -2d isoforms in the regulatory mechanism of RNA editing is discussed. PMID:9111310

  10. Absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein results in defects of RNA editing of neuronal mRNAs in mouse.

    PubMed

    Filippini, Alice; Bonini, Daniela; Lacoux, Caroline; Pacini, Laura; Zingariello, Maria; Sancillo, Laura; Bosisio, Daniela; Salvi, Valentina; Mingardi, Jessica; La Via, Luca; Zalfa, Francesca; Bagni, Claudia; Barbon, Alessandro

    2017-06-22

    The fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, is due to the absence of FMRP, a protein regulating RNA metabolism. Recently, an unexpected function of FMRP in modulating the activity of Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes has been reported both in Drosophila and Zebrafish. ADARs are RNA-binding proteins that increase transcriptional complexity through a post-transcriptional mechanism called RNA editing. To evaluate the ADAR2-FMRP interaction in mammals we analyzed several RNA editing re-coding sites in the fmr1 knockout (KO) mice. Ex vivo and in vitro analysis revealed that absence of FMRP leads to an increase in the editing levels of brain specific mRNAs, indicating that FMRP might act as an inhibitor of editing activity. Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA) in mouse primary cortical neurons and in non-neuronal cells revealed that ADAR2 and FMRP co-localize in the nucleus. The ADAR2-FMRP co-localization was further observed by double-immunogold Electron Microscopy (EM) in the hippocampus. Moreover, ADAR2-FMRP interaction appeared to be RNA independent. Because changes in the editing pattern are associated with neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, we propose that the increased editing observed in the fmr1-KO mice might contribute to the FXS molecular phenotypes.

  11. Profiling the RNA editomes of wild-type C. elegans and ADAR mutants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Han-Qing; Zhang, Pan; Gao, Hua; He, Xiandong; Dou, Yanmei; Huang, August Y; Liu, Xi-Ming; Ye, Adam Y; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Wei, Liping

    2015-01-01

    RNA editing increases transcriptome diversity through post-transcriptional modifications of RNA. Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) conversion, the most common type of RNA editing in higher eukaryotes. Caenorhabditis elegans has two ADARs, ADR-1 and ADR-2, but their functions remain unclear. Here, we profiled the RNA editomes of C. elegans at different developmental stages of wild-type and ADAR mutants. We developed a new computational pipeline with a "bisulfite-seq-mapping-like" step and achieved a threefold increase in identification sensitivity. A total of 99.5% of the 47,660 A-to-I editing sites were found in clusters. Of the 3080 editing clusters, 65.7% overlapped with DNA transposons in noncoding regions and 73.7% could form hairpin structures. The numbers of editing sites and clusters were highest at the L1 and embryonic stages. The editing frequency of a cluster positively correlated with the number of editing sites within it. Intriguingly, for 80% of the clusters with 10 or more editing sites, almost all expressed transcripts were edited. Deletion of adr-1 reduced the editing frequency but not the number of editing clusters, whereas deletion of adr-2 nearly abolished RNA editing, indicating a modulating role of ADR-1 and an essential role of ADR-2 in A-to-I editing. Quantitative proteomics analysis showed that adr-2 mutant worms altered the abundance of proteins involved in aging and lifespan regulation. Consistent with this finding, we observed that worms lacking RNA editing were short-lived. Taken together, our results reveal a sophisticated landscape of RNA editing and distinct modes of action of different ADARs.

  12. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the Trp/amber editing site of hepatitis delta virus (+)RNA: a case of rational design

    SciTech Connect

    MacElrevey, Celeste; Wedekind, Joseph E.

    2005-12-01

    Well diffracting decamer crystals of the hepatitis delta virus RNA-editing site were prepared, but exhibited merohedral twinning and base averaging owing to duplex symmetry. A longer asymmetric construct that includes additional flanking RNA sequences has been crystallized that does not appear to exhibit these defects. RNA editing by mammalian ADAR1 (Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA) is required for the life cycle of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV). Editing extends the single viral open reading frame to yield two protein products of alternate length. ADARs are believed to recognize double-stranded RNA substrates via a ‘structure-based’ readout mechanism. Crystals of 10-mer duplexes representing the HDV RNA-editing site diffracted to 1.35 Å resolution, but suffered from merohedral twinning and averaging of the base registry. Expansion of the construct to include two flanking 3 × 1 internal loops yielded crystals in the primitive tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution, revealing a unit cell with parameters a = 62.5, c = 63.5 Å. The crystallization and X-ray analysis of multiple forms of the HDV RNA-editing substrate, encounters with common RNA crystal-growth defects and a strategy to overcome these problems are reported.

  13. The essential role of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit RNA editing in the normal and diseased brain

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Amanda; Vissel, Bryce

    2012-01-01

    α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are comprised of different combinations of GluA1–GluA4 (also known asGluR1–GluR4 and GluR-A to GluR-D) subunits. The GluA2 subunit is subject to RNA editing by the ADAR2 enzyme, which converts a codon for glutamine (Gln; Q), present in the GluA2 gene, to a codon for arginine (Arg; R) found in the mRNA. AMPA receptors are calcium (Ca2+)-permeable if they contain the unedited GluA2(Q) subunit or if they lack the GluA2 subunit. While most AMPA receptors in the brain contain the edited GluA2(R) subunit and are therefore Ca2+-impermeable, recent evidence suggests that Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors are important in synaptic plasticity, learning, and disease. Strong evidence supports the notion that Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors are usually GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors, with little evidence to date for a significant role of unedited GluA2 in normal brain function. However, recent detailed studies suggest that Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors containing unedited GluA2 do in fact occur in neurons and can contribute to excitotoxic cell loss, even where it was previously thought that there was no unedited GluA2.This review provides an update on the role of GluA2 RNA editing in the healthy and diseased brain and summarizes recent insights into the mechanisms that control this process. We suggest that further studies of the role of unedited GluA2 in normal brain function and disease are warranted, and that GluA2 editing should be considered as a possible contributing factor when Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors are observed. PMID:22514516

  14. In vitro recapitulation of the site-specific editing (to wild-type) of mutant IDS mRNA transcripts, and the characterization of IDS protein translated from the edited mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Lualdi, Susanna; Del Zotto, Genny; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Pedemonte, Nicoletta; Corsolini, Fabio; Bruschi, Maurizio; Tomati, Valeria; Amico, Giulia; Candiano, Giovanni; Dardis, Andrea; Cooper, David N; Filocamo, Mirella

    2017-07-01

    The transfer of genomic information into the primary RNA sequence can be altered by RNA editing. We have previously shown that genomic variants can be RNA-edited to wild-type. The presence of distinct "edited" iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS) mRNA transcripts ex vivo evidenced the correction of a nonsense and frameshift variant, respectively, in three unrelated Hunter syndrome patients. This phenomenon was confirmed in various patient samples by a variety of techniques, and was quantified by single-nucleotide primer extension. Western blotting also confirmed the presence of IDS protein similar in size to the wild-type. Since preliminary experimental evidence suggested that the "corrected" IDS proteins produced by the patients were similar in molecular weight and net charge to their wild-type counterparts, an in vitro system employing different cell types was established to recapitulate the site-specific editing of IDS RNA (uridine to cytidine conversion and uridine deletion), and to confirm the findings previously observed ex vivo in the three patients. In addition, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analyses demonstrated the expression and lysosomal localization in HEK293 cells of GFP-labeled proteins translated from edited IDS mRNAs. Confocal high-content analysis of the two patients' cells expressing wild-type or mutated IDS confirmed lysosomal localization and showed no accumulation in the Golgi or early endosomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Transcriptome, genetic editing, and microRNA divergence substantiate sympatric speciation of blind mole rat, Spalax.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Liuyang; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Xu, Qinqin; Levanon, Erez Y; Wang, Huihua; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Tagore, Satabdi; Fang, Xiaodong; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Zhao, Yang; Lövy, Matěj; Li, Xiangfeng; Han, Lijuan; Frenkel, Zeev; Beiles, Avigdor; Cao, Yi Bin; Wang, Zhen Long; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-07-05

    Incipient sympatric speciation in blind mole rat, Spalax galili, in Israel, caused by sharp ecological divergence of abutting chalk-basalt ecologies, has been proposed previously based on mitochondrial and whole-genome nuclear DNA. Here, we present new evidence, including transcriptome, DNA editing, microRNA, and codon usage, substantiating earlier evidence for adaptive divergence in the abutting chalk and basalt populations. Genetic divergence, based on the previous and new evidence, is ongoing despite restricted gene flow between the two populations. The principal component analysis, neighbor-joining tree, and genetic structure analysis of the transcriptome clearly show the clustered divergent two mole rat populations. Gene-expression level analysis indicates that the population transcriptome divergence is displayed not only by soil divergence but also by sex. Gene ontology enrichment of the differentially expressed genes from the two abutting soil populations highlights reproductive isolation. Alternative splicing variation of the two abutting soil populations displays two distinct splicing patterns. L-shaped FST distribution indicates that the two populations have undergone divergence with gene flow. Transcriptome divergent genes highlight neurogenetics and nutrition characterizing the chalk population, and energetics, metabolism, musculature, and sensory perception characterizing the abutting basalt population. Remarkably, microRNAs also display divergence between the two populations. The GC content is significantly higher in chalk than in basalt, and stress-response genes mostly prefer nonoptimal codons. The multiple lines of evidence of ecological-genomic and genetic divergence highlight that natural selection overrules the gene flow between the two abutting populations, substantiating the sharp ecological chalk-basalt divergence driving sympatric speciation.

  16. Transcriptome, genetic editing, and microRNA divergence substantiate sympatric speciation of blind mole rat, Spalax

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Liuyang; Knisbacher, Binyamin A.; Xu, Qinqin; Levanon, Erez Y.; Wang, Huihua; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Tagore, Satabdi; Fang, Xiaodong; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Zhao, Yang; Lövy, Matěj; Li, Xiangfeng; Han, Lijuan; Frenkel, Zeev; Beiles, Avigdor; Cao, Yi Bin; Wang, Zhen Long; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-01-01

    Incipient sympatric speciation in blind mole rat, Spalax galili, in Israel, caused by sharp ecological divergence of abutting chalk–basalt ecologies, has been proposed previously based on mitochondrial and whole-genome nuclear DNA. Here, we present new evidence, including transcriptome, DNA editing, microRNA, and codon usage, substantiating earlier evidence for adaptive divergence in the abutting chalk and basalt populations. Genetic divergence, based on the previous and new evidence, is ongoing despite restricted gene flow between the two populations. The principal component analysis, neighbor-joining tree, and genetic structure analysis of the transcriptome clearly show the clustered divergent two mole rat populations. Gene-expression level analysis indicates that the population transcriptome divergence is displayed not only by soil divergence but also by sex. Gene ontology enrichment of the differentially expressed genes from the two abutting soil populations highlights reproductive isolation. Alternative splicing variation of the two abutting soil populations displays two distinct splicing patterns. L-shaped FST distribution indicates that the two populations have undergone divergence with gene flow. Transcriptome divergent genes highlight neurogenetics and nutrition characterizing the chalk population, and energetics, metabolism, musculature, and sensory perception characterizing the abutting basalt population. Remarkably, microRNAs also display divergence between the two populations. The GC content is significantly higher in chalk than in basalt, and stress-response genes mostly prefer nonoptimal codons. The multiple lines of evidence of ecological–genomic and genetic divergence highlight that natural selection overrules the gene flow between the two abutting populations, substantiating the sharp ecological chalk–basalt divergence driving sympatric speciation. PMID:27339131

  17. Peripheral insertion modulates the editing activity of the isolated CP1 domain of leucyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ru-Juan; Tan, Min; Du, Dao-Hai; Xu, Bei-Si; Eriani, Gilbert; Wang, En-Duo

    2011-12-01

    A large insertion domain called CP1 (connective peptide 1) present in class Ia aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases is responsible for post-transfer editing. LeuRS (leucyl-tRNA synthetase) from Aquifex aeolicus and Giardia lamblia possess unique 20 and 59 amino acid insertions respectively within the CP1 that are crucial for editing activity. Crystal structures of AaLeuRS-CP1 [2.4 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm)], GlLeuRS-CP1 (2.6 Å) and the insertion deletion mutant AaLeuRS-CP1Δ20 (2.5 Å) were solved to understand the role of these insertions in editing. Both insertions are folded as peripheral motifs located on the opposite side of the proteins from the active-site entrance in the CP1 domain. Docking modelling and site-directed mutagenesis showed that the insertions do not interact with the substrates. Results of molecular dynamics simulations show that the intact CP1 is more dynamic than its mutant devoid of the insertion motif. Taken together, the data show that a peripheral insertion without a substrate-binding site or major structural role in the active site may modulate catalytic function of a protein, probably from protein dynamics regulation in two respective LeuRS CP1s. Further results from proline and glycine mutational analyses intended to reduce or increase protein flexibility are consistent with this hypothesis.

  18. Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA (ADARs) are both Antiviral and Proviral Dependent upon the Virus

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    A-to-I RNA editing, the deamination of adenosine (A) to inosine (I) that occurs in regions of RNA with double-stranded character, is catalyzed by a family of Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA (ADARs). In mammals there are three ADAR genes. Two encode proteins that possess demonstrated deaminase activity: ADAR1, which is interferon-inducible, and ADAR2 which is constitutively expressed. ADAR3, by contrast, has not yet been shown to bean active enzyme. The specificity of the ADAR1 and ADAR2 deaminases ranges from highly site-selective to non-selective, dependent on the duplex structure of the substrate RNA. A-to-I editing is a form of nucleotide substitution editing, because I is decoded as guanosine (G) instead of A by ribosomes during translation and by polymerases during RNA-dependent RNA replication. Additionally, A-to-I editing can alter RNA structure stability as I:U mismatches are less stable than A:U base pairs. Both viral and cellular RNAs are edited by ADARs. A-to-I editing is of broad physiologic significance. Among the outcomes of A-to-I editing are biochemical changes that affect how viruses interact with their hosts, changes that can lead to either enhanced or reduced virus growth and persistence dependent upon the specific virus. PMID:21211811

  19. Identification of Two Pentatricopeptide Repeat Genes Required for RNA Editing and Zinc Binding by C-terminal Cytidine Deaminase-like Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Michael L.; Giang, Karolyn; Berhane, Beniam; Mulligan, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Many transcripts expressed from plant organelle genomes are modified by C-to-U RNA editing. Nuclear encoded pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are required as RNA binding specificity determinants in the RNA editing mechanism. Bioinformatic analysis has shown that most of the Arabidopsis PPR proteins necessary for RNA editing events include a C-terminal portion that shares structural characteristics with a superfamily of deaminases. The DYW deaminase domain includes a highly conserved zinc binding motif that shares characteristics with cytidine deaminases. The Arabidopsis PPR genes, ELI1 and DOT4, both have DYW deaminase domains and are required for single RNA editing events in chloroplasts. The ELI1 DYW deaminase domain was expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and was shown to bind two zinc atoms per polypeptide. Thus, the DYW deaminase domain binds a zinc metal ion, as expected for a cytidine deaminase, and is potentially the catalytic component of an editing complex. Genetic complementation experiments demonstrate that large portions of the DYW deaminase domain of ELI1 may be eliminated, but the truncated genes retain the ability to restore editing site conversion in a mutant plant. These results suggest that the catalytic activity can be supplied in trans by uncharacterized protein(s) of the editosome. PMID:24194514

  20. Identification of two pentatricopeptide repeat genes required for RNA editing and zinc binding by C-terminal cytidine deaminase-like domains.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Michael L; Giang, Karolyn; Berhane, Beniam; Mulligan, R Michael

    2013-12-20

    Many transcripts expressed from plant organelle genomes are modified by C-to-U RNA editing. Nuclear encoded pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are required as RNA binding specificity determinants in the RNA editing mechanism. Bioinformatic analysis has shown that most of the Arabidopsis PPR proteins necessary for RNA editing events include a C-terminal portion that shares structural characteristics with a superfamily of deaminases. The DYW deaminase domain includes a highly conserved zinc binding motif that shares characteristics with cytidine deaminases. The Arabidopsis PPR genes, ELI1 and DOT4, both have DYW deaminase domains and are required for single RNA editing events in chloroplasts. The ELI1 DYW deaminase domain was expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and was shown to bind two zinc atoms per polypeptide. Thus, the DYW deaminase domain binds a zinc metal ion, as expected for a cytidine deaminase, and is potentially the catalytic component of an editing complex. Genetic complementation experiments demonstrate that large portions of the DYW deaminase domain of ELI1 may be eliminated, but the truncated genes retain the ability to restore editing site conversion in a mutant plant. These results suggest that the catalytic activity can be supplied in trans by uncharacterized protein(s) of the editosome.

  1. Inherited variants affecting RNA editing may contribute to ovarian cancer susceptibility: results from a large-scale collaboration.

    PubMed

    Permuth, Jennifer B; Reid, Brett; Earp, Madalene; Chen, Y Ann; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Chen, Zhihua; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Lambrechts, Diether; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Van Niewenhuyse, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten; Odunsi, Kunle; Goodman, Marc T; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Wilkens, Lynne R; Thompson, Pamela J; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia; Butzow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa; Leminen, Arto; Modugno, Francesmary; Edwards, Robert P; Ness, Roberta B; Kelley, Joseph; Heitz, Florian; Karlan, Beth; Lester, Jenny; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan; Giles, Graham; Hildebrandt, Michelle; Liang, Dong; Lu, Karen H; Wu, Xifeng; Levine, Douglas A; Bisogna, Maria; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Tworoger, Shelley S; Poole, Elizabeth M; Bandera, Elisa V; Fridley, Brooke; Cunningham, Julie; Winham, Stacey J; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Bjorge, Line; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon; Pejovic, Tanja; Moffitt, Melissa; Le, Nhu; Cook, Linda S; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Kelemen, Linda E; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A; Lissowska, Jolanta; Yang, Hanna; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Pharoah, Paul D P; Song, Honglin; Campbell, Ian; Eccles, Diana; McNeish, Iain; Whittemore, Alice; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph; Phelan, Catherine M; Risch, Harvey; Narod, Steven; McLaughlin, John; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon; Ramus, Susan J; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Wu, Anna H; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Cheng, Jin Q; Goode, Ellen L; Sellers, Thomas A

    2016-11-08

    RNA editing in mammals is a form of post-transcriptional modification in which adenosine is converted to inosine by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) family of enzymes. Based on evidence of altered ADAR expression in epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC), we hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADAR genes modify EOC susceptibility, potentially by altering ovarian tissue gene expression. Using directly genotyped and imputed data from 10,891 invasive EOC cases and 21,693 controls, we evaluated the associations of 5,303 SNPs in ADAD1, ADAR, ADAR2, ADAR3, and SND1. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), with adjustment for European ancestry. We conducted gene-level analyses using the Admixture Maximum Likelihood (AML) test and the Sequence-Kernel Association test for common and rare variants (SKAT-CR). Association analysis revealed top risk-associated SNP rs77027562 (OR (95% CI)= 1.39 (1.17-1.64), P=1.0x10-4) in ADAR3 and rs185455523 in SND1 (OR (95% CI)= 0.68 (0.56-0.83), P=2.0x10-4). When restricting to serous histology (n=6,500), the magnitude of association strengthened for rs185455523 (OR=0.60, P=1.0x10-4). Gene-level analyses revealed that variation in ADAR was associated (P<0.05) with EOC susceptibility, with PAML=0.022 and PSKAT-CR=0.020. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in EOC tissue revealed significant associations (P<0.05) with ADAR expression for several SNPs in ADAR, including rs1127313 (G/A), a SNP in the 3' untranslated region. In summary, germline variation involving RNA editing genes may influence EOC susceptibility, warranting further investigation of inherited and acquired alterations affecting RNA editing.

  2. Inherited variants affecting RNA editing may contribute to ovarian cancer susceptibility: results from a large-scale collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Permuth, Jennifer B.; Reid, Brett; Earp, Madalene; Chen, Y. Ann; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Chen, Zhihua; Group, AOCS Study; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Lambrechts, Diether; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Niewenhuyse, Els Van; Vergote, Ignace; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten; Odunsi, Kunle; Goodman, Marc T.; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia; Butzow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa; Leminen, Arto; Modugno, Francesmary; Edwards, Robert P.; Ness, Roberta B.; Kelley, Joseph; Heitz, Florian; Karlan, Beth; Lester, Jenny; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Jensen, Allan; Giles, Graham; Hildebrandt, Michelle; Liang, Dong; Lu, Karen H.; Wu, Xifeng; Levine, Douglas A.; Bisogna, Maria; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel W.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Fridley, Brooke; Cunningham, Julie; Winham, Stacey J.; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Bjorge, Line; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon; Pejovic, Tanja; Moffitt, Melissa; Le, Nhu; Cook, Linda S.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Kelemen, Linda E.; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Yang, Hanna; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Song, Honglin; Campbell, Ian; Eccles, Diana; McNeish, Iain; Whittemore, Alice; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph; Phelan, Catherine M.; Risch, Harvey; Narod, Steven; McLaughlin, John; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon; Ramus, Susan J.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Wu, Anna H.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Cheng, Jin Q.; Goode, Ellen L.; Sellers, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing in mammals is a form of post-transcriptional modification in which adenosine is converted to inosine by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) family of enzymes. Based on evidence of altered ADAR expression in epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC), we hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADAR genes modify EOC susceptibility, potentially by altering ovarian tissue gene expression. Using directly genotyped and imputed data from 10,891 invasive EOC cases and 21,693 controls, we evaluated the associations of 5,303 SNPs in ADAD1, ADAR, ADAR2, ADAR3, and SND1. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), with adjustment for European ancestry. We conducted gene-level analyses using the Admixture Maximum Likelihood (AML) test and the Sequence-Kernel Association test for common and rare variants (SKAT-CR). Association analysis revealed top risk-associated SNP rs77027562 (OR (95% CI)= 1.39 (1.17-1.64), P=1.0×10−4) in ADAR3 and rs185455523 in SND1 (OR (95% CI)= 0.68 (0.56-0.83), P=2.0×10−4). When restricting to serous histology (n=6,500), the magnitude of association strengthened for rs185455523 (OR=0.60, P=1.0×10−4). Gene-level analyses revealed that variation in ADAR was associated (P<0.05) with EOC susceptibility, with PAML=0.022 and PSKAT-CR=0.020. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in EOC tissue revealed significant associations (P<0.05) with ADAR expression for several SNPs in ADAR, including rs1127313 (G/A), a SNP in the 3′ untranslated region. In summary, germline variation involving RNA editing genes may influence EOC susceptibility, warranting further investigation of inherited and acquired alterations affecting RNA editing. PMID:27911851

  3. Orthogonal Cas9 proteins for RNA-guided gene regulation and editing

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M.; Esvelt, Kevin; Mali, Prashant

    2017-03-07

    Methods of modulating expression of a target nucleic acid in a cell are provided including use of multiple orthogonal Cas9 proteins to simultaneously and independently regulate corresponding genes or simultaneously and independently edit corresponding genes.

  4. Yeast mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase CP1 domain has functionally diverged to accommodate RNA splicing at expense of hydrolytic editing.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Jaya; Poruri, Kiranmai; Boniecki, Michal T; McTavish, Katherine K; Martinis, Susan A

    2012-04-27

    The yeast mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase (ymLeuRS) performs dual essential roles in group I intron splicing and protein synthesis. A specific LeuRS domain called CP1 is responsible for clearing noncognate amino acids that are misactivated during aminoacylation. The ymLeuRS CP1 domain also plays a critical role in splicing. Herein, the ymLeuRS CP1 domain was isolated from the full-length enzyme and was active in RNA splicing in vitro. Unlike its Escherichia coli LeuRS CP1 domain counterpart, it failed to significantly hydrolyze misaminoacylated tRNA(Leu). In addition and in stark contrast to the yeast domain, the editing-active E. coli LeuRS CP1 domain failed to recapitulate the splicing activity of the full-length E. coli enzyme. Although LeuRS-dependent splicing activity is rooted in an ancient adaptation for its aminoacylation activity, these results suggest that the ymLeuRS has functionally diverged to confer a robust splicing activity. This adaptation could have come at some expense to the protein's housekeeping role in aminoacylation and editing.

  5. EdiPy: a resource to simulate the evolution of plant mitochondrial genes under the RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Picardi, Ernesto; Quagliariello, Carla

    2006-02-01

    EdiPy is an online resource appropriately designed to simulate the evolution of plant mitochondrial genes in a biologically realistic fashion. EdiPy takes into account the presence of sites subjected to RNA editing and provides multiple artificial alignments corresponding to both genomic and cDNA sequences. Each artificial data set can successively be submitted to main and widespread evolutionary and phylogenetic software packages such as PAUP, Phyml, PAML and Phylip. As an online bioinformatic resource, EdiPy is available at the following web page: http://biologia.unical.it/py_script/index.html.

  6. Curcumin regulates the metabolism of low density lipoproteins by improving the C-to-U RNA editing efficiency of apolipoprotein B in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Nan; Li, Xiaoling; Luo, Yang; Han, Ziwu; Li, Zhaohui; Fan, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    There are two isoforms of apolipoprotein B (apoB) in mammals: apoB-100 and apoB-48. The latter is generated by C-to-U editing of apoB mRNA, catalyzed by the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, namely, catalytic polypeptide 1 (APOBEC-1). Lipid particles containing apoB-48 are cleared from the plasma more rapidly than those containing apoB-100 and thus do not contribute to plaque formation in the arterial wall. In the present study, we analyzed whether curcumin is capable of regulating lipid metabolism by improving the level of apoB mRNA editing. The cytotoxicity of curcumin in hepatocytes was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol‑2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the levels of APOBEC-1 mRNA and protein were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. The efficiency of apoB mRNA editing was determined by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) products and cloning sequencing analysis. We demonstrated that curcumin concentrations up to 70 µM had no significant cytotoxic effects on primary rat hepatocytes at 24 h. At 15 µM, curcumin significantly increased the expression of APOBEC-1 mRNA and protein, and increased the editing level of apoB mRNA from 3.13 to 7.53%. At 25 µM, curcumin reduced the expression of APOBEC-1; however, it did not affect the apoB mRNA editing level. Our data suggested that curcumin at a concentration of 15 µM raised the level of apoB-48 and reduced the level of apoB-100 by increasing the expression of APOBEC-1 in primary rat hepatocytes; therefore, curcumin may be a novel preventative therapy for atherosclerosis.

  7. A population study of the minicircles in Trypanosoma cruzi: predicting guide RNAs in the absence of empirical RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sean; Martinez, LL Isadora Trejo; Westenberger, Scott J; Sturm, Nancy R

    2007-01-01

    Background The structurally complex network of minicircles and maxicircles comprising the mitochondrial DNA of kinetoplastids mirrors the complexity of the RNA editing process that is required for faithful expression of encrypted maxicircle genes. Although a few of the guide RNAs that direct this editing process have been discovered on maxicircles, guide RNAs are mostly found on the minicircles. The nuclear and maxicircle genomes have been sequenced and assembled for Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, however the complement of 1.4-kb minicircles, carrying four guide RNA genes per molecule in this parasite, has been less thoroughly characterised. Results Fifty-four CL Brener and 53 Esmeraldo strain minicircle sequence reads were extracted from T. cruzi whole genome shotgun sequencing data. With these sequences and all published T. cruzi minicircle sequences, 108 unique guide RNAs from all known T. cruzi minicircle sequences and two guide RNAs from the CL Brener maxicircle were predicted using a local alignment algorithm and mapped onto predicted or experimentally determined sequences of edited maxicircle open reading frames. For half of the sequences no statistically significant guide RNA could be assigned. Likely positions of these unidentified gRNAs in T. cruzi minicircle sequences are estimated using a simple Hidden Markov Model. With the local alignment predictions as a standard, the HMM had an ~85% chance of correctly identifying at least 20 nucleotides of guide RNA from a given minicircle sequence. Inter-minicircle recombination was documented. Variable regions contain species-specific areas of distinct nucleotide preference. Two maxicircle guide RNA genes were found. Conclusion The identification of new minicircle sequences and the further characterization of all published minicircles are presented, including the first observation of recombination between minicircles. Extrapolation suggests a level of 4% recombinants in the population

  8. Pigment deficiency in nightshade/tobacco cybrids is caused by the failure to edit the plastid ATPase alpha-subunit mRNA.

    PubMed

    Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian; Kushnir, Sergei; Babiychuk, Elena; Poltnigg, Peter; Herrmann, Reinhold G; Maier, Rainer M

    2005-06-01

    The subgenomes of the plant cell, the nuclear genome, the plastome, and the chondriome are known to interact through various types of coevolving macromolecules. The combination of the organellar genome from one species with the nuclear genome of another species often leads to plants with deleterious phenotypes, demonstrating that plant subgenomes coevolve. The molecular mechanisms behind this nuclear-organellar incompatibility have been elusive, even though the phenomenon is widespread and has been known for >70 years. Here, we show by direct and reverse genetic approaches that the albino phenotype of a flowering plant with the nuclear genome of Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade) and the plastome of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) develops as a result of a defect in RNA editing of a tobacco-specific editing site in the plastid ATPase alpha-subunit transcript. A plastome-wide analysis of RNA editing in these cytoplasmic hybrids and in plants with a tobacco nucleus and nightshade chloroplasts revealed additional defects in the editing of species-specific editing sites, suggesting that differences in RNA editing patterns in general contribute to the pigment deficiencies observed in interspecific nuclear-plastidial incompatibilities.

  9. RNA splicing and editing modulation of 5-HT(2C) receptor function: relevance to anxiety and aggression in VGV mice.

    PubMed

    Martin, C B P; Ramond, F; Farrington, D T; Aguiar, A S; Chevarin, C; Berthiau, A-S; Caussanel, S; Lanfumey, L; Herrick-Davis, K; Hamon, M; Madjar, J J; Mongeau, R

    2013-06-01

    Changes in serotonin(2C) receptor (5-HTR2c) editing, splicing and density were found in conditions such as depression and suicide, but mechanisms explaining the changes in 5-HTR2c function are unknown. Thus, mice expressing only the fully edited VGV isoform of 5-HTR2c, in which clinically relevant behavioral changes are associated with alterations in splicing and receptor density, were studied. VGV mice displayed enhanced anxiety-like behavior in response to a preferential 5-HTR2c agonist in the social interaction test. Nearly half of interactions between pairs of VGV congeners consisted of fighting behaviors, whereas no fighting occurred in wild-type (WT) mice. VGV mice also exhibited a striking increase in freezing behaviors in reaction to an innately aversive ultrasonic stimulus. This behavioral phenotype occurred in conjunction with decreased brain 5-HT turnover during stress. These functional data were put in relation with the 5-HTR2c mRNA splicing process generating a truncated protein (5-HTR2c-Tr) in addition to the full-length receptor (5-HTR2c-Fl). 5-HTR2c-Tr mRNA was less abundant in many brain regions of VGV mice, which concomitantly had more 5-HTR2c than WT mice. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer studies in transfected living HEK293T cells showed that 5-HTR2c-Tr interacts with 5-HTR2c-Fl. The 5-HTR2c-Tr was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum where it retained 5-HTR2c-Fl, preventing the latter to reach the plasma membrane. Consequently, 5-HTR2c-Tr decreased (3)H-mesulergine binding to 5-HTR2c-Fl at the plasma membrane in a concentration-dependent manner and more strongly with edited 5-HTR2c-Fl. These results suggest that 5-HTR2c pre-mRNA editing and splicing are entwined processes determining increased 5-HTR2c levels in pathological conditions through a deficit in 5-HTR2c-Tr.

  10. Multifunctional G-rich and RRM-containing domains of TbRGG2 perform separate yet essential functions in trypanosome RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Foda, Bardees M; Downey, Kurtis M; Fisk, John C; Read, Laurie K

    2012-09-01

    Efficient editing of Trypanosoma brucei mitochondrial RNAs involves the actions of multiple accessory factors. T. brucei RGG2 (TbRGG2) is an essential protein crucial for initiation and 3'-to-5' progression of editing. TbRGG2 comprises an N-terminal G-rich region containing GWG and RG repeats and a C-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM)-containing domain. Here, we perform in vitro and in vivo separation-of-function studies to interrogate the mechanism of TbRGG2 action in RNA editing. TbRGG2 preferentially binds preedited mRNA in vitro with high affinity attributable to its G-rich region. RNA-annealing and -melting activities are separable, carried out primarily by the G-rich and RRM domains, respectively. In vivo, the G-rich domain partially complements TbRGG2 knockdown, but the RRM domain is also required. Notably, TbRGG2's RNA-melting activity is dispensable for RNA editing in vivo. Interactions between TbRGG2 and MRB1 complex proteins are mediated by both G-rich and RRM-containing domains, depending on the binding partner. Overall, our results are consistent with a model in which the high-affinity RNA binding and RNA-annealing activities of the G-rich domain are essential for RNA editing in vivo. The RRM domain may have key functions involving interactions with the MRB1 complex and/or regulation of the activities of the G-rich domain.

  11. Multi